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J. A. 

A. A. . . G. A. AITKEN. 
G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 



A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 




C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 






Miss A. M. CLERKE. 


P. C. , . W. P. COURTNEY. 


T. D. . . G. THORN DRURY.. 

D. D. . . J. D. DUFF. 



S. B. 

R. B. 


M. C. 

M. C. 

C. H. F. . 

T. F. . 

J. G. ... 
R. G. . . . 
J. T. G. . 
G. G. . . . 
A. G. . . . 
R. E. G. . 
W. A. G. . 
J. C. H. . 
J. A. H. . 
T. H. . 


President of Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford. 











A. L. H. . . 
C. A. H. . . 
P. J. H. . . 
T. F. H. . . 
W. A. S. H. 
W. H. . . . 
W. H. H. . 
J. A. J. . . . 
C. L. K. 

J. K 

J. K. L. . . 
T. G. L. . . 
S. L. 















List of Writers. 

J. E. L. . 
J. H. L. . 

B. M. . . . 

E. C. M. . 
L. M. M. . 
A. H. M. . 

C. M. . . . 
N. M. . . . 

D. 0. M. . 
A. N. . . . 
P. L. N. . 
G. LE G. N. 
D. J. O'D. 

F. M. O'D. 
T. 0. . . . 
S. P. 0. . 
C. 0. . . . 

H. P 

J. F. P.. . 
W. P-s.. . 

A. F. P. . , 
S. L.-P. . . , 

B. P 

D'A. P. . 



. A. H. MILLAR. 





. P. L. NOLAN. 








. J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 






B. B. P. 
J. M. B. 

A. F. B. 
L. M. M. 
T. S. . . 

B. F. S. 
W. A. S. 

C. F. S. 
G. G. S. 
G. W. S. 

L. S. . . 
G. S-H.. 

C. W. S. 
J. T-T. . 

D. LL. T. 
S. T. . . 
T. F. T. 

E. V. . . 

B. H. V. 
M. G. W. 

C. W-H. 
B. B. W. 
W. W.. 

. . B. B. PROSSER. 

. . J. M. BIGG. 

. . A. F. BOBBINS. 

S. Miss SCOTT. 



. . W. A. SHAW. 

. . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 



. . C. W. SUTTON. 




. . B. B. WOODWARD. 






MOREHEAD, CHARLES (1807-1882), 
member of the Bombay medical service, 
second son of Robert Morehead, rector of 
Easington in the North Riding of York- 
shire, and brother of William Ambrose More- 
head [q. v.], was born at Edinburgh in 1807, 
and proceeded M.D. there. At Edinburgh 
his zeal for clinical medicine attracted the 
attention of Professor William Pulteney 
Alison [q. v.], and he continued his medical 
studies in Paris under Pierre Louis. In 1829 
he entered the Bombay medical service, and 
was afterwards on the personal staff of the 
governor, Sir Robert Grant [q. v.] Morehead 
was the founder of native medical education in 
Western India. After Grant's death in 1838 
he was appointed to the European and native 
general hospitals of Bombay, and it was owing 
to his efforts that the Grant Medical College 
at Bombay was erected as a memorial of Grant 
in 1845. Morehead was the first principal 
of the Grant College, and the first professor 
of medicine. He was also the first physician 
of the Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Hospital, in which 
the students of the college receive their clini- 
cal instruction. He originated the Bombay 
Medical and Physical Society for the ad- 
vancement of medical science and its col- 
lateral branches, and also the Grant College 
Medical Society, designed as a bond of 
union among former students of the college. 
He was the author of an elaborate work en- 
titled ' Researches on the Diseases of India/ 
1856, 2 vols. 8vo, which passed through two 
editions, and is a standard authority. He 
was elected a fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians. Morehead retired from the Bombay 
medical service in 1862. In 1881 he was 
created a companion of the order of the In- 
dian Empire. He died at Wilton Castle, 
Yorkshire, the seat of his brother-in-law, Sir 
Charles Lowther, on 24 Aug. 1882. In 1844 


he married Harriet Anne, daughter of George 
Barnes, first archdeacon of Bombay. 

[This article is mainly based upon a notice of 
Dr. Morehead, published in 1882, Edinburgh. 
See also Times, 28 Aug. 1882, and Lancet, 1882, 
ii. 468.] A. J. A. 

1692), divine, born in 1637 in Lombard Street, 
London, was a nephew of General Monck 
[q. v.] He entered Winchester School at the 
age of eleven, and proceeded to New College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on 3 May 
1660, and M.A. on 14 Jan. 1663. He was 
elected a fellow in 1658, and resigned in 
1672. He was presented to the college 
living of Bucknell, Oxfordshire, by the war- 
den and fellows of New College (14 July 
1670), and also held the living of Whitfield 
in Northamptonshire, to which he was pre- 
sented by Sir Thomas Spencer of Yarnton, 
Oxfordshire, lord of the manor. He chiefly 
resided there, employing a curate at Buck- 
nell procedure which led to dissatisfaction 
among the parishioners, and a petition to the 
bishop in 1680 or 1681 for a resident minister. 

Morehead died at Bucknell 18 Feb. 1691-2, 
and was buried there. He wrote ' Lachry- 
mse sive valedictio Scotise sub discessum 
clariss. prudentiss. et pientiss. gubernatoris 
D. Georgii Monachi in Anglia [sic] revo- 
cati,' London, 1660, in English and Latin, 
on opposite pages. He is also said to be the 
author of an English translation of Giordano 
Bruno's ' Spaccio della Bestia Trionfante ; ' 
fifty copies were printed by John Toland, 
1713, 8vo (Brit. Mus.) 

[Dunkin's Oxfordshire,!. 188-9; Kirby's Win- 
chester Scholars, p. 184; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
iv. 353; Kawlinson MSS. D. 384, fol. 10; papers 
belonging to the archdeaconry of Oxford in the 
Bodleian Library, per the Kev. W. D. Macray.] 

C. R S. 


ie. -1825 

and joht-pistrate at Cuddapa, Morehead 
ve evidence of administrative capacity and 
Smness on the occasion of a fanatical out- 
break, in which the head assistant-collector, 
Mr. Macdonald, was murdered. It devolved 
upon Morehead to restore order and bring to 
justice the perpetrators of the crime Sub- 
iequentlv, as civil and sessions judge at 
Chingleput, he manifested considerable effi- 
ciency in judicial work. Consequently in 1 
he was chosen to fill a vacancy on the bench 
of the court of Sadr Adalut, the highest of 
the courts of the East India Company, which 
eventually, in 1862, was amalgamated with 
the supreme court under the designation ot 
the High Court of Judicature. Morehead 
speedily justified his selection. In 1850, at 
the request of the colonial office, two Indian 
judicial officers, of whom Morehead was one, 
were sent to investigate certain occurrences 
which had taken place in Ceylon during the 
government of Lord Torrington. Morehead 
conducted this delicate duty with singular 
tact and independence of judgment. 

In 1857, the year of the Indian mutiny, 

Morehead was appointed a member of the 

council of the governor of Madras, and held 

that office until his retirement from the pub- 

lic service in October 1862. On two occa- 

sions he acted as governor of the presidency, 

first on the recall of Sir Charles Trevelyan, 

and subsequently during the interregnum 

which took place between the death of Sir 

Henry Ward and the arrival of Sir William 

Denison. Morehead's views on the scheme 

of taxation proposed by Sir James Wilson, 

and adopted by the government of Lord 

Canning, for the purpose of establishing a 

financial equilibrium, were mainly in accord 

with thos> held by the governor, Sir Charles 

Trevelyan. He objected to an income-tax 

as being specially unsuited to India, and ad- 

vocated in its stead the retention of an olc 

native tax called the muhtarafa, and an in 

crease in the salt-tax, combined with the 

establishment of government salt depot 

wherever facilities existed for the carriage o 

salt in large quantities. He also advocate 

an extension of the stamp duties by requirin 

bills of exchange, cheques, and receipts abov 

a certain amount to be taxed. But whil 

agreeing with the governor as to the impolic 

of the new legislation, Morehead strongly 
disapproved of the step taken by Sir b. Ire 
velyan in publishing in the newspapers the 
minutes which had been recorded on the sub- 
ject by the members of the local government, 
Ind he stated that had Sir Charles Trevelyan 
informed his colleagues of his mtention^o 
tekethis step, he should have withdrawn his 
minute and 'refused to accede to its being 
used in a manner different to that which 1 
intended when I wrote it.' During the fol- 
lowing months, when in charge of the govern- 
ment, he rendered to the government of Indu 
a thoroughly loyal support, and received the 
thanks of Lord Canning and his colleagues in 
the supreme government. On Lord banning s 
recommendation he was offered by the secre- 
tary of state a seat in the governor-generals 
couneil, upon Sir Bartle Frere's appointment 
as governor of Bombay ; but this advance- 
ment, owing to the impaired state of his 
health, he declined. It is understood that 
Lord Canning also recommended that some 
other special mark of the queen's favour 
hould be conferred upon him for his loyal 
upport of the government of India at a diffi- 
ult crisis. Morehead held for two years the 
ffice of vice-chancellor of the university of 
ladras, of which he was one of the original 

Morehead finally left India in October 
862, and died in Edinburgh on 1 Dec. 1863. 
lis character was singularly attractive. His 
een perception of humour, and the strong 
ound sense which characterised all he said 
nd did, rendered him a most delightful and 
nstructive companion. He was much be- 
oved by the natives, to whom he was always 
accessible. His picture hangs in the Madras 
Banqueting Hall. In the Dean cemetery in 
Edinburgh, where he was buried, his memory 
s preserved by a runic cross of polished 
Peterhead granite, erected by a number of 
lis friends. 

[Personal knowledge; Scotsman, 9 Jan. 1866; 
Parliamentary Return, 24 July 1860, containing 
correspondence on proposed financial measures in 
India.] A. J. A. 

MORELL, SIB CHARLES (fl. 1790), 
ambassador. [See RIDLEY, JAMES.] 

1891), philosopher and inspector of schools, 
born at Little Baddow, Essex, on 18 June 
1816, was the ninth child of Stephen Morell 
by Jemima Robinson, his wife. The family 
was of French origin, and settled in England 
on the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 
The father was a congregationalist minister 
at Little Baddow from 1799 to 1852. The 
ministerial calling was widely followed in 



the family, and Morell himself tells us that 
lie chose it as his own ' destination even 
from a child.' At seventeen, therefore, he 
was entered as a probationer at Homerton 
College under Dr. Pye Smith. He travelled 
far outside the ordinary class- work, and Greek 
and Latin, French and German, were added 
to the study of theology. The theological 
course over, Morell's health was so impaired 
that he resolved to qualify himself for teach- 
ing, lest pastoral work should be found beyond 
his strength. From Homerton he accordingly 
went to Glasgow University, where he read 
with diligence, and gained the first prize for 
logic and moral philosophy. He graduated 
B.A. with honours in 1840, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1841. Leaving Glasgow, he went, in 
the summer of 1841, to Bonn, where he gave 
himself to theology and philosophy, study- 
ing under Fichte, whose influence he felt all 
his life. Returning to England, Morell began 
his ministry as an independent at Gosport in 
August 1842, and in October of the same 
year was fully ' ordained.' His creed was 
hardly of the type usually associated with 
the nonconformity of a place like Gosport, 
and his ministry there closed in 1845. 

In 1846 he published his ' Historical and 
Critical View of the Speculative Philosophy of 
Europe in the Nineteenth Century.' Though 
the book came from a young and unknown 
author, it reached a second edition in the year 
after its appearance. Not the least of its 
praises was Mansel's confession, years after 
its appearance, that this was the book which 
' more than any other gave me a taste for 
philosophical study.' Chalmers was so im- 
pressed that he tried to secure for Morell the 
chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh. 
Laurence Oliphant was ' much affected ' by 
it (Life of Laurence Oliphant, i. 217) ; while 
Lord Lansdowne, then president of the privy 
council, who wanted a nonconformist as in- 
spector of schools, offered the post to Morell 
on reading his book. After some hesita- 
tion he accepted the office, and held it from 
1848 until 1876. As an inspector Morell 
was thorough, conscientious, and searching, 
kindly and sympathetic alike to children and 
teachers. But the new duties did not arrest 
Morell's literary work. Four lectures on 
' The Philosophical Tendencies of the Age,' 
delivered in Edinburgh and Glasgow, were 
followed in 1849 by a careful and suggestive 
inquiry into ' The Philosophy of Religion,' 
which was keenly discussed, more especially 
in Scotland. Profiting by his close acquaint- 
ance with elementary school life, Morell in 
1852 published the first of his works dealing 
with English grammar, 'The Analysis of 
Sentences.' Then came, in 1855, ' The Essen- 

tials of English Grammar and Analysis ' and 
the ' Handbook of Logic,' while the ' Gram- 
mar of the English Language ' appeared in 
1857. Few educational works of that period 
had a larger circulation, and he mainly de- 
voted his leisure thenceforth to their com- 
pilation ; but the issue of his ' Philosophical 
Fragments ' in 1878 showed that his regard 
for philosophic inquiry was not diminished. 
For some years he edited the ' School Maga- 
zine/ the pages of which illustrate another 
side of his literary character by some verses 
of more than respectable merit. In 1881 
Morell's health began to break ; softening of 
the brain developed, and he died on 1 April 
1891. He married Elizabeth Morell Wreford, 
but left no issue. 

Morell's own position in metaphysical phi- 
losophy was that of an eclectic, with a 
decided leaning to idealism. His theologi- 
cal position showed the same independence. 
From the creed of Homerton he passed into a 
broader faith, which allowed him to worship 
for some years with protestant nonconfor- 
mists, then with Anglican churchmen, and 
finally with Unitarians. 

Morell's works were: 1. 'The Catholic 
Church : a Sermon,' London 1843. 2. ' The 
Evangelical Alliance,' a tract, London, 1846. 
3. ' An Historical and Critical View of the 
Speculative Philosophy of Europe in the 
Nineteenth Century,' 2 vols. London, 1846 ; 
2nd edit, enlarged, London and Edinburgh, 
1847. 4. ' On the Philosophical Tendencies 
of the Age,' four lectures, London and Edin- 
burgh, 1848. 5. 'The Philosophy of Religion,' 
London , 1849. 6. ' The Analysis of Sentences,' 
London, 1852. 7. ' The Elements of Psycho- 
logy,' pt. i., London, 1853. 8. 'The Essentials 
of English Grammar and Analysis,' Lon- 
don, 1855. 9. 'Handbook of Logic,' London, 
1855. 10.' Modern German Philosophy,' 1 856. 
11. ' Poetical Reading Books, with Aids for 
Grammatical Analysis, &c.' (with Dr. Ihne), 
London, 1857. 12. ' A Grammar of the Eng- 
lish Language, together with an Exposition of 
the Analysis of Sentences,' London, 1857 ; an- 
other edition, with exercises, London, 1857. 
13. ' A Series of Graduated Exercises, adap- 
ted to Morell's Grammar and Analysis,' Lon- 
don, 1857. 14. 'On the Progress of Society 
in England as affected by the Advancement 
of National Education,' 1859. 15. 'Fichte's 
Contributions to Moral Philosophy' (trans- 
lation), London, 1860. 16. 'An Elementary 
Reading Book,' London, 1865. 17. 'First 
Steps in English Grammar,' London, 1871. 
18. ' A Complete Manual of Spelling,' Lon- 
don, 1872. 19. ' English Echoes of German 
Song,' translated by Morell and others, Lon- 
don, 1877. 20. 'Philosophical Fragments,' 




London, 1878. 21. 'Wosco's Compendium 
of Italian History,' translated and completed, 
London, 1881. 22. ' Guide to Employment 
in the Civil Service,' with introduction, 1882. 
23. ' An Introduction to Mental Philosophy 
on the Inductive Method,' London, 1884. 
24. ' Hausrath's Antinous ' (translation), Lon- 
don, 1884. 25. ' Manual of the History of 
Philosophy,' London, 1884. 

[Theobald's Memorials of J.D. Morell, London, 
1891.] A. B. B. 

MORELL, THOMAS (1703-1784), clas- 
sical scholar, born at Eton, Buckingham- 
shire, on 18 March 1703, was son of Thomas 
Morell. On his father's death his mother 
supported herself by keeping a boarding- 
house at Eton, on the foundation of which 
Thomas was admitted in 1715. On 3 Aug. 
1722 he was elected to King's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1726, 
M.A. in 1730, and D.D. in 1743. In July 
1733 he was admitted M.A. 'ad eundem' 
at Oxford, and on 28 June 1759 was ' re- 
incorporated ' as D.D. at Cambridge (FosiEE, 
Alumni Oxon, 1715-1886, iii. 985). He 
was appointed curate of Kew, Surrey, in 
1731, and for a short time acted as curate of 
Twickenham, Middlesex. On 20 March 
1737 the college presented him to the rectory 
of Buckland, Hertfordshire, (CussAsrs, Hert- 
fordshire, Edwinstree Hundred, p. 53). He 
was elected F.S.A. on 20 Oct. following 
(GouGH, List of Soc. Antiq., 1798), and in 
1768 was assistant secretary to the society 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. v. 446). On 16 June 
1768 he became F.R.S. (THOMSON, Hist, of 
Hoy. Society, Append, iv). In 1775 he was 
appointed chaplain to the garrison at Ports- 
mouth, and for several years he preached 
the Fairchild botanical sermon on Whit- 
Tuesday at St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. 

Morell resided chiefly at Turnham Green, 
Middlesex, where he had for neighbours 
Thomson, Hogarth, and Garrick. Handel 
was also his friend. He died at Turnham 
Green on 19 Feb. 1784, and was buried on 
27 Feb. at Chiswick (LYSONS, Environs, ii. 
216). In 1738 he married Anne, daughter of 
Henry Barker of Chiswick, by whom he 
had no issue. His library was sold in 1785 
(NICHOLS, iii. 646). 

Morell was a warm friend and a cheerful 
companion, who loved a jest, told a good 
story, and sang a good song. He was care- 
less of his own interests and dressed ill, and 
his improvidence kept him always poor and 
in debt. His knowledge of music was con- 
siderable, and he played the organ with 
some skill. He maintained that choral ser- 
vices should be generally adopted in parish 

churches (cf. note by William Cole cited in 
NICHOLS, ix. 789). 

MorelTs reputation as a classical scholar 
rests on his 'Thesaurus Grsecae Poesews ; 
sive Lexicon Graeco-Prosodiacum,' 2 pts. 
4to, Eton, 1762, of which improved editions 
by Edward Maltby [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Durham, were published in 1815 and 
1824. The introduction was reprinted in 
P. Moccia's 'Prosodia Graeca,' 1767, 8vo. 
He also published revised editions of Hede- 
rich's 'Greek Lexicon' (1766 and 1778), 
Ainsworth's ' Latin Dictionary ' (1773), and 
the 'Gradus ad Parnassum' (1782). For 
Eton school he revised the ' Exempla Minora' 
(many editions) and edited the 'Hecuba,' 
'Orestes,' ' Phoenissse,' and 'Alcestis' of 
Euripides (2 vols. 8yo, London, 1748). His 
blank verse translation of the ' Hecuba ' (8vo, 
1749) is very feeble. In 1767 he edited the 
' Prometheus Vinctus' of ^Eschylus, with a 
blank verse translation (8vo), and reissued 
it in quarto in 1773, when Garrick did his best 
to get him subscribers (BoswELL, Life of 
Johnson, ed. 1848, p. 386). Fon-the prepa- 
ration of this work he used a. copy of the 
'^Eschylus' published by Henry Stephens in 
1557, which, coming into the possession of the 
Rev. Richard Hooper, was by him presented 
to Cambridge University Library (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 604, vi. 125, 322, 373). 
Morell likewise edited the ' Philoctetes ' of 
Sophocles (8vo, 1777), and compiled an ' Index 
ad Sophoclem' (4to, 1787). He made a 
creditable translation of Seneca's ' Epistles,' 
which, though completed in 1753, was not 
published until after his death (2 vols. 4to, 
1786) ; the manuscript is in the British 
Museum, Additional MS. 10604. 

Morell supplied the libretti for Handel's 
oratorios of ' Judas Maccabseus,' 1746, 'Alex- 
ander Balas,' 1748, 'Joshua,' 1748, ' Solomon,' 
1749, 'Theodora,' 1750, 'Jephtha,' 1752, 
' Gideon,' 1754, and ' The Triumph of Time 
and Truth,' 1758, a translation from the 
Italian of Cardinal Pamfili. The well-known 
lines beginning ' See the Conquering Hero 
comes ' in ' Joshua ' were subsequently trans- 
ferred to ' Judas Maccabaeus.' They were 
introduced into Nathaniel Lee's tragedy ' The 
Rival Queens ' in late acting versions (cf. 
ed. 1785, p. 21), and have been on that ac- 
count erroneously ascribed to Lee [q. v.] 
His other poetical writings are : 1. ' Poems 
on Divine Subjects, original and translated 
from the Latin of Marcus Hieronymus Vida, 
bishop of Alba (and M. A. Flaminius),' 8vo, 
London, 1732 (2nd edit. 1736). 2. 'Con- 
gratulatory Verses on the Marriage of the 
Prince of Orange with the Princess Anne,' 
1737. 3. ' The Christian's Epinikion, or Song 



of Triumph : a Paraphrase on Chap. xv. oi 
St. Paul's 1st Epistle to the Corinthians/ 
4to, London, 1743, in blank verse. 4. ' Hope : 
a Poetical Essay in Blank Verse. In three 
Books,' 4to, London, 1745. Book i. only 
appeared. 5. ' Nabal, an Oratorio/ 4to, 
London, 1764. It was performed at Covent 
Garden, the words being adapted to several 
compositions of Handel. Among the Addi- 
tional MSS. in the British Museum (Nos. 5832 
and 29766) are 'Verses 'and 'Sacred Poems' 
by Morell. He also published the ' Canter- 
bury Tales ' of Chaucer ' in the original, and 
as they are turned into modern language by 
the most eminent hands/ 8vo, London, 1737, 
and in 1747 is said to have issued by sub- 
scription an edition of Spenser's ' Works.' 

His miscellaneous writings are : 1. ' Phil- 
ale thes and Theophanes ; or a Summary 
View of the last Controversy occasioned by a 
book entitled " The Moral Philosopher," pt. i.' 
8vo, London, 1739 ; 2nd edit. 1740. 2. ' Cata- 
logue of the Books in the Osterley Park 
Library/ 4to, 1771, of which only twenty- 
five copies were printed (NICHOLS, v. 327). 
3. A Latin letter addressed in 1774 to Daines 
Barrington on the Corbridge altar, now in 
the British Museum, printed in the ' Archseo- 
logia/ iii. 332. 4. ' Sacred Annals ' (har- 
monies on the Gospels), 12mo, London, 1776. 
6. ' Notes and Annotations on Locke on the 
Human Understanding/ 8vo, London, 1794, 
written at the request of Queen Caroline. 
He revised Hogarth's ' Analysis of Beauty.' 
His ' literary portrait ' of William Ho- 
garth and his wife may be found in John 
Nichols's ' Biographical Anecdotes of Ho- 
garth/ ed. 1810, i. 127. To the third edition 
of ' Sermons ' by Edward Littleton (d. 1733) 

Sj. v.] he contributed a biographical intro- 
uction (1749). He has essays and verses 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ to which he 
was one of the earliest contributors, and oc- 
casionally published single sermons, includ- 
ing one on the ' Use and Importance of Music 
in the Sacrifice of Thanksgiving/ preached at 
the meeting of the three choirs, Worcester, 
Hertford, and Gloucester, 8vo, 1747. 

In the British Museum are copies of the 
New Testament in Greek, 1632, the New 
Testament in English, 1647, and Plutarch's 
' Moralia/ 1542, all copiously annotated by 
Morell. There is also a letter from him to 
Sir Hans Sloane in Additional MS. 4053. 
His commonplace book is Additional MS. 

In 1762 Morell's portrait was drawn by 
Hogarth ' in the character of a cynic philo- 
sopher, with an organ near him.' The portrait 
was afterwards engraved by James Basire, 
and prefixed to Morell's ' Thesaurus.' 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 651, and elsewhere ; 
Harwood's Alumni Etonenses, p. 302; Baker's 
Biog. Dramat. 1812; Walpole's Letters (Cun- 
ningham)^. 420; Addit. MSS. 5151, f. 249, 
6402, f. 142; Will in P.C.C. 151, Kockingham.l 

0. G. 

MOREMAN, JOHN (1490P-1554), di- 
vine, was born at South Hole, Hartland, 
Devonshire, about 1490. He was sent to Ox- 
ford University about 1504, and graduated 
B.A. 29 Jan. 1508-9, M.A. 31 Jan. 1512-13, 
B.D. 18 Jan. 1526-7, and D.D. 8 April 1530. 
On 29 June 1510 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship at Exeter College. From 1516 to 1528 
he held the vicarage of Midsomer Norton, 
Somerset, but he probably remained in resi- 
dence at Oxford, as he retained his fellowship 
until 6 Nov. 1522, and was principal of Hart 
Hall from 1522 to 1527, when he severed his 
connection with the university. He was in- 
stituted by Bishop Voysey to the rectory of 
Holy Trinity, Exeter, on 25 Sept. 1528, but 
vacated it within less than six months upon 
his appointment, 25 Feb. 1529, by Exeter Col- 
lege, to the valuable vicarage of Menheniot, 
Cornwall, which he enjoyed for the rest of his 
life. His school in this parish became famous 
throughout the west of England; among 
his pupils was John Hooker, alias Vowell 
(1526 P-1601) [q. v.] Moreman was also pre- 
bendary of Glasney College, near Penryn, 
Cornwall, canon of Exeter Cathedral 19 June 
1544, and vicar of Colebrooke, Devonshire, 
25 Oct. 1546. 

At the university Moreman had strenu- 
ously opposed the divorce of Henry VIII from 
Queen Catherine. On the accession of Ed- 
ward VI he was thrown into prison, and 
the eleventh demand of the Cornish rebels 
in June 1549 was, ' That Dr. Moreman and 
Crispin should be sent to them and put in 
their livings.' The answer of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury to this stipulation ran, that 
' those were ignorant, superstitious, and de- 
:eitful persons.' On the accession of Queen 
Mary he was released from restraint, and in 
the disputation between Roman catholics and 
protestants which took place in the Convo- 
:ation House, London, October 1553, he an- 
swered, as one of the champions of Catho- 
licism, the arguments of Cheney, archdeacon 
of Hereford, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, 
Phillips, dean of Rochester, and Aylmer, 
:haplain to the Duke of Suffolk. During the 
:ommotion at Exeter in January 1553-4 [see 
CAREW, SIR PETER] Moreman was in resi- 
dence and active against the malcontents. He 
took a leading part in church affairs at Exeter, 
but the statement of Foxe that he ' was coad- 
jutor to Voysey, the bishop of Exeter, and 
after his decease became bishop of that see/ 



must be an error. Hooker says that lie was 
nominated to the deanery of Exeter, but that 
he died before presentation. He died at Men- 
heniot, between May and October 1554, and 
was buried in the church. 

While vicar of Menheniot he taught the 
Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Commandments in 
English, the Cornish language having been in 
use before. A discourse by him, on St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans, was transcribed by the 
Rev. Lawrence Travers, vicar of Quethiock, 
Cornwall. He gave to the library of Oriel 
College, Oxford, three works (SHADWELL, 
Reg. Orielense, i. 398). 

[Oliver's Eccl. Antiquities, ed. 1840, ii. 184- 
188; Oliver's Monasticon, p. 206; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Boase's Eeg. Univ. Oxford (Oxf. 
Hist. Soc.), i. 63 ; Boase's Exeter College, pp. 
xvii-xviii, 29, 200-2 ; Weaver's Somerset Incum- 
bents, p. 143 ; Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 24, 
35, 82-3, 104; Wood's Univ. of Oxford, ed. 
Gulch, vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 45-6 ; Wood's Oxford 
Colleges, ed. Gutch, p. 646 ; Prince's Devon 
Worthies, ed. 1810, pp. 600-2; Moore's Devon, 
ii. 235-6 ; Journ. Koy. Instit. of Cornwall, Oc- 
tober 1864 pp. 76-7, April 1865 pp. 36-7; 
Burnet's Reformation, ed. Pococke, ii. 210- 
211, 424-6, v. 601; Foxe's Monuments, ed. 
Townsend,vi. 397-411, 536; Maclean's Sir Peter 
Carew, pp. v, 159-64; Journal of State Papers 
(Foreign and Domestic, vol. v.), 1531-2, p. 6.] 

W. P. C. 

1778), antiquary, born on 13 Jan. 1730, was 
son of Edward Mores, rector of Tunstall, Kent, 
and author of ' The Pious Example, a dis- 
course occasioned by the death of Mrs. Anne 
Mores,' London, 1725; he married Miss 
Windsor, the sister of an undertaker in 
Union Court, Broad Street, and died in 1740 
(NICHOLS, Bibliotheca Topographica Britan- 
nica, i. xvii.-xx. 58). In the same year Ed- 
ward Rowe entered Merchant Taylors' School 
{Register, ed. Robinson, ii.96), and proceeded 
thence to Oxford, matriculating as a com- 
moner of Queen's College on 25 June 1746 
(FosiEE, Alumni Oxon., 1715-1886, iii. 978), 
and graduating B.A. in 1750, and M.A. in 
1753. At Oxford he attracted attention by 
the extraordinary range and depth of his 
knowledge and the eccentricities of his con- 
duct. His father wished him to take orders, 
but whether he did so is uncertain. In 1752 
he was elected F.S.A., being the first new 
member after the grant of a charter to the 
society in November 1751 ; and in 1754 he 
was one of a committee for examining the 
society's minute books, with a view to se- 
lecting papers worthy of publication. After 
travelling abroad for some time he took up 
his residence at the Heralds' College, intend- 

ing to become a member of that society, but 
about 1760 he retired to an estate left him 
by his father at Low Leyton, Essex. There 
he built a whimsical house, called Etlow 
Place, on a plan of one which he had seen in 
France. He used to mystify his friends by 
declaring that he had been created D.D. at 
the Sorbonne, and attired himself in some 
academical costume which he called that of 
a Dominican friar. He considered Latin the 
only language adapted to devotion and for 
universal use, and composed a creed in it, 
with a kind of mass on the death of his 
wife, of which he printed a few copies in 
his own house, under the disguised title of 
' Ordinale Quotidianum, 1685. Ordo Trigin- 
talis.' Of his daughter's education he was 
particularly careful. From her earliest in- 
fancy he talked to her principally in Latin. 
She was sent to a convent at Rouen for 
further training, and was there converted to 
Romanism, at which he pretended to be very 

The Society for Equitable Assurances, 
which had been first suggested by James 
Dodson [q. v.], owes its existence to Mores. 
He applied for a charter in 1761, but, failing 
of success, he, with sixteen more of the ori- 
ginal subscribers, resolved to establish their 
society by deed. It was arranged that Mores 
should be perpetual director, with an an- 
nuity of 1001. In order to float the society, 
he published in 1762 ' A Short Account of 
the Society for Equitable Assurances, &c.,' 
8vo (7th edit. 1767), in 1766 'The Statutes ' 
and ' Precedents of sundry Instruments re- 
lating to the Constitution and Practice of the 
Society,' 8vo, and in 1768 the ' Deed of Settle- 
ment . . .with the Declaration of Trust,' 8vo, 
and a ' List of the Policies and other printed 
Instruments of the Society/ 8vo ; but some 
disputes arising between him and the original 
members, he declined to act further (see 
Papers relating to the Disputes with the 
Charter Fund Proprietors in the Equitable 
Society, 1769). 

Towards the close of his life Mores fell 
into negligent and dissipated habits. He 
died at Low Leyton on 28 Nov. 1778, and 
was buried by his wife in Walthamstow 
churchyard. By his marriage with Susannah 
Bridgman (1730-1767), daughter of a White- 
chapel grocer, he had a son, Edward Rowe 
Mores, who married in 1779 a Miss Spence, 
and a daughter, Sarah, married in 1774 to 
John Davis, house decorator of Waltham- 
stow. His large collections of books, manu- 
scripts, engravings, and printing types were 
dispersed by sale in August 1779. 'The more 
valuable portion of his books and manuscripts 
was purchased by Richard Gough [q. v.], and 

Mores : 

is now in the Bodleian Library. The re- 
mainder was chiefly acquired by Thomas Astle 
[q. v.] and John Nichols [q. v.] 

While at Oxford in 1746 Mores assisted 
in correcting an edition of Calasio's ' Con- 
cordance,' projected by Jacob Hive [q. v.], 
the printer, and published in 1747, 4 vols. 
fol. In 1749 he printed in black letter ' No- 
mina et Insignia Gentilitia Nobilium Equi- 
tumque sub Edvardo Primo Rege militan- 
tium. Accedunt classes exercitus Edvardi 
Tertii Regis Caletem obsidentis,' 4to, Oxford. 
He also printed a few copies, sold after his 
death, of an edition of Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus's'De claris Rhetoribus,' with vignettes 
engraved by Green ; the preface and notes 
were not completed. He applied, without 
success, to several continental scholars for 
assistance in the notes. An imperfect re- 
issue is dated 1781, 8vo. 

Mores made a few collections for a history 
of Merchant Taylors' School. In 1752 he 
printed in half a quarto sheet some correc- 
tions made by Francis Junius [q. v.] in his 
own copy of his edition of Ceedmon's ' Saxon 
Paraphrase of Genesis,' and other parts of the 
Old Testament (Amsterdam, 1655), and in 
1754 he issued in quarto fifteen of the draw- 
ings from the manuscript of Csedmon in the 
Bodleian, the plates of which were purchased 
by Gough and deposited in that library. He 
is stated in Pegge's ' Anonymiana ' (cent. vi. 
No. 14) to have commenced a transcript of 
Junius's dictionaries, with a design of pub- 
lishing them. He formed considerable col- 
lections for a history of Oxford, and especially 
that of his own college, whose archives he 
arranged and calendared. He commissioned 
B. Green to execute many drawings of Oxford 
and the neighbourhood, which were included 
in Gough's bequest. His manuscripts re- 
lating to Queen's, with his collections about 
All Souls', fell into the hands of Astle, who 
presented the former to John Price of the 

Mores assisted John Bilson in his burlesque 
on All Souls', a folio sheet printed in 1752, 
entitled ' Preparing for the Press ... a com- 
plete History of the Mallardians,' to which 
he contributed the prints of a cat said to 
have been starved in the library, and of two 
grotesque busts carved on the south wall of 
the college. 

In 1759 he circulated queries for a ' Pa- 
rochial History of Berkshire,' but made little 
progress. His collections were printed in 
1783 in Nichols's ' Bibliotheca Topographica 
Britannica,' vol. iv. No. xvi, together with 
his ' Account of Great Coxwell, Berkshire,' 
vol. iv. No. xiii, where his family had been 
originally seated, and his excellent ' History 


of Tunstall, Kent,' vol. i. No. 1, with a 
memoir of him by R. Gough. 

In the latter part of his life Mores pro- 
jected a new. edition of Ames's ' Typogra- 
phical Antiquities.' On the death of John 
James of Bartholomew Close, the last of the 
old race of letter-founders, in June 1772, 
Mores purchased all the old portions of his 
immense collection of punches, matrices, and 
types which had been accumulating from the 
days of Wynkyn de Worde. From these 
materials he composed his valuable ' Disser- 
tation upon English Typographical Founders 
and Founderies,' of which he printed eighty 
copies. John Nichols, who purchased the 
whole impression, published it with a short 
appendix in 1778, 8vo. He also included 
Mores's ' Narrative of Block Printing' in his 
' Biographical Memoirs of William Ged,' &c., 
8vo, 1781. 

His manuscript, ' Commentarius de ^Elfrico 
Dorobernensi Archiepiscopo,' which Astle 
bought, was published under the editorship 
of G. J.Thorkelin in 1789, 4to, London. In 
the British Museum are the following manu- 
scripts by Mores: 1. Epitome of Archbishop 
Peckham's 'Register,' 1755 (Addit. MSS. 
6110, 6111, 6112, 6114). 2. Kentish Pedi- 
grees by him and Edward Hasted (Addit. 
MS. 5528). 3. List of rectories and vicar- 
ages in Kent (Addit. MS. 6408). 4. Copies 
of his letters to John Strype, 1710 (Addit. 
MS. 5853), and to Browne Willis, 1749, 1751 
(Addit. MS. 5833). 5. Monuments of the 
Rowe family (Addit. MS. 6239). 6. Let- 
ters to Edward Lye, 1749-61 (Addit. MS. 
32325). He wrote also part of Addit. MS. 
5526 (copy of John Philpott's ' Visitation of 
Kent/ 1619) and of Addit. MS. 5532 (copy 
of Robert Cook's 'Visitation of Kent,' 1574), 
and assisted Andrew Coltee Ducarel [q. v.] 
in his abstract of the archiepiscopal registers 
at Lambeth (Addit. MSS. 6062-109). 

A whole-length portrait of Mores was en- 
graved by J. Mynde after a picture by R. 
van Bleeck. 

[Gough's Memoir referred to ; Bawl. MS. J. 
fol. 18, pp. 115-16; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. v. 
389-405, and elsewhere ; Nichols's Illustr. of 
Lit.; Addit. MSS. 5841 f. 294, 6401 f. 10; 
Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, vol. ii. ; 
notes kindly furnished by the provost of Queen's 
College, Oxford.] GK G-. 

MORESBY, SiuFAIRFAX (1786-1877), 
admiral of the fleet, son of Fairfax Moresby 
of Lichfield, entered the navy in December 
1799, on board the London, with Captain 
John Child Purvis, whom he followed in 
1801 to the Royal George. In March 3802 
he joined the Alarm, with Captain (after- 
wards Sir William) Parker (1781-1866) 




fq v 1 and in November went with him to 
the Amazon, in which he served in the Me- 
diterranean, and in the chase of the French 
fleet to the West Indies. In December 1 
he was appointed to the Puissant at Ports- 
mouth, and on 10 April 1806 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant of the Ville de Pans. 
A few months later he was appointed to the 
Kent, in which, and afterwards in the Re- 
pulse, in the Mediterranean, he was fre- 
quently engaged in boat service. After some 
weeks in acting command of the Eclair and 
Acorn he was promoted to be commander of 
the Wizard brig, 18 April 1811, and was sent 
to the Archipelago to repress the pirates who, 
as well as the French privateers fitted out 
in Turkey, were just then extremely active. 
Of these he captured several, and in acknow- 
ledgment of his services he was presented by 
the merchants of Malta with a sword. To- 
wards the end of 1812 the Wizard was sent 
to England with despatches, but, returning 
to the Mediterranean, was through the sum- 
mer of 1813 attached to the squadron in the 
Adriatic, under the command of Rear-ad- 
miral, (afterwards Sir) Thomas Fremantle 
[q. v.] On several occasions, and more espe- 
cially at the siege of Trieste in October, 
Moresby's services were highly commended. 
With the other captains of the squadron 
he was permitted to accept the cross of the 
order of Maria Theresa, 23 May 1814. He 
was advanced to post rank 7 June 1814, and 
was nominated a C.B. 4 June 1815. 

In April 1819 he was appointed to the 
Menai, a 24-gun frigate, in which he went 
out to the Cape of Good Hope. In 1820 he 
surveyed Algoa Bay and its neighbourhood, 
arranged the landing of the settlers, to the 
number of two thousand, and organised the 
infant colony. In 1821 he was senior officer 
at Mauritius, with orders to suppress the slave 
trade. He captured or destroyed several of 
the more notorious vessels engaged in that 
trade, prosecuted the owners, and concluded 
a treaty with the imaum of Muscat confer- 
ring on English men-of-war the right of 
searching and seizing native vessels. At the 
request of Wilberforce he was kept out an 
additional year, till June 1823. The Menai 
was paid off in September. The arduous 
service on the coast of Africa had broken 
Moresby's health. From 1837 to 1840 he com- 
manded the Pembroke in the Mediterranean, 
and from 1845 to 1848 the Canopus on the 
home station. On 20 Dec. 1849 he was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral, and from 1850 to 
1853 he was commander-in-chief in the Pa- 
cific. In 1854 he was made a D.C.L. of Ox- 
ford. He was nominated vice-admiral 12 Nov. 
1856, admiral 12 April 1862, G.C.B. 28 March 

1865, and admiral of the fleet 21 Jan. 1870. He 
died on 21 Jan. 1877, in his ninety-first year. 

Moresby married at Malta in 1814 Eliza 
Louisa, youngest daughter of John Williams 
of Bakewell, Derbyshire, and by her had two 
daughters and three sons, the eldest of whom, 
Fairfax, a commander in the navy, was lost in 
the Sappho brig, which went down with all 
hands in Bass's Straits early in 1858 (Times, 
30 May, 30 June 1859). 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biog:. Diet. ; Ann. Keg. 1877, 
cxix. 135 ; Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

MORESIN, THOMAS (1558 P-1603 ?), 
physician. [See MOKISON.] 

MORET, HUBERT (fi. 1530-1550), gold- 
smith and jeweller, was a Paris merchant 
(Acts of Privy Council, 1547-50, p. 461), but 
was in the habit of visiting London with 
jewels and plate. Henry VIII occasionally 
purchased jewels from him (Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 20030) to a considerable amount, for in 
1531 he received 56/. 9s. 4d., and in 1536 
2821. 6s. 8d. for jewels bought by the king (Let- 
ters and Papers, ed. Gardner, v. 757). Moret 
was a friend of Hans Holbein, and is said to 
have carried out in goldsmith's work many 
of that artist's designs. His portrait was 
twice painted by Holbein ; one of these por- 
traits was in the Arundel collection, and was 
engraved by W. Hollar in 1647 (BKOMLEY) ; 
the other hangs now in the Dresden gal- 
leries, where it is described in the catalogue 
by error as the portrait of Thomas Moret. 

[Acts of Privy Council, 1547-50; Hans Hol- 
bein, par Paul Mantz ; Brit. Mus. Print Eoom ; 
Granger's Biog. Diet.] W. C-K. 

NOLDS-, second EAKL OP DUCIE (1802- 
1853), born in Conduit Street, London, on 
8 May 1802, was eldest son of Thomas, fourth 
baron Ducie of Tortworth and first earl of 
Ducie (1775-1840), by his wife Lady Frances 
Herbert, only daughter of Henry, first earl of 
Carnarvon. His father, a whig and a sup- 
porter of the Reform Bill, was son of Francis, 
third baron Ducie of Tortworth (d. 1808), 
and was grandson of Elizabeth, daughter of 
Matthew Ducie Moreton, first baron Ducie 
of Moreton (d. 1735), by her^second husband, 
Francis Reynolds. The first baron's heir, 
Matthew, second baron Ducie of Moreton, 
was created Baron Ducie of Tortworth in 
1763, and died in 1770, leaving no issue. He 
was succeeded in the barony of Tortworth 
successively by his nephews Thomas and 
Francis Reynolds, the sons of his sister Eliza- 
beth by her second marriage, who assumed 
the surname of Moreton in 1771. 

Henry John was educated at Eton. He 



was returned in the whig interest for Glou- 
cestershire at the general election in May 
1831, and sat for East Gloucestershire from 
December 1832 to December 1834. He suc- 
ceeded his father as the second earl of Ducie 
in June 1840, and took his seat in the 
House of Lords for the first time on 31 July 
following (Journals of the House of Lords, 
Ixxii. 375). Ducie moved the address at 
the opening of parliament in January 1841 
(Par/. Debates, 3rd ser. Ivi. 4-8), but except 
on two other occasions he does not appear to 
have spoken again in the house (ib. Iviii. 
1115, lix. 723-8). On the formation of 
Lord John Russell's first administration 
Ducie was appointed a lord-in-waiting to the 
queen (24 July 1846), a post which he re- 
signed in November 1847. He served on the 
charity commission which was appointed on 
18 Sept. 1849 (Parl. Papers, 1850, vol. xx.) 
He died on 2 June 1853 at Tort worth Court, 
Gloucestershire, aged 61, and was buried in 
Tort worth Church on the 10th of the same 
month. Ducie was a staunch advocate of 
free trade, and the speech which he de- 
livered in favour of the repeal of the corn 
laws at the Hall of Commerce, London, on 
29 May 1843, attracted considerable atten- 
tion. He was best known, however, as a 
breeder of shorthorns and as one of the 
leading agriculturists of the day. He was 
master of the Vale of White Horse hounds 
from 1832 to 1842, and was president of the 
Royal Agricultural Society 1851-2. During 
the last seven years of his life he was a pro- 
minent member of the Evangelical Alliance. 
The sale of his famous collection of short- 
horns in August 1853 realised over 9,000/. 
The 'Ducie cultivator,' the invention of 
which is generally ascribed to him, appears 
to have been invented by the managers of 
his ironworks at Uley, Gloucestershire. He 
married, on 29 June 1826, Lady Elizabeth 
Dutton, elder daughter of John, second baron 
Sherborne, by whom he had eleven sons and 
four daughters. His widow died on 15 March 
1865, aged 58. He was succeeded in the 
peerage by his eldest son, the Hon. Henry 
John Reynolds-Moreton, lord Moreton, the 
third and present earl. 

An engraved portrait of Ducie by J. B. 
Hunt, after G. V. Briggs, R. A., will be found 
in the 'Sporting Review,' vol. xxviii. opp. 
p. 64. 

[Journal of the Koyal Agricultural Society, 
ii. 42, iii. 122, xix. 147, 360; Gloucester Journal, 
4 June 1853 ; Times, 4 June 1853 ; Illustrated 
London News, 17 July 1852 (portrait), 11 June 
1853,17 Sept. 1853; Mark Lane Express, 5 June 
1843; Cecil's Recordsof the Chase, 1877, pp. 199- 
201; Sporting Review, xxviii. 64-6, xxx. 140-1 ; 

Gent. Mag. 1853, pt. ii. p. 87; Ann. Keg. 1853, 
App. to Chron. pp. 231-2; Stapylton's Eton 
School Lists, 1864, p. 84; Doyle's Official Ba- 
ronage, 1886, i. 642; Burke's Peerage, 1890, 
pp. 442-3, 1244 ; Official f Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 330, 341.1 

G. F. R. B. 

OF CORNWALL (d. 1091?). [See MOETAIN, 

MORETON, WILLIAM (1641-1715), 
bishop successively of Kildare and Meath, 
born in Chester in 1641, was eldest son of 
EDWARD MORETON (1599-1665), prebendary 
of Chester. The father, son of William More- 
ton of Moreton, was educated at Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, was incorporated 
at Oxford M.A. 1626 andD.D. 1636; was ap- 
pointed vicar of Grinton, Yorkshire (1634); 
rector of Tattenhall, Cheshire, chaplain to 
Sir Thomas Coventry, lord keeper, and pre- 
bendary of Chester, all in 1637 ; and vicar of 
Sefton, Lancashire, in 1639. It appears that 
his property was sequestrated in 1645 (EAR- 
WAKER, East Cheshire, ii. 24), and that he was 
nominated by Lord Byron a commissioner to 
superintend the capitulation of Chester to the 
parliamentary forces in January 1646 (RUSH- 
WORTH, iv. i. 139). Restored to his benefices at 
the Restoration, he died at Chester on 28 Feb. 
1664-5, and was buried in Sefton Church, 
where a Latin inscription commemorates his 
equanimity under misfortune (Wooo, Fasti, 
i. 495 ; HARWOOD, Alumni Eton.} 

Matriculating at Christ Church, Oxford, 
on 5 Dec. 1660, William graduated B.A. 
19 Feb. 1664, M.A. 21 March 1667, and 
B.D. 3 Nov. 1674. In 1669 he became rec- 
tor of Churchill, Worcestershire, and was 
also for some time chaplain to Aubrey Vere, 
earl of Oxford. In 1677 he accompanied 
James, duke of Ormonde, lord-lieutenant, to 
Ireland, as his chaplain ; and on 12 Dec. of 
that year was created D.D. of Oxford by 
special decree. A few days later (22 Dec.) 
he was appointed dean of Christ Church, Dub- 
lin, in which capacity Mant speaks of him as 
' the vehement and pertinacious opponent of 
the Archbishop of Dublin's episcopal juris- 
diction.' On 13 Feb. 1682 he was appointed 
to the see of Kildare with the preceptory of 
Tully, and was consecrated in Christ Church, 
Dublin, on the 19th by the Archbishop of 
Armagh. The sermon, preached by Foley, 
bishop of Down and Connor, was published. 
Moreton was made a privy councillor of 
Ireland on 5 April 1682, and was created D.D. 
of Dublin in 1688; but when Tyrconnel held 
Ireland for James II he 'fled to England and 
there continued till that nation [the Irish] was 
settled.' Some time after his return to Ireland 




Moreton sent a. petition to the Irish House of 
Commons, asking them to give power to the 
trustees of the Irish forfeitures, in accordance 
with the Irish Act of Settlement, to set out 
land forfeited in the rebellion in augmenta- 
tion of his bishopric. In the preamble to this 
petition, it was stated that the revenue of the 
see of Kildare, though the second in Ireland, 
did not exceed 1701. per annum (v. Case of 
William, Lord Bishop of Kildare, undated). 
He was translated to the see of Meath on 
18 Sept. 1705, and was made a commissioner 
of the great seal by Queen Anne. 

He died at Dublin on 21 Nov. 1715, and 
was buried in Christ Church Cathedral on 
the 24th. By his wife, whom he married in 
the summer of 1682, he appears to have left 
no issue. There is a portrait of him in the 
hall of Christ Church, Oxford. 

[Ware's Hist, of Irelaud, ed. W. Harris, i. 
162, 395 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon, ed. Bliss, iv. 
891, and Fasti Oxon. ii. 265, 290, 345, 347, 
365 ; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. ii. 45, 234, 
iii. 121 ; Mant's Hist, of Irish Church, i. 685, 
ii. 174; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1 500-1 7 1 4.] 

G. LE G. N. 

MOKEVILLE, HUGH DE (d. 1204), 
assassin of Thomas a Becket. [See MOE- 

MORGAN (/. 400?), heretic. [See 

MORGAN MWYNFAWR (d. 665?), re- 
gulus of Glamorgan, was the son of Athrwys 
ap Meurig ap Tewdrig (genealogies from 
Cymmrodor, ix. 181, 182, viii. 85), and may 
be the Morcant whose death is recorded 
in ' Annales Cambriae ' under the year 665 
(H>. ix. 159). The charters contained in the 
'Book of Llandaff' include a number of grants 
which he is said to have made to the church 
of Llandaff in the time of Bishops Oudoceus 
and Berthguin (Liber Landavensis, ed. Evans 
and Rhys, 1893, pp. 145, 148, 149, 151, 155, 
156, 174). Other charters in the book of 
the time of Berthguin are attested by him 
(pp. 176, 182, 191), and an account is also 
given (pp. 152-4) of ecclesiastical proceed- 
ings taken against him by Oudoceus in con- 
sequence of his murdering his uncle Ffriog 
Though the Book of Llandaff ' was compiled 
about the middle of the twelfth century 
(preface to the edition of 1893), at a time 
when the see was vigorously asserting dis- 
puted claims, it nevertheless embodies a 
quantity of valuable old material, and (de- 
tails apart) is probably to be relied upon, in 
the general view it gives of the position of 
Morgan. He appears as owner of lands in 
Gower (p. 145), Glamorgan (p. 155), and 
Gwent (p. 156), and, since the latter two 

districts were afterwards ruled over by his 
descendants, was probably sovereign of most 
of the region between the Towy and the Wye. 

It has been very generally supposed that 
Morgannwg a term of varying application, 
but usually denoting the country between 
the Wye and the Tawe (Red Book, Oxford 
edit. ii. 412; Cymmrodor, ix. 331) takes its 
name from Morgan Mwynfawr (lolo MSS. 
p. 11). Mr. Phillimore, in a note to the 
Cymmrodorion edition of Owen's ' Pembroke- 
shire ' (p. 208), suggests, however, that it is 
merely a variant of Gwlad Forgan [cf. art. 
on MORGAN HEN], and that previous to the 
eleventh century the country was always 
known as Glywysing. 

Morgan Mwynfawr, in common with many 
of his contemporaries, is a figure in the 
legends of the bards. He is mentioned in 
the ' Historical Triads ' as one of the three 
Reddeners (i.e. devastators) of the isle of 
Britain (Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd edit. pp. 
389, 397, 404) ; in the ' lolo MSS.' (p. 11) 
he is said to have been a cousin of King 
Arthur and a knight of his court, while his 
car was reckoned one of the nine treasures 
of Britain, for ' whoever sat in it would be 
immediately wheresoever he wished ' (LADY 
CHARLOTTE GUEST, Mabinogion, 1877 edit. 
p. 286). 

[Liber Landavensis, ed. Rhys and Evans, 1893 ; 
lolo MSS., Liverpool reprint.] J. E. L. 

MORGAN HEN (i.e. the AGED) (d. 973), 
regulus of Glamorgan, was the son of Owain 
ap Hywel ap Rhys (Cymmrodor, viii. 85, 86), 
his father being no doubt the Owen, king of 
Gwent, mentioned in the ' Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle' under the year 926, and his grand- 
father the < Houil filius Ris,' of whom Asser 
speaks as 'rex Gleguising.' According to 
the < Book of Llandaff' (edition of EVANS 
and RHYS, pp. 241, 248), he was ruler of 
the seven cantreds of Morgannwg between 
Towy and Wye; other records in the book 
show, however, that there were contem- 
porary kings in the Margam district (Cadw- 
gan ab Owain, p. 224), and in Gwent 
(Cadell ab Arthfael, p. 223; Arthfael ab 
Hoe, p. 244). No doubt he was the chief 
prince of the region, and in that capacity at- 
tended the English court, where, until the 
accession of Edgar, he frequently appears as 
a witness to royal grants of land. He was 
with Athelstan in 930, 931, and 932, with 
Edred in 946 and 949, and with Edwy in 
956 (KEMBLE, Codex Dipl., 1839, Nos. 352, 
1103, 1107, 411, 424, 426, 451). During his 
reign a contention arose between him and 
the house of Hywel Dda as to the possession 
of the districts of Ewias and Ystrad Yw, a 


matter which we are told was settled in fa- 
vour of Morgan by the overlord of the Welsh 
princes, King Edgar (Liber Landavensis,\893 
edition, p. 248 ; Gwentian ' Brut y Ty wys- 
ogion'in MyvyrianArchaioloffy,2nd edition, 
p. 690). Morgan's epithet implies that he 
lived to a great age, though the statement 
of the Gwentian Brut that he died in 1001, 
in his hundred and thirtieth year (p. 693), is 
of course to be rejected. He is probably the 
Morgan whose death is .recorded in one manu- 
script of ' Annales Cambrise ' under the year 

Gwlad Forgan, the later Glamorgan, un- 
doubtedly took its name from Morgan Hen. 
Even in the 'Book of Llandaff' the form 
does not appear until we reach eleventh- 
century grants, and, unlike Morgannwg, it 
always excludes Gwent, which was, it has 
been shown, no part of the realm of Morgan 

[Liber Landavensis, 1893 edit.; lolo MSS. 
Liverpool reprint ; Gwentian Brut y Tywysogion 
in Myvyrian Archaiology; Annales Cambriae, 
Eolls edit.] J. E. L. 

MORGAN (fl. 1294-1295), leader of the 
men of Glamorgan, appears, like his fellow- 
conspirator, Madog [q. v.], only in connection 
with the Welsh revolt which came to a head 
on Michaelmas day, 1294. In the ' lolo MSS.' 
(p. 26) he is identified with Morgan ap Hywel 
of Caerleon,who belongs, however, to a much 
earlier part of the century (see Brut y Tywy- 
soffion, Oxford edition, pp. 368, 370). His 
ancestors had been deprived of their domains 
by Gilbert de Clare, eighth earl of Gloucester 
[q. v.] Walter of Hemingburgh makes him, 
as well as Madog, a descendant of Llywelyn 
ap Gruffydd, but this is also a mistake. The 
movement led by Morgan resulted in the ex- 
pulsion of Earl Gilbert, who then brought an 
army into Glamorgan, but failed to re-esta- 
blish his power. About the middle of June 
1295 the king appeared in the district, and 
soon restored order, receiving the homage 
of the tenants himself. Morgan submitted 
shortly afterwards, having been brought into 
Edward's power, according to Hemingburgh 
and the ' lolo MSS.' (p. 26), by the northern 
leader Madog. 

[Annals of Trivet (Engl. Hist. Soc.), 1845 
edit. ; Chronicle of Walter of Hemingburgh 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.), 1849 edit.; Annales Priora- 
tus de Wigornia, Eolls edit. 1869 ; cf. arts, on 
EDWARD I and MADOG.] J. E. L. 

MORGAN, ABEL (1673-1722), baptist 
minister, was born in 1673 at Allt Goch, Llan- 
wenog, Cardiganshire. At an early age he re- 
moved to Abergavenny or its neighbourhood, 
became member of the baptist church atLlan- 

c Morgan 

wenarth in that district, and when about nine- 
teen began to preach. In 1697 he was called 
to the pastorate of the newly formed church 
of Blaenau Gwent (Aberystruth and Mynydd 
Islwyn), but did not accept the invitation 
until 1700. In 1711 he resolved to emigrate 
to America, having laboured in the interval 
with much success, if we may judge from 
the fact that four years after his departure 
his church numbered one thousand members. 
He bade farewell to his flock at a meeting 
held on 23 Aug. ; on 28 Sept. he took ship 
at Bristol. The voyage was a long and 
stormy one, and in the course of it he lost 
his wife and son. Accompanied by his bro- 
ther, Enoch Morgan, and his half-brother, 
Benjamin Griffith, he settled in Pennsylvania, 
where there was a numerous Welsh colony, 
and there exercised the office of baptist mini- 
ster until his death in 1722. Crosby's ' His- 
tory of the English Baptists ' contains a letter 
from him, in which he describes the position 
of the sect in Pennsylvania in 1715 (i. 122- 

Morgan is best known as the compiler of 
the first ' Concordance of the W T elsh Bible.' 
This he left in manuscript at his death. It 
was not published until 1730, when Enoch 
Morgan and some other friends caused it to 
be printed at Philadelphia. The printers, as 
we learn from the title-page, were ' Samuel 
Keimer ' [q.v.] and 'Dafydd Harry,' both well 
known from the ' Autobiography of Benjamin 
Franklin.' It is a mistake, however, to sup- 
pose that Franklin himself worked at the 
book ; for by this time he had left Keimer's 
printing-house, and was printing on his own 
account. The book was probably one of the 
last turned out by Keimer before he removed 
to Barbados. Morgan's ' Concordance ' was 
the basis of the one published in 1773 by the 
Rev. Peter Williams, and now commonly 
used in Wales. 

[Eees's Hist, of Protestant Nonconformity in 
Wales, 2nd edit. 1883, pp. 300, 301 ; Eowlands's 
Cambrian Bibliography, p. 356 ; cf. art. on 

1890), painter, whose maiden name was 
HAVERS, was born in 1850. She was third 
daughter of Thomas Havers, esq., of Thelton 
Hall, Norfolk, where the family had been 
seated for many generations. As her father 
held the appointment of manager of the Falk- 
land Islands, Miss Havers was brought up 
with her family first in those islands, and 
later at Montevideo. On her father's death in 
1870she returned to England and entered the 
school of art at South Kensington, where she 
gained a free studentship in the first year. In 

April 1872 Miss Havers married Mr. Frederick 
Morgan, an artist, but she always continued 
to be known professionally under her maiden 
name. She first exhibited at the Society of 
British Artists in Suffolk Street, and in 1873 
for the first time at the Royal Academy, bhe 
quickly obtained success and popularity, and 
her pictures were always given good places 
at the various exhibitions to which she con- 
tributed. One of her early pictures, Ought 
and carry one,' was purchased by the queen, 
and has been engraved. In 1888 she re- 
moved to Paris with her children, in order 
to be under the influence of the modern 
French school of painting. In 1889 she ex- 
hibited at the Salon two pictures, one of 
which (exhibited at the Royal Academy m 
1888), ' And Mary kept aU these sayings in 
her heart,' attracted much attention and was 
honourably commended. Her career was, 
however, cut short by her sudden death, at 
her residence in Marlborough Road, St. John's 
Wood, London, on 26 Aug. 1890. She left 
two sons and one daughter. Miss Havers was 
an industrious worker, and executed many 
kinds of tasteful art-illustration. She illus- 
trated some of the stories written by her 
sister, Mrs. Boulger, better known under her 
pseudonym of ' Theo. Gift.' 

[Private information.] L. C. 

1668), soldier, born in 1621, was son of An- 
thony Morgan, D.D., rector of Cottesbrook, 
Northamptonshire, fellow of Magdalen Col- 
lege, and principal of Alban Hall 1614- 
1620 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 
1027). The elder branches of the family 
were seated in Monmouthshire, where they 
possessed considerable influence. Anthony 
matriculated at Oxford from Magdalen Hall 
on 4 Nov. 1636, was demy of Magdalen 
College from 1640 until 1646, and graduated 
B.A. on 6 July 1641 (BLOXAM, Reg. of Magd. 
Coll. v. 172). Upon the outbreak of the 
civil war he at first bore arms for the king, 
and was made a captain. The prospect of 
having his estate sequestered proved, how- 
ever, little to his liking. He therefore, in 
March 1645, sent up his wife to inform the 
committee of both kingdoms that he and Sir 
Trevor Williams undertook to deliver Mon- 
mouthshire and Glamorganshire into the 
parliament's power if they received adequate 
support. He also hinted that he ought to 
be rewarded by the command of a regiment 
of horse. Colonel (afterwards Sir Edward) 
Massey [q. v.] was instructed to give him all 
necessary aid (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644- 
1645, p. 356). By January 1646 he had 
performed his task with such conspicuous 

success that Fairfax was directed to give 
him a command in his army until a regi- 
ment could be found for him in Wales (ib. 
1645-7, p. 313), and on 3 Nov. following 
the order from the lords for taking off his 
sequestration was agreed to by the com- 
mons (Commons' 1 Journals, iv. 713). Mor- 
gan, an able, cultured man, soon won the 
friendship of Fairfax. By Fairfax's recom- 
mendation he was created M.D. at Oxford 
on 8 May 1647 (WooD, Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 
106). On 8 Oct. 1648 Fairfax wrote to the 
speaker, Lenthall, asking the commons to 
pass the ordinance from the lords for in- 
demnifying Morgan for anything done by 
him in relation to the war, and on 27 Oct. 
he wrote again, strongly recommending Mor- 
gan for service in Ireland (letters in Tanner 
MS. Ivii. 341, 391). Both his requests were 
granted (Commons' Journals, v. 668), and 
Morgan became captain in Ireton's regiment 
of horse (SPKIGGE, Anglia Hediviva, ed. 1647, 
p. 325). Various grievances existed at the 
time in the regiment, and the officers, know- 
ing that Morgan could rely on the favour of 
Fairfax, asked him to forward a petition to 
the general (his letter to Fairfax, dated from 
Farnham, Surrey, 16 Oct. 1648, together with 
the petition, is printed in ' The Moderate,' 17- 
24 Oct. 1648). He took up his command in 
Ireland about 1649 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1656-7, p. 103). 

In 1651 parliament granted him leave to 
stay in London for a few weeks to prosecute 
some chancery suits upon presenting a certi- 
ficate that he had taken the engagement in 
Ireland ( Commons' Journals, vi. 606) ; and in 
1652, upon his petition, they declared him 
capable of serving the Commonwealth, not- 
withstanding his former delinquency (ib. vii. 
169). He was then major. From 1654 until 
1 658 he represented in parliament the counties 
of Kildare and Wicklow, and in 1659 those of 
Meath and Louth. He became a great favourite 
with lord-deputy Henry Cromwell, and when 
in town corresponded with him frequently. 
His letters from 1656 to 1659 are preserved 
in Lansdowne MS. 822. In July 1656 on 
being sent over specially to inform the Pro- 
tector of the state of Ireland (THtrELOE, State 
Papers, v. 213), he was knighted at White- 
hall. The next year Henry Cromwell re- 
quested him to assist Sir Timothy Tyrrell in 
arranging for the purchase of Archbishop 
Ussher's library. At the Restoration Charles 
knighted him, 19 Nov. 1660 (TOWNSEND, Cat. 
of Knights, p. 49), and appointed him com- 
missioner of the English auxiliaries in the 
French army. When the Royal Society was 
instituted Morgan was elected an original 
feUow, 20 May 1663 (THOMSON, Hist, of Roy. 



Soc. Append, iv. p. ii), and often served on 
the council. Pepys, who dined with him at 
Lord Brouncker's [see BROTTNCKER, WILLIAM, 
second VISCOUNT B ROTTNCKER] in March 1 668, 
thought him a ' very wise man ' (Diary, ed. 
Braybrooke, 1848, iv. 380). He died in 
France between 3 Sept. and 24 Nov. 1668, the 
dates of the making and probate of his will 
(registered in P. C. C. 143, Hene; cf. Probate 
Act Book, P. C. C., 1668). Owing to politi- 
cal differences he lived on bad terms with his 
wife Elizabeth, who, being a staunch republi- 
can, objected to her husband turning loyalist. 

Contemporary with the above was AN- 
THONY MORGAN (d. 1665), royalist, son of 
Sir William Morgan, knt., of Tredegar, Mon- 
mouthshire, by Bridget, daughter and heiress 
of Anthony Morgan of Heyford, Northamp- 
tonshire (BAKER, Northamptonshire, i. 184). 
He seems identical with the Anthony Morgan 
who was appointed by the Spanish ambassa- 
dor Cardenas, on 9 June 1640, to levy and 
transport the residue of the two thousand 
soldiers afforded to him by the king (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. pt. vii. p. 241). On 
21 Oct. 1642 he was knighted by Charles at 
Southam, Warwickshire (Lands. MS. 870, 
f. 70), and two days later fought at the 
battle of Edgehill. By the death of his 
half-brother, Colonel Thomas Morgan, who 
was killed at the battle of Newbury 20 Sept. 
1643, he became possessed of the manors of 
Heyford and Clasthorpe, Northamptonshire ; 
and had other property in Momouthshire, 
Warwickshire, and Westmoreland. He sub- 
sequently went abroad, but returned in 1648, 
when, though his estates were sequestered 
by the parliament by an ordinance dated 
5 Jan. 1645-6, he imprisoned several of his 
tenants in Banbury Castle for not paying 
their rent to him (Cal. of Proc. of Comm. 
for Advance of Money, ii. 893). He tried to 
compound for his property in May 1650, and 
took the covenant and negative oath, but 
being represented as a 'papist delinquent,' 
he was unable to make terms ( Cal. of Comm. 
for Compounding, pt. iii. p. 1898). In August 
1658 he obtained leave to pay a visit to 
France (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1658-9, 
p. 579). One Anthony Morgan was ordered 
to be arrested and brought before Secretary 
Bennet on 5 June 1663, and his papers were 
seized (ib. 1663-4, p. 163). He died in St. 
Giles-in-the-Fields, London, about June 1665 
(Probate Act Book, P. C. C., 1665), leaving 
by his wife Elizabeth (? Fromond) an only 
daughter, Mary. In his will (P. C. C., 64, 
Hyde) he describes himself as of Kilflgin, 
Monmouthshire . 

A third ANTHONY MORGAN (fl. 1652), 
royalist, born in 1627, is described as of 

Marshfield and Casebuchan, Monmouthshire. 
In 1642 he entered the service of the Earl of 
Worcester, for which his estate was seques- 
tered. He begged to have the third of his 
estate, on the plea of never having ' inter- 
meddled in the wars' (Cal. of Comm. for 
Compounding, pt. iii. p. 2123, pt. iv. p. 
2807), but his name was ordered by the 
parliament to be inserted in the bill for sale 
of delinquents' estates ( Commons' Journals. 
vii. 153). 

[Authorities cited in the text.] G-. G. 

MORGAN, AUGUSTUS DE (1806-1871), 
mathematician. [See DE MORGAN.] 

1642), soldier, son of Edward Morgan of Pen- 
earn, was born in 1574 or 1575. In 1596 he 
was captain in Sir John Wingfield's regiment 
at Cadiz, and afterwards saw much service in 
the Netherlands under the Veres. Having 
distinguished himself he was knighted at 
Whitehall, before the coronation of James I, 
on 23 July 1603 (METCALFE, Book of Knights, 
p. 147). In 1622 he commanded the English 
troops at the siege of Bergen until it was 
raised by Spinola, and in 1625 was at Breda 
when it was captured by the same general. 
In 1627 he was appointed commander of the 
four regiments sent to serve under the king of 
Denmark in Lower Saxony. They were in 
reality skeletons of those despatched to defend 
the Netherlands in 1624. At the siege of 
Groenlo his able lieutenant-colonel, Sir John 
Prowde, was killed (cf. Poems of William 
Browne, ed.Goodwin,ii. 288). Though recruits 
were sent out from time to time, they proved, 
from lack of training, worse than useless. On 
23 July Morgan reported from his post near 
Bremen that his men were mutinous from 
want of pay, and would probably refuse to fight 
if the enemy attacked them. Edward Clarke 
(d. 1630) [q. v.] arrived with bills of exchange 
for a month's pay just in time to prevent Mor- 
gan's regiment from breaking up, but the four- 
teen hundred recruits brought by Clarke soon 
deserted. The bills proving valueless, Mor- 
gan borrowed three thousand dollars on his 
own credit, and wrote to Secretary Carleton 
on 7 Sept. in despair. ' What service/ he asked, 
' can the king expect or draw from these un- 
willing men ? ' Soon afterwards the margrave 
of Baden was defeated at Heiligenhafen. Mor- 
gan effected a masterly retreat across the Elbe 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1627-8, p. 389), 
and with his little force four thousand men 
in all was entrusted with the keeping of 
Stade, one of the fortresses by which the 
mouth of the river was guarded. Here he 
was left to shift for himself. With the help 
of Sir Robert Anstruther, the Danish am- 



bassador, he raised sufficient money to pro- 
cure a fresh supply of shoes and stockings. 
He continued to defend Stade bravely, and 
made some successful sallies (ib. p. 587), but 
with his garrison reduced by Avant and 
disease to sixteen hundred, he knew that 
surrender was inevitable unless reinforce- 
ments arrived from England. On 18 March 
1628 he wrote to Buckingham complaining 
that ' he and his troops seem to be forgotten 
of all the world,' and praying for relief (ib. 
1628-9, p. 25). At length, on 27 April, he 
was obliged to surrender Stade to Tilly, 
but was allowed to march out with all the 
honours of war. 

In June 1628 Morgan, who had returned 
to England, was ordered to gather together 
the remains of the garrison of Stade, and to 
carry them back to the king of Denmark. 
His instructions are contained in Add. MS. 
4474 and Egerton MS. 2553, f. 63 b. Before 
his departure he had an audience of the king 
at Southwick, near Portsmouth, and bluntly 
told him that soldiers could not be expected 
to do their duty unless properly paid, fed, and 
clothed (ib. pp. 237, 253). A warrant for 
2,0001. for his regiment was issued (Egerton 
MS. 2553, f. 40), and promises of regular 
payment were made. After the surrender of 
Krempe to the imperialists in the autumn, 
Morgan was ordered to remain at Gliickstadt 
till the winter was over, and reinforcements 
could be sent. In August 1637 he was help- 
ing to besiege Breda (ib. 1637, p. 388), and 
subsequently became governor of Bergen, 
where he died and was buried in 1642. He 
was sixty-seven years old. 

Morgan married Eliza, daughter of Philip 
von Marnix, lord of Ste. Aldegonde ; she was 
buried in the old church at Delft before May 
1634. His daughter and heiress Ann mar- 
ried Sir Lewis Morgan of Rhiwperra, and 
was naturalised by Act of Parliament 18 Feb. 
1650-1. She subsequently married Walter 
Strickland of Flamborough, and died a widow 
at Chelsea in 1688, having expressed a wish 
to be buried with her mother at Delft (CLARK, 
Limbus Patrum Morgania, pp. 319, 327). 

Morgan is celebrated by William Crosse 
[q. v.] in his poem called 'Belgiaes Troubles 
and Triumphs,' 1625 (p. 49). 

[Gardiner's Hist, of Engl. vol. vi. ; Clark's 
Limbus Patrum Morganiae ; authorities cited.] 

G. G. 

MORGAN, SIB CHARLES (1726-1806), 
judge advocate-general. [See GOULD.] 

SW1NNERTON (1803-1888), antiquary, 
born on 15 Sept. 1803, was the fourth son of 
Sir Charles Morgan [see under GOULD, after- 

wards MORGAN, SIR CHARLES], second baro- 
net, of Tredegar Park, Monmouthshire, by 
Mary Magdalen, daughter of Captain George 
Stoney, R.N. Sir Charles Morgan Robinson 
Morgan, baron Tredegar (1794-1890), was 
his elder brother. Educated at Westminster 
School and Christ Church, Oxford, he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1825 and M.A. in 1832. From 
1841 to 1874 he sat in parliament in the con- 
servative interest, for the county of Mon- 
mouth, of which he was a justice of the peace 
and deputy-lieutenant. Interested in archaeo- 
logy, he read numerous papers before the 
Caerleon Antiquarian Association, of which 
he was president, and they were subsequently 
printed. In 1849 he communicated to the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries some ' Observations on 
the History and Progress of the Art of Watch- 
making from the earliest Period to Modern 
Times. In 1850 he published a ' Report on 
the Excavations prosecuted by the Caerleon 
Antiquarian Association within the Walls 
of Caerwent.' In No. 35 of the ' Archaeo- 
logical Journal ' there appears his ' Observa- 
tions on the Early Communion Plate used 
in the Church of England, with Illustrations 
of the Chalice and Paten of Christchurch.' 
In 1869 he published a valuable account 
of the monuments in the church at Aber- 

He died, unmarried, 5 Aug. 1888, and was 
interred in the family vault at Bassaleg 
churchyard, Monmouthshire. 

[Morgan's Works ; G. T. Clark's Limbus Pa- 
trum Morganiae, p. 313; Old Welsh Chips, 
August 1888, Brecon.] J. A. J. 

MORGAN, DANIEL (1828? -1865), 
Australian bushranger, whose real name is 
said to have been SAMUEL MORAN, and other- 
wise ' Down-the-River Jack ' or ' Bill the 
Native,' is believed to have been born about 
1828 at Campbeltown, New South Wales, to 
have been put to school in that place, and 
eventually to have taken up work on sheep 
stations and as a stock-rider. For a time he 
lived on Peechalba station, Victoria, where 
he eventually met his death. .According to 
his own account he was unjustly condemned 
at Castlemaine in 1854 to twelve years' im- 
prisonment, and vowed vengeance on society. 
He is said to have been at this time stock- 
riding on the station of one Rand at Mohonga, 
and if the date is correct he must have re- 
ceived a remission of sentence ; for in 1863 
a series of highway robberies was attributed 
to him, and on 5 Jan. 1864 a reward of 500/. 
was offered for his apprehension by the govern- 
ment of New South Wales. In June 1864 he 
shot Police-sergeant McGinnerty, and a few 
days later at Round Hill he killed one John 



McLean and wounded two others. The re- 
ward offered for his capture was now in- 
creased to 1,00(M. In September 1864 he shot 
Police-sergeant Smith, and as his raids were 
not checked the reward was made 1,500. on 
8 March 1865. 

The last week of his life was typical of his 
proceedings. On Sunday, 1 April 1865, he 
' stuck up ' Bowler's station and carried off a 
well-known racing mare ; on Tuesday he 
robbed one Brody, a butcher ; next day he 
' stuck up ' Bond's station, Upotipotpa, and 
left a message for Bond that he wanted to 
shoot him ; then he detained the Albury mail 
and robbed the bags, remarking that he had 
ridden one hundred miles for the purpose ; 
next day he visited Evans's station and fired 
the granaries : he spent the Friday in robbing 
carriers on the road to Victoria, and arrived 
at Peechalba station in that colony on Satur- 
day. Having successfully mastered the 
McPhersons at Peechalba, he proceeded to 
spend the evening with them, inviting them 
to sit down with him to tea, requesting Miss 
McPherson to play the piano to him, and 
talking freely of his mode of life. A maid- 
servant found means to evade his vigilance, 
and gave the alarm to a neighbour ; the house 
was soon surrounded by civilians and a few 
police, who waited for the morning, when 
Morgan came out of the house driving his 
hosts before him with a revolver in each 
hand. One Wendlan (or Quinlan), to whom 
the duty had been assigned, shot him at sixty 
paces from behind cover. Morgan lingered 
about six hours, and died without making 
any confession (8 April). Six loaded revol- 
vers and SOQl. were found upon him at death. 
The coroner's jury returned a verdict of justi- 
fiable homicide, adding a rider in praise of 
the conduct of the persons concerned. Mor- 
gan's head was cut off and sent to Melbourne ; 
his body was buried at the Murray. 

Morgan was one of the most bloodstained 
of the Australian bushrangers. He was de- 
scribed as having a 'villainously low fore- 
head with no development,' and a peculiarly 
long nose ; as being 5 feet 10 inches high, 
and of spare build, so emaciated when taken 
as not to weigh more than nine stone. Mor- 
gan is said to be the original of Patrick in 
Rolf Boldrewood's well-known novel ' Rob- 
bery under Arms ' (1888). 

[Accounts of his own conversations, &c., from 
the New South Wales Empire, 6-16 April 1865 ; 
Cassell's Picturesque Australia, iv. 99, 100; 
Beaton's Austral. Diet, of Dates.] C. A. H. 

(1754-1798), scientific writer, born in 1754 
at Bridgend, Glamorganshire, was the second 

son of William Morgan, a surgeon practising 
in that town, by Sarah, sister of Dr. Richard 
Price [q. v.] William Morgan [q. v.]was his 
elder brother. George was educated at Cow- 
bridge grammar school and, for a time, at 
Jesus College, Oxford, whence he matricu- 
lated 10 Oct. 1771 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon.~) 
An intention of entering the church was 
abandoned, owing to the death of his father 
and the poverty of his family. His religious 
views also changed, and he soon became, 
under the guidance of his uncle, Dr. Price, a 
student at the dissenting academy at Hox- 
ton, where he remained for several years. 
In 1776 he settled as Unitarian minister at 
Norwich, where it is said that his advanced 
opinions exposed him to much annoyance 
from the clergy of the town. He was sub- 
sequently minister at Yarmouth for 1785-6, 
but removed to Hackney early in 1787, and 
became associated with Dr. Price in starting 
Hackney College, where he acted as tutor 
until 1791. In 1789, accompanied by three 
friends, he set out on a tour through France, 
and his letters to his wife descriptive of 
the journey are still preserved (see extracts 
printed in A Welsh Family, &c.) He was in 
Paris at the storming of the Bastille, and is 
supposed to have been the first to communi- 
cate the news to England (ib. p. 88). He 
sympathised with the revolution in its earlier 
stages, and held very optimistic views as to 
human progress, believing that the mind could 
be so developed as to receive, by intuition, 
knowledge which is now attainable only 
through research. In 1791 he was disap- 
pointed of Dr. Price's post as preacher at the 
Gravel-pit meeting-house at Hackney, and 
retired to Southgate in Middlesex. There 
he undertook the education of private pupils, 
and met with much success. 

Morgan gained a high reputation as a 
scientific writer, his best-known work being 
his ' Lectures on Electricity ' (Norwich, 1794, 
16mo, 2 vols.), which he had delivered to the 
students at Hackney. In these he fore- 
shadowed several of. the discoveries of sub- 
sequent scientific men (see extracts in A 
Welsh Family). In chemistry he was an 
advocate of the opinions of Stahl in opposi- 
tion to those of Lavoisier, and was engaged 
upon a work on the subject at the time of 
his death. In 1785 he communicated to the 
Royal Society a paper containing ' Observa- 
tions and Experiments on the Light of Bodies 
in a state of Combustion ' (Phil. Trans, vol. 
Ixxv.) He was also the author of ' Direc- 
tions for the use of a Scientific Table in the 
Collection and Application of Knowledge, 
. . . with a Life of the Author ' (reprinted 
from the 'Monthly Magazine' for 1798), 




London, 1826, 4to. This contains an elabo- 
rate table for the systematisation of all know- 
ledge. He also made considerable progress in 
writing the memoirs of Dr. Richard Price. 

He died on 17 Nov. 1798 of a fever con- 
tracted, it was supposed, while making a che- 
mical experiment in which he inhaled some 
poison. He was a handsome man, and his 
portrait was painted by Opie. 

By his wife, Nancy Hurry of Yarmouth, he 
had seven sons and one daughter, Sarah, wife 
of Luke Ashburner of Bombay, who was a 
prominent figure in Bombay society (see BASIL 
HALL, Voyages and Travels, 2nd ser. iii. 134, 
which contains a sketch by Mrs. Ashburner). 
Two of the sons, William Ashburner Morgan 
and Edward Morgan, successively became 
solicitors to the East India Company, while 
most of the others settled in America, where 
the eldest, Richard Price Morgan, was con- 
nected with railroad and other engineering 
works {A Welsh Family, p. 145). 

[A Welsh Family from the Beginning of the 
Eighteenth Century (8vo, London, 1885, 2nd ed. 
1893), by Miss Caroline E. Williams, for private 
circulation ; Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 1144 ; Monthly 
Mag. for 1798; Memoirs of the Rev. Richard 
Price, 1815, pp. vi, vii, 178-81 ; Williams's Emi- 
nent Welshmen, p. 338; Foulkes'sl Enwogion 
Cymru, pp. 732-3.] D. LL. T. 

1850), theological writer, born in 1785, was 
the only son of Hector Davies of London 
(d. 6 March 1785, set. 27) and Sophia, daugh- 
ter of John Blackstone [q. v.], first cousin of 
Sir William Blackstone [q.v.] Morgan's 
grandfather, the Rev. David Davies, master 
of the free school of St. Mary's Overy, South- 
wark, took the name and arms of Morgan 
on his second marriage with Christiana, one 
of the four nieces and heiresses of John 
Morgan of Cardigan. Upon her death in 
1800 Morgan succeeded to the name. He 
matriculated from Trinity College, Oxford, 
on 24 Feb. 1803, and proceeded B.A. in 1806, 
M.A. in 1815 (FOSTER, Alumni, 1715-1886). 
About September 1809 he was presented by 
Lewis Majendie to the donative curacy of 
Castle Hedingham in Essex, where he re- 
mained for thirty-seven years. On 7 Oct. 1817, 
shortly after the passing of 57 George III, 
c. 130, one of the earliest savings-banks in 
Essex was opened by Morgan's exertions at 
Castle Hedingham for the Hinckford hun- 
dred. He was acting secretary until 28 Nov. 
1833, and while serving in this capacity 
issued ' The Expedience and Method of pro- 
viding Assurance for the Poor,' 1830, and 
an address, 'The Beneficial Operation of 
Banks for Savings,' London, 1834, with a 
brief memoir of Lewis Majendie. About 

the same time Morgan became chaplain to 
George, second lord Kenyon. 

Morgan was appointed Bampton lecturer 
in 1819, and was collated by the Bishop of 
St. Davids, on 7 Aug. 1820, to the small pre- 
bend of Trallong, in the collegiate church of 
Brecon (Reports of the Eccles. Commis. xxii. 
80). He resigned the cure of Castle Heding- 
ham in July or August 1846, and removed 
to Cardigan, where his second son, Thomas, 
was living. He died there on 23 Dec. 1850. 

Two essays by Morgan ' A Survey of the 
Platform of the Christian Church exhibited 
in the Scriptures applied to its actual cir- 
cumstances and conditions, with Suggestions 
for its Consolidation and Enlargement,' &c., 
Oxford, 1816; and 'The Doctrine of Re- 
generation as identified with Baptism and 
distinct from Renovation, investigated, in 
an Essay on Baptism,' &c., Oxford, 1817 
each gained for Morgan the prize of 501. from 
the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge and Church Union in the Diocese of 
St. Davids, established on 10 Oct. 1804 by 
Thomas Burgess [q.v.], bishop of St. Davids. 
But his principal work was ' The Doctrine 
and Law of Marriage, Adultery, and Divorce, 
exhibiting a theological and practical view 
of the Divine Institution of Marriage ; the 
religious ratification of Marriage ; the Im- 
pediments which preclude and vitiate the 
contract of Marriage; the reciprocal Duties 
of Husbands and Wives, the sinful and 
criminal character of Adultery, and the 
difficulties which embarrass the Principle 
and Practice of Divorce,' &c., Oxford, 1826, 
2 vols. This work shows accurate and ex- 
tensive reading and legal knowledge. 

Morgan's eldest son, John Blackstone Mor- 
gan (d. 1832), was curate of Garsington, Ox- 
fordshire (FOSTER, Alumni, 1715-1886, iii. 
981). A third son, James Davies Morgan 
(1810-1846), was an architect. There were 
also two daughters. 

[Gent. Mag. 1827 pt. ii. p. 224, 1851 pt. i. p. 
562 ; Index Eccles. 1800-40, p. 125 ; Collectanea 
Topograph. and Geneal. v. 402 ; registers of 
Castle Hedingham, per the Eev. H. A. Lake.] 

C. F. S. 

MORGAN, HENRY (d. 1559), bishop of 
St. Davids, was born ' in Dewisland,' Pem- 
brokeshire, and became a student in the 
university of Oxford in 1515. He proceeded 
B.C.L. 10 July 1522, and D.C.L. 17 July 
1525, and soon after became principal of St. 
Edward's Hall, which was then a hostel for 
civilians. He was admitted at Doctors' 
Commons 27 Oct. 1528, and for several years 
acted as moderator of those who performed 
exercises for their degrees in civil law at 
Oxford. Taking holy orders he obtained 

Morgan i 

much clerical preferment. He became rector 
of Walwyn's Castle, Pembrokeshire, 12 Feb. 
1529-30 ; prebendary of Spaldwick in the 
diocese of Lincoln, 13 Dec. 1532 (WiLLis, 
Cathedrals, p. 232) ; prebendary of St. Mar- 
garet's, Leicester, also in the diocese of Lin- 
coln, 7 June 1536 (ib. p. 202) ; canon of 
Bristol, 4 June 1542 (ib. p. 791) ; prebendary 
of the collegiate church of Crantock in Corn- 
wall, 1547 ; canon of Exeter, 1548 ; rector 
of Mawgan, Cornwall, 1549, and of St. 
Columb Major, Cornwall, 1550 ; prebendary 
of Hampton in Herefordshire, 1 March 1551 
(ib. p. 574). 

Upon the deprivation of Robert Ferrar 
[q. v.] he was appointed by Queen Mary 
bishop of St. David's in 1554, which see he 
held until he was deprived of it, on the acces- 
sion of Elizabeth, about midsummer 1559. 
He then retired to Wolvercote, near Oxford, 
where some relatives, including the Owens 
of Godstow House, resided. He died at 
Wolvercote 23 Dec. 1559, and was buried in 
the church there. 

John Foxe, in his ' Acts and Monuments 
of the Church ' (sub anno 1558), like Thomas 
Beard in his ' Theatre of God's Judgments,' 
i. cap. 13, states that Morgan was ' stricken 
by God's hand ' with a very strange malady, 
of which he gives some gruesome details ; 
but Wood could find no tradition to that 
effect among the inhabitants of Wolvercote, 
though he made a careful inquiry into the 
matter. Wood mentions several legacies left 
by Morgan, proving ' that he did not die in 
a mean condition.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 788, Fasti i. 67; 
Boase's Register of the Univ. of Oxford, p. 124 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Owen's Pembrokeshire, 
1892, p. 240 ; Coote's English Civilians ; Free- 
man and Jones's History of St. Davids.] 

D. Li,. T. 

MORGAN, SIK HENRY (1635 P-1688), 
buccaneer, lieutenant-governor of Jamaica, 
eldest son of Robert Morgan of Llanrhvmny, 
Glamorganshire,was born about 1635 (CiAHK, 
Limbus Patrum Morganits, p. 315). While 
still a mere lad he is said to have been kid- 
napped at Bristol and sold as a servant at 
Barbados, whence, on the expiration of his 
time, he found his way to Jamaica and 
joined the buccaneers. His uncle, Colonel 
Edward Morgan, went out as lieutenant- 
governor of Jamaica in 1664 (ib. ff. 189-90), 
and died in the attack on St. Eustatius, in 
July 1665 (Cal. State Papers, America and 
West Indies, 10 May 1664, No. 739 ; 23 Aug., 
16 Nov. 1665, Nos. 1042, 1085, 1088). But 
Henry Morgan had no command in this ex- 
pedition ; and although the presence of at 
least three Morgans in the West Indies at 

VOL. xxxix. 


the time renders identification difficult, it is 
possible that he was the Captain Morgan 
who, having commanded a privateer from 
the beginning of 1663, was, in January 1665, 
associated with John Morris and Jackman 
in their expedition up the river Tabasco in 
the Bay of Campeachy, when they took and 
plundered Vildemos; after which, returning 
eastwards, they crossed the Bay of Honduras, 
took Truxillo, and further south, went up 
the San Juan river in canoes as far as Lake 
Nicaragua, landed near Granada, which they 
sacked, and came away after overturning the 
guns and sinking the boats (ib. 1 March 1666, 
No.J1142). .This appears the more probable, 
as the later career of John Morris was closely 
connected with that of Henry Morgan (ib. 
7 Sept. 1668, No. 1838 ; 12 Oct. 1670, No. 

After the death of Colonel Edward Mor- 
gan, the governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas 
Modyford [q.v.], commissioned a noted buc- 
caneer, Edward Mansfield, to undertake the 
capture of Curacoa, early in 1666. In that 
expedition Henry Morgan is first mentioned" 
as commanding a ship, and he was with 
Mansfield when he seized the island of Provi- 
dence or Santa Catalina, which the Spaniards 
had taken from the English in 1641 . Leaving 
a small garrison in the island, Mansfield re- 
turned to Jamaica on 12 June (ib. 16 June 
1666, No. 1216), but shortly afterwards, fall- 
ing into the hands of the Spaniards, he was 
put to death (ib. No. 1827), and the buccaneers 
elected Morgan to be their ' admiral.' Santa 
Catalina was retaken by the Spaniards in 
August 1666. In the beginning of 1668 
Morgan was directed by Modyford to levy a 
sufficient force and take some Spanish pri- 
soners, so as to find out their intentions re- 
specting a rumoured plan for the invasion of 
Jamaica. Morgan accordingly got together 
some ten ships with about five hundred men, 
at a rendezvous on the south side of Cuba, 
near the mouth of the San Pedro river. 
There, finding that the people had fled, and 
had driven all the cattle away, they marched 
inland to Puerto Principe, which, owing to its 
distance from the coast, had hitherto escaped 
such visits. The people mustered for the de- 
fence, but were quickly overpowered. The 
town was taken and plundered, but was not 
burnt on payment of a ransom of a thousand 
beeves, and Morgan was able to send Mody- 
ford word that considerable forces had been 
levied for an expedition against Jamaica. 

Morgan himself, with his little fleet, sailed 
towards the mainland and resolved to at- 
tempt Porto Bello, where not only were 
levies for the attack on Jamaica being made, 
but where, it was said, several Englishmen 





were confined in the dungeons of the castle, 
and among them, according to popular ru- 
mour, Prince Maurice. The French who were 
with him refused to join in the attack, which 
seemed too hazardous ; but on 26 June Mor- 
gan, leaving his ships some distance to the 
westward, rowed along the coast with twenty- 
three canoes, and landed about three o'clock 
next morning. The place was defended by 
three forts, the first of which was carried at 
once by escalade, and the garrison put to the 
sword. The second, to which the Spanish 
governor had retreated, offered a more obsti- 
nate resistance ; but Morgan had a dozen or 
more ladders hastily made, so broad that three 
or four men could mount abreast. These he 
compelled the priests and nuns whom he had 
captured to carry up and plant against the 
walls of the castle; and though the governor 
did not scruple to shoot down the bearers, 
Morgan found plenty more to supply the place 
of the killed. The castle was stormed, though 
the stubborn resistance continued till the 
governor, refusing quarter, was slain. Then 
the third fort surrendered, and the town 
was at the mercy of the buccaneers. It was 
utterly sacked. The most fiendish tortures 
were practised on the inhabitants to make 
them reveal where their treasure was hidden, 
and for fifteen days the place was given up 
to brutal riot and debauchery. 

On the fifth day the president of Panama, 
at the head of three thousand men, at- 
tempted to drive the invaders out, but was 
rudely beaten back. A negotiation was then 
entered into, by the terms of which Morgan 
withdrew his men on the payment of a 
hundred thousand pieces of eight and three 
hundred negroes. According to the official 
report made at Jamaica by Morgan and his 
fellows John Morris among the number 
the town and castles were left ' in as good 
condition as they found them,' and the people 
were so well treated that ' several ladies of 
great quality and other prisoners who were 
offered their liberty to go to the president's 
camp refused, saying they were now pri- 
soners to a person of quality, who was more 
tender of their honours than they doubted 
to find in the president's camp, and so volun- 
tarily continued with them' till their de- 
parture (ib. 7 Sept. 1668, No. 1838). But 
the story as told by Exquemeling, himself 
one of the gang, and with no apparent rea- 
son for falsifying the facts, represents their 
conduct in a very different light (cf. ib. 9 Nov. 
'68, No. 1867). Exquemeling adds that the 
president of Panama, expressing his surprise 
vij hundred m en without ordnance 
should have taken so strong a place, asked 
Morgan to send < some small pattern of thns* 

arms wherewith he had taken so great a 
city.' Morgan sent a pistol and a few bul- 
lets, desiring him to keep them for a twelve- 
month, when he would come to Panama and 
fetch them away. To which the president 
replied with the gift of a gold ring and a 
request that he would ' not give himself the 
labour of coming to Panama.' 

In August, when Morgan returned to Ja- 
maica, Modyford received him somewhat 
doubtfully, not feeling quite sure how his 
achievement might be regarded in England. 
His commission, he told him, was only 
against ships. But in forwarding Morgan's 
narrative to the Duke of Albemarle, he in- 
sisted that the Spaniards fully intended to 
attack Jamaica, and urged the need of allow- 
ing the English there a free hand, until Eng- 
land's title to Jamaica was formally acknow- 
ledged by Spain (ib. 1 Oct. 1668, No. 1850) 

The Porto Bello spoil was no sooner squan- 
dered than Modyford again gave Morgan a 
commission to carry on hostilities against 
the Spaniards. Morgan assembled a con- 
siderable force at Isle de la Vache (which in 
an English form is sometimes called Cow 
Island, and sometimes Isle of Ash), on the 
south side of Hispaniola, and seems to have 
ravaged the coast of Cuba. In January 
1669 the largest of his ships, the Oxford 
frigate, was accidentally blown up during a 
drinking bout on board, Morgan and the 
officers, in the after part of the ship, alone 
escaping. It was afterwards resolved to at- 
tempt Maracaybo ; but many of the captains, 
refusing to adopt the scheme, separated, 
leaving Morgan with barely five hundred 
men in eight ships, the largest of which car- 
ried only fourteen small guns. 

With these, in March 1669, he forced the 
entrance into the lake, dismantled the fort 
which commanded it, sacked the town of 
Maracaybo which the inhabitants had de- 
serted, scoured the woods, making many 
prisoners, who were cruelly tortured to make 
them show where their treasure was hid ; 
and after three weeks it was determined to 
go on to Gibraltar, at the head of the lake. 
Here the scenes of cruelty and rapine, ' mur- 
ders, robberies, rapes, and such-like inso- 
lencies,' were repeated for five weeks ; when, 
gathering together their plunder, the priva- 
teers returned to Maracaybo. There they 
learned that three Spanish ships of war 
were off the entrance of the lake, and that 
they had manned and armed the fort, putting 
it ' into a very good posture of defence.' 
Morgan, apparently to gain time, entered into 
some futile negotiations with the Spanish 
admiral, Don Alonso del Campo y Espinosa ; 
and meanwhile the privateers prepared a fire- 


ship, with which in company they went to 
look for the Spanish ships. At dawn on 
1 May 1669 they found them within the en- 
trance of the lake, in a position clear of the 
guns of the fort, and steered straight for them, 
as though to engage. The fireship, disguised 
as a ship of war, closed the admiral's ship a 
ship of 40 guns grappled and set her in a 
flame. She presently sank. The second, of 30 
guns, in dismay ran herself on shore and was 
burnt by her own men. The third was cap- 
tured. As no quarter was asked or given, the 
slaughter must have been very great, though 
several from the flagship, including Don 
Alonso, succeeded in reaching the shore. 
From a few who were made prisoners Morgan 
learned that the sunken ship had forty thou- 
sand-pieces of eight on board, of which he 
managed to recover fifteen thousand, be- 
sides a quantity of melted silver. Then, 
having refitted the prize and taken command 
of her himself, he reopened negotiations with 
Don Alonso, and was actually paid twenty 
thousand pieces of eight and five hundred 
head of cattle as a ransom for Maracaybo, 
but a pass for his fleet was refused. By an 
ingenious stratagem, however, Morgan led 
the Spaniards to believe that he was landing 
his men for an attack on the fort on the land 
side. They therefore moved their guns to 
that side, leaving the sea face almost un- 
armed. So in the night, with the ebb tide, 
he let his ships drop gently down till they 
were abreast the castle, when they quickly 
made good their escape. 

On his return to Jamaica, Morgan was 
again reproved by Modyford for having ex- 
ceeded his commission. But the Spaniards, 
on their side, were waging war according to 
their ability, capturing English ships, and 
ravaging the north coast of Jamaica. Pro- 
voked by such aggressions and by the copy 
of a commission from the queen regent of 
Spain, dated 20 April 1669, commanding her 
governors in the Indies to make open war 
against the English, the council of Jamaica 
ordered, and Modyford granted, a commis- 
sion to Morgan, as ' commander-in-chief of 
all the ships of war ' of Jamaica, to draw these 
into one fleet, and to put to sea for the security 
of the coast of the island ; he was to seize 
and destroy all the enemy's vessels that came 
within his reach ; to destroy stores and maga- 
zines laid up for the war ; to land in the enemy's 
country as many of his men as he should judge 
needful, and with them to march to such places 
as these stores were collected in . The commis- 
sion concluded with an order that ' as there 
is no other pay for the encouragement of the 
fleet, they shall have all the goods and mer- 
chandizes that shall be gotten in this expedi- 


tion, to be divided amongst them, according 
to their rules ' (ib. 29 July, 2 July 1670, Nos. 
209, 211, 212 ; Present State of Jamaica, 
pp. 57-69). 

Morgan sailed from Port Royal on 14 Aug. 
1670, having appointed the Isle de la Vache 
as a rendezvous, from which, during the next 
three months, detached squadrons ravaged 
the coast of Cuba and the mainland of 
America, bringing in, more especially, provi- 
sions and intelligence. On 2 Dec. it was unani- 
mously agreed, in a general meeting of the 
captains, thirty-seven in number, ' that it 
stands most for the good of Jamaica and 
safety of us all to take Panama, the presi- 
dent thereof having granted several commis- 
sions against the English.' Six days later 
they put to sea ; on the 15th captured once 
again the island of Santa Catalina, whence 
a detachment of 470 men, commanded by a 
Colonel Bradley, was sent in advance to take 
the castle of Chagre. This was done in a 
few hours, in an exceedingly dashing man- 
ner ; and Morgan bringing over the rest of 
his force, and securing his conquest, started 
up the river on 9 Jan. 1670-1, with fourteen 
hundred men, in seven ships and thirty-six 
boats. The next day the navigation of the 
river became impossible ; so, leaving two hun- 
dred men in charge of the boats, the little 
army proceeded on foot. As the route was 
difficult, they carried no provisions, trusting 
to what they could plunder on the way. The 
Spaniards had carefully removed everything ; 
but after many skirmishes and excessive suf- 
ferings, on the ninth day they crossed the 
summit of the ridge, saw the South Sea, 
and found an abundance of cattle. On the 
morning of the tenth day they advanced to- 
wards Panama. The Spaniards met them in 
the plain, with a well-appointed force of in- 
fantry and cavalry, to the number of about 
three thousand, some guns, and a vast herd 
of wild bulls, intended to break the English 
ranks and make the work of the cavalry easy. 
But many of the bulls were shot, and the 
rest, in a panic, turned back and trampled 
down the Spaniards, who, after a fight of 
some two hours' duration, threw down their 
arms and fled, leaving about six hundred 
dead on the field. The buccaneers had also 
lost heavily ; but they advanced at once on 
the city, and by three o'clock in the after- 
noon were in quiet possession of it. It 
was, however, on fire, and was almost en- 
tirely burnt, whether, as Morgan asserted, 
by the Spaniards themselves ; or, according 
to Exquemeling, by Morgan's orders ; or, as 
is most probable, by some drunken English 

As a feat of irregular warfare, the enterprise 



has not been surpassed, though its brilliance 
is clouded by the cruelty of the victors a 
force levied without pay or discipline, and 
unchecked, if not encouraged in brutality by 
Morgan. But if we may credit Exquemeling, 
the invaders, owing to their drunkenness and 
dissolute indulgences, neglected to prevent 
the escape of a Spanish galeon, which put 
to sea, as soon as the Spaniards saw their 

o Morgan 

sailed directly for Isle de la Vache, where, 
through his folly, his ship was wrecked, and 
the stores which he had on board were lost 
(Dartmouth MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm. llth 
Rep. pt. v. p. 25 ; cf. BRIDGE, Annals of 
Jamaica, i. 273). 

For the rest of his life Morgan appears to 
have remained in Jamaica, a man of wealth 
and position, taking an active part in the 

men were defeated, with all that was of value j affairs of the colony as lieutenant-governor, 
in the town, including money and church ' senior member of the council, and corn- 
plate, as well as many nuns. Much of the i mander-in-chiefof the forces. When Lord 
spoil was thus lost, and on 14 Feb. the buc- Vaughan was recalled, pending the arrival 
caneers began their backward march. On the of the Earl of Carlisle, Morgan was for a few 
26th they arrived at Chagre, and there the months acting governor, and again on Car- 

plunder was divided, every man receiving his 
share, or rather, according to Exquemeling, 
' what part thereof Captain Morgan pleased 
to give them.' This, he says, was no more 
than two hundred dollars per head. Much 
discontent followed, and the men believed 
themselves cheated. But Captain Morgan, 
deaf to all complaints, got secretly on board 
his own ship, and, followed by only three or 
four vessels of the fleet, returned to Jamaica. 
Several of those left behind, the French 
especially, ' had much ado to find sufficient 
provisions for their voyage to Jamaica.' 

At Jamaica Morgan received the formal 
thanks of the governor and the council on 
31 May. But meantime, on 8 July 1670, 

lisle's return in 1680, till in 1682 he was 
relieved by Sir Thomas Lynch [q. v.] ' His 
inclination,' said the speaker in a formal 
address to the assembly on 21 July 1688, 
' carried him on vigorously to his Majesty's 
service and this island's interest. His study 
and care was that there might be no mur- 
muring, no complaining in our streets, no 
man in his property injured, or of his liberty 
restrained ' {Journals of the Assembly of 
Jamaica, i. 121). About a month later Mor- 
gan died ; he was buried at Port Royal, in St. 
Catherine's Church, on 26 Aug. 1688 (Add. 
MS. 27968, f. 29). 

With very inadequate means Morgan ac- 
complished a task the reduction of Panama 

that is, after the signing of Morgan's com- I which the great armament in the West 

mission, a treaty concerning America had 
been concluded at Madrid ; and although the 
publication of this treaty was only ordered 
to be made in America within eight months 
from 10 Oct. (Cal State Papers, A. and W.I., 

Indies in 1741 feared even to attempt (cf. 
EDWARD). Both in that expedi- 
tion, and still more in his defeat of Don 
Alonso and his escape from the Lake of 
Maracaybo, his conduct as a leader seems 

31 Dec. 1670, p. 146), and though in May I even more remarkable than the reckless 

1671 Modyford had as yet no official know- \ bravery of himself and his followers. By 
ledge of it (ib. No. 531), he was sent home a his enemies he was called a pirate, and if he 
prisoner in the summer of 1671, to answer for had fallen into the hands of the Spaniards 
his support of the buccaneers ; and in April he would undoubtedly have experienced the 

1672 Morgan was also sent to England in the i fate of one. But no charge of indiscriminate 

Welcome frigate (ib. No. 794). His disgrace, 
however, was short. By the summer of 1674 
he was reported as in high favour with the 
king (ib. p. 623), and a few months later he 
was granted a commission, with the style 
of Colonel Henry Morgan, to be lieutenant- 
governor of Jamaica, ' his Majesty,' so it ran, 
' reposing particular confidence in his loyalty, 
prudence and courage, and long experience 
of that colony' (ib. 6 Nov. 1674, No. 1379). 
He sailed from England, in company with 
Lord Vaughan, early in December, having 
previously, probably early in November, been 
knighted. His voyage out was unfortunate. 
' In the Downs,' wrote Vaughan from Jamaica, 
on 23 May 1675, I gave him orders in writing 
to keep me company However, he, covet- 

ing to be here before me, wilfully lost me,' and 

robbery, such as was afterwards meant by 
piracy, was made against him. He attacked 
only recognised enemies, possibly Dutch or 
French, during the war, and certainly the 
Spaniards, with whom, as was agreed on 
both sides, ' there was no peace beyond the 
line,' a state of things which came to an end 
in 1671, when the Spaniards recognised our 
right to Jamaica and the navigation of West 
Indian waters. Moreover, all Morgan's acts 
were legalised by the commissions he held 
from the governor and council of Jamaica. 

The brutality and cruelty which he permit- 
ted, or was unable to restrain, have unfortu- 
nately left a stain on his reputation; as also 
has his dishonesty in the distribution of the 
spoil among his followers (Cal. State Papers, 
A. and W.I., No. 580); 60/. per man for the 




sack of Porto Bello, 301. as the results of the 
Maracaybo expedition (ib. 23 Aug. 1669, p. 
39), or two hundred dollars for Panama, 
bear an unjustly small ratio to what must 
have been the total amount of the plunder (cf. 
ib. 6 April 1672, No. 798). Two engravings 
of Morgan are mentioned by Bromley one 
by F. H. van Hove, the other prefixed to the 
' History of the Buccaneers,' 1685. 

Morgan married, some time after 1665, his 
first cousin, Mary Elizabeth, second daugh- 
ter and fourth child of Colonel Edward Mor- 
gan, who died at St. Eustatius (ib. 16 Nov. 
1665, No. 1085; Add. MS. 27968, f. 45), 
but left no children. Lady Morgan died in 
1696, and was buried, also in St. Catherine's, 
on 3 March (ib. f. 29). By his will (copy, 
ib. f. 14), dated 17 June 1688, sworn 14 Sept. 
1688, Morgan left the bulk of his property 
to his ' very well and entirely beloved wife ' 
for life, and after her death to Charles, son 
of Colonel Robert Byndlos or Bundless and 
of Anna Petronella, his wife's eldest sister, 
conditionally on his taking the name of 

[Exquemeling's Buccaneers of America (1684), 
translated, through the Spanish, from the Dutch, 
and often reprinted wholly or in part (Adventure 
Series, 1891), forms the basis of all the popular 
accounts of Morgan. Exquemeling, himself a 
buccaneer who served under Morgan, and took 
part in some, if not all, of the achievements he 
describes, seems to be a perfectly honest wit- 
ness. His dates are, indeed, very confused; but 
his accounts of such transactions as fell within 
the "scope of his knowledge agree very closely 
with the official narratives, "which, with much 
other interesting matter, may be found in the 
Calendars of State Papers, America and West 
Indies. They differ, indeed, as to the atrocities 
practised by the buccaneers ; on which Ex- 
quemeling's evidence, even with some Spanish 
colouring, appears preferable to the necessarily 
biassed and partial narratives handed in by Mor- 
gan. Addit. MS. 27968 contains the account 
of many researches into Morgan's antecedents, 
though without reaching any definite conclusion. 
Other works are : The Present State of Jamaica, 
1683; New History of Jamaica, 1740; History 
of Jamaica, 1774; Bridge's Annals of Jamaica; 
Journals of the Assembly of Jamaica, vol. i.l 

J. K. L. 

MORGAN, J. (fi. 1739), historical com- 
piler, projected and edited a periodical of 
great merit, entitled ' Phoenix Britannicus, 
being a miscellaneous Collection of scarce 
and curious Tracts . . . interspersed with 
choice pieces from original MSS.,' the first 
number of which appeared in January 1731- 
1732. Owing to want of encouragement it 
was discontinued after six numbers had been 
issued, but Morgan republished them in a 

quarto volume, together with an excellent 
index. Prefixed is a curiously slavish dedi- 
cation to Charles, duke of Richmond, whom 
Morgan greets as a brother freemason. Three 
editions of the work are in the British Mu- 
seum Library. In 1739 Morgan compiled, 
chiefly from what purported to be papers of 
George Sale the orientalist, an entertaining 
volume called 'The Lives and Memorable 
Actions of many Illustrious Persons of the 
Eastern Nations,' 12mo, London. 

[Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn.] G-. G-. 

MORGAN, JAMES, D.D. (1799-1873), 
Irish presbyterian divine, son of Thomas 
Morgan, a linen merchant, of Cookstown, co. 
Tyrone, and Maria Collins of the same town, 
was born there on 15 June 1799. After 
attending several schools in his native place, 
he entered Glasgow University in November 
1814, before he was fifteen, to prepare for the 
ministry, but after one session there studied 
subsequently in the old Belfast college. In 
February 1820 he was ordained by the presby- 
tery of Dublin as minister of the presbyterian 
congregation of Carlow, a very small charge, 
which, however, increased greatly under his 
care. In 1824 he accepted a call from Lis- 
burn, co. Antrim, to be colleague to the Rev. 
Andrew Craig, and for four years laboured 
most successfully there. In 1827 a new 
church was opened in Fisherwick Place, 
Belfast, and he became its first minister in 
November 1828. The congregation soon be- 
came a model of wise organisation and active 
work. Morgan also became prominently 
associated with all benevolent and philan- 
thropic schemes in the town. In 1829 he 
j oined with a few others in founding the Ulster 
Temperance Society. He was also most active 
in promoting church extension in Belfast. 
In 1840, when the general assembly's foreign 
mission was established, he was appointed 
its honorary secretary, and continued to hold 
this position with great advantage to the 
mission until his death. In 1842 he helped 
to found the Belfast town mission, and 
became one of its honorary secretaries. He 
was appointed moderator of the general as- 
sembly in 1846, and next year received the 
degree of D.D. from the university of Glasgow. 
He took a foremost part in the establishment 
of the assembly's college, Belfast, which 
was opened in 1853. He died in Belfast on 
5 Aug. 1873, and was buried in the city 

Morgan was a voluminous writer. For 
some time he was joint editor of ' The Or- 
thodox Presbyterian.' His chief works, besides 
sermons, tracts, and other fugitive publi- 
cations, were : 1. ' Essays on some of the 




principal Doctrines and Duties of the Gospel,' 
1837 2 ' Lessons for Parents and Sabbath 
School Teachers,' 1849. 3. 'The Lord's 
Supper,' 1849. 4. ' Rome and the Gospel, 
1853 5 ' The Penitent ; an Exposition of 
the Fifty-first Psalm,' 1854. 6. 'The Hidden 
Life,' 1856. 7. 'The Scripture Testimony to 
the Holy Spirit,' 1865. 8. 'An Exposition of 
the First Epistle of John,' 1865. An auto- 
biography was posthumously published m 
1874, with selections from his journals, edited 
by his son, the Rev. Thomas Morgan, Ros- 

He married in 1823 Charlotte, daughter of 
John Gayer, one of the clerks of the Irish 
parliament at the time of the union, and by 
her had three sons and three daughters. 

[Life and Times of Dr. Morgan, 1874; in- 
formation supplied by the eldest and only sur- 
viving son, the Rev. Thomas Morgan ; personal 
knowledge.] T. H. 

T MORGAN or YONG, JOHN (d. 1504), 
bishop of St. Davids, was the son of Morgan 
ab Siancyn, a cadet of the Morgan family of 
Tredegar and Machen in Monmouthshire, 
There was at least one daughter, Margaret, 
who was married to Lord St. John of Bletsoe, 
and there were also four sons besides Morgan 
or Yong, namely Trahaiarn, who settled at 
Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire, John, Morgan, 
and Evan. The surname Yong or Young 
sometimes applied to the bishop was probably 
adopted in order to distinguish him from the 
brother, also named John. He was educated 
at Oxford and became a doctor of laws. In 
a life of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, printed in 
'The Cambrian Register,' he is reckoned 
among the counsellors of young Sir Rhys, 
and is described as a ' learned, grave, and 
reverend prelate ' (i. 75). His brother, 
Trahaiarn Morgan of Kidwelly, ' a man 
deeplie read in the common lawes of the 
realme,' was also one of Sir Rhys's coun- 
sellors, and both appear to have incited Sir 
Rhys to throw in his lot with the cause of 
Henry of Richmond. Their brother Evan 
had already shared Richmond's exile, and 
was probably with him when he landed at 
Milford (GAIBDNEB, Richard III, pp. 274- 
280). Morgan is also said to have offered 
to absolve Sir Rhys of his oath of allegiance 
to Richard III, and his friendship with Sir 
Rhys continued into old age. A few weeks 
after his accession Henry VII presented 
Morgan to the parish church of Hanslap in 
the diocese of Lincoln, and made him dean 
of St. George's, Windsor. He held the 
vicarage of Aldham in Essex from 7 June 
1490 to 27 April 1492, and the prebendal 
stall of Rugmere in St. Paul's Cathedral 

from 5 Feb. 1492 till 1496 (NEWCOTJBT, Re- 
pertorium, I 208). He was also clerk of the 
king's hanaper, and from 1493 to 1496 arch- 
deacon of Carmarthen. Several of these 
preferments he held until he was made 
bishop of St. David's in 1496, the temporali- 
ties being restored to him, according to 
Wood, on 23 Nov. 1496. He died in the 
priory at Carmarthen about the end of April 
or the beginning of May 1504, and was 
buried in his own cathedral of St. David's. 
In his will, dated 24 April 1504, and proved 
19 May following, he instructed that a 
chapel should be erected over his grave, but 
his executors erected instead a tomb of free- 
stone, with an effigy of Morgan at length in 
pontificalibus ; this is now much mutilated. 
[Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 693-4; Dwnn's 
Heraldic Visitations, i. 218 ; Cambrian Register, 
i. 75, 88, 104-5, 142 ; Gairdner's Richard III, 
pp 274-80 ; Williams's Eminent Welshmen, p. 
339.] D. LL. T. 

1854), miscellaneous writer, was probably 
born in London in 1782. His father, John 
Morgan, a wholesale stationer at 39 Ludgate 
Hill, and a member of the court of assistants 
of the Stationers' Company, died at Clayton, 
Suffolk, on 1 March 1807, aged 66. The son, 
inheriting an ample fortune, devoted himself 
to philanthropy. His projects were akin to 
those of Robert Owen of Lanark [q. v.], but 
were avowedly Christian. His first book, 
published in 1819, entitled ' Remarks on the 
Practicability of Mr. Owen's Plan to im- 
prove the Condition of the Lower Classes,' 
was dedicated to William Wilberforce, but 
met with slight acknowledgment. His next 
publication was an anonymous work in 1826, 
' The Revolt of the Bees,' which contained 
his views on education. ' Hampden in the 
Nineteenth Century ' appeared in 1834, and 
in 1851 he added a supplement to the work, 
entitled ' Colloquies on Religion and Reli- 
gious Education.' In 1830 he delivered a 
lecture at the London Mechanics' Institu- 
tion in defence of the Sunday morning lec- 
tures then given there. This was printed 
together with ' A Letter to the Bishop of 
London suggested by that Prelate's Letter 
to the Inhabitants of London and Westmin- 
ster on the Profanation of the Sabbath.' 
Morgan presented petitions to parliament in 
July 1842 asking for an investigation of his 
plan for an experimental establishment to be 
called the ' Church of England Agricultural 
Self-supporting Institution,' which he fur- 
ther made known at public meetings, and 
by the publication in English and French in 
1845 of ' The Christian Commonwealth.' In 

Morgan 2 

aid of his benevolent schemes he printed 
Pestalozzi's ' Letters on Early Education, 
with a Memoir of the Author/ in 1827 ; 
Hannah More's ' Essay on St. Paul/ 2 vols. 
1850 ; and ' Extracts for Schools and Families 
in Aid of Moral and Religious Training/ 
1851. He also edited in 1849 a translation 
of an essay entitled ' Extinction du Pau- 
p6risme/ written by Napoleon III, and in 
1851 ' The Triumph, or the Coming of Age 
of Christianity ; Selections on the Necessity 
of Early and Consistent Training no less than 
Teaching.' In 1850 he reprinted some of his 
own and other works in thirteen volumes 
tinder the title of ' The Phcenix Library, a 
Series of Original and Reprinted W T orks 
bearing on the Renovation and Progress of 
Society in Religion, Morality, and Science ; 
selected by J. M. Morgan.' Near his own 
residence on Ham Common he founded in 
1849 the National Orphan Home, to which 
he admitted children left destitute by the 
ravages of the cholera. In 1850 he endea- 
voured to raise a sum of 50,000^. to erect a 
' church of England self-supporting village/ 
but the scheme met with little support. He 
died at 12 Stratton Street, Piccadilly, Lon- 
don, on 26 Dec. 1854, and was buried in the 
church on Ham Common on 3 Jan. 1855. 

Besides the works already mentioned, he 
published: 1. 'The Reproof of Brutus, a 
Poem/ 1830. 2. ' Address to the Proprietors 
of the University of London [on a professor- 
ship of education and the establishment of 
an hospital]/ 1833. 3. 'A Brief Account 
of the Stockport Sunday School and on 
Sunday Schools in Rural Districts/ 1838. 
4. ' Letters to a Clergyman on Institutions 
for Ameliorating the Condition of the People/ 
1846 ; 3rd edition, 1851. 5. ' A Tour through 
Switzerland, and Italy, in the years 1846- 
1847,' 1851 ; first printed in the Phoenix 
Library, 1850. 

[Gent. Mag. April |1 855, pp. 430-1; Illustr. 
London News, 24 Aug. 1850, pp. 177-8, with a 
view of the proposed self-supporting village.] 

G. C. B. 

dramatist, born in Dublin, was called to the 
bar, though not from Lincoln's Inn as has 
been wrongly stated, and practised at Dublin. 
Through the influence of his friend Spranger 
Barry the actor, Morgan's tragedy, entitled 
' Philoclea/ founded on a part of Sir Philip 
Sidney's 'Arcadia/ was brought out at Covent 
Garden on 20 or 22 Jan. 1754, and by the 
exertions of Barry and Miss Nossiter ran for 
nine nights, though both plot and diction 
are full of absurdities (GENEST, Hist, of the 
Staff e, iv. 395). It was published at London 
the same year in 8vo. From Shakespeare's 

; Morgan 

' Winter's Tale' Morgan constructed a foolish 
farce called 'Florizel and Perdita, or the 
Sheepshearing/ first performed in Dublin, but 
soon after (25 March 1754) at Covent Garden, 
for the benefit of Barry, and it was frequently 
represented with success (id. iv. 398). It was 
printed at London in 1754, 8vo, and again at 
Dublin in 1767, 12mo, as a 'pastoral comedy/ 
with a transposition of title. 

There is reason for crediting Morgan with 
' The Causidicade/ a satire on the appoint- 
ment of William Murray, afterwards earl 
of Mansfield [q. v.], to the solicitor-general- 
ship in November 1742 (included in ' Poems 
on various Subjects/ 8vo, Glasgow, 1756), 
and of another attack on Murray, called 
' The Processionade/ 1746 (Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iv. 94). Both, according to the 
title-page, are included in ' Remarkable Sa- 
tires by Porcupinus Pelagius/ 8vo, London, 
1760, but neither appears there. Copies of 
this work in contemporary binding are fre- 
quently found with the lettering ' Morgan's 
Satires.' ' The Pasquinade/ which is given 
in it, was written by William Kenrick, 
LL.D. [q.v.] 

Morgan died in 1762. 

[Baker's Biog. Dram. 1812.] G-. G. 

MORGAN, MATTHEW (1652-1703), 
verse writer, was born in the parish of St. 
Nicholas in Bristol, of which city his father, 
Edward Morgan, was alderman and mayor. 
He entered as a commoner at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1667, under John Rainstrop, 
graduated B.A. 18 May 1671, M.A. 9 July 
1674, and B. and D.C.L. 7 July 1685. In 
1684 he was associated in a translation of 
Plutarch's ' Morals/ to the first volume of 
which he also contributed the preface. Some 
reflections therein upon ' Ashmole's rarities ' 
displeased Dr. Robert Plot [q. v.], who carried 
his complaint to Dr. Lloyd, the vice-chancel- 
lor. Morgan was threatened with expulsion, 
but he disowned his work, the responsibility 
for which was assumed by John Gellebrand, 
the bookseller. He was presented in 1688 to 
the vicarage of Congresbury, Somerset, but 
forfeited it owing to his failure to read the 
articles within the stipulated time. He was 
vicar of Wear from 1693 till his death in 1703. 

Besides his work on Plutarch Morgan con- 
tributed the life of Atticus to a translation 
of the ' Lives of Illustrious Men/ 1684, and 
the life of Augustus to a translation of 
Suetonius, 1692. He also wrote : ' An 
Elegy on Robert Boyle/ 1691 ; ' A Poem 
upon the Late Victory over the French 
Fleet at Sea/ 1692 ; ' A Poem to the Queen 
upon the King's Victory in Ireland and" his 
Voyage to Holland/ 1692 ; ' Eugenia : or an 



Elegy upon the Death of the Honourable 

Madam ,'1694. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 327, 344, 
397; Athens Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 711; Brit. 
Mus and Bodleian Library Catalogues ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] G. T. D. 

MORGAN, PHILIP (d. 1435), bishop 
successively of Worcester and Ely (1426), 
was a Welshman from the diocese of St. 
David's, who at some date before 1413 had 
taken the degree of doctor of laws, probably 
at Oxford ( GODWIN, De Prcesulibus, p. 267, 
ed. Richardson ; WOOD,' Antiq. Univ. Oxon.i. 
213 ; Anglia Sacra, i. 537). He first appears in 
public life as a witness to Archbishop Arun- 
del's sentence upon Sir John Oldcastle on 
25 Sept. 1413 (Rot . Parl. iv. 109 ; Fasciculi 
Zizaniorum, p. 442). If he was not already 
in the royal service, he had not long to wait 
for that promotion. In the first days of 
June 1414, when Henry V had just broached 
his claims upon the French crown, Morgan 
was included with another lawyer in the 
embassy appointed to go under Henry, lord 
Le Scrope of Masham, to conclude the alli- 
ance, secretly agreed upon at Leicester a 
few days before (23 May) with John the 
Fearless, duke of Burgundy (DUFRESNE DE 
BEAUCOURT, Histoire de Charles VII, i. 132 ; 
Fwdera, ix. 136-8). He was apparently sent 
on ahead with a mission to the count of Hol- 
land, brother-in-law of Duke John, but had 
rejoined the others before they met the duke 
at Ypres on Monday, 16 July (ib. ix. 141 ; 
E. PETIT, Itineraires de Philippe le Hardi et 
de Jean sans Peur, p. 410). For over two 
months they remained in Flanders, and were 
entertained by the duke at Ypres, Lille, and 
St. Omer. The Leicester convention was con- 
verted into a treaty (7 Aug.) at Ypres, and 
supplemented by an additional convention 
(29 Sept.) at St. Omer (ib. pp. 410-12; BEAU- 
COURT, i. 134). On his return, Morgan was 
sent (5 Dec. 1414) to Paris with the Earl of 
Dorset's embassy charged to press Henry's 
claims, continue the negotiations for his mar- 
riage with Katherine, and treat for a final 
peace (Fcedera, ix. 186-7 ; DEVON, Issues of 
the Exchequer, p. 336). In the middle of 
April 1415 and again at the beginning of 
June he was ordered to Paris to secure a pro- 
longation of the truce with France {Fcedera, 
ix. 221, 260; Ordinances of the Privy Council, 
ii. 153). The day before Henry sailed for 
France (10 Aug.) Morgan was despatched as 
his secret agent to the Duke of Burgundy, in 
whose dominions he remained until December 
(Fcedera, ix. 304; BEAUCOURT, i. 134; RAM- 
SAT, Lancaster and York, i. 241). He was 
rewarded (2 Jan. 1416) with the prebend 

of Biggleswade in Lincoln Cathedral (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ii. Ill; Rot. Parl. iv. 194). 
In February he was consulted by the coun- 
cil upon foreign affairs, and he was the chief 
agent in securing (22 May) the renewal of 
the special truce with Flanders which the 
Duke of Burgundy had concluded with 
Henry IV in 1411 (Fcedera, ix. 331, 352 ; 
Ord. Privy Council, ii. 191, 193; BEAUCOURT, 
i. 138). 

Sigismund, king of the Romans, having 
now come to England in the hope of medi- 
ating a peace between France and England 
in the interests of the council of Constance, 
Henry consented (28 June) to send ambas- 
sadors, of whom Morgan was one, to treat 
for a truce and for an interview in Picardy 
between the two kings (ib. i. 263 ; Fcedera, 
ix. 365-6; LENZ, Kb'nig Sigismund und Hein- 
rich der Fiinfte, p. 113). A truce for four 
months was concluded at Calais in Septem- 
ber in the presence of Henry and Sigismund 
by Morgan, together with Richard Beau- 
champ, earl of Warwick, and Sir John Tip- 
toft (Fcedera, ix. 384 ; BEAUCOURT, i. 267 ; 
RAMSAY, i. 241 ; cf. Fcedera, ix. 375 ; BEAU- 
COURT, i. 139-41). In December Morgan and 
others were sent to secure an alliance with 
Genoa, whose ships had been assisting the 
French (Fcedera, ix. 41415). They were 
also commissioned to treat with Alfonso of 
Arragon, the princes of Germany, and the 
Hanse merchants (ib. ix. 410, 412-13). He 
went on a further mission to the last-named 
in February 1417 (ib. ix. 437). In November 
Morgan took part in the futile negotiations 
at Barneville, near Honfleur, in February 
1418 was ordered to hold musters at Bayeux 
and Caen, and on 8 April was appointed 
chancellor of the duchy of Normandy (ib. ix. 
543, 571, 594 ; BEAUCOURT, i. 276-7). He 
was the spokesman of the English envoys in 
November in the negotiations at Alencon, 
in which the dauphin was offered Henry's 
assistance against Burgundy at the price of 
great territorial concessions (Fcedera, ix. 632- 
645 ; BEAUCOURT, i. 284-92). 

Morgan had fairly earned further ad- 
vancement, and the see of Worcester fall- 
ing vacant in March 1419, he was elected 
(24 April) by the monks. Pope Martin V 
thought good in the interests of the papacy 
to specially provide him to the see by bull, 
dated 19 June (LE NEVE, iii. 60). He made 
his profession of obedience to Archbishop 
Chicheley on 9 Sept., received the tempo- 
ralities on 18 Oct., and on 3 Dec. was con- 
secrated in the cathedral at Rouen along 
with John Kemp [q.v.] by the Bishops of 
Evreux and Arras (ib. ; STUBBS, Registrum 
Sacrum, p. 64 ; Fcedera, ix. 808). Meanwhile 

Morgan : 

the bishop-elect had been on a mission to 
the king's ' Cousin of France ' in July, and 
in October informed the pope, on behalf of 
the king, that Henry could not alter anti- 
papal statutes without the consent of par- 
liament (ib. ix. 806; BEAUCOTJRT, i. 153). 
In July 1420 he was engaged in the nego- 
tiations for the release of Arthur of Brittany, 
captured at Agincourt (Fcedera, x. 4 ; Cos- 
NEAtr, Le Connetable de Richemont, p. 56). 

Morgan became a privy councillor on his 
elevation to the episcopal bench, and after 
the king's death his diplomatic experience 
secured his inclusion (9 Dec. 1422) in the 
small representative council to which the 
conduct of the government during the mino- 
rity of Henry VI was committed (Rot. 
Parl. iv. 175, 201 ; Ord. Privy Council, ii. 300, 
iii. 16, 157, 203). He was unwearied in his 
attendance (ib.) In nearly every parliament 
of the first eleven years of the reign he acted 
as a trier of petitions (Rot. Parl. iv. 170, 
&c. ; cf. Ord. Privy Council, iii. 42, 61, 66 ; 
MILMAN, Latin Christianity, viii. 330). 
During the second half of 1423 he was en- 
gaged in the negotiations which issued in 
the liberation of the captive King James of 
Scotland (Fcedera, x. 294, 298-9, 301-2 ; Rot. 
Parl. iv. 211). 

At the death of Henry Bowet [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of York, on 20 Oct. 1423, Morgan 
was designated his successor. His unanimous 
election by the chapter was notified by the 
king to the pope on 25 Jan. 1424 (Fcedera, 
x. 316). But Pope Martin was bent upon 
breaking down Henry V's policy of free elec- 
tion to English sees, a policy of which Morgan 
had been the mouthpiece in 1419 (cf. LOHER, 
Jakobda von Bayern, ii. 145, 536), and, ignor- 
ing Morgan's election, translated Richard 
Fleming [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, to York 
(STUBBS, Constit. Hist. iii. 316 ; RAMSAY, 
Lancaster and York, i. 378 ; LE NEVE, ii. 
17, iii. 109). 

The council refused to submit to so violent 
an assertion of the papal pretensions, and the 
pope (20 July 1425) retranslated Fleming 
from York to Lincoln, but he provided, not 
Morgan, but John Kemp, bishop of London, 
to the archbishopric (DRAKE, -Eftoracwm, App. 
Ixvi.) The council finally accepted (14 Jan. 
1426) this solution, on condition that Morgan 
was translated either to Ely or to Norwich, 
two sees both of which were vacant (Ord. 
Privy Council, iii. 180). Martin accordingly 
translated Morgan to Ely (27 Feb.), and the 
temporalities of that see were granted to him 
on 22 April (ib. iii. 192). Morgan made his 
profession of obedience to Archbishop Chi- 
cheley on 26 April in the chapter-house of 
St. Paul's, but was not enthroned until nearly 


a year later (23 March 1427) (LENEVE, i. 338 ; 
Historia Eliensis in Anglia Sacra, i. 666). 

While his fortunes thus hung in the ba- 
lance, Morgan had continued one of the most 
active members of the council, and in March 
1426 acted as an arbitrator between Glou- 
cester and Beaufort (Rot. Parl. iv. 297). He 
can hardly have been a partisan of the duke, 
for his name was attached to the very un- 
palatable answer of the peers to Humphrey's 
request on 3 March 1428 for a definition of 
his powers as protector (ib. iv. 326-7; STTJBBS, 
Constit. Hist. iii. 107). In the autumn par- 
liament of 1429 a suit against the Abbot of 
Strata Florida (Ystrad Flur or Stratflower, 
now Mynachlogfawr, Cardiganshire) was re- 
ferred to him and others, and he assisted in 
framing new regulations for the council on 
the termination of the protectorate (ib. iii. 
110; Rot. Parl. iv. 334, 344; Ord. Privy 
Council, iv. 66) . Next year he went to France 
in May as one of the council of the young 
king (ib. iv. 38 ; Fcedera, x. 458). In this 
or the previous year he had come into con- 
flict with the university of Cambridge, which 
claimed exemption from his episcopal autho- 
rity. Martin V appointed a commission of 
inquiry, which reported (7 Julyl430) in favour 
of the university, a decision confirmed after 
Martin's death by Eugenius IV on 18 Sept. 
1433 (CAIUS, De Antiquit. Cantab, p. 81, 
ed. 1568; GODWIN, p. 267; Anglia Sacra, i. 

In the last years of his life Morgan was 
seemingly not quite so regular in his attend- 
ance at the council board as he had been. 
At least he was one of those who on 21 Dec. 
1433, ' after many notable individual excuses,' 
promised to attend as often as was in their 
power, provided their vacations were left free 
( Rot. Parl. iv. 446). He died at Bishops Hat- 
field, Hertfordshire, on 25 Oct. 1435, having 
made his will four days before, and was buried 
in the church of the Charterhouse in London 
(LE NEVE, i. 338 ; Anglia Sacra, i. 666) . There 
must be some mistake about the entry on the 
minutes of the privy council, which represents 
him as present in his place on 5 May 1436 
(Ord. Privy Council, iv. 339). The Ely his- 
torian charges his executors Grey, bishop 
of Lincoln, Lord Cromwell, and Sir John 
Tiptoft with neglecting to have prayers 
said for his soul, and with embezzling his 
property (Anglia Sacra, i. 666). Grey, how- 
ever, survived him only a few months. 

Morgan had the name of a reforming 
bishop. So stern a critic as Gascoigne is loud 
in praise of his vigilance in defeating evasions 
of the rule against unlicensed pluralities and 
other clerical abuses (Loci e libra veritatum, 
p. 133, ed. Thorold Rogers). 



[The short fifteenth-century life by a, monk 
of Ely, printed in Anglia Sacra, has been ex- 
panded from many different sources, which are 
indicated in the text. Kymer's Foedera is quotec 
in the original edition.] J. T-T. 

MORGAN, PHILIP (d. 1677), contro- 
versialist. [See PHILIPS, MORGAN.] 

judge, was admitted at Lincoln's Inn 31 July 
1523, called to the bar in 1529, was twice 
reader, in 1542 and 1546, became a serjeant- 
at-law in the latter year, and was elected 
recorder of Gloucester; he was also mem- 
ber of parliament for Gloucester in 1545-7 
and 1553. A Roman catholic in religion, 
he was committed to the Fleet prison on 
24 March 1551 (BURNET, Hist, of the Re- 
formation, Oxford edit. 1865, v. 33) for 
hearing mass in the Princess Mary's chapel, 
but was discharged by the privy council 
with a caution on 4 May (Acts of the Privy 
Council, new ser. iii. 270). Immediately 
after King Edward's death he joined the 
Princess Mary and her adherents at Ken- 
ninghaU Castle, Norfolk, 1553. Though he 
does not seem to have been a well-known 
lawyer, he was at once promoted in his pro- 
fession. He was a commissioner to hear 
Bishop Tunstall's appeal against his convic- 
tion in June, was created chief justice of 
the common pleas in September, and was 
knighted on 2 Oct. He was in the commis- 
sion for the trial of Lady Jane Grey on 
13 Nov. and passed sentence upon her, but 
two years later, says Foxe (Martyrs, iii. 30), 
he ' fell mad, and in his raving cried out 
continually to have the Lady Jane taken 
away from him.' Accordingly, he quitted 
the bench in October 1555, and died in the 
early summer of the next year, being buried 
on 2 June at St. Magnus Church, near London 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Lincoln's Inn 
books ; Dugdale's Origines, pp. 1 1 8, 1 52 ; Strype's 
Eccl. Mem. i. 78, 493, ii. 181 ; Rymer, xv 334 
Holmshed, ed. 1808, iv. 23, 45 ; Machyn's Diary' 
pp. 106, 335; Fourth Report, Public Record 
Commission, App. ii. 238.] J. A. H. 

MORGAN, ROBERT (1608-1673), 
bishop of Bangor, born at Bronfraith in the 
parish of Llandyssilio in Montgomeryshire 
was third son of Richard Morgan, gent.! 
M.P. for Montgomery in 1592-3, and of his 
wife^ Margaret, daughter of Thomas Lloyd 
Gwernbuarth, gent. He was educated 
near Bronfraith, under the father of Simon 
Lloyd, archdeacon of Merioneth, and pro- 
ceeded to Jesus College, Cambridge, where 

in 3 1630 7 1624 ' and ^ aduated M. A. 

He was appointed chaplain to Dolben on 
the election of the latter to the bishopric of 
Bangor, and was by him nominated to the 
vicarage of Llanwnol in Montgomeryshire, 
16 Sept. 1632, and afterwards to the rectory 
of Llangynhafal and Dyffryn Clwyd. On 
Dolben's death in 1633 he returned to Cam- 
bridge, presumably to Jesus College, but on 
25 J une 1634, ' at his own request and for 
his own benefit,' he was transferred to St. 
John's College. The certificate given to him 
by Richard Sterne, master of Jesus College, 
mentions his ' manye yeares' civill and stu- 
dious life there ' (see MAYOR, Admissions to 
St. John's, p. 18). 

Upon the advancement of Dr. William 
Roberts to the bishopric of Bangor in 1637, 
he returned to Wales as his chaplain, and re- 
ceived from him the vicarage of Llanfair in 
the deanery of Dyffryn Clwyd, 1637, and 
the rectory of Efenechtyd in 1638. On 
1 July 1642 he was collated prebendary of 
Chester on the resignation of David Lloyd, 
but he does not appear to have retained it 
or to have recovered it at the Restoration 
(see, however, WALKER, Sufferings, ii. 11). 
Having resigned Llangynhafal, he was 
instituted to Trefdraeth in Anglesea on 
16 July 1642, being then B.D. In the same 
year he resigned Llanfair, and was inducted 
to Llandyvnan (19 Nov. 1642), also in 
Anglesea. At his own expense (300/.) he 
bought from the Bulkeleys of Baron Hill 
the unexpired term of a ninety-nine years' 
lease of the tithes of Llandyvnan. In con- 
sequence his title to the living was not 
questioned during the wars, although he was 
ejected from his other preferments. By 
leaving this lease to the church he raised its 
annual value from 38/. to 200/. 

During the Commonwealth he resided 
chiefly at Henblas in the parish of Llan- 
gristiolus in Anglesea. In the manuscripts 
of Lord Mostyn at Mostyn Hall there is a 
manuscript sermon of his preached in De- 
cember 1656. In 1657, on the death of 
Robert White, he was nominated to the 
prebend of Penmynyd (Bangor diocese), but 
was not installed till after the Restoration, 
and relinquished it before April 1661. 

At the Restoration he recovered his living 
of Trefdraeth, received the degree of D.D. 
1660), became archdeacon of Merioneth, 
24 July 1660, and in the same month ' com- 
)ortioner ' of Llandinam . On the death of Dr. 
Robert Price he was elected bishop of Ban- 
gor (8 June 1666), and consecrated 1 July 
it Lambeth. He held the archdeaconry of 
VIerioneth in commendam from July 1660 
;o 1666, when (23 Oct.) he was succeeded 
by John Lloyd (see his petition of date 21 June 



1666 to be allowed to hold it in commendam, 
State Papers, Dom. Car. II, clix. 58). The 
definite union of the archdeaconry with the 
bishopric was accomplished by Morgan's suc- 
cessor. He was long engaged in litigation 
with Thomas Jones (1622-1682) [q.y.J, who 
held the living of Llandyrnog, which was 
usually held by the bishops of Bangor in 
commendam because of its convenience for 
residence. Jones brought a charge against 
the bishop and two others early in 1669 in 
the court of arches (Ely mas the Sorcerer, p. 

Morgan died 1 Sept. 1673, and was buried 
on 6 Sept. in the grave of Bishop Robinson, 
on the south side of the altar (for two different 
inscriptions see LansdowneMS. 986, fol. 168). 
He effected considerable restorations in Ban- 
gor Cathedral, and gave an excellent organ. 
A preacher in English and Welsh, he is said 
to have worn himself away by his pulpit ex- 
ertions. He left ' several things ' fit for the 
press, but forbad their publication. 

Morgan married Anne, daughter and 
heiress of William Lloyd, rector of Llanelian, 
Anglesey, and left four sons : (1) Richard, 
died young ; (2) Owen, of Jesus College and 
Gray's Inn (1676), and attendant on Sir Leo- 
line Jenkins at the treaty of Nimeguen, died 
11 April 1679 ; (3) William (b. 1664), LL.B. 
of Jesus College, Oxford (1685), later chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Bangor ; (4) Robert 
D.D. (b. 1665), of Christ Church, Oxford, 
canon of Hereford 1702, and rector of Ross, 
Herefordshire. Of four daughters : (1) Mar- 
garet was wife of Edward Wyn ; (2) Anna, 
wife of Thomas Lloyd of Kefn, registrar of 
St. Asaph; (3) Elizabetha, married Hum- 
phrey Humphreys, dean of Bangor; and 
(4) Katherine, who died unmarried, was 
buried with her father. 

[The single authority for the main facts is 
Bishop Humphrey's letter to Wood, given in 
Athense Oxon. ii. 890, and repeated almost ver- 
batim in Williams's Eminent Welshmen, and, 
with a few additions, in vol. Hi. of Bishop Ken- 
nett's Collections, Lansdowne MS. 986. See also 
Official Return'of Members of Parliament ; Lords' 
Journals, xii. 401 seq. ; Commons' Journals, ix. 
201-13; Hist. MSS. Coram. 4th Kep. p. 359; 
State Papers, Dom.; Professor Mayor's Admis- 
sions to St. John's College, Cambridge; Welch's 
Alum. West. ; Lloyd's Memoirs ; Byegones re- 
lating to Wales and the Northern Counties ; 
Wood's Fasti, i. 441 ; Le Neve ; Stubbs's Re- 
gistrum ; Thomas Jones's Elymas the Sorcerer; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy ; Browne 
Willis's Survey of the Cathedrals ; D. R. 
Thomas's Hist, of the Diocese of St. Asaph ; 
Baker's Hist, of St. John's College ; information 
kindly supplied by the master of Jesus College, 
Cambridge.] W. A. S. 

(1783 P-1859), novelist, was the eldest child 
of Robert Owenson [q. v.], by his wife Jane 
Mill, daughter of a Shrewsbury tradesman, 
who was once mayor of that town, and was 
a distant relative of the Mills of Hawkesley, 
Shropshire. According to her own account 
but she was constitutionally inexact, avowed 
a scorn for dates, and sedulously concealed her 
age Lady Morgan was born in Dublin one 
Christmas day, about 1785. The year gene- 
rally given for her birth is 1783. Croker mali- 
ciously alleged that she was born on board the 
Dublin packet in 1775. Mr. Fitzpatrick adopts 
Croker's date (W. J. FITZPATRICK, Lady 
Morgan, 1860, p. 111). To a considerable 
extent she was brought up in the precincts 
of theatres and in the company of players ; 
but she was put to various schools near or 
in Dublin, and very soon proved herself a 
bright and amusing child. She went with 
her father into the mixed society which he 
frequented, at first in Sligo and afterwards 
in Dublin. His affairs becoming hopelessly 
involved, and for a time (1798-1800) she was 
governess in the family of Featherstone of 
Bracklin Castle, Westmeath, and elsewhere. 
She is said to have appeared on the stage, 
though this cannot be verified ; but she at- 
tracted considerable notice wherever she went 
by her wit and spirits, and by her dancing, 
singing, and playing upon the harp. She 
soon began to write verse of a sentimental 
character, and published her first volume in 
March 1801. She also collected a number of 
Irish tunes, wrote English words to them, and 
subsequently published them, an example 
speedily followed by Moore, Stevenson, and 
others. Excited by the report of Fanny Bur- 
ney's gains she then took to fiction, and wrote 
in 1804 ' St. Clair, or the Heiress of Desmond,' 
a trashy imitation of the ' Sorrows of Wer- 
ther;' it was translated into Dutch. In 1805 
appeared her 'Novice of St. Dominick,' in four 
volumes, a work of slight merit, yet not un- 
successful. It was published in London, and 
was read several times by Pitt in his last ill- 
ness. To her is attributed the ' Few Reflec- 
tions ' which was issued in the same year on 
Croker's anonymous ' Present State of the 
Irish Stage ; ' but her next avowed work was 
the one which made her famous, ' The Wild 
Irish Girl,' published in 1806. It was very 
rhapsodical and sentimental, but it contained 
descriptions of real power, and may almost 
be called a work of genius, though misguided 
genius. Philips, her former publisher, re- 
fused it on account of its too openly avowed 
' national ' sentiments ; but when Johnson, 
Miss Edgeworth's publisher, offered her three 
hundred guineas for it, Philips claimed and 



secured the right of publishing it. In less 
than two years it ran through seven editions, 
and has been reprinted since. The book be- 
came the subject of considerable political 
controversy in Dublin, and the liberal and 
catholic party championed her, and, after her 
heroine's name, knew her as ' Glorvina.' She 
was encouraged, under whig patronage, to 
bring out an opera, 'The First Attempt,' at the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin, 4 March 1807, which 
ran several nights, and brought her 4001., but 
she wrote no more for the stage. Later in the 
year she published two volumes of 'Patriotic 
Sketches.' In 1805 she wrote ' The Lay of 
an Irish Harp,' metrical fragments collected 
in, or suggested by, a visit to Connaught, and, 
in 1809, ' Woman,orldaof Athens,' a romance 
in four volumes. Quitting patriotic Irish sub- 
jects, she wrote in 1811 a novel called 'The 
Missionary,' which sold for 4001. This was 
remodelled in 1859 under her directions, and 
renamed ' Luxima the Prophetess.' 

Miss Owenson's popularity in Dublin led 
to her being invited to become a permanent 
member of the household of the Marquis of 
Abercorn. There she greatly extended her 
acquaintance with fashionable society, and 
her accomplishments were fully appreciated. 
Her patron's surgeon, Thomas Charles Mor- 
gan [q. v.], devoted himself to her, and, on a 
hint of hers, as she alleged more probably at 
Lady Abercorn's request the Duke of Rich- 
mond knighted him. Subsequently, on 20 Jan. 
1812, Sydney Owenson, somewhat reluc- 
tantly, became his second wife, under pressure 
from Lady Abercorn. In 1808 her younger 
sister, Olivia, had married Sir Arthur Clarke, 
M.D., who had been knighted for curing the 
Duke of Richmond of a cutaneous disease. 
For some time after her marriage Lady Mor- 
gan published nothing, but in 1814 appeared 
' O'Donnel, a National Tale,' in which she set 
herself to describe Irish life as she actually 
saw it, under the colour of Irish history as 
she heard it from her friends (for Sir W. 
Scott's favourable criticism of it see LOCK- 
HAKT, Scott, vi. 264). The book was written 
to furnish her new house in Kildare Street, 
Dublin. It brought her 550/., and being very 
popular with the ' patriots ' she was fiercely 
attacked by the ' Quarterly Review.' These 
attacks were carried on by Gifford and Croker 
for years with indecent violence and malig- 
nity (cf. BlackwoocFs Magazine, xi. 695). In 
1816 she published another Irish novel, 
' Florence M'Carthy,' for which she received 
1,200J., and caricatured Croker in it as ' Coun- 
sellor Con Crowley.' Despite savage reviews, 
her next work, ' France/ 1817, 4to, a book 
dealing with travel, politics, and society, as 
observed by her in France in 1815, became 

very popular, and reached a fourth edition 
in 1818. On the strength of its success Col- 
burn offered her 2,0001. for a similar book on 
Italy, and she left Dublin in August 1818 to 
travel through that country. She visited 
London, where she saw much of Lady Caro- 
line Lamb and Lady Cork and met with much 
social success (MooKB, Memoirs, iii. 36). At 
Paris she met Humboldt, Talma, Cuvier, Con- 
stant, and others, and she paid Lafayette a visit 
at La Grange. Eventually she reached Italy, 
where she spent more than a year and was 
presented to the pope. Her book, which was 
published 20 June 1821, induced Byron, who 
was not prepossessed in her favour, to call 
it 'fearless and excellent' (Byron to Moore, 
24 Aug. 1821); on the other hand it was 
proscribed by the king of Sardinia, the em- 
peror of Austria, and the pope, and was fiercely 
assailed by the English ministerial press. 
The ' Quarterly ' said of it : ' Notwithstanding 
the obstetric skill of Sir Charles Morgan 
(who we believe is a man-midwife), this book 
dropt all but stillborn from the press,' but 
it sold well in England, and editions also ap- 
peared in Paris and in Belgium. In October 
1821 she retaliated upon the reviewers in 
' Colburn's New Monthly Magazine.' In 1 823 
appeared her ' Life of Salvator Rosa,' repub- 
lished in 1855, and in 1825 she collected, 
from ' Colburn's New Monthly,' her papers on 
' Absenteeism.' In November 1827 appeared 
her novel ' The O'Briens and the O'Flaher- 
ties,' which expressed vigorous emancipation 
sentiments. It was a hostile review of this 
book in the 'Literary Gazette ' that induced 
Henry Colburn [q. v.] to join the ' Athenaeum ' 
established by James Silk Buckingham [q. v.] 
She next issued, in 1829, the ' Book of the 
Boudoir,' a series of autobiographical sketches. 
She again visited France in the same year, 
and in July 1830 produced her second work 
under that title, most of the permanent value 
of which was due to her husband's assistance. 
Its sale to Saunders & Otley for 1,OOOZ. so 
infuriated Colburn that he advertised that all 
her previous works had been a loss to him. 
In 1833 she published ' Dramatic Scenes,' 
and having visited Belgium in 1835, em- 
bodied her observations in a novel called 
' The Princess ' in that year. 

Lord Melbourne, on Lord Morpeth's solici- 
tation, bestowed on her a pension of 3001. 
a year in 1837, ' in acknowledgment of the 
services rendered by her to the world of let- 
ters.' This was the first pension of the kind 
given to a woman. Her husband was also 
appointed a commissioner of Irish fisheries. 
She wrote occasionally for the ' Athenaeum ' 
in 1837 and 1838. In 1839 she removed from 
Kildare Street, Dublin, to 11 William Street, 


Albert Gate, London, and making a con- 
siderable social figure there ceased to write. 
' Woman and her Master/ which is rather 
poor vapouring, appeared in 1840, but it had 
been written before she left Ireland. She 
assisted her husband in ' The Book without 
a Name ' in 1841, but it was only a collection 
of fugitive magazine pieces. In 1843 he died. 
Lady Morgan continued to move assiduously 
in London society. Her early works were re- 
published in popular form in 1846, and she 
wrote fresh prefaces to several of them. Her 
sight failed, but in 1851 she engaged in a 
pamphlet controversy with Cardinal Wise- 
man about the authenticity of St. Peter's 
chair. In 1859 her amanuensis, Miss Jews- 
bury, arranged for publication her ' Diary and 
Correspondence in France ' from August 1818 
to May 1819. She died 14 April 1859, and 
was buried in the old Brompton cemetery ; 
a tomb by Westmacott was placed over her 
grave. She left between 15,000/. and 16,000/., 
and bequeathed her papers to W. Hepworth 
Dixon. She had no children. 

There is a bust of her by D' Angers dated 
1830, and a portrait by Berthen is in the Irish 
National Gallery. Her portrait was also 
painted by Lawrence ; three others belong 
to Sir Charles W. Dilke, bart., including a 
painting by Sidney Morgan and a plaster 
model by David. H. F. Chorley's ' Authors 
of England,' 1838, and ' Fraser's Magazine,' 
xi. 529, contain engravings of her. In old age j 
she is described as ' a little humpbacked old ' 
woman, absurdly attired, rouged and wigged ; 
vivacious and somewhat silly ; vain, gossip- ' 
ing, and ostentatious : larding her talk with | 
scraps of French, often questionable in their 
idiom, always dreadful in their accent, ex- 
hibiting her acquaintance with titled people 
so prodigally as to raise a smile.' Yet in 
her younger days she must have been highly 
attractive, very vivacious and off-handed, yet 
shrewd and hard at a bargain. Her writing, 
though slipshod and often inflated, contained 
much humorous observation, and when de- 
scribing what she understood, the lower-class 
Irish, she was as good as Lever or Banin. 

[W. J. Fitzpatrick's Lady Morgan, 1860; 
Memoirs of Lady Morgan by W. Hepworth 
Dixon, with engraving of her after Lawrence ; 
Cyrus Bedding's Fifty Years' Kecollections, iii. 
215, and articles in New Monthly Magazine, 
cxvi. 206, cxxvii. 300 ; Cornhill Magazine, vii. 
132 ; The Croker Papers, i. 109 ; Torrens's Me- 
moirs of Lord Melbourne, i. 174 ; a sketch of 
her, probably by her husband, in the London 
and Dublin Mag. 1826.] J. A. H. 

MORGAN, SYLVAN US (1620-1693), 
arms-painter and author, born in London in 
1620, was brought up to and practised the 

? Morgan 

profession of an arms-painter. In 1642 he 
wrote ' A Treatise of Honor and Honorable 
Men,' which remained in manuscript (see 
BKYDGES'S Censura Literaria, viii. 236). In 
1648 he printed a poem entitled 'London, 
King Charles his Augusta, or City Royal of 
the Founders ; ' and in 1652 ' Horologio- 
graphia Optica, Dialling universal and par- 
ticular.' In 1661 he published a work on 
heraldry, entitled 'The Sphere of Gentry, 
deduced from the Principles of Nature : an 
Historical and Genealogical Work of Arms 
and Blazon, in Four Books.' Morgan says 
that this book had taken him years to com- 
pile and had been originally intended for dedi- 
cation to Charles I, and that he had neglected 
his trade as arms-painter, suffered much ill- 
ness, and had had his house burnt down. It 
contains a title-page with a portrait of Mor- 
gan, etched by R. Gaywood. The work was 
pedantic, and was discredited by Sir William 
Dugdale [q. v.] and other heralds ; and it was 
alleged that it was really the work of Edward 
Waterhouse[q.v.], the author of 'ADiscourse 
and Defence of Arms and Armory,' 1660. As 
the book contains much information concern- 
ing theWaterhouse family, it may be assumed 
that Waterhouse assisted Morgan in its com- 
pilation. In 1666 Morgan published a supple- 
ment, entitled ' Armilogia, sive Ars Chromo- 
critica: the Language of Arms by the Colours 
and Metals.' Morgan lived near the Royal 
Exchange in London, and died on 27 March 
1693. He was buried in the church of St. 
Bartholomew, behind the Exchange. He left 
a large collection of manuscripts, which came 
by marriage to Josiah Jones, heraldic painter 
and painter to Drury Lane Theatre, by whom 
they were sold by auction in 1759. 

[Moule's Bibliotheca Heraldica Magnae Bri- 
tannise; Gent. Mag. 1796, pt. i. p. 366 ; Nichols's 
Anecdotes of Literature, ix. 801 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man.; Wood's Fasti Oxon, ed. Bliss, ii. 
164.] L. C. 

MORGAN, SIR THOMAS (d. 1595), 
' the warrior,' was the younger son of Wil- 
liam Morgan of St. George's and Pencarn, 
Glamorganshire, and Anne, daughter of Ro- 
bert Fortescue of Wood in the county of 
Devon. He was apparently about thirty 
years of age, and had probably seen active 
service in France or Scotland, when he was 
appointed in April 1572 captain of the first 
band of English volunteers that served in the 
Low Countries under William of Orange. 
He landed with his company, three hundred 
strong, at Flushing on 6 June, in time to take 
part in the defence of that town. His soldiers 
were chiefly raw recruits, and it was long 
before they learned to stand the enemy's fire 




Without flinching; but their decent and 
orderly behaviour, and the modesty of their 
commander, so favourably impressed the 
townsmen that they actually proposed to 
appoint him governor in the place of Jerome 
de t Zereerts. But ' to say troth,' says Roger 
Williams [q. v.], ' this captain had never any 
great ambition in him, although fortune pre- 
sented faire unto him often beside this time.' 
He loyally supported de t Zereerts, and it 
was at his own suggestion that Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert [q. v.] superseded him for a time as 
colonel of the English forces in Holland. 
He took part in the abortive attempt made 
by de t Zereerts to besiege Tergoes; and 
when, owing to the refusal of the inhabitants 
of Flushing to readmit them into the town 
on account of their cowardly behaviour be- 
fore Tergoes, he was exposed to a night 
attack by the governor of Middelburgh, he 
displayed great bravery, and was wounded 
in charging the enemy at the head of his 
men. But after a second and equally futile 
attempt against Tergoes, he returned to Eng- 
land with Sir H. Gilbert and the rest. 

But failure had not dispirited him, and in 
February 1573 he returned to Holland with 
ten English companies, and took part in the 
attempt to relieve Haarlem and in the fight 
before Middelburgh ; but owing to a dis- 
agreement as to the payment of his regiment, 
he returned to England early in January 
1574, and 'being mustered before her majesty 
near to St. James's, the colonel and some 
five hundred of his best men were sent into 
Ireland, which, in truth, were the first per- 
fect harquebushiers that were of our nation, 
and the first troupes that taught our nation 
to like the musket' (R. WILLIAMS, The 
Actions of the Lowe Countries). He landed 
at Dundalk in March, and in July he was 
sent into Munster to keep an eye on the 
Earl of Desmond and his brother John. He 
was wounded at the attack on Derrinlaur 
Castle on 19 Aug., and, returning to England 
in January 1575, he was warmly commended 
for his bravery, both by Sir William Fitz- 
william and the Earl of Essex. He remained 
apparently for some time in Wales, but in 
1578 he again volunteered for service in the 
Low Countries under Captain (afterwards 
Sir John) Norris [q. v.] He took part in the 
battle of Rijnemants on 1 Aug., and in the 
numerous small skirmishes that took place 
in Brabant and Holland in 1579 and 1580. 
He was present at the relief of Steenwyk in 
February 1581, and the battle of Northorne 
on 30 Sept. ; and at the battle with Parma's 
forces under the walls of Ghent on 27 Aug. 
1582 he was conspicuous for his bravery. 
But difficulties were constantly arising 

between him and the States in regard to the 
payment of his troops, and apparently early 
in 1584 he was compelled to return to Eng- 
land. The Dutch community in London, how- 
ever , recognising the important services he had 
rendered, subscribed nine thousand florins, and 
with the regiment which he was thus enabled 
to raise he returned to the Netherlands at the 
latter end of August, in time to take part in 
the defence of Antwerp. His troops were 
lodged in the suburbs of Burgerhout; but 
they became infected with the general spirit 
of insubordination, and he was compelled, in 
order to restore discipline, to execute Captains 
Lee and Powell. The post assigned to him 
was the defence of the Lillo fortress under 
La Noue, but it was in the attack on the 
Kowenstyn Dyke on 26 May 1585 that he 
most signally distinguished himself. 

After the capitulation of Antwerp he was 
appointed for a time governor of Flushing, 
and it was here on 27 Dec., that he had that 
remarkable conversation with St. Aldegonde 
to which Motley (United Netherlands, i. 
276-9) has drawn special attention. He was 
shortly afterwards placed in command of the 
important fortress of Rheinberg, where he was 
besieged by Parma, but almost immediately 
relieved by the counter attack of Leicester 
on Doesburg in July 1586. He was greatly 
annoyed by the attempt of Lord Willoughby 
(Peregrine Bertie [q. v.]), Leicester's successor, 
to oust him from the government of Bergen- 
op-Zoom, to which he claimed to have been 
appointed by the States-General. But, finding 
it impossible to obtain any redress of his griev- 
ances from Willoughby, he went to England 
in the spring of 1587, and was so successful 
in urging his claim that he was not merely 
knighted by Elizabeth for his services (but 
cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 519), but 
also obtained her letters to Willoughby ex- 
pressly authorising his appointment as gover- 
nor of Bergen-op-Zoom, and lieutenant- 
colonel of the English forces in the Nether- 
lands. He landed at Flushing on 1 June, 
and having presented his letters to Wil- 
loughby at Middelburgh, he found him as 
obstinately opposed as ever to admit his 
claim, alleging a simple non possumus on the 
ground that he had had nothing to do with 
either appointment. The States-General also 
interfered in Morgan's behalf, but without 
immediate success. ' So as in lieu of my 
accustomed service, 1 he wrote bitterly to 
Elizabeth in July, ' done to your majesty 
and these countries, I must now spend my 
time in gazing after new.' He found tem- 
porary employment in conducting over to 
England part of the forces drawn from the 
Netherlands in anticipation of the Spanish 

Morgan 3 

Armada. After the defeat of the Armada he 
re-embarked with his regiment, and arrived 
at Bergen-op-Zoom on 18 Sept. with a com- 
mission from the States to assume the govern- 
ment of that place, which Willoughby grudg- 
ingly surrendered to him. He took part in 
the defence of the city and continued gover- 
nor of Bergen-op-Zoom till 1593, when he 
was rather ungraciously deprived of the post 
by the council of state in Holland on the 
ground that a governor was unnecessary, 
and that the charge might be entrusted to 
the senior captain in the garrison (but cf. 
FATJKE, Hist, de Bergen-op-Zoom, p. 333, 
where one is led to infer that he remained 
governor till his death). He returned to 
England, and died at New Fulham on 
22 Dec. 1595. 

Morgan married in 1589 Anna, fourth 
child of Jan, baron van Merode, by whom he 
had two sons, Edward, who died young, and 
Maurice, and two daughters, Anne and 
Catherine. He was a brave soldier and a 
modest man ; ' a very sufficient gallant gentle- 
man,' said Willoughby, who had no great 
love for him, but ' unfurnished of language.' 
By his will, dated 18 Dec. 1595, he left his 
best rapier and dagger to Robert, earl of 
Essex ; his best petronel, key and flask and 
touch-box to Lord Herbert ; his grey hobbie 
to Henry, lord Hunsdon, and his gilt armour 
to his nephew, Sir Matthew Morgan. In 
October 1596 his widow presented a petition 
for payment of two warrants given by the 
Earl of Leicester and Lord Willoughby to 
her late husband for 1,2001. and 3,0001, 
sums due to him for his company of two 
hundred men from 12 Oct. 1586 till his death 
in December 1595. Lady Morgan subse- 
quently married Justinus van Nassau, natural 
son of William, prince of Orange, and died 
on 1 Oct. 1634, aged 72. 

[G. T. Clark's Limbus Patrum Morganise et 
Glamorganise, p. 327 ; Lord Clermont's Hist, of 
theFamilyofFortescue,p. 44*; Roger Williams's 
The Actions of the Lowe Countries, and A Brief 
Discourse of Warre ; A True Discourse His- 
toricall of the succeeding Governours in the 
Netherlands, &c., translated and collected by 
T. G[hurchyard] and Ric. Ro[binson], out of 
the Rev.E. Meteren,his Fifteene Books, Historise 
Belgicse, and other collections added, London, 
1602 ; W. Blandy's The Castle, or Picture of 
Policy ; Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times, 
ii. 213, 388, 389, 391 ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. 1581-90 pp. 474, 526, 528, 538, 1591-4 
pp. 242, 315, 332, 339, 398,570, 1595-7 p. 300; 
Cal. of State Papers, Foreign, Eliz. 1572-4 pp. 
130, 181, 406, 417, 432, 437; Collins's Sidney 
Papers, Introd.p. 53, i. 138, 315,356, 384, 385, 
Leycester Corresp. (Camden Soc.), pp. 302, 353, 
State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. xliv. 9, 50, xlvii. 8 ; 


xlviii. 58, xlix. 7, 8, 9, 44. In this connection 
it is to be noted that the Index to the Cal. of 
Irish State Papers, ed. Hamilton, vol. ii., con- 
founds Sir Thomas Morgan with his kinsman, 
Sir William Morgan (d. 1584) [q. v.], of Pencoyd, 
as indeed do most of the histories of the time ; 
Lady Georgina Bertie's Five Generations of a 
Loyal House ; C. E. Markham's The Fighting 
Veres; Grimeston's Historie of the Netherlands, 
London, 1608, p. 861 ; Camden's Annals passim; 
Meteren'sHistoria Belgica, pp. 311-12; Egerton 
MSS. Brit. Mus. 1694 f. 51 1943, ff. 47, 49, 53, 
55, 57, 65, 69, 73 (corresp. -with Lord Willough- 
by) ; Cotton MSS. Nero B. vi. f. 361 Galba C. 
vii. f. 135, viii. f. 57, xi. ff. 258, 272, Galba D. 
iii. ff. 201, 204, viii. f. 94, Titus B. vii. f. 38 ; 
Harleian MS. 287, f. 211 ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. 
ii. 55, iii. 100. 134; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. 
p. 519 10th Rep. App. ii. p. 30; Jean Faure's 
Histoire Abregee de la Ville de Bergen-op-Zoom, 
p. 333 ; A. J. Van der Aa's Biographisch Woor- 
denboek, xii. 662, 1055, xiii. 77 ; A. Ferwerda's 
Adelyken Aanzienelyk Wappenboek van de Zeven 
Provincien, vol. i. pt. ii. art. Merode 1 3 Generatie.] 

R. D. 

MORGAN, THOMAS (1543-1606?), 
catholic conspirator, born in 1543, was the 
son of a Welsh catholic. He claimed to 
belong to 'a right worshipful family of Mon- 
mouthshire,' doubtless that of Llantarnan. 
He mentions two brothers, Harry and Row- 
land (Cal. Hatfield MSS. iv. 7-9). One 
brother is said to have been educated at the 
catholic college at Rheims, and after returning 
to England to have accepted protestantism, 
but suffered so much remorse that he drowned 
himself (FoLEY, Records, vi. 14). When 
Thomas was eighteen he entered the house- 
hold of William Allen [q. v.], bishop of 
Exeter, and afterwards became secretary to 
Thomas Young, archbishop of York, with 
whom he remained till the archbishop's death 
on 26 June 1568. Both prelates were Cal- 
vinists, but Morgan concealed his creed while 
in their service, and, though a layman, he 
received from them, according to his own ac- 
count, church preferment worth four thou- 
sand crowns a year. His attachment to his 
own faith nevertheless grew firmer, and when 
Young died he resolved to devote himself to 
the service of Mary Queen of Scots. Ignorant 
of his designs, Lord Northumberland and the 
Earl of Pembroke recommended him in 1569 
as secretary to Lord Shrewsbury, in whose 
house at Tutbury the Scottish queen was then 
imprisoned. Morgan was soon installed at 
Tutbury, and was able to be useful to the 
queen. He managed her correspondence, and 
read and communicated to her what passed 
between his master and the court. Whenever 
her rooms and boxes were to be searched, he 
had notice beforehand, and concealed her 



papers. But Shrewsbury's suspicions were 
gradually aroused. On 28 Feb. 1571-2 he 
reported to Burghley that Morgan was con- 
veying letters to the queen from the Bishop 
of Boss, and on 15 March sent him to Lon- 
don to be examined by the council (Scottish 
State Papers, ed. Thorpe, pp. 909 sq., 937). 
He was committed to the Tower, at the 
suggestion, it is said, of Leicester, on a charge 
of having been acquainted with the Bidolfi 
conspiracy (cf. FOLEY, vi. 14), but after ten 
months' confinement he was dismissed un- 
punished. He denied that he purchased his 
release by treachery. Burghley, he said, had 
interceded for him, he knew not why. There 
is no doubt of his fidelity to the cause he had 
espoused, and he still retained the confidence 
of the Queen of Scots. As soon as he regained 
his freedom she directed him to take up his 
residence in Paris, and to join Charles Paget 
in the office of secretary to James Beaton 
(1517-1603), archbishop of Glasgow, who 
was her ambassador at the French court. He 
carried with him recommendations to the 
Duke of Guise as well as to Beaton. On his 
settling in Paris Queen Mary allowed him 
thirty crowns a month out of her dowry, and 
soon placed her most confidential correspond- 
ence under his control. He arranged for her 
the ciphers in which she wrote her letters, 
and contrived to communicate with her re- 
gularly, besides forwarding letters from her 
or her advisers to the pope, to the nuncio in 
France, and to the English catholics at home 
and abroad who were taking part in the con- 
spiracies against Elizabeth. He issaid to have 
constructed as many as forty different ciphers 
(ib. vi. 14). Elizabeth was soon anxious to 
secure his arrest, and in January 1577-8 Sir 
AmiasPaulet [q.v.],her ambassador in Paris, 
was considering the suggestion of a spy, Maz- 
zini Delbena, who offered to invite Morgan to 
Rome, in order to capture him on the road 
(PotTLET, p. xxiv). Sir Amias regarded Morgan 
as Mary's ' professed minister,' whose doings he 
was always ' careful and curious to observe.' 
In the autumn of 1583 Morgan received a 
visit from his fellow countryman, William 
Parry [q. v.], the Jesuit, and persuaded him to 
join in a plot for Queen Elizabeth's assassi- 
nation. When Parry was arrested next year 
he threw the blame in his confession on 
Morgan, and Elizabeth, through her ambas- 
sador, Lord Derby, applied in March 1583 
to the French government for his extradi- 
tion. She promised to spare his life, but de- 
sired to obtain from him ' the circumstances 
of the practice.' The French king declined to 
surrender him, but arrested him and sent 
him to the Bastille. He had time to burn 
most of his papers, but a note from Parry 

respecting the plot, and containing a com- 
promising reference to the Queen of Scots, 
fell into Lord Derby's hands. The queen was 
still dissatisfied, and soon sent Sir William 
Wade to demand his surrender. The nuncio 
at the French court interested himself in pro- 
tecting Morgan, and the pope was even peti- 
tioned to demand his release, on the ground 
that his services were needed by the church. 
Wade returned home in May, with the assur- 
ance that Morgan was to be kept some time 
longer in his French prison. Queen Mary 
(Letters, ed. Labanoff, vi. 300) asserted taat 
Morgan's imprisonment was really due to 
Leicester, who suspected that he was respon- 
sible for the libel known as ' Leicester's Com- 
monwealth.' On 18 May 1585 Queen Mary 
wrote to the Bishop of Ross, begging him to 
use his influence to obtain Morgan's release 
(ib. vi. 307). On 20 July Morgan wrote to 
Queen Mary from the Bastille lamenting his 
fate, and regretting his consequent difficulties 
in dealing with her correspondence (MFKDIN, 
pp. 446-52, cf. p. 443). 

In October 1585 Morgan was visited in the 
Bastille by Gilbert Gifford [q. v.] Deceived 
by his feigned ardour in Mary's cause, Mor- 
gan enlisted him in her service as messenger 
between the imprisoned queen and her friends 
(cf. Cal. Hatfield MSS. iii. 347-9). Gifford 
soon placed himself in communication with 
Walsingham, but Morgan does not seem to 
have suspected his double dealing. Gifford's 
devices enabled Morgan to communicate with 
Mary with increased regularity, but all Mor- 
gan's letters were now copied by the Eng- 
lish government before they reached her. In 
January 1586 Morgan heard that Elizabeth 
had offered 10,000/.for his delivery (MTJEDIN, 
p. 470), and Mary directed that two hundred 
crowns should be paid him (Lettres, vi. 263). 
Although still in prison Morgan helped to 
organise the conspiracy of Anthony Babing- 
ton [q. v.] and his associates, and in April 
he advised Mary to send Babington the fatal 
letter approving his efforts in her behalf 
(MiTRDiff, pp. 513-14). On 16 July he in- 
troduced Christopher Blount to her notice 
(Cal. Hatfield MSS. iii. 151), and on 16 Jan. 
1586-7 both Mary and her secretary, Gilbert 
Curie, wrote, condoling with him on his long 
imprisonment (ib. p. 271). 

But the catholics abroad were divided 
among themselves, and Morgan and Paget 
were growing irreconcileably hostile to the 
Jesuits, who were under the leadership of 
Cardinal Allen and Parsons (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1580-1625, 11 Aug. 
1585 ; cf. Cal. Hatfield MSS. iv. 6 sq.) After 
spending nearly five years in the Bastille Mor- 
gan was released early in 1590, and made his 




way to Flanders. There his enemies contrived 
his arrest and a three years' imprisonment, cul- 
minating in an order of banishment from the 
dominions of Spain. He seems to have sub- 
sequently visited Italy, and had an audience 
of the pope, while secretly carrying on war 
with Cardinal Allen, until the latter's death 
in 1594 (Scottish State Papers, ed. Thorpe, 
p. 587). Returning to France, he was ex- 
pelled in May 1596, but before long he re- 
turned to Paris. 

In January 1605 it was reported that Mor- 
gan was involved in a ' plot of the French 
king's mistress' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1603-10, p. 187). In August 1605 the king 
of France expressed an intention of paying 
him two thousand French livres, a legacy 
which Queen Mary was said to have destined 
for him (ib. p. 232). Guy Fawkes, in his con- 
fession respecting the gunpowder plot in 1606, 
argued that Morgan had proposed ' the very 
same thing in Queen Elizabeth's time ' (ib. 
p. 314). It is probable that he died in 1606. 

[Most of Morgan's letters to Queen Mary ap- 
pear in Murdin's State Papers. Queen Mary's 
communications with him are in Labanoff 's Let- 
tres de Marie Stuart, vols. v. vi. and vii. A. mass 
of his correspondence is calendared in Thorpe's 
Scottish State Papers. Many of the originals are 
at Hatfield (cf. Gal. of Hatfield MSS. pts. iii. and 
iv.); see also Foley's Kecords of the Jesuits, vi. 
14 sq. ; Froud^'s Hist.; Cardinal Allen's Letters 
and Papers; Sir Amias Paulet's Letter-Book, ed. 
Father John Morris.] S. L. 

MORGAN, SIR THOMAS (d. 1679 ?), 
soldier, second son of Robert Morgan of Llan- 
rhymny (CLARK, Limbus Patrum Morganice, 
p. 315), early sought his fortune as a soldier, 
and served in the Low Countries, and under 
Bernard of Saxe- Weimar in the thirty years' 
war ( ATTBREY, Liv es of Eminent Men, Letters 
from the Bodleian, 1813, ii. 465). At what 
time he returned to take part in the Eng- 
lish civil war is uncertain. Fairfax, recom- 
mending Morgan for a command in Ireland 
in October 1648, states that ' ever since the 
beginning of the first distractions ' he had 
had ' constant experience of Colonel Morgan's 
fidelity ' to the parliament's service (CART, 
Memorials of the Civil War, ii. 45). Major 
Morgan, described as expert in sieges, was in 
Fairfax's army in March 1644, and ' one 
Morgan, one of Sir Thomas his colonels, a 
little man, short and peremptory,' took part 
in the siege of Lathom House during that 
month (Fairfax Correspondence, iii. 83 ; 
ORMEROD, Lancashire Civil War Tracts, p. 
166). On 18 June 1645 Morgan, who is de- 
scribed as ' colonel of dragoons, late under 
the command of the Lord Fairfax,' was ap- 
pointed by parliament governor of Glouces- 


ter, in succession to Sir Edward Massey [q. v.], 
made colonel of a regiment of foot (5 July), 
and commander-in-chief of the forces of the 
country (31 Oct.) (Lords' Journals, vii. 440, 
478, 670). In October 1645 he took Chepstow 
Castle and Monmouth (PHILLIPS, Civil War 
in Wales, ii. 279; Two Letters from Colonell 
Morgan, London, 1645). Next, in conjunc- 
tion with Colonel Birch, he took part in 
the surprise of Hereford (18 Dec. 1645 ; cf. 
Two Letters sent . . by Colonell Morgan, 
London, 22 Dec. 1645). Though ' under 
great distemper ' from an ague, he endured 
all the hardships of a winter campaign, and 
personally led the horse in the assault (Lords' 
Journals, viii. 59 ; Military Memoir of 
Colonel Birch, p. 26 ; Report on the Duke of 
Portland's MSS. i. 328). On 21 March 1646 
the combined forces of Morgan, Birch, and 
Sir William Brereton defeated Sir Jacob 
Astley at Stow-in-the-Wold, thus routing 
the last army which the king had in the 
field (Lords' Journals, viii. 231 : Memoir of 
Colonel Birch, p. 34 ; VICARS, Burning Bush, 
p. 398). In June and July 1646 Morgan 
was engaged in besieging Raglan Castle, 
which finally surrendered to Fairfax on 
19 Aug. (PHILLIPS, Civil War in Wales, ii. 
314 ; CARY, Memorials, i. 84, 131, 147). 

For the next few years Morgan's history 
is again obscure. On 17 June 1647 he was 
again recommended as governor of Glouces- 
ter, but seems to have been superseded in 
January 1648 by Sir William Constable ( Col. 
State Papers, Dom. 1645-7, p. 563 ; RUSH- 
WORTH, Historical Collections, vu. 979). His 
application for an Irish command in October 
1648 was without result (GARY, Memorials, 
ii. 45). In 1651 Morgan was in Scotland, 
and on 28 Aug. Monck requested Cromwell 
to ' send down a commission for Colonel 
Morgan to be colonel of the dragoons ' (ib. 
ii. 347). Cromwell sent the commission, and 
for the next six years Morgan was Monck's 
most trusted coadjutor in the subjugation of 
Scotland, holding, for the latter part of the 
period, the rank of major-general in the 
army in Scotland. On 26 May 1652 Dunottar 
'astle surrendered to him after a siege of 
three weeks (MACKINNON, History of the 
Coldstream Guards, i. 48). On 19 June 
1654 he defeated General Middleton at Lough 
Garry, thus striking a fatal blow at the 
rising headed by Middleton in the highlands 
(Mercurius Politicus, 27 June-3 Aug. 1654, 
10-17 Aug.) 

On 23 April 1657 Cromwell summoned 
Morgan from Scotland to take part in the 
expedition sentto the assistance of theFrench 
in Flanders. He was second in command to 
Sir John Reynolds, governor of Mardyke after 



Morgan . 

its capture from the Spaniards, and practi- 
cally commanded the English contingent 
after the death of Reynolds, though Lockhart 
nominally succeeded to the generalship. The 
reason for thus passing over Morgan was no 
doubt that, though he was well qualified to 
lead an army in the field, the relations be- 
tween the allied armies required a general 
who was also a diplomatist. The narra- 
tive attributed to Morgan (printed in vol. i. 
of the ' Phoenix Britannicus,' a collection of 
tracts made by Morgan in 1732) claims all 
the successes of the campaign as his ; but his 
own letters are modest enough (THTTRLOE, 
vii. 217, 258). He was wounded in the storm- 
ing of an outwork at the siege of St. Venant 
(HEATH, Chronicle, p. 726). 

At the battle of the Dunes (4 June 1658) 
Lockhart was present and commanded the 
English contingent, but more than one ac- 
count represents Morgan as its real leader 
(THUELOE,vii. 155; CLARKE, iz/e of James II, 
i. 347). After the capture of Dunkirk, Morgan 
with three English regiments continued to 
serve in Turenne's army, while the rest were 
left in garrison, and he was again slightly 
wounded at the taking of Ypres (Mercurlus 
Politicus,17-24: June, 19-26 Aug. 1658). At 
the close of the campaign he returned to 
England, and was knighted by the protector, 
Richard Cromwell, on 25 Nov. 1658. His 
command in Scotland had been kept vacant, 
but illness delayed his return to it. In Octo- 
ber 1659, when Monck declared against Lam- 
bert's expulsion of the parliament, Morgan 
was at York, where the gout had obliged 
him to halt on his way north. Monck was 
anxious for his assistance, but the letter which 
he sent him was intercepted by Colonel Robert 
Lilburne. Morgan was afraid that he would 
be stopped, but persuaded Lilburne and Lam- 
bert that he disapproved of Monck's pro- 
ceedings, and they accordingly commissioned 
him to induce Monck to lay down his arms. 
He delivered his message, but at the same 
time told Monck that he meant to share 
his fortunes. ' You know,' he said, ' I am 
no statesman ; I am sure you are a lover of 
your country, and therefore I will join with 
you in all your actions, and submit to your 
prudence and judgment in the conduct of 
them.' Morgan's coming ' was a great ac- 
cession to Monck's party, and a great en- 
couragement to all the officers and soldiers ; 
for he was esteemed by them to be, next the 
general, a person of the best conduct of any 
then in arms in the three nations, having 
been nearly forty years in arms, and present 
in the greatest battles and sieges of Christen- 
dom for a great part of that time.' He was 
specially useful in the reorganisation of 

Monck's cavalry, which was the weak part 
of his army (BAKER, Chronicle, ed. Phillips, 
1670, pp. 688-90; GUMBLE, Life of Monck, 
p. 144; PRICE, Mystery of His Majesty's 
Restoration, ed. Maseres, p. 738). Morgan 
accompanied Monck in his march into Eng- 
land, but after the occupation of York was 
sent back to take the command of the forces 
left in Scotland. He played a conspicuous 
part in the celebration of the king's restora- 
tion at Edinburgh (19 June 1660), building 
an enormous bonfire at his door, and firing 
off Mons Meg with his own hand (Mercurius 
Publicus, 28 June-3 July 1660). His com- 
mand in Scotland ended in December 1660, 
when the English regiments there were dis- 
banded, but his services were rewarded by a 
baronetcy (1 Feb. 1661) and by the rever- 
sion of some beneficial leases in Herefordshire 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom., 1661-2, pp. 204, 

In 1665, during the war with Holland, a 
French attack on Jersey was feared, and 
Morgan was made governor of the island 
(20 Dec. 1665 ; for Morgan's instructions see 
Raiolimon MSS. A. 255, 25 ; cf. Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1665-6, pp. 110-19; DALTON, 
English Army Lists, i. 57). Morgan repaired 
the forts and reorganised the local militia. 
Falle, the contemporary historian of Jersey, 
gives him high praise for his vigilance and 
care. He ' would sit whole days on the car- 
riage of a cannon hastening and encouraging 
the workmen.' But the discussions of the 
estates he found insufferably tedious, and 
would retire to smoke and walk about till 
they had finished (Account of Jersey, ed. 
Durell, pp. xxii, 141, 283). His correspon- 
dence with Lord Hatton during his govern- 
ment is in the British Museum (Additional 
MSS. 29552-7). 

According to Burke's ' Extinct Baronet- 
age ' (ed. 1844, p. 369) Morgan died on 
13 Aug. 1670, but Aubrey states that he 
died in 1679, and his correspondence with 
Hatton ends in 1678. Burke adds that 
Morgan married De la Riviere, daughter and 
heiress of Richard Cholmondley of Brame 
Hall, Yorkshire, and was succeeded in the 
baronetcy by his eldest son, Sir John Morgan 
of Kinnersley Castle, Herefordshire. The 
dignity became extinct in 1767 with the death 
of the fourth baronet. Noble states that 
Morgan's commissions and other papers were 
in the possession of Thomas Glutton of Kin- 
nersley, to whose family the estate had de- 
scended (House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, i. 

A portrait of Morgan, engraved by Gules- 
ton, is said by Bromley (Catalogue of En- 
graved British Portraits, p. 95) to be given 




in ' Phoenix Britannicus,' p. 532 ; but it is 
not in any of the three editions in the Bri- 
tish Museum. After the taking of Dunkirk, 
Mazarin and others, says Aubrey, ' had a 
great mind to see this famous warrior. They 
gave him a visit, and whereas they thought 
to have found an Achillean or gigantic person, 
they saw a little man, not many degrees above 
a dwarf, sitting in a hut of turfs with his 
fellow soldiers, smoking a pipe about three 
inches, or neer so long, with a green hat- 
case on. He spake with a very exile tone, 
and cried out to the soldiers when angry with 
them, " Sirrah, I'll cleave your skull," as if 
the words had been prolated by an eunuch ' 
(Letters from the Bodleian, ii. 465). 

In 1699 a pamphlet of sixteen pages, quarto, 
was published as ' A True and Just Relation 
of Major-general Morgan's Progress in France 
and Flanders, with the 6,000 English in the 
years 1657 and 1658 ... as it was delivered 
by the General himself.' It was written by 
Morgan in 1675 at the request of Dr. Samuel 
Barrow, but its historical value is very doubt- 
ful (GODWIN, History of the Commonwealth, 
iv. 547 ; Egerton MS. 2618, f. 127). It is 
reprinted in the ' Harleian Miscellany,' ed. 
Park, iii. 341. Some letters of Morgan's are 
among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library, and several printed letters are among 
the collection of pamphlets in the British Mu- 
seum Library (cf. Catalogue, s. v. 'Morgan'). 

[Authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

MORGAN, THOMAS (d. 1743), deist, 
of Welsh origin, is said to have been a ' poor 
lad in a farmer's house ' near Bridgwater, 
Somerset. He showed talents which in- 
duced a dissenting minister, John Moore 
(1642 ?-1717)[q.v.],to give him a free educa- 
tion, the cost of his living being provided by 
his friends. He became independent minister 
at Burton in Somerset, but was ordained by 
the presbyterian John Bowder [q. v.] at Frome 
in 1716, and was minister of a congregation 
at Marlborough, Wiltshire. He was decidedly 
orthodox at the time of his ordination, but was 
dismissed from the ministry soon after 1720 
in consequence of his views. He took to the 
study of medicine, and describes himself as 
M.D. on the title-pages of his books in 1726 
and afterwards. He first appeared as a writer 
during the controversy among the dissenters 
at the time of the Salters' Hall conference, 
on the anti-subscription side. He afterwards 
defended Boulay's theory as to the corrup- 
tion of human nature against the early writ- 
ings of Thomas Chubb [q. v.], and was much 
puzzled about freewill. He became a free- 
thinker, contributed some books to the latter 

part of the deist controversy, and described 
himself as a ' Christian deist.' He was op- 
posed by Samuel Chandler [q. v.], John Chap- 
man [q. v.], Thomas Chubb, Samuel Fancourt 
(1704-1784) [q. v.], John Leland (1691-1766) 
[q. v.], and other writers, but never obtained 
much notice. He died ' with a true Chris- 
tian resignation ' 14 Jan. 1742-3. Morgan 
married Mary, eldest daughter of Nathaniel 
Merriman, a prominent dissenter of Marl- 
borough. By his wife, who survived him, he 
left an only son. 

Morgan's writings are : 1. ' Philosophical 
Principles of Medicine,' 1725 ; 2nd edit., cor- 
rected, 1730. 2. ' A Collection of Tracts . . . 
occasioned by the late Trinitarian Contro- 
versy,' 1726. This includes the following 
reprints (dates of original publication are 
added) : ' The Nature and Consequences of 
Enthusiasm considered ... in a letter to 
Mr. Tong, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Smith, and Mr. 
Reynolds ' (four ministers who had supported 
the subscribing party at Salters' Hall), 1719 ; 
a defence of this against Samuel Fancourt's 
' Certainty and Infallibility,' 1720 ; another 
defence against Fancourt's ' Enthusiasm Re- 
torted,' 1722 ; ' The Absurdity of Opposing 
Faith to Reason,' against Thomas Bradbury 
[q.v.], another writer on the same controversy, 
whom he had also attacked in a postscript to 
his first tract, 1722 ; the ' Grounds and Prin- 
ciples of Christian Communion,' 1720; a 'Let- 
ter to Sir Richard Blackmore, in reply to his 
' Modern Arians Unmasked,' 1721 ; a ' Refu- 
tation of ... Mr. Joseph Pyke,' author of 
an ' Impartial View,' with further remarks 
on Blackmore, 1722 ; a ' Letter to Dr. Wa- 
terland, occasioned by his late writings in de- 
fence of the Athanasian hypotheses,' 1722 (?) ; 
' Enthusiasm in Distress,' an examination of 
' Reflections upon Reason,' in a letter to 
Philileutherus Britannicus,' 1722, with two 
postscripts in 1723 and 1724. 3. 'A Letter to 
Mr. Thomas Chubb, occasioned by his " Vin- 
dication of Human Nature," ' 1727, followed 
by ' A Defence of Natural and Revealed Re- 
ligion,' occasioned by Chubb's 'Scripture 
Evidence,' 1728 (in defence of the views of 
Robert Barclay [q. v.], the quaker apologist). 

4. ' The Mechanical Practice of Physic,' 1735. 

5. ' The Moral Philosopher, in a dialogue 
between Philalethes, a Christian Deist, and 
Theophanus, a Christian Jew ' [anon.], 1737 ; 
2nd edit. 1738. A second volume, in answer 
to Leland and Chapman, by Philalethes ap- 
peared in 1739, and a third, against Leland 
and Lowman, in 1740. A fourth volume, 
called ' Physico Theology,' appeared in 1741. 

6. ' Letter to Dr. Cheyne in defence of the 
" Mechanical Practice,'" 1738. 7. ' Vindica- 
tion of the " Moral Philosopher," ' against 




S. Chandler, 1741. 8. 'The History of Joseph 
considered ... by Philalethes,' in answer 
to S. Chandler, 1744. 

[Protestant Dissenters' Mag. i. 258 ; Monthly 
Repository, 1818, p. 735; Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 51; 
Williams's Eminent Welshmen, p. 342 ; Sermon 
at the ordination of T. Morgan, by N. Billingsley, 
with Morgan's ' Confession of Faith,' 17 17-] 

L. S. 

M.D. (1783-1843), philosophical and miscel- 
laneous writer, son of John Morgan of Char- 
lotte Street, Bloomsbury, London, born in 
1783, was educated at Eton, the Charter- 
house, and Peterhouse, Cambridge,whence he 
graduated M.B. in 1804 and proceeded M.D. 
in 1809. He practised at first as a surgeon in 
Charlotte Street, and on 13 April 1805 mar- 
ried Miss Hammond, daughter of William 
Hammond of Queen Sq uare, Bloomsbury, and 
the Stock Exchange. She died in 1809, leav- 
ing issue one child, a daughter. Morgan was a 
friend and admirer of Jenner, the discoverer 
of vaccination, and published in 1808 'An 
Expostulatory Letter to Dr. Moseley on his 
Review of the Report of the London College 
of Physicians,' London, 8vo. OnSOSept. 1809 
he was admitted a candidate, and on 1 Oct. 
1810 a fellow of the College of Physicians. 
As physician to the first Marquis of Aber- 
corn he attended him to Ireland, and through 
his interest was knighted by the lord-lieu- 
tenant, Charles Lennox, fourth duke of Rich- 
mond [q. v.], at Dublin on 17 Sept. 1811. At 
Abercorn's seat, Baron's Court, co. Tyrone, 
Morgan met, and on 12 Jan. 1812 married, 
a protegee of the marchioness, Sydney Owen- 
son [see MORGAN, SYDNEY, LADY], then rising 
into repute as a popular authoress. After 
the marriage Morgan obtained the post of 
physician to the Marshalsea, Dublin, and 
took a house in that city, No. 35 Kildare 
Street, with the view of establishing a prac- 
tice. Between 1815 and 1824, however, 
most part of his time was spent abroad with 
Lady Morgan, to whose works 'France' 
(1818) and ' Italy ' (1821) he contributed ap- 
pendices on law, medicine, and other matters. 
In 1818 he published ' Sketches of the Philo- 
sophy of Life,' and in 1822 ' Sketches of 
the Philosophy of Morals' (both London, 
8vo), in which he attempted to popularise 
the ideas of Bichat, Cabanis, and Destutt de 
Tracy. The former work was unsparingly 
attacked on the ground of its materialism by 
the Rev. Thomas Rennell [q. v.], and Morgan's 
professional reputation was so seriously 
damaged that he retired from practice. The 
latter book fell almost stillborn from the 

Morgan was a strenuous advocate of 

catholic emancipation and other liberal mea- 
sures, and on the return of the whigs to 
power was placed on the commission of in- 
quiry into the state of Irish fisheries (1835). 
He took an active part in the investigation, 
and compiled an ' Historical Sketch of the 
British and Irish Fisheries ' for the appendix 
to the First Report (Parl. Papers, House 
of Commons, 1837, vol. xxii.) From 1824 
to 1837 the Morgans resided at 35 Kildare 
Street, Dublin,where their evening receptions 
became famous [see MORGAN, SYDNEY, LADY]. 
In the latter year they removed to William 
Street, Lowndes Square, London, where Mor- 
gan died on 28 Aug. 1843. For many years 
Morgan contributed slight essays or causeries 
to the ' New Monthly Magazine,' the ' Me- 
tropolitan,' and other periodicals. Those in 
the 'New Monthly' are distinguished by the 
signature p. The best of these trifles are 
collected in the ' Book without a Name,' to 
which Lady Morgan also contributed, Lon- 
don, 1841, 2 vols. 12mo. 

Morgan was an extremely minute philo- 
sopher, or rather pkilosophe. His mental 
calibre is evinced by an anecdote recorded 
by Crabb Robinson. Robinson quoted Kant's 
well-known apophthegm about the ' starry 
heavens ' and the ' moral law,' upon which 
Morgan exclaimed contemptuously 'German 
sentiment and nothing else,' adding, ' The 
starry heavens, philosophically considered, 
are no more objects of admiration than a 
basin of water.' 

Besides the above mentioned publications 
Morgan is the author of a pasquinade in 
ottava rima entitled ' The Royal Progress. 
A Canto : with Notes. Written on occa- 
sion of His M y's Visit to Ireland, August 

1821,' London, 1821, 12mo. 

[Munk'sCoU. of Phys. ii. 93 ; Gent. Mag. 1805 
pt.i. p.485, 1812 pt. i. p. 37, 1843 pt. ii. p. 436; 
Lit. Gaz. 1818 p. 721, 1822 p. 691 ; TWnsend's 
Calendar of Knights, 1828, p. 203 ; Lady Mor- 
gan's Autobiography and Correspondence, ed.W. 
Hepworth Dixon, 1862 ; Lady Morgan's Passages 
from my Autobiography, 1859 ; Fitzpatrick's 
Friends, Foes, and Adventures of Lady Morgan, 
1859, and Lady Morgan, her Career, Literary 
and Personal, 1860 ; Crabb Robinson's Diary, 
ed. Sadler, 1872, i. 408 ; Quarterly Review, vol. 
xvii. ; Examiner, 2 Sept. 1843; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 307 ; Athenaeum, 1843, p. 
794.1 J. M. R. 

soldier, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Morgan of Pencoyd and Langstone, Glamor- 
ganshire, and Cecilia, daughter of Sir George 
Herbert of Swansea. He succeeded to Pen- 
coyd and Langstone on the death of his 
father in June 1566 ; but, being of an ad ven- 




turous disposition, he went to France in 1569, 
shortly after the battle of Jarnac, as a volun- 
teer in the army of the Huguenots. He 
subsequently became acquainted at Paris 
with Count Louis of Nassau, in whose ser- 
vice he enlisted, and took part in the capture 
of Valenciennes on 24 May 1572, and of 
Mons on the day following. At Valenciennes 
he had, according to Thomas Churchyard 
(Churchyard's Chaise), 'a goodly gentil- 
mannes house given hym, stuffed with 
gooddes and furnished with Wines and vic- 
tuall for a long yere,' but, being summoned to 
Mons by Count Louis, he did not long enjoy 
it. He was present at the defence of that 
city, and by the articles of capitulation ' was 
allowed to march away in the same order and 
liberty of mind that the Count de Lodwick 
and his Almains had obtained.' He accom- 
panied the Prince of Orange into Holland, 
and was sent by him to Sir Humphrey Gil- 
bert and the English volunteers ' with large 
offers to stay them for his service,' just as 
they were embarking for England after their 
discomfiture before Tergoes. He returned to 
England early in 1573, and took part as a 
volunteer adventurer in the enterprise of 
Walter Devereux, earl of Essex [q. v.], for 
colonising Clandeboye and the north-eastern 
corner of Ireland. Unlike the majority of 
gentlemen-adventurers, who/ having not for- 
gotten the delicacies of England, and want- 
ing resolute minds to endure the travail of 
a year or two in this waste country,' feigned 
excuses and returned to England, Morgan 
took his share of the privations and hard 
blows which it was their lot to encounter. 
' I have great cause,' wrote Essex on 2 Nov., 
' to commend unto your Majesty the service 
of ... Will. Morgan of Penycoid, now Mar- 
shal by the departure of Sir Peter Carew, 
surely a very worthy gentleman ' (DevE- 
EEtrx, Lives of the Earls of Essex, i. 46). 

In the plot of the plantation Glenarm was 
assigned to him, but in May 1574 he was sent 
to England as the bearer of letters of sub- 
mission on the part of Sir Brian Mac Phelim 
O'Neill [q. v.] In consequence of Essex's 
commendation he was knighted that year by 
Elizabeth, but his expenses in connection 
with the enterprise, which ultimately failed, 
were so great that he was compelled in 1577 
to sell Langstone. The property was pur- 
chased by John Simmings, a London doctor, 
from whom it passed to Morgan's kinsman, 
William Morgan of Llantarnam, in Mon- 
mouthshire, whose great-grandson, Sir Ed- 
ward Morgan, sold it about 1666 to Sir Thomas 
Gore of Barrow Court, Somerset, in whose 
family it continued till quite recently. 

Morgan was vice-admiral of Glamorgan- 

shire, but exercised his office, apparently, 
through his deputy, William Morgan of Llan- 
tarnam, who in 1577 was summoned before 
the admiralty court for refusing his assist- 
ance to capture a pirate (State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. ex. 2-4, cxii. 28). On 11 July 1578 
Morgan was surprised by the watch, under 
very suspicious circumstances, in company 
with the French ambassador and SirWarham 
St. Leger [q. v.], in Paris Gardens, a very hot- 
bed, according to Recorder William Fleet- 
wood [q. v.], of conspiracy (ib. cxxv. 20-4). 
He seems to have explained matters satis- 
factorily, for in November 1579 he suc- 
ceeded Sir Drue Drury [q. v.] as governor of 
Dungarvan, and being appointed to conduct 
over certain forces for the service in Ireland, 
he landed at Waterford after a boisterous 
passage, apparently in December 1579. He 
was stationed by Sir William Pelham [q.v.] 
at Youghal, with twenty horse and two hun- 
dred foot, as lieutenant of the counties of 
Cork and Waterford, in which capacity he 
displayed great activity against the rebels in 
south Munster, particularly the seneschal of 
Imokilly. But his health broke down under 
the hard service and constant exposure of 
Irish warfare, and in June 1580 he obtained 
permission to return for a short time to 
England. Before his departure he was in- 
strumental, at considerable personal danger, 
in securing the submission of the Earl of 
Clancar. Both Sir William Pelham and Sir 
Warham St. Leger wrote home in warm 
commendation of his conduct. His absence, 
wrote the latter, 'may verie ill be spared 
hence: his dealing in execution of justice 
being here so well liked of by those y* bee 
good, and feared of thill, as the son r hee re- 
turneth the bett r it wilbe for this estate ' 
(ib. Irel. Eliz. Ixiii. 42). His absence was of 
short duration. He sailed from Bristol at the 
end of July 1580, with reinforcements, for 
Ireland ; but, being driven back by stormy 
weather, it was the end of August before 
he reached his destination. 

But his health became rapidly worse, and in 
February 1581 he earnestly requested Burgh- 
ley to be allowed to return to England. His 
request was granted, but, owing to the situa- 
tion of affairs in Munster, he was unable to 
take immediate advantage of it. 'I have,' 
he wrote to Walsingham from Dunvargan 
on 7 Dec. 1581, ' beyne very sickly, and had 
my leave to come over long since, but be- 
cause you were not att home, and the Re- 
belles hath so solemnly vowed the burnynge 
of this towen, I could not fynd in my harth 
to depart ' (ib. Ixxxvii. 10), and it was actu- 
ally May or June 1582 before he was able 
to carry out his intention in that respect. 



He died shortly after his return in 1584. 
Morgan married Elizaheth, daughter of Sir 
Andrew Judde, alderman of London ; and, 
having no issue by her, he was succeeded to 
a very much encumbered estate by his brother 
1 lenry. Another brother, Robert Morgan, is 
said to have come to Ireland in the reign of 
Charles I, and to have been the founder of 
the family of Morgan of Cottelstown in co. 

[G. T. Clark's Limbus Patrum Morganise et 
Glamorganise, p. 321 ; Burke's Commoners, iv. 
13 ; Thomas Churchyard's Choise ; Eoger Wil- 
liams's Actions of the Low Countries ; Morgan 
and Wakeman's Notices of Pencoyd Castle and 
Langstone (Caerleon Antiq. Assoc.) ; Wright's 
Queen Elizabeth and her Times, ii. 87 ; Cal. of 
State Papers, Ehz., Domestic and Ireland ; George 
Hill's Macdonnells of ^Antrim, p. 417 ; Collins's 
Sidney Papers, i. 213 ; Cal. Carew MSS. ii. 171, 
209,218.] K- !> 

MORGAN, WILLIAM (1540P-1604), 
bishop of St. Asaph, son of John ap Morgan 
ap Llywelyn and Lowri, daughter of William 
ap John ap Madog, was born at Ty Mawr, 
Gwibernant, in the parish of Penmachno, 
Carnarvonshire, about 1540. His father, a 
copyhold tenant upon the great estate of 
Gwydir, was in no position to give his son 
a liberal education. But, according to a 
local tradition, William was carefully taught 
at home by a monk, who, on the dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries, had found a secret 
asyium among his relatives at Ty Mawr. 
The lad's proficiency soon attracted the atten- 
t ion of John (or Maurice ?) Wynn of Gwydir, 
who took him under his patronage and had 
him taught at his own house, though no 
doubt on a menial footing. In 1565 he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge, ma- 
triculating in the university as a sub-sizar 
on 26 Feb., and becoming a full sizar on 
9 June. Cambridge, and in particular St. 
John's College, were at this time active pro- 
testant centres, and Morgan rapidly lost the 
Romanist sympathies which he probably 
brought with him from W r ales. Hebrew was 
taught by Emanuel Tremellius [q. v.], and 
afterwards by Anthony Rodolph Chevallier 
[q. v.], and he thus laid the foundations of his 
proficiency in that language. He graduated 
B. A. in 1568, M.A. in 1571, B.D. in 1 578, and 
D.D. in 1583. On 8 Aug. 1575 he became 
vicar of Welshpool, and in 1578 he was ap- 
pointed one of the university preachers. On 
1 Oct. of that year he was promoted to the 
vicarage of Llanrhaiadr Mochnant, Denbigh- 
shire, to which appears to have been added in 
1579 the rectory of Llanfyllin, Montgomery- 
shire. The two parishes are not far apart, and 
Morgan probably found no difficulty in super- 

vising Llanfyllin while residing at Llan- 
rhaiadr. In a document styled ' A Discoverie 
of the present Estate of the Byshoppricke of 
St. Asaphe,' and dated 24 Feb. 1587, he is 
particularly mentioned as one of the three 
' preachers ' in the diocese who kept ' ordi- 
nary residence and hospitality ' upon their 

It was at Llanrhaiadr that Morgan carried 
out the great enterprise of his life, the trans- 
lation of the Bible into Welsh. Parliament 
had in 1563 enacted that the bishops of Here- 
ford, St. David's, Bangor, St. Asaph, and 
Llandaff should provide for the issue within 
three years of a Welsh version of the scrip- 
tures, but this had only resulted in the ap- 
pearance of William Salesbury's translation 
of the New Testament in 1567. Morgan ap- 
pears to have taken up spontaneously the 
idea of completing Salesbury's work ; after 
some years' labour he resolved upon pub- 
lishing the Pentateuch as an experiment. 
But influential neighbours who had pri- 
vate grudges against him interposed, and 
endeavoured to persuade the authorities that 
Morgan's character was not such as to fit 
him for his self-sought position as trans- 
lator, and he was accordingly summoned 
before Archbishop Whitgift to justify his 
pretensions. It is probable that the asper- 
sions upon him had reference to the position 
of his wife, whom he is said to have married 
secretly before he went up to Cambridge. 
Sir John Wynn of Gwydir afterwards took 
credit to himself for having cleared the good 
name of the two by the certificates he and his 
friends sent up to London. The effect of the 
attack undoubtedly was not only to vindi- 
cate Morgan's character, but also to convince 
Whitgift of his talents as a translator, and 
to interest the archbishop in the work. It 
was resolved that the whole of the Old 
j Testament and the Apocrypha should ap- 
pear, and that Morgan should also revise 
Salesbury's translation of the New Testa- 
ment. Towards the end of 1587 the printing 
of the book began at London ; it went on for 
a year, during which Morgan was enabled to 
exercise a close supervision over the work 
through the hospitality of Gabriel Goodman 
[q. v.], dean of Westminster. It appeared in 
1588, after the defeat of the Armada (to which 
reference is made in the preface), and before 
20 Nov., the date inscribed in the copy pre- 
sented by Morgan to the Westminster Abbey 
Library. The Latin dedication to Queen 
| Elizabeth tells something of the history of 
j the translation, and powerfully states the 
' case for it against those advisers of the crown 
j who disapproved of any official countenance 
I being given to the Welsh language. Among 




those who helped in the production of the 
book are mentioned Archbishop Whitgift, 
William Hughes [q. v.] (bishop of St. Asaph), 
Hugh Bellot [q. v.J (bishop of Bangor), Dean 
Goodman, Dr. David Powel (author of the 
' Historic of Cambria '), Edmund Prys (author 
of the Welsh metrical version of the Psalms), 
and Dr. Richard Vaughan (afterwards suc- 
cessively bishop of Bangor, of Chester, and 
of London). 

Shortly before the appearance of the 
translation Morgan seems to have resigned 
his position at Llanrhaiadr in favour of his 
eon, Evan Morgan, who held the vicarage 
until 1612. He himself was provided for 
by means of the sinecure rectory of Pennant 
Melangell, Montgomeryshire, bestowed upon 
him on 10 July 1588. He still lived, it would 
seem, at Llanrhaiadr, which led Sir John 
Wynn, in a letter written in 1603, to refer 
to him as though he had been vicar of that 
place at the time of his being made bishop. 
In 1594 his income was further augmented 
by the sinecure rectory of Denbigh (cf. Let- 
ter from .Earl of Essex, 29 Jan. 1594-5, in 
STKTPE'S Annals, edit. 1824, iv. 342). 

Morgan was elected bishop of Llandaff on 
30 June 1595, was consecrated on 20 July, 
and received the temporalities of the see on 
7 Aug. Sir John Wynn of Gwydir at a later 
period took to himself the whole credit of 
this promotion, but there is no reason to 
doubt that Elizabeth and Whitgift felt a 
personal interest in the appointment, and 
made it for the good of Wales. The see 
was a poor one ; hence it is not surprising 
that he retained the rectory of Llanfyllin,but 
he gave up that of Pennant, and in the next 
year that of Denbigh. 

On the death of Bishop Hughes, Mor- 
gan was on 21 July 1601 elected to the 
somewhat wealthier see of St. Asaph. He 
now resigned Llanfyllin, but followed his 
predecessor in the see in retaining the arch- 
deaconry in his own hands. Both at 
Llandaff and at St. Asaph he showed the 
energy to be expected of him. His successor 
in the former see, Francis Godwin [q. v.l, 
speaks of his ' industria ' there. At St. Asaph 
he took measures for establishing regular 
courses of sermons at the cathedral, repaired 
the chancel, and exercised a careful super- 
vision over the property of the church in 
his diocese. His vigilance in the latter re- 
spect brought him into conflict with the 
great men of the district. Soon after his 
settlement at St. Asaph he had a dispute 
with David Holland of Teirdan, which was 
only composed by the intervention of Sir 
John Wynn of Gwydir ; and in 1603, a few 
months before his death, he mortally offended 

Sir John himself by refusing to confirm a lease 
for three lives of the living of Llanrwst, by 
which Sir John hoped to profit. A corre- 
spondence on this matter is printed in Yorke's 
'Royal Tribes of Wales' (edit. 1887, pp. 134- 
141), and shows the bishop firm and incor- 
ruptible, though possibly a little haughty, on 
the one hand, while Sir John is indignant at 
the ingratitude, under a feigned plea of con- 
science, of one for whom he holds he has done 
so much. 

Morgan died, as ' Y Cwtta Cyfarwydd ' 
tells us, ' upon Monday morning, being the 
xth day of September, 1604.' He was twice 
married, first to Ellen Salesbury, whom he 
married before going to Cambridge ; and 
secondly to Catherine, daughter of George ap 
Richard ap John. He left one son, Evan, 
who became vicar of Llanrhaiadr Mochnant. 
The tercentenary of the translation of the 
Bible into W 7 elsh in 1888 was marked by the 
erection of a memorial to Morgan and his 
helpers in the precincts of St. Asaph Ca- 

[The fullest and most accurate biography of 
Morgan is that of Mr. Charles Ashton ('Bywyd 
ac AmserauyrEsgob Morgan,' Treherbert, 1891), 
which sifts almost all the material available for 
an account of his life. Two parts of ' The Life 
and Times of Bishop William Morgan,' by Mr. 
T. Evan Jacob (London, n.d.), have appeared; 
also a short biography by the Rev. W. Hughes, 
published by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. All three appeared in connection 
with the tercentenary of the translation of the 
Bible into Welsh in 1588. See also letters in 
Yorke's Royal Tribes of Wales ; Edwards's edition 
(1801) of Browne Willis's Survey of St. Asaph ; 
Account of the Welsh Versions of the Bible, by 
Dr. Thomas Llewelyn, 1793.] J. E. L. 

MORGAN, WILLIAM (1623-1689), 
Jesuit, second son of Henry Morgan, by his 
first wife, Winefrid Gv. ynne, was born in 
Flint in 1623, and educated at Westmin- 
ster School, where he was elected king's 
scholar, and passed on in 1640 to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, from which, after two 
years' residence, he was expelled by the Earl 
of Manchester for taking up arms in the 
royal cause (WELCH, Alumni Westmon. ed. 
Phillimore, p. 115). He was taken prisoner 
at the battle of N aseby, and after six months' 
confinement in Winchester gaol, he was sent 
into banishment, and entered the Spanish 
service in Colonel Cobb's regiment. Having 
been converted to the catholic religion, he 
entered the English College at Rome in 
1648. He was admitted into the Society of 
Jesus in 1651, and was professed of the four 
vows, 2 Feb. 1665-6. In 1661 he became a 
professor in the Jesuit college at Liege, 



whence he was sent in 1670 to the mission 
of North Wales. He was declared superior 
of the residence of St. Winefred in 1672, and 
in 1675 he was chaplain at Fowls Castle. 
He was specially noted in Titus Oates's list 
as an intended victim of the persecution, but 
in February 1678-9 he with difficulty effected 
his escape to the continent. In October 1679 
he was appointed socius to Father Warner, 
the provincial, and subsequently, on visiting 
England, he was arrested and imprisoned. 
In May 1683 he was declared rector of the 
English College at Rome. He was appointed 
provincial of his order 22 Aug. 1689. and 
died a few weeks afterwards in the college 
at St. Omer on 28 Sept. 1689. 

Dr. Oliver says Morgan wrote the beautiful 
account of the reign of James II beginning 
' Anni Septuagesiini Octavi,' &c., but omits 
to state where this work is to be found. 

[Foley's Kecords, v. 990, vii. 523 ; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collections, p. 14*.] T. C. 

MORGAN, WILLIAM (1750-1833), 
actuary, born in June 1750 at Bridgend, 
Glamorganshire, was the eldest son of Wil- 
liam Morgan, a surgeon practising in that 
town, by Sarah, sister of Dr. Richard Price 
[q. v.J George Cadogan Morgan [q. v.] was 
his only brother. He was intended for the 
medical profession; but owing to his father's 
limited means he was apprenticed, 11 July 
1769, to a London apothecary. Towards the 
end of 1771 he returned home to assist his 
father, but on his death, in 1772, Morgan 
returned to London, and through the influ- 
ence of Dr. Price became in February 1774 an 
assistant-actuary, and in February 1775 chief 
actuary to the Equitable Assurance Society, 
a post which he held until his resignation on 
2 Dec. 1830. During the earlier part of tliis 
time he lived at the offices of the society in 
Chatham Place, Blackfriars, and there wit- 
nessed, in June 1780, the Gordon riots, his 
house being for a time threatened by the mob. 
He subsequently lived at Stamford Hill, 
where his house became a meeting-place for 
many of the advanced reformers of the day, 
including Home Tooke and Sir Francis Bur- 
dett. On 20 April 1792 Samuel Rogers met 
TomPaine at dinnerat Morgan's house(CiAY- 
DEN, Early Life of Rogers, p. 246). Morgan 
appears to have been at one time suspected 
by the authorities, and his name is said to 
have been on the list of those threatened 
with prosecution, before the acquittal of 
Home Tooke. Despite his advanced views, 
Bishop Watson of Llandaff was an intimate 
friend. Morgan died at Stamford Hill on 
4 May 1833, and was buried at Hornsey. 

In 1781 Morgan married Susan Woodhouse, 

by whom he had several children. A daugh- 
ter, Sarah, was married to Benjamin Travers, 
the surgeon : the eldest son, William Mor- 
gan, who married Maria Towgood, the beau- 
tiful niece of Samuel Rogers, was for a time 
assistant-actuary at his father's office, but 
after his early death was succeeded by another 
son, Arthur Morgan, who held the position 
of chief actuary from his father's resigna- 
tion, 2 Dec. 1830, till 3 March 1870, when 
he resigned. He died seven days after. 
Thus father and son were actuaries for a 
period of ninety-six years. 

Morgan takes high rank among the pioneers 
of life assurance in England. The pheno- 
menal success of the Equitable Society in 
the midst of so many contemporary failures- 
was mainly due to his careful administration 
and sound actuarial advice. The details 
which he published from time to time as to 
the mortality experience of that society fur- 
nished data for the amendment of the North- 
ampton tables, and the construction of others 
by various actuaries [see MILNE, JOSHUA]. 
The first instalment of Morgan's statistics 
was published in his ' Doctrine of Annuities 
and Assurances on Lives and Survivorships 
Stated and Explained,' London, 1779, 8vo, 
with a preface by Dr. Price. From 1786 on- 
wards he delivered to the court of governors 
a series of addresses reviewing the policy 
of the society. Nine of the most important 
of these addresses were published, along with 
the ' Deed of Settlement of the Equitable 
Society,' in one volume, in 1833, four of them 
having been previously published in 1811, and 
six in 1820. A new edition, containing three 
additional addresses by Arthur Morgan, was 
issued in 1854. Upon the basis of Morgan's 
statements new tables of mortality were con- 
structed, most notably by Griffith Davies 
and byT. Gompertz in 1825, and by Charles 
Babbage in 1826. Morgan also published a 
table of his own in ' A View of the Rise 
and Progress of the Equitable Society, and 
the Causes which have contributed to its 
Success,' London, 1828, 8vo (cf. a review in 
Westminster Rev. April 1828; Phil. Mag. 
1828, an unsigned article by Dr. Thomas 
Young; Times of 26 June and 1 July 1828, 
attacks by Francis Baily and George Farren ; 
John Bull, 28 March, probably by W. Bald- 
win, who issued a pamphlet on the subject 
in the following year). Morgan's table of 
mortality was revised by his son Arthur 
Morgan, and reissued in 1834. 

In 1783 Morgan sent a paper on ' Proba- 
bility of Survivorship ' to the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' and was awarded the gold 
medal of the Royal Society, being admitted 
a fellow shortly afterwards. Other papers r 



which appeared in ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' for 1791, 1794, and 1799, were em- 
bodied in the second edition of his ' Doctrine 
of Annuities,' 1821. In 1827 he was ex- 
amined before a select committee of the 
House of Commons on friendly societies. 
He was also much consulted on questions 
relating to ecclesiastical property. Morgan 
was a Unitarian of a presbyterian type, like 
his uncle, Dr. Price, whose views on finance 
and politics he also inherited. He vigorously 
denounced the accumulation of the National 
Debt, and ' the improvident alienation of that 
fund by which it might have been redeemed.' 

The following were his writings on this 
subject : 1. 'A Review of Dr. Price's Writ- 
ings on the Subject of the Finances of the 
Kingdom, to which are added the three 
plans communicated by him to Mr. Pitt in 
1786 for redeeming the National Debt,' Lon- 
don, 1792, 8vo ; 2nd edit., ' with a supple- 
ment stating the amount of the debt in 
1795,' 1795. 2. 'Facts addressed to the 
serious attention of the People of Great Bri- 
tain, respecting the Expense of the War and 
the State of the National Debt in 1796.' 
Four editions were published in 1796, Lon- 
don, 8vo. 3. Additional facts on the same 
subject, London, 8vo ; four editions published 
in 1796. 4. 'An Appeal to the People of 
Great Britain on the Present Alarming State 
of the Public Finances and of Public Credit,' 
London, 8vo, 1797, four editions. 5. ' A 
Comparative View of the Public Finances 
from the Beginning to the Close of the Late 
Administration,' London, 1801, three edi- 
tions. 6. ' A Supplement to the Compara- 
tive View,' 1803. He was the author of a 
scientific work entitled ' An Examination of 
Dr. Crawford's Theory of Heat and Com- 
bustion,' London, 1781, 8vo, and also edited 
the foil owing: ' Observations on Reversionary 
Payments, by Richard Price, to which are 
added Algebraical Notes by W. M. ; ' 5th 
edit. 1792-80; 7th edit. 1812, and many 
subsequent editions. Morgan also edited 
the ' Works of Dr. Price, with Memoirs of 
his Life,' London, 1816, 8vo, and Dr. Price's 
Sermons, 1816. 

[The fullest account of Morgan's actuarial 
work is to be found in Watford's Insurance 
Cyclopaedia, ii. 596-622, iii. 1-23. For all other 
facts the best authority is A Welsh Family, 
from the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century 
(London, 1885, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1893), by Miss 
Caroline E. Williams, for private circulation. 
See also Gent. Mag. for 1833, pt. i. p. 569 ; Me- 
moirs of Dr. Price, ut supra.] I). LL. T. 

MORGAN, SIR WILLIAM (1829-1883), 
South Australian statesman, son of an Eng- 
lish farmer, was born in 1829 at Wils- 

hampstead, near Bedford. In 1848 he emi- 
grated with two brothers and a sister, and 
arrived in South Australia in February 1849. 
He took the first work that offered, but after 
a short experience of bush life became an 
assistant in the grocery store of Messrs. 
Boord Brothers. In 1851, at the time of 
the Victoria gold rush, he went with his 
brother Thomas to the Bendigo diggings, 
and, succeeding better than the majority,, 
came back to Adelaide and rejoined the 
Boords, purchasing their business after a 
short time, and extending it till, under the 
title of Morgan & Co., it became one of the 
leading mercantile houses in the colony. 

In August 1869 Morgan first entered 
political life, standing for election as member 
of the legislative council. In spite of the 
uncompromising independence of his views 
on the leases and other questions which 
were exciting popular attention, he was duly 
returned on 6 Aug. In the council his 
shrewdness and foresight rapidly brought 
him to the front. In 1871 he was chosen 
by the ministers to be one of the delegates 
of South Australia to the intercolonial con- 
ference, which opened at Melbourne on 
18 Sept. On 3 June 1875 Mr. Boucaut was 
called on to form a ministry, and selected 
Morgan as chief secretary to represent the 
government in the legislative council. This 
was the government locally known as that 
' of the broad and comprehensive policy.' Its 
schemes for the undertaking of new and large 
public works, and for the readjustment of 
taxation with a view to its fairer incidence on 
all classes, were the subject of fierce debate, 
and were rejected in two consecutive sessions 
by the council. In the midst of the fight 
(25 March 1876) Morgan had to retire from 
the ministry to attend to the extra pressure of 
business entailed by his purchase of a share 
in the Balade mines of New Caledonia. In 
February 1877, when his term in the council 
had expired, although his private affairs made 
him anxious to retire for a time from political 
life, he was returned to the legislative council 
at the head of the poll. 

The new parliament met on 31 May 1877, 
and Morgan, after leading the attack on Sir 
Henry Ayers, the chief secretary in the 
Colton administration, was by a unanimous 
vote of the house required to assume the 
duties of its leader in the place of Ayers. 
The defeat of the Colton administration in 
the assembly also followed, and Boucaut 
formed a ministry in which Morgan was 
chief secretary (October 1877). In October 
1878 Boucaut retired, and Morgan himself 
became premier, holding the office till June 
1881, when he retired owing to pressure of" 



private business. The chief measures which 
occupied his ministry related to taxation, 
the land laws, schemes for public works, and 
the settlement of the Northern Territory. 
In 1880 he attended the intercolonial con- 
ference at Melbourne. In May 1883 he left 
the colony on a short visit to England to 
recruit his health. On his arrival he was 
created K.C.M.G., but he died on 2 Nov. at 
Brighton. Both houses of parliament in 
South Australia adjourned on the receipt of 
the news. He was buried at his old home in 
Bedfordshire. He married in 1854 Harriett, 
daughter of T. II. Matthews of Coromandel, 
who, with five children, survived him. 

Morgan's political career was stormy. He 
displayed much administrative capacity ; 
was shrewd and honest, genial and loyal. 
He has been called the ' Cobden of South 

[South Australian Kegister, 10 Nov. 1883; 
South Australian Advertiser, 10 Nov. 1883.] 

C. A. H. 

MORGANENSIS (f. 1210), epigramma- 
tist. [See MAURICE.] 

J^-MORGANN, MAURICE (1726-1802), 
commentator on the character of Sir John 
Falstaff, born in London in 1726, was de- 
scended from an ancient Welsh family. He 
was under-secretary of state to William Fitz- 
maurice Petty, earl of Shelburne, and after- 
wards first marquis of Lansdowne [q. v.], 
during his administration of 1782, and was 
secretary to the embassy for ratifying the 
peace with America in 1783. He was also one 
of the commissioners of the hackney coach 
office. Morgann, a man of rare modesty and 
uncommon powers, was highly esteemed by 
Lord Lansdowne, at whose seat at Wickham 
he once entertained Dr. Johnson during his 
lordship's absence. He and Johnson sat up 
late talking, and the latter as usual provoked 
a verbal encounter, in which Morgann more 
than held his own. The next morning at 
breakfast Johnson greeted him with ' Sir, I 
have been thinking over our dispute last night 
you were in the right.' Morgann wrote 
several pamphlets on the burning questions 
of his day, all of which are distinguished for 
their philosophic tone and distinctively lite- 
rary style. They were issued anonymously, 
but the following have been identified as his : 
'An Enquiry concerning the Nature and End 
of a National Militia' (London [1758], 8vo) ; 
'A Letter to my Lords the Bishops, on Occa- 
sion of the Present Bill for the Preventing of 
Adultery ' (London, 1779, 8vo) ; ' Remarks on 
the Present Internal and External Condition 
of France' (i794, 8vo) ; and ' Remarks on the 
Slave Trade.' He appears to have written 

solely for his own gratification, and on his 
death at Knightsbridge on 28 March 1802 
he directed his executors to destroy all his 
papers. ' Thus,' says his friend Dr. Symmons, 
' were lost various compositions in politics, 
metaphysics, and criticism which would 
have planted a permanent laurel on his 
grave ' (Life of Milton, 1810, pp. 122^). _ 

The admirable 'Essay on the Dramatic 
Character of Sir John Falstaff' (London, 
1777, 8vo) by which Morgann is remembered 
has been very generally praised. The vindi- 
cation of Falstaff's courage is the ostensible 
object of the work, and evoked Johnson's 
criticism. ' Why, sir, we shall have the man 
come forth again ; and as he proved Falstaff 
to be no coward, he may prove lago to be a 
very good character,' but the special plea, 
entertaining as it is, is really subordinate 
to a consideration of the larger problem of 
the whole character and to ' the arts and 
genius of his poetic maker ' (cf. London Mag. 
1820, i. 194; Fraser, xlvi. 408; WHITE, 
Falstaff's Letters, admired of Charles Lamb, 
and the 'Essay on Falstaff' appended to Mr. 
Birrell's ' Obiter Dicta'). For style, intellec- 
tuality, knowledge of human nature, and 
consequent profound appreciation of Shake- 
speare, Morgann's essay has not been sur- 
passed. The author was too fastidious to re- 
issue his book during his lifetime ; it was, how- 
ever, republished in 1820 and 1825. William 
Cooke's poem 'Conversation' (1807) was de- 
dicated to Morgann, and in a second edition 
Cooke testified in the most enthusiastic terms 
to his friend's wide knowledge, pervading 
humour, and personal charm. 

[Gent. Mag. 1802 i. 470, 582, 1807 H. 643; 
European Mag. xli. 334 ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. 
G.B. Hill, iv. 192; Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice's 
Life of Shelburne, ii. 50, iii. 16; Halkett and 
Laing's Anon, and Pseudon. Lit. cols. 487, 765, 
804,1386; Monthly Eeview, Ix. 399; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. 1612-13; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. p. 1368.] T. S. 

MORGANWG,IOLO (1746-1826), poet. 

MORGANWG, LEWIS (/.1 500-1 540), 
poet. [See LEWIS.] 

MORI, NICOLAS (1797-1839), violinist, 
was born in London on 24 Jan. 1797, ac- 
cording to the inscription on a portrait of 
him issued in 1805. He received his first in- 
struction, on a miniature violin at the age of 
three, from the great Barthelemon in 1800, 
and at a concert for his benefit given at the 
King's Theatre on 14 March 1805 (see por- 
trait above referred to), under the patronage 
of the Duke and Duchess of York and the 
Dukes of Sussex and Cambridge, he played 




Barthelemon's difficult concerto known as 
'The Emperor.' In 1808 he took part in the 
concerts promoted by Mr. Heaviside the mu- 
sical surgeon, and became a pupil of Viotti, 
then in exile in London. He remained till 
1814 under Viotti's tuition, and under his 
tutor's auspices took part in the first Philhar- 
monic Society's concert in 1813. In 1814, 
while still in the Philharmonic orchestra, he 
acted as one of the society's directors, and 
also became a member of the opera band. In 
1816 he was appointed leader of the Philhar- 
monic orchestra. 

In 1819 Mori married the widow of the 
music publisher Lavenu, whose business he 
carried on at 28 New Bond Street, in con- 
junction with his stepson, Henry Louis 
Lavenu. It was in this capacity that he pub- 
lished for a few years (in collaboration with 
W. Ball) the excellent annual 'The Musical 
Gem,' and later (in 1837), after a keen com- 
petition with Novello, he issued Mendels- 
sohn's Concerto in D Minor. From 1819 to 
1826 he was the teacher of Dando, afterwards 
the eminent violinist. In 1823, on the esta- 
blishment of the (now Koyal) Academy of 
Music, he was a member of the first board of 
professors, and thenceforward became one of 
the principal orchestral leaders of provincial 
festivals. Thus we find him in September and 
October 1824 leading the band at the Wake- 
field and Newcastle festivals, and in Septem- 
ber 1825, in conjunction with Kieswetter and 
Loder, at the York festival. It was here that 
he had the bad taste to challenge comparison 
with Kieswetter, by playing Mayseder's Con- 
certo No. 3 in D, which Kieswetter had 
chosen as his piece de resistance. A. contem- 
porary critic says : ' The two artists are not 
comparable together. Mr. Mori excels in 
tone and vigour, Mr. Kieswetter in delicacy 
and feeling.' In 1826 he led the band at the 
Covent Garden oratorios, and in 1827 suc- 
ceeded Venua as leader of the Covent Garden 
opera band. He then (in 1831)becamea mem- 
ber of the orchestra of the ' Concerts of An- 
tient Music ' at the New Rooms, Hanover 
Square. From this time his public appear- 
ances were mainly restricted to his own 
concerts, which were generally held in May. 
At his concert in 1835 he cleared 800/., and 
a similar sum in 1836, in which year he in- 
stituted a series of chamber music concerts, 
in continuation of those conducted by Bla- 
grove, whom he virtually challenged by 
playing the same compositions. He died on 
18 June 1839 from the breaking of an 
aneurism, having been for some years the 
victim of a cerebral derangement which ren- 
dered him at times brusque, irritable, and 
violent. Immediately before his death he 

announced a concert whose programmes were 
headed by the grim device of a death's head 
and the legend Memento Mori. 

As a performer ' Mori's attitude had the 
grace of manly confidence. His bow arm 
was bold, free, and commanding, and the 
tone he produced was eminently firm, full, 
and impressive. His execution was alike 
marked by abundant force and fire, by ex- 
traordinary precision and prodigious facility, 
but lacked niceties of finish and the graces 
and delicacies of expression' (Quarterly Mag. 
Music, iii. 323). 

He left behind him a son, FRANCIS MORI 
(1820-1873), the composer of a cantata, en- 
titled ' Fridolin ; ' an operetta, with words 
by George Linley [q. v.], entitled ' The River 
Sprite,' which was performed at Covent Gar- 
den on 9 Feb. 1865; many songs, and a series 
of vocal exercises. He died at Chamant, near 
Senlis, in France, on 2 Aug. 1873. 

Mori's sister was a celebrated contralto. 
She was singing in Paris in 1830, married the 
singer Gosselin,and virtually retired in 1836, 
although she reappeared in Siena, Vicenza, 
Mantua, Verona, &c., in 1844. 

[An account of his life and death appeared in 
the Morning Post of 24 June 1839, which was 
followed by a pamphlet, written in signally bad 
taste, entitled Particulars of the Illness and 
Death of the late Mr. Mori the Violinist, by E. W. 
Duffin, Surgeon (London, 1839, pp. 20). The pub- 
lished biographies of Mori are fragmentary, and 
for the most part incorrect. Fetis's notice, where 
the Christian name appears as Francis, is notably 
so. The best account is in Dubourg's work on the 
violin (edit. 1878, pp. 214-17). In the Musical 
World (ii. 144) occurs a charming sonnet upon 
him, signed ' William J. Thorns,' which is cleverly 
parodied at p. 207 by another signed 'Thomas J. 
Bhills.' A notice in the Quarterly Magazine of 
Music, 1821, iii. 323, was transferred almost 
bodily to the Biog. Diet, of Musicians, 1827, 
2nd edit. ii. 179, and is paraphrased in Musical 
Recollections of the Last Half Century, London, 
1872, i. 108. See also A. Pougin's Viotti, Paris, 
1888 ; G-. Dubourg's The Violin, London, 1878 ; 
unpublished documents in possession of the 
writer.] E. H.-A. 

MORIARTY, DAVID (1814-1877), 
bishop of Kerry, son of David Moriarty, 
esq., by his wife, Bridget Stokes, was born 
at Derryvrin, in the parish of Kilcarah, co. 
Kerry, on 18 Aug. 1814. He was educated 
at home by private tutors, at Boulogne-sur- 
Mer in the Institution Haffreingue, and at 
the Royal College of St. Patrick, Maynooth 
(1831-9). He was appointed vice-rector of, 
and professor of sacred scripture in, the Irish 
college at Paris in 1839 ; and became rector 
of the Foreign Missionary College of All- 
hallows, Drumcondra, Dublin, in 1845. He 




was nominated coadjutor bishop of Kerry in 
1854, and succeeded to the see on 22 July 
1856. Many pastoral letters and sermons 
published by him attracted the attention of 
the public. He uniformly discountenanced 
all treasonable movements in Ireland, vigo- 
rously denounced the Fenian brotherhood, 
and subsequently opposed the home rule 
party. At the Vatican council he spoke 
and voted against the opportuneness of de- 
fining the papal infallibility, but he accepted 
the definition in all its fulness when it had 
been decreed. He died on 1 Oct. 1877. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, ii. 63, 375 ; 
Men of the Time, 1875, p. 739; Tablet, 6 Oct. 
1877, pp. 419, 437.] T. C. 

MORICE. [See also MORRIS.] 

MORICE, HUMPHRY (1671 P-1731), 
governor of the Bank of England, born about 
1671, was son of Humphry Morice (1640?- 
1696) [see under MORICE, SIR WILLIAM]. As 
a Turkey merchant, he carried on an exten- 
sive business with the East. At the general 
election of September 1713 he was returned 
to parliament for the borough of Newport, 
Cornwall, which was in the patronage of 
his first cousin, Sir Is icholas Morice, bart., of 
Werrington, Devonshire, his colleague in the 
representation. In the House of Commons 
he steadily supported the policy of Wai- 
pole, voting in 1714 against the expulsion 
of Steele for his published attacks upon the 
Harley-Bolingbroke ministry ; in 1716, in 
support of the Septennial Bill ; and in 1719, 
against a measure to restrict the creation 
of peers. Sir Nicholas Morice, in such of 
these divisions as he voted, sided with 
the tories; and, therefore, at the dissolu- 
tion of March 1722, Humphry had to leave 
Newport for Grampound, another Cornish 
borough, where he was chosen as colleague 
of William Cavendish, marquis of Harting- 
ton, afterwards third Duke of Devonshire 
[q. v.] For Grampound he sat till his death, 
supporting Walpole to the last. Having in 
1716 been chosen a director of the Bank of 
England, he occupied the post of deputy-go- 
vernor for the years 1725-6, and of governor 
for 1727-8; but within a very few days after 
his death, on 16 Nov. 1731, it was discovered 
by his co-directors, with whom he had had 
financial relations up to a day or two before, 
that his apparent wealth was fictitious, and 
even based upon fraudulent pretences. The 
bank had discounted for him a great number 
of notes and bills of exchange, Morice having 
been ' for many Years before, and until his 
Death, reputed to be a Person of great Wealth, 
and of undoubted Fairness and Integrity in 
his Dealings.' But shortly after his decease 

they ' found, to their great Surprize, that 
several of the Bills of Exchange, which, on 
the Face thereof appear'd to be foreign Bills, 
and drawn at different Places beyond the Seas, 
were not real but fictitious Bills, and feigned 
Names set thereto, by the Order of the said 
Humphry Morice, to gain Credit with the 
Appellants.' His widow, indeed, whom he 
had left sole executrix, admitted in an affidavit 
that, upon his death, ' his Affairs were found 
very much involved with Debts, and in the 
greatest Disorder and Confusion, insomuch 
that she had not been able to settle, and re- 
duce the same to any Certainty as to [his] 
Debts, and the several Natures and Kind* 
thereof.' But the worst feature of the trans- 
action was not in the debts due to trades- 
men for work done or ' for Gold and Ele- 
phants' Teeth,' or even the alleged frauds 
upon the Bank of England ; it was the absorp- 
tion of moneys left in trust for his mother- 
less daughters by a maternal uncle, as well 
as other trust-moneys, by which the children 
were the heaviest losers. The result was a 
complicated series of lawsuits, which ex- 
tended over five years, and ended, upon appeal 
in the House of Lords, in the virtual defeat of 
his widow, who had struggled hard to secure 
something from the wreck for her stepdaugh- 
ters and the other children involved. Among- 
the portraits at Hartwell, Buckinghamshire, 
formerly the seat of Sir Thomas Lee, bart. r 
M.P. for Aylesbury (who married a sister of 
Morice's first wife, and whose son, Sir George 
Lee [q.v.], married one of Morice's daughters), 
was one by Sir Godfrey Kneller of Morice, 
who is described as having appeared therein 
as ' an intelligent-looking middle-aged gentle- 
man.' He married, as his first wife, Judith, 
daughter of Thomas Sandys or Sandes, a 
London merchant, by whom he had five 
daughters, two of whom died young ; and 
his second wife, to whom he was married 
in June 1722, was Catherine, daughter of 
Peter Paggen of Wandsworth, and widow 
of William Hale of Hertfordshire, by whom 
he had. two sons, Humphry (see below) 
and N icholas (d. November 1 748) . This lady 
died on 30 August 1743, and was buried in 
the Paggen family vault at Mount Nod, the 
burial-ground of the Huguenots at Wands- 

MORICE, HUMPHRY (1723-1785), politi- 
cian, born in 1723, elder son of the preceding, 
succeeded upon the death of his second cousin, 
Sir William Morice, third baronet, in January 
1750, to the entailed estate of VVerrington, 
and to the representation of Launceston in 
parliament. At the dissolution in April 1754 
he put forward his full electoral powers over 
the parliamentary representation both of 




Launceston and Newport, pocket boroughs 
of the owners of Werrington, and secured the 
election, as his colleague for Launceston, of 
SirGeorgeLee [q.v.], the husband of his step- 
sister Judith. He secured for Newport, after 
a contest with the Duke of Bedford's nomi- 
nees, the return of Sir George's brother, 
Colonel John Lee, and Edward Bacon, a 
connection of the Walpoles. Morice at once 
sought a reward for his electoral successes 
from his leader, the Duke of Newcastle, and 
asked, among other things, for a place on the 
board of green cloth (June 1755). For the 
moment it was withheld ; but Newcastle 
who, on 23 Oct. 1755, wrote to Morice desiring 
to see him in order to explain, before parlia- 
ment met, ' the measures which have been 
taken for the support of the Rights and Pos- 
sessions of His Majesty's crown in North 
America ' was reminded of the green cloth 
promise in the later days of April 1757, when 
lie was trying to form a ministry without Pitt. 
On 5 May Morice kissed hands on his appoint- 
ment as one of the clerks-comptrollers of the 
household of George II ; and a fortnight later 
he was re-elected for Launceston without op- 
position. In the winter of 1758, on Sir George 
Lee's death, Morice declared himself unable 
to secure the return for Launceston, as New- 
castle requested, of Dr. (afterwards Sir Ed- 
ward) Simpson, Lee's successor as Dean of 
the Arches. He himself put forward John, 
second earl Tylney, an Irish peer, in order 
that he might arrange an accommodation 
with the Duke of Bedford, with whom Tyl- 
ney was connected ; but Tylney was with- 
drawn owing to the local unpopularity of 
the Duke of Bedford, and Morice chose 
Peter Burrell of Haslemere to represent the 
constituency. Sir John St. Aubyn, a nephew 
of Sir William Morice, who had sat for the 
borough in the previous parliament, was, 
however, declared by the mayor to be re- 
turned by a majority of a single vote 
fifteen to fourteen. But a petition was imme- 
diately presented to the House of Commons, 
and, owing to Morice's influence with the 
administration, Burrell was declared duly 

Later in 1759 Morice received threaten- 
ing letters in an endeavour to extort money 
under peril of being accused of a serious 
offence. He at once faced the accusers, two 
of whom were sentenced to be imprisoned 
for three years in Newgate, and to stand in 
the pillory in Cheapside and Fleet Street ; 
another accuser fled and the fourth turned in- 
former. The sympathy of the populace was 
entirely with Morice, but it is evident from his 
various communications at that time to New- 
castle that his health suffered from the con- 

sequent worry. In the spring of 1760 he went 
abroad, and Horace Walpole, with whom 
Morice had many tastes in common, recom- 
mended to the attention of Sir Horace Mann 
' Mr. Morrice, Clerk of the Green Cloth, heir 
of Sir William Morrice, and of vast wealth,' 
who ' will ere long be at Florence, in his way 
to Naples for his health.' 

Morice was still abroad when, in October 
1760, George II died ; and, despite the urgent 
appeal of some friends, his household appoint- 
ment was not renewed. The Duke of New- 
castle was in vain reminded that Morice had 
spent 20,000/. in support of the administra- 
tion which had ' turn'd him adrift on the 
first occasion that offer'd.' Morice took the 
humiliation quietly ; and when his protege, 
Colonel Lee, M.P. for Newport, was dying, 
in September 1761, he sent from Naples an 
offer to place the coming vacancy at the dis- 
posal of the government. William de Grey, 
solicitor-general to the queen, afterwards 
first Baron Walsingham, was accordingly re- 
turned. His accommodating disposition was 
recognised by Bute, who at once appointed 
Morice comptroller of the household. He 
was re-elected for Launceston on 3 Jan. 1763, 
and seven days later was sworn of the privy 

Although Bute gave place to George 
Grenville in the first week of the ensuing 
April, Morice's tenure ofthecomptrollership 
was continued ; and he was also appointed 
lord warden of the stannaries, high steward 
of the duchy of Cornwall, and rider and 
master of the forest of Dartmoor. The ques- 
tion was at once raised in the commons, at 
Morice's own suggestion, whether, by accept- 
ing these latter appointments, he vacated his 
seat ; but a motion that the seat was vacant 
was negatived without a division (19 April 
1763), although, owing to his own scruples, 
his appointment was not formallv made out 
till 28 June. With the fall of the Grenville 
ministry, in July 1765, Morice's ministerial 
career approached its end. On 4 Feb. 1771 
he was chosen recorder of Launceston, and 
was sworn on the following 9 Dec. In Oc- 
tober 1774, at the general election, there was 
a struggle against his influence ; although he 
himself was returned for both Launceston and 
Newport, his power in the former borough was 
shown to be waning, and in the next year he 
sold Werrington, and with it the electoral 
patronage, to Hugh, first duke of Northum- 
berland of the present creation 'a noble 
purchase,' as was said at the time, ' near 
100,000/.' In 1780 Morice retired from par- 
liament ; in 1782 he resigned the recordership ; 
and on 20 Nov. 1783 the coalition ministry of 
North and Fox ousted him from the lord 



wardenship of the stannaries, whereupon Sir 
Francis Basset, M.P. for Penryn (subse- 
quently Lord de Dunstanville), who was re- 
lated to Morice by marriage, wrote an indig- 
nant letter of protest to the Duke of Portland, 
the nominal prime minister, declaring it im- 
possible for him to support the administration 
any longer. 

Morice in his last years was a confirmed va- 
letudinarian, visiting various health resorts. 
He was lying ill in 1782 at Bath, when he 
was cheered, according to Walpole, by the 
bequest of an estate for life of 1,500/. a year 
from ' old Lady Brown,' the widow of Sir 
Robert Brown, who had been a merchant at 
Venice. On 24 July 1782, just before leaving 
England for the last time, and while at his 
favourite residence, The Grove, Chiswick, he 
made his will. Three months later, when 
arrived at Nice, he executed a codicil giving 
to his trustees 6001. yearly from the estates 
he still possessed in Devonshire and Cornwall, 
' to pay for the maintenance of the horses and 
dogs I leave behind me, and for the expense 
of servants to look after them,' such portion 
as was not required as the animals died off to 
be paid to the lady Mrs. Levina Luther 
whom he had made his heiress. He was 
always a lover of animals. According to 
George Colman the younger, ' all the stray 
animals which happened to follow him in 
London he sent down to this villa [The Grove, 
Chiswick]. . . . The honours shown by Mr. 
Morrice to his beasts of burthen were only 
inferior to those which Caligula lavished on 
his charger.' A year later Horace Walpole 
wrote of Morice to Lady Ossory that, whether 
he was better in health or worse, he was al- 
ways in good spirits. But he was steadily pre- 
paring for death. A second codicil, executed 
at Naples on 14 March 1784, was charac- 
teristic. ' I desire,' he wrote, ' to be buried 
at Naples if I die there, and in a leaden coffin, 
if such a thing is to be had. Just before it 
is soldered I request the surgeon in Lord 
Tylney's house, or some other surgeon, to 
take out my heart, or to perform some other 
operation, to ascertain my being really dead.' 
He died at Naples on 18 Oct. 1785. A por- 
trait at Hartwell shows him ' in an easy, re- 
clining attitude, resting from field sports,with 
his dogs and gun, in a fine landscape scene.' 

[For the father : Cases in Parliament, "Wills, 
&c., 1684-1737 (in British Museum), ff. ] 06-12 ; 
Lords' Journals, xxv. 26-129-30; W. H. Smyth's 
JEdes Hartwellianae, p. 114 ; Western Antiquary, 
xi. 6 ; A. F. Robbins's Launceston Past and 
Present, pp. 244-8-51 ; J. T. Squire's Mount 
Nod, p. 44. For the son see British Museum 
Addit. MSS. (Newcastle Correspondence) 32856 
ff. 17, 459, 32860 ff. 142, 199, 32870 f. 457, 

32871 f. 23, 32876 f. 108, 32879 f. 348, 
32886 if. 397, 505, 539, 32887 if. 99, 197, 
408, 32905 f. 250, 32907 f. 70, 32914 f. 37, 
32920 ff. 57, 62, 308, 315, 362, 32930 ff. 
70, 72, 32935 f. 133, 33067 f. 161: 21553 f. 55; 
Annual Register, 1759, pp. 99-100; European 
Mag. viii. 395* ; Gent. Mag. vol. Iv. pt. ii. p. 919 ; 
The Pocket Mag. xiii. 171 ; Calendar of Home 
Office Papers, 1760-5, pp. 285, 288, 289, 360; 
Domestic State Papers, George III, parcel 79, 
Nos. 37, 39, 45 ; Commons' Journals, xxix. 646 ; 
Ockerby's Book of Dignities, pp. 201, 292; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornubiensis, pp. 
1052, 1362; W. H. Smyth's JEdes Hartwel- 
lianse, p. 114, and Addenda, p. 137; George 
Colman's Random Records, i. 280; Thomas 
Faulkner's History and Antiquities of Brentford, 
Baling, and Chiswick, pp. 484-5 ; Horace Wai- 
pole's Letters, vol. i. p. Ixx, iii. 302, iv. 1, 50, vi. 
359,461, 510, vii.214, 421, 440, 448,449, 458, 475, 
viii. 52, 66, 75, 94, 167, 266, 285, 286, 297, 310, 
386,388, 407, 526; D. Lysons's Magna Britannia, 
vol. vi. pp. cxsvii, 114, 323, 552 ; R. and 0. B. 
Peter's Histories of Launceston and Dunheved, 
p. 406 ; A. F. Robbins's Launceston Past and 
Present, pp. 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 268, 270, 
271, 276 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 486 ; 
Western Antiquary, viii. 20, 53, 75, 146, ix. 61, 
85, 111, xi. 6-9 ; J. T. Squire's Mount Nod, pp. 
44, 45; W. P. Courtney's Parliamentary History 
of Cornwall, pp. 370, 384.] A. F. R. 

MORICE, RALPH (fl. 1523-1570), 
secretary to Archbishop Cranmer, born about 
1500, was presumably younger son of James 
Morice, clerk of the kitchen and master of the 
works to Margaret, countess of Richmond. 
His father, who was living in 1537, amassed 
a considerable estate and lived at Chipping 
Ongar, Essex. His principal duty consisted 
in supervising the buildings of the countess 
at Cambridge ( WILLIS and CLARK, Arch. Hist, 
of the Univ. of Cambridge, ii. 192, &c.) The 
eldest son, WILLIAM MORICE (fl. 1547), was 
gentleman-usher, first to Richard Pace [q. v.], 
and afterwards to Henry VIII, and towards 
the end of Henry's reign was in gaol and in 
per il of his life from a charge of heresy, through, 
the envy which his estate excited in some of 
the courtiers. John Southe saw him when 
kept in Southwell's house near the Charter- 
house. He had added to the family estates 
by judicious investments in confiscated lands 
(cf. Trevelyan Papers, Camd. Soc., ii. 4). On 
his release from prison at Henry's death, and 
his election as member of parliament, he pro- 
cured an act to be passed uniting the parishes 
of Ongar and Greenstead, he being the pa- 
tron. This was repealed by an act of 1 Mary, 
Morice's labour being declared to be ' sinis- 
ter,' and he to have been ' inordinately seek- 
ing his private lucre and profitt.' He died 
some time in Edward VI's reign. 




Ralph Morice was educated at Cambridge ; 
he graduated B.A. in 1523, and commenced 
M.A. in 1-526. He became secretary to Cran- 
mer in 1528 before his elevation to the arch- 
bishopric, and continued in the office until 
after Edward VI's death. In 1532 he went 
with Latimer, his brother, and others to see 
James Bainham [q. v.] in Newgate before his 
execution. On 18 June 1537 he and his 
father received a grant of the office of bailiff 
for some crown lands, and in 1547 he was 
made registrar to the commissioners ap- 
pointed to visit the dioceses of Rochester, 
Canterbury, Chichester, and Winchester. 
His duties while secretary to the archbishop 
were severe. In a memorial printed in the j 
Appendix to Strype's ' Cranmer,' and ad- 
dressed to Queen Elizabeth, he speaks of j 
writing much in defence of the ecclesiastical 
changes, and as he mentions that he ' most 
painfullie was occupied in writing of no 
small volumes from tyme to tyme ' much of 
his work must have been anonymous. He 
had the farm of the parsonage of Chartham 
in Kent that is to say he put in a curate, 
keeping the rest of the revenues. The 
curate, one Richard Turner, got into trouble 
for protestant preaching in 1544, but Morice 
managed to clear him. Under Mary, Morice 
was in some danger. His house was twice 
searched, and he lost many of his papers , 
and had to fly. He was imprisoned, but j 
escaped. The close of his life he passed at i 
Bekesborne in Kent (HASTED, Kent, iii. 715). 
There he fell into poverty, and stated in one 
of his petitions to Queen Elizabeth that he ! 
had four daughters whom he wanted means ! 
to marry. Three of these, however, Margaret, ! 
Mary, and Anne, were married in January and 
February 1570-1. Alyce Morice, who was 
buried 25 Feb. 1561-2, may have been his 
wife. The date of his own death is uncer- 

Morice, from his official position, was in 
possession of much information, and helped 
Foxe and others in their literary researches, 
chiefly by supplying them with his ' Anec- 
dotes of Cranmer.' This compilation was used 
by Strype in his ' Memorials of Cranmer,' and 
was reprinted from the manuscript at Corpus I 
Christi College, Cambridge, in 'Narratives of 
the Reformation '(Camd. Soc.) Morice gave 
other assistance to Foxe, and wrote an account 
of Latimer's conversion, which is printed in 
Strype's ' Memorials ' and in Latimer's 
'Works.' The original is in Harl. MS. 422, 
art. 12. Art. 26 in the same manuscript, an 
account of the visit to Bainham, appears in 
Strype, Latimer's ' Works,' and in Foxe. 
Harl. MS. 6148 consists of copies of letters 
written by Morice on the archbishop's busi- 

ness. Transcripts by Strype of some of 
these form Lansdowne MS. 1045. They have 
been published by Jenkyns and Cox in their 
editions of Cranmer's ' Works.' 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 294; Narratives 
of the Reformation, ed. Nichols (Camd. Soc.), 
passim ; Letters and Papers Henry VIII ; 
Dixon's Hist, of Church of Engl. ii. 347 ; Cran- 
mer's Remains, ed. Jenkyns, vol. i. p. cxviii ; 
To Id's Life of Cranmer.] W. A. J. A. 

MORICE, SIB WILLIAM (1602-1676), 
secretary of state and theologian, born in St. 
Martin's parish, Exeter, 6 Nov. 1602, was the 
elder son of Dr. Evan Morice of Carnarvon- 
shire, who was chancellor of Exeter diocese 
in 1594, and died in 1605. His mother was 
Mary, daughter of John Castle of Scobchester 
in Ashbury, Devonshire ; she became in 1611 
the third wife of Sir Nicholas Prideaux of 
Solden, Devonshire, and died on 2 Oct. 1647. 
His younger brother, Laurence, died young, 
and the whole property came into the pos- 
session of the elder boy. William was 
educated ' in grammar learning ' at Exeter, 
and entered at Exeter College, Oxford, as a 
fellow-commoner about 1619, when he was 
placed under the care of the Rev. Nathanael 
Carpenter [q. v.] and was patronised by Dr. 
Prideaux, its rector, who prophesied his rise 
in life. He graduated B.A. on 27 June 1622, 
and gave his college a silver bowl weighing 
seventeen and three-quarter ounces. For 
some years his life was spent in his native 
county, first at West Putford and afterwards 
at Werrington, which he bought of Sir Fran- 
cis Drake in 1651. He also made consider- 
able purchases of landed property near Ply- 
mouth, including the manor of Stoke Damerel. 
In 1640 he was made a county justice, and 
in 1651 he was appointed high sheriff of 
Devonshire. On 15 Aug. 1648 Morice was 
returned to parliament for Devonshire, but 
never sat, and was excluded in ' Pride's 
Purge.' On 12 July 1654 he was re-elected, 
and he was again returned in 1656, but was not 
allowed to sit, as he had not received the ap- 
proval of the Protector's council, whereupon 
he and many others in a similar position 
published a remonstrance (WHITELOCKB, 
Memorials, pp. 651-3, 698). The borough of 
Newport in Cornwall, where he enjoyed 
great interest, chose him in 1658 and again 
in April 1660, when he preferred to sit for 
Ply mo uth, for which he had been returned ' by 
the freemen,' and he continued to represent 
that seaport until his death. 

Morice was related, through his wife, to 
General Monck, whose property in Devonshire 
was placed under his care. The general pos- 
sessed ' a great opinion of his prudence and 
integrity,' and imposed implicit reliance in 


4 8 


his assurance that the residents in the west 
of England desired the king's return. When 
he followed Monck to London in 1659 and 
became an inmate at Monck's house as ' his 
elbow-counsellor and a state-blind,' they were 
greatly pleased. It was the duty of Morice 
' to keep the expiring session of parliament 
steady and clear from intermeddling,' a task 
which he executed with great judgment. He 
received, through Sir John Grenville, a letter 
from Charles, urging him to bring Monck over 
to the restoration, which he answered with 
warmth, and he arranged the meeting of 
Grenville and Monck, guarding the door of 
the chamber while they were settling the 
terms for the king's return. In February 
1659-60 Charles bestowed on him, with the 
general's approbation, ' the seal and signet, 
as the badge of the secretary of state's office,' 
and in the next month he was created by 
Monck colonel of a regiment of foot, and made 
governor with his son of the fort and island 
of Plymouth. Morice was knighted by Charles 
on his landing, and at Canterbury, during the 
king's journey to London, was confirmed in 
the post of secretary and sworn a privy coun- 
cillor (26 May 1660). Many favours were 
bestowed upon him. He and his son William 
received the offices of keeper of the port of 
Plymouth, with certain ports in Cornwall 
and of Avenor of the duchy, and on their sur- 
rendering the patent for the governorship of 
Plymouth, a pension of 200/. a year was 
settled on the son, who was made a baronet 
on 20 April 1661. The father obtained an 
extended grant of land in Old Spring Gardens, 
London, and a charter for two fairs yearly at 
Broad Clist, Devonshire. With the old court 
party his tenure of the secretaryship was not 
popular. They complained of his lack of 
familiarity with foreign languages and of his 
ignorance of external affairs. His friends 
endeavoured in 1666 to make out that he 
was principal secretary of state, above Lord 
Arlington, but failed in their attempt, and 
at Michaelmas 1668 Morice found his posi- 
tion so intolerable that he resigned his office 
and retired to his property, where he spent 
the rest of his days in collecting a fine library 
and in studying literature. A letter about 
him, expressing his deep disgust against 
Charles II for not keeping his promises and 
for debauching the nation, is in ' Notes and 
Queries' (1st ser. ix. 7-8). Morice died at 
Werrington on 12 Dec. 1676, and was buried 
in the family aisle of its church. His wife 
was Elizabeth, younger daughter of Humphry 
Prideaux (eldest son of Sir Nicholas Pri- 
deaux), by his wife, Honour, daughter of Ed- 
mund Fortescue of Fallapit, Devonshire. She 
predeceased him in December 1663, having 

borne four sons (William, John, Humphry 
[see below], and N icholas) and four daughters. 
Morice founded an almshouse in Sutcombe, 
near Holsworthy, Devonshire, for six poor 
people, and endowed it with lands. 

There is a portrait of him in Houbraken 
and Birch's ' Heads ' (1747, ii. 35-6) ; an- 
other hangs in Exeter College Hall (BoASE, 
Exeter Coll. 1893). 

Morice's learning was undoubted. When 
young he wrote poetry, and Prince had seen 
some of his verses that were ' full of life and 
briskness.' But his chief preoccupation was 
theology, and he continued through life a 
scrupulous censor of orthodox divinity. On 
a visit to Oxford in November 1665 he and 
some others complained of a sermon at St. 
Mary's with such effect that the preacher 
was forced to recant, and when William 
Oliver was ejected in 1662 from the church 
of St. Mary Magdalene, Launceston, he re- 
ceived from Morice ' a yearly pension for the 
support of his family.' The independent party 
in religion made it a rule in parochial cures to 
admit to the communion none but those who 
were ' most peculiarly their own flock,' and in 
Morice's district the sacrament was adminis- 
tered in the church of Py worthy only. His 
views on this point, composed in two days, 
were set before the ministers, and about two 
years later their official answer came to him. 
He then composed a ponderous treatise in 
refutation of their arguments which he issued 
in 1657, with the title of ' Coena, quasi Kotw?. 
The new Inclosures broken down and the 
Lord's Supper laid forth in common for all 
Church-members.' A second edition, ' cor- 
rected and much enlarged,' was published in 
1660, with a dedication to General Monck. 
Many theologians took part in this con- 
troversy, and among them John Beverley 
of Rothwell, John Humfrey, Humphrey 
Saunders of Holsworthy, Anthony Palmer 
of Bourton-on-the-Water,RogerDrake,M.D., 
and John Timson, ' a private Christian of 
Great Bowden in Leicestershire.' From the 
heading of an article (v. 215) of the 'Weekly 
Pacquet of Advice from Rome,' it would 
seem that Morice printed a letter to Peter 
du Moulin [q. v.] on the share of the Jesuits 
in causing the civil war in England, and two 
political pamphlets (1) 'A Letter to General 
Monck in answer to his directed to Mr. Rolle 
for the Gentlemen of Devon. By one of the 
excluded Members of Parliament. Signed 
R. M., 1659 ; ' and (2) 'Animadversions upon 
General Monck's Letter to the Gentry of 
Devon. By M. W., 1659,' are sometimes at- 
tributed to him (HALKETT and LAIJTG, Diet, 
of Anon. Literature, i. 98, ii. 1380). John 
Owen dedicated to him the first volume 


(1668) of ' Exercitations on the Epistle to 
the Hebrews,' and Malachy Thruston, M.D., 
did him a like honour in his thesis ' De Re- 
spirationis Usu Primario ' (1670) . A letter to 
Morice from Sir Bevil Grenville (who made 
him his trustee), written at Newcastle, 
15 May 1639, is in the 'Thurloe State Papers ' 
(i. 2-3). 

The third son, HUMPHRY MORICE (1640?- 
1696), was in March 1663 granted the rever- 
sion of one of the seven auditorships of the 
exchequer, and ultimately succeeded to the 
position. His youngest brother, Nicholas, 
sat in parliament for Newport, Cornwall, 
from 1667 to 1679, and one of the two went 
to the Hague early in 1667 as secretary to 
Lord Holies and Henry Coventry, the com- 
missioners engaged in an abortive endeavour 
to arrange a treaty with the Dutch. Of the 
appointment Pepys wrote : ' That which 
troubles me most is that we have chosen a 
son of Secretary Morris, a boy never used to 
any business, to go secretary to the embassy.' 
Humphrey married on 8 Jan. 1670 Alice, 
daughter of Lady Mary Trollope of Stam- 
ford, Lincolnshire. In his later years he en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits, chiefly with 
Hamburg. He died in the winter of 1696, 
and on 29 Dec., as ' Mag r . Humphrey Morice,' 
was buried at Werrington, Devonshire, the 
family seat, then occupied by his nephew, 
Sir Nicholas Morice, bart. His son Humphry 
is separately noticed. 

[For the father : Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, 
iii. 1087-90 ; Boase's Exeter Coll. p. lix ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Vivian's Devon Visitation, p. 
621 ; Worth's Plymouth, pp. 163, 168, 191,421 ; 
Robbing's Launceston, pp. 208-9, 214 ; Worthing- 
ton's Diary (Chetham'Soc.), vol. ii. pt. i. p. 152 ; 
Wood's Life (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), ii. 66; Price's 
King's Restoration, passim ; London Christian 
Instructor, vii. 1-4,57-60(1824); State Papers, 
1659-67; Lysons's Devonshire, pt.ii. pp. 74, 466, 
552. An elaborate monument to the families of 
Morice and Prideaux is printed in W. H. H. 
Rogers' s Sepulchral Effigies of Devon, pp. 292-3. 
Several extracts, by the Rev. Edward King, 
from Werrington parish registers relating to his 
descendants are printed in the Genealogist, iv. 
61-3. For the son : information from A. F. 
Robbins, esq. ; Collins's English Baronetage, vol. 
iii. pt. i. p. 269 ; Pepys's Diary, iii. 65 ; Calendar 
of Domestic State Papers, 1663-4, pp. 94, 538, 
1666-7, pp. 523, 601 ; Calendar of Treasury 
Papers, 1702-7, p. 121 ; Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 
28052, f. 72 ; Chester's London Marriage Li- 
cences, 1521-1869, p. 944; Western Antiquary, 
viii. 53, xi. 6.1 W. P. C. 

MORIER, DAVID (1705 P-1770), painter, 
was born at Berne in Switzerland about 
1705. He came to England in 1743, and 
obtained the patronage of William, duke of 




Cumberland, who gave him a pension of 200/. 
a year. Morier excelled in painting animals, 
especially horses, and executed several battle 
pieces and equestrian portraits. Among the 
latter were portraits of George II, George III 
(engraved by Francois Simon Ravenet[q. v.]), 
and the Duke of Cumberland (engraved by 
Lempereur) . Portraits by Morier of the Duke 
of Cumberland and John Pixley, the Ipswich 
smuggler, were engraved in mezzotint by 
John Faber, jun. Morier exhibited at the 
first exhibition of the Society of Artists in 
1760, and again in 1762, 1765, and 1768, 
sending equestrian portraits, and in the last 
year ' An Old Horse and the Farmer.' He fell 
into pecuniary difficulties, and was in 1769 
confined in the Fleet prison, where he died 
in January 1770. He was buried on 8 Jan. 
in the burial-ground at St. James's Church, 
Clerkenwell, London, at the expense of the 
Society of Artists. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits ; Catalogues of the 
Soc. of Artists.] L. C. 

1877), diplomatist, was the third son of Isaac 
Morier [q. v.], consul-general to the Turkey 
Company at Constantinople, and was born at 
Smyrna 8 Jan. 1784. He was educated at 
Harrow, and entered the diplomatic service. 
In January 1804, at the age of twenty, he 
was appointed secretary to the political 
mission sent by the British government to 
'All Pasha of Janina and to the Turkish go- 
vernors of the Morea and other provinces, 
with a view to counteracting the influence 
of France in south-east Europe. In May 1807 
he was ordered to take entire charge of the 
mission, but as the continued rupture of di- 
plomatic relations between England and the 
Porte defeated his negotiations with the 
Turkish governors, he was presently trans- 
ferred to Sir Arthur Paget's mission at the 
Dardanelles, the object of which was to re- 
establish peace. While attached to this mis- 
sion he was despatched on special service to 
Egypt, where he was instructed to negotiate 
for the release of the British prisoners cap- 
tured by Mohammed 'All during General 
Eraser's fruitless expedition against Rosetta 
in 1807. In the summer of 1808 he was at- 
tached to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert Adair's 
embassy, and in conjunction with Stratford 
Canning [q. v.], afterwards Viscount Strat- 
ford de Redcliffe, assisted in the negotiations 
which resulted in the treaty of the Darda- 
nelles of 5 Jan. 1809. He proceeded with 
Adair and Canning to Constantinople, where, 
with the exception of a mission on special 
service to Tabriz (where the British lega- 




tion in Persia was then established) from 
October 1809 to the following summer, he 
remained engaged in the business of the em- 
bassy, first under Adair, and then (1810-12) 
as secretary of legation under his successor, 
Stratford Canning. (Some letters written 
during the period of his employment at Tabriz 
are published in Lane-Poole's ' Life of Strat- 
ford Canning.') On the termination of Can- 
ning's appointment, Morier accompanied him 
(July 1812) on his return to England. In 
1813 he was attached to Lord Aberdeen's 
mission to Vienna, and during the years 1813- 
1815 was continually employed in the most 
important diplomatic transactions of the cen- 
tury the negotiations which accompanied 
the ' settlement of Europe ' after the fall of 
Napoleon. He was with Lord Castlereagh at 
the conferences at Chatillon-sur-Seine, and 
assisted in the preparation of the treaties of 
Paris of May 1814. In the same year he at- 
tended the foreign minister at the famous con- 
gress of Vienna, and, when the Duke of Wel- 
lington succeeded Castlereagh in his difficult 
mission, Morier remained as one of the secre- 
taries. In July 1815, after the final overthrow 
of Napoleon, Morier accompanied Castlereagh 
to Paris, and was occupied till September in 
drafting the celebrated treaties of 1815. He 
had been appointed consul-general for France 
in November 1814, but he did not take over 
the post until September of the following 
year, when the work upon the treaties was 
completed ; and in the meanwhile he had 
married. At the same time he was named a 
commissioner for the settlement of the claims 
of British subjects upon the French govern- 
ment. The consul-generalship was abolished, 
and Morier retired on a pension 5 April 1832, 
but was almost immediately (5 June) ap- 
pointed minister plenipotentiary to the Swiss 
Confederated States, a post which had pre- 
viously been held by his old chief and life- 
long friend, Stratford Canning. The fifteen 
years of his residence at Berne endeared him 
to British travellers and all who came under 
his genial and sympathetic influence. On 
19 June 1847, at the age of sixty-three, he 
finally retired from the diplomatic service, 
and spent the remaining thirty years of his 
life in retirement. 

Morier was a man of warm sympathies 
and transparent simplicity and honesty of 
character, and his varied experience of life 
and mankind never succeeded in chilling his 
heart or in clouding his gracious benignity. 
He was a staunch friend, and his affection 
for Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, for example, 
lasted unchanged for seventy years. His deep 
sense of religion led him to publish two pam- 
phlets, entitled < What has Religion to do 

with Politics ? ' (London, 1848), and ' The 
Basis of Morality ' (London, 1869). At the age 
of seventy-three he published his one novel, 
' Photo, the Suliote, a Tale of Modern Greece,' 
London, 1857, in which 'imperfect sketch' or 
' fragment,' as he calls it, a vivid picture of 
Greek and Albanian life in the first quarter 
of the century is presented, with something 
of the graphic power of his more literary 
brother, the author of 'Hajji Baba.' The 
materials for the story, beyond his personal 
recollections, were supplied by a Greek phy- 
sician with whom Morier was compelled to 
spend a period of quarantine at Corfu. He 
died in London 13 July 1877 at the age of 
ninety-three, but in full possession of his 
natural vivacity, a model, as Dean Stanley 
said, of the ' piety and virtue of the antique 
mould.' His only son, and last male repre- 
sentative of the family, Sir Robert Burnett 
David Morier, is noticed separately. 

[Foreign Office List, 1877; Times (Dean Stan- 
ley), 16 July 1877; Lane-Poole's Life of Strat- 
ford Canning, Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe ; 
private information.] S. L.-P. 

MORIER, ISAAC (1750-1817), consul- 
general of the Levant Company at Constanti- 
nople, belonged to a Huguenot family, which 
on the revocation of the edict of Nantes mi- 
grated to Chateau d'Oex, in the valley of the 
Sarine, east of Montreux in Switzerland, 
where the name is still preserved. Some of 
the Moriers engaged in commerce at Smyrna, 
where Isaac was born 12 Aug. 1750, and 
where he married, in 1775, Clara van Lennep, 
daughter of the Dutch consul-general and 
president of the Dutch Levant Company. 
One of her sisters was married to Admiral 
Waldegrave, afterwards first Baron Rad- 
stock [q. v.], and another to the Marquis de 
Chabannes de la Palice, whose sons became 
as distinguished in France as their Morier 
cousins in England. The three sisters were 
all celebrated for their beauty, and Romney 
painted portraits of each of them. Isaac 
Morier was naturalised in England, but, 
losing his fortune in 1803, was obliged to 
seek employment in the East, and in 1804 
was appointed the first consul-general of the 
Levant Company at Constantinople, a post 
which, on the dissolution of the company in 
1806, was converted into that of his Bri- 
tannic majesty's consul. To this Isaac Morier 
joined the functions of agent to the East India 
Company, and held these appointments till 
his death, of the plague, at Constantinople, 
in 1817. Four of his sons David Richard, 
James Justinian, John Philip, and William 
are noticed separately. 

[Private information.] S. L.-P. 



1849), diplomatist, traveller, and novelist, was 
the second son of Isaac Morier [q. v.], consul- 
general of the Levant Company at Constanti- 
nople, and was born at Smyrna, about 1780. 
Educated at Harrow, he joined his father at 
Constantinople some time before 1807 (Pre- 
face to Hajji Baba), and entered the diplo- 
matic service in that year, being attached to 
Sir Harford Jones's mission to. the court of 
Persia in the capacity of private secretary. 
Themission sailed from Portsmouth in H.M.S. 
Sapphire 27 Oct. 1807, and reached Bombay in 
April'1808. Here, after waiting some months, 
the envoy received (6 Sept.) his orders to pro- 
ceed to Tehran, and Morier was promoted to 
the post of secretary of legation (MORIER, 
Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia 
Minor to Constantinople in the Years 1808 
and 1809, London, 1812, p. 1). The mission 
arrived at Tehran in February 1809, but after 
three months Morier was sent home (7 May), 
probably with despatches, and made his well- 
known journey by way of Turkey in Asia, 
arriving at Plymouth in H.M.S. Formidable 
25 Nov. 1809. At Constantinople, on his 
way home, he was among his own family, 
for his father was British consul there, and 
his younger brother David was a secretary in 
the British embassy, while his elder brother 
John was at the same time consul-general in 
Albania. The record of his journey, published 
in 1812, during his second absence in Persia, 
at once took rank as an important authority 
on a country then little known to English- 
men, and by its admirable style and accurate 
observation, its humour and graphic power, 
still holds a foremost place among early books 
of travel in Persia. It was at once translated 
into French (1813), and soon after into Ger- 
man (1815). Morier had returned but a few 
months when he was appointed secretary of 
embassy to Sir Gore Ouseley, ambassador ex- 
traordinary to the court of Tehran, and sailed 
with the ambassador and his brother, SirWil- 
liam Ouseley, from Spithead 18 July 1810, on 
board the old Lion, the same ship which had 
carried Lord Macartney's mission to China 
eighteen years before (MORIER, A Second Jour- 
ney through Persia, pp. 2, 3). The embassy 
proceeded to Tabriz, where the prince royal 
of Persia had his government, and opened 
negotiations with a view to obtaining the 
support of Persia against the then subsisting 
Russo-French alliance. The work of the 
embassy, and the share taken by Morier in 
the treaty concluded in May 1812, are de- 
scribed in ' A Second Journey through Persia,' 
London, 1818. On Sir Gore Ouseley's re- 
turn to England, in 1814, Morier was left in 
charge of the embassy at Tehran (see his 

despatch to foreign office, 25 June 1814). Ha 
did not long remain in command, however, 
for his letter of recall was sent out on 12 July 
1815, and he left Tehran 6 Oct. following. 
As in his former journey he went by Tabriz 
and Asia Minor, reaching Constantinople 
17 Dec. 1816. In 1817 he was granted a re- 
tiring pension by the government, and, except 
for a special service in Mexico (where he was 
special commissioner from 1824 to 1826, and 
was one of the plenipotentiaries who signed 
the treaty with Mexico in London 26 Dec. 
1826), he was never again in the employment 
of the foreign office. 

The rest of his life was devoted to litera- 
ture. After the publication of his second 
book of travels he began a series of tales 
and romances, chiefly laid in Eastern scenes, 
of which the first and best was ' The Ad- 
ventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan,' 1824. 
The humour and true insight into oriental 
life displayed in this oriental ' Gil Bias' im- 
mediately seized the popular fancy. The 
book went to several editions ; and Morier 
acquired a high reputation as a novelist, 
which his later works do not appear to have 
injured, though they are of very unequal 
merit. The best are ' Zohrab the Hostage,' 
1832, and ' Ayesha, the Maid of Kars,' 1834, 
for here Morier was on familiar ground, and, 
as was said of him, ' he was never at home 
but when he was abroad.' So accurate was 
his delineation of Persian life and character 
that the Persian minister at St. James's is 
said to have remonstrated on behalf of his 
government with the plain-speaking and 
satire of ' Hajji Baba.' His other romances 
(see below) are of slight merit ; but his high 
reputation is attested, not only by the re- 
markable statement of Sir Walter Scott in 
the ' Quarterly Review ' that he was the best 
novelist of the day, but by the fact that his 
name was used, ' like the royal stamp on 
silver,' to accredit unknown authors to the 
public, as in the case of ' St. Roche ' and 
' The Banished.' Several of his novels were 
translated into French and German, and one 
into Swedish ; and one, ' Martin Troutroud,' 
was written originally in French. Morier 
was a well-known figure in the society of his 
day, as a collector and dilettante and an 
amateur artist of considerable merit. In his 
later years he lived at Brighton, where he 
died 19 March 1849. By his marriage with 
Harriet, daughter of William Fulke Greville, 
he had a son, Greville, a clerk in the foreign 
office, who predeceased him. 

The following is the list of his works : 
1. 'A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and 
Asia Minor to Constantinople in the Years 
1808 and 1809,' 1812. 2. 'A Second Journey 



through Persia,' 1818. 3. ' The Adventures 
of Haiji Baba of Ispahan,' 1824. 4. 'Zohrab 
the Hostage,' 1832. 5. 'Ayesha, the Maid 
of Kars,' 1834. 6. 'Abel Allnutt, a novel,' 
1837. 7. ' The Banished ' [by W. Hauff] : 
only prefatory note by Morier, 1839. 8. ' The 
Adventures of Tom Spicer,' a poem, printed 
1840. 9. ' The Mirza,' 1842. 10. ' Misselmah, 
a Persian tale,' 1847. 11. 'St. Roche,' a 
romance (from the German), merely edited 
by Morier, ' the practised author,' 1847. 
12. ' Martin Troutroud, or the Frenchman in 
London,' originally written by Morier in 
French, and translated by himself, 1849. 

[Authorities cited in the article ; Bates's Mac- 
lise Portrait Gallery, where there is a portrait 
of Morier ; information from Sir E. Hertslet, 
librarian to the foreign office ; private informa- 
tion ; Fraser's Magazine, vii. 159; Quarterly 
Review, vols. xxi. xxxvi. xxxix. James Justinian 
has been confounded with his elder brother, 
John Philip, in biographical dictionaries.] 

S. Ij.-P. 

MORIER, JOHN PHILIP (1776-1853), 
diplomatist, was the eldest of the four sons of 
Isaac Morier [q. v.], and was born at Smyrna 
9 Nov. 1776. He was attached to the embassy 
at Constantinople 5 April 1799,where he acted 
as private secretary to the ambassador, the 
seventh Earl of Elgin, best known for his 
acquisition of the ' Elgin marbles.' Morier 
was despatched on 22 Dec. 1799 on special 
service of observation to Egypt, to accom- 
pany the grand vezir in the Turkish expedi- 
tion against General Kleber, whom Napoleon 
had left to hold the country. Morier joined 
the Turkish army at El-'Arish, on the Egyp- 
tian frontier, 31 Jan. 1800, and remained 
with it until July. He published an ad- 
mirable account of the campaign, under the 
title of ' Memoir of a Campaign with the 
Ottoman Army in Egypt from February to 
July 1800' (London, 8vo, 1801). Accord- 
ing to the ' Nouvelle Biographie ' he was 
taken prisoner by the French, but in spite 
of his character as the representative of a 
hostile power, entrusted, moreover, with a 
secret mission to co-operate diplomatically 
with the Turks with a view to the expulsion 
of the French from Egypt, he was set at 
liberty, with a warning that should he again 
be found in Egypt he would meet the fate 
of a spy. No authority, however, is adduced 
for this story, which is unsupported by any 
public or private evidence. In December 
1803 Morier was appointed consul-general 
in Albania, where the policy of 'All Pasha 
of Jannina, the most powerful of the semi- 
independent vassals of the Porte, was for 
many years a subject of solicitude both to 
English and French diplomacy (LANE-PooLE, 

Life of Stratford Canning, i. 104). In April 
1810 he was promoted to be secretary of 
legation at Washington, and in October 1811 
was gazetted a commissioner in Spanish 
America. On his return to England he be- 
came for a while acting under-secretary of 
state for foreign affairs in August 1815. In 
the following year, 5 Feb., he was appointed 
envoy extraordinary to the court of Saxony 
at Dresden, which post he held till his re- 
tirement, on pension, 5 Jan. 1825. He died 
in London 20 Aug. 1853. He had married, 
3 Dec. 1814, Horatia Maria Frances (who 
survived him only six days), eldest daughter 
of Lord Hugh Seymour, youngest son of the 
first Marquis of Hertford, by whom he had 
seven daughters, one of whom married the 
last Duke of Somerset. 

[Foreign Office List, 1854 ; London Gazette, 
1 Oct. 1811 ; Ann. Eeg. 1853 ; information from 
Sir E. Hertslet; private information.] S. L.-P. 

DAVID (1826-1893), diplomatist, only son 
of David Richard Morier [q. v.], was born 
at Paris 31 March 1826. He was educated 
at first privately at home, and then at 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he took a 
second class in litterce humaniores in 1849. 
To his Oxford training he owed in part the 
scholarly style and analytical insight which 
afterwards characterised his despatches. In 
January 1851 he was appointed a clerk in 
the education department, a post which 
he resigned in October of the following- 
year in order to enter the diplomatic ser- 
vice. On 5 Sept. 1853 he became unpaid 
attache at Vienna, and the next twenty- 
three years of his life were spent almost 
entirely in German countries. He was ap- 
pointed paid attache at Berlin, 20 Feb. 1858; 
accompanied Sir H. Elliot on his special 
mission to Naples, June 1859 ; and was as- 
sistant private secretary to Lord John Rus- 
sell during his attendance upon the queen 
at Coburg in September to October 1860. 
On 1 Oct. 1862 he was made second secre- 
tary, on 1 March 1865 British commissioner 
at Vienna for arrangement of tariff, and on 
10 Sept. 1865 secretary of legation at Athens, 
whence he was soon transferred in the same 
capacity to Frankfort on 30 Dec. 1865. His 
services were recognised by the companion- 
ship of the Bath in the following January. 
From March to July 1866 he was again en- 
gaged on a commission at Vienna, for carrying 
out the treaty of commerce, and on return- 
ing to Frankfort acted as charge d'affaires, 
and was appointed secretary of legation at 
Darmstadt in the same year. Here, with an 
interval of commission work at Vienna upon 




the Anglo-Austrian tariff (May to September 
1867), lie remained for five years, until his ap- 
pointment as charge d'affaires at Stuttgart, 
18 July 1871. From Stuttgart he was trans- 
ferred with the same rank to Munich on 
-30 Jan. 1872, and after four years' charge of 
the Bavarian legation, left Germany on his 
appointment as minister plenipotentiary to 
the king of Portugal on 1 March 1876. 

During these twenty-three years of diplo- 
matic activity in Germany, he acquired an 
intimate and an unrivalled familiarity with 
the politics of the ' fatherland.' He was a 
hard Avorker and a close observer, and his 
very disregard of conventionality and his 
habits of camaraderie, which sometimes 
startled his more stiffly starched superiors, 
enabled him ' to keep in touch with all sorts 
and conditions of men and to get a firm 
practical grip of important political ques- 
tions. When any important question of 
home or foreign politics arose, he knew the 
views and wishes, not only of the official 
world, but also of all the other classes who 
contribute to form public opinion ; and he 
<lid not always confine himself to playing 
the passive role of an indifferent spectator. 
His naturally impulsive temperament, joined 
to a certain recklessness which was checked 
but never completely extinguished by offi- 
cial restraints, sometimes induced him to 
meddle in local politics to an extent which 
irritated the ruling powers ; and there is 
reason to believe indeed Sir Robert believed 
it himself that the enmity of Prince Bis- 
marck Avas first excited by activity of this 
kind. ... In complicated questions of Ger- 
man politics, even when they did not pro- 
perly belong to the post which he held for 
the moment, he was often consulted pri- 
vately by the Foreign Office authorities, and 
he was justly regarded as one of the first 
authorities on the Schleswig-Holstein ques- 
tion, though the advice which he gave to 
her majesty's government on that subject was 
not always followed ' ( Times, 17 Nov. 1893). 
During his residence at Darmstadt he was 
brought into relations with the Princess 
Alice and the crown princess, and probably 
from this time may be dated the high opinion 
in which he was held at court, and also the 
disfavour with which he was regarded by 
Prince Bismarck. The general ascription of 
some unsigned letters in the 'Times' in 1875 
on continental affairs to Morier's trenchant 
pen did not tend to diminish a dislike which 
the minister's outspoken language and uncon- 
cealed liberalism had contributed to excite, 
and it is noteworthy that the epoch of Bis- 
marck's greatest power was also the date 
when the man who knew more than any other 

Englishman of German politics and public 
opinion was finally removed from diplomatic 
employment in Germany. 

For five years (1876-81) he was minister at 
Lisbon, and on 22 June 1881 he was trans- 
ferred to Madrid, where he remained only 
three years, until his appointment as ambas- 
sador at St. Petersburg on 1 Dec. 1884. He 
had been created a K.C.B. in October 1882, 
and was called to the privy council in 
January 1885 ; he received the grand cross 
of St. Michael and St. George in February 
1886, and the grand cross of the Bath in 
September 1887 ; he received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. at Oxford in 1889, and was 
also hon. LL.D. of Edinburgh University. 
These honours were in just recognition of 
the exceptional ability he displayed in the 
conduct of British relations with Russia, 
especially after the Penj-deh incident, when 
his tact and firmness contributed in a very 
great degree to the maintenance of peace. 
It has often been asserted that, but for 
Morier, England would have been at war 
with Russia in 1885. In spite, or perhaps 
on account, of his vivacity of tempera- 
ment, frankness of expression, and uncom- 
promising independence of character, he 
was popular at St. Petersburg, both with 
the tsar and the ministers, and his popu- 
larity was notably enhanced when the Ger- 
man press, acting presumably with Prince 
Bismarck's authority, circulated the scan- 
dalous fiction that he had transmitted secret 
military information to the French from his 
post at Darmstadt during the war of 1870. 
When Count Herbert Bismarck made him- 
self responsible for the accusation by de- 
clining to contradict it, the ambassador pub- 
blished the correspondence, including an 
absolutely conclusive letter from Marshal 
Bazaine. The result was a universal con- 
demnation of the accusers by public opinion, 
and Morier was warmly congratulated in 
very high quarters at St. Petersburg, where 
the German chancellor was no favourite. 
He used to relate with amusement the ob- 
sequious politeness of a French station- 
master, when travelling in France soon 
afterwards, which was explained by the 
official's audible comment to a friend as the 
train moved off, ' C'est le grand ambassadeur 
qui a roule Bismarck ! ' 

In 1891 Sir Robert Morier was gazetted 
as Lord Dufferin's successor in the embassy 
at Rome. The climate of St. Petersburg, 
joined to very arduous work, often protracted 
late into the night, had undermined his con- 
stitution, and the appointment to Rome was 
made at his own request, solely on the 
ground of health. Matters of importance 




and delicacy, however, remained to be settled 
at St. Petersburg, and the tsar personally 
expressed a hope that the ambassador would 
not abandon his post at such a juncture. 
Sir Robert reluctantly consented to remain 
in Russia, though he knew it was at the 
risk of his life. The premature death, in 
1892, of his only son, Victor Albert Louis,' 
at the age of twenty-five, broke his once 
buoyant spirits, and his already weakened 
constitution was unable to repel a severe 
attack of influenza in the spring of 1893. He 
went to the Crimea, and then to Reichenhall 
in Bavaria, without permanent improvement, 
and died at Montreux, near the ancient seat 
of his family, on 16 Nov. 1893. He married 
in 1861 Alice, daughter of General Jonathan 
Peel [q. v.], but no male issue survived him. 
With his death a distinguished line of diplo- 
matists became extinct. 

[Foreign Office List, 1893; Times, 17 Nov. 
1893 ; personal knowledge.] S. L.-P. 

MORIER, WILLIAM (1790-1864), ad- 
miral, fourth son of Isaac Morier [q. v.] , consul- 
general at Constantinople, was born at Smyrna 
25 Sept. 1790. He spent two years at Harrow 
School, entered the navy in November 1803 as 
first-class volunteer, on board the Illustrious, 
74, and became midshipman on the Ambus- 
cade, with which he saw much service in the 
Mediterranean. From 1807 to 1810 he was 
employed on the Mediterranean and Lisbon 
stations, and became acting lieutenant of 
the Zealous, 74, and took part in the defence 
of Cadiz. In 1811, on H.M.S. Thames, 32, 
he contributed to the reduction of the island 
of Ponza, and displayed characteristic zeal 
in the destruction of ten armed feluccas on 
the beach near Cetraro ; and other boat en- 
gagements on the Calabrian coast. He was 
also present at the bombardment of Stoning- 
ton, in 1813, in the American war, and com- 
manded the Harrier and Childers sloops suc- 
cessively on the North Sea station in 1828. 
Becoming post-captain in January 1830, he 
retired, attaining the rank of retired rear- 
admiral in 1855 and vice-admiral 1862. In 
1841 he married Fanny, daughter of D. Bevan 
of Belmont, Hertfordshire. He died at East- 
bourne 29 July 1864. 

[Navy List ; private information.] S. L.-P. 

MORINS, RICHARD DB (d. 1242), his- 
torian, was a canon of Merton, who in 1202 
was elected prior of D unstable. At the time 
of his election he was only a deacon, but on 
21 Sept. he was ordained priest. Nothing is 
known of his parentage, but he seems to have 
been a personage of importance, and a lay 
namesake who held lands in Berkshire is 

several times mentioned in the Close and 
Patent Rolls as in John's service. In February 
1203 Morins was sent by the king to Rome, 
in order to obtain the pope's aid in arranging 
peace with France (cf. Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 26), 
and returned in July with John, cardinal of 
S. Maria in Via Lata, as papal legate. In 
1206 the cardinal constituted Morins visitor 
of the religious houses in the diocese of Lin- 
coln. In 1212 Morins was employed on the 
inquiry into the losses of the church through 
the interdict. In the same year he also acted 
for the preachers of the crusade in the 
counties of Huntingdon, Bedford, and Hert- 
ford. In 1214-15 Morins was one of the 
three ecclesiastics appointed to investigate 
the election of Hugh de Northwold [q. v.] as 
abbot of St. Edmund's (ib. i. 124, 140, 1406 ; 
Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey, ii. 69- 
121). Later, in 1215, Morins was present at 
the Lateran council, and on his way home 
remained at Paris for a year to study in the 
theological schools. In 1222 he was employed 
in the settlement of the dispute between the 
Bishop of London and the Abbey of West- 
minster (MATT. PARIS, iii. 37), and in the 
next year was visitor for his order in the 
province of York. In 1228 he was again 
visitor for his order in the dioceses of Lich- 
field and Lincoln. In 1239 Morins drew up 
the case for submission to the pope as to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury's right of visiting 
the monasteries in the sees of his suffragans. 
In 1241 he was one of those to whom letters 
of absolution for the Canterbury monks were 
addressed (ib. iv. 103). Morins died on 
9 April 1242. The most notable event in 
Morins's government of the abbey was the 
dispute with the townspeople of Dunstable. 
Morins also records a number of minor events 
connected with himself. The lady-chapel in 
the canons' cemetery was built by him. 

Morins was the compiler or author of the 
early portion of the ' Dunstable Annals,' from 
theirbeginningto the timeof his death. Down 
to 1201 the ' Annals ' consist of an abridgment 
from the works of Ralph de Diceto, but from 
this point onwards they are original. From 
a reference in the opening words Morins 
would appear to have commenced the com- 
pilation of his 'Annals' in 1210, and after- 
wards to have continued it from year to 
year. The ' Annals ' are mainly occupied 
with details as to the affairs of the priory. 
Still, 'very few contemporary chroniclers 
throw so much light on the general history 
of the country, and, what would scarcely be 
expected, on foreign affairs as well as those 
of England. Many historical facts are known 
solely from this chronicle ' (LTTAED, Preface, 
p. xv). The manuscript of the ' Annals ' is 




contained in Cotton. MS. Tiberius A. x., 
which was much damaged in the fire of 
1731. There is also a transcript made by 
Humphrey Wanley [q. v] in Harleian MS. 
4886'. From the latter Hearne printed his 
edition in 1733, which is now very rare. The 
'Annals' were re-edited from the original 
manuscript by Dr. H. R. Luard for the Rolls 
Series in 1866, forming the greater part of 
vol. iii. of the ' Annales Monastici.' The 
portion of which Morins was author com- 
prises pp. 3-158 of the latter edition. The 
authorship of the remainder of the ' Annals ' 
is unknown. 

[Almost all our knowledge of Morins is due to 
the Dunstable Annals, but there are a few re- 
ferences in the Patent Rolls and in Matthew 
Paris. See also Luard's Preface to Annales 
Monastici, vol. iii. pp. xi-xix ; Hardy's Descrip- 
tive Cat. of Brit. Hist. iii. 252.J C. L. K. 



(1779-1866), physician, was born 1 May 
1779 at Anchorfield, near Edinburgh, and 
was educated at the high school and univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. 
12 Sept. 1799. His graduation thesis was 
' De Hydrocephalo Phrenitico,' and he con- 
tinued throughout life to take special interest 
in cerebral and mental diseases. He became 
a licentiate of the Edinburgh College of 
Physicians in 1800 and a fellow in 1801. He 
practised in Edinburgh for a time, but in 1808 
removed to London, and on 11 April was ad- 
mitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians 
of London, and 10 July 1841 was elected a 
fellow. He was made inspecting physician 
of lunatic asylums in Surrey in 1810, and 
7 May 1835 physician to Bethlehem Hospi- 
tal. He used to give an annual course of 
lectures on mental diseases, and became a re- 
cognised authority on the subject. He was 
physician to the Princess Charlotte, and in 
1838 he was knighted. He published in 
1826 ' Outlines of Lectures on Mental 
Diseases,' in 1828 ' Cases of Mental Disease, 
with Practical Observations on the Medical 
Treatment,' and in 1840 ' The Physiognomy 
of Mental Diseases.' His remarks in these 
wo'rks are brief, but are illustrated by a large 
series of interesting portraits of lunatics, 
among which is a striking one of Jonathan 
Martin [q. v.], the man who set fire to York 
Minster. Morison died in Scotland, 14 March 
1866, and was buried at Currie. 

[Works; Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 61.] 


MORISON, DOUGLAS (1814-1847), 
painter, born at Tottenham in Middlesex on 
22 Aug. 1814, was the son of Dr. Richard 

Morison of Datchet,nearWindsor. He studied 
drawing under Frederick Tayler [q. v.], and 
practised chiefly in water colours. His works 
were principally of an architectural nature, 
but he painted several views in Scotland. He 
was elected an associate of the Royal In- 
stitute or New Society of Painters in Water- 
colours in 1836, but resigned in 1838. On 
12 Feb. 1844 he was elected an associate of 
the Royal (or ' Old ') Society of Painters in 
Water-colours. He also practised in litho- 
graphy, published some illustrations of ' The 
Eglinton Tournament,' in 1842 a set of views 
in lithography of ' Haddon Hall,' and in 
1846 lithographic ' Views of the Ducal Palaces 
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,' from sketches 
made on the spot, with notes and suggestions 
from the prince consort. He made some 
sketches for the queen at Windsor Castle, 
and he received several medals in recognition 
of his art. Morison died at his residence at 
Datchet on 12 Feb. 1847. He exhibited oc- 
casionally at the Royal Academy from 1836 
to 1841. His sister Letitia was the wife of 
Percival Leigh [q. v.] 

[Roget's Hist, of the ' Old Water-Colour' Soc. ; 
Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; informa- 
tion from Mrs. Dixon Kemp and F. J. Furnivall, 
esq.] L. C. 

MORISON, JAMES (1708-1786), of 
Elsick, provost of Aberdeen, born in 1708, 
fifth son of James Morison, merchant in Aber- 
deen,was elected provost of Aberdeen in 1744, 
and held office at the outbreak of the Jacobite 
rising in the autumn of 1745. Morison and 
the town council resolved to put the burgh in 
a state of defence on the ground that ' there 
is ane insurrection in the highlands,' but on 
the representation of Sir John Cope [q. v.] 
the guns of the fort at the harbour and the 
small arms were sent to Edinburgh (15 Sept.), 
and the burgh was left without means of de- 
fence. On 25 Sept. a new town council was 
elected ; but before the new and old mem- 
bers could meet for the election of a succes- 
sor to Morison and the other magistrates, 
John Hamilton, chamberlain to the Duke of 
Gordon, representing the Pretender, entered 
the town, and the councillors took to flight. 
Morison's term of office had just expired, 
but, no new provost having been elected, he 
was summoned to appear before Hamilton. 
He hesitated, and, after a second message 
had threatened that his house would be 
burnt if he refused to appear, he was carried 
prisoner to the town house. Two other 
magistrates were also brought from their 
hiding-places, and the three men were forced 
to ascend to the top of the Town Cross and 
hear the proclamation of King James VIII. 



Morison declined to drink the health of the 
newly proclaimed king, and the wine was 
poured down his breast. Lord-president 
Forbes commended his conduct in the crisis. 
He died on 5 Jan. 1786, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age. 

Morison married in 1740 Isobell, eldest 
daughter of James Dyce of Disblair, merchant 
in Aberdeen, by whom he had a family of five 
sons and eleven daughters. Of his sons, two 
reached manhood : THOMAS MORISON (d. 
1824), an army surgeon, is best known for the 
share he had in bringing into notice the medi- 
cinal springs of Strathpeffer, Ross-shire. His 
portrait was presented to him in recognition 
of these services, and no whangs in the pump- 
room hall there. The younger son, GEOKGE 
MORISON (1757-1845), after graduating at 
Aberdeen, was licensed as a probationer of 
the church of Scotland in January 1782, and 
was in the following year ordained minister 
of Oyne, Aberdeenshire, from which he was 
translated to Banchory-Devenick in 1785. 
He continued there during a long ministry 
of sixty-one years, receiving the degree of 
D.D. from Aberdeen University in 1824, and 
succeeding his brother in the estates of El- 
sick and Disblair in the same year. His 
benefactions to his parish were large, chief 
among them being the suspension bridge 
across the Dee, which was built by him at 
a cost of 1,400/. and is still the means of 
communication between the north and south 
portions of the parish. He died, ' Father of 
the Church of Scotland,' on 13 July 1845. 
Besides two sermons (1831-2) and accounts 
of Banchory in Sinclair's ' Statistical Ac- 
count,' he published ' A Brief Outline . . . 
of the Church of Scotland as by Law Esta- 
blished,' Aberdeen, 1840, 8vo ; and ' State 
of the Church of Scotland in 1830 and 1840 
Contrasted,' Aberdeen, 1840, 8vo. He mar- 
ried in 1786 Margaret Jeffray (d. 1837), but 
left no issue (HEW SCOTT, Fasti Eccles. 
Scotic. pt. vi. pp. 493, 597). 

[Records of Burgh of Aberdeen ; family know- 
ledge.] E. M. 

MORISON, JAMES (1762-1809), theo- 
logian, born at Perth on 13 Dec. 1762, was 
son of a bookseller and postmaster there. 
He likewise became a bookseller, first at Leith 
and afterwards at Perth. In religion he was 
for some time a member of the Society of 
Glassites,from whom he seceded and founded 
a distinct sect, of which he became the mi- 
nister. He frequently preached and lectured, 
much to the neglect of his business. His 
oratorical gifts are said to have been con- 
siderable. He died at Perth on 20 Feb. 1809. 
On 13 Dec. 1778 he married a daughter 

(d. 1789) of Thomas Mitchel, writer, of Perth, 
and on 20 Dec. 1790 he married again. He 
left a large family. 

Of Morison's writings may be mentioned : 
1. 'New Theological Dictionary,' 8vo, Edin- 
burgh, 1807. 2. ' An Introductory Key to 
the first four Books of Moses, being an 
Attempt to analyse these Books . . . and . . . 
to shew that the great Design of the Things 
recorded therein was the Sufferings of Christ 
and the following Glory,' 8vo, Perth, 1810, 
which had been previously circulated in 
numbers. He also published some contro- 
versial pamphlets and an appendix to Bishop 
Newton's ' Dissertations on the Prophecies,' 

[Gent. Mag. 1809, pt. i. p. 379.] G. G. 

MORISON, JAMES (1770-1840), self 
styled ' the Hygeist,' born at Bognie, Aber- 
deenshire, in 1770, was youngest son of Alex- 
ander Morison. After studying at Aberdeen 
University and Hanau in Germany, he esta- 
blished himself at Riga as a merchant, and 
subsequently in the West Indies, where he 
acquired property. Ill-health obliged him to 
return to Europe, and about 1814 he settled 
at Bordeaux. After ' thirty-five years' in- 
expressible suffering' and the trial of every 
imaginable course of medical treatment, he 
accomplished 'his own extraordinary cure' 
about 1822 by the simple expedient of swal- 
lowing a few vegetable pills of his own com- 
pounding at bed-time and a glass of lemonade 
in the morning. His success induced him to 
set up in 1825 as the vendor of what he 
called the 'vegetable universal medicines,' 
commonly known as ' Morison's Pills,' the 
principal ingredient of which is said to be 
gamboge. His medicines soon became highly 
popular, especially in the west of England, 
and in 1828 he formed an establishment for 
their sale in Hamilton Place, New Road, 
London, which he dignified with the title of 
' The British College of Health.' He bought 
a pleasant residence at Finchley, Middlesex, 
called Strawberry Vale Farm, but latterly 
he lived at Paris, and it is said that the 
profits from the sale of his medicines in 
France alone were sufficient to cover his ex- 
penditure there. From 1830 to 1840 he paid 
60,000/. to the English government for medi- 
cine stamps. 

Morison died at Paris on 3 May 1840. He 
married twice, and left four sons and several 
daughters. The only surviving child of his 
second marriage (with Clara, only daughter 
of Captain Cotter, R.N.) was James Augustus 
Cotter Morison, who is separately noticed. 

Morison's writings are simply puffs of his 
medicines. Among them may be men- 




tioned: 1. 'Some important Advice to the 
World' (with supplement entitled 'More 
New Truths'), 2 pta. 12mo, London, 1825. 
2. ' A Letter to . . . the United East India 
Company, proposing a ... Remedy for . . . 
the Cholera Morbus of India,' 8vo, London, 
1825. 3. ' The Hygeian Treatment of the 
. . . Diseases of India,' 8vo, London, 1836. 
His essays were collected together in a volume 
called ' Morisoniana, or Family Adviser of 
the British College of Health,' 2nd edit. 8vo, 
London, 1829 (3rd edit. 1831), which was 
translated into several European languages. 
Prefixed to the volume is a portrait of the 
author from a picture by Clint. 

In Robert Wilkie's farce of the ' Yalla 
Gaiters' (1840) the hero is fascinated by the 
vocal powers of a countryman who is singing 
a cleverly written ballad in praise of Mori- 
son's ' Vegetable Pills ; ' the verses are printed 
in ' Notes and Queries,' 3rd ser. x. 477-8. 
Carlyle, in his ' Past and Present,' frequently 
made scornful reference to ' Morison's Pills.' 

[Biog. Sketch of Mr. Morison (with portrait); 
Oent. Mag. 1840, pt. ii. p. 437.] G. G-. 

MORISON, JAMES (1816-1893), 
founder of the evangelical union, son of 
Robert Morison (d. 5 Aug. 1855, aged 74), 
minister of the ' united secession ' church, 
was born at Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, on 
14 Feb. 1816. He was educated at the 
Edinburgh University, where his intellec- 
tual power attracted the notice of John 
Wilson (' Christopher North '), and in 1834 
he entered on his training for the ministry in 
Edinburgh at the divinity hall of the ' united 
secession ' church, under John Brown, D.D. 
(1784-1858) [q. v.] After license (1839) he 
preached as a probationer at Cabrach, Banff- 
shire, and other places in the north of Scot- 
land. His interest in the current movement 
of evangelical revival led him to study the 
doctrine of atonement ; he embraced the 
view (rare among Calvinists) that our Lord 
made atonement, not simply for the elect, 
but for all mankind. In Nairn, Tain, Forres, 
and at Lerwick in the Shetland Islands, he 
preached with great success, and embodied 
his views in a tract, published in 1840, and 
entitled 'The Question, "What must I do to 
be saved ? " answered by Philanthropes.' In 
the same year he received a call to the ' united 
secession' church, Clerk's Lane, Kilmarnock. 
On 29 Sept., the day appointed for his ordina- 
tion by Kilmarnock presbytery, proceedings 
were delayed by the objections of two of its 
members, but Morison was ordained after 
explaining that he did not hold ' universal 
salvation,' and promising to suppress his tract. 
He acquiesced, however, in its being reprinted 

by Thomas William Baxter Aveling [q. v.], a 
congregational minister in London, and, from 
the reprint, editions were issued (not by 
Morison) in Dunfermline and Kilmarnock. 
Hereupon he was cited before the Kilmarnock 
presbytery, and suspended from the ministry 
on 9 March 1841. He appealed to the synod, 
the supreme court of his church, and, though 
his cause was advocated by Brown, his tutor, 
the suspension was confirmed (11 June) on 
the motion of Hugh Heugh, D.D. [q. v.] 
Morison protested, and declined to recognise 
the decision ; he was enthusiastically sup- 
ported by his congregation, to which in two 
years he added 578 members. His father, 
who shared his views, was suspended in May 
1842 ; and in May 1843 there were further 
suspensions of Alexander Gumming Ruther- 
ford of Falkirk, and John Guthrie of Kendal. 

The four suspended ministers, in concert 
with nine laymen, at a meeting in Kilmar- 
nock (16-18 May 1843), formed the ' evan- 
gelical union.' They issued a statement of 
principles, showing a growth of opinion, inas- 
much as they had now abandoned the Calvin- 
istic doctrine of election. Their movement 
was reinforced by the expulsion (1 May 1844) 
of nine students from the theological academy 
of the congregationalists at Glasgow, under 
Ralph Wardlaw, D.D. [q. v.] ; and by the 
disownment (1845) of nine congregational 
churches holding similar views. From the 
' relief church ' in 1844 John Hamilton of 
Lauder joined the movement ; as did Wil- 
liam Scott in June 1845, on his expulsion 
from Free St. Mark's, Glasgow. Not all 
who thus came over to Morison's views, and 
were hence known as Morisonians, became 
members of the ' evangelical union ; ' but 
they co-operated with it, and aided in the 
maintenance of a theological academy, esta- 
blished in 1843 by Morison, who held the chair 
of exegetical theology, and remained princi- 
pal till his death. It is remarkable that the 
'evangelical union' adopted no uniform sys- 
tem of church government. The union was 
an advisory body, not a judicature, and it in- 
cluded congregations both of thepresbyterian 
and the congregational order, thus repro- 
ducing the policy of the ' happy union ' 
originated in London in 1690 [see HOWE, 
JOHN, 1630-1705], but improving on it by 
the admission of lay delegates. 

In 1851 Morison left Kilmarnock for Glas- 
gow, where, in 1853, North Dundas Street 
Church was built for him. In 1855 his 
health temporarily gave way ; from 1858 he 
was assisted by a succession of colleagues. 
He received the degree of D.D. in 1862 from 
the Adrian University in Michigan, and in 
1883 from Glasgow University. In 1884 he 



retired from the active duties of the pastorate. 
Public presentations were made to him in 
1864, and in 1889 on the occasion of his 
ministerial jubilee. In April 1890 an ineffec- 
tual attempt was made in the Paisley pres- 
bytery of the united presbyterian church 
(into which the 'united secession' church 
was incorporated in 1847) to recall the sen- 
tence of 1841 ; but in July 1893 Morison re- 
ceived a complimentary address signed by 
over nineteen hundred laymen of the united 
presbyterian church. 

He died on 13 Nov. 1893 at his residence, 
Florentine Bank, Billhead, Glasgow, and was 
buried on 16 Nov. in the Glasgow necro- 
polis. He married, first, in 1841, Margaret 
(d. 1875), daughter of Thomas Dick of Edin- 
burgh, by whom he had three children, the 
eldest being Marjory, married to George Glad- 
stone, his assistant (from 1 876) and successor ; 
his eldest son, Robert, died of congestion of 
the lungs in 1873 on his passage to Australia. 
He married, secondly> in 1877, Margaret 
Aughton of Preston, who survived him . His 
portrait, painted by R. Gibb, R.S.A., was 
presented to him in 1889. 

Morison was a man of real intellectual 
power and great gentleness of character. 
Probably of all Scottish sect makers he was 
the least sectarian. His personal influence 
and that of his writings extended much be- 
yond the community which he headed, and, 
in a way none the less effective because 
steady and quiet, did much to widen the 
outlook of Scottish theology. Always a hard 
student, he had especially mastered the ex- 
pository literature of the New Testament : 
and his permanent reputation as a writer 
will rest on his own commentaries, which are 
admirable alike for their compact presentation 
of the fruits of 'ample learning, and for the 
discriminating judgment of his own exegesis. 
The ' evangelical union,' which has been 
termed ' a successful experiment in heresy,' 
now numbers between ninety and one hun- 
dred churches, adhering to the well-marked 
lines of evangelical opinion laid down by its 
founder. Morison's original church removed 
from Clerk's Lane to Winton Place, Kilmar- 
nock, in 1860 ; the old building was sold to 
a dissentient minority which left the ' evan- 
gelical union ' in 1885. 

He published: 1. ' The Question, " What 
must I do ? " ' &c., 1840 ; later edition, with 
title ' The Way of Salvation,' 1843, and ' Safe 
for Eternity' [1868]. 2. 'Not quite a Chris- 
tian,' &c., 1840, often reprinted. 3. 'The 
Nature of the Atonement,' &c., 1841, often 
reprinted. 4. ' The Extent of the Atonement,' 
&c., 1841, often reprinted. 5. ' Saving Faith,' 
&c., 1844, reprinted. 6. 'A Gospel Alphabet,' 

&c., 1845. 7. ' The Declaration, " I Pray 
not for the World,"' &c., 1845, reprinted. 

8. 'A Gospel Catechism/ &c., 1846, reprinted. 

9. ' The Followers of ... Timothy,' &c., 
1847 (?). 10. ' An Exposition of the Ninth 
Chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Romans,' 
&c., 1849; new edition, re-written, with 
addition of tenth chapter, 1888. 11. 'Wherein 
the Evangelical Unionists are not Wrong,' 
&c., 1849. 12. ' Vindication of the Univer- 
sality of the Atonement,' &c., 1861 (a reply 
to ' The Atonement,' by Robert Smith Cand- 
lish, D.D. [q. v.]). 13. 'Biblical Help 
towards Holiness,' &c., 1861. 14. ' Apology 
for . . . Evangelical Doctrines,' &c., 1862. 
15. 'Questions on the Shorter Catechism,' 
&c., 1862. 16. 'A Critical Exposition of 
the Third Chapter of Paul's Epistle to the 
Romans,' &c., 1866. 17. ' A Practical Com- 
mentary on ... St. Matthew,' &c., 1870. 
18. 'A Practical Commentary on ... St. 
Mark,' &c., 1873. 19. ' Exposition and 
Homiletics on Ruth,' &c., 1880 (in 'The 
Pulpit Commentary.') 20. ' St. Paul's 
Teaching on Sanctification,' &c., 1886. 
21. ' Sheaves of Ministry ; Sermons and Ex- 
positions,' &c., 1890. From 1854 to 1867 he 
edited and contributed largely to ' The Evan- 
gelical Repository,' a quarterly magazine. 

[Morisonianism, by Fergus Ferguson, in Keli- 
gions of the World, 1877, pp. 275 sq. ; Irving's 
15ook of Scotsmen, 1881, pp. 367 sq. ; Memorial 
Volume of the Ministerial Jubilee of Principal 
Morison, 1889; Evangelical Union Jubilee Con- 
ference Memorial Volume, 1892; Christian News, 
18 and 25 Nov. and 2 Dec. 1893; North Dun- 
das Street Evangelical Union Church Monthly, 
December 1893 ; information from his son, 
Thomas Dick Morison, esq., and from the Rev. 
George Cron.] A. Gr. 

COTTER (1832-1888), author, born in Lon- 
don 20 April 1832 (he generally dropped the 
'Augustus'), was the only surviving child by 
a second marriage of James Morison (1770- 
1840) [q. v.] The father from about 1834 till 
his death resided in Paris, where he had many 
distinguished friends. His son thus learnt 
French in his infancy, and afterwards gained 
a very wide knowledge of French history,life, 
and literature. After his father's death in 
1840 he lived with his mother near London. 
His health was delicate and his education de- 
sultory. After travelling in Germany, he in 
March 1850 entered Lincoln College, Oxford. 
He was popular in university society, a ' good 
oar,' fencer, and rider, and a wide reader, al- 
though not according to the regular course. 
His university careerwas interrupted by visits 
to his mother, whose health was failing. He 
graduated B.A. and M.A. in 1859, and left 




Oxford, having acquired many friends, espe- 
cially Mark Pattison [q. v.], Dr. Fowler, then 
fellow of Lincoln, now president of Corpus, 
and Mr. John Morley. He soon began to 
write in periodicals, and became one of the 
best known of the staff of the ' Saturday Re- 
view ' while John Douglas Cook [q. v.] was 
editor. In 1861 he married Frances, daughter 
of George Virtue the publisher. In 1863 he 
published his interesting ' Life of St. Bernard,' 
a book which was praised by Mark Pattison, 
Matthew Arnold, and Cardinal Manning. It 
shows great historical knowledge, and a keen 
interest in the mediaeval church. He after- 
wards contemplated a study of French his- 
tory during the period of Louis XIV, which 
occupied him intermittently during the rest of 
his life. Unfortunately, Morison was never 
able to concentrate himself upon what should 
have been the great task of his life. 

His wife died in 1878, and he moved to 
10 Montague Place, in order to be near to 
the British Museum, and afterwards to Fitz- 
John Avenue, Hampstead. He was elected 
a member of the Athenaeum Club ' under 
Rule II,' and was a very active member of 
the London Library Committee. He was a 
member of the Positivist Society, occasionally 
lectured at Newton Hall, and left a legacy to 
the society. A few years before his death 
symptoms of a fatal disease showed them- 
selves, and he was thus forced to abandon 
the completion of his French history. In 
1887 he published his ' Service of Man, an 
essay towards the Religion of the Future.' 
Although he regarded this as his best work, 
and contemplated a second part, to be called 
* A Guide to Conduct,' his friends generally 
thought it an excursion beyond his proper 
field. His other works were numerous articles 
in the chief periodicals, a pamphlet upon ' Irish 
Grievances' in 1868, 'Mme. de Maintenon, an 
Etude,' in 1885, and excellent monographs 
upon ' Gibbon ' (1878) and ' Macaulay ' (1882) 
in John Morley's ' Men of Letters ' series. He 
died at his house in FitzJohn Avenue 26 Feb. 
1888. He left three children Theodore, 
M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, vice- 
president of the college of Aligarh, N.W. 
Provinces, India; Helen Cotter, and Mar- 

Few men had warmer and more numerous 
friends. He was a man of great powers of 
enjoyment, of most versatile tastes, and of 
singular social charm. He was familiar with 
a very wide range of literature in many de- 
partments, and the multiplicity of his inte- 
rests prevented him from ever doing justice 
to powers recognised by all his friends. He 
was an enthusiastic admirer of every new 
book which to him appeared to show genius, 

and eager to cultivate the acquaintance of 
its author. No man had wider and more 
generous sympathies. He had no scientific 
training, and took comparatively little inte- 
rest in immediate politics, although he once 
thought of trying to enter parliament ; but 
there was apparently no other subject in 
which he was not warmly interested. His 
recreation he mainly sought in travelling and 
yachting. Perhaps his closest friends were 
those of the positivist circle, especially Mr, 
Frederic Harrison, Professor Beesly, and Mr. 
Vernon Lushington, but he had also a great 
number of literary friends, one of the warmest 
being Mr. George Meredith, who dedicated 
to him a volume of poems, and wrote a 
touching epitaph upon his death. 

[The information for this article has been 
supplied by Morison's intimate friend and exe- 
cutor, Mr. Stephen Hamilton ; also obituary 
notice in Times of 28 Feb. 1888, and personal 
knowledge.] L. S. 

MORISON, JOHN (1750-1798), Scot- 
tish divine and poet, was born at Cairnie, 
Aberdeenshire, in June 1750. Educated at 
King's College, Aberdeen, he spent some years 
as a private tutor, first at Dunuet, Caithness- 
shire, and afterwards at Banniskirk. Gra- 
duating M.A. in 1771, he was schoolmaster 
at Thurso about 1773, subsequently went to 
Edinburgh for further study, and in Septem- 
ber 1780 was appointed minister of Canisbay, 
Caithness-shire, the most northerly church 
on the mainland. In 1792 he received the 
degree of D.D. from Edinburgh University. 
He died, after many years' seclusion, at 
Canisbay, 12 June 1798. 

Morison's claim to remembrance rests on 
his contributions to the final edition of the 
'Scottish Paraphrases,' 1781. When the 
collection was in preparation, he submitted 
twenty-four pieces to the committee, of which 
he was himself a member, but only seven 
(Nos. 19, 21, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 35) were 
accepted, and some of these were slightly 
altered, probably by his friend John Logan 
[q. v.] Most of the seven became 'household 
words' in the presbyterian churches, and one 
or two are freely used as hymns by other de- 
nominations. The thirty-fifth, ' 'Twas on that 
night when doom'd to know,' has long been 
the Scottish communion hymn, but it appears 
to be founded partly on Watts's ' 'Twas on 
that dark, that doleful night,' and partly on a 
Latin hymn by Andreas Ellinger (cf. Private 
Prayers cited below; MACLAGAN, p. 107; 
BONAE, Notes). From 1771 to 1775 Morison 
contributed verses, under the signature of 
' Musseus,' to Ruddiman's ' Edinburgh Weekly 
Magazine,' but these are of no particular 



merit. He wrote the account of the parish of 
Canisbay for Sinclair's ' Statistical Account,' 
and collected the topographical history of 
Caithness for Chalmers's 'Caledonia.' A 
translation of Herodian's ' History ' from the 
Greek remained in manuscript. He was an 
accomplished classical scholar and an able 

[Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scotieanse, iii. 359 ; 
Calder's History of Caithness; Maclagan's His- 
tory of the Scottish Paraphrases ; Julian's Dic- 
tionary of Hymnology ; Burns's Memoir of Dr. 
Macgill; Sonar's Notes in Free Church Hymnal; 
Free Church Magazine, May 1847 ; Life and 
Work Magazine, January 1888; Private Prayers 
put forth Lj Authority during the Reign of 
Queen Elizabeth (Parker Soc.), p. 405; Cairnie 
parish register.] J. C. H. 

MORISON, JOHN, D.D. (1791-1859), 
congregationalist minister, born at Millseat of 
Craigston, in the parish of King Edward, 
Aberdeenshire, on 8 July 1791, was appren- 
ticed to a watchmaker at Banff, but, resolving 
to devote himself to the ministry, he became a 
student at Hoxton Academy in 1811. He was 
ordained 17 Feb. 1815, and became pastor of a 
congregation at Union Chapel, Sloane Street, 
Chelsea. In 1816 a larger place of worship 
was provided for him in the same parish. 
At the close of that year Trevor Chapel was 
opened, where he continued to labour for more 
than forty years. From about 1827 till 1857 
he was editor of the ' Evangelical Magazine.' 
The university of Glasgow conferred upon 
him the degree of D.D. in 1830, and at a 
later period he received from an American 
university the honorary degree of LL.D. He 
died in London on 13 June 1859, and was 
buried in Abney Park cemetery. 

He married in 1815 Elizabeth, second 
daughter of James Murray of Banff, and had 
several children. His portrait has been en- 
graved by Cochran. 

In addition to numerous minor works and 
discourses, he wrote: 1. 'Lectures on the 
principal Obligations of Life, or a Practical 
Exposition of Domestic, Ecclesiastical, Pa- 
triotic, and Mercantile Duties,' London, 1822, 
8vo. 2. ' Counsels to a Newly-wedded Pair, 
or Friendly Suggestions to Husbands and 
Wives,' London, 1830, 16mo. 3. 'An Expo- 
sition of the Book of Psalms, Explanatory, 
Critical, and Devotional,' 3 vols. London, 
1832, 8vo. 4. 'A Tribute of Filial Sympathy 
... or Memories of John Morison of Mill- 
seat, Aberdeenshire,' London, 1833, 12mo. 
6. ' Morning Meditations for every Day in 
the Year,' London [1835], 16mo. 6. '"Fa- 
mily Prayers for every Morning and Evening 
throughout the Year,' 2nd edit., London 
[1837], 4to. 7. 'A Commentary on the Acts 

of the Apostles, in the Catechetical Form,' 
London, 1839, 12mo. 8. 'The Founders and 
Fathers of the London Missionary Society, 
with a brief Sketch of Methodism and Histo- 
rical Notices of several Protestant Missions 
from 1556 to 1839,' 2 vols. London [1840], 
8vo ; new edition, with twenty-one portraits, 
London [1844],8vo. 9. 'The Protestant Re- 
formation in all Countries, including Sketches 
of the State and Prospects of the Reformed 
Churches,' London, 1843, 8vo. 

[Memoirs by the Eev. John Kennedy, 1860 ; 
Evangelical Mag. September 1859 (by the Kev. 
A. Tidman) ; Smith's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
1883 ; Funeral Sermon by the Rev. William Mann 
Statham, 1859 ; Congregational "Year-Book, 1860, 
p. 200; Darlings Cycl. Bibl. ii. 2109.] T. C. 

ambassador, was son of Thomas Morison of 
Hertfordshire, by a daughter of Thomas Merry 
of Hatfield. He is said to have been at Eton, 
but his name does not occur in Harwood's 
' Alumni.' He graduated B.A. at Oxford 
on 19 Jan. 1527-8, and at once entered the 
service of Wolsey. He probably noted the 
way things were going, as he soon quitted 
the cardinal, visited Latimer at Cambridge, 
and went to Italy to study Greek. He be- 
came a proficient scholar, and was always 
interested in literature, although he adopted 
Calvinistic religious views. He lived at 
Venice and Padua, and endured all manner 
of hardships, according to the accounts given 
to his friends at home, from whom, although 
he had a pension, he was continually begging. 
In August 1535 he wrote to Starkey : ' You 
cannot imagine in what misery I have been, 
but that is past, and how great it would 
have been in winter if the kindness of Signer 
Polo had not rescued me from hunger, cold, 
and poverty. My books, good as they were, 
are a prey to the cruel Jews, for very little 
truly . . . my clothes are all gone. I am 
wearing Mr. Michael Throgmorton's breeches 
and doublet.' But at this time, as through- 
out his life, he exhibited a gaiety of dis- 
position which caused him to be called ' the 
merry Morison ' (cf. Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, xn. i. 430). Writing in Fe- 
bruary 1535-6 to Cromwell, he said that he 
wished to do something else than be wretched 
in Italy. Cromwell, who respected Morison's 
abilities, summoned him home in May 1535, 
and gave him an official appointment. On 
17 July 1537 he became prebendary of Yat- 
minster in the cathedral of Salisbury. Henry 
in 1541 is said to have given him the li- 
brary of the Carmelites in London. He re- 
ceived the mastership of the hospitals of St. 
James's, Northallerton, Yorkshire, and St. 
Wulstan, Worcester, with other monastic 




grants (cf. App. ii. 10th Rep. Dep.-Keeper 
Public Records, p. 241). 

In 1546 Morison went as ambassador to the 
Hanse towns. On Henry's death he was fur- 
nished with credentials to the king of Den- 
mark, and ordered by the council to announce 
Edward's accession. He had a pension of 
201. a year throughout the reign. On 8 May 
1549 he was made a commissioner to visit the 
university of Oxford, and before June 1550 
was knighted; in July he went as ambassador 
to Charles V, Roger Ascham going with him, 
and the two reading Greek every day together. 
His despatches to the council were usually 
very long, but Morison found time to travel 
about Germany with his secretary, Ascham, 
who published in 1553 an account of their 
experiences in ' A Report of the Affaires of 
Germany.' The emperor, who was frequently 
remonstrating through Morison about the 
treatment of the Princess Mary, did not al- 
together like him ; he was in the habit, as 
he said, of 'reading Ochino's Sermons or 
Machiavelli ' to his household ' for the sake 
of the language,' and his friendship with the 
leading reformers must have made negotia- 
tions difficult. On 5 Aug. 1553 he and Sir 
Philip Hoby [q. v.] were recalled (they had 
alluded to Guilford Dudley as king in a letter 
to the council), but the next year Morison 
withdrew to Strasburg with Sir John Oheke 
[q. v.] and Cook, and spent his time in study 
under Peter Martyr, whose patron he had been 
at Oxford (CHURTOX, Life of Nowell, p. 23). 
He was at Brussels early in 1555, and is said 
also to have passed into Italy, but he died 
at Strasburg on 17 March 1555-6. He had 
married Bridget, daughter of John, lord 
Hussey, who remarried in 1561 Henry Man- 
ners, earl of Rutland [q. v.] By her he had 
a son Charles, afterwards Sir Charles, kt.,and 
three daughters : Jane married to Edward, 
lord Russell, Elizabeth to William Norreys, 
and Mary to Bartholomew Hales. Morison 
died very rich, and had begun to build the 
mansion of Cashiobury in Hertfordshire, 
which his son completed, and which passed ! 
into the Capel family by the marriage of Sir | 
Charles's daughter Elizabeth with Arthur, ' 
lord Capel of Hadham [q. v.], and is now the 
property of the Earl of Essex. According to 
Wood, Morison left illegitimate children. 

Morison wrote : 1. ' Apomaxis Calumnia- 
rum,' London, 1537, 8vo, an attack on Coch- 
laeus, who had written against Henry VIII, 
and who retorted in ' Scopa in Araneas Ri- 
cardi Morison Angli,' Leipzig, 1538. 2. A 
translation of the ' Epistle ' of Sturmius, 
London, 1538, 8vo. 3. ' An Invective ayenste 
the great detestable vice, Treason,' London, 
1539, 8vo. 4. 'The Strategemes, Sleyghtes, 

and Policies of Warre, gathered together by 
S. Julius Frontinus,' London, 1539, 8vo. 
5. A translation of the ' Introduction to 
Wisdom' by Vives, London, 1540 and 1544, 
dedicated to Gregory Cromwell. He is also 
said to have written ' Comfortable Consola- 
tion for the Birth of Prince Edward, rather 
than Sorrow for the Death of Queen Jane,' 
after the death of Jane Seymour on 24 Oct. 
1537. ' A Defence of Priests' Marriages ' is 
sometimes assigned to him. It is dated by- 
some 1562, but more probably appeared be- 
tween 1549 and 1553. In manuscript are 
' Maxims and Sayings,' Sloane MS. 1523 ; 
'A Treatise of Faith and Justification,' Harl. 
MS. 423 (4) ; 'Account of Mary's Persecution 
under Edward VI,' Harl. MS. 353. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Gaird- 
ner, vols. vi. and seq. passim ; Cal. of State 
Papers, For. Ser. 1547-53 ; Rymer's Feedera, 
xiv. 671, xv. 183; Acts of the Privy Council, 
1547-56, passim; Katterfeld's Roger Ascham, 
sein Leben und seine Werke, note to pp. 91 and 
92 ; Ascham's Epistles, Oxford, 1703, passim ; As- 
cham's English Works, 1815, xvii. 383 ; Lloyd's 
State Worthies ; Fuller's Worthies, p. 227 ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit. p. 532 ; Clutterbuck's Herts, 
i. 237 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 239 ; 
Fasti Oxon. i. 29 ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church 
of England, vol. iii. passim; Narratives of the 
Reformation (Canid. Soc.), p. 146; Trevelyan 
Papers (Camd. Soc.), ii. 25; Chron. of Queen 
Jane and of two years of Queen Mary (Camd. 
Soc.), pp. 108-9 ; Troubles connected with the 
Prayer-book of 1549 (Camd. Soc.), p. 104; 
Strype's Memorials, i. i. 64, &c., ii. i. 576, &c., 
n. ii. 18, &c., in. i. vi., &c. ; Grindal, p. 12 ; 
Parker, ii. 446 ; Cranmer, pp. 1009, 1015 ; Cheke, 
pp. 19, 48 ; Annals, ii. ii. 498 ; Lodge's Illus- 
trations of Brit. Hist. i. 196. &c. ; Lansd. MS. 
980,137; Thomas's Historical Notes, i. 218, 219.] 

W. A. J. A. 

MORISON, ROBERT (1620-1683), 
botanist, son of John Morison by his wife 
Anna Gray, was born at Aberdeen in 1620. 
He was educated at the university of that 
city, and in 1638 graduated as M.A. and 
Ph.D. He devoted himself at first to mathe- 
matics, and studied Hebrew, being intended 
by his parents for the ministry ; but his 
attachment to the royalist cause led him to 
bear arms, and at the battle at the Brigg of 
Dee, when Middleton, the covenanter, was 
victorious, he received a dangerous wound 
in the head. Upon his recovery he, like so 
many of his royalist countrymen, went to 
Paris, where he became tutor to the son of 
a counsellor, named Bizet. Meanwhile he 
applied himself to the study of anatomy, 
zoology, botany, mineralogy, and chemistry, 
studying Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and the 
best commentators, and in 1648 took the 



degree of M.D. at Angers. On the recommen- 
dation of Vespasian Robin, the French king's 
botanist, he was received into the household 
of Gaston, duke of Orleans, in 1649 or 1650, 
as one of his physicians, and as a colleague 
of Abel Bruyner and Nicholas Marchant, 
the keepers of the duke's garden at Blois. 
This appointment, with a handsome salary, 
he retained until the duke's death in 1660. 
He was sent by the duke to Montpellier, 
Fontainebleau, Burgundy, Poitou, Brittany, 
Languedoc, and Provence in search of new 
plants, and seems to have explained to his 
patron his views on classification. At Blois 
Morison became known to Charles II, ne- 
phew of Gaston, through his mother, and on 
the Restoration was invited to accompany the 
king to England. Charles II made him his 
senior physician, king's botanist and superin- 
tendent of all the royal gardens, at a salary 
of 200^. and a house. On 16 Dec. 1669, he 
was elected professor of botany at Oxford, 
being recommended for that post partly by 
his 'Prseludia Botanica,' then just published, 
and partly, no doubt, by his politics. On 
the following day he was incorporated as 
doctor of medicine from University Col- 
lege, but he did not commence his lectures 
until the following 2 Sept. Subsequently 
he lectured to considerable audiences three 
times a week for five weeks, beginning each 
September and May, at a table covered with 
specimens in the middle of the physic gar- 
den. The rest of his life was occupied, as 
Anthony a Wood says (Fasti, ii. 315), in 
' prosecuting his large design of publishing 
the universal knowledge of simples,' his 

* Historia Plantarum Oxoniensis.' During a 
visit to London in connection with its pub- 
lication, he was struck on the chest by the 
pole of a coach while crossing the Strand 
between Northumberland House and St. 
Martin's Lane. Falling to the ground, he 
fractured his skull on a stone and was 
carried to his house in Green Street, Leices- 
ter Fields, where he died the next day, 
10 Nov. 1683, without regaining conscious- 
ness. He was buried in St. Martin's-in-the- 

Morison was credited in his own day with 
a clear intellect, a love of science and the pub- 
lic interest, and a hatred of sordid gain (cf. 
Life, attributed to Hearne, in Sloane MS. 
3198, printed in Plantarum Hist. vol. ii.) 

* He was,' wrote one R. Gray, apparently a 
relative, ' communicative of his knowledge, 
a true friend, an honest countryman, true to 
his religion, whom neither the fair promises 
of the papists nor the threatenings of others 
would prevail upon to alter ' (Sloane MS. 
3198). Tournefort said of Morison (Cle- 

mens de Botanique, 1694, p. 19) : ' One does 
not know how to praise this author suffi- 
ciently ; but he seems to praise himself over- 
much, since, not content with the glory of 
having carried out a part of the grandest 
scheme ever made in botanical science, he 
dares to compare his discoveries to those of 
Christopher Columbus ; and, without men- 
tioning Gesner, Csesalpinus, or Columna, he 
states in several passages in his writings 
that he has taken nothing except direct from 
nature. One might, perhaps, believe this if 
he had not taken the trouble to copy whole 
pages from the two authors last named, 
showing that their works were familiar 
enough to him.' Though Ray was simul- 
taneously engaged in the study of classifica- 
tion, Morison apparently deserves the eulogy 
bestowed on him by Franchet (Flore de Loir- 
et-Cher, p. xiv), who says that his works 
made an epoch in botanical literature ; that 
he formed a clear notion of genus and species, 
and a conception of the family almost iden- 
tical with that which we now hold ; and that 
he seems to have been the first to make use 
of dichotomous keys to specific characters. 
At the same time, one cannot deny the want 
of modesty and urbanity, the vanity and boast- 
fulness which Boreau (Flore du Centre de la 
France, 1840, i. 37) finds in his works. 

An oil-painting of Morison is preserved at 
the Oxford Botanical Garden, and an engraved 
portrait by R. White, after Sunman, is pre- 
fixed to the second volume of the ' Historia 
Plantarum Oxoniensis.' His name is per- 
petuated in the West Indian genus Morisonia, 
among the caper family. Though stated by 
Wood and Pulteney to have been a member 
of the Royal College of Physicians, Morison 
does not appear in Dr. Munk's ' Roll,' so that 
this statement is probably unfounded. 

Morison was doubtless concerned in the 
compilation of ' Hortus Regius Blesensis ' 
(1653, 2nd edit. 1655), which Morison seemed 
to describe as the joint work of himself and 
his colleagues, Abel Brunyer and Nicholas 
Marchant (ib. ; and cf. letter in Prceludia Sot. 
pt. ii.) ; but to Brunyer alone was the work 
officially entrusted (FRANCHET). In 1669 
Morison issued his ' Prseludia Botanica' (sm. 
8vo). Part i. consists of a third edition of the 
Blois < Hortus,' dedicated to Charles II, and 
contains the rudiments of Morison's system of 
classification, and a list of 260 plants supposed 
by him to be new species. Part ii. is styled 
' Hallucinationes in Caspar! Bauhini Pinace 
. . . item Animadversiones . . . Historiae 
Plantarum Johannis Bauhini.' This work, 
which Haller calls 'invidiosum opus,' is dedi- 
cated to James, duke of York, and con- 
cludes with a dialogue asserting that generic 



characters should be based on the fruit, and 
denying spontaneous generation. 

As a specimen of the great work he medi- 
tated, Morison next issued ' Plantarum Um- 
belliferarum Distributio nova,' Oxford, 1672, 
fol. pp. 91, with 12 plates, dedicated to the 
Duke of Ormonde, the chancellor, and the 
university. In 1674 he issued ' Icones et 
Descriptiones rariorum Plantarum Sicilian, 
Melitae, Galliae, et Italiaa . . . auctore Paulo 
Boccone,' Oxford, 4to, pp. 96, with 52 plates, 
having 119 figures, a work sent to him at the 
author's request, by Charles Hatton, second 
son of Lord Hatton, who, about 1658, had 
been Morison's pupil in botany at St. Ger- 
mains. In 1680 he published 'Plantarum 
Historiae Universalis Oxoniensis pars se- 
cunda ; seu Herbaruni distributio nova, per 
tabulas cognationis et affinitatis, ex libro 
Naturae observata,' Oxford, fol. pp. 617. 
The preface is dated ' Ex Musaeo riostro in 
Collegio dicto Universitatis.' In this work, 
leaving trees, as a smaller subject, for sepa- 
rate treatment, Morison divides herbaceous 
plants into sixteen classes, but deals only 
with the first five. He dealt with four more 
before his death, and the work was com- 
pleted, at the request of the university, in 
1699, by Jacob Bobart the younger [q. v.], 
who had learnt Morison's system from its 
author. This second volume (pp. 655) con- 
tains numerous copper-plates, representing 
some 3,384 plants, engraved at the expense 
of Bishop Fell, Dean Aldrich, and others, the 
illustrations of the two volumes of the work 
being almost the earliest copper-plates in 
England. Speaking of this volume, Wood 
says : ' After this is done there will come 
out another volume of trees by the same 
hand.' This never appeared, but Schelhammer 
wrote, in 1687, that, eleven years before, he 
had seen the whole work nearly complete, 
at the author's house (Hermanni Conringii 
in universam artem medicam Introductio, 
Helmestadt, pp. 350-1). In the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum there is 
a volume from Sir Hans Sloane'a library con- 
taining 128 cancelled pages from the be- 
ginning of the second volume. These differ 
mainly in containing the ' annotations of the 
eastern names,' mentioned by Wood (Fasti, 
ii. 315) as the work of <Dr. Tho. Hyde, chief 
keeper of the Bodleian Library.' The volume 
also contains manuscript notes by Bobart. 

[Pulteney's Sketches of the Progress of Botany, 
i. 298-327; Morison's Works; and the works 
above cited.] G. S. B. 


(1558 P-1603 ?), physician and diplomatist, 
was born about 1558 it is said, in Aberdeen, 

but the statement is only based on the epi- 
thet ' Aberdonanus ' or ' Aberdonnus ' which 
Morison applies to himself. He may have 
been educated at Aberdeen, and Tanner calls 
him ' medicinae doctor in academia Aberdo- 
nensi,' but his name does not appear in the 
published records. Like many of his country- 
men (cf. Preface to Fasti Aberdonenses, Spald- 
ing Club), Morison studied at Montpellier, 
whence he probably took his degree of M.D. 
It was possibly during Anthony Bacon's visit 
to Montpellier in 1582 that Morison made his 
acquaintance [cf. BACON, ANTHONY]. Morison 
was probably at Arras in December 1592, for 
in a letter to Bacon he gives a remarkably 
minute account of the death of Alexander 
Farnese, which occurred there on 2 Dec. 
From that date until Bacon's death in 1601 
Morison seems to have frequently corre- 
sponded with him, but few of his letters 
are preserved (BiRCH, Memoirs of the Reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, i. 99). Early in 1593 
Morison appears to have been at Frankfort, 
where he published his first book, 'Liber 
novus de Metallorum causis et Transubstan- 
tione,' 1593, 8vo (Brit. Mus.) ; it is dedicated 
to James VI, and directed against alchemists 
and astrologers. In the same year Morison 
returned to Scotland, and through Bacon's 
influence became one of Essex's ' earliest, 
as well as most considerable, intelligencers 
there ' (BiECH). During a visit to the north of 
Scotland he fell in with the Earl of Huntly 
[see GORDON, GEORGE, sixth EARL, and first 
MARQUIS OF HTJNTLT], and secured con- 
siderable influence with him, which Morison 
thought might be of use to the queen's en*- 
voys. Elizabeth appears to have been quite 
satisfied with Morison's services, which were 
well rewarded with money. In August 
1593 he received SQL from Bacon ; Essex 
sent him a hundred crowns in September, 
and another hundred in March 1593-4. On 
5 Feb. 1593-4 Morison dedicated to James 
his second book, ' Papatus, seu depravatse 
religionis Origo et Incrementum,' Edinb. 
1594, 8vo (Brit. Mus.) In spite of its fan- 
ciful alphabetical arrangement, it is a learned 
work, compiled from more than two hundred 
authors, and tracing the history of the 
papacy from its origin to the Reformation. 
It is quoted in Ussher's 'HistoriaDogmatica,' 
p. 271, and 'is now of rare occurrence, and 
highly prized by the learned for its singular 

In 1594 Morison appears to have visited 
London and had an interview with Essex. 
Next year he was back again in Scotland 
sending accounts to his patron of James's 
behaviour and views on domestic and foreign 
policy, and describing the movements of 


6 4 


Huntly, Erroll, Angus, and a Jesuit, John 
Morton, who had been Morison's schoolfel- 
low (BlBCH, i. 224). After Anthony's death, 
in 1601, Francis Bacon seems to have main- 
tained a correspondence with Morispn. In 
1603 he wrote soliciting Morison's interest 
with James, who was then about to take 
possession of his English crown. Probably 
Morison's death occurred soon after. Demp- 
ster dates it 1601, but this is obviously a 

[Birch's Memoirs of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, passim ; Remaines of Francis Bacon, 
p. 63, and Works, ed. Montagu, xiii. 61, ed. 
Spedding, iii. 66; Linden, De Scriptis Medicis, 
p. 454 ; Bruce's Eminent Men of Aberdeen, pp. 
76-80; The Book of Bon-Accord, pp. 307-8; 
Buchan's Scriptores Scoti, p. 19; Dempster, p. 
499; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 531 and Brit. Mus. 
Cat. s.v. ' Moresinus ; ' Cat. Advocates' Library ; 
Anderson's Scottish Nation, iii. 207; Irving's 
Book of Scotsmen, p. 367 ; Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, p. xviii.] A. F. P. 

MORLAND, GEORGE (1763-1804), 
painter, born in London on 26 June 1763, was 
the son of Henry Robert Morland [q. v.], and 
grandson of George Henry Morland [q. v.] 
He is said by Cunningham to have been 
lineally descended from Sir Samuel Morland 
[q. v.], while other biographers go so far as to 
say that he had only to claim the baronetcy 
in order to get it. He began to draw at 
three years old, and at the age of ten (1773) 
his name appears as an honorary exhibitor at 
the Royal Academy. His talents were care- 
fully cultivated by his father, who has been 
accused of stimulating them unduly with a 
view to his own profit, shutting the child up 
in a garret to make drawings from pictures 
and casts for which he found a ready sale. 
The boy, on the other hand, is said to have soon 
found a way to make money for himself by 
hiding some of his drawings, and lowering 
them at nightfall out of his window to young 
accomplices, with whom he used to spend 
the proceeds in frolic and self-indulgence. 
It has been also asserted that his father, dis- 
covering this trick, tried to conciliate him 
by indulgence, humouring his whims and 
encouraging his low tastes. The truth seems 
to be that his father, if severe, was neither 
mercenary nor unprincipled, but tried to do 
his duty towards his son, who was also his 
apprentice, and that the son, possessed of 
unusual carelessness of disposition and love 
of pleasure, rebelled against all restraint, and 
developed early a taste for dissipation and 
low society which became ungovernable. 

He was set by his father to copy pictures 
of all kinds, but especially of the Dutch and 
Flemish masters. Among others he copied 

Fuseli's ' Nightmare ' and Reynolds's ' Garrick 
between Tragedy and Comedy.' He was also 
introduced to Sir Joshua Reynolds, and ob- 
tained permission to copy his pictures, and all 
accounts agree that before he was seventeen 
he had obtained considerable reputation not 
only with his friends and the dealers, but 
among artists of repute. A convincing proof 
of the skill in original composition which he 
had then attained is the fine engraving by 
William Ward [q. v.l after his picture of 
' The Angler's Repast, which was published 
in November 1780 by John Raphael Smith 
[q. v.] It is said that before his apprentice- 
ship to his father came to an end, in 1784, 
Romney offered to take him into his own 
house, with a salary of 300, on condition 
of his signing articles for three years. But 
Morland, we are told, had had enough of re- 
straint, and after a rupture with his father 
he set up on his own account in 1784 or 1785 
at the house of a picture dealer, and com- 
menced that life which, in its combination 
of hard work and hard drinking, is almost 
without a parallel. 

Morland soon became the mere slave of the 
dealer with whom he lived. His boon com- 
panions were ' ostlers, potboys, horse jockeys, 
moneylenders, pawnbrokers, punks, and pu- 
gilists.' In this company the handsome young 
artist swaggered, dressed in a green coat, with 
large yellow buttons, leather breeches, and top 
boots. ' He was in the very extreme of foppish 
puppeyism,' says Hassell ; ' his head, when 
ornamented according to his own taste, re- 
sembled a snowball, after the model of Tippey 
Bob, of dramatic memory, to which was at- 
tached a short, thick tail, not unlike apainter's 
brush.' His youth and strong constitution 
enabled him to recover rapidly from his ex- 
cesses, and he not only employed the intervals 
in painting, but at this time, or shortly after- 
wards, taught himself to play the violin. He 
made also an effort, and a successful one, to 
free himself from his task-master, and escaped 
to Margate, where he painted miniatures for a 
while. He then paid a short visit to France. 

Returning to London, he lodged in a house 
at Kensal Green, on the road to Harrow, near 
William Ward, intercourse with whose family 
seems for a time to have had a steadying influ- 
ence. It resulted in his marriage with Miss 
Anne Ward (Nancy), the sister of his friend, 
in July 1786, and the bond between the fami- 
lies was strengthened a month later by the 
marriage of William Ward and Morland's 
sister Maria. T-he two newly married couples 
set up house together in High Street, Maryle- 
bone, and Morland for a while appeared to 
have become a reformed character. He was 
now becoming known by such engravings 



from his pictures as the large ' Children 
Nutting' (1783), and several smaller and 
more sentimental subjects published in 1785, 
like the ' Lass of Livingston.' To 1786, the 
year of his marriage, is said to belong the 
series of ' Letitia or Seduction' (well known 
from the engravings published in 1789), in 
which with much of the narrative power of 
Hogarth, but with softer touches, the ' Pro- 
gress ' of Letitia is told in six scenes admirable 
in design, and painted with great skill, finish, 
and refinement. About this period he was 
fond of visiting the Isle of Wight, where he 
painted his best coast scenes, and studied life 
and character in a low public-house at Fresh- 
water Gate, called the Cabin. 

After three months the double household 
was broken up by dissensions between the 
ladies, and Morland took lodgings in Great 
Portland Street, and afterwards moved to 
Camden Town, where he lived in a small 
house in Pleasing Passage, at the back of the ! 
tavern known as Mother Black Cap. The | 
attractions of the neighbouring inns, and of I 
the Assembly Rooms at Kentish Town, now 
proved too strong for him, and he returned 
to all his bad habits. A long illness of his 
wife, following her confinement and death of 
the child, further weakened the influence of 
home, and he neglected and ultimately left 
his wife, though he seems to have made her 
an allowance as long as he lived. When he 
finally separated from her it is not easy to 
determine, and his course afterwards was so 
erratic that it is difficult to trace it with 
minuteness and order. He moved from Pleas- 
ing Passage to Warrens Lane, and seems for 
some time to have made his headquarters at 
Paddington. It was here probably that he 
painted the celebrated picture of ' The Inside 
of a Stable,' now in the National Gallery, 
which was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1791. The stable is said to be that of the 
White Lion Inn at Paddington, opposite to 
which he lived. At this time he was at the 
plenitude of his power, and dissipation had 
not impaired the sureness of his touch, his 
unusually fine sense of colour, or the refine- 
ment of his artistic feeling. He exhibited 
again in 1793 and 1794, but though he still 
painted finely he had become completely the 
prey of the dealers, painting as it were from 
hand to mouth to supply himself with funds 
for his extravagances. His art was so popu- 
lar that, comparatively small as was the price 
which he actually received for his labour, he 
might have easily lived for a week on the earn- 
ings of a day. He was besieged by dealers 
who came to him, as it is said, with a purse 
in one hand and a bottle in the other. The 
amount of work he got through was prodi- 


gious. He would paint one or two pictures 
a day, and once painted a large landscape 
with six figures in the course of six hours. 
Every demand that was made upon him, 
whether a tavern score or the renewal of a 
bill, was paid by a picture. And they were 
good pictures too, generally worth many times 
the value of the account to be settled, and 
always popular in engravings. From 1788 
to 1792 inclusive over a hundred engravings 
after Morland were published. They included 
'A Visit to the Child at Home ' and 'A Visit to 
the Boarding School,' two compositions of re- 
markable refinement and elegance, and a num- 
ber of charming scenes of children's sports, 
like ' Children Birdnesting,' ' Juvenile Navi- 
gation,' 'The Kite entangled,' 'Blind Man's 
Buff,' and ' Children playing at Soldiers.' 
Equalling if not exceeding these in popu- 
larity were scenes of moral contrast, like 
' The Fruits of early Industry and Economy ' 
(1789) and 'The Effects of Extravagance and 
Idleness ' (1794), the ' Miseries of Idleness ' 
and the ' Comforts of Industry,' both pub- 
lished in 1790, and subjects appealing to 
national sentiment, like ' The Slave Trade ' 
(1791) and 'African Hospitality.' Five hun- 
dred copies of the engraving of ' Dancing 
Dogs ' (1790) were sold in a few weeks, and 
one dealer gave an order for nine dozen sets 
of the four plates of 'The Deserter' (1791). 
Elegant and refined subjects gradually gave 
place exclusively to scenes from humble life 
in town and country, including the coast with 
fishermen and smugglers, sporting scenes, 
but more frequently, in a plain but seldom 
a coarse manner, the life of the cottage, the 
stable, and the inn-yard, with lively groups 
of natural men and women, and still more 
natural horses, donkeys, dogs, pigs, poultry, 
and other animals. About 250 separate en- 
gravings from his works appeared in his life- 

Although the publishers reaped the bene- 
fits of their large sale, Morland's credit and 
resources enabled him for some years to lead 
the rollicking life he loved without much 
pressure of care. At one time he kept eight 
saddle horses at the White Lion. As time 
went on debts increased and creditors be- 
came more pressing, and he lived a hunted 
life, only able to escape from the bailiffs by 
his knowledge of London and the assistance 
of friends and dealers. He flitted from one 
house to another, residing among other places 
at Lambeth, East Sheen, Queen Anne Street, 
the Minories, Kensington, and Hackney. At 
Hackney his seclusion aroused the suspicion 
that he was a forger of bank notes, and his 
premises were searched at the instance of the 
bank directors, who afterwards made him a 




present of 40/. for the inconvenience caused 
by their mistake. 

* Dealers and innkeepers also would keep 
rooms ready for him to paint in, supplied 
with the necessary materials, and there was 
generally some dealer at hand ready to 
carry off his pictures before they were dry, 
often before they were finished. Morland was 
not, however, much more scrupulous in his 
dealings than the dealers themselves, and a 
picture begun under contract with one would 
be parted with to another who had money 
in his hand, if the rightful owner was not 
there to claim it. In this way a number 
of pictures got into the market commenced 
by Morland, and finished by inferior hands, 
while hundreds of copies were made and sold 
as originals. ' I once saw,' says Hassell, 
' twelve copies from a small picture of Mor- 
land's at one time in a dealer's shop, with 
the original in the centre.' Another dealer 
(according to Redgrave), in whose house he 
painted under contract in the morning for 
several years (commencing about 1794), had 
each morning's work regularly copied. Oc- 
casionally Morland managed to escape from 
both dealers and bailiffs. Once he paid a visit 
to Claude Lorraine Smith in Leicestershire. 
He was apprehended as a spy at Yarmouth. 
He painted the sign of an inn called the 
Black Bull, somewhere on the road between 
Deal and London. 

In November 1799 Morland was at last 
arrested for debt, but was allowed to take 
lodgings ' within the rules,' and these be- 
came the rendezvous of his most discredit- 
able friends. During this mitigated confine- 
ment he sank lower and lower. He is said 
to have often been drunk for days together, 
and to have generally slept on the floor in 
a helpless condition. It is probable that 
these stories are exaggerated, for he still 
produced an enormous quantity of good work. 
' For his brother alone,' says Redgrave, ' he 
painted 192 pictures between 1800 and 1804, 
and he probably painted as many more for 
other dealers during the same period, his 
terms being four guineas a day and his drink.' 
Another account says that 'during his last 
eight years he painted 490 pictures for his 
brother, and probably three hundred more 
for others, besides making hundreds of draw- 
ings. His total production is estimated at 
no less than four thousand pictures. In 1802 
he was released under the Insolvent Debtors 
Act, but his health was ruined and his habits 
irremediable. About this time he was seized 
with palsy and lost the use of his left hand, 
so that he could not hold his palette. Not- 
withstanding he seems to have gone on paint- 
ing to the last, when he was arrested again 

for a publican's score, and died in a sponging- 
house in Eyre Street, Cold Bath Fields, on 
i 27 Oct. 1804. His much wronged wife was 
i so afflicted at the news of his death that she 
1 died three days afterwards, and both were 
' buried together in the burial-ground attached 
j to St. James's Chapel in the Hampstead 
' Road. 

Morland's own epitaph on himself was 
' Here lies a drunken dog.' His propensities 
I to drink and low pleasure appear to have 
j been unusually strong, he had opportunities 
of indulging them at an unusually early age, 
and throughout life, except for a short in- 
| terval of courtship and domesticity, he was 
surrounded by associates who encouraged his 
degradation. But, though he was vain and 
dissolute, he was generous, good-natured, 
and industrious, and appears to have been 
free from the meaner and more malicious 
forms of vice. It should also be placed to 
his credit that however degraded his mode of 
life, he did not degrade his art to the same 
level. His most characteristic pictures are 
faithful reflections of lowly life in England 
as he saw it, with scarcely a taint of gross- 
ness or impurity. He treated it without the 
poetical sentiment of Gainsborough or the 
I pretty affectations of Wheatley, but he was 
| more natural and simple than either. Wher- 
' ever he went he sketched and painted from 
the objects around him, and this is perhaps 
one reason why, despite his dissipation, he 
j managed to infuse some freshness into his 
i pictures, even when his execution was most 
j hurried and mannered. His drawing was 
' graceful, his composition elegant, and his 
colour rich and pure. In a word he was a 
master of genre and animal painting, an artist 
! worthy to be placed in the same rank as the 
, best of those Dutch masters whom he studied 
: as a boy. 

Morland's work, after a period of neglect, 
is now rising greatly in public estimation. 
Not only his pictures, but the engravings 
from them, are eagerly sought for. An exhi- 
bition of ' upwards of three hundred mezzotint, 
engravings after George Morland ' was held 
by Messrs. Vokins in Great Portland Street 
(December 1893). These were all executed 
between 1780 and 1817 by numerous en- 
gravers, the most important of whom were 
John Raphael Smith, William AVard (his 
brother-in-law), and S. W. Reynolds. One, 
' The Idle Laundress,' was engraved by Wil- 
liam Blake. A large selection of these plates 
has of late years been reproduced in small by 
Messrs. Graves & Co., and Mr. Joseph Grego 
has been long engaged on an important work 
on the painter, to be illustrated by fresh 



There are two pictures by Morland in the 
National Gallery, six at South Kensington 
Museum, and two in the Gallery at Glasgow. 
A portrait painted by himself at an early age 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

[Memoirs of the Painter, by F. W. Blagdon 
and J. Hassell ; Life by George Da we ; Memoirs 
of a Picture, &c., by William Collins ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong ; Algernon 
Graves's Diet, of Artists ; Cunningham's Lives of 
Eminent British Painters, ed. Mrs. Heaton ; 
Nollekensand his Times; Edwards's Anecdotes; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 8, vii. 58, 4th ser. 
xii. 389, &c. ; Catalogue of Exhibition of En- 
gravings at Messrs. Vokins's, 1893.] C. M. 


1789?), genre painter, was born early in the 
eighteenth century. His art at one time 
was popular, and some of his works, as ' The 
Pretty Ballad Singer,' ' The Fair Nun Un- 
masked,' were engraved by "Watson, and 
' The Oyster Woman ' by Philip Dawe. The 
last of these pictures is now in the Glasgow 
Gallery. In 1760 he was assisted by a grant 
from the Incorporated Society of Artists. 
He lived on the south side of St. James's 
Square, and died in 1789 or after. His son, 
Henry Robert Morland [q. v.], was father of 
George Morland [q. v.] 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves and 
Armstrong).] C. M. 

MORLAND, SIR HENRY (1837-1891), 
Indian official, born on 9 April 1837, was 
third son of John Morland, esq., barrister-at- 
law, descendant of the Morlands of Capple- 
thwaite and Killington Halls, Westmoreland, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of James Thompson, 
esq. , of Grayrigg Hall in the same county. He 
was educated at Heversham and Bromsgrove 
schools, and also privately by Dr. Webster, 
mathematical master at Christ's Hospital. 
He entered the Indian navy in 1852, being 
appointed to the Akbar on 5 June. In Sep- 
tember of the same year he joined the steamer 
Queen as midshipman. Between 1853 and 
1856 he served on the north-east coast of 
Africa. He was present at the engagement 
with the Arabs at Shugra in 1853, and was 
in charge of the barque Norma, by which an 
Arab bugla which broke the Berbera blockade 
was captured in 1855. He next served on 
the Arabian coast, commanding a schooner 
at the reoccupation of Perim on 12 Jan. 1857, 
and a division of boats at the bombardment 
of Jeddah in July 1858. On 21 Nov. 1857 
he became mate of the Dalhousie, and in the 
same month of the next year was fourth lieu- 
tenant on the Assaye. In October 1859, as 
the first lieutenant of the Clive, he took part 

in the naval operations on the coast of Kathia- 
war, Bombay Presidency, by which the Wag- 
beer rising was put down. His last active 
service was with the Semiramis, January 
1863, in the expedition by which the mur- 
derers of the officers of H.M.S. Penguin 
were punished. On 30 April 1863, when 
the order abolishing the Indian navy came 
into operation, he was placed on the retired 
list, with the rank of honorary lieutenant, and 
received a pension of 160. He was now at- 
tached to the Indian marine, and in the spring 
of 1864 commanded the Dalhousie when en- 
gaged in laying down the marine cable of the 
Indo-European telegraph. Later in the same 
year he accompanied the convoy of the mis- 
sion to Abyssinia, and was detained for some 
months at Massowah. In 1865 he became 
transport officer at Bombay, as well as dock- 
master and signal officer ; and in the follow- 
ing year superintendent of floating batteries. 
In 1866 he was in command of the party 
which rescued the Dalhousie when stranded 
on the Malabar coast on the sunken wreck of 
the Di Vernon. 

He superintended the equipment and 
despatch of the fleet of transports of the 
Abyssinian expedition in 1867, when, besides 
twenty-seven thousand men and two thou- 
sand horses, forty-five elephants, six thou- 
sand bullocks, and three thousand mules and 
ponies were shipped. Morland was trans- 
port officer at Bombay till 1879, and in 1873 
became conservator of the port, president of 
the board of marine examiners, and registrar 
of shipping. From April 1875 he also acted 
for a few months as secretary to the Bombay 
port trust. 

In 1872 he went to Madras as a member 
of the commission to inquire into the recent 
wrecks, and he organised the commissariat 
and transport of the Afghan war. Meanwhile 
he also began to take an active part in muni- 
cipal affairs at Bombay. In 1868 he was ap- 
pointed J.P., and became a member of the 
corporation. In 1877 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the town council. On 23 June 1886 ho 
was elected chairman of the corporation, and 
was re-elected on 5 April 1 887. He was chair- 
man of the committee which drew up the 
Bombay jubilee address, which he took to 
England and presented to the queen at Wind- 
sor on 30 June, when he was knighted. He 
died at his residence in Rampart Row, Bom- 
bay, on 28 July 1891. He was buried with 
military honours. 

Morland married in 1870 Alice Mary, 
second daughter of A. W. Critchley, esq., of 
Manchester, who died in 1871, leaving a 
daughter ; and in 1875, Fanny Helen Han- 
nah, second daughter of Jeronimo Carandini, 





twelfth marquis de Sarzano, by whom he had 
five children, of whom two died before him. 

He was highly esteemed by Anglo-Indians 
and natives, and was a most efficient admi- 
nistrator. He was an enthusiastic freemason. 
In 1870, after having served in several minor 
offices, he was appointed by the grand lodge 
of Scotland to be provincial grandmaster for 
western India, including Ceylon, and in 1874 
grandmaster of all Scottish freemasonry in 
India, including Aden. The foundation of 
the Mahometan lodge, 'Islam,' was almost 
entirely due to his influence. He was for 
some years secretary of the Bombay Geogra- 
phical Society, to which in 1875 he read a 
paper on Abyssinia, and was also a fellow of 
Bombay University and of the Astronomical 
Society, and an associate of the Indian Col- 
lege of Engineers. 

[Debrett's Peerage, &c., 1891 ; Bombay Ga- 
zette (weekly), 5 July 1887, 31 July, and 7 Aug. 
1891 ; 'Overland Tim es of India (weekly), 31 July 
and 7 Aug. 1891 ; Times, 4 Aug. 1891, which 
gives age wrongly ; Low's Hist of Indian Navy, 
ii. 411,421, 422 (note), 551 (note), 572, Ap- 
pendix A.I G-. LE G. N. 


(1730P-1797), portrait-painter, the son of 
George Henry Morland [q. v.], was born pro- 
bably about 1730. He was a painter of 
portraits and domestic subjects in oil and 
crayons, and between 1760 and 1791 exhibited 
118 works at the Society of Artists, the Free 
Society, and the Royal Academy. He also 
engraved in mezzotint, cleaned and dealt in 
pictures, and sold artists' materials, includ- 
ing excellent crayons of his own manufac- 
ture. In spite of all these means of liveli- 
hood and a good character for he is said to 
have been respected by all who knew him 
lie was unsuccessful in life, and more than 
once bankrupt. He painted a portrait of 
George III, which was engraved by Houston, 
and a portrait of Garrick as Richard III, 
which is in the Garrick Club. Lord Mans- 
field has two carefully finished pictures by 
him of young ladies one washing, the other 
ironing which used to pass as portraits of 
the celebrated Misses Gunning, but more 
probably were drawn from his own daughters 
or other models. He was an artist of some 
merit but of no conspicuous ability, and after 
an unsettled life, marked by frequent changes 
of residence, died in Stephen Street, Rathbone 
Place, 30 Nov. 1797. His age, at his death, 
has been stated as eighty-five, but this must 
be an exaggeration if his father was born in 
the eighteenth century. He was the father 
of George Morland [q. v.] Maria Morland, 
his wife, was also an artist, and exhibited at 

the Royal Academy in 1785 and 1786, one 
work in each year. 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves and 
Armstrong) ; Algernon Graves's Diet. ; Cun- 
ningham's Lives of Painters (ed. Heaton, article 
' George Morland '). Some account of him will 
also be found in the Lives of his son quoted at 
end of article on George Morland.] C. M. 

1695), diplomatist, mathematician, and in- 
ventor, born in 1625 at Sulhampstead-Ban- 
nister,Berkshire,was son of Thomas Morland, 
rector of that parish. He entered Winchester 
School in 1638 (KlRBT, Winchester Scholars, 
p. 178) ; and in May 1644, at the age of nine- 
teen, entered as a sizar at Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, where he became acquainted with 
Bishop Cumberland (PAYNE, Life of Cumber- 
land, p. 5). He was elected a fellow of the 
society on 30 Nov. 1649, and his name figures 
as tutor on the entry of Samuel Pepys at the 
college on 1 Oct. 1650 (information kindly 
supplied by A. G. Peskett, esq., Pepys libra- 
rian at Magdalene College). In his manu- 
script autobiography, preserved in the library 
at Lambeth Palace (No. 931), he states that' 
after passing nine or ten years at the univer- 
sity, where he took no degree, he was solicited 
by some friends to enter into holy orders, but, 
not deeming himself ' fitly qualified,' he de- 
voted his time to mathematical studies, which 
were the leading pursuit of his life. , His last 
signature in the college books is dated 1653. 

He was a zealous supporter of the parlia- 
mentarian party, and from 1647 onwards took 
part in public affairs. In 1653 he was sent 
in Whitelocke's retinue on the embassy to 
the queen of Sweden for the purpose of con- 
cluding an offensive and a defensive alliance 
(WHITELOCKE, Journal, 1772). Whitelocke 
describes him as ' a very civil man and an 
excellent scholar ; modest and respectful : 
perfect in the Latin tongue : an ingenious 
mechanist,' Morland, according to his own 
account, was recommended on his return in 
1654 as an assistant to Secretary Thurloe, and 
in May 1655 he was sent by Cromwell to the 
Duke of Savoy to remonstrate with him on 
cruelties inflicted by him upon the sect of 
Waldenses or Vaudois, which had strongly 
excited the English public. Morland carried 
a message to the duke beseeching him to 
rescind his persecuting edicts. He remained 
for some time at Geneva as the English re- 
sident, and he assisted the Rev. Dr. John 
Pell, resident ambassador with the Swiss 
cantons, in distributing the remittances sent 
by the charitable in England for the relief 
I of the Waldenses. In August 1655 Mor- 
land was authorised to announce that the 


6 9 


duke, at the request of the king of France, 
had granted an amnesty to the Waldenses, 
and confirmed their ancient privileges ; and 
that the natives of the valleys, protestant 
and catholic, had met, embraced one another 
with tears, and sworn to live in perpetual 
amity together. During his residence in 
Geneva, Morland, at Thurloe's suggestion, 
prepared minutes, and procured records, 
vouchers, and attestations from which he 
might compile a correct history of the Wal- 
denses (VATJGHAN, Protectorate of Oliver 
Cromwell, ii. 507). He arrived at Whitehall 
18 Dec. 1656, and shortly afterwards received 
the thanks of a select committee appointed by 
Cromwell to inquire into his proceedings. 

Two years later he published 'The History 
of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of 
Piemont. Together with a most naked and 
punctual relation of the late Bloudy Massacre, 
1655. And a narrative of all the following 
transactions to the year of our Lord 1 658. All 
which are justified, partly by divers ancient 
manuscripts written many hundred years be- 
fore Calvin or Luther, and partly by the most 
authentick attestations : the true originals 
of the greatest part whereof are to be seen in 
their proper languages, by all the curious, 
in the Publick Library of the famous Uni- 
versity of Cambridge,' London, 1658, fol. 
This volume, which was illustrated with sen- 
sational prints of the supposed sufferings of 
the Waldenses, ' operated like Fox's Book 
of Martyrs ' (cf. Thomas Warton's note on 
Milton's sonnet 'On the late Massacre in 
Piemont,' in MILTON'S Poems, 1785, p. 357). 
Prefixed to the book is a fine portrait of Mor- 
land, engraved by P. Lombart, from a paint- 
ing by Sir P. Lely, and an epistle dedicatory 
to Cromwell, couched in a strain of extreme 
adulation. In Hollis's 'Memoirs' it is stated 
that Morland afterwards withdrew this 
dedication from all the copies he could lay 
hands on. 

Most of the Waldensian manuscripts 
brought to England and partly published by 
Morland were said by him to exhibit the date 
1120, and they have been often quoted to 
prove the fabulous antiquity of the sect, which 
was falsely alleged to have existed long before 
the time of Peter Waldensis. Morland's do- 
cuments have since been proved, however, to 
be forgeries of moderate skill and ingenuity. 
Morland was probably misled by incorrect 
statements of the Waldensian minister, Jean 
Leger, master of an academy at Geneva, 
whose ' Histoire Generale des Eglises Evan- 
geliques de Piemont,' published at Amster- 
dam in 1680, may be regarded as an en- 
larged edition of Morland's book. Six of the 
most important manuscript volumes brought 

over by Morland were long supposed to have 
mysteriously disappeared from the Cam- 
bridge University Library, and it was gene- 
rally believed that they had been abstracted 
by the puritans ; but they were all discovered 
by Mr. Henry Bradshaw in 1862, in their 
proper places, where they had probably re- 
mained undisturbed for centuries ( Cambridge 
Antiquarian Communications, ii. 203 ; Athe- 
nceum, 20 May 1865, p. 684 ; TODD, Books of 
the Vaudois, ] 865 ; MELIA, Origin . . . of the 
Waldenses, 1870; Univ.Libr. 
Cambr. i. 81-9, 548-52, v. 589). 

Morland now became intimately associated 
with the government of the Commonwealth, 
and he admits that he was an eye and ear 
witness of Dr. Hewitt's being ' trepanned to 
death' by Thurloe and his agents. The most 
remarkable intrigue, however, which came to 
his knowledge was that usually called Sir 
Richard Willis's plot. Its object was to 
induce Charles II and his brother to effect a 
landing on the Sussex coast, under pretence 
of meeting many adherents, and to put them 
both to death the moment they disembarked. 
This plot is said to have formed the subject 
of a conference between Cromwell, Thurloe r 
and Willis at Thurloe's office, and the con- 
versation was overheard by Morland, who 
pretended to be asleep at his desk. Welwood 
relates that when Cromwell discovered Mor- 
land's presence he drew his poniard, and 
would have killed him on the spot but for 
Thurloe's solemn assurance that his secretary 
had sat up two nights in succession, and was 
certainly fast asleep (WELWOOD, Memoirs,. 
ed. 1820, p. 98). From this time Morland 
endeavoured to promote the Restoration. In 
justifying to himself the abandonment of hi& 
former principles and associates, he observes 
that avarice could not be his object, as he 
was at this time living in greater plenty than 
he ever did after the Restoration, 'having a 
house well furnished, an establishment of 
servants, a coach, &c., and 1,000/. a year to 
support all this, with several hundred pounds 
of ready money, and a beautiful young woman 
to his wife for a companion.' In order to 
save the king's life and promote the Restora- 
tion, he eventually went to Breda, where he 
arrived on 6-16 May 1660, bringing with 
him letters and notes of importance. The 
king welcomed him graciously, and publicly 
acknowledged the services he had rendered 
for some years past (LowEK, Charles Il's 
Voiage and Residence in Holland, 1660, p. 12 ; 
KENNETT, Register and Chronicle, p. 135). 

Grave charges of various kinds were 
brought against him by Sir Richard Willis, 
when he was pleading for a full pardon in 
1661, but they do not seem to have received 




much credit. Among other statements was 
one to the effect that Morland boasted that 
he had ' poisoned Cromwell in a posset, and 
that Thurloe had a lick of it, which laid him 
up for a great while ' (State Papers, Dom. 
1661, p. 232). Pepys originally conceived a 
low opinion of Morland from the adverse 
rumours that were circulated about him ; 
but when he heard his own account of his 
transactions with Thurloe and Willis ' began 
to think he was not so much a fool ' as he 
had taken him to be. 

The king made him liberal promises of 
future preferment, but these were for the most 
part unfulfilled, in consequence, as Morland 
supposed, of the enmity of Lord-chancellor 
Hyde. However, he was on 18 July 1660 
created a baronet, being described as of Sul- 
hampstead-Bannister, although it does not 
appear very clearly whether he was in pos- 
session of the manor or of any considerable 
property in the parish (BuKKE, Extinct Baro- 
netcies, 1844, p. 371). He was also made a 
gentleman of the privy chamber; but this 
appointment, he says, Avas rather expensive 
than profitable, as he was obliged to spend 
450/. in two days on the ceremonies attending 
the coronation. He obtained, indeed, a pen- 
sion of 500/. on the post-office (State Papers, 
Dom. 1661-2, pp. 64, 69), but his embarrass- 
ments obliged him to sell it, and, returning 
to his mathematical studies, he endeavoured 
by various experiments and the construction 
of machines to earn a livelihood. In 1 666 he 
obtained, in conjunction with Richard Wig- 
more, Robert Lindsey, and Thomas Culpeper, 
a probably remunerative patent ' for making 
metal fire-hearths ' (ib. 1666, pp. 434, 588). 
From a correspondence between Morland and 
Dr. Pell it appears that about this same time 
(1666) the former had intended to publish a 
work ' On the Quadrature of Curvilinear 
Spaces,' and had actually proceeded to print 
part of it, but was happily persuaded by Pell 
to lay it aside {Birch MS. 4279 ; cf. Lansd. 
MS. 751, f. 399). 

In carrying out his experiments in hydro- 
statics and hydraulics he encountered many 
difficulties in consequence of their expense. 
On 12 Dec. 1672 the king granted to him 
the sum of 2501. to defray the charges of 
about five hundred looking-glasses ' to be by 
him provided and sett up in Ollive wood 
frames for our special use and service,' as 
well as an annuity of 300/., ' in considerac'on 
of his keepinge and mainteyneing in constant 
repaire a certain private printing presse . . . 
which by our Especial Order and Appoint- 
ment he hath lately erected and sett up' 
(Gent. Mag. April 1850, p. 394). 

In 1677 he took a lease for twenty-one 

years of a house at Vauxhall, on the site sub- 
sequently occupied by Vauxhall Gardens. 
On the top of this house was a Punchinello 
holding a dial ( AUBREY, Surrey, i. 12). 
In 1681 he was appointed 'magister me- 
chanicorum ' to the king, who in recognition 
of his ingenuity presented him with a me- 
dallion portrait of himself, set in diamonds, 
together with a medal as ' an honorable 
badge of his signal loyalty ' (EVELYN, Numis- 
mata, p. 141). In October 1684 the king 
advanced him 200/., and a year later Morland 
received a similar sum by way of ' bounty ' 
(AcKEBMAN, Secret Services of Charles II and 
James II, Camd. Soc., pp. 91, 112). About 
1684 he removed to a house near the water- 
side at Hammersmith, which was afterwards 
tenanted by Dr. Bathie, and was known in 
1813 as Walbrough House. According to 
his own account, his mechanical experiments 
pleased the king's fancy ; but when he had 
spent 500Z. or 1,000/. upon them, he received 
sometimes only half, and sometimes only a 
third, of the cost. 

In 1682 Charles II sent him to France 
' about the king's waterworks,' but there also 
he seems to have lost more than he gained. 
On his return James II restored to him his 
pensions, which had been for some reason 
withdrawn, and likewise granted him part of 
the arrears, but Morland was never repaid 
the expenses of the engine which he had con- 
structed for bringing water from Blackmore 
Park, near Winkfield, to the top of Windsor 
Castle. During 1686 Morland was corre- 
sponding with Pepys about the new naval 
gun-carriages. In 1687 his pension was paid 
down to Ladyday 1689 (ib. p. 178). 

In 1689 be addressed a long letter to 
Archbishop Tenison, giving an account of 
his life, and concluding with a declaration 
that his only wish was to retire and spend 
his life ' in Christian solitude ; ' and he begs 
the primate's ' helping hand to have his con- 
dition truly represented to his Majesty.' 
Tenison probably did something for him, as 
there is a letter of thanks for ' favours and 
acts of charity,' dated 5 March 1695. The 
errors of his life were probably considerable, 
as he speaks of having been at one time ex- 
communicated ; but some of his writings 
show that he was a sincere penitent, particu- 
larly ' The Urim of Conscience,' London, 1 695, 
8vo, written, as the title says, ' in blindness 
and retirement.' He lost his sight about three 
years before his death. Evelyn, in his ' Diary ' 
(25 Oct. 1695), gives an interesting glimpse 
of him : ' The archbishop and myself went 
to Hammersmith to visit Sir Samuel Mor- 
land, who was entirely blind ; a very mor- 
tifying sight. He showed us his invention 

Morland ; 

of writing, which was very ingenious ; also 
his wooden calendar, which instructed him 
all by feeling, and other pretty and useful 
inventions of mills, pumps, &c., and the 
pump he had erected that serves water to 
his garden and to passengers, with an in- 
scription, and brings from a filthy part of 
the Thames near it a most perfect and pure 
water. He had newly buried 200/. worth 
of music books, being, as he said, love songs 
and vanity. He plays himself psalms and 
religious hymns on the Theorbo ' (cf. FAULK- 
NER, Fulham, p. 161). He died on 30 Dec. 
1695, and was buried in Hammersmith Chapel 
on 6 Jan. 1695-6. He must have been in 
an extremely weak condition, as he was 
unable to sign his will. By it he disin- 
herited his only son, Samuel, who was the 
second and last baronet of the family, and 
bequeathed his property to Mrs. Zenobia 

He married, first, in 1657, Susanne, daugh- 
ter of Daniel de Milleville, baron of Boissay 
in Normandy, and of the Lady Catherine, 
his wife ; secondly, on 26 Oct. 1670, in 
Westminster Abbey, Carola, daughter of 
Sir Roger Harsnett, knight (she died on 
10 Oct. 1674, aged 22) ; thirdly, on 16 Nov. 
1676, in Westminster Abbey, Anne, third 
daughter of George Feilding of Solihull, 
Warwickshire, by May, second daughter of 
Sir Thomas Shirley, knight, of Wiston, 
Sussex (she died on 20 Feb. 1679-80, aged 
18) ; fourthly, at Knightsbridge Chapel, 
Middlesex, on 1 Feb. 1686-7, Mary Aylif, a 
woman of low origin and infamous character, 
from whom he obtained a divorce on 16 July 
following, and who subsequently became the 
second wife of Sir Gilbert-Cosins Gerard 
(CHESTER, Registers of Westminster Abbey, 
p. 593 ; cf. PEPTS, v. 323, 329). 

Morland was one of the chief mechanicians 
of his time. Aubrey credits him with the 
invention of ' drum cap-stands for weighing 
heavy anchors.' It is admitted that he invented 
the speaking-trumpet though Kircher dis- 
puted his claim and two arithmetical ma- 
chines, of which he published a description 
under the following title : ' The Description 
and Use of two Arithmetick Instruments, 
together with a short treatise explaining and 
demonstrating the ordinary operations of 
arithmetick ; as likewise, a perpetual alma- 
nack and several useful tables,' 4 parts, Lon- 
don, 1673, 16mo. The perpetual almanack is 
reprinted in Playford's ' Vade Mecum,' 1679, 
and in Falgate's ' Interest in Epitome,' 1725. 
The arithmetical machines, originally pre- 
sented to Charles II in 1662, were manu- 
factured for sale by Humphry Adanson, 
who lived with Jonas Moore, esq., in the 

'i Morland 

Tower of London. By means of them the 
j four fundamental rules of arithmetic were 
readily worked ' without charging the me- 
mory, disturbing the mind, or exposing the 
operations to any uncertainty.' This calcu- 
lating machine appears to have been a modi- 
fication of one constructed by Blaise Pascal 
about 1642. (For the subsequent develop- 
ment of the instrument, the prototype of the 
arithmometer of M. Thomas of Colmar, which 
is at present in extensive use, see the article 
'Calculating Machines 'in Walford's 'Insur- 
ance Cyclopaedia,' i. 41 3; see also articles JOHN 
NAPIER of Merchiston and CHARLES BAB- 
BAGE.) One of Morland's machines is now at 
South Kensington. Pepys characterised one 
that he saw as very pretty but not very useful. 
A similar instrument seems to be indicated by 
No. 84 of the Marquis of Worcester's ' Cen- 
tury of Inventions.' Morland's treatise on the 
speaking-trumpet is entitled : ' Tuba Stentoro- 
Phonica, an Instrument of excellent use, as 
well at Sea, as at Land. Invented, and va- 
riously experimented in ... 1670,' London, 
1671, fpl.; 2nd edit. London, 1672, fol. An 
advertisement states that the instruments of 
all sizes and dimensions were made and sold by 
Simon Beal, one of his majesty's trumpeters, 
in Suffolk Street. The tubes are stated in a 
French edition of the treatise published in 
London (1671) to be on sale by Moses Pitt 
for 21. 5s. each. One is still preserved at 
Cambridge (see an account of the instrument 
in Phil. Trans. Abridged, i. 670; cf. Notes 
and Queries, 6th ser. ix. 423). 

Morland's most important discoveries were 
in connection with hydrostatics, although the 
statement that he invented the fire-engine is 
untrue ; he was only an improver of that 
machine [see under LUCAR, CYPRIAN, and 
GREATOREX, RALPH]. The problems con- 
nected with raising water to a height by 
mechanical means were receiving a great 
amount of attention during the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and to the discoveries 
made in this field (in which Morland bore an 
important part) are largely attributable the 
subsequent rapid development of the steam- 
engine and the accelerated rate of evolution 
in mechanical science generally. Morland 
may have had his attention drawn more par- 
ticularly to this subject by Pascal's researches, 
which were then attracting attention in 
France, though Pascal's celebrated treatise 
'Sur I'Equilibre des Liqueurs' was not pub- 
lished until 1663. It is certain that from 
Morland's return to England in 1660 water- 
engines of various kinds occupied the bulk of 
his time and capital. On 1 1 Dec. 1661 a royal 
warrant was issued for a grant to Morland 
of the sole use during fourteen years of his 

Morland ; 

invention for raising ' water out of pits to any 
reasonable height by the force of aire and 
powder conjointly ' (Publ. Rec. Office Warrant 
Book, v. 85; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, 
pp. 175, 199). The method employed seems 
to have been as follows. An air-tight box 
or cistern was fixed at a height above the 
level of the water to be raised. A charge of 
gunpowder was exploded within this cistern, 
and the air expelled by means of valves ; a 
(partial) vacuum being thus formed, the water 
is driven up from the reservoir below by the 
atmospheric pressure. The simple apparatus 
used was subsequently developed by Jean de 
Hauteville and by Huyghens (1679). In Fe- 
bruary 1674 a bill to enable Morland 'to en- 
joy the sole benefit of certain pumps and 
water-engines by him invented ' was read a 
second time in the House of Commons (Com- 
mons' Journals, ix. 300, 308, 314). The in- 
troduction of the bill elicited ' Reasons offered 
against the passing of Sir Samuel Morland's 
Bill touching Water-Engines,' in which it 
was urged that the inventor should have re- 
course to the ordinary letters patent for four- 
teen years. Morland published an 'Answer,' 
stating that he had expended twenty years' 
study and some thousands of pounds on his 
experiments. The measure, however, failed 
to pass, as did a similar bill in 1677 (zi.ix.403, 
412), and he had to be content with a patent 
(No. 175, dated 14 March 1674). The pump 
in question, referred to as 'raising great quan- 
tities of water with farre less proportion of 
strength than can be performed by anChayne 
or other Pumpe,' was apparently what is 
known as the ' plunger-pump,' the most im- 
portant new feature in which is the gland 
and stuffing-box. This important contriv- 
ance, with which James Watt has often been 
wrongly credited, was undoubtedly the in- 
vention of Morland (cf. POLE, Treatise on the 
Cornish Pumping-Engine, 1844; P. R. BJOR- 
LING, Pumps, historically, theoretically, and 
practically considered, 1890, p. 11). W 7 ith a 
cast-iron perpendicular-action pump of this 
nature it is stated that Morland in 1675 raised 
water from the Thames sixty feet above the 
top of Windsor Castle at the rate of sixty 
barrels per hour by eight men (cf. Philosoph. 
Trans. 1674, ix. 25). Elsewhere Morland 
states he raised twelve barrels of water 140 
feet high in one hour by the force of one 
man. An interesting schedule of his prices, 
with other papers concerning his inventions, 
is among the 'British Museum Tracts' (816, 
m. 10). For a brass force-pump suitable for 
raising water from a deep well he charged 
60Z., and for an 'engine to quench fire or wet 
the sails of a ship ' from 23/. upwards. 
Another very interesting and important 

2 Morland 

evidence of Morland's inventive genius is 
supplied by a manuscript in the Harleian 
collection at the British Museum (No. 5771). 
This manuscript is a thin book upon vellum, 
written in elegant and ornamental charac- 
ters, and entitled 'Elevation des Eaux, par 
toutesorte de machines, reduite a la mesure, 
au poids, et a la balance,' 1683. At page 35 
is an account of what seems to be one of 
the first steps made towards the art of work- 
ing by steam. It has this separate title : 
' Les principes de la nouvelle force de feu; 
inventee par le Chev. Morland Fan 1682, 
et presentee a sa majeste tres Chrestienne, 
1683.' The author thus reasons on his prin- 
ciple : ' L'Eau estant evaporee par la force 
de Feu, ces vapeurs demandent incontinent 
une plus grand' espace (environ deux mille 
fois) que 1'eau n'occupoiet \_sic~] auparavant, 
et plus tost que d'etre toujours emprison- 
nees, feroient crever un piece de Canon. Mais- 
estant bieu gouvernees selon les regies de la 
Statique, et par science reduites a la mesure, 
au poids et a la balance, alors elles portent 
paisiblement leurs fardeaux (comme des bons- 
chevaux) et ainsi servient elles du grand 
usage au gendre humain, particulierement 
pour Felevation des Eaux.' Then follows a 
table of weights to be thus raised by cylin- 
ders half full of water, according to their 
diameters. Subsequently Morland printed a 
book at Paris, with the same title, from 
' Elevation des Eaux ' to ' a la balance,' after 
which it runs thus : ' par le moyen d'un 
nouveau piston, et corps de pompe, et d'un 
nouveau mouvement cyclo-elliptique, en re- 
jettant 1'usage de toute sorte de Manivelles or- 
dinaires : avec huit problemes de mechanique- 
proposez aux plus habiles et aux plus scavans 
du siecle, pour le bien public,' Paris, 1685, 
4to. In the dedication to the king of France 
Morland says that as his majesty was pleased 
with the models and ocular demonstrations 
he had the honour to exhibit at Saint-Ger- 
main, he thought himself obliged to present 
his book as a tribute to so great a monarch. 
He states that it contains an abridged account 
of the best experiments he had made for the 
last thirty years respecting the raising of 
water, with figures in profile and perspective, 
calculated to throw light upon the mysteries 
of hydrostatics. It begins with a perpetual 
almanac, showing the day of the month or 
week for the time past, present, and to come, 
and it contains various mathematical pro- 
blems and tables. This suggestion for the 
employment of high-pressed steam to raise 
water (probably by means of Morland's own 
force-pump) was doubtless brought forward 
in connection with the many schemes sug- 
gested for supplying Versailles with water 




from the Seine. There is no exact descrip- 
tion of the engine proposed by Morland, but 
the project is of the highest interest as one 
of the first to demonstrate the practical 
utility of steam-power. Morland's experi- 
ments must have been conducted with great 
care and skill, his estimate that at the tem- 
perature of boiling water steam was about 
two thousand times more bulky than water 
being substantially confirmed by Watt after 
careful investigation some hundred years 
later (cf. paper by Mr. E. H. COOPER in 
Transactions of the Institute of Civil En- 
gineers, January 1884; MUIRHEAD, Life of 
Watt, 2nd ed. p. 76 ; ELIJAH GALLOWAY, 
History of the Steam Engine, 1831, p. 26 ; 
R. L. GALLOWAY, Steam Engine, pp. 108, 
141 : andcf. art. SOMERSET, EDWARD, second 
MARQUIS OF WORCESTER). From one of the 
several medals that were struck in Morland's 
honour and are now preserved in the British 
Museum, it would appear that he had also 
seriously considered the possibility of em- 
ploying steam as a prime mover in the pro- 
pulsion of vessels. The medal in question 
represents a conical-shaped vessel on a square 
wooden base, floating upon the sea. In the 
side is inserted a long pipe or arm, and from 
the top issues steam. In the distance is a 
ship in full sail, and the legend is ' Concordes 
. ignibvs . undse.' (HAWKINS, Medallic Illust. 
p. 596; and art. HULLS, JONATHAN). 

Morland's other works are: 1. ' A New 
Method of Criptography,' 1666, fol. 2. 'Four 
Diagrams of Fortifications ' [1670 ?], fol. ; 
attributed to him in the British Museum 
Catalogue. 3. ' The Count of Pagan's Method 
of delineating all manner of Fortifications 
from the exterior Polygone, reduced to Eng- 
lish measure, and converted into Hereo- 
tectonick Lines,' London, 1672. 4. ' A new 
and most useful Instrument for Addition and 
Subtraction, &c., with a perpetual Almanack,' 
London, 1672, 8vo. 5. ' The Doctrine of In- 
terest, both simple and compound, explained 
. . . discovering the errors of the ordinary 
Tables of Rebate for Annuities, at simple 
interest, and containing tables for the in- 
terest and rebate of money,' London, 1679, 
8vo. 6. 'The Poor Man's Dyal, with an 
Instrument to set it. Made applicable to 
any place in England, Scotland, Ireland, 
&c.,' London, 1689, 4to, pp. 5. This tract, 
giving directions for the construction of a 
simple sun-dial, was reprinted in facsimile 
by Mr. Richard B. Prosser [London, 1886], 
4to, from a copy, probably unique, in the 
library at Lambeth. 7. ' Hydrostatics, or 
Instructions concerning Water-works,' Lon- 
don, 1697, 12mo ; a posthumous work, edited 
by his son, Joseph Morland, and containing 

an account of various methods of raising- 
water and tables of square and cube roots^ 
It appears from the preface that a number 
of mathematical papers, left by Morland, 
were then in his son's possession. 

Besides Lely's portrait mentioned above, 
there is a portrait in a wig prefixed to the 
' Description and Use of two Arithmetical 
Instruments/ and a portrait after a drawing 
in the Pepysian collection is reproduced in 
the third volume of Mr. Wheatley's edition 
of ''Pepys's Diary.' A miniature of Morland 
belonged to Bennet Woodcroft of the Patent 

[Addit. MSS. 5825 f. 145 b, 5876 f. 43 ; Birch 
MS. 4279; Bradshaw's Essays ; Chalmers's Biog. 
Diet.; Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, vi. 667, 
668, 670 ; Dircks's Life of the Second Marquis- 
of Worcester, pp. 353, 365, 512 ; Manning and 
Bray's Surrey, iii. 489, 901, 991, and App. cv. ; 
Leupold's Theatrum Machinarum Hydraulico- 
rum, Leipzig, 1725 ; Faulkner's Fulham, pp. 161, 
357; Gent. Mag. 1818, ii. 12; Granger's Biog. 
Hist, of Engl. 5th ed. iii. 357 ; Gwillim's Heraldry 
(1724), p. 200 ; J. 0. Halliwell's Life of Morland, 
privately printed, Cambridge, 1838, 8vo ; His- 
toire de 1'Acad. Roy. des Sciences, Paris, 1733, i. 
448 ; Hollis's Memoirs, i. 142, 428, ii. 586-8 ; 
North's Life of Lord Keeper North, 1808, ii. 251 ; 
Hatton Correspondence (Camd. Soc.), ii. 70 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1614; Nalson's 
Heraclitus Ridens (1 713), p. 41 ; Nichols's Illustr. 
Lit. vi. 621 ; Pole's Windsor Castle; Rees's Cy- 
clopaedia ; Stuart's Anecdotes of Steam Engines, 
i. 71-6 ; Tighe and Davis's Annals of Windsor, 
iii. 388-91 ; Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, iii. 
88; D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, 1841, 
p. 480; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Welwood's Memoir* 
(1700), p. 111.] T. C. 




(Jl. 1700), physician, was born in or about 
1646, and from his name may probably have 
been related to Christopher Love [q. v.] the 
presbyterian. He was entered as a medical 
student at Leyden 18 Feb. 1676 (English 
Students at Leyden, Index Society, 1883), 
being then thirty years of age (MUNK), and 
graduated M.D. in 1679. According to a 
short account of Morley in the preface to his 
' Collectanea Chymica,' he had travelled 
widely, and apparently practised medicine 
before coming to Holland. At Leyden he 
attended the medical practice of Schacht and 
Drelincourt, with the anatomical lectures of 
the latter, and also studied chemistry with 
Maets and others. Morley was accustomed 
to take copious notes of lectures, cases, &c., 




which ultimately extended, it is said, to more 
than forty quarto volumes. Of these a few 
have survived, and are now in the British 
Museum (Sloane MSS., Nos. 1259, 1272, 
1273, 1289). They are dated 1677 to 1679, 
and not only show Morley's diligence as a 
student, but give an interesting picture of 
the state of medical education in Leyden at 
the time. On his return to England he pub- 
lished a little volume on an epidemic fever 
then prevalent in England, Holland, and 
else where, which he dedicated to the College 
of Physicians (' De Morbo Epidemico,' 1678-9, 
&c., London, 1680, 12mo). It contains an 
account of his personal experience of the 
disease, and a letter from Professor Schacht 
of Leyden on the same subject, besides re- 
marks on the state of medical practice in Eng- 
land and Holland. This probably led to his 
election as an honorary fellow of the College 
of Physicians 30 Sept. 1680 (since, not being 
an English graduate, he was not eligible to 
become an ordinary fellow). He did not 
immediately settle down, for in 1683 we find 
him going on a voyage to the Indies, but in 
1684 he was practising in London. 

In the new charter granted to the college 
in 1686 by James II Morley was named as an 
actualfellow, and was admitted in the follow- 
ing year. This fact shows that he was a par- 
tisan of James II, and probably a Roman 
catholic, so that he found a difficulty in 
taking the oaths required by the government 
after the revolution, and finally, in 1700, his 
name was on that ground withdrawn, at his 
own request, from the college list. His sub- 
sequent career cannot be traced. 

Morley was evidently a man of remarkably 
wide knowledge in medicine and other 
sciences, but he did nothing in later life to 
justify his early promise. Beside the work 
mentioned above he published ' Collectanea 
Chemica Leydensia' (Leyden, 1684, 4to), 
which is evidently extracted from the note- 
books above referred to. It consists of a large 
number of chemical and pharmaceutical re- 
ceipts taken from the lectures of three pro- 
fessors of chemistry at Leyden Mae'ts, Marg- 
graff, and Le Mort. It was translated into 
German (Jena, 1696), and appeared in a 
second Latin edition (Antwerp, 1702, 

[Morlev's works ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878 
i- 450.] J. R P. 

MARLACH, DANIEL OF (fi. 1170-1190), 
astronomer, apparently came from Morley, 
Norfolk (cf. BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, passim), 
and is said to have been educated at Oxford. 
Thence he proceeded to the university of 

Paris, and applied himself especially to the 
study of mathematics ; but dissatisfied with 
the teaching there, he left for Toledo, then 
famous for its school of Arabian philosophy. 
At Toledo he remained for some time. The 
statements of Pits, Wood, and Blomefield 
that he visited Arabia are erroneous. Morley 
returned to England with a valuable collec- 
tion of books. He was apparently disappointed 
at the neglect of science in England, and a 
passage in his book has been interpreted to 
mean that he was on the point of setting out 
again for foreign parts when he met John of 
Oxford (1175-1200), bishop of Norwich, who 
persuaded him to remain. The date of Mor- 
ley's death is unknown. 

Morley was author of a book called both 
' Philosophia Magistri Danielis de Merlac/ 
and ' Liber de N aturis inferiorum et supe- 
riorum,' dedicated to John of Oxford ; it is 
in Arundel MS. 377 ff. 88-103, and from 
the preface is derived all that is known 
of Morley's life. The Arundel MS. divides 
the work into two books, one, 'De supe- 
riori parte mundi,' the other, ' De inferiori 
parte mundi ; ' in it Morley quotes frequently 
from Arabian and Greek philosophers, and 
vaunts the superiority of the former ; he is 
not free, however, from astrological supersti- 
tions. Another copy of the work is No. 95 
in the Corpus Christi College, Oxford, MSS., 
and is erroneously catalogued under W. de 
Conchys (CoxE, Cat. Cod. MSS. in Coll. 
O.ron.) This copy lacks the preface, and 
mentions a third book of the work beginning 
' Seneca loquens ad Lucilium,' which is not 
in the Aruudel MS. Pits also attributes to 
Morley a treatise in one book called ' De 
Trincipiis Mathematicis,' and 'alia qusedam/ 
which he does not specify. 

[Arundel MS. 377 ; Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. ; 
Wright's BiographiaLiteraria,ii. 227-30; Hardy's 
Descr. Cat. ii. 550 ; Leland's Scriptt. 111. ed. 
Hall, p. 244. and Collectarua, iv. 192 ; Bale, ed. 
1557, pp. 229-30 ; Pits, p. 254 ; Wood's Hist. and 
Antiquities, ed. Guteh, i. 168 ; Arthur Duck's De 
Vsu et Authoritate, vol.ii. cap. viii. p. 141 ; Bur- 
rows's Collectanea (Oxford Hist. Soc.), ii. 146, 
171, 172, 323 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 477.] 

A. F. P. 

^MORLEY, GEORGE (1597-1 684),bishop 
of Winchester, son of Francis Morley, esq., 
and Sarah, sister to Sir John Denham [q. v.j, 
judge, was born in Cheapside, London, on 
27 Feb. 1597. Both his parents died by the 
time that he was twelve, and his father having 
before his death fallen into difficulties by be- 
coming surety for others, left him unprovided 
for. When he was about fourteen he was 
admitted king's scholar at Westminster, and 
in 1615 was elected to Christ Church, Oxford 







(WELCH, Alumni Westmonasterienses, p. 83). 
He graduated B.A. in 1618, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1621, and D.D. in 1642. Remaining 
at Oxford, he made many friends, among 
whom were Henry Hammond [q. v.J, Robert 
Sanderson [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Lin- 
coln, William Chillingworth [q. v.J, Gilbert 
Sheldon [q. v.], afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, Lucius Gary, afterwards second 
viscount Falkland [q. v.], at whose house at 
Great Tew, Oxfordshire, he was a frequent 
guest, and, above all, of Edward Hyde, after- 
wards earl of Clarendon. His remarkably 
cultured mind, his witty conversation, and 
his high moral character won him the regard 
and admiration of men of taste and learning. 
It is related that Edmund Waller the poet, 
when one day sitting with Chillingworth. 
Falkland, and others, heard that some one was 
arrested in the street below, found that it was 
' one of Jonson's sons,' George Morley, and at 
once paid the debt of 100/., on condition that 
Morley would stay with him. Morley con- 
stantly visited him at his house in Bucking- 
hamshire, and Waller used to declare that it 
was from him that he learned to love the 
ancient poets (Life of Waller, pp. 8, 9, affixed 
to Works). Morley's arrest must probably 
have arisen out of the debts which his father 
had incurred. He was a Calvinist, though at 
the same time a thorough churchman. Being 
once asked, apparently about 1635, what the 
Arminians held, he answered that they held 
all the best bishoprics and deaneries in Eng- 
land. Neither his opinions nor his wit pleased 
Laud, who had a prejudice against him, and 
his friendship with John Hampden (1594- 
1643) [q. v.], Arthur Goodwin [q. v.], and 
others of the same views, made some suspect 
that he was no true friend to the church 
(CLARENDON, Life, i. 50). He was for a time 
chaplain to Robert Dormer, earl of Carnarvon 
[q. v.], and was in 1640 presented to the sine- 
cure rectory of Hartfield, Sussex. His friend 
Hyde evidently forwarded his interests, and 
in 1641 [see under HYDE for significance of 
date] he was made a canon of Christ Church, 
having previously been appointed one of the 
king's chaplains, gave his first year's sti- 
pend to help the king in his war [see under 
CHARLES I], and exchanged his sinecure for 
the rectory, with cure, of Mildenhall, Wilt- 

He was appointed in 1642 to preach before 
the House of Commons, but his sermon was 
so little to the members' liking that they 
refrained from paying him the usual compli- 
ment of requesting him to print it (Wooo). 
Nevertheless he was appointed by both houses 
one of the assembly of divines, but he never 
attended any of its meetings, and served the 

king by all means in his power. In obedience 
to the king's direction he took a prominent 
part in the resistance of the university of Ox- 
ford to the parliamentary visitation of 1647, 
and served on the delegacy appointed by con- 
vocation to manage the opposition (BURROWS, 
Visitors' J?e07ster, Pref. Ixiii ; WOOD). When 
in the autumn the second attempt at visita- 
tion was resisted, and the heads of houses 
were summoned to appear before the com- 
mittee of the two houses, Morley was selected 
to instruct counsel on their behalf. He was 
deprived of his canonry and his rectoiy. He 
resisted, and was finally ejected in the spring 
of 1648. In a letter to Whitelocke, which 
appears in Whitelocke's 'Memorials' under 
May 1647, he speaks of his canonry as all his 
subsistence (Memorials, ii. 150). It is said 
that he might have avoided ejectment if he 
would have promised to abstain from opposi- 
tion to the visitors, and that he suffered a 
short imprisonment on account of it (WooD ; 
WALKER). In the summer of 1647 he attended 
the king as one of his chaplains at New- 
market (CLARENDON, History, x. 93). and is 
said to have taken part in the Newport nego- 
tiations in the autumn of 1648 (WOOD). In 
March 1649 he attended his friend, Arthur 
Capel, lord Capel [q. v.], after his sentence, 
and accompanied him to the foot of the scaf- 
fold (ib. xi. 264). 

Morley then left England, went to the court 
of Charles II at St. Germains, and while in 
Paris officiated in the chapel of Sir Richard 
Browne (1605-1683) [q. v.] (EVELYN, Diary, 
i. 254, 271 n.~) Having accompanied the king 
to Breda, he preached before him on the eve 
of Charles's departure for Scotland in 1650. 
Hyde wrote to Lady Morton [see under DOU- 
GLAS, WILLIAM, seventh or eighth EARL OF 
MORTON], speakin g of the comfort that Morley 
would be to her ( Col. of Clarendon Papers, 
ii. 21). At first the royalists at the Hague, 
where he remained after the king's departure, 
seem to have looked upon him with some 
coldness, believing that he had presbyterian 
leanings, and Hyde wrote again to Lady 
Morton to correct this impression (ib. p. 65). 
Some of them, however, immediately recog- 
nised his value, Lady Elizabeth Thynne being 
one of ' his elect ladies ; ' he read prayers 
twice a day, and performed the other offices 
of the church for the English royalists in 
every place at which he stayed during his 
exile, and was soon regarded as their most 
prominent and useful clergyman, being re- 
ferred to somewhat later in correspondence 
as ' the honest doctor ' (ib. passim ; Nicholas 
Papers, i. 208 ; WOOD). He gratuitously 
acted as chaplain to Elizabeth, queen of 
Bohemia, and also served Lady Frances Hyde 




in the same capacity at Antwerp, where he 
was entertained by Sir Charles Cotterell 
[q. v.] He was in Antwerp for some time 
in 1653, where he formed a high opinion of 
Henry, duke of Gloucester, and had much 
conversation with Colonel Joseph Bampfield 
[q. v.], about which he wrote to Sir Edward 
Nicholas (Nicholas Papers, ii. 21). He was at 
Diisseldorf in October 1654, when the Duke of 
Neuburg entertained the king there. A mali- 
cious story, afterwards proved to be false, was 
set abroad about his indiscreet behaviour at 
the duke's table (ib. pp. 154, 170). He also 
visited Breda, where ' he was gallantly enter- 
tained,' and did not return to the Hague until 
April 1655 (ib. pp. 244, 251 ; Cal. of Clarendon 
Papers, ii. 333). Shortly before the Restora- 
tion he was sent over to England by Hyde 
to prepare the presbyterians to forward the 
king's return, and specially to contradict the 
report that Charles was a Roman catholic, i 
He had great success, for he let his Calvinistic 
opinions be known, and spoke of his hopes of 
peace and union (WooD ; CALAMY, Abridg- 
ment, p. 569). He proposed to meet the 
presbyterians' demands with reference to the 
negative power of the presbyters and the 
validity of their orders, either by silence, 
or in the case of the latter demand, by a 
hypothetical re-ordination (Clarendon State 
Papers, pp. 727, 738). 

At the Restoration Morley regained his 
canonry,and in July was made dean of Christ 
Church. When his former pupil, Anne Hyde, 
duchess of York [q. v.], was delivered of a son 
on 22 Oct. 1660 he was sent for, and put ques- 
tions to her establishing the legitimacy of the 
child (CLARENDON, Life, i. 333). On the 28th 
he was consecrated to the see of Worcester. 
He preached the sermon at the coronation on 
23 April 1661, being then dean of the chapel 
royal. At the Savoy conference in May he 
was ' prime manager,' and the chief speaker 
of the bishops (CALAMT, Abridgment, pp. 154, 
171). In September he visited Oxford with 
the Earl of Clarendon, the new chancellor of 
the university (WOOD, Life and Times, i.411). 
Having refused to allow Richard Baxter 
[q. v.] to resume his ministry at Kiddermin- 
ster, he went thither himself, and preached 
against presbyterianism. Baxter replied by 
publishing his ' Mischief of Self-ignorance.' 
In 1662 he was translated to the see of Win- 
chester. Rich as that bishopric was, Charles, 
who knew Morley 's munificence, declared that 
he would never be the richer for it. Besides 
giving away large sums, he was extremely 
hospitable. Among his guests was Isaac 
Walton [q. v.], who appears to have been 
much under his roof. The king and the Duke 
of York rather abused his hospitality, for 

Farnham Castle was conveniently situated 
for their hunting, and for the king to overlook 
the progress of his building at Winchester, 
and the bishop is said once to have asked 
Charles whether he meant to make his house 
an inn (PRIDEATJX, Letters, p. 141). At Win- 
chester he was brought into close relations 
with Thomas Ken [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Bath and Wells. On the Christmas day 
following his translation he preached at 
Whitehall, and ' reprehending the common 
jollitv of the court . . . particularized con- 
cerning their excess in plays and gaming.' 
Pepys thought he made but a poor sermon,, 
and others laughed in the chapel at his rebuke 
(Diary, ii. 84, 85). He was appointed a go- 
vernor of the Charterhouse in May 1663 (in- 
formation received from the master of the 
Charterhouse). In 1664 he visited the five 
Oxford colleges of which he was ex officio 
visitor, finding apparently no trouble except 
at Corpus Christi, where he ' bound some to 
their behaviour,' and had to punish a gross 
case of contempt of his authority ( WOOD, Life 
and Times, ii. 16-19). When an impeachment 
was drawn up against Clarendon in November 
1667, Morley was sent to him by the Duke of 
York to signify the king's wish that he should 
leave the country (CLARENDON, Life, ii. 484). 
Clarendon's fall for a time brought Morley 
into disgrace at court. Pepys heard that 
both he and the Bishop of Rochester, John 
Dolben [q. v.], afterwards archbishop of York, 
and some other great prelates were ' sus- 
pended,' and noted that the business would be 
a heavy blow to the clergy (Diary, iv. 297). 
Morley certainly withdrew from court for a 
season. In common with some other bishops, 
he was consulted by the ministers in 1674 
with reference to measures to be taken against 
popery (BURNET, History, ii. 53). Some re- 
flections were made upon him in a letter pub- 
lished in the ' Histoire du Calvinisme ' of a 
Roman catholic priest named Maimburg, with 
reference to the cause of the conversion to 
Roman Catholicism of Anne, late duchess of 
York, whose spiritual adviser he had been. 
By way of vindicating himself, he published 
in 1681 a letter that he had written to the 
duchess in 1670 on her neglect of the sacra- 
ment (see under ANNE, DUCHESS OF YORK ; 
EVELYN, Correspondence, iii. 255, 257 ; BTJR- 
NET, History, \. 537, 538). Not long before 
his death he is said to have sent a message 
to the Duke of York (James II) that ' if ever 
he depended on the doctrine of non-resistance 
he would find himself deceived ' (ib. ii. 428 n.) 
He died at Farnham Castle on 29 Oct. 1684, 
in his eighty-eighth year, and was buried in 
Winchester Cathedral. 

He was, Clarendon says, a man ' of emi- 



nent parts in all polite learning, of great wit, 
readiness, and subtlety in disputation, and 
of remarkable temper and prudence in con- 
versation ' (Life, i. 46). According to Burnet 
he was too easily provoked, and when angry 
exercised too little restraint over himself. 
There is no reason to doubt that while he was 
good-natured, he was also irascible. Pious 
and high-minded, he was in the eyes of Cla- 
rendon ' the best man alive ' ( Cal. of Clarendon 
Papers, ii. 271). He retained his Calvinistic 
opinions through life ; but while he was 
always a good churchman, he seems to have 
been brought by persecution to hold stronger 
church views than in his earlier days. He 
was, however, always moderate, and was 
courteous towards dissenters. He was a loyal 
subject and a faithful friend, and both in word 
and deed utterly fearless. He was hospitable 
and extremely liberal, his benefactions while 
bishop of Winchester amounting, it is said, to 
40,000/. He rebuilt the episcopal palace at 
Wolvesey, repaired Farnham Castle, and pur- 
chased for the see Winchester House, Chelsea, 
for 4,OOOA ; he was a large contributor to the 
rebuilding of St. Paul's, gave 2,200 to Christ 
Church, Oxford, founded five scholarships at 
Pembroke College for natives of Jersey and 
Guernsey (now consolidated into one scho- 
larship of 8QL a year), and built and endowed 
the 'college for matrons' on the north side 
of the churchyard of Winchester Cathedral 
for the widows of the clergy of the dioceses 
of Worcester and Winchester. Moreover by 
his will he left 5001. to the Military Hospital 
at Chelsea. In his habits he was active and 
ascetic, rising at five A.M. all the year round, 
sitting on winter mornings without a fire, 
and only making one meal a day. He re- 
tained a large amount of bodily and mental 
vigour in old age. 

Though Morley was studious, he wrote 
little. His works, mostly short and polemical, 
are, omitting sermons : 1 . ' A Letter con- 
cerning the Death of Lord Capel,' 4to, 1654 ; 
2. ' A Vindication of himself from . . . Re- 
flexion by Mr. Richard Baxter,' 4to (see 
above), to which Baxter replied. 3. ' Epi- 
stola Apologetica ad theologium quendam,' 
4to, written at Breda in 1659, published in 
London in 1663 as 'Epistola ad virum claris- ! 
simumD.CorneliumTriglandium, an Answer 
to those who suspected Charles II of Popery.' 
4. A volume (4to, 1683) containing seven 
pieces, viz. ' Sum of a Short Conference 
between Father Darcey and Dr. Morley at 
Brussels,' ' An Argument against Transub- 
stantiation,' ' Vindication of an Argument,' 
' Answer to Father Creasy's Letter,' ' Answer 
to a Letter,' 'Letter to Anne, Duchess of 
York' (see above), ' Ad . . . Janum Ulilium 


epistolae duse ' the last was translated in 
1707, probably by Hilkiah Bedford fa. v.]^ 
with a commendatory letter by Dr. George 
Hickes [q.v.] (HEARNE, Collections, ii. 12). 
' A Letter to the Earl of Anglesey,' concern- 
ing measures against popery, 4to, 1683. is at 
the end of ' Proceedings between the Duke 
of Ormonde and the Earl of Anglesey ' [see 
under BUTLEK, JAMES, twelfth EARL and first 
DUKE OF ORMONDE]; and an 'Epitaph for 
James I,' at end of Spotiswood's ' History of 
the Church of Scotland ' (BLISS). He drew 
up ' Injunctions for Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford,' as visitor, and appears to have been 
dissatisfied with the ' restless and unquiet ' 
spirit of the college (Magdalen College and 
James II, pp. 55, 186). Besides these there 
are assigned to him 'A Modest Advertisement 
concerning Church Government,' 4to, 1641, 
and a character of Charles II (BLiss). 

Morley's portrait was painted by Lely. 
Clarendon had a portrait of him in his palace 
in London (EVELYN, Correspondence, iii. 301), 
and other portraits of him are at Farnham 
Castle, at Christ Church, at Oriel and Pem- 
broke Colleges, Oxford, and the Charterhouse. 
In that at Pembroke College Morley wears 
the mantle of the order of the Garter, of 
which as bishop of Winchester he was ex 
officio prelate. The Oriel picture at one time 
belonged to Walton. According to the por- 
traits Morley's face was oval, and his nose 
long and straight. He wore a slight mous- 
tache and closely cut beard. Engravings from 
the pictures have been executed by Vertue 
and Thompson (CASSAN, Bishops of Win- 
chester, ii. 185 ; GRANGER, Eiog. Hist. iii. 235). 
A drawing in coloured chalks by E. Lutterel 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 149, ed. Bliss, lias 
an excellent memoir, also in great part in Biog. 
Brit. v. 3177, and inserted in Cassan's Bishops 
of Winchester, ii. 170 sq. ; Welch's Alumni 
Westmonast. pp. 83, 84 ; Clarendon's Life, i. 34, 
41, 46-50, 333, ii. 484; Clarendon's Hist. x. 93, 
xi. 264, ed. Macray; Cal. of Clarendon Papers, 
i. 371, ii. 21, 50, 65, 186, 271, 333; Nicholas 
Papers, i. 203, ii. 21, 156, 170, 244 (Camden 
Soc.) ; Evelyn's Diary and Correspondence, i. 254, 
271 w., iii. 255, 256, iv. 205, 211, ed. Bray; 
Pepys's Diary, ii. 84, iv. 297, ed. Braybrooke ; 
Whitelocke's Memorials, ii. 149, 150, 8vo edit. ; 
Burnet's Hist, of own Time, i. 18, 24, 88, 170, 
177, ii. 53, 428. 8vo edit. ; Burrows's Visitors' 
Reg. at Oxford, Pref. Ixiii, p. 71 (Camden Soc.) ; 
Waller's Life, Pref. to Works, pp. viii, ix, ed. 
1712; Calamy's Abridgment of Baxter's Life, 
pp. 154, 171, 569, 572; Walton's Lives, pp. 351, 
390, 392, 446 ; Walker's Sufferings of Clergy, 
ii. 106, ed. 1714; Willis's Cathedrals, i. 651, 
ii. 442, 553 ; Wood's Life and Times, i. 411, 
ii. 16, 17 (Oxf. Hist. S .c.) ; Plumptre's Bishop 


7 8 


Ken i 82-6,126, 175, 2nd edit.; Magdalen Coll. 
and James II, p. 186 (Oxf. Hist. Soc.) ; Granger's 
Biog. Hist. iii. 235.] W. H. 

MORLEY, HENRY (1822-1894), author, 
son of Henry Morley of Midhurst, Sussex, 
was born in Hatton Garden, London, on 
15 Sept. 1822. He was sent early to a Mo- 
ravian school at Neuwied on the Rhine, and 
from 1838 to 1843 he studied at King's 
College, London. His father was a member 
of the Apothecaries' Company, and Morley 
was destined for the medical profession. But, 
while zealously pursuing his medical studies, 
he gave evidence of literary propensities as 
joint editor of a college magazine, and he 
contributed a digest of a German book upon 
Greece to the ' Foreign Quarterly Review.' In 
1843 he passed Apothecaries' Hall, and he im- 
mediately commenced practice as assistant to 
a country doctor in Somerset, but presently 
bought a partnership with another doctor at 
Madeley in Shropshire, whom he unfortu- 
nately found to be dishonest. Stripped of all 
he had, he changed his plan of life in 1848, 
and set up a school at Manchester on the 
principles that he had admired at Neuwied. 
How severe his struggles were at this period 
he has himself related in his ' Early Papers 
and Some Memories,' published in 1891. 
But his spirit was high and bore him through. 
Much impressed by the continental revolu- 
tions of 1848, he put forth a small volume 
of verse called ' Sunrise in Italy.' He soon 
removed the school to Liverpool, where he 
remained for two years. In 1849 he began 
a set of ironical papers, entitled ' How to 
make Home Unhealthy,' in the ' Journal of 
Public Health,' which were interrupted by 
the discontinuance of that periodical, but 
afterwards reappeared and were completed 
in the ' Examiner,' then edited by John 
Forster. The papers attracted much atten- 
tion, and caught the eye of Dickens. The 
author was asked to write for 'Household 
Words,' but, busy with his school, he at first 
sent only his ' Adventures in Skitzland,' a 
freak of his imagination in college days. A 
few weeks later he was pressed to give up his 
school and come to London to take part in 
the management of 'Household Words.' He 
was thus connected both with that serial and 
with its successor, 'All the Year Round,' from 
about 1850 to 1865. During this period he 
was also associated with the ' Examiner,' first 
as sub-editor and afterwards as editor, and 
published three important biographies. These 
were 'Palissy the Potter,' 1852; 'Jerome 
Cardan,' 1854 ; and ' Cornelius Agrippa,' 1856 ; 
and they were followed at a longer interval by 
' Clement Marot,' 1870. Meanwhile he had 
followed up his first ironical work with ' A 

Defence of Ignorance,' 1851, and in 1857 he 
published his ' Memoirs of Bartholomew 
Fair,' soon succeeded by two volumes of 
fairy tales, 1859 and 1860. 

In 1857 he was appointed English lecturer 
to evening classes at King's College, London, 
and the idea of a great history of English 
literature gradually took form in his mind. 
In 1864, accordingly, appeared the first 
volume of his ' English Writers,' coming 
down only to Chaucer, and the first part of 
a second volume in 1867 carried the story 
down to William Dunbar. The publication 
had probably much to do with his appoint- 
ment as professor of the English language 
and literature at University College in 1865, 
when he withdrew from King's College. 
After 1867 the great work was long sus- 
pended, but it was begun again in 1887 in a 
new form, in which ten volumes, bringing the 
narrative down to Shakespeare, were com- 
pleted before his death. Meanwhile 'A First 
Sketch of English Literature,' which was 
first published in 1873, and has since reached 
its thirteenth edition (thirty-first thousand), 
covered, on a smaller scale, the same field. 
In 1878 Morley was appointed professor of the 
English language and literature at Queen's 
College, London. His teaching power was 
unique, not only from his mastery of the facts, 
but from his personal warmth and geniality. 
He appreciated all that was best in every man 
he met and in every author he discussed, a 
fact strongly recommending him to popular 
audiences, whom he repeatedly addressed on 
literary topics in various parts of the country. 
In 1879 he received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from the university of Edinburgh. 
From 1882 to 1890 he was principal of Uni- 
versity Hall, Gordon Square. He then re- 
signed his professorships and retired to Caris- 
brooke in the Isle of Wight, where he died 
on 14 May 1894. 

He had married in 1852 a daughter of 
Joseph Sayer of Newport in the Isle of 
Wight, who died two years before him, and 
by her he had several children. 

Morley's later years were largely spent in 
preparing editions at a low price of 'English 
Classics,' and of translations from foreign clas- 
sics. These he induced two publishing houses 
to bring out in two series, respectively en- 
titled ' Morley's Universal Library ' (63 vols. 
at Is. each), 1883-8, and 'Casselfs National 
Library' (214 vols. at 3d. each), 1886-90. 
Each of the volumes had an introduction from 
his own pen. He also published a ' Library 
of English Literature,' 5 vols. (1875-81), with 
much original comment, and the ' Carisbrooke 
Library' (1889-91), 14 vols. reprints of less 
familiar English classics. Morley's ' Com- 




panion Poets ' (1891-2) numbered nine vo- 
lumes. Although much of his work as the 
historian of literature has lasting value, his 
critical insight was less marked than his 
faculty for collecting information; and it is 
as a populariser of literature that he did his 
countrymen the highest service. 

[Personal information.] J. G-. 

MORLEY, HERBERT (1616-1667), 
colonel, baptised on 2 April 1616, was eldest 
son of Robert Morley (d. 1632) of Glynde, 
Sussex, by Susan (1595-1667), daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Hodgson of Fram- 
field in the same county (BERRY, County 
Genealogies, ' Sussex,' p. 175 ; Sussex Archceo- 
logical Collections, xxiv. 102). He was edu- 
cated at Lewes free school along with John 
Evelyn (1620 -1706) [q. v.] In November 
1634 he became a member of the Inner 
Temple. On 3 Nov. 1640 he was elected 
M.P. for Lewes, and subsequently became a 
colonel in the parliamentary army. When the 
members subscribed on 9 April 1642 for the 
speedy reduction of the Irish rebels, Morley 
contributed 600/. (Rusii WORTH, Historical 
Collections, pt. iii. vol. i. p. 565; cf. Com- 
mons' Journals, ii. 647). In November 1642, 
having been chosen by parliament with three 
other deputy-lieutenants, he undertook to put 
Sussex in a position of defence, provide men 
for that county, and gunpowder for the de- 
fence of Lewes, to pay for which contributions 
of money and plate were raised in the town. 
When Chichester was besieged by Waller's 
forces he held a principal command, and for 
his success received the thanks of the house 
on 16 Jan. 1643 (ib. ii. 929). The command 
of two troops of horse was given him on 
15 Feb. He was appointed the chief agent 
for raising troops, levying money, and se- 
questrating estates in Sussex, and became 
notorious for his rough usage of the clergy. 
Having been charged on 16 March 1643 ' to 
take care that no horse do pass beyona seas 
without special warrant,' he arrested Wil- 
liam, son of Lord Strafford, at Rye on his pas- 
sage to France, but parliament on 23 March 
ordered his discharge, with a letter of thanks 
to Morley ' for his care ' (ib. iii. 15). 

In April he seized a vessel for conveying 
abroad the ' delinquent ' John Tufton, second 
earl of Thanet (ib. iii. 67). In May he was 
active in parliament in promoting severe mea- 
sures of retaliation on royalist prisoners in 
consequence of some parliamentarians having 
been ill-used at Oxford ; and in July he was 
prominent in urging the lords to proceed 
more diligently with the impeachment of the 
queen and the making a new great seal. In 
December 1643, although he was unable to 

prevent the surprisal of Arundel by Lord 
Hopton [see HOPTON, RALPH, first BARON 
HOPTON], he beat back that general in his 
advance on Lewes ( WHITELOCKE, Memorials, 
ed. 1732, p. 78), and soon afterwards assisted 
at the recapture of Arundel, over which he 
was placed in authority in conjunction with 
Sir William Springett (TiERNEY, Arundel, i. 
62-3). He was again thanked by parliament 
on 21 June 1644 for his services at the siege 
of Basing House (WHITELOCKE, pp. 78, 103). 
Although nominated one of the king's judges, 
he refused to act. On 20 Feb. 1650 he became 
a member of the council of state, and served on 
various committees (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1650, p. 5). He vigorously opposed Cromwell 
as long as he could do so with safety. On a 
motion in the House of Commons for fixing 
a day for its dissolution, a critical division 
ensued, 14 Nov. 1651, and while Cromwell 
and St. John as tellers for the ayes reckoned 
forty-nine votes, Morley and Dennis Bond 
told off' forty-seven in opposition. On 19 Nov., 
however, he was re-elected to the council of 
state, and again in November 1652 (Com- 
mons' Journals, vii. 220). After the expul- 
sion of the Long parliament in April 1653, 
Morley withdrew into private life, and though 
elected both for Rye and Sussex in 1654, he 
declined to attend parliament. He was as 
active as ever in having the coast watched 
and vessels searched for suspicious persons 
and papers (THTJRLOE, State Papers, iii. 369), 
but refused to be appointed a commissioner 
for Sussex in November 1655 (ib. iv. 161). 
He gave, however, valuable advice to Thur- 
loe on the best methods of raising seamen 
and for securing the coasts of Kent and Sussex 
from the French frigates (ib. iv. 549, 574). 
He was again returned for Sussex in 1656, 
but rather than submit to the indignity of 
being ranked among the ' excluded members,' 
he preferred to ' live quietly ' at Glynde, and 
refused to aid Sir Arthur Hesilrige [q. v.] 
in promoting the so-called ' Declaration of 
the Excluded Members,' though, greatly to 
his annoyance, his name was affixed to it (ib. 
v. 456, 490-1). 

In 1659 Morley was returned both for 
Sussex and for Lewes, but on taking his 
seat on 11 Feb. he elected to sit for Sussex 
(BtrRTON, Diary, iii. 202). For some time 
he bore a prominent part in the debates. He 
was anxious to impose restraints upon the 
revived House of Lords, was jealous of the 
army, and was active in excluding ' delin- 
quents ' from parliament (ib. iii. 241, 337, 
iv. 59). On 24 Feb. he accused the council 
of having made a 'dishonourable peace and 
a worse war ' with Holland (ib. iii. 478, 588). 
On 28 March he obtained leave to go into the 



country for ten days, and remained there until 
the dissolution of parliament on 22 April. 

Morley was again elected one of the coun- 
cil of state on 14 May 1659 (Commons' 
Journals, vii. 654), and on 9 July, being then 
an admiralty commissioner, was added to 
the committee for officers (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1659-60, p. 15). On 25 July he was 
made colonel of a regiment of foot ( Commons' 
Journals, vii. 707, 708, 731). In conjunction 
with Hesilrige and five others he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner for the government 
of the army on 12 Oct., in order to guard 
against the danger of military violence from 
Lambert (ib. vii. 796). On the very next 
day Lambert marched at the head of his 
troops through London, and came to the 
Palace Yard. There Morley met him pistol in 
hand, and swore if he stirred a foot further he 
would shoot him. To this Lambert answered, 
* Colonel Morley, I will go another way ; 
though, if I please, I could pass this.' He 
then marched into the Old Palace Yard, and 
ultimately succeeded in driving away all but 
his own friends from the House of Commons, 
his force being superior to Morley's owing to 
the city's inactivity (CARTE, Original Letters, 
1739, ii. 246). With Walton, Hesilrige, and 
others of the old council of state, Morley 
wrote a joint letter to Monck, promising to 
stand by him in the attempt to restore the 
parliament (BAKER, Chronicle, ed. 1670, p. 
695). Morley also promoted what he called 
the ' Humble Representation of Colonel Mor- 
ley and some other late Officers of the Army 
to General Fleetwood,' dated 1 Nov. 1659 
(THURLOE, vii. 771-4). In company with 
Hesilrige and Walton, Morley then repaired 
to Portsmouth, gained over the governor 
(3 Dec. 1659), and proceeded to collect troops 
against Lambert. Their power so quickly 
increased that they soon marched into Lon- 
don at the head of a body of cavalry, and 
there, on 26 Dec., restored the parliament. 
Morley received the thanks of the house on 
29 Dec. (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 799), be- 
came a member of the new council of state 
two days later (ib. vii. 800), and was ap- 
pointed lieutenant of the Tower on 7 Jan. 
1659-60 (ib. vii. 805). On 11 Feb. he was 
named one of the five commissioners for the 
government of the army, and on 23 Feb. one 
of the council of state (ib. vii. 841, 849). 
Evelyn, knowing that Morley had influence 
enough in Sussex to secure a good reception 
for the king in case he might land there, 
urged him to declare for the restoration of 
the monarchy, and thereby gain the honours 
which would otherwise fall to Monck. He 
refused, however, to believe that Monck in- 
tended to do the king any service. Even on 

Monck's arrival in London (3 Feb. 1659-60) 
Morley failed to penetrate his intentions, and 
broke off correspondence with Evelyn, though 
he had been bargaining for the king's pardon 
of himself and his relations (EvELTX, Diary, 
ed. 1850-2, i. 334-6, 422-5). The republicans 
were alarmed, and Ludlow, apparently as- 
sured of Morley's support in maintaining the 
Commonweath, proposed that two thousand 
soldiers should be marched to the Tower to 
join with Morley's regiment there ; ' he having 
sent to me,' says Ludlow, ' to let me know 
that the Tower should be at my command 
whensoever I pleased to desire it ' (Memoirs, 
ed. 1751, ii. 360). Halting thus between 
two opinions, Morley missed playing the 
triumphant part, which Monck undertook. 

After the Restoration Morley purchased 
his pardon by payment of 1,000/. (EvELYX, 
i. 336). He appears to have been elected 
M.P. for Rye, but probably never took his 
seat (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1667, p. 543). 
He died at Glynde on 29 Sept. 1667. By 
license dated 26 Oct. 1648 he married Marv 
(1626-1656), daughter of Sir John Trevor, 
kt. (CHESTER, London Marriage Licenses, 
ed. Foster, col. 942), by whom he had three 
sons, Robert (b. 1650), Herbert (b. 1652 ; 
died before his father), and William (b. 
1653), and a daughter Anne (will registered 
in P. C. C. 141, Carr). 

In Flatman's ' Don Juan Lamberto ' (pt. i. 
ch. ix.) Morley is described under the sobri- 
quet of the ' Baron of Sussex,' in allusion to 
the story of his scene with Lambert. What- 
ever opinions Morley adopted in church and 
state he maintained conscientiously, without 
the suspicion of a meanness or self-interest. 
His reports and orders as admiralty commis- 
sioner, 1659-60, are in the British Museum 
(Addit. MS. 22546, ff. 225, 229), and the cor- 
poration of Rye possesses many of his letters 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. App. p. iv). 

[Sussex Archaeological Collections ; Lower's 
Worthies of Sussex, p. 336; Noble's Lives of the 
English Regicides; Burton's Diary, iv. 40, 104, 
192 ; Evelyn's Diary, 1850-2, i. xxvii-viii. 278, 
308 ; Clarendon's Rebellion (Macray) ; Lud- 
low's Memoirs, 1751, ii. 191, 340, 357; Coxe's 
Cat. Codicum MSS. Bibl. Bodl. pars v. fasc. ii. 
p. 827.] G. G. 

MORLEY, JOHN (1656-1732), known 
as 'Merchant Morley,' agent and land jobber, 
born at Halstead in Essex on 8 Feb. 1655-6, 
was originally a butcher, but rose by sheer 
business capacity to be one of the largest 
land jobbers, or agents for the disposing of 
land, in the kingdom. It is commonly stated 
that in honour of his first trade he annually 
killed a pig in Halstead market, and received 
a groat for the job. When he applied for 




a grant of arms in 1722, he assumed for his 
crest the figure of a butcher holding a pole- 
axe bend-wise. He became a sort of business 
agent for the Harleys, and in 1713, to the 
great contentment of Robert Harley, he 
negotiated the marriage between Edward 
Harley, afterwards second earl of Oxford 
[q. v.J, and Lady Henrietta Holies, only 
daughter and heiress of the fourth Duke of 
Newcastle. He received a two and half per 
cent, commission on the dowry, or, in other 
words, 10,000/. Swift formed a low esti- 
mate of him. Writing to Barber in 1738, 
he said : ' I remember a rascally butcher, one 
Morley, a great land jobber and knave, who 
was his lordship's manager, and has been the 
principal cause of my lord's wrong conduct.' 
A vivacious sketch of Morley's character 
forms the staple of Matt Prior's diverting 
ballad of ' Down Hall,' 1723. The jobber is 
probably the ' hearty Morley ' of Gay's ' Wel- 
come.' Pope, to whom he occasionally sent 
presents of oysters and eringo roots, was most 
friendly with him, and when he was seriously 
ill during 1725-6, sent him a sympathetic 
and caressing letter. Morley bought about 
1700 the messuage and house of Munchensies, 
in his native parish of Halstead ; he rebuilt 
the house in 1713, and he died there on 
20 Jan. 1732. He was buried beneath an 
altar-tomb in Halstead church, the arms of 
the Butchers' Company being blazoned above. 
Though so long ' dry nurse to estates and 
minors,' he seems to have behaved generously 
to his native place ; and possessing the patron- 
age of Gestringthorpe in Essex, he shortly 
before his death united with the rector, 
Moses Cooke, to augment the living by add- 
ing 2CKW. to Queen Anne's Bounty. Prior 
was a frequent visitor at Munchensies, and 
at Morley's request commemorated in verse 
the rebuilding of Halstead steeple. Morley 
married the ' Thalestris ' of the ' Rape of the 
Lock,' a daughter of Sir George Brown of 
Berkshire (Sir Plume). Both a son and a 
grandson bore his name. The latter, a phy- 
sician, who was owner of Munchensies in 
1768 (MORA.HT), is separately noticed. A 
portrait of the ' land jobber ' was painted by 
kneller, and was engraved by Simon. 

[Elwin's Pope, v. 177, viii. 216, x. 247-9; 
Morant's Essex, ii. 257 ; Wright's Essex, i. 
467 ; Hist, of Essex, by a Gentleman, Ghelms- 
ford, 1769, ii. 63; W. J. Evans's Old and New 
Halstead, p. 22; Prior's Miscellaneous Works; 
Prior's Selected Poems, 1889, p. 93; Noble's 
Continuation of Granger, 1806, iii. 261-4; Swift's 
Works, ed. Scott, xix. 258 ; Swift's Journal to 
Stella, Letter xxxiv. (8 Nov. 1711); Southey's 
Commonplace Book, iv. 288 ; information kindly 
given by Miss C. Fell Smith.] T. S. 


MORLEY, JOHN (d. 1776?), medical 
writer, was grandson and eventual heir of 
John Morley (1655-1732) [q. v.] of Halstead, 
Essex (WEIGHT, Essex, i. 466, 470). He 
died in either December 1776 or January 
1777, and was buried with his grandfather in 
Halstead churchyard (Gent. Mag. 1777, p. 
47). By his wife Elizabeth, who survived 
him, he had three sons : John Jacob, Hilde- 
brand, and Allington ; and a daughter, 
Dorothy, married to Bridges Harvey. To his 
eldest son he bequeathed as an heirloom the 
coronation cup and cover of George I. (will 
proved on 27 Jan. 1777, and registered in 
P. C. C. 30, Collier). 

A method of treating scrofula and kindred 
diseases having been imparted to Morley, he 
published it for the public benefit in 'An 
Essay on the Nature and Cure of Scrophulous 
Disorders,' 8vo, London, 1767 (llth edit., 
1774). The principal cure, it appears, was a 
preparation of vervain root. He gave advice 
to all who sought it, without fee. 

[Authorities cited; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

G. G. 

MOKLEY (1296 P-1360), born about 1296, 
was eldest son of William, first baron Mor- 
ley, who served with distinction in the Scot- 
tish wars, and was summoned to parliament 
as baron from 29 Dec. 1299 to 3 Oct. 1306 
(Par I. Writs). Robert was first summoned 
to parliament in 1317, when he probably 
came of age. He appears to have joined 
Lancaster in his opposition to the king (cf. 
RYMEK, n. i. passim). On 21 Dec. 1324 he 
was summoned to serve in Gascony, but 
probably never went. In October 1326 he 
was at Bristol, when Prince Edward was 
declared 'guardian of the realm ' (cf. STIJBBS, 
ii. 375 ; RYMEK, i. ii. 646). In April 1327 
he was summoned to serve in Scotland. In 
right of his wife, daughter of William, lord 
Marshal, of Hingham, Norfolk, Morley had 
claims to the hereditary marshalship of 
Ireland, whither he was sent on 15 Oct. 
1331. In March 1332-3 he was ordered to 
oppose the Scottish invasion. In August 
1336 he was summoned to consult about the 
negotiations with Bruce and the king of 
France. In December 1338 he was com- 
missioned to guard Yarmouth, Norfolk, 
from the French ships, and soon after was 
appointed admiral of the fleet from the 
Thames to Berwick. In that capacity, after 
having attempted to dissuade Edward from 
crossing from Orwell on 22 June (MuRi- 
MUTH, p. 311), he commanded at the battle 
of Sluys on 24 June 1340, when, breaking 
the first, second, and third lines of the 



French fleet, he won the greatest naval vic- 
tory the English had yet achieved (RTMER ; 
Eulog. Historiarum, iii. 205 ; Chronicles of \ 
Edward I and Edward II, ii. 293). Soon 
after he sailed to Normandy and burnt eighty j 
of the French ships and two villages ; on 
10 April 1341 he was transferred to the com- ; 
mand of the fleet from the Thames westward 
(RYMER, I. ii. 1156). In the same year he | 
received various grants in reward for his ser- | 
vices ($.), and in November set out with j 
Robert d'Artois and Sir Walter de Manny j 
[q. v.] on the expedition to Brittany. In 1343 
he held a tournament in Smithfield (MliKl- 
MTTTH, p. 230) ; and on 25 Aug. 1346 was 
present at the battle of Crecy. On 31 March 
1347 he was summoned to Calais, which Ed- 
ward was then besieging, and dispersed the 
French victualling ships which attempted to 
enter the harbour. He was reappointed ad- 
miral of the fleet from the Thames westward 
in 1348 and again in 1354. In 1355 he re- 
ceived the constableship of the Tower, and 
in 1359 was again serving in the French 
wars. He died in March 1360. 

Morley, who ' was one of the most famous 
warriors of the period,' married, first, Hawyse 
(b. 1301), daughter of William, lord Marshal, 
and sister and heiress of John, lord Marshal 
(d. 1317), of Hingham. She brought Morley 
estates in Norfolk, Essex, and elsewhere, be- 
sides the claim to the hereditary marshalship 
of Ireland. By her Morley had a son William, 
who succeeded him as third Baron Morley, 
being thirty, or according to another inquisi- 
tion forty, years old at his father's death. He 
served in the French wars, was knighted in 
1356, and died in 1379, having married Cicely, 
daughter of Thomas, lord Bardolf. His son 
and heir, Thomas (1354-1416), was in 1416 
captain-general of all the English forces in 
France. The barony passed into the Parker 
family by the marriage of a descendant, 
Alice, baroness Morley, with Sir William 
Parker, grandfather of Henry Parker, lord 
Morley [q. v.], the poet. 

Morley married, secondly, Joan, daughter 
of Sir Peter de Tyes ; his son by her, Robert, 
served in the French wars, and his line became 
extinct with his son Thomas, whose daughter 
and heiress married Sir Geoffrey Ratcliffe. 

[Eymer's Foedera, passim ; Dugdale's Baron- 
age ; Cal. Rotul. Parl. ; Eolls of Parl. ii. 27 a, 
&c.; Eulogium Historiarum, ii. 205 ; Murimuth, 
passim ; Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II, 
i. 353, ii. 293; Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, ii. 142, 
vi. 497, xxii. 244; Barnes's Hist, of Reign of 
Edward III, pp. 125, 181, 471 ; Burke's Extinct 
Peerage ; G-. E. C.'s Peerage ; Blomefield's Norfolk, 
passim ; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, passim.] 

A. F. P. 

MORLEY, SAMUEL (1809-1886), poli- 
tician, born in Well Street, Hackney, 15 Oct. 
1809, was youngest child of John Morley, a 
member of aNottingham family of tradesmen, 
who started a hosiery business in Wood Street, 
London, at the end of the last century. His 
mother Sarah was daughter of R. Poulton 
of Maidenhead. At the age of seven he was 
sent to the school of a congregational mini- 
ster named Carver at Melbourn in Cam- 
bridgeshire, and afterwards to Mr. Buller's 
school at Southampton. He was industrious 
and energetic, and when he went into the 
Wood Street business at sixteen was a fairly 
educated lad for his age. Thenceforward 
he had little time for book-learning. For 
seven years he remained in the counting- 
house, and proved himself very competent 
in the management of the accounts. 

In 1840 his father retired from the busi- 
ness, and from 1842 it was carried on by him- 
self andhis brother John. In 1855, his brother 
John retired from the London business of 
J. & R. Morley and left him sole partner. He 
became sole partner also in the Nottingham 
business in 1860, and, while maintaining his 
connection with the old-fashioned frame- 
work-knitters, not only had two mills in that 
town, but he built others at Loughborough, 
Leicester, Heanor in Derbyshire, and Day- 
brook and Sutton-in-Ashfield in Nottingham- 
shire. To his thousands of workpeople he 
granted pensions on a liberal scale, and pro- 
vided for old employes at a cost of over 
2,000/. a year. His business was the largest 
in the textile industries of its class, fend his 
wealth was soon exceeded by that of few 

In May 1841 he had married and settled at 
Five Houses, Lower Clapton. From 1854 till 
1870 he lived at Craven Lodge, Stamford Hill. 

Morley was deeply religious from youth, 
and became in manhood active in religious 
and philanthropic affairs. He was zealous for 
complete religious freedom, and exerted him- 
self against church rates with great vigour. 
His house at Stamford Hill became a ren- 
dezvous for dissenting ministers and radical 
politicians, but, although busily concerned in 
the internal affairs of the independent body, 
he declined all his life to hold the office of 
deacon. In 1847 he became chairman of the 
dissenters' parliamentary committee, formed 
for the purpose of opposing Lord John Rus- 
sell's education scheme and of promoting the 
return of dissenting members of parliament. 
For thirty years from 1849 he held the office 
of treasurer of the 'Ancient Merchants' Lec- 
ture.' In May 1855 he organised the 'Adminis- 
trative Reform Association ' for the purpose 
of having the civil services thrown open and 



of abolishing promotion otherwise than by 
merit. But the association produced little 
result. Eager for more work, he became 
treasurer to the Home Missionary Society 
in 1858, and visited the society's stations 
throughout England and Wales. About 
this time he first interested himself in the 
temperance movement, and became a total 
abstainer. He subsequently promoted re- 
ligious services in theatres, discussed cur- 
rency questions, and became chairman in 
1861 of the ' Bank Act and Currency Re- 
form Committee.' He attacked ' The Drinking 
Usages of the Commercial Room ' at a temper- 
ance conference in Exeter Hall, 6 Aug. 
1862 ; supported the celebration of the bi- 
centenary of nonconformity in the same 
year, and contributed 6,OOOZ. to the erection 
of the Congregationalist Memorial Hall in 
Farringdon Street, London. He was a muni- 
ficent builder of chapels, and spent on them 
alone 14,000/. between 1864 and 1870, and 
he also organised a system of colporteurs and 
local preachers for poor districts. 

Cobden had urged him to seek a seat in 
parliament in 1857, but he decided, judici- 
ously as it proved, to wait. At length, in 
1865, he reluctantly consented to be put in 
nomination for the representation of Not- 
tingham, where his local influence as an 
employer of labour was very great. Yet it 
was not without a bitter contest that he was 
returned at the head of the poll. His first 
speech in the House of Commons was on the 
Church Rates Abolition Bill, 7 March 1866, 
but in April he was unseated on petition for 
colourable employment. No personal charge 
of corruption was made against him. He at 
the time interested himself in the promotion 
of the liberal press, became a principal pro- 
prietor of the ' Daily News,' and caused its 
price to be reduced to a penny. 

Although the liberal party at Nottingham 
had offered him their support at the next 
general election, he contested Bristol at a 
by-election in April 1868, and was defeated 
by 196 votes. His opponent at Bristol was 
then unseated on petition, and at the general 
election in November Morley was returned by 
a triumphant majority. He continued to re- 
present Bristol till his retirement in 1885. In 
parliament he was an unswerving and almost 
unquestioning follower of Mr. Gladstone. He 
contributed large sums to the election funds 
of liberal candidates, and found the money to 
enable several labour candidates to go to the 
poll. He seconded the address in the House of 
Commons in 1871, when he described himself 
as belonging to the class of 'silent members.' 
But, though not influential as a speaker, he 
spoke often. While anxious to disestablish 

the Irish church, he abandoned in later life 
any desire for the disestablishment of the 
church of England. In the Irish church 
debates he took no share, but spoke on the 
Bankruptcy Bill of 1869, and moved in 1870 
for an inquiry into the working of the com- 
mercial treaty with France. After half a life- 
time devoted to opposing every project of 
state interference with education, he became 
a convert to a state system of teaching, but 
he was very desirous of safeguarding the inte- 
rests of dissenters. He voted against Henry 
Richard's motion, 19 June 1870, which re- 
quired all religious teaching to be voluntary, 
and expressed himself in favour of biblical 
teaching by board-school teachers, subject 
always to the protection afforded by the con- 
science clause. He sat from 1870 to 1876 on 
the London School Board, and was always a 
warm supporter of biblical unsectarian teach- 
ing in the schools. He also took a large part 
both in and out of parliament in the move- 
ments for the removal of tests in universities 
and of dissenters' grievances as to burials. He 
was on the consulting committee of the Agri- 
cultural Labourers' Union from its founda- 
tion in 1872, and in 1877 he became, and for 
some years remained, an active director of 
the Artisans', Labourers', and General Dwell- 
ings Company. 

In 1880 he inadvertently gave his support 
to the candidature of Charles Bradlaugh at 
Northampton, whose religious and social 
opinions he viewed with ' intense repug- 
nance.' Not only did he publicly confess 
the mistake, but separated himself from his 
party, and voted steadily against Bradlaugh's 
admission to the House of Commons. He was 
one of the first to bring before the parliament 
of 1880 the unsatisfactory working of the 
Bankruptcy Act of 1869, and he took charge 
in the lower house of Earl Stanhope's bill pro- 
hibiting payment of wages in public-houses. 
But his principal public efforts during his 
remaining years were exerted in support of 
the temperance or ' blue-ribbon ' movement, 
and he was prepared to abandon purely 
voluntary efforts in favour of temperance and 
demand legislative assistance. 

The strain of his threefold series of occu- 
pations, mercantile, political, and philan- 
thropic, at length broke down his strength. 
He vacated his seat in parliament at the 
general election of 1885. A peerage was 
offered to him in June, but he refused it. 
He was in ill-health through the early part 
of 1886, and never recovered from a severe 
attack of pneumonia in the summer. He 
died on 5 Sept. at his house, Hall Place, near 
Tonbridge. He was buried at Abney Park 
cemetery, and deputations from ninety-seven 


8 4 


associations and institutions with which he 
was connected followed him to his grave. He 
had by his wife Rebekah Maria, daughter 
of Samuel Hope of Liverpool five sons and 
three daughters, Samuel, Howard, Charles, 
Arnold (privy-councillor and postmaster- 
general), and Henry, Rebekah, Augusta, and 
Mary. To his children he bequeathed a pro- 
digious fortune. A portrait of him by H. T. 
Wells, R.A., was painted in 1875, and is in 
the library of the Congregationalist Memorial 
Hall, Farringdon Street ; there is also a bad 
statue of him in marble at Bristol. 

Morley had all the business talents of a man 
of this world and all the warmth of heart and 
piety of a man of the next. Endlessly active, 
a hater of waste or sloth, keen in a bargain 
and shrewd in his trade, he applied himself 
laboriously to spending for the good of others 
the wealth which his commanding aptitude 
for business had enabled him to accumulate. 
He loved a good horse ; otherwise he not only 
had no hobby and pursued no sport, but dis- 
countenanced some sports, such as gaming, 
in others. In old age his views broadened 
and his temper mellowed ; in middle life he 
was apt to be irritable and austere ; but in 
religious matters, though always a professed 
Congregationalist, he was undogmatic and 
liberal. Like Lord Shaftesbury and George 
Peabody, he erected benevolence into a busi- 
ness, which he carried on upon a scale hardly 
less huge than that on which he made his 
money. His numberless public and private 
acts of charity made him undoubtedly one of 
the most signal benefactors of his generation. 
[His Life and Letters, based on family ma- 
terials and the assistance of all his relatives 
and intimate friends, was brought out by Edwin 
Hodder in 1889 ; the Congregationalist, xv. 711, 
a eulogistic estimate by J. Guinness Kogers ; 
Contemporary Magazine, 1. 649.] J. A. H. 

MOHLEY, THOMAS (1557-1604?), 
musician, was born in 1557. This date is 
determined by the title of a ' Domine non 
est' preserved in the Bodleian Library, which 
runs : ' Thomae Morley, aetatis suse 19. Anno 
Domini 1576' (GROVE, App. p. 720). He 
was a pupil of William Byrd, and possibly 
a chorister of St. Paul's Cathedral. He gra- 
duated Mus. Bac. at Oxford on 6 July 1588, 
and about three years later was appointed 
organist to St. Paul's. This post he resigned 
on being elected, on 24 July 1592, gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, by which title he always 
describes himself in his works. He was also 
appointed epistler to the Chapel Royal, and 
on 18 Nov. 1592 gospeller. 

In 1598 he was granted a patent, dated 
LI Sept., similar to that previously held by 

Byrd, by which he enjoyed the exclusive 
right of printing books of music and selling 
ruled paper. While this remained in force 
it was as his ' assignes ' that William Bartley, 
Thomas Este, Peter Short, John Windet, 
and others printed and issued musical works. 
On 7 Oct. 1602 Morley was succeeded at 
the Chapel Royal by George Woodson, having 
probably resigned his post on account of his 
ill-health, to which he makes reference in his 
' Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall 
Musicke.' The date of his death is uncer- 
tain ; Hawkins and Burney both state it to 
have taken place in 1604. 

Morley's skill and grace in the composition 
of madrigals are undoubted, but he has been 
accused of wholesale thefts from such Italian 
sources as the works of Anerio and Gastoldi. 
His reputation mainly rests on his work en- 
titled ' A Plaine and Easie Introduction to 
Practicall Musicke/ London, 1597, which, as 
the first satisfactory musical treatise pub- 
lished in England, enjoyed great popularity 
for nearly two centuries. Eleven years after 
its first appearance it was reissued with a 
new title-page, and as late as 1771 a second 
edition was published, with an appendix of 
motets, &c., in score. In the seventeenth 
century Johann Caspar Trost, organist of 
St. Martin's, Halberstadt, translated it into 
German, under the title of ' Musica Practica.' 
Morley's published compositions include : 
1. ' Canzonets, or Little Short Songs to Three 
Voyces,' London, 1593 ; other editions 1606 
and 1631. German translations of this were 
published at Cassel in 1612, and at Rostock 
in 1624. 2. < Madrigalls to Foure Voyces, 
the first Booke,' London, 1594; 2nd edit. 
1600. 3. ' The First Booke of Ballets to Five 
Voyces,' London, 1595. An edition of this 
with Italian words was published in London 
in the same year, and another, with English 
words, in London in 1600. A German trans- 
lation was published at Nuremberg in 1609. 
The original was reprinted for the Musical 
Antiquarian Society by E. F. Rimbault in 
1842. 4. ' The first Booke of Canzonets to 
Two Voyces, containing also seven Fantasies 
for Instruments,' London, 1595; reprinted 
in 1619. 5. ' Canzonets, or Little Short Aers 
to Five and Sixe Voices,' London, 1597. 
6. ' The First Booke of Aires, or Little Short 
Songs, to sing and play to the Lute with 
the Base Viol,' London, 1600. In this is a 
setting of the Page's song, ' It was a Lover 
and his Lass,' from ' As you like it,' which 
is interesting as one of the few pieces of ori- 
ginal Shakespearean music which have sur- 
vived. It is reprinted in Knight's 'Shak- 
speare,' and also in Chappell's 'Popular Music 
of the Olden Time.' His canzonets and 



madrigals for three and four voices were re- 
published by W. W. Holland and W. Cooke, 
London [1808 ?], and six of his canzonets for 
two voices have been edited in score by 

Morley edited : 1. ' Canzonets, or Little 
Short Songs to Foure Voyces, selected out of 
the best approved Italian Authors,' London, 
1597. To this he contributed two madrigals 
of his own. 2. ' Madrigals to Five Voyces, 
selected out of the best approved Italian 
Authors,' London, 1598. 3. ' The First Booke 
of Consort Lessons, made by divers exquisite 
Authors for sixe Instruments to play together, 
viz. the Treble Lute, the Pandora, the Cit- 
terne, the Base Violl, the Flute, and the 
Treble Violl,' London, 1599 ; another edition, 
enlarged, 1611. 4. ' Madrigales. The Triumphs 
of Oriana, to Five and Sixe Voyces, composed 
by divers several Authors,' London, 1601 ; it 
is dedicated to Charles Howard, earl of Not- 
tingham (cf. Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 
185-8). To this collection of twenty-five 
madrigals in praise of Queen Elizabeth Mor- 
ley contributed two of his own. It was re- 
issued, 'now first published in score,' by W. 
Hawes, London, 1814. In this edition four 
madrigals were added. 

' Seven pieces for the Virginal ' by Morley 
are included in the manuscript collection 
known as ' Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book,' 
preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cam- 
bridge, and three in ' Will. Forster's Virginal 
Book,' preserved at Buckingham Palace. He 
wrote a considerable amount of church music, 
none of which was printed in his lifetime. 
Services in D minor and G minor and an 
anthem were subsequently printed by John 
Barnard in his 'First Book of Selected Church 
Music,' 1641, and in the manuscript col- 
lection made by Barnard for this work (and 
preserved in the library of the Sacred Har- 
monic Society) are a preces, psalms and re- 
sponses, and three anthems by Morley. A 
Burial Service by him, the first of the kind 
written to English words, was printed by 
Dr. Boyce in vol. i. of his ' Cathedral Music,' 
1760, and in James Clifford's 'Divine Ser- 
vices and Anthems,' 1663, are the words of 
several anthems by him. Some of his choral 
works are included in the manuscript col- 
lection of cathedral music made by Thomas 
Tudway for Lord Harley about 1720 (Harl. 
MSS. 7337-42). Manuscripts of Morley's 
are preserved in the Music School and Christ 
Church Libraries at Oxford, and in the Fitz- 
william Museum and Peterhouse Library at 
Cambridge. The words of several of his com- 
positions are quoted in Mr. A. H. Bullen's 
' Lyrics from the Song-books of the Eliza- 
bethan Age ' and ' More Lyrics.' 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 367, iv. 720; 
Brown's Biog. Diet, of Music, p. 434 ; Fetis's 
Biog. Univ. des Musiciens, vi. 205 ; Alumni 
Oxonienses, p. 1034 ; State Papers, Dom. Ser. 
1598; Hawkins's Hist, of Music, p. 494 ; Har- 
monicon for 1826, p. 209 ; Burney's General 
Hist, of Music, iii. 101 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. iii. 10, 6th ser. viii. 408,503; Catalogues 
of Music at Christ Church, Oxford Music School, 
Peterhouse Coll. Cambridge, and Fitzwilliam 
Museum ; Brit. Mus. Catalogues.] E. F. S. 

MORLEY, WILLIAM (Jl. 1340), meteo- 
rologist. [See MERLE.] 



LESLEY-POLE, third EARL, 1763-1845.] 


MORPHETT, SIR JOHN (1809-1892), 
pioneer and politician of South Australia, 
son of Nathaniel Morphett, solicitor, was 
born in London on 4 May 1809, and edu- 
cated at private schools for a mercantile 
career. Becoming connected in business with 
the so-called Adelphi party who took the 
lead in settling South Australia, he pur- 
chased land in the future colony, went 
out in the Cygnet, a pioneer ship of the 
South Australian Company, landed at Kan- 
garoo Island on 11 Sept. 1836, and was pre- 
sent at the proclamation of the colony. 
Having devoted himself to the acquisition 
of land for himself and others, and esta- 
blished himself as a general merchant, he 
took an active part with the survey or, Colonel 
Light, in laying out the town of Adelaide, 
and aided in the inauguration of a regular 
government. The next year (1838) was full 
of public work ; he made a trip to Rapid Bay, 
then almost unknown, and reported on the 
district to the government ; on 6 March he 
was appointed a member of the committee 
for the protection of aborigines ; he founded 
the Literary Association and Mechanics' In- 
stitute, promoted the formation of the South 
Australian Joint-Stock Assurance Company, 
and took the leading part in a public meeting 
(there was as yet no legislature) respecting the 
survey of the colony and taxation. In fact he 
was during this and the following years 
identified with the whole growth of the 
young colony. In various letters, which 
were published locally, he sent home at this 
time sound advice for future colonists. 

On 5 Dec. 1840 Morphett was made 
treasurer of the corporation of Adelaide, 
and in April 1841 a justice of the peace. On 




15 June 1843 he was nominated by the 
crown to the first legislature of the colony, 
and although he was prominent in pressing 
the reform of the council and in opposing 
transportation in 1851, he was again no- 
minated as a member when the council was 
reconstituted in that year, holding office as 
speaker from 20 Aug. 1851 till 1855. When 
in 1857 an elective constitution was granted, 
he was among the first eighteen members 
elected to the legislative council. He was 
chief secretary in the Reynolds administra- 
tion from 4 Feb. to 8 Oct. 1861, but on no 
other occasion was he a minister of the crown. 
He did not care for party politics, and in 
March 1865, after his re-election to the legis- 
lative council, was chosen for the office of 
president. He held this position till 1873, 
when his term of office expired, and he did 
not seek re-election. The remainder of his life 
he passed in comparative seclusion, though he 
still sat on the boards of certain companies, 
notably that of the Bank of South Australia. 
He was knighted on 16 Feb. 1870. He died 
at his residence, Cummins, Glenelg, on 7 Nov. 

With an admirable capacity for business 
Morphett combined considerable culture and 
a love of sport. He presided in April 1844 at 
a meeting out of which arose the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of South Australia. He was 
a great patron of the turf, and in the early 
days of the colony often rode his own horses. 
In 1837 there were but two horses in the 
whole colony, and one was Morphett's. On 
12 Jan. 1838 he entered a horse for the first 
Adelaide races. 

He married, on 15 Aug. 1838, the daughter 
of Sir J. Hurtle Fisher, who preceded him as 
president of the legislative council. She and 
nine children survived him. One of the three 
sons is clerk of the legislative council. A 
brother, who also went out for a time to 
South Australia, is now living in England. 

Morphett Street in Adelaide, Morphett 
Street at Mount Barker, Morphettville, and 
Morphett Vale were named after him. 

[South Australian Kegister, 8 Nov. 1892; 
Mennell's Diet. Austral. Biog.] C. A. H. 

MORRELL, HUGH (d. 1664 ?), mer- 
chant, descended from a family well known for 
their ' designs for the improvement of cloth 
and all woollen manufactures,' was probably 
a native of Exeter. In 1623 he was engaged 
in the export trade to France, and about the 
same time he and Peter du Boys proposed 
to James I a scheme for the improvement of 
commerce, probably by the establishment in 
every town of corporations to regulate the 
woollen manufactures. For this purpose he 

obtained a patent for Hertfordshire in 1624, 
and for Devonshire in 1626. He and his ' pre- 
decessors' had already spent ' much labour 
and 3,0001.' in the promotion of a similar 
object at Worcester. His plans were com- 
mended by thirty-one London merchants to 
whom they were submitted. 

Some time before this Morrell had been 
established at Rouen in partnership with 
Charles Snelling, merchant, of London. In 
1627 their goods, to the value of 7,6001., were 
confiscated by the French in reprisal for 
goods seized by English ships at Conquett. 
Their fortunes ruined, and even their lives 
threatened, Morrell and Snelling were obliged 
to escape from France. They petitioned the 
king (June 1627) for satisfaction out of the 
profits on the sale of the French prizes, or 
by abatement of customs duties in their 
favour. Their claims were referred to Sir 
Henry Martin and Philip Burlamachi, who 
reported that their losses ought to be made 
good. It was proposed shortly afterwards 
to reimburse them out of the produce of an 
additional duty of three farthings per chaldron 
on coal exported from Newcastle, and the 
attorney-general was instructed to prepare a 
warrant for this purpose. The scheme, how- 
ever, does not appear to have been carried 
into effect, owing probably to the opposition 
of the farmers of the coal duties, and as 
late as 1641 Morrell and Snelling had not 
received satisfaction. 

On 9 Oct. 1633 Morrell, as agent and re- 
presentative of the ' merchants of Exeter 
trading to France,' presented to the council 
a petition on their behalf, in which they 
desired the removal of their trade from Rouen 
and Morlaix to Havre, and the appointment of 
an English consul. In the following month he 
was chosen, along with Spicer, their governor, 
to represent the company at a conference 
(19 Nov.) with the ' merchants of London 
trading to France,' when articles of agree- 
ment were drawn up between the two asso- 
ciations. On 5 Dec. 1642 he was appointed 
one of the surveyors of the customs at Dover 
and the western ports. 

Meanwhile Morrell had not abandoned his 
scheme for the reorganisation of the woollen 
trade. A committee of merchants recom- 
mended it to parliament in 1638, and shortly 
afterwards Morrell ' presented an instrument 
to his Majestie under the Broad Seale of 
England, in which much labour, care, and 
pains was taken to settle a government in our 
manufactures' (Morrell to Lenthall, 11 Jan. 
1646-7, Portland MSS. i. 405). Charles I 
referred the scheme to a commission of thirty 
of the most experienced merchants of London, 
who spent eighteen months in the examina- 



tion of the principal clothiers of the kingdom, 
and agreed upon a report, presented to the 
commons (March 1640) by Matthew Cra- 
dock. No further progress was made for 
seven years. Morrell then suggested the ap- 
pointment of a commission of merchants or 
' councell for trade ... to whome overtures 
will be more freely presented, tendinge to 
the publike good, then they dare to doe to 
the parliament' (ib.) Among the subjects 
lie proposed for consideration by the com- 
mission were the means by which England 
might be made ' the magazine of Christen- 
dom ;' the foundation of a bank similar to 
the Bank of Amsterdam ; the removal of the 
greater part of the duties on manufactures 
and the customs on wool imported, and the 
establishment of a merchants' court. 

In 1650 Morrell was employed by parlia- 
ment in commercial negotiations with France, 
but he appears to have exceeded his powers, 
for on 9 Dec. he was requested ' not to pre- 
sume ... to offer anything to the crown of 
France on behalf of the Commonwealth, nor 
to intermeddle concerning affairs of state, 
but to keep himself to the solicitation of 
merchants' affairs' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1653, xi. 112). His services, however, were 
retained, and he lived in Paris until the Re- 
storation. He died probably about 1664. 

[Authorities quoted andThurloe's StatePapers, 
ii. 61, iii. 444, iv. 525, 670, 692, 693; Calendars 
of State Papers Dom. 1623-62 passim; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Eep. p. 178, 4th Kep. p. 313, 
llth Eep. pt. iv. pp. 25, 41, pt. vii. p. 291.] 
W. A. S. H. 

MORRELL, WILLIAM (fl. 1625), New 
England poet, was an Anglican clergyman 
who went to Massachusetts in 1623 with the 
company sent out by the Plymouth council, 
under the command of Captain Robert Gorges, 
son of Sir Ferdinando Gorges [q. v.] He 
bore a commission from the ecclesiastical 
court to exercise superintendence over the 
churches that were, or might be, established 
in the colony. The attempt by this company 
to form a settlement at Wessagussett (now 
Weymouth) was unsuccessful. After Gorges's 
departure Morrell remained a year at Ply- 
mouth out of curiosity to learn something 
of the country, but made no use of his com- 
mission, nor even mentioned it till just before 
he sailed for England. He wrought the 
result of his observations into some elegant 
Latin hexameters, which he translated into 
English heroic verse, and published under 
the title of ' New-England, or a briefe Enar- 
ration of the Ayre, Earth, Water, Fish, and 
Fowles of that Country. With a Description 
of the. . .Habits and Religion of the Natives, 
in Latine and English Verse,' 4to, London, 

1625. The English version, which is fre- 
quently harsh and obscure, is preceded by a 
poetical address to the king. A copy of this 
rare tract, which is dedicated to the lords, 
knights, and gentlemen, adventurers for New 
England, is in the British Museum ; it was 
reprinted in 1792 in the ' Collections' of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st ser. 
vol. i. pp. 125-39. In a postscript Morrell 
announced his intention of publishing an- 
other book on New England. 

[Appleton's Cyclop, of Amer. Biog. s. v.l 

0. G. 

MORREN, NATHANIEL (1798-1847), 
Scottish divine, born in Aberdeen 3 Feb. 
1798, was educated at the grammar school 
and at Marischal College, where he graduated 
M.A. in 1814. He became a tutor at Fort 
George; subsequently taught at Caen, France; 
studied theology in the universities of Aber- 
deen and Edinburgh ; was licensed by the 
presbytery of Aberdeen in October 1822; 
appointed minister of Blackball Street (after- 
wards North) Church, Greenock, in June 
1823 ; translated to the first charge of Bre- 
chin September 1843 ; and died of apoplexy 
28 March 1847. He was a devoted minister, 
and a good scholar. The work by which he 
is best known is his ' Annals of the General 
Assembly from 1739 to 1766,' 2 vols. Edin- 
burgh, 1838-40, which has been much quoted 
by subsequent historians of the Scottish, 
church. He was also the author of ' Biblical 
Theology,' Edinburgh, 1835; 'My Church 
Politics,' Greenock, 1842 ; ' Dialogues on the 
Church Question,' Greenock, 1843 ; and of 
various articles in Kitto's ' Biblical Ency- 
clopaedia' and Macphail's 'Ecclesiastical 
Journal.' He annotated a pocket edition of 
the Bible, 1845 ; translated from the German 
Rosenmuller's 'Biblical Geography of Cen- 
tral Asia ; ' and, along with others, edited 
the ' Imperial Family Bible.' 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse, ii. 
245; Sermons, with a Memoir, Edinburgh, 1848; 
Presbytery Eecords; New Statistical Account, 
vol. vii.] J. C. H. 


RENCY (1767-1839), United Irishman, 
eldest son of Matthew Montmorency Morres 
and Margaret, second daughter of Francis 
Magan of Emo, co. Westmeath, was born at 
Rathailean Castle, co. Tipperary, on 7 March 
1767. At the age of fifteen he entered the 
Austrian service. He served as ensign under 
Field-marshal Lacy against the Turks, dis- 
tinguishing himself at the siege of Belgrade 
in 1788, and was transferred with the rank 
of lieutenant into Count Kavanagh's regi- 
ment of cuirassiers. He subsequently served 


M or res 

as a volunteer in the army of Prince Hohen- 
lohe against the French republic, and com- 
manded a company of skirmishers at the 
siege of Thionville. He fought with dis- 
tinction in the army of the Rhine under 
Marshal Wurmser in 1793, and was after- 
wards aide-de-camp to Prince Charles of 
Fiirstemberg. He quitted the Austrian ser- 
vice in 1795, and, having in September of 
that year married Louise de Helmstadt at 
Heidelberg, he returned to Ireland and took 
up his residence at Knockalton in co. Tip- 
perary. Shortly after his arrival he ad- 
dressed a memorial to the lord-lieutenant, 
the Earl of Camden, on the disturbed state 
of Ireland, advocating the formation of a 
strong military force, composed impartially of 
catholics and protestants. He was thanked 
for his suggestions, but informed that they 
were impracticable. 

On the rumour of Hoche's expedition in 
1796 he accepted a commission as aide-de- 
camp to General Dundas; but, becoming dis- 
gusted at the violent measures of government, 
he became in November of that year a United 
Irishman. He was chosen a county repre- 
sentative for Tipperary in May 1797, and 
nominated colonel of the regiment of Nenagh 
infantry. In February 1798 he was attached 
to the general military committee, and soon 
after appointed adjutant-general of Munster. 
He was very active in forwarding the or- 
ganisation of his province, and, subsequent 
to the arrest of the Leinster Directory on 
12 March, he was made a member of the 
new executive. He avoided an attempt that 
was made to arrest him on 28 April, and 
having been assigned the capture of the 
batteries and magazines in the Phoenix Park, 
he was busily engaged in working out his 
plans when the whole scheme of the insur- 
rection was frustrated by the capture of 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald. Morres managed 
to escape from Dublin on 4 June, and lay 
concealed in co. Westmeath till the arrival of 
Humbert's expedition on 22 Aug. Thinking 
that Humbert would not immediately risk 
a decisive engagement, he endeavoured to 
restrain the ardour of the men of West- 
meath ; but after the passage of the Shan- 
non, ' taking part in the right flank of Lord 
Cornwallis's army, with a body of from two 
to three thousand ill-armed peasants and 
several chiefs of the union, he made such 
dispositions as he judged might prove most 
favourable to the progress of the invading 
army ' (Castlereayh Corresp. ii. 95). 

After the capitulation of the French army 
at Ballinamuck he escaped to Dublin, and 
thence through England to Hamburg, where 
he arrived on 7 Oct. He was cordially wel- 

comed, as an old friend of her husband, by 
Lady Fitzgerald; but, having been included 
by name in the Rebel Fugitives Act, he did 
not feel secure in Hamburg, and applied to the 
French resident, Marragon, for permission to 
proceed to France. His apprehensions were 
not unfounded. His secret correspondence 
with the French minister was revealed to 
the English cabinet by Samuel Turner [q. \.\ 
and on 24 Nov. he was arrested, at the in- 
stance of the British agent, Sir James Craw- 
ford, at the American Arms, together with 
Tandy, Corbet, and Blackwell. This act was 
contrary to the law of nations and despite 
the protests of Marragon. After ten months' 
close confinement the senate of Hamburg 
consented to his extradition, and at mid- 
night on 28 Sept. 1799 he was, with his three 
companions, conveyed on board an English 
frigate at Cuxhaven. The subserviency of 
the senate of Hamburg caused universal in- 
dignation, and drew down upon them Na- 
poleon's wrath, which was only appeased by 
the payment of a fine of four millions and a 
half francs and a public apology. The arri- 
val of Morres and his companions in England- 
caused considerable excitement, but they 
were shortly afterwards removed for trial to 
Ireland. The prosecution against Morres 
and Tandy broke down on a point of law. 
Morres pleaded that he had been arrested 
eight days before the time assigned by the 
act for his voluntary surrender had expired, 
and, after a long argument, his objection was 
sustained by Lord Kilwarden. But it was 
not till 10 Dec. 1801, after more than three 
years' imprisonment, that he was released on 
bail. His wife having died at the age of 
twenty-six, on the very day of his arrest at 
Hamburg, Morres, after a brief visit to Paris, 
married, at Dublin, Helen, widow of Dr. John 
Esmonde, hanged as a traitor in 1798, and 
daughter of Bartholomew O'Neill-Callan of 
Osbertstown House, co. Kildare. 

He continued to reside in Ireland for seve- 
ral years, but about 1811 he was persuaded 
by the French minister of war, the Due de 
Feltre, himself of Irish descent, to enter the 
French service. On 19 May 1812 he was ap- 
pointed adjutant-commandant with the rank 
of colonel, made a member of the Legion of 
Honour, and placed on the staff of General 
Augereau at Lyons. Some futile efforts were 
made by his family to induce him to return 
to Ireland, and his offer, after the abdication 
of Napoleon, to serve under the English flag 
not meeting with a cordial response from 
Wellington and Castlereagh, he retained his 
commission in the French army, and on 
3 Nov. 1816 he obtained letters of naturali- 
sation. At the restoration of the monarchy 


8 9 


he entered into communication with the 
head of the family of Montmorency in France 
with a view to his recognition as a descen- 
dant of the Irish branch of the same house. 
His overtures were not favourably received, 
and in justification of his claim he compiled 
an exhaustive genealogical memoir of the 
family of Montmorency ; but, though abso- 
lutely conclusive on the point, it failed to 
remove the objections of the Due de Mont- 
morency. He continued to reside in Paris, 
occupied chiefly in literary researches, re- 
ceiving the half-pay of a staff-colonel till 
his death, which took place at St. Germain- 
en-Laye on 9 May 1839. According to Miles 
Byrne, who knew him personally, ' he was 
brave and honourable, and much liked by 
his countrymen in France.' He left children 
by both his wives. His eldest daughter, 
Louise, born at Knockalton on 20 Sept. 1795, 
was for a time maid of honour to Queen 
Caroline of Bavaria. Three of his sons, 
Herve, Geoffroy, and Mathieu, became offi- 
cers in the Austrian service. He was much 
interested in Irish topography, and was re- 
garded as an authority on the subject. 

He published: 1. ' Nomenclatura Hiber- 
nica,' Dublin, 1810. 2. ' Reflections on the 
Veto.' 3. 'A Historical Inquiry into the 
Origin and Primitive Use of the Irish Pillar 
Tower,' London, 1821. 4. ' A Genealogical 
Memoir of the Family of Montmorency, 
styled De Marisco or Morres,' Paris, 1817. 
5. ' Les Montmorency de France et les Mont- 
morency d'Irlande,' Paris, 1825. He as- 
sisted in a new edition of Archdall's ' Mon- 
asticum Hibernicum,' and in a ' Topographical 
Dictionary of Ireland,' neither of which ap- 
parently was published ; and contributed 
much valuable information to Brewer's 
' Beauties of Ireland.' 

[Biographie Nouvelle des Contemporains ; 
Biographie Universelle des Contemporains (a 
very complete article, probably furnished by 
Morres himself, glossing over his career as a 
United Irishman, of which he appears to have 
become ashamed) ; Castlereagh's Corresp. ii. 93- 
100, containing his intercepted memoir to the 
French government in 1798 ; Fitzpatrick's Secret 
Service under Pitt ; Madden's United Irishmen, 
i. 212 ; Miles Byrne's Memoirs, iii. 95 ; K. W. 
Harder's Die Auslieferung der vier politischen 
Fliichtlinge . . . im Jahre 1799, Leipzig, 1857; 
Morres's Les Mortmorency de France et les 
Montmorency d'Irlande, especially the Intro- 
duction.] E. D. 


1797), eldest son of Hervey Morres, baron 
Mountmorres, of Castle Morres in co. Kil- 
kenny, who was created viscount Mount- 

morres in 1763, and Letitia, his first wife r 
daughter of Brabazon Ponsonby, first earl of 
Bessborough, was born about 1746. He ma- 
triculated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 
27 April 1763, graduated B.A. on 8 Feb. 
1766, was created M.A. on 3 July 1766, and 
D.C.L. on 8 July 1773. At college he was 
regarded as a man of considerable ability, 
but of singular habits. On the death of his. 
father in April 1766 he succeeded to a very 
small encumbered estate, but by his prudent 
and even parsimonious manner of life he not 
only succeeded before his death in creating 
an easy fortune of 5,000. a year, but was 
able to make a liberal allowance to the chil- 
dren of his father's second wife. In Dublin 
he resided for some time in the same board- 
ing-house in Frederick Street as Sir Jonah 
Barrington [q. v.l , who regarded him as ' a very 
clever and well informed, but eccentric man,' 
and records one or two curious anecdotes 
about him (Personal Sketches, i. 118). He 
took a profound interest in all questions 
affecting the privileges of the Irish House of 
Lords. On one occasion he furnished some 
amusement bypublishingintheDublin news- 
papers and, Barrington maliciously adds, 
' with all the supposititious cheerings, &c. 
duly interspersed' a speech on the appellant 
jurisdiction of the House of Lords which he 
intended to deliver, but the debate never took 
place. His opinions on these subjects were 
always worth listening to, and still possess a 
certain historical value. On the regency ques- 
tion in 1788 he dissented from the view gene- 
rally taken in Ireland, and argued strongly 
in support of the course pursued by Pitt and 
the English parliament. Latterly he resided 
much in London. He was greatly distressed 
by the news that reached him of the dis- 
turbed state of Ireland, and his mind, never 
very strong, giving way finally under the 
strain, he shot himself in a fit of temporary 
insanity at his lodgings, 6 York Street, St. 
James's Square, on 18 Aug. 1797. He was 
buried in St. James's Chapel, Hampstead 
Road, and never having married, was suc- 
ceeded by his half-brother, Francis Hervey 
Morres. By all accounts he was a man of 
amiable and gentle manners, extremely polite, 
upright, and generous, fond of talking, but less 
from vanity than from the prevalence of strong; 
animal spirits. 

His more important publications are : 1. 'A 
Speech intended to have been spoken ... on 
the Appellant Jurisdiction of the House of 
Lords of Ireland,' 1782. 2. 'Impartial Re- 
flections upon the question of Equalising the 
duties upon the Trade between Great Britain 
and Ireland,' 1785. 3. ' A Speech delivered, 
19 Feb. 1789, in the House of Lords, Ire- 



land, on the Address to the Prince of Wales/ 
1790 4. ' The Danger of the Political Balance 
of Europe/ 1790; 2nd edit., greatly improved, 
1791. 5. ' The History of the Principal Trans- 
actions of the Irish Parliament from 1634 to 
1666. ... To which is prefixed a Preliminary | 
Discourse on the Ancient Parliaments of that j 
Kingdom/ 2 vols. 1792. 6. ' The Crisis; a ' 
Collection of Essays. . .onToleration,Public 
Credit, the Election Franchise in Ireland, 
the Emancipation of the Irish Catholics/ &c., 

1794. 7. ' The Prodigal ... a Comedy/ 1794, 
anon, (see Horace Walpole's copy in British 
Museum). 8. ' The Letters of Themistocles/ 

1795, from the ' Public Advertiser.' 9. ' An 
Historical Dissertation upon the . . . Judi- 
cature and Independency of the Irish Par- 
liament/ 1795. 10. ' Impartial Reflections 
upon the present Crisis, comprised in four 
Essays upon . . . Corn, the Assize of Bread, 
Tithes, and a general System of Inclosures/ 

[Les Montmorency de France et les Mont- 
morency d'Irlancle . . . avec la genealogie . . . de 
Montmorency d'Irlande, Paris, 1828 ; Barring- 
ton's Personal Sketches; Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 
717, 744, 885; Walker's Hibernian Mag. 1797; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] E. D. 

MORRIS. [See also MORICE.] 

MORRIS, CHARLES (1745-1838), song- 
writer, one of the four sons of Captain Thomas 
Morris, author of the popular song ' Kitty 
Crowder/ and a descendant of a good Welsh 
family, was born in 1745. Both his father 
and grandfather had served in the 17th foot, 
and the latter, after having received a severe 
wound in theFrenchwar under Marlborough, 
had settled on a small landed property at Bell 
Bridge, near Carlisle. His father dying in his 
infancy, Charles was educated by his mother, 
entered the 17th foot in 1764, and after serv- 
ing in America returned to England, and ex- 
changed into the royal Irish dragoons. He 
shone greatly in convivial society, and found 
life out of London intolerable. Consequently, 
when, through a friend, Captain Topham, ad- 
jutant of the 2nd life-guards, an opportunity 
presented itself of exchanging into that regi- 
ment, he was not slow to take advantage of it. 
He became the boon-companion of the wits 
and beaux of the town, and from 14 Feb. 1785 
punch-maker and bard of the Beefsteak So- 
ciety, which, founded in 1735, was limited 
to twenty-four members, and was then in 
the zenith of its fame. He sang many of his 
wittiest songs for the first time after the 
club dinners over the stage at Covent Gar- 
den Theatre. Politically he became an as- 

sociate of Fox's party, but had subsequently 
to complain of the neglect of his whig friends, 
for whom he wrote such popular ballads as 
' Billy's too young to drive us ' and ' Billy 
Pitt and the Farmer.' His lament took the 
form of ' an ode to his political vest/ en- 
titled ' The old Whig Poet to his old Buff 
Waistcoat.' His political songs were nu- 
merous, but he is better remembered for his 
celebration of the sweet shady side of Pall 
Mall' in 'The Town and the Country, or 
the Contrast/ and his ' A Reason fair to fill 
my Glass/ which is reproduced in Locker- 
Lampson's ' Lyra Elegantiarum.' For his 
song ' Ad Poculum ' he received a gold medal 
from the Harmonic Society, and the well- 
known lyric, ' The Triumph of Venus, or The 
Tear that bedews sensibility's shrine/ is cor- 
rectly attributed to him. On 4 April 1785 
Windham records that he dined with the 
whigs at the London Tavern, and first heard 
to advantage Captain Morris (Diary, p. 47). 
Morris was not long in becoming intimate 
with the Prince of Wales, after the latter's 
admission among ' the steaks ' in 1785. At 
Carlton House he was subseq uently a frequent 
guest, and earned the title of 'The Sun of the 
Table.' His social triumphs left him impe- 
cunious, but the prince was not ungrateful, 
and settled upon him an annuity of 200/. a 
year. In Morris's declining years Kemble in- 
duced the Duke of Norfolk (the eleventh duke, 
' Jockey of Norfolk/ who was supposed by 
not a few, though erroneously, to be Morris's 
brother), for many years president of the 
Beefsteak Club, to give him the villa of Brock- 
ham, near Dorking. At Brockham he died, at 
the ripe age of ninety-three, on 11 July 1838, 
and was buried in Betchworth churchyard 
(MURRAY, Handbook to Surrey, p. 53). He 
retained his vivacity and humour to the 
last, justifying the remark which Curran 
once addressed to him : ' Die when you will, 
Charles, you will die in your youth.' 

Morris was a born song-writer, who dashed 
off at random careless but fluent and effec- 
tive verse of the genre that Tom Moore sub- 
sequently made his own. His ' Friends all 
gone ! ' in the key of Thackeray's ' Ballad of 
Bouille-baisse,' shows that he was not de- 
ficient in pathos, and, as the years rolled on, 
of a tendency to piety. His effect as a 
humorist was heightened by the solemnity 
of his demeanour. It is related how, when 
the original of Thackeray's Captain Costigan 
died, and was buried under the windows of 
Ofney's, Morris gravely read a mock funeral 
service from the windows above, and then 
poured a bowl of punch over the grave. 

Morris married the widow of Sir William 
Stanhope, but he told Lord Stowell shortly 


9 1 


before his death that he had been in love 
all his life with a Miss Molly Dacre, who 
became Lady Clarke. 

After his death his songs, a number of 
which had appeared in 1786 as ' A Collec- 
tion of Songs by the inimitable Captain 
Morris/ were published in two volumes, 
under the title of 'Lyra Urbanica, or the 
Social Effusions of Captain Morris, of the 
late (sic) Life Guards ' (London, 8vo, 1840 ; 
2nd edit. 1844). Prefixed is a portrait en- 
graved by Greatbatch from a picture in the 
possession of the family. An oil portrait by 
J. Lonsdale was, at the Beefsteak sale in 
1867, purchased by Earl Dalhousie, and the 
bard's chair, with the initials ' C. M.,' was at 
the same time purchased by Charles Hallett. 

Charles's elder brother, Captain THOMAS 
MORRIS (^. 1806), was also a song- writer of 
repute in his day. Born at Carlisle, where 
he was baptised on 22 April 1732, he entered 
Winchester College as a scholar in 1741, and 
proceeded B.A. from Jesus College, Oxford, 
in 1753 (KiRBY, Winchester Scholars, p. 244). 
He soon afterwards joined the 17th foot. 
After serving with distinction at the siege 
of the Havannah and under General Brad- 
street in America, he returned to England 
in 1767, and two years later married a Miss 
Chubb, daughter of a merchant at Bridg- 
water, by whom he had six children. Morris 
was one of the original subscribers to the lite- 
rary fund, at whose annual meetings (1794-7) 
he recited his own verses. He is stated in 
1806 to have been living in retirement at 
Hampstead, where he amused himself by 
suggesting emendations to the works of 
Pope, and ' regularly read both the " Iliad " 
and " Odyssey " every year ' (Public Charac- 
ters of 1806, p. 342). His published volumes 
were: 1. 'The Bee, a Collection of Songs,' 
London, 1790, 8vo. 2. ' Miscellanies in Prose 
and Verse,' 1791, 8vo. 3. 'A Life cf the 
Rev. D. Williams,' 1792, 8vo. 4. ' Quashy, 
or the Coal-black Maid. A tale relative to 
the Slave-trade,' 1796, 8vo (cf. REUSS, Re- 
gister of Living Authors, 1804, pt. ii. p. 114). 

Both Charles and Thomas must of course 
be distinguished from another Captain Morris, 
a convivial member of the Owls' Club at the 
beginning of this century, whose odd per- 
sonality is vividly described by the Rev. J. 
Richardson in his ' Recollections of the last 
Half-Century ' (i. 268-89). 

[Gent. Mag. 1838, ii. 453 ; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. ii. 412, 4th ser. i. 244, 6th ser. ii. 369 ; 
Public Characters of 1806, pp. 322-51 ; Walter 
Arnold's Life and Death of the Sublime Society 
of Beefsteaks, passim ; Timbs's Clubs and Club 
Life in London, pp. 127-35, and Anecdote Lives 
of the Later Wits and Humorists, pp. 69-75 j 

Blackwood's Magazine, January 1 84 1 , pp. 4735 ; 
Irish Quarterly Eeview, March 1853 pp. 140-4 
and September pp. 649-53 ; Fitzgerald's Lives 
of the Sheridans, i. 234 ; Monthly Keview, No. 
158 ; T. Moore's Memoirs, i. 8, ii. 175, vi. 93-4 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. 1617-18; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. ; Wil- 
liams's Claims of Lit. (1802), pp. 169, 171 181 
192.] T. S. 

CHRISTOPHER (1490 P-1544), master of 
ordnance, was probably born about 1490. On 
4 Dec. 1513 he was made gunner in the Tower 
of London, with a salary of 12d. a day, and the 
appointment was confirmed on 14 Aug. 1514 
(BREWER, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
i. No. 4591, 5340). In the following March 
Morris was serving at Tournai, but soon re- 
turned to his post at the Tower, where he 
apparently remained until the summer of 
1522 (ib. ii. pt. ii. p. 1514, in. pt. ii. No. 3288, 
g. 2923, 2992). He was on board one of the 
vessels which, under Surrey's command [see 
third DUKE OF NORFOLK], escorted Charles V 
to Biscay after his visit to England in 1522 ; 
in July a detachment with artillery was 
landed on the coast of France near Morlaix, 
which was captured, ' for the master gunner, 
Christopher Morris, having certain falcons, 
with the shot of one of them struck the lock 
of the wicket in the gate, so that it flew open,' 
and the town was taken. In August 1523 
Morris was acting as lieutenant-gunner be- 
fore Calais, and on the 23rd of that month 
he sailed with the vice-admiral, Sir William 
Fitzwilliam (afterwards Earl of Southamp- 
ton) [q. v.], and landed near Treport ; after 
severe fighting they re-embarked, burning 
seven ships and capturing twenty-seven pieces 
of ordnance. In April 1524 Morris was at 
Valenciennes in charge of the ordnance ; in 
the same year he was appointed ' overseer of 
ordnance,' and commissioned to search the 
isle of Thanet for the goods of a Portuguese 
vessel that had been beached there. 

For some time afterwards Morris was em- 
ployed mainly in diplomatic work; at the 
end of 1526 or beginning of 1527 he was 
sent with letters to the English envoys at 
Valladolid, and started back with their des- 
patches on 1 Feb. 1526-7. In the same year 
he was appointed chief gunner of the Tower, 
and in September was bearer of instructions 
to Knight, the envoy at Compiegne (BREWER, 
Henry VIII, ii. 224). In 1530 he served in 
Ireland, and in January 1530-1 before Calais ; 
in the same year he inspected the mines at 
Llantrysaint, Glamorganshire, as the king's 
commissioner, and appears as owner of a ship, 
the inventory of which is given in Cotton 



MS. App. xxviii. 1. After serving on a com- 
mission to survey the land and fortifications 
of Calais and Guisnes, commanding a com- 
pany of artillery at the former place, and in- 
specting the fortifications of Carlisle in 1532, 
Morris was in 1535 despatched on a mission 
to North Germany and Denmark, probably 
to enlist gunners and engineers in the Eng- 
lish service. He visited Hamburg, Liibeck, 
Rostock, and all the principal towns in Den- 
mark and Zealand, returning on 27 June. 
In August he was at Greenwich, engaged in 
enlisting men, and in September was ordered 
to proceed with three ships to Denmark ; the 
order was, however, countermanded, and 
Morris was again sent to Calais. On 8 Feb. 
1536-7, he was made master of ordnance, 
with a salary of 2s. a day for himself, Gd. for 
a clerk, and Qd. for a yeoman. Before Octo- 
ber he was recalled, and was in London ready 
to march northwards to assist in suppressing 
the Pilgrimage of Grace. In 1537 Morris 
was again at Carlisle inspecting the fortifica- 
tions, which had been declared unsound ; was 
granted license to be ' overseer of the science 
of artillery ; ' appointed master gunner of Eng- 
land, and on 31 July landed at Calais, where 
in 1539 he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to receive Anne of Cleves ; on 18 Oct. 
he was knighted at the creation of the Earl of 
Hertford and Southampton. In 1542 Morris 
was in England superintending the artillery, 
not always with success, for of the pieces des- 
patched for the Scottish war in October 1542 
all but one burst (Hamilton Papers, i. 263). 
In March 1543-4 he joined the Earl of Hert- 
ford's expedition to Scotland. Landing near 
Leith, which was immediately captured, 
Morris accompanied the army to Edinburgh, 
where on 7 May he blew in Canongate with 
a culverin ; the next day he bombarded the 
castle, without effect, for two hours and was 
compelled to retreat (cf. FROTJDE, iv. 34-6). 
In the autumn Morris, as chief director of 
the batteries, was at Boulogne, where on 
3 Sept. he received a wound, which apparently 
proved fatal. He was buried in St. Peter's 
Church, Cornhill, London. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer 
vols. i-iv., passim, ed. Gairdner vols. v-ix., 
passim ; Hamilton Papers, vols. i. and ii. ; Acts 
of Privy Council, 1542-7; Cotton MSS. App. 
xxviii, 1 ; Chronicle of Calais, p. 173 ; Stow's 
Survey; Thomas's Historical Notes, i. 218, 219 ; 
Proceedings of Royal Artillery Institute, xix. 
221-3; Metcalfe's Book of Knights; Brewer's 
Henry VIII, ii. 224.] A. F. P. 

MORRIS, CORBYN (d. 1779), commis- 
sioner of customs, first attracted notice by 
the publication of 'A Letter from a By- 
stander to a Member of Parliament, wherein 

is examined what necessity there is for the 
maintenance of a large regular land-force in. 
this island ; what proportions the Revenues 
of the Crown have borne to those of the 
people at different periods from the Restora- 
tion to his present Majesty's Accession ; and 
whether the weight of Power in the Royal 
or popular side now preponderates,' London, 
1741-2, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1743. In this pam- 
phlet he shows that the power of the crown 
depends upon economic conditions, and, after 
an elaborate discussion of the relative re- 
sources of the crown and the people, decides 
that ' our tendency at present, unless it be 
rightly moderated, lies much stronger to de- 
mocracy than to absolute monarchy' (p. 58). 
His estimates of national income are based 
on the mercantilist theory, that ' the whole 
annual income at any period is greater or 
less according to the quantity of coin then 
circulating in the kingdom' (p. 107). He 
concludes with a eulogy of Walpole's ad- 
ministration, and an appeal for a ' reasonable 
candour ' in the inquiry into his conduct. 
The ' Letter from a Bystander ' was generally 
supposed to have been written by Walpole 
or by his direction. On this assumption the 
author was vehemently attacked in ' A Proper 
Answer to the Bystander,' &c. (attributed to. 
William Pulteney), London, 1742, 8vo, and 
' A Full Answer to the " Letter from a By- 
stander "... by R H , esq. [Thomas 

Carte],' London, 1742, 8vo (Rawlinson MS. 
D. 89; cf. Carte MSS., Bodleian Library, 
10705, f. 3). Morris replied with ' A Letter to 
the Rev. Mr. Thomas Carte ... by a Gentle- 
man of Cambridge,' London, 1743, 8vo. The 
controversy terminated with the publication 
by Carte of ' A Full and Clear Vindication 
of the Full Answer,' &c., London, 1743, 
8vo. (ib.) 

During the administrations of Pelham and 
Newcastle, Morris was employed by them 
' in conciliating opponents ' (Morris to Charles 
Yorke, 30 Dec. 1759, Addit. MS. 32900, f. 
431). On the suppression of the rebellion, 
of 1745 he submitted to Newcastle (8 May 
1746) several proposals for the regulation of 
the highlands. He suggested (1) the regis- 
tration of all lands and deeds at London 
and Stirling, and the reversion to the crown, 
of lands not so registered ; (2) the aboli- 
tion of entail and the vesting in the land- 
owner of absolute property in the land ; 
(3) the division of the land among the chil- 
dren on the death of the landowners ; (4) the 
payment of rent only in case of a written 
agreement between landlord and tenant; 
(5) the settlement of all forfeited lands with 
new tenants ; and (6) the universal abolition 
of the highland dress. He pointed out that, 




unless they were dispersed, the power of the 
old highland families would be increased by 
the encouragement of trade and manufac- 
tures (ib. 32707, f. 162). On 3 June 1747 
he drew up ' Hints respecting a Treaty with 
Spain ' (ib. 32711, f. 194), in which he sug- 
gested the adoption, in the case of Spain, of 
the principle of the Methuen treaty, the ex- 
change of Gibraltar for Ceuta and St. Au- 
gustine, and the removal from Minorca of 
the Roman catholic inhabitants. 

In 1751 Morris was appointed by Pelham 
secretary of the customs and salt duty in 
Scotland. His salary was 5001. per annum. 
He was sent to Scotland to inquire into the 
state of the customs and the practices of the 
smugglers. As an administrator he showed 
great ability. He regulated the method of 
weighing tobacco, thus augmenting the cus- 
toms, and by suppressing the importation, 
under the Spanish duty, of French wines 
into Scotland removed a grievance of which 
English merchants had long complained. 
He claimed that during the first five years 
of his secretaryship more money had been 
remitted from the customs in Scotland to the 
receiver-general in England than in all the 
preceding years since the union (ib. 32872, 
f. 198). As a result of his experience he 
submitted to Newcastle in 1752 and 1758 
several suggestions for the better regulation 
of the customs and salt duties. 

Meanwhile Morris's efforts for economic 
reform had not been confined to the sphere 
of his official duties. He had collected much 
useful information on the vital statistics of 
London, and in 1753 he prepared a bill ' for 
& general registry of the total number of the 
people of Great Britain, and of their annual 
increase and diminution by births and deaths.' 
On this work he consulted Dr. Squire, who 
was ' master of the whole plan ' (Morris to 
the Duke of Newcastle, 22 Jan. 1753, ib. 
52731, f. 67). He explained the advantages 
of a census to the Duke of Newcastle, under 
whose ' immediate direction ' the bill was 
introduced into the House of Lords (ib. 
2Q May 1753, ib. f. 480). He was elected 
F.R.S. on 19 May 1757, and admitted to the 
society a week later. Dissatisfied with his 
position in Scotland, and anxious to return 
to England, Morris made many attempts to 
obtain from Newcastle an official appoint- 
ment in the English revenue department. 
On 15 March 1763 he was appointed com- 
missioner of the customs. Morris died on 
24 Dec. 1779, and was buried at Wimbledon 
on 1 Jan. 1780. He married on 15 Sept. 
1758 a Mrs. Wright. 

Though a strong supporter of the mercan- 
tile theory, Morris's economic works are 

valuable. He was an able statistician. Ac- 
cording to his friend David Hume, he used 
to say that he wrote all his books for the 
sake of their dedications (Hume to Gilbert 
Elliot of Minto, 12 March 1763 ; BURTON, 
Life of Hume, ii. 147). He published, in 
addition to the two pamphlets mentioned 
above : 1. ' An Essay towards fixing the 
True Standards of Wit, Humour, Raillery, 
Satire, and Ridicule, &c. Inscribed to the 
Right Honourable Robert, Earl of Orford,' 
London, 1744, 8vo. Horace Walpole sent 
this essay to Sir Horace Mann as one of ' the 
only new books at all worth reading. . . . 
The dedication to my father is fine; pray 
mind the quotation from Milton' (Walpole 
to Sir Horace Mann, 18 June 1744, Letters, 
ed. Cunningham, i. 306). 2. ' An Essay to- 
wards illustrating the Science of Insurance, 
wherein it is attempted to fix, by precise 
Calculation, several important Maxims upon 
this subject,' &c., London, 1747, 8vo. 3. ' An 
Essay towards deciding the important Ques- 
tion, Whether it be a National Advantage to 
Britain to insure the Ships of her Enemies ? 
Addressed to the Right Honourable H. Pel- 
ham,' London [1747], 8vo ; 2nd edition, with 
amendments, 'To which are now added, 
further considerations upon our Insurance 
of the French Commerce in the present junc- 
ture,' 2 parts, London, 1758, 8vo. 4. ' Ob- 
servations on the past Growth and present 
State of the City of London. To which are 
annexed a complete Table of the Christnings 
and Burials within this City from 1601 to 
1750 . . . together with a Table of the 
Numbers which have annually died of each 
Disease from 1675 to the present time,' &c., 
London, 1751, fol. ; ' reprinted, . . . with a 
continuation of the tables to the end of ... 
1757,' London, 1757 and 1759, 4to. 5. 'A 
Letter balancing the Causes of the Present 
Scarcity of our Silver Coin, and the Means 
of Immediate Remedy, &c. Addressed to 
the . . . Earl of Powis,' London, 1757, 
8vo. In this pamphlet Morris attributes the 
scarcity to exportation, arising from the fact 
that, while in the coinage of England the 
ratio of gold to silver was 1 : 15^^^, the 
ratio abroad was 1 : 14. He intended to 
write some additional observations on this 
subject, and asked Newcastle for his patron- 
age (Morris to the Duke of Newcastle, 
29 June 1757, Addit. MS. 32871, f. 452), but 
nothing further was published. 6. ' A Plan 
for Arranging and Balancing the Accounts 
of Landed Estates,' &c., London, 1759, fol. 
7. ' Remarks upon Mr. Mill's Proposals for 
publishing a Survey of the Trade of Great 
Britain, Ireland, and the British Colonies,' 
London, 1771, fol. An 'Account of the 




Duties and Customs to which Foreign Mer- 
chants are Subject. Sent with a Letter to 
Lord Shelburne, 22 Aug. 1768,' among the 
Additional MSS. in the British Museum, is 
in Morris's handwriting (ib. 30228, f. 192). 
Some lines by Morris ' On reading Dr. Gold- 
smith's poem " The Deserted Village " ' are 
printed in ' The New Foundling Hospital for 
Wit '(1784, vi. 95). 

[Authorities quoted and Addit. MSS. (Brit. 
Mus.) 32705 f. 41, 32726 f. 12, 32860 f. 46, 32864 
f. 287, 32866 f. 247, 32877ff. 150, 448, 32878 f. 96, 
32895 f. 436, 32968 f.373; Thomson's Hist, of 
Royal Society, Appendix iv. xlviii. ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 227, 504, 508 ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. 
Hill, iv. 107.] W. A. S. H. 

MORRIS, EDWARD (d. 1689), Welsh 
poet, of Perthi Llwydion, near Cerryg y 
Drudion, Denbighshire, was one of the best 
known writers of carols, ballads, and ' eng- 
lynion ' during the second half of the seven- 
teenth century. Twelve of his pieces are to 
be found in ' Llyfr Carolau a Dyriau duwiol ' 
(3rd edit. Shrewsbury, 1720), and eleven in 
' Blodeugerdd Cymru ' (1759). They are vari- 
ously dated from 1656 to 1688. He was an 
intimate friend of his more famous brother 
bard, Huw Morris or Morus [q. v.], whose 
published works contain complimentary ' en- 
glynion' exchanged by the two poets, and an 
elegy composed by Huw Morus upon hearing 
of the death of his friend (Eos Ceiriog, ii. 363, 
405-10, i. 21). From the latter we learn 
that Edward died in 1689 while travelling 
in Essex, no doubt in the pursuit of his oc- 
cupation as drover. It would appear he was 
a fair English and Welsh scholar, for shortly 
before his death he was entrusted by Mrs. 
Margaret Vychan of Llwydiarth, Montgo- 
meryshire, with the task of translating into 
Welsh an English theological work, which 
was published in 1689 (at Mrs. Vychan's 
expense) under the title 'Y Rhybuddiwr 
Crist'nogawl ' (ib. ii. 360-4; W. ROWLANDS, 
Cambrian Bibliography, p. 246). 

[Eos Ceiriog, ed. W[alter] D[avies], 1823.] 

J. E. L. 

1893), naturalist, born at Cove, near Cork, 
on 25 March 1810, was the eldest son of 
Rear-admiral Henry Gage Morris of York 
and Beverley, who served in the American 
and French wars. His mother, Rebecca 
Newenham Millerd, was a daughter of the 
Rev. Francis Orpen. His grandfather was 
Colonel Roger Morris [q. v.] Francis was edu- 
cated at Bromsgrove School and Worcester 
College,0xford,wherehe graduated B. A.,with 
honours in classics, in 1833. He astonished 
his examiners by choosing Pliny's Natural 

History ' for his voluntary thesis. He was 
admitted ad eundem at Durham in 1844. 

In 1834 Morris was ordained to the per- 
petual curacy of Hanging Heaton, near 
Dewsbury. He was ordained priest at York 
in 1835 and served successively as curate at 
Taxal, Cheshire (1836), Christ Church, Don- 
caster (1836), Ordsall, Nottinghamshire 
(1838), and Crambe, Yorkshire (1842). In 
1844 he was presented to the vicarage of 
Nafferton.near Driffield, and appointed chap- 
lain to the Duke of Cleveland. In 1854 he 
was presented by the Archbishop of York to 
the rectory of Nunburnholme, Yorkshire, and 
he held that living till his death on 10 Feb. 
1893 ; a few years before his death he received 
a civil list pension of 100/. He married in 
1835 Ann, second daughter of Mr. C. Sanders 
of Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. 

Morris wrote much on religious subjects, 
but he is best known by his works on 
natural history, which, although ' popular ' 
rather than scientific, had much literary 
value. He was never able to accept the 
theory of evolution, and was an extreme anti- 

His great work was ' A History of British 
Birds,' in 6 vols. 8vo, London, 1851-7, a 
third edition of which appeared in 1891. 

His other natural history writings include : 
1. ' A Guide to the Arrangement of British 
Birds,' 8vo, London [1834]. 2. ' An Essay 
on Scientific Nomenclature,' 8vo, London, 
1850. 3. < Book of Natural History,' 8vo, 
London, 1852. 4. 'A Natural History of 
the Nests and Eggs of British Birds,' 3 vols. 
8vo, London, 1853-6; 3rd edit. 1892. 5. 'A 
History of British Butterflies,' 8vo, London, 
1853; 3rd edit. 1893. 6. 'A Natural History 
of British Moths,' 4 vols. 8vo, London, 1859- 
1870. 7. ' " Fact is Stranger than Fiction." 
Anecdotes in Natural History,' 8vo, London, 
1860. 8. ' Records of Animal Sagacity,' 12mo, 
London, 1861. 9. 'The Gamekeeper's Mu- 
seum,' 8vo, London, 1864. 10. ' Catalogue of 
British Insects in all the Orders,' 8vo, London, 
1 865. 11.' Dogs and their Doings,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1870; 2nd edit. [1887]. 12. 'Anecdotes 
in Natural History, 8vo, London [1872]; 
2nd edit. [1889], 13. Birds ' contributed 
to 'Simple Lessons for Home Use,' 16mo, 
1877. 14. ' Letters to the " Times " about 
Birds,' 8vo, London [1880]. He also edited 
vols. vi. to viii. of ' The Naturalist,' 8vo, 

In connection with the Darwinian question 
he wrote : 15. ' Difficulties of Darwinism/ 
8vo, London, 1869. 16. ' A Double Dilemma 
in Darwinism,' 8vo, London [1870], 17. ' A 
Guard against " The Guardian," ' 8vo, London, 
1877. 18. ' All the Articles of the Darwin 




Faith,' 8vo, London, 1877 ; 2nd edit. [1882]. 
19. ' The Demands of Darwinism on Credulity,' 
8vo, London [1890]. 

As a zoophilist he wrote : 20. 'A Word 
for God's Dumb Creatures,' 8vo, London 
[1876]. 21. ' A Dialogue about Fox-hunt- 
ing,' 8vo, London [1878]. 22. ' The Curse 
of Cruelty,' a sermon, 8vo, London, 1886. 
23. 'The Sparrow Shooter,' 8vo, London, 
1886. 24. 'The Sea Gull Shooter,' 8vo, 
London [1890]. 25. 'The Cowardly Cruelty 
of the Experimenters on Living Animals,' 
8vo [London, 1890]. 26. 'The Humanity 
Series of School Books,' 6 pts. 8vo, London, 
1890. 27. ' A Defence of our Dumb Com- 
panions,' 8vo, London [1892]. 

His religious and ecclesiastical writings 
include : 28. ' Extracts from the "Works of 
. . . J. Wesley,' 8vo, 1840. 29. 'An Essay 
on Baptismal Regeneration,' 8vo, London, 
1850. 30. 'An Essay on the Eternal Duration 
of the Earth,' 8vo, London, 1850. 31. 'The 
Maxims of the Bible,' 12mo, 1855. 32. 'The 
Precepts of the Bible,' 24mo, 1855. 33. ' The 
Yorkshire Hymn Book,' 16mo, London, 1860. 
34. 'Plain Sermons for Plain People,' 210 nos. 
8vo, London [1862-90]. 35. 'A Handbook 
of Hymns for the Sick Bedside,' 8vo, London 
[1875 ?]. 36. ' Short Sermons for the People,' 

4 nos. 8vo, London [1879]. 37. 'The Ghost 
of Wesley,' 8vo [1882]. 38. 'A Handbook of 
theChurch and Dissent,' 8vo, London [1882]. 
39. 'A Dialogue about the Church,' 2 editions, 
8vo,London[1889]. 40. 'Methodism '[anon.], 
8vo, London, 1890. 

His other writings include : 41. ' Penny 
Postage,' 8vo, London, 1840. 42. 'A Plan 
for the Detection of Thefts by Letter Carriers,' 
8vo, London, 1850. 43. 'National Adult 
Education. Read before the British Asso- 
ciation,' 8vo, London, 1853. 44. 'The Pre- 
sent System of Hiring Farm Servants in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire,' 8vo, Driffield, 1854. 
45. ' Account of the Siege of Killowen,' 8vo, 
Driffield, 1854. 46. ' Account of the Battle of 
the Monongohela River,' 8vo, Driffield, 1854. 
47. ' The Country Seats of Noblemen and 
Gentlemen of Great Britain and Ireland,' 

5 vols. 4to, London [1866-80]. 48. 'The 
Ancestral Homes of Britain,' 4to, London, 
1868. 49. 'The Rights and Wrongs of 
Women,' 8vo, London [1870]. 50. 'A Hun- 
dred Reasons against the Land Craze,' 8vo, 
London [1885]. He also wrote letters to 
the ' Times ' on natural history ; contributed 
'A Thousand and One Anecdotes on Natural 
History ' to the ' Fireside Magazine,' and 
wrote for the ' Leisure Hour.' 

[Yorkshire Post, 13 Feb. 1893 ; Daily Graphic, 
16 Feb. 1893; The Naturalist of Nunburnholme, 
by E. W. Abram, in Good Words, September 

1893 (with portrait) ; Crockford's Clerical Di- 
rectory ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; information kindly 
supplied by Miss L. A. G. Morris.] B. B. W. 

1709), Welsh poet, was born at Pont y 
Meibion, which, though lying in the valley 
of the Ceiriog, is within the parish of Llan- 
silin, Denbighshire. Being a younger (the 
third) son, he was apprenticed to a tanner, 
who lived at Gwaliau, near Overton, Flint- 
shire, but he did not complete his term of 
apprenticeship. For the rest of his life he 
lived at Pont y Meibion, helping on the farm 
his father, his eldest brother, and his nephew 
in succession, and gradually winning a great 
reputation as a composer of ballads, carols, 
and occasional verse. He wrote much in the 
'strict' metres, but is better known as a 
writer in the free ballad metres of the Eng- 
lish type, which became popular in Wales 
with the decline of the older poetry in the 
seventeenth century. Next to the love poems 
the most familiar are those on political sub- 
jects. Huw Morus, like most of his country- 
men, was a staunch royalist and supporter of 
the church of England. He satirised freely 
the roundhead preachers and soldiers, some- 
times in allegory, and sometimes without any 
disguise. In 1660 he wrote an ironical 'Elegy 
upon Oliver's Men,' and a ' Welcome to 
General Monk.' Under Charles II he was 
still attached to the same interest, and 
vigorously denounced the Rye House plot in 
1683. But his churchmanship was deeply 
protestant, and the trial of the seven bishops, 
of whom William Lloyd of St. Asaph had 
expressed admiration of his poetry, forced 
him to transfer his allegiance from James II 
to William of Orange, whose cause he warmly 
supported from 1688 onwards. 

In his old age Huw Morus was revered by 
the countryside as a kind of oracle, and tra- 
dition says that in the customary procession 
out of Llansilin parish church after service 
the first place was always yielded to him by 
the vicar. He died unmarried on 31 Aug. 
1709, and was buried at Llansilin, where 
a slab to his memory bears ' englynion,' by 
the Rev. Robert Wynne, Gwyddelwern. In 
appearance he was tall, sallow, and marked 
with small-pox. ' Cadair Huw Morus ' (Huw 
Morus's chair), with the initials H. M. B. 
(Huw Morus, Bardd) upon the back, is still 
shown near Pont y Meibion. It is a stone 
seat fixed in a wall, and forms the subject of 
an engraving prefixed to the 1823 edition of 
the poet's works. 

Poems by Huw Morus appear in the col- 
lection of songs printed for Foulk Owens in 
1686, and reprinted (as ' Carolau a Dyriau 
Duwiol ') in 1696 and 1729. He is represented 


9 6 


also in ' Blodeugerdd Cymru '(1759). But 
no collected edition of his verse appeared 
until 1823, when the Rev. Walter Davies 
(Gwallter Mechain) published' Eos Ceiriog' 
in two volumes, the former containing a pre- 
fatory sketch of the poet's life and character. 
This edition contains 147 poems, besides 
some two hundred ' englynion,' or single 
stanzas. Of seventy other poems the titles 
only are given. The author of the life in the 
4 Cambrian Register' (i. 436) tells us that one 
manuscript collection of Huw Morus's poems 
contained as many as three hundred pieces, 
and this is rendered likely by the fact that in 
a manuscript volume of seventeenth-century 
poetry Richard Williams of Newtown found 
twenty-two poems not even mentioned by 
Gwallter Mechain (Geninen, xi. 303). 

[Life in the Cambrian Eegister, vol. i. by 
David Samwell (d. 1798); Eos Ceiriog (1823); 
Rowlands's Cambrian Bibl. ; Borrow's Wild 
Wales chaps, xx. and Ixviii. ; Williams's Emi- 
nent Welshmen, p. 347.] J. E. L. 

1830), vice-admiral, was the son of Captain 
John Morris, who, in command of the Bristol, 
was mortally wounded in the unsuccessful 
attack on Sullivan's Island on 28 June 1776 
[see PAEKEK, SIE PETER, 1721-1811], and 
died on 2 July (BEATSON, Nav. and Mil. 
Memoirs, iv. 152; RALFE, Nav. Biog. i. 116.) 
James is said to have entered the navy under 
the immediate command of his father (MAR- 
SHALL, ii. 489 ; Gent. Mag. 1830, i. 467). 
This seems doubtful, and in any case he was 
not with his father in the Bristol (Bristol's 
Pay-book). In 1778 and 1 779 he was in the 
Prince of Wales, the flagship of Rear-admiral 
Samuel Barrington [q. v.] in the West Indies, 
and in her was present at the battles of St. 
Lucia and Grenada. He was promoted to be 
lieutenant on 14 April 1780, and was serving 
on board the Namur in the action off Domi- 
nica on 12 April 1782. He was again with 
Barrington in the Royal George during the 
Spanish armament in 1790, and by his in- 
terest was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander on 21 Sept. In 1791 he was appointed 
to the Pluto sloop on the Newfoundland 
station, where, on 25 July 1793, he captured 
the French sloop Lutine. On 7 Oct. 1793 he 
was posted to the Boston frigate, which he 
took to England and commanded for the 
next four years in the Channel, the Bay of 
Biscay, and the Spanish coast, cruising with 
good success against the enemy's merchant 
ships and privateers. Towards the end of 1797 
he was moved into the Lively frigate, which 
was lost on Rota Point, near Cadiz, in the 
early part of 1798. In 1799 he was appointed 

to the Phaeton, in which in the autumn he 
carried Lord Elgin to Constantinople [see 
In the following May the Phaeton was with 
the fleet off Genoa, and being detached to co- 
operate with the Austrians, inflicted severe 
loss on the retreating French at Loano and 
Alassio (ALLARDYCE, Memoir of Viscount 
Keith, p. 206). In October she was off Ma- 
laga, and on the 28th her boats, under the 
command of Mr. Beaufort, her first lieu- 
tenant, captured and brought off a heavily 
armed polacca, which, with a French priva- 
teer schooner, was lying under the protection 
of a 5-gun battery [see BEAUFORT, SIR FRAN- 
CIS]. During 1801 the Phaeton continued ac- 
tively employed on the coast of Spain, and 
in the winter returned to England. 

On the renewal of the war Morris was 
appointed to the Leopard, but was shortly 
afterwards moved into the Colossus, a new 
74-gun ship, which, after some eighteen 
months off Brest, under Admiral Cornwallis, 
was, in October 1805, with Nelson off Cadiz, 
and on the 21st took part in the battle of 
Trafalgar. She was the sixth ship in the lee 
line, following Collingwood, and by the for- 
tune of war sustained greater damage and 
heavier loss of men than any other ship in the 
fleet. Morris himself was severely wounded 
in the thigh, but the bleeding being stopped 
by a tourniquet, remained on deck till the 
close of the action. For the next three years 
he continued in command of the Colossus, 
on the home station or in the Mediterranean, 
and in 1810 commanded the Formidable of 
98 guns. On 1 Aug. 1811 he was promoted 
to the rank of rear-admiral, and in 1812, at 
the special request of Sir James Saumarez, 
afterwards Lord de Saumarez [q. v.], was 
appointed third in command in the Baltic. 
On 2 Jan. 1815 he was nominated a K.C.B. 
He became a vice-admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, 
and died at his house at Marlow on 15 April 
1830. He married, in October 1802, Marga- 
retta Sarah, daughter of Thomas Somers 
Cocks, the well-known banker (1737-1796), 
and niece of Charles Somers Cocks, first lord 
Somers [q. v.] 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biog. ii. (vol. i. pt. ii.), 
488; Gent. Mag. 1830, pt. i. p. 467; James's 
Nav. Hist. ; Nicolas's Despatches and Letters of 
Lord Nelson (see index).] J. K. L. 

MORRIS, JOHN (1617 P-1649), soldier, 
was eldest son of Matthias Morris of Esthagh, 
in Elmsall, near Pontefract, Yorkshire 
(DUGDALE, Visit, of Yorkshire, Surtees Soc., 
p. 267). He was brought up in the house 
of Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford. 
When Strafford became lord deputy of Ire- 




land, he was at sixteen made ensign to Straf- 
ford's own company of foot, and soon after- 
wards lieutenant of his guard. The earl 
detected in him much military capacity, and 
foretold that he would ' outdo many of our 
old commanders.' After Strafford's death, 
Morris became captain in Sir Henry Tich- 
borne's regiment. During the Irish rebellion 
he was appointed sergeant-major in the regi- 
ment commanded by Sir Francis Willough- 
by, and major by commission from the Earl 
of Ormonde (2 June 1642). In Ireland he 
performed some import ant services, especially 
after the storming of Ross Castle, when, al- 
though badly wounded, he rallied some Eng- 
lish troops that were flying before General 
Preston, and ' charging the enemy, in the 
very head of them, obtained a victory ' (HuN- 
TEE, South Yorkshire, ii. 98). On returning 
to England he served for a while in Lord 
Byron's regiment, but after the surrender of 
Liverpool in 1644, he threw up his commis- 
sion in a moment of caprice, and joined the 
parliamentary army (LLOYD, Memoires, ed. 
1668, p. 563). His pleasant manners made 
him a general favourite, while his genius for 
strategy and skill in handling troops quickly 
gained for him a colonelcy. But when the 
new model was introduced, the puritan offi- 
cers looked askance on his easy-going ways, 
while he in turn laughed at their affected be- 
haviour. He was not entrusted with com- 
mand, though many flattering promises of 
future employment and reward were held out 
to him. Dissembling his anger under a smiling 
exterior, Morris betook himself to his estate of 
Esthagh, there to concoct a scheme by which 
he might effectually serve the king and avenge 
himself on his former comrades. 

While serving against the king at the siege 
of Sandal in 1645 he had become acquainted 
with Colonel Overton, who had since been 
made governor of Pontefract. Having ' some 
assurance of his good affections to his Ma'tie,' 
Morris entered into a conspiracy with him for 
a surprise of the castle. Overton promised 
that he would open a ' sally port ' whenever 
the king considered it convenient. But in No- 
vember 1647 Overton was transferred to the 
governorship of Hull, and Morris had little 
or no acquaintance with Cotterell, who suc- 
ceeded him at Pontefract. To gain his ends 
he succeeded in establishing some intimacy 
with two of the garrison who had formerly 
served the king, and an unsuccessful attempt 
to seize the castle by means of a scaling 
ladder was made on 18 May 1648. It failed, 
owing to the drunkenness of Morris's con- 
federate, corporal Floyd, who had under- 
taken to place a friendly sentinel on duty 
and neglected to do so. The-attacking party 


escaped unhurt, and no suspicions were at- 
tached to Morris. Cotterell at once ordered 
those of his garrison who were sleeping in 
the town to take up residence in the castle, 
and issued warrants for beds for a hundred 
men. Disguised as countrymen, Morris and 
William Paulden [see PAULDEN, THOMAS], 
each with four men carrying beds and with 
three others bringing money as though to 
compound for theirs, gained admission to the 
castle on 3 June, and offering quarter to the 
guard, secured them in the dungeon. The 
only blood shed was that of Cotterell, who,. 
lying on his bed at the time, resisted Paul- 
den's seizure of him, and was wounded. 
Horse and foot, which had been waiting in 
the locality, quickly joined the successful 
party, and a force of three hundred was 
raised with which to garrison the castle. 
Colonel Bonivent, who had been governor of 
Sandal Castle in 1644-5, was at first credited 
with the exploit, and it was some time be- 
fore the truth was known (Packets of Let- 
ters from Scotland, &c., 6 June 1648, p. 6; 
Declaration of Sir Thomas Glenham, &c. r 
E. 446 [3 and 29]). As a matter of policy 
Morris allowed Sir John Digby, who soon 
afterwards arrived from Nottingham, to as- 
sume the nominal command. 

Morris answered Cromwell's summons to 
surrender (9 Nov.) with cheery defiance, 
but desertions were frequent. He made 
two determined sallies in February 1649 r 
but was compelled on 3 March to treat with 
the parliamentarians. General Lambert, who 
was in command, insisted upon having six 
persons, whom he refused to name, excepted 
from mercy. Of these Morris was one. On 
17 March the treaty was concluded. The 
excepted officers having liberty to make their 
escape if they could, Morris boldly charged 
through the enemy's army, and with Cornet 
Michael Blackborne got clear away inta 
Lancashire. Lambert had given assurance 
for his safety could he escape five miles from 
the castle. Nevertheless he was betrayed at 
Oreton in Furness Fells, Lancashire, about 
ten days afterwards, and committed prisoner 
to Lancaster Castle. On 16 Aug. he was 
brought to trial at York assizes, and indicted 
on the statute of 25 Edw. Ill ' for levying 
war against the late King Charles.' The 
judges (Puleston and Thorpe) ordered him ' 
to be put in irons. He defended himself 
with admirable skill, and when condemned 
to death as a traitor, declared that he ' should 
die for a good cause, and with a good con- 
science.' Vain efforts were made to save 
him, even by officers of the parliamentary 
army. On the night of 20 Aug. Morris and 
his fellow-prisoner Blackborne contrived to 


9 8 


escape from prison in York Castle, but in 
getting over the wall Blackborne broke his 
leg, and Morris refused to leave him. They 
were retaken, and executed on 23 Aug. By 
his desire Morris was buried at "Went worth, 
Yorkshire, near the grave of Lord Strafford. 

Morris married Margery (1627-1665), 
eldest daughter of Dr. Robert Dawson, bishop 
of Clonfert and Kilmacduag, by whom he 
had issue Robert (b. 1645) of Esthagh, Cas- 
tilian (1648-1702), and Mary. His widow 
remarried Jonas, fourth son of Abel Bulkley, 
of Bulkley, Lancashire. 

His second son, Castilian, so named by 
reason of his having been born during the 
siege of Pontefract Castle, was appointed 
town clerk of Leeds in 1684 at the instance 
of Lord Chief-justice Jeffreys, and left de- 
scendants (THORESBT, Ducatus Leodiensis, 
ed. Whitaker). Some extracts from his diary 
are printed in the ' Yorkshire Archaeological 
and Topographical Journal ' (x. 159). 

Morris's exploits were celebrated by Tho- 
mas Vaughan in five brief Latin elegiac 
poems printed at the end of Henry Vaughan's 
' Thalia Rediviva ' (1678). 

[Appendix to Nathan Drake's Journal of the 
first and second Sieges of Pontefract Castle, 
1644-5, in Miscellanies of Surtees Soc., xxxvii. 
85-1 15 (with authorities cited there) ; Holmes's 
Collections towards the History of Pontefract II. 
(The Sieges of Pontefract Castle), pp. 291-9 ; 
Cobbett's State Trials.iv. 1250; William Smith's 
Old Yorkshire, vol. i. ; Clarendon's Rebellion 
(Macray) ; Whitelocke's Memorials ; Yorkshire 
Archaeolog. and Topograph. Journal, x. 529; 
Henry Vaughan's Works (Grosart), ii. 365.] 

G. G. 

MORRIS, JOHN (1810-1886), geologist, 
was born in 1810 at Homerton, London, and 
educated at private schools. He was engaged 
for some years as a pharmaceutical chemist 
at Kensington, but soon became interested in 
geology and other branches of science, and 
ultimately retired from business. His pub- 
lished papers speedily attracted notice, and 
his ' Catalogue of British Fossils,' published in 
1845, a work involving much critical research, 
added greatly to his reputation. In 1854 he 
was elected to the professorship of geology at 
University College, London, an office which 
he retained till 1877, when he was appointed 
on retirement emeritus professor in acknow- 
ledgment of his services. He died, after an 
illness of some duration, on 7 Jan. 1886, and 
was buried at Kensal Green. One daughter 
survived him. 

In addition to his ' Catalogue of British 
Fossils ' (of which a second edition appeared 
in 1854, and a third was in preparation but 
was left incomplete at his death) and to a 

memoir on the ' Great Oolite Mollusca,' 
written in conjunction with John Lycett, 
and published by the Palseontographical 
Society, Morris wrote numerous papers and 
notes on scientific subjects, mostly geologi- 
cal. He was elected 'F.G.S. in 1845, and, 
in addition to other awards, received the 
Lyell medal in 1876. In 1870 he was pre- 
sented with a handsome testimonial in ap- 
preciation of his services to geology. He was 
president of the Geologists' Association, held 
various lectureships and examinerships, and 
was an honorary member of several scientific 
societies. In 1878 he was admitted to the 
freedom of the Turners' Company, and re- 
ceived in 1878 the honorary degree of master 
of arts from the university of Cambridge. 

Morris was a born teacher, for he was not 
only full of enthusiasm, but also united to a 
memory of extraordinary retentiveness a re- 
markable power of lucid exposition ; yet he 
was so singularly modest that it was often 
difficult to induce him to address an audience 
other than his class. His knowledge of geo- 
logy was encyclopaedic, his critical acumen 
great, but he disliked the labour of composi- 
tion. In imparting knowledge verbally he 
was the most generous of men. 

[Short memoir (with portrait), Geological 
Magazine [2] v. 481, and further notice id. [3] 
iii. 95. See also obituary notice, Proc. Geol. 
Soc. 1886, p. 44.] T. G. B. 

MORRIS, JOHN (1826-1893), Jesuit, 
son of John Carnac Morris [q. v.], was born 
at Ootacamund, on the Neilgherry Hills, 
Southern India, on 4 July 1826. At eight 
years of age he was sent to a private school 
at East Sheen, Surrey. Thence, in 1838, he 
was transferred to Harrow, but he remained 
there only one year. He then went to India, 
and lived with his parents for two years on 
the Neilgherry Hills. Returning to England, 
he was prepared for Cambridge by Henry 
Alford [q. v.] ; in October term 1845 he 
was admitted a pensioner of Trinity College. 
Before the end of his freshman's year he em- 
braced the catholic religion, being received 
into the Roman communion on 20 May 1846. 
His secession caused some sensation, and 
led to the submission next year of F. A. 
Paley [q. v.], his private tutor (BBOWHE, 
Annals of the Tractarian Movement, pp. 130, 

After three years' study at the English 
College in Rome he was ordained priest in 
September 1849 in the cathedral church of 
St. JohnLateran, and sent back to the English 
mission. He was stationed first at Northamp- 
ton, next at Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, 
and in 1852 he was appointed a canon of the 




newly founded diocese of Northampton. From 
1852 to 1855 he was vice-rector of the Eng- 
lish College at Rome. Having obtained 
from the pope release from his missionary 
oath, Morris returned to England with the 
intention of entering the religious state in 
the Society of Jesus. On his arrival, how- 
ever, he was intercepted by Cardinal Wise- 
man, who was anxious to secure his services 
for the diocese of Westminster. Soon after- 
wards he became private secretary to the 
cardinal, and he continued to hold the 
office during the first two years of the epi- 
scopate of his successor, Cardinal Manning. 
In 1861 he had been made canon-penitentiary 
of the metropolitan chapter. At last, in Fe- I 
bruary 1867, he fulfilled his long-cherished i 
design of entering the Society of Jesus. His ! 
noviceship was passed partly at Manresa i 
House, Roehampton, partly at Tronchiennes ' 
in Belgium, and on 1 March 1869 he took 
his first vows at Louvain. 

Returning to England, he became succes- 
sively minister at Roehampton, socius to the 
provincial, Father AAHiitty, first superior of 
the Oxford mission, which, in 1871, had 
again been entrusted to the Jesuit order, 
and professor of ecclesiastical history and 
canon law in the college of St. Beuno, North 
Wales. In 1877 he was professed of the 
four vows, and appointed first rector of St. 
Ignatius's College, Malta ; but, the climate 
not agreeing with his health, he was recalled 
to this country, and resumed his professor- 
ship at St. Beuno's in 1878. In 1879 he 
was appointed vice-rector and master of no- 
vices at Roehampton, and in 1880 rector 
an office which he held till 1886. He was 
an enthusiastic worker in the cause of the 
beatification of the English martyrs, and the 
result of his efforts was the beatification by 
Leo XIII, on 29 Dec. 1886, of More, Fisher, 
and other Englishmen. On 10 Jan. 1889 
Morris was elected fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. In 1891 he became head, in 
succession to Father Henry Coleridge, of 
the staff of Jesuit writers at Farm Street, 
Berkeley Square, to which he had previously 
been attached. 

In 1893 he retired to Wimbledon, and 
there engaged in writing the biography of 
Cardinal Wiseman, He had collected the 
materials, but only a few chapters were 
actually composed when he died, with 
startling suddenness, while preaching in the 
church at Wimbledon on Sunday morning, 
22 Oct. 1893. 

His most important work was ' The 
Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, re- 
lated by themselves,' 3 vols. London, 1872-7. 
Otherworks were : 1. ' The Life and Martyr- 

dom of Saint Thomas Becket, Archbishop of 
Canterbury,' London, 1859, 8vo ; 2nd and en- 
larged edit. London, 1885, 8vo. 2. ' Formula- 
rium Sacerdotale, sen diversarum Benedic- 
tiones Religionum ; quas in unum collegit Jo- 
annes Morris,' London [1859], 8vo. 3. ' The 
Last Illness of His Eminence Cardinal Wise- 
man,' 3rd edit. London, 1865, 8vo ; translated 
into German, Miinster, 1865, 8vo. 4. ' The 
English Martyrs : a lecture given at Stony- 
hurst College, illustrated from contemporary 
prints,' London, 1887, 8vo. 5. ' The Vener- 
able Sir Adrian Fortescue, Martyr,' London, 
1887, 8vo. 6. ' The Relics of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury,' Canterbury, 1888, 8vo. 7. ' Can- 
terbury: our old Metropolis,' Canterbury, 
1889, 8vo. He also edited, with other his- 
torical and devotional works, Father Gerard's 
' Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot,' with a 
life and notes under the title ' The Condition 
of Catholics under James I,' London, 1871, 
2nd edit. 1872, 3rd edit, rewritten and en- 
larged 1881; 'Sir Amias Poulet's Letter- 
books,' 1874, in which he pointed out many 
inaccuracies in Mr. Froude's account of Mary 
Queen of Scots. He was a frequent con- 
tributor to the ' Month,' the 'Dublin Review,' 
and the 'Tablet.' 

[Private information ; Catholic News, 28 Oct. 
1893 ; Men of the Time, 1884 ; Speaker, 28 Oct. 
1893 ; Tablet, 28 Oct. 1893, p. 685, and 4 Nov. 
(funeral sermon by the Kev. Edward Pnrbrick, 
S. J.); Times, 23 Oct. 1893, p. 6; Weekly Re- 
gister, 28 Oct. 1893, pp. 549, 563.] T. 0. 

1880), theological writer, born at New Brent- 
ford in Middlesex, 4 Sept. 1812, was son of 
the Rev. John Morris, D.D.,who was formerly 
Michel fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 
and afterwards kept a high-class boarding- 
school. His mother, Anna F. Brande, was 
sister of the chemist, William Thomas Brande 
[q. v.]. After being educated at home, Morris 
matriculated from Balliol College, Oxford, 
17 Dec. 1830. He graduated B.A. with a 
second class in classics 20 Nov. 1834, pro- 
ceeding M.A. on 8 July 1837. On 30 June 
of the same year he was elected fellow of 
Exeter College, where he acted as Hebrew 
lecturer, and devoted himself to oriental 
and patristic theology. Eccentric in ap- 
pearance and manner, he was brimful of 
genuine and multifarious learning, but so 
credulous that he seriously believed in the 
existence of the Phoenix (see Notes and 
Queries, 1888, p. 48). At the time of the 
Oxford movement he joined the extreme 
section of the so-called Tractarian party. 
Though an Anglican priest, he was always 
fond fof ridiculing and finding fault with 
the English church, so that no surprise was 





felt when on 16 Jan. 1846 he followed New- 
man's example and joined the church of 
Rome. He resigned his fellowship 24 Jan. 
1846, and finally left Oxford a few days 
later (cf. NEWMAN, Letters, vol. ii. ; T. Moz- 
LEY, Reminiscences, chap. Ixx. ; CHURCH, Ox- 
ford Movement ; MARK PATTISOIT, Memoirs, 
pp. 184, 222). 

Ordained priest at St. Mary's College, 
Oscott, in 1849, Morris was for a short time 
one of the professors at Prior Park, near 
Bath, in 1851, and was nominated canon of 
Plymouth Cathedral by Bishop Errington on 
6 Dec. 1853. He was domestic chaplain to 
Mr. Bastard of Kitley in Devonshire in I 
1852 ; to his former pupil, Sir John Acton, of 
Aldenham Hall, Shropshire, in 1855 ; and to 
Mr. Coventry Patmore, at Heron's Ghyll in 
Sussex, in 1868. For a time, too, he had 
charge of a small mission at Shortwood in 
Somerset. He was latterly chaplain to a 
convent of nursing-nuns at Hammersmith, 
where he died on 9 April 1880. He was 
buried at Mortlake. His health was always 
weak, and probably accounted for much of 
the peculiarity of his character. 

During his residence at Oxford he pub- 
lished, 1843, an ' Essay towards the Con- 
version of Learned and Philosophical Hin- 
dus,' for which he obtained the prize of 
200/., offered through the Bishop of Calcutta. 
It displays both learning and ability, but 
was not successful in its object, as it had no 
circulation in India. For the ' Library of the 
Fathers ' he translated St. Chrysostom's ' Ho- 
milies on the Romans,' 1841, and ' Select 
Homilies of St. Ephrem,' from the Syriac, 
1846. He published, 1842, < Nature a Para- 
ble,' a poem in seven books, mystical and 
obscure, but containing passages of much 
beauty (cf. MOZLET, Reminiscences, vol. ii.) 

He also wrote: 1. ' Jesus the Son of Mary, 
or the Doctrine of the Catholic Church upon 
the Incarnation of God the Son : considered 
in its Bearings upon the Reverence shown 
by Catholics to His Blessed Mother,' dedi- 
cated to Cardinal Wiseman, 2 vols. 1851. 

2. 'Taleetha Koomee : or the Gospel Pro- 
phecy of our Blessed Lady's Assumption,' a 
drama in four acts, in verse, London, 1858. 

3. ' Eucharist on Calvary': an Essay upon the 
Relation of our Blessed Lord's First Mass 
to His adorable Passion,' London, 1878. 

[C. W. Boase's Registr. Coll. Exon. ; George 
Oliver's Hist, of Catholic Religion, &c., London, 
18,57, p. 358; Times, 12 April 1880; Tablet, 
17 April 1880; personal knowledge and recol- 
lection; information from family. In G. V. 
Cox's Recollections of Oxford, 2nd edit. p. 328J 
J. B. Morris is confounded with his younger 
brother. Thomas E. Morris.] W. A. G. 

MORRIS, JOHN CARNAC (1798-1858), 
Telugu scholar, born 16 Oct. 1798, was eldest 
son of John Morris of the Bombay civil ser- 
vice, who was subsequently a director and 
thrice chairman of the East India Company. 
The son entered the royal navy as a mid- 
shipman, and saw active service during the 
last two years of the French war. On the 
conclusion of the war in 1815 his father sent 
the folio wing laconic note to his captain, Sir 
George Sartorius : ' Your trade is up for the 
next half-century. Send my son John home 
by the next coach.' 

After a brief period of training he went to 
the East India Company's college at Hailey- 
bury, and afterwards entered the Madras 
civil service, reaching India in 1818. Five 
younger brothers obtained similar employ- 
ment under the East India Company. Morris 
served for a time at Masulipatam (in 1821) 
and Coimbore. In 1823 a stroke of paralysis 
deprived him of the use of his legs ; but his 
energy was not impaired by the misfortune, 
and his industry in sedentary occupation was 
exceptional. Most of his time was thence- 
forth spent at Madras in the secretariat, or 
board of revenue. He was Telugu translator 
to the government from 1832, and finally, in 
1839, became civil auditor or accountant- 
general. Among his most successful ser- 
vices at Madras was the establishment in 
1834 of the Madras government bank, of 
which he was the first secretary and trea- 
surer, and in 1835 superintendent. The bank 
was subsequently transferred by the govern- 
ment to private hands. 

Morris devoted his leisure to the study 
of Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindustani, and 
became proficient in all ; but in Telugu he 
chiefly interested himself. He was com- 
piler of the well-known text-book ' Telugu 
Selections, with Translations and Gramma- 
tical Analyses : to which is added a Glossary 
of Revenue Terms used in the Northern Cir- 
cars,' Madras, 1823, fol. (new and enlarged 
edition, Madras, 1855) ; and he was author of 
an ' English-Telugu Dictionary,' based on 
Johnson's ' English Dictionary,' and the first 
undertaking of its kind. It was issued at 
Madras in two quarto volumes in 1835. It is 
still a standard work. Morris was also for 
several years from 1834 editor of the Madras 
' Journal of Literature and Science.' While 
on furlough in England between 1829 and 
1831 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society. He was very popular in Madras 
society, and was an enthusiastic freemason 
there and in England. On leaving India in 
July 1846, he received a testimonial from 
the native population. 

Settling in Mansfield Street, Portland 




Place, London, in 1848, Morris spent much 
of his time thenceforth in commercial enter- 
prises. He failed in his persistent efforts to 
become, as his father had been, a director of 
the East India Company, but he successfully 
established a company to run steamers be- 
tween Milford Haven and Australia by way 
of Panama, which lasted only a few years ; 
and he promoted and was managing director of 
the London and Eastern Banking Company. 
In 1855 he resigned the management of the 
latter company to become chairman ; but his 
colleagues entered into rash speculations, 
and in 1858 the bank was wound up. Morris 
placed all his resources at the disposal of the 
official liquidator, and retired to Jersey, where 
lie died on 2 Aug. 1858. He was buried at 
St. Heliers. 

He married Rosanna Curtis, second daugh- 
ter of Peter Cherry of the East India Com- 
Eany's service, on 4 Feb. 1823, and was 
ither of John Morris (1826-1893), Jesuit, 
[q. v.], and of other sons. 

[Private information ; C. C. Prinsep's Madras 
Civil Servants, pp. 101-2 ; Madras Athenaeum, 
30 June and 9 July 1846 ; Madras Spectator, 
29 June and 2 July 1846.] 

1836), baptist minister and author, born in 
1763, became a member of the baptist church 
at Worsted, Norfolk, before 1785. At that 
date he was resident at Market Dereham, and 
seems to have followed the trade of a journey- 
man printer. On 12 June 1785 he accepted 
the pastorate of the baptist church at Clip- 
stone, Northamptonshire, and filled the post 
for eighteen years. While at Clipstone he be- 
came acquainted with Andrew Fuller [q. v.l, 
Robert Hall (1764-1831) [q. v.], and William 
Carey, D.D. [q.v.], founder of the baptist mis- 
sions in India. With Carey, too, Morris was 
on terms of close intimacy (cf. DR. GEORGE 
SMITH'S Life of Carey}. Morris joined the 
committee of the Baptist Missionary Society 
at Leicester on 20 March 1793, and for some 
years acted as Andrew Fuller's 'amanuensis.' 
Under Fuller's superintendence he edited and 
printed the first three volumes of ' The 
Periodical Accounts ' of the society. In 
March 1803 Morris left Clipstone to become 
minister of the baptist church at Dunstable, 
Bedfordshire. There also he continued his 
business as a printer, setting up in type the 
works of Sutcliffe, Fuller, Hall, and others. 
About the same time he was editor and pro- 
prietor of the ' Biblical Magazine.' In 1806 
he, with a fellow-minister named Blundell, 
proceeded as a deputation on behalf of the 
Baptist Missionary Society to Ireland, and 
before returning presented the lord-lieutenant 

(John Russell, ninth duke of Bedford) with 
a copy of the Bengalee New Testament. In 
1809 Morris left Dunstable, and devoted the 
remainder of his life to authorship, editorial 
work, and occasional preaching. 

In 1816 he published his notable ' Me- 
moirs of the Life and Writing of Andrew 
Fuller.' A second edition appeared in 1826, 
revised and enlarged. In that year also he 
issued a companion volume, ' Miscellaneous 
Pieces on Various Subjects, being the last 
Remains of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, with 
occasional notes;' and ' A Brief Descriptive 
History of Holland, in Letters from a Grand- 
father to Marianne during an Excursion in the 
Summer of 1819.' Morris also published a 
' Biographical History of the Christian Church 
from the Apostolic Age to the Times of 
Wicliffe the Reformer,' in 2 vols. 8vo, in 
1827 ; and he edited an abridgment of 
Gurnall's ' Spiritual Warfare ' and ' The 
Complete Works of Robert Hall ' in 1828. 
In 1833 he published his ' Biographical Re- 
collections of the Rev. Robert Hall, A.M./ 
a second edition of which appeared in 1846. 
Morris also wrote a ' Sacred Biography, form- 
ing a Connected History of the Old and New 
Testament,' 2 vols. London, n.d. Most of these 
works, with the exception of the first men- 
tioned, which was printed at High Wycombe, 
Buckinghamshire, were printed at Bungay, 
Suffolk, by his son, Joseph M. Morris. 

He spent much time before his death in 
editing a new edition of Joseph Sutcliffe's 
'Commentary on the Holy Scriptures,' which 
was published in 1838-9. He also edited 
'The Preacher,' 8 vols. 12rno, n.d., and 'The 
Domestic Preacher; or Short Discourses from 
the Original Manuscripts of some eminent 
Ministers,' 2 vols. 12mo, 1826. Morris died 
suddenly at Ditchi ngham, near Bungay,where 
the last years of his life had been spent, on 
19 Jan. 1836. 

[Clipstone Baptist Church Book; Periodical 
Accounts of Baptist Missionary Society, vols. i. 
ii. iii. 1800-6; Eclectic Review, 1816; Lite of 
Dr. Carey, by Dr. George Smith ; Baptist Maga- 
zine, 1836; New Baptist Magazine, 1825-6; New 
Baptist Miscellany, 1827-8; works mentioned.] 

W. P-s. 

1765), Welsh poet, philologist, and antiquary, 
was the son of Morys ap Richard Morys and 
Margaret, daughter of Morys Owen of Boda- 
fon y Glyn. In the memoir printed in the 
'Cambrian Register' (ii. 232) the date of 
his birth is given as 1 March 1702; in that 
prefixed to the second edition of the ' Didd- 
anwch Teuluaidd ' it appears as 12 March 
1700. Both dates must, however, be wrong, 
for according to the parish register of Llan- 




fihangel Tre'r Beirdd he was baptised on 
2 March 1700. His parents at this time 
lived at Tyddyn Melus, in the parish of j 
Llanfihangel. Not long afterwards they re- j 
moved to Pentref Eiriannell, in the parish j 
of Penrhos Llugwy, and it was there Lewis i 
and his brothers were brought up. The j 
family numbered five in all Lewis, Richard 
[q. v.], William, John, and Margaret, Wil- 
liam, a customs officer at Holyhead, was 
specially skilful in plant lore, but, like his 
two elder brothers, took a keen interest in 
Welsh poetry. His collection of Welsh 
poems, ' Y Delyn Ledr ' (the Leathern harp), 
transcribed by himself, is now in the British 
Museum. He died in December 1763. John 
entered the navy, and was killed in 1741 in 
the unsuccessful attack upon Carthagena. 

Morys ap Richard came of one of the 
Fifteen (Noble) Tribes of Gwynedd, that of 
Gweirydd ap Rhys Goch (Cymmrodorion 
MSS. in Brit, Mus. No. 14942), and was con- 
nected on his mother's side with William 
Jones the mathematician [q. v.], father of 
Sir William Jones [q. v.] But he began life 
as a cooper, and was afterwards a corn factor. 
He gave his children only an ordinary village 
education. ' My education,' says Lewis in the 
important autobiographical letter to Samuel 
Pegge of 11 Feb. 1761, ' as to language was 
not regular, and my masters were chiefly 
sycamore and ash trees [the kind used by 
coopers], or at best a kind of wooden mas- 
ters. . . . The English tongue is as much 
a foreign language to me as the French is ' 
(Cambrian Register, i. 368). But, in spite 
of these disadvantages, Lewis and his bro- 
thers appear to have accumulated much 
knowledge and to have acquired facility in 
the use of English at a comparatively early 
age. Lewis speaks in the letter to Pegge of 
his youthful interest in natural philosophy 
and mathematics, and already in 1728 we 
find him a facile poet, a student of grammar, 
and a lover of antiquities (cf. Geninen. iii. 

On starting in life Lewis took up the 
business of land surveying, which brought 
him into association with the men of pro- 
perty in his district, and gave him excellent 
opportunities of adding to his botanical and 
antiquarian knowledge. On 29 March 1729 
he married, and within a few years settled at 
Holyhead, obtaining an appointment as col- 
lector of customs and salt tax. In these 
improved circumstances he was able in 1735 
to expend a considerable sum upon a print- 
ing press, which he set up at Holyhead for 
the purpose of printing Welsh books and 
popularising Welsh literature. It was, as 
he points out in his ' Anogaeth i Argraphu 

Llyfrau Cymraeg,' the first press established 
in North Wales. He appealed with much 
earnestness for public support, since he had 
gone to considerable expense for a patriotic 
purpose, viz. ' to entice the Anglophil Welsh- 
men into reading Welsh.' With this ob- 
ject he began to issue in parts ' Tlysau yr 
Hen Oesoedd,' but soon had to abandon the 
project for want of patronage. 

In 1737 the admiralty resolved, in conse- 
quence of the numerous wrecks and casual- 
ties on the Welsh coast, to obtain a new 
survey of it, and the matter was placed in 
the hands of Lewis Morris. He commenced 
his task near Penmaen Mawr, and carried on 
operations for a year, after which he was 
brought to a standstill by the want of in- 
struments. In 1742 the work was resumed. 
He had surveyed the whole of the west 
coast as far as the entrance to the Bristol 
Channel, when in 1744 there was a second 
and final interruption, due to the declara- 
tion of war between this country and France. 
Morris now handed in to the lords of the 
admiralty his report of the work so far as 
it had been carried out. This it was decided 
not to publish until it could be completed, 
but a number of plans which he had pre- 
pared for his own convenience during the 
progress of the survey were, at the sug- 
gestion of the admiralty, published sepa- 
rately, appearing in 1748 under the title 
' Plans of Harbours, Bars, Bays, and Roads 
in St. George's Channel.' 

Morris was next appointed superintendent 
of crown lands in Wales, collector of cus- 
toms at Aberdovey, and in 1750 super- 
intendent of the king's mines in the Prin- 
cipality. Business and family ties now drew 
him from Holyhead to Cardiganshire, and 
Gallt Fadog in that county became for 
several years his home. 

Meanwhile his official duties were heavy, 
and necessitated frequent journeys to London. 
He was brought, moreover, as a zealous ser- 
vant of the crown, into conflict with the Car- 
diganshire landowners, who involved him in, 
perpetual lawsuits with regard to their mine- 
ral rights, and did not scruple to attack 
his character and credit. An interesting 
letter to his brother William, dated ' Gallt- 
vadog, 24 Dec. 1753,' shows that Lewis was 
obliged about this time to satisfy the treasury 
that the aspersions made upon him were 
groundless by means of sworn testimony 
from Anglesey (Adffof uwch Anghof, Peny- 
groes, 1883, pp. 4-6). Ultimately the pro- 
tracted struggle with his powerful neighbours 
proved too much for him, and he retired to 
a little property called Penbrvn, which came 
to him through his second wife, where, as he 




says, 'my garden, orchard, and farm, [and] 
some small mine works take a good part of 
my time ' (11 Feb. 1761). 

In spite of the pressing character of his busi- 
ness affairs, he contrived to devote much of his 
time to his favourite Welsh studies. In his 
youth, he tells us, music and poetry were 
his chief amusements. He could, according 
to the 'Diddanwch Teuluaidd,' both make 
a harp and play it, and the poems of ' Lly w- 
elyn Ddu o Fon ' (his bardic title) form a 
substantial part of that collection of Welsh 
verse. He wrote with equal ease in the 
' strict ' and the ' free ' metres, though little 
of his work is remembered save the well- 
known ' Lay of the Cuckoo to Merioneth.' 
He was familiar with the classical authors 
and acquainted with modern languages. His 
English style is clear and good, while his 
manuscript books show no small knowledge 
of mechanics, mining, and metallurgy. As 
he grew older he turned from poetry to 
Welsh history and antiquities. It. became 
his great ambition to compile a dictionary 
of Celtic mythology, history, and geography, 
such as had been planned by Edward Lhuyd 
(1660-1709) [q. v.], but never carried out. ' I 
am now,' he says in a letter of 14 July 1751, 
' at my leisure hours collecting the names of 
these famous men and women, mentioned 
by our poets, with a short history of them, 
as we have in our common Latin dictionaries 
of those of the Romans and Grecians ' ( Cam- 
brian Register, ii. 332). About 1760 this 
work, an historical, topographical, and etymo- 
logical dictionary, to which he gave the title 
' Celtic Remains,' was completed. It was not, 
however, printed until 1878, when it was 
issued as an extra volume in connection 
with 'Archseologia Cambrensis,' edited by 
Canon Silvan Evans. Morris himself calls it 
the labour of forty years, and it certainly 
shows him to have been a remarkably in- 
dustrious and intelligent student of Celtic 
antiquity, and a proficient in the obsolete 
philology of that day. 

Morris corresponded with his friends with 
zeal and vivacity. The three brothers wrote 
constantly to each other, not only on family 
matters, but also on literary and poetical 
topics. Lewis maintained a long correspond- 
ence on historical questions with Ambrose 
Phillips, Carte, Samuel Pegge of Whitting- 
ton, Vaughan of Nannau, and other scholars ; 
while Welsh poetry he discussed in letters 
to William Wynn, Evan Evans (leuan Bry- 
dydd Hir), Goronwy Owain, and Edward 
Richard of Ystrad Meurig. He was quick 
to recognise and encourage poetical talent 
in others. Goronwy Owain he may almost 
be said to have discovered, for it was the 

opening of a correspondence between them 
about Christmas 1751 that induced the bard 
to resume poetical composition after a long 
silence, during which Goronwy had become 
unknown in Wales. The friendship between 
the two and Morris's admiration of ' the chief 
bard of all Wales' lasted until 1756, when the 
patron lost all patience with the poet's irre- 
I gular habits. Shortly afterwards Goronwy 
j emigrated to Virginia, yet he retained enough 
recollection of Morris's kindness to send to 
this country ten years afterwards a poem in 
praise of his benefactor, of whose death he 
had just heard. The death of Morris's mother 
Goronwy also lamented in touching verses. 

Morris's last years were spent in retire- 
ment at Penbryn, and were much broken by 
ill-health. He died on 11 April 1765, and 
was buried in the chancel of Llanbadarn 
Fawr, near Aberystwyth, where a tablet 
has been placed to his memory. The memoir 
in the 'Cambrian Register' (vol. ii.) is ac- 
companied by a portrait, which is said to be 
taken ' from a mezzotinto print, of about the 
same size, after a drawing done by Mr. 
Morris of himself.' There is a good picture 
of him at the W r elsh school at Ashford, 

By his first wife, Elizabeth Griffiths of 
Ty Wry dyn, Holyhead, he had three children : 
Lewis (born 29 Dec. 1729), who died young ; 
Margaret (1731-1761), and Eleanor. 

On 20 Oct. 1749 he married his second 
wife, Ann Lloyd, heiress of Penbryn y 
Barcut, Cardiganshire. By her he had nine 
children, Lewis (d. 1779), John, Elizabeth, 
Jane (died young), a second Jane, William, 
Richard, Mary, and Pryse. William married 
Mary Anne Reynolds, heiress of a branch of 
the Williamses (formerly Boleyns) of Brecon- 
shire. Their eldest son, Lewis Morris (d. 1872), 
was the first registrar of county courts for 
Glamorganshire, Breconshire, and Radnor- 
shire, and father of Mr. Lewis Morris, of Pen- 
bryn, Carmarthenshire, the well-known poet 
and promoter of higher education in Wales. 

Morris's works are : 1. ' Tlysau yr Hen 
Oesoedd,' Holyhead, 1735. 2. ' Anogaeth 
i Argraphu Llyfrau Cymraeg,' Holyhead, 
1735. 3. 'Plans of Harbours, Bars, Bays, 
and Roads in St. George's Channel,' 1748 ; 
2nd edit., with additional matter, issued by 
William Morris (Lewis's son), Shrewsbury, 
1801. 4. 'A Short History of the Crown 
Manor of Creuthyn, in the county of Car- 
digan, South Wales,' 1766. 5. ' Diddanwch 
Teuluaidd ' contains the bulk of Morris's 
verse, London, 1763 ; 2nd ed. Carnarvon, 
1817. 6. ' Celtic Remains,' Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association, 1878. 7. Many manu- 
script volumes now in the British Museum. 




[Life in Cambrian Eegister, vol. ii.; Diddanwch 
Teuluaidd, 1817 edit,; Rowlands's Cambrian 
Bibliography; Correspondence in Cambrian 
Kegister, vols. i. and ii. ; Life of Goronwy 
Owain, by the Rev. Robert Jones, 1876 ; Adgof 
uwch Anghof, 1883 ; Geninen, vols. iii. 1885, 
and ir. 1886; information kindly supplied by 
Lewis Morris, esq. of Penbryn, Carmarthen- 
shire.] J. E. L. 

biographer, born in Cambridge, was son of a 
barrister of Cambridge named Drake, for 
some years recorder of Cambridge, by Sarah, 
daughter of Thomas Morris, merchant, of 
London, and of Mount Morris in Horton, 
otherwise Monks Horton, Kent. After his 
father's death his mother married Dr. Con- 
yers Middleton [q. v.] He was for some time 
fellow-commoner of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. On the death of his grandfather in 
1717 he assumed the additional surname of 
Morris as the condition of succeeding to 
Mount Morris (will of Thomas Morris, regis- 
tered in P. C. C., 141, Whitfield). He died 
without issue, at Coveney in the Isle of Ely, 
where he possessed property, and was buried 
at Horton, his death being accelerated by 
intemperance. The estate of Mount Morris 
went by entail to his sister, Elizabeth Drake, 
wife of Matthew Robinson of West Layton 
in Yorkshire, and mother of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Montagu [q. v.] 

Morris compiled in 1715 and 1716, from 
very obvious sources of information, ' Lives of 
Famous Men educated in the University of 
Cambridge,' which he entered in two large 
folio volumes, and illustrated witb engraved 
portraits. He presented them to Lord Ox- 
ford, and they are now Harleian MSS. 7176 
and 7177. In 1749 Dr. Conyers Middleton, 
his stepfather, presented William Cole with 
Morris's rough drafts, which Cole indexed, 
and included in his manuscripts presented to 
the British Museum, where they are num- 
bered among the Additional MSS. 5856-8. 

[Hasted's Kent, folio edit. iii. 317 ; Brvdges's 
Restitute, iii. 73; Addit. MS. 5876, "f. 215 
(Cole's Athense Cantabrigienses); Cat. of Har- 
leian MSS. in Brit. Mus.] G. G. 


1779), Welsh scholar, was a brother of 
Lewis Morris [q. v.], and, like him, combined 
a love of Welsh poetry and history with 
much business capacity. While still young 
he left Anglesey for London, and there ob- 
tained a position in the navy office, where 
he ultimately became chief clerk of foreign 
accounts. After a long term of service he 
was superannuated, and died in the Tower 
in 1779. The chief service he rendered to 
Wales was his careful supervision of the 

editions of the Welsh Bible printed in 1746 
and 1752. These were issued by the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, in 
answer to the appeal of Griffith Jones of 
Llanddowror, Carmarthenshire, for a supply 
of bibles for his travelling free schools. 
' Rhisiart Morys ' not only supervised the 
orthography, but added tables of Jewish 
weights and measures. He also issued an 
illustrated translation into Welsh of the 
Book of Common Prayer. He was a leading 
figure among London Welshmen, and on the 
establishment of the original Cymmrodorion 
Society in September 1751 became its presi- 
dent. Among other Welshmen of talent 
whom his position enabled him to befriend, 
Goronwy Owain [q. v.] received much assist- 
ance from him, being employed to translate 
the rules of the society into Welsh. 

[Diddanwch Teuluaidd, edit. 1817; Row- 
lands's Cambrian Bibliography ; Life of Goronwy 
Owain, by Rev. Robert Jones, 1876.] J. E. L. 

MORRIS, ROBERT (fl. 1754), archi- 
tect, is described as 'of Twickenham ' on the 
title-page of his ' Essay in Defence of Ancient 
Architecture,' published in 1728. He re- 
ceived his instruction in architecture in the 
service of his 'kinsman,' Roger Morris, ' Car- 
penter and principal engineer to the Board 
of Ordnance,' who died on 31 Jan. 1749 (Lon- 
don Magazine, 1749, p. 96). 

The earliest executed work ascribed to 
Morris is Inverary Castle (Gothic), begun in 
1745, and after considerable delay completed 
in 1761. It seems probable that Roger Morris 
was concerned in the design, and that the 
building was erected after his death under the 
supervision of his pupil Robert. The central 
tower was destroyed by fire on 12 Oct. 1877, 
and restored in 1880. With S. Wright, Morris 
erected for George II the central portion of 
the lodge in Richmond Park, the design of 
which is sometimes attributed to Thomas 
Herbert, tenth earl of Pembroke [q. v.] The 
wings were added in later years. About 1750 
he repaired and modernised for G. Bubb 
Dodington (afterwards Lord Melcombe) [q. v.] 
the house at Hammersmith afterwards known 
as Brandenburgh House. It was pulled down 
in 1822, and a house of the same name was 
afterwards built in the grounds, but not on 
the same site. Morris also erected Coomb 
Bank, Kent, and Wimbledon House, Surrey. 
In the design of the latter he was probably 
associated with the Earl of Burlington. The 
house was destroyed by fire in 1785 ; the 
offices were subsequently used as a residence 
until 1801, when the new house designed by 
Henry Holland (1746 P-1806) [q. v.] was 
completed. With the Earl of Burlington 



Morris designed, about 1750, Kirby Hall, 
Yorkshire, in the interior of which John 
Carr of York [q. v.] was employed. The 
plans are said to have been suggested by the 
owner, S. Thompson. In 173(5 he erected a 
bridge (after a design of Palladio) in the 
grounds of Wilton in Wiltshire. 

He published: 1. 'An Essay in Defence 
of Ancient Architecture,' London, 1728. 
2. 'Lectures on Architecture/ London, 1734; 
2nd pt. 1736 ; 2nd edit, of pt. i. 1759. The 
lectures were delivered between 22 Oct. 1730 
and 13 Jan. 1734-5 before a ' Society for the 
Improvement of Knowledge in Arts and 
Sciences,' established by Morris himself. 
Part ii. is dedicated to Roger Morris, to whom 
he acknowledges obligations. 3. ' Rural 
Architecture,' London, 1750 (at which time 
Morris was residing in Hyde Park Street). 
4. 'The Architectural Remembrancer,' Lon- 
don, 1751. 5. 'Architecture Improved,' Lon- 
don, 1755. 6. ' Select Architecture,' London, 
1755, 1759. Morris was also part author 
of 'The Modern Builder's Assistant,' with 
T. Lightoler and John and William Half- 
penny [q. v.], London, 1742, 1757. 'An Essay 
on Harmony,' London, 1739, ascribed (with 
a query) to Morris by Halkett and Laing 
(Diet. Anon, and Pseudon. Lit.), was more 
probably by John Gwynn [q. v.] It is in- 
cluded in a list of Gwynn's works in an ad- 
vertisement at the end of his ' Qualifications 
and Duty of a Surveyor.' Morris drew the 
plates for several of his own works. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Builder, 1875, pp. 
881-2; Morris's Works (in Brit. Museum and 
Soane Museum) ; Thome's Environs of London, 
p. 276 ; Bartlett's Wimbledon, p. 69. For plans, 
elevations, and views of executed works, see 
Adams's Vitruvius Scoticus, plates 71-4, and 
Neale's Seats, 1st ser. vol. vi. 1823, forlnverary 
Castle ; Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus (edit. 
Woolfe and Gandon), vol. iv. plates 1-3, for 
Lodge in Kichmond Park ; ib. vol. iv. plates 
26-7, and Lysons's Environs, ii. p. 402, for Bran- 
denburgh House ; Campbell, vol. iv. plates 75-7, 
engravings by Woolletr, and W. Angus, 1787, 
for Coomb Bank; ib. vol. v. plates 20-2, for 
Wimbledon House; ib. vol. v. plates 70-1, and 
engraving by Basire for Kirby Hall ; Campbell, 
ib. vol. v. plates 88-9, engraving by Fourdrinier 
(drawn by Morris), by E. White (drawn by J. 
Eocque), another by Eocque in 1754, Watts's 
Seats, Ixxxii. (from a picture by E. Wilson), for 
bridge at Wilton.] B. P. 

MORRIS, ROGER (1727-1794), lieu- 
tenant-colonel, American loyalist, born in 
England on 28 Jan. 1727, was third son of 
Roger Morris of Netherby, in the North Riding 
of Yorkshire, by his first wife, the fourth 
daughter of Sir Peter Jackson, kt. He was 
appointed captain in Francis Ligonier's regi- 

ment (48th foot), of which Henry Sey- 
mour Conway [q. v.] was lieutenant-colonel, 
13 Sept. 1745. The regiment served at Fal- 
kirk and Culloden and in Flanders. Morris 
went with it t o America in 1755, and was aide- 
de-camp to Major-general Edward Braddock 
[q. v.] in the unfortunate expedition against 
Fort Duquesne, where he was wounded. Had 
the enterprise proved successful, Braddock 
proposed to bring a provincial regiment, serv- 
ing with the expedition, into the line, and 
make Morris lieutenant-colonel of it (Win- 
throp Sargent, in Trans. Hist. Soc. Pennsyl- 
vania). Morris served at the siege of Louis- 
burg, and was employed against the Indians 
on the frontier of Novia Scotia. On 16 Feb. 
1758 he was promoted to a majority in the 
35th foot, and in the same year he married. 
He was with Wolfe at Quebec, where he 
was wounded ; with James Murray (1729- 
1794) [q. v.] at Sillery ; and commanded one 
of the columns of Murray's force in the ad- 
vance on Montreal. On 19 May 1760 he was 
m ade lieut enant-colonel 147th foot . He served 
as aide-de-camp to Generals Thomas Gage 
[q.v.l and Jeffrey Amherst, lord Amherst 
[q.v.], at various times. He sold out of the 
army in 1764, and settled at New York city, 
where he was made a member of the execu- 
tive council in December of the same year. 
He built a mansion on the Hudson, where 
he lived with his wife until their property 
was confiscated in 1776. The house was 
Washington's headquarters at one time. 
Morris's plate and furniture were sold by 
auction some weeks later. Morris returned 
to England, and died at York 13 Sept. 1794. 
Morris married Mary Philipse, who was 
born in 1730 at the Manor House, Hudson's 
River, the daughter of Frederick Philipse, 
the second lord of the manor. She was a 
handsome, rather imperious brunette, whom 
Fenimore Cooper drew as his heroine in 
' The Spy.' In 1756, when on a visit to her 
brother-in-law, Beverley Robinson, at New 
York, she captivated George Washington, 
who was a guest in the house. She is said 
to have rejected his suit. Any way, she mar- 
ried Morris in 1758. American writers have 
speculated what might have been the con- 
sequence to American independence had 
Washington become united to so uncompro- 
mising a loyalist. Mrs. Morris inherited a 
large estate, part of which was in Putnam 
county, New York, including Lake Maho- 
pac. This she used to visit half-yearly, to 
instruct her tenants in household and reli- 
gious duties, until 1776, when it was con- 
fiscated. She, her sister Mrs. Beverley 
Robinson, and Mrs. Charles Inglis are said 
to have been the only three women attainted 


1 06 


by the American government. She returned 
to England with her husband, and died at 
York in 1825 at the age of ninety-five. A 
monument to her and her husband is in St. 
Saviour's Gate Church, York. There were 
two sons and two daughters by the marriage. 
The eldest son, Amherst Morris, entered the 
royal navy, and was first lieutenant of the 
Nymphe frigate, Captain Sir Edward Pellew, 
afterwards Viscount Exmouth [q.v.], in her 
famous action with the French frigate La 
Cleopatre. He died in 1802. The other 
son, Henry Gage Morris, also saw much ser- 
vice in the navy (see O'BYKSTE, Nav. Biog.*), 
and rose to the rank of rear-admiral. He 
afterwards resided at York and at Beverley. 
He died at Beverley in 1852, and was buried 
in Beverley Minster. He was father of Fran- 
cis Orpen Morris [q.v.] the naturalist. 

The English attorney-general having given 
his opinion that property inherited by chil- 
dren at the demise of their parents was not 
included in the aforesaid attainder, in law 
or equity, the surviving children of Roger 
and Mary Morris in 1809 sold their rever- 
sionary interests to John Jacob Astor of 
New York for a sum of 20,000^, to which 
the British government added 17,OOOA, in 
compensation for their parents' losses. 

Roger Morris the loyalist is sometimes con- 
fused with his kinsman and namesake, Lieute- 
nant-colonel Roger Morris, who entered the 
Coldstream guards in 1782, and was killed 
when serving with that regiment under the 
Duke of York in Holland, 19 Sept. 1799. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, ed. 1886, vol. ii., 
tinder ' Morris of Netherby ; ' Appleton's Enc. 
Amer. Biography; Winthrop Sargent in Trans. 
Hist. Soc. Pennsylvania, vol. v. ; Parkman's 
Montcalm and Wolfe, London, 1884 ; Sabine's 
American Worthies.] H. M. C. 

MORRIS, THOMAS (1660-1748), non- 
juror, born in 1660, may possibly be the 
Thomas Morris who graduated from King's 
College, Cambridge, B.A. in 1683, M.A. in 
1688 ; in the latter year he was minor canon 
of Worcester and vicar of Claines, Worcester- 
shire. Refusing to take the oath of supre- 
macy in 1689, he was deprived of his eccle- 
siastical preferments, and reduced to live on 
the generosity of affluent Jacobites ; he is 
nevertheless described as ' very charitable to 
the poor, and much esteem'd.' He died on 
15 June 1748, aged 88, and was buried at 
the west end of the north aisle of the cloisters 
of Worcester Cathedral under a flat grave- 
stone, on which was inscribed, at his request, 
the word, ' Miserimus,' without name, date, 
or comment. This inscription was nearly ob- 
literated in 1829, but was soon after renewed 
with the more correct spelling, ' Miserrimus.' 

In 1828 Wordsworth wrote in the ' Keep- 
sake ' a sonnet on ' Miserrimus,' apparently 
without any knowledge of Morris's history. 
It begins ' " Miserrimus ! " and neither name 
nor date.' Another sonnet, with the same 
title, by Edwin Lees, was published in 1828, 
and a third, by Henry Martin, was included 
in his ' Sonnets and Miscellaneous Poems/ 
Birmingham, 1830, 8vo. In 1832 Frederic 
Mansell Reynolds [q. v.] published a novel, 
' Miserrimus,' which reached a second edition 
in the next year, and was dedicated to Wil- 
liam Godwin. In the advertisement to the 
second edition Reynolds says he ' would 
never have adopted this epitaph as the ground- 
work for a fiction had he been aware that 
the name and career of the individual who 
selected it were known.' The ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' (1833, i. 245) calls it ' a 
posthumous libel on an innocent and help- 
less person whose story is widely different 
from that here inflicted on his memory.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1748, p. 428, s.v. 'Maurice; 'The 
Worcestershire Miscellany, p. 140, Suppl. pp. 37 - 
40 ; Bowles's Life of Ken, ii. 181 ; Green's Hist, 
and Antiquities of Worcester, App. p. xxvii ; 
Mackenzie Wai cott's Memorials, p. 28 ; Britton's 
Hist, and Antiquities of Worcester Cathedral, 
pp. 23-4 ; Chamber's Biog. Illustr. of Worcester- 
shire, pp. 310-11 ; Eep. of Brit. Archseol. Assoc. 
at Worcester, August 1848, p. 130 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 354, 5th ser. xi. 348, 392-3 
(by Cuthbert Bede), 432 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

A. F. P. 

song writer. [See under MOKKIS, CHABLES.] 

MORRIS, THOMAS (fl. 1780-1800), en- 
graver, born about 1750, was a pupil of 
Woollett. He worked in the line manner, and 
confined himself to landscape, the figures in 
his plates being frequently put in by others. 
Morris was employed by Boydell, and, in 
conjunction with Gilpin and Garrard, pro- 
duced some good sporting prints. His most 
important plates are : A landscape after G. 
Smith of Chichester, 1774 ; ' Hawking,' after 
Gilpin,' 1780 ; ' Fox Hunting,' after Gilpin 
and Barret (the figures by Bartolozzi), 1783 ; 
view of Skiddaw, after Loutherbourg, 1787 ; 
' Horse, Mare, and Foals,' after Gilpin ; ' Mare 
and Foals,' after Garrard, 1793 ; views of the 
ranger's house in Greenwich Park and Sir 
Gregory Turner's mansion on Blackheath, a 
pair, after Robertson ; and views of Ludgate 
Street and Fish Street Hill, a pair, after 
Marlow, 1795. A series of Indian views, from 
drawings by Hodges and others, was en- 
graved by Morris for the ' European Maga- 
zine.' He also executed a few original etch- 
ings, including two views on the Avon at 




Bristol, 1802. This is the latest date to be 
found on his work. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Huberand Mar- 
tini's Manuel des Curieux, &c., 1808; Dodd's 
manuscript Hist, of English Engravers in British 
Museum Add. MS. 33403.] F. M. O'D. 

MORRIS, SIB WILLIAM (1602-1676), 
secretary of state. [See MORICE.] 

MORRISON, CHARLES (fi. 1753), 
first projector of the electric telegraph, was 
a surgeon of Greenock. He is said to have 
subsequently engaged in the Glasgow to- 
bacco trade, and to have emigrated to Vir- 
ginia, where he died. 

Morrison was identified by Brewster and 
others with the writer of a letter in the 
'Scots Magazine' for 1753 (xv. 73), dated 
' Renfrew, Feb. 1. 1753,' and signed with the 
initials ' C. M.' This letter contains a sug- 
gestion for conveying messages by means of 
electricity. The author proposes to set up a 
number of wires corresponding to the letters 
of the alphabet, extending from one station 
to the other. ' Let a ball be suspended from 
every wire,' says the writer, ' and about a 
sixth or an eighth of an inch below the balls 
place the letters of the alphabet, marked on 
bits of paper, or any other substance that 
may be light enough to rise to the electrified 
ball, and at the same time let it be so con- 
trived that each of them may reassume its 
proper place when dropt.' Signals were to be 
conveyed by bringing the wire belonging to 
each letter successively into connection with 
the prime conductor of an electrical machine, 
when a current passes and electrifies the 
ball at the receiving end. The project was 
alluded to by Sir David Brewster in 1855 in 
the course of an article on the electric tele- 
graph in the ' North British Review,' xxii. 
545. In 1859 Brewster was informed by a 
Mr. Forman of Port Glasgow that, according 
to a letter (not now known to exist) dated 
1750 addressed by Forman's grandfather to 
a Miss Margaret Wingate, residing at Crai- 
gengelt, near Denny, Charles Morrison had 
actually transmitted messages along wires 
by means of electricity, and he is stated to 
have communicated the results of his experi- 
ments to Sir Hans Sloane. 

[Home Life of Sir David Brewster, 1869, p. 
206 ; Brewster's correspondence on the subject 
is preserved at the Watt Monument, Greenock. 
Morrison's alleged letter to Sir Hans Sloane is 
not included in the Sloane MSS. at the British 
Museum, nor does Morrison's name occur in the 
various publications of the Historical Society of 
Virginia.] K. B. P. 

MORRISON, GEORGE (1704P-1799), 
general, military engineer and quarter- 
master-general to the forces, entered the 

train of artillery as a gunner on 1 Oct. 1722, 
and was quartered at Edinburgh Castle until 
1829. He distinguished himself in sup- 
pressing the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, and 
was sent to the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich as a cadet gunner. After he had 
been instructed in the theory of a profession 
of which he had already learned the prac- 
tice, he was sent to Flanders with the tem- 
porary rank of engineer extraordinary from 
3 Feb. 1747, and served under Captain 
Heath, chief engineer of the Duke of Cum- 
berland's army. He was present at the 
battles of Roucoux and Val (July) and at the 
siege of Bergen-op-Zoom (12 July-16 Sept.) 
AVith the assistance of Engineer Hall he 
made a survey of the river Merk and of the 
adjoining country from Breda to Stoutersgut. 
The drawing of this survey is in the British 

On 2 April 1748 Morrison was appointed 
to the permanent list as practitioner en- 
gineer, and on his return home, on the con- 
clusion of peace, he was sent to Scotland and 
employed in surveying the highlands and 
constructing roads on a plan laid down by 
Marshal Wade. Under Morrison's superin- 
tendence part of the trunk road from Stirling 
to Fort William was made, and also the road 
through the wilds of Glenbeg and Glenshee 
to Dalbriggan. His surveys of the former, 
dated 9 Jan. 1749, and of the latter, dated 

22 Feb. 1750, are in the war office. Part 
of the road between Blairgowrie and Braemar 
was made by a detachment of Lord Bury's 
regiment under Morrison's orders. His draw- 
ing of this road is in the British Museum. 

On 18 April 1750 he was promoted to be 
sub-engineer, and sent to Northallerton in 
Yorkshire for duty. Possessed of personal at- 
tractions and accomplishments, and having 
earned the good opinion of the Duke of 
Cumberland, he was about this time brought 
to the notice of the king, and in 1751 he 
was attached to the person of the Prince of 
Wales. He was promoted engineer extra- 
ordinary on 1 Jan. 1753, captain lieutenant 
on 14 May 1757, and captain and engineer 
in ordinary on 4 Jan. 1758. On 25 April 
1758 he was appointed to the expedition 
assembled in the Isle of Wight for a descent 
on the French coast. He took part under 
the Duke of Marlborough in the landing in 
June in Cancale Bay, near St. Malo, and the 
destruction of St. Servan and Solidore. The 
troops were thence conveyed to Havre and 
to Cherbourg, and returned home again. On 

23 July Morrison embarked under General 
Bligh at Portsmouth, and sailed on 1 Aug. 
for Cherbourg. Forts Tourlaville, Galet, 
Hommet, Esqueurdreville, St. Anines, and 


1 08 


Querqueville, with the basin, built at con- 
siderable expense, were all destroyed. Bligh 
sailed for England on 15 Aug. On 31 Aug. 
Morrison again sailed with General Bligh 
with troops for St. Malo, and took part in 
the action of 9 Sept., and in the battle of 
St. Gas on 11 Sept. At the termination of 
these expeditions Morrison returned to court. 

On 22 Feb. 1761 he was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the army and appointed 
deputy quartermaster-general on the head- 
quarters staff. On the death of General 
Bland in June 1763 he was appointed 
quartermaster-general to the forces, and was 
in frequent attendance on the king. He was 
appointed equerry to the Duke of York, and 
travelled with him in 1764. He accompanied 
the duke when he left England on 7 July 
1767, and attended him assiduously during 
his illness at Monaco, and was present at his 
death in September of that year. Morrison 
was ill himself, and it was with much diffi- 
culty that the dying prince could be pre- 
vailed on to accept his services. ' Your life, 
Morrison,' he said, ' is of more importance 
than mine. You have a family. Be careful 
of your health for their sake, and shun this 
chamber.' Morrison was much attached to 
the prince. He accompanied his remains to 
England, and attended their interment on 
the night of 3 Nov. in Westminster Abbey. 

In 1769 he was a member of a committee 
appointed to consider the defences of Gi- 
braltar. On 22 Dec. 1772 Morrison was pro- 
moted colonel in the army, and on 2 Feb. 
1775 he was promoted to be sub-director 
and major in the corps of royal engineers. 
He was made a major-general on 29 Aug. 
1777. In 1779 he was appointed colonel of 
the 75th regiment. In 1781 he attended 
Lord Amherst, the commander-in-chief, on 
an inspection of the east coast defences on 
the outbreak of the war with Holland. On 
29 May 1782 he was transferred from the 
colonelcy of the 75th foot to that of the 17th 
regiment, and on 20 Nov. was promoted to 
be lieutenant-general. On 8 Aug. 1792 he 
was transferred from the colonelcy of the 
17th foot to that of the 4th king's own 
regiment of foot. But little more is re- 
corded of the ancient quartermaster-general 
except the changes of his residence. In 
1792 he resided at Sion Hill near Barnet. 
On 3 May 1796, when he was promoted 
general, he was living at Fairy Hall near 
Eltham. He died at his house in Seymour 
Street, London, on 26 Nov. 1799, at about 
the age of ninety-five. He was married and 
had six children. 

[Cannon's Historical Eecords of the 17th Eegi- j 
mnt of Foot, 8vo, 1848; Ann. Reg. 1767, vol. 

x. ; Journal of the Campaign on the Coast of 
France, 1758; Gent. Mag. 1763, 1792, 1799, 
passim ; Correspondence of Earl of Chatham, 
1840, vol. iv. ; European Mag. 1799, vol. xxxvi.; 
Hasted's History of Kent ; Ordnance Muster 
Rolls (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus.) ; War Office and 
Board of Ordnance Records; Royal Engineers' 
Records ; Connolly Papers, manuscript; Jesse's 
Memoirs of the Life and Reign of George III, 
vol. i.] R. H. V. 

MORRISON, JAMES (1790-1857), 
merchant and politician, born of yeoman 
parentage in Hampshire in 1790, began his 
career in a very humble capacity in a London 
warehouse. His industry, sagacity, and in- 
tegrity eventually secured him a partnership 
in the general drapery business in Fore Street 
of Joseph Todd, whose daughter he married. 
The firm latterly became known as Morrison, 
Dillon & Co. and was afterwards converted 
into the Fore Street Limited Liability Com- 
pany. Morrison was one of the first English 
traders to depend for his success on the 
lowest remunerative scale of profit. He thus 
endeavoured to secure a very rapid circula- 
tion of capital, his motto being ' small profits 
and quick returns.' He made an immense 
fortune, a great part of which he expended 
in buying land in Berkshire, Buckingham- 
shire, Kent, Wiltshire, Yorkshire, and Islay, 
Argyllshire. Southey saw him at Keswick 
in September 1823. He was then worth 
some 150,000/., and was on his way to New 
Lanark on the Clyde with the intention of 
investing 5,000/. in Robert Owen's experi- 
ment, 'if he should find his expectations 
confirmed by what he sees there ' (SotriHEY, 
Life and Correspondence, v. 144-5). 

From his earliest settlement in London 
Morrison was associated with the liberal 
party in the city. In 1830 he entered par- 
liament as member for St. Ives, Cornwall, 
which he helped to partially disfranchise by 
voting for the Reform Bill. He did not re- 
turn to his offended constituents, but in 1831 
he secured a seat at Ipswich for which he 
was again elected in December 1832. He 
was, however, defeated there on the ' Peel 
Dissolution ' in January 1835. On an elec- 
tion petition, Fitzroy Kelly and Robert Adam 
Dundas, the members, were unseated, and 
Morrison with Rigby Wason headed the poll 
in June 1835. At the succeeding dissolu- 
tion, in July 1837, Morrison remained out 
of parliament, and in the following December 
on the occasion of a by-election for a vacancy 
at Ipswich, he was defeated in a contest with 
Joseph Bailey. In March 1840 he re-entered 
the House of Commons as member for the 
Inverness Burghs, and was again returned 
unopposed in the general election of 1841, 




but on the dissolution of 1847, his health 
being much impaired, he finally retired. 

On 17 May 1836 Morrison made an able 
speech on moving a resolution urging the 
periodical revision of tolls and charges levied 
on railroads and other public works. In 1845 
he moved similar resolutions, and again in 
March 1846, when he finally succeeded in 
obtaining a select committee for the better 
promoting and securing of the interests of the 
public in railway acts. His draft report, not 
altogether adopted, was drawn with great 
skill, and many of its principles have been 
adopted in subsequent legislation. 

Though an entirely self-educated man, 
Morrison possessed considerable literary 
tastes, which were exercised in the formation 
of a large library. He was likewise a lover 
of art and made a large collection of pictures 
of the old masters, Italian and Dutch, together 
with many fine examples of the English 
school. Dr. Waagen, in his ' Treasures of 
Art in Great Britain ' (supplement, pp. 105- 
113, 300-12), enumerates thirty pictures of 
Morrison in his house in Harley Street as of 
the highest value. The pictures at Morrison's 
seat at Basildon Park, Berkshire, Waagen 
also describes as a ' collection of a very high 

Morrison died at Basildon Park on 30 Oct. 
1857, possessed of property inEngland valued 
at between three and four millions, besides 
large investments in the United States. By 
his marriage to Mary Anne, daughter of 
Joseph Todd, he had, with other issue, four 
sons, Charles (b. 1817), of Basildon Park 
and May ; Alfred (b. 1821) of Fonthill, 
Hindon, Wiltshire ; Frank (b. 1823) of Hole 
Park, Rolvenden, Kent, and Strathraich, 
Garve, Ross-shire; and Walter (b. 1836), 
formerly M.P., of Malham Tarn, Settle, 
Yorkshire (WALFOKD, County Fam. 1893, p. 
733). The second son, Alfred, is known as 
an enthusiastic collector of autograph letters 
and engraved portraits. 

Morrison published: 1. 'Rail Roads. 
Speech in the House of Commons,' &c., 8vo, 
London, 1836. 2. ' Observations illustrative 
of the defects of the English System of Rail- 
way Legislation,' &c., 8vo, London, 1846. 
3. ' The Influence of English Railway Legis- 
lation on Trade and Industry,' &c., 8vo, 
London, 1848. 

[Times cited in Gent. Mag. 1857, pt. ii. pp. 
681-3 ; Ward's Men of the Keign, p. 645 ; 
Names of Members of Parliament, Official Re- 
turn, pt. ii. ; MacCulIoch's Lit. Pol. Econ. p. 
205.] G. G. 

1849), architect, born in 1767, was son of 
John Morrison of Middleton, co. Cork, an 

architect of scientific attainments. Origi- 
nally intended for the church, he was even- 
tually placed as pupil with James Gandon 
[q.v.j the architect, in Dublin. He obtained 
through his godfather, the Earl of Shannon, 
a post in the ordnance department at Dublin ; 
but this he abandoned, when he entered into 
full practice as an architect. Having re- 
sided for some time at Clonmel, he removed 
about 1800 to Dublin and settled at Bray. 
Morrison had very extensive public and pri- 
vate practice in Ireland. Among his public 
works were alterations to the cathedral at 
Cashel, the court-house and gaol at Galway, 
court-houses at Carlow, Clonmel, Roscom- 
mon, Wexford, and elsewhere, and the Ro- 
man catholic cathedral at Dublin. He built 
or altered very many mansions of the nobility 
and gentry in Ireland, and was knighted by 
the lord-lieutenant, Earl de Grey, in 1841. 
He died at Bray on 31 Oct. 1849, and was 
buried in the Mount Jerome cemetery, Dub- 
lin. He was president of the Institute of 
Architects of Ireland. In 1793 he published 
a volume of ' Designs.' 

1838), architect, son of the above, was born 
at Clonmel on 22 April 1794. In 1821 he 
made an extensive tour on the continent, 
and on his return assisted his father in many 
of his works. He also had a large public 
and private practice in Ireland. His health, 
however, broke down, and after a second visit 
to the continent he died in his father's house 
at Bray on 16 Oct. 1838, and was buried in 
the Mount Jerome cemetery. He was a 
member of the Royal Irish Academy. 

[Pap worth's Diet, of Architecture ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Annual Register, 1849; Eng- 
lish Cyclopaedia ; Webb's Compendium of Irish 
Biog. p. 352.] L. C. 


(1795-1874), inventor and astrologer, known 
chiefly by his pseudonym of ' Zadkiel,' was 
born 15 June 1795, being son of Richard 
Caleb Morrison, who for twenty-seven years 
was a gentleman pensioner under George III. 
His grandfather, Richard Morrison, was a 
captain in the service of the East India Com- 
pany. Richard James entered the royal navy 
in 1806 as a first-class volunteer on board the 
Spartan, and saw much boat service in the 
Adriatic. He also, on 3 May 1810, shared in 
a brilliant and single-handed victory, gained 
by the Spartan in the Bay of Naples over a 
Franco-Neapolitan squadron. He continued 
in the same ship till December 1810, and was 
subsequently, between August 181 1 and July 
1815, employed as master's mate in the Eliza- 
beth and the Myrtle, on the North Sea, 




Baltic, and Cork stations. In the Myrtle he 
appears to have likewise performed the duties 
of lieutenant and master, and he took up, on 
leaving her, a lieutenant's commission, dated 
3 March 1815. His last appointment was to 
the coastguard, in which he served from 
April 1827 until October 1829, when he re- 
signed, owing to ill-health, induced by the 
exposure he had suffered in rescuing four 
men and a boy from a wreck in February 
1828. His exertions on the occasion were 
acknowledged by a medal from the Society 
for the Preservation of Life from Ship- 

In 1824 he presented to the admiralty a 
plan, subsequently adopted in principle, 'for 
registering merchant seamen.' In 1827 he 
proposed another plan, ' for propelling ships 
of war in a calm,' and on 6 March 1835 he 
further suggested to the board ' a plan for 
providing an ample supply of seamen for the 
fleet without impressment.' For this scheme 
he received the thanks of their lordships. 
His arguments were immediately employed 
in the House of Commons by Sir James 
Graham, first lord of the admiralty, and they 
were partially enforced by the addition of a 
thousand boys to the naval force of the 

He was chiefly remarkable, however, for 
his devotion, during nearly half a century, to 
the pseudo science of astrology. In 1831 he 
brought out 'The Herald of Astrology,' 
which was continued as ' The Astrological 
Almanac' and 'Zadkiel's Almanac.' This six- 
penny pamphlet, in which he published his ] 
predictions, under the signature of ' Zadkiel ] 
Tao-Sze,' became known far and wide among 
the credulous. It sold annually by tens of 
thousands, running up sometimes to an edi- 
tion of two hundred thousand copies, and it 
secured him a moderate competence. Among 
other periodicals of a similar character edited 
by him were ' The Horoscope ' and ' The Voice 
of the Stars.' 

Morrison, who was considered by some to 
be a charlatan and by others a victim of a 
distinct hallucination, brought in 1863 an 
action for libel in the court of queen's bench 
against Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, who 
in a letter to the 'Daily Telegraph' had stated 
that 'the author of "Zadkiel " is the crystal 
globe seer who gulled many of our nobility 
about the year 1852.' At the trial, on 29 June 
1863, it appeared that Morrison had pretended 
that through the medium of the crystal globe 
various persons saw visions, and held con- 
verse with spirits. Some persons of rank, 
however, who had been present at the 
stances, were called on behalf of the plaintiff, 
and testified that the crystal globe had been 

shown to them without money payment. 
The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff, 
with 20s. damages, and the lord chief justice 
(Sir Alexander Cockburn) refused a certifi- 
cate for costs (Times, 30 June 1863, p. 13, 
col. 1, and 1 July, p. 11, col. 4 ; IRVING, 
Annals of our Times, p. 653). It was said 
that the crystal globe was that formerly pos- 
sessed by Dr. Dee (see DEE, JOHN, and KELLET, 
EDWARD ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 109, 
155, 288). Morrison died on 5 April 1874. 
He married, on 23 Aug. 1827, Miss Sarah 
Mary Paul of Waterford, and had issue nine 

His works are : 1. ' Narrative of the Loss 
of the Rothsay Castle Steam Packet in 
Beaumaris Bay,' 4th edit, with additions, 
London, 1831, 12mo. 2. ' Observations on 
Dr. Halley's great Comet, which will appear 
in 1835 ; with a History of the Phenomena 
attending its Return for six hundred years 
past,' 2nd edit. London, 1835, 12mo. 3. Wil- 
liam Lilly's ' Introduction to Astrology,' 
with emendations, London, 1835 and 1852, 
8vo, afterwards reprinted as ' The Grammar 
of Astrology.' T. H. Moody published 'A 
Complete Refutation of Astrology, consisting 
principally of a Series of Letters ... in re- 
ply to the Arguments of ... Morrison,' 
1838, 8vo. 4. ' Zadkiel's Legacy, containing 
a Judgment of the great Conjunction of 
Saturn and Jupiter, on the 26th of January, 
1842 . . . also Essays on Hindu Astrology 
and the Nativity of Albert Edward, Prince 
of Wales,' London, 1842, 12mo. 5. ' Zad- 
kiel's Magazine,' London, 1849, 8vo. 6. 'An 
Essay on Love and Matrimony,' London, 
1851, 24mo. 7. ' The Solar System as it is, 
and not as it is represented,' London, 1857, 
8vo, where the whole Newtonian scheme of 
the heavens is openly defied. 8. ' Explana- 
tion of the Bell Buoy invented by Lieut. 
Morrison,' London [1858], 8vo. 9. ' Astro- 
nomy in a Nutshell, or the leading Problems 
of the Solar System solved by Simple Pro- 
portion only, on the Theory of Magnetic 
Attraction,' London [I860], 8vo. 10. ' The 
Comet, a large lithographic Map on the true 
Course of Encke's Comet, with a letter to the 
Members of the Royal Astronomical Society,' 
London [1860], 8vo. 11. 'The Hand-Book 
of Astrology,' 2 vols. London, 1861-2, 12rno. 

12. ' On the Great First Cause, his Exist- 
ence and Attributes,' London, 1867, 12mo. 

13. ' The New Principia, or true system of 
Astronomy. In which the Earth is proved 
to be the stationary Centre of the Solar Sys- 
tem,' London [1868], 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1872. 

14. ' King David Triumphant ! A Letter to 
the Astronomers of Benares,' London, 1871, 



[Athenaeum, 1874. i. 630, 666, 7 01 ; Cooke's 
Curiosities of Occult Literature ; De Morgan's 
Budget of Paradoxes, pp. 195, 277, 472; 
O'Byrne's Naval Biog. 1849, p. 790; Times, 
11 May 1874, p. 8, col. 5.] T. C. 

MORRISON, ROBERT (1782-1834), 
missionary in China, son of James Morrison, 
was born 5 Jan. 1782 at Buller's Green, 
Morpeth, in Northumberland. When he 
was three years old his parents removed to 
Newcastle. There he was taught reading 
and writing by his maternal uncle, who was 
a schoolmaster, and at the proper age he 
was apprenticed to his father as a last and 
boot-tree maker. In 1798 he joined the 
presbyterian church, and three years later 
entered on a course of study of Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew under the instruction of the 
Rev. W. Laidler. In 1802 his mother died, 
and his inclinations, which had for some 
time tended towards missionary work, now 
determined him to enter that field. He ob- 
tained admission to the Hoxtou Academy 
(now Highbury College), and stayed there 
for a year from 7 Jan. 1803. He was then 
sent to the Missionary Academy at Gosport, 
which was under the superintendence of 
Dr. David Bogue [q. v.] In 1805 he was 
transferred to London to study medicine and 
astronomy, and to pick up any knowledge of 
the Chinese language which he could gain, it 
having been determined by the London Mis- 
sionary Society to send him to China. By 
good fortune he met a Chinaman named Yong 
Samtak, who agreed to give him lessons in 
the language. Having made some acquaint- 
ance with the Chinese written character, he 
made a transcript of a Chinese manuscript at 
the British Museum, containing a harmony 
of the Gospels, the Acts, and most of the 
Pauline epistles ; and copied a manuscript 
Latin and Chinese dictionary which was lent 
to him by the Royal Society. On 8 Jan. 1807 
he was ordained at the Scots Church, Swallow 
Street, and at the end of the same month he 
embarked at Gravesend for Canton via Ame- 
rica. After two years' labour in China, on 
20 Feb. 1809 he married Miss Morton, at 
Macao, and on the same day was appointed 
translator to the East India Company. The 
fact that he had printed and published the 
New Testament and several religious tracts 
in Chinese came in 1815 to the knowledge of 
the East India Company's directors, who, 
fearing that it might influence the Chinese 
against the company, proposed to sever their 
connection with him. But their agents in 
China successfully urged them to retain his 
services. In 1817 he accompanied Lord 
Amherst as interpreter on his abortive mis- 
sion to Peking, and in the same year he was 

made D.D. by the university of Glasgow. In 
1818 he succeeded in establishing the Anglo- 
Chinese College at Malacca for the training 
of missionaries for the far East. Three years 
later his wife died, and in 1824 he returned 
to England, bringing with him a large 
Chinese library, which he ultimately be- 
queathed to University College. In Novem- 
ber 1824 he married, secondly, a Miss Arm- 
strong. About this time he interested himself 
in the establishment of the Language In- 
stitution in Bartlett's Buildings, London, and 
in 1826 he returned to Canton, where he re- 
sided until his death on 1 Aug. 1834. On. 
5 Aug. he was buried at Macao. He left 
seven children, two by his first wife and five 
by his second. 

Morrison was a voluminous writer both in 
English and Chinese. His magnum opus was 
his ' Dictionary of the Chinese Language,' 
which appeared in three parts, between 1815 
and 1823. At the time, and for many years 
afterwards, this work was, as Professor Julien 
said, ' without dispute the best Chinese dic- 
tionary composed in a European language.' 
Aftei- the eeaeluBiea of the woriij in 182 
Morrison was elected F.R.S. He published 
also a Chinese grammar and several treatises 
on the language. His most important work 
in Chinese was a translation of the Bible, 
which, with the help of Dr. William Milne 
[q . v.], he published at Malacca in 21 vols. in 
1823. He was the author also of translations 
of hymns and of the prayer-book, as well 
as of a number of tracts and serial publica- 

(1814-1843), born at Macao in 1814, be- 
came in 1830 translator to the English 
merchants at Canton, and in 1833 he published 
' The Chinese Commercial Guide,' supplying 
much valuable information respecting Bri- 
tish commerce in Canton. On his father's 
death in 1834 he succeeded him as Chinese 
secretary and interpreter under the new 
system adopted by the British government 
after the withdrawal of the East India Com- 
pany's charter. During the diplomatic 
troubles which led to war between England 
and China in 1839, all the official corre- 
spondence of the English government with 
the Chinese authorities passed through Mor- 
rison's hands. He was attached to the British 
forces during the campaigns of 1840-2. When 
peace was made and Hongkong ceded to 
England, Morrison became a member of the 
legislative and executive council, and offi- 
ciating colonial secretary of the Hongkong 
government. He died of malarial fever at 
Hongkong in the autumn of 1843. The 
English plenipotentiary there, Sir Henry 



Pottinger, described his death as ' a positive 
national calamity.' 

[Memoirs of Life and Labours of R. Mor- 
rison, D.D., by his widow, London, 1839. For 
the son : Gent. Mag. 1844, i. 210 ; and informa- 
tion kindly sent by Mrs. Mary R. Hobson and 
Mr. J. M. Hobson.] R. K. D. 

MORRISON, THOMAS (d. 1835 ?), medi- 
cal writer, studied at Edinburgh in 1784, 
but subsequently removed to London, where 

Homer and of the Ancient Poets and His- 
torians who have recorded the Siege and 
Fall of Troy.' This produced from Bryant 
'Some Observations' in 1799, and when Dean 
Vincent reviewed Morritt's work in the 'Bri- 
tish Critic ' for 1 Jan. and 1 March 1799, 
and issued the criticisms in a separate 
form, Bryant rushed into print with an angry 
' Expostulation addressed to the " British 
Critic,'" 1799, whereupon Morritt retaliated 

he became a member of the Royal College of j with' Additional Remarks on the Topography 
Surgeons. In 1798 he was in practice at I of Troy, in answer to Mr. Bryant's last Pub- 
Chelsea, but by 1806 appears to have settled ; lications,' 1800. Some account of his expe- 
in Dublin. In the ' List of Members of the dition to Troy is given by Dallaway in ' Con- 
Royal College of Surgeons ' in 1825 his stantinople, with Excursions to the Shores 
address is given as Vale Grove, Chelsea 
His name disappears from the lists befori 
1829. He died apparently at Dublin in 1835 
(Post Office Directory of Dublin, 1807 and 

1835). He published: 1. 'Reflections upon 
Armed Associations in an Appeal to the 
Impartial Inhabitants of Chelsea,' &c., 8vo 
London, 1798. 2. ' An Examination into the 
Principles of what is commonly called the Bru- 
nonian System,' 8vo, London [1806]. 3. 'The 
Pharmacopoeia of the King and Queen's Col- 
lege of Physicians, Ireland, translated into 
English with observations,' 8vo, Dublin, 1807. 
He also contributed two papers to Duncan's 
'Annals of Medicine,' 1797 (ii. 240 and 246). 
[List of Members of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, 1825; Reuss's Register of Authors; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Diet, of Living Authors, 
1816.] G. G. 

(1772 P-1843), traveller and classical scholar, 
born about 1772, was son and heir of John 
Sawrey Morritt, who died at Rokeby Park, 
Yorkshire, on 3 Aug. 1791, by his wife Anne 
(d. 1809), daughter of Henry Peirse of Be- 
dale, M.P. for Northallerton. Both parents 
were buried in a vault in Rokeby Church, 
where their son erected to their memory a 
monument with a poetic inscription. Mor- 
ritt, who had previously been in Paris dur- 
ing 1789, was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, graduating B.A. 1794 and M.A. 
1798. Early in 1794 he proceeded to the East, 
and spent two years in travelling, mainly 
in Greece and Asia Minor. He arrived, with 
the Rev. James Dallaway [q. v.] and a few 
other Englishmen, from Lesbos on 6 Nov. 
1794, landing about twenty miles below 
Lectum, in the Sinus Adramyttenus, and 
proceeded to make a careful survey of the 
scene of the ' Iliad.' "When Jacob Bryant 
published some works with the desire of prov- 
ing that no such city as Troy had existed, 
Morritt's knowledge of the country led him 
to undertake Homer's defence, and he pub- 
lished at York in 1798 ' A Vindication of 

and Islands of the Archipelago, and to the 
Troad,' 1797, and his opinions are corrobo- 
rated in ' Remarks and Observations on the 
Plain of Troy, made during an Excursion in 

June 1799,' by William Francklin [q. v.] 

Morritt inherited a large fortune, includ- 
ing the estate of Rokeby, which his father 
had purchased from the ' long ' Sir Thomas 
Robinson [q. v.] in 1769, and in 1806 he served 
as high sheriff of Yorkshire. A conservative 
in politics, he was returned to parliament by 
the borough of Beverley at a by-election in 
1799, but was defeated at the dissolution in 
1802. In 1814 he was elected on a by- 
vacancy for the constituency of Northal- 
lerton in Yorkshire, which he represented 
until 1818, and he sat for Shaftesbury, Dor- 
set, from 1818 to 1820. In 1810 he pub- 
lished a pamphlet on the state of parties, 
entitled ' Advice to the Whigs, by an Eng- 
lishman,' and in 1826 he gave Sir Walter 
Scott a copy of a printed 'Letter to R. 
Bethell,' in favour of the claims of the catho- 
lics, whereupon Scott noted in his diary 
that twenty years previously Morritt had 
entertained other views on that subject. A 
reply to this letter was published by the 
Rev. W. Metcalfe, perpetual curate of Kirk 
Hammerton. In 1807 he made an ' excel- 
lent speech ' at the nomination of Wilber- 
force for Yorkshire. 

Morritt paid Scott a visit in the summer 
of 1808, and was again his guest in 1816 and 
January 1829. Their friendship was never 
broken. Scott, on his return from London in 
1809, spent a fortnight at Rokeby, and de- 
scribed it as one of the most enviable places 
that he had ever seen. In December 1811 he 
:ommunicated to Morritt his intention of 
making it the scene of a poem, and received 
in reply a very long communication on its his- 
:ory and beauties. A second stay was made 
n the autumn of 1812, with the result that 
his poem of ' Rokeby,' although falling short 
if complete success, was lauded for the 
admirable, perhaps the unique fidelity of 



the local descriptions.' It was dedicated to 
Morritt ' in token of sincere friendship,' and 
with the public intimation that the scene had 
been laid in his ' beautiful demesne.' A 
further proof of this friendship was shown 
when Morritt was entrusted with the secret 
of the authorship of ' Waverley.' Scott's 
visits were renewed in 1815, 1826, 1828, and 
in September 1831, on his last journey to 
London and Italy. Many letters which passed 
between them are included in Lockhart's 
' Life of Scott,' which contained particulars 
by Morritt of his visit to Scott in 1808 and of 
the manner in which Scott was lionised by 
London society in 1809. Many more of their 
letters are contained in the ' Familiar Let- 
ters of Sir Walter Scott,' 1894. Morritt was 
also acquainted with Stewart Rose, Payne 
Knight, Sir Humphry Davy, and Southey, 
the latter of whom stopped at Rokeby in 
July 1812, and made a short call there in 
November 1829 (SOUTHED, Life and Corre- 
spondence, iii. 345-8, iv. 8, vi. 77). 

Morritt, on Scott's invitation, became an 
occasional contributor to the ' Quarterly Re- 
view/ and his poem on ' The Curse of Moy, 
a Highland Tale,' appeared in the ' Minstrelsy 
of the Scottish Border' (5th edit. iii. 451). 
He was elected a member of the Dilettanti 
Society on 2 June 1799, and his portrait as 
' arch-master ' of its ceremonies, in the long 
crimson taffety-tasselled robe of office, was 
painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee for the 
society in 1831-2. An essay by him on the 
4 History and Principles of Antient Sculp- 
ture ' forms the introduction to the second 
volume of ' Specimens of Antient Sculpture 
preserved in Great Britain,' which was issued 
by the society in 1835. The minutes of the 
council on its selection and printing are in- 
serted in the ' Historical Notices of the So- 
ciety of Dilettanti,' pp. 56-9. A volume of 
4 Miscellaneous Translations and Imitations 
of the Minor Greek Poets ' was published by 
him in 1802. He composed the poetical in- 
scription on the monument in York Minster 
to William Burgh [q. v.], whose widow left 
him the fine miniature of Milton which had 
been painted by Cooper. 

Morritt died at Rokeby Park, 12 July 
1843, aged 71. He married, by special li- 
cense, at the house of Colonel Stanley, M.P., 
in Pall Mall, on 19 Nov. 1803, Katharine 
(d. 1815), second daughter of the Rev. Thomas 
Stanley, rector of Winwick in Lancashire. 
He was buried by his wife's side in a vault 
under Rokeby Church, where a marble tablet, 
surmounted by a bust of him, was placed in 
their memory. 

Morritt was one of the founders and amem- 
ber of the first committee of the Travellers' 


Club in 1819. Scott calls him ' a man un- 
equalled in the mixture of sound good sense, 
high literary cultivation, and the kindest and 
sweetest temper that ever graced a human 
bosom.' Wilberforce described him as ' full 
of anecdote,' and SirWilliam Fraser mentions 
him as a brilliant raconteur. 

[Gent. Mag. 1791 pt. ii. pp. 780, 1156, 1803 
pt. ii. p. 108-5, 1815 pt. ii. p. 637, 1843 pt. ii. 
pp. 547-8; Annual Keg. 1843, p. 281 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 4th ed.. sub ' Peirse ' and ' Stan- 
ley ; ' Foster's York Pedigrees, sub ' Peirse ; ' 
Whitaker's Richmondshire ; Park's Parl.Eep. of 
Yorkshire, pp. 151, 246; Lockhart's Scott, passim; 
Scott's Journal, i. 270-2, ii. 162-4, 195-7, 215; 
Sir W. Eraser's Hie et Ubique, pp. 238-43; 
Smiles's John Murray, ii. 453 ; Davies's York 
Press, pp. 300-1 ; Wilberforce's Life, iii. 318, 
iv. 392, v. 241-3 ; Portraits of Dilettanti Soc. 
p. 7; Hist. Notices, Dilettanti Soc. pp. 77-8.] 

W. P. C. 

MORS, RODERICK (d. 1546), Francis- 

MORSE, HENRY (1595-1645), Jesuit, 
known also as CIAXTON (his mother's name) 
and WARDS, was born in Norfolk in 1595, 
and studied law in one of the inns of court 
in London. Harbouring doubts concerning 
the protestant religion, he retired to the con- 
tinent, and was reconciled to the Roman 
church at Douay. Afterwards he became an 
alumnus of the English College there. He 
entered the English College at Rome 27 Dec. 
1618, and having completed his theological 
studies, and received holy orders, he was sent 
from Douay to the English mission 19 June 
1624. He entered the Society of Jesus in 
the London novitiate in 1625, and was soon 
afterwards removed to the Durham district. 
Being apprehended, he was committed to 
York Castle, where he remained in confine- 
ment for three years. In 1632 he was at 
Watten, acting as prefect of health and con- 
suitor of the college. In 1633 he was minis- 
ter and consultor at Liege College, and in 
the same year he became a missioner in the 
London district. He was again apprehended, 
committed to Newgate, tried and condemned 
to death in 1637, but the sentence was com- 
muted to banishment at the intercession of 
Queen Henrietta Maria. In 1641-2 he was 
camp missioner to the English mission at 
Ghent. Two years later he had returned to 
England, and again appears as a missioner 
in the Durham district. He was arrested, 
carried in chains to London, tried, and, being 
condemned to death as a traitor on account 
of his sacerdotal character, was executed at 
Tyburn on 1 Feb. (N.S.) 1644-5. 

In Father Ambrose Corbie's ' Certamen 
Triplex,' Antwerp, 1645, is an engraved por- 




trait, which is photographed in Foley's ' Re- 
cords ' [see CORBIE, AMBROSE]; two other 
portraits are mentioned by Granger (Eiog. 
Hist, ii.207). 

A copy of Morse's diary, entitled 'Papers 
relating to the English Jesuits,' is preserved 
in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 21203). 

His elder brother, WILLIA.M MORSE (d. 
1649), born in Norfolk in 1591, was likewise 
a convert to the catholic faith, became a 
Jesuit, and laboured on the English mission 
until his death on 1 Jan. 1648-9. 

[An account of Morse's execution, entitled 
Narratio Gloriosae Mortis quam pro Eeligione 
Catholica P. Henricvs Mors e Societate lesv 
Sacerdos fortiter oppetijt Londinl in Anglia. 
Anno Salutis, 1645. 1 February stylo nouo 
Quern hie stylum deinceps sequemur, Ghent, 
1645, 4to, pp. 21 ; a memoir appears in Am- 
brose Corbie's Certamen Triplex, Antwerp, 1645, 
4to, pp. 9.~>-144:. See also Challoner's Missionary 
Priests, ii. 180; Dodd's Church Hist. Hi. 120; 
Floras Anglo-Bavaricus, p. 82 ; Foley's Records, 
i. 566-610, vi. 288, vii. 52? ; Oliver's Jesuit Col- 
lections, p. 146 ; Tanner's Societas Jesu usque 
ad sanguinis et vitae profusionem militans.] 

T. C. 

MORSE, ROBERT (1743-1818), general, 
colonel commandant royal engineers, in- 
spector-general of fortifications, second son 
of Thomas Morse, rector of Langatt, Somer- 
set, was born on 29 Feb. 1743. He entered 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich 
on 1 Feb. 1756, and while still a cadet re- 
ceived a commission as ensign in the 12th 
foot on 24 Sept. 1757. He was permitted 
to continue his studies at the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy, and on 8 Feb. 1758 was 
gazetted practitioner engineer. In May he 
joined the expedition under the Duke of 
Marlborough destined for the capture and 
destruction of St. Malo. The troops were 
landed at Cancale on 5 June, and the engi- 
neers covered the place with strong lines of 
trenches, but with the exception of the de- 
struction of shipping and of some magazines 
nothing was done, and the troops re-em- 
barked, and after demonstrations at Cher- 
bourg and Havre returned home. Morse 
then joined the expedition under General 
Bligh directed against Cherbourg. The 
troops disembarked without resistance on 
6 Aug., and, the French having abandoned 
the forts, the engineers demolished the de- 
fences and the wharves and docks. The 
expedition sailed for England again on 
18 Aug. Morse again accompanied Bligh 
the following month, when another attempt 
was made on St. Malo. The troops landed 
in St. Lunaire Bay on 4 Sept., but were 
unable to make any impression on the place. 

Morse took part in the skirmishes at Plancoet 
on the 8th and Mantignon on the 9th. On 
the llth the expedition hastily retreated to 
their ships, and embarked under heavy fire 
from the French, when over eight hundred 
were killed, drowned, or made prisoners. 
Morse was slightly wounded. 

Soon after his return to England he was 
placed on the staff of the expedition, under 
General Hobson, for the reduction of the 
French islands of the Caribbean Sea. The 
expedition sailed for Barbados on 12 Nov., 
and disembarked without loss in Martinique 
on 14 Jan. 1759. Shortly after the troops 
were re-embarked and carried to Guadeloupe. 
Basseterre, the capital, was taken, and the 
whole island reduced, the French evacuating 
it by the capitulation of 1 May. Morse was 
promoted lieutenant and sub-engineer on 
10 Sept. 1759, and on his return to England 
at the end of the year was employed on the 
coast defences of Sussex. 

In 1761 Morse served in the expedition 
against Belleisle, off the coast of Brittany, 
under General Hodgson. The force, which 
was strong in engineers, arrived off the 
island on 7 April, but an attempted disem- 
barkation failed, with a loss of five hundred 
men. Bad weather prevented another at- 
tempt until 21 April, when a landing was 
effected, and the enemy driven into the cita- 
del of Palais, a work of considerable strength, 
requiring a regular siege. There is a journal 
of the siege in the royal artillery library at 
Woolwich, ' by an officer who was present 
at the siege.' A practicable breach was esta- 
blished in June, and on the 7th of that month 
the garrison capitulated, and the fort and 
island were occupied by the British. Morse 
was employed in repairing and restoring the 
fortifications, and returned to England with 
General Hodgson. 

Morse served with the British forces in 
Germany, under John Manners, marquis of 
Granby [q. v.], in 1762 and 1763, and acted as 
\ aide-de-camp to Granby, in addition to carry- 
ing out his duties as engineer. He was also 
assistant quartermaster-general. He was pre- 
sent at the various actions of the Westphalian 
campaign, in which the British force took 
part. At the close of the war he was one of 
the officers sent to Holland to make a con- 
vention with the States -General for the 
passage of the British troops through their 
country, and he attended the embarkation of 
the army. He was promoted captain-lieu- 
tenant and engineer-extraordinary on 6 May 

On his return to England, through the good 
offices of Colonel George Morrison [q.v.], quar- 
termaster-general of the forces, Morse was 



appointed assistant quartermaster-general at 
headquarters, an office which he held simul- 
taneously with the engineer charge of the 
Medway division until 1766, and afterwards 
with that of the Tilbury division until 1769. 
In 1773 he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of the West India islands of Do- 
minica, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago, 
which had been ceded to Great Britain by 
France at the conclusion of the seven years' 
war. Morse was promoted captain and engi- 
neer in ordinary on 30 Oct. 1775. He re- 
turned to England in 1779, and on 20 Aug. 
was placed on the staff and employed first on 
the defences of the Sussex coast, and later at 
Plymouth and Falmouth. 

In June 1782 Morse accompanied Sir Guy 
Carleton [q. v.] to New York as chief engineer 
in North America. On 1 Jan. 1783 he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel. On his return 
home he was employed at headquarters in 
London. He was promoted colonel on 
6 June 1788, and in the summer of 1791 was 
sent to Gibraltar as commanding royal engi- 
neer. He was promoted major-general on 
20 Dec. 1793. He remained five years at 
Gibraltar, when he was brought home by the 
Duke of Richmond to assist in the duties of 
the board of ordnance. On 10 March 1797 
Morse was temporarily appointed chief engi- 
neer of Great Britain during the absence on 
leave of Sir William Green. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant-general on 26 June 1799. 
On 21 April 1802 the title of inspector- 
general of fortifications was substituted for 
that of chief engineer of Great Britain, and 
on 1 May Morse became the first incumbent 
of the new office, and was made a colonel com- 
mandant of royal engineers. 

Morse held the post of inspector-general 
of fortifications for nine years, during which 
considerable works of defence were con- 
structed on the coasts of Kent and Sussex 
against the threatened invasion by the French. 
He was promoted general on 25 April 1808. 
Owing to ill-health he resigned his appoint- 
ment on 22 July 1811, and was granted by 
the Prince Regent an extra pension of twenty- 
five shillings a day for his good services. He 
died on 28 Jan. 1818 at his house in Devon- 
shire Place, London, and was buried in 
Marylebone Church, where there is a tablet 
to his memory. He married, on 20 April 1 785, 
Sophia, youngest daughter of Stephen Godin, 
esq., and left an only daughter, Harriet, who 
was married to Major-general Sir James Car- 
michael-Smyth, hart. 

Morse was the author of ' A General De- 
scription of the Province of Nova Scotia, and 
a Report of the Present State of the Defences, 
with Observations leading to the further 

Growth and Security of this Colony, done 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Morse, Chief Engineer 
in America, upon a Tour of the Province in 
the Autumn of the Year 1783 and the Sum- 
mer of 1784, under the Orders and Instruc- 
tions of H.E. Sir Guy Carleton, General and 
Commander-in-Chief of H.M. Forces in North 
America. Given at Headquarters at New 
York, 28 July 1783,' 1 vol. text, 1 vol. plans, 
MSS. fol. (Brit. Mus.) 

The following plans drawn by Morse are 
in the war office : 1. Town and River of 
Annapolis, 1784. 2. Fort Annapolis, with 
Projects for its Reform, 1784. 3. Cumber- 
land Fort, Nova Scotia, 1784. 4. Town 
of Shelbourne, with Harbour, and Roseneath 
Island, 1784. The following are in the 
archives of the government of the Dominion 
of Canada : 1. Town and Harbour of St. 
John, New Brunswick, 1784. 2. Quebec, 
Cape Diamond, Proposed Barracks. 

[Royal Engineers' Corps Eecords ; War Office 
and Ordnance Records ; Despatches.] 

R. H. V. 


(1774?-! 831), colonel royal engineers, born 
about 1774, was the son of Colonel Henry 
Anderson of Fox Hall, co. Limerick. He 
entered the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich on 29 May 1790, and received 
a commission as second lieutenant in the 
royal artillery on 18 Sept. 1792. He served 
in the campaigns on the continent under the 
Duke of York in 1793^4, and was present 
at the action of Famars 23 May 1793, at the 
siege of Valenciennes in June and July, the 
siege of Dunkirk in August and September, 
and the battle of Hondschoote 8 Sept. He 
gained the esteem of his commanding officers, 
and in acknowledgment of his services was 
transferred, at his own request, to the corps 
of royal engineers on 1 Jan. 1794. He took 
part in the siege of Landrecies in April 
1794, affair near Tournay on 23 May, and 
siege of Nimeguen in November. On his re- 
turn to England he was sent, in June 1795, 
to Plymouth. He was promoted first lieu- 
tenant on 19 Nov. 1796, and in May 1797 he 
embarked with two companies of royal mili- 
tary artificers for St. Domingo, West Indies. 
On the evacuation of that island in 1798 he 
was attached to the staff of Sir Thomas 
Maitland [q. v.], who was his warm friend 
through life. When he returned to England 
in November 1798 he was employed in the 
Thames division, and stationed at Gravesend. 
He was promoted captain-lieutenant 18 April 
1801, and was sent to Portsmouth, and sub- 
sequently to Plymouth. He was promoted 
captain 1 March 1805, and in that year he 

1 2 




assumed by royal license the surname of 
Morshead in addition to that of Anderson. 

In July 1807 he was sent to Dublin, and 
three months later was appointed command- 
ing royal engineer of the expedition, under 
Brigadier-general Beresford, which sailed 
from Cork early in 1808, and in February 
took possession of Madeira. He remained in 
Madeira until 1812, and on his return to Eng- 
land in November of that year was posted to 
the Plymouth division. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel 21 July 1813, and sent to 
Dublin; was appointed commanding royal 
engineer in North Britain (March 1814), and 
in July 1815 was transferred as commanding 
royal engineer of the western district to Ply- 
mouth, where he remained for many years, 
and carried out important works for the 
ordnance and naval services in consultation 
with the Duke of Wellington and Lord Mel- 
ville. On 29 July 1825 he was promoted 

In 1829 he was appointed commanding 
royal engineer at Malta, and died at Valetta 
on 11 Nov. 1831, while acting governor. He 
was honoured with a public funeral, and was 
buried in the old saluting battery overlooking 
the grand harbour. He married in 1800 
Elizabeth, only daughter of P. Morshead, esq., 
of Widey Court, Plymouth, Devonshire, by 
whom he had eleven children. A man of 
frank and engaging manners, a good conver- 
sationalist, and a clear writer, he was fond 
of society, and exercised a genial hospitality. 
There is a bust in the royal engineers' office 
in Valetta, Malta. 

The following plans by Morshead are in 
the war office : 1. Edinburgh Castle, two 
plans, 1814 and 1815. 2. Whiteforland Point 
and Defences, two plans, 1814. 3. Leith Fort 
a,nd Breakwater, 1815. 4. Plymouth, Survey 
and Drawings of various parts of the Defences, 
Piers, and Ordnance and Naval Buildings, 
nineteen drawings, 1815-26. 5. Plan of Ply- 
mouth Sound, showing intended breakwater 
and the soundings, with an original pencil 
sketch by Mr. Rennie of the lighthouse, 1816. 
6. Plymouth Citadel, 1820. 7. Devonport 
Lines', 1820. 8. Scilly Islands, St. Mary's, 
Plan of the Defences, 1820. 9. St. Nicholas 
Island, Plymouth, 1820. 10. Pendennis Castle, 
Falmouth, 1821. 11. Pendennis Castle, and 
Falmouth Harbour, two plans, 1828-9. 12. St. 
Mawes Castle, Falmouth, 1829. 

[Royal Engineers' Eecords; War Office and 
Board of Ordnance Records ; United Service 
Journal.] R. t JJ. V. 

1878), a pioneer of commerce in New South 
Wales, was born at Bolton, Lancashire, on 

23 Dec. 1816. As a boy he entered the 
warehouse of Messrs. H. & S. Henry of 
Manchester, and in 1838 was recommended 
by them to their correspondents, Messrs. 
Aspinall & Brown, in Sydney. With this 
firm and their successors he remained five 
years as clerk and salesman. In 1841 he made 
his first step in colonial enterprise, and be- 
came an active promoter of the Hunter River 
Steam Navigation Company, which after- 
wards developed into the Australasian Steam 
Navigation Company. But shortly after 
the panic of 1843, which ruined some of 
the best houses in Australia, the failure of 
the firm which he served threw him on his 
own resources. He then started in business 
as an auctioneer, and laid the foundations of 
the great firm which bore his name. It was 
in connection with this business that he 
started the public wool sales of the colony. 
And it was at this time also that he began 
experiments in regard to freezing meat. Re- 
siding quietly in a cottage at Double Bay, he 
devoted himself with an exclusive vigour to 
his new calling, and his wealth and influence 
increased. In 1846 he bought some land, 
which is described as ' two or three sand- 
hills,' at Darling Point. Here a love of 
gardening, which had always characterised 
him, and his skill in management, had full 
scope, and he turned an uninviting tract into 
the lovely estate of Greenoaks. 

In 1849 he took an active part in pro- 
moting the first line of railway in New South 
Wales, between Sydney and Paramatta. 
When the gold rush came he formed (in 
1851) the Great Nugget Vein Mining Com- 
pany. In 1856 he turned to the encourage- 
ment of the pastoral development of the 
country, and laid at Bodalla the foundations 
of a rural settlement for the supply of dairy 
produce to the large towns, which eventually 
spread over thirty-eight thousand acres, and 
absorbed 100,000/. of his own capital. It was 
the favourite resort of his later years. From 
1857 to 1859 he was in England, collecting 
those works of art which eventually adorned 
his house at Greenoaks. 

In 1863, with the view of promoting the 
use of steamers in the colonial trade, he 
commenced excavations for the great dock 
at Port Jackson, where again he invested 
some 100,000^., and finally constituted the 
Mort Dock and Engineering Company. The 
latter years of his life were chiefly devoted 
to the attempt to perfect the machinery by 
which meat could be transported in a frozen 
state for long distances over seas. He was 
the originator of the modern frozen meat 
trade. After giving the subject much con- 
sideration, he began about 1870, with the aid 




of Mr. E. D. Nicolle, a series of experiment 
in freezing and thawing meat and vegetables 
In 1875 he erected great slaughter-house 
and a freezing establishment at Litbgow, an 
chartered the first steamer for the new trade 
On the eve of its departure he collecte 
around him at a great banquet the public men 
of the country, and declared that he hac 
solved the problem of the world's food supply 
The steamer's machinery failed ; the metal die 
not stand the constant strain of refrigeration 
and for a time the transport of frozen meal 
was thought impossible. Mort, deeply dis- 
appointed, gave up his cherished idea, anc 
turned the great freezing-house into an ice 
factory and a depot for sending cooked dishes 
into Sydney. He himself retired to Bodalla, 
his rural settlement. There on 9 May 1878 he 
died, ' the greatest benefactor that the work- 
ing men of this country ever had,' and ' the 
most unselfish man that ever entered the 
colony.' He was twice married. To him was 
erected, at Sydney, the first statue with which 
an Australian citizen was honoured. 

Mort was a man of indomitable energy, 
characterised at once by an intensely prac- 
tical capacity for business and a love of 
natural scenery and the arts. He was broad 
and liberal in his views. In 1873 he offered 
his workmen shares in his business, and all 
his foremen became shareholders. 

A bust of Mort, by Birch, A.R.A., is in 
the possession of his brother, Mr. William 
Mort, in London. 

[Heaton's Australian Diet, of Dates and Men of 
the Time ; private information.] C. A. H. 

MORTAIN, in the diocese of Avranches (d. 
1091 ?), was uterine brother of William the 
Conqueror. He was the second son of Herl- 
win of Conteville, by his wife Herleva. His 
elder brother was Odo [q. v.], bishop of 
Bayeux. William the Warling, a cousin of 
Duke William, was in 1048-9 deprived of 
the county of Mortain, which was handed 
over to Robert, an instance of William's de- 
sire ' to raise up the humble kindred of his 
mother ' while ' he plucked down the proud 
kindred of his father' (WiLL. OF JTJMIEGES, 
vii. 19). In 1066 Robert was present at the 
select council held at Lillebonne to discuss 
the invasion of England ; he contributed 120 
ships to the fleet, according to Wace, a fact of 
doubtful authenticity (STUBBS, Const. Hist. i. 
279 note), and fought at Senlac (Roman de 
Rou, 1.13765). In 1069 he was left in England 
to protect Lindsey against the Danes, and at 
the same time his castle of Montacute (Eng. 
Lutgaresburg) in Somerset was besieged. 
When William I lay dying, Robert was pre- 

sent and pleaded the cause of his brother Odo 

with success. He joined with Odo in sup- 
porting Robert Curthose against William II, 
and held the castle of Pevensey against the 
king from April to June 1088 (ORDERIOTS 
VITALIS, iv. 17), but he soon yielded and was 

reconciled to Rufus. 

His possessions in England were larger 
than those of any other follower of William 
(FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, iv. 764), and 
have been estimated at 793 manors (BRADY, 
Introd. to Domesday Book, p. 13). Of these, 
623 in the south-west counties returned him 
400/. a year (MORGAN, England under the 
Normans, p. 8). He had 248 manors in 
Cornwall, 196 in Yorkshire, 99 in North- 
amptonshire, 75 in Devonshire, with a church 
and house in Exeter, 54 in Sussex and the 
borough of Pevensey, 49 in Dorset, 29 in 
Buckinghamshire, and one or more in ten 
other counties (ELLIS, i. 455). He was 
charged by the Domesday jurors with many 
' usurpations/ particularly on the see of 
Exeter, the churches of Bodmin and St. Ger- 
man, Mount St. Michael, Cornwall, and 
Westminster. The charter which records his 
?rant of Mount St. Michael as a cell to Mont 
3. Michel is spurious (FREEMAN, iv. 766). 
There is no ground for believing that he 
was Earl of Cornwall ( Third Report on the 
Dignity of a Peer). 

He married Matilda, daughter of Roger of 
Montgomery [q. v.] In 1082 they founded a 
collegiate church in their castle of Mortain, 
under the guidance of their chaplain Vitalis, 
abbot of Savigny. Robert also made grants 
to Fleury and Marmoutier ( STAPLETON, 
Rot. Scacc. Nor. i. p. Ixxv), and gave to 
Fecamp what he took from Westminster 
Domesday Book, f. 129). He had a son 
William, who forfeited Mortain after the 
mttle of Tinchebrai, and possibly a son Nigel 
STAPLETON, i. p. Ixvii). His daughter Agnes 
married Andrew of Vitre, another married 
juy de la Val, and another the Earl of 

Robert died in 1091 (KELHAM, Domesday 
Book Illustrated, p. 39, quoting HEYLIN and 
VIiLLS, Catalogue of Honor). 

[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. LePrevost, ii. 194-223, 
12, iii. c. xi. and p. 449, iv. 17 ; Domesday 
took ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, vols. ii-v. 
'assim, and William Eufus.] M. B. 

MORTEN, THOMAS (1836-1866), 
>ainter and book-illustrator, was born at 
Jxbridge, Middlesex, in 1836. He came to 
\ondon and studied at the painting school 
ept by J. Mathews Leigh in Newman 
Itreet. Morten was chiefly employed as an 
lustrator of books and serials, mostly of a 




humorous nature. The most successful were 
his illustrations to an edition of Swift's 
' Gulliver's Travels,' published in 1864, which 
ran into several editions. Morten also prac- 
tised as a painter of domestic subjects, and 
was an occasional exhibitor at the Royal 
Academy, sending in 1866 ' Pleading for the 
Prisoner.' His affairs, however, became em- 
barrassed, and he committed suicide on 
23 Sept. 1866. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

physician, born in Essex, was second son of 
John Mortimer [q. v.] by his third wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Sanders of 
Derbyshire. He was educated under Boer- 
haave at Leyden University, where he was 
admitted in the medical division on 7 Sept. 
1719, and graduated M.D. on 9 Aug. 1724. 
He became a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians, London, on 25 June 1725, and a 
fellow on 30 Sept. 1729, and he was created 
M.D. of Cambridge, comitiis regiis, on 11 May 
1728. He practised at first in Hanover 
Square, London, but removed in 1729, at the 
request of Sir Hans Sloane, to Bloomsbury 
Square, where he had the benefit of Sloane's 
collections and conversation, and assisted to 
1740 in prescribing for his patients. For ten 
years Mortimer had the sole care, as physi- 
cian, of a London infirmary, and in 1744, 
when resident in Dartmouth Street, West- 
minster, he issued a circular, describing the 
system of payment for his services which he 
had adopted. This step did not tend to make 
him more popular with his professional col- 
leagues. Some of the apothecaries refused to 
attend patients when he was called in. A 
satirical print of him, designed by Hogarth 
and engraved by Rigou, with several lines 
from Pope appended to it, was published 
about 1745 (Catalogue of Satirical Prints at 
British Museum, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 541), and in 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1780, page 
510, he is dubbed ' an impertinent, assuming 

Mortimer was elected F.S.A. on 21 March 
"1734, and F.R.S. on 4 July 1728, and, mainly 
through the interest of Sloane, was second 
or acting secretary to the latter body from 
30 Nov. 1730 until his death. From 28 July 
1737 he was a member and correspondent of 
the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding, and he 
was also a corresponding memberof the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Paris. About 1738 
' his vanity prompted him to write the his- 
tory of the learned societies of Great Britain 
and Ireland, to have been prefixed to a 
volume of the" Philosophical Transactions,'" 

whereupon Maurice Johnson [q.v.] furnished 
him with a history of the Spalding society, 
and with many curious particulars of the 
Society of Antiquaries, but these materials 
were never utilised, and a long complaint 
from Johnson on his neglect is in Nichols's 
' Literary Anecdotes,' vi. 2-3. Mortimer was 
absorbed in new schemes. In 1747 he pro- 
posed to establish in the College of Arms a 
registry for dissenters, and articles of agree- 
ment, approved by all parties, were drawn 
up. It was opened on 20 Feb. 1747-8. but did 
not succeed, through a misunderstanding be- 
tween the ministers and the deputies of the 
congregations. About 1750 he promoted the 
scheme for the incorporation of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and he was one of the first 
members of its council, November 1751. 
On the death of his elder brother, Samuel 
Mortimer, a lawyer, he inherited the family 
estate of Toppingo Hall, Hatfield Peverel, 
Essex. He died there on 7 Jan. 1752, was 
buried on 13 Jan., and a monument was 
erected to his memory. His library was on 
sale at Thomas Osborne's on 26 Nov. 1753. 
By his wife Mary he had an only son, Hans, of 
Lincoln's Inn and Cauldthorp, near Burton- 
on-Trent, who about 1765 sold the property 
in Essex to the Earl of Abercorn. 

Mortimer's dissertation ' De Ingressu Hu- 
morum in Corpus Humanum ' for his doctor's 
degree at Leyden was printed in 1724, and 
was dedicated to Sloane. It was also inserted 
in the collections of medical treatises by 
Baron A. von Haller and F. J. de Oberkamp. 
His ' Address to the Publick, containing 
Narratives of the Effects of certain Chemical 
Remedies in most Diseases' appeared in 
1745. The circular letter on his system of 
remuneration was published as an appen- 
dix to it and inserted in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine' for 1779, pp. 541-2, and in 
Nichols's 'Literary Anecdotes,' v. 424. An 
English translation of the ' Elements of 
the Art of Assaying Metals. By Johann 
Andreas Cramer, M.D.,' to which Mortimer 
contributed notes, observations, and an ap- 
pendix of authors, appeared in 1741, and a 
second edition was published in 1764. As 
secretary of the Royal Society he edited 
vols. xxxvi. to xlvi. of the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' and contributed to them nu- 
merous papers (WATT, Bibl. Brit.) The most 
important, dealing with the then distemper 
in horned cattle, were inserted in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for 1746, pp. 650-1 , and 1747, 
pp. 55-6 (cf. Gent. May. 1749, pp. 491-5). 
Joseph Rogers, M.D., addressed to Mortimer 
in 1733 ' Some Observations on the Transla- 
lation and Abridgment of Dr. Boerhaave's 
Chymistry,' and Boerhaave communicated to 




him in September 1738 the symptoms of his 
illness (BURTON, Memoir of Boerhaave, p. 69). 
Some account of the Roman remains found 
by him near Maldon in Essex is in the ' Ar- 
chaeologia,' xvi. 149, four letters from him, 
and numerous communications to him are 
in the possession of the Royal Society, and 
a letter sent by him to Dr. Waller on 28 July 
1729 is printed in the ' Reliquise Galeanae ' 
(Bibl. Topogr. JBrit.ui. 155-6). He drew up 
an index to the fishes for the 1743 edition of 
Willoughby's four books on the history of 
fish, and Dr. Munk assigns to him a volume 
on ' The Volatile Spirit of Sulphur,' 1744. 
"When Kalm came to England, on his way 
to America to report on its natural products, 
he visited Mortimer, and at his house made 
the acquaintance of many scientific men. 

[Gent. Mag. 1752 p. 44, 1777 p. 266, 1780 
pp. 17, 510; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. v. 7, 27, 
423-6, 433, vi. 2-3, 99, 144-5, ix. 615; Monk's 
Coll. of Phys. 2nd edit. ii. 11 ; Memoirs of Mar- 
tyn, 1830, pp. 40-2; Morant's Essex, ii. 133; 
Stukeley's Memoirs (Surtees Soc.), i. 233-4, 235, 
ii. 10-11, 320, iii. 6-7, 468 ; Dobsoii's Hogarth, 
p. 324; Thomsons Koyal Soc. pp. 8, 10-11; 
Noble's College of Arms, p. 409; Cat. of MSS. 
and Letters of Koyal Soc. passim ; Kalm's Tra- 
vels (trans. Lucas, 1892), pp. 19, 40,61, 114-15.] 

W. P. C. 

EARL OF MARCH (1351-1381), was the son of 
Roger de Mortimer (V), second earl of March 
fq. v.], and his wife Philippa, daughter of 
William Montacute, first earl of Salisbury 
[q. v.], and was born at ' Langonith ' (? Llan- 
gynwyd or Llangynog) on 1 Feb. 1351 (Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 353). When still a child there 
was an abortive proposal in 1354 to marry him 
to Alice Fitzalan, daughter of Richard Fitz- 
alan II, earl of Arundel [q. v.] On 26 Feb. 
1360 the death of his father procured for the 
young Edmund the succession to the title 
and estates of his house when only in his 
tenth year. He became the ward of Ed- 
ward III, but was ultimately assigned to the 
custody of William of Wykeham [q. v.], 
bishop of Winchester, and of the above-men- 
tioned Richard, earl of Arundel (DUGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 148). Henceforth he was closely 
associated with the king's sons, and especially 
with Edward the Black Prince. Mortimer's 
political importance dates from his marriage 
with Philippa, only daughter of Lionel of 
Antwerp, duke of Clarence [q. v.], the second 
surviving son of Edward HI, by his wife 
Elizabeth de Burgh, the heiress of Ulster. 
Philippa was born in 1355, and her wedding 
with Mortimer took place in the spring of 
1368, just before the departure of Lionel for 
Italy (Cont. Eulogium Hist. iii. 333). Before 

the end of the year Lionel's death gave to his 
son-in-law the enjoyment of his great estates. 
When, on coming of age, Mortimer entered 
into public life, he represented not simply the 
Mortimer inheritance, but also the great pos- 
sessions of his wife. Besides his Shropshire, 
Herefordshire, Welsh, and Meath estates, 
which came from the Mortimers and Gen- 
villes, he was, in name at least, lord of Ulster 
and Connaught, and by far the most con- 
spicuous representative of the Anglo-Norman 
lords of Ireland. He was now styled Earl 
of Ulster as well as Earl of March. But 
important as were the immediate results of 
Edmund's marriage, the ulterior results were 
even more far-reaching. The descendants of 
Philippa before long became the nearest re- 
presentatives of the line of Edward III, and 
handed on to the house of York that claim 
to the throne which resulted in the Wars of 
the Roses. And not only the legitimist claim 
but the territorial strength of the house of 
York was almost entirely derived from the 
Mortimer inheritance. 

In 1369 Mortimer became marshal of Eng- 
land, an office which he held until 1377. In 
the same year he served against the French. 
On 8 Jan. 1371 he received his first sum- 
mons to parliament (Lords' Report on Dig- 
nity of a Peer, iv. 648). In 1373 he received 
final livery of his own estates. On 8 Jan. 
1373 he was sent as joint ambassador to 
France, and in March of the same year he was 
chief guardian of the truce with Scotland 
(DOYLE, Official Baronage, ii. 468). The 
Wigmore family chronicler (Monasticon, vi. 
353) boasts of the extraordinary success with 
which he discharged these commissions, and 
erroneously says that he was only eighteen 
at the time. In 1375 he served in the ex- 
pedition sent to Brittany to help John of 
Montfort, and captured the castle of Saint- 
Mathieu (WALSINGHAJI, Hist. Angl. i. 318- 
319 ; FROISSART, viii. 212, ed. Luce). 

Mortimer's close association with the 
Prince of Wales and his old guardian, Wil- 
liam of Wykeham, necessarily involved an 
attitude of hostility to John of Gaunt. An- 
cient feuds between the houses of March and 
Lancaster still had their effects, and Ed- 
mund's dislike of Gaunt was strengthened 
by a feeling that Lancaster was a possible 
rival to the claims of his wife and son to the 
succession. Accordingly he took up a strong 
line in favour of the constitutional as against 
the court party, and was conspicuous among 
the aristocratic patrons of the popular opposi- 
tion in the Good parliament of 1376. He was, 
with Bishop Courtenay of London, the leader 
of the committee of twelve magnates ap- 
pointed at the beginning of the session, on 




28 April, to confer with the commons (Hot. 
Par/, ii. 322 ; Chron. Anglice, 1328-88, p. 70 ; 
STUBBS, Const. Hist. ii. 428-9). The commons 
showed their confidence in him by electing 
as their speaker Sir Peter De la Mare, his 
steward, who, as knight of the shire for 
Herefordshire, Svas probably returned to par- 
liament through his lord's influence [see DE 
LA MARE, SIR PETER]. A vigorous attack 
on the courtiers was now conducted by the 
commons under their speaker ; but the death 
of the Black Prince on 8 June weakened the 
effect of their action. John of Gaunt now 
sought to obtain from parliament a settle- 
ment of the succession in the case of the 
death of the Black Prince's only son, Richard. 
He even urged that, as in France, the suc- 
cession should descend through males only, 
thus openly setting up his own claims against 
those of the Countess of March ( Chron. Angl. 
1328-88, pp. 92-3). The commons prudently 
declined to discuss the subject. Yet even 
with the support of the knights, the Earl 
of March and the constitutional bishops were 
not strong enough of themselves to resist 
Gaunt and the courtiers. But they continued 
their work until the end of the session, on 
6 July, their last care being to enforce the 
appointment of a permanent council, some 
members of which were always to be in at- 
tendance on the king. The Earl of March was 
among the nine additional persons appointed 
to this council (ib. pp. Ixviii, 100). But as 
soon as the parliament was dissolved, Lan- 
caster, in the king's name, repudiated all its 
acts. The new councillors were dismissed, 
and March was ordered to discharge his 
office as marshal by surveying the defences of 
Calais and other of the more remote royal 
castles (ib. p. 107), while his steward, De la 
Mare, was thrown into prison. But March, 
' preferring to lose his staff rather than his 
life,' and believing that he would be waylaid 
and murdered on the narrow seas, resigned 
the office of marshal (ib. p. 108). 

After the accession of Richard II (21 June 
1377), power remained with Lancaster, 
though he now chose to be more concilia- 
tory. March's position was moreover im- 
mensely improved. The king was a young 
child. The next heir by blood was March's 
own son. On 16 July 1377 March bore the j 
second sword and the spurs at the corona- 
tion of the little king. He was not, how- 
ever, in a position to claim any great share 
in the administration, and contented him- ' 
self with a place on the new council of i 
government, into whose hands power now 
fell (Fcedera, iv. 10 ; STTTBBS, Const. Hist. 
11. 442). But he was as strong as ever in 
parliament. He was among the lords whose 

advice, as in 1376, was requested by the par- 
liament of October 1377, and had the satis- 
faction of seeing his steward again elected as 
the speaker of this assembly. It was a fur- 
ther triumph when the young king was 
forced by the commons to remodel his coun- 
cil, and when March was one of the nine 
members of the new and extremely limited 
body thus selected (ib. ii. 444 ; cf. Chron. AngL 
p. 164). On 1 Jan. 1378 he was appointed 
chief member of a commission to redress in- 
fractions of the truce with Scotland (Fcedera, 
iv. 26 ; cf. Chron. Angl. p. 203), and on 20 Jan. 
was put first on a commission appointed to 
inspect and strengthen the fortifications of 
the border strongholds of Berwick, Carlisle, 
Roxburgh, and Bamburgh (DoTLE, Official 
Baronage, ii. 468). On 14 Feb. 1379 he was 
sent with other magnates on a special em- 
bassy to Scotland. 

On 22 Oct. 1379 March was appointed 
lieutenant of Ireland (Fcedera, iv. 72). It 
w r as convenient for the party of Lancaster to 
get him out of the way, and his great inte- 
rests in Ireland gave him a special claim to 
the thankless office. Those parts of the island, 
Ulster, Conuaught, and Meath, over which he 
bore nominal sway, had long been the most 
disorderly districts; and so far back as 1373 
the English in Ireland had sent a special 
commission to Edward III representing that 
the only way of abating the evils that were 
rampant in those regions was for the king to 
force the Earl of March to dwell upon his 
Irish estates and adequately defend them. 
Partly then to enter upon the effectual pos- 
session of his own estates ('ad recuperan- 
dum comitatum suum de Holuestre,' MONK 
or EVESHAM, p. 19), and partly to set the 
king's rule on a better footing, March now- 
accepted the government of Ireland for three 
years. He stipulated for good terms. He 
was to have twenty thousand marks paid over 
to him, from which he was to provide troops, 
but he was not to be held accountable to the 
crown for his expenditure of the money. He 
was also to have the disposal of the king's 
ordinary revenue in Ireland. Before he left 
his Welsh estates he made his will, dated 
1 May 1380, at Denbigh, the contents of 
which are summarised in Dugdale's ' Baron- 
age,' i. 149, and printed in Nichols's ' Royal 
Wills,' pp. 104-16. On 15 May 1380 March 
arrived in Ireland (Cart., fyc., of St. Mary's, 
Dublin, ii. 284), having among his other at- 
tendants a herald of his own, called March 
herald. His first work was to establish him- 
self in his wife's Ulster estates. In Eastern 
Ulster his arms were successful, the more so 
as some of the native chieftains threw them- 
selves on his side, though these before lon-g 




deserted him, on account of his treacherous 
seizure of an important Irish leader, Magen- 
nis, lord of Iveagh, in what is now co. Down. 
But the O'Neils ruled without a rival over 
Western Ulster, and March could not even 
draw a supply of timber from the forests of the 
land that was nominally his own. He had 
to bring the oak timber used to build a bridge 
over the Bann, near Coleraine, from his 
South Welsh lands on the Usk. This bridge 
was protected by fortifications at each end 
and by a tower in the middle ; thus only was 
it prevented from being captured by the Irish. 
March also made some efforts to obtain pos- 
session' of Connaught, and succeeded in cap- 
turing Athlone from the O'Connors, and thus 
secured the passage over the Shannon. But 
Kilkenny Castle was now assailed by the 
Hibernised Norman sept of the Tobyns, to re- 
venge the imprisonment of their chief within 
its walls. This and other business drew the 
viceroy into Munster. There he caught cold 
in crossing a river in winter time, and on 
27 Dec. 1381 he died at the Dominican friary 
at Cork (GILBERT, Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 
234, 242-7, gives the best modern account of 
March's Irish government). The Anglo-Irish 
writers, who thoroughly knew the difficulties 
of his position, say that after great efforts he 
appeased most of the wars in Ireland ( Cart,, 
#c., of St. Mary's, Dublin, ii. 285). In Eng- 
land his government of Ireland was regarded 
as pre-eminently wise and successful (' mul- 
tum de hoc quod amisit recuperavit,' MONK OF 
EVESHAM, p. 19 ; Chron. Any 1. p. 334 ; ADAM 
OP USE, p. 21). 

According to the directions in his will, 
March's body was interred on the left hand of 
the high altar of Wigmore Abbey (NICHOLS, 
p. 104). An Irish chronicle speaks of his 
being buried in the church of the Holy Trinity 
at Cork, but this probably only refers to the 
more perishable parts of his body ( Cart.. $-c., 
of St. Mary's, Dublin, ii. 285). March had 
been an extremely liberal benefactor to Wig- 
more Abbey, the chief foundation of his an- 
cestors. The old fabric of the abbey church 
had become decayed and ruinous, and March 
granted lands in Radnor and elsewhere to 
the value of two thousand marks a year for 
its reconstruction. He laid the foundation- 
stone of the new structure with his own 
hands, and by the time of his death the walls 
had been carried up to their appointed height, 
and were only wanting a roof. He also pre- 
sented to the canons costly vestments and 
many relics, especially the body of St. Seiriol, 
and a large piece of the wood of the true 
cross. He further promised, when he took 
his departure from the canons of Wigmore 
as he went to Ireland, that on his safe return 

he would confer on them the advowson of 
three churches and the appropriation of Stoke 
Priory. Further benefactions were made by 
him in his will, including a rare and choice 
j collection of relics. For all this liberality 
he is warmly commended by the Wigmore 
annalist (Monasticon, vi. 353), who quotes 
the eulogistic epitaph of the grateful canons, 
which celebrated his constancy, wisdom, 
popularity, and bounty. March supported 
Adam of Usk, his tenant's son, when the 
future chronicler was studying civil and 
canon law at Oxford (ADAM OP USK, p. 21), 
and in return Adam loudly celebrates his 
praises. March was also highly eulogised by 
the St. Albans chronicler, who was a warm 
partisan of the constitutional opposition. 

The Countess Philippa died before her hus- 
band, who celebrated her interment at Wig- 
more by almost regal pomp. Her epitaph 
speaks of her liberality, kindness, royal de- 
scent, and severity of morals. The children 
of Edmund and Philippa were : (1) Elizabeth, 
the eldest, born at Usk on 12 Feb. 1371, 
and married to the famous ' Hotspur,' Henry 
Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland 
[see PERCY, HENRY]. (2) Roger, also born 
at Usk on 11 April 1374 [see MORTIMER, 
ROGER VI, fourth EARL OF MARCH]. (3) Phi- 
lippa, born at Ludlow on 21 Nov. 1375, who 
became first the second wife of Richard Fitz- 
alan III, earl of Arundel [q. v.], and after- 
wards married John of St. John ; she died in 
1400 (ADAM OF USK, p. 53). (4) Edmund, 
born at Ludlow on 9 Nov. 1376, the future 
ally of Owen Glendower [see MORTIMER, SIR 
EDMUND III, 1376-1409?]. The above dates 
are from the Wigmore annalist (Monasticon, 
vi. 354), who now becomes contemporary and 
fairly trustworthy. (5) Sir John Mortimer, 
executed in 1423 for treason, and sometimes 
described as a son of Mortimer's, must, if a 
son at all, have been illegitimate (SANDFORD, 
Genealogical Hist. pp. 222-3). He is not 
mentioned in March's will. 

[Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 352-4 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 148-50; Doyle's Official Baronage,ii. 
468-9 ; Eolls of Parliament ; Rymer's Feeders ; 
Chron. Angl. 1328-88 (Rolls Ser.); Adam of Usk, 
ed. Thompson ; Chartularies, &c., of St. Mary's 
Abbey, Dublin (Rolls Ser.) ; Froissart, ed. Luce ; 
Monk of Evesham,ed. Hearne; Sandford's Genea- 
logical Hist, of the Kings of England, pp. 221 
223 ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland ; Wright's 
Hist, of Ludlow ; Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii.} 

T. F. T. 

(1376-1409 ?), was the youngest child of Ed- 
mund de Mortimer (II), third earl of March 
[q. v.], and his wife Philippa, the daughter of 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, and heiress of Ulster. 




He was born at Ludlow on Monday, 9 Nov. 
1376. Portents attended his birth. At the 
very moment he came into the world it was 
believed that the horses in his father's stables 
were found standing up to their knees in 
blood (MoNZ OF EVESHAM, p. 179 ; Ann. 
Hen. IV, apud TKOKELOWE, p. 349). These 
stories are very generally but erroneously 
transferred to Owen Glendower [q. v.] His 
baptism was put off on the expectation of the 
arrival of John Swaff ham, bishop of Bangor, 
who had been asked to be his godfather, but 
took place on 18 Nov., despite the bishop's 
absence, the Abbots of Evesham and Wig- 
more and the Lady Audley acting as his 
sponsors. Next day, however, the bishop 
arrived and administered to him the rite 
of confirmation {Monasticon, vi. 354). His 
father died when he was only five years old, 
but left him well provided for, bequeathing 
him land of the yearly value of three hundred 
marks (NICHOLS, Royal Wills, p. 113). On 
the death of his eldest brother, Roger Mor- 
timer VI, fourth earl of March [q. v.], on 
15 Aug. 1398, Edmund became, by reason of 
the minority of his nephew, Edmund Mor- 
timer IV [q. v.], the most prominent repre- 
sentative of the family interests in the Welsh 
marches. When Henry of Lancaster passed 
through the marches on his way to his final 
triumph over Richard II, in North Wales, 
Mortimer at once adhered to his rising for- 
tunes, and on 2 Aug. 1399 went with the 
Bishop of Hereford to make his submission 
to Henry at Hereford (MONK OF EVESHAM, p. 
153). This may account for his not being 
involved in the suspicions which Richard II's 
patronage of the Mortimer claims to the suc- 
cession might reasonably have excited. He 
resided on his estates, and when the revolt 
of Owen Glendower [q. v.] broke out was 
closely associated with his brother-in-law, 
Henry Percy [q. v.], the famous Hotspur, in 
the measures taken for putting down the 
"Welsh rebel. At last, in June 1402, Glen- 
dower made a vigorous attack on Melenydd, 
a Welsh marchland district, including much 
of the modern Radnorshire, an ancient pos- 
session of the house of Mortimer. He took 
up a position on a hill called Brynglas, 
between Pilleth and Knighton, not very far 
from Ludlow ('juxta Pylale' MONK OF EVES- 
HAM, p. 178; 'Knighton' ADAM OF USE, p. 
75 ; Monasticon, vi. 354). Edmund Mortimer 
was at the time at ' his own town ' of Lud- 
low, and at once raised the men of Hereford- 
shire and marched against Glendower (Due- 
DALE, Baronage, i. 151, here confuses Edmund 
with his nephew the Earl of March). His 
Welsh tenants of Melenydd obeyed his sum- 
mons and joined his forces. On 22 June 

Mortimer attacked Glendower on his hill. 
He gallantly climbed up the mountain-side, 
but his Welsh followers, no doubt from sym- 
pathy with Glendower, ran away after a poor 
show of resistance, while some of the Welsh 
archers actually turned their weapons against 
Mortimer and his faithful adherents {Ann. 
Hen. IV, p. 341). The English fought better, 
but after losing largely, two hundred men 
(Moinc OF EVESHAM, pp. 178, 1100 ; Ann. 
Hen. IV, p. 341), the victory declared against 
them, and Edmund, with many others, fell 
into the hands of Owen. This disaster was 
looked upon as fulfilling the grim portent 
that had attended his birth. 

Owen took his captive to the ' mountains 
and caves of Snowdon,' but he treated him 
not only kindly but considerately, hoping to 
get political profit from his prisoner, and 
professing to regard him as a possible future 
king of England. But his powerful kins- 
folk, foremost among whom were the Per- 
cies, busied themselves about procuring his 
ransom. But sinister rumours were abroad 
that Mortimer had himself sought the cap- 
tivity into which he had fallen {Ann. 
| Hen. IV, p. 341), and Henry now forbade 
' the Percies to seek for their kinsman's libera- 
i tion (Cont. Eulog. Hist. iii. 396 ; HAKDYNG, 
i pp. 360-1, ed. 1812). On 19 Oct. the king 
took the decisive step of seizing Mortimer's 
plate and jewels and taking them to the 
treasury (DEVON, Issues of the Exchequer, p. 
! 295). Mortimer's fidelity, already perhaps 
wavering, was altogether shaken by the king's 
: vigorous action. The weariness of captivity, 
or fear of death, or some more recondite and 
1 unknown cause {Ann. Hen. IV. p. 349), now 
led him to make common cause with his cap- 
tor. About 30 Nov. (MONK OF EVESHAM, 
|p. 182) he married Glendower's daughter, 
with great pomp and solemnity (ib. p. 182 ; 
Ann. Hen. IV, p. 349: ' Nuptias satis humiles 
et suss generositati impares,' cf. ADAM OF USK, 
p. 75). Early in December Mortimer was 
back in Melenydd as the ally of Owen, and on 
13 Dec. he issued a circular to ' all the gentles 
and commons of Radnor and Presteign,' in 
which he declared that he had joined Owen 
in his efforts either to restore the crown to 
King Richard, should the king prove to be 
still alive, or should Richard be dead, to 
confer the throne on his honoured nephew 
(the Earl of March), ' who is the right heir 
to the said Crown ' (ELLIS, Original Letters, 
2nd ser. i. 24-6). Most of the Mortimer 
lands in Wales, Melenydd, Gwrthrenion, 
Rhaiadr, Cwmteuddwr, Arwystli, Cyveiliog, 
and Caereineon were already in his hands. 

The revolt of the Percies rapidly followed 
these transactions, but not even the defeat at 




Shrewsbury affected the position of Glen- 
dower and his English ally. The famous treaty 
of partition, which was perhaps signed in 
the house of the Archdeacon of Bangor on 
28 Feb. 1405, was the work of Owen and his 
son-in-law (ib. ir. i. 27-8). In the three- 
fold division of the kingdom which it pro- 
posed, Mortimer (his nephew's claims are 
now put on one side) was to have the whole 
of the south of England, though an engage- 
ment in which he resigned the marchland 
districts, in which his family was supreme, 
to Owen clearly bore the marks of coercion. 
But the whole question of the triple parti- 
tion is a difficult and doubtful one. It plainly 
stands in close connection with the attempted 
abduction of the Earl of March in the same 
month and Northumberland's second rising 
(RAMSAY, Lancaster and York, i. 86). But 
the failure of the general English attacks on 
Henry gradually reduced Glendower's re- 
volt to its original character of a native 
Welsh rising against the English, and, from 
this point of view, Mortimer's help was much 
less necessary to him than from the stand- 
point of a general Eicardian attack on Henry 
of Lancaster. Mortimer therefore gradually 
sank into the background. After 1404 his 
father-in-law's cause began to lose ground, 
and Mortimer himself was soon reduced to 

geat distress. He was finally besieged in 
arlech Castle by the now victorious Eng- 
lish, and perished miserably during the siege 
(ADAM OP USK, p. 75). This was probably 
in the summer of 1409 (TYLER, Henry V, i. 
230). Some of his strange adventures were 
commemorated in songs (ADAM OP USK, p. 75). 
By Owen's daughter Mortimer had one son, 
named Lionel, and three daughters. She, 
with her family, was already in the hands of 
Henry V in June 1413, perhaps since the 
capture of Harlech, being kept in custody 
within the city of London (DEVON, Issue 
Rolls of Exchequer, p. 321 ; TYLEK, Henry V, 
i. 245). But before the end of the same year 
Lady Mortimer and her daughters were dead. 
They were buried at the expense of one 
pound within the church of St. Swithin's, 
London (DEVON, p. 327). 

[Ann. Hen. IV, apud Trokelowe (Rolls Ser.); 
Chron. Anal. ed. Giles; Monk of Evesham, ed. 
Hearne ; Adam of Usk, ed. Thompson ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, vi. 355 ; Ellis's Original Letters, 
2nd ser. vol. i. ; Bymer's Fcedera ; Kamsay's Lan- 
caster and York ; Wylie's Henry I V.] T. F. T. 

OP MARCH AND ULSTER (1391-1425), was the 
son of Roger de Mortimer (VI), fourth earl of 
March and Ulster [q. v.], and his wife Eleanor 
Holland, and was born in the New Forest on 

6 Nov. 1391 (Monasticon, vi. 355). In his 
seventh year he succeeded, by the untimely 
death of his father in Ireland, to the titles and 
estates of the Mortimers. As Richard II had 
already recognised his father as heir-presump- 
tive to the throne, the young earl himself was 
now looked upon by Richard's partisans as 
their future king. Next year (1399), however, 
the Lancastrian revolution and the fall of 
Richard entirely changed Edmund's position 
and prospects. He was now put under guard 
at Windsor on the pretext that he was the 
king's ward. His younger brother Roger 
also shared his captivity. The first parlia- 
ment of Henry IV, by recognising the new 
king's son as heir-apparent, excluded March 
from all prospects of the throne. But though 
careful to prevent the enemies of Lancaster 
getting hold of his person, Henry showed 
proper regard both for the honour and in- 
terests of his ward. In 1401 March was 
recognised as a coheir of his great-aunt 
Philippa, countess of Pembroke, and in 1409 
as one of the coheirs of his uncle Edmund 
Holland, earl of Kent (DuGDALE, Baronage, 
i. 151). He remained in the king's custody 
(ADAM OP USK, p. 61). On 5 July 1402 he 
was put under the care of Sir Hugh Water- 
ton at Berkhampstead Castle, along with the 
king's children, John and Philippa, and his 
own brother, Roger (Fcedera, viii. 268). The 
fact that his aunt was the wife of Hotspur 
was in itself sufficient to secure for him 
honourable treatment during Henry IV's 
early years. 

But the constant revolts of the Ricardian 
partisans, the defection of the Percies, and, 
above all, the association of his uncle, Sir 
Edmund Mortimer [q. v.], with Owen Glen- 
dower, made the safe custody of the Ricardian 
pretender essential to the security of the 
Lancastrian dynasty, especially after it be- 
came an avowed object of Glendower and 
his English associates to make the Earl of 
March king of England. Early in 1405 March 
and his brother were at Windsor, when on 
the early morning of 13 Feb. a bold attempt 
was made to carry them off to join Glen- 
dower and their uncle in Wales. A black- 
smith was bribed to make false keys (WAL- 
SINGHAM, Ypodigma Neustrice, p. 412), and the 
children were successfully removed from the 
castle. They were, however, very soon re- 
captured, and Lady le Despenser, the daugh- 
ter of Edmund of Langley, and the mistress 
of Edmund, earl of Kent, uncle of the two 
boys, was on 17 Feb. brought before the coun- 
cil charged with the offence (Ann. Hen. IV, 
p. 398 ; cf. RAMSAY, Lancaster and York, i. 
83-4). The question of the safe custody of 
the young Mortimers was brought before the 




council and measures taken that they should 
be henceforth guarded with even greater 
strictness, especially during the absence of 
the king (Ord. Privy Council, ii. 106, ed. 
[Nicolas). In 1406 they were put under the 
charge of Richard de Grey ( Rolls of Parl. iii. 
590). In 1409 the custody of the earl (his 
brother Roger died about this time) was con- 
fided to Henry, prince of Wales, afterwards 
Henry V (TYLER, Henry V, i. 236-7 ; Monas- 
ticon, vi. 355). March still remained under 
restraint until Henry IV's death in 1413. ; 
At the time of the coronation of Henry V, 
revolts in favour of the Mortimer claims to 
the throne were still expected (Religieux de 
Saint-Denys, iv.770, in ' Documents Inedits '). 
Nevertheless, Henry V felt his position so j 
assured that he released March from con- j 
finement and restored him to his estates . 
(Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer, v. | 
170). In the next parliament March per- ; 
formed homage and took his seat. The day 
before Henry's coronation he had been made 
a knight of the Bath (DOYLE). 

March repaid Henry's generosity by fide- 
lity that withstood the severest temptations. 
His friends urged him to claim his rights, and 
his confessors imposed penances upon him 
for his negligence in asserting them (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 2nd ser. i. 44-9 ; NICOLAS, 
Battle of Agincourt, App. pp. 19-20). At 
last, in 1415, Richard, earl of Cambridge 
[q. v.], who had married Mortimer's sister 
Anne, formed a plot to take him to Wales 
and have him proclaimed king there (ib. p. 
19). March's own relations to the plot are 
not easy to determine. It is clear that he 
was sounded carefully, and the confessions 
of the conspirators represent that he had 
entered to a considerable extent into their 
plans (ELLIS, Original Letters, 2nd. ser. i. 45, 
' by his owne assent ; ' Deputy-Keeper's Forty- 
Third Report, pp. 582-94). It seems at least 
certain that a dependent of his, named Lucy, 
who acted as a go-between, was implicated. 
But March's own account was that he refused 
to join the conspirators. Anyhow, he di- 
vulged all that he knew to the king, whether 
under pressure or spontaneously is not quite 
clear (Gesta Hen. V, Engl. Hist. Soc. ; 
MOXSTRELET, ii. 81, ed. Douet d'Arcq). Henry 
fully accepted March's protestations, and con- 
tinued to regard him with high favour, putting 
him on the commission which on 5 Aug. con- 
demned Cambridge to immediate execution 
(Rot. Parl. iv.64-6). Immediately afterwards 
March accompanied Henry V on his first in- 
vasion of France, appearing with a following 
of sixty men-at-arms and 160 horse archers 
(NICOLAS, p. 373). During the siege of Har- 
fleur March suffered severely from the pre- 

vailing epidemic of dysentery ( WALSINGHAM, 
Hist.Angl. ii. 309 ; CAPGRAVE, Chron.-p. 311), 
and was allowed to return home, though he 
is often said to have been one of those present 
at Agincourt. In 1416 March again saw ser- 
vice, being appointed on 15 Aug. as one of 
the king's captains at sea over the expedition 
sent to relieve Harfleur, under the command 
of John, duke of Bedford, and Sir Walter 
Hungerford. He served again in 1417 and 
1418 in the army which invaded and con- 
quered Normandy. He was at the head of 
ninety-three lances and 302 archers (App. 
to Gesta Hen. V, p. 266). In the spring of 
1418 he made an attack on the Cotentin, 
and besieged Saint-L6, and was later joined 
by Gloucester, who took the town (Chron. 
Norm, in Gesta. Hen. V, pp. 231-2). After 
the capture of Cherbourg had completed the 
conquest of the Cotentin, March rejoined 
Henry V at Rouen at the end of November 
(ib. p. 241). On 12 June 1418 he was ap- 
pointed atLouviers lieutenant in the marches 
of Normandy (DoYLE, ii. 470), and in October 
1418 lieutenant of the baillages of Caen and 
Coutances. On 27 Aug. 1419 he was further 
nominated as captain of Mantes (ib. ; cf. App. 
to Gesta Hen. V, p. 277). In July 1420 
March was at the siege of Melun (ib. p. 144). 
He remained with Henry in France, until in 
February 1421 he returned with the king and 
his new wife, Catharine of France, to London, 
travelling from Rouen by way of Amiens and 
Calais ( Chron. Norm, apud Gesta Hen. V, p. 
257). On 21 Feb. he bore the first sceptre at 
the coronation of the queen at Westminster. 
In June 1421 March accompanied Henry on 
his third and last expedition to France. He 
took part in the siege of Meaux in January 
1422, lodging at the house of the Cordeliers 
(ib. pp. 260-79). After Henry's death he 
returned to England and was nominated a 
member of the council of regency established 
on 9 Dec. 1422, and on 9 May 1423 was ap- 
pointed, as his father and grandfather had 
been, lieutenant of Ireland, with power, how- 
ever,to select a deputy (Foedera^. 282). That 
power he at once exercised in favour of Ed- 
ward Dantsey, bishop of Meath, and remained 
in England. But troubles now beset him. 
His cousin (GRAFTOX) or illegitimate uncle 
(SANDFORD), Sir John Mortimer, who had 
been arrested in 1421 as a suspected traitor, 
had escaped in 1422, but being recaptured in 
1424 was attainted and executed. Even 
before this Humphrey, duke of Gloucester 
[q. v.l, the protector, had become jealous of 
March for his keeping open house, and had 
violently quarrelled with him (Chron. ed. 
Giles, p. 6). The result was that March was 
now sent out of the way to Ireland. On 




14 Feb. 1424 shipping was ordered for his 
iourney. It was high time he went, for many 
of the Irish lords were questioning the 
authority of his deputy, and the chronic con- 
fusion there was getting worse than ever. 
So far back as 1407 great loss had been in- 
flicted on his Irish estates by the invasion of 
Ulster by the Earl of Orkney (ADAM OP 
USK, p. 61). After his arrival March busied 
himself in negotiating with the native septs, 
who held nearly all his nominal earldom of 
Ulster ; but on 19 Jan. 1425 he was cut off 
suddenly by the plague. 

By his wife Anne, daughter of Edmund 
de Stafford, earl of Stafford, Edmund left 
no family, and as his brother Roger had pre- 
deceased him, the male line of the earls of 
March became extinct, while the Mortimer 
estates went to Richard, duke of York, son 
of Richard of Cambridge and Anne Mor- 
timer, who was now recognised as Earl 
of March and Ulster (Rot. Parl. iv. 397). 
Dugdale {Baronage, i. 151-2) gives a list of 
the places of which March was seized at 
the time of his death. His widow, who 
had some difficulty in getting her dower from 
Humphrey of Gloucester, the guardian of the 
Mortimer estates, married, before 1427, John 
Holland, earl of Huntingdon (afterwards 
duke of Exeter), and died a few years later. 
At her request John Lydgate [q. v.] wrote 
his ' Life of St. Margaret.' 

The friendly Wigmore chronicler describes 
Edmund as 'severe in his morals, composed 
in his acts, circumspect in his talk, and wise 
and cautious during the days of his adversity. 
He was surnamed " the Good," by reason of 
his exceeding kindness' (Monasticon,vi.355). 
A poem attributed to Lydgate describes him 
as ' gracious in all degree ' (NICOLAS, Agin- 
court, p. 306). 

March was the founder of a college of secu- 
lar canons at Stoke-by-Clare in Suffolk. In 
that village there had long been a small Bene- 
dictine priory, which was a cell of Bee in 
Normandy. Richard II had freed the house 
from the rule of Bee by making it ' indigenous.' 
But though thus technically saved, it seemed 
likely to be involved in the common destruc- 
tion now impending on all the ' alien priories.' 
March got permission from Pope John XXII, 
in a bull dated 16 Nov. 1414, to ' secularize ' 
the foundation. The royal assent was also 
given. In 1421 March augmented its re- 
venues, and in 1423 drew up statutes for it. 
In its final form the college was for a dean 
and six prebendaries (Monasticon, vi. 1415- 
1423). A charter of March to his Welsh 
follower Maredudd ap Adda Moel is printed 
in the ' Montgomeryshire Collections,' x. 
59-60, of the Powysland Club. 

[Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 355 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 150-2; Doyle's Official Baronage, 
i. 470 ; Nicolas's Battle of Agincourt ; Eymer's 
Foedera ; Adam of Usk, ed. Thompson ; Anniles 
Henrici IV, apud Trokelowe, Kolls Ser. ; Monk 
of Evesham, ed. Hearne ; G-esta Henrici V, ed. 
Williams, Engl. Hist. Soc. ; Ellis's Original Let- 
ters, 2nd ser. vol. i. ; Kamsay's Lancaster and 
York, vol. i. ; Wylie's Henry IV. ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. vol. iii. ; Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 
319-20; Tyler's Henry V.] T. F. T. 


(1802-1878), authoress, second daughter of 
David Be van, of the banking firm of Barclay, 
Bevan, & Co., born in London in 1802, was 
religiously educated, and in 1827 passed 
through the experience of conversion. She 
at once threw herself with great zeal into 
educational work, founding parish schools 
on her father's estates, and taking an active 
and intelligent part in their management. 
Through her brother she made the acquaint- 
ance of his schoolfellow and college friend, 
Henry Edward Manning [q. v.], with whom 
she corresponded on religious topics, and on 
whom she exercised for a time a considerable 
influence. In after years at his instance she 
returned his letters, while she allowed her 
own to remain in his hands. In 1841 she 
married Thomas Mortimer, minister of the 
Episcopal Chapel, Gray's Inn Road, after 
whose death in 1850 she devoted herself to 
the care of the destitute and the afflicted. 
She died on 22 Aug. 1878, and was buried in 
the churchyard, Upper Sheringham, Norfolk. 

She is best known as the author of educa- 
tional works for the young, of which the most 
popular, ' The Peep of Day, or a Series of 
the Earliest Religious Instruction the Infant 
Mind is capable of receiving,' has passed 
through a multitude of editions, the sixth 
in 1840 and the latest in 1891, and has 
been translated into French and several bar- 
barous dialects. It was followed by little 
manuals of a similar kind, viz. ' Line upon 
Line,' London, 1837, 12mo ; ' More about 
Jesus,' London, 1839, 12mo; 'Lines left out,' 
London, 1862, 12mo; 'Precept upon Precept,' 
London, 1867, 16mo, 2nd edit. 1869. Hardly 
less deservedly popular were Mrs. Mortimer's 
manuals of elementary secular instruction, 
viz. 'Near Home, or the Countries of Europe 
described,' London, 1849, 8vo ; ' Far off, or 
Asia and Australia described/London, 1852- 
1854, 16mo, latest edit. 1890, 8vo; 'Reading 
without Tears,' London, 1857, 12mo ; 'Read- 
ing Disentangled,' London, 1862, 16mo; 
' Latin without Tears, or One Word a Day,' 
London, 1877, 8vo. 

Mrs. Mortimer also published the follow- 
ing miscellanea : 1. ' The History of a Young 




Jew, or of Alfred Moritz Myers,' Chester, 
1840 12mo. 2. The History of Job,' Lon- 
don, 1841, 18mo. 3. ' The English Mother,' 
3rd edit. 1849, 18mo. 4. The Night of 
Toil,' 4th edit. 1853, 12mo. 5. ' The Angel s 
Message, or the Saviour made known to the 
Cottager,' London, 1857, 12mo. 6. < Light 
in the Dwelling, or a Harmony of the Four 
Gospels,' London, 1858, 8vo. 7. ' Streaks of 
Light, or Fifty-two Tracts from the Bible 
for the Fifty-two Sundays of the Year,' 
London, 1861, 8vo, last edit. 1890. 8. 'The 
Apostles preaching to Jews and Gentiles,' 
London, 1873, 18mo, new edit. 1875. 9. ' The 
Captivity of Judah,' London, 1875, 18tno, 
new edit. 1870. 

[The Family Friend, 1878, p. 183 ; Keminis- 
cences, by Lord Forester, in the Times, 20 Jan. 
1892; private information ; Supplement to Alli- 
bone's Diet. ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. K. 

WHIDBORNE (1805-1871), schoolmaster 
and divine, born on 22 July 1805 at Bishops- 
teignton in Devonshire, was the eldest son 
of William Mortimer, a country gentleman of 
that place. He was educated at the Exeter 
grammar school and at Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, where he matriculated 18 March 1823, 
and obtained an exhibition. Thence he 
migrated to Queen's, where he secured a 
Michel exhibition, and was placed in the 
first class of the final classical school at 
Michaelmas 1826 with the present arch- 
deacon of Taunton, George Anthony Deni- 
son, and another. After graduating B.A. in 
1826 he engaged actively in tuition. He 
proceeded M.A. in 1829, and D.D. in 1841, 
having been ordained on 24 Feb. 1829. He was 
successively head-master of the Newcastle 
grammar school (1828) and of the Western 
proprietary school at Brompton, London 
(1833). In 1840 he was appointed, in suc- 
cession to John Allen Giles [q. v.], to the 
scene of his longest and most important 
labours, the headship of the City of London 
School. The school had been opened in 1837 
[see under CARPENTER, JOHN, 1370 P-1441 ?], 
but its prosperity had been injured by the 
action of the first head-master. Mortimer's 
administrative ability and genial manner 
rendered the success of the school certain. 
He treated with conspicuous honesty and 
fairness the large proportion of boys, not 
members of the church of England, who 
from various causes were found there. In 
1861 he had the unique distinction of seeing 
two of his scholars respectively senior 
wrangler and senior classic at Cambridge. 
Charles Kingsley read privately with him 
for ordination. Dr. Mortimer received in 

1864 the honorary prebend of Consumpta per 
mare in St. Paul's, and for many years was 
evening lecturer at St. Matthew's, Friday 
Street. At Michaelmas 1865 he resigned 
his head-mastership, and for the next few 
years interested himself actively in the 
Society of Schoolmasters and other educa- 
tional institutions. He died 7 Sept. 1871, 
at Rose Hill, Hampton W T ick, and was buried 
in Hampton churchyard. He married in 
1830 Jane, daughter of Alexander Gordon 
of Bishopsteignton ; and by this lady, who 
still survives, he left a numerous family. 

Besides two sermons, Mortimer published 
while at Newcastle a pamphlet entitled 
' The Immediate Abolition of Slavery com- 
patible with the Safety and Prosperity of 
the Colonies' (1833, 8vo). 

[Information from the family; personal know- 
ledge.] J. H. L. 

MORTIMER, HUGH(I)DE (<Z. 1181), 
lord of Wigmore and founder of Wigmore 
Priory, was, according to the common ac- 
counts, the son of Ralph I de Mortimer 
[q. v.l, and in any case his father's name 
was Ralph (Brut y Tywysoyion, ed. Evans, 
p. 312). The only direct authority that 
makes him the son of the Domesday baron 
seems, however, to be the late and half- 
mythical history of Wigmore Priory, printed 
in the ' Monasticon,' vi. 348 sq., which, be- 
sides many statements directly at variance 
with known facts, gives an altogether fabu- 
lous account of Hugh's marriage, maintain- 
ing that his father, in his lifetime, fetched for 
him as his wife, from Normandy, ' Matilda 
Longespey, filiamWillelmi Longespey ducis 
Normannise,' who died in 942 ! It is hard to 
dogmatise when there is so little direct evi- 
dence, and Mr. Eyton and other good modern 
authorities accept the statement of the Wig- 
more annalist ; but it seems more likely that 
a generation has been omitted, and that Hugh 
was really grandson of Ralph I de Mortimer, 
than that the latter begot in extreme old age 
a son, who succeeded without question to 
the paternal estates (Shropshire, iv. 200-1). 

The troubled reign of Stephen gave ample 
opportunities to a great baron who was power- 
ful, ambitious, and capable to extend his 
power. Hugh took little part in general 
politics, and it is uncertain whether he was 
a partisan of Stephen or Matilda. His main 
object was to strengthen his local position as 
the chief potentate of the middle marches of 
Wales. Stephen from the first recognised 
his power. The patent by which the king 
strove to create Robert de Beaumont earl of 
Hereford in 1140 especially reserved the 
rights of Hugh, who seems to have had excep- 




tional franchises and wide jurisdiction within 
his barony (DuxcuMB, Herefordshire, i. 232 ; 
EYTON, Shropshire, iv. 201 ; cf., however, art. 
BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE, 1104-1168). A few 
years later there were severe feuds between 
Hugh and Miles, earl of Hereford, a foremost 
enemy of Stephen, and Hugh continued the 
quarrel with Miles's son Roger. Nor was this 
Mortimer's only local feud. He carried on a 
fierce warfare with Joce de Dinant, lord of 
Ludlow, a partisan of the Lacys, who had 
formerly held that town and castle. He 
blockaded Ludlow so straightly that Joce 
was unable to move in or out of his abode. 
Despairing of prevailing by strength, Joce had 
recourse to treachery. He laid an ambush, 
which waylaid and captured Mortimer as he 
was travelling alone. For some time Mor- 
timer was kept in prison, and only obtained 
his release by the payment of an extortionate 
ransom (Monasticon, vi. 346). A tower in 
Ludlow Castle, now called Mortimer's Tower, 
is sometimes said to be the place of Hugh's 
imprisonment ; but being in the Gothic style, 
it must be two generations later in date 
(CLARK, Medieval Military Architecture, ii. 
275). In 1144 Hugh repaired the castle of 
Cemaron, and conquered Melenydd a second 
time (Brut y Tyioysogion, p. 312, s.a. 1143). 
In 1144 or 1145 he captured and imprisoned 
the Welsh prince Rhys ab Howel, whom in 
1148 he blinded in his prison (Annales Cam- 
brics, pp. 43-4 ; cf. Bruty Tywysogion, p. 312). 
Next year (1146) he slew another chieftain, 
Maredudd ab Howel (AnnalesCambrice,-p. 43). 
He ruled Melenydd for the rest of his life 
(Monasticon,vi. 349), and built several strong 
castles therein. Moreover, he took advantage 
of the king's weakness to get possession of the 
royal castle of Bridgnorth, which thereupon 
became, with Cleobury and Wigmore, the 
chief centre of his power. 

The accession of Henry II put an end to 
the overweening power of Mortimer, but he 
would not resign his castles and authority 
without a last desperate effort to hold his own. 
He made common cause with his rival and 
neighbour, Earl Roger of Hereford, and forti- 
fied his own castles of Cleobury and Wigmore, 
along with the royal stronghold of Bridg- 
north, thus proposing to shut the king out of 
a royal castle. Earl Roger soon deserted 
him, and submitted to Henry on 13 March 
i. 162). But Hugh resolved singlehanded 
to carry on his resistance. Henry's delay, 
through the important business which de- 
tained him most of April at his Easter 
court of Wallingford, gave Hugh plenty of 
time. On Henry marching westwards the 
three castles were all ready for defence. The 

king thereupon divided his army into three 
divisions, and directed each section to under- 
take, simultaneously, the siege of one of Mor- 
timer's strongholds. In May 1 155 Henry him- 
self besieged Bridgnorth, and a great gather- 
ing of magnates, the whole military force 
of England, was mustered under its walla. 
Cleobury was easily captured and destroyed 
of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I, iv. 184, 
Rolls Ser.) But Bridgnorth and Wigmore 
held out longer, and it was not until 7 July 
that Mortimer, driven to despair, was forced 
to make his submission to the king and sur- 
render the two castles (ib. iv. 185 ; cf., how- 
ever, WILLIAM OF NEWBURGH, ed. Howlett, i. 
105, which says that Bridgnorth was taken 
after a few days). Hugh was too strong to 
be dealt with severely. While surrendering 
Bridgnorth, he was allowed to retain posses- 
sion of his own two castles. Mr. Eyton (Shrop- 
shire, iv. 203-4) quotes evidence to show that 
the special immunities which Mortimer had 
inherited with his Shropshire barony were 
still continued under him and his successors. 
He owed no military service. He never, save 
on one occasion in each case, contributed to- 
wards aids and scutages, while his land was 
omitted in the general list of knights' fees 
contained in the Black Book of the Ex- 
chequer. But, however great his power con- 
tinued as a landlord, Hugh ceased for the 
future to play any great part in English 
politics. His further proceedings can only 
be traced by a few entries in the Pipe Rolls, 
from which he appears to have been very 
slow in paying his debts to the exchequer. 

The great work of piety enjoined upon 
Hugh by Ralph Mortimer gave increasing 
occupation for his declining years. A French 
history of the foundation of Wigmore Priory, 
printed in the ' Monasticon,' vi. 344-8, sup- 
plies a minute and circumstantial account of 
the steps taken by Hugh to carry out his 
predecessor's wishes, and seems to be more 
trustworthy than the Latin annals of the 
foundation printed in the same collection, 
which have so often led astray the biographers 
of the Mortimers. Oliver de Merlimond, 
Hugh's steward, had built a church on his 
own estate at Shobden, and invited three 
canons of Saint- Victor at Paris to occupy it ; 
but soon afterwards he attached himself to his 
master's foe, Earl Miles of Hereford. Morti- 
mer was induced by Robert of Bethune, bishop 
of Hereford, not only to spare Oliver's church 
at Shobden, but to promise to confer on its 
canons the three prebends in Wigmore Church 
which Ralph Mortimer had established. Mor- 
timer proved long unmindful of his promise, 
but at length transferred the foundation to a 




superior site called Eye, near the river Lug, 
whence he again removed it to Wigmore 
town. Thenceforth it was known as AVigmore 
Priory. But the brethren complained that 
their new abode was inconvenient, and Mor- 
timer offered them a free choice of any of 
his lands. They ultimately found a fitting 
site about a mile from Wigmore, and Hugh, 
returning from the continent, visited their 
humble abode and laid the foundation-stone 
of their church. As he grew older he made 
fresh grants of lands and advowsons to the 
canons. The church was at last consecrated 
by Robert Foliot, bishop of Hereford after 
1174, and dedicated to St. James. This 
event is dated by the inaccurate family an- 
nalist in 1179. A few years later Hugh 
died at Cleobury, ' full of good works.' On 
his deathbed he was admitted as a canon 
professed, and received the canonical habit i 
from the Abbot Randolph. He was buried 
in Wigmore Abbey before the high altar. 
The date of his death is given by the Wig- 
more annalist as 26 Feb. 1185 (Monasticon, 
\i. 349 ; cf. ' Ann. Wigorn.' in Ann. Monas- 
ttci, iv. 385). But the fact that Hugh's son I 
Roger was answerable at the exchequer for i 
his father's debts in 1181 suggests that year i 
as the real date (Errox, Shropshire, iv. 204- j 
205). The misdeeds of his son Roger against 
the Welsh, and especially his murder of the 
South Welsh prince, Cadwallon, which were 
visited on Roger by two years' imprisonment, 
seem to have involved the old baron in the 
king's displeasure, and at the time of his 
death his estates were in the king's hands. 

Hugh Mortimer is described by Robert of 
Torigny as a man of extreme arrogance and 
presumption (HowLETT, iv. 184); and Wil- 
liam of Newburgh says that his pride and 
wrath were greater than his endurance (ib. 
i. 105). Giraldus Cambrensis, who speaks of 
him as an excellent knight, holds him up as 
a terrible example for his signal failure in 
1155 (' De Princ. Instruct.' in Opera, viii. 
215, Rolls Ser.) The French historian of 
the foundation of Wigmore Abbey is more 
detailed and complimentary. Hugh was of 
' lofty stature, valiant in arms, and very 
noble in speech. If the deeds that he had 
wrought in England, Wales, and elsewhere 
were put in writing, they would amount to 
a great volume ' (Monasticon, vi. 344). 

The name of Hugh's wife was apparently 
Matilda la Meschine (Journal of British 
Archceolor/ical Assoc. xxiv. 29). His sons were 
Roger I, his successor, Hugh, lord of Chel- 
marsh, Robert, founder of the Richard's Castle 
branch of the Mortimers, and Philip. Roger 
Mortimer I married Isabella de Ferrers, lost 
his Norman estates in 1204, and died on 

24 June 1214. He was the father of Hugh 
Mortimer II of Wigmore, who died in 1227 
without issue, and of Ralph Mortimer II, who 
married Gwladys Ddu (the dark), the daugh- 
ter of Lly welyn ab lorwerth, prince of Wales 
[q. v.], and was father of Roger Mortimer II 
(d. 1282) [q. v.] 

[Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 344-9 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 138-9; Eyton's Shropshire, espe- 
cially iv. 200-6; Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II, 
pp. 10, 11, 228; Stapleton's Rotuli Normannise ; 
Duncumb's Herefordshire; Wright's Hist, of Lud- 
low ; Brut y Tywysngion, ed. Rhys and Evans, 
and in Rolls Ser. ; Annales Cambrise (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Hewlett's Chron. of Stephen, Henry II, and 
Richard I (Rolls Ser.); Annales Monastic! (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Pipe Rolls of Henry II (Pipe Roll Soc.)] 

T. F. T. 

MORTIMER,, JOHN (1656 P-1736), 
writer on agriculture, only son and heir of 
Mark Mortimer, of the old Somerset family 
of that name, by his wife Abigail Walmesly, 
of Blackmore in Essex, was born in London 
about 1656. He received a commercial educa- 
tion, and became a prosperous merchant on 
Tower Hill. In November 1693 he bought 
the estate of Toppingo Hall, HatfieldPeverel, 
Essex, which he greatly improved ; a number 
of fine cedar trees planted by him on the estate 
are still in existence. Mortimer was thrice 
married. His first wife, Dorothy, born at 
Hursley, near Winchester, on 1 Aug. 1660, 
was the ninth child of Richard Cromwell, and 
it is supposed that the ex-protector's return to 
England in 1680 was prompted by a desire 
to be present at the wedding. She died in 
childbirth (14 May 1681) within a year of 
the marriage. He married, secondly, Sarah, 
daughter of Sir John Tippets, knight, sur- 
veyor of the navy, by whom he had a son and 
a daughter ; and thirdly, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Samuel Sanders of Derbyshire, by whom 
he had four sons and two daughters. The 
second son by his third wife was Dr. Crom- 
well Mortimer [q. v.] 

Mortimer's claim to remembrance is based 
upon his work entitled ' The whole Art of 
Husbandry, in the way of Managing and Im- 
proving of Land' (London, 1707, 8vo), which 
forms a landmark in English agricultural 
literature, and largely influenced husbandry 
in the last century. The writer states that 
he had read the best books on ancient and 
modern agriculture, and inspected the prac- 
tice of the most diligent husbandmen in most 
countries. After duly digesting these he had 
added his own experiences. The book, which 
treats not only of the usual branches of agri- 
culture, but also of fish-ponds, orchards, and 
of the culture of silkworms, and the making 
of cider, is justly said by Donaldson to ' form 




a very large advancement in the progress of 
agriculture from the preceding authors on the 
subject. Trees and fruits do still occupy too 
much room, but the animals are more largely 
introduced and systematically treated.' The 
work was dedicated to the Royal Society, of 
which Mortimer had been admitted a member 
in December 1705 (THOMSON, Royal Society, 
App. p. xxxi). A second edition was issued 
in 1708, and a third in 1712, ' containing 
such additions as are proper for the husband- 
man and gardiner (sic] ... to which is added 
a Kalendar, shewing what is to be done 
every month in the flower garden.' It was 
translated into Swedish by Serenius in 1727, 
and a sixth edition, with additions, and re- 
vised by Thomas Mortimer [q. v.], the writer's 
grandson, appeared in 2 vols. 8vo, 1761. 

Mortimer also wrote ' Some Considerations 
concerning the present State of Religion, 
with some Essays towards our Love and 
Union,' London, 1702, a severe indictment of 
sectarian animosities, and a sensible pam- 
phlet, 'Advice to Parents, or Rules for the 
Education of Children,' London, 1704. 

[Donaldson's Agricultural Biography, p. 41 
(containing an abstract of the contents of the 
Art of Husbandry) ; Waylen's House of Crom- 
well, 1891, p. 21; Morant's Essex, ii. 133; 
Wright's Essex, ii. 743 ; Stukeley's Diaries and 
Letters (Surtees Soc.), i. 233 n. ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. p. 687 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 


(1741-1779), historical painter, was born in 
1741 at Eastbourne, where his father owned 
a mill, and was some time collector of cus- 
toms. His uncle was a painter of some 
ability, and the boy, showing a disposition 
towards art, was sent to London and placed 
under Thomas Hudson [q. v.], the master of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Joseph Wright (of 
Derby). The latter was his fellow-pupil and 
friend in after life. Mortimer studied at the 
Duke of Richmond's sculpture gallery, at the 
Academy in St. Martin's Lane, and also under 
Cipriani, Robert Edge Pine [q. v.], and Rey- 
nolds. His youthful drawings showed much 
ability, and he carried off the first prize of the 
Society of Arts for a drawing from the antique 
in 1763, and in the following year, in com- 
petition with Romney, the premium of one 
hundred guineas for the best historical pic- 
ture, the subject being ' St. Paul converting 
the Britons.' This picture was in 1770 pre- 
sented by Dr. Bates to the church of High 
Wycombe in Buckinghamshire. He became 
a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Arts, with whom he exhibited occasionally for 
ten years ending 1773, when he was elected 
vice-president. He resided in the neigh- 
bourhood of Covent Garden, and for many 
VOL. xxxix. 

years was noted for the freedom and extra- 
vagance of his life. He was fond of com- 
pany and sports, and vain of his personal 
attractions. He is said to have shattered 
his health by his excesses. In 1775 he 
married Jane Hurrell, a farmer's daughter. 
He now became a reformed character, and 
retired to Aylesbury, where he painted a 
series called ' The Progress of Vice,' which 
was well received, but a subsequent series 
called 'The Progress of Virtue' was less 
successful. In 1778 he exhibited for the 
first time at the Royal Academy, contribut- 
ing a small whole-length family group, a 
subject from Spenser, and some landscapes. 
He was elected an associate in November of 
the same year, when he also returned to 
London, taking up his residence in Norfolk 
Street, Strand. By special grant of George III 
he was created a royal academician, but be- 
fore he could receive his diploma he was 
taken ill of fever, and, after an illness of 
twelve days, died 4 Feb. 1779. He was 
buried at High Wycombe, where his picture 
of the 'Conversion of the Britons 'still exists, 
though it has been removed from the church 
to the town-hall, and has undergone re- 
storation by H. Lovegrove. 

Nine of Mortimer's works were exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1799 after his 
death, in accordance with his wishes. They 
comprised ' The Battle of Agincourt,' ' Vor- 
tigern and Rowena,' a small landscape, and 
some washed drawings. In the South Ken- 
sington Museum there is a picture by Mor- 
timer of 'Hercules slaying the Hydra,' as 
well as two water-colours, but his pictures 
are now rarely met with, and he is best 
known by his etchings, which are executed 
in a bold, free style, and show a preference 
for subjectsof terror and wildromance. They 
are picturesque and spirited, but have a 
strong tendency to the extravagant and thea- 
trical. Some of them are studies of figures 
of banditti, &c., after Salvator Rosa and 
others, but the majority are original, and in- 
clude twelve plates of characters from Shake- 
speare, and ' Nature and Genius introducing 
Garrick into the Temple of Shakespeare.' 
Among his other works may be mentioned 
a ceiling in Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire, exe- 
cuted for Lord Melbourne, the design of ' The 
Elevation of the Brazen Serpent ' for the great 
window in Salisbury Cathedral, and some 
stained glass at Brasenose College, Oxford. 
He also designed some illustrations for 'Bell's 
Theatre' and ' Bell's Poets.' 

Some of his best designs were etched by 
Blyth. His picture of ' The Battle of Agin- 
court ' was engraved by W. W. Ryland, and 
his own portrait of himself was mezzotinted 




by Valentine Green, and etched by R. Blyth. 
The latter is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery. In the diploma gallery of the Royal 
Academy is a portrait of Mortimer by Richard 

[Redgrave's Diet. ; Kedgraves' Century of 
Painters; Bryan's Diet. ed. Graves and Arm- 
strong ; Algernon Graves's Diet. ; Wine and 
"Walnuts ; Bemrose's Life of Wright of Derby ; 
Notes and Queries, v. 108, &c., vi. 156, &c. ; 
Cunningham's Lives, ed. Heaton ; Pilkington's 
Diet. ; Edwards's Anecdotes ; Cunningham's 
Cabinet Gallery of Pictures.] C. M. 

MORTIMER, RALPH (I) DE (d. 1104?), 
Norman baron, was the son of ROGER DE 
MOKTIMER and his wife Hawise. This Roger 
was also called Roger, ' filius episcopi.' His 
father was Hugh, afterwards bishop of Cou- 
tances ; his mother was the daughter of some 
unknown Danish chieftain, and the sister 
of Gunnor, the wife of Duke Richard I of 
Normandy, and of Herfast the Dane, the 
grandfather of William FitzOsbern, earl of 
Hereford (STAPLETON, Rotuli Normannice, 
ii. cxix. ; EYTON, Shropshire, iv. 195 ; cf. Le 
Provost's note to ORDERICUS VITALIS, iii. 
236 ; PLANCHE'S art. on the genealogy of 
the family in Journal of British Archceologi- 
cal Association, xxiv. 1-35). Roger's bro- 
ther Ralph, also called ' filius episcopi,' was 
founder of the house of Warren. The house 
of Mortimer was thus connected both with 
the ducal Norman house and with the great 
family which attained later the earldom of 
Hereford, while its kinship with the lords 
of the house of Warren, earls of Surrey 
after the Norman conquest, was even more 
direct. Roger, the bishop's son, is assumed 
to have been born before 990, the date at 
which his father became bishop of Coutances, 
but if so he must have lived to a green old 
age. All the Mortimers of the period, when 
their history is uncertain, became, according 
to the traditional account, extraordinarily old 
men. In latter times, when the facts are well 
known, they lived extremely short lives. 
This Roger seems to have been the first to 
assume the name of Mortimer, which was 
taken from the village and castle of Morte- 
mer-en-Brai (mortuum mare), in the Pays de 
Caux, situated at the source of the little 
river Eaulne. In 1054 he won the victory 
of Mortemer, fought under the walls of his 
castle, against the troops of Henry I, king 
of the French (ORDERICTJS VITALIS, Hist. 
Eccl. i. 184, iii. 160, 236-7, ed. Le Prevost). 
But Roger gave oflence to Duke William by 
releasing one of his captives, and was ac- 
cordingly deprived of his castle of Mortemer, 
which was transferred to his nephew, Wil- 
liam de Warren, son of his brother Ralph, 

and afterwards first Earl of Surrey (ib. iii. 
237 ; STAPLETON, ubi supra). In the result 
Mortemer remained with the earls of Warren 
until the loss of Normandy in 1204, and 
was never restored to the house that ob- 
tained its name from it. The Mortimers 
transferred their chief seat to Saint- Victor-en 
Caux, where the priory, a cell of Saint -Ouen 
at Rouen, was in 1074 erected into an abbey 
by Roger and his wife Hawise. This is 
Roger's last recorded act. He must have 
been too old to have been present at Hast- 
ings, but some of his sons, perhaps Hugh 
(WACE, Roman de Ron, ii. 373, 740, ed. An- 
dresen), or possibly Ralph himself (Monas- 
ticon, vi. 348), appeared on his behalf. 

Ralph became his father's eventual suc- 
cessor both in Normandy and in England. 
There are no particulars about the manner 
in which he acquired his English estates, 
but he seems to have served under his kins- 
man, William FitzOsbern, earl of Hereford, 
and, if the loose traditions preserved by the 
Wigmore annalist have any foundation, to 
have done good service against Edric the Wild 
(ib. vi. 349 : cf. FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, 
iii. 737). The fact that Ralph held at the 
time of the Domesday inquest several estates 
that had once belonged to Edric may invest 
this statement with some authority (Domes- 
day, f. 183 b). However this may have been, 
the fall of the traitorous Earl Roger, son of 
William FitzOsbern, in 1074, marks the first 
establishment of the Mortimers in a leading 
position in the middle marches of Wales. 
Many of Roger's forfeited estates in Shrop- 
shire and Herefordshire were now granted by 
William the Conqueror to Ralph Mortimer, 
including the township and the castle of 
Wigmore, which had been built on waste 
ground by William FitzOsbern (Domesday, 
f. 183 b), and henceforth became the chief 
centre of the power of the Mortimers. It 
was very likely at this time that the estates 
of Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor, in- 
cluding Cleobury Mortimer, near Shrewsbury, 
in later times the chief Shropshire residence 
of the Mortimers, and Stoke Edith in Here- 
fordshire, passed from Earl Roger to Ralph 
(EYTON, Shropshire, vi. 350). Moreover, a 
fourteenth-century record speaks of Mortimer 
as the seneschal of the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
and as holding Cleobury by that title. Though 
the record is inaccurate in other particulars, 
Mr. Eyton (ib. iv. 199-200) is disposed to 
accept its statement respecting Mortimer's 
tenure of the office of seneschal. Ralph Mor- 
timer held no less than nineteen of his fifty 
Shropshire manors as sub-tenant of the Earl 
of Shrewsbury. Besides this great western 
estate, he held at the time of the Domesday 



inquest large territories in Yorkshire, Lin- 
colnshire, Hampshire, Wiltshire, and more 
scattered possessions inWorcestershire, Berk- 
shire, Somerset, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, 
and Leicestershire (ELLIS, Introduction to 
Domesday, i. 455-6). 

On the accession of William Ruf us, Ralph, 
like the other border barons, joined in the 
great rising of April 1088, of which Roger 
of Montgomery, then Earl of Shrewsbury, 
was one of the main leaders. He was among 
those who attacked the city of Worcester and 
were repulsed through the action of Bishop 
Wulfstan (FLOK. WIG. ii. 24). But the tide 
of war soon flowed from the Welsh march 
to Kent and Sussex, and when the Earl of 
Shrewsbury reconciled himself with the king, 
Mortimer probably followed the same course. 
Next year (1089), as a partisan of Rufus in 
Normandy, he joined with nearly all the other 
barons of Caux in fortifying their houses and 
levying troops to repel French invasion, and 
received for that purpose large sums of money 
from the king (ORD. VIT. iii. 319-20). He 
does not seem to have joined in the subse- 
quent feudal rebellions, and was probably 
much occupied in extending his English pos- 
sessions westwards, at the expense of the 
Welsh. The family historian makes him the 
conqueror of Melenydd, a Welsh lordship 
afterwards continually in the hands of the 
Mortimers (Monasticon, vi. 349). In 1102 the 
fall of Robert of Belleme [q. v.], the last 
Montgomery earl of Shrewsbury, by remov- 
ing the mightiest of his rivals, indirectly in- 
creased Ralph's power, and fresh estates fell 
into his hands. In 1104 his name appears 
among a long list of barons who upheld the 
cause of Henry I in Normandy against his 
brother Robert (ORD. VIT. iv. 199). This is 
probably the last authentic reference to him, 
for little trust can be placed in the statement 
of the Wigmore annalist that in 1106 he took 
a conspicuous part in the battle of Tenchebrai. 
The same writer also puts his death on 4 Aug. 
1100, six years before (Monasticon, vi. 349). 
More credence perhaps is due to the story of 
the same writer, that Ralph in his old age re- 
solved on the foundation of a monastery, a 
scheme which, under his son Hugh, finally 
resulted in the foundation of Wigmore Priory. 
He is also said to have constituted three pre- 
bends for secular canons in the parish church 
of Wigmore, which finally swelled the 
priory endowments. A late writer, Adam 
of Usk (p. 21), who had special sources of 
knowledge, says that Ralph went back to 
Normandy, and died there, perhaps in 1104, 
leaving his son Hugh in possession of Wig- 

Ralph's wife's name was Millicent, or 

Melisendis, who inherited the town of Mers, 
in Le Vimeu, in the diocese of Amiens. She 
died before her husband (STAPLETON, Rot. 
Norm. ii. cxx). Ralph is generally regarded 
as the father of Hugh Mortimer I [q. v.] 
His other children were William Mortimer, 
lord of Chelmarsh and Sidbury, and Ha wise, 
who married Stephen, earl of Albemarle or 
Aumale, and received her mother's lands as 
her marriage portion. 

[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Le Prevost (Soc. de 
1'Histoire de France) ; Florence of Worcester 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Domesday Book ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, vi. 348-9 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 
138-9; Eyton's Shropshire, especially iv. 194- 
200 ; Stapleton's Eotuli Scaccarii Normannise, 
especially n. cxix. sq. ; Stapleton in Archaeologi- 
cal Journal, iii. 1-26; Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, vol. xxiv. ; Wright's 
Hist, of Ludlow ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, 
iv. 39, 737, v. 78, 84, 754 ; and William Kufus, 
i. 34, 231.] T. F. T. 

BARON OF WIGMORE (1231 P-1282), was the 
eldest son of Ralph de Mortimer II, the fifth 
baron, and of his Welsh wife Gwladys Ddu, 
daughter of Llywelyn ab lorwerth [q. v.] 
His parents were married in 1230 ( Worcester 
Annals in Ann. Mon. iv. 421), and Roger 
was probably born in the following year. 
His father died on 6 Aug. 1246, and after 
his estates had remained in the king's hands 
for six months, Roger paid the heavy fine of 
two thousand marks, in return for which he 
received the livery of his lands on 26 Feb. 
1247. This payment may also be regarded 
as a composition for the remaining rights of 
wardship vested in the crown, since Roger 
could not yet have attained his legal ma- 
jority. Before the end of the same year, 
1247, Roger contracted a rich marriage with 
Matilda de Braose, eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of William de Braose, whom Llywelyn 
ab lorwerth had hanged in 1230, on a suspicion 
of adultery with his wife Joan (d. 1237), 
princess of Wales [q. v.] Matilda, who must 
have been her husband's senior by several 
years, brought to Mortimer a third of the 
great marcher lordship of Brecon, and a 
share in the still greater inheritance of the 
Earls Marshal, which came to her through 
her mother. Roger thus acquired the lord- 
ship of Radnor, which, like Brecon, admirably 
rounded off his Welsh and marcher estates, 
as well as important land in South Wales, 
England, and Ireland (ETTON, Shropshire, 
iv. 217). ' At this point,' Mr. Eyton says 
very truly, ' the history of the house of 
Mortimer passes from the scope of a merely 
provincial record and becomes a feature in 
the annals of a nation.' 





Mortimer was dubbed knight by Henry III 
in person, when that king was celebrating 
his Whitsuntide court of 1253 at Winchester 
(Tewkesbury Annals in Ann. Mon. i. 152). 
In August of the same year he accompanied 
the king to Gascony (DIJGDALE, Baronage, 
i. 141). He was much occupied during the 
next few years in withstanding the rising 
power of his kinsman, Llywelyn ab Gruflydd 
[q. v.], prince of Wales, who, however, in 
1256 succeeded in depriving him of his Welsh 
lordship of Gwrthrynion (Annales Cambria, 
P. 91; Bruty Tywysogiori). In January 1257 
Mortimer had letters of protection while en- 
gaged in the king's service in Wales. In 
April 1258 King Henry promised him large 
financial aid to enable him to continue his 
struggle with Llywelyn. Next year his 
wife's share of the Braose estates was finally 
determined. On 11 June 1259 Mortimer was 
among the commissioners assigned to treat 
for peace with Llywelyn. On 25 June he 
joined in signing a truce for a year with the 
Welsh prince at Montgomery (Fasdera, i. 
387). But on 17 July 1260 the Welsh 
attacked and captured Builth Castle, which 
Mortimer held as representative of Edward, 
the king's son. Edward did not altogether 
acquit him of blame (ib. i. 398; Bruty Tywys- 
offion,s.&. 1259, here unduly minimises Llyw- 
elyn's success). But in August Mortimer 
was again appointed as negotiator of a truce 
with Llywelyn, though his name does not 
appear among the signatories of the truce 
signed on 22 Aug. (EnoN, Shropshire, iv. 

On the outbreak of the great struggle 
between Henry III and the barons in 1258 
Mortimer at first arrayed himself on the 
baronial side. He was one of the twelve 
chosen by the barons to form with twelve 
nominees of the king a great council to reform 
the state. He was also appointed one of the 
permanent council of fifteen who were jointly 
to exercise the royal power. He was also 
one of the twenty-four commissioners chosen 
on behalf of the whole community to treat 
of the aid which the king required to carry 
on the Welsh war. Yet the occupation of 
Mortimer in Wales must have prevented him 
from taking a very active part in affairs at 
Westminster, though in the provisions of 
1259 he was appointed with Philip Basset to 
be always with the justiciar (Ann. Burton. 
in Ann. Mon. i. 479). Moreover, the in- 
creasingly close relations between his great 
enemy, Llywelyn of Wales, and the party of 
Montfort, must have made it extremely diffi- 
cult for Mortimer to remain long on the side 
of the barons. He had close connections with 
Richard of Clare, seventh earl of Gloucester, 

and lord of Glamorgan [q. v.], and with the 
Lord Edward, who, as holding the king's lands 
in Wales, was directly associated in interest 
with the marcher party, of which Mortimer 
was in a sense the head. But the quarrel of 
Gloucester and Montfort, and the ultimate 
breaking off of all ties between Edward and 
the Montfort party, must have relaxed the 
strongest ties that bound Mortimer to the 
party of opposition. In November 1261 the 
barons were forced to make a compromise 
with Henry, who on 7 Dec. formally par- 
doned some of his chief opponents. The 
names of Leicester and Mortimer were both 
included in this list ; but what with Leicester 
was but a temporary device to gain time 
marks with Mortimer a definite change of 
policy. Henceforth Mortimer was always 
on the royal side. All the marcher lords emu- 
lated his example, and became the strongest 
of royalist partisans. The Tewkesbury chro- 
nicler makes the hatred felt by the barons for 
Edward and Mortimer the mainspring of the 
civil troubles that now again broke out (Ann. 
Tewkesbury in Ann. Mon. i. 179). 

In June 1262 Mortimer was waging war 
against Llywelyn, who bitterly complained to 
the king of his violation of the truce (Faedera, 
i. 420), and obtained the appointment of a 
commission to investigate his complaints. 
I But Llywelyn soon took the law into his own 
hands. In November the Welsh tenants of 
j Mortimer in Melenydd rose in revolt, and 
called on Llywelyn, who in December at- 
tacked Mortimer's three castles of Knucklas, 
Bleddva, and Cevnllys ( Worcester Annals, 
p. 447 ; Fcedera, i. 423). All three castles 
were soon taken. Mortimer himself defended 
i Cevnllys, but was forced to march out with all 
j his followers, and Llywelyn did not venture 
) to assail him (ib. i. 423). However, Roger 
soon recovered this castle {Royal Letters, ii. 
229). On 18 Feb. 1263 Mortimer, with other 
border barons, received royal letters of protec- 
tion to last until 24 June, or as long as the 
war should endure in Wales. They were 
renewed in November of the same year. He 
remained in Wales, and inflicted terrible 
slaughter on his Welsh enemies. But he 
could not undo his rival's successes. His 
Brecon tenants took oaths to Llywelyn, and 
next year his castle of Radnor also fell into 
the hands of the Welsh prince's partisans. 
Some conquests made by Edward were, how- 
ever, put into his hands (RISHANGEB, De 
Bello, p. 20, Camden Soc.) His English 
enemies took advantage of his troubles with 
the Welsh to assail his English estates. The 
same December that witnessed the loss of 
the castles of Melenydd saw a fierce attack 
on his lands by John Gifiard [q. v.] (Tewkes- 




bury Annals, p. 179) : yet he hesitated not to 
provoke still further the wrath of Leicester by 
receiving a royal grant of three marcher 
townships which belonged to the earl (Dun- 
staple Ann. in Ann. Man. iii. 226). 

Mortimer was a party to the agreement to 
submit the disputes of king and baron to the 
arbitration of St. Louis. But when Leices- 
ter repudiated St. Louis's decision, Mortimer 
took a most active part in sustaining the 
king's side. He was specially opposed by 
two of Leicester's sons, Henry and Simon 
de Montfort (ib. p. 227). But while Henry 
was entangled in an attack on Edward at 
Gloucester, Mortimer with his wild band of 
marauders pursued Simon to the midlands, 
where Mortimer took a leading part in the 
capture of Northampton on 5-6 April (Ris- 
HANGER, Chron. p. 21, Rolls Ser. ; cf. LELAND, 
Collectanea, i. 174). At Lewes, Mortimer, 
with his marcher followers, succeeded in es- 
caping the worst consequences of the defeat. 
They retired to Pevensey, and, on Edward 
and Henry of Almaine being surrendered as 
hostages for their good behaviour, they were 
allowed to march back in arms to the west 
(Dunstaple Ann. pp. 232-4). On reaching 
his own district Mortimer at once prepared 
for further resistance. But Llywelyn was 
now omnipotent in Wales, and the marchers 
could expect little help from England. Ac- 
cordingly, in August they again entered into 
negotiations with the triumphant Montfort 
party and surrendered hostages (Hot. Pat. 
in BEMONT, Simon de Montfort, p. 220). But 
in the autumn Mortimer refused to attend 
Montfort's council at Oxford, and he and the 
marchers again took arms. Montfort sum- 
moned the whole military force of England 
to assemble at Michaelmas at Northampton 
in order to complete their destruction. In 
the early winter Mortimer felt the full force 
of the assault. Leicester, taking the king 
with him, marched to the west, united with 
Llywelyn, ravaged Mortimer's estates, and 
penetrated as far as Montgomery (RiSHAN GEK, 
De Hello, pp. 35-40). So hard pressed were 
the marchers that they were forced to sue for 
peace, which they only obtained on the hard 
condition that those of their leaders who, 
like Mortimer, had abandoned the baronial 
for the royal side should be exiled (ib. p. 41 ; 
cf. Ann. Londin. in STUBBS, Chron. Edward I 
and II). Mortimer was to betake himself 
to Ireland. 

The hard terms of surrender were never 
carried out. The baronial party was now 
breaking up. and the quarrel between Lei- 
cester and Gilbert of Clare, eighth earl of 
Gloucester [q. v.], gave another chance to the 
lords of the Welsh marches. At first Glouces- 

ter contented himself with persuading Mor- 
timer not to go into exile, but Gloucester 
soon retired to the west, where he concluded 
a fresh confederacy with Mortimer and his 
party and prepared again for war. Montfort 
was forced to follow him, and for security 
brought with him the captive Edward. On 
28 May 1265 Edward escaped from his cap- 
tors near Hereford. The plan of escape had 
been prepared by Mortimer, who provided 
the swift horse on which Edward rode away 

(HEMINGBT7RGH, i. 320-1, Eng. Hist. SOC.), 

and who waited with a little army of fol- 
lowers to receive Edward in Tillington Park. 
Mortimer conducted Edward to Wigmore, 
where he entertained him (Flor. Hist. iii. 2). 
It was largely through Mortimer's influence 
that the close alliance between Edward and 
Gloucester was made at Ludlow. Civil war 
rapidly followed. Mortimer took a part only 
less conspicuous than those of Edward and 
Gloucester in the campaign that terminated 
at Evesham (4 Aug.), where he commanded 
the rear-guard of the royalist forces (HEMING- 
BTJRGH, i. 323). The wild ferocity of the 
marchers was conspicuous in the shameful 
mutilation inflicted on Montfort's body, and 
in sending the head of the great earl as a 
present to Mortimer's wife at Wigmore 
(RISHANGER, De Bello, p. 46; Liber de Anti- 
quisLeffibus,ip.76; ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER). 
Mortimer's share in the struggle was by 
no means ended at Evesham. Llywelyn 
was still very formidable, and in a battle 
fought on 15 May 1266 at Brecon Mortimer's 
force was annihilated, he alone escaping from 
the field ( Waver ley Ann. in Ann. Mon. ii. 
370). But a little later in the year Mor- 
timer took a conspicuous part in the siege of 
Kenilworth, commanding one of the three 
divisions into which the king's army was 
divided (Dunstaple Ann. p. 242). He now 
received abundant rewards for his valour. 
He had the custody of Hereford Castle and 
the sheriffdom of Herefordshire. He was 
made lord of Kerry and Cydowain. His 
chief Shropshire estate of Cleobury received 
franchises, which made it an independent and 
autonomous liberty of the marcher type 
(EYTOtf, Shropshire, iii. 40, iv. 221-2). But 
his greed was insatiable. The Shropshire 
towns began to complain of the aggressions 
of his court at Cleobury. Moreover, he 
urged that the hardest conditions should be 
imposed on the ' Disinherited,' and sought 
to upset the Kenilworth compromise, fearing 
that any general measure of pardon might 
jeopardise his newly won estates. This atti- 
tude led to a violent quarrel with Gilbert of 
Gloucester, who in 1267 strongly took up 
the cause of the 'Disinherited ' (RISHANGER, 




Rolls Ser., pp. 45-6, 50, De Bella, pp. 59- 
60 ; Dunstaple Ann. p. 245). But the ulti- 
mate triumph rested with Gloucester and 
not with Mortimer, who, moreover, was sus- 
pected of plotting Gloucester's death. 

Mortimer remained for the rest of his life 
a close friend of Edward. When the king's 
son went on crusade, Mortimer was on 2 Aug. 
1270 chosen with the king of the Eomans, 
Walter, archbishop of York, and two others, 
as guardians of Edward's children, lands 
and interests, during his absence (Foedera, i. 
484). In 1271 he is found acting in that 
capacity with the archbishop, Philip Basset, 
and Robert Burnell (Letters from Northern 
Registers, p. 39 : Royal Letters, ii. 346-9). 
Even during Henry's lifetime Edward's re- 
presentatives had plenty of work to do (Let- 
ters from Northern Registers, p. 40). After 
Henry's death in November 1272 the three 
became in fact, if not in name, regents of the 
kingdom until Edward I's return in August 
1274. Their rule was peaceful but unevent- 
ful. The turbulent lord marcher now strove 
with all his might to uphold the king's peace. 
He put down a threatened rising in the north 
of England (Flor. Hist. iii. 32). He suc- 
ceeded in punishing Andrew, the former prior 
of Winchester, who violently strove to re- 
gain his position in the monastery. Mortimer 
did not scruple to disregard ecclesiastical 
privilege and imprison Andrew's abettor, the 
archdeacon of Rochester ( Winchester Ann. 
in Ann. Mon. ii. 117). 

Mortimer took a conspicuous part in Ed- 
ward I's early struggles against Llywelyn 
of Wales. On 15 Nov. 1276 he was ap- 
pointed Edward's captain for Shropshire, 
Staffordshire, Herefordshire, and the adjoin- 
ing district against the Welsh (Fcedera, i. 
537). He had some share in the campaign 
of 1277, being assigned to widen the roads 
in Wales and Bromfield to facilitate the 
march of the king's troops (Rotulus Wallice, 
6 Edward I, p. 10). He wrested many lands 
from the defeated Welsh (Cal. Patent Rolls, 
1281-92, p. 171), and received from the king 
a grant of fifty librates of waste lands (Ro- 
tulus Wallice, 8 Edward I, p. 17). He was 
still active as a justice under the king's 
commission (ib. pp. 9, 10, 36, 37). In 1279 
Mortimer, who was now growing old, solemnly 
celebrated his retirement from martial exer- 
cises by giving a great feast and holding a 
' round table ' tournament at Kenilworth, at 
which a hundred knights and as many ladies 
participated, and on which he lavished vast 
sums of money (Chron. Osney and WYKES in 
Ann. Mon. iv. 281-2 ; RISHANGER, pp. 94-5, 
Rolls Ser.) The queen of Navarre, wife of 
Edmund of Lancaster, lord of the castle, was 

treated with special honour by Mortimer, 
though the Wigmore chronicler curiously 
misunderstands his acts (Monasticon, vi. 
350). Mortimer was smitten with his mortal 
illness at Kingsland, Herefordshire, in the 
midst of the final campaign of Edward 
against Llywelyn. He was tormented about 
his debts to the crown, and fearing difficul- 
ties in the way of the execution of his will, 
obtained from Archbishop Peckham the con- 
firmation of its provisions (PECKHAM, Letters. 
ii. 499). He died on 26 Oct. 1282 ( Worcester 
Annals in Ann. Mon. iv. 481 ; cf. Osney and 
WYKES in Ann. Mon. iv. 290-1). On the 
day after his death Edward I issued from 
Denbigh a patent which, as a special favour 
' never granted to blood relation before/ de- 
clared that if Roger died of the illness from 
which he was suffering, his executors should 
not be impeded in carrying out his will by 
| reason of his debts to the exchequer, for the 
| payment of which the king would look to his 
, heirs (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, pp. 38-9). 
Adam, abbot of Wigmore, was his chief exe- 
cutor. He was buried with his ancestors in 
j the priory of Wigmore. His epitaph is given 
in ' Monasticon,' vi. 355. 

Matilda de Braose survived Mortimer for 
nineteen years. By her he had a numerous 
family. His eldest son, Ralph, who was 
made sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire 
: during the time that Mortimer was one of 
j the co-regents, died in 1275. Edmund I, 
the second son, who had been destined to 
the church, succeeded to his father's estates, 
and within six weeks of his father's death 
managed to entice Llywelyn of Wales to his 
doom. He married Margaret ' de Fendles,' 
a kinswoman of Queen Eleanor of Castile, 
and generally described as a Spaniard ; but 
she was doubtless the daughter of William 
de Fiennes, a Picard nobleman, who was 
second cousin to Eleanor through her mother, 
Joan, countess of Ponihieu(Notes and Queries, 
4th ser., vii. 318, 437-8). This Edmund died 
in 1304. He was the father of Roger Mor- 
timer, first earl of March (1287-1330) [q. v.] 
The other children of Roger Mortimer and 
Matilda de Braose include : Roger Mortimer 
of Chirk (d. 1326) [q. v.], Geoffry, William, 
and Isabella, who married John Fitzalan III, 
and was the mother of Richard Fitzalan I, 
earl of Arundel (1267-1302) [q. v.] 

[Annales Monastic! (Rolls Ser.) ; Rishanger's 
Chronicle (Eolls Ser.), and Chron. de Bello (Cam- 
den Soc.) ; Annales Cambrise (Rolls Ser.) ; Brut 
y Tywysogion, ed. Rhys and J. G. Evans, and in 
Eolls Ser. ; Flores Hist. vols. ii. and iii. (Eolls 
Ser.); Walter of Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i., Eecord ed. ; Shir- 
ley's Eoyal Letters, vol. ii. (Eolls Ser.) ; Eotulus 




Wallise, temp. Edward I, privately printed by 
Sir T. Phillips ; Eyton's Shropshire, especially 
iv. 216-23 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 141-3 ; Dug- 
dale's Monasticon, ri. 350-1 ; Wright's Hist, of 
Ludlow ; Bemont's Simon de Montfort ; Stubbs's 
Const. Hist. vol. ii. ; Blaauw's Barons' Wars.] 

T. F. T. 

CHIEK (1256 P-132G), was the third son of 
Roger Mortimer II, sixth baron of Wigmore 
[q. v.J, and his wife Matilda de Braose, and 
was therefore the uncle of Roger Mortimer IV, 
eighth lord Wigmore and first earl of March 
[q. v.] Edmund, his elder brother, the seventh 
lord of Wigmore, was born in or before 1255 
(EYTON',&Arop^ye,iv.l97),andit is probable 
that Roger was not born much later than 1256. 
Unlike his elder brother Edmund, who had 
been destined for the church, Roger was 
knighted in his father's lifetime. In 1281 he 
received license to hunt the fox and hare 
throughout Shropshire and Staffordshire, pro- 
vided that he took none of the king's great 
game ( Cal. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, p. 2). After 
his father's death in 1282, Mortimer joined 
with his brothers, Edmund, William, and 
Geoffrey, in a plot to lure Llywelyn of Wales 
into the family estates in mid Wales (Osney 
Annals in Ann. Mon. iv. 290-1 ; Worcester 
Ann. in ib. iv. 485). Llywelyn fell into the 
trap, and after his death at the hands of Ed- 
mund, Roger took his head to London as a 
grateful present to Edward I (KNIGHTON, c. 
2463, apud TWYSDEX, Decem Scriptores). At 
the same time Roger was accused before 
Archbishop Peckham, who at the time was 
holding a visitation of the vacant diocese of 
Hereford, of adultery with Margaret, wife of 
Roger of Radnor, and other women. He ag- 
gravated his offence by putting into prison 
a chaplain who had the boldness to reprove 
him for his sins. Peckham, fearing lest on 
his leaving the district the culprit might get 
off scot-free, empowered the Bishop of Llan- 
daff to act for him, and impose on Roger 
canonical penance (PECKHAM, Letters, ii. 
497-8, Rolls Ser.) 

Though a younger son, Roger had the 
good fortune lo obtain early an independent 
position for himself. Since the death of 
Gruffydd ab Madog, lord of Bromfield and 
Powys Vadog [q. v.], in 1269, the territories 
of the once important house of Powys had 
been falling into various owners' hands. In 
1277 Madog, Gruffydd's son, died, leaving 
two infant children, Llywelyn and Gruffydd, 
as his heirs. On 4 Dec. 1278 Mortimer was 
appointed by Edward I as guardian of the 
two boys. But in 1281 the two heirs were 
drowned in the Dee, late Welsh tradition 
accusing Mortimer of the deed. Thereupon 

Edward I took all their lands into his hands. 
At the time of the final settlement of Wales 
Edward made all the lands between Llyw- 
elyn's principality and his own earldom of 
Chester march-ground. On 2 June 1282 
Edward granted to Mortimer all the lands 
that had belonged to Llywelyn Vychan. 
The effect of the grant was to set up in 
favour of Roger Mortimer the new marcher 
lordship of Chirk (PALMEE, Tenures of Land 
in the Marches of North Wales, -p. 92 ; LLOYD, 
Hist, of Powys Fadog, i. 180, iv. 1-9). Roger 
was henceforward known as 'of Chirk,' and 
he built there a strong castle, which became 
his chief residence. 

Mortimer took an active share in the wars 
of Edward I. In 1287 he took a conspicuous 
part in putting down the rising of Rhys ab 
Maredudd of Ystrad Towy in Wales, and 
was ordered to remain in residence in his 
estates in that country until the revolt was 
suppressed. The Welsh annalist says that 
Rhys captured his old fortress of Newcastle 
and took Roger Mortimer, its warden, pri- 
soner(^4?m. Cambrics, p. 110). Heconstantly 
did good service for the king by enrolling 
Welsh infantry from his estates. In 1294 
he took part in the expedition to Gascony, 
and, on the recapture of Bourg and Blaye, 
was made joint governor of those towns 
( Worcester Annals in Ann. Mon. iv. 519 ; 
HEMINGBTJEGH, ii. 48, Engl. Hist. Soc.) He 
was again in Gascony three years later, and 
in 1300 and 1301 served in the campaigns 
against the Scots (DTJGDALE, Baronage, i. 
145). He was among the famous warriors 
present at the siege of Carlaverock in 1300, he 
and William of Leybourne being appointed 
as conductors and guardians of the king's son 
Edward, afterwards Edward II (NICOLAS, 
Siege of Carlaverock, pp. 46-7). He was 
ultimately attended by two knights and 
fourteen squires, and received as wages for 
himself and his following 42/. He had first 
been summoned to parliament as a baron in 
1299, and was now present at the Lincoln 
parliament in 1301, where he signed the 
famous letter of the barons to the pope. He 
was again in Scotland in 1303. At the end 
of Edward I's reign he incurred the king's 
displeasure by quitting the army in Scot- 
land without leave, on which account his 
lands and chattels were for a time seized 
(Rot. Parl. i. 2165). 

The accession of Edward II restored Mor- 
timer to favour. He was appointed lieu- 
tenant of the king and justice of Wales. All 
the royal castles in Wales were entrusted 
to his keeping, with directions to maintain 
them well garrisoned and in good repair. 
The relaxation of the central power under a 




weak king practically gave an official in- 
vested with such extensive powers every 
regalian right, and Mortimer ruled all Wales 
like a king from 1307 to 1321, except for the 
years 1315 and 1316, during which he was 
replaced by John de Grey as justice of North 
"Wales, while William Martyn and Maurice 
de Berkeley superseded him in turn for a 
slightly longer period in the south (Cal. 
Close Eolls, 1313-1317). He was largely 
assisted in his work by his nephew, Roger 
Mortimer, eighth baron of Wigmore [see MOR- 
TIMER, ROGER IV], who now becomes closely 
identified with his uncle's policy and acts. 
Modern writers have often been led by the 
identity of the two names to attribute to 
the more famous nephew acts that really 
belong to the uncle. Among the more note- 
worthy incidents of the elder Mortimer's go- 
vernment of Wales was his raising the siege 
of Welshpool and rescuing John Charlton 
[q. v.] and his wife, Hawise, from the vigo- 
rous attack of her uncle, Gruffydd de la Pole. 
During these years he raised large numbers 
of Welsh troops for the Scottish wars. He 
himself served in theBannockburn campaign, 
and again in 1319 and 1320. In 1317 he was 
further appointed justice of North Wales, 
and in 1321 his commission as justice of 
Wales was renewed. 

In 1321 Mortimer of Chirk joined vigor- 
ously in the attack on the Despensers [see 
for details MORTIMER, ROGER IV]. After 
taking a leading part, both in the parliaments 
and in the campaigns in Glamorgan and on 
the Severn, he was forced with his nephew, 
Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, to surrender to 
Edward II at Shrewsbury on 22 Jan. 1322. 
He was, like his nephew, imprisoned in the 
Tower of London, but, less fortunate than 
the lord of Wigmore, he did not succeed in 
subsequently effecting his escape. He died 
there, after more than four years of severe 
captivity, on 3 Aug. 1326. The accounts 
vary as to the place of burial. The ' Annales 
Paulini ' say that it was at Chirk (SlUBBS, 
Chron. Edward I and Edward II, i. 312). 
Blaneforde (apud TROKELOWE, p. 147) says 
that he was buried at Bristol. The Wigmore 
annalist (Monasticon, vi. 351) states circum- 
stantially that he was buried at Wigmore 
among his ancestors by his partisan bishop, 
Adam of Orleton, on 14 Sept. This is probably 
right, as the other writers also say he was 
buried ' among his ancestors,' whose remains 
would certainly not be found at Chirk or 
Bristol. The statement of the Wigmore 
annalist (ib. vi. 351) that Mortimer died in 
1336 is a mere mistake, though repeated 
blindly by Dugdale in his 'Baronage' (i. 155), 
and adopted by Sir Harris Nicolas (Siege 

of Carlaverock, p. 264). Mortimer married 
Lucy, daughter and heiress of Robert de 
Walre, by whom he had a son named Roger, 
who succeeded to the whole inheritance of 
his mother's father, married Joan of Turber- 
ville (Monasticon, vi. 351), and had a son 
John. But the real successor to Roger's 
estates and influence was his nephew, the 
first Earl of March. In 1334 Chirk was- 
given to Richard Fitzalan II, earl of Arundel 
[q. v.] The house of Arundel proved too 
powerful to dislodge, and at last John Mor- 
timer, grandson of Roger, sold such rights 
as he had over Chirk to the earl. Neither 
son nor grandson was summoned as a baron 
to parliament, and the family either became 
extinct or insignificant. 

[Annales Monastici, Chronicles of Edward I 
and II, Flores Historiarum, Peckham's Letters, 
Blaneforde (in Trokelowe), Knighton, all in 
Rolls Series ; Galfridus le Baker, ed. Thompson ; 
Parl. Writs ; Rymer's Foedera ; Rolls of Par- 
liament ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 351 ; Lords' 
Report on the Dignity of a Peer, vol. iii. ; Cal. 
Close Rolls, 1307-13 and 1313-18 ; Lloyd's 
Hist, of Powys Fadog ; Eyton's Shropshire ; 
Wright's Hist, of Ludlow ; Stubbs's Const. Hist. 
vol. ii. ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 155. Nicolas's- 
Siege of Carlaverock, pp. 259-64, gives a use- 
ful, but not always very precise, biography.] 

T. F. T. 

MARCH (1287P-1330), was the eldest son of 
Edmund Mortimer, seventh lord of Wig- 
more, and his wife Margaret de Fendles or 
Fiennes, the kinswoman of Eleanor of Cas- 
tile (Monasticon, vi. 351 ; A'otes and Queries, 
4th ser. vii. 437-8). The inquests record- 
ing the date of his birth differ, but he was- 
probably born either on 3 May 1286 or on. 
25 April 1287 (Calendarium Genealogicum^ 
p. 668 ; cf. EYTOIT, Shropshire, iv. 223, and 
DOYLE, Official Baronage, ii. 466, which latter 
dates the birth 29 April 1286). Mortimer's 
uncle was Roger de Mortimer (lit) [q. v.] 
of Chirk. His father, Edmund, died before 
25 July 1304 (ErroN, iv. 225 ; cf. Monas- 
ticon, vi. 351 ; Worcester Ann. in Ann. Mon* 
iv. 557), whereupon Roger succeeded him 
as eighth lord of Wigmore. He was still 
under age, and Edward I put him under the 
wardship of Peter Gaveston, then in favour 
as a chief friend of Edward, prince of Wales. 
Mortimer redeemed himself from Gaveston 
by paying a fine of 2,500 marks, and thereby 
obtained the right of marrying freely whom- 
soever he would (Monasticon, vi. 351). On 
Whitsunday, 22 May 1306, he was one of 
the great band of young lords who were 
dubbed knights at Westminster along witK 




Edward, prince of Wales, by the old king, 
Edward I, in person ( Worcester Ann. p. 558). 
Mortimer figured in the coronation of Ed- 
ward II on 25 Feb. 1308 as a bearer of the 
royal robes (Fosdera, ii. 36). 

Mortimer had inherited from his father a 
great position in the Welsh marches, besides 
the lordships of Dunmask and other estates 
in Ireland. His importance was further in- 
creased by his marriage, before October 1306, 
with Joan de Genville. This lady, who was 
born on 2 Feb. 1286 (Calendarium Genealo- 
fficum, p. 449), was the daughter and heiress 
of Peter de Genville (d. 1292), by Joan, 
daughter 'of Hugh XII of Lusignan and La 
Marche. One Genville was lord of the castle 
and town of Ludlow in Shropshire, the 
marcher liberty of Ewyas Lacy, more to the 
south, and, as one of the representatives of 
the Irish branch of the Lacys, lord of the 
liberty of Trim, which included the moiety 
of the great Lacy palatinate of Meath ( Wor- 
cester Ann. p. 560 ; DOYLE, ii. 467). Two 
of his daughters became nuns at Acornbury 
(ETTOK, v. 240), so that their sister brought 
to Mortimer the whole of her father's estates. 
The acquisition of Ludlow, subsequently the 
chief seat of the Mortimers' power, enor- 
mously increased their influence on the Welsh 
border, while the acquisition of half of Meath 
gave the young Roger a place among the 
greatest territorial magnates of Ireland. But 
both his Welsh and Irish estates were in a 
disturbed condition, and their affairs occupied 
him so completely for the first few years of 
Edward II's reign that he had comparatively 
little leisure for general English politics. 

Ireland was Mortimer's first concern. In 
1308 he went to that country, and was 
warmly welcomed by his wife's uncle, 
Geoffry de Genville, who surrendered all 
his own estates to him, and entered a house 
of Dominican friars, where he died ( Wor- 
cester Ann. p. 560). Yet Mortimer's task 
was still a very difficult one. Rival fami- 
lies assailed his wife's inheritance, her kins- 
folk the Lacys being particularly hostile to 
the interloper (cf. Cal. Close Rolls, 1307-13, 
p. 188). Another difficulty arose from Mor- 
timer's claim on Leix, the modern Queen's 
County, which he inherited from his grand- 
mother, Matilda de Braose (GILBERT, Viceroys 
of Ireland, p. 136). But his vigour and martial 
skill at length secured for him the real enjoy- 
ment of his Irish possessions, when the Lacys 
in despair turned to Scotland, and were largely 
instrumental in inducing Edward Bruce, 
brother of King Robert, to invade Ireland. 
In 1316 Mortimer was defeated by Bruce 
at Kells and driven to Dublin, whence he 
returned to England. Edward Bruce seemed 

now likely to become a real king of Ireland,, 
and, to meet the danger, Edward II appointed 
Mortimer, on 23 Nov. 1316, warden and lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, with the very extensive 
powers necessary to make a good stand 
against him (Foedera, ii. 301). All English, 
lords holding Irish lands were required to- 
serve the new viceroy in person or to con- 
tribute a force of soldiers commensurate 
with the extent of their possessions. In 
February 1317 a fleet was collected at Haver- 
ford west to transport the 'great multitude 
of soldiers, both horse and foot,' that had 
been collected to accompany Mortimer to- 
Ireland. On Easter Thursday Mortimer 
landed at Youghal with a force, it was be- 
lieved, of fifteen thousand men (Foedera, ii.. 
309; Parl. Writs, ii. i. 484). On his ap- 
proach Edward Bruce abandoned the south, 
and retreated to his stronghold of Carrick- 
fergus, while his brother, King Robert, who- 
had come over to his aid, went back to Scot- 
land. Old feuds stood in the new viceroy's 
way, especially one with Edmund Butler, 
yet Mortimer showed great activity in. 
wreaking his vengeance on the remnants of 
the Bruces' followers in Leinster and Con- 
naught. He procured the liberation of 
Richard de Burgh, second earl of Ulster [q.v.], 
whom the citizens of Dublin had imprisoned 
on account of a private feud. On 3 June 1317 
he defeated Walter de Lacy, the real cause 
of the Scottish invasion, and next day success- 
fully withstood another attack of the beaten, 
chieftain and his brothers. He then caused 
the Lacys to be outlawed as 'felons and 
enemies of the king,' and ordered their 
estates to be taken into the king's hands 
(GiLBEET, Viceroys, pp. 531-2). This triumph 
over the rivals of his wife's family for the 
lordship of Meath was a personal success for 
Mortimer as well as a political victory. The 
Lacys fled into Connaught, whither the king's, 
troops pursued them, winning fresh victories 
over the Leinster clans, and strengthening 
the king's party beyond the Shannon. In 
1318 Mortimer was recalled to England. He 
left behind him at Dublin debts to the 
amount of 1,0001., which he owed for pro- 
visions (ib. p. 143). Even before his Irisk 
command he had been forced to borrow money 
from the society of the Frescobaldi ( Cal. Close 
Soils, 1307-13, p. 55). Mortimer continued 
to hold the viceroyalty, being represented 
during his absence first by William FitzJohn, 
archbishop of Cashel, and afterwards by Alex- 
ander Bicknor [q.v.], archbishop of Dublin. 
While Bicknor was deputy Edward Bruce 
was defeated and slain. 

In March 1319 Mortimer returned to Ire- 
land, with the additional offices of justiciar 




of Ireland, constable of the town and castle 
of Athlone, and constable of the castles of 
Roscommon and Rawdon (DoTLE, ii. 466). 
He instituted a searching examination as to 
who had abetted Edward Bruce, and re- 
warded those who had remained faithful to 
the English crown by grants of confiscated 
estates. But English politics now demanded 
Mortimer's full attention. In 1321 he lost 
his position in Ireland altogether, and his 
successor's displacement of the officials he 
had appointed, on the ground of their incom- 
petence, suggests that his removal involved 
a change in the policy of the Irish govern- 
ment corresponding to the changes which 
were brought about in England at the same 

The circumstances of Wales and Ireland 
were during this period very similar, and 
Mortimer was able to apply the experience 
gained in Ireland to the government of his 
possessions in Wales and its marches. His 
uncle, Roger Mortimer of Chirk (with whom 
he is often confused), was justice of Wales, 
and he seems to have helped his uncle to esta- 
blish the independent position of the house 
of Mortimer on a solid and satisfactory basis. 
The result was that uncle and nephew ruled 
North Wales almost as independent princes, 
though the younger Roger had no official 
position therein apart from his constableship 
of the king's castle of Builth, conferred in 
1310 (ib.), and not held by him later than 
1315 (Cal. Close Rolls, 1313-18, p. 153). But 
in 1312 the younger Mortimer took a deci- 
sive part in protectingthe marcher lord, John 
Charlton of Powys [q. v.], who was besieged 
with his Welsh wife Hawyse in Pool Castle 
by her uncle GruiFydd, and after a good 
deal of fighting secured Charlton's position as 
lord of Powys, though for many years Gruf- 
fydd continued to assail it. This alliance 
with one of the strongest neighbours of the 
Mortimers was further strengthened by the 
marriage of John, the son of Charlton, with 
Matilda, daughter of the lord of Wigmore. 
It was part of a general scheme of binding to- 
gether the lords marchers in a solid confede- 
racy and with a common policy, such as had 
In earlier crises of English history, and nota- 
bly during the barons' wars, made those tur- 
bulent chieftains a real power in English 
politics. The full effect of Mortimer's family 
connections came out after his quarrel with 
Edward II in 1321. In 1315 Mortimer took 
a conspicuous part in repressing the revolt 
of Llywelyn Bren [q. v.] On 18 March 1316 
Llywelyn surrendered to the king's authority 
in Mortimer's presence (Flor. Hist. iii. 340). 
Shrewdly and ardently pursuing his self- 
interest in Ireland and Wales, Mortimer had 

had no great leisure to take a prominent 
part in the early troubles of the reign of 
Edward II. He was one of the barons who 
signed the letter denouncing papal abuses, 
addressed to Clement Y, on 6 Aug. 1309, 
at Stanford (Ann. Londin. in STTJBBS, Chron. 
of Edw. I and Ediv. II, i. 162). He does not 
seem to have taken a definite side, though 
in some ways his sympathies were with the 
king against the lords ordainers, who were 
active enemies of his ally John Charlton. 
Early in 1313 Mortimer was sent to Gascony 
' on the king's service,' and on 2 April the 
sheriff's of Shropshire and Herefordshire and 
the bailiff" of Builth were ordered to pay 
sums amounting in alltolOO/. to him for his 
expenses (Cal. Close Rolls, 1307-13, p. 
522). In 1316 he joined the Earl of Pem- 
broke in putting down the revolt of Bristol 
(MoxK OP MALMESBURY, p. 222). In 1318 
Mortimer began to stand out more promi- 
nently in English politics. He seems to 
have attached himself to the middle party, 
which, under the Earl of Pembroke, himself 
the greatest of the lords marchers, strove to 
hold the balance between the Despensers 
and the courtiers and the regular opposition 
under Thomas of Lancaster. In 1318, when 
Pembroke strove to mediate between Edward 
and Lancaster, Mortimer appears as one of 
the king's sureties who accepted the treaty 
of Leek on 9 Aug. A little later he was 
one of those nominated to sit on the new 
council of the king, some members of which 
were to be in perpetual attendance, and 
without whose consent Edward was suffered 
to do nothing. He was also put by parlia- 
ment on the commission appointed to reform 
the royal household (CoLE, Records, p. 12). 
This is the first clear evidence of his acting 
even indirectly against the king. 

Local rivalries now complicated general 
politics, and the danger threatened to his 
Welsh position first made Mortimer a violent 
opponent of Edward and the Despensers. 
William de Braose, the lord of Gower, was in 
embarrassed circumstances, and about 1320 
offered Gower for sale to the highest bidder 
(TROKELOWE, p. 107). Humphrey VIII de 
Bohun, fourth earl of Hereford [q. v.], agreed 
to purchase it, thinking that it would round 
oft' conveniently his neighbouring lordship 
of Brecon. William de Braose died, but his 
son-in-law, John de Mowbray, who succeeded 
to his possessions by right of his wife, was 
willing to complete the arrangement, and 
entered into possession of the Braose lands. 
But the younger Hugh le Despenser [q. v.J, 
who with the hand of Eleanor de Clare, the 
elder of the coheiresses of the Gloucester in- 
heritance, had acquired the adjacent lordship 




of Glamorgan, was alarmed at the extension 
of the Bohun influence, and, on the pretext 
that Mowbray had taken possession of Gower 
without royal license, attacked him both in 
the law courts and in the field. A regular 
war now broke out for the possession of 
Gower, and a confederacy of barons was 
formed to back up the claims of Mowbray 
and Hereford. The two Mortimers threw 
themselves eagerly on to Hereford's side. 
[TROKELOWE, p. Ill, describes them as 
' quasi totius discordige incentores prsecipui.'] 
Hereditary feuds heightened personal ani- 
mosities. Hugh le Despenser proposed to 
avenge on the Mortimers the death of his 
grandfather slain in the barons' wars (MONK 
OP MALMESBTJRY, p. 256). The younger Mor- 
timer had a special grievance, inasmuch as 
a castle in South Wales, bestowed formerly 
on him through the royal favour, had been 
violently seized by the younger Hugh le 
Despenser (ib. p. 224). 

By Lent 1321 the war spread to Despenser's 
palatinate of Glamorgan. Mortimer and his 
friends carried all before them. In April 
1321 Edward summoned Hereford to appear 
before him ; but Mortimer of Wigmore joined 
with the earl in refusing to attend. On 
1 May the king ordered them not to attack 
the Despensers. But on 4 May Mortimer 
and his confederates took Newport. Four 
days later, Cardiff, with its castle, the head 
of the lordship of Glamorgan, also fell into 
their hands ( Flor. Hist. iii. 345 ; MuRlMUTH, 
p. 33 ; Monasticon, vi. 352 ; Ann. Paul., 
p. 293, which also speaks of the capture of 
Caerphilly). On 28 June both Mortimers 
appeared at the great baronial convention at 
Sherburn in Elmet (Flor. Hist. iii. 197). The 
current ran strongly against the favourites. 
In July a parliament assembled in London, 
to which Mortimer came up with his fol- 
lowers, ' all clothed in green, with their right 
hands yellow,' and took up his quarters at 
the priory of St. John's in Clerkenwell (Ann. 
Paul. p. 294). The Despensers were now 
attacked in parliament and banished. Mor- 
timer took a conspicuous part against them. 
On 20 Aug. he was formally pardoned, with 
many others, before the conclusion of the 
session (Parl. Writs, II. ii. 168). Mortimer 
now ret ired to his strongholds in the marches. 
But Edward, profiting by the unexpected 
forces which gathered round him for the 
siege of Leeds in Kent, annulled the pro- 
ceedings against the Despensers, and marched 
to the west, at the head of a large army, to 
take vengeance on the marcher confederacy. 
Mortimer, with his uncle and Hereford, had 
marched as far as Kingston-on-Thames {Ann. 
Paul. pp. 299-310) ; but they made no serious 

effort to relieve Leeds, and were forced to 
retreat to the west, whither Edward fol- 
lowed them. The Mortimers still took a 
leading part in resisting the progress of the 
king. They captured the town and castle of 
Gloucester. But they failed to withstand 
Edward's advance at Worcester, and, though 
they made a better show at Bridgnorth, 
Edward captured the castle and burnt the 
town. The king failed to effect his passage 
over the Severn, but continued his victorious 
career northwards to Shrewsbury. But the 
marcher lords were bitterly disappointed that 
neither the Earl of Lancaster nor the other 
great English earls who had encouraged them 
to resistance had come to their help against 
Edward. The Mortimers refused to resist 
Edward any longer, and, on the mediation 
of the earls of Arundel and Richmond, ne- 
gotiated the conditions of a compromise 
(MoNK OF MALMESBTJEY, p. 264; Ann. Paul. 
p. 301). On 17 Jan. 1322 Mortimer received 
a safe-conduct to treat (Fcedera, ii. 472). 
Five days later both he and his uncle made 
their submission to Edward at Shrewsbury 
(Parl. Writs, ii. ii. 176 ; MFRIMTJTH, p. 35). 
They were both sent forthwith to the Tower 
of London to await their trial (ib.), while Ed- 
ward marched northwards to complete his 
triumph. Before the end of March Lancaster 
and Hereford had been slain, and Edward and 
the Despensers ruled the land without further 
opposition. The commons of Wales, who hated 
the severity of the Mortimers' rule, petitioned 
the king to show no grace either to uncle or 
nephew for their treasons (Rot. Parl. i. 400 ), 
and on 13 June a commission was issued for 
their trial (Parl. Writs,n.u.l93). On 14 July 
justices were appointed to pass sentence upon 
them ; but on 22 July the penalty of death 
was commuted for one of perpetual impri- 
sonment (ib. pp. 213, 216). Both remained 
in the Tower for more than two years under 
strict custody in a lofty and narrow chamber 
(' minus civiliter quam decuit,' BLANEFORDE 
apud TROKELOWE, p. 145). But they still 
had powerful friends outside. Adam of Orle- 
ton [q. v.], bishop of Hereford, who took his 
name from one of Mortimer's manors, and 
had closely co-operated with him in the attack 
on the Despensers, made preparations for his 
escape. Gerard de Alspaye, the sub-lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, was won over to pro- 
cure the escape of the younger Mortimer 
(KNIGHTON, p. v. ; Chron. de London, pp. 45- 
46 ; Flor. Hist. iii. 217 ; BLANEFORDE, pp. 145- 
146, which gives the most circumstantial 
account. MTJRIMFTH, p. 40, puts the escape 
a year too early). The night chosen was that 
of the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, 1 Aug. 
1324. The guards, who had celebrated the 




feast by prolonged revels, had their drink 
drugged, and were plunged in deep stupor. 
With the help of his friend a hole was cut 
in the wall of Mortimer's cell, through which 
he escaped into the kitchen of the king's 
palace, from the roof of which he reached 
one of the wards of the castle. Then a rope 
ladder enabled him to descend to an outer 
ward, and so at last to reach the banks of 
the Thames. The Bishop of Hereford had 

fot ready the external means of escape, 
lortimer found a little boat manned by two 
men awaiting him and his accomplice. In 
this they were ferried over the river. On the 
Surrey bank they found horses ready, upon 
which they fled rapidly through byways to 
the sea-coast, where a ship was ready which 
took them over to France, despite the vigor- 
ous efforts made by Edward to recapture him 
(Fcedera, p. v.) 

Even in exile Mortimer remained a danger 
to Edward and the Despensers. He went 
to Paris, and ingratiated himself in the favour 
of Charles IV, who was now at open war 
with his brother-in-law in Guienne, and glad 
to establish relations with a powerful Eng- 
lish nobleman. His partisan, Adam Orle- 
ton, though attacked by the king for treason, 
was so strongly backed up by the bishops 
that Edward was forced to patch up some 
sort of reconciliation with him, and allow 
him to return to the west. Mortimer's 
mother, Margaret, convoked suspicious as- 
semblies of his friends until in 1326 Edward 
shut her up in a monastery (PATJLI, Geschichte 
von England, iv. 281, from Patent and Close 
Rolls, 19 Edw. II.) But a more formidable 
danger arose after the arrival in Paris of Isa- 
bella of France [q . v.], the queen of Edward II, 
in the spring of 1325. Even before her depar- 
ture from England Isabella had sought the ad- 
vice of Orleton. In September she was joined 
by her son Edward, sent to perform homage 
to the French king for his duchy of Aquitaine. 
After the ceremony was performed Isabella 
and her son still lingered at the court of 
Charles of France, and in the course of the 
winter a close connection between her and 
Mortimer was established, which was no- 
torious in England in the spring of 1326. 
Walter Stapledon, bishop of Exeter, who 
had accompanied the young Duke of Aqui- 
taine to France, not only found himself 
powerless in the queen's counsels, but be- 
lieved that Mortimer had formed plans to 
take his life. On his sudden flight to Eng- 
land the last restraint was removed which 
prevented Isabella from falling wholly into 
the hands of the little band of exiles who 
now directed her counsels. It was soon no- 
torious that Mortimer was not only her chief 

adviser ('jam tune secretissimus atque prin- 
cipalis de privata familia reginse,' GALFRIDTJ& 
LE BAKER, p. 21, ed. Thompson), but her 
lover as well. The chroniclers both then 
and later speak with much reserve on so deli- 
cate a subject, but none of them ventured to 
deny so patent a fact. 

Charles IV soon grew ashamed of support- 
ing Isabella and Mortimer, and Isabella left 
Paris for the Low Countries. Mortimer ac- 
companied her on her journey to the north, 
where, by betrothing young Edward to Phi- 
lippa of Hainault, men and money were 
provided, and the support of a powerful 
foreign prince obtained for the bold scheme 
of invading England which Isabella and 
Mortimer seem by this time to have formed. 
Mortimer shared with John, brother of the 
Count of Hainault, the command of the little 
force of adventurers hastily collected from 
Hainault and Germany (G. LE BAKER, p. 21). 
He crossed over with the queen and the son 
to Orwell, where they landed on 24 Sept. 
1326. The most complete success at once 
attended the invaders. Not only were they 
joined by Mortimer's old partisans, such as 
Bishop Orleton, but the whole of the Lan- 
castrian connection, headed by Henry of 
Leicester, the brother of Earl Thomas, joined 
their standard. Edward II fled to Wales, 
hoping to find protection and refuge amidst 
the Despensers' lands in Glamorgan ; but 
Mortimer, who was a greater power in Wales- 
than the king, followed quickly in his steps. 
At Bristol he sat in judgment on the elder 
Despenser. On 16 Nov. Edward was taken 
prisoner. Mortimer was then with the 
queen at Hereford, where on 17 Nov. the 
Earl of Arundel was beheaded by his express- 
command, and where on 24 Nov. his great 
enemy, the younger Despenser, suffered the 
same fate, he himself being among the judges 
who condemned him (Ann. Paul. p. 319). 

The proceedings of the parliament which 
met on 7 Jan. 1327, deposed Edward and 
elected his son as king, were entirely directed 
by Mortimer's astute and unscrupulous agent,. 
Adam Orleton. Mortimer himself went on 
13 Jan. with a great following to the Guild- 
hall of London, and promised to maintain 
the liberties of the city {Ann. Paul. p. 322) r 
which had shown its faithfulness to him by 
murdering Bishop Stapledon. On 6 March 
he attested a new charter of liberties granted 
to the Londoners (ib. p. 332). But Ed- 
ward III was a mere boy, and for the next 
four years Mortimer really ruled the realm 
through his influence over his paramour, 
Queen Isabella. He was conspicuous at the 
coronation of the young king on 1 Feb. 1327> 
on which day three of his sons received the 




honour of knighthood (MTJRIMTJTH, p. 51 ; 
G. LB BAKER, p. 35). On 21 Feb. 1327 he 
obtained a formal pardon for his escape from 
prison and other offences (Gal. Patent Rolls, 
1327-30, p. 14). He also procured from 
parliament the complete revocation of the 
sentence passed against him and his uncle 
in 1322, one of the grounds of the rever- 
sal being that, contrary to Magna Carta, 
they had never been allowed trial by their 
peers (ib. pp. 141-3). The immediate effect 
of this was to restore him to all his old pos- 
sessions, and also to the estates of his uncle 
Chirk, who had died in prison in 1326. But 
Mortimer was possessed of insatiable greed, 
and he at once plunged into a course of self- 
aggrandisement that never ceased for a mo- 
ment until his fall. The Rolls are filled 
with grants of estates, offices, wardships, and 
all sorts of positions of power and emolu- 
ment to the successful lord of Wigmore. 
On 15 Feb. 1327, he was granted the lucra- 
tive custody of the lands of Thomas Beau- 
champ, the earl of Warwick, during his mino- 
rity (DOYLE, ii. 466). On 20 Feb. of the 
same year he was appointed justiciar of the 
diocese of Llandaff, an office formerly held by 
his uncle (Doyle gives the wrong date ; cf. 
Cal. Patent Rolls, p. 311). On 22 Feb. his 
appointment to the great post of justice of 
Wales, which had been so long in his uncle's 
hands, gave him a power over marches and 
principality even more complete than that 
formerly possessed by the lord of Chirk. 
This power was extended to the English 
border shires by his appointment on 8 June 
as chief keeper of the peace in the counties 
of Hereford, Stafford, and Worcester, in ac- 
cordance with the statute of Winchester ( Cal. 
Patent Rolls, p. 152), to which Stafford- 
shire was added on 26 Oct. (ib. p. 214). On 
12 June he was granted the custody of the 
lands of Glamorgan and Morganwg during 
pleasure, thus obtaining control of the old 
estates of the younger Despenser (ib. p. 125). 
On 13 Sept. 1327 he had a grant of lands 
worth 1,000/. a year, including the castle of 
Denbigh, once the property of the elder 
Despenser, and the castle of Oswestry with 
all the forfeited manors of Edmund Fitzalan, 
earl of Arundel fq.v.] (ib. p. 328). On 
22 Nov. the manor of Church Stretton, Shrop- 
shire, was granted him ' in consideration of 
his services to Queen Isabella and the king, 
here and beyond seas' (ib. p. 192). On 
29 Sept. 1328 Mortimer's barony was raised 
to an earldom, bearing the title of March 
(DoTLE, ii. 466 ; ' Et talis comitatus nunquam 
prius fuit nominatus in regno Angliae,' Ann. 
Paul. p. 343). On 4 Nov. of the same year 
the new Earl of March was regranted the jus- 

ticeship of Wales for life (Cal. Patent Rolls, 
p. 327), and on the same day he was made 
justice in the bishopric of St. David's, and 
received power to remove all inefficient minis- 
ters and bailiffs of the king in Wales and 
appoint others in their place (ib. p. 327). 
In many of the patents he is described as 
' the king's kinsman.' The grants go on un- 
brokenly to the end. On 27 May 1330 he 
was allowed five hundred marks a year from 
the issues of Wales in addition to his ac- 
customed fees as justice, ' in consideration 
of his continued stay with the king ' (ib. p. 
535). On 16 April Isabella made over to 
him her interests in the castle of Mont- 
gomery and the hundred of Chirbury (ib. p. 
506), and on 20 April all his debts and 
arrears to the exchequer were forgiven (ib. 
p. 511). The Irish interests of Mortimer 
and his wife Joan were not forgotten He 
was invested with complete palatine juris- 
diction not only in the liberty of Trim, but 
over all the counties of Meath and Uriel 
(Louth), (ib. pp. 372, 538). The custody of 
the lands of the infant Richard Fitzgerald, 
third earl of Kildare [see under FITZGERALD, 
THOMAS, second EARL OF KILDARE], was also 
placed in his hands, together with the dis- 
posal of his hand in marriage (ib. p. 484). 
Nor did he forget the interests of his friends, 
who obtained offices, prebends, and grants 
in the greatest profusion. So careful was 
he to safeguard his dependents' welfare, that 
the old cook of Edward I and II was secured 
his pension and leave of absence at his 
special request (ib. p. 231). But while Mor- 
timer provided for his friends at the expense 
of the state, he disbursed a trifling propor- 
tion of his vast estates in small pious foun- 
dations. He had on 15 Dec. 1328 license to 
alienate land in mortmain worth one hundred 
marks a year to support nine chaplains to 
say mass daily in Lemtwardine Church for 
the souls of the king, the queen, Queen Isa- 
bella, with whom were rather oddly assorted 
Joan, Mortimer's wife, and their ancestors 
and successors (ib. p. 343 ; cf. EYTON, xi. 
324). Two chaplains were also endowed by 
him with ten marks sent to say mass for the 
same persons in a chapel built in the outer 
ward of Ludlow Castle (Cal. Patent Rolls, 
p. 343). This foundation was in honour of 
St. Peter, on whose feast day he had escaped 
from the Tower (Monasticon, vi. 352). By 
giving the Leintwardine chaplains the ad- 
vowson of Church Stretton, funds were 
found to raise their number to ten (ib. 
p. 494). 

Mortimer held no formal office in the ad- 
ministration of Edward III, but his depen- 
dent, Orleton, was treasurer ; the scarcely 




less subservient Bishop Hotham of Ely was 
chancellor ; and partisans of less exalted rank, 
such as Sir Oliver Inghain [q. v.], held posts 
on the royal council. His policy seems to 
have been to rule indirectly through Queen 
Isabella, while putting as much of the re- 
sponsibility of power as he could on Earl 
Henry of Lancaster and his connections. 
He was accused afterwards of accroaching 
to himself every royal power, and even sus- 
pected of a wish to make himseif king. 
But it is hard to see any very definite policy 
in the greedy self-seeking beyond which 
Mortimer's statecraft hardly extended. The 
government, under his influence, was as 
feeble and incompetent as that of Edward II, 
and the worst crimes which it committed 
were popularly ascribed to the paramour of 
the queen-mother. Mortimer and Isabella 
were regarded as specially -responsible for 
the murder of Edward II at Berkeley, for the 
failure of the expedition against the Scots in 
1327 (Bermondsey Annals, p. 472), and for 
the ' Shameful Peace ' concluded in 1328 at 
Northampton, by which Robert Bruce was 
acknowledged as king of an independent Scot- 
land (MlJKIMTTTH, p. 57 ; AVESBTJET, p. 283 ; 

Chron. de Lanercost, p. 261). It was even 
reported that Mortimer was now seeking to 
get himself made king with the help of the 
Scots (G. LE BAKER, p. 41). 

Mortimer now lived in the greatest pomp 
and luxury. In 1328 he held a 'Round 
Table ' tournament at Bedford (KNIGHTON, 
c. 2553). At the end of May in the same 
year, immediately after the treaty with the 
Scots, the young king and his mother went 
to Hereford, where they were present at the 
marriage of two of Mortimer's daughters, 
Joan and Beatrice, and at the elaborate 
tournaments that celebrated the occasion 
(G. LE BAKER, p. 42). They also visited 
Mortimer at Ludlow and Wigmore (Monas- 
ticon, vi. 352). 

Mortimer's commanding position naturally 
excited the greatest ill-will. Henry of Lan- 
caster was thoroughly disgusted with the 
ignominious position to which he had been 
reduced. He had not taken up arms to for- 
ward the designs of the ambitious marcher, 
but to revenge the death of his brother, Earl 
Thomas. Significant changes in the ministry 
diminished the influence of Mortimer's sup- 
porters, and at last Lancaster declared openly 
against him. In October 1328 Lancaster 
refused to attend the Salisbury parliament 
at which Mortimer was made an earl. Mor- 
timer disregarded his opposition, and in De- 
cember went to London with Isabella and 
Edward. As usual he was well received by 
the citizens (Ann. Paul. p. 343). But on 

his quitting the capital, Lancaster entered 
it, and on 2 Jan. 1329 formed a powerful 
confederacy there, pledged to overthrow the 
favourite, against whom was drawn up a 
formidable series of articles (BARKES, Hist, 
of Edward III, p. 31). But the favourite 
still showed his wonted energy and ruth- 
lessness. He devastated the lands of his 
rival with an army largely composed of his 
j Welsh followers, and on 4 Jan. took posses- 
j sion of Leicester. Lancaster marched as 
i far north as Bedford, hoping to fight Mor- 
I timer (KNIGHTOX, c. 2553), but his partisans 
deserted him, and he was glad to accept the 
mediation of the new archbishop of Can- 
[ terbury, Simon Meopham [q. v.] The sub- 
ordinate agents of Lancaster were exempted 
from the pardon at Mortimer's special in- 
stance. Flushed with his new triumph, 
Mortimer wove an elaborate plot which re- 
sulted on 19 March 1330 in the execution 
for treason of the king's uncle Edmund, earl 
of Kent [q. v.] But this was the last of 
Mortimer's triumphs. 

Mortimer was, in his insolence and osten- 
tation, surrounded with greater pomp than 
the king, and enjoyed far greater power. The 
wild bands of Welsh mercenaries who at- 
tended his progresses worked ruin and de- 
solation wherever they went. Edward III 
was himself impatient at his humiliating 
subjection to his mother and her lover, and 
at last found a confidential agent in William 
de Montacute [q. v.], afterwards first Earl of 
Salisbury. A parliament was summoned to 
meet in October 1330 at Nottingham, where 
the king and Montacute resolved to strike 
their decisive blow. Great circumspection 
was necessary. Mortimer and Isabella took 
up their quarters in Nottingham Castle along 
with the king, and Mortimer's armed follow- 
ing of Welsh mercenaries held strict guard 
and blocked up every approach to the king. 
But the castellan, William Holland, was won 
over by Edward and Montacute, and showed 
to the latter an underground passage by 
which access to the castle could be obtained. 
But Mortimer had now got a hint of the 
conspiracy, and in a stormy scene on 19 Oct. 
Mortimer denounced Montacute as a traitor, 
and accused the young king of complicity 
with his designs. But Montacute was safe 
outside the castle with an armed following, 
and Mortimer knew nothing of the secret 
access to the castle. On the very same night 
the decisive blow was struck. Montacute 
and his companies entered the stronghold 
through the underground passage, and Ed- 
ward j oined them in the castle yard . Edward 
and Montacute,with their followers, ascended 
to Mortimer's chamber, suspiciously chosen 



next to that of the queen, and heard him 
conferring with the chancellor and other 
ministers within. The doors were broken 
open. Two knights who sought to bar the 
passage were struck down, and after a sharp 
tussle, during which Mortimer slew one of 
his assailants (KNIGHTON, c. 2556), the 
favourite was arrested, despite the interven- 
tion of Isabella, who burst into the room 
crying, ' Fair son, have pity on the gentle 
Mortimer.' (Murimuth, p. 61, says Mortimer 
was captured 'in camera reginse matrls,' Ann. 
Paul. p. 352, cf. KNIGHTON, c. 2555, and 
tf>. c. 2553, ' semper simul in uno hospitio 
hospitati sunt, unde multa obloquia et mur- 
mura de eis suspectuosa oriuntur.') It was 
all to no purpose. The Earl of March, with 
his close friends, Sir Oliver Ingham and Sir 
Simon Bereford, were removed amidst popular 
rejoicings and under strict guard, by way of 
Loughborough and Leicester, to the Tower 
of London, which was reached on 27 Oct. 
(Ann. Paul. p. 352). Edward issued next 
day a proclamation to his people that hence- 
forth he had taken the government into his 
own hands. The parliament was prorogued 
to Westminster, where it met on 26 Nov. 
Its first business was to deal with the charges 
brought against Mortimer. The chief accu- 
sations against him were the following. He 
had stirred up dissension between Edward II 
and his queen ; he had usurped the powers 
of the council of regency ; he had procured 
the murder of Edward II ; he had taught 
the young king to regard Henry of Lancaster 
as his enemy ; he had deluded Edmund, earl 
of Kent, into the belief that his brother was 
still alive, and had procured his execution, 
though he was guiltless of crime ; he had 
appropriated to his own use 20,00(V. paid by 
the Scots as the price of the peace of North- 
ampton : he had acted as if he were king ; 
and had done great cruelties in Ireland ( Rot. 
Parl. 11. 52-3 ; cf. 255-6 ; summarised in 
STTJBBS, Const. Hist. ii. 373 ; cf. KNIGHTON, 
cc. 2556-8). The peers, following Mortimer's 
own examples in the time of his power, at 
once condemned him to death without so 
much as giving him an opportunity of appear- 
ing before them, or answering the charges 
brought against him. He confessed, however, 
privately, that the Earl of Kent had been 
guilty of no crime (Rot. Parl. ii. 33). On 
29 Nov. Mortimer, clad in black, was con- 
veyed through the city from the Tower to 
Tyburn Elms, and there hanged, drawn, and 
quartered, like a common malefactor (' trac- 
tus et suspensus,' G. LE BAKER, p. 47 ; ' super 
communi furca latrdnum,' MTJRIMUTH, p. 62). 
It was believed that the details of the exe- 
cution were based on Mortimer's own orders 

in the case of the younger Despenser. His 
body remained two days exposed, but the 
king's clemency soon allowed it honour- 
able burial. The exact place of its deposit 
does not seem certain. It was buried at some 
Franciscan church (CANON OP BRIDLING- 
TON, p. 102), either at Newgate in London 
(BARNES, p. 51), at Shrewsbury (Monasti- 
con, vi. 352), or, as seems most probable 
from an official record, at Coventry (Foedera, 
ii. 828 ; cf. WRIGHT, Hist, of Ludlow, p. 
225). In any case, however, the remains 
were transferred in November 1331 to the 
family burial place in the Austin priory at 

Mortimer's wife, Joan, survived him, dy- 
ing in 1356. In 1347 she had the liberty 
of Trim restored to her (Rot. Parl. ii. 223 a). 
By her Mortimer had a numerous family. 
Their firstborn son, Edmund, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Lord Badlesmere, and 
died when still young at Stanton Lacy in 
1331. The family annalist maintains that 
he was Earl of March, but this was not the 
case. This Edmund's son Roger, who is sepa- 
rately noticed, was restored to the earldom of 
March in 1355, and is known as second earl. 

Mortimer's younger sons were Roger, a 
knight ; Geoffrey ' comes Jubmensis et do- 
minus de Cowyth;' and John, slain in a tour- 
nament at Shrewsbury. His seven daugh- 
ters were all married into powerful families. 
They were : Catharine, who married her 
father's ward, Thomas de Beauchamp, and 
was mother of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl 
of Warwick (d. 1401) [q. v.] ; Joan, married 
to James of Audley ; Agnes (d. 1368), mar- 
ried to another of Mortimer's wards, Lau- 
rence, son of John Hastings, and afterwards 
first earl of Pembroke [q. v.] ; Margaret, 
married to Thomas, the son of Maurice of 
Berkeley [see BERKELEY, family of] ; Matilda 
or Maud, married to John, son and heir of 
John Charlton, first lord Charlton of Powys 
[q. v.] ; Blanche, married to Peter of Gran di- 
son ; and Beatrice, married firstly to Edward, 
son and heir of Thomas of Brotherton, earl 
of Norfolk and elder son of Edward I (by his 
second wife Margaret), and after his death to 
Thomas deBraose (DTJGDALE, Monasticon,vi. 
352, corrected by DOYLE and EYTON). 

[Rymer's Foedera, vol. ii. Record ed.; Parl. 
Writs ; Rot. Parl. vols. i. ii. ; Annales Monastic!, ed. 
Luard ; Chronicles Edward I and II, ed. Stubbs ; 
Murimuth and Avesbury, ed. Thompson ; Flores 
Historiarum and Trokelowe (all in Rolls Series) ; 
Chronicon Galfridi le Baker, with E. M. 
Thompson's valuable notes and extracts from 
other Chronicles; Knighton apud Twysden, De- 
cem Scriptores; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 351- 
352, ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel; Dugdale's 




Baronage, i. 144-7 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii.; 
Eyton's Shropshire, 466-7 ; especially vols. iv. 
and v. ; Wright's Hist, of Lmdlow, pp. 217-25 ; 
Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii.; Pauh's Geschichte 
von England, vol. iv. ; Barnes's History of Ed- 
ward III. Besides his famous presentation in 
Marlowe's Edward II, Mortimer is the hero of a 
fragment of a tragedy by Ben Jonson entitled 
' Mortimer, his Falle.' He is also the subject of 
an anonymous play, published in 1691 with a pre- 
face by William Mountfort, and revived -with ad- 
ditions in 1731, its title being ' King Edward III, 
with the Fall of Mortimer, Earl of March.' A 
meagre and valueless life of Mortimer was pub- 
lished in 1711 as a political satire on Robert 
Harley, earl of Oxford, and Mortimer. Among 
the attacks on Sir R. Walpole there was pub- 
lished in 1 732 the ' Norfolk Sting, or the History 
of the Fall of Evil Ministers,' which included a 
life of Mortimer.] T. F. T. 

EARL OF MARCH (1327 P-1360), was the son 
of Edmund Mortimer (d. 1331), and of his 
wife Elizabeth Badlesmere, and was born 
about 1327 (DOYLE, Official Baronage, ii. 
467). This was during the lifetime of his 
famous grandfather Roger Mortimer IV, first 
earl of March [q. v.] But the fall and exe- 
cution of his grandfather, quickly followed 
by the death of his father, left the infant 
Roger to incur the penalties of the treason 
of which he himself was innocent. But he 
was from the first dealt with very leniently, 
and as he grew up he was gradually re- 
stored to the family estates and honours. 
About 1342 he was granted the castle of 
Radnor, with the lands of Gwrthvyrion, 
Presteign, Knighton, and Norton, in Wales, 
though Knucklas and other castles of his 
were put under the care of William de Bohun, 
arl of Northampton (d. 1360) [q. v.], who 
had married his mother (DuGDALE, Baronage, 
i. 147). Next year he received livery of 
Wigmore, the original centre of his race. On 
12 Sept. 1344 he distinguished himself at 
the age of seventeen at a tournament at 
Hereford (MURIMUTH, p. 159, Rolls Ser.) 
He took a conspicuous part in the famous 
invasion of France in 1346 (FROISSART, iii. 
130, ed. Luce). Immediately on the land- 
ing of the expedition at La Hogue on 12 July 
Edward III dubbed his son Edward, prince 
of Wales, a knight, and immediately after- 
wards the young prince knighted Roger 
Mortimer and others of his youthful com- 
panions (G. LE BAKER, p. 79 ; cf. MTJRIMTJTH, 
p. 199, and Eulogium Hist. iii. 207). He 
fought in the third and rearmost line of 
battle at Crecy along with the king. For 
his services against the French he received 
the livery of the rest of his lands on 6 Sept. 
1346. He was one of the original knights 

of the Garter (G. LE BAKER, p. 109, cf. Mr. 
Thompson's note on pp. 278-9; cf. BELTZ, 
Memorials of the Order of the Garter, pp. 
40-1), and on 20 Nov. 1348 was first sum- 
moned to parliament, though only as Baron 
Roger de Mortimer (Lords' Report on Dig- 
nity of a Peer, iv. 579). He was conspicuous 
in 1349 by his co-operation with the Black 
Prince in resisting the plot of the French 
to win back Calais (G. LE BAKER, p. 104). 
In 1354 he obtained a reversal of the sen- 
tence passed against his grandfather, and 
received the restoration of the remaining 
portions of the Mortimer inheritance, which 
had been forfeited to the crown (Rot. Parl. 
ii. 255 ; KNIGHTON, c. 2607, apud TWYSDEN, 
Decem Scriptores; DUGDALE, i. 147). Un- 
able to wrest the lordship of Chirk from 
Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, he con- 
tracted with him that his son Edmund should 
marry Richard's daughter, Alice (ib.) This 
marriage, however, never took place. He 
was already popularly described as Earl of 
March. At last, on 20 Sept. 1355 (Lords' 
Report, iv. 604), he was formally summoned 
to parliament under that title. Various 
offices were conferred on him in 1355, in- 
cluding the wardenship of Clarendon, the 
stewardship of Roos and Hamlake, and the 
constableship of Dover Castle, with the lord 
wardenship of the Cinque ports (DOYLE, ii. 
467). In 1355 he started on the expedition 
of the Duke of Lancaster to France, which 
was delayed on the English coast by contrary 
winds and ultimately abandoned (AVESBURY, 
p. 425-6, Rolls Ser.) Later in the same 
year he accompanied the expedition led by 
Edward III himself (ib. p. 428). His estates 
were now much increased by his inheriting 
the large property of his grandmother, Joan 
de Genville, the widow of the first earl, who 
died about this time. These included the 
castle of Ludlow, now finally and defini- 
tively annexed to the possessions of the house 
of Mortimer, and henceforth the chief seat 
of its power (DTTGDALE, Baronage, i. 148). 
He became a member of the royal council. 
In 1359 he was made constable of Mont- 
gomery, Bridgnorth, and Corfe castles, and 
keeper of Purbeck Chase. He also accom- 
panied Edward III on his great invasion of 
France, which began in October 1359. In 
this he acted as constable, riding in the van 
at the head of five hundred men at arms and 
a thousand archers (FROISSART, v. 199, ed. 
Luce. Froissart, with characteristic inaccu- 
racy, always calls him ' John '). He took part 
in the abortive siege of Rheims. He was 
then sent on to besiege Saint-Florentin, near 
Auxerre. He captured the town and was 
joined by Edward (ib. v. 223, but cf. Luce's 




note, p. Ixix). Mortimer then accompanied 
Edward on his invasion of Burgundy. But 
on 26 Feb. 1360 he died suddenly at Rouvray, 
near Avalon (Monasticon, vi. 353). His 
bones were taken to England and buried 
with those of his ancestors in Wigmore 
Abbey (ib. ; cf. however ' Chronicon Brevius' 
in Eulogium Hist. iii. 312, which says that 
he was buried in France). His obsequies 
were also solemnly performed in the king's 
chapel at Windsor. 

The family panegyrist describes Mortimer 
as ' stout and strenuous in war, provident in 
counsel, and praiseworthy in his morals' 
(Monasticon, vi. 352). He married Philippa 
daughter of William de Montacute, second 
earl of Salisbury [q. v.] Their only son was 
Edmund de Mortimer II, third earl of March 
[q. v.] Philippa survived her husband, and 
died on 5 Jan. 1382, and was buried in the 
Austin priory of Bisham, near Marlow. Her 
will is printed in Nichols's 'Roval Wills,' 
pp. 98-103. 

[Galfridus le Baker, ed. Thompson ; Muri- 
muth and Avesbury (Eolls Ser.) ; Eulogium His- 
toriarum (Rolls Ser.) ; Froissart's Chroniques, ed. 
Luce (Soc. de 1'Histoire de France) ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon, vi. 352-3 ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 
147-8; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 469; 
Barnes's History of Edward III ; Lords' Report 
on the Dignity of a Peer, vol. iv.] T. F. T. 

was the eldest son and second child of Ed- 
mund Mortimer II, third earl of March [q. v.], 
and his wife, Philippa of Clarence. He was 
born at Usk on 11 April 1374, and baptised 
on the following Sunday by Roger Cradock, 
bishop of Llandaff, who, with the abbot of 
Gloucester and the prioress of Usk, acted as 
his sponsors (Monasticon, vi. 354). His 
mother died when he was quite a child, and 
his father on 27 Dec. 1381, so that he suc- 
ceeded to title and estates when only seven 
years old. His hereditary influence and 
position caused him to be appointed to the 
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland on 24 Jan. 1382, 
within a few months of his accession to the 
earldom. His uncle, Sir Thomas Mortimer, 
acted as his deputy, and the guardians of 
his person and estates covenanted that, in 
return for his receiving the revenues of Ire- 
land and two thousand marks of money, he 
should be provided with proper counsellors, 
and that the receipts of his estates, instead 
of being paid over by the farmers of his 
lands to the crown, should be appropriated 
to the government of Ireland. It was also 
stipulated that on attaining his majority 
Roger should have liberty to resign his office. 
But the experiment of an infant viceroy did 


not answer. When the Irish parliament 
met in 1382 the viceroy could not attend 
because of indisposition, and the magnates 
and commons protested against a parliament 
being held in his absence. Next year Roger 
was superseded by Philip de Courtenay (GIL- 
BERT, Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 248-51). 

Mortimer was brought up as a royal ward, 
his person being entrusted to the care of 
Thomas Holland, earl of Kent (1350-1397) 
[q. v.], the half-brother of Richard II, while 
his estates were farmed by Richard Fitz- 
alan III, earl of Arundel, and others. Rich- 
ard II at one time sold to Arundel the right 
of marrying the young earl, but, as Arundel 
became more conspicuously opposed to his 
policy, Richard transferred his right to Lord 
Abergavenny, and ultimately, at his mother's 
request, to the Earl of Kent, her son. The 
result was that Roger was married, not later 
than the beginning of 1388, to Eleanor Hol- 
land, Kent's eldest daughter and the king's 
niece. Thus March in his early life was 
connected with both political parties, and 
one element of his later popularity may be 
based upon the fact that his complicated 
connections with both factions prevented 
him from taking a strong side. But as time 
went on he fell more decidedly under the in- 
fluence of the king and courtiers, who showed 
a tendency to play him off against the house 
of Lancaster, which he in later times seems 
somewhat to have resented. He became a 
very important personage when in the Octo- 
ber parliament of 1385 Richard II publicly 
proclaimed him as the presumptive heir to 
the throne (Cont. Eulogium Historiarum,\ii. 
361 ; cf. WALLON, Richard II, i. 489-90). 
On 23 April 1390 Richard himself dubbed 
him a knight. 

In 1393 March did homage and received 
livery of all his lands. His guardians had 
managed his estates so well that he entered 
into full enjoyment of his immense resources, 
having, it was said, a sum of forty thou- 
sand marks accumulated in his treasury 
(Monasticon, vi. 354). Between 16 Feb. and 
30 March 1394 he acted as ambassador to 
treat with the Scots on the borders. But 
Ireland was still his chief care. His power 
there had become nearly nominal, and in 
1393 the English privy council had granted 
him a thousand pounds in consideration of 
the devastation of his Irish estates by the 
rebel natives. In September 1394 he accom- 
panied Richard II on that king's first expe- 
dition to Ireland, being attended by a very 
numerous following (Annales Ricardill, apud 
TROKELOWE, p. 172). Among the chieftains 
who submitted to Richard was the O'Neil. 
the real ruler of most of March's nominal 




earldom of Ulster. On 28 April 1395, just 
before his return to England, Richard ap- 
pointed March lieutenant of Ulster, Con- 
naught, and Meath, thus adding the weight 
of the royal commission to the authority 
which, as lord of these three liberties, March 
already possessed over those districts. He 
remained some time in Ireland, waging vigor- 
ous war against the native septs, but with- 
out any notable results. On 24 April 1397 
he was further nominated lieutenant of 

The young earl was rapidly winning a 

freat reputation. He was conspicuously 
rave, brilliant in the tournament, sump- 
tuous in his hospitality, liberal in his gifts, 
of a ready wit, affable and jocose in conver- 
sation. He was of remarkable personal 
beauty and extremely popular. But his 
panegyrists admit that his morals were loose, 
and that he was too negligent of divine 
things (Monasticon, vi. 354 ; ADAM OF USK, 
p. 19 ; MONK OF EVESHAM, p. 127). He was 
prudent enough not to connect himself too 
closely with Richard II's great attempt at 
despotism in 1397. In the great parliament 
of 1397 the Earl of Salisbury brought a suit 
against him on 25 Sept. for the possession of 
Denbigh (ADAM OF USK, pp. 15, 16). His 
uncle, Sir Thomas Mortimer (his grandfather's 
illegitimate son),was in fact closely associated 
with the lords appellant, and on 22 Sept. 1397 
was summoned to appear for trial within six 
months under pain of banishment (ib. pp. 41, 
120 ; MONK OF EVESHAM, pp. 139-40 ; Rot. 
Parl.) Richard's remarks on this occasion 
suggest that he was already suspicious of the 
Earl of March (Moire OF EVESHAM, p. 138), 
whom he accused of remissness in apprehend- 
ing his uncle. A little later Sir Thomas, who 
had fled to Scotland, appeared in Ireland 
under the protection of his nephew the viceroy 
(ADAM OF USK, p. 19), though on 24 Sept. he 
had been ordered to proclaim throughout Ire- 
land that Thomas must appear within three 
months to answer the charges against him 
(Fosdera, viii. 16). As Richard's suspicions 
grew, March's favour with the populace in- 
creased. He was specially summoned, de- 
spite his absence beyond sea, to attend the 
parliament at Shrewsbury (ib. viii. 21). On 
28 Jan. 1398 March arrived from Ireland. 
The people went out to meet him in vast 
crowds, receiving him with joy and delight, 
and wearing hoods of his colours, red and 
white. Such a reception increased Richard's 
suspicions, but March behaved with great 
caution or duplicity, and, by professing his 
approval of those acts which finally gave 
Richard despotic power, deprived Richard of 
any opportunity of attacking him (ADAM OF 

USK, pp. 18-19). But secret plots were formed 
against him, and his reception of his uncle was 
made an excuse for them. The earl therefore 
returned to Ireland, and soon became plunged 
into petty campaigns against the native chief- 
tains. Such desire did he show to identify 
himself with his Irish subjects that, in gross 
violation of his grandfather's statute of Kil- 
kenny, he assumed the Irish dress and horse 
trappings. His brother-in-law, Thomas Hol- 
land [q. v.], duke of Surrey, who hated him 
bitterly, was now ordered to go to Ireland 
to carry out the designs of the courtiers 
against him. But there was no need for 
Surrey's intervention. On 15 Aug. 1398 
(20 July, according to Monasticon, vi. 355, 
and ADAM OF USK, p. 19), March was slain 
at Kells while he was engaged in a rash 
attack on some of the Leinster clans. In the 
fight he rushed on the foe far in advance of his 
followers, and, unrecognised by them in his 
Irish dress, was immediately slain. His body 
was torn in pieces (MoNK OF EVESHAM, p. 
127), but the fragments were ultimately re- 
covered and conveyed to England for burial 
in the family place of sepulture, Wigmore 
Abbey. The death of the heir to the throne 
at the hands of the Irish induced Richard II 
to undertake his last fatal expedition to Ire- 
land (Annales Ricardi II, p. 229). 

His widow Eleanor married, very soon 
after her husband's death, Edward Charlton, 
fifth lord Charlton of Powys [q.v.] The 
sons of Roger and Eleanor were : (1) Ed- 
mund (IV) de Mortimer, fifth earl of March 
[q. v.], who was born on 6 Nov. 1391 ; 
(2) Roger, born at Netherwood on 23 April 
1393, who died young about 1409. Of 
Roger's two daughters, Anne, the elder, born 
on 27 Dec. 1388, was wife of Richard, earl 
of Cambridge [q. v.], mother of Richard, duke 
of York, and grandmother of Edward IV, to 
whom, after the death of her two brothers 
without issue, she transmitted the estates of 
the Mortimers and the representation of 
Lionel of Clarence, the eldest surviving son 
of Edward III. The second daughter, Eleanor, 
married Edward Courtenay, eleventh earl of 
Devonshire, and died without issue in 1418. 

[Adam of Usk, ed. Thompson ; Annales Ri- 
cardi II apud Trokelowe (Rolls Ser.) ; Monk of 
Evesham, ed. Hearne; Dugdale'a Baronage, i. 
150-1 ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 354-5; Rymer's 
Foedera, vol. viii. (original edition) ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, ii. 469 ; Gilbert's Viceroys of 
Ireland, pp. 248-51, 273-8 ; Wallon's Richard II; 
Sandford's Genealogical History of the Kings 
of England, pp. 224-6.] T. F. T. 

MORTIMER, THOMAS (1730-1810), 
author, son of Thomas Mortimer (1706-1741), 
principal secretary to Sir Joseph Jekyll, 




master of the rolls, and grandson of John 
Mortimer (1656?-! 736) [q. v.], was born on 
9 Dec. 1730 in Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields (cf. Student's Pocket Diet.} His mother 
died in 1744, and he was left under the 
guardianship of John Baker of Spitalfields. 
He went first to school at Harrow, under the 
Rev. Dr. Cox, and then to a private academy 
in the north, but his knowledge was chiefly 
due to his own efforts. In 1750 he published 
' An Oration on the much lamented death of 
H.R.II. Frederick, Prince of Wales,' and as 
it was much admired he began to study elo- 
cution to qualify himself as a teacher of 
belles-lettres. He also learnt French and 
Italian in order that he might better study 
his favourite subject, modern history. In 
1751 he translated from the French M.Gau- 
tier's ' Life and Exploits of Pyrrhus.' In 
November 1762 he was made English vice- 
consul for the Austrian Netherlands, on the 
recommendation of John Montagu, fourth earl 
of Sandwich [q. v.], secretary of state, and 
went to Ostend, where he performed his duties 
in a most satisfactory manner. The reversion 
of the consulship was promised to him by two 
secretaries of state, Lord Sandwich and the 
Marquis of Rockingham, and he was strongly 
recommended by Sir J. Porter and his suc- 
cessor, Sir W. Gordon, English ministers at 
Brussels, but through an intrigue of Robert 
Wood, under-secretary to Lord Weymouth, 
he was suddenly dismissed from the vice- 
consulship in 1768, and the post given to Mr. 
Irvine (The Remarkable Case of Thomas 
Mortimer}. It was said that he had been 
too intimate with Wilkes, and too warm an 
opponent of Jesuits and Jacobites, and was 
dismissed because he did his duty as an 
Englishman, to be replaced by a Scotsman 
( Whisperer, No. 57, 16 March 1771). He 
returned to England and resumed his work 
in literature and private tuition (cf. Elements 
of Commerce, 1780). 

Mortimer died on 31 March 1810 in Cla- 
rendon Square, Somers Town (Gent. Mag. 
1810, i. 396). There is a print of him in the 
* European Magazine,' vol. xxxv. He mar- 
ried twice, and had a large family. A son, 
George, captain in the marines, published in 
1791 ' Observations during a Voyage in the 
South Seas and elsewhere in the brig " Mer- 
cury," commanded by J. H. Cox, esq.' (cf. 
Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816). 

Mortimer was a voluminous writer, chiefly 
on economic subjects, and complained when 
near eighty, says D'Israeli in ' Calamities of 
Authors,' of the 'paucity of literary employ- 
ment and the preference given to young ad- 
venturers.' His largest work was ' The Bri- 
tish Plutarch ' (6 vols. 8vo, 1762 ; 2nd ed., 

revised and enlarged, 1774; translated into 
French by Madame de Vasse, 1785-6, Paris, 
12 vols. 8vo), which contains lives of eminent 
inhabitants of Great Britain from the time 
of Henry VIII to George II. 

Besides some pamphlets, Mortimer's eco- 
nomic publications were : 1. ' Every Man his 
own Broker ; or Guide to Exchange Alley,' 
Lond. 12mo, 1761 ; 13th ed. 1801 ; the mate- 
rials were supplied by his own experience 
on the Stock Exchange, where he states that 
in 1756 he 'lost a genteel fortune.' 2. 'The 
Universal Director,' Lond. 8vo, 1763. 3. 'New 
History of England,' dedicated to Queen Char- 
lotte,Lond.3vols.fol. 1764-6. 4. 'Dictionary 
of Trade and Commerce,' Lond. 2 vols. fol. 
1766 ; ' a more commodious and better ar- 
ranged, but not a more valuable, work than 
that of Postlethwayt ' (McCuLLOCH). It em- 
braces geography, manufactures, architecture, 
the land-tax, and multifarious topics not 
strictly within its sphere. A similar but not 
identical ' General Commercial Dictionary ' 
by Mortimer appeared in 1810, 3rd ed. 1823. 
5. ' The National Debt no Grievance, by a 
Financier,' 1768 (cf. Monthly Review, 1769, 
p. 41). 6. ' Elements of Commerce,' Lond. 4to, 
1772; 2nd edit. 1802 ; translated into German 
by J. A. Englebrecht, Leipzig, 1783. This is a 
suggestive book of considerable merit, show- 
ing great knowledge of the works of previous 
economists. The material had been used by 
Mortimer in a series of lectures given in 
London. The author claims that from 
his suggestion Lord North adopted taxes 
on menial servants, horses, machines, post- 
chaises, &c., and that Lord Beauchamp's pro- 
posal for preventing arrests for debts under 
67. was derived from the same source. 7. ' Stu- 
dent's Pocket Dictionary,' Lond. 12mo, 1777; 
2nd. edit. 1789. 8. ' Lectures on the Ele- 
ments of Commerce, Politics, and Finance,' 
Lond. 8vo, 1801. 9. ' Nefarious Practice of 
Stock Jobbing,' Lond. 8vo. 10. ' A Gram- 
mar illustrating the Principles of Trade and 
Commerce,' Lond. 12mo, published after his 
death in 1810. He published revised editions 
of his grandfather's 'Whole Art of Hus- 
bandry ' in 1761, and of Beawes's ' Lex 
Mercatoria'in 1783, and translated Necker's 
Treatise on the Finances of France,' Lond. 
3 vols. 8vo, 1785. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Extraordinary Case of 
Thomas Mortimer ; European Mag. vol. xxxv. ; 
Reuss's Register of Authors ; McCulloch's Lit. 
of Pol. Econ. pp. 52, 53 ; Notes and Queries, 5th 
ser. i. 268, 315, 4-56 ; notes kindly supplied by 
W. A. S. Hewins, esq.] C. 0. 

JAMES, fourth EARL, d. 1581 ; DOUGLAS, SIR 
WILLIAM, of Lochleven, sixth or seventh 





EARL, d. 1606; DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, seventh 
or eighth EARL, 1582-1650 ; DOUGLAS, JAMES, 
fourteenth EARL, 1702-1768; and MAXWELL, 
JOHN, 1553-1593.] 

1625), secretary of state, born about 1584, 
was youngest of the three sons of George 
Morton of Eshere in Chilham, Kent, by Mary, 
daughter of Robert Hony wood of Charing in 
the same county. He was descended from 
the family of Morton of Mildred St. Andrew, 
Dorset, of which John Morton [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was a member. His 
grandmother, when left a widow, remarried 
Sir Thomas Wotton, and became the mother 
of Sir Henry Wotton [q. v.], who always 
called himself Albertus Morton's uncle. He 
was educated at Eton, and was elected to 
King's College, Cambridge, in 1603, appa- 
rently by royal influence (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1603-10, p. 185), but he did not gra- 
duate there. In July 1604 Wotton was ap- 
pointed ambassador to Venice, and his nephew 
accompanied him as secretary (cf. Life of 
Bishop Bedell, Camden Soc., p. 102). In 1609 
Morton returned to England, and among 
other papers he brought a letter from Wot- 
ton to the Prince of Wales, which is printed 
in Birch's ' Life of Henry, Prince of Wales.' 
In August 1613 he was talked of as minister 
to Savoy, but he met with a serious carriage 
accident in the same year (Reliquia Wot- 
toniance, p. 413), and he did not start until 
12 May 1614. Before 22 Dec. of the same 
year he was appointed clerk to the council, 
and had certainly set off on his return from 
Savoy to take up the duties of his office 
before 6 April 1615. In April 1616 he went 
to Heidelberg as secretary to the Princess 
Elizabeth, wife of the elector palatine, and 
while on this service was granted a pen- 
sion of 200/. a year, with an allowance 
of 501. for expenses. He was knighted on 
23 Sept. 1617, and cannot have seen much of 
the electress, as his brother, writing in Oc- 
tober 1618, says that he had returned at that 
time and was ill, and under the care of an 
Italian doctor (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611- 
1618, p. 585). He may have given up his 
clerkship while with the electress (ib. 1619- 
1623, p. 16), but on 6 April 1619 he had a 
formal grant of the office for life. He col- 
lected subscriptions for the elector in 1620 
(ib. p. 183), and in December of the same year 
he took over 30,000/. to the protestant princes 
of Germany (ib. p. 198 ; cf. p. 201). He re- 
turned before 12 March in the following year. 
He resigned his place in 1623 in a fit of pique, 
on not being allowed to be present when the 
Spanish marriage was discussed (ib. p. 480). 

It was rumoured in April 1624 that he- 
was to succeed Sir Edward Herbert, after- 
wards Lord Herbert of Cherbury [q. v.], a* 
ambassador to France, and later that he had 
refused the appointment, which, Carleton 
wrote, was as strange as that it was offered to 
him. It is clear that he was by this time under 
the patronage of Buckingham, and before 
26 July he was formally appointed to Paris,, 
though the patent was not made out till 
August. He was injured in November of 
the same year by a fall from his horse. Early 
in 1625 Sir George Calvert gave up the se- 
cretaryship of state for a substantial con- 
sideration, and Morton was sworn in at New- 
market in his place. He was elected member 
for the county of Kent and for the university 
of Cambridge (he had been seriously proposed 
for the provostship of King's College) in the- 
parliament of 1 625 . Buckingham had written 
to the mayor of Rochester in his favour ( Gent. 
Mag. 1798, i. 117), and he chose to sit for Kent, 
but he died in November 1625, and was buried 
at Southampton, where apparently he had a 
house. Wotton, who always speaks of him 
in terms of affection, wrote an elegy upon him. 
Morton married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Edward Apsley, but left no issue. His widow 
died very soon after him, and Wotton wrote 
an epigram upon her death. Morton was suc- 
ceeded as secretary by Sir John Coke [q. v.] 

[Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 219 ; Hasted's 
Kent, iii. 136 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ; Keliquiae- 
Wottonianse, ed. 1685, pp. 322, 388, 417, 421, 
425, 443, 552 ; Hannah's Wotton, pp. 40 et seq. ; 
Ciirtwright's Eape of Bramber (in Cartwright 
and Dallaway's West Sussex), p. 243 ; Harwood's 
Alumni Eton. p. 206 ; Nichols's Progresses of 
King James I, iii. 438 ; Gent. Mag. 1797 p. 840, 
1798 pp. 20, 115; Calendars of State Papers, 
Dom. 1603-25; Autobiography of Lord Herbert 
of Cherbury, ed. Lee, 1886, pp. 161 and 250n.] 

W. A. J. A. 

MORTON, ANDREW (1802-1845), por- 
trait-painter, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 
25 July 1802, was son of Joseph Morton, 
master mariner in that town, and was an 
elder brother of Thomas Morton (1813-1849) 
[q. v.], the surgeon. He came to London and 
studied at the Royal Academy, gaining a 
silver medal in 1821. He exhibited for the 
first time at the Royal Academy in 1821, and 
was a frequent exhibitor of portraits there 
and at the British Institution until his death. 
His art was entirely confined to portraiture, in 
which his style resembled that of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. He had a large practice and nume- 
rous sitters of distinction. In the National 
Gallery there are portraits by him of Sir 
James Cockburn, bart., Marianna, lady Cock- 
burn, and Marianna Augusta, lady Hamilton. 




In Greenwich Hospital there is a portrait of 
William IV by him. Morton died on 1 Aug. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet. 
of Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

MORTON, CHARLES (1627-1698),puri- 
tan divine, born at Pendavy, Egloshayle, in 
Cornwall, and baptised at Egloshayle on 
15 Feb. 1626-7, was the eldest son of Nicho- 
las Morton, who married, on 11 May 1616, 
Frances, only daughter of Thomas Kestell of 
Pendavy. He was probably the Charles Mor- 
ton, undergraduate of New Inn Hall, Oxford, 
who submitted on 4 May 1648 to the jurisdic- 
tion of the parliamentary visitors (BuKROWs, 
Register of Visitors, Camden Soc., 1881, p. 
569). On7 Sept. 1649 he was elected a scholar 
of Wadha m College, Oxford, and he graduated 
B.A. 6 Nov. 1649, M.A. 24 June 1652, being 
also incorporated at Cambridge in 1653. His 
antiquarian tastes developed early, for about 
1647 an urn of ancient coins found near 
Stanton St. John, Oxfordshire, was purchased 
by him and another student ( WOOD, Life and 
Times, Oxford Hist. Soc., i. 265). At Oxford 
he was conspicuous for knowledge of mathe- 
matics, and he was much esteemed by Dr. 
Wilkins, the head of his college. His sym- 
pathies were at first with the royalist views 
of his grandfather, but when he found that 
the laxest members of the university were 
attracted to that side he examined the ques- 
tion more seriously, and became a puritan. 
In 1655 Morton was appointed to the rectory 
of Blisland in his native county, but he was 
ejected by the Act of Uniformity in 1662, 
whereupon he retired to a small tenement, 
his own property, in St. Ive. He lost much 
property through the fire of London, and 
was driven to London to support himself. 

Morton was probably the ' Charles Mor- 
ton, presbyterian,' who in 1672 was licensed 
for ' a room in his dwelling-house, Kenning- 
ton, Lambeth ' (WADDINGTON, Surrey Con- 
greg. Hist. p. 70). A few years later he 
carried on at Stoke Newington, near London, 
the chief school of the dissenters. His object 
was to give an education not inferior to that 
afforded by the universities, and his labours 
proved very successful (cf.CALAMT, Continua- 
tion of Ejected Ministers, 1727, i. 177-97). 
Defoe was a pupil, and spoke well of the 
school, and many of the principal dissenting 
ministers John Shower, Samuel Lawrence, 
Thomas Reynolds, and William Hocker 
were educated by him. The names of some of 
them are printed in Toulmin's ' Protestant 
Dissenters,' pp. 570-574. In 1703 Samuel 
Wesley attacked the dissenting academies 
in his ' Letter from a Country Divine,' and 

among them the establishment of Morton, in 
which he himself had been educated. They 
were thereupon defended by the Rev. Samuel 
Palmer in ' A Defence of the Dissenters' Edu- 
cation in their Private Academies,' to which 
Wesley replied in ' A Defence of a Letter on 
the Education of Dissenters,' 1704, and Palmer 
retorted with 'AVindication of the Learning, 
Loyalty, Morals of the Dissenters. In answer 
to Mr. Wesley,' 1705 (TYERMAN, Life and 
Times of S. Wesley, pp. 66-76, 270-94). 

Morton was so harried by processes from 
the bishop's court that he determined upon 
leaving the country. He arrived at New 
England in July 1686 with his wife, his pupil, 
Samuel Penhallow [q. v.], and his nephew, 
Charles Morton, M.D. Another nephew had 
preceded them in 1685. It had been pro- 
posed that Morton should become the prin- 
cipal of Harvard College, but through fear 
of displeasing the authorities another was 
appointed before his arrival. He was, how- 
ever, made a member of the corporation of 
the college and its first vice-president, and 
he drew up a system of logic and a compen- 
dium of physics, which were for many years 
two of its text-books. Some lectures on 
philosophy which he read in his own rooms 
were attended by several students from the 
college, and one or two discontented scholars 
desired to become inmates of his house, but 
these proceedings gave offence to the govern- 
ing body. The letter of request to him to 
refrain from receiving these persons is printed 
in the ' Mather Papers ' (Massachusetts Hist. 
Soc. Collections, 4th ser. viii. 111-12). Morton 
was solemnly inducted as minister of the 
first church in Charlestown, New England, 
on 5 Nov. 1686, and was the first clergyman 
of the town who solemnised marriages. He 
was prosecuted for ' several seditious expres- 
sions ' in a sermon preached on 2 Sept. 1687, 
but was acquitted. His name is the second 
of the petitioners to the council on 2 Oct. 
1693 for some encouragement to a system of 
propagating Christianity among the Indians, 
and his was the senior signature to an asso- 
ciation for mutual assistance among the minis- 
ters of New England (ib. 3rd ser. i. 134, and 
New England Hist. Reg. iv. 186). Numer- 
ous extracts from the record books of his 
church are in the ' New England Historical 
Register,' vols. xxv. xxvii. and xxviii. 

About 1694 Morton's health began to fail, 
but no assistant could be found for him. He 
died at Charlestown on 11 April 1698, and was 
buried on 14 April, his funeral being attended 
by the officers of Harvard College and its stu- 
dents. By his will, dated November 1697, he 
left 501. for the benefit of the college, and gave 
his executors power to dispose of ' his philo- 

Morton i 

sophical writings, sermon notes, pamphlets, 
mathematical instruments, and other rarities.' 
His houses and lands at Charlestown and in 
Cornwall with the rest of his property passed 
to his two nephews, Charles and John Mor- 
ton, and his niece in equal shares. An epi- 
taph was written for him by the Rev. Simon 
Bradstreet, his successor in the ministry. 

Morton held the Greek maxim that a great 
book was a great evil. He published many 
small volumes on social and theological ques- 
tions (see Bibl. Cornub. and CALAMY'S Contin. 
i. 210-211). A paper by him on ' The Improve- 
ment of Cornwall by Seasand ' is in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' x. 293-6, and his ' En- 
quiry into the Physical and Literal Sense of 
Jeremiah viii. 7 the stork in the heaven 
knoweth her appointed times,' is reprinted 
in the ' Harleian Miscellany,' 1744 ii. 558- 
567, 1809 ii. 578-88. It is a blot on his 
character that he acted with those who urged 
the prosecutions for witchcraft at Salem. 
John Duntou, the bookseller, lauds him as 
' the very soul of philosophy, the repository 
of all arts and sciences, and of the graces 
too,' and describes his discourses as ' not stale, 
or studied, but always new and occasional. 
His sermons were high, but not soaring; 
practical, but not low. His memory was as 
vast as his knowledge ' (Life and JErrors. i. 

[Drake's Diet. American Biog. ; Allen's Ameri- 
can Biog. Diet.; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Calamy's 
Account of Ejected Ministers, ed. 1713, ii. 144- 
145 ; Lee's Memoir of Defoe, i. 7-10, 89; J. 
Browne's Congregationalism, Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, p. 239 ; Maclean's Trigg Minor, i. 53, 461 ; 
Savage's Gerieal. Kegister, iii. 243; Frothing- 
ham's Charlestown, pp. 193-240 ; Massachusetts 
Hist. Soc. 2nd ser. i. 158-62; Sprague's Annals 
American Pulpit, i. 211-13; Budington's First 
Church, Charlestown, pp. 99-113, 184-5, 221-6, 
250 ; Quincy's Harvard Univ. i. 69-92, 495-7, 
599-600 ; Toulmin's Protestant Dissenters, pp. 
232-5.] W. P. C. 

MORTON, CHARLES (1716-1799), 
principal librarian of the British Museum, 
a native of Westmoreland, was born in 1716. 
He entered as a medical student at Leyden on 
18 Sept. 1736, and graduated there as M.D. 
on 28 Aug. 1748 (PEACOCK, Index of Eng- 
lish-speaking Students at Leyden,^. 71). He 
is said to have meanwhile practised at Ken- 
dal ' with much reputation,' and in September 
1748 was admitted an extra-licentiate of the 
College of Physicians.He practised inLondon 
for several years, and on 19 April 1750 he was 
elected physician to the Middlesex Hospital. 
He was admitted licentiate of the College of 
Physicians on 1 April 1751, and in 1754 also 
became physician to the Foundling Hospital. 

50 Morton 

i On the establishment of the British Museum 
in 1756 Morton was appointed under-libra- 
rian or keeper of the manuscript and medal 
departments, and in that capacity continued 
the cataloguing of the Harleian MSS. He 
also acted for some time as secretary to the 
trustees. In 1768 he was appointed with 
Mr. Farley to superintend the publication of 
the 'Domesday Book,' but though he received 
a considerable sum the work was not carried 
out. On the death of Dr. Matthew Maty [q.v.] 
in 1776, Morton was appointed principal li- 
brarian and held the office till his death. His 
term of office was not marked by any striking 
improvements, but he is said to have always 
treated students and visitors with courtesy. 

He was elected F.R.S. on 16 Jan. 1752, 
and was secretary of the Royal Society from 
1760 to 1774 (THOMSON, Hist. Roy. Soc. 
App. iv. and v.) He contributed to the 
' Transactions ' in 1751 ' Observations and 
Experiments upon Animal Bodies ... or 
Inquiry into the cause of voluntary Muscu- 
lar Motion ' (Phil. Trans, xlvii. 305) ; and in 
1768 a paper on the supposed connection be- 
tween the hieroglyphic writing of Egypt 
and the Modern Chinese character (ib. lix. 
489). He was a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, the Imperial Academy of St. 
Petersburg, and of the Royal Academy of 
Gottingen. He is said to have been 'a person 
of great uprightness and integrity, and much 
admired as a scholar.' He died at his resi- 
dence in the British Museum on 10 Feb. 
1799, aged 83, and was buried at Twicken- 
ham, in the cemetery near the London Road. 

Morton was thrice married : first, in 1744, 
to Mary Berkeley, niece of Lady Elizabeth 
(Betty) Germaine, by whom he had an only 
daughter ; secondly, in 1772, to Lady Savile, 
who died 10 Feb. 1791 ; and, lastly, at the 
end of 1791, to Elizabeth Pratt, a near rela- 
tion of his second wife. 

Morton published : 1. An improved edi- 
tion of Dr. Bernard's 'Engraved Table of 
Alphabets,' 1759, fol. 2. AVhitelocke's ' Notes 
upon the King's Writ for choosing Members of 
Parliament,' 13 Car.II, 1 766, 4to. 3. White- 
locke's 'Account of the Swedish Embassy in 
1653-4,' 2 vols., 1772, 4to, dedicated to Vis- 
count Lumley. Dr. Burn, in the preface to 
his 'Justice of the Peace,' acknowledges 
obligations to Morton for assistance in the 
work ; and in Nichols's ' Literary Illustra- 
tions ' there are several letters concerning 
him. In one from E. M. Da Costa [q. v.], 
of the Royal Society, dated 1 July 1751, he is 
asked to collect fossils and make observations 
on them in Westmoreland and Lancashire, 
and is given directions as to the localities 
where they are to be found and directions for 



cataloguing them. Daniel Wray wrote to 
John Nichols, 29 Sept. 1771, that Morton had 
imported the ' League and Covenant of 1638, 
the original upon a giant skin of parchment, 
signed by a handsome number.' 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 2nd edit. ii. 174-5; 
Edwards's Founders of the Brit. Mus., pp. 344, 
516 ; Lysons's Environs of London, Suppl. vol. 
pp. 319, 322; Nichols's Lit. Illu&tr. i. 139, ii. 
757-9 ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1375 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1799 pt. i. p. 250, and Europ. Mag. 
same year, p. 143 ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; 
authorities cited in text.] Gr. LE Gr. N. 

MORTON, JOHN (1420 P-1500), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and cardinal, was born 
in Dorset, at either Bere Regis or Milborne 
St. Andrew, about 1420. He was the eldest 
son of Richard Morton, who belonged to a 
Nottinghamshire family which had migrated 
to Dorset (HuicniNs, Dorset, ii. 594). His 
family has been traced back to Edward Ill's 
time. He was educated at Cerne Abbey, a 
house of Benedictines near his home, and, 
going to Oxford, joined Balliol College, and 
proceeded D.C.L. He had chosen the pro- 
fession of law, which necessarily made him 
take orders, and he appears as commissary 
for the university in 1446 (Munimenta Aca- 
demica, Rolls Ser., ii. 552). He removed to 
London, but kept up his connection with the 
university (ib. p. 584), practising chiefly as 
an ecclesiastical lawyer in the court of arches. 
Here he came under the notice of Bourchier, 
archbishop of Canterbury, who became his 
patron. Morton was at once admitted to the 
privy council, and was appointed chancellor 
of the duchy of Cornwall and a master in 
chancery. From this time he had much pre- 
ferment, and was a great pluralist. In 1450 
he became subdean of Lincoln, in 1453 he 
held the principalship of Peckwater Inn at 
Oxford and the living of Bloxworth in Dorset. 
In 1458 he became prebendary of Salisbury 
and Lincoln, resigning his subdeanery at 

In the struggle between Lancaster and 
York, Morton followed the Lancastrian party, 
though for a short time accepting the inevi- 
table ascendency of the Yorkists. He was 
probably with the Lancastrians on their 
march from the north early in 1461, and 
after the second battle of St. Albans, being 
chancellor to the young Prince Edward, he 
took part in the ceremony of making him a 
knight. After the accession of Edward IV 
he was at Towton in March 1461, and must 
have been in actual risk of his life. He was 
reported to be captured (Paston Letters, ed. 
Gairdner, ii. 7), but followed Margaret and 
Prince Edward for some time in their sub- 
sequent wanderings. He was naturally at- 

tainted, and lost all (RAMSAY, Lancaster and 
York, ii. 283). "When Margaret and De 
Breze made their descent on England in the 
autumn of 1462, Morton met them, and he 
sailed with them from Bamborough to Sluys, 
when Margaret went to throw herself upon 
the Duke of Burgundy's mercy in July or 
August 1463 (ib. p. 296 ; WILLIAM WYRCES- 
TER in Wars of the English in France, Rolls 
Ser., ii. ii. 781). He seems to have had no 
share in the outbreaks which resulted in the 
battles of Hedgeley Moor and Hexham. He 
lived, like Sir John Fortescue and other 
Lancastrians (cf. Arch. Journal, vii. 171), 
with Margaret at St. Mihiel in Bar. But 
when Warwick and Clarence decided to join 
the Lancastrians, Morton bore a large part in 
the reconciliation, and must have been well 
known to Louis XI. He left Angers on 
4 Aug. 1470, and landed at Dartmouth with 
Warwick on 13 Sept. He was at once sent 
in advance, with Sir John Fortescue, to 
London, to prepare for Warwick's march 
thither, and this seems to confirm Campbell's 
statement that he was popular at this period, 
though he certainly was not so later. After 
the battle of Barnet (April 1471) he went to 
Weymouth, to meet the queen and Prince 
Edward, and with them passed to his old 
school at Cerne, and thence to Beaulieu. 

When the battle of Tewkesbury seemed 
to have ended the wars of the Roses, Morton 
submitted. He petitioned (Hot. Parl. vi. 26), 
and his attainder was reversed. Bourchier 
was still his friend, and collated him in 1472 
to the rectory of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East. 
In the same year he received the prebend of 
Isledon in St. Paul's Cathedral, which he re- 
signed on receiving that of Chiswick in the 
following year. On 16 March 1472-3 he 
became master of the rolls, his patent being 
renewed in 1475. Edward, who was always 
wisely forgetful of the past history of his 
opponents, thoroughly trusted him, and sent 
him in 1474 on an embassy to the emperor 
and the king of Hungary, to secure their 
adhesion to the league which England had 
made with Burgundy against Louis XI of 
France. He seems to have returned very 
quickly (Paston Letters, iii. 123), and was 
made archdeacon of Winchester and Chester 
the same year. In 1475 he was one of the 
counsellors who arranged the treaty of Pec- 
quigny, and was bribed like the rest (GAIRD- 
NEE, Richard III, p. 33). He performed a 
doubtful service to the Lancastrian cause at 
the same time by arranging for Queen Mar- 
garet's ransom. Morton continued to accu- 
mulate preferments, and on 31 Jan. 1478-9 
became bishop of Ely, in succession toWilliam 
Gray. He comforted Edward when dying 




in 1483, was an executor to his will, and as- 
sisted at his funeral (Letters, fyc., Richard III 
and Henry F/7,ed. Gairdner, Rolls Ser., i. 4). 
He was, of course, present at the meeting of 
the council on 13 June 1483, when Richard's 
plans were fully put into action. Richard 
came late, and joked with Morton about the 
strawberries he was growing in the gardens 
at Ely Place, Holborn (cf. SHAKESPEARE, 
Richard III, act iii. sc. 4) ; but, as a powerful 
adherent of the young prince, he was one of 
those who were arrested when the meeting 
broke up (GAIEDNEB, Richard III, pp. 81 
et seq.) The university of Oxford petitioned 
for his release, calling him her dearest son 
(WooD, Athenee, ed. Bliss). He was at first 
confined in the Tower, and then, at Buck- 
ingham's request, removed to his custody at 
Brecknock Castle [see STAFFOED, HENBY, 
1454P-1483]. Here in 1483 Buckingham 
had a conversation with his prisoner which 
showed his own schemes against Richard to 
have been already formed, and at the same 
time suggested to Morton a way of using him 
against the king and in favour of the young 
Earl of Richmond (cf. GAIEDNEB, Henry VII, 
p. 10, and Richard III, pp. 138, 149). Mor- 
ton skilfully encouraged the duke in his op- 
position to Richard III, and brought him, 
through Reginald Bray, into close communi- 
cation with the Countess cf Richmond, and 
with Elizabeth, the queen-dowager. It has 
been said that this plot was due to the fact 
that Buckingham knew of the murder of the 
young princes, but it is more probable that 
that had not yet taken place, and that Buck- 
ingham chose to join the party of Richmond, 
as safer than following Richard's example. 
Morton, having directed the plot, urged that 
he ought to be in Ely to raise the men of his 
bishopric. Buckingham hesitated to allow 
him to have Brecknock Castle, and Morton 
fled by night to Ely, and thence to Flanders 
(GAIEDNEB, Richard III, pp. 138 et seq., 
Henry F/7,pp. 11 et seq. ; POLYDOBE VEBGIL, 
English Hist. ed. Ellis, Camden Soc.,p. 198). 
He continued in constant correspondence with 
Lancastrians in England. When Richard in 
1484 was plotting the capture of Henry of 
Richmond in Brittany, Morton heard of the 
scheme in time to send Christopher Urswick 
to warn Henry to escape into France, and 
thus saved Henry's life (ib. p. 206). 

Morton remained in Flanders till after the 
settlement of the kingdom upon Henry VII 
in the parliament of November 1485, when 
Henry summoned him home. To his coun- 
sels the final victory of the Lancastrians was 
in a large degree attributed ; and he doubt- 
less was the great advocate for Henry's 
marriage with Elizabeth of York. His at- 

tainder was reversed, he was made a privy 
councillor, and for the rest of his life, as More 
makes Hythloday say in the ' Utopia,' ' The 
king depended much on his counsels, and the 
government seemed to be chiefly supported by 
him.' On 6 Oct. 1486 he succeeded Bourchier 
as archbishop of Canterbury, and on 6 March 
following he succeeded John Alcock, the 
founder of Jesus College, Cambridge, as lord 
chancellor. The chancellorship in his hands 
was the most important office in the govern- 
ment (cf. CAMPBELL, Lives of the Lord Chancel- 
lors, i. 417), and probably he was much more 
concerned with secular than with spiritual 
affairs. Practically nothing was done in con- 
vocation while he was archbishop, which may 
be regarded as the result of his master's policy, 
but he tried to reform both the regular and 
secular clergy, obtaining a bull in 1489, in 
contravention of the statutes of prsemunire, 
enabling him to visit the monasteries in his 
province, and proceeding vigorously against 
St. Albans. As chancellor he opened parlia- 
ment with speeches which, according to Camp- 
bell, more closely resemble the modern sove- 
reign's speech than had been usual in similar 
compositions before his time (cf. CUNNING- 
HAM, Hist, of Brit. Industry and Commerce, 
i. 430). His duties included the delivery of 
the official answers to the foreign ambassa- 
dors (BEENAED ANDEEA, Hist, of Henry VII 
in Memor. of Henry VII, Rolls Ser., p. 55). 
But it is difficult to detect in his actions any- 
thing beyond a very literal and faithful ful- 
filment of the policy devised by Henry VII. 
There was no originality in his political con- 
duct, and Mr. Gairdner has suggested that he 
was at heart an ecclesiastic. He recommended 
to Henry, it is said, the plan of obtaining a 
bull against his enemies, and he obtained 
another which restrained the rights of sanc- 
tuary. His character suffered by his devo- 
tion to Henry (cf. Cal.State Papers, Venetian, 
1202-1509, p. 743). He assisted in collecting 
the benevolences in 1491 for the French war 
( WILL. WTEC. p. 793), and has been tradition- 
ally known as the author of ' Morton's Fork ' or 
' Morton's Crutch,' but the truth seems rather 
to be that he and Richard Foxe [q. v.] did 
their best at the council to restrain Henry's 
avarice. In 1493 he had a dispute with the 
Bishop of London as to their respective rights 
over wills of personalty, in which he came 
out victor. In the same year Pope Alexan- 
der VI, at Henry's request, made him a car- 
dinal, with the title of St. Anastasia (cf. Cal. 
State Papers, Venetian, 1202-1509, p. 537). 
At the magnificent ceremony by which Prince 
Henry was knighted and created Duke of 
York, on 1 Nov. 1494, Morton said mass at 
the feast, and afterwards he sat alone with 




the king at the high table. The university of 
Oxford early in 1495 made him its chancellor, 
in succession to Bishop Russell, though he 
gave fair warning that he could not attend to 
the duties. He also refused to take the cus- 
tomary oath, alleging that his graduation 
oath was sufficient. He must have been very 
old, but his strength was maintained, and 
he opened the parliament of 1496 with a 
long speech. He cannot have been sent in 
1499 as ambassador to Maximilian, though 
a suggestion to that effect is found in the 
* Venetian Calendar '(1202-1 509, 796, 799). 
He died of a quartan ague on 12 Oct. 1500 at 
Knowle in Kent. He was buried in the crypt 
of Canterbury Cathedral. According to Wood 
(Annals, i. 642) the tomb became cracked, and 
the bones disappeared slowly till only the 
skull was left, and that Ralph Sheldon begged 
of his brother the archbishop in 1670. 

Bacon says of Morton that ' he was a wise 
man and an eloquent, but in his nature harsh 
and haughty, much accepted by the king, 
but envied by the nobility, and hated of the 
people.' This unfavourable view of his cha- 
racter is not so trustworthy as the opinion 
of More, who knew him intimately, and gave 
a very sympathetic description of him in his 
' Utopia ' (ed. Arber, p. 36). According to 
More, ' his conversation was easy, but serious 
and grave. He spoke both gracefully and 
weightily. He was eminently skilled in the 
law, had a vast understanding and a pro- 
digious memory ; and those excellent talents 
with which nature had furnished him were 
improved by study and experience.' 

Morton was a great builder. He received 
a patent on 26 July 1493 empowering him 
to impress workmen to repair the houses of 
his province in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex 
(Letters, &c., ii. 374 ; Chronicles of the White 
Rose, p. 198). At Ely his memory is preserved 
by Morton's Dyke, a great drainage trench 
which he cut through the fens from Peter- 
borough to Wisbech. He repaired the epi- 
scopal palace at Hatfield and the castle at 
Wisbech ; his arms are on the church tower 
of Wisbech. At Oxford he repaired the 
school of Canon Law and helped to rebuild 
St. Mary's Church. To literature he extended 
some patronage. Thomas More he took into 
his household, and foretold a great career for 

The ' History of Richard III,' usually as- 
cribed to Sir Thomas More [q. v.], and printed 
in the collected editions of More's English 
and Latin works, was probably originally 
written in Latin by Morton (cf. WAL- 
TOLE, Historic Doubts in Works, ii. Ill; 
BRIDGETT, Sir Thomas More, p. 79). It is 
clearly the work of a Lancastrian and a con- 

temporary of Edward IV, which More was 
not, and it is assigned to Morton by Sir 
John Harington and by Sir George Buc. 
More's connection with the work seems to 
have been confined to translating it into 
English and to amplifying it in the English 
version (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 
105). The ' Chronicle ' of Hall probably owed 
something to Morton's suggestions. 

[Authorities quoted ; Chronicles of Hall and 
Fabyan; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Can- 
terbury, v. 387 et seq. ; Continuator of Croyland 
in ' Rerum Anglic. Script.' (Fell and Fulman), 
p. 566; Hutchins's Dorset,!. 104, 154, 158, ii. 
594 ; Basin's Hist, des regnes de Charles VII 
et Louis XI, ed. Quicherat (Soc. de 1'Hist. de 
France), iii. 137 ; Memoires de Ph. de Commynes, 
ed. Dupont (Soc. de 1'Hist. de France), i. 352, ii. 
166; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, especially 
vol. iii. ; Lord Clermont's Life of Fortescue ; 
Bates's Border Strongholds of Northumberland, 
i. 254 et seq. ; Campbell's Materials for the 
Hist, of Henry VII ; Bentham's Hist, of Ely, 
p. 179 et seq. ; Hasted's Kent, ii. 19, 95, 99, 694 ; 
Baker's Chron. pp. 228-37 ; Newcome's Hist, of 
St. Albans, p. 403; T. Mozley's Henry VII, 
Prince Arthur, and Cardinal Morton; arts. 
EDWARD, PEINCE OF WALES, 1453-1471, and 

MORTON, JOHN (1671 P-1726), natu- 
ralist, was born between 18 July 1670 and 
18 July 1671. He matriculated at Cam- 
bridge on 17 Dec. 1688, graduated B.A. from 
Emmanuel College in 1691 ; took an ad 
eundem degree at Oxford in 1694, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1695. In 1701 Morton be- 
came curate of Great Oxendon, Northamp- 
tonshire, and in 1703 he was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society. His first letter to 
Sloane (Sloane MS. 4053, f. 329) is dated 
7 Feb. 1703, and alludes to his acquaintance 
with Captain Hatton, his recent election into 
the Royal Society, and his ' Natural History 
of Northamptonshire, then in progress.' In 
a letter to Dr. Richard Richardson [q.v.] of 
North Bier ley (Richardson Correspondence, p. 
85), dated 9 Nov. 1704, he writes: 'My 
acquaintance with Mr. Ray initiated me early 
in the search and study of plants : from the 
reading of Dr. Lister's books, I became an 
inquirer after fossil shells; and my corre- 
spondence with Dr. Woodward, Dr. Sloane, 
and Mr. Lhwyd, has supported my curiosity.' 
Sloane appears to have visited him at Oxendon 
between May 1705 and April 1706; and in the 
latter year Morton was instituted as rector 
of that place. In the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions ' for 1706 (No. 305, xxv. 2210) ap- 
peared ' A Letter from the Rev. Mr. Mor- 
ton, A.M. and S.R.S., to Dr. Hans Sloane, 
S.R. Seer., containing a Relation of river 
and other Shells digg'd up, together with. 




various Vegetable Bodies, in a bituminous 
marshy earth, near Mears-Ashby, in North- 
amptonshire : with some Reflections there- 
upon : as also an Account of the Progress he 
has made in the Natural History of North- 
amptonshire.' In this, and in his later work, 
Morton adopted the views of Dr. John 
Woodward as to the deluge and the entomb- 
ment of fossils according to their gravities. 
In 1710 he became rector of Great Oxendon. 
In 1712 he published ' The Natural History 
of Northamptonshire, with some account of 
the Antiquities; to which is annexed a 
transcript of Domesday Book, as far as it 
relates to that County,' London, folio. This 
book deals largely with ' figured fossils,' of 
which it contains several plates, and Pul- 
teney praises the botanical part; but in 
Whalley's ' History of Northamptonshire ' j 
the transcript of Domesday is said to be very 
inaccurate. Writing to Richardson in 1713, 
Morton says : ' I frequently drank your health i 
with my friend Mr. Buddie, and other of 
the London botanists.' He died on 18 July 
1726, aged 55, and was buried at Great 
Oxendon, where a monument, with an in- 1 
scription to his memory, was erected at the 
expense of Sir Hans Sloane. 

[Sloane MS. 4053, ff. 329-54; Nichols's Il- 
lustrations of the Literary History of the | 
Eighteenth Century, i. 326 ; Pulteney's Sketches j 
of the Progress of Botany, i. 354 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. vi. 358.] G. S. B. 

MORTON, JOHN (1781-1864), agricul- 
turist, born on 17 July 1781 at Ceres, Fife- 
shire, was the second son of Robert Morton, 
by his wife Kate Pitcairn. He was educated 
at the parish school till the family removed 
to Flisk. His first farm was ' Wester,' or 
'Little Kinnear,' at Kilmany, Fifeshire. 
While there Morton employed his ' leisure 
periods' in walking repeatedly over most of 
the counties of England, noting their geology 
and farm practice. His notes were after- 
wards published in his book ' On Soils.' In 
1810 he removed to Dulverton, Somerset, 
where he remained till 1818, when he was 
appointed agent to Lord Ducie's Gloucester- 
shire estates. Here he projected and con- 
ducted the ' Whitfield Example Farm,' and 
established the 'Uley Agricultural Machine 
Factory.' He invented the ' Uley cultivator' 
and other agricultural appliances. In 1852 
he resigned his charge and retired to Nails- 
worth, Gloucestershire, where he died on 
26 July 1864. He married, on 15 Jan. 1812, 
Jean, sister of Dr. Thomas Chalmers [q.v.] 

His work ' On the Nature and Property 
of Soils,' 8vo, London, 1838, 3rd edit. 1842, 
4th edit. 1843, was the first attempt to con- 

nect the character of the soil with the geo- 
logical formation beneath, and thus to give 
a scientific basis to the work of the land 
valuer. Shortly after its publication he was 
elected a fellow of the Geological Society. 
In conjunction with his friend J. Trimmer, 
the geologist [q. v.], he wrote ' An Attempt 
to Estimate the Effects of Protecting Duties 
on the Profits of Agriculture,' 8vo, London, 
1845, advocating the repeal of the corn laws 
from the agricultural point of view. He also 
published A ' Report on the . . . Whitfield 
Farm,' 12mo, London, 1840. 

1888), born on 1 July 1821, was educated at 
the Merchistoun Castle School, Edinburgh, 
tinder his uncle, Charles Chalmers. He after- 
wards attended some of the university lec- 
tures, took the first prize for mathematics, 
and was a student in David Low's agricul- 
tural classes [see Low, DAVID]. In 1838 he 
went to assist his father on the Whitfield 
Example Farm, and shortly after joined the 
newly formed Royal Agricultural Society. 
He accepted the offer of the editorship of the 
'Agricultural Gazette' on its foundation in 
1844 ; this connection brought him to Lon- 
don, and continued till his death. When 
Low retired in 1854 from his chair at Edin- 
burgh, Morton conducted the classes till the 
appointment of Professor Wilson. He was 
inspector under the land commissioners, and 
also served for six years (1868-74) with Dr. 
Frankland and Sir W. Denison on the royal 
commission for inquiry into the pollution of 
rivers. Morton died at his Harrow residence 
on 3 May 1888. He married in 1854 Miss 
Clarence Cooper Hay ward of Frocester Court, 
Gloucestershire. A son, Mr. E. J. C. Morton, 
was elected M.P. for Devonport in 1892. 

Morton edited and brought out : 1. ' A 
Cyclopaedia of Agriculture ' in 1855. 2. ' Mor- 
ton's New Farmer's Almanac,' 12mo and 8vo, 
London, 1856-70. Continued as ' Morton's 
Almanac for Farmers and Landowners,' 1871, 
&c. 3. ' Handbook of Dairy Husbandry,' 8vo, 
London, 1860. 4. ' Handbook of Farm La- 
bour,' 8vo, London, 1861; new edit. 1868. 
5. ' The Prince Consort's Farms,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1863. 6. ' An Abstract of the Agricul- 
tural Holdings . . . Act, 1875,' for Bayl- 
don's ' Art of Valuing Rents,' &c. 9th edit. 
8vo, London, 1876. He also edited ' Arthur 
Young's Farmer's Calendar,' 21st edit. 8vo, 
London, 1861-2, which he reissued as the 
' Farmer's Calendar ' in 1870 ; 6th edit. 
1884; and the 'Handbooks of the Farm' 
Series, 7 vols. 1881-4, contributing to the 
series 'Diary of the Farm,' 'Equipment of 
the Farm,' and ' Soil of the Farm.' For 
a time he helped to edit the ' Journal of the 




Royal Agricultural Society,' and contributed 
largely to its pages, as well as to the ' Journal 
of the Society of Arts.' 

[Information kindly supplied by J. Morton, 
Earl of Ducie's Office, Manchester ; Gardeners' 
Chron. and Agricultural Gazette, 4 Oct. 1873, 
with portrait; Agricultural Gazette, 30 July 
1864 and 7 May 1888, p. 428, with portrait; 
Journ. Royal Agricultural Soc. 2nd ser. xxiv. 
691 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] B. B. W. 

1891), dramatist, second son of Thomas Mor- 
ton (1764 P-1838) [q. v.], was born 3 Jan. 
1811 at the Thames-side village of Pang- 
bourne. Between 1817 and 1820 he was 
educated in France and Germany, and, after 
being for a short time at school in Isling- 
ton, went to the well-known school on 
Clapham Common of Charles Richardson 
[q. v.], the lexicographer. Here he remained 
1820-7, meeting Charles James Mathews 
[q. v.], Julian Young, and many others con- 
nected with the stage. Lord John Russell 
gave him in 1832 a clerkship in Chelsea 
Hospital, which he resigned in 1840. His 
first farce, produced in April 1835 at the 
Queen's Theatre in Tottenham Street, then 
under the management of Miss Mordaunt, 
subsequently known as Mrs. Nisbett, was 
called ' My First Fit of the Gout.' It was 
supported by Mrs. Nisbett, Wrench, and 
Morris Barnett. Between that time and the 
close of his life Morton wrote enough plays, 
chiefly farces, to entitle him to rank among 
the most prolific of dramatists. With few 
exceptions these are taken from the French. 
He showed exceptional facility in suiting 
French dialogues to English tastes, and many 
of his pieces enjoyed a marvellous success, 
and contributed greatly to build up the repu- 
tation of actors such as Buckstone, Wright, 
Harley, the Keeleys, Compton, and others. 

To Drury Lane Theatre Morton gave 
the ' Attic Story ; ' ' A Thumping Legacy ; ' 
' My Wife 's come ; ' ' The Alabama,' and 
pantomimes on the subjects of William 
Tell, Valentine and Orson, Gulliver, and 
St. George and the Dragon. At Covent 
Garden appeared his ' Original ; ' ' Chaos 
is come again ; ' ' Brother Ben ; ' ' Cousin 
Lambkin ; ' ' Sayings and Doings ; ' and 
the pantomime of ' Guy, Earl of War- 
wick.' Among the pieces sent to the Hay- 
market were ' Grimshaw, Bagshaw, and 
Bradshaw : ' the ' Two Bonnycastles ; ' the 
' Woman I adore ; ' ' A Capital Match ; ' 
' Your Life's in Danger ; ' ' To Paris and Back 
for Five Pounds ; ' the ' Rights and Wrongs 
of Women ; ' ' Lend me Five Shillings ; ' 
' Take Care of Dowb ; ' the ' Irish Tiger ; " Old 
Honesty;' the 'Milliner's Holiday;' the 

' King and I ; ' the ' Three Cuckoos ; ' the 
' Double-bedded Room ; ' ' Fitzsmyth of 
Fitzsmyth Hall;' the 'Trumpeter's Wed- 
ding ; ' the ' Garden Party ' (13 Aug. 1877) ; 
and 'Sink or Swim,' a two-act comedy 
written in conjunction with his father. The 
Adelphi produced ' A most Unwarrantable 
Intrusion ; ' ' Who stole the Pocket Book ? ' 
' Slasher and Crasher ; ' ' My Precious Betsy ; * 
' A Desperate Game ; ' ' Whitebait at Green- 
wich ; ' ' Waiting for an Omnibus ; ' ' Going 
to the Derby ; ' ' Aunt Charlotte's Maid ; ' 
' Margery Daw ; ' ' Love and Hunger ; ' and 
the ' Steeple Chase.' At the Princess's, chiefly 
under Charles Kean's management, were pro- 
duced ' Betsy Baker ; ' ' From Village to 
Court' (13 Nov. 1850); ' 'Away with Melan- 
choly; ' ' A Game of Romps ; ' the Muleteer 
of Toledo ; ' ' How Stout you're getting ; ' 
'Don't judge by Appearances;' 'A Prince 
for an Hour ; ' ' Sent to the Tower ; ' ' Our 
Wife ; ' ' Dying for Lo ve ; ' ' Thirty-three next 
Birthday;' 'My Wife's Second Floor;' 
' Master Jones's Birthday ; ' and the panto- 
mimes of 'Aladdin,' 'Blue Beard, 'Miller 
and his Men,' and ' White Cat.' The Olympic 
saw 'All that glitters is not Gold ; ' ' Ticklish 
Times ; ' ' A Husband to Order ; ' ' A Regu- 
lar Fix ; " Wooing One's Wife ; ' ' My Wife's 
Bonnet ; ' and the ' Miser's Treasure,' 29 April 

Morton's most popular piece, 'Box and 
Cox,' afterwards altered by Mr. F. C. Bur- 
nand, and set to music by Sir Arthur Sul- 
van as ' Cox and Box,' was produced at the 
Lyceum 1 Nov. 1847. It is adapted from two 
French vaudevilles, one entitled ' Une Cham- 
bre a deux lits ; ' it has been played many 
hundreds of times, and translated into Ger- 
man, Dutch, and Russian. The same house 
had already seen on 24 Feb. 1847, 'Done 
on both Sides,' and the ' Spitfire ; ' and 
subsequently saw ' Poor Pillicoddy.' At 
Punch's playhouse, afterwards the Strand, 
he gave ' A Hopeless Passion ; ' ' John 
Dobbs ; ' ' Where there's a Will there's a 
Way ; ' ' Friend Waggles ; ' ' Which of the 
Two ;' 'A Little Savage ;' ' Catch a Weazel.' 
The St. James's saw the 'Pacha of Pimlico;' 
' He would and she wouldn't ; ' ' Pouter's 
Wedding ; ' ' Newington Butts ; ' and ' Wood- 
cock's Little Game.' At the Marylebone 
was seen a drama entitled the 'Midnight 
Watch.' To the Court he gave, 27 Jan. 
1875, ' Maggie's Situation ; ' a comedietta, 
and to Toole's (his latest production) 7 Dec. 
1885, a three-act farce, called ' Going it/ 
The popularity of burlesque diminished the 
influence of farce, and the altered conditions 
of playgoing a generation or so ago practi- 
cally took away Morton's earnings. In 1867 




he was giving public readings. On 15 Aug. 
1881 he was, on the nomination of the Queen, 
appointed a brother of the Charterhouse. A 
benefit at which very many actors assisted 
was given him at the Hay market on 16 Oct. 
1889. Though somewhat soured in later life, 
Morton was a worthy and a not unamiable 
man. He was in early life an assiduous 
fisherman. His dialogue is full of double 
entente, sometimes, after the fashion of his 
day, a little coarse. It was generally humor- 
ous and telling. He may claim to have fitted 
to a nicety the best comedians of his day, 
and to have caused during the productive 
portion of his career from 1835 to 1865, more 
laughter than any other dramatist of his 
epoch. He died at the Charterhouse 19 Dec. 
1891, being buried on the 23rd at Kensal 

Many of Morton's plays are published in 
the collections, English and American, of 
English plays. 

[The chief source of information for Morton's 
early career is the short Memoir in Plays for 
Home Performance, by the author of Box and 
Cox, with Biographical Introduction by Clement 
Scott, 1889, the particulars being supplied by 
Morton himself. Personal knowledge furnishes 
a few facts. The Times for 21 and 24 Dec. 1891 ; 
the Era for 26 Dec. 1891 ; the Era Almanack, 
various years ; the Sunday Times, various years ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 432, v. 144 ; and 
Scott and Howard's Life of E. L. Blanchard 
have been consulted. While not aiming at com- 
pleteness, the list of plays is longer and more 
accurate than any that has appeared. Inextri- 
cable confusion is apparent in previously pub- 
lished lists.] J. K. 

MORTON, NICHOLAS, D.D. (fi. 1586), 
papal agent, was son of Charles Morton, esq., of 
Bawtry, Yorkshire,by Maud, daughter of Wil- 
liam Dallyson, esq., of Lincolnshire, his race, 
as Strype observes, being ' universally papists, 
descended as well by the man as woman ' 
(Annals of the Reformation, ii. 389, fol.) 
He was born at Bawtry, and received his 
academical education in the university of 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. in 1542- 
1543 and commenced M. A. in 1545 (COOPEE, 
Athence Cantabr. ii. 10). He was constituted 
one of the original fellows of Trinity Col- 
lege by the charter of foundation dated 
19 Dec. 1546 (RTMEB, Fcedera, xv. 107), 
and he was B.D. in 1554. In 1556 he was 
appointed by Cardinal Pole one of the six 
preachers in the cathedral church of Canter- 
bury (STETPE, Memorials, iii. 290). He is 
stated to have been a prebendary of York, 
but this appears somewhat doubtful (DoDD, 
Church Hist. ii. 114). 

Adhering to the Roman catholic religion, 

he, soon after the coronation of Queen Eliza- 
beth,withdrewto Rome, and was there created 
D.D. and constituted apostolical penitentiary. 
He was examined as a witness at the papal 
court in the proceedings there taken to ex- 
communicate Queen Elizabeth, and was des- 
patched to England to impart to the catholic 
priests, as from the pope, those faculties and 
that jurisdiction which they could no longer 
receive in the regular manner from their 
bishops, and to apprise them and the catholic 
gentry that a bull of deposition of Queen 
Elizabeth was in preparation. He landed 
in Lincolnshire, and the result of his intrigues 
was the northern rebellion of 1569 under the 
Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland 
(CoopEE, Athence Cantabr. ii. 11). Mor- 
ton was 'the most earnest mover of the 
rebellion,' and his first persuasion was to tell 
the Earl of Northumberland and many others 
of the excommunication which threatened 
them, and of the dangers touching their 
souls and the loss of their country (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Eliz., Addenda, 1566- 

1579, p. 390). When and how Morton 
effected his escape from England does not 

About 1571 he went from Rome to the 
English College at Louvain, carrying letters 
and money to its inmates from the pope. 
On 24 May 1580 he and Thomas Goldwell, 
formerly bishop of St. Asaph, arrived at 
the English College at Rheims from Rome, 
to which city they returned on 8 Aug. the 
same year, after having in the interim paid 
a visit to Paris (T)ouay Diaries, pp. 165, 
167, 169). The indictment framed in 1589 
against Philip, earl of Arundel, for high 
treason states that William Allen, D.D., 
Dr. Morton, Robert Parsons, Edmund Cam- 
pion, John Hart, and other false traitors, on 
31 March 1580, at Rheims, and on other 
days at Rome and Rheims, compassed and 
imagined to depose and kill the queen, to 
raise war against her, and to subvert the 
established church and government (Saga 
de Secretis, pouch 49). In a list of certain 
English catholics abroad, sent by a secret 
agent to the English government about 

1580, mention is made of ' Nycolas Morton, 
prieste and doctor, who was penytensiary 
for the Englyshe nation ; but nowe dealythe 
no more in that office, and yet hathe out of the 
same xii crones by monthe, and everye daye 
ii loaves of brede and ii chambells ; besydes 
a benyfice in Piacenza, worth V c crownes by 
yeare, w ch y e cardynall off Alexandria gave 
hym' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz. vol. 
cxlvi. n. 18). On 5 May 1582 a correspondent 
of Walsingham announced the arrest of Dr. 
Wendon, Dr. Morton, and other English 




pensioners at Rome. Morton was still a 
resident in that city on 9 Dec. 1586 when 
he was in company with Robert Morton, his 
nephew. The latter was son of his brother, 
Robert Morton, by his second wife, Ann, 
daughter of John Norton, esq., and widow 
of Robert Plumpton, esq., of Plumpton or 
Plompton, Yorkshire. This unfortunate 
nephew was executed in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, London, on account of his sacerdotal 
character, on 26 Aug. 1588. 

[Harleian Miscellany (Malham), ii. 173, 203, 
208 ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, i. 76 ; Nichols's 
Collect. Topog. et Geneal. v. 80, 86 ; Records of 
the English Catholics, i. 433, ii. 403 ; Sanderus, 
De Visibili Monarchia, p. 730 ; Sharp's Memo- 
rials of the Northern Rebellion, pp. 264, 280, 
281 ; Soames's Elizabethan Religious History, 
pp. 1-07, 108; Cal. State Papers, Com. Eliz. 
1547-80 pp. 651, 694, 1581-90 p. 53; Wood's 
Athense Oxon.. (Bliss), i. 471 ; Lingard's Hist, 
of England, vi. 205.] T. C. 

MORTON, RICHARD (1637-1698), 
ejected minister and physician, was the son 
of Robert Morton, minister of Bewdley 
Chapel, Worcestershire, from 1635 to 1646. 
Baxter speaks of the father as ' my old 
friend.' Richard was baptised at Ribbesford, 
the parish to which Bewdley belonged, on 
30 July 1637 (par. reg.) He matriculated 
at Oxford as a commoner of Magdalen Hall 
on 17 March 1653-4, migrated to New 
College, whence he proceeded B.A. 30 Jan. 
1656-7, and soon after became chaplain to 
his college. On 8 July 1659 he proceeded 
M.A. At the time he was chaplain in the 
family of Philip Foley of Prestwood in 
Staffordshire, and was appointed by him 
to the vicarage of Kinver in Staffordshire. 
The parish registers of Kinver show a dis- 
tinct handwriting from 1659 to 1662, which 
is doubtless that of Morton. Being unable 
to comply with the requirements of the Act 
of Uniformity, he was ejected from his 
living in August 1662, when he turned his 
attention to medicine. On the nomination of 
the Prince of Orange he was created M.D. 
of Oxford on 20 Dec. 1670, and afterwards 
settled in London. He was admitted a 
candidate of the College of Physicians on 
20 March 1675-6, and a fellow on 23 Dec. 
1679. In 1680 he was incorporated at Cam- 
bridge on his doctor's degree. Morton was 
one of four fellows of the College of Physi- 
cians, whose names were omitted in the 
charter of James II in 1686, but he was 
restored to his position in 1689. He was 
censor in 1690, 1691, 1697, and was one of 
the physicians in ordinary to the king. He 
resided in London in Grey Friars Court, 
Newgate Street. He died on 30 Aug. 1698, 

and was buried in the middle aisle of Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, on 7 Sept. 

Baxter says of him that he was ' a man of 
great gravity, calmness, sound principles, of 
no faction, an excellent preacher, of an up- 
right life.' 

Morton had at least three children, a son, 
Richard (noticed below), and two daughters, 
Sarah born in 1685, and Marcia in 1689. 

He published two important medical 
works: 1. ' Phthisiologia : seu Exercitationea 
de Phthisi,' London, 1689 ; Frankfort, 1690 ; 
London, 1694 (in English) ; London, 1696 ; 
Ulm,1714; London, 1720 (in English); Helm- 
stadt, 1780. 2. ' HvperoXoyla : seu Exer- 
citationes de Morbis Universalibus Acutis/ 
London, 1692 ; 1693 ; Berne, 1693. Second 
part, entitled ' HvperoXoyias pars altera, sive 
exercitatio de Febribus Inflammatoriis Uni- 
versalibus,' Bremen, 1693; London, 1694. 
The first part was reviewed in No. 199 of the 
' Philosophical Transactions,' xvii. 717-22, 
1694. Morton's works, with others by Har- 
ris, Cole, Lister, and Sydenham, were pub- 
lished as ' Opera Medica,' Geneva, 1696 ; Am- 
sterdam, 1696 ; Leyden, 1697 ; Lyons, 1697 ; 
Amsterdam, 1699 ; Geneva, 1727 ; Venice, 
1733,1737; Lyons, 1739, 1754; Leyden, 1757. 

Morton's ' Phthisiologia ' is a treatise of 
the highest value. Following the method 
of Sydenham, it is based on his own clini- 
cal observations, with very little reference to 
books. All the conditions of wasting which 
he had observed are described without re- 
gard to the anatomical origin of the wasting. 
The word phthisis Morton uses in a very 
wide sense. He not only describes the 
wasting due to tubercle in the lungs, to 
which the term is now generally restricted, 
but also the wasting effects of prolonged 
jaundice, gout, continued and intermittent 
fever, and other ailments. His 'Pyreto- 
logia,' a general treatise on fevers, is less ori- 
ginal, but contains many interesting cases, 
among them an account of his own illness 
in 1690. Among the Rawlinson MSS. in the 
Bodleian Library are several methods of pre- 
paring Peruvian bark, one of which is said 
to be by Morton (c. 406 [5]). In the same 
collection are printed prospectuses, dated 
London, February 1680, of a work never pub- 
lished, but which appears to have been the 
first form of ' Phthisiologia' and UvperoXoyia 
(c. 406 [7], and c. 419 [4]). 

Morton's portrait, from a painting by B. 
Orchard, has been frequently engraved, and 
is prefixed to several editions of his works, 
as well as to the notice of him in ' Lives 
of Eminent and Remarkable Characters in 
Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk,' and in Manget's 
' Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum ' (1731). 

Morton , 



RICHARD MORTON (1669-1730), his only 
son, was born in 1669. He was entered at 
Exeter College, Oxford (as of Enwood, Sur- 
rey), on 16 March 1685-6, and matriculated 
on 19 March of the same year. Leaving Oxford 
on 17 Oct. 1688, he migrated to Catharine 
Hall, Cambridge, where he was admitted 
fellow commoner on 22 Nov. 1688. He pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1691, and M.D. per literas 
regias in 1695. He was admitted a candidate 
of the College of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1695, 
and fellow on 22 Dec.'l707. He was appointed 
physician to Greenwich Hospital in April 
1716, and died at Greenwich on 1 Feb. 1730, 
and was buried at Plumstead. Some verses 
of his appear among several eulogies by Clop- 
ton Havers [q. v.] and others on his father, 
prefixed to the first edition of the second 
volume of the YivperoKoyia (London, 1694). 

[Mnnk's Coll. of Phys. i. 398-9, ii. 20 ; Syl- 
vester's Reliq. Baxterianae, pt. iii. p. 96 ; Lives 
of Eminent and Remarkable Characters in Essex, 
Suffolk, and Norfolk ; Burton's Hist, of Bewl- 
ley, pp. 26, xxix, App. ; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), 
vol. ii. cols. 191, 220, 326; Addit. MS. 19165, 
if. 579, 581 ; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memo- 
rial, iii. 235 ; Post Boy, 1-3 Sept. 1698 ; Eloy's 
Diet. Historique de la Medecine; "Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Catalogues of Libraries of Surg. Gen. 
(Washington) ; Trin. Coll. Dublin, Med. and 
Chir. Soc. ; Macray's Cat. of Ra-wlinson MSS. in 
Bodleian Library ; information from the Rev. 
E. H. Winnington Ingram of Ribbesford, the Rev. 
John Hodgson of Kinver, and (as to medical 
works) from Norman Moore, esq., M.D. ; Regis- 
ters of Exeter College, per the Rev. C. W. 
Boase; Records of Greenwich Hospital, per G. T. 
Lambert, esq.] B. P. 

MORTON, ROBERT (d. 1497), bishop f 
of Worcester, was the nephew of Cardinal* 
John Morton (1420-1500) [q. v.] His father 
was William Morton (NICHOLS, Collectanea 
Topof/raphica et Geneal. iii. 170), not Sir 
Rowland, who did not die till 1554 (BTJRKE, 
Extinct Baronage, p. 373). He became pre- 
bendary of Thorngate, Lincoln, 16 Aug. 1471, 
and succeeded his uncle as archdeacon of Win- 
chester in 1478. He held the degree of LL.D. 
(WHARTON, Anglia Sacra, i. 538). On 30 May 
1477 his uncle had secured the reversion of 
the office of master of the rolls for him in the 
event of his own death or resignation. Robert 
obtained it by a new patent 9 Jan. 1479. 
He kept the office under Edward IV and Ed- 
ward V, and lost it under Richard III, when 
his uncle was in disgrace. He was reinstated 
by Henry VII, and named as one of the com- 
missioners to perform the office of steward 
on Henry's coronation. He said he required 
help as master of the rolls because of his 
activity in the king's service, and a coadjutor 
was given him 13 Nov. 1485. 

In 1481 he was canon of Windsor, but he 
resigned the office 8 March 1486. On 15 March 
following he was granted, jointly with Mar- 
garet, countess of Richmond, the advowson 
of a prebend in the church of Windsor and 
the advowson of a canonry in Windsor 
(21 Dec. 1487 and 12 Jan. 1488). On 8 June 
1482 he was collated archdeacon of Glouces- 
ter, and resigned when he became a bishop. 
On 16 Oct. 1486 he received a papal pro- 
vision for the bishopric of Worcester, obtained 
a license of consecration from his uncle 
24 Jan. 1486-7, was consecrated 28 Jan., and 
received his temporalities 10 Feb. He was 
enthroned by proxy 22 July 1487 ; he insti- 
tuted to vacant benefices as early as 8 Jan. 
(THOMAS, Account of the Bishops of Worces- 
ter, p. 200). 

On 15 March 1497 he received a pardon from 
Henry VII, which was intended to secure his 
property against extortions. He died in the 
following April or May. His arms are given 
in Thomas and his epitaph in Browne Willis. 
He was buried in the nave of St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral, London. In his will he gave twenty 
marks to the cathedral of Worcester, and 
directed that he should be buried in the 
cemetery of the place where he should die 
(BROWNE WILLIS, Survey, i. 643). The same 
writer states that Morton received many 
other preferments, but these seem to have 
belonged to a person named Robert Moreton, 
whom Le Neve does not identify with the 

[Foss's Judges of England, v. 67, &c. ; Le 
Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse, ed. Hardy, ii. 
223, iii. 26, 78, 389 ; Thomas's Account of 
Bishops of Worcester, p. 200.] M. B. 

MOKTON, THOMAS (d. 1646), author 

of ' New English Canaan,' was an attorney 
of Clifford's Inn, London, who appears to 
have practised chiefly in the west of England 
(YouNG, Chronicles of Massachusetts, p. 321). 
He was a man of good education and an able 
lawyer, but he bore an evil reputation, ill- 
used his wife, and was even suspected of 
having murdered his partner (Mass. Hist. 
Coll. 3rd ser. viii. 323). The allusions in his 
book show that he was passionately fond of 
field sports and travelled much. In June 
1622 he landed at New England with Thomas 
Weston's company, and remained for about 
three months, taking a survey of the country, 
with which he was delighted. In 1625, 
having bought a partnership in Captain Wol- 
laston's venture, he again sailed for Massa- 
chusetts Bay. His leader fixed the planta- 
tion at 'Mount Wollaston' (now Braintree), 
on the shores of the bay. Wollaston soon 
left for Virginia with most of the servants, 




and Morton established himself in the summer i 
of 1626 in control over the remainder at ' Ma- 
re-Mount' (Merry Mount), as he called the 
place. In the spring of 1627 he erected the j 
maypole, and on May day, in company with i 
the Indians, held high revel, greatly to the 
disgust of the Plymouth elders. The business j 
methods which he pursued were, however, a 
more serious matter. In trading for furs 
with the Indians, he not only sold them guns 
and ammunition, but instructed them in their 
use. He was thus acting in violation of the 
law. When in 1625 the Plymouth people 
found their way into Maine, and first opened 
a trade with the Indians there, Morton was 
not slow in following them. In 1628 the 
Plymouth settlers established a permanent 
station on the Kennebec; yet in 1627, if not 
in 1626, Morton had forestalled them there, 
and hindered them of a season's furs. The 
Plymouth community ultimately resolved to 
suppress Merry Mount, which was rapidly 
developing into a nest of pirates. After en- 
deavouring to reason with Morton, they sent 
Captain Miles Standish [q. v.] to arrest him. 
He was taken at Wessagusset (now Wey- 
mouth), but managed to escape in the night 
to Mount Wollaston, where, after offering 
some resistance, he was recaptured. He was 
sent back to England in 1628, in charge of 
Captain John Oldham (1600P-1636) [q. v.], 
with letters from Governor William Bradford 
[q. v.], addressed respectively to the council 
for New England and Sir Ferdinando Gorges 
[q. v.], requesting that he might be brought ' to 
his answer' (ib. 1st ser. iii. 62). In the mean- 
time John Endecott [q. v.], as governor of the 
chartered new Massachusetts Company, had 
jurisdiction over Morton's establishment. He 
ordered the maypole to be cut down, and 
changed the name of the place to ' Mount 

Morton managed to ingratiate himself with 
both Oldham and Gorges. Bradford's com- 
plaints were accordingly ignored. He also 
made himself useful to Isaac Allerton in his 
efforts to obtain a charter for the Plymouth 
colony. Allerton, when he returned to New 
England in August 1629, scandalised Ply- 
mouth by bringing Morton back with him, 
lodging him in his house, and for a while 
employing him as his secretary. Morton 
subsequently returned to Mount Wollaston, 
and encouraged the 'old planters' in their 
resistance to the new Massachusetts Com- 
pany. He refused to sign articles which En- 
decott had drawn np for the better govern- 
ment and trade of the colony, and set his 
authority at defiance. There is reason to 
suppose that he was employed by Gorges to 
act as a spy, and was anticipating the arrival 

of John Oldham at the head of an expedi- 
tion to be despatched by Gorges. He con- 
tinued to deal with the Indians as he saw 
fit, though not in firearms. In August or 
September 1630 he was arrested, and after 
being set in the stocks was again banished 
to England, and his house was burned down. 
He had a long and tempestuous passage, and 
was nearly starved. For some time he was 
imprisoned in Exeter gaol, but by 1631 was 
at liberty, and busily engaged in Gorges's 
intrigues for the overthrow of the Massa- 
chusetts charter. A petition was presented 
to the privy council on 19 Dec. 1632 asking 
the lords to inquire into the methods through 
which the charter had been procured, and 
into the abuses which had been practised 
under it. The various allegations were based 
on the affidavits of Morton and two other 
witnesses. On 1 May 1634 he wrote to Wil- 
liam Jeffreys, an ' old planter' at Wessagus- 
set, triumphantly informing him that as a 
result a committee, with Laud at its head, 
had been appointed, which was to make 
Gorges governor-general of the colony (Mass. 
Hist. Coll. 2nd ser. vi. 428-30). In May 
1635 Morton was appointed solicitor to the 
new organisation, and successfully prosecuted 
a ' suit at law for the repealing of the patent 
belonging to the Massachusetts Company.' 
In March 1636, while against the company, 
he seems to have been in the pay of George 
Cleaves, a man subsequently prominent in the 
early history of Maine (ib. 4th ser. vi. 127). 
In August 1637 Gorges wrote to Winthrop 
that Morton was ' wholely casheered from 
intermedlinge with anie our affaires here- 
after' (ib. 4th ser. vii. 331) ; but in 1641, 
when Gorges, as ' lord of the province of 
Maine/ granted a municipal charter to the 
town of Acomenticus (now York), Morton's 
name appears as first of the three witnesses. 
The whole scheme failed for want of funds. 

In the summer of 1643 Morton, starved 
out of England, reappeared once more at 
Plymouth, and endeavoured to pass himself 
off as a Commonwealth man who was com- 
missioned by Alexander Rigby, M.P., to act 
in his behalf for a claim of territory in Maine. 
Not succeeding, he is said to have gone to 
Maine in June 1644. A warrant for his 
arrest was at once despatched. In August 
he was in Rhode Island, promising grants 
of land to all who professed loyalty to the 
new governor-general (PALFEET, Collections, 
ii. 147 n.) By 9 Sept. he was a prisoner at 
Boston. In November 1644 he was charged 
before the general court with libelling the 
colony before the privy council and in his 
book, and with promoting a quo warranto 
against it. His letter to Jeffreys was pro- 




duced in evidence. The proceedings failed 
for want of proof, and he was ordered to be 
imprisoned until fresh evidence was brought 
from England. In May 1645 he petitioned 
for his release. After enduring a cruel con- 
finement for about a year, he was again 
called before the court, formally fined 100Z., 
and set at liberty. He retired to Acomen- 
ticus, where he died in poverty in 1646 
(WiNTHROP, History of New England, ed. 
Savage, ii. 192). 

Morton is author of ' New English Canaan, 
or New Canaan containing an Abstract of 
New England. Composed in three Bookes,' 
4to, Amsterdam, 1637. His description of 
the natural features of the country and his 
account of the Indians are of interest and 
value, and he throws an amusing side-light 
upon the social history of the pilgrim and 
puritan colonies. Though printed in Holland 
in 1637, the book was entered in the ' Sta- 
tioners' Register 'in London on 18 Nov. 1633, 
in the name of Charles Greene as publisher, 
and at least one copy is known bearing 
Greene's imprint, but without a date. It has 
been reprinted by Force in vol. ii. of his 
American tracts, and by the Prince Society, 
with an introduction and notes, by C. F. 
Adams, jun., 4to, Boston, 1883. Morton's 
career is the subject of John Lothrop Motley's 
novels, ' Morton's Hope/ 1839, and ' Merry 
Mount,' 1849, and of Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
short story, ' The Maypole of Merry Mount.' 

[Adams's Introduction referred to; Savage's 
Genealogical Diet. iii. 245; Winsor's Hist, of 
America, vol. iii. ; Nathaniel Morton's New Eng- 
land's Memorial ; A Few Observations on the 
Prince Society's Edition of the New English 
Canaan, reprinted from the Churchman, New 
York, 1883.] G. G. 

MORTON, THOMAS (1564-1659), bi- 
shop successively of Chester, of Lichfield, and 
of Durham, the sixth of the nineteen chil- 
dren of Richard Morton, mercer, of York, 
and alderman of that city, by his wife Eliza- 
beth Leedale, was born in the parish of All 
Saints Pavement, York, on 20 March 1564. 
He received his early education at the gram- 
mar schools of York and Halifax; at the 
former the conspirator Guy Fawkes [q. v.] 
was his schoolfellow. He entered St. John's 
College, Cambridge, as a pensioner in 1582, 
and was admitted scholar in 1584. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1586, and M.A. in 1590. He 
was chosen fellow under Dr. Whitaker, 
'against eight competitors well recommended 
and better befriended, purely for his learn- 
ing and work ' (BAKER, Hist, of St. Johris 
College, i. 184). Ordained deacon in 1592, 
and priest in 1594, he took the degree of B.D. 
in 1598, and that of D.D. ' with great distinc- 

tion ' in 1606. He was appointed university 
lecturer in logic, and continued his studies 
at Cambridge till 1598, when, through his 
father's influence, he was presented to the 
rectory of Long Marston, near York. Here 
he devoted himself assiduously to his spiri- 
tual duties, but was soon appointed chap- 
lain to Lord Huntingdon, lord president of 
the north, and his parochial work was under- 
taken in his absence by ' a pious and learned 
assistant.' In 1602, when the plague was 
raging at York, he devoted himself to the 
inmates of the pest-house. To avoid spread- 
ing the infection he suffered no servants to 
attend him, and carried on the crupper of 
his saddle sacks containing the food and 
medicaments needed by the sufferers. 

While in the north he acquired great re- 
putation for the skill with which he conducted 
disputations with Roman catholics, who were 
numerous there ; many of them, we are told, 
including ' some of considerable standing ' 
Dr. Herbert Croft [q. v.], afterwards bishop 
of Hereford, being one he brought over to 
the church of England. In 1602 he was 
selected, with Richard Crakanthorpe [q.v.] 
as his colleague, to accompany Lord Eure 
when sent by Elizabeth as her ambassador ex- 
traordinary to the emperor of Germany and 
the king of Denmark. He took advantage 
of this opportunity to make the acquaint- 
ance of foreign scholars and theologians, in- 
cluding several learned Jesuits, and to collect 
books at Frankfort and elsewhere, thus lay- 
ing in stores ' on which,' Fuller says, ' he 
built to his death.' Among others he fell 
in with the learned but hot-tempered Hugh 
Broughton [q. v.], then residing at Middle- 
burg, to whom he proposed his scriptural 
difficulties (S. CLARKE, Lives, 1683, pp. 5, 6). 
On the queen's death Morton returned to- 
England, and became chaplain to Roger 
Manners, earl of Rutland. He thus had 
leisure for study and the preparation of theo- 
logical works, while residence at Belvoir en- 
abled him to consult the libraries of London. 
In 1605 he published the first part of his 
' Apologia Catholica ' on ' the marks of a 
true church,' a defence of the church of Eng- 
land against the calumnies of the Romanists, 
with a refutation of the Jesuits' doctrine of 
equivocation. This work, which evoked more 
than one reply, exhibits unusual familiarity 
with recent ultramontane polemics, and Mor- 
ton is believed to have derived aid from his 
younger friend John Donne [q. v.], after- 
wards dean of St. Paul's (SANDERSON, Works, 
iv. 328). These ' primitise,' as he calls them, 
were dedicated to Archbishop Bancroft, who, 
with a just discernment of his merits, had 
become his steady friend. Through Ban- 




croft's recommendation he was appointed one 
of the king's chaplains, and in 1606 became 
dean of Gloucester, and, on the nomination 
of his former patron, Lord Eure, the lord pre- 
sident, member of the council of the marches. 
On accepting the deanery he offered to re- 
sign the living of Long Marston in favour 
of Donne, then in great straits through his 
ill-advised marriage. He hoped thereby to 
induce Donne to take holy orders (WAL- 
TON, Life of Donne; WORDSWORTH, Eccl. 
Biography, iii. 634-6). The offer was grate- 
fully declined ; but Morton still pressed on 
his friend the desirability of his undertaking 
the ministerial office (Life, by J. N[ELSON], 
p. 100). In the same year he visited Oxford, 
where he was received with great honour, 
and admitted to an ad eundem degree on 
12 July. On this occasion he made the ac- 
quaintance of some eminent theologians, 
such as Dr. John King [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of London; Dr. Reynolds [q. v.], presi- 
dent of Corpus ; Dr. Airey [q. v.j, provost of 
Queen's ; and Daniel Featley [q. v.] In 1609 
James I transferred him to the deanery of 
Winchester. Here he was welcomed by 
Bishop Bilson [q. v.], who conferred on him 
the living of Alresford. At Winchester he 
became the intimate friend of Dr. Arthur 
Lake [q. v.], then master of St. Cross, after- 
wards bishop of Bath and Wells, and of Dr. 
John Harmar [q. v.], head-master of Win- 
chester school, and other scholars and theo- 
logians of repute. In 1610 he preached the 
sermon ad clerum at the opening of Convo- 
cation. When in London he lodged at the 
deanery of St. Paul's, with Dr. John Overall 
[q. v.], in whose house he enjoyed the so- 
ciety of Isaac Casaubon [q. v.], who became 
his intimate friend; of Scultetus, Diodati, 
Du Moulin and foreign scholars (cf. Casau- 
boni Epistolce, ed. 1709, Nos. 735, 751, 787, 
802, 1048, 1050). On Casaubon's death in 
1614 Morton caused a monument to be erected 
to him in Westminster Abbey at his own 
cost. Among his associates at a later period 
were Frederick Spanheim of Leyden, and 
Marco Antonio De Dominis [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Spalato, whose high-flown preten- 
sions to be regarded as the restorer of the 
unity of the church he seems to have esti- 
mated at their real worth (BARWICK, Life, 
p. 87 ; GARDINER, Hist, of England, iv. 287). 

By this time Morton's character for learn- 
ing and piety, as well as for practical wis- 
dom, was fully established. The king valued 
him highly, and in 1610 he was nominated 
for one of the seventeen fellowships in the 
abortive college proposed by Sutcliffe, dean 
of Exeter, to be established at Chelsea for 
the study of controversial divinity (FULLER, 

VOL. xxxix. 

Church Hist. v. 390 ; Life, by J. N. p. 37). 
Preferments followed one another with in- 
convenient rapidity. In July of the same 
year he was collated by Archbishop Toby 
Matthew [q. v.] to the canonry of Hus- 
thwait in York Minster (BAKER, Hist, of St. 
John's College, i. 194). In 1615, on the 
death of Dr. George Lloyd [q. v.], the king 
nominated him to the see of Chester. He 
accepted the nomination with great reluc- 
tance. His consecration was delayed till 
7 July 1616. The ceremony, which was one 
of unusual stateliness, was performed at 
Lambeth by Archbishop Abbot, assisted by 
the primate of Ireland, the Bishop of Caith- 
ness, and others. While the palace at Ches- 
ter was getting ready he stayed with Sir 
Christopher Hatton at Clay Hall, Essex, 
where he had a dangerous fever. He had re- 
signed Alresford, but during his episcopate 
he held the living of Stopford, given him by 
the king in commendam that he might be 
better able to ' keep hospitality in that hos- 
pitable county.' 

Difficulties which Morton had anticipated 
were not slow in presenting themselves at 
Chester. Few of the English dioceses at that 
time were so large, or exhibited greater differ- 
ences in religion. Morton's see embraced, as 
indeed it did till the first half of the present 
century, not only the county of Chester, but 
the whole of Lancashire, the north-western 
portion of Yorkshire, and large portions of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland. In Lanca- 
shire the chief landowners, together with a 
large portion of the population, adhered to the 
oldunreformed faith; while the minority, who 
had embraced the reformation, had adopted the 
most extreme opinions of the foreign divines. 
The sanctity of the Lord's day was one of the 
points at issue. An attempt had been made 
by the magistrates to suppress the diversions 
customary on Sunday afternoons. Many re- 
sented this interference with their liberties, 
and the quarrel grew serious. James applied 
for advice to Morton, who cautiously recom- 
mended that nothing should be permitted 
which might disturb the worshippers when 
engaged in divine service, and that it should 
be left to each man's conscience whether he 
should take part in the accustomed sports 
when service was over. At the same time 
all parishioners were to attend their own 
parish church, and those who refused to do so 
were to be debarred from engaging in the 
subsequent diversions. With the exception 
of the last proviso, which, as Mr. Gardiner 
says, ' bribed men to worship God by the al- 
luring prospect of a dance in the afternoon ' 
(GARDINER, Hist, of England, iii. 251), 
the bishop's temperate recommendations, on 




which James based his subsequent declara- 
tion (WiLKiNs, Concilia, iv. 483), were cal- 
culated to promote a peace in the church. 
But the king's rash publication of the ' Book 
of Sports ' in the following year led to new 
disturbances. Morton's dealings with his non- 
conformist clergy were marked by fatherly 
moderation, and in friendly conference he 
sought to meet by argument their objections 
to the ceremonies. In 1619 he published ' a 
relation of the conference ' under the title of 
'A Defence of the Innocenceof the three Cere- 
monies of the Surplice, the Cross in Baptism, 
and Kneeling at the Blessed Sacrament.' de- 
dicated to George Villiers, marquis of Buck- 
ingham. In 1618, on his friend Overall's 
translation to Norwich, he was removed to 
Lichfield and Coventry, on the recommenda- 
tion of Bishop Andrewes [q. v.], ' who was 
never known to do the like for any other.' 
With the bishopric he held the living of Clif- 
ton Camville in commendam. Here he con- 
tinued his endeavours to win over both non- 
conformists and recusants. In 1621 he served 
on the commission for granting a dispensation 
to Archbishop Abbot for the casual homicide 
of a keeper in Bramshill Park (COLLIER, 
Eccl. Hist. vii. 418). In 1623 a curious 
correspondence took place between him and 
Lord Conway about a horse named ; Captain,' 
which on Lord Gerard's death the bishop had 
taken as a heriot. Gerard had bequeathed 
his two choicest horses to Prince Charles, 
then absent in Spain. Conway requested 
Morton in the king's name to forego his 
right ; this he declined to do, but he obtained 
permission to present ' Captain' to the prince 
on his return (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1623). 
In February 1626 he took a leading part in 
the conference on Bishop Montague's in- 
criminated books held at the Duke of Buck- 
ingham's house, and with Dr. Preston, the 
puritan master of Emmanuel, did his best to 
impugn the statements contained in them on 
predestination and freewill (BIRCH, Court of 
Charles I, i. 86 ; cf. Church Hist, v. 449 ; see 
also Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 5724, pp. 57 ff.) 
The high esteem felt for Morton by James 
was continued by Charles I, and in June 1632 
Morton was translated to the rich and impor- 
tant palatinate see of Durham, which he held 
by canonical right until his death in 1659, : 
although parliament claimed to deprive him 
of it in 1647. His administration of the dio- 
cese, with its large secular jurisdiction and its 
princely revenues, fully justified his reputa- 
tion. No complaints were made against him 
to the House of Commons during the civil 
wars, except by his scurrilous and wrong- 
headed prebendary, Peter Smart [q. v.] He 
showed great forbearance in claiming the un- 

doubted rights of the palatinate in wardships, 
wrecks, and forfeitures for suicide. He was 
systematic and liberal in almsgiving, and 
maintained many poor scholars at the uni- 
versities. He did all in his power to augment 
the poor benefices of his diocese, and ex- 
hibited extreme conscientiousness both in ad- 
mission to holy orders and in the exercise of 
his patronage. His hospitality was profuse. 
On his journey to Scotland in 1633 Charles I 
and his suite were received by Morton, both 
at Auckland and at Durham, in such princely 
style that one day's entertainment is reported 
to have cost 1,500 On Sunday, 2 June, on 
the occasion of the king's attending service 
in the cathedral, the bishop preached on the 
cursing of the fig-tree. Six years later, in. 
May 1639, he again entertained Charles at 
the beginning of * the First Bishops' War.' 
The next year, in the month of August, the 
Scots crossed the Tweed, and pushed on to 
Durham. The cathedral clergy fled, Morton 
himself retiring into Yorkshire. It is pro- 
bable that he never again permanently 
resided in his bishopric. 

Early in 1641 he was in London attend- 
ing to his parliamentary duties, and was 
nominated a member of the sub-committee 
to prepare matters for the consideration of 
the abortive committee of the lords appointed 
on 1 March the day of Laud's committal 
to the Tower to take cognisance of inno- 
vations in religion (FULLER, Church Hist. vi. 
188). In the following December an unruly 
mob threatened to drag him out of his coach, 
when on his way to the House of Lords (BAR- 
WICK, Life, p. 103). Morton never took his 
seat in the lords again. Two days later, 
29 Dec., he joined in Williams's ill-advised 
protest against the legality of all acts done 
in the enforced absence of the spiritual 
lords. For this he and his eleven associates 
were next day impeached of high treason ou 
Prynne's motion, and the same night they 
were all committed to the Tower, with the 
exception of Morton and Wright, bishop of 
Lichfield, who, on account of their advanced 
age, were allowed to remain in the house of 
the usher of the black rod a doubtful privi- 
lege, for the charges were far greater. After 
four months' imprisonment Morton was re- 
leased without a trial, and remained un- 
molested at Durham House, in the Strand, 
till April 1645, when he was again brought 
before the bar of the House of Commons 
on the double charge of baptising the in- 
fant daughter of the Earl of Rutland ac- 
cording to the rites of the church of Eng- 
land, and of refusing to surrender the seal of 
the county palatine of Durham. He was 
committed to the custody of the sergeant- 




at-arms for six months (WHITELOCKE, Me- 
morials, 1732, p. 14). On the abolition of 
episcopacy in 1646 an annual income of 
800/. was assigned to him out of the re- 
venues of the see. This, however, he never 
received, the authorities by whom it was 
to be paid not being specified. All he ob- 
tained was a sum of 1,000/. from the com- 
mittee at Goldsmiths' Hall ' towards the 
arrears,' which he employed in paying his 
debts and purchasing an annuity of 200Z. 
for life. In 1648 he was driven fromT)urham 
House by the soldiery, who took forcible pos- 
session of it. He then resided with his friends, 
the Earl and Countess of Rutland, at Exeter 
House in the Strand ; but, being unwilling to 
live permanently at the charge of others, he 
left them, and passed his time with various 
royalist lay friends. At last he resolved to 
return to London. On his way thither, on 
horseback, he fell in with Sir Christopher Yel- 
verton. There had been some previous rela- 
tions between them. Sir Christopher was 
theson andheir of Sir Henry Yelverton[q.v.], 
James I's attorney-general, in whose behalf, 
when brought before the bar of the house in 
1621 for an attack on the all-powerful Buck- 
ingham, Morton had remonstrated against 
the injustice of condemning him unheard. 
Sir Henry had also, in 1629, sat as judge of 
assize at Durham in the case of Morton's 
enemy, Peter Smart, and had charged the 
jury in his favour, declaring that he ' hoped 
to live and die a puritan.' Sir Christopher in- 
herited his father's puritanical bias. On their 
meeting the bishop recognised him, though 
Sir Christopher did not recognise the bishop. 
To his inquiry who he was, Morton replied, 
' I am that old man, the Bishop of Durham, in 
spite of all your votes ; ' to the further inquiry 
whither he was going, his answer was, ' To 
London, to live there a little while, and then 
to die.' Ultimately Sir Christopher invited 
him to his house at Easton-Mauduit, ten miles 
from Northampton. His visit only ended 
with his death. He became a revered mem- 
ber of Sir Christopher's family, and tutor to 
Henry, his eldest son, then a lad of sixteen, 
receiving ' from the wholefamily all the tender 
respect and care which a father could expect 
from his children ' (BARWICK, Life, p. 123). 
At Easton-Mauduit Morton endeavoured to 
maintain the ministerial succession of the 
church of England by holding secret ordina- 
tions. Sir Christopher died in 1654. The 
bishop died at Easton-Mauduit on 22 Sept. 
1659, 'blessed,' writes his friend Walton 
(Life of Donne, u.s., p. 634), 'with perfect 
intellectuals, and a cheerful heart,' in the 
ninety-fifth year of his age, and the forty- 
fourth of his episcopate, and the twenty- 

fourth of his translation to Durham. He 
was buried in the Yelverton chapel of the 
parish church. His chaplain, Dr. John 
Barwick [q. v.], afterwards dean of St. Paul's, 
preached the funeral sermon. One of his 
latest acts before his death was to publish 
a denial, fully attested, of the slanderous 
statement that he had in a speech in the 
House of Lords acknowledged the fiction 
of the ' Nag's Head Consecration ' of Arch- 
bishop Parker (BRAMHALL, Works, iii. 5- 
10 ; STRYPE, Parker, i. 119 ; NEAL, Puritans, 
iv. 179 ; BARWICK, Life, pp. 108-20). By 
his will he left 10. to the poor of the parish 
in which he died, and his chalice to All Saints, 
York, the parish in which he was born. He 
also bequeathed a silver-gilt chalice and paten 
of large size for the use of the chapel recently 
added to his manor-house by Sir Henry Yel- 
verton. Since the demolition of the house 
these have been transferred to the parish 
church. A codicil to his will contained a 
declaration of his faith and of his adhesion 
to the church of England, solemnly attested 
by witnesses, as ' a legacy to all pious and 
sober Christians, but especially those of his 
diocese of Durham ' (ib. p. 127). He died un- 
married, having early in life ' resolved to die a 
single man' (WALTON, Life of Donne, p. 636). 

Morton is described as small of stature, 
upright in person, and sprightly in motion, 
preserving the vigour of youth in extreme 
old age, of a sweet and serious countenance, 
grave and sober in speech, manifesting a 
gentleness which won all hearts and dis- 
armed enmity ; ' in the fullest sense of the 
word, a good man ' (GARDINER, u.s. iii. 249). 
His habits were ascetic. He slept on a straw 
bed, and rose at 4 A.M., never retiring to 
rest till 10 P.M., drank wine but seldom, and 
then sparingly, and only took one full meal 
in the day. In his attire he was ' always 
decent in his lowest ebb, and never excessive 
in his highest tide,' never discarding the 
episcopal habit, even when it was perilous 
to wear it. Portraits of Morton are at 
Christ Church, Oxford, at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and at Auckland Castle, Dur- 
ham. An engraved portrait is prefixed to 
Barwick's ' Life.' 

Morton was a great patron of good and 
learned men. His house was ever open to 
scholars as a home and as a place of refuge 
in poverty or trouble. At the commence- 
ment of the parliamentary war, while it was 
still in his power to do so, he offered Fuller 
a home and maintenance (FULLER, Worthies, 
ii. 541). Isaac Basire [q. v.] was one of the 
many deserving scholars whom he brought 
forward. Ralph Brownrig [q. v.], bishop of 
Exeter, Henry Feme [q. v.], bishop of Ches- 

M 2 




ter, and John Barwick, dean of St. Paul's, 
were among his chaplains. He was a patron 
of foreign scholars of the reformed faith, 
whom he received into his house and dis- 
missed, on leaving, with gifts of money and 
books. He warmly favoured the endeavours 
of John Durie (1596-1680) [q. v.] for recon- 
ciling the differences between the various 
branches of the reformed churches in France 
and Germany (cf. De Pace inter Evangelicos 
procuranda, 1638). He numbered Hooker 
among his friends as well as Hooker's bio- 
grapher Walton, who speaks very gratefully 
of the information he derives from the bishop 
concerning one ' whose very name he loved.' 
Laud was one of his correspondents (cf. LATJD, 
Works, vi. 549, 560, 571). In theology he be- 
longed to the school of Ussher and Bedell, 
and had little sympathy with the high-church 
doctrines of Laud. Baxter speaks of him as 
' belonging to that class of episcopal divines 
who differ in nothing considerable from the 
rest of the reformed churches except in church 
government,' and Clarendon classes him with 
'the less formal and more popular prelates' 
(SANDERSON, Works, vol. ii. p. xli). He was 
a sincere but by no means bigoted episco- 
palian. He regarded ordination by presby- 
ters valid in case of necessity, no such neces- 
sity however warranting it in the church 
of England. From the moderation of his 
ecclesiastical views he was at one time re- 
garded with friendly eyes by Prynne (cf. Can- 
terburies Doome, p. 230). He would now be 
reckoned a low churchman. If he was sure 
that any one was a really good man, anxious 
to fulfil the object of his ministry, he was not 
over strict in exacting conformity. Calamy 
records with praise his liberal treatment of 
puritans like John Hieron, Richard Mather, 
and John Shaw of Christ's College (CALAHY, 
Memorial, pp. 162, 824 ; CLARKE, Lives, 
p. 128). His attitude towards the church of 
Rome was one of uncompromising hostility. 
He was one of the only three bishops who, 
according to a statement made to Panzani, 
the papal envoy, by Bishop Montague, were 
' counted violently bent against the Papists ' 
(PANZANI, Memoirs, p. 246). 

The larger portion of his writings were 
devoted to the exposure of the fallacy of 
Romish doctrines. They display great learn- 
ing and an intimate acquaintance with the 
arguments of his antagonists. It is no small 
praise that they exhibit none of the bitter- 
ness and scurrility which too commonly dis- 
figure the polemics of the age. Besides the 
'Apologia Catholica,' a work of immense 
learning and calm reasoning, he published 
in 1609 his ' Catholick Appeal,' which, ac- 
cording to Barwick (u.s. p. 132), dealt ' such 

a deadly blow to his Romish adversaries ' that 
none of them even attempted to answer it. 
Ten years later, at James's command, he en- 
tered the lists against Bellarmine in defence 
of the oath of allegiance to a protestant sove- 
reign in his ' Causa Regia.' 

Morton's chief works, omitting separately 
published sermons, were : 1. 'A Treatise of 
the Threefolde State of Man, wherein is 
handled : (1) His Created Holinesse in his 
Innocencie; (2) His Sinfulnesse since the Fall 
of Adam ; (3) His Renewed Holinesse in his 
Regeneration,' London, 1596, 8vo. 2. 'Salo- 
mon, or a Treatise declaring the State of the 
Kingdom of Israel as it was in the Daies of 
Salomon. Whereunto is annexed another 
Treatise of the Church, or more particularly 
of the Right Constitution of a Church,' 2 pts., 
London, 1596, 4to. 3. ' Apologia Catholica, 
ex meris Jesuitarum contradictionibus con- 
flata,' &c., part 1, London [1605-6], 4to. 
4. ' An Exact Discoverie of Romish Doctrine 
in the case of Conspiracie and Rebellion,' &c., 
1605, 4to. 5. ' Apologise Catholicae, in qua 
paradoxa, hsereses, blasphemies, scelera, quse 
Jesuitae et Pontificii alii Protestantibus im- 
pingunt,fere omnia,ex ipsorum Pontificiorum 
testimoniis apertis diluuntur, libri duo. De 
notis Ecclesise. Editio castigatior,' 2 pts. 
London, 1606, 8vo and 4to. 6. 'A Full 
Satisfaction concerning a Double Romish 
Iniquitie, hainous Rebellion, and more than 
heathenish ^Equivocation. Containing three 
parts/ London, 1606, 4to. 7. ' A Preamble 
unto an Incounter with P. R. [R. Parsons], 
the Author of the deceitfull Treatise of Miti- 
gation : concerning the Romish Doctrine 
both in question of Rebellion and of Aequivo- 
cation,' London, 1608, 4to. 8. ' A Catholic 
Appeal for Protestants, out of the Confes- 
sions of the Romane Doctors ; particularly 
answering the mis-named Catholike Apologie 
for the Romane Faith, out of the Protestants 
[by J. Brereley],' Londoni 1610, fol. 9. ' A 
Direct Answer unto the scandalous Excep- 
tions which T. Higgons hath lately objected 
against D. Morton [i.e. against his "Apologia 
Catholica "]. In which there is principally 
discussed two of the most notorious Objec- 
tions used by the Romanists, viz. : (1) Martin 
Luther's Conference with the Divell ; and 
(2) The Sence of the Article of Christ, His 
Discension into Hell (Animadversions),' 
London, 1609, 4to. 10. 'A Defence of the 
Innocencie of the Three Ceremonies of the 
Church of England, viz., the Surplice, Crosse 
after Baptisme, and Kneeling at the Re- 
ceiving of the Blessed Sacrament,' London, 
1609, 4to. 11. ' The Encounter against M. 
Parsons, by a Review of his last Sober 
Reckoning and his Exceptions urged in 




the Treatise of his Mitigation . . ./London 
1610, 4to. 12. ' Causa Regia, sive De Authori- 
tate et Dignitate principum Christianorum 
adversus R. Bellarminum,' 1620. 13. 'The 
Grand Imposture of the (now) Church of Rome 
manifested in this one Article of the new 
Romane Creede, viz., " The Holy Catholike 
and Apostolike Romane Church, Mother and 
Mistresse of all other Churches, without 
which there is no salvation." The second 
edition, revised . . . with . . . Additions,' 
London, 1628, 4to. 14. < Of the Institution 
of the Sacrament of the Blessed Bodie and 
Blood of Christ,' &c., 2 pts., London, 1631, 
fol. ; second edition of the above, much ' en- 
larged . . . with particular answers to ... 
objections and cavils . . . raysed against 
this worke,' London, 1635, fol. 15. ' A Dis- 
charge of Five Imputations of Mis-Allega- 
tions falsely charged upon the Bishop of 
Duresme by an English Baron (Arundell of 
"Wardour)/ London, 1633, 8vo. 16. ' Sacris 
ordinibus non rite initiati tenentur ad eos 
ritus ineundos. Non datur purgatorium Pon- 
tificium aut Platonicum' (in verse), Cam- 
bridge, 1633, s. sh. fol. 17. ' Antidotum 
ad versus Ecclesise Romanse de merito proprie 
dicto ex condigno venenum. Ex antiquse 
Ecclesise Catholicse testimoniis confectum. 
Juxta Ecclesiae Anglicanse et Protestantium 
omnium unanimam sententiam,' &c., Can- 
tabr. 1637, 4to. 18. 'De Eucharistia Con- 
troversise Decisio,' Cantabr. 1640. 19. ' The 
Opinion of ... T. Morton . . . concerning 
the peace of the Church,' 1641, 4to ; a Latin 
version appeared in 1688. 20. ' The Neces- 
sity of Christian Subjection demonstrated 
. . . Also a Tract intituled " Christus Dei,'" 
&c., 1643, 4to ; posthumously printed. 

21. ' Ezekiel's Wheels: a Treatise concern- 
ing Divine Providence/ London, 1653, 8vo. 

22. ' A Treatise of the Nature of God,' Lon- 
don, 1669, 8vo. 23. "ETrtfTKOTros'Anoo-ToXiKbs, 
or the Episcopacy of the Church of England 
justified to be Apostolical. . . . Before which 
is prefixed a Preface ... by Sir H. Yelver- 
ton/ London, 1670, 8vo. 

[Dean Barwick's Life and Death of Thomas, 
late Lord Bishop of Duresme ; Life by J[oseph] 
N[elson] ; Biog. Brit. v. 3180 if.; Baker's Hist, 
of St. John's College, i. 260 ff. ; Lloyd's Memoirs, 
pp. 436-46 ; Fuller's Worthies, ii. 540 ff., Church 
History, v. 390, 449 ; Mayor's Materials for the 
Life of Thomas Morton ; communications of the 
Camb. Antiq. Soc. iii. 1-36 ; Walton's Life of 
Donne, and of Hooker ; Wordsworth's Eccles. 
Biog. iii. 450, 634 ; Walker's Sufferings, pt. ii. 
p. 17; Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 53, 382 ; Sur- 
tees's Durham, i. pp. xci ff. ; Ormerod's Cheshire, 
i. 76, 146; Baker's MSS. xxvii. 276-8; Laud's 
Works (Anglo- Catholic Lib.) vi. 549, 560, 571.1 

E. V. 

MORTON, THOMAS (1781-1832), in- 
ventor of the ' patent slip ' for docking ves- 
sels, was the son of Hugh Morton, wright 
and builder, of Leith, where he was born 
| 8 Oct. 1781. In early life Morton seems to 
< have been engaged in his father's business 
! at Leith. In 1819 he patented his great 
j invention (No. 4352), the object of which 
I was to provide a cheap substitute for a dry 
I dock in places where such a dock is inex- 
I pedient or impracticable. It consists of an 
inclined railway with three lines of rail 
running into the deep water of the harbour or 
I tideway. A strongly built carriage, supported 
I by a number of small wheels, travels upon 
' the railway, and is let down into the water 
by means of a chain in connection with a 
capstan or a small winding engine. The 
ship to be hauled up is then floated over the 
! submerged carriage so that the keel is exactly 
j over the centre of the carriage, the position 
of which is indicated by rods projecting above 
the surface of the water. The vessel is then 
towed until the stem grounds on the front 
end of the carriage, when the hauling gear 
is set to work. As the carriage is drawn 
up the inclined way the vessel gradually 
settles down upon it, and in this way vessels 
of very large tonnage may be readily hauled 
up out of the water. The vessel is supported 
in an upright position by a system of chocks 
mounted on transverse slides, which are 
drawn under the bilge as the vessel leaves 
the water. This was a very important part 
of the invention, as the idea of drawing ships 
out of the water up an inclined plane was not 
new. Such a method was in use in the royal 
dockyard at Brest in the early part of the 
eighteenth century (Machines approuvees par 
VAcademie des Sciences, ii. 55, 57). Morton 
started the manufacture of the patent slip, 
and eventually acquired a large business. 
The first slip was built at Bo'ness about 
1822; but the inventor was obliged to do the 
work partly at his own expense, in order to 
remove the prejudice against the new inven- 
tion. It was afterwards adopted at Irvine, 
Whitehaven, and Dumbarton. The patent 
was infringed by one Barclay, who erected 
a slip on the same principle at Stobcross, 
and Morton brought an action for infringe- 
ment, which was tried at Edinburgh 15 March 
1824, when evidence was given on Morton's 
behalf by John Farey, the Rev. W. Scoresby, 
Captain Basil Hall, and other eminent men. 
Judgment was given in Morton's favour. In 
1832 a bill was brought into the House of 
Commons for an extension of the patent. 
The select committee to which the bill was 
referred reported against it, but expressed a 
hope ' that some other means may be adopted 




to obtain for Mr. Morton a more adequate | 
pecuniary recompense for the great benefit his 
invention has conferred upon the public, and 
the shipping interest in particular, than he ap- 
pears to have derived from his patent.' It was 
proved by evidence given before the commit- 
tee that the operation of placing a particular 
ship in a position to be repaired, which for- 
merly cost 1701., could be effected by Morton's 
slip for 3/. In 1832 forty slips were in opera- 
tion, and at the present time one is to be 
found in nearly every important harbour. 

Morton died 24 Dec. 1832, and was buried 
in South Leith parish church. After his 
death the business was carried on by Messrs. 
S. & H. Morton, Leith, and the firm is still in 

[Report of the Trial, Morton v. Barclay, 
Edinburgh, 1824; Eeport of the Committee of 
the House of Commons on the Bill for prolong- 
ing Morton's patent, 1832 ; Edinburgh Encyclo- 
paedia, xviii. 255 ; Weale's Quarterly Papers on 
Engineering, iv. 9 ; Bramwell's Paper on Docks 
in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers, xxv. 315.] R- B. P. 

MORTON, THOMAS (1764 P-1838), 
dramatist, youngest son of John Morton of 
Whickham in the county of Durham, gentle- 
man, was born in Durham about 1764. After 
the death of his father he was educated 
at Soho Square school at the charge of his 
uncle Maddison, a stockbroker. Here ama- 
teur acting was in vogue, and Morton, who 
played with Joseph George Holman [q. v.], 
acquired a taste for the theatre. He entered 
at Lincoln's Inn 2 July 1784, but was not 
called to the bar. His first drama, ' Colum- 
bus, or A AVorld Discovered,' 8vo, 1792, an 
historical play in five acts, founded in part 
upon ' Les Incas ' of Marmontel, was pro- 
duced with success at Covent Garden, 1 Dec. 

1792, Holman playing the part of Alonzo. 
' Children in the Wood,' a two-act musical 
entertainment, Dublin, 12mo, 1794 (a pirated 
edition), followed at the Haymarket 1 Oct. 

1793. It was well acted by Suett Bannister, 
jun., and Miss De Camp, and was more than 
once revived. Similar fortune attended 
'Zorinski,'8vo,1795, a three-act play founded 
on the adventures of Stanislaus, re-christened 
Casimir, king of Poland, Haymarket, 20 June 
1795. In the same year appeared an anony- 
mous pamphlet, ' Mr, Morton's " Zorinski " and 
Brooke's " Gustavus Vasa " Compared.' ' The 
Way to get Married,' 8vo, 1796, a comedy 
in five acts, with serious situations, was pro- 
duced at Covent Garden 23 Jan. 1796, acted 
forty-one times, and became a stock piece. 
It supplied Munden with his favourite cha- 
racter of Caustic. ' A Cure for the Heart- 
Ache,' a five-act comedy, 8vo, 1797, Covent 

Garden, 10 Jan. 1797, furnished two excel- 
lent characters in Old and Young Rapid, 
and became also, with few other claims on 
attention, a stock play. ' Secrets worth 
Knowing,' a five-act comedy, 8vo, 1798, 
Covent Garden 11 Jan. 1798, though a better 
play than the preceding, was less popular. 
' Speed the Plough,' a five-act comedy, 8vo, 
1798, Covent Garden, 8 Feb. 1798, was acted 
forty-one times, and often revived. ' The 
Blind Girl, or a Receipt for Beauty,' a comic 
opera in three acts (songs only printed), 
Covent Garden, 22 April 1801, was played 
eight times. 'Beggar my Neighbour, or a 
Rogue's a Fool,' a comedy in three acts (un- 
printed), Haymarket, 10 July 1802, was 
assigned to Morton but unclaimed by him, 
being damned the first night. It was after- 
wards converted into ' How to tease and how 
to please.' Covent Garden, 29 March 1810, 
experienced very little better fortune, and 
remained unprinted. Part of the plot of 
' Beggar my Neighbour ' is said to have been 
taken from Iffland. 'The School of Reform, 
or How to rule a Husband,' 8vo, 1805, a 
five-act comedy, was played with remark- 
able success at Covent Garden, 15 Jan. 1805, 
and was revived so late as 20 Nov. 1867 at 
the St. James's, with Mr. John S. Clarke as 
Tyke and Mr. Irving as Ferment. Tyke was 
the greatest part of John Emery [q. v.] 
' Town and Country, or which is best ? ' 8vo, 
1807, a comedy in five acts, was given at 
Covent Garden 10 March 1807, with John 
Kemble as Reuben Glenroy and Charles 
Kemble as Plastic. For this piece Harris 
is said to have paid 1,000/. whether it suc- 
ceeded or failed. ' The Knight of Snowdoun/ 
London, 1811, a musical drama in three acts, 
founded on ' The Lady of the Lake,' saw the 
light at Covent Garden 5 Feb. 1811 . ' Educa- 
tion,' 8vo, 1813, a five-act comedy, Covent 
Garden, 27 April 1813, is taken in part from 
Iffland. In The Slave,' 8vo, 1816, Covent 
Garden, 12 Nov. 1816, a musical drama 
in three acts, Macready played Gambia, the 
slave. ' A Roland for an Oliver,' 8vo, 1819, 
produced at Covent Garden 29 April 1819, 
was a two-act musical farce. In 'Henri 
Quatre, or Paris in the Olden Time/ 8vo, 
1820, Covent Garden, 22 April 1820, a musi- 
cal romance in three acts, Macready was 
Henri. At the same theatre appeared ' School 
for Grown Children ' (8vo, 1827), on 9 Jan. 
1827, and 'The Invincibles,' 28 Feb. 1828, a 
musical farce in two acts, included in Cumber- 
land's collection. With his second son, John 
Maddison Morton [q. v.], he was associated in 
the 'Writing on the Wall,' a three-act melo- 
drama, produced at the Haymarket, and it is 
said in ' All that Glitters is not Gold,' a two- 




act comic drama played at the Olympic 
' Judith of Geneva,' a three-act melodrama, is 
assigned him in Buncombe's collection, and 
' Sink or Swim,' a two-act comedy, in that 
of Lacy. In addition to these works the fol- 
lowing plays in one act are assigned Morton 
in various collections : ' Angel of the Attic,' 
a serio-comic drama ; ' Another Glass,' a one- 
act drama ; ' Dance of the Shirt, or the Semp- 
stress's Ball,' comic drama ; ' Go to Bed, 
Tom,' a farce ; ' Great Russian Bear, or 
Another Retreat from Moscow;' 'Pretty 
Piece of Business,' comedy ; and ' Seeing 
Warren,' a farce. Morton died on 28 March 
1838, leaving a widow and three children, 
his second son being the farce writer, John 
Maddison Morton. He was a man of repu- 
table life and regular habits, who enjoyed, 
two years before his death, the rarely ac- 
corded honour of being elected (8 May 1837) 
an honorary member of the Garrick Club. 
He was very fond of cricket, and became the 
senior member of Lord's. For many years 
he resided at Pangbourne, on the Thames. 

His portrait, painted by Sir Martin Archer 
Shee, originally placed in the Vernon Gallery, 
has been engraved by T. W. Hunt. 

[Lincoln's Inn Registers (unprinted) ; Gent. 
Mag. 1838, pt. i. ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. iv. 
432 ; Allibone's Dictionary ; Baker, Reed, and 
Jones's Biographia Dramatica ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Georgian Era ; Era Alma- 
nack, various years.] J. K. 

MORTON, THOMAS (1813-1849), sur- 
geon, born 20 March 1813 in the parish of St. 
Andrew, Newcastle-on-Tyne, was youngest 
son of Joseph Morton, a master mariner, and 
brother of Andrew Morton [q. v.] the por- 
trait painter. Thomas was apprenticed to 
James Church, house-surgeon to the New- 
castle-on-Tyne Infirmary, and, on the com- 
pletion of his preliminary education there 
in 1832, entered at University College, Lon- 
don, to finish his medical education. Ad- 
mitted a member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England on 24 July 1835, he 
was appointed house-surgeon at the North 
London (now University College) Hospital 
under Samuel Cooper, whose only daughter 
he afterwards married. He enjoyed the 
singular honour of being reappointed when 
his year of office had expired. In 1836 he 
was made demonstrator of anatomy con- 
jointly with Mr. Ellis, a post he held for 
nine years. In 1842 he became assistant sur- 
geon to the hospital, and he was thus the first 
student of the college to be placed upon the 
staff of the newly founded hospital. In 1848 
he was appointed full surgeon to the hospital 
upon the resignation of Syme. He was also 
surgeon to the Queen's Bench prison in suc- 

cession to Cooper, his father-in-law. Mor- 
ton was a candidate for the professorship of 
surgery at University College when Arnott 
was appointed. He died very unexpectedly, 
by his own hand, on 29 Oct. 1849, at his 
house in Woburn Place, London. 

Morton was one of the ablest of the 
younger surgeons whose sound work raised 
the medical school attached to University 
College to the high position it now holds. 
His death was a great blow to the prestige 
of the college, coming as it did so soon after 
the deaths of Potter, Liston, and Cooper, and 
the resignation of Syme. Morton was an ex- 
cellent teacher of anatomy, and a sound 
clinical surgeon. He was dark-complexioned 
and sallow, and of a retiring, shy, and sensi- 
tive nature, which betokened a melancholy 
disposition, leading him to take too gloomy a 
view of his prospects in life. 

His works are : 1. ' Surgical Anatomy of 
the Perinseum,' London, 1838. 2. 'Surgi- 
cal Anatomy of the Groin,' London, 1839. 
3. ' Surgical Anatomy of Inguinal Hernise,' 
London, 1841. 4. ' Anatomical Engravings,' 
London, 1845. 5. ' Surgical Anatomy, with 
Introduction by Mr. W. Cadge,' London, 
1850. All these works are remarkable, be- 
cause they are illustrated by his brother, 
Andrew Morton, and mark the revival of an 
artistic representation of anatomical details. 
A life-size portrait, three-quarter length, by 
Andrew Morton, executed in oils, is now in 
the secretary's office at the Royal College of 
Surgeons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

[Obituary notices in the Lancet, vol. ii. 1849, 
Gent. Mag. 1849, pt. ii. p. 658, Times, 30 Oct. 
and 2 Nov. 1849, p. 5; additional facts kindly 
given to the writer by Mr. Eric Erichsen, Mr. 
Cadge, and Dr. Embleton.] D'A. P. 

judge,was the son of James Morton of Clifton, 
Worcestershire, by his wife Jane, daughter of 
William Cook of Shillwood, Worcestershire, 
and great-grandson to Sir Rowland Morton 
of Massington, Herefordshire, a master of 
requests in the time of Henry VIII. He 
became a member of Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1622 and 
M.A. in 1625 : and, having been a student of 
the Inner Temple concurrently since 24 Oct. 
1622, he was called to the bar on 28 Nov. 
1630. His name first appears in the ' Reports ' 
in 1639, and shortly after that he took arms 
on the royal side, fought and was wounded 
in several actions. He was knighted, served 
as lieutenant-colonel in LordChandos's horse, 
and was governor of Lord Chandos's castle 
at Sudeley, Gloucestershire, when it sur- 
rendered in June 1644 to General Waller. 




Clarendon describes the surrender as forced 
upon him by the treachery of a subordinate 
and by the mutiny of his men ; but there is 
no mention of this in Waller's own official 
account of the surrender (see Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1644, p. 219). Morton 
was sent to the Tower, and was imprisoned 
for some years. After hostilities were con- 
cluded he returned to the bar, though his 
name does not figure in the 'Reports.' He 
became a bencher of the Inner Temple on 
24 Nov. 1659, and after the Restoration his 
courage and fidelity were rewarded. He re- 
ceived the degree of serjeant-at-law in 1660, 
was a commissioner of assize for Carmarthen- 
shire in 1661, was appointed recorder of 
Gloucester early in 1662, and counsel to the 
dean and chapter of Worcester. He was 
made a king's serjeant in July 1663, and on 
23 Nov. 1665 succeeded Sir John Kelynge in 
the king's bench, and ' discharged his office 
with much gravity andlearning.' He is said to 
have particularly set his face against highway 
robbery, and prevented the grant of a pardon 
to Claude Duval [q. v.] after his conviction 
by threatening to resign his judgeship if a 
pardon were granted. He died in the autumn 
of 1672, and was buried in the Temple Church. 
He married Anne, daughter and heiress of 
John Smyth of Kidlington in Oxfordshire, 
by whom he had several children, of whom 
one, Sir James, succeeded him. Besides his 
lodgings in Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street, which 
were burnt in the great fire, he had, through 
his wife, a house at Kidlington, and also was 
lord of the manor (ANTHONY A WOOD, Fasti 
Oxon. i. 63; cf. BURTON, Diary, iv. 262). 
A portrait of Morton in his robes, by Van- 
dyck, belonging to Mr. Bulkeley Owen, was 
No. 963 in the first Loan Exhibition of 
National Portraits. 

[Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Croke's Reports ; 
Visitations of Worcestershire, 1634 ; Clarendon, 
iv. 489 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661 ; Pope's 
Memoirs of Duval; Macaulay's Hist. i. 187.] 

J. A. H. 

MORVILLE, HUGH DE (d. 1204), one 
of the murderers of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury, was most probably the son of Hugh 
de Morville, who held the barony of Burgh- 
by-Sands, Cumberland, and several other 
estates in the northern shires, in succession 
to his mother, Ada, daughter of William de 
terials for Life of Becket, i. 128 ; RICHAED 
OF HEXHAM, Chron. Stephen, &c., Rolls Ser. 
iii. 178). He must be distinguished from 
Hugh de Morville (d. 1162) [see under MOR- 
VILLE, RICHARD DE (d. 1189)] and from 
Hugh de Morville (d. 1200). Hugh's mother 
was licentious and treacherous (WILLIAM 

OF CANTERBURY, ib. ; the story there given 
does not, as STANLEY, Memorials of Canter- 
bury, p. 70, stated, refer to Hugh's wife, but 
to his mother ; Materials, I. xxxii. note 1). 
He ' was of a viper's brood.' From the be- 
ginning of the reign of Henry II he was 
attached to the court, and is constantly men- 
tioned as witnessing charters. His name 
occurs also as a witness- to the Constitutions 
of Clarendon. He married Helwis de Stute- 
ville, and thus became possessor of the castle 
of Knaresborough. This is denied by a 
writer in the ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1856, 
ii. 381, but his authority does not outweigh 
that of the contemporary biographers. He 
was forester of Cumberland, and itinerant 
justice for Cumberland and Northumberland 
in 1170, and he held the manor of West- 
mereland. He had been one of Becket's men 
when he was chancellor ; but he had always 
been of the king's party, and he was easily 
stirred by the king's bitter words to avenge 
him on the archbishop. In the verbal con- 
test which preceded the murder he asked 
St. Thomas ' why, if the king's men had in 
aught offended him or his, he did not com- 
plain to the king before he took the law into 
his own hands and excommunicated them ' 
(ROGER OF PONTIGNY, Materials, iv. 73). 
While the others were smiting the saint he 
kept back with his sword the crowd which 
was pouring into the transept from the nave, 
' and so it happened that with his own hand 
he did not strike him ' (ib. p. 77). After all 
was over he fled with the other knights to 
Saltwood, thence to South Mailing, later to 
Scotland ; but he was finally forced to flee to 
his own castle of Knaresborough, where he 
sheltered his fellow-criminals (BENEDICT OF 
PETERBOROUGH, Rolls Ser., i. 13). There 
they remained, though they were accounted 
vile by all men of that shire. All shunned 
converse with them, nor would any eat or 
drink with them (ib. p. 14). Finally a 
penance of service in the Holy Land was 
given by the pope, but the murderers soon 
regained the royal favour. In 1200 Hugh de 
Morville paid fifteen marks and three good 
horses to hold his court with the rights of 
tol and theam, infangenetheof, and the ordeal 
of iron and of water, so long as his wife, in 
whose right he held it, should retain the 
secular habit. He obtained also license to 
hold a market at Kirkoswald, Cumberland, 
on Thursdays, and a fair on the feast of St. 
Oswald (LYSONS, Cumberland, p. 127). He 
died shortly afterwards (1204), leaving two 
daughters : Ada, married in 1200 to Richard 
de Lucy, son of Reginald of Egremont (Rot. 
de Oblatis, p. 68), and afterwards to Thomas 
de Multon (Excerpta e Rot. Finium, i. 17, 




165), and Joan, married to Kichard de Ger- 
num, pcphew of William Brewer [q. v.], who 
had been appointed her guardian (Foss,Judges 
of England, i. 280). Legends soon attached 
to his sword, as to the sword of Tracy. It 
was said to have been long preserved in Car- 
lisle Cathedral, and a sword, with a much 
later inscription, now at Brayton Castle, is 
supposed to be the one which he wore on 
the day of the murder. 

This is the most probable account of his 
last years. But it may be that he was the 
Morville who was Richard I's hostage in 
1194, in which case he would be noteworthy 
as having lent Ulrich of Zatzikoven the 
Anglo-Norman poem which Ulrich made the 
basis of his ' Lanzelet.' Tradition also states 
that he died in the Holy Land, and was 
buried in the porch outside the church of the 
Templars (afterwards the Mosque el Aksa) 
at Jerusalem. The tomb is now inside the 

[Materials for the Hist, of Becket (Kolls Ser.), 
vols. i-iv. ; William of Newburgh, lib. ii. cap. 25 
(Kolls Ser. Chronicles Stephen, Henry II, and 
Eichard I, i. 161-5) ; Benedict of Peterborough, 
Eolls Ser. i. 13 ; Gamier, ed. Hippeau, pp. 178- 
200; Pipe Rolls (Pipe Eoll Soc.), 5 Henry II 
p. 29, 6 Henry II p. 14, 7 Henry II p. 35, 
8 Henry II p. 51, 9 Henry II p. 57, 10 Henry II 
p. 11, 11 Henry II p. 47, 12 Henry II p. 35, 
13 Henry II, p. 78, 14 Henry II p. 79, 15 Henry II 
p. 31 ; Thomas Saga, ed. Magniisson, Eolls Ser. 
i. 514; Foss's Judges of England, i. 279, 280; 
Stanley's Memorials of Canterbury, 4th edit, 
pp. 70, 107, 196; Lysons's Cumberland, p. 127; 
Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II, pp. 33, 53, 68, 
78, 145, 150, 152; Eobertson's Life of Becket, 
pp. 266 sqq. ; Morris's St. Thomas Becket, pp. 
137, 407 sqq.; Norgate's Angevin Kings, ii. 78, 
432 note n ; Gent. Mag. 1856, i. 380-2.] 

W. H. H. 

constable of Scotland, was son of Hugh de 
Morville, by Beatrice de Beauchamp. HUGH 
DE MORVILLE (d. 1162) was a member of a 
family settled at Burgh-by-Sands, Cumber- 
land, who took service under David I [q. v.], 
king of Scots, and received grants of land in 
Lauderdale, the Lothians, and Cunninghame. 
He was made constable of Scotland by David. 
His name first occurs as witness to the ' In- 
quisitio Davidis ' in 1116, and after this is 
of frequent occurrence as a witness to royal 
charters. In 1140 he assisted David in his 
attempt to procure the bishopric of Durham 
for William Cumin. Hugh de Morville 
founded Dryburgh Abbey in 1150 (Chron. de 
Mailros, p. 78 ; but in the charter of founda- 
tion King David is named), and he and his 
wife and children were liberal benefactors of j 

the abbey {Reg. Dryburgh, pp. 3, 9, 10). 
He also founded Kilwinning Abbey in 1140. 
By his wife, Beatrice, daughter of Pagan de 
Beauchamp or Bello-Campo {Coll. Top. et 
Gen. vi. 86), he had three sons, Richard, 
Roger, and Malcolm (who was killed when 
young), and a daughter, Ada (Reg. Dryburgh, 
pp. 9, 10, 68-70, 102). He was of the same 
family as Hugh de Morville (d. 1204) [q. v.], 
the murderer of Thomas Becket ; but the true 
relationship seems doubtful. Dugdale's ac- 
count of the family is clearly confused ; nor 
does there seem to be any sufficient ground 
for supposing that they were father and son. 

Richard de Morville is perhaps the son of 
Hugh, who was given as a hostage for the 
peace between England and Scotland in 1139 
(RICHARD OF HEXHAM, in Chron. Steph., 
Hen.II, &c.,iii. 178, Rolls Ser.; butcf.HuGH 
DE MORVILLE, d. 1204). He succeeded his 
father as constable in 1162, and occurs fre- 
quently as witness to charters in the reign 
of Malcolm IV. He was one of the chief 
advisers of William the Lion, and during 
the invasion of England in 1174 com- 
manded a part of the Scottish army before 
Alnwick. Under the treaty of Falaise, in 
August 1175, Morville was one of the hos- 
tages given by William for its fulfilment 
(HOVEDEN, ii. 60, 75). For his share in this 
war Morville was for a time disseized of his 
English lands at Bozeat, Northamptonshire 
(Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, i. 294). 
In 1181 John, bishop of Glasgow, excom- 
municated Morville for having stirred up 
strife between him and the king (HovEDEtf, 
ii. 263). Morville was present as royal con- 
stable at the decision of the dispute between 
the abbey of Melrose and the men of Wedhale 
on 18 Oct. 1184. He died in 1189, having been 
for a short time previous to his death an in- 
mate of Melrose Abbey. 

Richard de Morville married before 1170 
Avice, daughter of William de Lancastria 
(Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, i. 124). 
She gave Newby to the monks of Furness (id. 
i. 195), and, together with her husband, was 
a benefactor of Melrose (Munimenta de Mel- 
ros, p. 160). Avice died on 1 Jan. 1191. By 
her Morville had a son William, who was 
constable of Scotland, and died in 1196, 
leaving no offspring by his wife Christiana. 
The office of constable then passed to Rol- 
land de Galloway who had married Wil- 
liam's sister, Elena or Helena. Elena had 
two sons, Alan de Galloway, and Thomas, 
earl of Athol. Alan, who died in 1234, left 
by Margaret, daughter of David, earl of 
Huntingdon, three daughters : Helena, wife 
of Roger de Quincy; Christiana, wife of 
William de Fortibus, son of the Earl of 




Albemarle ; and Devorguila, wife of John 
Baliol (d. 1269) [q. v.] 

[Roger Hoveden (Eolls Ser.) ; Melrose Chron., 
Eegisters of Dryburgh, Dunfermline, and New- 
bottle (all these are published by the Banna- 
tyne Club) ; Chalmers's Caledonia, i. 503-5, ii. 
336; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 612; Gent. Mag. 
1856, i. 380-2.] C. L. K. 

JOHN (1518 P-1561 ?), divine, born about 
1518, was a Devonshire man of a good family 
(Visitations of Devon, Harl. Soc., p. 193). 
Going to Oxford, he was placed under a re- 
lative, Robert Morwen [q. r.], the president 
of Corpus Christi College, and under Mor- 
wen's influence he adopted reactionary re- 
ligious views. He was scholar of the college 
1535, fellow 1539, graduated B.A. 1538, pro- 
ceeded M. A. 1543, and B.D. 1552. Becoming 
a noted Greek scholar, he was appointed reader 
in that language in his college. Among his 
pupils was Jewel. Seeing how things went 
in Edward VI's time, he is said to have studied 
physic, but this, though confirmed by an entry 
in the registers, seems at variance with the 
fact of his graduation in divinity. When 
Mary came to the throne Morwen became 
prominent. He was secretary to Bonner, and 
assisted in the trials of heretics (cf. FOXE, 
Acts and Monuments, vi. 721). On Good 
Friday 1557 he preached at St. Paul's Cross. 
In 1558 he became a prebendary of St. Paul's, 
and received the livings of St. Martin's 
Ludgate, Copford, Asheldam, and Whickam 
Bishops, all in London diocese. He lost all 
at Elizabeth's accession, and was put in the 
Fleet for preaching at Ludgate in favour of 
the mass. He was released on submission, and 
perhaps was protected by William Roper, son- 
in-law to More, whose daughter he taught ; 
but he was again in trouble in 1561 for scat- 
tering a libel in Cheshire that is to say a 
reply to Pilkington's sermon about the fire 
at St. Paul's, which Romanists considered as 
a portent. From this time he disappeared. 

Morwen contributed epitaphs in Greek and 
Latin on Henry and Charles Brandon to the 
collection issued in 1551, and published a 
Latin epitaph on Gardiner in 1555 (London, 
4to), which Hearne reprinted in his ' Curious 
Discourses.' Julines Palmer [q. v.], who was 
burnt in 1556, composed a reply an ' epi- 
cedium' to the epitaph on Gardiner, and 
it was found when his study was searched. 
Bodleian MS. 439 contains opuscula in Greek 
and Latin by Morwen. Translations from 
Greek into Latin of ' The Lives of Artemius 
and other Saints,' dedicated to Queen Mary, 
form MS. Reg. 13, B, x, in the British 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, i. 195 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ii. 384, 560, iii. 565 ; Prince's Worthies 
of Devon, p. 454 ; Narratives of the Reforma- 
tion (Camd. Soc.), p. 84 ; Churton's Life of 
Alexander Nowell, pp. 52, 61 ; Dixon's Hist, of 
Church of England, iv. 182, 348, 687 ; Strype's 
Memorials, in. ii. 2, 29 ; Annals, i. i. 60, 61, 
253, 414; Casley's Cat. Royal MSS. 221.] 

W. A. J. A. 

WINGE, PETER (1530P-1573 ?), trans- 
lator, graduated B.A. from Magdalen College, 
Oxford, in 1550, and was elected a fellow in 
1552. In June next year he supplicated for 
the degree of M.A., but he was a rigid pro- 
testant, and when Bishop Gardiner made a 
visitation of the university in October 1553, 
he was expelled from his fellowship. He 
took refuge in Germany (BLOXAM, Reg. Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, ii. pp. liv, cvi ; STRYPB, 
Memorials, in. i. 82). On the accession of 
Elizabeth he returned home, was ordained 
deacon by Grindal on 25 Jan. 1559-60 
(STRYPE, Grindal, p. 54), and was granted his 
master's degree at Oxford on 16 Feb. follow- 
ing. He became rector of Langwith, Notti ng- 
hamshire,in 1560; of Norbury, Derbyshire, in 
1564, and of Ryton, Warwickshire, in 1556. 
Thomas Bentham [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, 
an old college friend, made him his chaplain, 
and afterwards collated him to the prebend 
of Pipa Minor in the cathedral of Lichfield 
on 27 Oct. 1567. A successor was appointed 
in the prebend on 6 March 1572-3 (LE NEVE, 
Fasti, i. 618). Morwen probably died a 
month or two before. 

Morwen was a fair scholar and translated 
into English, apparently from the Hebrew,' 
Joseph Ben Gorion's ' History of the Jews.' 
This task Morwen undertook at the entreaty 
of the printer, Richard Jugge [q. v.], and it 
must have been mainly accomplished while 
Morwen was an exile in Germany. The first 
edition, of which no copy is in the British 
Museum, was dated 1558, and bore the title 
'A compendious and moste marveylous His- 
tory of the latter Times of the Jewes Com- 
mune Weale ' (London, b. 1. 8vo). Other 
editions 'newly corrected and amended' 
appeared in 1561, 1507, 1575, 1579, 1593, and 
1615. All these are in the British Museum. 
Morwen also rendered into English from the 
Latin, Conrad Gesner's 'Treasure of Euony- 
musconteyningethe Wonderfull hid Secretes 
of Nature touchinge the most apte formes to 
prepare and destyl medicines,' London, b. 1. 
by John Daye, 1559, 4to. The printer signs 
an address to the Christian reader, which is 
dated 2 May 1559, and a few engravings are 
scattered through the text. A new edition 
' A new Booke of Distillation of Waters, 

M or wen 



called the Treasure of Euonymus ' is dated 
1565, b. 1. 4to ; it was also published by Daye. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Wood'sAthenseOxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 454 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. s. v. ' Morwing.'] 

S. L. 

WYN, ROBERT (1486 P-1668), president 
of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was born 
at Harpery, near Gloucester. He was ad- 
mitted B.A. at Oxford 8 Feb. 1506-7, from 
which date we may infer that he was probably 
born about 1486. He incepted as Master of 
Arts 30 June 1511. In 1510 he had become 
fellow of Magdalen College, and there filled 
various college offices. Shortly after Bishop 
Richard Foxe [q. v.] had founded his new 
college of Corpus Christi, he constituted, by 
letter dated 22Junel517, Morwent perpe tual 
vice-president and sociis compar. Morwent 
could not be made afellow, eo nomine, because 
on his admission to his fellowship at Magdalen 
he had taken an oath that he would not ac- 
cept a fellowship at any other college. In the 
supplementary statutes of 1527 Bishop Foxe 
nominated Morwent, whose industry and zeal 
he highly commended, to be successor to the 
first president, John Claymond [q. v.], taking 
the precaution to provide that this act should 
not be drawn into a precedent. A few days 
after Claymond's death Morwent was sworn 
president, 26 Nov. 1537. His practical ca- 
pacity seems to be placed beyond doubt, but 
he appears, as Laurence Humfrey points 
out in his ' Life of Jewel ' (p. 22), to have 
been rather a patron of learned men than 
a learned man himself. In a sermon preached 
before the university, according to Wood 
{Colleges and Halls, p. 395), he was styled 
' pater patrise literatse Oxoniensis.' Morwent 
must have possessed the gift of pliancy as 
well as prudence, for he retained the presi- 
dency through the troubled times that inter- 
vened between 1537 and 1558. 

There can be no doubt that Morwent was 
one of the secret catholics who outwardly 
conformed during Edward VI's time, and in 
return were allowed to retain their prefer- 
ments. But on 31 May 1552 he was sum- 
moned before the council, together with two 
of the fellows, Walshe and Allen, ' for using 
upon Corpus Christi day other service than 
was appointed by the " Book of Service." ' 
On 15 June they were committed to the 
Fleet. ' And a letter was sent to the College, 
to appoint Jewel [see JEWEL, JOHN] to go- 
vern the College during the imprisonment 
of the President.' 'July 17, the Warden of 
the Fleet was ordered to release the Presi- 
dent of Corpus Christi, upon his being bound 
in a bond of 200/. to appear next term before 

the Council. Allen, upon his conforming 
to the King's orders, was restored to his 
Fellowship ' (STRYPE, Memorials, bk. ii. ch. 
xviii.) Shortly after the accession of Mary, 
when Bishop Gardiner's commission visited 
the college, the president and Walshe boasted 
that throughout the time of King Edward 
they had carefully secreted and preserved 
all the ornaments, vessels, copes, cushions, 
plate, candlesticks, &c., which in the reign 
of Henry VIII had been used for the catholic 
service. ' In what condition,' says Wood 
(Annals, sub 1553), ' they found that Col- 
lege was such as if no Reformation at all 
had been there.' 

On 25 Jan. 1555-6 Morwent was ap- 
pointed, in convocation, one of the delegacy 
for selling the shelves and seats in the uni- 
versity library. 'The books of the public 
library,' says Mr. Macray (Annals of the 
Bodleian Library, 2nd ed. p. 13), ' had all 
disappeared ; what need then to retain the 
shelves and stalls, when no one thought of 
replacing their contents ? ' In 1556 Mor- 
went was nominated on Pole's commission 
for visiting the university. It was this com- 
mission which disinterred Catherine, the wife 
of Peter Martyr, who had been buried in the 
cathedral, near the reliques of St. Frideswide. 

Fulman quotes from the ' Hist. Exhu- 
mationis et Restitutions Catherinae Uxoris 
Pet. Mart.,' fol. 197 b, printed at the end of 
Conrad Hubert's 'Life of Bucer and Fagius,' 
the graphic character of Morwent : ' Fuit 
Morwennus satis annosus pater, et parcus 
senex, ad rem tuendam paterfamilias bonus: 
ad doctrinae et religionis controversias vindi- 
candas judex parum aptus, acerrimus tamen 
vetustatis suse defensor.' Friendly feelings 
seem to have subsisted between the president 
and his undergraduates, and Jewel in his 
earlier days at Corpus wrote at the new year 
some kindly verses on Morwent's dog, to 
which the president was much attached. He 
is said to have subsequently regretted the 
share which he was afterwards instigated to 
take in bringing about Jewel's departure from 
the college at the beginning of the Marian 
persecutions. Morwent died 16 Aug. 1558, 
three months before Queen Mary's death. 

[Humfrey's Life of Jewel ; Strype's Memo- 
rials ; Wood's Annals ; Wood's Colleges and 
Halls; Conrad Hubert's Life of Bucer and 
Fagius ; Macray's Annals of the Bodleian Li- 
brary ; C. C. C. Kegister, vol. i. ; Fulman MSS. 
in C. C. C. Library, vol. ix. ; C. C. C. Statutes ; 
Fowler's Hist, of C. C. C. in Oxf. Hist. Soc. 
vol. xxv.] T. F. 

1340), deputy of Ireland, was probably a 
member of a Bedfordshire family, who re- 




presented that county in the parliaments of 
May 1322, December 1326, December 1332, 
March 1336, and March 1340. On some of these 
occasions he was associated with Thomas 
Studley, who was afterwards his attorney 
in England. There was also a John Morice 
or Moriz who represented the borough of 
Cambridge in the parliaments of December 
1326, April 1328, September 1337, February 
1338 (Return of Members of Parliament, i. 
64-130). Morys was commissioner of array 
for Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire in 
1322 and 1324 (Parliamentary Writs, iv. 
1195). On 6 March 1327 he was placed on 
the commission of oyer and terminer for 
Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire to in- 
quire into the taking of prises by members 
of the royal household, and on 8 March 
1327 he was placed on the commission of 
peace for Bedfordshire. On 8 July 1328 he 
was going to Ireland, and had letters nomi- 
nating attorneys to act for him during two 
years. On 13 March 1329 he had protection 
for one year again when going to Ireland on 
the royal service, and on 11 April 1329 had 
leave to nominate attorneys as before (Cal. 
fat. Rolls, Edward III, 1327-30). In May 
1341 (Chart. St. Mary's, Dublin, ii. 382), 
when he was styled knight, he was said to 
be acting as deputy in Ireland for Sir John 
D'Arcy. In this capacity he held a parlia- 
ment at Dublin in October 1341, when he 
tad to enforce ordinances annulling royal 
grants made in the king's reign, and acquit- 
tances from crown debts, unless granted 
under the English seal. These measures were 
unpopular with the Anglo-Irish nobles, who 
perhaps also despised Morys as a man of 
small political or social importance. An 
opposition parliament was accordingly held 
under the Earl of Desmond at Kilkenny in 
November 1341, and an appeal made to the 
king against the abuses of the Irish ad- 
ministration. Morys was soon after displaced 
by Ralph Ufford. But in April 1346 he pro- 
cured his own reappointment, and on the 
news of Ufford's death a few days after was 
ordered to proceed to Ireland (GILBERT, Vice- 
roys, p. 541). There he arrived on 15 May, 
and at once released the Earl of Kildare, 
whom Ufford had imprisoned ; but on the 
great massacre of the English in Ulster 
during June, Morys was once more displaced, 
and after this he seems to disappear from 

[Chartulary of S. Mary's, Dublin (Eolls Ser.) ; 
Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland ; Leland's Hist, 
of Ireland ; authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

diplomatist. [See MOEISON.] 

MORYSON, FYKES (1566-1617 ?), 
traveller, born in 1566, was younger son of 
Thomas Moryson (d. 1591) of Cadeby, Lin- 
colnshire, clerk of the pipe, and M.P. for 
Great Grimsby in 1572, 1584, 1586, and 
1588-9 (Harl. MS. 1550, f. 50 b ; cf. Itinerary, 
pt. i. p. 19). His mother, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Moigne of Willingham, Lincoln- 
shire, died in 1587 (ib.) He matriculated at 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, 18 May 1580, and, 
graduating B.A. (M.A. 1587), obtained a fel- 
lowship about 1584. The college allowed 
him to study civil law ; but, ' from his tender 
youth, he had a great desire to see foreign 
countries ' (ib. p. 197), and in 1589 he ob- 
tained a license to travel. Two years he 
spent either in London or on visits to friends 
in the country, preparing himself for his ex- 
pedition, and on 22 March 1590-1 he was 
incorporated M.A. at Oxford. On 1 May 
1591 he took ship at Leigh, near Southend, 
and for the greater part of the six years fol- 
lowing wandered about Europe. 

At the end of 1591 he reached Prague, 
where he dreamt of his father's death on 
the day of the event (ib. p. 19). The news 
was confirmed at Nuremberg, and after a 
year's leisurely tour through Germany he 
retraced his steps to the Low Countries in 
order to dispose of his modest patrimony. 
On 7 Jan. 1593 he entered himself as a stu- 
dent at Leyden University (PEACOCK, Index, 
p. 65). He subsequently passed through 
Denmark and Poland to Vienna, and thence 
by way of Pontena and Chiusa into Italy in 
October 1593 (Itinerary, yt. i. p. 68). After 
visiting Naples, he thoroughly explored 
Rome, where he paid visits to Cardinals Allen 
(ib. p. 121) and Bellarmine (p. 142). The 
former gave him every facility for viewing 
j the antiquities. The cities of North Italy 
I occupied him from April 1 594 to the begin- 
ning of 1595. In the early spring of 1595 
he had an interview with Theodore Beza at 
Geneva, and journeying hurriedly through 
France, caught a glimpse of Henri IV at 
Fontainebleau (ib. p. 195), and landed at 
Dover 13 May 1595. 

On 8 Dec. of the same year Moryson 
started on a second journey, setting sail for 
Flushing. A younger brother, Henry, bore 
him company. Passing through Germany 
to Venice, they went, at the end of April 
1596, by sea to Joppa, spent the first fort- 
night of June at Jerusalem, and thence went 
by Tripoli and Aleppo to Antioch. At 
Beilan, a neighbouring village, Henry Mory- 
son died on 4 July 1596 (ib. p. 249) ; he 
was in his twenty-seventh year. Fynes 
afterwards made for Constantinople, where 
the English ambassador, Edward Barton 




[q.v.], hospitably entertained him (ib. pp. 
260, 265). He finally reached London byway 
of Venice and Stade on 10 July 1597. 

In April 1598 Moryson visited Scotland, 
but soon came home, and spent some time 
in the autumn with his sisters, Faith Mus- 
sendyne and Jane, wife of George Allington, 
of the pipe office. The former lived at Healing 
near the south bank of the Humber. During 
the greater part of 1 599 he remained with 
his kinsfolk in Lincolnshire. At the time his 
brother Richard [see below] was taking an 
active part in the government of Ireland, and 
strongly recommended him to seek employ- 
ment in Ireland. Accordingly Moryson went 
to Cambridge in July 1600 in order to for- 
mally resign his fellowship at Peterhouse, 
and the college presented him with 40/.,the 
amount of two years' income. In November 
he set out for Dublin (ib. pt. ii. p. 84). On 
the 13th he reached Dundalk, where his 
brother was governor ; on the same day 
George Cranmer, the chief secretary of Sir 
Charles Blount [q. v.], the lord-deputy, was 
killed at Carlingford, and Moryson was at 
once appointed to his place (ib. pt. ii. p. 84). 
He found his new master all that he could 
wish, aided him in his efforts to suppress 
Tyrone's rebellion, and remained through life 
a devoted admirer (ib. pp. 45-50). On 20 Feb. 
1601 he was wounded in the thigh while 
riding with Blount about MacGahagan's 
castle in Westmeath (ib. pt. ii. p. 88). At 
the end of the year he took part in the siege 
of Kinsale (ib. pp. 165 sq.), and he seems to 
have accompanied Blount on his return to 
England in May 1603 (ib. p. 296). On 19 June 
1604 he received a pension of 6s. a day (Cal. 
State Papers, 1603-1610, p. 121 ; but cf. ib. 
Dom. Add. 1580-1625, p. 445). He con- 
tinued in the service of Blount, who was 
created Earl of Devonshire in 1604, until 
the earl's death in 1606. 

Moryson was in London on 26 Feb. 1611- 
1612, when he carried the pennon at the 
funeral of his sister Jane, in St. Botolph's 
Church, Aldersgate. In 1613 he revisited 
Ireland at the invitation of his brother, Sir 
Richard, then vice-president of Munster. 
After a narrow escape from shipwreck, he 
landed at Youghal on 9 Sept. He judged 
the outward appearances of tranquillity in 
Ireland delusive, and anticipated further 
' combustions ' unless justice were severely 
administered (Itinerary, pt. ii. p. 300). 

After Lord Devonshire's death in 1606, 
Moryson had spent three years in making 
an abstract of the history of the twelve 
countries which he had visited, but his 
manuscript proved so bulky that with a 
consideration rare in authors he destroyed 

it, and turned his attention to a briefer re- 
cord of his experiences of travel. Even 
this work he designed on a generous scale. 
It was to be in five parts, written in Latin, 
and he made an apparently vain appeal to 
William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, to accept 
the dedication (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
p. 372). In 1617 he had completed three 
parts of the first part the Latin version is 
in Harl. MSS. 5133 and had translated 
them into English. He obtained full copy- 
right for twenty-one years for this portion 
of his undertaking, as well as for ' one or 
two parts more thereof, not yet finished, but 
shortly to be perfected.' The book, which was 
entered on the ' Registers' of the Stationers' 
Company 4 April 1617 (ed. Arber, iii. 606), 
appeared under the title, ' An Itinerary [by 
Fynes Moryson, Gent.], containing his ten 
years Travels through the twelve Dominions 
of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland, 
Netherland, Denmark, Poland, England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. Divided in three 
parts,' London, 1617, fol. The first part 
supplies a journal of his travels through 
Europe, Scotland, and Ireland, with plans 
of the chief cities, full descriptions of their 
monuments, 'as also the rates of hiring 
coaches and horses from place to place with 
each day's expences for diet, horse-meat, and 
the like.' The second part is a history of Ty- 
rone's rebellion, replete with invaluable docu- 
ments of state, and authentic details respect- 
ing the English forces engaged (cf. SPEEDING, 
Bacon, vols. ii. and iii.) The third part con- 
sists of essays on the advantages of travel, on 
the geography of various countries of Europe, 
and on their differences in national costume, 
character, religion, and constitutional prac- 
tice. An unprinted fourth part, in English, 
treating of similar topics, is in the library 
of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford (No. xciv), 
and was licensed for the press, although 
never published, on 14 June 1626 (Ashmol. 
MS. ccc. 94). The second part, together with 
part iii. book iii. chapter v. (' of the geo- 
graphical description of Ireland, the situa- 
tion, fertility, trafficke, and diet') was re- 
printed as ' A History of Ireland from 1599- 
to 1603,' at Dublin in 1735, and ' the descrip- 
tion of Ireland,' again in Professor Henry 
Morley's Carisbrooke Library, in 1890. 

Moryson is a sober and truthful writer, 
without imagination or much literary skill. 
He delights in statistics respecting the mile- 
age of his daily journeys and the varieties 
in the values of the coins he encountered. 
His descriptions of the inns in which he 
lodged, of the costume and the food of the 
countries visited, render his work invaluable 
to the social historian. He appears to have 




died in 1617, very soon after the publication 
of his ' Itinerary.' 

(1571 P-1628), born about 1571, served suc- 
cessively as lieutenant and captain with 
the English troops employed under Sir 
Roger Williams in France and the Low 
Countries between 1591 and 1593 (Cal. 
Carew MSS. 1603-24, p. 429). In the 
Islands' Voyage of 1597 he acted as lieu- 
tenant-colonel under Sir Charles Blount 
[q.v.], and went as a colonel with Essex's 
army to Ireland in 1599 (ib.) He was 
knighted at Dublin by Essex, 5 Aug. 1599 
(CHAMBERLAIN, iefers,p. 63), was soon made 
governor of Dundalk, and was afterwards 
removed to a like post at Lecale, co. Down. 
He vigorously aided Blount in his efforts to 
suppress Tyrone's rebellion, and on Blount's | 
return to England became governor of ' 
"Waterford and Wexford in July 1604 (Cal. 
State Papers, Ireland, 1603-6, pp. 185, 257, 
cf. ib. 1615-25, p. 61). In 1607, on the 
death of Sir Henry Brouncker, president of 
Munster, Moryson and the Earl of Thomond 
performed the duties of the vacant office 
until Henry, lord Danvers [q. v.], was ap- 
pointed to it. In 1609 Moryson became 
vice-president of Munster, and in August 
recommended that Irish pirates who infested 
the coast of Munster should be transported 
to Virginia. Four years later he is said to 
have paid Lord Danvers 3,OOOJ.with a view to 
obtaining the presidency of Munster, which 
Danvers was vacating (ib. Dom. 1611-18, 
under date 14 Jan. 1613). He was elected 
M.P. for Bandon to the Irish parliament in 
April 1613. In 1614 Danvers made vain 
efforts to secure the Munster presidency for 
Moryson, but it was given to Lord Thomond 
(ib. Ireland, 1611-14, p. 532 ; Cal. CarewMSS. 
1603-24, pp. 428 sq.) A year later Moryson 
left Ireland after fifteen years' honourable 
service, and on 1 Jan. 1615-16 was appointed 
lieutenant-general of the ordnance in Eng- 
land for his own life and for that of his 
brother-in-law, Sir William Harington (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 342). He 
also held from 1616 the office of cessor of 
composition money for the province of 
Munster, and in 1618 was granted the rever- 
sion of the Munster presidency, which, how- 
ever, never fell to him. Settling at Tooley 
Park, Leicestershire, he was elected M.P. for 
Leicester on 8 Jan. 1620-1. He appears to 
have zealously performed his duties at the 
ordnance office till his death in 1628. His 
widow, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry 
Harington (son of Sir James Harington of 
Ext on), survived him. His eldest son Henry 
was knighted at Whitehall 8 Oct. 1627. A 

daughter, Letitia, whose character somewhat 
resembled that of her distinguished husband, 
was wife of Lucius Gary, second viscount 
Falkland (cf. ib. 1629-31, pp. 146, 393; 
Letters of George, Lord Carew, Camd. Soc. 
p. 22 note). 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, i. 253 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 321-6, by C. H. Cooper 
and Mr. Thompson Cooper ; Retrospective Eev. 
xi. 308 sq. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] S. L. 

MOSELEY. [See also MOSLET.] 

1819), physician, was born in Essex in 1742. 
He studied medicine in London, Paris, and 
Leyden, and settled in practice in Jamaica 
in 1768, where he was appointed to the 
office of surgeon-general. He performed 
many operations, and records that a large 
number of his patients died of tetanus. 
He visited other parts of the West Indies 
and Newfoundland, and, when he grew rich 
from fees, returned to England and obtained 
the degree of M.D. at St. Andrews 12 May 
1784. Beginning in the autumn of 1785, 
he made a series of tours on the continent, 
commencing with Normandy, and in 1786 
visiting Strasburg, Dijon, Montpellier, and 
Aix. He visited the hospitals in each city, 
and at Lausanne talked with the celebrated 
Tissot ; he crossed to Venice by the Mont Cenis 
pass, 23 Oct. 1787, and went on to Rome. 
He was admitted a licentiate of the College 
of Physicians of London 2 April 1787, and in 
the following year was appointed physician 
to the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, an office 
which he held till his death at Southend 
on 25 Sept. 1819. He was buried at Chelsea. 

His first publication was ' Observations 
on the Dysentery of the West Indies, with 
a new and successful Method of treating it,' 
printed in Jamaica, and reprinted in Lon- 
don (1781). The method consisted in giving 
James's powder or some other diaphoretic, 
and wrapping the patient in blankets till he 
sweated profusely. In 1775 he published ' A 
Treatise concerning the Properties and Effects 
of Coffee,' a work of which the only interesting 
contents are some particulars as to the use of 
coffee in the West Indies, and the incidental 
evidence that even as late as 1785, when the 
third edition appeared, coffee was little drunk 
in England. A fifth edition appeared in 1792. 
His most important work appeared in 1787, 
' A Treatise on Tropical Diseases and on the 
Climate of the West Indies.' In 1790 it 
was translated into German, and a fourth 
edition appeared in 1803. It contains some 
valuable medical observations, curious ac- 
counts of the superstitions of the negroes 




about Obi and Obea, thrilling tales of sharks, 
and an interesting history of the disastrous 
expeditions of General Bailing in January 
1780 and of General Garth in August 1780 
against the Spaniards. In 1799 he pub- 
lished 'A Treatise on Sugar,' which con- 
tains no scientific information of value, but 
the exciting story of the death of Three- 
fingered Jack, a famous negro outlaw slain 
by three Maroons, who described their en- 
counter in 1781 to Dr. Moseley. In 1800 
he published a volume of medical tracts on 
sugar, cow-pox, the yaws, African witch- 
craft, the plague, yellow fever, hospitals, 
goitre, and prisons. A second edition ap- 
peared in 1804. In 1808 he published in 
quarto ' On Hydrophobia, its Prevention and 
Cure.' He claims to be the first to have ob- 
served that the scratches of a mad cat will 
produce hydrophobia. His method of treat- 
ment, which he declares was always success- 
ful, was to extirpate the wounded part and 
to administer a full course of mercury. He 
also published many controversial letters 
and pamphlets on cow-pox, in which he de- 
clares himself an opponent of vaccination. 
In the West Indies, Avhere he was engaged 
in active practice and in observation of a 
series of phenomena with which he became 
familiar, he made some small additions to 
knowledge : but in England, Avhere he was 
in an unfamiliar field, his observations were 
of less value, and his professional repute 
seems to have gradually diminished. The 
unscientific character of his mind is illus- 
trated by the fact that he believes the phases 
of the moon to be a cause of haemorrhage 
from the lungs, because a captain in the 
third regiment of guards coughed up blood 
six times at full moon and twice just after 
the new moon ( Tropical Diseases, p. 548). 
He often wrote letters in the ' Morning 
Herald ' and other newspapers. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 368 ; Gent. Mag. 
Ix. 9-11; Morning Herald, 14 Nov., 15 Dec. 
1807, 25 Jan. 1808 ; Works.] N. M. 

MOSELEY, HENRY (1801-1872), ma- 
thematician, the son of Dr. William Willis 
Moseley, who kept a large private school at 
Newcastle-under-Lyne, and his wife Mar- 
garet (nee Jackson), was born on 9 July 1801. 
He was sent at an early age to the grammar 
school of the town, and when fifteen or six- 
teen to a school at Abbeville. Afterwards 
he attended for a short time a naval school 
at Portsmouth, and while there wrote his 
first paper ' On measuring the Depth of the 
Cavities seen on the Surface of the Moon ' 
(Tilloch's Phil. Mag. Hi. 1818). In 1819 
Moseley went to St. John's College, Cam- 

bridge. He graduated B. A. in 1826, coming 
out seventh wrangler, and proceeded M.A. 
in 1836. In 1870 he was made LL.D. hon. 

Moseley was ordained deacon in 1827 and 
priest in 1828, and became curate at West 
Monkton, near Taunton. There, in the in- 
tervals of his clerical duties, he devoted him- 
self to mathematics, and wrote his first book, 
'A Treatise on Hydrostatics,' 8vo, Cam- 
bridge, 1830. On 20 Jan. 1831 he was ap- 
pointed ' Professor of Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy and Astronomy ' at King's 
College, London, and he held the post till 
12 Jan. 1844. when he was appointed one of 
the first of H. M. inspectors of normal schools. 
He was also chaplain of King's College from 
31 Oct. 1831 to 8 Nov. 1833. As one of the 
jurors of the International Exhibition of 
1851 he came under the notice of the prince 
consort, and in 1853 he was presented to a 
residential canonry in Bristol Cathedral ; in 
1854 became vicar of Olveston, Gloucester- 
shire, and was appointed chaplain in ordinary 
to her majesty in 1855. He died at Olveston 
20 Jan. 1872. He was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society in February 1839. He 
was also a corresponding member of the In- 
stitute of France, a member of the Council 
of Military Education, and vice-president of 
the Institution of Naval Architects. 

Moseley married, on 23 April 1835, Harriet, 
daughter of William Nottidge, esq., of Wands- 
worth Common, Surrey, by whom he was 
father of Henry Nottidge Moseley [q. v.] 

Moseley's more important works were: 
' Lectures on Astronomy,' delivered when 
professor at King's College (8vo, London, 
1839, 4th edit. 1854); the article on 'Defi- 
nite Integrals' in the ' Encyclopaedia Metro- 
politana,' 1837 ; and his well-known volume 
on ' The Mechanical Principles of Engineer- 
ing and Architecture' (8vo, London, 1843, 
2nd edit. 1855), which was reprinted in 
America with notes by Professor Mahan for 
the use of the Military School at West Point, 
and translated into German by Professor 
Schefler of Brunswick. 

One of the most extensively useful results 
of Moseley's mathematical labours was the 
publication of the formulas by which the 
dynamical stabilities of all ships of war have 
since been calculated. These formulae first 
appeared in a memoir ' On the Dynamical 
Stability and on the Oscillations of Floating 
Bodies,' read before the Royal Society, and 
published in their ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions for 1850.' Later in life the observed 
motion of the lead on the roof of the Bristol 
Cathedral under changes of temperature 
caused him to advance the theory that the 




motion of glaciers might be similarly ex- 

Besides the works already cited Moseley 
published: 1. 'Syllabus of a Course of Ex- 
perimental Lectures on the Theory of Equi- 
librium,' 8vo, London, 1831. 2. 'A Treatise 
on Mechanics, applied to the Arts, including 
Statics and Hydrostatics,' 8vo, London, 1834 ; 
3rd edit. 1847. 3. 'Illustrations of Mechanics,' 
8vo, London, 1839. 4. 'Theoretical and Prac- 
tical Papers on Bridges,' 8vo, London, 1843 
(Weale's Series, ' Bridges,' vol. i.) 5. 'Astro- 
Theology . . . 2nd edit.' 8vo, London, 1851, 
3rd edit. 1860 ; this first appeared in a series 
of articles in the ' Church of England Maga- 
zine ' for 1838. Some thirty-five papers 
on natural philosophy -were written by him, 
and appeared in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' 
the ' Transactions of the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society,' the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' the ' British Association Keports,' 
and other journals. 

[Information kindly supplied by Moseley's 
daughters, Mrs. Ludlow and Mrs. Hardy, and 
by the secretary, King's College, London ; Me- 
moir in Trans. Institution of Naval Architects, 
xiii. 328-30; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 
1872: Brit. Mus. Cat.; Hoy. Soc. Cat.] 

B. B. W. 

(1844-1891), naturalist, born in Wands- 
worth, Surrey, in 1844, was son of Henry 
Moseley [q. v.] the mathematician. He was 
educated at Harrow, whence he went in 1864 
to Exeter College, Oxford. It was at first 
intended that he should take a degree in 
either mathematics or classics, but these sub- 
jects proved so uncongenial to him that he 
was finally allowed to join Professor Holies- 
ton's laboratory. In 1868 he came out with 
a first class in the natural science schools. 
Elected to the RadclifFe travelling fellowship 
in 1869, Moseley, in company with Professor 
E. Ray Lankester, went to Vienna and studied 
in Rokitanski's laboratory. On returning to 
England he entered as a medical student at 
University College, London. In 1871, again 
with Professor Lankester, he went to the con- 
tinent and studied at Leipzig under Professor 
Ludwig. While there he published his first 
scientific memoir, ' Ein Verfahren um die 
Blutgefasse der Coleopteren auszuspritzen ' 
(Berickt k. sacks. Gesell. (1871), xxiii. 276-8). 
Returning home in the autumn of the same 
year, Moseley was invited to join the govern- 
ment Eclipse expedition, then fitting out for 
Ceylon. He did good service as a member of 
it by making valuable spectroscopic observa- 
tions in the neighbourhood of Trincomalee ; 
he also formed a miscellaneous collection of 
natural history objects, including a quantity 

of land planarians. These last he carefully 
studied on his return to Oxford, and pub- 
lished the results of his investigation in the 
first of a series of important biological memoirs 
which were read before the Royal Society. 

In 1872 Moseley was appointed one of the 
naturalists on the scientific staff of the Chal- 
lenger, and accompanied that expedition in 
its voyage round the world, which lasted 
till May 1876. There being no botanist at- 
tached to the expedition, Moseley undertook 
the collection of plants, and wherever the 
expedition touched land his zeal as a col- 
lector led him always to remain on shore till 
the last moment, a habit which resulted in his 
nearly being left behind at Kerguelen's Land. 

On his arrival in England in 1876 Moseley 
was elected to a fellowship at his old college 
(Exeter), and spent several years at Oxford 
working out the results of the expedition and 
preparing his reports, as well as writing im- 
portant memoirs on the corals and their allies. 
In the summer of 1877 Moseley was com- 
missioned by an English company to report 
on certain lands in California and Oregon, 
and took the opportunity of visiting Wash- 
ington Territory, Puget Sound, and Van- 
couver Island, and of studying some of the 
native races of America. On his return he 
published a book on ' Oregon ' (1878), for which 
he received a formal vote of thanks from the 
legislative assembly of that state. 

In 1877 Moseley was.^lgcied a fellow of 
the Royal Society, and was ia appointed 
assistant registrarto the university of London, 
which post he held till 1881, when he suc- 
ceeded his friend and teacher, Professor Rolle- 
ston, in the Linacre professorship of human 
and comparative anatomy at Oxford. At the 
same time he became, ex officio, a fellow of 
Merton College. 

In addition to his work in the lecture-room 
and laboratory at Oxford, Moseley served 
twice on the council of the Royal Society, 
and was on that of the Zoological Society, of 
which he had become a fellow in 1879, as 
well as on the council of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute, which he joined in 1885. 
He was, besides, a fellow of the Linnean 
Society from 1880, and of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society from 1881. In 1884 he was 
president of ' section D ' of the British Asso- 
ciation at Montreal, and received the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. from the McGill Uni- 
versity. He was also a founder and member 
of council of the Marine Biological Associa- 
tion. Owing to overwork his health gave 
way in 1887, and his professorial labours 
were thenceforth performed by deputy. He 
finally succumbed to an attack of bronchitis 
on 10 Nov. 1891. In 1881 he married the 




youngest daughter of John Gwyn Jeffreys 
[q. v.] the conchologist. 

Moseley's principal characteristic was an 
inborn aversion to accept any statement or 
recorded observation which he had not been 
able to verify for himself. He was an effective 
lecturer. Personally he was very genial, and 
a staunch friend. 

Among his scientific achievements may 
be named his discovery of a system of tracheal 
vessels in ' Peripatus ' that furnished a new 
clue to the origin of tracheae, while the 
memoir on ' Peripatus ' itself constituted an 
important contribution towards a knowledge 
of the phylogeny of arthropods. His inves- 
tigations on living corals were the means of 
clearing up many doubtful points concerning 
the relationships between the members of 
that group, and led to the establishment of 
the group of hydrocorallin. Moseley also 
was the discoverer of the eyes on the shells of 
several species of chiton, to the minute struc- 
ture of which his last publication was de- 
voted. It was in recognition of such services 
to biological science that the Royal Society in 
1887 awarded him their ' royal medal.' 

Of all his writings Moseley's ' Notes by a 
Naturalist on the Challenger,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1879, 2nd ed. 1892, is the one that ap- 
peals to the widest circle of readers, and ap- 
proaches Darwin's ' Journal of the Cruise of 
the Beagle ' in interest and importance. 

To the official reports of the results of the 
cruise he contributed a portion of the ' Nar- 
rative ' and two independent zoological re- 
ports : one ' On certain . . . Corals,' and the 
other ' On the Structure of the peculiar Or- 
gans on the Head of Ipnops.' 

In addition t the foregoing, Moseley wrote 
a treatise ' On the Structure of the Styla- 
steridse Croonian Lecture,' 4to, London, 
1878, and contributed upwards of thirty 
papers to the ' Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science,' to the ' Proceedings ' and 
' Transactions ' of the Royal Society, to the 
' Transactions of the Linnean Society ' and 
other journals, besides writing the section on 
zoology for the ' Admiralty Manual of Scien- 
tific Enquiry,' 8vo, 1886. Moseley's manu- 
script ' Journal of Zoological Observations 
made during the Voyage of H.M.S. Chal- 
lenger ' is preserved in the library of the 
zoological department of the British Museum 
(natural history). 

[G-. C. Bourne's Memoir, with portrait, in 2nd 
ed. of Moseley's Notes by a Naturalist, 1892; 
Times, 13 Nov. 1891; Nature, 26 Nov. 1891; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; information kindly sup- 
plied by the Hon. Gr. C. Brodrick, warden of 
Merton College, Oxford, and by Professor E. 
Eay Lankester.] B. B. W. 


bookseller, conjectured to be a son of Samuel 
Moseley, a Staffordshire man, who was a 
stationer in London (AKBEK, Transcripts, 
ii. 249, iii. 683), was admitted a freeman 
of the Stationers' Company in 1627 (ib. iii. 
686), when he probably began business. He 
was ' clothed ' of the same company on 
28 Oct. 1633, and in July 1659 was chosen 
one of its wardens. The first entry of a book 
licensed to him in the 'Stationers' Register' is 
on 29 May 1630. He became the chief pub- 
lisher of the ' finer literature ' of his age 
(MASSON, Milton, vi. 400). He published the 
first collected edition of Milton's ' Poems,' 
1645, and prefixed an address to the reader, 
in which he said : ' It is the love I have to 
our own language that hath made me dili- 
gent to collect and set forth such pieces, both 
in prose and verse, as may renew the wonted 
honour and esteem of our English tongue.' 
He published also early editions of Howell, 
Waller, Crashaw, Denham, D' Avenant, Cart- 
wright, Donne, Fanshawe, Henry Vaughan, 
and many other authors, as well as transla- 
tions of Spanish and Italian novels and con- 
temporary French romances. His shop was 
in St. Paul's Churchyard. He died on 31 Jan. 
1660-1, and was buried in St. Gregory's 
Church. By his will he appointed his wife 
Anne and his only daughter Anne his exe- 
cutrices, and left bequests to his brothers 
Thomas and Charles Moseley and Richard 
Frampton, and 101. for a bowl or cup for the 
Stationers' Company. 

[Masson's Life of Milton, vi. 400 ; Arber's 
Transcripts of Stationers' Registers ; Arber's 
List of London Booksellers, 1890 ; Smyth's 
Obituary (Camden Soc.), p. 53.] C. W. S. 

1783), chaser and enameller, son of Michael 
Moser, an eminent Swiss engineer and worker 
in metal, was born at Schaff hausen in 1704. 
He studied at Geneva, and, coming early to 
England, was first employed by a cabinet- 
maker in Soho, named Trotter, as a chaser of 
brass ornaments for furniture. He subse- 
quently rose to be head of his profession as 
a gold-chaser, medallist, and enameller, and 
was particularly distinguished for the compo- 
sitions in enamel with which he ornamented 
the backs of watches, bracelets, and other 
trinkets. A beautiful example of this work 
was a watch-case executed for Queen Char- 
lotte, adorned with whole-length figures of 
her two eldest children, for which he received 
' a hatful of guineas.' Moser was drawing- 
master to George III during his boyhood, 
and on his accession to the throne was em- 
ployed to engrave his first great seal. When 





the art school afterwards known as the St. 
Martin's Lane Academy was established 
about 1736, in Greyhound Court, Strand, he 
became manager and treasurer, and continued 
in that position until the school was absorbed 
in the Royal Academy. Moser was an ori- 
ginal member, and afterwards a director, of 
the Incorporated Society of Artists, whose 
seal he designed and executed, and was one 
of the twenty-one directors whose retire- 
ment, in 1767, led to the establishment of 
the Royal Academy. To Moser's zeal and 
energy the latter event was largely due. In 
association with Chambers, West, and Cotes 
he framed the constitution of the new body, 
and on 28 Nov. 1768 presented the memorial 
to the king asking for his patronage. He be- 
came a foundation member, and was elected 
the first keeper, having rooms assigned to him 
in Somerset House. For this position he 
was well qualified by his powers as a draughts- 
man and knowledge of the human figure, 
while his ability and devotion as a teacher 
gained for him the strong affection of the 
pupils. Moser was greatly esteemed in pri- 
vate life, and enjoyed the friendship of Dr. 
Johnson, Goldsmith, and other literary cele- 
brities of his day. According to Prior, he once 
greatly mortified Goldsmith by stopping him 
in the middle of a vivacious harangue with 
the exclamation, ' Stay, stay ! Toctor Shon- 
son's going to say something ' (Life of Gold- 
smith, ii. 459). He died at Somerset House 
on 24 Jan. 1783, and was buried in the 
churchyard of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
his funeral being attended by almost all his 
fellow-academicians and pupils. On the day 
after Moser's death a notice of him from the 
pen of Sir Joshua Reynolds was published, 
in which he was described as the first gold- 
chaser in the kingdom, possessed of a univer- 
sal knowledge of all branches of painting and 
sculpture, and ' in every sense the father of 
the present race of artists.' In early life he 
had known Hogarth, John Ellys, Rysbrach, 
Vanderbank, and Roubiliac. He left an 
only daughter, Mary, who is noticed sepa- 
rately. Moser appears arranging the model 
in ZofFany's picture at Windsor, ' The Life 
School of the Royal Academy,' engraved 
by Earlom. A good portrait of him, ac- 
companied by his daughter, belongs to Lord 

[Edwards's Anecd. of Painting, 1806; J. T. 
Smith's Nollekens and his Times, 1828; W. 
Sandby's Hist, of the Eoyal Academy, 1862; 
Leslie and Taylor's Life of Sir J. Eeynolds| 
1865; Boswell's Johnson, ed. G-. B. Hill, ii! 
258 n. ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; European Mag 
1803, ii. 83 ; Gent. Mag. 1783, i. 94, 180.] 

F. M. O'D. 

MOSER, JOSEPH (1748-1819), artist, 
author, and magistrate, son of Hans Jacob 
Moser, a Swiss artist, and nephew of George 
Michael Moser [q. v.], was born in Greek 
Street, Soho, in June 1748. He was in- 
structed in enamel painting by his uncle, and 
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1774 
to 1782, and again in 1787, but after his 
marriage to a daughter of Peter Liege, an 
eminent surgeon of Holies Street, Cavendish 
Square, he abandoned the profession, and 
retired into the country. After an absence 
of three years Moser returned to. London and 
devoted himself to literary pursuits. He 
wrote upon the topics of the day in the 
' European Magazine ' and other periodicals, 
and published many political pamphlets, 
dramas, and works of fiction, which enjoyed 
but a temporary popularity. About 1794 he 
was appointed a deputy-lieutenant for Mid- 
dlesex and a magistrate for Westminster, 
sitting first at the Queen's Square court and 
subsequently at Worship Street. This post, 
the duties of which he fulfilled with zeal 
and ability, he held until his death, which 
took place at Romney Terrace, Westminster, 
22 May 1819. Moser's writings included: 
1. ' Adventures of Timothy Twig, Esq., in 
a Series of Poetical Epistles,' 1794. 2. ' Tur- 
kish Tales,' 1794. 3. ' Anecdotes of Richard 
Brothers,' 1795, in which he exposed the pre- 
tensions of that enthusiast and his supporter, 
N. B. Halhed [q. v.] 4. ' Tales and Romances 
of Ancient and Modern Times,' 5 vols. 1808. 
He also wrote several slight dramatic pieces 
of little merit; they are enumerated in 
Baker's 'Biographia Dramatica.' Four seem 
to have been published, but none are in the 
British Museum Library. A memoir of Moser, 
with a portrait engraved by W. Ridley from 
a picture by S. Drummond, appeared in the 
' European Magazine,' August 1803. 

[European Mag. 1803, ii. 83; Gent. Mag. 1819, 
i. 653 ; Baker's Biog. Dram. i. 527 ; Eoyal Aca- 
demy Catalogues ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.] 

F. M. O'D. 

MOSER, MARY (A 1819), flower painter, 
was the only child of George Michael Moser 
[q. v.] She received premiums of five 
guineas from the Society of Arts in 1758 
and 1759, and exhibited with the Society 
of Artists from 1760 to 1768. Though ex- 
tremely near-sighted, Miss Moser became 
celebrated for her pictures of flowers, which 
were gracefully and harmoniously composed 
and highly finished. She was much patro- 
nised by Queen Charlotte, who employed her 
to decorate an entire room at Frogmore, 
paying her more than 900/. for the work, 
and throughout her life she was on terms of 


i 79 


intimacy with, the princesses. When the 
Royal Academy was established, Miss Moser 
was chosen a foundation member, and fre- 
quently contributed to its exhibitions up to 
1802, sending chiefly flowers, but occasion- 
ally a classical or historical subject. She was 
a clever and agreeable woman, and some 
lively letters from her have been printed, one 
of them addressed to Fuseli, for whom she is 
believed to have formed an unrequited at- 
tachment. On 26 Oct. 1793 Miss Moser 
married, as his second wife, Captain Hugh 
Lloyd of Chelsea, and afterwards only prac- 
tised as an amateur. In 1805, when West 
was re-elected president of the Royal 
Academy, the only dissentient voice was 
that of Fuseli, who gave his vote for Mrs. 
Lloyd, justifying himself with the charac- 
teristic remark that he thought ' one old 
woman as good as another.' Surviving her 
husband several years, Mrs. Lloyd died in 
Upper Thornhaugh Street, London, on 2 May 
1819, and was buried at Kensington. Her 
will, of which she appointed Joseph Nolle- 
kens [q. v.] and her cousin Joseph Moser 
[q. v.] the executors, is printed at length in 
Smith's ' Nollekens and his Times.' Portraits 
of Mrs. Lloyd and Angelica Kauffmann, the 
only two ladies ever elected royal academi- 
cians, appear as pictures on the wall in 
Zoffany's 'Life School of the Royal Aca- 
demy,' engraved by Earlom. 

[W. Sandby's Hist, of the Eoyal Academy ; 
J. T. Smith's Nollekens and his Times ; Grent. 
Mag. 1793, ii. 957, 1819 i. 492'; Knowles's Life of 
Fuseli ; Eoyal Acad. Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

MOSES, HENRY (1782P-1870), en- 
graver, worked throughout the first half of 
the present century, enjoying a great repu- 
tation for his outline plates, which are dis- 
tinguished for the purity and correctness of 
the drawing. His art was peculiarly suited 
to the representation of sculpture and anti- 
quities, and he published many sets of plates 
of that class ; he was one of the engravers 
employed upon the official publication ' An- 
cient Marbles in the British Museum,' 1812- 
1845. Of the works wholly executed by him- 
self the most important are : ' The Gallery 
of Pictures painted by Benjamin West,' 
12 plates, 1811 ; ' A Collection of Antique 
Vases, Altars, &c., from various Museums 
and Collections,' 170 plates, 1814 ; ' Select 
Greek and Roman Antiquities,' 36 plates, 
1817 ; ' Vases from the Collection of Sir 
Henry Englefield,' 40 plates, 1819 ; ' Exam- 
ples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architec- 
ture, drawn by L. Vulliamy,' 36 plates, 
1823 ; illustrations to Goethe's ' Faust,' after 
Retzsch, 26 plates, 1821; illustrations to 

Schiller's 'Fridolin' and 'Fight with the 
Dragon,' 1824 and 1825 ; Noehden's 'Speci- 
mens of Ancient Coins of Magna Graecia and 
Sicily,' 24 stipple plates, 1826 ; ' Works of 
Canova,' with text by Countess Albrizzi, 
3 vols. 1824-8 ; and ' Selections of Ornamen- 
tal Sculpture from the Louvre,' 9 plates, 
1828. Moses also contributed many of the 
illustrations to Hakewill's ' Tour of Italy,' 
1820, and ' Woburn Abbey Marbles,' 1822 ; 
he etched from his own designs ' Picturesque 
Views of Ramsgate,' 23 plates, 1817 ; 
' Sketches of Shipping ' and ' Marine Sketch 
Book,' 1824 (reissued by Ackermann, 1837); 
and ' Visit of William IV, when Duke of 
Clarence, to Portsmouth in 1827,' 17 plates, 
1830. Moses's latest work was a set of 
twenty-two illustrations to ' Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress,' after H. C. Selous, executed for the 
Art Union of London, 1844. He died at 
Cowley, Middlesex, 28 Feb. 1870. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's Collec- 
tions in British Museum, Add. MS. 33403 ; 
Universal Cat. of Books on Art.] F. M. O'D. 

MOSES, WILLIAM (1623 P-1688), ser- 
jeant-at-law, son of John Moses, merchant 
tailor, was born in the parish of St. Saviour, 
Southwark, about 1623. On 28 March 1632, 
being ' of nine years,' he was admitted 
to Christ's Hospital, and proceeded in 1639 
as an exhibitioner to Pembroke Hall, now 
Pembroke College, Cambridge,whence he gra- 
duated M.A. Early in 1655 he was elected 
master of Pembroke by the unanimous vote of 
the fellows. Benjamin Laney [q. v.] had been 
ejected from the mastership in March 1644, 
and the post had been successively held by 
Richard Vines and Sydrach Simpson. Crom- 
well demurred to the appointment of Moses, 
having designed another for the post, but on 
representation made of the services of Moses 
to the college, he withdrew his previous 
mandate. Moses was an admirable admini- 
strator, securing for his college the posses- 
sion of the benefactions of Sir Robert Hitcham 
[q. v.], and rebuilding much of the fabric. 
He ' outwitted ' Cromwell by proceeding to 
the election to a vacant post, in advance of 
the expected arrival of Cromwell's nomina- 

At the Restoration Laney was reinstated. 
Moses was not in orders, and was disinclined 
to enter the ministry of the established church, 
though he was averse from presbyterianism 
and in favour of moderate episcopacy. His 
deeply religious mind was cast in a puritan 
mould ; he ascribes his lasting religious im- 
pressions to the 'Institutions' of William 
Bucanus, which he read at Christ's Hospital in 
the English version by Robert Hill (d. 1623) 





fa. v.] Baxter was very desirous to hav 
him appointed as one of the commissioner 
(25 March 1661) to the Savoy conference 
but ' could not prevail.' His own health ha< 
led Moses to have some practical acquain 
tance with medicine, and he was the frienc 
of several leading physicians. But afte 
hesitating as to his future vocation he turne 
to the law, and became counsel to the Eas 
India Company. He was 'a very quick an 
ready man.' Charles II took particula 
notice of him when he pleaded for the com 
pany before the privy council. The lor 
chancellor, Heneage Finch, first earl of Not 
tingham [q. v.], said that had he taken earlie 
to law he would easily have been at thi 
head of his profession. He saved his colleg< 
' some hundred of pounds in a law affair. 
He was made serjeant-at-law on 11 June 
1688; died 'a rich batchellor' in the sam 
year, and left considerable benefactions to 
his college. A short Latin poem by him is in- 
cluded in ' Academiae Cantabrigiensis Swo-rpa, 
&c., Cambridge, 1660, 4to, a congratulatory 
collection on the restoration of Charles II. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 83; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, i. 115; Reliquiae Baxteriange, 
1696, ii. 337; Chronica Juridicalia. 1739, App. 
p. 3 ; extracts from the Christ's Hospital Register 
of Exhibitioners, and from a manuscript Latin 
life of Moses by William Sampson, kindly fur- 
nished by the master of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge.] A. a. 

1892), spiritualist, born in 1840, was eldest 
son of William Stainton Moses of Dorring- 
ton, Lincolnshire. He was educated at Bed- 
ford and Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
matriculated on 25 May 1858, graduated 
B.A. in 1863, and proceeded M.A. in 1865. 
He took holy orders, and was curate of 
Maughold in the Isle of Man from 1863 to 
1868, and assistant chaplain of St. George's, 
Douglas, from 1868 to 1872, when he became 
interested in spiritualism, and resigned his 
cure for the post of English master at Uni- 
versity College School. This office he held 
until 1890, when ill-health compelled his 
resignation. During his residence in London 
he devoted his leisure almost entirely to the 
exploration of the mysteries of spiritualism, 
to which he became a convert. He was one 
of the founders of the London Spiritualist 
Alliance, an active member and one of the 
vice-presidents of the Society for Psychical 
Research, a frequent contributor to ' Human 
Nature' and to 'Light,' and for some years 
editor of the latter journal. He died on 
5 Sept. 1892. 

Moses was a ' medium,' and conceived him- 
self to be the recipient of spiritual revela- 

tions, which he published under the title of 
' Spirit Teachings,' London, 1883, 8vo. He 
also wrote, under the disguised name ' M.A. 
Oxon.,' the following : 1. ' Carpenterian Cri- 
ticism, being a Reply to an Article by Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter/London, 1877, 8vo. 2. <Psy- 
chography, or a Treatise on the Objective 
Forms of Psychic or Spiritual Phenomena/ 
London, 1878, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1882. 3. ' Spirit 
Identity,' London, 1879, 8vo. 4. ' Higher 
Aspects of Spiritualism,' London, 1880, 8vo. 
5. ' Spiritualism at the Church Congress/ 
London, 1881, 8vo. Moses also contributed 
introductions to ' Ghostly Visitors,' published 
under the pseudonym ' Spectre-Stricken/ 
London, 1882, 8vo, and William Gregory's 
'Animal Magnetism/ London, 1884, 8vo. 

[Light, 10 Sept. 1892 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Clergy List, 1867 ; Univ. Coll. Cal. 1872-3, and 
1889-90; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1889; 
Kirk's Suppl. to Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; 
Proceedings of the Soc. of Psychical Research.] 

J. M. E. 

MOSLEY. [See also MOSELEY.] 

MOSLEY, CHARLES (d. 1770?), en- 
graver, worked during the second quarter of 
the eighteenth century. He was much en- 
gaged upon book illustrations, and was em- 
ployed by Hogarth, whom he assisted in his 
' Gate of Calais/ 1749. Mosley's best plates 
are his portraits, which include Charles I on 
dorseback, after Vandyck ; Nicholas Saun- 
derson, after Gravelot ; George Whitefield, 
after J. Smith ; Theodore, king of Corsica, 
after Paulicino, 1739 ; Marshal Belleisle on 
lorseback, and Mrs. Clive as the Lady in 
Lethe/ 1750. He also engraved ' The Pro- 
ession of the Flitch of Bacon at Dunmow/ 
1752, after David Ogborne ; ' The Shooting 
of Three Highlanders in the Tower/ 1743; 
and, from his own designs, some popular 
satirical prints, dated 1739 and 1740. Mosley 
s said to have died about 1770. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Huber and Mar- 
ini's Manuel des Curieux, &c., 1808 ; Dodd's 
manuscript Hist, of English Engravers in British 
Museum, Add. MS. 33403.] F. M. O'D. 

MOSLEY, NICHOLAS (1611-1672), 
author, son of Oswald Mosley and his wife 
Anne, daughter of Ralph Lowe, was born at 
Ancoats Hall, Manchester, in 1611 (bap- 
ised at the collegiate church 26 Dec.) On 
he outbreak of the civil war he took the 
oyalist side, and his estates were in conse- 
uence confiscated in 1643, but on 18 Aug. 
646 they were restored on his paying a 
eavy fine. In 1653 he published a philo- 
ophical treatise entitled ' <&vxoo-o<j)ia, or 
'atural and Divine Contemplations of the 




Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man' 
(London, Humphrey Moseley, 1653, 8vo). 
In 1657-8 he, along with other of his towns- 
men, engaged in a controversial discussion 
with Richard Heyrick [q. v.] and other leaders 
of the Manchester presbyterian classis. At 
the Restoration he mustered the remains of 
an auxiliary band, with whom he headed an 
imposing procession to the Manchester colle- 
giate church on the coronation day, 23 Aug. 
1661. Among other local public offices held 
by him were those of justice of the peace, 
boroughreeve of Manchester (1661-2), and 
feoffee of Chatham's Hospital and Library. 
He married Jane, daughter of John Lever of 
Alkrington, and died at Ancoats in October 
1672, leaving three sons. 

[Sir O. Mosley's Family Memoirs, 1849, p. 36; 
Local Gleanings, 1st ser. i. 248, 254, ii. 194; 
Earwaker's Manchester Court Leet Records, iv. 
282, v. 154 et passim; Manchester Constables 
Accounts, vol. iii. ; Foster's Lancashire Pedi- 
grees ; Commons' Journals, 5 and 12 May 1643.] 

c. w. s. 

MOSLEY, SAMUEL (fl. 1675-1676), 
New England settler, was in 1675 living at 
Boston, Massachusetts, apparently a man of 
repute and substance. Through his marriage 
with a sister of Isaac Addington, afterwards 
secretary of the colony, he was connected 
with most of the principal families of the 

On the outbreak of the war with ' King 
Philip,' the chief of the Narragansett tribes, 
in June 1675, two companies of militia were 
raised by order of the Boston council. Mos- 
ley supplemented this little force by a third 
company of volunteers, or, as they were then 
called, 'privateers,' a term misunderstood by 
later writers, who have denounced Mosley 
as ' a ruffianly old privateer from Jamaica ' 
(DOYLE, ii. 220). There is no evidence to 
connect him either with Jamaica or the sea. 
The ' Philip's war ' came to an end with the 
death of Philip on 12 Aug. 1676 at the hands 
of Captain Benjamin Church, but during the 
year of its continuance many sharp and bloody 
skirmishes were fought, in most of which 
Mosley took a distinguished part, more es- 
pecially in the capture and destruction, on 
19 Dec. 1675, of Canonicut, a fortified en- 
campment to the west of Rhode Island. The 
small army of about a thousand men had 
to march thither some fifteen miles through 
the snow. Mosley and Devonport, a near 
connection of his, led the storming party, and 
the victory was complete, though with the 
loss of Devonport and two hundred killed 
and wounded. But the huts were burnt, and 
when the fight was over there was no shelter 
for the victors. Another terrible march in 

the snow was fatal to a large proportion of 
the wounded. 

Mosley was said by the clergy of the Indian 
missions to be brutal in his treatment of the 
Indians, and especially of the Christian In- 
dians. He is said, for instance, to have made 
an unprovoked raid on a mission at Marl- 
borough, to have plundered and beaten the 
disciples, and to have driven eleven of them, 
including six children, three women, and one 
old man, into Boston (GooxiN, p. 501). But 
another clergyman, not connected with the 
mission, declared that Mosley merely arrested 
at Marlborough eleven Indians who were 
reasonably suspected of murdering a white 
man, his wife, and two children at Lancaster, 
some nine miles off. ' But upon trial [at 
Boston] the said prisoners were all of them 
quitted from the fact' (HTTBBARD, p. 30). 
Mosley is said to be the original hero of the 
story of the man who scared the Indians by 
taking off his wig and hanging it on the 
branch of a tree, in order that he might fight 
more coolly. From the Indian point of view 
a man who could thus play with his scalp 
was an enemy not lightly to be encountered. 
The spelling of his name is taken from a fac- 
simile of his signature given by Winsor 
(i. 313). 

[The Present State of New England, being a 
Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians, 
by W. Hubbard, minister of Ipswich, passim ; 
Gookin's History of the Christian Indians in 
Archseologia Americana, ii. 495 et seq. ; The Me- 
morial History of Boston . . . edited by Justin 
Winsor, i. 311 et seq., ii. 542; J. A. Doyle's 
English in America, the Puritan Colonies, ii. 
220.] J. K. L. 

MOSS, CHARLES (1711-1802), bishop 
successively of St. David's and of Bath and 
Wells, son of William Moss and Sarah his 
wife, was born in 1711, and baptised 3 Jan. of 
that year. The elder Moss farmed a ' pretty 
estate,' inherited from his father, at Post- 
wick, Norfolk (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. iv. 223). 
Charles's paternal uncle was Dr. Robert Moss 
[q. v.], dean of Ely, who at his death in 1729 
bequeathed to him, as ' a promising youth ' 
(z'6.), the bulk of his large property. He had 
already, in 1727, entered Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, as a pensioner, whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1731, and M.A. in 1735, and in the 
latter yearwas elected to a fellowship. Hewas 
brought under the notice of Bishop Sherlock, 
then bishop of Salisbury, whose ' favourite 
chaplain' he became (NEWTON, Autobio- 
graphy, p. 178), and was by him placed on 
the ladder of preferment, which he climbed 
rapidly. In 1738 he was collated to the 
prebend of Warminster in Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, and in 1740 he exchanged it for that of 




Hurstbourne and Burbage. On Sherlock's 
translation to London, in 1748, he accom- 
panied his patron, by whom he was appointed 
archdeacon of Colchester in 1749. From Sher- 
lock also he received in succession the valu- 
able livings of St. Andrew Undershaft, St. 
James's, Piccadilly (1750), and St. George's, 
Hanover Square (1759). In 1744 he de- 
fended Sherlock's ' Tryal of the Witnesses ' 
against the strictures of Thomas Chubb [q. v.], 
in a tract entitled ' The Evidence of the Re- 
surrection cleared from the exceptions of a 
late Pamphlet,' which was reissued in 1749 
under the new title, ' The Sequel of the Trial 
of the Witnesses,' but without other altera- 
tion. He delivered the Boyle lectures for four 
years in succession, 1759-62. The lectures 
were not published (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. vi. 
455). He was consecrated Bishop of St. 
David's, in succession to Robert Lowth [q. v.], 
30 Nov. 1766, and in 1774 was translated to 
Bath and Wells, which see he retained until 
his death in 1802. He was a good average 
prelate, and, we are told, was 'much esteemed 
through his diocese for his urbanity and 
simplicity of manners, and reverenced for his 
piety and learning.' He warmly supported 
Hannah More [q. v.] in the promotion of 
Christian education in the Cheddar Valley, 
her schools being always ' honoured with his 
full sanction ' (RoBEETS, Life of H. More, 
\ii. 40, 136). Almost in the last year of his 
life, when she was threatened with prosecu- 
tion by the farmers, under an obsolete statute, 
for her ' unlicensed schoolmasters,' he invited 
her to dinner at the palace, and ' received 
her with affectionate cordiality ' (ib. p. 102). 
He died at his house in Grosvenor Square, 
13 April 1802, and was buried in Grosvenor 
Chapel, South Audley Street. 

Moss was a fellow of the Royal Society. 
With the exception of the above-mentioned 
reply to Chubb, his only printed works con- 
sisted of one archidiaconal charge, 1764, and 
some occasional sermons. There is a por- 
trait of him in the vestry of St. James's 
Church, Piccadilly. 

Out of a fortune of 140,000^., he bequeathed 
20,000/. to his only daughter, wife of Dr. 
King, and the remaining 120,000/. to his only 
surviving son, DR. CHAELES Moss (1763- 
1811), a graduate of Christ Church, Oxford 
(B.A. 1783 and D.D. 1797), and chaplain of 
the House of Commons in 1789, whom his 
father had appointed archdeacon of Carmar- 
then, January 1767, and archdeacon of St. 
David's in the December of the same year. 
He also gave him the sub-deanery of Wells 
immediately after his translation in 1774, and 
the precentorship in 1799, and three pre- 
bendal stalls in succession ; in 1807 he was 

made bishop of Oxford, and died on 16 Dec. 

[Cassan's Lives of the Bishops of Bath and 
Wells, pp. 175-8 ; Britton's Wells Cathedral, p. 
82 ; Roberts 's Life of Hannah More ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iv. 223, vi. 453.] E. V. 

1862), bibliographer, was born at Dudley, 
Worcestershire, in 1803. He matriculated 
at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 21 March 1820, 
and while an undergraduate developed an 
ardent interest in classical bibliography. He 
graduated B.A. 1825, M.A. 1827, M.B. 1829, 
and settled in practice at Dudley. 

He was elected fellow of the Royal Society 
on 18 Feb. 1830, but published nothing of 
a scientific nature. In 1847 he removed from 
Dudley to Longdon, near Lichfield, and in 
1848 to the Manor House, Upton Bishop, 
near Ross, Herefordshire. In 1853 he again 
removed, to Hill Grove House, Wells, Somer- 
set, where he died 23 May 1862. Towards 
the end of his life he was regarded as an 
eccentric recluse. 

His claim upon posterity rests entirely 
upon his ' Manual of Classical Bibliography,' 
which, he says, was put to press early in 
1823. The work was published in 1825, in 
two volumes, containing upwards of 1250 
closely printed pages ; and, considering the 
extreme youth of the author he was not 
quite one-and-twenty it is a very remark- 
able production. The advertisements declare 
that the ' Manual ' combines the advantages 
of the ' Introduction ' of Thomas Dibdin 
q. v.], the ' Catalogues Raisonnes ' of De 
~ ure, and the ' Manuel ' of Brunet. The 
author claimed to have consulted upwards 
of three thousand volumes, exclusive of innu- 
merable editions and commentaries, to have 
produced a work fuller and more critical than 
the similar works by Michael Maittaire [q. v.], 
Dr. Edward Harwood [q. v.], and Dibdin, 
and to have been the first to include notices 
of critical publications connected with each 
author, together with the literary history of 
the translations made into the principal lan- 
guages of Europe. In spite of very serious 
omissions, both among the editions and the 
translations, of some gross blunders, and of 
a lack of critical insight, the book remains 
a standard work of reference, especially with 
those who study the subsequent depreciation 
in the market value of editions of the classics. 

Favourable reviews of the ' Manual ' ap- 
peared in the ' Literary Chronicle ' (1825), in 
the ' News of Literature ' (1825), and in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1825, Suppl.) On 
the other hand, the ' Literary Gazette ' 
(1825), in three articles, severely attacked 




the book. A detailed reply from Moss was 
subsequently issued with the publishers' ad- 
vertisement, and with the ' Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine' for September' 1825. In it Moss ad- 
mits that he had borrowed the plan of his 
work from Dibdin, and claims, like Adam 
Clarke [q. v.], to have included the whole of 
Harwood's opinions. The 'Literary Maga- 
zine ' published a rejoinder. . 

The ' Manual ' was reprinted, with a new 
title-page, but with no corrections, in 1837, 
by Bohn. A ' Supplement,' compiled by the 
publisher, brings down the lists to 1836, and 
claims to supply omissions. The ' Supple- 
ment' is an indifferent catalogue, in which 
editions already noticed by Moss are wrongly 
included, and opinions of their merits wholly 
at variance with those pronounced by the 
author are quoted. 

Three new works by Moss are announced 
in the reprint, viz., a ' Lexicon Aristoteli- 
cum/ a ' Catalogue Raisonne of the Collec- 
tion of an Amateur,' and an edition of 'Lu- 
cretius ' on an elaborate scale. But, though 
the first two were said to be in the press, none 
of these books appeared. 

[Moss's Manual of Classical Bibliography; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1850, 1862 ; advertisements 
of the Literary Chronicle, 1825; the reviews 
above mentioned ; information communicated.] 

E. 0. M. 

MOSS, EGBERT (1666-1729), dean of 
Ely, eldest son of Robert and Mary Moss, was 
born at Gillingham in Norfolk in 1666 (so 
Masters ; the ' Life ' prefixed to his collected 
sermons says ' about 1667 '). His father was 
a country gentleman in good circumstances, 
living at Postwick in the same county. After 
being educated at Norwich school he was 
admitted a sizar of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, 19 April 1682, at the age of six- 
teen. He graduated in due course B. A. 1685, 
M.A. 1688, B.D. 1696, D.D. 1705. Soon after 
his first degree he was elected to a fellowship 
at his college. He was ordained deacon in 
1688, and priest in 1690. In 1693 he was 
appointed by the university to be one of their 
twelve preachers, and his sermons at St. 
Mary's are said to have been much frequented. 
After missing by a few votes an appointment 
to the office of public orator at Cambridge 
in 1698, he was chosen preacher of Gray's 
Inn on 11 July of that year, in succession 
to Dr. Richardson, master of Peterhouse. In 
December 1716 he was allowed to nominate 
Dr. Thomas Gooch, master of Caius College, 
as his deputy in this office. Early in 1699 he 
was elected assistant-preacher at St. James's, 
Westminster, and was successively chaplain 
in ordinary to William III, Anne, and 

George I. In 1708 the parishioners of St. 
Lawrence Jewry offered him their Tuesday 
lectureship, which he accepted, succeeding 
Dr. Stanhope, then made dean of Canter- 

Moss's preferments were now so numerous 
that the master of his college, Dr. Greene, 
was of opinion that his fellowship was vir- 
tually rendered void. A long and somewhat 
undignified controversy followed between 
Moss and the master, in which it was alleged 
that the total value of the church prefer- 
ments held by Moss, 240/. in all, was equiva- 
lent to six fellowships. The master, however, 
did not proceed to extremities, and Moss re- 
tained his fellowship till 1714 (the corre- 
spondence is in Addit. MS. 10125). 

In 1708, or soon afterwards, he was col- 
lated to the rectory of Gedelstone or Gilston, 
Hertfordshire ; and on 16 May 1713 was in- 
stalled dean of Ely. After suffering much 
from gout, he died 26 March 1729, and was 
buried in his own cathedral, where a Latin 
inscription with his arms (ermine, a cross 
patee) marks his resting-place. He had mar- 
ried a Mrs. Hinton of Cambridge, who sur- 
vived him, but he left no issue. The bulk of 
his fortune, after deducting a small endow- 
ment for a sizarship at Caius College, was be- 
queathed to one of his nephews, Charles Moss 
[q. v.], bishop of Bath and Wells. 

Moss is described as an excellent preacher 
and a kind and loyal friend. His sermons 
were collected and published in 1736, in 
8 vols. 8vo, with a biographical preface by 
Dr. Zachary Grey [q. v.], who had married 
one of his step-daughters. An engraved por- 
trait of the author by Vertue is prefixed. 

[Masters's Hist, of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, 1753, pp. 347-9; Life, by Dr. Z. 
Grey ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iv. 
152; Cole's MSS. vol. xxx. fol. 166, &c.; Addit. 
MS. 10125.] J. H. L. 

MOSS, THOMAS (d. 1808), poet, received 
his education at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1761 
(Graduati Cantabr. 1823, p. 332). Taking 
holy orders he became minister of Trentham, 
Staffordshire, and he was afterwards for many 
years minister of Brinley Hill Chapel in Wor- 
cestershire, and perpetual curate of Brierley 
Hill Chapel in the parish of Kingswinford, 
Staffordshire. He died at Stourbridge, Wor- 
cestershire, on 6 Dec. 1808. 

He published anonymously 'Poems on 
several Occasions,' Wolverhampton, 1769, 
4to, pp. 61. In an ' advertisement ' to this 
small volume it is stated that most of the 
poems were written when the author was 
about twenty. The first piece is the pathetic 




and popular ' Beggar's Petition,' beginning 
with the line 'Pity the sorrows of a poor 
old man.' A Latin translation of this 
poem, ' Mendici Supplicatio,' was published 
by William Humphries, ' in schola paterna 
de Baldock, alumnus,' London, 1790, 8vo, 
together with a Latin version of Goldsmith's 
'Deserted Village.' Moss also published some 
occasional sermons and ' The Imperfection 
of Human Enjoyments,' a poem in blank 
verse, London, 1783, 4to. 

[Chambers' s Worcestershire Biog. p. 541 ; 
Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge, ii. 379 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Gent. Mag. November 1790, 
p. 972, September 1791, p. 852, December 1808, 
p. 1133; Lowndes's Bibl.Man. (Bohn), p. 1622.] 

T. C. 

1759), philanthropist, born in 1712, was son 
ol Thomas Mosse, rector of Maryborough, 
Queen's County. He was apprenticed to 
John Stone, a Dublin surgeon, and received 
a license to practise on 12 July 1733. In 
1738 he was employed by the government 
to take charge of the men drafted from Ire- 
land to complete the regiments in Minorca. 
Wishing to perfect himself in surgery and 
midwifery by intercourse with the prac- 
titioners of other countries, he subsequently 
travelled through England, France, Holland, 
and other parts of Europe. At length he 
settled in Dublin, and, having obtained a 
license in midwifery, he quitted the practice 
of surgery. 

Struck by the misery of the poor lying-in 
women of Dublin, Mosse determined to esta- 
blish a hospital for their relief. With the 
assistance of a few friends he rented a large 
house in George's Lane, which he furnished 
with beds and other necessaries, and opened 
it on 15 March 1745. This institution is said 
to have been the first of its kind in Great 
Britain. Encouraged by its usefulness, 
Mosse, on his own responsibility, took a large 
plot of ground on the north side of Dublin, 
and, with only 5001. in hand, set about the 
erection of the present Rotunda Hospital on 
the plans of Richard Cassels [q. v.] The 
foundation-stone was laid by the lord mayor 
on 24 May ( = 4 June) 1751. By subscrip- 
tions, parliamentary grants, and the proceeds 
of concerts, dramatic performances, and lot- 
teries, the work was pushed on ; and the in- 
stitution was opened for the reception of 
patients on 8 Dec. 1757, having been incor- 
porated by charter dated 2 Dec. 1756. Parlia- 
ment on 11 Nov. 1757 granted 6,0001. to the 
hospital and 2,000/. to Mosse as a reward for 
his exertions. The house in George's Lane 
was now closed. 

Mosse also formed a scheme, which was 

partly executed, for nursing, clothing, and 
maintaining all the children born in the 
hospital, whose parents consented to entrust 
them to his care. A technical school was 
to be opened and provided with able pro- 
testant masters, and lie intended to establish a 
hardware manufactory in connection with it. 

Mosse's philanthropic schemes involved 
him in debt and subjected him to much 
malicious misrepresentation. Worn out by 
his exertions he died at the house of Alder- 
man Peter Barre at Cullenswood, near Dub- 
lin, on 16 Feb. 1759, and was buried at 
Donnybrook. By his wife Jane, daughter of 
Charles Whittingham, archdeacon of Dublin, 
he left two children. After his death par- 
liament granted at various times 9,000/. to 
the hospital, and 2,500/. to Mrs. Mosse for the 
maintenance of herself and her children. 

Mosse's portrait was presented by William 
Monck Mason [q. v.] to the hospital in No- 
vember 1833, and now hangs in the board- 
room ; it has been engraved by Duncan. A 
plaster bust of Mosse, probably by Van Nost, 
stands in the hall. Mosse has been erro- 
neously styled ' M.D.' 

[Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, 
ii. 565-96 (with portrait) ; Warburton, White- 
law, and Walsh's Hist, of Dublin, vol. ii. ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography.] G. G. 

MOSSE or MOSES, MILES (/.1580- 
1614), divine, educated at Cambridge Univer- 
sity, proceeded D.D. between 1595 and 1603. 
About 1580 he became a minister at Norwich, 
where John, earl of Mar, and other Scottish 
nobles were afterwards among his congrega- 
tion. ' It was my hap,' he says, ' through their 
honourable favour often to be present with 
some of them while they lay in the city of 
Norwich. There they many times partaked 
my publique ministry and I their private exer- 
cises ' (Scotland's Welcome, 1603, p. 64). He 
afterwards became pastor of Combes, Suffolk. 
He published 1. 'A Catechism,' 1590, which 
is now only known by an answer by Thomas 
Rogers [q. v.], entitled, ' Miles Christianus : a 
Defence . . . written against an Epistle pre- 
fixed to a Catechism made by Miles Moses,' 
London, 1590, 4to. 2. 'The Arraignment 
and Conviction of Vsury,' &c., London, 8vo, 
1595 : sermons, preached at St. Edmunds- 
bury, and directed against the growth of 
usury. Mosse shows great familiarity with 
the Canonist writers, and well represents 
the views of the clergy on usury at the end 
of the sixteenth century. He appears to 
have been greatly influenced by the teaching 
of Calvin and his school. 3. ' Scotland's 
Welcome,' London, 1603, 8vo ; a sermon 
preached at Needham, Suffolk, and dedicated 




to John, earl of Mar. 4. 'Justifying and 
Saving Faith distinguished from the Faith 
of the Devils in a Sermon preached at Pauls 
Crosse, in London, 9 May 1613,' contains an 
account of the death of Queen Elizabeth 
(p. 77). 

[Strype's Life of Whitgift, ii. 468 ; Ashley's 
Economic History, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 469. Mosse's 
autograph is in the Tanner MSS. (Bodleian Li- 
brary), cclxxxiii. 69 ; Davy's manuscript Athense 
Suffolc. in Brit. Mus. i. 279.] W. A. S. H. 

MOSSES, ALEXANDER (1793-1837), 
artist, born in 1793, was the son of a Liver- 
pool tradesman. At an early age he showed 
a talent for drawing, but he had no instruc- 
tion in art. He became nevertheless a mas- 
terly draughtsman and colourist. In the ex- 
hibition of the Liverpool Academy for 1811 
he is represented by a ' View of Birkenhead 
Priory,' and in the following years by land- 
scapes and figure pictures. In the catalogue 
of 1827 his name appears as ' Master of the 
Drawing Academy, and he is represented by 
twelve works, among them the portraits of 
Edward Rushton, now hanging in the magis- 
trates' room at the police office, Dale Street ; 
of George Lyon, of William Swainson, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., and of Thomas Stewart Trail, 
M.D., president of the Liverpool Royal In- 
stitution, now in the Liverpool Institute. In 
1829 he exhibited ' Christ's Agony in the 
Garden,' and ' The Expulsion from Para- 
dise.' In 1831 he exhibited five pictures, the 
chief of which was the full-length portrait 
of Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) Branker, 
mayor of Liverpool. This excellent work is 
in the town-hall, Liverpool. In 1836 he 
exhibited a fine portrait of Dr. Rutter, now 
in the Royal Institution, Liverpool. He also 
painted the portrait of the Rev. John Yates 
of Liverpool, which was engraved by F. 
Engleheart. His only exhibit at the Royal 
Academy was in 1820, 'Dhama Rama and 
Munhi Rathama, two Budhist Priests from 
the Island of Ceylon.' 

Mosses also practised as a teacher of draw- 
ing, among other places, at the Liverpool 
Royal Institution. One of his pupils there, 
William Daniels, rose to some note as an 
artist in Liverpool. A picture by Mosses, 
of blind Howard, a well-known inmate of 
the Blind Asylum, and his children, was 
engraved ; another of a butcher lad, showing 
the town of Liverpool in the distance, was 
engraved on steel by H. Robinson. He died 
at his house, 18 Pleasant Street, Liverpool, 
14 July 1837, leaving a widow and two sons. 
A portrait by himself, and a bust of him by 
Lyon, are in the possession of his grandson, 
his only living descendant. He is represented 

in the permanent collection in the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool, by a fine portrait 
of William Ewart, father of William Ewart, 
M.P. for Liverpool. This was presented in 
1873 by Mr. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. 

[Liverpool Lantern, 15 Jan. 1881; Liverpool 
Mercury, 21 July 1837; Liverpool Exhibition 
Catalogues ; informationsupplied by Mrs. Bridger 
and Mr. Thomas Formby.] A. N. 

MOSSMAN, GEORGE, M.D. (fl. 1800), 
medical writer, practised as a physician at 
Bradford, Yorkshire. On 6 July 1792 he 
married there a Miss Ramsbotham (Gent. 
May. 1792, pt. ii. p. 672). A marriage of 
Dr. Mossman, physician of Bradford, to Mrs. 
Ramsbottom of Barwick-in-Elmet, York- 
shire, is also recorded in 1812 (ib. 1812, pt. 
ii. p. 586). 

Mossman wrote : 1. ' Observations on the 
Brunonian Practice of Physic : including a 
Reply to an anonymous Publication repro- 
bating the Use of Stimulants in Fevers,' 8vo r 
London, 1788. 2. ' An Essay to elucidate 
the Nature, Origin, and Connexion of Sro- 
phula [sic] and glandular Consumption ; in- 
cluding a brief History of the Effects of 
Ilkley Spaw ; with Observation on the Me- 
dicinal Powers of the Digitalis,' &c., 8vo r 
Bradford [1792 ?] (another edit., London,. 
1800). He contributed four papers to Dun- 
can's ' Annals of Medicine,' 1797 and 1799 
(ii. 298, 307, 413, iv. 432), a paper in the 
' Medical Repository' (i. 577), and numerous- 
papers on the effects of digitalis in con- 
sumption to the ' Medical and Physical 

[Reuss's Eegister of Authors; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] G-. a. 


(1826-1885), divine, born in 1826, eldest son 
of Robert Hume Mossman of Skipton, York- 
shire, matriculated from St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, on 17 Dec. 1845, and while an un- 
dergraduate became an adherent of the Ox- 
ford movement. He graduated B.A. in 1849, 
was ordained deacon in that year, and took 
priest's orders in 1850. He became curate 
of Donington-on-Bain in 1849, curate of 
Panton in 1852, vicar of Ranby, Lincoln- 
shire, in 1854, and rector of East Torrington 
and vicar of West Torrington, near Wragby, 
in the same county, in 1859. He received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from the Uni- 
versity of the South, U.S.A., in 1881. Be- 
coming prominent among the leaders of the- 
extreme ritualistic party, he waged incessant 
war with protestant principles. He was a 
member of the Order of Corporate Reunion, 
and it is said that he was one of its pre- 
lates, assuming the title of bishop of Selby 


1 86 


(Church Times, 10 July 1885, p. 531). Dur- 
ing his last illness lie was received into the 
Roman catholic church by his old friend, 
Cardinal Manning. He died at his rectory 
on 6 July 1885. He had previously taken 
steps to resign his rectory, but the necessary 
legal formalities were not completed. 

His works are : 1. ' A Glossary of the prin- 
cipal Words used in a Figurative, Typical, 
or Mystical Sense in the Holy Scriptures/ 
London, 1854, 18mo. 2. ' Sermons,' London, 
1857, 12mo. 3. 'Ritualism in its Relation 
to Reunion,' in ' Essays on the Reunion of 
Christendom,' edited by F. G. Lee, D.D., 
1867. 4. ' The Primacy of St. Peter. A 
Translation of Cornelius a Lapide upon St. 
Matthew, xvi. 17-19, and St. John xxi. 15- 
17,' London [1870], 8vo. 5. A translation of 
the ' Speculum Spirituale ' by Blosius. 6. ' A 
History of the Catholic Church of Jesus 
Christ from the Death of St. John to the 
middle of the Second Century,' London, 1873, 
8vo. 7. ' Epiphanius ; the History of his 
Childhood and Youth, told by himself. A 
Tale of the Early Church,' London [1874], 
8vo. 8. 'A Reply to Professor Tyndall's 
Lucretian,' London, 1875, 8vo. 9. ' Free- 
dom for the Church of God ; an ... Appeal 
to my High Church Brethren,' London, 1876, 
8vo. 10. ' The Great Commentary of Cor- 
nelius a Lapide, translated . . . with the as- 
sistance of various scholars,' vol. i. (Matt, 
i-ix) London, 1876, 8vo, vol. ii. (Matt, x-xxi) 
1876, vol. iii. (Matt, xxii-xxviii, and St. 
Mark's Gospel complete), 1881, vol. iv. (John 
i-xi), 1886, vol. v (John xii-xxi, and Epistles 
i. ii. and iii.) 1886. 11.' The Relations which 
at present exist between Church and State 
in England. A Letter to the Right Hon. 
W. E. Gladstone,' London [1883], 8vo. 12. ' A 
Latin Letter (with an English translation) 
to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII,' London, 

1884, 8vo. 

[Church Times, 17 July 1 885, p. 555 ; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory, 1885, p. 855 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 992; Lincolnshire 
Chron. 10 July 1885, p. 5, col. 7 ; Tablet, 18 July 

1885, p. 103.] T. C. 

MOSSOM, ROBERT (d. 1679), bishop 
of Derry, a native of Lincolnshire, entered 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, on 2 June 
1631, but two months later migrated to Peter- 
house, where he was admitted a sizar on 
9 Aug., and where he was a fellow student 
with Richard Crashaw and Joseph Beau- 
mont, afterwards master of the college. He 
graduated B.A. in 1634 and M.A. in 1638. 
In 1642 he was officiating at York as an 
army chaplain under Sir Thomas Glemham, 
and about this time he married a Miss Eland 

of Bedale. Subsequently, for at least five 
years (1650-5), during the interregnum, he 
publicly preached at St. Peter's, Paul's 
Wharf, London, where, notwithstanding the 
prohibition of the law, he used the Book of 
Common Prayer, and administered the holy 
communion monthly. This brought a great 
concourse of nobility and gentry to the 
church. After he had been silenced Mossom 
maintained himself by 'keeping a school. 

With the Restoration came honour and 
preferment. By his majesty's letters manda- 
tory, dated 21 July 1660, Mossom was on the 
following 5 Sept created D.D. at Cambridge, 
and on 20 Sept. in the same year he was col- 
lated to the prebend of Knaresborough-cum- 
Bickhill in the church of York. The original 
letter of Charles II appointing him dean of 
Christ Church, Dublin, is dated 25 Sept. 1 660, 
and he was installed 2 Feb. 1660-1. By 
patent dated 13 Nov. 1660 he was presented 
by the crown to the precentorship of St. 
Patrick's, and he was installed on 27 Dec. 
On 21 May 1661 Mossom was elected prolo- 
cutor of the Lower House of Convocation, 
Dublin. He graduated D.D. (adeundem) in 
the university of Dublin, 26 Jan. 1661-2. As 
prolocutor he delivered a congratulatory 
speech before the Duke of Ormonde 29 July 
1662, on his arrival in Ireland as lord-lieu- 
tenant. After the death of George Wild, 
bishop of Derry, 29 Dec. 1665, Mossom was 
promoted to the vacant see. His patent bears 
date 26 March 1666, and he was consecrated 
in Christ Church, Dublin, on 1 April. 
Harris and Cotton erroneously state that he 
held the deanery of Christ Church in com- 
mendam with the bishopric. He died at 
Derry on 21 Dec. 1679, and was buried in 
his cathedral. In 1853 there was a full-sized 
portrait of him at Mount Eland, co. Kil- 
kenny, the seat of Charles Eland Mossom, 

Mossom, who was ' a consistent, uncom- 
promising loyalist, warmly attached to the 
Church of England,' was also ' a good classic 
scholar and deeply versed in theological litera- 
ture.' Sound judgment and clear intelligence 
are conspicuous in his writings. 

His works, excluding separately published 
sermons, are : 1. ' Anti-Parseus, or a Treatise 
in the Defence of the Royall Right of Kings 
[by David Owen], . . . New Translated and 
Published to confinne Men in their Loyalty 
to their King,' York, 1642, 4to. 2. ' The King 
on his Throne : or a Discourse maintaining 
the Dignity of a King, the Duty of a Subject, 
and the unlawfulnesse of Rebellion,' two ser- 
mons preached in York Cathedral, York, 
1643, 4to. 3. ' Sion's Prospect in its First 
View. Presented in a Summary of Divine 




Truths, consenting with the Faith professed 
by the Church of England,' London, 1651, 
4to; again, 1653 and 1711, dedicated to Henry, 
marquis of Dorchester. 4. ' The Preachers 
Tripartite, in Three Books,' London, 1657, 
fol. ; said to have been reprinted in 1685, fol., 
and a privately printed edition issued in 1845, 
8vo, from the Rev. Henry A. Simcoe's Pen- 
heale press, Cornwall (BoASE and COTTKTNEY, 
Bibl. Cornub. p. 651). 5. ' Variae Colloquendi 
Formulae in usum Condiscipulorum in Pa- 
laestra Literaria sub paterno moderamine vires 
Minervales exercenti um, partim collectae, par- 
tim compositae, a Roberto Mossom,' London, 
1659. 6. ' An Apology in the behalf of the 
Sequestred Clergy, Presented to the High 
Court of Parliament,' London, 1660, 4to. Re- 
printed in Lord Somers's ' Tracts,' ii. 158, 
third collection. An anonymous answer ap- 
peared under the title of ' A Plea for Minis- 
ters in Sequestrations : wherein Mr. Mossom's 
Apology for the Sequestered Clergy is duly 
considered and discussed,' London, 1660, 4to. 
7. ' The Copy of a Speech delivered by Dr. 
Mossom, Dean of Christ Church, and Pro- 
locutor of the Lower House of Convocation, 
before the Lord Lieutenant, the 29th of July 
1662 ' (cf. KENNETT, Register and Chron. 
p. 733). 

[Cotton's Fasti, iii. 11, 319, v. 90, 255 ; Da- 
vies's York Press, p. 63 ; Evelyn's Diary ; Ken- 
nett's Eegister and Chronicle ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
ed. Hardy, iii. 193 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 
527; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 33, 34; Palatine 
Note-Book, i. 147, 203 ; ii. 12, 60; Pepys's Diary, 
ed. Bright, i. 49, 73, 143; Ware's Bishops, 
ed. Harris, p. 295 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 721, 1143, 1172, iv. 830, Fasti, i. 328, 
ii. 38, 88 ; Worthington's Diary, i. 307.] 

T. C. 

MOSSOP, HENRY (1729P-1774P), ac- 
tor, was son of John Mossop, M.A., of Trinity 
College, Dublin, who was collated to the 
prebend of Kilmeen, Tuam, on 10 Aug. 1737, 
and died in 1759 ( COTTON, Fasti Eccles. Hib. 
iv. 43). As a boy Mossop stayed in Dublin 
with his uncle, a bookseller, went to a gram- 
mar school in Digges Street, and, with a view 
to entering the church, proceeded to Trinity 
College. Refused, on a visit to London, en- 
gagements on the stage by Garrick, and by 
Rich of Covent Garden, who both discouraged 
him from attempting to become an actor, 
he went, on the introduction of Francis 
Gentleman [q. v.], to Sheridan, by whom he 
was engaged for Smock Alley Theatre, Dub- 
lin, where he appeared, 28 Nov. 1749, as 
Zanga in the ' Revenge.' Though awkward in 
manner and unpicturesque in appearance, he 
displayed an ' astonishing degree of beautiful 
wildness,' which a pit crowded with his friends 

and fellow-students warmly recognised. Dur- 
ing the season he played Cassius, Polydore 
in the ' Orphan,' Glo'ster in ' Jane Shore,' and 
Ribemont in the ' Black Prince,' and in the 
following season he appeared as Richard III, 
dressed in white satin, ' puckered.' Hearing 
that his manager had condemned the dress as 
coxcombical, he sought him in his dressing- 
room, and, with the curiously pedantic and 
staccato delivery he retained until the last, 
said, ' Mr. She-ri-dan, I hear you said that I 
dressed Richard like a cox-comb that is an 
af-front. You wear a sword, pull it out of 
the scabbard I'll draw mine and thrust it 
into your bo-dy.' Sheridan smiled, and the 
explosion had no result ; but Mossop, turbu- 
lent, vain, and unmanageable, soon left the 
theatre for London, where, under Garrick's 
management, he appeared at Drury Lane as 
Richard III 26 Sept. 1751. His success in 
this part, in which he was held only inferior 
to Garrick, was great. Garrick, not altogether 
pleased with the reception, applauded the 
lines of Taswell, an actor, on Mossop and 
Ross, another debutant : 

The Templars they cry Mossop, 
The ladies they cry Ross up,. ,\ 
But which is the best is a toss-iip. ^v. 

Garrick, after his wont, gave him every 
chance, and Mossop during this and the three 
following seasons played Bajazet, Horatio in 
the ' Fair Penitent,' Theseus in ' Phsedra and 
Hippolitus,' Orestes, Macbeth, Othello, Wol- 
sey, Pierre, Comus, Dumont, King John, 
Coriolanus, Duke in ' Measure for Measure/ 
and other leading parts. He was the original 
Lewson in the ' Gambler,' 7 Feb. 1753 ; Per- 
seus in Young's ' Brothers,' 3 March 1753 ; 
^Enobarbus in Glover's ' Boadicea,' 1 Dec. 
1753 ; Appius in Crisp's ' Virginius,' 25 Feb. 
1754 ; Phorbas in Whitehead's ' Creusa,' 
20 April 1754 ; and Barbarossa in Brown's 
' Barbarossa,' 17 Dec. 1754. Coriolanus and 
Barbarossa were held his great parts. On 
revisiting Smock Alley Theatre in 1755-6, on 
very advantageous terms, he chose Achmet 
in ' Barbarossa,' for which he was unsuited. 
On 21 Sept. 1756 he reappeared at Drury 
Lane as Richard, and played also Maskwell in 
the ' Double Dealer,' Osmyn in the ' Mourn- 
ing Bride,' and Cato. In the two following 
seasons he was seen, among many other 
parts, as Prospero, Hamlet, Hastings, and 
sop, and was the original Agis in Home's 
' Agis,' 21 Feb. 1758, and Etan in Murphy's 
' Orphan of China,' 21 April 1759. Mossop 
then, having accepted an engagement from 
Barry and Woodward for Crow Street Thea- 
tre, Dublin, quitted London permanently. His 
own vanity and ill-temper had been played 




on by Fitzpatrick, a bitter enemy of Garrick 
and* a would-be arbiter of the stage [see 
GAKRICK, DAVID], and Mossop came to look 
upon himself as oppressed and injured. His 
reception at Crow Street was enthusiastic, 
and he added to his repertory Ventidius, lago, 
and Kitely. Mossop and Barry formed an 
eminently popular combination. A further 
engagement was offered, on terms beyond 
precedent. Mossop declined, however, and 
announced his intention to open on his own 
account Smock Alley Theatre, a resolution 
which he carried out to his own ruin and that 
of his rival in Crow Street. Backed up by 
aristocratic patronage Mossop opened his sea- 
son (17 Nov. 1760), as soon as the period of 
mourning for the death of George II had 
passed,with ' Venice Preserved,' Mossop play- 
ing Pierre, West Digges Jaffier, and Mrs. 
Bellamy Belvidera. A wild antagonism was 
carried on between the two houses, at which 
the same pieces were frequently played on the 
same night. During this and the following sea- 
son Mossop made a fairly successful struggle, 
engaging Mrs. Fitzhenry, Mrs. Abington, 
Reddish, King, and Tate Wilkinson, but he 
owed his temporary escape from ruin to his 
engagement of an Italian opera company. 
In 1762-3 the receipts at the two houses 
were inadequate to the expenses at one. So 
impoverished was the treasury that actors of 
both sexes with a nominal salary of 51. per 
week only received 61. in as many months, 
and were in want of bread. Such money as 
Mossop received he spent in litigation or 
lost at the gambling-table, while Barry was 
arrested for debt on the stage. Mossop 
held on in a fashion until 1770-1, adding 
to his characters Zamti in the 'Orphan of 
China,' Leon in ' Rule a Wife and have a 
Wife,' Carlos in ' Like Master like Man,' 
Archer in the ' Stratagem,' Belcour in the 
' West Indian,' and very many more cha- 
racters, including, presumably, Brutus, Ti- 
mon of Athens, the Old Bachelor, Lord 
Townly, Chamont, Hotspur, Sempronius, 
and Marcian. Such successes as he obtained 
were principally musical, Ann Catley [q. v.] 
in especial proving a great attraction. 

In 1767-8 the retirement of Barry left 
Mossop without a competitor. He took pos- 
session immediately of both theatres, appear- 
ing as Richard at Crow Street 7 Dec. 1767. In 
the summer of 1769 he visited Cork. A third 
theatre in Capel Street, Dublin, was opened 
in 1776 by Dawson, Mahon, and Wilkes. Un- 
der Mossop's management tragedy had been 
acted at Crow Street, and comedy, rope- 
dancing, &c., at Smock Alley. In 1770 Mos- 
sop resigned Crow Street. Large sums of 
money had been taken and lost, the company 

had received mere driblets of money, and 
Mossop, though the idol of Dublin, found 
himself at times playing with a strong com- 
pany to less than 51. Under the weight 
of troubles, vexations, and debt he broke 
down in health, and solicited public gene- 
rosity for a benefit 17 April 1771, at which 
he was unable to appear. Proceeding to 
London in search of recruits, he was ar- 
rested for debt by one of his company, and 
lodged in the King's Bench, which he only 
quitted as a bankrupt. Benefit followed 
benefit at Smock Alley, and earnest appeals- 
were made to the Dublin world to rescue 
one of the 'best theatrical performers now 
living.' No permanent relief was obtained. 
On recovering his liberty he, with customary 
churlishness and vanity, refused to apply to 
Garrick, saying that Garrick knew he was 
in London, thereby implying that application 
should come from him. All chance of help 
from Garrick was destroyed by the publica- 
tion in 1772 of ' A Letter to David Garrick 
on his Conduct,' written by the Rev. David 
Williams for the purpose of forcing an en- 
gagement from that actor. Negotiations were 
opened with Covent Garden, but Mrs. Barry 
refused to act with Mossop. A year's tour on 
the continent was undertaken with a friend 
named Smith. From this Mossop returned 
emaciated and depressed, and with inadequate 
command of his faculties, and he died in the 
Strand 18 Nov. 1773, or, according to the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' on 27 Dec. 1774, at 
Chelsea, in great poverty (4^. only being 
in his possession), and, as was said, of a 
broken heart. An offer by Garrick to pay for 
his funeral was refused by Mossop's maternal 
uncle, a bencher of the Inner Temple. While 
in management he had borrowed money from 
Garrick, who proved against his estate for 

A portrait of Mossop as Bajazet is men- 
tioned by Bromley ; he was of middle size, 
fairly well formed, with an expressive face 
and an eye of much fire. He had a voice deep 
and loud, not very capable of tenderness, but 
useful in rhetorical passages. A born actor, 
he was unaware of his own limitations, and, 
though without a superior in a part such as- 
the Duke in ' Measure for Measure,' thrust 
himself into parts, such as Archer and Bel- 
cour, for which he had very slight qualifica- 
tions. In amenability to flattery Garrick 
even could not surpass him, and his most 
grievous errors were due to listening to in- 
terested advisers. Mossop wasted his time in 
fashionable society, and lost in gambling the 
money he should have paid to his company. 
The ' Dramatic Censor ' pronounces his Sem- 
pronius and Marcian unsurpassed, Churchill 




taxes him with ' studied impropriety of 
speech.' His syllables are said to have ' fallen 
from him like mi