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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



OWENS PASSELEWE 





ffln 

DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 

SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XLIII. 
OWENS PASSELEWE 



J / A 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1895 






Z8 






LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FORTY-THIRD VOLUME. 



G. A. A. . 
J. G. A. . . 
J. W. A. . . 
W. A. J. A. . 
R. B-L. . . . 
G. F. R. B. . 

M. B 

R.B 

T. B 

C. R. B. . . 
H. E. D. B. 
G. C. B. . . 
T. G. B. . . 

G. S. B. . . 
W. B-T. . . 
W. C-R. . . 

A. C 

H. M. C. . . 

A. M. C. . . 

T. C 

W. P. C. . . 
L. C 

J. A. D. . . 

R. D 

C. H. F. . 



G. A. AlTKEN. 

J. G. ALGER. 
J. W. ALLEN. 
W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 
RICHARD BAGWELL. 
G. F. RUSSELL BARKER. 
Miss BATESON. 
THE REV. RONALD BAYNE. 
THOMAS BAYNE. 
C. R. BEAZLEY. 

THE REV. H. E. D. BLAKISTON. 
G. C. BOASE. 

THE REV. PROFESSOR BONNEY, 
F.R.S. 

G. S. BOULGER. 
MAJOR BROADFOOT. 
WILLIAM CARR. 
ARTHUR GATES. 

THE LATE H. MANNERS CHI- 
CHESTER. 

Miss A. M. CLERKE. 
THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 
W. P. COURTNEY. 
LIONEL CUST, F.S.A. 
J. A. DOYLE. 
ROBERT DUNLOP. 
C. H. FIRTH. 



J. G. F. 

R. G 

J. T. G. . . 

G. G 

A. G 

R. E. G. . . 
J. M. G. . . 
J. C. H. . . 
J. A. H. . . 
C. A. H. . . 
E. G. H. . . 
W. A. S. H. 
G. B. H. . . 
W. H. . . . 
W. H. H. . 
T. B. J. . . 
J. T. K. 



C. K. . . . 
C. L. K. . 
J. K. ... 
J. K. L. . 
T. G. L. . 
E. L. . . . 
S. L. . . . 
R. H. L. . 
E. M. L. . 
J. E. L. . 



J. G. FOTHERINGHAM. 

RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. 

J. T. GILBERT, LL.D., F.S.A. 

GORDON GOODWIN. 

THE REV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

R. E. GRAVES. 

THE LATE J. M. GRAY. 

J. CUTHBERT HADDEN. 

J. A. HAMILTON. 

C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 

E. G. HAWKE. 

W. A. S. HEWINS. 

PROFESSOR G. B. HOWES. 

THE REV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

THE REV. W. H. BUTTON, B.D. 

THE REV. T. B. JOHNSTONE. 

J. TAYLOR KAY. 

CHARLES KENT. 

C. L. KINGSFORD. 

JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

T. G. LAW. 

Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 

SIDNEY LEE. 

ROBIN H. LEGGE. 

COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 

JOHN EDWARD LLOYD. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



J. H. L. . 
W. D. M.. 

E. C. M. . 
L. M. M. . 
A. H. M. . 

C. M. . . . 
N. M. . . . 
G. P. M-Y. 
J. B. M. . 
A. N. . . . 
G. LE G. N. 

D. J. O'D. 

F. M. O'D. 
C. F. E. P. 
W. P-H. . 
C. P-H. . . 
F. S. P. . 
J. F. P. 

C. P 

A. F. P. . 
S. L.-P.. . , 

E. P. . 



. THE EEV. J. H. LUPTON, B.D. 
. THE EEV. W. D. MACBAY. 
, E. C. MARCHANT. 

MlSS MlDDLETON. 

A. H. MILLAR. 

COSMO MONKHODSE. 

, NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 
G. P. MORIARTY. 
J. BASS MULLINGER. 
ALBERT NICHOLSON. 
G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 

D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 
F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 

C. F. E. PALMEB. 

THE LATE WYATT PAPWOBTH. 

CHARLES PARISH. 

F. S. PARRY. 

J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

THE EEV. CHARLES PLATTS. 

A. F. POLLARD, 

STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 

Miss PORTER. 



D'A. P. . . . D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 
E. B. P. . . B. B. PROSSEB. 
J. M. E. . . J. M. EIGG. 

H. E HERBERT Eix. 

C. J. E.. . . THE EEV. C. J. EOBINSON, D.C.L. 

T. S THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

G. G. S. . . G. GREGORY SMITH. 

B. H. S. . . B. H. SOULSBY. 

L. S LESLIE STEPHEN. 

G. S-H. . . . GEORGE STRONACH. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 

H. E. T. . . H. E. TEDDER, F.S.A. 

T. F. T. . . PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

E. V. .... THE LATE EEV. CANON VENABLEP. 

E. H. V. . . COLONEL E. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 

G. W GRAHAM WALLAS. 

W. W. W. . SURGEON-CAPTAIN WEBB. 
C. W-H. . . CHARLES WELCH, F.S.A. 
B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 
W W WARWICK WROTH, F.S.A. 



M, B** * the Li8 ^ f Writ "? in the forty-second volume, the words tJie late should be omitted before the name of 
the BEV. THOMAS OLDEN and inserted before the name of the REV. CANON TENAELES. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Owens 



Owens 



OWENS, JOHN (1790-1846), merchant, 
and founder of Owens College, Manchester, 
the first and for four years the only college 
of the Victoria University, was born in Man- 
chester in 1790. His father, Owen Owens, 
a native of Holywell in Flintshire, went to 
Manchester when a young man, and started 
in business as a hat-lining maker, ultimately 
becoming, with the aid of his son John, currier, 
furrier, manufacturer, and shipper, lie mar- 
ried in his twenty-fifth year Sarah Hum- 
phreys, who was six years older than himself; 
and he died in 1844, aged 80. John was the 
eldest of three children, the other two also 
sons dying in childhood. He was educated 
at a private school (Mr. Hothersall's) in the 
township of Ardwick, Manchester. He was ad- 
mitted early into partnership with his father 
(1817), and the business greatly increased. 
According to his principal clerk, 'he was 
considered one of the best buyers of cotton 
in the Manchester market. A keen man of 
business, it was also his custom to purchase 
calicoes and coarse woollens, which were 
packed on his premises and shipped to China, 
India, the east coast of South America, and 
New York, importing hides, wheat, and other 
produce in return. He opened agencies in 
London and some of the provincial towns, and 
in Philadelphia, U.S. A. He also speculated 
in railway and other shares, and lent money 
on them as security.' Owens's health was deli- 
cate, and he led a private and almost secluded 
life, taking no ostensible part in public ques- 
tions. He had, however, from his youth up- 
ward deeply interested himself in the subject 
of education, and strongly disapproved of all 
university tests. Accordingly, when, towards 
the end of his life, he offered his fortune to his 
friend and old schoolfellow, George Faulkner 
(1790P-1862) [q. v.] (with whom he was 

VOL. XLHI. 



in partnership as a producer of cotton yarns), 
the latter made the generous suggestion that, 
instead of leaving it to a man who had more 
than enough, he should found a college in 
Manchester where his principles might be 
carried out. He died unmarried on '29 July 
1846, at his house, 10 Nelson Street, Chorl- 
ton-upon-Medlock in Manchester, aged 56 
years, and was buried in the churchyard of 
St. John's, Byrom Street, Manchester, where 
the whole family rest. By his will, dated 
31 May 1845, he bequeathed the residue of 
his personal estate (after bequests to rela- 
tives, friends, charities, and servants amount- 
ing to 52,056/.) to certain trustees, ' for the 
foundation of an institution within the par- 
liamentary borough of Manchester, or within 
two miles of any part of the limits thereof, 
for providing or aiding the means of instruct- 
ing and improving young persons of the male 
sex (and being of an age not less than four- 
teen years) in such branches of learning and 
science as are now and may be hereafter 
usually taught in the English universities, 
but subject, nevertheless, to the fundamental 
and immutable rule and condition that 
the students, professors, teachers, and other 
officers and persons connected with the said 
institution shall not be required to make any 
declaration as to, or submit to any test what- 
soever of, their religious opinions ; and that 
nothing shall be introduced in the matter or 
mode of education or instruction in reference 
to any religious or theological subject which 
shall be reasonably offensive to the conscience 
of any student or of his relations, guardians, 
or friends under whose immediate care he 
shall be. ... Subject as aforesaid, the said 
institution shall be open to all applicants for 
admission without respect to place of birth, 
and without distinction of rank or con- 



Owens 



Owtram 



dition in society.' The net amount realised 
from the legacy was 96,6547. 11*. 6d. Ac- 
cordingly Owens College was founded, and 
was opened in 1851. The first premises, which 
were in Quay Street, Deansgate, had formerly 
been the residence of Richard Cobden. They 
were at first let to the college by George 
Faulkner, the first chairman of the trustees, 
and were in 1854 presented by him to the 
institution. In 1871 the Owens College was 
incorporated by act of parliament, and in 
1873 the college was installed in the fine 
buildings in Oxford Street,which were erected 
by public subscription from the designs of 
Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. Owens's 
generous bequest has been largely increased 
by later endowments. 

[Thompson's Owens College, Manchester, 
1886 ; personal information.] J. T. K. 

OWENS, JOHN LENNERG AN (/.1780), 
actor, was born in Ireland, to which country 
his performances seem to have been confined. 
He succeeded Henry Mossop [q. v.] at Smock 
Alley theatre, and was held as Zanga in the 
' Revenge ' to have approached more nearly 
than any other actor of the time to his original. 
All that survives concerning him is a repu- 
tation for persistent inebriety. Coming on 
the stage as Polydore in the ' Orphan,' he was 
bissed for obvious intoxication. Advancing 
to the front of the stage, he delivered with a 
scowl the following words in his soliloquy, 
' Here I'm alone and fit for mischief,' and 
put himself in a fighting attitude. This 
Hibernian form of apology served the desired 
end, and Owens was allowed to finish his 
performance. His failing gradually drove 
him from the stage. On seeing John Kemble 
announced for Zanga, he begged some money 
of a stranger, who asked him his name. To 
this inquiry he answered with tragic solem- 
nity, ' Have six years' cruel absence extin- 
guished majesty so far that nought shines 
here to tell you I'm the real Zanga ? Yes, 
sir, John Lennergan Owens, successor to 
Henry Mossop.' The dates of his birth and 
death are unknown. 

[Thespian Dictionary ; Doran's Annals of the ' 
Stage, ed. Lowe.] J. K. 

OWENS, OWEN (d. 1593), divine. [See 
under OWEN, JOHN, 1580-1651, bishop of 
St. Asaph.] 

OWENSON, ROBERT (1744-1812), ac- 
tor, was born in the barony of Tyrawley, co. 
Mayo, in 1744. His parents were poor 
people named MacOwen, which their son 
afterwards englished into Owenson. He 
was primarily educated at a hedge-school, 
and acted for a short time as steward to a 



neighbouring landowner. Having acquired 
a taste for theatricals, he communicated to 
Oliver Goldsmith his desire to go on the 
stage, and the latter introduced him to Gar- 
rick about 1771. He had a handsome and 
commanding figure and sang well, having" 
received tuition from Worgan and Arne, and 
was quite successful when he appeared in 
the provincial theatres. Of his many parts 
the best was Teague in the ' Committee ' 
and Major OTlaherty in the ' West Indian/ 
and he was already popular when he made 
his London debut at Covent Garden in 1774. 
He was admitted a member of the famous 
' Literary Club ' on Goldsmith's recommen- 
dation, and in 1774 married Jane Mill, the 
daughter of a tradesman of Shrewsbury, 
and a distant relative of the Mills of 
Hawkesley in Shropshire. The first child of 
the marriage was Sydney, the afterwards 
celebrated Lady Morgan [see MORGAN, 
SYDNEY]. Owenson appeared on the Dub- 
lin stage in October 1776, and remained 
there some years, becoming part-proprietor 
of Crow Street Theatre. In 1785, after a 
quarrel with his manager, he opened the 
Fishamble Street Theatre, but returned in 
less than a year. Subsequent attempts to 
carry on theatres at Kilkenny, Londonderry, 
and Sligo were failures, and in 1798 he re- 
tired from the stage. He died in Dublin at 
the house of his son-in-law, Sir Arthur 
Clarke, at the end of May 1812, and was 
buried at Irishtown, outside the city. He 
has been placed only a little lower than John 
Henry Johnstone [q. v.] as an Irish comedian, 
and he was also a capable composer, the 
well-known airs of ' Rory O'More ' and ' My 
Love's the Fairest Creature ' being attributed 
to him. His kindness of heart is illustrated 
by the generosity he extended to Thomas 
Dermody [q.v.] His only literary produc- 
tions are a song preserved in T. C. Croker's 
' Popular Songs of Ireland ' and ' Theatrical 
Fears ' (12mo, Dublin, 1804), a long poem, 
after the manner of the ' Rosciad,' published 
under the signature of ' R. N. O.' 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Thespian Dictionary ; Fitz- 
pa trick's Lady Morgan, 1860; Barrington's Per- 
sonal Sketches, ii. 207 ; O'Keeffe's Recollections, 
i. 354 ; Life of Dermody, 1806.] D. J. O'D. 

OWENSON, Miss SYDNEY (1783?- 
1859), novelist and traveller. [See MORGAN, 
SYDNEY, LADY.] 

OWTRAM, WILLIAM, D.D. (1626- 
1679), divine, son of Robert Owtram, was 
born at Barlow, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, 
on 17 March 1625-6 (Notes and Queries, 7th 
ser. xi. 205). On 13 May 1642 he was ad- 
mitted a sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 



Owtram 

where he graduated B.A. in 164o. He was 
afterwards elected to a fellowship at Christ's 
College, where he graduated M.A. in 1649. 
In 1655 he held the university office of junior 
proctor, and in 1660 he was created D.D. (L,E 
NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 624). His first 
church preferment was in Lincolnshire, and 
he subsequently obtained the rectory of St. 
Mary Woolnoth, London, which he resigned 
in 1666. He stayed in London during the 
plague in 1665 (Addit. MS. 5810, p. 290). On 
30 July 1669 he was installed archdeacon of 
Leicester. On 30 July 1670 he was installed 
prebendary of Westminster, and he was also 
for some time rector or minister of the parish 
of St. Margaret, Westminster. He died on 
23 Aug. 1679, and was buried inWestminster 
Abbey, where a monument, with a Latin in- 
scription, was erected to his memory (DART, 
Westmonasterium, ii. 620). His will, dated 
5 Nov. 1677, was proved in London 3 Sept. 
1679 (P. C. C. 119, King). He bequeathed 
lands in Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, and 
left legacies to the children of his brother 
Francis Owtram, deceased, and of his sisters 
Barbara Burley and Mary Sprenthall, both 
deceased, and Jane Stanley, then living. An 
elaborate catalogue of his library was com- 
piled by William Cooper, London, 1681, 4to. 
Owtram's widow lived forty-two years after 
him, until 4 Oct. 1721 (CHESTER, Westminster 
Abbey Registers, pp. 197, 304). 

Owtram was a ' nervous and accurate writer. ' 
and an excellent preacher, and he was re- 
puted to have extraordinary skill in rabbi- 
nical learning. Baxter speaks of him as one 
of the best and ablest of the conformists. 
His principal work is ' DeSacrificiis libriduo ; 
quorum altero explicantur omnia Judseorum, 
nonnulla Gentium Profanarum Sacrificia ; 
altero Sacrificium Christi. Utroque Eccle- 
sise Catholicse his de rebus Sententia contra 
Faustum Socinum, ej usque sectatores de- 
fenditur,' London, 1677, 4to, dedicated to 
Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby. An Eng- 
lish translation, entitled ' Two Dissertations 
on Sacrifices,' with additional notes and in- 
dexes by John Allen, was published in 1817. 
After his death Joseph Hindmarsh pub- 
lished under his name six ' Sermons upon 
Faith and Providence, and other subjects,' 
London, 1680, 8vo. It was stated that these 
discourses had been taken down in shorthand, 
but they are not genuine. In order to do 
justice to his memory, his relatives caused 
'Twenty Sermons preached upon several oc- 
casions 'to be published from 'the author's 
own copies,' by James Gardiner, D.D., after- 
wards bishop of Lincoln (2nd ed., corrected, 
London, 1 697, 8vo). Prefixed to the volume 
is a portrait of Owtram, engraved by R. White. 



Oxberry 



_ [Biogr. Brit. v. 3289 ; Cooke's Preachers' As- 
sistant, ii. 254; Life of Thomas Firmin, p. 14; 
Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, 5th ed. v. 41 ; 
Kennett MS. 52, f. 228 ; Kennett's Register and 
Chronicle, p. 843 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), ii. 
93, iii. 361 ; Newcourt's Kepertorium, i. 463, 
922 ; Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. i. pt. ii.p. 466 ; 
Autobiography of Symon Patrick, 1839, pp. 82, 
245, 246; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii. 
lib. xiv. pp. 5, 37 ; Sharp's Life of Archbishop 
Sharp, i. 16; Silvester's Life of Baxter, iii. 19, 
78, 131 ; Ward's Life of Dr. Henry More, p. 78 ; 
Hist, of Westminster, ii. 52; information kindly 
supplied by W. Aldis Wright, es<j., LL.D.] 

T. C. 

OXBERRY, WILLIAM (1784-1824), 
actor, the son of an auctioneer, was born on 
18 Dec. 1784 in Moorfields, facing Bedlam. 
According to a memoir supplied to Oxberry's 
' Dramatic Biography,' he was well educated, 
and placed at the age of fourteen under the 
care of Stubbs, declared to be* an artist of emi- 
nence.' Showing no aptitude for design, he 
was transferred to a bookseller's shop kept 
by one Ribeau, and thence to the office in 
Tottenham Court Road of a printer named 
Seale, an amateur actor. Here his dis- 
position for the stage was fostered, and 
he is depicted studying Douglas in one 
corner, while in another his master was 
rehearsing Glenalvon. At a stable near 
Queen Anne Street, and subsequently at the 
theatre in Berwick Street, he took parts such 
as Hassan in the ' Oastle Spectre ' and Rosse 
in ' Macbeth.' After he had made a public 
appearance in a malthouse in Edgware his 
indentures were in 1802 cancelled, and he 
appeared under Jerrold, at the Watford 
theatre, as Antonio in the ' Merchant of 
"Venice.' A performance of Dan in ' John 
Bull ' revealed some talent in low comedy, 
and, after appearing at Sheerness, and playing 
Richard III at Godalming, he joined, as 
low comedian, the company of the Worthing, 
Hythe, and Southend theatres, under Trot- 
ter. For some time subsequently he made 
an occasional appearance in Shylock, Has- 
san, and other characters. More frequently 
he was seen in parts such as Lope Tocho 
in the ' Mountaineers/ and Old Frost in 
the 'Irishman in London.' In 1806 he mar- 
ried, at Southend, a young actress playing 
subordinate parts in the company, named 
Catherine Elizabeth Hewitt. In the follow- 
ing year he attracted the attention of Henry 
Siddons [q.v.],by whom he was recommended 
to the Kemble management at Covent Garden . 
At a salary rising from 51. to 8/. a week, he 
made his first appearance on 7 Nov. 1807 as 
Robin Roughhead in ' Fortune's Frolic.' His 
performance was ' cold, constrained, and 

B2 



Oxberry 



Oxberry 



ineffective.' The ' Monthly Mirror,' which 
he subsequently edited, described him as ' a 
wholesale dealer in Mr. Liston's quality,' and 
predicted that the public would not get used 
to Mr. Oxberry 's face, for, ' though he dis- 
played some knowledge of the art of a 
player, it was not sufficient ' to render him 
' a desirable acquisition to the London 
boards ' (new ser., ii. 360). On 14 Nov. he 
played Lord Duberly, alias Daniel Dowlas, in 
the ' Heir at Law/ a part he substituted for 
that of Zekiel Homespun. After this he dis- 
appears from the bills. At the close of the 
season he was released from his engagement, 
and went to Glasgow, where he made a success 
as Sir David Daw in the ' Wheel of Fortune.' 
His benefit brought him 70/. 0*. \d., and the 
name of Sir David clung to him in Scotland. 
In Aberdeen he accepted, with some reluct- 
ance, the character of Michael Ducas in' Adal- 
githa/with the result that he was accepted as 
a tragedian, and played Glenalvon, Macbeth, 
Shylock, and Richard. After returning to 
Glasgow he accepted from Raymond an en- 
gagement in London at the Lyceum, then 
confined to operatic performances, and known 



' Every Man in his Humour ; ' Moses in the 
' School for Scandal ; ' Don Ferolo in the 
'Critic;' Slender in the 'Merry Wives of 
Windsor ; ' Dominique in ' Deaf and Dumb ; ' 
Simon Pure in ' A Bold Stroke for a Wife ; ' 
Bullock in the ' Recruiting Officer ; ' and 
Job Thornberry in ' John Bull/ He ' created ' 
many original parts in plays, dramatic or 
musical, by Arnold, Dibdin, Kenney, 
Soane, and others. Among the most note- 
worthy were Sapling in ' First Impressions,' 
by Horace Smith ; Isaac in the ' Maid and 
the Magpie ; ' Friar Francis in ' Flodden 
Field,' an adaptation of Scott's ' Marmion;' 
Humphrey Gull in Soane's 'Dwarf of 
Naples ; ' Jonathan Curry in MoncrielFs 
' Wanted a Wife ; ' Dominie Samson in 
' Guy Mannering ; ' and Friar Tuck in the 
' Hebrew,' Soane's adaptation of the ' Talis- 
man.' Upon Elliston reducing the salaries 
at Drury Lane, he refused an offer of 127. 
a week, and ' starred ' at the minor theatres, 
the Surrey, the East London, and Sadler's 
Wells. 

Oxberry was for a long time manager ot 
the Olympic, but the experiment collapsed. 



as the English Opera House, and appeared in In December 1821 he took the Craven's 
a piece by Henry Siddons, called 'The Russian Head chophouse at Drury Lane, a house 
Impostor/ in which he made a success. He -*-' * ^ --*-= 



was then engaged for the Lyceum by Arnold, 
at a salary rising from 11. to 9/. An engage- 
ment at Drury Lane followed, and he plaved 
for the first time with the burnt-out com- 
pany at the Lyceum, 25 Sept. 1809, as the 
Lay Brother in the 'Duenna.' He was, 
20 Nov.. the original Cuffee, a black ser- 
vant, in ' Not at Home/ by R. C. Dallas : 



of literary and theatrical resort. Oxberry 
told his guests, ' We vocalise on a Friday, 
conversationise on a Sunday, and chopise 
every day/ Here he died 9 June 1824, of 
an apoplectic fit, due in part to free living ; 
according to another account, of delirium 
tremens. His remains are in a vault in St. 
Clement Danes Church, Strand. 

Oxberry was a useful comic actor, second 



and played, 24 Feb. 1810, John Lump in only to John Emery [q. v.] in Tyke, John 
the ' Review/ The following season he was Lump, Robin Roughhead, &c. 
the original Laglast in Allingham's ' Trans- y: ~ T >-^ ;J "r*- -- J T> -* 



formation, or Love and Law ; ' Daniel, a 
country fellow, in Masters's ' Lost and 
Found ; ' Fabian in Dimond's ' Peasant Bov ; ' 
Zedekiah in Arnold's ' Americans ; ' and 
Timothy Scamp in Leigh's ' Where to find a 
Friend ; ' and in 1811-12, Sir Charles Canvas 



His Slender, 

Sir David Daw, and Petro are held to have 
been unsurpassed. His brogue was not very 
effective, and in many parts he failed to rise 
above mediocrity. 

Oxberry was author of: 1. ' The Theatrical 
Banquet, or the Actor's Budget/ 1809, 2 vols. 
18mo. 2. ' The Encyclopaedia of Anecdote/ 



Dick in ' Right or Wrong ; ' Gregory" in 
Kenney's ' Turn out ! ' ; Abrahamides in 
' Quadruped/ an alteration of the 'Tailors :' 
and Petro in Arnold's 'Devil's Bridge/ 
After the opening of the new Drury Lane 
theatre his name is not traceable until the 



in Moore's ' M.P., or the Blue-Stocking;' 1812, 18mo. 3. 'The History of Pugilism, 
TJ;,.!,* , TV r n =_ an ^ Memoirg of Persons who have distin- 
guished themselves in that Science/ 1814, 
12mo. 4. ' The Flowers of Literature/ 2nd 
edit., London, 1824, 4 vols., 12mo. 5. ' Ox- 
berry's Anecdotes of the Stage/London, 1827, 
12mo. He also edited 'The New English 

close of the season, when he played, for Miss Drama/ consisting of 113 plays, with prefa- 
Kelly's benefit, Lord Listless in ' Rich and j tory remarks, &c., 22 vols. 181 8-24; and wrote 
Poor/and Gregory in an act of 'Killing no Mur- 'The Actress of All Work/ played in Bath 
At Drury Lane he remained until the on 8 May 1819, in which Mrs. Elizabeth 



der. 

close of the season of 1819-20, playing parts 
such as John Grouse in the ' School for 
Prejudice ; ' Graccho in Massinger's ' Duke 



Rebecca Edwin [q. v.] assumed half a dozen 
different characters ; converted ' He would 
be a Soldier' of Pilon into ' The High Road to 



* ' IQ%-. i i ^MW j *jTr-f th JvmAl.CI. VI -I- 1J.UU ILI\.\J A U.C -AAl^U. J.VUO.U. l\J 

of Milan ; ' Master Stephen in Jonson's [ Success/ and produced it at the Olympic, pre- 



Oxberry 

sumably during the period of his ill-starre 
management. He is responsible for an adap 
tation of Scott's ' Marmion,' played at a 
outlying theatre. For a short period he edite 
the ' Monthly Mirror,' to which, and to th 
' Cabinet,' he contributed fugitive pieces. Ox 
berry was over five feet nine inches in heighi 
and in his later years obese, dark in com 
plexion, and with a small and piercing eye 
Passionate and unconciliatory, he was ye 
held, thanks to his powers of mimicry and hi 
readiness to drink, a popular man and a boon 
companion. A portrait of Oxberry by De 
wilde, in theGarrick Club, shows him asPetrc 
in Arnold's ' Devil's Bridge.' An engraving 
of him as Leo Luminati in ' Oh ! this Love 
is in the 'Theatrical Inquisitor' (vol. i.) ; anr 
a second, presenting him in private dress, is ir 
Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography,' a work pro 
jected by Oxberry, and edited after his deatl 
by his widow ; it was published in parts, be- 
ginning 1 Jan. 1825. After the completion 
of the first volume in April 1825 the issue 
was continued in volumes, and was completec 
in five vols. in 1826 (Advertisement to the 
Dramatic Biography ; Notes and Queries, 5th 
ser. i. 375, 418, 457). Among other occupa- 
tions, Oxberry was a printer and a publisher 
[The best account of Oxberry is that given 
in Oxberry's Dramatic Biography, vol. i. 1825. 
Further particulars are supplied in the Theatri- 
cal Inquisitor for Nov. 1812. Lives appear in 
the Georgian Era and in the Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816.] J. K. 

OXBERRY, WILLIAM HENRY 
(1808-1852), actor, son of William Oxberry 
[q. v.], was born on 21 April 1808, and re- 
ceived his preliminary education at Merchant 
Taylors' School, which he entered in Septem- 
ber 1816 (RoBixsoN, Register of Merchant 
Taylors' School, ii. 203). At a school in 
Kentish Town, kept by a Mr. Patterson, he 
received some training in acting. On leaving 
there his education was continued under John 
Clarke, the author of ' Ravenna,' and the 
Rev. R. Nixon. First placed in his father's 
printing-office, he became afterwards, like 
him, ' the pupil of an eminent artist.' He 
was then apprenticed to Septimus Wray, a 
surgeon of Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, 
where he remained until his father's death. 
About the beginning of 1825 he appeared at 
the private theatre in Rawstorne Street as 
Abel Day to the Captain Careless of Frank 
Matthews. After playing Tommy in ' All 
at Coventry,' he made his first professional' 
appearance at the Olympic on the occasion of 
the benefit of his stepfather William Leman 
Rede [q. v.], on 17 March 1825, as Sam Swipes, 
Listen's part in ' Exchange no Robbery.' 
He was then employed by Leigh Hunt, who 



; Oxberry 

was conducting the ' Examiner,' but soon 
returned to the stage, playing in Chelmsford, 
Hythe, Manchester, and Sheffield, and join- 
ing Hammond's company at York and Hull. 
In the autumn of 1832 he acted at the 
Strand in the ' Loves of the Angels and the 
Loves of the Devils,' both by Leman Rede. 
He went with Miss Smithson to Paris at the 
close of this season, and played low-comedy 
parts at the Italian Opera. Returning to 
England, he accepted a four years' engage- 
ment at the English Opera House (Lyceum), 
of which, with disastrous effect upon his 
fortunes, he became manager. He was sub- 
sequently at the Princess's. In the autumn 
of 1841 he succeeded Keeley at Covent Gar- 
den, and, as Oxberry from the Haymarket, 
played Flute in 'A Midsummer Night's 
Dream.' In 1842 he was again at the Ly- 
ceum, appearing principally in burlesque, 
and winning a reputation as a comic dancer, 
but taking occasional parts in farce, such as 
Victim in Oxenford's ' My Fellow Clerk.' 
In January 1843 he was at the Princess's 
playing the hero, a jealous husband, of ' A 
Lost Letter.' In June he was a ridiculous 
old schoolmaster in Poole's drama 'The 
Swedish Ferryman,' and in September was, 
with Wright and Paul Bedford, at the Strand 
playing in ' Bombastes Furioso ' and the 
' Three Graces.' Returning to the Princess's, 
be played with the Keeleys and Walter Lacy 
in MoncriefFs farce ' Borrowing a Hus- 
band,' and in 1844 was Wambain the opera 
of ' The Maid of Ju*dah,' a version of ' Ivan- 
ioe.' In February 1845 he was Sir Harry 
n ' High Life below Stairs,' and in April 
Verges to Miss Cushman's Beatrice. In 
July he was the original Mrs. Caudle to the 
Mr. Caudle of Compton in ' Mr. and Mrs. 
Caudle.' He was under the Vestris manage- 
ment at Covent Garden. There were few 
heatres at which he was not seen, and he 
managed for a time the Windsor theatre, 
very little man, with a quaint, peculiar 
manner, he was a lively actor and dancer in 
Burlesque, but was said to rarely know his 
iart on first nights. Oxberry was a mem- 
>er of the Dramatic Authors' Society, and a 
omewhat voluminous dramatist. His plays 
;ave never been collected, and many of them 
ever printed. Duncombe's collection gives 
The Actress of all Work, or my Country 
Cousin,' one act ; ' The Delusion, or Is she 
lad ? ' two acts ; ' The Idiot Boy,' a melo- 
rama in three acts ; ' Matteo Falcone, or 
:ie Brigand and his Son,' one act ; ' Norma 
"Vavestie ; ' ' The Pasha and his Pets, or 
le Bear and the Monkey.' These are in 
le ' British Museum Catalogue.' Other 
lays assigned to him are : ' The Three 



Oxburgh < 

Clerks, ' The Conscript,' ' The Female Volun- 
teer,' 'The Ourang Outang,' 'The Truand 
Chief,' 'The First of September,' ' The Idiot 
of Heidelberg,' 'The Lion King,' 'The 
Scapegrace of Paris,' and very many bur- 
lesques. He claimed to have left behind 
thirty unacted plays, which he trusted would 
be given after his death for the benefit 
of his widow and three children, otherwise 
unprovided for. Up to his death he was, 
with Charles Mathews and Mme. Vestris, 
playing in ' A Game of Speculation ' and 
the ' Prince of Happy Land.' His death, 
through lung disease, augmented by some- 
what festive habits, took place on 29 Feb. 
1852. By a curious and painful will, printed 
in the ' Era ' for 21 March 1852, and written 
four days before he died, he left such pro- 
perty as he possessed to Charles Melville, a 
tragic actor better known in the country 
than in London, in trust for his children. 
He expressed many wishes concerning his 
funeral which were not observed : asked that 
his heart might be preserved in some medical 
museum as a specimen of a broken one, hoped 
that a benefit might be given him to pay his 
debts, which were moderate ; and left mes- 
sages of farewell to many well-known actors. 

Oxberry is responsible for ' Oxberry's 
Weekly Budget of Plays,' fol. 1843-4, con- 
sisting of thirty-nine plays edited by him; 
and ' Oxberry's Dramatic Chronology;' 8vo 
[1850]. This work, which is of little value 
or authority, was announced to be continued 
annually. A portrait as Peter "White in 
' Mrs. White ' accompanies a memoir in the 
'Theatrical Times' for 20 Feb. 1847 (ii. 
49). 

[Works cited. The list of his characters is 
principally derived from the Dramatic and Mu- 
sical Review, 1842 et seq. ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. vol. v.] J. K. 

OXBURGH, HENRY (d. 1716), Jacobite, 
was a member of a Roman catholic family of 
Irish origin. He was born in Ireland, and 
served for a short period in James II's army, 
beingacaptain in the regiment of his kinsman, 
Sir Heward Oxburgh of Bovin, King's County; 
but he migrated to France in 1696, and took 
service under Louis XIV. He returned to 
England about 1700, and purchased an estate 
in Lancashire. Retaining strong Stuart pre- 
dilections, he was unwilling to forego the 
hopes with which the aspect of affairs during 
the last years of Anne's reign had inspired 
the Jacobite party. In the spring of 1715 
it was understood that he was to hold a 
command in the English contingent of Mar's 
Jacobite army. Early in October the Jacobite 
general in England, the incompetent Thonias 
Forster [q. v.], granted him a colonel's com- 



Oxburgh 



mission in the name of the Pretender. After 
joining the Scottish contingent at Rothbury 
on 19 Oct., and dispersing, without blood- 
shed or violence, the posse comitatus which 
had mustered, some twenty thousand strong, 
under the Earl of Carlisle, the small Jacobite 
force under Forster and Derwentwater [see 
RATCLIFFE, JAMES, third EAKL, 1686-1716] 
occupied the small town of Penrith. Thence 
a party was detached under Oxburgh to 
Lowther Hall to search for arms, and, if pos- 
sible, to seize Viscount Lonsdale. The latter 
had discreetly left the mansion in the care 
of two aged women. Neither there nor at 
Hornby Castle, the seat of the notorious 
Colonel Francis Charteris [q. v.], whither 
Oxburgh conducted a foraging party on 9 Nov. , 
were any depredations committed. An in- 
ferior British force under General Wills, sub- 
sequently reinforced by General Carpenter, 
was encountered at Preston, and Forster 
promptly surrendered all notion of further 
resistance. On 13 Nov. he sent Oxburgh to 
negotiate the capitulation of the town. Ox- 
burgh proposed that the insurgents should 
lay down their arms as prisoners of war, 
but he found Wills by no means inclined to 
treat. He would not enter upon terms with 
rebels. After entreaty, Wills only relented 
so far as to promise that if the rebels would 
lay down their arms to surrender at dis- 
cretion, he would protect them from being 
cut to pieces until he received further orders 
from the government. This sturdy officer 
had only one thousand men under his com- 
mand ; nevertheless the rebels, numbering462 
English and 1088 Scots, were finally induced 
by Forster to accept these terms, and in the 
course of the day laid down their arms. 
Colonel Oxburgh was conveyed, with the 
other Jacobite officers, to London, and com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea prison. He was 
arraigned on 7 May 1716, and, after a purely 
formal defence, he was found guilty and sen- 
tenced to death. He was hanged, drawn, 
and quartered at Tyburn on Monday, 14 May 
1716. The fact of his head being displayed 
upon one of the spikes on the top of Temple 
Bar provoked much indignation among the 
tories, and caused a certain amount of re- 
action in the popular feeling towards the 
remaining Jacobite prisoners. In the docu- 
ment which he left in the hands of the sheriff 
at the time of his execution, Oxburgh stated : 
' I might have hoped from the great character 
Mr. Wills gave me at Preston (when I treated 
with him for a surrender) of the clemency of 
the Prince now on the throne (to which, he 
said, we could not better entitle ourselves 
than by an early submission) that such as 
surrendered themselves Prisoners at Dis- 



Oxenbridge 



Oxenbridge 



cretiou, on that Prospect, would have met 
with more lenity than I have experienced, 
and I believe England is the only country 
in Europe where Prisoners at Discretion are 
not understood to have their Lives saved.' 

Patten described Oxburgh as ' of a good, 
mild, and merciful disposition, very thought- 
ful, and a mighty zealous man in his con- 
versation, and more of the priest in his ap- 
pearance than the soldier.' A rough portrait 
was engraved to adorn his dying speech, and 
this has been reproduced for Caulfield's ' Por- 
traits of Remarkable Persons' (ii. 138-41). 

[Mahon's Hist, of England, i. 254 ; Burton's 
Hist, of Scotland, viii. 311; Patten's Hist, of 
the Late Rebellion, 1717, p. 115, &c. ; Hibbert- 
Ware's State of Parties in Lancashire in 1715, 
passim; D' Alton's King James's Irish Army List, 
p. 851; Historical Register, 1716, pp. 222-3; 
Cobbett's State Trials ; Doran's Jacobite London, 
i. 214 ; Lives of Twelve Bad Men, ed. Seccombe, 
pp. 123-7; Noble's Continuation of Granger, iii. 
461 ; A True Copy of a Paper delivered to the 
Sheriffs of London by Colonel Oxburgh, 1716, 
fol.] T. S. 

OXENBRIDGE, JOHN (1608-1674), 
puritan divine, born at Daventry, North- 
amptonshire, on 30 Jan. 1608, was eldest son 
of Daniel Oxenbridge, M.D. of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and a practitioner at Daventry, and 
afterwards in London. His mother was 
Katherine, daughter of Thomas Harby, by 
Katherine, daughter of Clement Throgmorton 
of Hasley, third son of Sir George Throgmor- 
ton of Loughton. Wood confuses him with 
another John Oxenbridge, a commoner of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1623, anno cetatis 
18. He was, in fact, admitted a pensioner of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, on 8 April 
1626, and matriculated in July of the same 
year. Migrating afterwards to Oxford, he 
entered Magdalen Hall, proceeded B.A. on 
13 Nov. 1628, and commenced M. A. on 18 June 
1631 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. i. 438, 460). He 
became a tutor of Magdalen Hall ; and in 
order to promote the better government of 
the society, he drew up a document which 
he persuaded his scholars to subscribe. He 
thus exhibited a contempt for the college 
statutes which led to his deprivation of 
office on 27 May 1634. Laud was chan- 
cellor of the university, and his sentence on 
Oxenbridge is printed in Wharton's ' Re- 
mains of Laud,' ii. 70. It recites that, both 
by the testimony of witnesses upon oath 
and by his own confession, the tutor had 
* been found guilty of a strange, singular, 
and superstitious way of dealing with his 
scholars, by persuading and causing some of 
them to subscribe as votaries to several 
articles framed by himself (as he pretends) 



for their better government ; as if the statutes 
of the place he lives in, and the authorities 
of the present governors, were not sufficient.' 
The vice-chancellor, Brian Duppa [q. v.l, was 
thereupon informed that Oxenbridge should 
' no longer be trusted with the tuition of any 
scholars, or suffered to read to them publicly 
or privately, or to receive any stipend or 
salary in that behalf.' Oxenbridge left the 
hall, and subsequently married his first wife, 
Jane, daughter of Thomas Butler, merchant, 
of Newcastle, by Elizabeth Clavering of 
Callaley, aunt to Sir John Clavering of Ax- 
well. For some time he preached in Eng- 
land, showing himself to be ' very schisma- 
tical,' and then he and his wife, who ' had 
an infirm body, but was strong in faith,' 
took two voyages to the Bermudas, where 
he exercised the ministry. In 1641, during 
the Long parliament, he returned to Eng- 
land, and preached ' very enthusiastically in 
his travels to and fro.' London, Winchester, 
and Bristol are enumerated in the list of 
towns which he visited. A manuscript me- 
moir quaintly remarks that he and his wife 
' tumbled about the world in unsettled times.' 
In January 1643-4 he was residing at Great 
Yarmouth, where he was permitted by the 
corporation to preach every Sunday morn- 
ing before the ordinary time of service, pro- 
vided he made his ' exercise ' by half-past 
eight o'clock in the morning. He thus 
preached for months without fee or reward ; 
but at his departure the corporation pre- 
sented him with 1*5/. His next call was to 
Beverley, to fill the perpetual curacy of the 
minster, in the patronage of the corporation. 
His name occurs in the list compiled by 
Oliver under the date of 1646 (OLIVEK, 
Beverley, p. 368). Two years afterwards he 
was nominated by the committee of plun- 
dered ministers as joint preacher with one 
Wilson at St. Mary's, Beverley (PouLSON, 
Beverlac, p. 368). Wood, in a venomous 
article, states that while Oxenbridge was in 
the pulpit ' his dear wife preached in the 
house among her gossips and others ; ' and 
the manuscript memoir remarks that her 
husband, ' a grave divine and of great minis- 
terial skill . . . loved commonly to have her 
opinion upon a text before he preached it ... 
she being a scholar beyond what is usual in 
her sex, and of a masculine judgment in the 
profound points of theology.' 

From Beverley Oxenbridge went to Ber- 
wick-upon-Tweed, where a week-day lecture- 
ship in the gift of the Mercers' Company, 
London, had been founded by one Fishborne 
in 1625, and a new church, commenced in 
1648, was finished in 1652 by the exertions 
of Colonel George Fenwick, the governor 



Oxenbridge 



8 



Oxenbridge 



(FULLER, Hist, of Berwick, p. 183). In the 
will of his mother, dated 1651, Oxenbridge 
is described as of Berwick, and in April 
1652 he was with another congregationalist 
minister in Scotland. On 25 Oct. 1652 he 
was appointed a fellow of Eton College, in 
succession to John Symonds, deceased (Addit. 
MS. 5848, f. 421 ; HARWOOD, Alumni Eton. p. 
74). Before his removal to Eton he had formed 
a friendship with Andrew Marvell [q. v.], 
and among the manuscripts of the Society 
of Antiquaries there is a letter from Marvell 
to Cromwell, dated from Windsor, 28 July 
1653, bearing his testimony to the worth of 
Mr. and Mrs. Oxenbridge (MSS. Soc. Antiq. 
Lond. 138, f. 66). Mrs. Oxenbridge died on 
25 April 1658, at the age of thirty-seven, 
and was buried at Eton. In the college 
chapel a ' black marble slab near Lupton's 
chapel, under the arch against the wall over 
the second ascent to the altar,' once recorded 
her virtues in a Latin inscription, styled 
' canting ' by Wood, and written by Marvell 
(LE NEVE, Monuments Anglicana, 1650-79, 
p. 18 ; MARVELL, Works, ii. 195). 

Oxenbridge offended Wood by marrying, 
'before he had been a widower a year,' a 
'religious virgin named Frances, the only 
daughter of Hezekiah Woodward, the schis- 
matical vicar of Bray, near Windsor ; ' but 
the lady died in childbed in the first year of 
her marriage. Oxenbridge still remained at 
Eton, and on 25 Jan. 1658-9 preached there 
the funeral sermon on Francis Rous [q. v.], 
one of Cromwell's lords, who died provost 
of Eton. On the Restoration in 1660 he was 
ejected from his fellowship, and the monument 
to his first wife was defaced and eventually re- 
moved, though another, in memory of his se- 
cond wife, was allowed to remain. He now re- 
turned to Berwick-upon-T weed, and preached 
there until he was silenced by the Act of Uni- 
formity in 1662. Again he ' tumbled about 
the world in unsettled times,' and ' in the 
general shipwreck that befel nonconformists 
we find him swimming away to Surinam' 
in the West Indies, ' an English colony first 
settled by the Lord Willoughby of Parham ' 
(MATHER, Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702, 
iii. 221). Surinam was soon seized by the 
Dutch, but was retaken by Sir John Herman 
for the English. With him Oxenbridge went 
to Barbados in 1667, and thence proceeded to 
New England in 1669. He married his third 
wife, Susanna, widow of one Abbit, after No- 
vember 1666, and probably at Barbados. On 
20 Jan. 1669-70 he and his wife were ad- 
mitted members of the first church or meet- 
ing-house at Boston, Massachusetts. Shortly 
afterwards he was unanimously invited to 
become its pastor, and he was accordingly 



' ordained ' to it on 4 May 1670 {Collections 
of the Massachusetts Historical Soc. 1804, 
p. 193). In 1672 he was appointed one of 
the licensers of the press. He died suddenly 
on 28 Dec. 1674, being seized with apoplexy 
towards the close of a sermon which he was 
preaching at Boston. His will, dated 1 2 Jan. 
16734, is printed in the ' Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections,' 1860, p. 215. 

By his first wife he had issue Daniel Oxen- 
bridge, M.D. ; Bathshua, who became the 
wife of Richard Scott of Jamaica, a gentle- 
man of great estate ; and two other daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth and Mary. His daughter 
Theodora, bv his second wife, married, on 
21 Nov. 1677, the Rev. Peter Thatcher, 
afterwards pastor of Milton, Massachusetts, 
and died in 1697. 

Wood says : ' This person was a strange 
hodg-podg of opinions, not easily to be de- 
scribed ; was of a roving and rambling head, 
spent much, and died, I think, but in a 
mean condition.' Far different is the cha- 
racter of him given by Emerson, the pastor 
of the church at Boston in 1812, who states 
that Oxenbridge ' is reckoned by the histo- 
rians of Boston among the most elegant 
writers, as well as most eloquent preachers, 
of his time. Like his great and good pre- 
decessor, he was sincerely attached to the 
congregational interest ; and the piety which 
he cherished at heart exhibited itself in his 
habitual conversation.' 

His works are : 1. ' A double Watch- 
word ; or the Duty of Watching, and Watch- 
ing to Duty ; both echoed from Revel. 16. 5 
and Jer. 50. 4, 5.' London, 1661, 8vo. 
2. ' A Seasonable Proposition of Propagating 
the Gospel by Christian Colonies in the 
Continent of Guaiana : being some gleanings 
of a larger Discourse drawn, but not pub- 
lished. By John Oxenbridge, a silly worme, 
too inconsiderable for so great a Work, and 
therefore needs and desires acceptance and as- 
sistance from Above ' [London (?), 1670 (?)], 
4to. 3. ' A Sermon at the Anniversary 
Election of Governor, &c., in New England/ 
1672, on Hosea viii. 4. Judge Warren had 
a copy of this sermon in 1860, the only one 
probably in existence. 4. ' A Sermon on 
the seasonable Seeking of God,' printed at 
Boston. 

[The Oxenbridges of Brede Place, Sussex, 
and Boston, Massachusetts, by William Durrant 
Cooper, London, 1860, 8vo, reprinted from the 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, xii. 206 ; 
Addit. MSS. 5877 f. 114, 24490 p. 426; Ander- 
son's Hist, of the Colonial Church, ii. 245-8 ; 
Baker's Northamptonshire, i. 333 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Kennett's Register and Chronicle, 
p. 541 ; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, iv. 487 - 



Oxenden 



Oxenden 



Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Soc. 
iii. 257, 300, iv. 217, vi. p. v, viii. 277 ; Palmer's 
Nonconformists' Memorial, 1802,i.299 jPoulson's 
Beverlac, pp. 368, 485 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
iii. 468, 593, 1026, Fasti, i. 438, 460.] T. C. 

OXENDEN, ASHTON (1808-1892), 
bishop of Montreal, fifth son of Sir Henry 
Oxenden, seventh baronet, who died in 1838, 
by Mary, daughter of Colonel Graham of St. 
Lawrence, near Canterbury, was born at 
Broome Park, Canterbury, on 20 Sept. 1808. 

Educated at Ramsgate and at Harrow, he 
matriculated from University College,0xford, 
on 9 June 1826, graduated B.A. 1831, M.A. 
1859, and was created D.D. 10 July 1869. 
In December 1833 he was ordained to the 
curacy of Barham, Kent, where he intro- 
duced weekly cottage lectures. In 1838 
he resigned his charge, and during the fol- 
lowing seven years was incapacitated for 
work by continuous ill-health. From 1849 
to 1869 he was rector of Pluckley with Pev- 
ington, Kent, and in 1864 was made an 
honorary canon of Canterbury Cathedral. At 
Pluckley he first commenced extemporaneous 
preaching, and wrote the ' Barham Tracts.' 
In May 1869 he was elected bishop of Mont- 
real and metropolitan of Canada by the 
Canadian provincial synod. He was con- 
secrated in Westminster Abbey on 1 Aug., 
and installed in Montreal Cathedral on 
5 Sept. Three-fourths of the population of 
the city were Roman catholics, but the 
church of England possessed twelve churches 
there besides the cathedral. Oxenden pre- 
sided over nine dioceses. He assiduously 
attended to his episcopal duties, generally 
living in Montreal during the winter, and 
visiting the country districts in the summer. 
Ill-health caused his resignation of the 
bishopric in 1878, and on his return to Eng- 
land he attended the Pan-Anglican synod. 
From 30 May 1879 to 1884 he was vicar of 
St. Stephen's, near Canterbury, and from 
1879 to 1884 he officiated as rural dean of 
Canterbury. He died at Biarritz, France, 
on 22 Feb. 1892, having married on 14 June 
1864 Sarah, daughter of Joseph HoareBrad- 
shaw of London, banker, by whom he had a 
daughter, Mary Ashton Oxenden. 

The bishop wrote numerous small theologi- 
cal works, which the author's plain and simple 
language rendered very popular. ' The Path- 
way of Safety,' 1856, was much appreciated 
by the poorer classes, and ultimately reached a 
circulation of three hundred and fifty thousand 
copies. ' The Christian Life,' 1877, went to 
forty-seven thousand, and the ' Barham 
Tracts' Nos. 1 to 49, after running to many 
editions in their original form, were collected 
and published as ' Cottage Readings' in 1859. 



With Charles Henry Ramsden, he wrote in 
1858 ' Family Prayers for Eight Weeks,' 
which was often reprinted. Oxendeii's 
name is attached to upwards of forty-five 
distinct works. Besides those already men- 
tioned, the most important were : 1. ' The 
Cottage Library,' 1846-51, 6 vols. 2. ' Con- 
firmation ; or, Are you ready to serve Christ ? ' 
1847 ; tenth thousand, 1859. 3. ' Cottage 
Sermons,' 1853. 4. ' Family Prayers,' 1858 ; 
3rd ed. 1860. 5. 'The Fourfold Picture of 
the Sinner,' 1858. 6. 'Fervent Prayer,' 
1860 ; fifth thousand, 1861. 8. 'God's Mes- 
sage to the Poor: Eleven Sermons in Pluckley 
Church ; ' 3rd ed. 1861. 9. ' The Home be- 
yond ; or, Happy Old Age/ 1 861 ; ten thousand 
copies. 10. ' Sermons on the Christian Life,' 
1861. 11. 'Words of Peace,' 1863. 12. 'The 
Parables of our Lord explained,' 1864. 13. ' A 
Plain History of the Christian Church,' 1864. 
14. 'Our Church and her Services,' 1866. 
15. 'Decision,' 1868. 16. ' Short Lectures 
on the Sunday Gospels/ 1869. 17. ' My First 
Year in Canada/ 1871. 18. 'A Simple Ex- 
position of the Psalms,' 1872. 19. ' Counsel 
to the Confirmed/ 1878 ; ten thousand copies. 

20. ' Short Comments on the Gospels/ 1885. 

21. 'Touchstones; or, Christian Graces and 
Characters tested/ 1884. 

[The History of my Life : an Autobiography 
by the Eight Eev. A. Oxenden, 1891; Plain 
Sermons, 1893 ; Memoir, pp. xiii-lxxxv, with 
portrait; Graphic, 5 March 1892, p. 298, -with 
portrait; Times, 23 Feb. 1892, p. 9 ; Guardian, 
24 Feb. 1892, p. 268.] G. C. B. 

OXENDEN, SIR GEORGE (1620-1669), 
governor of the fort and island of Bombay, 
third son of Sir James Oxenden of Dene, 
Kent, knight, and of Margaret, daughter of 
Thomas Nevinson of Eastry, Kent, was bap- 
tised at Wingham on 6 April 1620. The 
family of Oxenden, or Oxinden, has been resi- 
dent in Kent since the reign of Henry III. 

George Oxenden spent his youth in India, 
and on 24 Nov. 1661 was knighted at 
Whitehall. At the time the London East 
India Company, after many uncertainties of 
fortune, had been strengthened by the grant 
of a new charter by CharlesII, but the king's 
marriage to a princess of Portugal involved 
the company in a difficult crisis. The island 
of Bombay had, under the marriage treaty, 
been ceded by Portugal to England, and it 
lay within the company's territories. The 
court of directors in March 1661 resolved to 
restore their trade in the East Indies, and 
desired to make the acquisition of Bombay 
by the crown serve their own interests. 
Accordingly they appointed, on 19 March 
1662, Sir George Oxenden to the post of 
president and chief director of all their affairs 



Oxenden 



10 



Oxenden 



'at Surat, and all other their factories in 
the north parts of India, from Zeilon to the 
Eed Sea.' A salary of 300/. per annum and 
a gratuity of 200/. per annum were provided 
for him, so as to remove him from all temp- 
tations to engage in private trade. The 
company further obtained from the king a 
warrant under the privy seal to Oxenden, 
authorising him, in the company's name, to 
seize and send to England such persons not 
in their service as might be engaged in pri- 
vate trade. 

Oxenden found on his arrival in India that 
the position of the company was very critical. 
The company's trade was limited to the pre- 
sidencies of Surat and Fort St. George, and 
to the factory at Bantam. The king's troops 
were coming from England to keep down 
private trade. Sir George Oxenden was in- 
structed to assist them, and to abstain from 
embroiling the company with foreign powers. 
The States-General of Holland were en- 
deavouring to wrest from England the su- 
premacy of the sea in Asia, and they bitterly 
resented the recent action of the Portuguese. 
The English troops arrived, but were unable 
to obtain the immediate cession of Bombay, 
and Sir George Oxenden was prevented from 
assisting them by increased complications. 
France joined Holland in threatening the 
company's trade, while the mogul chieftains 
showed themselves jealous of English pre- 
dominance, and formed a new source of 
danger. Aurungzebe, the mogul king, wished 
to increase his exactions from both the Eng- 
lish and the Dutch, and was only hindered 
by his fear of the superior naval force of the 
two powers. 

Sir Abraham Shipman, the commander of 
the royal troops, found himself powerless to 
take or hold Bombay, and therefore proposed 
to cede it to the company. Meanwhile the 
government of Acheeu offered the whole of 
the trade of that port to the company, in 
return for the company's aid against the 
Dutch. Both these offers were under Oxen- 
den's consideration when, in January 1663, 
Surat was suddenly attacked by a force of 
Mahrattas, consisting of some four thousand 
horse, under the command of Sevagee. The 
inhabitants fled, the governor shut himself 
up in the castle, while Oxenden and the 
company's servants fortified the English fac- 
tory, where property estimated at 80,000/. 
was stored. Oxenden and his party defended 
themselves so bravely that they preserved 
not only the factory, but also the town from 
destruction. Sevagee, however, carried off an 
immense booty. The moguls were relieved 
of danger by the repulse of the Mahrattas, 
and Oxenden received the thanks of Aurung- 



zebe, and an extension of the privileges of 
trade to the English, with an exemption of 
the payment of customs for one year. 

But both the Dutch and the French main- 
tained their warlike attitude, and active 
hostilities seemed imminent. Accordingly, 
in March 1667, Charles II ceded Bombay to 
the East India Company. The latter now 
determined to revive their western trade, 
and commissioned Oxenden to take posses- 
sion of the island of Bombay. In August 
following the court of directors appointed 
him governor and commander-in-chief of 
Bombay, with power to nominate a deputy- 
governor to reside on the island, but he was 
placed under the control of the president 
and council of Surat. On 21 September 1667 
the island was formally ceded by the royal 
troops to the new governor. The English 
officers and privates there were invited to 
enter the company's service, and thus the 
first military establishment of the East India 
Company at Bombay was created. 

On 14 July 1669 Oxenden died at Surat, 
' a man whose probity and talents had 
enabled the presidency [of Surat] to preserve 
the company's rights and commerce, and 
who, to the esteem of their servants, united 
the respect of the Dutch and French, as well 
as of the native government and merchants 
of Surat.' The company erected a stately 
monument over Sir George's grave at Surat. 
There is a portrait at Broome Park, Kent, the 
seat of the family from the seventeenth cen- 
tury, representing him in a long flowing white 
wig and a blue coat with the company's brass 
buttons, and a baton in his hand. In the 
background is an Indian scene. 

Sir George Oxenden left a legacy of 300/. 
for the erection of the monument to the 
branch of the family at Dene, Kent. His 
nephew, Sir Henry Oxenden, third baronet 
(d. 1709), who was for a short time deputy- 
governor of Bombay, was second son of 
George Oxenden's elder brother Henry, who 
was knighted on 9 June 1660, was M.P. 
for Sandwich, and was created a baronet on 
8 May 1678. The latter's third son, George, 
is separately noticed. 

[Brace's Annals of the East India Company ; 

Duff's History of the Mahrattas, i. 198; Diary 

j of, (Sir) William Hedges, ed. Yule, ii. 223, 303, 

I 307; Philipot's Visitation of Kent in 1619; 

| Betham's Baronetage, iii. 28 ; Brit. Mus. Add. 

MSS. 28006-9, 33896 ff. 66, 120, 34105 f. 200, 

and Harl. MS. 6832 f. 298-1 B - H - s - 

OXENDEN, GEORGE (1651-1703), civil 
lawyer, baptised on 31 Oct. 1651, was the 
third son of Sir Henry Oxenden of Dene in 
Wingham, Kent, by his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir William Meredith of 



Oxenden 



Oxenden 



Leeds Abbey, Kent. His uncle Sir George, 
governor of Bombay, and his distant cousin, 
Henry Oxenden, the poet, are separately 
noticed. He was entered at Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, as a scholar on 8 July 1667, gra- 
duated LL.B. 1673, M.A. per literas regias 
1675, and LL.D. 1679, and on 14 July 1674 
was incorporated at Oxford. Having been 
for some time a fellow of Trinity Hall, he was 
elected its master and admitted on 21 Feb. 
1688-9, remaining in that position until his 
death. In 1692 he was appointed vice-chan- 
cellor of the university, and from 1695 to 1698 
he represented it in parliament. On 12 July 
1679 he was admitted to the College of Advo- 
cates ; he became the regius professor of civil 
law at Cambridge in 1684, and succeeded Sir 
Thomas Exton [q. v.], who died in 1688, as 
official or dean of the arches, dean of the pecu- 
liars, and vicar-general to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury; but the date of his admission to 
these posts is given by New court and others 
as ' 2 Feb. 1694.' He was also chancellor of 
the diocese of London. All these offices he 
retained for his life. 

Oxenden contributed Latin verses to the 
collections of poems by members of Cam- 
bridge University on (1) the marriage of the 
Princess Anne, 1683 ; (2) thedeath of Charles 
and the accession of James, 1684-5 ; (3) the 
birth of the prince, 1688 : (4) the accession 
of "William and Mary, 1689 ; (5) the death 
of Queen Mary, 1694-5 ; (6) the death of 
the Duke of Gloucester, 1700 ; (7) the death 
of William and the accession of Anne, 1702. 
His conduct in the proceedings against 
Watson, the bishop of St. Davids, was cen- 
sured in the address to the reader, prefixed 
to ' A large Review of the summary View of 
the Articles against the Bishop of St. Davids,' 
which is usually attributed to Robert Fer- 
guson (d. 1714) [q. v.], and further disclosures 
were promised in a later tract. The reader 
was specially requested to compare Oxen- 
den's lines in the Cambridge poems on the 
birth of the prince with his subsequent 
remarks on him and King James, who had 
previously forgiven and preferred him. Oxen- 
den advised Tillotson, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, on the legal points arising out of 
Burnet's consecration as Bishop of Salisbury 
(BiRCH, Life of Tillotson, p. 331). 

Oxenden died at Doctors' Commons on 
20 or 21 Feb. 1702-3, and was buried with 
his ancestors at Wingham, in a vault under 
the south or Dene chancel. He gave 40/. for 
the purchase of books for the library at Trinity 
Hall, and intended to have founded a scholar- 
ship for a Kentish clergyman's son, but died 
before the matter was settled. His widow, 
however, left 150/. for an additional scholar- 



ship of the same kind. His wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Basil Dixwell of Broome, 
Kent, was one of the maids of honour to Queen 
Mary, and died at Bath on 18 Sept. 1704. 
Their eldest son, Henry (d. 1720), and his 
next brother, George, both succeeded to the 
family baronetcy. 

SIE GEORGE OXENDEN (1694-1775), an 'ex- 
tremely handsome ' man, married the eldest 
daughter and coheiress of Edmund Dunch 
[q. v.], and was notorious for his profligacy. 
He seduced his sister-in-law, Bell Dunch, 
wife of Mr. Thompson, and was thought to 
be the father of the third Earl of Orford. 
Sir George represented in parliament for 
many years the borough of Sandwich in 
Kent, and was in turn a lord of the admiralty 
and of the treasury. His character and his 
gallantries are painted in Lord Hervey's 
' Memoirs ' (ii. 346), Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu's 'Works' (ii. 196, iii. 409), and 
Horace Walpole's 'Letters' (ed. Cunning- 
ham, i. 342, vii. 434). A half-length portrait 
of him was at Kimbolton Castle, the seat of 
the Duke of Manchester. He died at Dene 
in January 1775. 

[Hasted's Kent, iii. 69G ; Archseologia Can- 
tiana, vi. 277 ; Coote's Civilians, p. 101 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, iii. 608, 650, 657, 680; Berry's 
Kent Genealogies ; Betham's Baronetage, iii. 30- 
31 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. ii. 337 ; Newcourt's Repertorium Eccl. 
Lond. i. 446 ; information from Mr. C. E. S. 
Headlam of Trinity Hall.] W. P. C. 

OXENDEN or OXINDEN, HENRY 

(1609-1670), poet, eldest son of Richard 
Oxinden (1588-1629), of Little Maydekin in 
Barham, Kent, by Katherine, daughter of 
Sir Adam Sprakeling of Canterbury, was 
born in the parish of St. Paul's, Canterbury, 
on 18 Jan. 1609. Sir Henry Oxinden (d. 
1620) of Dene in Wingham, in the same 
county, was his grandfather (JDenton Regis- 
ter; cf. Gent. Mag. 1796, i. 466); and Sir 
Henry Oxenden (d. 1686), who was M.P. for 
Sandwich in 1660, and who was created a 
baronet on 8 May 1678, and Sir George 
Oxenden [q. v.], governor of Bombay, were 
his first cousins (see HASTED, Kent, iii. 696). 
lie matriculated from Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, on 10 Nov. 1626, and graduated 
B.A. 1 April 1627. He was appointed rector 
of Radnage in Buckinghamshire in 1663, and 
held that benefice until his death in June 
1670. He was buried on 17 June at Denton 
in Kent. He married, first, on 28 Dec. 1632, 
Anne (d. 1640), daughter of Sir Samuel 
Peyton, by whom he had a son Thomas, bap- 
tised on 27 Feb. 1633; secondly, on 15 Sept. 
1642, Katherine (d. 1698), daughter of James 
Cullen, by whom he left no male issue. 



Oxenedes 



12 



Oxenford 



Oxinden was author of: 1. 'Religionis 
Funus et Hypocritae Finis/ 1647, 4to. A 
satirical poem upon the growth of mushroom 
sects, in Latin hexameters, to which is pre- 
fixed an engraved head of the author. 2. ' Jo- 
bus Triumphans,' 1651, sm. 8vo, a poem of 
similar character to the foregoing, but of much 
greater merit. It has commendatory verses 
by Alex Ross, William Nethersole of the 
Inner Temple, and others. The author was 
much flattered by a report that this poem 
was read in foreign schools. 3. ' Eia/ 
^ao-jAiKi) ; or an Image Royal,' 1660, 12mo. 
4. 'Charles Triumphant : " a Poem,' 1660, 
12mo. He also indited an epitaph in English 
verse on Sir Anthony and Dame Gertrude 
Perceval (this is printed from the tombstone 
in Denton Church in Brydges's ' Censura 
Literaria/x. 25), and prefixed some commen- 
datory verses to Ross's ' Muses Interpreter ' 
(1653). 

[Archseologia Cantiana, vi. 276-283, where 
are given Oxinden's arms and seal, with some 
directions respecting his funeral, and a pedigree 
of the family of Oxenden or Oxinden ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed Bliss, iii. 923 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, vi. 
f . 1 1 1 , in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24492 ; Brydges's 
Censura Lit. x. 359; Gent. Mag. 1796, i. 466; 
Lowndes's Bibliographer's Man. (Bohn), 1756; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 1779, iv. 58.] 

T. S. 

OXENEDES or OXNEAD, JOHN DE 
(d. 1293 ?), is the reputed author of a chro- 
nicle published by Sir Henry Ellis in 1859 
in the Rolls Series. The sole evidence in 
favour of Oxenedes's authorship is based on 
the title of the manuscript (Cotton MS. Nero 
1). 11), which was then believed to be the only 
one extant. But the fact that the title is not 
in the handwriting of the original scribe, 
which is that of the early part of the four- 
teenth century, but in a hand of the middle of 
the sixteenth century, considerably weakens 
the statement. It has been regarded, how- 
ever, as satisfactory by many writers. Whar- 
ton in ' Anglia Sacra ' (i. 405) and Smith in his 
' Catalogue of the Cotton MS.' treat Oxenedes 
as the author. Tanner has given him a 
place in his ' Bibliotheca ' (Bibl. Britannico- 
Hibernica, p. 567), and Sir Henry Ellis 
seemed to have no doubt as to the author- 
ship, though his edition was not very care- 
fully compiled, and he is especially negligent 
in his account of the sources from which the 
Hulmeian Chronicle is derived (cf. Intro- 
duction, pp. vi sq. with Mon. Hist. Germ. 
Scriptt. xxviii. 598). Moreover, the dis- 
covery of another manuscript, belonging to 
the Duke of Newcastle, just after Ellis's edi- 
tion was printed off, has somewhat vitiated 



his conclusions. This manuscript is in a four- 
teenth-century handwriting, and is regarded 
as having been transcribed, not from the Cot- 
ton MS., but from a common lost original. 
A collation of the Duke of Newcastle's MS. 
with the Cotton MS., made by Mr. Knowles, 
was published as an appendix to Ellis's edi- 
tion. It is not clear from the printed edition 
whether this manuscript also ascribes the 
authorship to Oxenedes. 

Nothing is known positively about Ox- 
enedes. His name is plainly derived from 
the little village of Oxnead, on the Bure 
in Norfolk, about four miles south-east of 
Aylsham, and it is therefore usual to assume 
that he was born there. It is clear that the 
chronicle ascribed to him is the work of a 
monk of the great Norfolk Benedictine 
monastery of St. Benet's, Hulme, which is 
situated in the marshes lower down the Bure, 
about ten miles from Oxnead. It is note- 
worthy, however, that Oxnead did not be- 
long to the monks of St. Benet's, and its 
! name is not mentioned either in the chronicle 
or in the cartularies of that house. 

The chronicle of Oxenedes extends from 
the time of Alfred to 1293. The earlier por- 
tion is a compilation of no great value. Up 
to 1258 the writer mainly follows John of 
Wallingford. Between 1258 and 1292 the 
narrative is derived from the Bury St. Ed- 
munds chronicle of John de Tayster and his 
continuators. Up to 1280 there is practically 
nothing fresh added by the Hulme writer 
except some details of the barons' wars in 
1264 and 1265. After 1280 a good deal of 
Norfolk history is mentioned which is not 
found elsewhere, but very little of any im- 
portance that affects general history. The 
chronicle deals fully with the affairs of St. 
Benet's, Hulme, and breaks off abruptly in 
the middle of a sentence announcing the 
election of Robert, Winchelsey as archbishop 
of Canterbury in March 1293. It is thought 
to be evident, from the back of the leaf being 
left blank, that the abrupt conclusion is due 
to the author having ceased his labour, so 
that the death of the writer probably took 
place in 1293. A short chronicle of St. 
Benet's, which is appended to the Newcastle 
manuscript, also ends in 1294. 

[The Introduction of Sir Henry Ellis to his 
edition of the Chronicle in the Kolls Series should 
be compared with the brief but valuable Intro- 
duction by Dr. Liebermann to the extracts con- 
cerning imperial affairs printed by him in 
Monumenta Germanise Historica, Scriptores, 
xxxviii. 598 sq.] T. F. T. 

OXENFORD, JOHN (1812-1877), dra- 
matic author, critic, and translator, born at 
Camberwell on 12 Aug. 1812, was almost 



Oxenford 



Oxenham 



entirely self-educated, though for upwards 
of two years he was a pupil of S. T. Friend 
(cf. Times, 26 Feb. 1877). Being intended 
for the legal profession, he was articled to a 
London solicitor ; his name first appears in 
Clarke's ' Law List ' in 1837. It is stated 
that his uncle, Mr. Alsager, intended him 
to write the money-market article for the 
'Times,' and that he assisted in Alsager's 
office in Birchin Lane for some years, and 
that he wrote soundly on commercial and 
financial matters before devoting himself 
entirely to literature and the drama (cf. Era, 
4 March 1877). He became well acquainted 
with German, Italian, French, and Spanish 
literature in the original, and he translated 
Calderon's ' Vida es Sueno ' in such a manner 
as to evoke a eulogy from G. II. Lewes 
(cf. LEWES, Lope de Vega and Calderon). 
Among other works, Oxenford also translated 
a large portion of Boiardo's ' Orlando Inna- 
morato,' Moliere's ' Tartuffe,' Goethe's ' Dich- 
tung und Wahrheit ' (London, 1846), Jacobs's 
'Hellas,' Kuno Fischer's 'Francis Bacon,' 
' Die Wahlverwandschaften,' Eckermann's 
' Conversations of Goethe ' (London, 1850) 
of which it was said that the translation 
possessed ' qualities of style superior to the 
original' (Athenaeum, 24 Feb. 1877). He 
also edited Flugel's ' Complete Dictionary of 
the German and English Languages,' 1857, 
8vo, and ' The Illustrated Book of French 
Songs from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth 
Century,' 1855, 8vo, and assisted Francis 
HiifFer to translate the words of the Wagner 
selections for the Albert Hall performances 
in 1877. An essay by him on ' Iconoclasm 
in Philosophy ' for the ' Westminster Review,' 
based on Schopenhauer's ' Parerga und Para- 
lipomena,' created a considerable amount of 
interest at a time when Schopenhauer was 
little known and less understood in England. 
Oxenford's essay 'may be called without 
exaggeration the foundation of Schopen- 
hauer's fame both in his own and in other 
countries ' (Fortnightly Review, December 
1876). 

But Oxenford's interests were largely ab- 
sorbed by the stage, and as dramatist and 
dramatic critic he achieved his widest repu- 
tation. His earliest dramatic efforts were 
' My Fellow Clerk ' (1835) and < A Day well 
spent' (English Opera House, 4 April 1835), 
which passed through many editions, and 
was translated into German and Dutch. An 
incomplete list, containing the titles of sixty- 
eight plays, &c., by Oxenford, ranging from 
the above-mentioned works to ' The Porter 
of Havre ' (produced at the Princess's Theatre 
on 15 Sept. 1875), is given in the ' Musical 
World' for 10 March 1877 (cf. Brit. Mus. 



Cat.) A piece by him called ' The Hemlock 
Draught,' which is not generally included in 
the lists of his dramatic works, was produced 
about 1848, when the cast included the elder 
Farren, Leigh Murray, and Mrs. Stirling (cf. 
Era, 11 March 1877). Oxenford also wrote 
a large number of librettos, including those 
to Macfarren's operas, 'Robin Hood' and 
' Helvellyn ' (see MAOFARREKT, SIR G. A., and 
BANISTER, Life of G. A. Macfarren, pas- 
sim), to Benedict's ' Richard Coeur de Lion ' 
and ' Lily of Killarney.' His farce ' Twice 
Killed ' was translated and played in Ger- 
many, and (in the form of an opera, ' Bon 
Soir, Monsieur Pantalon,' the music by A. 
Grisai) at the Opera Comique in Paris in 
1851. 

About 1850 Oxenford became dramatic 
critic to the ' Times ' newspaper, and held 
that position for more than a quarter of a 
century. In 1867 he visited America, and 
subsequently made a tour in Spain. From 
each country he sent a series of articles to 
the 'Times.' Oxenford was at all times a 
voluminous writer to the periodical maga- 
zines of his day, and contributed the article 
' Moliere ' to the ' Penny Cyclopaedia.' Owing 
to ill-health, he was compelled to resign his 
professional appointments some time before 
his death, which took place, from heart- 
disease, at 28 Trinity Square, Southwark, on 
21 Feb. 1877. Eighteen months previously 
he had joined the Roman catholic church, 
and after his death a requiem mass, with 
music by Herr Meyer Lutz, was performed 
at St. George's Cathedral, Southwark. He 
was buried at Kensal Green on 28 Feb. (cf. 
Catholic Standard ; Musical World, 7 April 
1877, p. 249). 

Oxenford was amiable to weakness, and 
the excessive kindliness of his disposition 
caused him so to err on the side of leniency 
as to render his opinion as a critic practically 
valueless. It was his own boast that ' none 
of those whom he had censured ever went 
home disconsolate and despairing on account 
of anything he had written.' His literary 
work, in prose and verse alike, shows much 
facility. 

[A sketch of Oxenford appeared in Tinsley's 
Magazine in March, 1874; Academy, 1877, ii. 
194; Athenaeum, 1877, i. 258; Walford's Men 
of the Time, 9th edit.; Annual Kegister, 1877, 
ii. 138 ; English Cyclopaedia, London, 1857, 
vol. iv. col. 573 ; British Museum Catalogue ; 
Times, 23 Feb. 1877, p. 5 col. 6, 26 Feb. p. 4 
col. 4; authorities cited in the text.] R. H. L. 

OXENHAM, HENRY NUTCOMBE 

(1829-1888), Roman catholic writer, eldest 
son of William Oxenham, a clergyman of 
the church of England, and second master 



Oxenham i 

at Harrow School, by his wife, a sister of 
Thomas Thellusson Carter, afterwards hono- 
rary canon of Christ Church, Oxford, was 
born at Harrow on 15 Nov. 1829. He was 
educated at Harrow and Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, where he obtained a classical scholar- 
ship on 27 Nov. 1846. He graduated B.A. 
(second-class classical honours) in 1850, and 
proceeded M.A. in 1854. An easy and per- 
suasive speaker, and an earnest high church- 
man, he aired his views at the union, of which 
he was president in 1852, and thus spoiled 
his chances of a fellowship. He took holy 
orders in the church of England, and was 
curate first at Worminghall, Buckingham- 
shire (1854), and afterwards at St. Bartholo- 
mew's, Cripplegate. 

During his residence at Worminghall 
Oxenham published a thin volume of re- 
ligious verses, intensely catholic in senti- 
ment and of considerable literary merit, en- 
titled 'The Sentence of Kaires and other 
Poems,' Oxford, 1854, 8vo ; 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1867 ; 3rd edit., with additions and 
suppressions, and the title ' Poems,' London, 
1871. He also edited ' Simple Tracts on 
Great Truths, by Clergymen of the Church 
of England,' Oxford, 1854, 8vo, and com- 
piled a ' Manual of Devotions for the Blessed 
Sacrament,' London, 1854, 8vo. 

In November 1857 Oxenham was received 
into the church of Rome by Dr. (afterwards 
Cardinal) Manning [q. v.] at Bayswater. In the 
following year he justified his secession in a 
' letter to an Anglican friend ' entitled ' The 
Tractarian Party and the Catholic Revival,' 
London, 8vo. He took the four minor orders 
in the church of Rome, but scrupled to go 
further, being unable to rid himself of his 
belief in the validity and consequent indeli- 
bility of his Anglican orders. After some 
time spent at the Broinpton Oratory, a place 
was found for him on the professorial staff 
of St. Edmund's College, Ware, and he 
afterwards held a mastership at the Oratory 
School, Birmingham. In middle life he 
studied in Germany under Dr. Dollinger, for 
whom he always retained a profound venera- 
tion. In 1865 he published 'The Catholic 
Doctrine of the Atonement,' London, 8vo (2nd 
edit. 1869), a work of some value as a con- 
tribution to the history of theological theory ; 
and in 1866 a translation of Dr. Dollinger's 
' First Age of Christianity and the Church,' 
London, 2 vols. 8vo; 3rd' edit. 1877. 

With a view to promoting a better under- 
standing between the Roman and Anglican 
churches, Oxenham greeted the appearance 
of Pusey's ' Eirenicon ' by the publication of 
a sympathetic letter to his friend Father Wil- 
liam Lockhart [q. v.], entitled ' Dr. Pusey's 



i Oxenham 

" Eirenicon " considered in relation to Ca- 
tholic Unity,' London, 1866, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1871 ; and a ' Postscript on Catholic Unity ' 
among the ' Essays on the Reunion of Chris- 
tendom,' edited by the Rev. F. G. Lee, 1867. 
In 1870 he contributed to the ' Saturday Re- 
view ' a series of papers on the proceedings 
at the Vatican council, which were written 
with much pungency in a spirit of intense 
hostility to ultramontanism, and were widely 
read. In 1872 he published a translation of 
Dr. Dollinger's ' Lectures on the Reunion of 
the Churches,' London, 8vo. He attended 
the synod of ' old ' catholics held at Bonn, 
under Dollinger's presidency, in September 
1874, and had at first some sympathy with 
the movement which it initiated, but of its 
later development he entirely disapproved. 
For the English version of Bishop Hefele's 
monumental work, ' The History of Chris- 
tian Councils,' Edinburgh, 1871-83, 3 vols. 
8vo, Oxenham edited and translated the 
second volume, which was published in 
1876. The same year appeared his ' Catholic 
Eschatology and Universalism,' a reprint, 
revised and expanded, of a series of articles 
from the ' Contemporary Review,' vol. xxvii. 
(cf. a reply by the Rev. Andrew Jukes in 
Contemporary Review, vol. xxviii. July 1876, 
and Oxenham's rejoinder in the Christian. 
Apologist, October 1876). In 1879 he edited, 
under the title ' An Eirenicon of the Eigh- 
teenth Century,' a reprint of an anonymous 
' Essay towards a Proposal for Catholic Com- 
munion,' first published in 1704, and com- 
monly ascribed to Joshua Basset [q. v.] In 
1884-5 he reprinted from the ' Saturday Re- 
view ' ' Short Studies in Ecclesiastical His- 
tory and Biography.' and ' Short Studies, 
Ethical and Religious,' London, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Tall, thin, dark-haired, dark-eyed, and 
with the mien and gait of the recluse, Oxen- 
ham might have sat to a painter for ' II 
Penseroso.' In fact, however, he was a keen 
observer of men and things, had little capa- 
city for abstract thought, and still less of 
the submissiveness characteristic of a loyal 
and humble catholic. Throughout lifo he 
retained his affection for the church of Eng- 
land, his belief in the validity of her orders, 
and the friendship of some of her most dis- 
tinguished clergy, while he occasionally at- 
tended her services. He was also an active 
member of a theological society which, from 
its comprehending thinkers of almost all 
shades of opinion, was humorously called the 
' Panhaereticon.' Oxenham died, in the full 
communion of the Roman catholic church, at 
his residence, 42 Addison Road, Kensington, 
on 23 March 1888, and was buried at Chi>le- 
hurst, Kent. 



Oxenham 



Oxford 



Besides the works mentioned above, Oxen- 
ham, who was for many years a regular 
contributor to the ' Saturday Review,' was 
the author of several religious tracts and 
of a ' Memoir of Lieutenant Rudolph de 
Lisle, R.N.,' London, 1886, 8vo. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Boase and Court- 
ney's Bibl. Cornub. p. 1299, and Collect. Cornub. 
p. 646 ; Obituary signed Vicesimus, i.e. John 
Oakley [q. v.], reprinted from Manchester 
Guardian 27 and 31 March 1888, Weekly 
Register 31 March 1888, Saturday Review 
31 March 1888, Athenaeum 31 March 1888, 
Times 26 March 1888, Church Times 29 March 
1888, Tablet 7 Nov. 1857 and 31 March 1888, 
Guardian 29 Feb., 21 March, and 28 March 1888 ; 
Ward's Hist, of St. Edmund's College, pp. 253, 
279 ; Reusch's Rep. Reun. Conf. Bonn, English 
translation, ed. H. P. Liddon, p. xxxix.] 

J. M. R. 

OXENHAM, JOHN (d. 1575), sea-cap- 
tain, of a good Devonshire family settled at 
South Tawton, was with Drake in 1572 at 
the capture of Nombre de Dios [see DRAKE, 
SIR FRANCIS]. He is spoken of as the ship's 
cook, a rating which in a small privateer 
probably corresponded with that of the mo- 
dern purser. In the march across the Isth- 
mus, Oxenham, following Drake, mounted the 
tree at the top of the ridge, and in response 
to Drake's prayer that it might be granted to 
him to sail on the South Sea, which he had 
just seen, is said to have answered that, by 
God's grace, he would follow him. On their 
return to England Drake was for some time 
employed in Ireland ; and when two years had 
passed away, Oxenham, whose reputation as 
a man of courage and ability stood high, re- 
solved to make the attempt by himself. He 
accordingly fitted out a ship of 120 tons, 
with a crew of seventy men, and sailed for 
the Isthmus, where he drew his ship aground 
in a small creek, buried her guns and stores, 
and, with his men, marched across the Isth- 
mus, till, coming to a stream which ran to 
the south, they built a pinnace ' 45 foot 
long by the keel,' and in it sailed down into 
the South Sea, having with them six negroes 
as guides. At the Isle of Pearls they lay 
some ten days, and then captured two small 
barks carrying gold and silver from Quito 
to Panama. With this treasure and some 
pearls found in the island they returned to 
the river down which they had come, stupidly 
dismissing the prizes near its mouth, and 
allowing them to see which way they took. 
Indians from the island had already given 
the alarm at Panama, and a strong party 
of men, commanded by Juan de Ortega, had 
been sent out to look for them. Search- 
ing along the coast, Ortega was directed by 



the prizes to the river the English had en- 
tered ; and when in doubt as to the particu- 
lar branch, he was further informed by the 
feathers of fowls, which the English, as they 
plucked the birds, had carelessly thrown 
into the stream. Ortega was thus able to 
follow them up with certainty, and coming 
on their camp, from which they fled at the 
first alarm, recaptured all the booty. Oxen- 
ham made an attempt to recover the pro- 
perty, but was beaten off with heavy loss. 
He then retreated for his ship, but this had 
been found and removed by a party from 
Nombre de Dios, whence also a body of two 
hundred musketeers was sent to hunt down 
the English. Some, who were sick, fell at, 
once into their hands; the rest, including 
Oxenham, were handed over by the negroes. 
They were taken to Panama, and, being un- 
able to show any commission or authority, 
were, for the most part, put to death there 
as pirates ; but Oxenham and two others, the 
master and the pilot, were sent to Lima and 
there hanged. That Oxenham was a man of 
rude courage would appear certain, but the 
whole conduct of the adventure shows him 
to have been without tact or discretion. He 
excited the ill-will of his own men, and 
made them suspect him of intending to cheat 
them out of their share of the plunder ; he 
failed to win the affection or loyalty of the 
negroes : and a succession of blunders, such 
as those by which Ortega was informed of 
the line of his retreat, could have no other 
result than defeat and ruin. The romantic 
story of his intrigue with a Spanish lady, 
which has been worked with advantage into 
Kingsley's ' Westward Ho ! ' seems to be a 
fiction of a later date. 

[Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, iii. 526 ; 
Purchas his Pilgrimes, iv. 1180 ; The Observa- 
tions of Sir Richard Hawkins in The Hawkins's 
Voyages (Hakluyt Soc.), p. 322 ; Southey's 
British Admirals, iii. 108.] J. K. L. 

OXFORD, EARLS OF. [See VERB, RO- 
BERT DE, third EARL of the first creation, 
d. 1221 ; VERB, JOHN DE, seventh EARL, 
1313-1360; VERB, ROBERT DE, ninth EARL, 
1362-1393; VERB, AUBREY DE, tenth EARL, 
1340P-1400; VERB, JOHN DE, thirteenth 
EARL, 1443-1513; VERB, JOHN DE, sixteenth 
EARL, 1512 P-1562 ; VERB, EDAVARD DE, 
seventeenth EARL, 1550-1604 ; VERB, AU- 
BREY DE, twentieth EARL, 1026-1 70-' $ ; 
HARLEY, ROBERT, first EARL of the second 
creation, 1G61-1724 ; HARLEY, EDAVARD, 
second EARL, 1689-1741.] 

OXFORD, JOHX OF (d. 1200), bishop 
of Norwich, presided, according to Roger of 
Wendover (Rolls Ser. i. 26), at the council 



Oxford 



16 



Oxford 



of Clarendon 'de mandate ipsius regis/ 
13 Jan. 1164. Early in February he was 
sent to Sens, with Geoffrey Ridel [q. T.], arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, and afterwards bishop 
of Ely, to ask from AWamW HI his con- 
sent to the constitutions of Clarendon and the 
substitution of Roger of Pont 1"E veque [q. T.], 
archbishop of York, for Becket as 'papal 
legate. The former request was refused, the 
latter granted in a modified form (Materials 
for t*e Hiiftoryof ArMngkop Tkama* Becket, 
Rolls Ser. v. 85-6, 91-2, L 38). John re- 
turned to Ifrij^MM^ hearing letters from the 
pope dated Sens, 27 Feb., and was with 
Henry H at Woodstock in March (Eno3T, 
Itinerary of Henry II, p. 70). In Novem- 
ber, after Becket's flight, he was sent with 
several bishops and others on an embassy to 
Louis YH and the Count of Flanders, to re- 
quest that they would not receive die arch- 
bishop (GEBVASE OP CJLSTEKBCRT, Rolls 
Ser. L 190). They were not favourably re- 
ceived, and John of Oxford, after again visit- 
ing the pope unsuccessfully (Materials, L 
61), went on to the Empress MtiM to 
whom he accused Becket of contending for 
church privileges for the sake of famml 
ambition and worldly lucre (3>. Rolls Ser. 
v. 145-6). In Aprfl or May 1165 he was 
sent with Richard of Hchester [q. T.], arch- 
deacon of Poitiers, and afterwards bishop of 
Winchester, to negotiate with the Emperor 
Frederic I about the marriage of the king's 
daughter MatiM* to Henry the Lion of 
Saxony. They were present at the council 
of Wurzbnrg on Whitsunday. 23 May (full 
accounts in Material*, v. 1*2 sqq.) At this 
council, so Frederic solemnly declared, the 
Fnjliali envoys swore on their own behalf 
and that of their master to obey the anti- j 
pope Paschal. John of Oxford later on as 
solemnly denied that he had taken any such 
oath (A. v. 450), but he was always hence- 
forth known among Becket's party by the 
nickname of ' Jurator/ On his return he ac- 
companied the king in his disastrous expe- 
dition against the North-Welsh. Shortly 
after this, on the appointment of Henry of 
Beaumont to the see of Bayeux, be wasmade j 
dean of Salisbury (LE NEVE, -Frfi,ed. Hardy, 
ii. 613 ; ETTOS, Itinerary, p. 89), in spite 

nHT tin* p^yf Mm* Siijom"tini at AlgmMW J_Q 

that no one should be appointed without the 
consent of the canons, the greater part of 
whom were in exfle (lf<rfrais, iii. 92, 392). 
On Whitsunday, 12 June 1166, Becket at 
Yezelav formallv excommunicated *< be- 
cause he had ' fallen into damnable heresy by 
taking the oath to the emperor, and had com- 
municated with the schismatic Archbishop 
of Cologne, and had usurped the deanery of j 



fMajhuij couiiaij to the pope's decree' 
<Jtfofrriafe,T.383,388,393,&c.) This sen- 
tence was i mifiimMJ by thtjanpr (&. p. 392). 
The bishop and chapter of Salisbury were 
at the same time warned not to admit him to 
the deanery. On 24 June the bishops of the 
province of Canterbury appealed to the pope 
against the sentence, and Jocelin, bishop of 
Salisbury, warmljetpoiiacd thecauaeof Jiahu. 
of Oxford, and was in consequence suspended 
by the archbishop. John of Oxford appears to 
have abandoned the title of dean for a time 
( ETTMT, Itinerary, p. 1O2). He was sent in 
November on a mnip to Borne. **'*?* 
wrote at once to warn the Archbishop of 
Mainz against him (Materials, rL 52). The 
mission had considerable success. He pro- 
I cored his own absolution and confirmation 
! in the deanery, after he had surrendered 
it absolutely into the pope's lfpiPff. He 
induced the pope to send two ranlinala, 
I Otto and WD]jam r to report upon the dispute 
between Henry and Becket. He appears 
further to have obtained a dispensation from 
the pope far the marriage of Henry's son 
Geoffrey to Constance, the heiress of Brit- 
tany, which opened a prospect of a vast 
coalition among the hoMere of gnat Frank 
fiefe under the "Knglifli king and hostile to 
i Louis YniS. Ti. 140,146, 147,151-3, 170-1 ; 
ETTWT, Itinerary, pp. 102, 103). Protests 
reached Rome from every quarter against this 
change in die JTPBJ attitude ; but the ! 
of Salisbury returned in "pfc j boasting 
everywhere of his success (Materials, vi. 246 
etpassbn). ' Gravisamnm in ecelesta. Gaffi- 
ran agjinlal^iii fecit Johannes de Oxeneford 
quisnoperiuriodeRomana tam&cOetrinm- 
phavit/ wrote Alice, queen of Louis YH. to 
the pope (A. p. 46i*>. In England he was 
still more vigorous in action. In January 
1167 he had an interview with the king in 

fTnJCTMM^ wl mam^-^tfiVrngtmrnA Land- 
ing at Southampton, he found the Bishop of 
Hereford waiting to cross over to Becket. 
' On tmiKma him he forbade him to proceed, 
first in the name of the king, and then of the 
pope. The bishop then inquired ... whether 
he had any letters to that purpose. He 
aiauiliJ that he had, and that the pope for- 
bade him and the other bishops as well either 
to attend [Becket V summons or obey [him] 
in any particular until the arrival of a legate 
de latere *"" papa?- The bishop in- 
sisted on seeing the letters; bathe said that 
he had sent them on with his baggage to 
Winchester. . . . When the Bishopof Lon- 
don saw the letters, he cried aloud as if un- 
able to restrain himself, " Then Thomas shall 
no more be my archbishop'' (*. vi. 151-2). 
On 16 Aug. 1169 the king sent John of 



Oxford 



Oxlee 



Oxford to meet the new legates Gratian and 
Vivian, and he took them to Dom front, and 
was present at the interviews which ensued. 
In November he was sent to Benevento to ! 
negotiate further with the pope. In January 

1170 he returned, bringing letters from the 
pope : he had secured the issue of a new 
commission to compose the quarrel (ib. vii. 
204 seq. 236, &c.) Before many months peace 
had been made, and Becket was escorted to 
England by his old foe, ' famosus ille jurator 
decanus Saresberiensis ' (Materials, iii. 115, 
116, vii. 400 ; GARXIER, p. 160). The duty 
was faithfully performed, and the firmness 
of John of Oxford alone prevented outrage 
upon the archbishop by his enemies on his 
landing (Materials, iii. 118, vii. 403-4; GAR- ; 
XIER, p. 164). He was not at Canterbury at j 
the time of Becket's murder ; but early in ' 

1171 he returned to the king, and during the 
next few years remained either with him or i 
with his son, the young king Henry (EYTOX, ; 
Itinerary, passim). In 1175 his long ser- j 
vices received a further reward. On 26 Xov. ' 
1175 the king, at Eynsham, conferred on him 
the see of Norwich, ' concorde Xorwicen- ! 
sium . . . archiepiscopi conventia, cardinalis 
auctoritate.' He was consecrated ' bishop 
of the East Angles ' at Lambeth by the ; 
Archbishop Richard of Dover [q. v.J on 
14 Dec. (RALPH DE DICETO, Rolls Ser. iii. 403 ; j 
LEXEVE,.Fasfr',ed. Hardy, ii. 459). In 1176 
he was despatched, with three companions, ! 
to escort the king's daughter Johanna to I 
Sicily. The hardships of the journey are 
fully narrated by Ralph de Diceto (Rolls 
Ser. i. 416-17)." He delivered the lady in 
safety on 9 Nov., and returned at once to 
report to the king the success of his embassy 
(ib. pp. 415, 417). In the reconstruction of j 
the judicial system in 1179 John was ap- 
pointed, with the bishops of Winchester j 
(Richard of Ilchester) and Ely (Geoffrey ' 
Ridel), 'archijusticiarius' (id. ii. 435). In 
his later years he appears to have retired from i 
political life. He was present at the corona- j 
tion of King John (RoGEB OF HOVEDEX, iv. 
90). He died on 2 June 1200. His life affords 
a striking example of the entire absence of 
specialisation amongthe men whom Henry II 
employed in his great reforms. He was, as ! 
diplomatist, judge, statesman, and ecclesias- j 
tic, one of the most active of the agents I 
through whom Henry II carried out his ' 
domestic and foreign policy. 

Dr. Giles (Joannis Saresberiemis Ojiera, vol. 
i. pref . pp. xiv-x v) attributed to John of Oxford 
a treatise ' Summa de pcenitentia,' of which ' 
manuscripts exist in the Bodleian Library 
and in the Burgundian Library, Brussels. 
Tanner had previously assigned this to John 

VOL. XLIII. 



of Salisbury. But there is no evidence in- 
ternal or external to support its ascription 
to either author. Xo literary works are as- 
cribed to John of Oxford by any contempo- 
rary writer, but he was a patron of other 
writers, and among them Daniel of Morley 
[q. v.], who dedicated to him his ' Liber de 
Xaturis Inferiorum et Superiorum.' 

[Materials for the Life of Archbishop Thomas 
Becket (Rolls Ser.), eA. Robertson and Sheppard, 
7 vols. ; Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Ser.), ed. 
Stubbs ; Gamier de Pont Sainte-Maxence, ed. 
Hippeau, Paris, 1859 ; Lord Lyttelton's History 
of Henry II ; Lives of Becket by Robertson 
(1859), and Morris (2nd ed. 1885); Stubbs's 
Constitutional History of England ; Eyton's 
Itinerary of Henry II ; Pipe Rolls ; Jones's Fasti 
Ecclesiae Saresberiensis.] W. H. H. 

OXINDEN, HEXRY (1609-1670), poet. 
[See OXEXDEX.] 

OXLEE, JOHX (1779-1854), divine, 
son of a well-to-do farmer in Yorkshire, was 
born at Guisborough in Cleveland, Yorkshire, 
on 25 Sept. 1779, and educated at Sunder- 
land. After devoting himself to business 
for a short time he studied mathematics and 
Latin, and made such rapid progress in 
Latin that in 1842 Dr. Vicesimus Knox 
appointed him second master at Tunbridge 
grammar school. While at Tunbridge he 
lost, through inflammation, the use of an eye, 
yet commenced studying Hebrew, Chaldee, 
and Syriac. In 1805 he was ordained to 
the curacy of Egton near Whitby. In 1811 
he removed to the curacv of Stonegrave, 
from 1815 to 1826 he held the rectory of 
Scawton, and in 1836 the archbishop of 
Y'ork presented him to the rectory of Moles- 
worth in Huntingdonshire. 

Oxlee's power of acquiring languages, con- 
sidering that he was self-educated, has rarely 
been excelled. He obtained a knowledge 
more or less extensive of 120 languages 
and dialects. In prosecuting his studies he 
was often obliged to form his own grammar 
and dictionary. He left among his numt rous 
unpublished writings a work entitled ' One 
hundred and more Vocabularies of suchWords 
as form the Stamina of Human Speech, com- 
mencingwith the Hungarian and terminating 
with the Yoruba,' 1837-40. A large portion 
of his time he spent in making himself 
thoroughly conversant with the Hebrew law 
and in studying the Talmud. His only 
recreation was pedestrian exercise, and he at 
times walked fifty miles to procure a book 
in Hebrew or other oriental language. He 
was a contributor to the ' Ant i- Jacobin 
Review,' ' Valpy's Classical Journal,' the 
' Christian Remembrancer,' the ' Voice of 
Jacob,' the 'Voice of Israel,' the 'Jewish 

c 



Oxlee 



18 



Oxley 



Chronicle,' the 'Jewish Repository,' the 
' Yorkshireman,' and ' Sermons for Sundays 
and Festivals.' He died at Molesworth 
rectory on 30 Jan. 1854, leaving 1 two chil- 
dren: John Oxlee, vicar of Over Silton 1848, 
rector of Cowesby 1863 (both in Yorkshire), 
who died in 1892 ; and an unmarried daughter, 
Mary Anna Oxlee. 

In a minute study which Oxlee made of 
the Hebrew writings he was led to differ on 
many important points both from the Jewish 
and Christian interpreters. His most im- 
portant work is ' The Christian Doctrine of 
the Trinity, the Incarnation, and the Atone- 
ment considered and maintained on the 
Principles of Judaism,' 3 vols. 1815-50. 
During the thirty-four years which elapsed 
between the publication of the first and third 
volumes he was busy collecting materials. 
The work contains a mass of abstruse learn- 
ing. He held that the Jewish rabbis were 
well aware of the doctrine of the Trinity, 
and that in the Talmuds the three persons 
of the Godhead are clearly mentioned and 
often referred to. In his ' Six Letters to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury,' 1842-5, he 
stated his reasons for declining to take any 
part in the society for the conversion of 
the Jews, and his grounds for not believing 
in the personality of the devil. During ten 
years he corresponded with an Israelite re- 
specting the differences between Judaism 
and Christianity. Seven letters, addressed 
to J. M., a Jew, are printed in the ' Jewish 
Repository,' 1815-16. 

His works included, with many con- 
troversial pamphlets and some sermons : 
1. ' Three Letters to the Archbishop Law- 
rence of Cashel on the Apocryphal Publica- 
tions of his Grace (Enoch, Ezra, and Isaiah) 
on the Age of the Sepher Zoar and on the 
Two Genealogies of Christ as given in the 
Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke,' 1854. 
Dr. Nicholls, regius professor of divinity at 
Oxford, expressed his wonder how the im- 
mense number of correct extracts from early 
and late Jewish writers contained in this 
volume could possibly have been obtained by 
a scholar working alone. 2. ' Three Letters 
to Mr. C. Wellbeloved, Tutor of the Uni- 
tarian College, York, on the Folly of separat- 
ing from the Mother Church.' 

He also left many unpublished works, in- 
cluding an Armenian and an Arabic lexicon. 

[Home's Manual of Biblical Bibliography, 
1839, pp. 183, 184; Gent. Mag. 1854 pt. i. 
p. 437, 1855 pt. i. pp. 203-4 ; Whitby Gazette, 
19 Dec. 1857 ; Church Eeview, 22 March 1862 
pp. 175-6, 10 May p. 294; Smith's Old 
Yorkshire, 1882, pp. o5-6 (with portrait); 
Bartle's Synopsis of English History, 2nd ed. 



1886, p. 296 ; information from theKev.J.A. 0. 
Oxlee, the Vicarage, Skipton Bridge, Thirsk.] 

G. C. B. 

OXLEY, JOHN (1781-1828), Australian 
explorer, born in England in 1781, entered 
the royal navy, in which he saw active ser- 
vice in various parts of the world, and ob- 
tained a lieutenant's commission on 25 Nov. 
1807. He went out to Australia, and was 
appointed surveyor-general of New South 
Wales on 1 Jan. 1812. On 6 April 1817, in 
company with Cunningham, king's botanist 
[see CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN, 1791-1839], 
Charles Frazer, colonial botanist, William 
Parr, mineralogist, and eight others, he started 
on an exploring expedition in the interior of 
Australia. They returned on 29 Aug. to 
Bathurst , having during their nineteen weeks' 
travel traced the Lachlan and Macquarie 
rivers, named the Bell and Elizabeth rivers, 
Molle's rivulet, and Mounts Amyott, Mel- 
ville, Cunningham, Stuart, Byng, Granard, 
and Bauer. On 20 May 1818 Oxley started, 
with some companions, on a second expedition. 
In this remarkable j ourney the party traversed 
the whole of the country between Mount 
Harris and Port Macquarie, carrying a 
stranded boat on their shoulders ninety miles 
of the way, discovering and naming the Peel 
and Hastings rivers and Port Macquarie. 
The results showed the need of finding a track 
to the Liverpool Plains, and to the problem 
of many mysteriously flowing rivers added 
the rumour of a great inland sea. On 23 Oct. 
1823 Oxley started in the Mermaid, with 
Lieutenant Stirling and Mr. John Uniacke, 
to find a site for a penal settlement north of 
Sydney. They examined Port Curtis on 
6 Nov. and Boyne river on 11 Nov., reaching 
Moreton Bay on 29 Nov. ; there they found 
a white man named Pamphlet, who gave 
them information which led to the discovery 
of the Brisbane river, on which the capital 
of Queensland now stands. A settlement 
was formed there in August 1824. On 
11 Aug. 1824 Oxley was made a member of 
the legislative council of New South W T ales. 
He married the daughter of James Morton 
of New South Wales, by whom he had a 
family. He died on 25 May 1828. 

Oxley was author of ' Narrative of Two 
Expeditions into the Interior of New South 
W T ales, under the orders of the British Go- 
vernment, in 1817-18' (London, 1820), and 
of a ' Chart of Part of the Interior of New 
South Wales' (1822). His name has been 
adopted as the name of several places in New 
South Wales and Victoria. 

[Heaton's Handbook of Australian Biogr. 
under ' Oxley ' and ' Australian Land Explorers ; ' 
Oxley's Narrative.] H. M. C. 



Oxley 

OXLEY, JOSEPH (1715-1775), quaker, 
eldest son of John Oxley and Ann Peck- 
over of Fakenham, Norfolk, was born at 
Brigg in Lincolnshire on 4 Nov. 1715. His 
parents dying before he was eight years old, 
he was brought up by an uncle, Edmund 
Peckover. After five years at a school at 
Sankey in Lancashire, he was apprenticed to 
a clockmaker at Scarborough, When about 
twenty-three he took a situation in London. 
Soon after he attended a large meeting 
held by George Whitfield [q. v.] on Ken- 
nington Common, and, being extremely short 
in person, was almost crushed to death, until 
noticed ' by a gentlewoman in a coach, who 
fanned him.' This event, he says, led to his 
conversion, and he shortly became a minister 
of the Society of Friends, making continual 
visits in that capacity to Scotland, Ireland, 
and all parts of England. 

In 1741 Oxley returned to Fakenham and 
opened a shop. On 28 June 1744 he married 
Elizabeth Fenn of Norwich, where he esta- 
blished himself as partner in a prosperous 
woollen manufacture. In 1753 his wife died, 
and on 5 Jan. 1757 he married, at Hunting- 
don, Mary Burr, like himself a minister. 

In July 1770 Oxley sailed for America, 
where he visited the meetings in many states. 
.His letters, published by John Barclay as 
No. 5 of his ' Select Series,' under the title j 
' Joseph's Offering to his Children : being 
.Joseph Oxley's Journal of his Life, Travels, 
and Labours of Love in the Faith and Fel- 
lowship of our Lord Jesus Christ,' London, 
1837, contain much interesting information 
about the colonies of Virginia, Maryland, 
and New England. The work was reprinted 
in vol. ii. of the ' Friends' Library,' Phila- 
delphia, 1838, &c. 

Oxley returned to Norwich in April 1772, 
and died there suddenly on 22 Oct. 1775. 
He was buried in the Friends' burial-ground 
at Norwich. 

[Journal mentioned above ; Janney's Hist, of 
Friends, iii. 392 ; Piety Promoted, pt. ix. 1796, 
pp. 43-7 ; Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books.] 

C. F. S. 

OXNEAD, JOHN OF (d.1293?), chroni- 
cler. [See OXENEDES.] 

OYLEY. [See D'OrLET.] 

OZELL, JOHN (d. 1743), translator, son 
of John Ozell of a Leicestershire family, was 
educated at the free school of Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch, and subsequently at Christ's Hospi- 
tal. He chose to enter an accountant's office 
rather than proceed to Cambridge and enter 
the church; and this preference, though it 
excited the derision of Theophilus Cibber and 
others of his biographers, enabled him ' to 



9 Ozell 

escape all those vicissitudes and anxieties in 
regard to pecuniary circumstances which too 
frequently attend on men of literary abilities.' 
He became auditor-general of the city and 
bridge accounts, and also of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral and St. Thomas's Hospital. Notwith- 
standing this 'grave attention to business, 
he still retained an inclination for, and an 
attention to, even polite literature that could 
scarcely have been expected.' His attentions 
to literature took the form of a series of trans- 
lations from foreign classics which were tole- 
rably accurate and probably useful in their 
day, though, as Chalmers significantly says, 
' it was his misfortune to undertake works 
of humour and fancy, which were qualities 
he seemed not to possess himself, and there- 
fore could not do justice to in others.' Among 
his translations was one of Homer's ' Iliad,' 
done from the French of Madame Dacier, and 
dedicated to Richard Steele (5 vols., London, 
12mo, 1712 ; also 1714 and 1734) ; this was 
doubtless the cause of Ozell being promoted 
to a mention in the ' Dunciad,' which pro- 
voked the following extraordinary advertise- 
ment in the ' Weekly Medley ' for 5 Sept. 
1729 : ' As for my learning, the envious wretch 
[Pope] knew, and everybody knows, that the 
whole bench of bishops not long ago were 
pleased to give me a purse of guineas for 
discovering the erroneous translations of 
the Common Prayer in Portuguese, Spanish, 
French, Italian, &c. As for my genius, let 
Mr. Cleland show better verses in all Pope's 
works than Ozell's version of Boileau's " Lu- 
trin" which the late Lord Halifax was so 
pleased with . . . Let him show better and 
truer poetry in the " Rape of the Lock" than 
in Ozell's " Rape of the Bucket," which because 
an ingenious author happened to mention in 
the same breath with Pope's, viz., " Let Ozell 
sing the Bucket, Pope the Lock," the little 
gentleman had like to have run mad, and 
Mr. Toland and Mr. Gildon publicly declared 
Ozell's translation of Homer to be as it 
was prior, so likewise superior to Pope's . . . 
(signed) John Ozell.' Pope responded in a 
satire of eight lines, called ' The Translator,' 
in which Rowe is also gibbeted as one of 
Ozell's chief sponsors. Swift seems to have 
shared his friend's opinion of Ozell's merit, 
as in his sardonic 'Introduction to Polite 
Conversation,' speaking of ' the footing upon 
which he stands with the present chief reign- 
ing wits,' he remarks: ' I cannot conceal with- 
out ingratitude the great assistance I have 
received from those two illustrious writers, 
Mr. Ozell and Captain Stevens. These and 
some others of distinguished eminence in 
whose company I have passed so many agree- 
able hours, as they have been the great re- 

c2 



Ozell 



20 



Ozell 



finers of our language, so it has been my 
chief ambition to imitate them;' and Swift 
elsewhere speaks of Ozell's ' Monthly Amuse- 
ment,' generally some French novel or play 
indifferently translated. In 1728 John Bundy 
[q. v.] commenced issuing a translation of 
Catrou and Rouille's ' Roman History,' and 
thus anticipated Ozell. who considered that 
he had been ill-used, and gave vent to his irri- 
tation in some absurd squibs, ' The Augean 
Stables cleansed of Historical, Philological, 
and Geographical Trumpery,' and ' Ozell's 
Defence.' His only other original work was a 
rather amusing little volume, entitled ' Com- 
mon Prayer not Common Sense, in several 
Places of the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, 
French, Latin, and Greek Translations of the 
English Liturgy. Being a Specimen of Re- 
flections upon the Omissions and Errors in 
the said Translations,' London, 1722, 8vo. 
Ozell died at his house in Arundel Street on 
15 Oct. 1743, and was buried in the church 
of St. Mary Aldermanbury. 

' Though in reality,' says Gibber, ' Ozell 
was a man of very little genius, yet Mr. 
Coxeter asserts that his conversation was sur- 
prisingly pleasing, and that he had a pretty 
good knowledge of men and things.' His 
translations are certainly of mediocre quality. 
They include : 1 . ' Monsieur de Porceaugnac ; or 
Squire Trelooby,' from the French of Moliere, 
1704, 4to. 2. 'Characters Historical and 
Panegyrical of the greatest Men that have 
appeared in France,' from the French of C. 
Perrault, 1704, 8vo. 3. ' Lutrin . . . render d 
into English from the French of Boileau,' 
1708, 8vo (reissues in 1714 and 1752). 4. ' The 
Jealous Estremaduran,' from the Spanish of 
Cervantes, 1710, 8vo. 5. l Le Clerc's Ac- 
count of the Earl of Clarendon's History of 
the Civil Wars,' from the French, 1710, 8vo 
(pt. i. only). 6. ' Dialogue upon Colouring,' 
from the French of R. de Piles, 1711, 8vo. 
7.' The Works of Monsieur Boileau ... to which 
is prefixed his Life by Mr. Des Maizeaux,' 
1712, 8vo. 8. ' Britannicus and Alexander 
the Great,' from the French of Racine, 1714, 
12ino. 9. ' The Cid ; or the Heroic Daughter,' 
from the French of Corneille, 1714, 12mo. 
10. 'The Litigants: a Comedy,' from the 
French of Racine, 1715, 12mo. 11. 'The 
most celebrated Popish Ecclesiastical Ro- 
mance ; being the Life of Veronica of Milan,' 
from the French of Freyre (commenced by 
Geddes and completed by Ozell), 1716, 8vo. 



12. 'Catoof Utica: a Tragedy from the French 
of Des Champs,' 1716, 12mo (' damnably- 
translated,' according to Pope). 13. ' Dis- 
sertation upon the Whigs and Tories,' from 
the French of Rapin Thoyras, 1717, 8vo. 
14. ' Logic ; or the Art of Thinking,' from 
the French of Nicole, 1717, 12mo. 15. ' The 
Spanish Pole-Cat,' from the Spanish of Cas>- 
tillo Solorzano (commenced by Sir Roger 
L'Estrange), 1717, 12mo. 16. 'The Fair 
of Saint Germain,' from the French, 1718, 
8vo. 17. ' Memoirs and Observations in his 
Travels over England,' from the French of 
Francis Maximilian Misson [q. v.], 1719, 8vo. 

18. ' Manlius Capitolinus : a Tragedy,' from 
the French of De la Fosse, 1719, 12mo. 

19. 'The History of Don Quixote,' a revi- 
sion of Motteux's translation, 1719, 12mo (re- 
issued 1725, 1756, 1766, 1803). 20. 'The 
History of the Revolutions that happened in 
the Governments of the Roman Republic,' 
from the French of D'Aubeuf, 1720, 8vo 
(reissued 1721, 1724, 1732, 1740, 1770). 
21. 'An Essay concerning the Weakness of 
the Human Understanding,' from the French 
of Huet, 1725, 8vo. 22. ' Spanish Amuse- 
ments,' from the Spanish of Castillo Solor- 
zano (commenced byL'Estrauge), 1727, 12mo. 
23. ' Persian Letters,' from the French of 
Montesquieu, 1730, 12mo. 24. ' The Cheats 
of Scapin,'from Moliere, 1730, 12mo. 25. ' The 
Miser : a Comedy from Moliere,' 1732, 8vo. 
26. ' The Adventures of Telemachus,' trans- 
lated from Fenelon, 1735, 8vo. 27. 'The 
Art of Pleasing in Conversation,' from the 
French of Ortiguede Vaumoriere, 1736, 12mo. 
28. <THe Works of Rabelais (Urquhart's 
translation), revised and compared with the 
new edition of 31. Le Du Chat,' 1737, 12mo 
(reissued 1750, 1784, 1807, 1844, 1849). 
29. ' The Life of Cervantes,' from the Spanish 
of Mayans y Siscar, 1738, 8vo. 30. 'A 
Voyage into the Levant,' from the French of 
PittondeTournefort, 1741, 8vo. 31. 'Spanish 
Rhodomontades,' from the French of Bran- 
tome, 1741, 8vo ; 1744. 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Baker's Biographia 
Dramatica ; Nichols's Illustrations of Lit. Hist. 
ii. 726 ; Gibber's Lives of the Poets, iv. S-52-.5 ; 
Jacob's Lives of Dramatic Poets, p. 198 ; Swift's 
Works, ed. Scott, vi. 165, ix. 376 ; Pope's Works, 
ed. El win and Courthope, iv. 322, 463-85, vi. 
222, viii. 30 ; Chambers's Cyclopaedia of Lite- 
rature, i. 472; Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 554 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] T. S. 



Paas 



21 



Pace 



PAAS, SIMON (1595 P-1647), engraver. 
[See PASS.] 

PABO (fl. 520 ?), North British king, was, 
according to the oldest Welsh genealogies 
{Harl. MS. 3859), the son of Cenau ap Coel 
Odebog (Cymmrodor, ix. 174, 179). Later 
documents make him the son of Arthwys ap 
Mor ap Cenau (Hengwrt MS. No. 536 ; lolo 
MSS. p. 126), but he appears to have be- 
longed to the beginning rather than to the 
end of the sixth century. In mediaeval 
Welsh literature Pabo is styled ' post Pry- 
dain;' this title appears in the early genealogy 
as 'p. priten,' and is thus shown to be really 
' post Prydyn,' i.e. the pillar of Pictland or the 
north, ' Prydein ' for ' Prydyn ' being a com- 
mon mediaeval mistake (RHYS, Celtic Britain, 
p. 296). Though a northern warrior, Pabo 
is alleged by tradition to have been buried at 
Llanbabo in Anglesey ; the tombstone, bear- 
ing a representation of him in royal array, 
with a (now partially defaced) inscription, was 
discovered in the seventeenth century (Cam- 
brian Register, ii. 486-7), and is ascribed by 
Longueville Jones (Archceol. Cambr. 1861, 
p. 300), Westwood (Lapidarium Walltts, p. 
193), and Bloxam (Archceol. Cambr. 1874, p. 
110) to the reign of Edward III. Llanbabo 
(' the church of Pabo ') is a chapel of Lland- 
deusant, and therefore is probably later than 
Pabo's time ; it may, however, have been 
built to mark a spot already hallowed by 
his grave. Pabo is assigned a place among 
the Welsh saints in two of the printed lists 
(lolo MSS. 105, 126), and the second gives 
some particulars of his history, but both, as 
Phillimore has shown (Byeyones, 1890, pp. 
482, 533-4), are quite untrustworthy. Rhys 
believes a misreading of ' Pabo priden ' to be 
the source of the Palomydes of Malory (Ar- 
thurian Legend, p. 298). Pabo's festival 
was 9 Nov. (lolo MS. 152). 

[Harl. MS. 3859; lolo MSS.; Eees's Welsh 
Saints.] J. E. L. 

PACE, JOHN (1523 P-1590 ?), profes- 
sional fool, born about 1523, was probably 
son of John Pace, a brother of Richard Pace 
[q. v.] (cf. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vol. iv. pt. iii. pp. 1472-3). The elder John 
Pace was appointed custumer of Lynn, Nor- 
folk, in 1522 (13 Hen. VIII), and was after- 
wards settled in London (ib. p. 2344, vol. iii. 
ft. ii. p. 889). Educated at Eton, John the 



younger was elected a scholar of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1539. He apparently left 
the university without a degree, although he 
was popularly credited with being a master 
of arts. That he was soon attached in the 
capacity of jester to the court of Henry VIII 
is often stated, but the statement rests on no 
contemporary authority, and it is possible that 
those who credit Pace with the distinction 
confuse him with another professional fool, 
Robert Saxton, ordinarily called Patch, who, 
after attending Cardinal Wolsey with great 
fidelity until his death, entered the royal 
service (CAVENDISH, Life of Wolsey). There 
seems, however, little doubt that Pace be- 
came jester in the household of the Duke of 
Norfolk before Henry VIII's death, and that, 
in Elizabeth's reign, he was transferred to 
the court. That a man of education like 
Pace should have voluntarily assumed ' the 
fool's coat ' often excited hostile comment. 
To such criticism Pace's friend, John Hey- 
wood [q. v.] the epigrammatist, once answered 
that it was better for the common weal for 
wise men to ' go in fools' coats ' than for fools 
to ' go in wise men's gowns ' (CAMDEN, Re- 
maines, ed. 1857, p. 314). Two examples of 
Pace's wit are extanf, but neither reaches a 
high level of excellence. Cardinal Allen re- 
lates in his ' Apology ' (p. 58) that when the 
English government interdicted the circula- 
tion of catholic books in England, ' madde J. 
Pace, meeting one day with M. Juel [i.e. John 
Jewel, bishop of Salisbury], saluted his lord- 
ship courtly, and said, " Now, my Lord, you 
may be at rest with these felowes, for you 
are quit by proclamation.'" Bacon relates in 
his 'Apophthegms' ( Works, ed. Spedding, 
Ellis, and Heath, vii. 125) that 'Pace the 
bitter fool was not suffered to come at the 
Queen because of his bitter humour. Yet at 
one time some persuaded the Queen that he 
should come to her; undertaking for him 
that he should keep compass. So he was 
brought to her, and the Queen said: " Come 
on, Pace ; now we shall hear of our faults." 
Saith Pace: " I do not use to talk of that that 
all the town talks of.'" Pace was dead before 
1592. 

Nash, in the ' Address to the Printer ' of his 
' Pierce Pennilesse ' (1592), complains that 
the printer's haste in sending the book 
through the press had prevented him from 
appending ' certayne epistles ' which he had 
written ' to the Ghost of Pace, the Duke of 



Pace 



22 



Pace 



Norfolk's jester.' These ' Epistles ' are not 
known elsewhere. 

[Ilurwood's Alumni Eton. p. 1S7; Cooper's 
AthcnwCantubr.i. -130; Gent, Mag. 1820,ii. 410; 
Dornn's Court Fools.] 8. L. 

PACE, RICHARD (1482P-1530), diplo- 
matist niul dean of St. Paul's, is commonly 
said to have been born in or near "Winchester 
about 1482. His epitaph, as given in Wee- 
ver, which states that he died in 1582, aged 
about 40, is clearly wrong. The place and 
time of his birth can be only interred from 
his ' De Fruetu.' There he tells us that he 
was brought up under the superintendence 
of Thomas 1-augton [q. v.], bishop of Win- 
chester, in a'domestiea sehola ' which the 
bishop had established ; and that his skill in 
music, as a boy. attracted the bishop's notice. 
Langton. who was bishop of Winchester from 
1493 till 1500, made him his amanuensis, 
and in due time sent him to study at that 
4 nursery of arts.' Padua. Wood thinks it 
probable t hat . before going abroad, he st udied 
at Queen's College, Oxford, of which Langton 
had been provost. Pace passed from Padua 
to Ferrara, where Erasmus, writ ing in 1521, 
speaks of having met him (A)>. dlxxxix.); 
and he also spent some time at Bologna, 
where he was encouraged to continue his 
studies by a legacy of 107. a year for seven 
years left him by his old patron (KBNNBTT, 
Afanwrriitt Collections, xlv. 102). On his 
return to England he is said to have en- 
tered, or re-entered, Queen's College, Oxford. 
It was probably about this time that he took 
holy orders; lor on 1 May 1510 he was made 
prebendary of South Mnskham, Southwell. 

Towards the close of 1500 Pace went in 
the retinue of Cardinal Bainbridge [q. v.], 
archbishop of York, to Koine. Bainbridge. 
like Langton. had been provost of Queen's, 
and hence, probably, his selection of Pace. 
When the cardinal perished by the hand of 
an assassin, on 14 July 1514, his rival at the 
papal court, Silvestro Gigli [q. v/!, bishop of 
Worcester, was strongly, though it would 
seem unjustly, suspected of having instigated ; 
the murder. Pace exerted himself to the ut- 
most to trace out the author of the crime, 
and thus exposed himself to Cugli's enmity. 
But his loyalty to his master was noticed 
with favour by Pope Leo X, who recom- 
mended him to the English king. On his re- 
turn to England in the spring of 1515, he also 
brought with him a recommendation to Wol- 
sey From Sir Richard Winpfield, brother of j 
the ambassador at the court of Maximilian. ' 
Henry VIII made him his secretary (Wn.\K- 
TON. 7V 7V :;:'<. p. 287), 

' In October 1515 Pace was sent by Wol- 



sey on a difficult and somewhat dangerous 
mission. Henry had become jealous of the 
growing power of France. Her prestige had 
been greatly increased by her unexpected 
victory over the Swiss at the battle of Ma- 
rignano (14 Sept.) The Swiss, sore at their 
repulse, might possibly be induced to attack 
afresh the forces of Francis I on their side of 
the Alps. Pace was entrusted with a limited 
amount of English gold and unlimited pro- 
mises. There is an interesting letter from 
the English envoy to "NVolsey, November 
1515, from Zurich,' in Cotton MS. Vitell. B. 
xviii. (printed in PI-ANTA'S Hittory of the 
JMtvtic Confederacy, ii. 424 sqq. ; and partly 
reprinted in Gftit. May. 1815, pt. i.pp. 308- 
305)). Pace's extant letters graphically de- 
scribe the incidents of his mission : the in- 
satiable greed of the Swiss, the indiscretion 
of Sir Robert Wingtield, the caprices and 
embarrassments of Maximilian, which com- 
bined to render abortive the scheme of 
wresting Milan from the French. His nego- 
tiations with the Swiss led more than once 
to his imprisonment, but in the midst of his- 
cares he found time to compose his treatise, 
4 IV Fructu.' It was written, as he tells us in 
the preface, in a public bath (hypocansto) 
at Constance, far from books or learned 
society. His friend Erasmus was offended 
for a time by a passage which he interpreted 
as a reflection on his poverty, but the cloud 
soon passed away. The people of Constance- 
also found fault with some remarks on tlu> 
drunkenness prevailing among them. On 
the title-page the author describes himself a 
' primarius seeretarius' of the king, a term 
which seems rather to denote the king's chief 
personal secretary than what we should now 
call a secretary of state (see BREWER, ii. 
04). His tact and unt iring energy were duly 
appreciated at home, and on his return i 
1616 he was appointed secretary of state- 
(BRKWF.R, i. 140), besides being rewarded 
with benefices in the church. 

On Sunday 8 Oct. 1518, when a peace be- 
tween England and France was about to be- 
ratified by a marriage contract between tho 
French infant heir and the almost equally 
infantine l*rincess Mary of England, Pace 
made, before a gorgeous throng in St. Paul's* 
Cathedral, ' a good and sufficiently long ora- 
tion,' ' He Pace,' on the blessings of peace. 
After the death of Maximilian, on 12 Jan. 
1519, Henry, Francis I, and Charles (now 
king of Castile) were all regarded as candi- 
dates for the imperial throne. With a view 
to sounding the electors, without appearing 
too openly in the matter. Henry sent l';uv 
into Germany. Pace obtained audiences in 
June and July of the electoral princes, but 



Pace 



Pace 



gained no support for his master, and attri- 
buted bis failure to his late arrival on the 
field. He suffered a severe attack of fever in 
Germany, which rccunvil in November, a 
few months after .his return. His sovereign 
and \Yolsey wore- satisfied with his exertions, 
and the deanery of St. Paul's was one of 
many rewards conferred upon him (25 Oct. 
1519). He was prebendary of Bugthorpe, 
York, 1514; archdeacon of Dorset, 20 May 
!")! I ; treasurer of Lichiield 15 H5, resigned 
1522. He was also made archdeacon of 
Colchester on 1(5 Feb. 1518 19, resigned in 
October of the same year ; prebendary of 
Exeter on 21 March 1519; vicar of St. Dun- 
stan's, Stepney, on 12 May 1519, resigned in 
1527 ; prebendary of Finsbury, London, on 
22 Oct. 1519; vicar of Llangwrig, Mont- 
gomery (this PaceP), 1520; prebendary of 
Combe, Salisbury, on 1(5 Dec. 1521; rector 
of Hangar, Flintshire (this Pace ?). 1522 to 
1527; dean of Exeter, 1522, resigned 1527. 
It is doubtful whether he was also rector of 
Barwiok in El met, near heeds, a benefice 
which was resigned by a Richard Pace in 
1519 (seo Cox, History of Heath School, 
1879, p. 1). Ho was undoubtedly dean of 
Salisbury for some years (Cat. <>f letters 
and Papers, Henry Till, vol. iv. pt, iii. p. 
2099, and v. No. 304, under 1529 and 1531 
respectively). 

In April 1520 he was made, reader in Greek 
at Cambridge, with a yearly stipend of 10/. 
(Letters and Papers of Hairy I*///, iii. 1540). 
There seems no evidence of his having dis- 
cliarged this oflice ; Richard Croke was the 
actual lecturer during that year. There is 
little doubt, however, that it was largely- 
owing to the representations made to the 
king by Pace and More that Greek chairs 
were now founded both at Cambridge and 
Oxford. Erasmus has preserved for us a 
lively scene in which one of the Oxford 
' Trojans,' who resented the introduction of 
the new learning into the nniversitv, was 
playfully confuted in argument in Henry's 
presence by those two congenial spirits 
(Asm \M. ScMolemeutor, ed. Mayor, p. 245). 

But events more exciting than academic 
lectures soon occupied Pace. In June 1520 
he was in attendance on his sovereign at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold, and when all the 
jousts and feasting were over, he again 
preached there on the blessings of peace. 
The strain of incessant work and excitement 
told upon him, and he wrote to "NVolsey that 
he was ill both in mind and body. In the 
following year Pace translated into Latin 
Fisher's sermon preached in support of the 
papal bull against Luther, which was pro- 
mulgated in London on 12 .May 1521. 



On 2 Dec. 1521 Leo X died. Wolsey 
aimed at the papal throne, and the king en- 
tered cordially into the plans for his minis- 
ter's advancement. Accordingly Pace was 
at once despatched to further Wolsey's inte- 
rest with the powerful republic of "Venice. 
Henry said that he was ' sending his very 
heart.' Pace was a favourite with the Vene- 
tian cabinet. Their ambassador in London, 
Giustinian, mentions that he 'had already 
received [probably on his return from Swit- 
zerland, some five years before] greater 
honours 'from the republic ' than became his 
private capacity ; that he had been admitted 
into the bucintor on Ascension Day ' (Rxw- 
nox HUOWN, ii. 142). Hut, with all his 
adroitness, Pace could not effect the object, 
of his mission. On 9. Tan. 1522 Cardinal Tor- 
tosa was elected as Adrian VI. Pace con- 
tinued some time in Home, but in the inter- 
vals of business sought rest, as he had done 
before, at Constance, by translating into 
Latin some short treatises of Plutarch. Tho 
book was printed at Venice in January 1522 
(i.e. 1522-3), and a second and corrected 
edition appeared in the same year. In the 
preface to the later edition, dedicated to Cam- 
peggio, he speaks of the pestilence at Rome, 
and of his own infirm health. 

Pace remained in Italy for more than a 
year. On the death of Adrian VI, on 14 Sept. 
1523, he was at Venice, but was ordered to 
Rome to support once more Wolsey's candi- 
dature for the papacy : but Clement VII was 
elected, and Pace wVnt home. He was wel- 
comed by an ode from his friend Leland. 
Pace had soon fresh employment abroad. 
He had been commissioned to detach the re- 
public of Venice from the side of France, in 
the conflict in which it was expected Francis I 
would soon be engaged with his power- 
ful vassal, Charles, constable of Bourbon. 
Pace's conduct in those transactions shows 
to less advantage than before. Vanity and 
presumption betray themselves. Wolsey was 
believed to be jealous of his influence with 
the king, and to be keeping him away from 
court. It is possible that he was conscious of 
Wolsey's secret dislike. More probably his 
health was failing, and his mind was sharing 
the weakness of the body. In October 1525 
the doge himself urged Pace's recall, on the 
ground of his ill-health. 

No permanent improvement followed his 
return to England. On 21 Aug. 152(5 coad- 
jutors were appointed for him in his deaneries, 
and his mental malady increased. In 1527 
he removed from the deanery of St. Paul's to 
Sion, near Twickenham ; and letters written 
by him from that retreat to a foster-brother, 
John Pace, refute any notion of ill-usage at 



Pace 



Pacifico 



the hands of Wolsey (MiLMAN, quoting Ry- 
mer, xiv. 96). Equally unfounded, accord- 
ing to Brewer (ii. 388 ra.), is the statement, 
in 1529 > of the imperial ambassador, Chapuys, 
that Pace was kept for two years in imprison- 
ment by Wolsey, partly at the Tower, partly 
at Sion House. He was probably under 
some restraint owing to the nature of his 
malady, and he seems to have had enemies 
who used him unkindly in his days of depres- 
sion. His friend Robert Wakefield, writing 
to the Earl of Wiltshire, speaks of the ill- 
treatment Pace endured at the hands of ' an 
enemy of his and mine, or rather a common 
enemy of all.' The letter was written after 
1532, and the oppressor may have been Gar- 
diner (MlLMAN, p. 185). 

A false rumour of Pace's death was cur- 
rent in 1532, and was generally accepted. 
George Lily, a contemporary, says that he 
died ' paulo post Lupsetum,' who died about 
the end of 1530. The true date of his death 
is 1536. On 20 July in that year a dispen- 
sation was granted by (Jranmer to Richard 
Sampson, bishop of Chichester, to hold the 
deanery of St. Paul's in commendam, ' obeunte 
nunc Ricardo Paceo, nuper illius ecclesise 
Decano' (Letters and Papers, xi. 54, ed. 
Gairdner). Pace was buried in the chancel 
of St. Dunstan's, Stepney, near the grave of 
Sir Henry Colet. His epitaph, preserved by 
Weever, was not to be seen there when 
Lysons wrote in 1795. 

Pace was an amiable and accomplished 
man. His skill in the three learned lan- 
guages is praised by his contemporaries. He 
was the friend of More and of Erasmus, and 
Erasmus in his extant correspondence ad- 
dresses Pace more frequently than any other 
correspondent. 

Pace Avrote : 1. ' Richardi Pacei, invictis- 
simi Regis Anglise primarii secretarii,eivsque 
apvd Elvetios oratoris, De Frvctv qui ex 
doctrina percipitvr, Liber. In inclyta Ba- 
silea.' The colophon has ' Basilese apud lo. 
Frobenivm, mense viiJBRi. An. M.D.xvii.' 
It is in small 4to, pp. 114. There are several 
prefatory addresses. The dedication to Dean 
Colet is at pp. 12-16. 2. ' Oratio Richardi 
Pacei in pace nvperime composita et foedere 
percusso: inter inuictissimum Anglise regem, 
et Francorum regem Christ ianissimum in 
sede diui Pauli Londini habita.' The colo- 
phon has 'Impressa Londini. Anno Verbi 
incarnati. M.D.xviij. Nonis Decembris per 
Richardum Pynson regium impressorem.' It 
has ten leaves, not numbered (described in 
the British Museum Catalogue as a 12mo). 
This was translated into French, and pub- 
lished the same year by Jehan Gourmont at 
Paris, with the title : ' OraisS en la louenge 



de la Paix . . . pnuncee par Messire Richard 
Pacee A Londres,' &c. (a copy is in the 
Grenville Library of the British Museum). 

3. 'Plvtarchi Cheronsei Opvscvla De Gar- 
rulitate de Anarchia . . . etc. . . . per eximium 
Richardum Paceum Anglise oratorem elegan- 
tissime versa.' The colophon has ' Venetiis 
per Bernadinum de Vitalibus Venetum 
mense lanuario M.D.xxii.' A corrected edi- 
tion of this, or rather of the treatise ' De 
Auaritia' in it, was issued later in the same 
year by the same printers. Both are thin 
quartos. The dedication of the first is to 
Cuthbert [Tonstall], bishop of London. 

4. The translation into Latin of Bishop 
Fisher's sermon, mentioned above. This was 
printed in ' R. D. D. loannis Fischerii, Rof- 
fensis . . . Opera. Wircebvrgi,' 1597, where 
it begins on p. 1372. 

From 1514 to 1524 the despatches of Pace 
form no inconsiderable portion of the state 
papers of this country. He is also said to 
have written a preface to ' Ecclesiastes.' 

[Brewer's Reign of Henry VIII, i. 112 sqq. ; 
Milman's St. Paul's, 1869, pp. 179 sqq.; Wood's 
Atkenae, ed Bliss, vol. i. col. 64 ; Kennett's 
Manuscript Collections, vol. xlv. (Lansdowne 
MS. 979, f. 102); Le Neve's Fasti; Wake- 
field's Kotser Codicis (1528 ?) leaf O. iv verso 
and leaf P. iii. ; Baker MS. No. 35, in the 
University Library, Cambridge ; Lupset's Epi- 
stolse aliqvot Ervditorum, 1520 (Lupset was 
Pace's secretary) ; Jortin's Erasmus, i. 1 36 sqq. ; 
Lily's Elogia, prefixed to Pauli lovii Descrip- 
tiones, 1561, p. 96; Wharton, De Decanis, p. 
237 ; Eawdon Brown's Four Years at the Court 
of Henry VIII, ii. 142, &c. ; Ellis's Original Let- 
ters, i. 100, 113 ; Wilson's Preface to the Trans- 
lation of Fisher's Sermon in Fischerii Opp. 
1597, p. 1374; Stow's Survey, ed. Strype, 1720, 
vol. ii. App. i. p. 97 ; Elyot's The Governour, ed. 
Croft, i. 168 w.] J. H. L. 

PACIFICO, DAVID (1784-1854), Greek 
trader, calling himself Le Chevalier Paci- 
fico and Don Pacifico, was a Portuguese Jew 
by extraction, but was born a British subject 
at Gibraltar in 1784. From 1812 he was in 
business in the seaport of Lagos, Portugal ; 
afterwards he resided at Mertola ; but, owing 
to the aid which he rendered to the liberal 
cause, his property was confiscated by Don 
Miguel. On 28 Feb. 1835 he was named 
Portuguese consul in Morocco, and on 5 Jan. 
1837 Portuguese consul-general in Greece ; 
but the complaints against him became so 
numerous that he was dismissed from the 
service on 21 Jan. 1842. Soon after this 
period he settled at Athens as a merchant. 
In that city it was customary to celebrate 
Easter by burning an elfigy of Judas Isca- 
riot. In 1847, out of compliment to Baron 
Rothschild, then residing there, the annual 



Pack 



Pack 



ceremony was prohibited ; but, Pacifico's 
house happening to stand near the spot where 
the burning usually took place, the mob in 
a state of excitement tore down and burnt 
the dwelling and its contents. Pacifico 
claimed compensation, not only for his fur- 
niture, &c., but also for lost papers relating 
to his claims on the Portuguese government, 
and laid his damages at the preposterous 
sum of 26.618J. At the same period Dr. 
George Finlay [q. v.], the historian of Greece, 
had also a claim against the Greek govern- 
ment. The Greek ministry delaying to make 
compensation in these and other cases, Lord 
Palmerston, in January 1850, sent the British 
fleet to the Piraeus, when all the Greek ves- 
sels and other ships found within the waters 
were seized. The French government, then 
in agreement with England, sent a commis- 
sioner to Athens to endeavour to arrange 
terms. This attempt at conciliation, however, 
resulted in a quarrel between France and 
England, and the French ambassador, M. 
Drouyn de Lhuys, withdrew from London. 
The House of Lords, on 18 June 1850, by a 
large majority, passed a vote of censure on 
Lord Palmerston for his conduct in this 
matter, but the resignation of the ministry 
was prevented by a vote of the House of 
Commons on 29 June, when there was a 
majority of 46 in favour of the government. 
Ultimately Pacifico received one hundred 
and twenty thousand drachmas for the 
plunder of his house, and 500/. sterling as 
indemnity for his personal sufferings. Thus 
ended an event which nearly evoked a Euro- 
pean war, and disturbed the good relations 
between England and France. 

Pacifico, who finally settled in London, 
died at 15 Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, on 
12 April 1854, and was buried in the Spanish 
burial-ground, Mile End, on 14 April. 

[Hansard's Debates, 1850, and particularly 
Palmerston's Speech on Pacitico's claims, 25 June 
1850, col. 380-444 ; Correspondence respecting 
the demands made upon the Greek government 
in Parliamentary Papers(1850), Nos. 1157, 1179, 
1209, 1211, 1226, 1230, 1233, (1851), Nos. 1297, 
1415 ; Finlay's History of Greece, 1877, vii. 209- 
214 ; McCarthy's History of our own Time, 
1879, ii. 41-62; Gordon's Thirty Years of Fo- 
reign Policy, 1855, pp. 412-25 ; Ashley's Life of 
Lord Palmerston, 1876, i. 176-227; Jewish 
Chronicle, 19 April 1854, p. 15; Gent. Mag. 
June 1854, p. 668.] G. C. B. 

PACK, SIB DENIS (1772 P-1823), 
major-general, is described as a descendant of 
Sir Christopher Packe [q. v.], lord mayor of 
London, whose youngest son, Simon, settled 
in Westmeath, Ireland. Denis, born about 
1772, was son of Thomas Pack, D.D., dean 



of Kilkenny, and grandson of Thomas Pack 
of Ballinakill, Queen's County (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 118). On 30 Nov. 1791 
he was gazetted cornet in the 14th light 
dragoons (now hussars), and served with 
a squadron of that regiment which formed 
the advance guard of Lord Moira's force in 
Flanders in 1794. Pack volunteered to carry 
an important despatch into Nieuwpoort, and 
had much difficulty in escaping from the place 
when the French invested it. He was sub- 
sequently engaged at Boxtel and in the win- 
ter retreat to Bremen. After that retreat 
the 14th squadron was transferred to the 
8th light dragoons, to which it had been 
attached. Pack came home, obtained his 
lieutenancy in the 14th on 12 March 1795, 
and commanded a small party of dragoons 
in the Quiberon expedition, during which he 
did duty for some months as a field-officer 
on Isle Dieu. He received his troop in 
the 5th dragoon guards on 27 Feb. 1796, and 
served with that regiment in Ireland in 1798. 
He had a smart affair on patrol near Pro- 
sperous Avith a party of rebels, who lost 
twenty men and eight horses (CANNON', Hist. 
Rec. of Brit. Army, 5th P. C. N. Dragoon 
Guards, p. 47), and commanded the escort 
which conducted General Humbert and other 
French officers to Dublin after their surren- 
der at Ballinamuck. He was promoted 
to major 4th royal Irish dragoon guards 
from 25 Aug. 1798, and on 6 Dec. 1800 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel 71st high- 
landers. He commanded the 71st at the re- 
capture of the Cape of Good Hope in 1806, 
where he was wounded at the landing in 
Lospard's Bay, and in South America in 
1806-7, where he was taken prisoner, but 
effected his escape. Subsequently he com- 
manded the light troops of the army in two 
successful actions Avith. the enemy, and in 
Whitelocke's disastrous attack on Buenos 
Ayres, in which he received three wounds. 

In 1808 he took the regiment to Portugal, 
commanded it at the battles of Roleia (Roliea) 
and Vimeiro (GuRWOOD, Wellington Desp. iii. 
92) ; in the retreat to and battle of Corufia ; 
and in the Walcheren expedition in 1809, in 
which he signalised himself by storming one 
of the enemy's batteries, during the siege of 
Flushing, with his regiment. He became aide- 
de-camp to the king with the rank of colonel 
on 25 July 1810,was appointed with local rank 
to a Portuguese brigade under Marshal Beres- 
ford, and commanded it at Busaco in 1810, 
and in front of Almeida in May 1811. When 
the French garrison escaped, Pack pursued 
them to Barba del Puerco, and afterwards, by 
Sir Brent Spencer's orders, blew up the de- 
fences of Almeida (cf. GURWOOD, v. 202- 



Pack 



Pack 



204). At the capture of Ciudad Rodrigo, 
Pack, who had been named a British briga- 
dier-general (ib. v. 487), was sent with his 
Portuguese brigade to make a false attack 
on the outwork of the Santiago gate, which 
was converted into a real attack (ib. v. 473). 
He distinguished himself at the battle of 
Salamanca, and was honourably mentioned 
for his services in the operations against 
Burgos. He became a major-general on 4 June 
1813 ; was present with his brigade at Vit- 
toria, and, when in temporary command of 
the 6th division in the Pyrenees, was wounded 
at Sauroren. He commanded a division at 
the battles of Nivelle, the Nive, Orthez, and 
Toulouse, where he was wounded and honour- 
ably mentioned. For his Peninsular services, 
in which he was eight times wounded, he 
received the Peninsular gold cross and seven 
clasps. He was offered a brigade in the ex- 
pedition to America (ib. vii. 427-8), but was 
appointed to command at Ramsgate instead. 
He was made K.C.B. 2 Jan. 1815. 

Pack commanded a brigade of Picton's 
division at Q.uatre Bras and Waterloo, 
where he was again wounded (medal) (ib. 
viii. 147, 150). This was his last foreign 
service. He held the foreign orders of the 
Tower and Sword in Portugal, Maria Theresa 
in Austria, and St. Vladimir in Russia. He 
was appointed colonel of the York chas- 
seurs in 1816, lieutenant-governor of Ply- 
mouth 12 Aug. 1819, and colonel 84th foot 
9 Sept, 1822. He died at Lord Beresford's 
house in Upper Wimpole Street, London, 
24 July 1823. In 1828 his widow erected a 
monument to him, surmounted by a marble 
bust by Chantrey, in the cathedral church of 
St. Canice, Kilkenny, of which his father 
had been dean. 

Pack married, 10 July 1816, Lady Eliza- 
beth Louisa Beresford, fourth daughter of the 
second Earl of Waterford, and sister of the first 
marquis. After his death Lady Pack married, 
in 1831, Lieutenant-general Sir Thomas 
Reynell, K.C.B. , who had been one of 
Pack's majors in the 71st, and who died in 
1848. She died 6 Jan. 1856. 

[Army Lists ; London Gazettes ; Hildyard's 
Hist. Eec. of Brit. Army, 71st Highland Light 
Infantry ; Gurwood's Wellington Desp. vols. iii.- 
viii.; Napier's Hist. Peninsular War (rev. ed.) 
passim; Gent. Mag. 1823 pt. ii. pp. 372-3, 1828 
pt. ii. p. 478. Philippart's Royal Military Calen- 
dar, 1820, vol. iv., contains a lengthy biography 
of Pack, with a particular account of his services 
in South America in 1806-7.] H. M. G. 

PACK, GEORGE (fi. 1700-1724), actor, 
first came on the stage as a singer, and, being 
' as they say a " smock-fac'd youth," used to 
sing the female parts in dialogues with that 



great master, Mr. Leveridge, who has for 
many years charm'd with his manly voice' 
(CHETWOOD, p. 208). In the latter part of 
1699 or the beginning of 1700 Betterton re- 
vived at Lincoln's Inn Fields the ' First Part 
of King Henry IV,' revised by himself. In 
this Pack is first heard of as Westmoreland. 
In 1702 he was the original Stratocles in 
Rowe's ' Tamerlane ; ' Ogle, a fortune-hunter, 
in Mrs. Carroll's (Centlivre) ' Beau's Duel/ 
21 Oct., where he also sang ' a whimsical 
song ; ' and Francisco in the ' Stolen Heiress,' 
31 Dec. ; and played, says Genest, other small 
parts in tragedy. On 28 April 1703 he was 
the original Jack Single in ' As you find 
it,' by the Hon. C. Boyle ; on 2 Feb. 1704 
the first Fetch in Farquhar's ' Stage Coach ; ' 
and, 25 March, Sir Nicholas Empty in Crau- 
ford's ' Love at First Sight.' On 4 Dec. 1704 
he was the original Pinch (the biter) in 
Rowe's comedy, ' The Biter ; ' on 22 Feb. 
1705 Hector in the 'Gamester,' an adapta- 
tion by Mrs. Carroll of ' Le Joueur ' of Regnard, 
and played for his benefit in ' Love Betrayed, 
or the Agreeable Disappointment.' At the new 
house erected for the company by Sir John. 
Vanbrugh in the Haymarket he was, 30 Oct. 
1705, the original Brass in Vanbrugh's ' Con- 
federacy,' and on 27 Dec. Lopez in ' Mistake,' 
Vanbrugh's adaptation of ' Le Depit Amou- 
reux,' and on 23 Aug. 1706 Jo in 'Adventures 
in Madrid ' by Mrs. Pix. In the following sea- 
son, 1706-7, he played Kite in the' Recruiting 
Officer,' Sosia in ' Amphitryon,' Foppingtou 
in the ' City Heiress,' Rabby Busy in ' Bar- 
tholomew Fair,' and other parts, and was the 
original Robin in Mrs. Carroll's ' Platonick 
Lady.' On 1 Nov. 1707 he was the original 
Saunter in Gibber's 'Double Gallant,' His 
first recorded appearance at Drury Lane was 
on 6 Feb. 1708 as Sir Mannerly Shallow in 
Crowne's ' Country Wit.' Here, or with the 
Drury Lane company at the Haymarket, he 
played many parts, including Tattle in ' Love 
for Love,' Tribulation in the ' Alchemist,' 
Leucippe in the ' Humorous Lieutenant/ 
Abel in the ' Committee,' Roderigo in 
' Othello,' Beau in ' ^Esop,' Brush in ' Love 
and a Bottle,' Puny in the ' Cutter of Coleman 
Street,' and several original characters, the 
most important of which were Marplot in Mrs. 
Centlivre's ' Busy-Body' and in ' Marplot, or 
the second part of the Busy-Body,' and Cap- 
tain Mizen in Charles Shadwell's ' Fair Quaker 
of Deal.' He was also, on 27 April 1714, the ori- 
ginal Lissardo in Mrs. Centlivre's ' Wonder.' 
With Rich at the rebuilt theatre in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, he was on 16 Feb. 1715 Sir 
Anthony Thinwit in Molloy's ' Perplexed 
Couple, or Mistake upon Mistake,' borrowed 
from ' Le Cocu Imaffinaire.' On 3 Feb. 1718 



Pack 



Pack 



he was the original Obadiah Prim in ' A Bold 
Stroke for a Wife,' and on 19 April Madame 
Fillette in Molloy's ' Coquet, or the English 
Chevalier.' In Leigh's ' Pretenders,' 20 Nov. 
1719, he was the original Sir Vanity Halfwit. 
On 19 Jan. 1721 he was the first Teartext, 
a sham parson in Odell's ' Chimera.' This 
appears to have been his last original part. 
On 10 March 1722, for the benefit of Mrs. 
Bullock, he played Marplot, the bill an- 
nouncing it as ' being the first time of his 
acting this season, and the last time he will 
act on any stage.' He reappeared, however, 
on 21 April 1724 at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
and for Mrs. Knight's benefit played Daniel 
in ' Oroonoko.' On 7 May 1724 he had a 
benefit, on which occasion the 'Drummer' 
and the ' Country Wake' were given. In the 
latter piece he played Friendly. This is his 
last recorded appearance. 

After his retirement from the stage Pack 
took a public-house at the corner of the 
Haymarket and Pall Mall, which he called 
the ' Busy Body,' placing over it his own 
full-length portrait as Marplot. This, which 
is said to have been highly executed, has 
perished, and no engravingof it can be traced. 
The period of his death has been asked in vain. 
He was certainly dead in 1749. diet wood 
says the name of the tavern which Pack took 
was the Globe. His best parts were Mar- 
plot, Maiden in 'Tunbridge Walks,' and Mizen 
in the ' Fair Quaker of Deal.' ' Indeed,' says 
Chetwood, ' nature seem'd to mean him for 
those sort of characters.' Pack went once 
to Dublin, and experienced a storm at sea, 
by which he was so frightened that to shorten 
the voyage he returned by the north of Ire- 
land and Scotland. So lasting were the effects 
of this terror that he chose to go a long way 
round sooner than cross the river by a boat. 
Being asked by a nobleman to go to France 
for a month, he said, ' Yes, if your Grace will 
get a bridge built from Dover to Calais, for 
Gads curse me if ever I set my foot over 
salt water again !' He was, says Chetwood, 
unmarried, and left no relatives behind him. 

[Such particulars as survive concerning Pack 
are given in Chetwood's General History of the 
Stage, 1749. A list of the characters he played 
longer than is here supplied appears in Genest's 
Account of the English Stage. The particulars 
concerning his tavern sign are supplied in Notes 
and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 180, in an editorial 
communication, presumably from Doran ; Gibber's 
Apology, ed. Lowe, and Doran's Annals of the 
Stage, ed. Lowe, have also been consulted.] 

J. K. 

PACK, RICHARDSON (1682-1728), 
miscellaneous writer, born on 29 Nov. 1682, 
was son of John Pack of London, gentleman, 



| who settled at Stoke Ash in Suffolk, and 
I served as high sheriff of that county in 1697. 
; His mother was daughter and coheiress of 
| Robert Richardson of Tudhoe, Durham. 
After spending a year or two at a country 
school, where his time was wasted, he was 
admitted in 1693 to the Merchant Taylors' 
School, London. On 18 June 1697 he ma- 
I triculated as a fellow-commoner from St. 
I John's College, Oxford, and stayed there 
| for two years, when he left without taking 
! his degree. As his father intended him for 
the law, he became in 1698 a student of the 
Middle Temple, and, after eight terms stand- 
ing, was called to the bar ; but he preferred a 
j more active life, and joined the army. His first 
! command was obtained in March 1705, when 
| he was promoted to the head of a company 
of foot. His regiment served with Marshal 
Staremberg in November 1710 at the battle 
of Villa Viciosa, where his bravery attracted 
the notice of the Duke of Argyll, who ad- 
1 vanced him to the post of major,and remained 
his friend ever after. His subsequent move- 
ments are ascertained from his poems, for at 
every place of abode he indited epistles to- 
! his friends on the hardships in the life of a half- 
! pay officer. He was at Mombris in Catalonia 
in October 1709, when he addressed some 
lines to John Creed of Oundle in Northamp- 
j tonshire, and during the winter of 1712-13 
he was writing to the Campbells from 
Minorca. In June 1714 he was at Ipswich, 
and in the following^ August was dwelling at 
Stoke Ash. He had returned to town in 
1719, and was living in Jermyn Street, St. 
James's, but by 1722 he was at Bury St. 
Edmunds in Suffolk. There he remained for 
some years, and in the spring of 1724 was 
seized with a dangerous illness, from which 
he recovered by the care of Dr. Mead. Early 
in 1725 he moved to Exeter, but he followed 
Colonel Montagu's regiment, in which he was 
then a major, when it was ordered to Aber- 
deen. He died at Aberdeen in September 1728. 
Curll printed for Pack in 1719 'The Life 
of T. P. Atticus, with remarks,' translated 
from the Latin of Cornelius Nepos ; and in 
1735 there appeared ' The Lives of T. P. 
Atticus, Miltiades, and Cimon, with remarks. 
By Richardson Pack. The second edition/ 
He had intended translating most, if not all, 
of the lives, but laziness, love of pleasure, and 
want of health diverted his purpose. When 
Curll issued in 1725 a volume called 'Mis- 
cellanies in Verse and Prose, written by 
the Right Honourable Joseph Addison,' he 
added to it ' an essay upon the Roman Elegiac 
Poets, by Major Pack,' which seems to have 
originally appeared in 1721. The English 
essay was by him, but the translation into 



Pack 



Packe 



Latin was by another hand. It was included, 
both in English and Latin, in Bohn's edition 
of 'Addison's Works,' vi. 599-604. Many 
versions from the Latin poets were included 
in the ' Miscellanies ' of Pack. 

The first volume in the British Museum 
of these ' Miscellanies in Verse and Prose,' 
which was printed by Curll, bears on the 
title-page the date of 1719, but the dedica- 
tion by Pack to ' Colonel William Stanhope, 
envoy-extraordinary and plenipotentiary at 
Madrid,' is dated from London in June 1718. 
In it are translations from Tibullus and 
Propertius, and imitations of Horace and 
Virgil, with many poetic epistles to his 
friends. It also contains prose ' essays on 
study and conversation ' in two letters to 
his friend, Captain David Campbell. The 
second edition of the ' Miscellanies ' is dated 
in 1719, and there were added to it more 
translations, with the essay upon the Roman 
elegiac poets, the life of Atticus, the prologue 
to Sewell's 'Tragedy of Sir Walter Raleigh,' 
and the life of Wycherley. This memoir, a 
very meagre and unsatisfactory production, 
was prefixed in 1728 to an edition of the 
' Posthumous AVorks of AVm.AVycherley.' 

Curll was faithful to Pack throughout his 
life, and in 1725 issued his ' New Collection 
of Miscellanies in Prose and A'erse,' to which 
are prefixed ' An Elegiac Epistle to Major 
Pack, signed AV. Bond, Bury St. Edmunds, 
1725,' and several shorter pieces by various 
hands. It incl uded a letter from Dennis ' on 
some remarkable passages in the life of Mr. 
Wycherley,' which was inserted in the first 
volume of the ' Letters of John Dennis,' 
1721. Both sets of 'Miscellanies' were 
printed at Dublin in 1726, and there ap- 
peared in London in 1729 a posthumous 
volume of ' The whole AVorks of Major R. 
Pack, in Prose and Verse, now collected into 
one volume,' a copy of which is in the Dyce 
collection at the South Kensington Museum. 

In March 1718-9 Curll advertised a poem 
by Pack, entitled ' Morning,' and priced at 
fourpence ; and he printed in 1720 a tale 
called ' Religion and Philosophy, with five 
other pieces. By Major Pack.' Pack's pro- 
logue to Sewell's 'Tragedy of Sir Walter 
Raleigh ' was deemed ' excellent,' and his 
epilogue to Southerne's ' Spartan Dame ' was 
'very much admir'd' (cf. POPE, Works, 1872 
ed. viii. 109). Lines to Pack by Sewell are 
m Sewell's ' New Collection ' (1720), in his 
' Poems ' (1719), and his ' Posthumous Works ' 
(1728). Some of them, including a second 
set, written to him ' at St. Edmonds-Bury, at 
the decline of the South-Sea' (1722), are 
printed in Nichols's ' Collection of Poems ' 
(vii. 145-9); and two of Pack's poems are 



inserted in Southey's ' Specimens of the 
Later English Poets ' (i. 266-70). 

The ' Letter from a supposed Nun in Portu- 
gal to a Gentleman in France, by Colonel 
Pack,' which was added to a volume of 
' Letters written by Mrs. Manley, 1696,' and 
reissued in 1725 as ' A Stage-coach Journey 
to Exeter, by Mrs. Manley, with the Force 
of Love, or the Nun's Complaint, by the 
Hon. Colonel Pack,' has been attributed to 
him, but the date on the first volume and 
the description of the author render the 
ascription improbable. 

[Jacob's Poets, ii. 128-31 ; Gibber's Poets, ir. 
77-80 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Robinson's 
Merchant Taylors, i. 331 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. v. 118, ix. 311-12 ; Pack's Works.] 

W. P. C. 

PACKE, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1593 ?- 
1682), lord mayor of London, son of Thomas 
Packe of Kettering or Grafton, Northamp- 
tonshire, by Catherine his wife, was born 
about 1593. He seems to have been appren- 
ticed at an early age to one John Kendrick, 
who died in 1624, and left him a legacy of 
100/. Packe married a kinswoman of his 
master Kendrick, set up in business in the 
woollen trade on his own account, and soon 
amassed a large fortune. He was an influ- 
ential member of the Drapers' Company, of 
which he became a freeman, and he served 
the office of master in 1648. On 9 Oct. 1646, 
by an ordinance of parliament, he was ap- 
pointed a trustee for applying the bishops' 
lands to the use of the Commonwealth (Hus- 
BAND, Collection of Publicke Orders, 1646, 
922-5). His connection with municipal 
affairs began on 4 Oct. 1647, when he was 
elected alderman of Cripplegate ward. On 
midsummer day 1649 he was chosen one of 
the sheriffs of London and Middlesex, and on 
2 Oct. following was elected alderman of Corn- 
hill, but declined to desert Cripplegate ward 
(City Records, ' Repertory,' Reynardson and 
Andrews, fol. 504 b). His wealth, ability, and 
zeal for the parliamentary cause soon brought 
him extensive public employment. In 1649, 
and perhaps earlier, he was one of the com- 
missioners of customs (State Papers, Dom. 
1650, p. 611). He was also a prominent 
member, and subsequently governor, of the 
Company of Merchant Adventurers, and 
probably on this account was frequently ap- 
pointed, with other aldermen, to advise the 
council in commercial controversies (tb. 1653- 
1654 pp. 64-5, 1654 pp. 148, 315, 1655-6 
pp. 176, 316, 523). According to Thomas 
Burton's 'Diary' (1828, i. 308-10), Packe 
fought hard at the meeting of the committee 
of trade on 6 Jan. 1656-7 for the monopoly 
of the Merchants Adventurers (of which he 



Packe 



Packe 



was then governor) in the woollen trade. 
The committee, however, decided against 
him. In 1654 he was one of the treasurers 
(with Alderman Vyner) of the fund collected 
for the relief of the protestants in Piedmont 
(State Papers, Dom. 1654, passim). This 
involved him in considerable trouble. The 
money was kept back for several years ; 
various instructions were given him by the 
council for its disposal, and nearly 8,000/. 
of the amount was lent by the treasurers to 
public bodies (ib. 1659-60, p. 589). Ulti- 
mately the matter came before the House of 
Commons, which resolved, on 11 May 1660, 
that the money should be paid to the trea- 
surers by 2,000/. monthly from the excise, 
the house also ' declaring ' detestation of any 
diversion of the money (ib. 1660-1 ; cf. also 
ih. 1657-8 and 1659-60 passim). Packe was 
also one of the city militia, and treasurer at 
Avar, receiving in the latter capacity three- 
pence in the pound on all contributions re- 
ceived or paid by him (Mystery of the Good 
Old Cause, 1660, pp. 44-5). 

Packe became lord mayor on 29 Oct. 1654, 
and on 26 March 1655 the Protector, on the 
advice of the council of state, thanked him 
and the rest of the militia commissioners 
of London ' for their forwardness in execu- 
tion of their trust ' ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
Ser. 1655, p. 96). He received orders from 
the council on 3 July to prevent a meeting 
taking place ' in the new meeting-house at 
Paul's ' at which one John Biddle [q. v.] 
was to argue against the divinity of Jesus 
Christ (ib. p. 224). The council also ap- 
pointed him one of the committee of trade 
on 12 July (ib. p. if40), and he was knighted 
by Cromwell at Whitehall on 20 Sept. 
(State Papers, Dom. 1655, pp. 393-4). On 
31 Oct. he was made an admiralty commis- 
sioner (ib. p. 402). Packe was also chosen 
with others on 15 Nov. 165o to meet the com- 
mittee of council appointed to consider the 
proposals of Manasseh Ben-Israel [q. v.] on 
behalf of the Jews (ib. 1655-6, p. 23). On 
25 March 1656 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for securing peace in the city 
of London (ib. p. 238). In the following 
August Packe was presented by the hackney 
coachmen with a piece of plate to stand their 
friend to keep out the parliamentary soldiers 
who were then seeking civil employment (ib. 
1656-7, p. 75). The sum of 16,000/. was 
still due to the state from Packe and his fel- 
low commissioners of customs, and, after 
several petitions and inquiries by the treasury, 
Packe and two others were discharged from 
a share in the obligation, but Alderman 
Avery and Richard Bateman were not ac- 
quitted (ib. 1656-7, pp. 84, 253-4, 291-2, 



1657-8, pp. 8-9, 106-7). In September 1657 
Packe appears as one of the committee of 
parliament for farming the customs (ib. 1657- 
1658, p. 94), and on 25 March he was made, 
with Sir Thomas Vyner, treasurer of the 
fund for the relief of protestant exiles from 
Poland and Bohemia. In January 1655-6 
Cromwell and his council proposed to send 
Packe, with Whitelocke, on an extraor- 
dinary embassy to the king of Sweden, so as 
' to manifest the engagement of the city in 
this business, and in it to put an honour 
upon them ' ( WHITELOCKE, Memorials, 1682, 
p. 619). 

Packe was a representative of the city 
in Cromwell's last parliament, summoned on 
17 Sept. 1656, and on 23 Feb. 1657 he 
brought forward his celebrated ' remon- 
strance,' afterwards called ' a petition and 
advice,' desiring the Protector to assume the 
title of king, and to restore the House of 
Lords. This was agreed to by the House of 
Commons (Journal, vii. pp. 496, 512). Packe, 
with another city alderman, Robert Titch- 
borne, was a member of the new House of 
Lords early in 1658. The new lords ob- 
tained no right of precedency over their 
brother aldermen (State Papers, Dom. 1663- 
1664, pp. 371-2)/ On 11 May Packe lent 
4,000/. to the state to pay the wages of the 
fleet lately returned into port (ib. 1658-9, 
pp. 17, 290). On the Restoration Packe signed 
a declaration, 5 June 1660, together with 
the lord mayor, one of the sheriffs, and ten 
other aldermen, of*' their acceptance of His 
Majesty's free and general pardon, engaging 
by God's assistance to continue His Majesty's 
loyal and obedient subjects '( City Records, 
' Repertory,' Alleyne, fol. 83 ). But he was 
included by the commons (13 June 1660) in 
a list of twenty persons who were to be 
excepted from the act of pardon, and to 
suffer certain penalties, not extending to life, 
to be determined by a future act of parlia- 
ment. This clause was thrown out by the 
lords on 1 Aug. ; but on the next day they 
resolved that sixteen persons, among whom 
Packe was included, should be disqualified 
from holding in future any public office or 
employment under penalty of being excepted 
from the act of pardon (Parliamentary His- 
tory of England, 1808, iv. 70-1, 91). Packe 
was accordingly, with six other Common- 
wealth lord mayors, removed from the office 
of alderman, his last attendance at the court 
of aldermen being on 7 Aug. 1660. His in- 
terest at court, however, nearly availed him 
to procure a baronetcy for Christopher, his 
younger son, a grant for which was issued 
on 29 March 1666 ; but, for some unknown 
cause, the title was not actually conferred 



Packe 



3 



Packe 



(State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 322, 1666-7, 
p. 467). 

Packe's city residence was in Basingliall 
Street, immediately adjoining Black well 
Hall, the headquarters of the woollen trade 
(STOAVE, Survey of London, 1720, bk. iii. p. 68). 
He also had a suburban house at Mortlake 
(LTSONS, Environs of London, 1796, i. 375). 
On 2 March 1649-50 the lease of the manor 
of Prestwold in Leicestershire was assigned 
to him by the corporation, who held it in 
trust for the orphan children of John Acton 
( City Records, ' Repertory,' Foot, fol. 74). 
Shortly afterwards this manor, with the 
neighbouring one of Cotes, was assigned to 
him by Sir Henry Skipwith, the stepfather of 
these orphans (NICHOLS, Leicestershire, vol. 
iii. pt. i. p. 354). After his retirement from 
public office, he spent the remainder of his 
life at the mansion of Cotes. He also pur- 
chased on 19 Jan. 1648-9, for 8,1741. 16s. 6d., 
the manor of the bishops of Lincoln at Buck- 
den in Huntingdonshire, which was for some 
time his occasional residence. 

Packe died on 27 May 1682, and was 
buried in Prestwold church, Leicestershire, 
where there is a fine monument to his memory 
on the north wall of the chancel (figured 
and described in NICHOLS'S Leicestershire, 
vol. iii. pt. i. p. 360, and plate 53). The Latin 
inscription states that he was about eighty- 
four years old at his death. 

Packe was thrice married : first, to Jane, 
daughter of Thomas Newman of Newbury, 
merchant draper, by Ann, daughter of John 
Kendrick, who was mayor of Reading in 
1565; secondly, to Anne, eldest daughter of 
Simon Edmonds, lord mayor of London ; and 
thirdly, to Elizabeth (born Richards), widow 
of Alderman Herring. He had no issue by his 
first and third wives ; but by his second wife, 
Anne, who died in 1657, he had two sons, 
Christopher and Simon, and three daughters, 
Anne, Mary, and Susanna. His portrait is 
engraved by Basire, and published by Nichols 
(History of Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. i. pi. 50, 
p. 355), from an original painting by Corne- 
lius Janssens, still in the possession of the 
family. It represents him in his official 
robes as lord mayor, with laced band and 
tassels, and laced ruffles turned over the sleeve 
of his gown, his right hand resting on a table. 

[Nichols's Hist, of Leicestershire (where, how- 
ever, Packe's parentage is incorrectly given) ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1655-6, passim; Ash- 
mole's Berkshire ; Masson's Milton, passim ; 
Visitation of London, 1633-4 (Harl. Soc.), p. 17 ; 
Stow's Survey of London, ed. Strype, 1754, ii. 
231; Harleian Miscellany, iii. 484; information 
kindly supplied by Alfred E. Packe, esq., and 
the Rev. A. S. Newman.] C. W-H. 



PACKE, CHRISTOPHER (fl. 1711), 
chemist, set up his laboratory in 1670 at the 
sign of the ' Globe and Chemical Furnaces ' in 
Little Moorfields, London, and styled him- 
self a professor of chemical medicine. He 
practised as a quack under powerful patron- 
age, including that of the Hon. Robert Boyle 
and Edmund Dickinson [q. v.], physician to 
the king, and in 1684 he circulated a list of 
his specifics. 

In 1689 he brought out in goodly folio a 
translation of the ' Works of the highly ex- 
perienced and famous chymist, John Rudolph 
Glauber,' accompanied by the original copper- 
plates, which he had purchased at Amster- 
dam. This undertaking occupied him three 
years, and he secured a large number of sub- 
scribers. 

His other publications were chiefly de- 
signed to promote the sale of his specifics, and 
are as follows : 1. ' De Succo Pancreatico; or 
a Physical and Anatomical Treatise of the 
Nature and Office of the Pancreatick Juice,' 
12mo, London, 1674; a translation from the 
Latin of R. de Graaf. 2. Robert Couch's 
' Praxis Catholica ; or the Countryman's Uni- 
versal Remedy,' with additions by himself, 
12mo, London, 1680. 3. ' One hundred 
! and fifty three Chymical Aphorisms,' 12mo, 
London, 1688, from the Latin of Eremita 
Suburbanus, with additions from that of 
Bernardus G. Penotus. 4. ' Mineralogia ; or 
an Account of the Preparation, manifold 
Vertues, and Uses of a Mineral Salt, both in 
Physick and Chyrurgery ... to which is added 
a short Discourse of the Nature and Uses of 
the Sulphurs of Minerals and Metals in cur- 
ing Diseases,' 8vo, London, 1693. 5. 'Medela 
Chymica ; or an Account of the Vertues and 
Uses of a Select Number of Chymical Medi- 
cines ... as also an Essay upon the Acetum 
Acerrimum Philosophorum, or Vinegar of 
Antimony,' 8vo, London, 1708 ; at the end 
of which is a catalogue of his medicines, with 
their prices. 

A son, EDMUND PACKE (fl. 1735), calling 
himself ' M.D. and chemist,' carried on the 
business at the ' Golden Head ' in Southamp- 
ton Street, Covent Garden. He published 
an edition of his father's ' Mineralogia ' (un- 
dated) and ' An Answer to Dr. Turner's 
Letter to Dr. Jurin on the subject of Mr. 
Ward's Drop and Pill, wherein his Ignorance 
of Chymical Pharmacy is fairly exposed/ 
8vo, London, 1735. 

[Packe's works.] Gr. G-. 

^PACKE, CHRISTOPHER, M.D. (1686- 

1749), physician, doubtless son of Christopher 
Packe [q. v.] the chemist, was born at St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire, on 6 March 1686. He 



Packe 



Packer 



was admitted to Merchant Taylors' School on 
11 Sept. 1695 (Register, ed. Robinson, i. 334). 
He was created M.D. at Cambridge (comitiis 
regiis) in 1717, and was admitted a candidateof 
the College of Physicians on 25 June 1723. At 
the request of Robert Romney, the then vicar, 
he gave an organ to St. Peter's Church, St. 
Albans, which was opened on 16 Jan. 1725-6 
(CLTTTTERBtrcK, Hertfordshire, i. 120). About 
1726 Packe settled at Canterbury, where he 
practised with much reputation for nearly a 
quarter of a centurv. He died on 15 Nov. 
1749 (Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 524), and was 
buried in St. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury. 
He had married on 30 July 1726, at Canter- 
bury Cathedral, Mary Randolph of the Pre- 
cincts, Canterbury (Reg. Harl. Soc. p. 77). 
His son Christopher graduated M.B. in 1751 
as a member of Peterhouse, Cambridge, prac- 
tised as a physician at Canterbury, and pub- 
lished ' An Explanation of ... Boerhaave's 
Aphorisms . . . of Phthisis Pulmonalis,' 1754. 
He died on 21 October 1800, aged 72, and was 
buried by the side of his father. 

Packe had a heated controversy with Dr. 
John Gray of Canterbury respecting the 
treatment of Robert Worger of Hinxhill, 
Kent, who died of concussion of the brain, 
caused by a fall from his horse. The rela- 
tives, not satisfied with Packe's treatment, 
called in Gray and two surgeons, who, Packe 
alleged in letters in the ' Canterbury News- 
Letter' of 8 and 15 Oct. 1726, killed the 
patient by excessive bleeding and trepanning. 
He further defended himself in ' A Reply to 
Dr. Gray's three Answers to a written Paper, 
entitled Mr. Worger's Case,' 4to, Canterbury, 
1727. 

Packe wrote also : 1. ' A Dissertation upon 
the Surface of the Earth, as delineated in a 
specimen of a Philosophico-Chorographical 
Chart of East Kent,' 4to, London, 1737. The 
essay had been read before the Royal Society 
on 25 Nov. 1736, and the specimen chart 
submitted to them. 2. ''AyKoypa$i'a, sive 
Convallium Descriptio,' an explanation of a 
new philosophico-chorographical chart of 
East Kent, 4to, Canterbury, 1743. The chart 
itself, containing a 'graphical delineation of 
the country fifteen or sixteen miles round 
Canterbury,' was published by a guinea sub- 
scription in 1743. 

His letters to Sir Hans Sloane, extending 
from 1737 to 1741, are in the British Museum, 
Additional (Sloane) MS. 4055. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878 ; Smith's Bibl- 
Cantiana ; Cough's British Topography.] 

r 1 r* 

PACKE or PACK, CHRISTOPHER 
(fl. 1790), painter, born at Norwich in 1750, 
was son of a quaker merchant belonging to 



a family which claimed connection with that 
of Sir Christopher Packe [q. v.], lord mayor 
of London. Pack showed an early taste for 
painting, but at first was engaged in his 
father's business. On that, however, being 
seriously injured by pecuniary losses, Pack 
adopted painting as a profession, and came 
to London. He made friends with John 
Hamilton Mortimer [q. v.], and also obtained 
an introduction to Sir Joshua Reynolds, mak- 
ing some good copies of the latter's portraits. 
In 1786 he exhibited a portrait of himself 
at the Royal Academy, and in 1787 two 
more portraits. He then returned to Nor- 
wich to practise as a portrait-painter, and 
shortly after went to Liverpool. Having a 
recommendation from Reynolds to the Duke 
of Rutland, then viceroy in Dublin, he re- 
sided there for some years, and obtained 
success as a portrait-painter. About 1796 
he returned to London, and exhibited at the 
Royal Academy two portraits, together with 
' Gougebarra, the Source of the River Lee, 
Ireland,' and ' Edward the First, when Prince 
of Wales, escaping from Salisbury, is rescued 
by Mortimer.' He continued to practise 
after this, but did not again exhibit. The 
date of his death has not been ascertained. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Pasquin's Artists 
of Ireland ; Royal Academy Cat.] L. C. 

PACKER, JOHN (1670 P-1649), clerk 
of the privy seal, born in 1570 or 1572 at 
Twickenham, Middlesex, studied for a while 
at Cambridge, but subsequently migrated to 
Oxford, where he matriculated as a member 
of Trinity College on 13 March 1589-90 
(FOSTER, Alumni Oxon, 1500-1714, iii. 1104). 
He did not graduate. Under the patron- 
age of Lord Burghley, Thomas and Richard, 
earls of Dorset, and the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, he became a great favourite at court. 
On 11 July 1604 he obtained a grant in 
reversion of a clerkship of the privy seal 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10, p. 131). 
Writing to Sir Thomas Edmonds on 17 Jan. 
1610, he states that Thomas, lord Dorset, had 
asked him to be his travelling companion in 
France (Court and Times of James 1, 1848, i. 
104 ; cf. Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 4176). In 
August 1610 he was sent as envoy to Den- 
mark (WiNWOOD, Memorials, iii. 213). With 
Francis Godolphin he had a grant on 23 March 
1614 of the office of prothonotary of the chan- 
cery for life (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611- 
1618, p. 228)! In June 1615 he was acting 
as secretary to Lord-chamberlain Somerset 
(ib. p. 294), and in 1616 was filling a similar 
office for Buckingham. On 7 March 1617 
he was granted an annual pension of 115/. 
from the court of wards on surrendering a 



Packer 



Packer 



like pension from the exchequer and treasury 
of the chamber (ib. p. 440). As evidence of 
the social distinction to which he had at- 
tained, Camden in his 'Annals' states that 
the Marquis of Buckingham, Baron Haye, and 
the Countess of Dorset were sponsors at the 
baptism of one of his children in Westmin- 
sterChurchon 24 Junel618. Hewasnowrich 
enough to buy from Lord Dorset the manor 
of Groombridge in Speldhurst, Kent. In 
1625 he rebuilt Groombridge Chapel, in grati- 
tude for the safe return of Charles, prince of 
Wales, from Spain, on which account it was 
afterwards called St. Charles's Chapel, and 
endowed it with 30/. a year (ib. 1660-1, 
p. 347). Charles, pleased with his loyalty, 
granted him at his coronation the manor of 
Shillingford, Berkshire, where he occasionally 
resided (ib. 1629-31, pp. 355, 357). He also 
owned Donnington Castle in Shaw, Berkshire 
(Archceologia, xliv. 474), and an estate at 
Chilton Foliatt, Wiltshire. In 1628-9 he was 
elected M.P. for West Looe, Cornwall. He 
was one of the commissioners for inquiring 
into the abuses of the Fleet prison in 1635 
( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635, p. 80). When 
Charles in March 1639-40 asked those of his 
subjects on whose loyalty he thought he could 
rely for loans of money, Packer refused to 
comply with his request, and forthwith allied 
himself with the parliament (ib. 1639-40, 
pp. 511, 522). He may have imbibed sound 
constitutional notions from his friend Sir 
John Eliot, but his refusal was looked upon 
as base ingratitude. His property, excepting 
Groombridge, was thereafter sequestered by 
the royalist forces. Donnington Castle was 
garrisoned for the king, and withstood three 
sieges by the parliamentarians (LYSOtfs, Mag. 
Brit. ' Berkshire,' i. 356). On 19 Nov. 1641 
he paid a 'free gift' of 100/. for the affairs of 
Ireland into the chamber of London, and was 
thanked for it (Commons 1 Journals, ii. 320) ; 
and on 1 May 1647 he was appointed a visitor 
of the university of Oxford ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1645-7, p. 551). Packer died in his 
house, 'within the college of Westminster,' 
in February 1648-9, and was buried on the 
15th at St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

By license dated 13 July 1614 he married 
Philippa, daughter of Francis Mills of South- 
ampton (CHESTEK, London Marriage Licences, 
ed. Foster, col. 1005), and had, with other 
issue, four sons, all graduates of Oxford, viz. : 
Robert Packer, M.P. (1616-1687), of Shilling- 
ford ; George Packer (1617-1641), fellow of 
All Souls College; Philip Packer (1620-1683) 
of Groombridge, a barrister of the Middle 
Temple and one of the original fellows of the 
Royal Society (HASTED, Kent, fol. ed. i. 432 ; 
THOMSON, Hist, of Roy. Soc. Appendix, iv.); 



and John Packer, M.D. (1626-1708), of Chil- 
ton Foliatt, a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians (MuNK, Coll. ofPhys. 1878, i. 360). 

Packer is represented as being an excellent 
man of business, but self-seeking, avaricious, 
and treacherous. Among the Lansdowne 
MSS. in the British Museum (No. 693) is a 
neatly written book of Greek and Latin verses 
composed by him while at Cambridge, and 
entitled ' Elizabetha, sive Augustissimse An- 
glorum Principis Encomium.' It is dedicated 
to Lord Burghley, whom Packer addresses 
as his ' Maecenas.' A valuable collection of 
letters and state papers formed by Packer 
passed, after several changes of ownership, 
into the hands of Mr. G. H. Fortescue of 
Dropmore, Buckinghamshire. They were 
calendared in the ' Historical Manuscripts 
Commission,' 2nd Rep. pp. 49-63, and a selec- 
tion of them was edited by Mr. S. R. Gardi- 
ner for the Camden Society in 1871, under 
the title of ' Fortescue Papers.' 

[Chester's Registers of Westminster Abbey, 
pp. 65, 66 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, i. 468, 505 ; 
Bacon's Works, ed. Spedding, xi. xii. xiii. xiv. ; 
Symonds's Diary (Camd. Soc.)] G. G. 

PACKER, JOHN HAYMAN (1730- 
1806), actor, born in 1730, was originally a 
saddler, and followed that occupation in 
Swallow Street, London. He joined Drury 
Lane under Garrick, and is found playing 
Agrippa in Capell's arrangement of ' An- 
tony and Cleopatra' on 3 Jan. 1759. He 
was on 21 May the original Briton, jun., in 
Mozeen's 'Heiress, or Antigallican.' Green 
in ' Arden of Feversham ' followed, and on 
31 Oct. 1759 he was the original Freeman in 
' High Life below Stairs.' He was assigned 
at the outset second and third rate parts, 
and seldom got beyond them. In his later 
years he all but lapsed into utility parts. No 
list of characters has been given, and no 
part seems to have been specially associated 
with his name. In addition to the characters 
named, he was, in Reed's ' Register Office/ 
the original Gulwell, the rascally keeper of 
the office, on 25 April 1761. He also played 
the following parts, some of them original : 
Pisanio in ' Cymbeline,' Freeman in the 
' Musical Lady,' Aimwell in the ' Beaux' 
Stratagem,' Eglamour in ' Two Gentlemen 
of Verona,' Don Rodrigo in Mallet's ' El- 
vira,' Sensible in Havard's ' Elopement,' 
Orsino in ' Twelfth Night,' Wellford in Mrs. 
Sheridan's ' Dupe,' Don Philip or Octavio in 
' She would and she would not,' Woodvil in 
Murphy's ' Choice,' Dorilant in an abridg- 
ment of Wycherley's ' Country Wife,' the 
Earl of Suffolk in Dr. Franklin's ' Earl of 
Warwick,' Patent, a manager, in Garrick's 



Packer 



33 



Packer 



* Peep behind the Curtain, or the New Re- 
hearsal,' Zopiron in Murphy's ' Zenobia,' and 
very many others. His line in his later life 
was, as a rule, old men in tragedy and senti- 
mental comedy. He remained at Drury Lane 
until 1805, when he retired, incapacitated by 
old age, and died on 15 Oct. 1806. His 
private life is said to have been exemplary. 
He was buried in St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 
A portrait in the Mathews collection in the 
Garrick Club is ascribed to Romney. 

[Grenest's Account of the English Stage ; Gil- 
II hind's Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Dictionary; 
Catalogue of Mr. Mathews's Gallery of Thea- 
trical Portraits, 4to, 1833; Gent. Mag. 1806, 
pt. ii. p. 1894.] J. K. 

PACKER, WILLIAM (fi. 1644-1660), 
soldier, entered the parliamentary army early 
in the civil war, and was a lieutenant in 
Cromwell's 'ironsides ' in 1644. In the spring 
of that year he was put under arrest by Major- 
general Crawford for disobedience to orders, 
but obtained his release by the intervention of 
Cromwell. Cromwell explained to Crawford 
that he ' did exceeding ill in checking such 
a man, which was not well taken, he being a 
godly man' (Manchester's Quarrel with Crom- 
well, Camd. Soc. 1875, p. 59). Carlyle sup- 
poses Packer to be the officer referred to in 
Cromwell's letter of 10 March 1G43-4, but 
that officer was a lieutenant-colonel (CAR- 
LYLE, Cromwell, letter 20). In 1646 Packer 
was a captain in Fairfax's regiment of horse 
(SPRIGGE, Anylia Rediviva, ed.1854, p. 331). 
He sided with the army in its quarrel with 
the parliament, and was present at the siege 
of Colchester in 1648 (RusiiwoRTH, vi. 471 ; 
Clarke Papers, ii. 33). At the battle of 
Dunbar he seems to have commanded Crom- 
well's own regiment of horse in the absence 
of its major, and took part in that flank 
attack on the Scottish army which decided 
the issue of the battle (GARDINER, Hist, 
of the Commonwealth, i. 325 ; Memoirs of 
Capt. John Hodgson, p. 147, ed. 1806). In 
1652 Packer became major of the regiment, 
and, as such, was colonel in all but name, re- 
ceiving the salary and exercising all the 
functions of the office on behalf of Cromwell. 
He was still noted for his godliness, and on 
17 July 1653 received a license from the 
council of state authorising him to preach in 
any pulpit in England, if it was not required 
at the time by its legal possessor (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1653-4, p. 13). In 1656 
Packer acted as deputy major-general for 
Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, and Hert- 
fordshire, and had the honour of proceeding 
against Edmund Waller until the Protector 
interfered in behalf of the poet (ib. 1665-6 p. 
305, 1656-7 p. 153). Several of his letters 

VOL. XLIII. 



concerning his proceedings in this office are 
printed among Thurloe's ' Papers ' (v. 187, 
222, 409). By this time he had become a 
man of property, and bought, in conjunction 
with some brother officers, the royal manor 
of Theobalds, Hertfordshire. George Fox 
mentions him as a great enemy to the quakers, 
and describes an interview between himself 
and Packer (Fox, Journal, p. 139). In Crom- 
well's second parliament he represented 
Woodstock ; but he had become discontented 
with the policy of the Protector, and joined 
the opposition in the parliament and the 
army. Cromwell, after failing to convince 
him of the error of his ways by argument, 
deprived him of his command. According 
to Packer's own account, his opposition to 
the revival of the House of Lords was the 
cause of his dismissal. ' I thought it was 
not " a lord's house," but another house. But 
for my undertaking to judge this, I was 
sent for, accused of perjury, and outed of a 
place of 600/. per annum. I would not give 
it up. He told me I was not apt ; I that had 
served him 14 years, ever since he was 
a captain of a troop of horse till he came to 
this power ; and had commanded a regiment 
sevenyears: without any trial or appeal, with 
the breath of his nostrils I was outed, and 
lost not only my place, but a dear friend to 
boot ' (BURTON, Parliamentary Diary, iii. 
165). Packer was returned to Richard Crom- 
well's parliament as member for Hertford, 
but on a petition he was unseated (ib. iv. 
249, 299). On the Restoration of the Long 
parliament that assembly restored Packer to 
the command of his old regiment, regarding 
him as a sufferer for republican principles ; 
but having taken part in the promotion of a 
petition which the house considered dange- 
rous, he was cashiered by vote of 12 Oct. 1659 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 698, 796). He con- 
sequently assisted Lambert to expel the par- 
liament, and was one of the leaders of the 
army during the two months of military rule 
which followed. But the restoration of the 
parliament at the end of December put an 
end to his power ; the command of his regi- 
ment was given to Sir Arthur Haselrig, and 
Packer was ordered to leave London on pain 
of imprisonment (ib. vii. 806, 812). When 
Lambert escaped from the Tower, Packer 
was immediately seized and committed to 
prison (15 April 1660). The Restoration en- 
tailed upon him the loss of the lands he had 
purchased, and, though he escaped punish- 
ment, the government of Charles II con- 
sidered him dangerous, and more than once 
arrested him on suspicion of plots. His wife 
Elizabeth petitioned for her husband's re- 
lease in August 1661, stating that he had 

D 



Packington 



34 



Paddock 



been for three months closely confined in the 
Gate House without being brought to trial 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, pp. 128, 
457). His subsequent history and the date 
of his death are unknown. 

[Authorities cited in the article.] C. H. F. 

PACKINGTON. [See 



PADARN (fl. 550), Welsh saint, is the 
subject of a life printed from the Cottonian 
MS. Vesp. A. xiv. in ' Cambro-British Saints' 
(188-197), and, in a shorter form, in ' Acta 
Sanctorum,' 15 April, ii. 378, and Cap- 

f rave's ' Nova Legenda Anglise,' pp. 258-9. 
t was abridged about 1200, Phillimore thinks 
(Cymmrodor, xi. 128), from a fuller narra- 
tive. According to this account, Padarn 
was born of noble Breton parents named 
Petran and Guean, who both took up the 
religious life upon his birth. While still 
a youth he joined his cousins Cadfan, Tyd- 
echo, and ' Hetinlau ' (Trinio?) in their mis- 
sion to Britain, and with 847 companions 
founded a church and monastery at a place 
called ' Mauritana.' Thence he visited Ire- 
land ; upon his return he founded monas- 
teries and churches throughout Ceredigion 
(Cardiganshire), and set rulers over them. 
Maelgwn Gwynedd (d. 550?) sought to injure 
him, but was himself struck blind, and only 
regained his sight upon ceding to the saint 
the district between the Clarach and the 
Rheidol. David, Teilo, and Padarn journeyed 
together to Jerusalem, and were there con- 
secrated bishops by the patriarch Padarn, 
according to this life, spent the close of his 
career in Brittany, where he founded a 
monastery at Vannes; the jealousy of his 
brothers finally drove him to seek a home 
among the Franks, in whose country he died 
on 15 April. Rhygyfarch's 'Life of St. 
David' (Cambro-British Saints, pp. 135-6) 
and the ' Life of Teilo ' in the ' Liber Lan- 
davensis ' (ed. Rhys and Evans, pp. 103-7) 
also narrate the Jerusalem incident. 

According to the ' Genealogies of the 
Saints,' Padarn was the son of Pedrwn (Old 
Welsh Petrun), the son of Emyr Llydaw 
(Myvyrian Archaiology, 2nd ed. pp. 415, 428; 
Cambro-British Saints, p. 266 : lolo MSS. 
103, 132) ; the Triads speak of him as one of 
the three hallowed guests of the Isle of 
Britain (Myvyrian Arch. pp. 391, 402). 

Padarn stands for the Latin Paternus, and 
the Welsh saint has therefore been identified 
with the bishop of this name who was at the 
council of Paris in 557. But this Paternus 
was bishop of Avranches, not of Vannes, 
and his life, as narrated by Venantius For- 
tunatus, is not to be reconciled in other par- 
tieulars with the Padarn legend. Two 



bishops of Vannes in the fifth century bore 
the name Paternus, and it has been suggested 
that Padarn's supposed connection with the 
see rests upon a confusion with one of his 
earlier namesakes (HADDAN and STTJBBS, 
Councils, i. 145 n.) 

Padarn has been regarded not only as a 
bishop, but also as founder of a diocese of 
Llanbadarn, which is supposed, on the ground 
of the position of the churches which are 
dedicated to him and his followers within the 
district, to have included North Cardigan- 
shire, with parts of Brecknockshire, Radnor- 
shire, and Montgomeryshire (REES, Welsh 
Saints, ip. 216). There was certainly a tradition 
in the time of Giraldus Cambrensis (Itinera- 
rium Kainbrifs, ii. 4) that Llanbadarn Fawr 
had been ' cathedralis,' and that one of the 
bishops had been killed by his own people. 
Geoffrey of Monmouth says that Cynog, St. 
David's successor, was at first bishop of Llan- 
badarn, but there is no other evidence for 
the assumption. The churches dedicated to 
Padarn are Llanbadarn Fawr, Llanbadarn 
Odwyn, and Llanbadarn Tref Eglwys in 
Cardiganshire; Llanbadarn Fynydd, Llan- 
badarn Fawr, and Llanbadarn y Garreg in 
Radnorshire. 

[Authorities cited.] J. E. L. 

PADDOCK, TOM (1823 P-1863), pugi- 
list, was born probably in 1823 at Redditch, 
Worcestershire, whence he obtained his so- 
briquet of the ' Redditch needle-pointer.' A 
burly pugnacious farmer's boy, he developed 
a taste for boxing, and became a strong, 
enduring, and resolute fighter, but never at- 
tained to the first rank as a scientific boxer. 
When his professional career commenced in 
1844 his height was five feet ten and a half 
inches, and his fighting weight was twelve 
stone. In 1844 he beat Parsons, and, meet- 
ing various men soon afterwards, acquired a 
reputation for staunch courage. In 1850 he 
was defeated by Bendigo (William Thomp- 
son of Nottingham), a very shifty performer, 
who was declared winner in consequence of 
a foul blow which his conduct had invited. 
Five years later Paddock was declared 
to be champion of England through de- 
fault of Harry Broome, but forfeited the 
position next year (1856) to Bill Perry (the 
Tipton Slasher). He made two unsuccessful 
attempts to regain the honour. Paddock 
was long ambitious to fight Sayers, who was 
ready to meet him ; but when the meeting 
was in process of arrangement, Paddock fell 
ill. Sayers visited him in the hospital, and, 
learning that he was poor, generously gave 
him 51. On his recovery he renewed his 
application to fight Sayers for the champion- 



Paddy 



35 



Paddy 



ship ; but being unable to raise the usual 
stake of 200^., he appealed to his opponent to 
waive 50L, a request which was at once 
granted. The fight came off in 1858, and 
Paddock was defeated in twenty-one rounds, 
which occupied an hour and twenty minutes. 
It is worthy of record that in the last round 
Sayers, having delivered a crushing blow 
with his left, had drawn back his right hand 
to complete the victory ; but seeing his adver- 
sary staggering forward at his mercy, instead 
of hitting he offered his right hand in friend- 
ship, and led him to his seconds, who ac- 
cepted defeat. Paddock's last fight took 
place in 1860. His opponent was the gigan- 
tic Sam Hurst, who gained the victory by a 
chance blow. 

Paddock died of heart-disease on 30 June 
1863, leaving a reputation for straightforward 
conduct, ' real gameness, and determined per- 
severance against all difficulties.' 

[Miles's Pugilistica, iii. 271, with portrait; 
Fistiana (editor of Bell's Life in London) for 
the results of battles, and Bell's Life for their 
details ; obituary notice in Bell's Life, 5 July 
1863.] W. B-T. 

PADDY, SIK WILLIAM, M.D. (1554- 
1634), physician, was born in London, and 
entered the Merchant Taylors' School in 1569, 
having among his schoolfellows Lancelot 
Andrewes [q. v.], Giles Tomson (afterwards 
bishop of Gloucester), and Thomas Dove 
(afterwards bishop of Peterborough). In 1571 
he entered as a commoner at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, and graduated B. A. in July 1573. 
On 21 July 1589 he graduated M.D. at Leyden, 
and was incorporated on that degree at Ox- 
ford on 22 Oct. 1591. He was elected a fellow 
of his college, where he was contemporary 
with [his friend Dr. Matthew Gwinne [q. v.] 
He was examined at the College of Physi- 
cians of London on 23 Dec. 1589, admitted a 
licentiate on 9 May 1590, and a fellow on 
25 Sept. 1591. He was elected a censor in 
1595, and again from 1597 to 1600, and was 
four times president of the college 1609, 
1610, 1611, and 1618. His only published 
work appeared in 1603, a copy of verses 
lamenting the death of Queen Elizabeth, 
beginning with the unmelodious line ' Ter- 
minus hue rerum meus hue me terminus 
urget;' and after praise of her successor, of 
whom he says ' solus eris Solomon,' ending 
with the wish 'Sic tamen ut medica sis 
sine, salvus, ope.' James I appointed him his 
physician in the first year of his reign, and 
knighted him at Windsor on 9 July 1 603 (MsT- 
CALFE, Hook of Knights). When James I was 
at Oxford on 29 Aug. 1605, Paddy argued be- 
fore hi m against two medical theses, 'Whether 
the morals of nurses are imbibed by infants 



with the milk,' and ' Whether smoking to- 
bacco is favourable to health.' A manuscript 
note of Sir Theodore Mayerne [q. v.] shows 
that the former was a point on which James 
had some personal feeling, and the latter ex- 
pressed one of his best-known prejudices; so 
it may easily be supposed that Paddy ob- 
tained the royal applause. In 1614 the Col- 
lege of Physicians appointed him to plead 
the immunity of the college from arms- 
bearing before the lord mayor, Sir Thomas 
Middleton, and the recorder, Sir Henry Mont- 
agu. He spoke before the court on 4 Oct. 
1614, and pointed out the nature of the acts 
14 and 32 Henry VIII, which state the 
privileges of physicians. A point as to sur- 
geons having arisen, he also maintained that 
' physicians are by their science chirurgeons 
without further examination '(GOODALL, Coll. 
of Physicians, p. 379). The recorder decided 
in favour of the claim of the college. Paddy 
attained to a large practice, and enjoyed the 
friendship of Sir Theodore Mayerne and of 
Dr. Baldwin Hamey the elder. Mayerne 
praises him in his preface to his edition of 
Thomas Muffett's [see MTTITETT, THOMAS] ' In- 
sectorum Theatrum,' published in 1634. On 
7 April 1620, with Matthew Gwinne, he was 
appointed a commissioner for garbling to- 
bacco (RYMER, Fcedera, xvii. 190). It is 
to this office that Dr. Raphael Thorius [q. v.] 
alludes in the eulogium on Paddy, with 
which his poem ' De Paeto sen Tabaco ' (Lon- 
don, 1626) begins : 

Tu Paddseo fave, nee enim praestantior alter 
Morbifugse varias vires agnoseere plantse. 

He was attached to his fellow-collegian 
William Laud [q. v.], and when the puritans 
expressed disapproval of a sermon preached by 
Laud at St. Mary's, Oxford, and persecuted 
him in the university, Paddy called on the 
Earl of Dorset, then chancellor of Oxford, 
and spoke to him in praise of Laud's cha- 
racter and learning. He sat in parliament 
as member for Thetford, Norfolk, in 1604-11. 
When in March 1625 James I was attacked 
by the acute illness, complicating gout, of 
which he died, Paddy was sent for to Theo- 
balds, and, thinking the king's case despe- 
rate, warned him of the end, which ensued 
two day s later. In Paddy's copy of the ' Book 
of Common Prayer' (ed. 1615), preserved in 
St. John's College, Oxford, there is a manu- 
script note which records the king's last 
solemn profession of faith. Paddy died in Lon- 
don on 22 Dec. 1634. He was a munificent 
benefactor of his college at Oxford, to which 
he gave an organ, 1,8001. for the improve- 
ment of the choir, and 1,0001. towards the- 
commons, as well as many volumes to the 

D 2 



Pad rig 



library. He gave 201. to the College of Phy- 
sicians. His tomb is in the chapel of St. 
John's College, and the college possesses a 
portrait of him in his robes as a doctor. 

[Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 100 ; Barney's 
Bustorum aliquot Reliquiae, manuscript in library 
of College of Physicians of London ; Sloane MS. 
2149, in Brit. Mus. ; Clode's Memorials of the 
Guild of Merchant Taylors, London, 1875 ; Wil- 
son's History of Merchant Taylors' School, 2 vols. 
London, 1812 and 1814, in which his poem is 
printed, p. 602 ; Wood's AthenaeOxon.; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.] N. M. 

PADRIG (373-463), saint. [See PA- 
TRICK.] 

PADUA, JOHN OF (_fl. 1542-1549), 
architect, received two royal grants, in 1544 
and in 1549 respectively. In the earlier grant 
an annual wage or fee of two shillings per 
day was given to ' our well-beloved servant 
Johannes de Padua,' ' in consideration of the 
good and faithful service which [he] has done 
and intends to do to us in architecture and in 
other inventions in music.' The fee was to 
commence from the feast of Easter in the 
thirty-fourth year of Henry VIII ; and he is 
further described as ' Devizer of his majesty's 
buildings.' Walpole states that ' in one of 
the office books which I have quoted there 
is a payment to him of 36/. 10s. ; ' but this 
book has not been identified. No docu- 
mentary evidence of any work to which his 
name can be attached seems accessible, al- 
though it is clear, from the terms of these 
grants, that both Henry VIII and Edward VI 
benefited by his skill in architecture as well 
as in music. Attempts have been made to 
identify him with Sir John Thynne [q. v.] 
ofLongleat, John Thorpe [q. v.], the leading 
architect of the Elizabethan period, and Dr. 
John Caius or Keys (1510-1573) [q. v.] of 
Cambridge, but the results reached as yet 
may safely be ignored. Canon J. E. Jackson 
claimed that Henry VIII's Johannes de Padua 
was identical either with John Padovani of 
Verona, a musician (who published several 
works on mathematics, architecture, &c., be- 
tween 1563 and 1589), or with Giovanni or 
John Maria Padovani of Venice, a designer 
in architecture and musician. 

[Rymer's Feedera, fol. 1713. xv. 34, gives the 
patent 36 Henry VIII, p. 21, m. 30, and the 
patent 3 Edward VI, p. 4, m. 21, in xv. 34; 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 4to. 1762; 
Jackson, in Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Magazine, 1886, vol. xxiii. ; Builder, 
20 June 1868. Adam Gielgud, in a paper on 
' Cr-tcow,' mentions the buildings there by 'a' 
or 'the' John of Padua; see English Illustrated 
Magazine, November 1889.] W. P-H. 



36 Pagan 

PAGAN, ISOBEL (d. 1821), versifier, a 
native of New Cumnock, Ayrshire, passed 
her life mainly in the neighbourhood of Muir- 
kirk in that county. She lived alone, in a 
hut previously used as a brick-store, and 
seems to have conducted unchallenged an 
unlicensed traffic in spirituous liquor. Con- 
vivial companions frequently caroused with 
her in the evenings, and enjoyed her singing 
and recitation of verses by herself and others. 
Lame from infancy, she was an exceedingly 
ungainly woman, and she was misanthropical 
both from temperament and slighted affec- 
tions. Offenders dreaded her vituperation. 
Her quaint character and her undoubted 
abilities kept her popular, and secured her 
the means of livelihood. She died on 3 Nov. 
1821, probably in her eightieth year, and 
was buried in Muirkirk churchyard, where 
an inscribed stone marks her grave. 

A ' Collection of Songs and Poems ' by 
Isobel Pagan was published in Glasgow 
about 1805. These uncouth lyrics consist 
largely of personal tributes and references to 
sport on the autumn moors, in which the 
singer delighted. Her name lives, however, 
because legend credits her with the songs 
' Ca' the Yowes to the Knowes ' and the 
' Crook and Plaid,' which are not in her 
volume. Burns, who had the former song 
taken down in 1787 from the singing of the 
Rev. Mr. Clunie, seems to have revised and 
finished it for Johnson's ' Musical Museum ' 
(iv. 249, 316, ed. 1853). Cunningham (Songs 
of Scotland, iii. 276) recklessly attributes it 
to ' a gentleman of the name of Pagan,' of 
whom there is no trace ; Struthers, in ' Harp 
of Caledonia,' gives Isobel Pagan as the 
author ; and the original form of the lyric is 
presumably hers. If, as seems to be un- 
questioned, she was capable of the ' Crook 
and Plaid' a simple and dainty pastoral, 
not to be confounded with H. S. Riddell's 
song with the same title she clearly pos- 
sessed qualities that would have enabled her 
to compose ' Ca' the Yowes to the Knowes.' 

[Contemporaries of Burns, and the More He- 
cent Poets of Ayrshire ; Johnson's Musical Mu- 
seum; Rogers's Scottish Minstrel.] T. B. 

PAGAN, JAMES (1811-1 870),journalist, 
son of James Pagan and Elizabeth Black- 
stock, was born on 18 Oct. 1811 at Trailflat, 
in the parish of Tinwald, near Dumfries, 
where his father was a bleacher. The family 
removed to Dumfries shortly after James's 
birth, and he received a sound education at 
the academy of that town. On leaving 
school he was apprenticed as a compositor in 
the office of the ' Dumfries Courier,' and after- 
wards became a reporter for the paper. He 






Paganel 



37 



Pagan el 



soon left to become partner in a printing the time of Henry I, by the advice of Arch- 
firm in London; but in 1839 he settled in bishop Thurstan (Mon. Angl. vi. 194). He 
Glasgow on the staff of the ' Glasgow Herald,' j confirmed his father's grant to Selby (ib. iii. 

501). It was probably he who was defeated 
at Moutiers Hubert in 1136 by Geoffrey 
Plantagenet (ORDERICTJS VITALIS, v. 69). 



and also edited a little broadsheet, 'The 
Prospective Observer.' 

In 1856 he was appointed successor to 
George Outram [q. v.] as editor of the ' Glas- 
gow Herald,' which he converted from a tri- 
weekly into a daily paper. Under his editor- 
ship the ' Herald' became one of the first pro- 
vincial daily papers. Pagan died in Glasgow 
on 11 Feb. 1870. 

In 1841 Pagan married Ann McXight- 
Kerr, a native of Dumfries, and a personal 
friend of Robert Burns's widow, Jean Ar- 
mour. He had three sons (two of whom 
died in infancy) and two daughters. 

Pagan was a devoted student of Glasgow 
history and antiquities, and published : 
1. ' Sketches of the History of Glasgow,' 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1847. 2. ' History of the Cathe- 
dral and See of Glasgow,' 8vo, Glasgow, 1851. 

3. ' Glasgow Past and Present ; illustrated 
in Dean of Guild Reports . . .,' 2 vols. 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1851 (vol. iii. published in 1856 ; 
another edition, 3 vols 4to, Glasgow, 1884). 

4. ' Old Glasgow and its Environs,' 8vo, 
Glasgow, 1864. 5. ' Relics of Ancient Archi- 
tecture and other Picturesque Scenes in Glas- 
gow,' thirty drawings by Thomas Fairbairn. 
With letterpress description by James Pagan 
and James H. Stoddart, folio, Glasgow, 1885. 

[In Memoriam Mr. James Pagan, printed for 
private circulation ; Stoddart's Memoir in ' One 
Hundred Glasgow Men ; ' private information.] 

G. S-H. 

PAGANEL, RALPH (fi. 1089), sheriff 
of Yorkshire, was probably a member of the 
Norman family which held land at Moutiers 
Hubert in the honour of Lieuvin (ORDERICUS 
VITALIS, v. 69). In 1086 he held ten lord- 
ships in Devon, five in Somerset, fifteen in 
Lincolnshire, fifteen in Yorkshire, and others 
in Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire 
(ELLIS, Domesday, i. 464). He received the 
lands which had belonged to Merleswain 
(FREEMAN, William Rufus, i. 31). In 1088 
he was sheriff of Yorkshire, and seized the 
lands of William of St. Calais, bishop of 
Durham, at the command of William II, 
whose cause he defended at the meeting at 
Salisbury in November 1088 (ib. i. 31, 90). 
In 1089 he refounded the priory of Holy 
Trinity, York, and made it a cell to 
Marinoutier ; to it he gave Drax, his chief 
Yorkshire vill (Mon. Anal. iv. 680). His 
wife's name was Matilda, and he had four 
sons William, Jordan, Elias, and Alan. 

The eldest son, WILLIAM, founded a house 
of Austin canons at Drax or Herlham in 



William Paganel appears on the Yorkshire 
pipe rolls, 1160-2, 1164-5, 1167-9, and 
in the ' Liber Rubeus,' 12 Henry II, as hold- 
ing under the old enfeoffment fifteen knights' 
fees, and half a fee under the new. He 
married Juliana, daughter of Robert of 
Bampton in Devonshire, and had a son Fulk 
(Mon. Angl. v. 202) ; by his second marriage, 
with Avicia de Romeilli, he had a daughter 
Alice (ib. vi. 196), who married Robert de 
Gaunt [see GAUNT, MAURICE DE]. 

His son FULK (d. 1182), baron of Hambie 
in Normandy, was a constant attendant on 
Henry II when abroad. He is found attest- 
ing a charter at Silverston, 1155, urging a 
claim on lands in the possession of Mont St. 
Michel, 1155 (R. DE MONTE, ed. Delisle, ii. 
341) ; in 1166 he was at Fougeres in Brittany, 
1167 at Valognes, 1170 at Mortain and at 
Shaftesbury, 1173 at Mont Ferrand and 
Caen, 1174 at Falaise, 1175 at Caen, always 
with the king. In 1177 he held an assize at 
Caen, acting as king's justiciar; in 1180 he 
was at Oxford, where the king confirmed his 
gift of Renham to Gilbert de Vere (Abbrev. 
Plac. p. 98, Essex), and perhaps in this year 
he confirmed his father's grants to Drax 
(Mon. Anyl. iii. 196). In this year he paid 
one thousand marks for the livery of his 
mother's honour of Bampton (Rot. Pip. Devon. 
26 Henry II, quoted by Dugdale). In June 
1180 he was at Caen and at Bur-le-roy, and 
in 1181 at Clipston with the king. He 
married Lescelina de Gripon or de Subligny. 
sister of Gilbert d'Avranches (STAPLETON, 
Rot. Scacc. vol. ii. p. vi), and had four sons and 
three daughters, Gundreda(6. vol. i.p.lxxix), 
Juliana, and Christiana (Mon. Angl. v. 202). 
His eldest son, William, married Aliauora 
de Vitr6, and died in 1184. 

His second son FULK (d. 1210?), forfeited 
Bampton, but recovered it in 1 1 99 on payment 
of one thousand marks (Rot. Obi. 1 John, m. 
22). In 1190 he confirmed his father's grant 
to Drax (Mon. Anyl. vi. 196). In 1203 he was 
suspected of treachery to John (Rot. Norm. 
4 Joh. in dorso m. 2), but was restored to 
favour on delivering his son as a hostage (Rot. 
Scacc. vol. ii. p. ccxliv). He died about 1210. 
He married first a Viscountess Cecilia, and, 
secondly, Ada or Agatha de Humez (Mon. 
Angl. v. 102), and had two sons,William and 
Fulk. William (d. 1216 ?) sided with the 
barons against John ; his lands were seized, 
and he died about 1216. He married Petro- 



Paganell < 

nilla Poignard ( Rot. Scacc. vol. ii. p. Iv). The 
younger son, Fulk, did homage to Henry III 
in Brittany, and tried to induce him to re- 
cover Normandy (MATT. PARIS, Chron. Maj. 
iii. 197). He was disinherited by Louis IX 
(ib. p. 198). The Yorkshire family died out 
in the fourteenth century. William Paganel 
was the last of his family summoned to Par- 
liament as a baron in the reign of Edward II 
(LYSONS, Devon, p. Ii). 

ADAM PAGANEL (fl. 1210), a member of the 
Lincolnshire branch of this family, founded 
a monastic house at Glandford Bridge in the 
time of John. The Lincolnshire Paynells of 
Boothby were an important family to the 
time of Henry VIII (LELAND, Itin. i. 25). 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Stapleton's Kotuli 
Scaccarii Normannise; Eyton's Court and Itine- 
rary of Henry II ; and authorities cited.] 

M. B. 

PAGANELL or PAINEL, GERVASE 
(fl. 1189), baron and lord of Dudley Castle, 
was the son of Ralph Paganell, who defended 
Dudley Castle against Stephen inl!38(RoG. 
Hov. i. 193), and in 1140 was governor of 
Nottingham Castle under the Empress Maud. 
His grandfather was Fulk Paganell, whose 
ancestry is unknown, but who succeeded to 
the lands of William Fitzansculf before 1100, 
and founded the priory of Tickford, near New- 
port Pagnell. Gervase appears in the pipe 
rolls of Bedfordshire 1162-3, and of North- 
amptonshire 1166-8. In 1166 he certified 
his knights' fees as fifty of the old enfeoff- 
ment, six and one-third of the new (Lib. 
Nig. ed. Hearne, i. 139). He joined with 
the younger Henry in his rebellion, April 
1173" (EYTON, Court and Itin. p. 172). In 
1175 his castle was demolished (RALPH DE 
DICETO, i. 404), and he paid five hundred 
marks for his pardon (Pipe Roll Soc. 22 
Hen. II, Stafford). About 1180 he 
founded a Cluniac priory at Dudley in pur- 
suance of his father's intention, and made it 
subject to W T enlock (EYTON, Shropshire, ii. 
52, n. 16). In 1181 he witnessed the king's 
charter to Marmoutier at Chinon (Mon. Angl. 
vii. 1097). In 1187 he confirmed his father's 
grants to Tykeford (ib. v. 202), and in 1189 
was at Richard I's coronation (BENEDICT, 
ii. 80). He also made gifts to the nunnery 
at Nuneatou (DTJGDALE, Warwickshire, p. 
753). He married the Countess Isabella, 
"widow of Simon de Senlis, earl of Northamp- 
ton [q. v.], and daughter of Robert, earl of 
Leicester. His son Robert died under age, 
and his lands passed to his sister (not his 
daughter, as she is sometimes called ; Mon. 
Angl. v. 202), who married John de Somery, 
baron oi Dudley, and secondly, Roger de 



J Page 

Berkley [see DUDLEY, JOHN (Sr/TTON) DE]. 
His seal is shown in 'Monasticon Angli- 
canum,' v. 203. Nichols (Leicestershire, iv. 
220, ii. 10, iii. 116) gives the arms of the 
Paganell family. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Stapleton's Rotuli 
Scaccarii Normannise ; Eyton's Court and Itine- 
rary of Henry II.] M. B. 

PAGE, BENJAMIN WILLIAM (1765- 
1845), admiral, born at Ipswich on 7 Feb. 
1765, entered the navy in November 1778, 
under the patronage of Sir Edward Hughes 
[q. v.], with whom he went out to the East 
Indies in the Superb, and in her was present 
in the first four actions with Suffren. In 
December 1782 he was appointed acting lieu- 
tenant of the Exeter, and in her took part in 
the fifth action, on 20 June 1783. In August 
he was moved into the Worcester ; in the 
following February to the Lizard sloop; and 
in September to the Eurydice frigate, in which 
he returned to England in July 1785. His 
commission as lieutenant was then confirmed, 
dating from 20 Nov. 1784. From 1786 to 
1790 he was on the Jamaica station in the 
Astrtea frigate, commanded by Captain Peter 
Rainier [q. v.], whom he followed to the 
Monarch in the Channel for a few months 
during the Spanish armament. In December 
1790 he was appointed to the Minerva, in 
which he went out to the East Indies ; in 
August he was transferred to the Crown, and 
in her returned to England in July 1792. In 
January 1793 he was appointed to the Suffolk, 
again with Rainier, and in the spring of 1794 
went out in her to the East Indies. In Sep- 
tember Rainier promoted him to command 
the Hobart sloop, a promotion afterwards 
confirmed, but only to date from 12 April 
1796. 

In consequence of Page's long acquaint- 
ance with eastern seas, he was ordered, in 
January 1796, to pilot the squadron through 
the intricate passages leading to the Mo- 
luccas, which were taken possession of with- 
out resistance, and proved a very rich prize, 
each of the captains present receiving, it was 
said, 15,000^. Unfortunately for Page, some 
important despatches were found on board a 
Dutch brig which was taken on the way, and 
the Hobart was sent with them to Calcutta. 
Page was thus absent when Amboyna was 
captured, and did not share in the prize 
money (JAMES, Nav. Hist. i. 415). In De- 
cember 1796 he convoyed the China trade 
from Penang to Bombay with a care and 
success for which he was specially thanked 
by the government, and by the merchants 
presented with five hundred guineas. In 
February 1797 he was appointed acting- 



Page 



39 



Page 



captain of the Orpheus frigate, but a few 
months later he received his post rank from 
the admiralty, dated 22 Dec. 1796, and was 
ordered to return to England. In January 
1800 he was appointed to the Inflexible, 
which, without her lower-deck guns, was 
employed during the next two years on 
transport service in the Mediterranean. She 
was paid off in March 1802, and in November 
Page commissioned the Caroline frigate, in 
which in the following summer he went to 
the East Indies, where he captured several 
of the enemy's privateers, and especially two 
in the Bay of Bengal, for which service the 
merchants of Bombay and of Madras seve- 
rally voted him a present of five hundred 
guineas. In February 1805 he was trans- 
ferred to the Trident, as flag-captain to 
Vice-admiral Rainier, with whom he re- 
turned to England in October. In 1809-10 
Page commanded the sea-fencibles of the 
Harwich district, and from 1812 to 1815 the 
Puissant guardship at Spithead. He had no 
further service afloat, but became, in course 
of seniority, rear-admiral on 12 Aug. 1819, 
vice-admiral 22 July 1830, admiral 23 Aug. 
1841. During his retirement he resided 
principally at Ipswich, and there he died on 
3 Oct. 1845. He had married Elizabeth, 
only child of John Herbert of Totness in 
Devonshire; she died without issue in 1834. 

[Statement of Services in Public Record 
Office ; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; Marshall's 
Hoy. Nav. Biogr. i. 767; Ralfe's Nav. Biogr. iv. 
256.] J. K. L. 

PAGE, DAVID (1814-1879), geologist, 
was born on 24 Aug. 1814 at Lochgelly, 
Fifeshire, where his father was a mason and 
builder. After passing through the parochial 
school, he was sent, at the age of fourteen, 
to the university of St. Andrews, to be edu- 
cated for the ministry. He obtained various 
academic distinctions ; but the attractions of 
natural science proved superior to those of 
theology, so that when his university course 
was ended he supported himself by lecturing 
and contributing to periodical literature, 
acting for a time as editor of a Fifeshire 
newspaper. In 1843 he became ' scientific 
editor ' to Messrs. W. & R. Chambers in 
Edinburgh, and while thus employed wrote 
much himself. In July 1871 he was ap- 
pointed professor of geology in the Durham 
University College of Physical Science at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. But his health already 
was failing, owing to the insidious advance 
of paralysis, and he died at Newcastle on 
9 March 1879, leaving a widow, two sons, 
and one daughter. 

Page was elected F.G.S. in 1853, was 



president of the Geological Society of Edin- 
burgh in 1863 and 1865, and was a member 
of various other societies. In 1867 the uni- 
versity of St. Andrews honoured him with 
the degree of LL.D. 

He contributed some fourteen papers to 
scientific periodicals, among them those of 
the Geological and the Physical Society of 
Edinburgh and the British Association. 
But his strength lay not so much in the 
direction of original investigation as in that 
of making science popular ; for he was not 
only an excellent lecturer, but also the 
author of numerous useful text-books on 
geological subjects. Among the best known 
of them at least twelve in number are 
' The Earth's Crust ' (1864, Edinburgh ; 6th 
edit. 1872), the text-books (both elementary 
and advanced) of ' Geology ' and of ' Physical 
Geography; ' these have gone through nume- 
rous editions, and ' Geology for General 
Readers' (I860; 12th edit. 1888). The 
' Handbook of Geological Terms' (1859) was 
a useful one in its day. Page is also sup- 
posed to have aided Robert Chambers [q. v.] 
in writing the 'Vestiges of the Natural His- 
tory of Creation.' He did real service in 
awakening an interest in geology among the 
people, especially in the north ; for, as it was 
said in an obituary notice, by his clear method 
and graphic illustrations ' geology lost half 
its terrors by losing all its dryness.' Indus- 
trious and unwearied, with literary tastes 
and some poetic power, he was a good teacher, 
and was generally 'respected. 

[Obituary Notices in Nature, xix. 444 ; Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. 1880, Proc. p. 39; Trans. 
Edin. Geol. Soc. iii. p. 220.] T. G. B. 

PAGE, SIR FRANCIS (1661 P-1741), 
judge, the second son of Nicholas Page, 
vicar of Bloxham, Oxfordshire, was admitted 
to the Inner Temple on 12 June 1685, and 
called to the bar on 2 June 1690. In Fe- 
bruary 1705 he appeared as one of the coun- 
sel for the five Aylesbury men who had 
been committed to Newgate by the House 
of Commons for the legal proceedings which 
they had taken against the returning officer 
for failing to record their votes (HowELL, 
State Trials, 1812, xiv. 850). The House 
of Commons thereupon resolved that Page 
and the other counsel who had pleaded on 
behalf of the prisoners upon the return of 
the habeas corpus were guilty of a breach 
of privilege, and ordered their committal to 
the custody of the sergeant-at-arms (Jour- 
nals of the House of Commons, xiv. 552). 
Page, however, evaded arrest, and parlia- 
ment was soon afterwards prorogued in 
order to prevent a collision between the two 



Page 



Page 



houses. At the general election in May 
1708 Page was returned in the whig in- 
terest to the House of Commons for Hunt- 
ingdon. He continued to represent that 
borough until the dissolution in August 
1713, but no report of any speech by him is 
to be found in the ' Parliamentary History.' 
He was elected a bencher of the Inner 
Temple in 1713, and, having been knighted 
by George I on 21 Jan. 1715, was made a 
king's serjeant on the 28th of the same 
month. On 15 May 1718 he was appointed 
a baron of the exchequer in the room of Sir 
John Fortescue Aland [q.v.] Page was 
charged by Sir John Cope in the House of 
Commons on 1 Feb. 1722 ' with endeavour- 
ing to corrupt the borough of Banbury in 
the County of Oxon for the ensuing election 
of a Burgess to serve in Parliament for the 
said borough ' (ib. xix. 733). After the evi- 
dence had been heard at the bar of the house 
he was acquitted, on 14 Feb., by the narrow 
majority of four votes (ib. xix. 744, 745 ; see 
also Par/. Hist. vii. 961-5). On 4 Nov. 1726 
Page was transferred from the exchequer to 
the court of common pleas, and in Septem- 
ber 1727 he was removed to the king's bench, 
where he sat until his death. He died at 
Middle Aston, Oxfordshire, on 19 Oct. 1741, 
aged 80, and was buried in Steeple Aston 
Church, where he had previously erected a 
huge monument, with full-length figures of 
himself and of his second wife by Peter 
Scheemakers [q. v.] 

Page has left behind him a most unenvi- 
able reputation for coarseness and brutality, 
which is hardly warranted by the few re- 
ported cases in which he took part. Among 
his contemporaries he was known by the 
name of ' the hanging judge.' Pope thus 
alludes to him in the ' Dunciad ' (book iv. 
lines 27-30): 

Morality, by her false Guardians drawn, 
Chicane in Furs, and Casuistry in Lawn, 
Grasps, as they straiten at each end the cord, 
And dies, when Dulness gives her Page the word. 

And again in his ' Imitations of Horace ' 
(satire i. lines 81-2) : 

Slander or poison dread from Delia's rage, 
Hard words or hanging if your judge be Page. 

Though the name was originally left blank 
in the last line, Page, according to Sir John 
Hawkins, sent his clerk to complain of the 
insult. Whereupon Pope ' told the young 
man that the blank might be supplied by 
many monosyllables other than the judge's 
name. " But, sir," said the clerk, "the judge 
says that no other word will make sense of 
the passage." " So then, it seems," said Pope, 
"your master is not only a judge, but a poet : 



as that is the case, the odds are against me. 
Give my respects to the judge, and tell him 
I will not contend with one that has the 
advantage of me, and he may fill up the 
blank as he pleases'" (JOHNSON, Works, 1810, 
xi. 193 n.) Fielding makes Partridge tell a 
story of a trial before Page of a horse-stealer 
who, having stated by way of defence that 
he had found the horse, was insultingly 
answered by the judge: 'Ay! thou art a 
lucky fellow. I have travelled the circuit 
these forty years, and never found a horse 
in my life ; but I will tell thee what, friend, 
thou wast more lucky than thou didst know 
of; for thou didst not only find a horse, but 
a halter too, I promise ' ( The History of Tom 
Jones, bk. viii. chap xi.) Johnson, in his 
account of the trial of Richard Savage for 
the murder of James Sinclair, refers to 
Page's ' usual insolence and severity,' and 
quotes his exasperating harangue to the jury 
( JOHNSON, Works, x. 307-8) ; while Savage 
himself wrote a bitter ' character ' of him, 
beginning with the words ' Fair Truth, in 
courts where justice should preside ' (CHAL- 
MEKS, English Poets, 1810, xi. 339). As Page 
was tottering out of court one day towards 
the close of his life, an acquaintance stopped 
and inquired after his health : ' My dear sir,' 
he answered with unconscious irony, ' you 
see I keep hanging on, hanging on.' 

Page took part in the trials of John 
Matthews for high treason (HowELL, State 
Trials, xv. 1323-1403) ; of William Hales 
for forgery (ib. xviii. 161-210); of John 
Huggins, warden of the Fleet Prison, for 
the murder of Edward Arne (ib. xviii. 309- 
370) ; and of Thomas Bambridge [q.v.], war- 
den of the Fleet Prison, for the murder of 
Robert Castell (ib. xviii. 383-95). His judg- 
ment in Ratcliffe's case on appeal to the 
lords delegates from the commissioners for 
the forfeited estates is given at some length 
in Strange's ' Reports ' (179o), i. 268-77. 

Page married, first, on 18 Dec. 1690, Isa- 
bella White of Greenwich, Kent, who was 
buried at Bloxham, Oxfordshire. He mar- 
ried, secondly, on 11 Oct. 1705, Frances, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Wheate, bart., of 
Glympton, Oxfordshire, who died on 31 Oct. 
1730, aged 41. He left no issue by either 
wife. By his will, which was the source of 
much litigation before Lord-chancellor Hard- 
wicke, he devised his Oxfordshire estates to 
his great-nephew, Francis Bourne, on con- 
dition that he took the surname of Page 
only. Bourne, who duly assumed the name 
of Page, matriculated at New College, Ox- 
ford, on 29 April 1743, and was created 
M.A. 1747 and D.C.L. 1749. He was M.P. 
for Oxford University from 1768 to 1801, 



Page 



and died unmarried at Middle Aston on 
24 Nov. 1803. Soon after his death the 
Middle Aston estate, which had been pur- 
chased by his great-uncle about 1710, was 
sold to Sir Clement Cottrell Dormer, and 
the house in which the judge had lived was 
pulled down. 

Page is said to have written ' various poli- 
tical pamphlets ' in his early days at the bar 
(GRANGER, ed. Noble, iii. 203), but of these 
no traces can be found. His judgments and 
charges seem to have been remarkable more 
for the poverty of their language than for 

anything else. ' The charge of J P 

to the Grand Jury of M x, on Saturday 

May 22, 1736 ' (London, 1738, 8vo), a copy 
of which is in the library of the British 
Museum, is probably a satire. There are 
engravings of Page by Vertue, after C. 
d'Agar, and J. Richardson. The massive sil- 
ver flagon which Page presented to Steeple 
Aston Church on his promotion to the bench 
is still in use there. 

[Wing's Annals of Steeple Aston and Middle 
Aston, 1875 ; Foss's Judges of England, 1864, 
viii. 143-6 ; Luttrell's Brief Historical Kelation 
of State Affairs, 1 857, v. 518,524, vi. 20, 118,510; 
Historical Kegister, 1715, Chron. Diary, p. 31, 
1718 Chron. Register, p. 22, 1726 Chron. Diary, 
p. 41, 1727 Chron. Diary, p. 48; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of England, continued by Noble, 
1806, iii. 203-5 ; Hone's Year Book, 1832, pp. 
613-14; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Court- 
hope, iii. 284-5, 295, 482, iv. 1 91-2, v. 257-8, ix. 
143 ; Martin's Masters of the Bench of the Inner 
Temple, 1883, p. 63 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715- 
1886, iii. 1056; Official Return of Lists of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 11, 21, 141, 154, 
167, 180, 192, 206; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
i. 13, 153, 237, ii. 383, xii. 401, 6th ser. i. 345, 
518, 8th ser. iv. 68, 275, 513, v. 93.] 

G. F. R. B. 

PAGE, FREDERICK(1769-1834), writer 
on the poor laws, son of Francis Page of New- 
bury, Berkshire, born in 1769, matriculated 
from Oriel College, Oxford, on 14 July 1786. 
Leaving the university without a degree, he 
was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 
1792, and became a bencher in 1826. His 
attention was first drawn to the poor laws by 
the manner in which the poor rate affected his 
property. Having been assessed to the whole 
amount of the tolls for the navigation of the 
Kennet between Reading and Newbury, 
which were collected by his agent, he ap- 
pealed to the Berkshire quarter sessions, 
where the rate was confirmed. The case was 
tried in the king's bench in 1792, with the 
same result. Page served as overseer in three 
different parishes in 1794, 1801, and 1818. He 
communicated the result of his experience 



t Page 

in 1794 to his friend, Sir F. Eden, who in- 
serted it verbatim in his work on the poor 
laws (State of the Poor, i. 676-87). Subse- 
quently to 1818 Page paid great attention to 
the administration of the Select Vestries 
Act, to the principle of which he became a 
convert after three years' experience. He 
also repeatedly visited the continent and the 
southern counties of Ireland to investigate 
the condition of the poor. He died at 
Newbury on 8 April 1834. 

Page published: 1. 'Observations on the 
present State and possible Improvement of 
the Navigation and Government of the River 
Thames,' Reading, 1794, 12mo. 2. ' The Prin- 
ciple of the English Poor Laws illustrated 
and defended by an Historical View of Indi- 
gence in Civil Society, with Observations 
and Suggestions relative to their improved 
Administration,' Bath, 1822, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
with additions, London, 1829, 8vo. 3. < Ob- 
servations on the state of the Indigent Poor 
in Ireland and the existing Institutions for 
their relief, being a sequel to " the Principle 
of the English Poor Laws, &c.'" London, 
1830, 8vo. 

[Durnford and East's Reports, iv. 543-50 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1834 i. 564, ii. 659; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1056.] 

W. A. S. H. 

PAGE, JOHN (1760 P-1812), vocalist 
and compiler of musical works, was born 
about 1760. On 3 Dec. 1790 he was elected 
lay-clerk of St. George's, Windsor, and re- 
tained the post until 1795 (GROVE). Page 
had been connected with St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral since about 1785, when he described 
himself on the title-page of the ' Anthems ' 
as conductor of the music for the anniver- 
sary meeting of the charity children. On 
other publications, in 1798 and 1800, he 
described himself as ' of St. Paul's.' On 
10 Jan. 1801 he was appointed vicar-choral 
of St. Paul's. He was a professional member 
of the Catch Club between 1792 and 1797. 
He died on 16 Aug. 1812, at 19 Warwick 
Square, Newgate Street. 

Page wrote little if any original music, 
but was an industrious compiler of ' Har- 
monia Sacra ' and other less valuable collec- 
tions of sacred music. Among his publica- 
tions are : 1. 'The Anthems and Psalms as 
performed at St. Paul's Cathedral on the 
Day of the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Charity Children, arranged for the Organ,' 
&c., 1785? 2. 'Divine Harmony,' psalm 
and hymn tunes by Henley and Sharp, 1798. 
3. ' Harmonia Sacra,' anthems in score by 
masters of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries, 1800. 5. ' Collection of 



Page 



Page 



Hymns by several Composers,' 1804. 4. 'Fes- 
tive Harmony,' dedicated to members of the 
Catch Club, 1804. 6. ' Burial Service, &c., 
for the Funeral of Nelson,' 1806. He pub- 
lished also several collections in co-operation 
with Battishill and Sexton. 

[Grove's Diet. ii. 632, -where a list of the con- 
tents of Harmonia S icra is given ; Gent. Mag. 
1812, ii. 196; Baptie's Musical Biography, p. 
170.] L. M. M. 

PAGE, SAMUEL (1574-1630), poet and 
divine, a native of Bedfordshire, was son 
of a clergyman. He was admitted scholar 
of Christ Church, Oxford, 10 June 1587, and 
matriculated on 1 July following, aged 13. 
He graduated B.A. on 5 Feb. 1590-1, and 
on 16 April in the same year became fellow. 
He proceeded M.A. 15 March 1593-4, B.D. 
12 March 1603-4, and D.D. 6 June 1611. 
* In his juvenile years he was accounted,' 
according to Francis Meres, ' one of the 
chiefest among our English poets to be- 
wail and bemoan the perplexities of love in 
his poetical and romantic writings.' After 
taking holy orders, he served as a naval 
chaplain, and joined the expedition to Cadiz 
in 1595 as chaplain to the admiral, the Earl 
of Nottingham. In 1597 he became vicar of 
St. Nicholas, Deptford or West Greenwich. 
He held the living with his chaplaincy. He 
died at Deptford, and was buried in his 
church on 8 Aug. 1630. 

Page's poetical works consisted of a poem 
prefixed to Coryat's ' Crudities ' (1611), and 
,of ' The Love of Amos and Laura,' an heroic 
poem by S. P., which appeared in the mis- 
cellaneous collection of verse entited ' Al- 
cilia,' London, 1613 ; this edition was re- 
printed by Dr. Grosart in 1879. In the 
second edition (London, 1619) Page's work 
has a separate title-page, and to it are pre- 
fixed two six-line stanzas addressed ' to my 
approved and much respected friend Iz[aak] 
Waflton].' In the third edition, London, 
1628, these lines are replaced by six ad- 
dressed by ' the author to his book.' Both 
Collier and Sir Harris Nicolas wrongly as- 
signed the poem to Samuel Purchas. 

Page also published numerous sermons 
and religious tracts. The chief are : 1. ' A 
Sermon preached at the Death of Sir Richard 
Leveson, Vice-admiral of England,' London, 
1605 ; reprinted in Brydges's ' Restituta,' 
ii. 226-37. 2. 'The Cape of Good Hope: 
Five Sermons for the use of the Merchant 
and Mariner. Preached to the Worshipful 
Company of the Brethren of the Trinitie 
House ; and now published for the general 
Benefit of all Sea Men,' London, 1616. The 
first sermon is dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith. 



governor of the East India Company. 
3. ' God be thanked : a Sermon of Thanks- 
giving for the Happy Successe of theEnglishe 
Fleetes sent forth by the Honorable Com- 
pany of Adventurers to the East Indies. 
Preached to the Honourable Governor and 
Committees, and the whole Company of 
their good Ship the Hope Merchant, happily 
returned at Deptford on Maundy Thursday, 
29 March 1616,' London, 1616. 4. 'The 
Allegiance of the Cleargie : a Sermon 
preached at the Meeting of the whole Clergie 
of the Dyocese of Rochester, to take the 
Oath of Allegiance to his most Excellent 
Majesty at Greenewich, Novemb. 2, 1610,' 
London, 1616 ; dedicated to the bishop of 
London. 5. ' The Supper of the Lord : a Ser- 
mon preached at Hampton, Sept. 10, 1615,' 
London, 1616 ; dedicated to Lady Anne 
Howard of Effingham. G. ' The Remedy of 
Drought,' two sermons, the first preached at 
Deptford 30 July 1615, the second sermon, 
' A Thanksgiving for Rain,' London, 1616. 
Dedicated to ' my honoured friend, Sir John 
Scott, knt.' 7. ' A Manual of Private De- 
votions,' edited by Nicholas Snape of Gray's 
Inn, 1631. 8. 'A Godly and learned Expo- 
sition on the Lords Prayer written by Samuel 
Page, &c., published since his Death by Na- 
thaniel Snape of Grays Inne, Esq.,' London, 
1631 ; dedicated to Lord-keeper Coventry. 

Watt also ascribes to Page ' Meditations 
on the Tenth Psalm,' London, 1639, 4to. 

[Grosart's Introd. to his reprint of Alcilia ; 
Spedding's Bacon, vi. 167; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Hazlitt's Collections and Notes, 1st ser. p. 6 ; 
Foster's Alumni ; Wood's Fasti, i. 250, 299, ii. 
344, Athense, ii. 208, 486 ; Epistle dedicatory 
to the funeral sermon ; Brydges's Restituta, ii. 
226; Corser's Collect. Anglo-Poet, i. 15-28; 
Collier's Bibl. Cat. of Bridgwater Library, and 
his Poetical Decameron.] W. A. S. 

PAGE, THOMAS (1803-1877), civil en- 
gineer, born in London on 26 Oct. 1803, 
was eldest son of Robert Page of Nag's Head 
Court. His father, a solicitor, first in Grace- 
church Street, London, and then at 34 Mark 
Lane, went to Peru on business, and met 
with his death through an accident at Are- 
quipa. Thomas was educated for the sea 
service, but, at the suggestion of Thomas 
Telford, he turned his attention to civil en- 
gineering. His first employment was as a 
draughtsman in some engine works at Leeds, 
where he remained for two years. He sub- 
sequently entered the office of Edward 
Blore, the architect, for whom he made a 
measurement of Westminster Abbey. He 
was elected an associate of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers on 2 April 1833, and be- 
came a member on 18 April 1837. In 1835 






Page 



43 



Page 



he was appointed one of the assistant-engi- 
neers, under Sir I. K. Brunei, on the Thames 
Tunnel works. On the retirement of Richard 
Beamish in 1836, he became acting-engineer 
until the completion of the tunnel, 25 March 
1843. 

In 1842 he made designs for the embank- 
ment of the Thames from Westminster to 
Blackfriars ; the metropolitan improvement 
commissioners accepted his designs, and the 
government established for their considera- 
tion the Thames Embankment office in 
Middle Scotland Yard in connection with 
the department of woods and forests. The 
new office was placed under Page's control, 
and he thenceforth acted as consulting en- 
gineer to the department of woods and 
forests. But difficulties arose, and the em- 
bankment scheme was for the time aban- 
doned. In January 1844 he made a survey 
of the Thames from Battersea to Woolwich, 
showing the tidal action of the river. In 
1845 he prepared plans for bringing the 
principal lines of railway to a central ter- 
minus, to be built upon land proposed to be 
reclaimed from the Thames between Hun- 
gerford Market and Waterloo Bridge. In 
the same year, in connection with Joseph 
D'Aguilar Samuda, he designed a railway 
to connect the Brighton system with that 
of the Eastern Counties Company, by a line 
to pass through the Thames Tunnel and under 
the London Docks. 

In 1846 he reported on the relative merits 
of Holyhead and Port Dinllaen as packet 
stations for the Irish mail service, and pre- 
pared plans for harbours at these places, and 
also for docks at Swansea. At the instance 
of the government he made designs for the 
embankment of the southern side of the 
Thames between Vauxhall and Battersea 
.bridges, and for the Chelsea suspension bridge. 
Those works were subsequently carried out 
under his directions. The bridge was opened 
in March 1858, and the Albert Embank- 
ment on 24 Nov. 1869. In May 1854 he 
commenced Westminster new bridge, which 
was built in two sections, to obviate the 
necessity of a temporary structure; the old 
structure remaining while the first half of 
the new one was built, and the second half 
being completed after the first was open 
to traffic (cf. Parliamentary Papers, 1853 
No. 022 pp. 1-18, 70, 1856 No. 389 pp. 
1-9, 54-7, 62-9). The result was the most 
commodious of the London bridges. It was 
completed and finally opened on 24 May 
1862. Constructed without cofferdams or 
centres, it caused no interruption to the 
traffic by land or by water. His plan for 
Blackfriars Bridge was accepted, but not 



carried out. He was engineer for the town 
of Wisbech ; and one of his most important 
reports, written in 1860, dealt with that 
town and his project of improving the river 
Nen from Peterborough to the sea. As 
engineering and surveying officer he held 
courts and reported on proposed improve- 
ments for Cheltenham, Taunton, Liverpool, 
Falmouth, Folkestone, and Penzance. He 
interested himself in gunnery, and invented 
a system for firing guns under water. He 
died suddenly in Paris on 8 Jan. 1877. He 
published a 'Report on the Eligibility of 
Milford Haven for Ocean Steam Ships and 
for a Naval Arsenal,' 1859. 

[Min. of Proc. of Instit. Civil Engineers, 1877, 
xlix. 262-5 ; Times, 20 Jan. 1877, p. 10 ; Men 
of the Time, 1875, p. 779.] G. C. B. 

PAGE, SIR THOMAS HYDE (1746- 
1821), military engineer, was the son of 
Robert Hyde Page (d. 1764), by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Francis Morewood, and great- 
granddaughter maternally of Sir George 
Devereux, kt., of Sheldon Hall, Warwick. 
His grandfather was John Page, who mar- 
ried Sarah Anne, sister and sole heir of 
Thomas Hyde; the latter claimed descent 
from Sir Robert Hyde of Norbury, Cheshire, 
ancestor of the Earls of Clarendon. 

At Woolwich Page received as the first 
cadet a gold medal from George III. He 
was appointed sub-engineer in 1774, and 
lieutenant later in the same year. In 1775 
Lord Townshend, then master-general of 
the ordnance, requested Page ' to take a 
view of Bedford Level,' with the purpose of 
improving the general drainage in the 
county. This he did, and his manuscript 
report to Lord Townshend, dated 31 March 
1775, is preserved in the library of the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers. Going with his 
corps to North America, he distinguished 
himself in his capacity as aide-de-camp to 
General Pigott at the battle of Bunker's Hill 
(17 June 1775), and was severely wounded 
(PORTER, Hist. Corps of R. E., i. 203). Lieu- 
tenant-colonel John Small, who was major of 
brigade to General Pigott atthebattle,writing 
to Page in 1790, speaks of having witnessed his 
professional intrepidity and skill. In conse- 
quence of his wound he received an invalid 
pension. In 1779 he raised and organised 
one of the first volunteer corps in the king- 
dom, known as the Dover Association. 

Captain Page was ' engineer of the coast 
district 'in 1782, when the board of ordnance 
(Lord Townshend being master-general) took 
into consideration the ' want of wholesome 
fresh water where dockyards and garrisons 
were established.' The Parade within the 



Page 



44 



Page 



garrison of Sheerness was the first place fixed 
upon for the intended well, and the works 
were placed under Page's direction. He de- 
termined to try to sink through the quick- 
sands by means of two cylindrical frames of 
wood of different diameters, excavating with- 
in the small circle first, and lowering it pro- 
gressively as the large circle was formed 
above it. The experiment failed, and Page 
was much blamed. In the House of Com- 
mons the experiment was said to be ' not a 
well for fresh water, but a sink for the money 
of the public.' A second attempt was made, 
this time in Fort Townshend at Sheerness, 
and was successful. Page's report upon the 
Sheerness well is dated 12 May 1783. Plans 
and sections are published in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society,' 
vol. Ixxiv., together with an account of simi- 
lar wells in treacherous soils at Harwich and 
Landguard Fort. An account of the borings 
will also be found in ' The Beauties of Eng- 
land and Wales ' (1808, viii. 708-9). Page 
also constructed the ferry at Chatham, and his 
system of embankments for military works 
and inland navigation gained him the gold 
medal of the Society of Arts. He was chief 
consulting engineer in the improvement of 
the Port of Dublin, of Wicklow Harbour, of 
the inland navigation of Ireland, and of the 
Royal Shannon and Newry canals. He di- 
rected the repairing of the disastrous breach 
in the dock canal at Dublin in 1792, and was 
chief engineer for forming the New Cut from 
Eau Brink to King's Lynn, a problem of na- 
vigation and drainage that had puzzled en- 
gineers since the time of Charles I. 

On 10 July 1783 he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society, being described in his 
certificate of candidature as ' Capt. Thomas 
Hyde Page, of St. Margaret Street, West- 
minster, one of his Majesty's Engineers, a 
Gentleman well versed in Mechanics and 
many other Branches of Experimental Philo- 
sophy.' He signed the charter-book and 
was admitted into the society on the same 
day. He was knighted on 23 Aug. 1783, but 
states in his 'Account of the Commencement 
and Progress in sinking Wells at Sheerness,' 
p. 10, that he ' considered the knighthood to 
have reference to his military services, and 
not to the well at Sheerness.' In the follow- 
ing year (1784) he was transferred to the 
invalid corps of the Royal Engineers. He 
died at Boulogne on 30 June 1821 (Times, 
5 July 1821). 

Page married, first, in 1777, Susanna, 
widow of Edmund Bastard of Kitley, Devon- 
shire, and sister of Sir Thomas Crawley- 
Boevey, bart., of Flaxley Abbey, Gloucester- 
shire; secondly (in 1783), Mary Albinia (d. 



1794), daughter of John Woodward (for- 
merly a captain in the 70th regiment) of 
Ringwold, Kent ; and, thirdly, Mary, widow 
of Captain Everett, R.N. He had issue by 
his second wife only viz. three sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son, Robert Page, of 
Holbrook, Somerset, was born 29 Sept. 1792, 
married in 1815, and had nine children (see 
BURKE, Landed Gentry). 

Portraits of Sir Thomas Hyde Page and his 
second wife the first by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
and the second by Sir Thomas Lawrence 
are in the possession of Sir Thomas Hyde 
Crawley-Boevey, bart., at Flaxley Abbey. 
Another portrait of Sir Thomas by Louther- 
bourg is in the possession of a granddaughter, 
Miss Page, of 16 Somerset Place, Bath. 

Page published : 1. ' Considerations upon 
the State of Dover Harbour,' Canterbury, 
1784, 4to. 2. ' Minutes of the Evidence of 
Sir T. H. Page on the Second Reading of 
the Eau Brink Drainage Bill,' London, 1794, 
8vo, tract. 3. ' Observations on the present 
State of the South Level of the Fens ' [first 
printed in 1775]. 4. ' The Reports or Obser- 
vations on the Means of Draining the South 
and Middle Levels of the Fens,' no place, 
1794, 8vo, tract. 5. ' An Account of the 
Commencement and Progress in Sinking 
Wells at Sheerness,' &c., London, 1797, 8vo. 
6. ' Reports relative to Dublin Harbour and 
adjacent Coast made in consequence of 
Orders from the Marquis Cornwallis, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, in the Year 1800,' 
Dublin, 1801, 8vo, tract. 7. 'Observations 
upon the Embankment of Rivers ; and Land 
inclosed upon the Sea Coast,' &c., Tunbridge 
Wells, 1801, 8vo, tract. 

[Authorities cited ; private information; Page's 
works.] H. R. 

PAGE, WILLIAM (1590-1663), divine, 
born at Harrow-on-the-Hill in 1590, matri- 
culated at Balliol College, Oxford, 7 Nov. 
1606. He graduated B. A. 26 April 1610, and 
on 15 Dec. following appears on the regis- 
ter of persons using the Bodleian Library 
(CLARK, i. 269). He proceeded M.A. in 1 614 
(2 July), was incorporated at Cambridge 
1615, and in 1619 becamefellow of All Souls' 
(B.D. 12 July 1621, and D.D. 5 July 1634 ; 
cf. State Papers, Dom. Car. I, cclxxi. 69). 

In 1628-9 he was appointed, by Laud's 
influence, master of the grammar school of 
Reading. He was a strong supporter of the 
court divines. In 1631 he wrote a ' Justifica- 
tion of Bowing at the Name of Jesus, with 
an Examination of such considerable Reasons 
| as are made by Mr. Prynne in a Reply to 
| Mr. Widdowes concerning the same Argu- 
ment,' with a dedication addressed to Oxford 



Page 



45 



Paget 



University. Hearing of the proposed publi- 
cation, Archbishop Abbot's secretary wrote 
to Page that the archbishop ' is much of- 
fended that you do stickle and keep on foot 
such questions, and advises you to with- 
draw from these and the like domestic 
broils ; and if your treatise be at the press, 
to give it a stop, and by no means to suffer 
it to be divulged' (Lambeth, 31 May 1631). 
On hearing of the prohibition, Laud wrote 
from Fulham to the vice-chancellor of Ox- 
ford 22 June 1632, commanding the book 
' to be presently set to sale and published. 
It is, as I am informed, in defence of the 
canon of the church, and modestly and well 
written, and his majesty likes not that 
Prynne should remain unanswered '( WOOD). 
In 1639 Page issued a translation of Thomas 
a Kempis's ' Imitatio Christi.' It is largely 
borrowed from an English translation pub- 
lished at Paris in 1636 by M. C., confessor 
to the English nuns at Paris ; but Page 
omits many passages of a Romanist tendency. 
He dedicated the book to Walter Curll, 
bishop of Winchester, to whom he was act- 
ing as chaplain. His epistle to the ' Christian 
Reader' is practically addressed to the 
Roman catholics, and, in the spirit of Laud's 
views, demands reciprocal charity between 
them and Anglicans. 

Page was subsequently presented to the 
rectory of Hannington, Hampshire. On 
the outbreak in 1642 of the civil wars he 
withdrew from Reading school, doubtless to 
join the royal army. He was sequestered in 
1644 from 'his mastership by the committee 
for Berkshire (Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. 
vii. 189). Eight years later (7 Oct. 1652) he 
claimed arrears for nine months, ' but it ap- 
peared that he had received all which was 
due at Michaelmas 1642, and in November 
following the school was made a magazine for 
the king's army ' (ib. p. 191). Early in 1645-6 
he was sequestered from the rectory of Han- 
nington by the parliamentary committee for 
Hampshire (Addit. MS. 15670, f. 14). In 
August the rectory was certified to be void 
by delinquency and non-residence (ib. f. 350, 
5 Aug. 1646). On 16 Jan. 1646-7 he was 
appointed to the rectory of East Lockinge, 
Berkshire, by his college, All Souls, which 
had bought the advowson in 1632. This 
benefice Page appears to have held till his 
death. 

At the Restoration Page made a vain 
effort to recover the schoolmastership at 
Reading (Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. vii. 
194, 223). He died on 24 Feb. 1663, in 
the rectory of East Lockinge, and was buried 
in the chancel of his church. 

Besides the works noted, Page wrote : 



L. ' Certain Animadversions upon some Pas- 
ages in a Tract [by John Hales [q. v.] of 
Eton] concerning Schism and Schismatics,' 
Oxford, 1642, 4to. 2. 'The Peace Maker, 
or a brief Motion to Unity and Charity in 
Religion,' London, 1652, 16mo. He edited, 
and contributed a letter on non-resistance to, 
' A Sermon preached at Dorchester, Dorset, 
on 7 March 1 632, by John White ' (London, 
1648). In Bodl. MS. 115 are two unpublished 
tracts : ' A Widow indeed. A Book of the 
Duties of Widows, and a Commendation of 
that State to his Mother ; ' and ' Woman's 
Worth, or a Treatise proving by sundry 
Reasons that Women doe excel Men.' 

'The Land Tempest ... an Abstract 
Epitome, or' Effects of the Woes of these 
Wars. By W. P., a plundered Preacher in 
the County of Gloucester ' (25 June 1644), 
does not seem to be by Page. 

[Coates's Hist, of Heading, p. 337 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Foster s Alumni ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. iii. 653, Fasti i. 337 ; State Papers, Dom. 
Car. I, 12 July, 1634, cclxxi. 69; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. llth Rep. vi. 186; Addit. MS. 15670; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ii. 334; in- 
formation kindly supplied by the Rev. J. G. 
Cornish, rector of Lockinge.] W. A. S. 

PAGEHAM or PAGHAM, JOHN DE 

(d, 1158), bishop of Worcester, probably a 
native of Pagham, Sussex, was one of the 
clerks of Archbishop Theobald, and was con- 
secrated by him to the see of Worcester on 
4 March 1151. He .assisted at the consecra- 
tion of Roger to the see of York on 10 Oct. 
1154, and at the coronation of Henry II on 
19 Dec. He gave the churches of Bensing- 
ton, Oxfordshire, and Turkdean, Gloucester- 
shire, to the monastery of Osney, gave the 
prior of Worcester possession of Cutsdean, 
Worcestershire, and is stated to have given to 
the see a manor called 'Elm Bishop' ( GOD- 
WIN), said to be a misreading for dive or 
Cleve,with Marston, near Stratford-on-Avon. 
He died at Rome in 1158, it is said on 
31 March (LE NEVE). 

[Gervase, i. 142, 159 ; Ann. of Tewkesbury, 
Ann. of Osney, iv. 26, 30, ap. Ann. Monast. i. 
48 (Rolls Ser.) ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 
475 ; Thomas's Account of Bishops of Worcester, 
p. Ill; Godwin, l)e Praesulibus, p. 457; Le 
Neve's Fasti, iii. 49, ed. Hardy.] W. H. 

PAGET, SIR ARTHUR (1771-1840), 
diplomatist, second son of Henry Bayly 
Paget, first earl of Uxbridge of the second 
creation, by Jane, eldest daughter of the 
Very Rev. Arthur Champagne, dean of 
Clonmacnoise, was born on 15 Jan. 1771. 
He entered Westminster School on 1 April 
1780, was elected on to the foundation in 



Paget 



4 6 



Paget 



1783, and thence to Christ Church, Oxford, 
-whence he matriculated on 8 June 1787, but 
took no degree. In 1791 he entered the 
diplomatic service, and on 22 Nov. 1794 was 
returned to parliament for Anglesey, which 
he continued nominally to represent until 
1807. On the abandonment by Prussia of 
the defence of Holland, July 1794, he was 
despatched to Berlin as envoy extraordinary 
to recall King Frederick William to a sense 
of his obligations. His conduct of this de- 
licate mission is commended by Lord Mal- 
mesbury (Diaries, in. 130, 148, 184, 199). 
Obtaining no satisfactory assurances from 
the king, he withdrew to Pyrmont about 
Christmas, and, on the passage of the Waal 
by the French, returned to England by way 
of Brunswick and Holland. Some letters 
from him to the Countess of Lichtenau, 
written during this perilous journey, in 
which, as a last resource, he implores her to 
use her influence with the king on behalf of 
the Dutch, are printed in 'Apologie der 
Grafin von Lichtenau,' 2 tc Abth., 1808, pp. 
241-51. Paget was accredited successively 
envoy extraordinary to the elector palatine, 
and minister to the diet of Ratisbon, 22 May 
1798, envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiarytothecourtof Naples, 17 Jan. 1800, 
and to that of Vienna, 21 Aug. 1801 . His des- 
patches from Vienna, July 1802, after Bona- 
parte's reorganisation of the smaller German 
states, contained a remarkable prediction of 
the eventual acquisition by Prussia of the 
hegemony of Germany. In 1805 he contri- 
buted materially to the formation of the third 
coalition against France, and reported its total 
discomfiture by the battle of Austerlitz, 2 Dec. 
1805. His gloomy despatch on the day after 
the battle is said to have contributed to the ' 
death of Pitt (YoxGE, Life of the Second j 
Earl of Liverpool, i. 78, 205). Recalled in | 
February 1806, he was accredited, 15 May j 
1807, ambassador to the Ottoman Porte. On , 
the signature of the peace of Tilsit on 7 July 
following, he apprised the Sultan of the 
secret article by which the provisions in fa- ' 
vour of Turkey were rendered nugatory, and 
exhausted the resources of suasion and j 
menace, even bringing the British fleet into 
the Dardanelles, in the endeavour to detach | 
the Porte from the French alliance. In j 
this, however, he failed. In May 1809 he | 
was recalled, and retired on a pension of 
2,OOOZ. 

Paget was sworn of the privy council on 
4 Jan. 1804, and nominated on 21 May fol- 
lowing K.B. His installation in the order 
took place on 1 June 1812, and on 2 Jan. 
1815 he was made G.C.B. He died at 
his house in Grosvenor Street on 26 July 



1840, and was buried in Kensal Green 
cemetery on 1 Aug. 

Paget married at Heckfield, Hampshire, on 
16 Feb. 1809, Lady Augusta Jane Vane, 
second daughter of John, tenth earl of West- 
morland, within two days of her divorce 
from John, second baron Boringdon, after- 
wards earl of Morley. By her he had several 
children who survived him. 

[Barker and Stenning's Westminster School 
Reg. ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. p. 416 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Memoires d'un Homme d'Ktat, 
Paris, 1831, iii. 41, 124, ix. 440; Ann. Reg. 
1809, App. to Chron. p. 169; Gent. Mag. 1805 
p. 1165, 1809 p. 181, 1815 p. 63, 1840 p. 
657 ; Biogr. Nouv. des Contemp., Paris, 1824, xv. 
314 ; Sir Gilbert Elliot's Life and Letters, iii. 
135 ; Haydn's Dignities, ed. Ockerhy; Nicolas's 
British Knighthood, Order of the Bath, Chron. 
List.] J. M. R. 

PAGET, CHARLES (d. 1612), catholic 
exile and conspirator, fourth son of William, 
lord Paget [q. v.], and Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Preston, esq., was matricu- 
lated as a fellow-commoner of Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge, on 27 May Ioo9. 
His elder brother Thomas, third lord Paget, 
is separately noticed. He was a member of 
Trinity Hall when Queen Elizabeth visited 
the university in August 1564, but he does 
not appear to have taken a degree (COOPER, 
Atherue Cantabr. iii. 53). Under his father's 
will he became entitled to the manor of 
Weston-Aston and other lands in Derby- 
shire. He was a zealous Roman catholic, and 
quitted England, in discontent with its eccle- 
siastical constitution, about 1572, and fixed 
his residence in Paris. There he became 
secretary to James Beaton [q. v.~], arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, who was Queen Mary 
Stuart's ambassador at the French court, 
and he was soon joined in the office with 
Thomas Morgan (1543-1606 ?) [q. v.] Morgan 
and Paget were in constant correspondence 
with Claude de la Boisseliere Nau [q. v.] 
and Gilbert Curie, the two secretaries who 
lived with the queen in England, and ' they 
four governed from thenceforth all the queen's 
affairs at their pleasure.' Paget and Mor- 
gan secretly opposed Archbishop Beaton, 
Mary's ambassador, and wrung from him 
the administration of the queen's dowry in 
France, which was about thirty million 
crowns a year. Joining themselves after- 
wards with Dr. Owen Lewis [q. v.] in Rome, 
and falling out with Dr. Allen and Father 
Parsons, they were the cause of much divi- 
sion among the catholics (PARSONS, Story of 
Domesticall Difficulties, Stonyhurst MS. 
No. 413, quoted in Records of the English 
Catholics, ii. 320 n.) Parsons states that 



Paget 



47 



Paget 



the original cause of Paget and Morgan's 
division from Dr. Allen and himself was 
their exclusion, by desire of the Duke of 
Guise and the Archbishop of Glasgow, from 
the consultation held at Paris in 1582 rela- 
tive to the deliverance of the Queen of Scots, 
and the restoration of England to catholic 
unity by means of a foreign invasion (ib. 
ii. 392). Thenceforward Paget and Morgan 
inspired Mary with distrust of Spain and the 
Jesuits. 

During all this time, while apparently 
plotting against Queen Elizabeth, Paget was 
acting the part of a spy, and giving political 
information to her ministers. As early as 
8 Jan. 1581-2 he wrote from Paris to secretary 
Walsingham in these terms : ' God made me 
known to you in this town, and led me to 
offer you affection ; nothing can so comfort 
me as her Majesty's and your favour.' 
Again he wrote, on 28 Sept. 1582 : ' In my 
answer to her Majesty's command for my 
return to England, assist me that she may 
yield me her favour and liberty of conscience 
in religion. . . . If this cannot be done, then 
solicit her for my enjoying my small living 
on this side the sea, whereby I may be kept 
from necessity, which otherwise will force 
me to seek relief of some foreign prince.' 
On 23 Oct. 1582 he informed Walsingham of 
his intention to go to Rouen for his health, 
and to drink English beer. He professed 
dutiful allegiance to Elizabeth, and his 
readiness to be employed in any service, 
matter of conscience in religion only ex- 
cepted. 

In September 1583 Paget came privately 
from Rouen to England, assuming the name 
of Mope. It is alleged that the object of 
his journey was to concert measures for an 
invasion by the Duke of Guise and the King 
of Scots. For a time he lay concealed in the 
house of William Davies, at Patching, Sus- 
sex. On the 8th he had an interview at 
Petworth with the Earl of Northumberland. 
He was afterwards secretly conveyed to a 
lodge in the earl's park, called Conigar Lodge, 
where he lay for about eight days. His 
brother, Lord Paget, was sent for to Pet- 
worth, where Charles and the earl had several 
conferences. On the 16th Charles Paget 
met in a wood, called Patching Copse, Wil- 
liam Shelley, esq., who was subsequently 
convicted of treason (Earja de Secrctis, 
pouch 47). 

Lord Paget, writing to his brother on 
25 Oct. in the same year, said his stay in Rouen 
was more misliked than his abiding in Paris, 
considering that he consorted with men like 
the Bishop of Ross. He added that he was 
sorry to hear by some good friends that 



he carried himself not so dutifully as he 
ought to do, and that he would disown him 
as a brother if he forgot the duty he owed 
to England. From this letter it would seem 
that Lord Paget's interview with his brother 
at Petworth must have been of a more in- 
nocent character than has been generally 
supposed. However, about the end of No- 
vember Lord Paget fled to Paris, and thence- 
forward became suspected of complicity in 
all his brother's treasons. On 2 Dec. 1583 
Sir Edward Stafford, the English ambassador 
to France, wrote from Paris to Walsingham : 
' Lord Paget, with Charles Paget and Charles 
Arundel, suddenly entered my dining cham- 
ber before any one was aware of it, and Lord 
Paget says they came away for their con- 
sciences, and for fear, having enemies.' They 
also told him that ' for all things but their 
consciences they would live as dutifully as 
any in the world.' 

From this period Charles Paget, in con- 
junction with Morgan and other malcontents 
at home and abroad, continued their ma- 
chinations, which were, of course, well 
known to the English government ; and in 
June 1584 Stafford, the English ambassador, 
made a formal demand, in the name of Queen 
Elizabeth, for the surrender of Lord Paget, 
Charles Paget, Charles Arundel, Thomas 
Throckmorton, and Thomas Morgan, they 
having conspired against the life of the Eng- 
lish queen. The king of France, however, 
refused to deliver them up, although he soon 
afterwards imprisoned Morgan, and forwarded 
his papers to Queen Elizabeth. 

It is clear that Paget was regarded with 
the utmost distrust and suspicion by Wal- 
singham, who, in a despatch sent to Stafford 
on 16 Dec. 1584, says : ' Charles Paget is a 
most dangerous instrument, and I wish, for 
Northumberland's sake, he had never been 
born.' In May 1586 Paget, on account of 
illness, went to the baths of Spain. He was 
attainted of treason by act of parliament in 
1587. 

Although all his plots had signally failed, 
he appears still to have clung to the idea that 
the protestant religion in England could be 
subverted by a foreign force. Writing under 
the signature of ' Nauris,' from Paris, to one 
Nicholas Berden alias Thomas Rogers, 31 Jan. 
1587-8, he observed, in reference to the anti- 
cipated triumph of the Spanish Armada : 
' When the day of invasion happens, the 
proudest Councillor or Minister in England 
will be glad of the favour of a Catholic 
gentleman.' In the same letter he stated that 
all Walsingham's alphabets or ciphers had 
been interpreted by him. 

In March 1587-8 he entered the service of 



Paget 



4 3 



the king of Spain, and went to reside at 
Brussels. His name appears in the list of 
English exiles in Flanders who refused to 
sign the address of the English fathers of the 
Society of Jesus (Douay Diaries, p. 408). 
With his habitual treachery, he continued 
his correspondence with Queen Elizabeth's 
government. To Secretary Cecil he wrote 
on 26 Dec. 1597 : ' I am incited to boldness 
with you by your favour to my nephew 
Paget, and the good report I hear of your 
sweet nature, modesty, and wisdom. I desire 
ardently to do a service agreeable both to the 
queen and the king of Spain. I am under obli- 
gation to the one as an English subject, and 
to the other as a catholic prince who has re- 
lieved me in my banishment.' He added that 
' His Highness ' was willing to treat with 
allies, and particularly \vith the queen, that 
the crowns of England and Spain might re- 
turn to their old amity (State Papers, Dom. 
Eliz. vol. cclxv. art, 63). On 27 April 1598 
he wrote from Liege to Thomas Barnes in 
London : ' I am unspeakably comforted that 
the queen inclines to listen to my humble 
suit. The profits of my land are worth 200/. 
a year to myself; it is a lordship called 
Weston-upon-Trent. ... I cannot capitu- 
late with the Queen; but the greater my 
offence has been, the greater is her mercy in 
pardoning and restoring me to my blood and 
living, showing the liberality which makes 
her famous, and obliging me to spend my 
life at her feet ' (ib. vol. cclxvi. art. 116). 

The English catholic exiles eventually 
pplitinto two parties one, called the Spanish 
faction, supporting the claims of the infanta 
to the English crown ; while the other, de- 
nominated the Scottish faction, advocated 
the right of James VI of Scotland. Paget was 
the acknowledged head of the Scottish fac- 
tion, and in 1599 he threw up his employ- 
ment under the king of Spain, and returned 
to Paris (ib. vol. cclxxi, art. 74). Among 
the State Papers (vol. cclxxi. art. 74) is a 
letter from a catholic in Brussels to his friend, 
a monk at Liege, giving a detailed account 
of Paget and his 'practices.' The writer 
says that ' from the first hour that his years 
permitted him to converse with men, he has 
been tampering in broils and practices, be- 
twixt friend and friend, man and wife, and, 
as his credit and craft increase, betwixt 
prince and prince.' 

Animated by intense hatred of the Spanish 
faction, Paget lost no time after his arrival 
at Paris in putting himself in communica- 
tion with Sir Henry Neville [q. v.], the Eng- 
lish ambassador, who forwarded a detailed 
account of the circumstances to Sir Robert 
Cecil in a despatch dated 27 June (O.S.) 



1599. Cecil seems to have been by no means 
anxious to encourage Paget, but Neville was 
more favourable to him. Paget said he felt 
himself slighted by the English government, 
but he nevertheless seems to have given from 
time to time important intelligence to Neville 
and to Ralph Winwood [q. v.], the succeed- 
ing ambassador at the French court. His at- 
tainder appears to have been reversed in the 
first parliament of James I, probably by the 
act restoring in blood his nephew William, 
lord Paget, and it is presumed that he returned 
to England. His paternal estate, including 
the manor of Weston and other manors in 
Derbyshire, was restored to him on 13 July 
1603; and on 18 Aug. in the same year 
James I granted him 200/. per annum, part 
of a fee-farm rent of 7\6l. reserved by a 
patent of Queen Elizabeth, bestowing the 
lands of Lord Paget on William Paget and 
his heirs. He died, probably in England, 
about the beginning of February 1611-12, 
leaving a good estate to the sons of one of 
his sisters. 

His works are : 1. A proposition for call- 
ing the Jesuits out of England, by means 
of the French king, during the treaty, and 
entitled ' A Brief Note of the Practices that 
divers Jesuits have had for killing Princes 
and changing of States,' June 1598. Manu- 
script in the State Papers, Dom. Eliz. vol. 
cclxvii. art. 67. 2. ' Answer to Dolman 
[Robert Parsons] on the Succession to the 
English Crown,' Paris, 1600. John Petit, 
writing from Liege to Peter Halins, 25 July 
(O.S.) 1600, remarks : ' A book has come 
out in answer to that one on the succession 
to the crown of England, which is all for the 
Scot, but I cannot get sight of it. Clitheroe 
was the author, and he being dead, Charles 
Paget has paid for its printing' (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Eliz. 1598-1601, pp.456, 460). 
It appears that the latter part of the book 
was written by Paget. 3. ' An Answere 
made by me, Charles Paget, Esqvier, to cer- 
tayne vntruthes and falsityes, tochinge my 
selfe, contayned in a booke [by Robert Par- 
sons] intitled a briefe Apologie or defence 
of the Catholicke Hierarchie & subordination 
in Englande, & cet.' Printed with Dr. Hum- 
phrey Ely's ' Certaine Briefe Notes vpon a 
Briefe Apologie set out vnder the name of 
the Priestes vnited to the Archpriest,' Paris 
[1603], 8vo. 

[Bacon's Letters (Spedding), i. 195; Birch's 
James I. i. 161; Collins's Peerage (Brydges), 
v. 185-7; Froude's Hist, of England, 1893, xi. 
379, xii. 130; Hardwicke State Papers, i. 213, 
214, 213, 224, 247; Harl. MS. 288, ff. 161, 165, 
167; II arleian Miscellany (Malham), i.535, ii.81; 
Holinshed's Chronicles, quarto ed. iv. 608-1 1 ; 



Paget 



49 



Paget 



Howell's State Trials ; Jewett's Reliquary, ii. 
185 ; Lansd. MS. 45, art. 75 ; Lingard's Hist, of 
England, 1851, viii. 165, 168, 169, 189, 199-211, 
390; Murdin's State Papers, pp. 436-534; Ni- 
chols's Progr. Eliz. 1st ed. iii. 171 ; Plowden's 
Remarks on Panzani, pp. 104-12; Records of 
the English Catholics, i. 435, ii. 472 ; Sadler 
State Papers, ii. 243, 257, 260 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. and Scottish Ser. ; Strype's Annals, 
iii. 136, 218, 308, 416, 474, App. p. 44, iv. 163, 
164, fol. ; Turnbull's Letters of Mary Stuart, 
pp. 100-4, 116, 120-6, 130,367,368: Ty tier's 
Scotland, 1864, iv. 115-20, 308, 309, 337, 338; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Winwood's Memorials ; 
Wright's Elizabeth, ii. 486.] T. C. 

PAGET, SIR CHARLES (1778-1839), 
vice-admiral, born on 7 Oct. 1778, was fifth 
son of Henry Paget, earl of Uxbridge, who 
died in 1812 [see under PAGET, HENRY, first 
EARL or UXBRIDGE, ad fin.'] Henry William 
Paget, first marquis of Anglesey [q. v.], Sir 
Arthur Paget [q. v.], and Sir Edward Paget 
[q. v.], were elder brothers. He entered the 
navy in 1790 under the patronage of Sir 
Andrew Snape Douglas, and, having served 
in different ships in the North Sea and 
the Channel, was on 8 June 1797 promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Centaur guardship in 
the Thames. On 2 July 1797 he was promoted 
to the command of the Martin sloop in the 
North Sea, and on 18 Oct. 1797 was posted 
to the Penelope in the Channel. . From Oc- 
tober 1798 to April 1801 he commanded the 
Brilliant in the Channel, and afterwards the 
Hydra in the Channel and Mediterranean till 
November 1802. On 30 March 1803 he com- 
missioned the Endymion frigate, and com- 
manded her for the next two years in active 
cruising in the Channel, the Bay of Biscay, 
and on the coast of Spain or Portugal. He 
was superseded in April 1805. He after- 
wards commanded various frigates or ships 
of the line in the Channel, and from 1812 to 
1814 the Superb in the Bay of Biscay and on 
the coast of North America. From 1817 to 
1819 he was in command of one of the royal 
yachts in attendance on the prince regent ; 
on 19 Oct. 1819 he was nominated aK.C.H. ; 
on 30 Jan. 1822 he was appointed groom of 
the bedchamber ; and on 9 April 1823 was 
promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. From 
1828 to 1831 he was commander-in-chief at 
Cork, and was nominated a G.C.H. on 3 March 
1832; on 10 Jan. 1837 he was made vice- 
admiral, and commanded on the North Ame- 
rican and West Indian station till his death 
on 27 Jan. 1839. He married, in 1805, Eliza- 
beth Araminta, daughter of Henry Monck of 
Foure, co. Westmeath, and by her had a 
large family. 

In 1870 a picture, painted by Schetky, 
VOL. XLIII. 



was presented to the United Service Club by 
Sir James Hope [q. v.], and by his authority 
appears to be certified as representing an in- 
cident in the career of Paget. The picture 
was lent to the Naval Exhibition of 1891, 
and, apart from its merit as a painting, ex- 
ited a good deal of attention from the sin- 
gularity of the subject, which was thus de- 
scribed : ' Towards the close of the long 
French war, Captain the Hon. Sir Charles 
Paget, while cruising in the Endymion fri- 
ate on the coast of Spain, descried a French 
ship of the line in imminent danger, embayed 
among rocks upon a lee shore, bowsprit 
and foremast gone, and riding by a stream 
cable, her only remaining one. Though it 
was blowing a gale, Sir Charles bore down 
to the assistance of his enemy, dropped his 
sheet anchor on the Frenchman's bow, buoyed 
the cable, and veered it athwart his hawse. 
This the disabled ship succeeded in getting 
in, and thus seven hundred lives were rescued 
from destruction. After performing this 
chivalrous action, the Endymion, being her- 
self in great peril, hauled to the wind, let go 
her bower anchor, club hauled, and stood off 
shore on the other tack.' It is impossible to 
say from what source Schetky got his story, 
which is in itself most improbable ; it may, 
however, be observed that Paget did not 
command the Endymion towards the close 
of the war, and that a careful examination of 
the Endymion's log during the time that 
Paget did command her shows that there was 
no incident resembling what has been de- 
scribed and painted. 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. ii. 854 ; Official 
Documents in the Public Record Office; Foster's 
Peerage, s.n. ' Anglesey.'] J. K. L. 

PAGET, SIR EDWARD (1775-1849), 
general, born on 3 Nov. 1775, was fourth son 
of Henry Paget, earl of Uxbridge, who died 
in 1812 [see under PAGET, HENRY, first EARL 
OF UXBRIDGE, ad fin.'} His brothers Henry 
William, Arthur, and Charles, are noticed 
separately. Edward entered the army on 
23 March 1792 as cornet in the 1st life- 
guards. On 1 Dec. 1792 he was captain in 
the 54th foot, on 14 Nov. 1793 major, and 
on 30 April 1794 became lieutenant-colonel 
of the 28th foot. He served in Flanders and 
Holland till March 1795, when he was or- 
dered with his regiment to Quiberon, was re- 
called, and ordered to the West Indies under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. Twice driven back 
by storms, he finally landed at Portsmouth in 
January 1796, and in July went to Gibraltar, 
and, remaining on the Mediterranean station, 
was present on 14 Feb. 1797 at the action off 
Cape St. Vincent. On 1 Jan. 1798 he was 

E 



Paget 



Paget 



made colonel in the army and aide-de-camp 
to the king ; the same year he was at the 
capture of Minorca, and in 1801 served 
through the Egyptian campaign, his regiment 
being in the reserve under Sir John Moore. 
He was in the actions of 8, 13, and 21 March 
1801, and was wounded in the last ; was pre- 
sent at the investment of Cairo and Alexan- 
dria, and was given as a hostage to the French 
army at Cairo till they embarked in July 
1801. Having returned to England late in 
1801, he was in October 1803 appointed bri- 
gadier-general on the staff at Fermoy in Ire- 
land ; on 2 July 1804 he removed to England, 
and was made major-general on 1 Jan. 1805 ; 
for most of that year he was stationed at 
Eastbourne, and proceeded in October with 
his regiment to Cuxhaven and Bremen, re- 
turning in February 1806. In June he was 
sent to the Mediterranean, and placed in 
command of the reserve in Sicily, whence, in 
January 1808, he returned with the part of the 
army which was under Sir John Moore [q. v.] 
On 23 Feb. he became colonel of the 80th 
foot, and in April accompanied Sir John 
Moore to Sweden in command of the reserve. 
On his return to England in June he was 
immediately ordered to Portugal, and placed 
by Sir Hugh Dalrymple in command of the 
advanced corps of his army. But again join- 
ing Sir John Moore in Spain, he commanded 
the reserve at Coruna on 16 Jan. 1809, and 
was responsible for the victorious issue of the 
battle. For his part in this victory he re- 
ceived a medal, and was appointed to the 
staff of the Peninsular army under Wellesley, 
with the local rank of lieutenant-general, and 
command of the left wing of the army. He 
conducted the advance from Coimbra to 
Oporto, and on 12 May 1809, in the action 
before Oporto, lost his right arm. He was 
mentioned in the despatches on this occasion 
as having borne the first brunt of the enemy's 
attack and rendered most important service. 
On 4 June 1811 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. After a rest in England, he returned 
to the Peninsula as second in command to 
Wellesley; but within a few months, while 
reconnoitring alone, fell into an ambush, and 
was made prisoner, so that he lost the rest 
of the campaign. 

On 26 Dec. 1815 Paget was removed to 
his old regiment, the 28th foot. On 31 Oct. 
1818 he was made captain of Cowes Castle, 
where he resided for a time ; but on 4 Nov. 
1820 he received a commission as governor 
of Ceylon, and administered the colony un- 
eventfully from August 1821 to March 1823. 
Meanwhile, on 3 Jan. 1822, he had been ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the forces in 
the East Indies, and took up his new duties 



as soon as he was relieved in Ceylon. He 
was responsible for the conduct of the Bur- 
mese campaigns of 1824-5. His action in 
regard to the Barrakpur mutiny in 1825 was 
also severely criticised, and the ministry of 
the day contemplated his recall. The Duke 
of Wellington, however, intervened on be- 
half both of him and Lord Amherst, defend- 
ing their proceedings (Duke of Wellington's 
Despatches, 2nd ser. vol. ii.) Paget became 
full general on 27 May 1825. He returned 
to England in 1825, and retired to Cowes, 
where he resided at the castle till his death on 
13 May 1849. He was buried in the cemetery 
at Chelsea Hospital, of which he was a go- 
vernor, on 21 May. He is described as hand- 
some, courteous in manner, firm in demea- 
nour, and personally very brave. . 

Paget received the Portuguese order of the 
Tower and Sword on 29 April 1812, and was 
made a G.C.B. on 12 June of the same year. 
He was a commissioner of the Royal Asylum, 
and was made governor of the Royal Military 
College on 25 March 1826. 

Paget married, first, on 1 May 1805, the 
Hon. Frances Bagot, fourth daughter of Wil- 
liam, first lord Bagot, who died in 1806 at 
the birth of her child, Francis Edward Paget 
[q.v.] ; secondly, in 1815, Lady Harriet Legge, 
fourth daughter of the third Earl of Dart- 
mouth, who bore him three sons and five 
daughters. 

Two portraits belong to the family. 
[Cole's Memoirs of British Generals distin- 
guished during the Peninsular War, vol. i. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1849, vol. ii.; Army Lists; official 
records.] C. A. H. 

PAGET, FRAXCIS EDWARD (1806- 
' 1882), divine and author, born on 24 May 
! 1806, was eldest son of Sir Edward Paget 
[q.v.] by his first wife, Frances, daughter of 
William, first lord Bagot. Onl6Sept,1817he 
! was admitted to Westminster School (Reg. 
ed. Barker and Stenning, 1764-1883, p. 176), 
whence he proceeded to Christ Church, Ox- 
j ford, matriculating on 3 June 1824 (FOSTER, 
| Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 1057). From 
1825 to 1836 he held a studentship, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1828, and M.A. in 1830. To 
the Oxford movement of 1833 he lent his 
earnest support. In 1835 he was presented 
to the rectory of Elford, near Lichfield, and 
for some years was chaplain to Dr. Bagot, 
bishop of Bath and Wells. Elford Church 
was carefully restored under his auspices in 
1848, and its dedication festival was made 
an occasion of annual reunion among Staf- 
fordshire churchmen. He published an ac- 
count of the church in 1870. Paget died at 
Elford on 4 Aug. 1882, and was buried there 
on the 8th. On 2 June 1840 he married 



Paget 



Paget 



Fanny, daughter of William Chester, rector 
of Denton, Norfolk. 

Paget's most important work is a privately 
printed volume entitled ' Some Records of 
the Ashtead Estate and of its Howard Pos- 
sessors : with Notices of Elford, Castle 
Rising, Levens, and Charlton,' 4to, Lichfield, 
1873, a valuable but uncritical compilation 
from family papers and other private sources. 

His views on church and social reforms 
found expression in many pleasantly written 
tales, among which may be mentioned : 
1. 'Caleb Kniveton, the Incendiary,' 12mo, 
Oxford, 1833. 2. 'St. Antholin's, or Old 
Churches and New,' 8vo, London, 1841 ; a 
protest against building churches after the 
* cheap and nasty ' method. 3. ' Milford 
Malvoisin, or Pews and Pewholders,' 8vo, 
London, 1842. 4. < The Warden of Berk- 
ingholt, or Rich and Poor,' 12mo, Oxford, 
1843. 5. 'The Owlet of Owlstone Edge,' 
8vo, London, 1856. 6. ' The Curate of Cum- 
berworth and the Vicar of Roost,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1859. 7. ' Lucretia, or the Heroine 
of the Nineteenth Century,' 8vo, London, 
1868 ; a satire on the sensational novel. 
8. ' The Pageant,' and many others. To 
vols. ix., xvi., and xviii. of ' The English- 
man's Library,' 12mo, 1840, &c., he contri- 
buted ' Tales of the Village ; ' while to ' The 
Juvenile Englishman's Library,' 12mo, 1845, 
&c., of which he was for some time editor, 
he furnished ' Tales of the Village Children,' 
two series ; ' The Hope of the Katzekopfs,' a 
fairy tale, issued separately under the pseu- 
donym of ' William Churne of Staffordshire,' 
12mo, Rugeley, 1844 (on which an extra- 
vaganza in verse, called ' Eigenwillig, or 
the Self-willed,' was founded, 8vo, London, 
1870), and ' Luke Sharp.' While examin- 
ing the manuscripts at Levens Hall, West- 
moreland, he came across some letters from 
Richard Graham (1679-1697), youngest son 
of Colonel James Graham (1649-1730) [q. v.], 
who died prematurely while keeping terms 
at University College, Oxford, and his tutor, 
Hugh Todd. These formed the materials of 
a volume which he called ' A Student Peni- 
tent of 1090,' 8vo, London, 1875. He also 
published several volumes of sermons, prayers, 
and religious treatises. His last work, en- 
titled ' Homeward Bound,' 8vo, London, 1876, 
attracted some attention. In 1840 he edited 
Bishop Patrick's ' Discourse concerning 
Prayer' and 'Treatise of Repentance and of 
Fasting,' to rank with the series of reprints 
from the writings of English bishops issued 
by John Henry Newman. 

[Guardian, 16 Aug. 1882, p. 1124; Halkett 
and Laing's Diet, of Anon, and Pseud. Lit.] 

G. G. 



PAGET, LOKD GEORGE AUGUSTUS 
FREDERICK (1818-1880), general, sixth 
son (third by the second marriage) of Henry 
William Paget, first marquis of Anglesey 
[q. v.], born on 16 March 1818, was edu- 
cated at Westminster School, and on 25 July 
1834 was appointed cornet and sub-lieute- 
nant in the 1st lifeguards, in which he be- 
came lieutenant on 1 Dec. 1837. On 17 Aug. 
1840 he purchased an unattached company, 
and exchanged to a troop in the 4th light 
dragoons (now hussars), and was promoted 
major in that regiment on 30 Jan. 1846, and 
lieutenant-colonel on 29 Dec. the same year. 
Becoming a brevet colonel on 20 June 1854, 
he went out in command of the 4th light 
dragoons to the East, landed with it in the 
Crimea, and at the Alma and Balaklava was 
next senior officer of the light cavalry brigade 
to Lord Cardigan [see BRTTDENEL, JAMES 
THOMAS]. In the famous charge of the ' six 
hundred,' Paget's regiment at first formed 
the third line, and he appears to have done 
his utmost to fulfil Lord Cardigan's desire 
that he should give him ' his best support.' 
With the remnants of his own regiment and 
the llth hussars (from the second line of the 
brigade), which he held together after the 
first line had melted away at the guns, he 
was enabled to check the Russian pursuit, 
and was one of the last to leave the Valley 
of Death. He commanded the remains of 
the light brigade at Inkerman, and immedi- 
ately afterwards he went home with a view 
to retirement from the service, an arrange- 
ment he had contemplated at the time of his 
marriage before the outbreak of the war. 
Although his bravery was never questioned, 
his return at this critical period exposed him 
to much invidious comment in the news- 
papers, which probably induced him to re- 
consider his plans. 

Paget went back to the Crimea on 23 Feb. 
1855, was reappointed to the command of 
the light brigade, and was in temporary com- 
mand of the cavalry division during the ab- 
sence of Sir James York Scarlett [q. v.], Lord 
Lucan's successor. Together with his wife, 
who accompanied him to the Crimea, Paget 
was one of the small group of personal friends 
who gathered round Lord Raglan's death- 
bed. Paget commanded the light cavalry 
brigade at Eupatoria and in the operations 
under General d' Allonville, and until a month 
before the evacuation of the Crimea (C.B., 
medal and clasps, Legion of Honour, third 
class of the Medjidie, and Sardinian and 
Turkish medals). He became a major-general 
on 11 Nov. 1861, commanded the cavalry 
at Aldershot in 1860-2, and the Sirhind 
division of the Bengal army from 1862 to 

E 2 



Paget j 

1865, when he came home, and was appointed 
inspector-general of cavalry. He was nomi- 
nated a lieutenant-general and K.C.B. in 
1871 and general in 1877 ; was appointed 
colonel 7th dragoon guards in 1868, and 
succeeded Lord de Ros in the colonelcy of 
his old regiment, the 4th hussars, in 1874. 
Paget represented Beaumaris in the whig 
interest from 1847 to 1857. He died very 
unexpectedly at his residence in Farm Street, 
Mayfair, London, 30 June 1880. 

Paget married, first, on 27 Feb. 1854, his 
cousin Agnes Charlotte, youngest daughter of 
Sir Arthur Paget [q. v.] ; she died 10 March 
1858, leaving two children. Secondly, on 
6 Feb. 1861, Louisa, youngest daughter of 
Charles Heneage, and granddaughter on her 
mother's side of Thomas North, second Lord 
Graves ; she survived Paget, and married 
the Earl of Essex in 1881. 

Paget in May 1852 addressed a letter to 
Lord John Russell on the establishment of 
an army reserve, which was printed for pri- 
vate circulation. He proposed that, instead 
of the revival of the militia, a bill for which 
was before the house, a reserve force should 
be established by compelling all soldiers who 
left the service at the end of ten years, under 
the act of 1847, without re-engaging, to serve 
five years after discharge in a reserve, which 
was to undergo six days' local military train- 
ing in each year. Paget's ' Crimean Jour- 
nals ' were published for private circulation 
in 1875 ; but after the appearance of King- 
lake's book he appears to have revised them, 
and, in accordance with a wish expressed in 
a memorandum found among his papers, they 
were published by his son in 1881. 

[Foster's Peerage, under ' Anglesey ; ' Hart's 
Array Lists ; Army and Navy Gazette. July 
1880; Paget's Light Cavalry Brieade in the 
Crimea (London, 1881), which contains interest- 
ing information respecting the battles of Bala- 
klava and the Tchernaya; Kinglake's Invasion 
of the Crimea (cab. ed.). ii. 573, v. passim, vi. 
392, vii. 382, 484, ix. 287.] H. M. C. 

PAGET, SIR GEORGE EDWARD, 
M.D. (1809-1892), physician, seventh son 
of Samuel Paget and his wife, Sarah Eliza- 
beth Tolver, was born at Great Yarmouth, 
Norfolk, on 22 Dec. 1809. After being at a 
small school in his native town, he was sent 
to Charterhouse School in 1824, and in addi- 
tion to the regular work, which was then, 
under Dr. Russell, wholly classical, he studied 
mathematics; so that when a mathematical 
master was appointed, Paget was top of the 
school in that subject. He entered Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, in October 
1827, and in 1831 graduated as eighth 
wrangler. In 1832 he was elected to a physic 



Paget 



I fellowship in his college, and at once began 

the study of medicine. He entered at St. 

! Bartholomew's Hospital, and, after studying 

! medicine in Paris, graduated M.B. at Cam- 

j bridge in 1833, M.L. in 1836, and M.D. in. 

1838. 

In 1839 he became physician to Adden- 
j brooke's Hospital, an office which he held! 
for forty-five years : and in the same year 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Col- 
\ lege of Physicians of London. He resided 
in Caius College, Cambridge, was bursar of 
the college, and gradually came into prac- 
tice as a physician. He succeeded in 1842 
in persuading the university to institute bed- 
side examinations for its medical degrees, and 
these were the first regular clinical examina- 
tions held in the United Kingdom. The ex- 
ample of Cambridge has since been followed 
by all other examining bodies. In July 1851 
he was elected Linacre lecturer on medicine 
at St. John's College. On his marriage he 
vacated his fellowship, and took a house in 
Cambridge. In 1855-6 he was president of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and in 
1856 was elected a member of the council of 
the senate. In 1863 he was chosen repre- 
sentative of the university on the General 
Council of Medical Education and Registra- 
tion, of which he "was elected president, in 
1869, and re-elected in 1874. In 1872 he 
was appointed to the regius professorship of 
physic at Cambridge, which he held till his 
death. Except Francis Glisson [q. v.], he was 
the most distinguished of the occupants of 
the chair from its foundation in 1540. He 
delivered the Harveian oration at the College 
of Physicians in 1866, and it was afterwards 
printed. He had in 1849 printed an inte- 
resting letter of Harvey to Dr. Samuel Ward, 
master of Sidney Sussex College, and in 1850 
a ' Notice of an Unpublished Manuscript of 
Harvey.' The letter to Dr. Ward had enabled 
him to establish the genuineness of Gulielmus 
Harvey de Musculis,' No. 486 in the Sloane 
collection in the British Museum. Soon after 
taking his degree he visited Harvey's tomb at 
Hempstead, Essex, and had four casts made 
of the bust on his monument, of which he kept 
one and gave the others to the College of 
Physicians, Caius College, and St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital. He was elected F.R.S. in 
1873, and received an honorary degree from 
the university of Oxford in 1872. On 19 Dec. 
1885 he was made K.C.B., and in 1887 he 
was asked to represent the university in 
parliament, but declined on the ground of 
ill-health. 

Paget had great influence in the univer- 
sity, due to his upright character, long ac- 
quaintance with university affairs, and great 






Paget 



53 



Paget 



power of lucid statement. His lectures 
were excellent, though he had the disad- 
vantage of having often to lecture to students 
not sufficiently advanced in their studies to 
profit to the full by his instruction. He was 
always clear and interesting, and commanded 
the close attention of his audience. His social 
qualities were of a high order, and his conver- 
sation was always both pleasant and instruc- 
tive. He never allowed an attack upon Cam- 
bridge, medicine, or Harvey to pass unan- 
swered, and his ability was prominent in such 
a reply. He was attached to all the harmless 
traditions of the university. As a physician, 
teacher, and examiner, he was in the highest 
degree kind and courteous. His first medical 
publication was ' Cases of Morbid Rhythmi- 
cal Movements ' in the ' Edinburgh Medical 
Journal'for 1847. In the ' MedicalTimes and 
Gazette 'of 24 Feb. 1855 he published 'Case of 
involuntary Tendency to Fall precipitately 
forwards,' and in the ' British Medical Jour- 
nal' for 22 Sept. 1860 'Case of Epilepsy with 
some Uncommon Symptoms' these were 
peculiar automatic bursts of laughter ; 10 Dec. 
1887, ' Notes on an Exceptional Case of 
Aphasia ' of a left-handed man who, having 
paralysis of the left side, had aphasia; 5 Jan. 
1889, ' Remarks on a Case of Alternate Partial 
Anaesthesia.' In the 'Lancet' for 11 and 
18 April 1868 he published 'Lecture on 
Gastric Epilepsy,' and on 4 July 1885 ' Case 
of Remarkable Risings and Fallings of the 
Bodily Temperature.' 

He died on 16 Jan. 1892 of epidemic influ- 
enza, and was buried at Cambridge. Four 
lectures were published by his son after his 
death two on alcohol, one on the etio- 
logy of typhoid fever, and one on mental 
causes of bodily disease. A portrait of him 
as an old man is prefixed to the memoir of 
him by his son ; and his portrait, in a red 
gown, was painted at an earlier age, and 
is in possession of his family. His bust, in 
marble, presented by his friends, is in Adden- 
brooke's Hospital, Cambridge. He married, 
on 11 Dec. 1851, Clara, youngest daughter of 
the Rev. Thomas Fardell, vicar of Sutton in 
the Isle of Ely. He had ten children, of 
whom seven survived him. 

[Some Lectures by the late Sir George E. 
Paget, edited by Charles E. Paget, with a me- 
moir, Cambridge, 1893; information from Sir 
James Paget, bart. ; personal knowledge.] 

N. M. 

PAGET, HENRY, first EARL op Ux- 
BRIDGE (d. 1743), was son of William, sixth 
lord Paget [q.v.], by Frances, daughter of 
the Hon. Francis Pierrepont. He was elected 
M.P. for Staffordshire in 1695, 1698, 1701, 
1702, 1705, 1708, and 1710-11. In April 



1704, when Prince George of Denmark was 
constituted lord high admiral, he was ap- 
pointed one of his council. From 10 Aug. 
1710 to 30 May 1711 he was a lord of the 
treasury, from 13 June 1711 until September 
1715 was captain of the yeomen of the guard, 
and on 14 June 1711 was sworn of the privy 
council. On 31 Dec. 1711 he was created 
Baron Burton of Burton, Staffordshire, and 
succeeded as seventh Baron Paget of Beau- 
desert on 25 Feb. 1713. He acted as lord 
lieutenant of Staffordshire from March 1713 
until 30 Sept. 1715. On 13 April 1714 he was 
appointed envoy extraordinary to Hanover, 
was created Earl of Uxbridge on 19 Oct., 
and made a privy councillor on 16 Nov. 
He was also recorder of Liclifield. In Sep- 
tember 1715 he resigned his employments. 
He died on 30 Aug. 1743. Uxbridge mar- 
ried, first, Mary (d. February 1735-6), eldest 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Catesby 
of Whiston, Yorkshire, who brought him a 
son ; and, secondly, on 7 June 1739, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir William Bagot of Blithefield, 
' Staffordshire, by whom he had no issue. 

In the British Museum are letters from 
Uxbridge to John Ellis, 1698 (Addit. MS. 
28882, f. 159); Secretary Vernon, 1700 
(Addit. MS. 28885, f. 324) ; Lord-treasurer 
Harley, 1714 (Addit. MS. 8880, f. 161); and 
Lord Strafford, 1719 (Addit. MS. 31141, 
f. 246 ; cf. Tanner MS. cccv. art. 31, in the 
Bodleian Library). 

His only son, THOMAS CATESBY PAGET, 
LORD PAGET (d. 1742), was one of the gentle- 
men of the bedchamber to the Prince of 
Wales, and on the latter's accession to the 
throne as George II was, on 4 July 1727, 
continued in the same post. He was elected 
M.P. for Staffordshire on 3 Feb. 1714-15 and 
on 22 March 1721-2. He died at Drayton, 
near Uxbridge, Middlesex, in January 1741- 
1742. By his marriage at Gray's Inn Chapel, 
on 3 May 1718, to Elizabeth, second daughter 
of John, third earl of Bridgwater (FOSTER, 
Reg. Gray's Inn, p. Ixxvi), he had two sons, 
Henry and George (1721-1737). During the 
interval of bad weather in hunting seasons, 
Paget composed for his own amusement 
sundry pieces in verse and prose. Such 
were: 1. 'An Essay on Human Life,' 4to, 
London (1734); a close imitation of Pope. 
Two third editions in 1736, 8vo and 12mo, 
profess to be ' corrected and much enlarg'd by 
the author,' who is described in one of them 
to be the author of the then anonymous 
' Essay on Man ' (cf. POPE, Works, ed. Elwin 
and Courthope, ii. 262). Under this pre- 
text, Paget's ' Essay on Human Life ' was 
printed in a supplement to the ' Works ' of 
Pope in 1757. 2. 'An Epistle to Mr. Pope, 



Paget 



54 



Paget 



in Anti-heroics,' 4to, London, 1737. 3. ' Some 
Reflections upon the Administration of Go- 
vernment' (anon.), 8vo, London, 1740. His 
writings were collected in a volume entitled 
' Miscellanies in Prose and Verse,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1741, now very scarce (WALPOLE, Royal 
and Noble Authors, ed. Park, iv. 177-80). 
Paget's letters to his mother and father are 
in Addit. MS. 8880, f. 151. 

His son, HENRY PAGET (1719-1769), who 
succeeded his grandfather in 1743 as second 
Earl of Uxbridge, was chiefly remarkable for 
an inordinate love of money. Peter Walter, 
the notorious usurer, who had been his 
steward, bequeathed to him in 1746 the 
principal part of his immense wealth (LlPS- 
COMB, Buckinghamshire, ii. 596). Uxbridge 
is said, however, to have continued to Wal- 
ter's daughter, Mrs. Bullock, during her life 
the payment of a very large annuity, instead 
of availing himself to the full of the letter of 
her father's will (Monthly Mag. xii. 37). He 
died unmarried on 16 Nov. 1769, and the 
earldom became extinct. 

But the barony-in-fee of Paget devolved 
on Henry, son of Sir Nicholas Bayly, by 
Caroline, great-granddaughter of William, 
fifth baron Paget [q. A r .] Henry Bayly as- 
sumed the surname of Paget ; was summoned 
to parliament in 1770 as ninth Baron Paget ; 
was created Earl of Uxbridge in 1784 ; and 
by his wife Jane, eldest daughter of Arthur 
Champagne, dean of Clonmacnoise,was father 
of Henry William, first marquis of Angle- 
sey [q. v.], Arthur [q. v.], Edward [q. v.], and 
Charles [q. v.] 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812,iii. 207, v. 191-2 ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 548.] G. G. 

PAGET, HENRY WILLIAM, first 
MARQUIS OF ANGLESEY (1768-1854), was 
eldest son of Henry Paget, earl of Uxbridge, 
who died in 1812 [see under PAGET, HENRY, 
first EARL OP UXBRIDGE, ad Jin.'} His 
younger brothers Arthur, Charles, and Ed- 
ward are noticed separately. Born in London 
on 17 May 1768, he was educated at West- 
minster School and at Christ Church, Oxford. 
In 1790 he entered parliament as member 
for the Carnarvon boroughs, which he repre- 
sented till 1796 ; he was afterwards M.P. 
for Milborne Port in 1796, 1802-4, 1806, 
and 1807-10. He served in the Stafford- 
shire militia, which was commanded by his 
father ; and in September 1793 he raised a 
regiment of infantry, the Staffordshire volun- 
teers, chiefly from his father's tenantry. 
This was one of twelve regiments added to 
the establishment on the outbreak of the 
war with France, and became the 80th of 
the line. He was given the temporary rank 



of lieutenant-colonel 12 Sept. 1793. Three 
months afterwards he took his regiment to 
Guernsey, and in June 1794 they joined the 
army under the Duke of York in Flanders. 

The success of Jourdan at Fleurus and 
Charleroi in that month obliged the allies 
to evacuate the Netherlands. The British. 
army fell back before Pichegru from Tournay 
to the Dutch frontier ; it eventually had to 
cross the Rhine, and embarked for England 
at Bremen in the following spring. For a 
considerable part of this time Lord Paget 
(as he then was), though a soldier of only 
twelve months' service, was in command of 
a brigade. Sir Harry Calvert, who was on 
the Duke of York's staff, says that in the 
autumn there was only one major-general 
available for five brigades of infantry, and 
this was particularly detrimental to the ser- 
vice, because ' the field officers are many of 
them boys, and have attained their rank by 
means suggested by government at home r 
(Journals and Correspondence, p. 385). 

In 1795, to give him a permanent posi- 
tion in the army, Paget was commissioned 
as lieutenant in the 7th royal fusiliers on 
11 March, captain in the 23rd fusiliers on 
25 March, major in the 65th foot on 20 May, 
and lieutenant-colonel of the 16th light 
dragoons on 15 June. He was made colonel 
in the army on 3 May 1796, and on 6 April 
of the following year he became lieutenant- 
colonel of the 7th light dragoons. 

In the expeditionary force half English, 
half Russian which was sent to Holland in 
1799 under the Duke of York, he had com- 
mand of the cavalry brigade, which con- 
sisted of his own and three other regiments. 
The operations were confined to the pro- 
montory north of Amsterdam, which did 
not give much scope for cavalry action ; but 
in the battle of Bergen, 2 Oct., he made 
good use of an opportunity. Vandamme, 
who was engaged with Abercromby's divi- 
sion on the sandhills by the coast, seeing- 
that some British guns were unsupported, 
charged at the head of his cavalry and cap- 
tured them just before nightfall; but he 
was charged in his turn by Paget with the 
loth light dragoons, the guns were reco- 
vered, and he was pursued for nearly a mile 
to Egmont-op-Zee. Four days afterwards, 
in the affair at Kastricum, the British 
cavalry again distinguished itself, and took 
five hundred prisoners. But the expedition 
had proved a failure. On 18 Oct. hostilities 
ceased, and the army re-embarked for Eng- 
land. 

Paget now devoted himself to his regi- 
ment, of which he became colonel on 16 May 
1801, and made it one of the best in the army. 



Paget 



55 



He became major-general on 29 April 1802, 
and lieutenant-general on 25 April 1808. He 
went to Portugal in 1808, but was unattached 
and not engaged. In the latter part of that 
year he was given the command of the cavalry 
division which was sent out to join the army 
of Sir John Moore. He landed at Corufia, 
and, in spite of great difficulties from want of 
supplies, succeeded in joining Moore at Sala- 
manca on 24 Nov. On 11 Dec. Moore moved 
northward, and on the 20th united with 
Baird at Mayorga. Next day Paget, with the 
10th and loth hussars, pushed on to Sahagun, 
which was occupied by the French. He 
arrived there before daylight, and, sending 
the 10th straight on, he led the 15th round 
the town to cut off the enemy's retreat. But 
the alarm had been given, and he found six 
hundred dragoons drawn up in line to receive 
him. The 15th was only four hundred 
strong, and the 10th was not in sight, but 
he charged, routed the enemy, and took 167 
prisoners. 

The retreat began three days afterwards. 
It was full of suffering for all, but especially 
trying to the cavalry because of the want of 
shoes for the horses. Half of the horses 
were lost, and those that remained had to 
be destroyed at Coruiia, as there was no 
room for them in the transports. Yet the 
cavalry played its part well in covering 
the rear of the army and imposing respect 
on the enemy. At Mayorga, on 26 Dec., 
Paget, seeing a strong body of French horse 
on a hill, sent two squadrons of the 10th 
against it, who charged up the hill, killed 
twenty men, and took one hundred prisoners. 
Three days afterwards, at Benavente, General 
Lefebvre-Desnouettes, fording the Esla with 
six hundred men of the chasseurs a cheval, 
pressed upon the British cavalry piquets. 
The latter kept the French in check until 
Paget brought up the 10th, and then, charg- 
ing with the 10th in support, they drove 
the French back across the river, and took 
seventy prisoners, including the general. The 
day before this affair Moore had himself 
written : ' The only part of the army which 
has been hitherto engaged with the enemy 
has been the cavalry, and it is impossible 
for me to say too much in their praise. . . . 
Our cavalry is very superior in quality to 
any the French have, and the right spirit 
has been infused into them by the example 
and instruction of their two leaders, Lord 
Paget and Brigadier-general Stewart.' 

Paget saw no further service in the Penin- 
sula. He commanded an infantry division 
in the Walcheren expedition, and remained 
in that island till 2 Sept. 1 809. For the next 
five years he was unemployed. He became 



Paget 

Earl of Uxbridge by the death of his father, 
13 March 1812, and was made G.C.B.2 Jan. 
1815. 

A few months later, in the spring of 1815, 
he was ordered to Flanders. He was appointed 
to the command of the whole of the cavalry 
and horse artillery in the army under the Duke 
of Wellington, though, until the morning of 
Waterloo, the Prince of Orange retained the 
control of the Dutch and Belgian horse. 
The duke left him full discretion in handling 
the cavalry. ' I felt,' he says, ' that he had 
given me carte blanche, and I never bothered 
him with a single question respecting the 
movements that it might be necessary to 
make ' ( Waterloo Letters, p. 3). On 17 June 
he was told to remain at Quatre Bras as 
long as he conveniently could, to give time 
for the army to retire on Waterloo. He 
remained there till 1 P.M., and then retired 
in a leisurely way before the French advance. 
After passing through Genappe, he placed 
his old regiment, the 7th hussars, on the 
high road, some two hundred yards behind 
it, with the 23rd light dragoons in support. 
As soon as the lancers, who headed the 
French advanced guard, issued from Genappe, 
they were charged by the hussars ; but the 
latter were not able to penetrate them, and 
the action went on for some time with 
alternate success. At length Uxbridge sent 
forward two squadrons of the 1 st lifeguards, 
which overthrew the lancers and pursued 
them into Genappe. The retreat was then 
continued slowly, unmolested except by artil- 
lery fire. 'It was the prettiest field-day of 
cavalry and horse artillery that I ever wit- 
nessed,' Anglesey wrote. 

On the 18th, when the English left was 
attacked by D'Erlon's corps, about half-past 
one, Uxbridge directed General Ponsonby to 
charge the French columns, already shattered 
by the fire of Picton's troops. While the 
union brigade was dealing with the infantry, 
Uxbridge himself led forward Somerset's bri- 
gade (chiefly consisting of household cavalry) 
against a brigadeof Milhaud's cuirassiers, who 
were upon the left of D'Erlon's corps, and who 
had routed a Hanoverian battalion which 
was advancing to support the garrison of La 
Haye Sainte. General Shaw Kennedy says 
that this was ' the only fairly tested fight of 
cavalry against cavalry during the day. It 
was a fair meeting of two bodies of heavy 
cavalry, each in perfect order.' The French 
brigade, which seems to have been numeri- 
cally weaker, was completely defeated, and 
the English horsemen swept on in spite 
of all the efforts of Uxbridge to stop them 
by voice and trumpet. He went back to 
bring up the second line, to cover the retire- 



Paget 



Paget 



ment of the first, but it was too far to the 
rear. He owned afterwards that it was a 
mistake on his part to lead the attack him- 
self a mistake, too, which he had made 
once before, and had had reason to regret. 
The household brigade, like the union bri- 
gade, while brilliantly successful, lost nearly 
half its strength, mainly from having to de- 
fend itself, when scattered and exhausted, 
against fresh cavalry. Uxbridge claimed that 
the effect of this charge was such that for 
the rest of the day, ' although the cuiras- 
siers frequently attempted to break into our 
lines, they always did it mollement, and as 
if they expected something more behind the 
curtain;' but other observers hardly bear out 
this impression. 

He received a wound in the knee from 
one of the last shots fired in the battle, and 
his leg had to be amputated. The limb was 
buried in a garden in the village of Water- 
loo ; a monument was placed over it, and it 
is still a source of income to the proprietor. 
A more genuine memorial was erected on the 
summit of Craig y Dinas, Anglesey. ' in com- 
memoration of the consummate skill and 
undaunted bravery ' displayed by him at 
Waterloo. The first stone of the column was 
laid on the first anniversary of the battle. 
He was created Marquis of Anglesey on 
4 July 1815, in recognition of his services. 
He was made a knight of the Garter in 1818, 
and acted as lord high steward at the coro- 
nation of George IV. He became general in 
the army on 12 Aug. 1819. 

When Canning formed his ministry, and 
the Duke of Wellington resigned the master- 
generalship of the ordnance, as well as the 
commandership-in-chief, Lord Anglesey was 
appointed to succeed him in the former post, 
which carried with it a seat in the cabinet. 
He was master-general from 30 April 1827 
till 29 Jan. 1828. He then succeeded Lord 
Wellesley as lord-lieutenant in Ireland 
(27 Feb.) The Duke of Wellington had 
become prime minister in January, and the 
change was supposed to be of his making, 
but in fact the appointment had been settled 
before the new ministry was formed, and 
they merely confirmed it. Anglesey's sym- 
pathies were with the Canningite portion 
of the government, and when they seceded 
in May he intimated to the duke that he 
might find it necessary to follow their 
example. His relations with the duke and 
Peel, not thoroughly cordial to begin with, 
soon became strained. Ireland was in a fer- 
ment, and the Catholic Association, under 
O'Connell's guidance, was forcing forward 
the question of catholic emancipation, which 
the king would not hear of, and which the 



ministry was pledged to him not to enter 
upon. ' God bless you, Anglesey ! I know 
you are a true protestant,' the king had 
said, when Anglesey took leave of him before 
going to Ireland. ' Sir,' he replied, ' I will 
not be considered either protestant or 
catholic ; I go to Ireland determined to act 
impartially between them, and without the 
least bias either one way or the other ' ( GreMle 
Memoirs, i. 154). He soon came to the con- 
clusion that some concession must be made. 
Writing to the new chief secretary on 2 July 
to explain the situation, he said : ' I abhor 
the idea of truckling to the overbearing 
catholic demagogues. To make any move- 
ment towards conciliation under the present 
excitement and system of terror would re- 
volt me ; but I do most conscientiously, and 
after the most earnest consideration of the 
subject, give it as my conviction that the 
first moment of composure and tranquillity 
should be seized to signify the intention of 
adjusting the question' (Wellington Des- 
patches, Suppl. iv. 521). 

With these views he tried to calm the 
public feeling. He was averse to interference 
with processions and meetings ; and in his 
conversation and his answers to addresses he 
showed his wish to have the question settled. 
The king wanted to recall him in August, 
but the duke was unwilling to take that 
step without such reasons as would satisfy 
the public, and on 11 Nov. wrote a strong 
letter of remonstrance to him, complaining 
especially of the countenance shown by the 
lord-lieutenant to members of the Catholic 
Association. A correspondence followed, 
which the duke regarded as ' intemperate ' on 
Anglesey's side, and on 28 Dec. the duke 
informed him that, as this correspondence 
had left them in a relation which ought 
not to exist, the king had decided to recall 
him. Anglesey's departure from Ireland was 
hastened, but it was not caused, by his 
letter to Dr. Curtis, the Roman catholic 
archbishop of Armagh. Dr. Curtis had drawn 
from the Duke of Wellington a letter, in 
which he said that he should not despair of 
seeing a satisfactory remedy if party spirit 
disappeared, and recommended that the 
question should be buried in oblivion for a 
time. On seeing this letter, Anglesey wrote 
to Dr. Curtis dissenting from the duke's 
opinion, and advising, on the contrary, that 
' all constitutional (in contradistinction to 
merely legal) means should be resorted to 
to forward the cause ; but that, at the same 
time, the most patient forbearance, the most 
submissive obedience to the laws, should be 
inculcated ' (Annual Heffister, 1828, p. 150). 
This letter, written on 23 Dec., was published 



Paget 



57 



Paget 



on 1 Jan. 1829, and led to his immediate re- 
call, though he continued to hold the office 
of lord-lieutenant till March. Anglesey's 
general attitude, and especially his latest ac- 
tion, had made him very popular in Ireland, 
and the day of his departure was kept as a 
day of mourning in Dublin. The door seemed 
to be closed more firmly than ever against ca- 
tholic emancipation ; but the Duke of Wel- 
lington had been gradually breaking down 
the king's resistance, and on o Feb. the relief 
bill was announced from the throne. 

When Lord Grey became prime minister, 
Anglesey was again made lord-lieutenant, 
on 23 Dec. 1830; but the agitation for re- 
peal had now taken the place of that for 
emancipation, and he at once found himself 
at war with O'Connell. ' Things are now 
come to that pass that the question is 
whether he or 1 shall govern Ireland,' An- 
glesey wrote, a month later, when it had 
been determined, after a long consultation 
with the law officers, to arrest O'Connell. 
O'Connell thought it best to plead guilty, but 
the war between them continued, and by 
July O'Connell was writing : ' I wish that 
ridiculously self-conceited Lord Anglesey 
were once out of Ireland. I take him to be 
our present greatest enemy.' The lord-lieu- 
tenant had to ask for stringent coercion acts, 
which were distasteful to a section of the 
whig cabinet, and the renewal of which was 
in fact the cause of its break-up in 1834. 
But before that time Anglesey had left Ire- 
land. He was succeeded by Lord Wellesley 
as lord-lieutenant in September 1833. The 
most satisfactory work of his viceroyalty was 
the establishment of the board of education, 
in which he took an active part. This brought 
him into close relations with Archbishop 
Whately. 

When Lord John Russell formed his 
ministry in 1846, Anglesey became for the 
second time master-general of the ordnance, 
on 8 July, and remained so till 27 Feb. 1852. 
It was during his tenure of the office that 
the letter of the Duke of Wellington to Sir 
John Burgoyne drew general attention to the 
defenceless state of our coasts, but little came 
of it at the time. He was made field-mar- 
shal on 9 Nov. 1846, and lord-lieutenant of 
Staffordshire on 9 Nov. 1849. He had been 
lord-lieutenant of Anglesey since 21 April 
1812. After holding the colonelcy of the 
7th light dragoons for more than forty years 
he exchanged it for the horse-guards, on 
20 Dec. 1842. 

He died at the age of eighty-six, on 
29 April 1854, and was buried in the family 
vault in Lichfield Cathedral. His portrait 
was painted by Lawrence, and a copy of it 



(by W. Ross) is in the United Service Club. 
He was tall, with a courteous bearing ; im- 
petuous, but not wanting in shrewdness and 
j udgment. He was no speaker, but he showed 
his readiness in repartee on a well-known 
occasion. At the time of Queen Caroline's 
trial a mob of her sympathisers, who knew 
he was no friend of hers, insisted on his 
cheering her. He complied, and gave : ' The 
Queen, and may all your wives be like her ! ' 

He had married (25 July 1795) Lady 
Caroline Elizabeth Villiers, third daughter 
of the Earl of Jersey, by whom he had three 
sons and five daughters ; but in 1810 she ob- 
tained a divorce, and he then married Char- 
lotte, daughter of Earl Cadogan, the divorced 
wife of Henry Wellesley, afterwards Lord 
Cowley, by whom he had three sons and three 
daughters. The third son of the second mar- 
riage, George Augustus, is separately noticed. 

His eldest son by his second marriage, 
LORD CLARENCE EDWARD PAGEX (1811- 
189o), was educated at AVestminster School, 
and joined the navy in 1827. He served as 
a midshipman on board the Asia at Navarino. 
He was captain of the Princess Royal, of 91 
guns, in the expedition to the Baltic in 1854, 
and during the blockade and bombardment 
of Sebastopol in 1855 ; he also took part in 
the expedition to Kertch and YenikalS 
(medals, Sebastopol clasp, and fourth class of 
the Medjidie). He attained flag rank in 1858, 
and was made a rear-admiral of the red in 
1863, vice-admiral in 1865, admiral in April 
1870, and was place'd on the retired list in 
1876. From 1859 to 1866 he was secretary 
to the admiralty in Lord Palmerston's second 
administration, and from 28 April 1866 to 
28 April 1869 was commander-in-chief in the 
Mediterranean. He was a privy councillor, 
and became a G.C.B. in May 1886. He re- 
presented Sandwich in the liberal interest 
from 1847 to 1852, and from 1857 until he 
took command in the Mediterranean in 1866. 
He died at Brighton on 22 March 1895. He 
married, in 1852, Martha Stuart, daughter of 
Admiral Sir Robert Otway, G.C.B. , by whom 
he left issue. Lady Clarence Paget died at 
Brighton on the day after her husband's death. 

Anglesey's second son by his second mar- 
riage was LORD ALFRED.HENRYPAGIET(1816- 
1888), for many years equerry and clerk-mar- 
shal of the royal household. He was educated 
at Westminster School, became a lieutenant 
in the blues on 14 March 1834, purchased an 
unattached company on 20 Oct. 1840, and 
exchanged into his father's regiment, the 7th 
hussars, in which he served for several years ; 
he rose finally to the rank of general on the 
retired list in 1881. He was chief equerry 
to the queen and clerk-marshal from July 



Paget 



1846 to March 1852, from December 1852 to 
March 1858, and from June 1859 to August 
1874, when he resigned the office of chief 
equerry only. He represented Lichfield in 
the whig interest from 1837 to 1865. He 
died on board his yacht Violet at Inverness 
on 24 Aug. 1888, leaving a family by his 
wife Cecilia, second daughter and coheir 
of George Thomas Wyndham of Cromer 
Hall, Norfolk. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage; Napier's War in 
the Peninsula ; Siborne's Waterloo Letters ; 
Wellington Despatches, with Suppl. ; Fitzpatrick's 
Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell ; A Brief 
Sketch of the Marquis of Anglesey's Adminis- 
tration (Dublin, 1829); Walpole's Life of Lord 
John Russell; Gent. Mag. 1854, pt. i. p. 638; 
Statement of Services in Public Record Office.] 

E. M. L. 

PAGET, JOHN (d. 1640), nonconformist 
divine, is believed to have been descended 
from the Pagets of Rothley, Leicestershire. 
This is the more likely inasmuch as Robert 
Paget, minister at Dort, 1638-85, who edited 
one of John Paget's works, and was evidently 
a kinsman, described himself as a Leicester- 
shire man (Album Studiosorum Lvgd. Acad.) 
He was educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, proceeding B.A. in 1594, and M.A. 
in 1598. In the latter year, after having 
held some other benefices, he was appointed 
rector of Nantwich. Ejected for noncon- 
formity, he went in 1604 to Holland. There 
for two years he was chaplain to an Eng- 
lish regiment, but in 1607 the presbytery of 
Amsterdam appointed him minister of the 
newly founded English presbyterian church 
in that town, at a stipend of 150 florins. 
He remained in that post till 1637, when 
he resigned on account of age. He enjoyed 
the friendship of James I's daughter Eliza- 
beth (1596-1662) [q. v.] He engaged in 
controversies on infant baptism and church 
government with Henry Ainsworth, John 
Davenport, and William Best. Davenport 
denounced him as an ' unjust doer,' tyrannical 
in government and corrupt in doctrine ; but 
he was held in honour by the Amsterdam 
authorities, and found amusement in the dis- 
sensions of his adversaries. He died, pro- 
bably in the vicinity of Amsterdam, three 
years after his resignation. His works com- 
prise: 1. ' A Primary of the Christian Reli- 
gion' (rare), London, 1601. 2. 'An Arrow 
against the Separation of the Brownists,' 
Amsterdam, 1618. 3. ' Meditations of Death' 
(dedicated by his widow to the princess pala- 
tine), Dort, 1639. 4. ' A Defence of Church 
Government,' 1641. 5. ' A Censure upon a 
Dialogue of the Anabaptists,' 1642. 

THOMAS PAGEI (d. 1660), his brother, sizar 



J Paget 

of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1605, B.A. 
1608, and M.A. 1612, succeeded him at 
Amsterdam, but returned to England about 
1639. He was incumbent of Blackley, near 
Manchester, till 1646, rector of St. Chad's, 
Shrewsbury, till 1656, and rector of Stock- 
port till his death in 1660. He was father 
of Nathan Paget [q. v.] 

[Register of Cambridge University; preface 
to Meditations of Death ; Wagenaar's Hist, of 
Amsterdam ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1619 
and 163o; Earwaker's East Cheshire, 1878; 
Steven's Hist, of Scottish Church at Rotterdam, 
1832.] J. a. A. 

PAGET, JOHN (1808-1892), agricul- 
turist and writer on Hungary, son of John 
Paget, by his wife, Anna Hunt, was born at 
Thorpe Satchville, Leicestershire, in 1808. 
He entered Manchester College, York, as a 
lay student in 1823. In 1826 he proceeded 
to Edinburgh University, studied medicine, 
and graduated M.D., but never practised or 
used the title of doctor, though he further 
pursued the study of medicine in Paris and 
Italy. In Italy he met the Baroness Polyxena 
Wesselenyi \d. 1878), widow of Baron 
Ladislaus Banffy, whom he married in 1837 
at Rome. After travelling in Hungary he 
devoted himself to the development of his 
wife's estates, and gained a high reputation 
as a scientific agriculturist and a beneficent 
landlord, introducing an improved breed of 
cattle, and paying special attention to vini- 
culture. To the Unitarian church of Transyl- 
vania, of which he was a zealous member, 
he rendered many important services, espe- 
cially at the time (1857) when its educa- 
tional system was threatened by the measures 
of the Austrian government. He died at 
Gyeres on 10 April 1892, and was buried at 
Kolozsvar on 12 April. His elder son died 
in childhood ; his younger son, Oliver (b. 
5 Sept, 1841, d. 19 Oct. 1863), served under 
Garibaldi in Sicily, married in 1861, and left 
issue. 

Paget published : 1. ' Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania,' &c., 1839, 8vo, 2 vols.; 2nd ed. 
1855, 8vo, 2 vols. ; translated into German 
by E. A. Moriatry, Leipzig, 1842. 2. < Uni- 
tarianism in Transylvania,' in J. R. Beard's 
' Unitarianism Exhibited,' &c., 1846, 8vo. 
He occasionally contributed to the ' Chris- 
tian Reformer.' His wife published ' Olasz- 
honi es Schweizi Utazas,' &c. (journey in 
Italy and Switzerland), Kolozsvar, 1842, 
8vo, 2 vols. 

[Inquirer, 30 April 1892, p. 278; Kereszteny 
Magveto, 1893, pp. 90 sq. (memoir, with por- 
trait) ; information from Rev. Denis Peterfi, 
Kolozsvar.] A. G. 



Paget 



59 



Paget 



PAGET, NATHAN, M.D. (1615-1679), 
physician, son of Thomas Paget, rector of 
Stockport, Cheshire, and nephew of John 
Paget (d. 1640) [q.v.], was born at Manchester 
in 1615. He graduated M.A. at Edinburgh, 
and on 25 Nov. 1638 entered as a student of 
medicine at Leyden, where he graduated M.D. 

3 Aug. 1639. He began practice in England, 
outside London, and was admitted an extra 
licentiate of the College of Physicians of 
London 4 April 1640. He was incorporated 
M.D. at Cambridge 3 June 1642, and was 
elected a fellow of the College of Physicians 

4 Nov. 1646. He Avas nominated physician 
to the Tower by the council of state of the 
Commonwealth on 31 Dec. 1649 (MASSON, 
Milton, iv. 151). He was one of the seven 
physicians who aided Francis Glisson [q. v.] 
in the observations preparatory to the pub- 
lication of the ' Tractatus de Rachitide ' in 
1650, and he was a friend of Milton, whose 
third wife was his cousin. He was a censor 
of the College of Physicians in 1655, 16o7, 
1659, 1669, and 1678, and he delivered the 
Harveian oration in 1664. He lived in Cole- 
man Street, a locality then much affected by 
puritans (CowLEY). His will, dated 7 Jan. 
1679, was proved 15 Jan. 1679, and gave 20/. 
a year for thirty years to the College of Phy- 
sicians. He died in January 1679. His li- 
brary was sold by auction 24 Oct. 1681. 

[Munk's Coll. of Pbys. i. 243 ; Glisson's De 
Bachitide, Leyden, 1671, preface; Gent. Mag. 
1813, pt. ii. p. 14 ; Masson's Life of Milton.] 

N. M. 

PAGET,THOM AS, third LORD PAGET (d. 
1590), was second son of William, first lord 
Paget [q. v.], by Anne, daughter and heiress 
of Henry Preston, esq. Charles Paget [q. v.] 
was his brother: he matriculated as a fellow- 
commoner of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, on 27 May 1559 (CoopEE, Athenee 
Cantabr. iii. 4). On the death of his brother 
Henry, on 28 Dec. 1568, he succeeded to the 
title of Lord Paget, and to the estates of the 
family. Being a Roman catholic, and de- 
clining to conform to the established religion, 
he was subjected to imprisonment. There is 
a letter from him to the privy council, dated 
Windsor, 17 Nov. 1580, in which he states 
that he had been restrained of his liberty for 
fourteen weeks. In a letter to Sir Francis 
Walsingham, dated 10 Jan. following, he 
desired to be excused from attending St. 
Paul's on the following Sunday at the time 
of the sermon. 

William Overton [q. v.], bishop of Coven- 
try and Lichfield, in a letter to the council, 
dated 20 May 1582, complained that certain of 
Paget's servants or officers, under pretence 



of serving writs, came into Colwich church 
on Easter Sunday and arrested divers per- 
sons ; moreover, Paget being bound to find 
communion bread for the parishioners of 
Burton-upon-Trent, ' his officers would have 
forced them to use little singing cakes, after 
the old popish fashion, varying nothing at all 
in form from the massing bread, save only 
somewhat in the print.' In a letter from the 
same prelate to Lord Burghley in February 
following is this passage : ' The Lord Paget 
also and his confederates are not idle, but 
attempt most unjust suits and indictments 
against me and mine.' 

On the detection of Francis Throgmor- 
ton's conspiracy in November 1583, Paget 
fled to Paris. On 2 Dec. he wrote thence to 
his mother, Lady Paget. He trusted she 
would not mislike the step he had now taken, 
that he might enjoy liberty of conscience and 
the free exercise of his religion. He had not 
done this upon any sudden motion, but after 
a long time and deliberation. To Lord 
Burghley he explained that he had been long 
minded to travel, for two reasons one for 
cure of the gout; the other, of more moment, 
for the satisfying of his conscience, about 
which he had been with himself at a mar- 
vellous conflict almost three years. Paget 
spent much time in Paris with his brother 
Charles. 

The queen issued a fruitless proclamation 
commanding Paget to return to England. 
In June 1584 the English ambassador at Paris 
made a formal demand to the king of France 
for the surrender of Paget and others, but 
the French king declined to comply. 

Paget visited Milan and Rome, residing 
in the English College at the latter place, 
with two servants, from 22 Feb. till 19 March 
1584-5. His brother states that he met with 
a cold reception in that city. Afterwards he 
went to Spain, and obtained from the Spanish 
monarch a pension of one hundred and eighty 
crowns a month. In 1587 he was attainted 
of treason by act of parliament, his estates 
and goods having been seized immediately 
after his flight from England. He died at 
Brussels in the early part of 1590. 

He married Nazaret, daughter of Sir John 
Newton of Barrs Court, Somerset, and widow 
of Sir Thomas Southwell, of Woodrising, 
Norfolk. By this lady, from whom he was 
separated on articles in 1581-2, and who died 
on 16 April 1583, he had an only son, Wil- 
liam, fourth lord Paget [q. v.] 

[Blomefield's Norfolk, ii. 338, x. 270, 277, 280 ; 
Camden's Elizabeth, 1635, pp. 261, 389 ; Collect. 
Topogr. et Geneal. v. 83; Collins' s Peerage 
(Brydges); Froudes Hist, of England, 1893, xi. 
64, 402 ; llardwicke State Papers, i. 212, 240, 



Paget 



Paget 



241 ; Lansd. MSS. 34 art. 7, 62 art. 50 ; Murdin's 
State Papers, pp. 439-531 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. and Scottish Ser. ; Strype's Annals, 
iii. 61, 98, 136, 217, 247, Append, pp. 27, 31 ; 
Turnbull's Letters of Mary .Stuart, pp. 104, 105, 
130 ; Tytler's Scotland, 1864, iv. 114 ; Wright's 
Elizabeth, ii. 256.] T. C. 

PAGET, WILLIAM, first BARON PAGET 
OF BEAUDESEKT (1505-1563), born in 1505, 
at Wednesbury it is said, was son of Wil- 
liam Paget, a sergeant-at-mace of the city of 
London. His father was connected with an 
old Staffordshire family, but this seems to 
have been discovered after Paget's death, and 
bis low birth was often objected to by the 
courtiers. He was educated at St. Paul's 
School under William Lily [q. v.], and 
at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, presumably 
during the mastership of Stephen Gardiner 
[q. v.] He must have given early proof of 
his ability, for he was one of those supported 
at the university by members of the Boleyn 
family. He is said, while at Cambridge, to 
have been an earnest protestant, to have dis- 
tributed books by Luther and other Germans, 
and to have read Melanchthon's ' Rhetoric ' 
openly in Trinity Hall (STRYPE, Memorials, 
I. i. 430). But it is not probable that he was 
earnest in matters of religion at any time, 
and it is not likely that Gardiner, who, as 
Wolsey's secretary, had been engaged in per- 
secuting heretics in 1526, would have allowed 
any protestant lecturing to go on in his col- 
lege. He does not seem to have taken any 
degree at Cambridge, but he remained a 
good friend to the university, of which he was 
afterwards high steward. In 1547, when in- 
volved in a dispute with the townspeople, 
the university appealed to him for help 
(STRTPE, Cranmer, p. 238), and this no doubt 
was the occasion of his being appointed, in 
February 1547-8, a commissioner to settle 
the matter. He was also, in November 1548, 
appointed one of the visitors of the univer- 
sity, and was present at the disputation in 
the summer of 1549, when Grindal, then a 
young man, argued about transubstantiation 
(STRYPE, Grindal, p. 6, and Cfteke, p. 40). 

On leaving the university he was taken 
into the household of Gardiner, who sent him 
to study in Paris for a time, and received 
him again when he returned. In 1528 he 
was ill of the plague. In 1529, obviously 
through Gardiner's influence, he was sent to 
France to collect opinions from the univer- 
sities on the subject of the divorce. In 1532 
he became clerk of the signet, and the same 
year was sent out to furnish Cranmer, then 
ambassador to the emperor, with instructions 
as to what Henry was prepared to do against 
the Turks who had recently invaded Hun- 



gary (STRTPE, Cranmer, p. 16). A few 
months later he appears to have been sent 
on a mission to the elector of Saxony, and in 
1534 he was again abroad to confer with the 
protestant princes of Germany (for his in- 
structions seeLetters and Papers, Henry VIII, 
vi. 148). He went by way of France to Ger- 
many in 1537 with Christopher Mont [q. v.] 
to induce the Smalcaldic league to reject the 
pope's overtures. On 18 Oct. 1537 he was 
knighted. When the marriage with Anne 
of Cleves had been arranged, Paget, who 
could no doubt speak German, was appointed 
her secretary in 1539. On 10 Aug. 1540 he 
was sworn in as clerk to the privy council 
(Acts of the Privy Council, vii. 4), and in the 
same year his office of clerk of the signet was 
secured to him for life. On 1 June 1541 he 
had a grant of arms. On 24 Sept. 1541 he 
was sent as an ambassador to France in order 
to perform the delicate service of explaining 
the sudden fall of Catherine Howard, but he 
seems to have given satisfaction, as on 13 Dec. 
1541 the council increased his emoluments 
by ten shillings a day (ib. vii. 268, 283, 352). 
He was promoted on his return, becoming a 
privy councillor and one of the secretaries of 
state on 23 April 1543, and clerk of parlia- 
ment on 19 May 1543; he now resigned his 
clerkship to the privy council. 

As secretary of state Paget was brought 
into very close relations with the king, and 
for the closing years of the reign he and the 
Earl of Hertford, to whom he strongly at- 
tached himself, were probably Henry's chief 
advisers. On 26 June 1544 Paget, W T riothes- 
ley, and Suffolk were commissioned to treat 
with the Earl of Lennox as to Scottish affairs 
and the marriage of Lennox with Margaret, 
the king's niece. He went to Boulogne with 
the king in the same year, and took part in 
the subsequent negotiations, and with John 
(afterwards Sir John) Mason [q. v.] he re- 
ceived the office of master of the posts within 
and without the realm. In 1545 he took 
part in the new negotiations with the Ger- 
man protestants. He made Edward, prince 
of Wales, a present of a sandbox in 1546, and 
was one of those who visited Anne Askew 
[q. v.] in the Tower, and tried to change 
her opinions. As Henry grew older, he re- 
lied greatly on Paget. He consulted him 
about his will, left him 300/., and appointed 
him one of the governors of the young 
prince during his minority. Just before and 
just after Henry's death on 28 Jan. 1546- 
1547, Hertford had conferences with Paget 
(STRYPE, Memorials, n. i. 17), and Paget 
gave him advice which Hertford declined to 
follow. The morning after Henry's death he 
read aloud part of Henry's will in parlia- 






Paget 



61 



Paget 



ment, and he played the leading part in the 
plot formed to set it aside (cf. DIXON, Hist, 
of Church of England, iii. 392). 

In the new reign Paget appears as the 
friend of the Protector, but he inclined to 
courses of greater moderation. He proposed 
a protectorate in the council. He had evi- 
dently carefully considered the state of Eng- 
land, and wrote to Somerset that for the time 
there was no religion in the country. His 
state paper on the foreign relations of Eng- 
land, written for the instruction of the 
council, also shows how well he could ex- 
plain his views (it is printed in STRYPE'S 
Memorials, u. i. 87). His own position at 
once improved. He was made K.G. on 17 Feb. 
1546-7, comptroller of the king's household, 
on 4 March 1546-7 a commissioner for deter- 
mining the boundaries of Boulogne, and on 
1 July 1547 chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster. His friendship for Somerset declared 
itself in several letters of warning as to the 
policy he was pursuing: one, dated 8 May 
1549, forms Cotton MS. Tit. F. 3. On 8 May 
1549 he was a commissioner to visit Oxford 
University, but he was not in favour of rigo- 
rous measures against the catholics. When 
the heresy commissions were issued, he dis- 
approved, telling Somerset that to alter the 
state of a nation would take ten years' delibe- 
ration. Heuce he gladly set off in June to 
Brussels to try and persuade the emperor to 
join with the English in an attack on France 
(cf. STRYPE, Memorials, II. i. 242-9). He 
was respected at the emperor's court ; but the 
tumults in England, upon which he had a 
difficulty in placing a satisfactory construc- 
tion, prevented anything from being done. A 
curious conversation, in which he took part, 
in the course of the negotiations respecting 
the prerogative of the French crown as com- 
pared with that of England or Germany, 
has been preserved (ib. p. 150). He advised 
a firmer course with the rebels than that 
which the Protector had taken, although his 
own brother was a leader in the western 
rising (cf. DIXON, Hist, of Church of Eng- 
land, iii. 63-4). His negotiation with the 
emperor closed the same year, and he wrote 
a remarkable letter to Sir William Petre 
[q. v.] (' Alas, Mr. Secretary, we must not 
think that heaven is here, but that we live in 
a world ') explaining his failure. 

Paget, as a friend of Somerset, suffered a 
good deal for his sake. He remained with 
him during the revolution of October 1549, 
but none the less he was in communication 
with the lords of the opposite party, and 
showed them how Somerset might be captured 
(ib. iii. 153). On 3 Dec. 1549 he was created 
Baron Paget of Beaudesert, Staffordshire 



(Lords' Journals, i. 365). John Burcher, 
writing to Bullinger, 12 Dec. 1549, said he 
had been made president of Wales (3 Zurich 
Letters, p. 661) ; he also gained the Lon- 
don house of the bishop of Exeter, and 
other lands besides, but ceased to be comp- 
troller. In January 1549-50 he had a com- 
mission to treat with the king of France. He 
was a witness against Gardiner in Decem- 
ber, and Gardiner reproached him with having 
' neglected honour, faith, and honesty,' and 
with having ' shown himself of ingrate malice, 
desirous to hinder his former teacher and 
tutor, his former master and benefactor, to 
whom he owed his first advancement.' In 
May 1551 he was appointed one of the lords- 
lieutenant for Staffordshire and Middlesex. 

Paget had incurred the hatred of War- 
wick, who feared him, and the party op- 
posed to Somerset hoped to ruin Paget and 
the Protector together. He was arrested 
and committed to the Fleet on 21 Oct. 1551 
on a charge of conspiring against Warwick's 
life, but was removed to the Tower on 8 Nov. 
The charge was absurd. The murder was 
to have been carried out at Paget's house. 
But Paget had taken the part of the council 
against Somerset in many things ; he had 
rebuked him for courting popularity, and he 
knew his weakness far too well to join in any 
such adventure with him. This probably 
every one recognised. Action was conse- 
quently taken against Paget on another 
ground. He had resigned his comptroller- 
ship when made a 'peer, but had kept his 
other appointments. He was now degraded 
from the order of the Garter, on 22 April 
1552, on the ground of insufficient birth, 
really in order that he might make room for 
Lord Guilford Dudley. His accounts as chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster were in- 
quired into, and he was found to have made 
large profits at the expense of the crown. On 
16 June 1552 he was charged with his offences 
before the court of Star-chamber, and con- 
fessed, as he had already done before the 
council. It seems that he had sold timber 
for his own profit, and taken fines on renew- 
ing and granting leases. He was fined 6,0001., 
and all his lands and goods were placed at the 
king's disposal ; Sir John Gates succeeded 
him in the chancellorship of the duchy, and 
the other courtiers hoped for a share in the 
spoils. John Ponet [q. v.] wrote tauntingly 
afterwards : ' But what at length becommeth 
of our practising P. ? He is committed to 
ward, his Garter with shame pulled from his 
legge, his Robe from his backe, his Coat 
Armour pulled downe, spurned out of Wind- 
sor Church, trod underfoot,' &c. (Treatise of 
Politique Power, ed. 1C42, p. 64). But Paget 



Paget 



was able to extricate himself from his diffi- 
culties. He had been ordered to go down into 
Staffordshire, but, urging his own health and 
that of his wife, was allowed to stayin London 
from June till Michaelmas 1552. In De- 
cember a pardon was granted to him for all 
excepting crown debts, and he was allowed 
to compound for his fine. In April 1553 a 
part of the amount still due from him was 
remitted, and he was again received into 
favour. 

At the death of Edward he joined Queen 
Jane's council. He signed the letter to Lord 
Rich on 19 July 1553, exhorting him to be 
firm in her cause ; but he probably acted under 
compulsion, as on 20 June he sanctioned the 
proclamation of Queen Mary in London, and 
with Arundel set off to bring her thither. He 
conducted Northumberland from Cambridge 
to the Tower, became one of Mary's privy 
council, took, with his wife, a prominent 
part in the coronation, and was restored to 
the Garter on 27 Sept. 1553. He was com- 
missioned to treat as to the queen's marriage 
in March 1553-4, and was entrusted with 
large discretionary powers. He resisted 
Wyatt, and Strype seems right in suggest- 
ing that at heart he was a Roman catholic 
(cf. Dixosr, Hist . of the Church of England, 
iv. 162). He would not, however, agree to 
either the bill which made it treason to take 
arms against the queen's husband or that 
directed against heretics, nor would he agree 
to exclude Elizabeth from the succession, as 
Gardiner suggested ; he thereby, for a time, 
incurred the ill-will of the queen and of Gar- 
diner, and it was proposed to imprison him. 
The fact probably was that he was of tole- 
rant disposition, and, although he afterwards 
showed some inclination to accept the per- 
secuting policy (cf. ib. p. 171) and sat on 
a heresy commission in January 1554-5, he 
argued for very gentle measures of repres- 
sion. In August 1554 the high steward- 
ship of Cambridge University, which had 
been taken from him at Mary's accession, 
was restored to him. He, Sir Edward 
Hastings, and Sir Edward Cecil went to 
Brussels in November 1554 to conduct Car- 
dinal Pole to London on his mission of re- 
conciliation. 

With Philip, Paget was in high favour, | 
and, after Gardiner's death in November 
1555, Philip strongly urged Mary to appoint j 
him chancellor in Gardiner's place. But \ 
Mary refused, on the ground that he was a 
layman, and Heath succeeded to the office 
[see MARY I]. Paget, however, was made 
lord privy seal on 29 Jan. 1555-6. In 1556, 
being at Brussels with King Philip, he is said 
to have planned the seizure of Sir John Cheke 



^ Paget 

[q. v.] and Sir Peter Carew, which resulted 
in Cheke's recantation (see STRYPE, Cheke, 
p. 108, who relies on Ponet ; but cf. DIXON, 
iv. 609). He formed one of an embassy 
to France in May 1556. Anne of Cleves, at 
her death on 17 July 1557, left him a ring. 
At Elizabeth's accession, according to Cooper, 
he desired to continue in office, but he had 
retired from the council in November 1558, 
and he ceased to be lord privy seal in favour 
of Sir Nicholas Bacon at the beginning of 
the new reign. He certainly gave Elizabeth 
advice on one or two occasions. Paget died 
on 9 June 1563 at West Drayton House, 
Middlesex, and was buried at West Drayton. 
A monument was erected to his memory in 
Lichfield Cathedral. A portrait by Holbein 
was in 1890 in the possession of the Duke of 
Manchester, and has been several times en- 
graved. His common-place book was said 
to be, in 1818, in the possession of Lord Bos- 
ton. Paget was a man of ability without 
much character. He was careful of his es- 
tate ; Richard Coxe [q. v.] complained to him 
of the general rapacity of the courtiers with 
some reason, though he may not have been 
worse than the other courtiers of Edward VI. 
In Henry VIII's time he had many grants 
(cf. Dep. -Keeper ofPubl. Records, App. ii. 10th 
Rep. p. 247) and bought church lands (cf. 
TANNER). The chief grant he secured was 
that of Beaudesert in Staffordshire, which 
has since been the_chief seat of the family 
which he founded. He married Anne, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Henry Preston, who came of 
a Westmoreland family, and by her left four 
sons. Henry, the eldest, was made a knight 
of the Bath at Mary's coronation ; married 
Catherine, daughter of Sir Henry Knevet of 
Buckenham, Norfolk, and had a daughter 
Elizabeth, who died young. He succeeded 
his father, and, dying in 1568, was succeeded 
by his brother Thomas, third lord Paget [q.v.] 
Charles, the third son of the first lord, is also 
separately noticed. 

[Strype's Works, passim ; Dixon's Hist, of the 
Church of Engl. i. 155, &c. ; Parker Soc. Publ. 
(references in Gough's Index) ; Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. i. 221; State Papers, Henry VIII; 
Acts of the Priry Council, vol. vii., and ed. Da- 
sent, 1542-58; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; 
Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1547-53; Nicolas's 
Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary, p. 254; 
Lit. Kemains of Edward VI (Koxb. Club), vol. 
Ixxviii. &c. ; Staffordshire Collections, vi. ii. 14, 
ix. 100-1, xii. 194; Testaments Vetusta, pp. 
42-3; Shaw's Staffordshire, p. 212; Simms's 
Bibliotheca StafFordiensis, p. 342 ; Narratives 
of the Keformation, p. 139, Machyn's Diary, p. 
10, &c., Services of Lord Grey of Wilton, p. 
4, Chron. of Queen Jane and Queen Mary, pp. 
27, &c., Trevelyan Papers, ii. 11, Troubles con- 



Paget 



nected with the Prayer Book of ] 549, pp. 54, 
&c., all in the Camden Soc. ; Tytler's Edw. VI, 
i. 241 ; Lloyd's State Worthies, p. 99 ; Burke's 
Peerage, p. 37; Gentleman's Mag. 1818, i. 119; 
Froude's Hist, of Engl. v. 2, &c., vi. 30, vii. 18, 
&c.l W. A. J. A. 

PAGET, WILLIAM, fourth LOED PAGET 
(1572-1629), born in 1572, was son of Tho- 
mas, third lord Paget [q.v.], by Nazaret, 
daughter of Sir John Newton of Barr's 
Court, Somerset, and widow of Sir Thomas 
Southwell of Norfolk. He was a staunch 
protestant. In 1587 he matriculated at Ox- 
ford as a member of Christ Church, and 
graduated B A. on 25 Feb. 1589-90 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 1107). He 
was with Essex at the taking of Cadiz in 
1596, being then a knight, and on 22 July 
1597 a portion of the lands forfeited by his 
father's attainder in 1586 was granted to him 
in fee farm (LYSONS, Middlesex Parishes, 
p. 34; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, p. 
468). In 1598 he was in attendance on Sir 
Eobert Cecil when ambassador at Paris, and 
afterwards travelled into Italy (ib. 1598- 
1601, p. 43). James I restored him to his 
lands and honours (ib. 1603-10, p. 32), and 
from 1605 to 1628 he was summoned to par- 
liament as Baron Paget. In May 1628, 
during the debate in the lords on Weston's 
clause in the petition of right which had 
been rejected by the commons, Buckingham 
proposed by way of concession to change the 
words ' sovereign power ' into ' prerogative,' 
an amendment which puzzled the house. 
Paget, in a speech of some length, suggested 
that the judges should be asked their opinion 
(GARDINER, Hist. ofEnffland,vi.281). He died 
at his house in Westminster on 29 Aug. 1629, 
and was buried in the church of West Dray- 
ton, Middlesex (will registered in P. C. C. 110, 
Barrington). A curious account of the dis- 
section of his body is in Rawlinson MS. C. 
402, art. 12 (Cat. Codd. MSS. Bibl. Bodl, 
Rawl. MS., pars V. fasc. ii. p. 853). In 1602 
he married Lettice, daughter and coheiress 
of Henry Knollys of Kingsbury, Warwick- 
shire (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1601-3, p. 
248), by whom he had three sons : William, 
fifth lord Paget,who is separately noticed, and 
Henry and Thomas, who both died unmar- 
ried. Of four daughters, Anne, the youngest, 
married, first, Sir Simon Harcourt of Stan- 
ton Harcourt, Oxfordshire; and, secondly, 
Sir William Waller, general of the parlia- 
ment's forces. In 1643 Lady Paget was as- 
sessed at 500^., but, as she 'had previously 
lent the parliament 200/., she was discharged 
of her assessment on 25 July (Cal. of Com- 
mittee for Advance of Money, p. 193 ; Com- 
mons' Journals, iii. 181). 



3 Paget 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, v. 187 ; Nichols's 
Progresses of James I.] Q-. G-. 

PAGET, WILLIAM, fifth LORD PAGET 
(1609-1678), born in 1609, was eldest son of 
William, fourth lord Paget [q. v.l He was 
made K.B. at the coronation of Charles I on 
2 Feb. 1625 (METCALPE, Book of Knights, p. 
186), and on 18 Dec. 1627 matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford, but did not graduate 
(FOSTER. Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iii. 107), 
In 1639 he was summoned to parliament. On 
the question of precedency of supply being 
moved in the House of Lords, 24 April 1640, 
he voted against the king (Lords' Journals, 
iv. 67), and on 18 Aug. following he was 
among the peers who petitioned the king, 
then at York, to summon a parliament for 
the redress of grievances (NALSON, Collection, 
i. 437). On 9 Feb. 1642 his father-in-law. 
Lord Holland, appointed him keeper of New- 
Lodge Walk in Windsor Forest (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 279). The same year 
he was constituted by the parliament lord 
lieutenant of Buckinghamshire (WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, p. 56), and on 23 May 
addressed a letter to Lord Holland from 
Beaconsfield, ' shewingthe great readinesse of 
that county to obey the ordinance of the par- 
liament touching the militia.' When, how- 
ever he found that the parliament actually 
meant to have recourse to arms, he joined 
the king at York, and stated his reasons in 
a letter read to the House of Commons on 
20 June. He was accordingly discharged from 
his lieutenancy on 24 June (Commons' Jour- 
nals, ii. 633, 638). Paget's two letters were 
printed in broadsheet form. On 22 June he 
undertook to maintain thirty horse for the 
king (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, pp. 
340-4), but he eventually raised a regiment, 
which did good service at the battle of 
Edgehill on 23 Oct. (SAUNDERSON, Life of 
Charles I, p. 584). He was one of the lords 
who at Oxford, on 27 Jan. 1643-4, signed a 
declaration, by the king's command, of the 
most probable means to settle the peace of 
the kingdom (RTJSHWORTH, Hist. Coll.-pt. iii. 
vol. ii. p. 566). He had his estate seques- 
tered, and was obliged to compound for it 
by purchasing fee-farm rents of 750/. upon 
it (cf. his petition in Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1660-1, p. 334). In 1644 he was assessed at 
2,000/., but the assessment was respited 
until further order ( Cal. of Comm. for Ad- 
vance of Money, p. 476). On 28 Nov. 1644 
the House of Commons accepted 500/. in 
discharge of part of his fine, and ordered the 
sequestration to be taken off upon payment 
of500/. more (Commons' Journals, iii. 707). 
At the Restoration Paget and his wife un- 
successfully petitioned the king for grants and 



Paget 



6 4 



Paget 



sinecures to make good their losses (Eg. MS. 
2549, f. 102). He died intestate on 19 Oct. 
1678, at his house in Old Palace Yard, West- 
minster, and was buried at West Drayton. 
By his marriage to Lady Frances Rich (d. 
1672), eldest daughter of Henry, earl of Hol- 
land, he had three sons and seven daughters. 
His eldest son and successor, William, sixth 
lord Paget (1637-1713), is separately noticed. 
His funeral sermon was preached by John 
Heynes, 'preacher of the New Church, West- 
minster,' and published in 1678. 

Evans (Cat. of Engraved Portraits, ii. 
307) mentions a quarto drawing of Paget in 
colours. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1812, v. 187-9; Claren- 
don's History, ed. Macray ; Cal. of Comm. for 
Compounding; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644- 
1645 pp. 160, 513, 1655 p. 592, 1660-7; 
Yorkshire Archseolog. and Topogr. Journal, vii. 
71, 74, 76.] G. G. 

PAGET, WILLIAM, sixth LORD PAGET 
(1637-1713), born on 10 Feb. 1637, was eldest 
son of William, fifth lord Paget [q, v.] In 
1656 he was allowed to travel abroad (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1655-6, p. 577). He took 
his seat in the House of Lords on 25 Nov. 1678, 
and in 1681 signed the petition against the par- 
liament being held at Oxford. He was present 
at the trial of Edward Fitzharris [q. v.] in 
1681 (LTJTTEELL, Brief Historical Relation, 
i. 95), and at that of the seven bishops on 
29 June 1688. In November 1683 he was a 
witness in favour of Algernon Sidney (ib, i. 
290), and in February 1684 was a witness for 
John Hampden the younger [q. v.] (ib. i. 298). 
On the landing of the Prince of Orange he 
was one of the peers who petitioned the king 
to call a 'free parliament.' He subsequently 
voted for the vacancy of the throne, and for 
settling the crown on the Prince and Princess 
of Orange. On their accession he was, in 
March 1688-9, constituted lord lieutenant 
of Staffordshire (ib. i. 513), and in the fol- 
lowing September was appointed ambassador 
at Vienna (ib. i. 578). He remained there, 
with the exception of a brief visit to England 
in the summer of 1692, till February 1693, 
when, being appointed ambassador-extraor- 
dinary to Turkey, he travelled through 
Hungary and the Turkish territories to Con- 
stantinople (ib. vols. ii. and ii.) By his pru- 
dent negotiations the treaty of peace between 
the imperialists, the Poles, and the Turks 
was signed at Carlowitz on 26 Jan. 1699 ; 
and. soon after, the peace between Muscovy, 
the State of Venice, and the Turks. He made 
himself so popular in Turkey that the sultan 
and grand vizier wrote to William III in 
March, thanking him for his mediation, and 



asking that Paget might not be recalled as he 
urgently desired (ib. iv. 464, 492). Much 
against his will, Paget consented to stay. He 
finally quitted the Turkish court at Adria- 
nople in May 1702, laden with presents ; and, 
reaching Vienna in July, stayed there till to- 
wards the end of November, to adjust a dis- 
pute between the emperor and the grand 
seignior concerning the limits of their respec- 
tive territories in the province of Bosnia. 
Having settled the matter, he had audience of 
leave of the emperor and empress, who gave 
him several rich gifts, and went in December 
to the court of Bavaria to offer England's 
mediation in adjusting the differences between 
the prince and the emperor (ib. v. 252). He 
arrived in London in April 1703 (ib. v. 287), 
and presented Queen Anne with twelve fine 
Turkish horses, which the grand seignior had 
given him (ib. v. 288). On 24 June he was 
reappointed lord lieutenant of Staffordshire. 
In January 1705 Paget was again gazetted 
ambassador extraordinary to the emperor, in 
order to compose some fresh differences be- 
tween him and the Porte (ib. v. 512). He died 
at his house in Bloomsbury Square, London, 
on 26 Feb. 1713, and was buried in the 
church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. He mar- 
ried Frances (d. 1749), daughter of Francis, 
younger son of Robert Pierrepont, earl of 
Kingston, by whom he had issue two sons 
William, who died unmarried in his father's 
lifetime; and Henry, his successor, created 
Earl of Uxbridge, who is noticed separately. 

Paget's despatches and letters, 1689-1700, 
are in Additional MS. 8880 ; his instructions 
as ambassador to Turkey, 1692, are in Eger- 
ton MS. 918, which also contains letters and 
papers from him to Lord Shrewsbury, Sir 
R. Southwell, and others, dated 1693-4. 
Copies of his credentials and instructions, 
dated 1692 and 1698, will be found in Ad- 
ditional MSS. 28939 and 28942. An account 
of his extraordinary expenses in Turkey from 
1693 until 1695 is in Additional MS. 33054, 
f. 30. He maintained a correspondence with 
Sir W. D. Colt in 1690-1, preserved in Ad- 
ditional MS. 34095 ; and addressed a letter 
(Addit. MS. 21551, f. 8) to George Step- 
ney, his temporary successor at Vienna, in 
1701. 

Paget's portrait, a half-length miniature, 
dated 1665, belongs to Lieutenant-colonel 
Leopold Paget. 

[Collins's Peerage, 1812, v. 189-91 ; will 
registered in P. C. C. 66, Leeds ; Luttrell's Brief 
Historical Relation, ii. 485, 499, 527, 552, 556, 
iii. 7, 189, 476, iv. 208, 459, 718, v. 52, 80, 210, 
218 ; Cat. of First Exhibition of National Por- 
traits at South Kensington (1866), p. 148.] 

G. G. 






Pagit ' 

PAGIT or PAGITT, EPHRAIM (1575 ?- 
1647), heresiographer, son of Eusebius Pagit 
[q.v.], was born in Northamptonshire, pro- 
bably at Lamport, about 1575. He matricu- 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 25 May 
1593, being eighteen years old. There is no 
evidence of his graduation, but he is said to 
have been a great linguist, writing fifteen or 
sixteen languages. On 19 Aug. 1601 he was 
admitted to the rectory of St. Edmund the 
King, Lombard Street. In May 1638 he wrote 
a series of letters addressed to Cyril Lucaris, 
patriarch of Constantinople, and other 
patriarchs of the Greek church, commending 
to their notice his own ' Christianographie/ 
the translation of the English prayer-book 
into Greek by Elias Petley, and Laud's con- 
ference with Fisher. 

On the outbreak of the civil war Paget 
was silenced, and retired to Deptford, Kent. 
He was always a strong royalist, and in 
favour of the prayer-book ; yet he took the 
covenant, and in 1645 he joined in a peti- 
tion to parliament for the establishment of 
presbyterianism, probably as a preferable al- 
ternative to independency. His standard 
of doctrine he finds in the articles of ' our 
mother,' the church of England. He died 
at Deptford in April 1647, and was buried in 
the churchyard. lie married the widow of 
Sir Stephen Bord of Sussex. 

His accounts of sectaries are valuable, as 
he makes it a rule to give authorities ; and 
they take a wide range, since he treats 
every deflection from Calvinism as heresy, 
and every approach to independency as fac- 
tion. 

He published : 1. ' Christianographie ; or, 
a Description of the sundrie Sorts of Chris- 
tians in the World,' &c., 1635, 4to ; many 
reprints ; best edition, 1640, fol. 2. ' Here- 
siography ; or a description of the Hereticks 
and Sectaries of these latter times,' &c., 
1645, 4to ; two editions same year ; many 
reprints ; sixth and best edition, 1662, 8vo. 
3. ' The Mystical Wolf,' &c., 1645, 4to 
(sermon on Matt. vii. 15 : reissued with new ! 
title-page, ' The Tryall of Trueth,' &c.) His 
nine letters to the patriarchs of Constanti- 
nople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Mos- 
cow, and of the Maronites, also to Prince 
Kadziwil of Poland and John Tolnai of 
Transylvania, are in Harl. MS. 825. All 
are duplicated in Greek and Latin; two are 
also in English, and one in Syriac. 

[Wood's Athene Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 210 sq. ; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 174 ; 
Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, iii. 62 sq. ; 
the Lamport registers do not begin till 1587, 
those of Oundle in 1625 ; Pagitt's works.] 

A. G. 

VOL. XLITI. 



5 Pagit 

PAGIT, EUSEBIUS (1551 P-1617), 
puritan divine, was born at Cranford, North- 
amptonshire, about 1551. At twelve years 
of age he entered Christ Church, Oxford, as 
a chorister. According to his son's account, 
given to Fuller, ' he brake his right arme 
with carrying the pax ; ' the limb was per- 
manently disabled, and he was in the habit 
of signing himself ' lame Eusebius Pagit.' 
He was afterwards student of Christ Church, 
and stood high in philosophy, being 'com- 
monly called the golden sophister.' Though 
he is said to have taken no degree, Cole 
is doubtless right in identifying him with 
the Eusebius Paget who matriculated at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, on 22 Feb. 1563- 
1564, and commenced B.A. in 1567. He is 
said to have been vicar of Oundle, North- 
amptonshire, but this seems incorrect. In 
1571 he was suspended from preaching for 
not subscribing the articles, and at this time 
he had no benefice. On 21 April 1572 he 
was preferred to the rectory of Lamport, 
Northamptonshire. On 29 Jan. 1574 he was 
cited before Edmund Scambler [q. v.], then 
bishop of Peterborough, for nonconformity, 
was suspended, and shortly afterwards was 
deprived. He subscribed Cartwright's book 
of discipline (1574), and with John Oxen- 
bridge, B.D., was arrested and taken to 
London by order from Archbishop Grindal, 
for taking a leading part in the presbyterian 
associations of Northamptonshire and War- 
wickshire. 

Subsequently he *was presented to the 
rectory of Kilkhampton, Cornwall. He told 
the patron and the bishop (probably John 
Walton, elected 2 July 1579) that he could 
not conform in all points, and was admitted 
and inducted on this understanding. His 
attitude was peaceable and his ministry 
laborious and popular. In March 1584 he 
was brought up before his ordinary and en- 
joined to an exact conformity. Towards 
the end of 1584 articles of accusation, 
founded on his preaching, were exhibited 
against him before the high commission by 
Farmer, curate of Barnstaple, Devonshire. 
He appeared before the commission, pre- 
sided over by Archbishop Whitgift, on 
11 Jan. 1585. The articles were dropped, 
and he was charged with refusing to use the 
prayer-book and to observe the ceremonies. 
In his written defence he admitted his obli- 
gation to use the prayer-book authorised by 
the Uniformity Act of 1559 (this was Ed- 
ward VI's second prayer-book), and denied 
that he had ever refused to do so. He 
allowed that he had not exactly followed 
that book, but pleaded that there was no 
copy of it provided for his church ; that 

P 



Pagit 



66 



Pain 



greater liberty in varying from the statu- 
tory form than he had taken was used by 
Whitgift himself, by his own bishop (Wal- 
ton), and by other bishops and clergy ; that 
his conscience would not allow him to 
follow the prescribed forms in every parti- 
cular, and that his bishop had promised to 
refrain (as he legally might) from urging 
him to do so. He claimed a conference with 
his bishop or some other to be appointed by 
the commission, relying apparently on the 
' quieting and appeasing ' clause in the pre- 
face to the prayer-book. He was imme- 
diately suspended. On his preaching, with- 
out stipend, after suspension (though it 
appears that he had the queen's pardon, and 
had obtained a release from Whitgift, but 
not from the commission) he was deprived 
for ignoring the suspension, disusing the 
surplice and the cross in baptism, and omit- 
ting parts of the prayers. Counsel's opinion 
adverse to the legality of the deprivation 
was brought forward without effect, and the 
living was filled up. 

Pagit now set up a school ; but the high 
commission required him to take out a 
license and subscribe the articles. This he 
scrupled at. On 3 June -1591 he addressed 
an appeal to Sir John Hawkins or Hawkyns 
[q. v.], who had previously stood his friend, 
asking his intercession with Elizabeth. He 
stated that he abhorred schism, and had 
never been present in any ' separate assembly,' 
but had always adhered to and communi- 
cated in his parish church. Xeal says he 
remained silenced till the death of Whit- 
gift (29 Feb. 1604). On 21 Sept. 1604 he 
obtained the rectory of St. Anne and St. 
Agnes, Aldersgate Street, London, which he 
held till his death. He died in May or 
June 1617, and was buried in his church. 
His son Ephraim is separately noticed. His 
name is spelled Pagit and Pagett ; the former 
seems to be his own spelling. 

He published : 1. ' A Godlie and Fruitef ull 
Sermon . . . upon . . . what Provision ought 
to be made for the Mynister,' &c. [1580 ?], 
8vo, 1583,- 8vo (on tithes). 2. 'The His- 
torie of the Bible, briefly collected, by way 
of Question and Answer,' &c., 1613, 12mo 
(often reprinted and translated into French 
and German). 3. ' A Godly Sermon . . . 
at Detford,' 8vo, 1586, 16mo. 4. < A Cate- 
chism,' 1591, 8vo. His ' Latin Catechism ' 
is mentioned by Heylyn, ' Aerius Redivivus,' 
1670, p. 350. * He translated Calvin's har- 
mony of the first three gospels with his com- 
mentary on St. John, ' A Harmonie vpon 
Matthew, Mark,' &c., 1584, 4to. 

[Fuller's Worthies of England, 1662, ii. 
290 sq. ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 204 sq.; 



Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. 1708, i. 278; Strype's 
AVhitgift, 1718, iv. 377, and appendix; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, 1791, ii. 113, 229; Brook's 
Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 253 sq. ; Neat's 
Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, i. 351 sq. ; Cole's 
manuscript Athense Cantabr. ; Harl. MSS. 813, 
if. 14 sq. ; Morrice Manuscripts, Puritan Con- 
troversy, ff. 139 sq. (also copied at ff. 261 sq., 
and in Second Part of a Register, ff. 570 sq.), 
all in Dr. Williams's Library ; Boase and Court- 
ney's Bibl. Cornub.") A. G. 

PAGULA, WILLIAM (d. 1350?), theo- 
logian, whose name is also given as Pagham, 
Paghaner, and Paghanerus, had a great re- 
putation among his contemporaries for piety 
and erudition. After having obtained his 
degrees in canon and civil law and in 
theology, he became vicar of the church of 
Winkfield, near Windsor (1330), where he 
devoted his time to study and writing. He 
wrote: 1. ' Summa summarum de jure ca- 
nonico pariter ac divino,' lib. v. 2. ' Oculum 
sacerdotis dextrum,' lib. i. 3. ' Oculum sacer- 
dotis sinistrum,' called also ' De ignorantia 
sacerdotum' (cf. MS. in Balliol College, Ox- 
ford, Codex 80, with an addition entitled 
' Cilium oculi sacerdotis,' which treats of 
confession, absolution, and the sacrifice of 
the mass). 4. ' Speculum Religiosorum,' 
lib. i., dedicated to Edward III. Manuscript 
copies of his writings are to be found in the 
college libraries at Cambridge and Oxford, 
at Lambeth, and in other cathedral libraries, 
but none of them seem to have been printed. 
He died about 1350, and was buried in his 
church. 

Walter Harris, in his edition of Ware's 
' Works' (i. 146), confuses Pagula with Wil- 
liam de Paul [q. v.], bishop of Meath. Alegre, 
in his ' History of the Carmelites,' carefully 
distinguishes between the two. Oudin seeks 
to identify Pagula with Walter Parker (Gual- 
terus Parchero), to whom Pits ascribes the 
same works as to Pagula, but to whom he 
gives a separate notice in his appendix, Iso. 
10. Pits states that he has been unable to 
ascertain the time in which Parker lived. 

[Pits, De Illustr. Anglise Scriptt. p. 476 ; Fa- 
bricius, Bibl. Latin., v. 181 ; Oudin, De Scriptt, 
Eecles. iii. 867; Ware, De Scriptt. Hib. ed. 
Walter Harris ; Paradisus Carmelitici Decoris 
a Alegre de Casanate, Lyons, 1639 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 578.] J. G. F. 

PAIN. [See also PAINE and PAYNE.] 

PAIN, JAMES (1779P-1877), the 
younger, architect and builder, was son of 
James Pain, and grandson of William Pain 
[q. v.] Born about 1779 at Isleworth in 
Surrey, he was apprenticed with a younger 



Pain 



Paine 



brother.GEORGE RICHARD PAIN (1793?-! 838), 
who was born in London about 1793, to John 
Nash [q. v.], architect, and subsequently the 
two brothers entered into business together 
as architects and builders. George exhibited 
at the Royal Academy designs in the Gothic 
style in 1810-14, while living at 1 Diana 
Place, Fitzroy Square. About 1817, when 
Nash designed Loughcooter Castle, co. Gal- 
way, for Charles Vereker, viscount Gort, he 
recommended the brothers as builders. They 
consequently went to Ireland. James settled 
at Limerick and George at Cork. While 
practising as architects they often carried 
their own designs into execution. James 
was appointed architect to the board of first- 
fruits for the province of Munster, where a 
large number of churches and glebe-houses 
were built, altered, or repaired by him and 
his brother. Their churches of Buttevant, 
Midleton, and Carrigaline, with a tower and 
spire, are among the best specimens of the 
Gothic architecture of the period. . The man- 
sion, Mitchelstown Castle, near Cork, for 
the Earl of Kingston, is the largest and per- 
haps the best of their designs ; it is in the late 
thirteenth-century style. An engraving ap- 
pears in Neale's ' Seats of Noblemen and 
Gentlemen,' 4to, 1825, 2nd ser. vol. ii. 

Others of their works were the gaols at 
Limerick and Cork ; Bael's, Ball's, or Bawl's 
bridge, consisting of one arch, over the 
abbey stream at Limerick (1831); Thomond 
bridge, over the river Shannon at Limerick, 
between 1839 and 1843; and Athlunkard 
bridge, about a mile distant, consisting of 
five large elliptic arches. 

George died in 1838, aged 45, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Mary, Shan- 
don, co. Waterford. James retired, and died 
in Limerick on 13 Dec. 1877, in his ninety- 
eighth year, and was buried at the cathedral 
of that city. 

[Neale (as above) ; local information ; Dic- 
tionary of Architecture of the Architectural 
Publication Society, which adds the names of 
many other buildings.] W. P-H. 

PAIN, WILLIAM (1730P-1790?), writer 
on architecture and joinery, published a 
series of practical treatises. The earliest 
was ' The Builder's Companion and Work- 
man's General Assistant,' 92 plates, fol. 
1759, chiefly dealing with work in the Chip- 
pendale style. This was followed by ' The 
Builder's Pocket Treasure ; or, Palladio de- 
lineated and explained,' 44 plates, 8vo, 1763 ; 
and compilations of the same description ap- 
peared in 1774, 1780, and 1782. The British 
Palladio; or, Builder's General Assistant,' 
&c., 42 plates, fol. 1785, was reissued in 1793, 



1797, and 1804. The date 1770, usually 
assigned to Pain's death, is obviously too- 
early. A William Paine died in the Isle of" 
Thanet on 27 July 1771 (Gent. Mag. 1771, 
p. 378), but the architectural writer must 
have died after 1790. ' W. Pain,' of 1 Diana 
Place, Fitzroy Square, who exhibited at the 
Royal Academy designs in the Gothic style 
in 1802 and 1807, was possibly a son. 

Another son, James, a builder and sur- 
veyor, assisted his father in his latest pub- 
lication, and left at least four sons, three of 
whom (Henry, James [q. v.], and George 
Richard) were pupils of the architect John 
Nash. 

[Dictionary of Architecture; Catalogue of 
Royal Academy.] W. P-H. 

PAINE. [See also PAIX and PAYNE.] 

_PAINE or PAYNE, JAMES (1725- 
1789), architect, born in 1725, is said to- 
have become a student in the St. Martin's 
Lane Academy, where he attained the power 
of drawing the figure and ornament with 
success (Diet, of Arch.} He states tha^ he 
began as a youth the study of architecture 
under Thomas Jersey (d. 1751), and at the 
age of nineteen was entrusted with the con- 
struction of Nostell Priory in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire for Sir Rowland Winne, 
bart., 'after a design seen by his client during 
his travels on the continent ' (NEALE, Seats,. 
vol. iv. ; WOOLFE and GANDOX, VitruviusBri- 
tannicus, fol., London* 1767, vol. i. pi. 57-63, or 
pi. 70-3). About 1740 he erected two wings- 
at Cusworth House, Yorkshire, for Williami 
AVrightson (NEALE, Seats, vol. v. ; WooLFE r 
i. pi. 89-92), and he refers to 'several gentle- 
men's buildings in Yorkshire' as executed 
prior to 1744, when he was employed to design 
and build (as was then the practice with 
architects) the mansion-house at Doncaster 
This was completed in 1748 ; and he published 
a description, with twenty-one plates (fol., 
London, 1751). 

Paine was, until 1772, a director of the 
Society of Artists of Great Britain, and nu- 
merous designs by him appear in the society's 
' Catalogues' from 1761 onwards. But the 
fullest account of his work appears in his 
' Plans, &c., of Noblemen and Gentlemen'* 
Residences executed in various Counties, and 
also of 'stabling, bridges, public and private 
temples, and other garden buildings.' The 
first volume or part was issued in 1767, the 
second part in 1783, together with a second 
edition of the first, and the book contained 
altogether 175 fine plates. Among the plans 
are the stabling and some bridges at Chats- 
worth for the Duke of Devonshire (1758- 

r2 



Paine 



68 



Paine 



1763); Cowick Hall, Yorkshire, for Viscount 
Downe ; Gosforth, Northumberland, for Ch. 
Brandling, esq. ; Melbourne (now known as 
Dover) House, Whitehall, for Sir M. Feather- 
stonhaugh, bart. ; Belford, Northumberland, 
for Abraham Dixon, esq. ; Serlby, Notting- 
hamshire, for Viscount Galway ; Stockeld 
Park, Yorkshire, for William Middleton, esq. ; 
Lumley Castle at Sandbeck, Yorkshire, for 
the Earl of Scarborough (WATTS, Seats of 
the Nobility, $c., 1779-90, pi. x.) ; Bywell, 
Northumberland, for William Fenwick, esq. ; 
Axwell Park, Durham, for Sir Thomas Cla- 
vering, bart. ; Heath, Yorkshire, for Mrs. 
Hopkinson ; St. Ires, Yorkshire, for Benja- 
min Ferrand, esq. ; Thorndon Hall, Essex, for 
Lord Petre (NEALE, 2nd ser. vol. ii. ; WRIGHT, 
Esse.r, vol. ii. ; WATTS, pi. 17) ; Wardour 
Castle, Wiltshire, for Henry, eighth lord 
Arundel (NEALE, vol. iii. ; Builder for 1858, 
xvi. 548) ; Stapleton Park, Yorkshire, for 
Edward Lascelles, esq., afterwards Earl of 
Harewood (NEALE, vol. iv.) ; Brocket Hall, 
Hertfordshire, for Sir Matthew Lamb, after- 
wards Lord Melbourne (ib. 2nd ser. vol. v.); 
Hare Hall, near Romford, Essex, for J. A. 
Wallenger, esq. (WRIGHT, Esse.r, vol. ii. ; 
NEALE, vol. i.) ; Shrubland Hall, Suffolk ; 
and other smaller works. In London he de- j 
signed Lord Petre's house in Park Lane ; Dr. : 
Heberden's house, and another for the Hon. i 
Thomas Fitzmaurice, both in Pall Mall. His 
work also included bridges at Richmond and 
at Chillington, Staffordshire, besides several ! 
ceilings and ' chimneypieces,' one being for ( 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., in Leicester 
Square, two at Melbourne House, and 
another in Park Lane. These were of his 
own peculiar design and execution (' Letters 
of Sir W. Chambers, 1769/ in Journal of 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 1892, 
p. 4). The bridges of Chertsey (BRATLEY, 
Surrey, ii. 231), Walton, and Kew (FAULK- 
NER, Brentford, p. 168) were built in 1783 
from his designs, and at the same time 
Salisbury Street in the Strand was laid out 
by him. 

His plans are well arranged and commo- 
dious, and the buildings soundly constructed ; 
but some of the designs are meagre imita- 
tions of the Italian school. Gwilt, in his 
memoir of Sir William Chambers (Civil 
Architecture, 1825, p. xlix), remarks that 
' Paine and Sir Robert Taylor divided the 
practice of the profession between them until 
Robert Adam entered the list, and distin- 
guished himself by the superiority of his 
taste in the nicer and more delicate parts 
of decoration.' 

Paine held the appointment under the 
king's board of works of clerk of the works 



(or resident architect) at Greenwich Hospital, 
and held a like post afterwards at Richmond 
New Park and Newmarket. Finally he was 
attached to the board of works as ' architect 
to the king,' but was displaced in 1782, very 
soon after his appointment, by Burke's Re- 
form Bill, without gratuity or pension. In 
1771 Paine was elected president of the So- 
ciety of Artists of Great Britain. ' Chambers 
and Paine, who were leading members in the 
society, being both architects, were equally 
desirous that the funds should be laid out in 
the decoration of some edifice adapted to the 
objects of the institution. This occasioned 
much debate, acrimony, and rivalry among 
their respective partisans ' (GALT, Life of 
West, ii. 35). At length Paine designed for 
the society the academy or exhibition rooms, 
near Exeter Change, Strand, and on 23 July 
1771 laid the first stone (Annual Register^. 
The exhibition in the new buildings was 
opened on 1 1 May 17 72, when an ' ode,' written 
by E. Lloyd, with music by W. Hook, was 
recited (given in ib, p. 206). The building 
was soon afterwards sold, and in 1790 was 
converted into the Lyceum Theatre. In 
1764 Paine was living in a spacious house in 
St. Martin's Lane, which he had built for 
himself; he removed in 1766 to Salisbury 
Street, and about!785to Addlestone orSayes 
Court, near Chertsey, to which he is said to 
have made additions in the Elizabethan style ; 
there he is stated to have formed a fine col- 
lection of drawings. In 1783 he was high 
sheriff for Surrey, and in the commission of 
the peace for Essex, Middlesex, and Surrey. 
Some months preceding his death he retired 
to France, and died there about November 
1789, in the seventy-third year of his age (ib. 
1789, p. 232). A son James is separately 
noticed. Of his two daughters, the younger 
was married after 1777 to Tilly Kettle [q. v.] 
the painter. 

At the South Kensington Museum there 
are two volumes of drawings, one having 
twenty-three examples of rosettes, c., and 
the other having forty-four examples of orna- 
ments, vases, mirror-frames, &c., both of 
which may be attributed to Paine. 

There is a stippled portrait of Paine dated 
1798 ; a similar plate by P. Falconet, en- 
graved in 1769 by D. P. Pariset; a small 
one by F. Hayman, engraved by C. Grignion, 
prefixed to his publication of 1751. There is 
also the brilliant picture of Paine and his son 
James by Sir Joshua Reynolds, painted in 
June 1764. This is now in the University 
gallery at Oxford, the son having bequeathed 
it to the Bodleian Library. It was engraved 
in 1764 by J. Watson, and shows a scroll 
inscribed ' Charter of the Society of Artists ; ' 



Paine 



6 9 



Paine 



but this was only granted 26 Jan. 1765 (PYE, 
Patronage, 1845, pp. 116, 136). 

[Dictionary of Architecture; Gent. Mag. 1789, 
ii. 1153; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Catalogues 
of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and 
of the Royal Academy of Arts ; Pye's Patronage 
of British Art, 8vo, 1845 ; Literary Panorama, 
1807-8, iii. 809, 1013, 1226.] W. P-H. 

PAINE, JAMES (d. 1829 ?), architect, 
only son of James Paine the elder [q. v.], 
was instructed at the St. Martin's Lane 
Academy, and exhibited ' stained drawings ' 
at the Spring Gardens exhibitions of 1761, 
1764, and 1790. He then appears to have 
travelled in Italy. On his return he sent to 
the exhibitions of the Royal Academy of 
Arts architectural drawings in 1781, 1788, 
and in 1788 an ' Intended Bridge across 
Lough Foyle at Derry.' In 1791 he was one 
of the original fifteen members of the 'Archi- 
tects' Club' (MULVANY, Life of Gandon, 
1847). 

His father, by his will dated February 
1786, probably left his son independent, 
which may account for his name not being 
found in later ' Catalogues ' of the Royal 
Academy. In the library at the South Ken- 
sington Museum is a large volume with 
' J. Paine, jun. Archt. Rome, 1774,' on the 
outside, containing fifty-seven drawings of 
studies at Rome, all signed by him, being 
plans of four palaces, views at Albano and 
Tivoli, measured drawings of the Ponte 
Rotto, and a number of statues with their 
measurements. In 1788 he had residences 
in both North End, Hammersmith, and 
Salisbury Street. On 12 March 1830 Mr. 
Christie sold the pictures, a few casts, books 
of architecture, &c., 'the property of J. 
Paine, Esq., Architect (deceased).' Among 
them were the account and other books by 
Nicholas Stone, sen.[q. v.],and his son, Henry 
Stone [q. v.], formerly belonging to Vertue 
(quoted in WALPOLE'S Anecdotes), and now 
preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum. His 
portrait was included with his father's in 
the picture painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
in 1764. 

[Dictionary of Architecture ; Sale Catalogue 
in Sir John Soane's Museum.] W. P-H. 

PAINE, THOMAS (1737-1809), author 
of the ' Rights of Man,' born 29 Jan. 1736- 
1737 at Thetford, Norfolk, was the son of 
Joseph Paine, by his wife Frances (Cocke). 
The father was a freeman of Thetford, a 
staymaker, and a small farmer. He was a 
member of the Society of Friends, who had 
a small meeting-house at Thetford. The 
mother belonged to the church of England ; 
and though the register, which is defective 



at the time of Paine's birth, does not record 
his baptism, his sister was baptised in 1738, 
and Paine was himself subsequently con- 
firmed. Paine's father was registered as a 
quaker at his death, and the son, as he often 
avows, was much influenced by quaker prin- 
ciples. He was sent to the grammar school, 
but did not learn Latin, on account, he says, 
of the objections of the quakers to the Latin 
books used at school. He showed mathe- 
matical ability, and ' rather repressed than 
encouraged ' a turn for poetry. At the age of 
thirteen Paine was put to his father's busi- 
ness. The usher at the school had told him 
stories of life at sea, and Paine tells us in his 
' Rights of Man' (pt. ii. ch. v.)that he joined a 
privateer when 'little more than sixteen.' He 
entered on board the Terrible, commanded by 
Captain Death, but was brought back by his 
father's remonstrances. He afterwards, how- 
ever, went to sea in the King of Prussia. War 
with France was declared 28 May 1 756, and the 
Terrible was taken in action 28 Dec. Paine 
must therefore have been nineteen at the time 
of these adventures. He soon returned to stay- 
making. He worked for two years in Lon- 
don, and (at this period or in 1766-7) showed 
his scientific taste by buying a pair of globes 
and attending the lectures of the self-taught 
men of science, Benjamin Martin [q. v.] and 
James Ferguson (1710-1776) [q. v.] He also 
became known to the astronomer John Bevis 
[q. v.] In 1758 he moved to Dover, and in 
April 1759 set up as a staymaker at Sand- 
wich. On 17 Sept. 1759 he married Mary 
Lambert. His business was unsuccessful, 
and he moved to Margate, where his wife 
died in 1760. 

Paine now managed to obtain an ap- 
pointment in the excise. He returned to 
Thetford in July 1761, where he was a super- 
numerary officer. In December 1762 he was 
sent to Grantham, and in August 1764 to 
Alford. His salary was 50/. a year, on which 
he had to keep a horse. On 27 Aug. 1765 
he was discharged for neglect of duty by 
entering in his books examinations which 
had not been actually made. On 3 July 
1766 he wrote an apologetic letter to the 
board of excise begging to be restored, and 
on 4 July it was ordered that he should be 
restored ' on a proper vacancy.' Meanwhile 
he worked for a time as a staymaker at Diss 
in Norfolk. He was then employed as usher, 
first by a Mr. Noble in Goodman's Fields, and 
afterwards by a Mr. Gardiner at Kensington. 
Oldys, a hostile biographer, reports that he 
preached about this time in Moorfields, and 
that he made some applications for ordination 
in the church of England. He was appointed 
excise officer at Grampound, Cornwall, on 



Paine 



Paine 



15 May 1767, but asked leave to wait for 
another vacancy, and on 19 Feb. 1768 was 
appointed to Lewes in Sussex. lie lodged 
with a quaker tobacconist named Samuel 
Ollive ; here he became the friend of Thomas 

* Clio ' Rickman [q. v.], afterwards his bio- 
grapher. Rickman describes him as a strong 
whig, and a member of a club which met at 
the White Hart. Paine was an eager and 
obstinate debater, and wrote humorous and 
political poems; one upon the death of Wolfe 
became popular, and was published by him in 
his magazine at Philadelphia. On 2b' March 
1771 he married Elizabeth, daughter of his 
landlord, Ollive, who had died in 1769. Mrs. 
Paine and her mother, who had carried on the 
tobacco business, opened a grocer's shop with 
Paine's help. In 1772 the excisemen were 
agitating for a rise in their salaries ; they 
collected money, and employed Paine to 
draw up a statement of their grievances, and 
to agitate in London. Four thousand copies 
of Paine's tract were printed. He distri- 
buted them to members of parliament and 
others, and sent one, with a letter asking for 
a personal interview, to Goldsmith. The 
agitation failed, and soon afterwards (8 April 
1774) he was dismissed from the excise. 
Oldys says that he had dealt in smuggled 
tobacco, but the official document (given 
in CONWAY, i. 29) states simply that he 
had left his business without leave, and 
gone off on account of debts. His share in 
the agitation would not tend to recommend 
him to the board, although, according to 
Oldys, one of the commissioners, G. L. 
Scott, had been pleased by his manners, and 
tried to protect him. His debts were dis- 
charged by the sale of his goods, but a peti- 
tion for replacement in his office was disre- 
garded. 

On 4 June 1774 a deed of separation was 
signed by Paine and his wife. Paine de- 
dined to explain the cause of this trouble 
when Rickman spoke to him, and it remains 
unknown. Rickman declares, however, that 
Paine always spoke tenderly of his wife, and 
sent her money without letting her know 
whence it came. A letter published by Oldys 
from his mother to his wife, and dated 
27 July 1774, speaks bitterly of his ' unduti- 
ful' behaviour to his parents, and of his 

* secreting 3QI. entrusted to him ' by the ex- 
cisemen. The letter was produced with a 
view to injuring Paine by Oldys, and is not 
beyond suspicion. It was published, how- 
ever, when Paine might have challenged it. 
Oldys says that the mother was eccentric and 
of ' sour temper,' and Paine, though speaking 
affectionately of his father, never refers to 
her. Paine's wife, from whom the letter must 



have come, survived till 1808 ; and it is stated 
in a deed of 1800 that she did not know 
whether her husband was alive or dead 
(CoxwAY, i. 33). 

Paine went to London. G. L. Scott, ac- 
cording to Oldys, introduced him to Frank- 
lin, to whom he might also have become 
known through his scientific friends. Frank- 
lin gave him a letter, dated 30 Sept. 1774, to 
Bache (Franklin's son-in-law), describing him 
as an ' ingenious, worthy young man,' and 
suggesting that he might be helped to em- 
ployment as clerk, surveyor, or usher. Paine 
reached America on 30 Nov. 1774, and ob- 
tained many friends at Philadelphia through 
Franklin's introduction. He became con- 
nected with Robert Aitkin, a bookseller in 
Philadelphia, who was anxious to start a 
magazine. The first number of this, the 
' Pennsylvania Magazine or American Mu- 
seum,' appeared at the end of January 1775. 
Paine contributed from the first, and soon 
afterwards became editor, with a salary of 50/. 
a year. He wrote articles attacking slavery 
and complaining of the inferior position of 
women, and others showing his republican 
tendencies. He made acquaintance with 
Dr. Rush (see Rush's letter in CHEETHAM, p. 
21), who had already written against slavery. 
Rush claims to have suggested Paine's next 
performance. The first blood of the Ame- 
rican war was shed in the skirmish at Lex- 
ington (19 April 1775), and Paine resolved 
to express the sentiment, which had long 
been growing up, though hitherto not 
avowed, in favour of independence of the 
colonies. Paine had already spoken out in 
a letter to the ' Pennsylvania Journal,' signed 
'Humanus' (18 Oct. 1775). In the same 
month Franklin had suggested that he 
should prepare a history of the transactions 
which had led to the war. Paine was already 
at work upon a pamphlet, which he showed 
to Rush and a few friends. Bell, a Scottish 
bookseller, ventured to print it, other pub- 
lishers having declined ; and it appeared as 
' Common Sense ' on 10 Jan. 1776. Friends 
and enemies agree in ascribing to it an un- 
exampled effect. In a letter dated 8 April 
folio wing, Paine says that 120,000 copies have 
been sold. He fixed the price so low that he 
was finally in debt to the publisher. The pam- 
phlet was anonymous, and was at first attri- 
buted to Franklin, John Adams, and others, 
though the authorship was soon known. A 
controversy followed in the ' Pennsylvania 
Journal,' in which Paine, under the signa- 
ture ' Forester,' defended himself against 
' Cato,' the Rev. William Smith, tory presi- 
dent of the university of Philadelphia. 

Paine thus became famous. He was known 



Paine 



Paine 



to Jefferson, and is supposed by Mr. Conway 
to have written the suppressed clause against 
the slave trade in the declaration of inde- 
pendence. He resigned his magazine, and 
joined the provincial army in the autumn of 
1776. After a short service under llober- 
deau, he was appointed in September a volun- 
teer aide-de-camp to General Nathaniel 
Greene, then at Fort Lee on the Hudson. 
In November the fort was surprised, and 
Paine was in the retreat to Newark (his 
journal is printed in Almon's ' Remem- 
brancer,' 1777, p. 28). At Newark Paine began 
writing his ' Crisis.' It appeared, 19 Dec., 
in the ' Pennsylvania Journal,' and began 
with the often-quoted words, ' These are the 
times that try men's souls.' It was read at 
every corporal's guard in the army, and re- 
ceived with enthusiasm. (In the London 
edition of Paine's 'Political Works,' 1819, a 
paper with which Paine had nothing to do 
is erroneously printed before this as the first 
* Crisis.') 

On 21 Jan. 1777 Paine was appointed 
secretary to a commission sent by congress 
to treat with the Indians at Easton, Pennsyl- 
vania ; and on 17 April he was made secre- 
tary to the committee of foreign affairs. On 
26 Sept. Philadelphia was occupied by the 
British forces, and congress had to seek re- 
fuge elsewhere. On 10 Oct. Paine was re- 
quested to undertake the transmission of 
intelligence between congress and Washing- 
ton's army. A letter to Franklin of 16 May 
1778 (given in COXWAT, i. 102-13) describes 
his motions at this time. Paine, after send- 
ing off his papers, was present at several 
military operations, and distinguished him- 
self by carrying a message in an open boat 
under a cannonade from the British fleet. 
He divided his time between Washington's 
headquarters at Valley Forge and York, 
where the congress was sitting. He pub- 
lished eight 'Crises' during 1777 and 1778. 
The British army evacuated Philadelphia in 
June 1778, and Paine returned thither with 
the congress. The ' Crises,' vigorously written 
to keep up the spirits of the Americans, 
had additional authority from his official posi- 
tion. 

In January 1779 Paine got into trouble. 
The French government had adopted the 
scheme suggested by Beaumarchais for sup- 
plying funds to the insurgents under cover 
of an ostensible commercial transaction. 
The precise details are matter of contro- 
versy. The American commissioners, Silas 
Deane, Franklin, and Arthur Lee, had written 
from Paris stating that no repayment would 
be required for the sum advanced. Beau- 
marchais, however, sent an agent to congress 



demanding payment of his bill ; and Deane 
was thereupon recalled to America to give 
explanations. Deane was suspected of com- 
plicity with Beaumarchais, and made an un- 
satisfactory statement to congress. He pub- 
lished a paper, appealing to the people, and 
taking credit for having obtained supplies. 
Paine, who had seen the official despatches, 
replied in the ' Pennsylvania Packet ' of 
15 Dec. 1779, declaring (truly) that the 
matter had been in train before Deane was 
sent to France, and in a later letter inti- 
mated thatthe supplies were sent gratuitously 
by the French government. This was to reveal 
the secret which the French, although now 
the open allies of the Americans, desired to 
conceal. The French minister, Gerard, there- 
fore appealed to congress, who were bound 
to confirm his statement that the alliance had 
not been preceded by a gratuitous supply. 

Paine, ordered to appear before congress, 
was only permitted to say ' Yes ' in answer 
to the question whether he was the author 
of letters signed ' Common Sense.' He 
offered his resignation (6 Jan. 1779), and 
applied for leave to justify himself. He 
desired to prove that Deane was a ' rascal/ 
and had a private 'unwarrantable connec- 
tion ' with members of the house. The let- 
ters were suppressed; and though a motion 
for dismissing him was not carried, the 
states being equally divided, he resigned his 
post. G6rard, according to his despatches 
(CoNWAT, i. 134), fearing that Paine would 
' seek to avenge himself with his charac- 
teristic impetuosity and impudence,' offered 
to pay him one thousand dollars yearly to 
defend the French alliance in the press. 
Paine, he adds, accepted the offer, and began 
his functions. Afterwards, however, Paine's 
work proved unsatisfactory, and Gerard en- 
gaged other writers. Paine stated in the 
following autumn that Gerard had made 
him such an offer, but that he had at once 
declined to accept anything but the minister's 
' esteem ' (see Paine's letter to Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, reprinted in ALMON'S Re- 
membrancer for 1779, p. 293, &c.) Paine's 
conduct in the affair was apparently quite 
honourable, though certainly very indiscreet. 
Deane was dishonest, and Paine was de- 
nouncing a job. The revelation was not in- 
consistent with the oath which he had taken 
to disclose nothing ' which he shall be 
directed to keep secret ; ' but it showed a 
very insufficient appreciation of the differ- 
ence between the duty of a journalist and of 
a public official. Discretion was never one 
of Paine's qualities. 

Paine, who had published his ' Crises,' like 
his ' Common Sense,' at prices too low to be 



Paine 



Paine 



remunerative, was now in difficulties. His 
salary, which had been only seventy dollars 
a month, had hitherto supported him, and 
he was now obliged to become a clerk in the 
office of Owen Biddle. He appealed to the 
executive council of Pennsylvania to help 
him towards a proposed collection of his 
works. He asked for a loan of 1,500/. for a 
year, when he would be able to propose a 
publication by subscription. The council 
asked Gerard whether he would be offended 
by their employing Paine. He replied in 
the negative, though making some com- 
plaints of Paine's conduct. On 2 Nov. 1779 
the Pennsylvania assembly appointed Paine 
their clerk, and in that capacity he wrote a 
preamble to the act for the abolition of 
slavery in the state, which was passed on 
1 March 1780. He published three more 
' Crises ' in the course of this year. On 
4 July the university of Pennsylvania gave 
him the degree of M.A. The financial posi- 
tion of the insurgents was becoming almost 
desperate, and Washington addressed a let- 
ter to the assembly, speaking of the danger- 
ous state of feeling in the army. Paine had 
to read it, and he suggested next day a 
voluntary subscription. He drew his own 
salary, amounting to 1,699Z. Is. 6d., and 
started the subscription with a sum of five 
hundred dollars. Mr. Conway(i. 167) gives 
accounts according to which Paine received 
over 5,500/. between November 1779 and 
June 1780; but the currency was so depre- 
ciated that the true value cannot be in- 
ferred, and pounds seem to be confused with 
dollars. A subscription was raised of 400/. 
' hard money ' and 101,360^. ' continental.' 
At a meeting held soon afterwards it was 
decided to abandon this plan and form a 
bank, which was of service in the autumn, 
and led in the next spring to the constitu- 
tion by Robert Morris of the Bank of North 
America. Paine published at the end of the 
year a pamphlet called ' PublicGood' in oppo- 
sition to the claims of Virginia to the north- 
western territory. After the war a motion 
in the Virginian legislature to reward Paine 
for his services was lost on account of this 
performance. 

Paine resigned his position as clerk at 
the end of the year, stating his intention to 
devote himself to a history of the revolu- 
tion. He had also a scheme for going to 
England, where he imagined he could open 
the eyes of his countrymen to the folly of 
continuing the struggle by a pamphlet as 
effective as ' Common Sense ' (see letter to 
Greene in CONAVAY, i. 169, and note in Rights 
of Man, pt. ii. chap, v.) Congress now re- 
solved to make an application to the French 



government for a loan, and entrusted the 
mission to Colonel Laurens, an aide-de-camp 
of Washington. Laurens took Paine as his 
secretary, Paine intending to make his expe- 
dition to England after completing the busi- 
ness. They sailed from Boston in February 
1781, and had a favourable reception in 
France. Paine was persuaded to give up 
the English plan, and returned with Laurens 
in a French frigate, reaching Boston on 
25 Aug. 1781, with 2,500,000 livres in 
silver, besides military stores. Sixteen ox 
teams were sent with the money to Phila- 
delphia. Washington was meanwhile ad- 
vancing with Rochambeau upon Yorktown, 
and the surrender of Cornwallis ended the 
campaign. He had to obtain a loan from 
Rochambeau, which was repaid from the 
money brought by Laurens. Paine refers 
to this mission in his published ' Letter to 
Washington,' 1796. In 1808 he asked a 
reward from congress, claiming to have made 
the original suggestion of applying for a 
loan, and stating that the advance upon 
Yorktown was only made possible by the 
money obtained (Letter printed in the Ap- 
pendix to CHEETHAM). Americans were 
probably capable of asking for loans without 
Paine's suggestion. On the virtual conclu- 
sion of the war, Paine appealed to Washing- 
ton for some recognition of his services, and 
stated that he thought of retiring to France 
or Holland. At the suggestion of Wash- 
ington, Robert Morris, and Livingston 
(10 Feb. 1782), a salary of eight hundred 
dollars was allowed to him from the secret 
service money in order to enable him to 
write. He received one year's salary under 
this arrangement (ComvAY, i. 195), and 
wrote five more ' Crises ' in 1782. The last 
appeared on 19 April 1783, the eighth anni- 
versary of Lexington. Paine took part in 
a controversy excited by the refusal of Rhode 
Island to join in imposing a continental duty 
upon imports, and was present at discussions 
with a view to the formation of a stronger 
union. He was not proposed for the con- 
vention elected in 1787 to frame the consti- 
tion of the United States. Paine had retired 
to a small house at Bordentown, New Jersey, 
on the east bank of the Delaware, and was 
devoting himself to mechanical contrivances. 
In 1784 the state of New York presented to 
him the estate of New Rochelle, of about 
277 acres, the confiscated property of a 
loyalist. Washington wrote letters on his 
behalf, Pennsylvania voted 500/. to him in 
December, and congress in October 1785 
gave him three thousand dollars. Paine, at 
the beginning of 1786, wrote his 'Disserta- 
tions,' mainly in defence of the Bank of 



Paine 



73 



Paine 



North America. He was now, however, 
devoting himself to an invention for an iron 
bridge. He consulted Franklin, and his 
plans were considered by a committee of the 
Pennsylvania assembly, who were proposing 
a bridge over the Schuylkill. At the end of 
March 1787 he wrote to Franklin that he 
intended to go to Europe with the model of 
his bridge, and was anxious to see his 
parents. He sailed in April, went to Paris, 
where he was received as a distinguished 
guest, and laid his model before the academy 
of sciences. In August he reached London. 
His father, who had shortly before written 
an affectionate letter to him (CoNWAT, i. 
222), had died in 1786; but he went to 
Thetford, where his mother was still living, 
and made her an allowance of 9s. a week. 
She died in May 1790. Paine had brought 
to London some papers, approved by Car- 
dinal de Brienne, in favour of friendly rela- 
tions between France and England, and 
presented it to Burke (Preface to Rights of 
Man). The real purpose of this overture is 
explained by a pamphlet called ' Prospects 
on the Rubicon/ which Paine published on 
his arrival. The French were in close alliance 
with the Dutch republican party ; but the 
Prussians intervened in the autumn to sup- 
port the stadtholder, who represented the 
opposite politics. Pitt made a secret treaty 
with the king of Prussia, and was prepared 
to support him if necessary in a war with 
France. Paine's pamphlet is directed against 
Pitt's scheme, and insists chiefly upon the in- 
capacity of England to stand another French 
war. De Brienne naturally wished to stimu- 
late the English opposition against Pitt's 
policy, which, however, succeeded, as the 
French shrank from war. Paine thus became 
known to Burke, Fox, the Duke of Portland, 
and other whig politicians. He employed 
himself, however, chiefly upon his bridge, 
the construction of which was undertaken 
by Messrs. Walker of Rotherham, Yorkshire. 
It was brought to London and set up in 
June 1790 at Leasing (now Paddington) 
Green for exhibition. The failure of an 
American merchant, Whiteside, who had 
some interest in the speculation, caused 
Paine's arrest for debt, but he managed to 
pay the money. The bridge was finally broken 
up in 1791 (OLDYS). The first attempt at an 
iron bridge was made, according to Mr. 
Smiles (Life of TelforcT), at Lyons in 1755, 
but it failed. In 1779 the first iron bridge, 
constructed by Abraham Darby [q. v.], was 
opened at Coalbrookdale. According to 
Mr. Smiles, the bridge over the Wear at 
Sunderland, opened in 1796, was constructed 
from the materials of Paine's bridge, and his 



designs were adopted with some modifica- 
tion. The credit has also been given to 
Rowland Burdon, who actually executed the 
plan (see Encycl. Brit. 9th edit. art. ' Iron 
Bridges '). It would seem that, in any case, 
Paine's scheme must have helped to suggest 
the work. He wrote about other scientific 
projects to Jefferson, and had a strong taste 
for mechanical inventions. But his attention 
was diverted to other interests. 

In the early part of 1790 Paine was in 
Paris, where he was entrusted by Lafayette 
with the key of the Bastille for transmission 
to Washington. In November appeared 
Burke's ' Reflexions on the Revolution,' and 
Paine immediately replied by the first part 
of the ' Rights of Man.' Johnson, the radical 
publisher, had undertaken it, but became 
frightened after a few copies had been issued 
with his name, and handed it over to Jordan. 
Paine went over to Paris, leaving his book 
to the care of Godwin, Holcroft, and Brand 
Holies. It appeared 13 March 1791, and 
succeeded rapidly. Paine, writing to Wash- 
ington on 2 July 1791, to whom the book 
was dedicated, says that he has sold over 
eleven thousand out of sixteen thousand 
copies printed. It was reprinted in America 
with a preface, stating that it was approved 
by ' the secretary of state ' i.e. Jefferson. 
Jefferson and Mallioon made some attempt 
to secure a place in the cabinet for Paine. 
The federalists disapproved. Washington re- 
plied diplomatically to Paine's letter, and 
' Publicola,' who wa's supposed to be John 
Adams, and was really his son, John Quincy 
Adams, attacked him in the ' Columbian 
Sentinel.' 

Paine went to Paris directly after the pub- 
lication, and gave the work to Lanthenas for 
translation. He was present at the return 
of the king from the flight to Varennes on 
26 June, and was assailed by the crowd for 
not having a cockade in his hat. He was 
one of five who formed themselves into 
the Societ6 R6publicaine. Condorcet, and 
probably Brissot, published a placard on 
1 July suggesting the abolition of monarchy, 
and started ' Le Republicain,' a journal of 
which only one number appeared, containing 
a letter from Paine. Paine returned to 
London, but abstained from attending a 
meeting to celebrate the fall of the Bas- 
tille for fear of compromising supporters. 
Another meeting was to be held on 4 Aug. 
to celebrate the abolition of feudal rights in 
France. The landlord of the Crown and 
Anchor closed his doors. A meeting was 
then held at the Thatched House tavern on 
20 Aug., and a manifesto, signed by Home 
Tooke as chairman, and written by Paine, 



Paine 



74 



Paine 



was issued, expressing sympathy with the 
French revolution and demanding reforms in 
England (see Riyhts of Man, App.) 

Paine lodged with his friend Rickman, a 
bookseller, and met many of the reformers : 
Lord Edward FitzGerald, Mary Wollstone- 
craft, Sharp the engraver, Rornney, ' Walk- 
ing ' Stewart, Home Tooke, and others, are 
mentioned by Rickman. He was toasted by 
the societies which were beginning to spring 
up ; and began the second part of the ' Rights 
of Man.' His printer, Chapman, became 
alarmed, and handed over the sheets which 
he had printed to Jordan. Paine also gave 
a note to Jordan (dated 16 Feb. 1^92). In 
it Jordan was directed, if questioned by any 
one in authority, to give Paine's name as 
author and publisher. On 14 May Jordan 
received a summons ; he pleaded guilty, and 
gave up his papers (Address to Addressers). 
Paine was summoned on 21 May. He wrote 
to the attorney-general stating that he was 
prepared to meet the case fully, and had j 
ordered his attorney to put in an appearance. 
He appeared in court on 8 June, when the 
trial was postponed to December. He also I 
published letters to Dundas (6 June), to 
Lord Onslow (17 and 21 June), who had 
summoned a county meeting at Epsom, and 
to the sheriff of Sussex (20 June), who had 
summoned a meeting at Lewes. He spoke at 
a meeting of the ' Friends of the People ' on 
12 Sept. His friends heard that he would 
be arrested for his speech. The next even- 
ing he was at the house of Johnson, the pub- 
lisher, when William Blake (GiLCHRisx, Life 
of Blake, p. 12) told him that he would be 
a dead man if he went home. He started at 
once with John Frost (1750-1842) [q. v.], 
who took him by a circuitous route to Dover. 
They were searched by the custom-house 
officer, upon whom Paine made an impres- 
sion by a letter from Washington, and were 
allowed to sail, twenty minutes before a 
warrant for Paine's arrest arrived from Lon- 
don. 

The attorney-general, Archibald Mac- 
donald [q. v.l, explained in the trial that he 
had not prosecuted the first part, because he 
thought that it would only reach the 'judi- 
cious reader.' The second had been industri- 
ously circulated in all shapes and sizes, even 
as a wrapper for ' children's sweetmeats.' 
It was said, in fact, that two hundred thou- 
sand copies had been circulated by 1793 
(Impartial Memoirs). The real reasons were 
obvious. The respectable classes had taken 
alarm at the events in France. The old and 
new whigs had fallen out, and the reforming 
societies were becoming numerous. The 
'Society for Constitutional Information,' of 



which Home Tooke was the leading mem- 
ber, thanked Paine on the appearance of each 
part of his book. The ' Corresponding So- 
ciety,' formed at the beginning of 1792, and 
affiliated to the ' Constitutional,' with nume- 
rous other societies which now sprang up 
throughout the country, joined in commend- 
ing Paine's books, and circulated copies in all 
directions. 'The Rights of Man' was thus 
adopted as the manifesto of the party which 
sympathised with the French revolution. 
Although they disavowed all intentions of 
violence, the governing classes suspected 
them of Jacobinism, and a prosecution of 
Paine was inevitable. (The trials of Hardy 
and Home Tooke in 1794, reported in ' State 
Trials,' vols. xxiv.-v., give a full history of 
these societies and their relation to Paine ; 
see also reports of Committee of Secrecy, 
1794, in Par/. Hist. xxxi. 751, &c.) Paine 
on 4 July handed over 1,000/., produced by 
the sale of the ' Rights of Man,' to the Con- 
stitutional Society (State Trials, xxiv. 491). 
Chapman had offered him successively 100A, 
5001., and 1,000/., for the second part at 
different stages of the publication (ib. xxii. 
403), but Paine preferred to keep the book 
in his own hands. It was suggested (CoN- 
WAY, i. 330) that the money was really to 
be paid by government with a view to sup- 
pressing the book. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that government would guarantee 
to pay hush-money with so little security 
for permanent effect. The trial took place 
on 18 Dec. 1792. Paine wrote a letter from 
Paris (11 Nov. 1792) to the attorney-gene- 
ral, saying that he had business of too much 
importance to be present, and cared nothing 
for the result. He suggested that the attor- 
ney-general and ' Mr. Guelph ' might take 
warning from the examples made of similar 
persons in France. Erskine, who defended 
him, tried to treat this letter as a forgery, 
but conviction, if before doubtful, became 
now inevitable. 

Several prosecutions for publishing or cir- 
culating the ' Rights of Man ' followed in 
1793, as the alarm in England became more 
intense (CouwAY, ii. 278 n., gives a list). 
Paine was welcomed enthusiastically in 
France. On 26 Aug. the title of French 
citizen had been conferred upon him and 
other celebrities by the national assembly. 
On 6 Sept. he was elected by the Pas de 
Calais a member of the convention. The de- 
partments of Oise and Puy de Dome also 
elected him. Paine was met by salutes and 
public addresses, and on 19 Sept. reached 
Paris. He appeared that night at the na- 
tional assembly. Frost reports next day 
(State Trials, xxiv. 53G) that Paine was in 



Paine 



75 



Paine 



good spirits, though ' rather fatigued by the 
kissing.' On 21 Sept. the abolition of royalty 
was decreed, and on 11 Oct. a committee was 
appointed to frame a constitution, which in- 
cluded Paine. Brissot, another member, had 
already become known to him in America. 
The king's trial was now the absorbing ques- 
tion. Paine published several papers on the 
subject. He was unable to speak French, 
but gave in translations of his addresses. 
He voted for the ' detention of Louis during 
the war, and his perpetual banishment after- 
wards.' He suggested that the United States 
might be the ' guard and the asylum of Louis 
Capet, and urged, on the final vote for im- 
mediate execution, that the United States 
would be offended by the death of their 
benefactor. Paine's courage exposed him to 
the denunciations of Marat, but his friends, 
the Girondists, were not yet crushed. Paine 
used his influence to obtain the release of a 
Captain Grirnston, by Avhom he had been 
struck at a restaurant ; and another instance 
of his interference on behalf of an arrested 
person is told by Landor. The constitution 
framed by the committee was ready during 
the winter, but postponed by the influence of 
the Jacobins, and, though adopted by the con- 
vention in June, never came into operation. 
Paine co-operated in forming it with Con- 
dorcet, and was instructed to prepare, with 
Condorcet and others, an address to the people 
of England. The fall of the Girondins put 
an end to this and to Paine's influence. He 
had been denounced by Marat for his attempt 
to save the king's life, and gave some evidence 
at Marat's trial in April. On 20 April, dur- 
ing the crisis of the struggle, he wrote to 
Jefferson expressing despondency, and saying 
that he meant to return to America when 
the constitution was settled. Paine, however, 
was not personally involved in the catastrophe 
which befell the Girondists in June. He was 
greatly depressed, and for a time sought for 
consolation in brandy. He lodged in a house 
which had formerly belonged to Mme. de 
Pompadour, saw a few friends, and rarely 
visited the convention. He now occupied 
himself in writing his ' Age of Reason.' He 
had just finished the first part when he was 
arrested, 27 Dec. 1793. Mr. Conway main- 
tains that his arrest was caused by certain 
intrigues of the American minister, Gouver- 
neur Morris. Morris was hostile to the re- 
volution, and desired to break off the French 
alliance for the United States. Certain 
American ships had been detained at Bor- 
deaux, and when their captains appealed to 
Morris, he was slow to interfere in such a 
way as to remove their grievance. They ap- 
plied to Paine, who suggested a petition to 



congress, which succeeded. Morris thought 
that Paine was intriguing against him, and 
intimated to a French official his objections 
to an influence ' coming from the other side 
of the Channel.' Shortly afterwards Paine 
was denounced in the convention (3 Oct.), 
and in December it was decreed that 
'foreigners should be excluded from public 
functions during the war ; ' and Paine, thus 
excluded from the convention, was considered 
liable to arrest under a previous law as citi- 
zen of a country at war with France. 

Some Americans resident in Paris peti- 
tioned for Paine's release, but received an 
evasive answer. Paine applied to Morris, 
who made, in consequence, a very formal and 
lukewarm remonstrance. Paine in vain re- 
quested a further ' reclamation.' He remained 
in prison, and Robespierre made a memoran- 
dum for his trial (Letter to Washington). 
He seems to have been marked for execu- 
tion by the committee of public safety, dur- 
ing their struggle with Robespierre, and thinks 
that he owed his escape to a fever which made 
him unconscious for a month. He also says 
(Letter to Citizens of the United States)ih&t a 
chalk-mark placed against the door of his 
room as a signal for the guillotine escaped 
notice by an accident. After the death of 
Robespierre, appeals were made to Merlin 
de Thionville by Lanthenas, who had trans- 
lated the 'Age of Reason;' and Paine him- 
self wrote to the committee of public safety 
and to the convention. Monroe had arrived 
in Paris as Morris's successor in August. 
Upon hearing of this, Paine sent him a me- 
morial, to which Monroe replied cordially; 
Monroe claimed Paine as a citizen of the 
United States, in a letter (2 Nov. 1794) to 
the ' committee of general surety,' and Paine 
was immediately set free, after an imprison- 
ment of over ten months. He had employed 
part of the time in the composition of the 
second part of the ' Age of Reason.' 

Paine became the guest of Monroe, and was 
restored to the convention. On 3 Jan. 1795 
he was first on a list of persons recommended 
for pensions on account of literary services. 
He did not accept the offer. The convention 
declined to sanction a proposal from Monroe 
that Paine should be employed on a mission 
to America. He was still in bad health, 
but on 7 July was present at the convention, 
when the secretary read a speech of his pro- 
testing against the limitation of the franchise 
to direct taxpayers. This was also the sub- 
ject of his pamphlet on ' The first Principles 
of Government,' published in July. Paine 
was naturally aggrieved by the neglect of 
the American government to interfere on 
his behalf. He wrote a reproachful letter to 



Paine 



7 6 



Paine 



Washington (22 Feb. 1795), which he sup- 
pressed at Monroe's request. On 20 Sept. 
he wrote another, calling upon Washington 
to clear himself from the charge of treachery ;' 
and, having received no answer to this, he 
wrote and published a letter, dated 3 Aug. 
1796. It is a long and bitter attack upon 
Washington's military career, as well as 
upon his policy as president. Paine's very 
intelligible resentment at Morris's inaction 
is some palliation, though not an adequate 
excuse. 

Paine's ' Age of Reason ' had strengthened 
the feeling against him in England. The 
chief answers were: Gilbert Wakefield's 'Ex- 
amination ' (1794) and Bishop Watson's 
'Apology for the Bible' (1796). Thomas 
Williams was convicted for the publication 
in June 1797, when Paine published a 
vigorous letter to Erskine, who was counsel 
for the prosecution. During the following 
years the publication of Paine's books in 
England was a service of danger, and by all 
the respectable writers he was treated as the 
typical ' devil's advocate.' Paine remained at 
Paris till the peace of Amiens. He stayed 
with Monroe for a year and a half. In 1831 
a sum of 1,118 dollars was paid to Monroe 
by act of congress for moneys paid to Paine 
or on his account. After finishing the second 
part of the ' Age of Reason,' Paine had a 
severe relapse in the autumn of 1795. Early 
in 1796 he went into the country to recover 
his health, and in April published a pamphlet 
against the ' English System of Finance.' 
Cobbett, who had fiercely attacked Paine, and 
in his earlier writings defended Washington 
against him, became the panegyrist of his old 
enemy upon long afterwards reading this 
pamphlet, which expressed his own views of 
paper money. Paine was for a time the guest 
of Sir Robert Smith, a banker in Paris. Lady 
Smith had made Paine's acquaintance just 
before his arrest, and they carried on a com- 
plimentary correspondence. Monroe was re- 
called at the end of 1796, and Paine, after pre- 
paring to return with him, was deterred by a 
prospect of British cruisers in the Channel. 
He afterwards took up his abode with Nicolas 
de Bonneville, a French journalist, who had 
translated some of Paine's works, and been 
one of the five members of his ' Republican 
Club.' Paine wrote a few papers, made sug- 
gestions to French ministers, and subscribed 
a hundred livres in 1798 towards a descent 
upon England. Napoleon, it is said, invited 
him to join the expedition, and Paine hoped 
to proclaim liberty at Thetford under Na- 
poleon's wing. The hope of such a consum- 
mation recurred to him in 1804, when he 
published a pamphlet in America upon the 



then expected invasion. Paine's philanthropy 

I had quenched any patriotic weakness. In 

i 1797 he established in Paris a sect of ' Theo- 

philanthropists,' consisting of five families, 

and delivered an inaugural address. It was 

supported by Larevelliere-Lepeaux of the 

Directory, but was suppressed in October 

1801. 

Jefferson, now president of the United 
States, offered Paine a passage to America 
in a ship of war. Paine declined the offer, 
upon hearing a report that Jefferson had 
apologised for making it. He decided, how- 
ever, to return ; his friend Sir Robert Smith, 
died, and the Bonnevilles promised to follow 
him to America. He landed at Baltimore on 
30 Oct 1802. His property had risen in value, 
and was expected to produce 400/. a year. 
Some of his friends, such as Rush and Samuel 
Adams, had been alienated by the ' Age of 
Reason.' He stayed, however, with Jeffer- 
son, who consulted him about the Louisiana 
purchase and other political affairs, and 
published various pamphlets and articles in 
the following years, but without any marked 
effect. He went to Bordentown early in 1803, 
and, though welcomed by his own party, was 
hooted by an orthodox mob on a visit to New 
York shortly afterwards. Mme. Bonneville, 
with her three children, reached America in 
the autumn. She settled in Penn's house 
at Bordentowu, as a teacher of French. Find- 
ing Bordentown dull, she followed Paine to 
New York in 1804. Her husband was under 
surveillance in France, and could neither 
follow her nor send her money. Paine had 
to prove that he was not legally responsible 
for her debts. He now resolved to settle at 
NewRochelle, where Mme. Bonneville began 
to keep house for him. Here, at Christmas 
1804, a man named Derrick, who owed him 
money, fired a gun into Paine's room. Derrick 
appears to have been drunk, and, although he 
was arrested, the charge was not pressed. 
Mme. Bonneville again went to New York 
to teach French. Paine put her younger 
children to school in New Rochelle, and 
went into a lodging. He found his income 
insufficient, and applied to Jefferson to obtain 
for him some reward for past services from 
Virginia. He spent the winter 1805-6 in 
New Y T ork, in the house of William Carver, 
where hejoined Elihu Palmer in a ' deistic pro- 
paganda.' He wrote for Palmer's organ, ' The 
Prospect.' Palmer died in 1806. Paine gave a 
part of his reply to Bishop Watson to Palmer's 
widow, who published it in the 'Theophilan- 
thropist ' in 1810. Another part, given to 
Mme. Bonneville, disappeared. Early in 1806 
Paine returned to New Rochelle, and had 
to sell the house at Bordentown for three 



Paine 



77 



Paine 



hundred dollars. Paine was dejected by his 
unsatisfactory position, and his health Avas 
beginning to fail. His vote was rejected at 
New Rochelle, on the ground that he was 
not an American citizen; and, in spite of 
his protests, he failed to get his claim recog- 
nised. He let his farm at New Rochelle, 
and lodged with a painter named Jarvis in 
New York. In August 1806 he writes that 
he has had a fit of apoplexy. His last book, 
an ' Essay on Dreams,' continuing the argu- 
ment of the ' Age of Reason,' had been 
written previously, and was published in 

1807. In the autumn of that year he was 
much irritated by attacks in a New York 
paper, which led, in the next year, to a bitter 
controversy with James Cheetham, editor of 
the ' American Citizen.' Cheetham was an 
Englishman, and had been a disciple of 
Paine. Paine now attacked him for desert- 
ing Jefferson while still enjoying the govern- 
ment patronage. Paine, in the beginning of 

1808, again applied to congress for some re- 
ward. He was anxious about money. He 
lodged during ten months of 1808 with a 
baker named Ilitt in New York. He after- 
wards went to a miserable lodging at 
63 Partition Street, and contracted to sell 
his farm at New Rochelle for ten thousand 
dollars. In July 1808 he moved to a better 
house in Herring Street, near Mme. Bonne- 
ville. In January 1809 he made his will, 
leaving all his property to Mme. Bonneville 
and her children ; and in April moved to a 
house, now 59 Grove Street, where Mme. 
Bonneville came to nurse him. He died there 
on 8 July 1809. 

Paine was more or less ' ostracised ' by 
society during his last stay in America. 
Political and theological antipathies were 
strong, and Paine, as at once the assailant 
of Washington and the federalists and the 
author of the ' Age of Reason,' was hated by 
one party, while the other was shy of claim- 
ing his support. It has also been said that 
his conduct was morally offensive, and 
charges against him have been accepted 
without due caution. His antagonist, Cheet- 
ham, made them prominent in a life published 
in 1809. He accused Paine of having se- 
duced Mme. Bonneville, of habitual drunken- 
ness, and of disgustingly filthy habits. The 
charges were supported by a letter to Paine 
from Carver, with whom Paine had lodged. 
Mme. Bonneville immediately sued Cheet- 
ham for slander. Cheetham made some at- 
tempt to support his case with the help of 
Carver, but Carver retracted the charge ; 
it completely broke down, and the jury at 
once found Cheetham guilty. Cheetham was 
sentenced to the modest fine of 150 dollars. 



The judge, said to be a federalist, observed in 
mitigation that his book ' served the cause of 
religion.' It is very intelligible that Mme. 
Bonneville's position should have suggested 
scandal, but all the evidence goes to show 
that it was groundless. Paine's innumerable 
enemies never accused him of sexual immo- 
rality, and in that respect his life seems to 
have been blameless. The special charges of 
drunkenness made by Cheetham and Carver 
are discredited by this proof of their charac- 
ter ; Carver's letter to Paine was written or 
dictated by Cheetham, and seems to have 
been part of an attempt to extort money. 
Carver afterwards confessed that he had lied 
as to the drink (CONWAY, ii. 388-404). 

It is admitted, however, that the charge 
of drinking was not without foundation. 
Paine confessed to Rickman that he had 
fallen into excesses in Paris. Mr. Conway 
thinks that this refers solely to a few weeks 
in 1793. Even Cheetham (p. 99) admits 
that the habit began at the time of the 
French revolution. It seems, indeed, that 
Paine had occasionally yielded to the ordi- 
nary habits of the day. His publisher, 
Chapman, at the trial in 1792, spoke of 
Paine's intoxication on one occasion. It 
was ' rather unusual,' he says, for Paine to 
be drunk, but he adds that when drunk he 
was given to declaiming upon religion (State 
Trials, xxii. 402). A similar account of an 
after-dinner outburst upon religion is given 
by Paine's friend, Henry Redhead Yorke, 
who visited him in Paris in 1802, found him 
greatly broken in health, and speaks also of 
the filthy state of his apartment (see YORKE, 
Letters fromParis,l8\4:, ii. 338-69). Mr. Con- 
way says that his nose became red when he 
was about fifty-five, i.e. about 1792. In 
America Paine changed from brandy to rum. 
Bale was told that he took a quart of rum a 
week at New Rochelle, and in 1808 his 
weekly supply seems to have been three 
quarts. He had, it appears, to be kept alive 
by stimulants during one of his illnesses, 
and his physical prostration may account for 
the stimulants and for some of the slovenly 
habits of which Carver gives disgusting, and 
no doubt grossly exaggerated, details. Paine 
had been neat in his dress, ' like a gentleman 
of the old school ' (says Joel Barlow) ; but 
after coming to New York, the neglect of 
society made him slovenly (ToDD, Joel Bar- 
low, p. 236). Barlow's account, though Mr. 
Conway attributes it to an admission of a 
statement by Cheetham, indicates a belief 
that Paine's habits of drinking had excluded 
him from good society in his last years. On 
the other hand, various contemporary wit- 
nesses, including Jarvis, with whom Paine 



Paine 



7 8 



Paine 



lodged for five months, deny the stories of 
excessive drinking altogether ; and Rickman, 
who was with him, says that he had given 
up drinking and objected to laying in spirits 
for his last voyage. The probability is that 
the stories, which in any case refer only to 
the last part of his career, were greatly ex- 
aggerated. Various stories circulated to show 
that Paine repented of his opinions on his 
deathbed were obviously pious fictions meant 
to ' serve the cause of religion.' 

Paine was buried at New Rochelle on 
10 June 1809. His bones were dishumed by 
Cobbett in 1819, and taken to Liverpool. 
They were left there till after Cobbett's death, 
and were seized in 1836 as part of the pro- 
perty of his son, who became bankrupt in 
1836. They were last heard of in posses- 
sion of a Mr. Tilly in 1844. A monument 
was erected at New Rochelle in 1839. 

Paine was about five feet nine inches in 
height, with a lofty forehead and prominent 
nose, and a ruddy complexion, clean shaven 
till late in life, well made and active, a good 
rider, walker, and skater. Mr. Conway states 
that there are eleven original portraits. The 
best known is that by Romney (1792), en- 
graved by W. Sharp in 1793 and 1794. 
Another, considered by Mr. Conway as the j 
best likeness, was painted by John Wesley j 
Jarvis in 1803, and now belongs to Mr. J. H. i 
Johnston of New York. A bust by Clark | 
Mills, in the National Museum at Washing- 
ton, was taken from this picture. Jarvis 
made a cast of Paine's face after death. A 
bust, founded upon his, is in the rooms of 
the New York Historical Society. 

Paine is the only English writer who ex-, 
presses with uncompromising sharpness the 
abstract doctrine of political rights held by 
the French revolutionists. His relation to 
the American struggle, and afterwards to 
the revolution of 1789, gave him a unique 
position, and his writings became the sacred 
books of the extreme radical party in Eng- 
land. Attempts to suppress them only 
raised their influence, and the writings of 
the first quarter of the century are full of 
proofs of the importance attached to them by 
friends and foes. Paine deserves whatever 
credit is due to absolute devotion to a creed 
believed by himself to be demonstrably true 
and beneficial. He showed undeniable 
courage, and is free from any suspicion of 
mercenary motives. He attached an exces- 
sive importance to his own work, and was 
ready to accept the commonplace that his 
pen had been as efficient as Washington's 
sword. He attributed to the power of his 
reasoning all that may more fitly be ascribed 
to the singular fitness of his formulae to ex- 



press the political passions of the time. 
Though unable to see that his opponents 
could be anything but fools and knaves, he 
has the merit of sincerely wishing that the 
triumph should be won by reason without 
violence. With a little more ' human nature/ 
he would have shrunk from insulting W T ash- 
ington or encouraging a Napoleonic invasion 
of his native country. But Paine's bigotry 
was of the logical kind which can see only 
one side of a question, and imagines that all 
political and religious questions are as simple 
as the first propositions of Euclid. This 
singular power of clear, vigorous exposition 
made him unequalled as a pamphleteer in 
revolutionary times, when compromise was 
an absurdity. He also showed great shrewd- 
ness and independence of thought in his 
criticisms of the Bible. He said, indeed, little 
that had not been anticipated by the Eng- 
lish deists and their French disciples ; but 
he writes freshly and independently, if some- 
times coarsely. Mr. Comvay lays much stress 
upon his theism ; and in the preface to the 
'Age of Reason' (pt. ii.) he claims to be 
warring against the excesses of the revolu- 
tionary spirit in religious as well as political 
matters. The critical remarks, however, are 
more effective than a deism which is neither 
original nor resting upon any distinct philo- 
sophical ground. His substantial merits will 
be differently judged according to his readers' 
estimate of the value of the doctrines of 
abstract rights and a priori deism with which 
he sympathised. There can be only one 
opinion as to his power of expressing his 
doctrines in a form suitable ' for the use of 
the poor.' 

Paine's works are : 1. ' Case of Officers of 
Excise ' (printed 1772, published in 1793). 
2. ' Common Sense,' 10 Jan. 1776. 3. 'Epistle 
to the People called Quakers,' 1776. 4. ' Dia- 
logue between General Montgomery and an 
American Delegate,' 1776. 6. ' The Crises ' 
(16, including ' supernumerary ' numbers 
from 19 Dec. 1776 to 29 April 1783). 
6. 'Public Good,' 1780. 7. 'Letter to the 
Abbe Raynal,' 1782 (also in French). 

8. 'Thoughts on the Peace,' &c., 1783. 

9. ' Dissertations on Government, the Affairs 
of the Bank and Paper Money,' 1786. 

10. ' Prospects on the Rubicon,' 1787 (re- 
printed in 1793 as ' Prospects on the War 
and the Paper Currency'). 11. 'Letter to 
Sir G. Stanton' (on iron bridges), 1788. 
12. ' Address and Declaration of the Friends 
of Universal Peace and Liberty,' 20 Aug. 
1791. 13. 'The Rights of Man; being an 
Answer to Mr. Burke's attack on the French 
Revolution,' 1791 (The second part, 'com- 
bining principles and practice,' appeared in 



Paine 



79 



Painter 






1792. The catalogue of the British Mu- 
seum mentions some twenty-five answers). 

14. 'Letter to the Abbe Sieyes,' 1792. 

15. ' Four Letters on Government ' (to Dun- 
das, to Lord Onslow (two), and the Sheriff 
of Sussex), 1 792 (also separately). 16. ' Letter 
addressed to the Addressers,' 1792. 17. ' Ad- 
dress to the Republic of France ' (also in 
French), 25 Sept. 1792. 18. 'Speech in 
Convention on bringing Louis Capet to Trial, 
20 Nov. 1792.' 19. Reasons for wishing to 
preserve the Life of Louis Capet,' January 
1793 (also in French). 20. ' The Age of 
Reason ' (at London, New York, and Paris), 
1794, and in French by Lanthenas ; ' Age of 
Reason,' pt. ii., in London, 1795; 'Age of 
Reason,' pt. iii., to which is prefixed an 
' Essay on Dreams,' New York, 1 807 ; Lon- 
don, 1811 (the catalogue of the British 
Museum mentions about forty answers.) 
21, ' Dissertations on the First Principles of 
Government,' 1795 (Paine's speech in the 
Convention, 7 July 1795, is added to second 
edition). 22. ' Decline and Fall of the Eng- 
lish System of Finance,' 1796. 23. 'Letter 
to George Washington,' 1796. 24. 'Agrarian 
Justice opposed to Agrarian Law and to 
Agrarian Monopoly ; being a Plan for 
ameliorating the Condition of Man by creat- 
ing in every Nation a National Fund,' &c., 
1797. 25. ' Letter to People of France and 
the French Armies,' 1797. 26. ' Letter to 
Erskine,' 1797 ; to this was appended 
(27) ' Discourse to the Society of Theophilan- 
thropists,' also published as ' Atheism Re- 
futed ' in 1798. 28. 'Letter to Camille 
Jourdan on Bells . . . ' also in French as 
' Lettre . . . sur les Cultes,' 1797. 29. ' Mari- 
time Compact : on the Rights of Neutrals at 
Sea,' 1801 (also in French). 30. ' Letters to 
Citizens of the United States,' 1802 (reprinted 
in London, 1817). 31. 'Letter to the People 
of England on the Invasion of England,' 

1804. 32. 'On the Causes of Yellow Fever,' 

1805. 33. ' On Constitutions, Governments, 
and Charters,' 1805. 34. ' Observations on 
Gunboats,' 1806. 

Mr. Conway gives the titles of some later 
pamphlets which are not in the British Mu- 
seum. Posthumous were a fragment of his 
reply to Bishop Watson (1810) and an 
' Essay on the Origin of Freemasonry ' 
(1811). Paine also contributed to the 
' Pennsylvania Magazine ' and to the ' Penn- 
sylvania Journal' in 1775-6, and to the 
' Prospect ' in 1804-5. A collection of his 
' Political Works ' appeared in 1792, and was 
translated into French (1793) and German 
(1794X A fuller collection was published 
by Sherwin in 1817. The ' Theological 
Works' were published by Carlile in 1818. 



Volumes of ' Miscellaneous Letters and 
Essays,' with hitherto unpublished pieces, 
appeared in 1819, and in the same year his 
' Miscellaneous Poems.' Mr. Conway is edit- 
ing a new edition of the works, the first 
volumes of which appeared in 1894. 

[The Life of Paine by Moncure Daniel Con- 
way, 2 vols. 8vo, 1892 (3rd edit. 1893), is founded 
upon most elaborate research, and gives hitherto 
unpublished documents. Mr. Conway, though an 
excessively warm admirer, is candid in his state- 
ments of evidence. Paine's manuscripts were left 
to Mme. Bonneville, and possibly included an au- 
tobiography seen by Yorke in 1802. The papers 
were all destroyed by a fire while in possession 
of General Bonneville, Mme. Bonneville's son. 
Of other lives, the first was the Life of Thomas 
Pain, author of the Rights of Men, with a Defence 
of his Writings, by Fronds Oldys, A.M., of the 
University of ' Pennsylvania,' 1791. The 'De- 
fence' was a mystification meant to attract 
Paine's disciples. Oldys is said to have been 
the pseudonym of the antiquary, George Chal- 
mers (1742-1825) [q. v.], then a clerk in the 
council of trade. The president, Lord Hawkes- 
bury (afterwards first Lord Liverpool), is said 
by Sherwin to have employed him and paid him 
500/. for writing it. Chalmers was bitterly 
hostile, and ready to accept any gossip against, 
Paine; but his statements of verifiable fact seem 
to be correct. The book went through ten 
editions in 1791-3. Impartial Memoirs (1793) 
is a sixpenny tract, adding little. Cheetham's 
Life (see above) appeared in 1809; the Life l>y 
Paine's friend, Thcmas Clio Rickman, and a Life 
by W. T. Sherwin, also;vn admirer, in 1819. An 
American Life, by G. Vale (1841). depends chiefly 
on the preceding ; it is on Paine's side, and gives 
accounts of Cheetham's trial, &c.] L. S. 

PAINTER, EDWARD (1784-1852), 
pugilist, was born at Stratford, four miles 
from Manchester, in March 1784, and as a 
young man followed the calling of a brewer. 
A quarrel with a fellow-employ^ in the 
brewery, called Wilkins a man of heavy 
build led to a formal fight in the yard of 
the Swan Inn, Manchester, where Painter 
quickly defeated his opponent, and showed 
unusual power as a boxer. After receiving 
some training under his fellow-countryman 
Bob Gregson, he was matched to fight .T. 
Coyne, an Irish boxer from Kilkenny, six 
feet in height, and weighing fourteen stone. 
Painter weighed thirteen stone ; his height 
was five feet nine inches and three-quarters. 
The men met at St. Nicholas, near Margate, 
on 23 Aug. 1813, when, after a fight of 
forty minutes, the Irishman was beaten. J. 
Alexander, known as ' The Gamekeeper,' 
now challenged Painter, and a contest for 
sixty guineas a side took place at Moulsey 
Hurst, Surrey, on 20 Nov. 1813. In the 



Painter 



Painter 



twentieth round the victory seemed falling 
to the challenger, but Painter, with a 
straight well-directed hit, stunned ' The 
Gamekeeper,' and became the victor. He was 
now deemed a match for Tom Oliver [q. v.], 
but in the fight, which took place on 17 May 

1814, his luck for the first time deserted him. 
For a purse of fifty guineas he next entered 
the lists with John Shaw, the lifeguardsman, 
at Hounslow Heath, Middlesex, on 18 April 

1815, when the height and weight of Shaw 
prevailed, after a well-contested fight lasting 
twenty-eight minutes. On 23 July 1817 
Painter met Harry Sutton, ' The Black.' at 
Moulsey Hurst, and after forty-eight minutes 
found himself unable to continue the en- 
counter. Not satisfied with the result, he 
again challenged Sutton to meet him at 
Bungay in Suffolk on 7 Aug. 1818. The 
event excited great interest, and, notwith- 
standing rainy weather, fifteen thousand 
persons assembled. There was a quadrangle 
of twenty-four feet for the combatants to 
engage in, with an outer roped ring for the 
officials. Outside this stood the spectators, 
several rows deep, and three circles of 
wagons surrounded the whole, giving the 
ring the appearance of an amphitheatre. In 
this encounter Sutton, although he fought 
with great spirit, yielded at the close of the 
fifteenth round. At Stepney, on 21 March 
1817, Painter undertook for a wager to throw 
half a hundredweight against Mr. Donovan, 
a man of immense proportions, and beat him 
by eighteen inches and a half. He was 
equally good at running. On 7 Nov. 1817, 
on the Essex Road, in a five-mile race 
against an athlete named Spring, he ran the 
distance in thirty-five minutes and a half. 

The well-known Thomas Winter Spring 
was the next to engage with Painter, the 
fight coming off on Mickleham Downs, Surrey, 
on 1 April 1818 ; when, after thirty-one 
rounds, occupying eighty-nine minutes, the 
newcomer was victorious. The same men 
were then matched to fight on 7 Aug. 1818, 
at Russia Farm, five miles from Kingston. 
In the first round Spring was floored by a 
blow over the eye, from which, although he 
continued fighting to the forty-second round, 
he never completely recovered. Painter now 
became landlord of the Anchor, Lobster 
Lane, Norwich, and intended to fight no 
more, but on 17 July 1820 again met his old 
opponent, Tom Oliver, at North AValsham, 
and on this occasion was the victor. It is 
remarkable that Painter in the first attempt 
was defeated by Oliver, Sutton, and Spring, 
but that in each case on another trial he 
proved to be the conqueror. For many years 
he lived at the Anchor, then removed to the 



White Hart Inn, Market Place, Norwich. 
He died at the residence of his son, ' near 
the Ram,' Lakenham, Norwich, on 18 Sept. 
1852, and was buried in St. Peter's church- 
yard on 22 Sept. 

[Miles's Pugilistica, 1880, ii. 74-88, with 
portrait, but the dates of his birth and death 
are both incorrect ; Fights for the Champion- 
ship, by the editor of Bell's Life inLondon, 1860, 
pp. 51-3. 55-7, 60-2 ; Fistiana, by the editor of 
Bell's Life in London (1864), p. 94 ; The Fancy, 
liy an Operator, 1826, i. 393-400, with portrait; 
Bell's Life in London, 26 Sept. 1852, p. 7.] 

G. C. B. 

PAINTER, WILLIAM (1540P-1594), 
author, is said to have sprung from a Kentish 
family, but be is described in the Cambridge 
University register in 1554 as a native of 
Middlesex, and may possibly have been son 
of William Painter, citizen and woolcomber, 
of London, who applied about 1543 for the 
freedom of the city. He matriculated as a 
sizar from St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
November 1554. On the 30th of the same 
month he was admitted both clockkeeper of 
the college and a scholar on the Lady Mar- 
garet's foundation. In 1556 he received a 
scholarship on the Beresford foundation, 
but he seems to have left the university 
without a degree. Before 1560 he became 
headmaster of the school at Sevenoaks, de- 
spite the regulations which required 'the 
grammar master ' to be a bachelor of arts in 
some university. With the post went a house 
and a salary of 50/. a year. On 25 April 
1560 he was ordained deacon by Grindal, 
bishop of London. In February 1560-1 heleft 
Sevenoaks to assume the office of clerk of 
the ordnance in the Tower of London. That 
office he retained till his death, residing near 
the Tower ; and he managed to acquire a 
substantial private fortune by borrowing 
freely from the public funds under his con- 
trol. He purchased two manors in the 
parish of Gillingham, Kent, viz., East-Court 
and Twidall. In 1586 his proceedings ex- 
cited the suspicions of the government, and 
he and two colleagues were ordered to refund 
to the treasury a sum of 7,075/. Painter con- 
fessed that he owed the queen 1,079/. 17s. 3d. 
In 1587 he was reported to have made false 
entries in his accounts in collusion with 
Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick [q. v.], 
master of the ordnance. In 1591 Painter's 
son Anthony confessed to irregularities com- 
mitted by his father and himself at the ord- 
nance office ; but when Painter's offences were 
more specifically defined as the sale of war 
material for his own profit in 1575 and 1576, 
he denied the truth of the ' slanderous infor- 
mations.' Painter made a nuncupative will 



Painter 



81 



Painter 



14 Feb. 1593-4, and died immediately after- 
wards. He was buried in London. He had 
married Dorothy Bonham of Cowling, who 
died at Gillingham, 19 Oct. 1617, aged 80. 
By her he had four daughters, besides his 
son Anthony. The son, who is usually de- 
scribed as ' of Gillingham,' married Catherine, 
daughter of Robert Harris, master in chan- 
cery, and was father of William Painter, who 
obtained, before 1625, a reversionary grant of 
the office of master of the revels (COLLIER, 
Annals of the Stage, i. 419). A Richard 
Painter (b. 1615), son of Richard Painter of 
Tunbridge, Kent, is said to be descended from 
the author. He graduated from St. John's 
College, Oxford (B.A. 1636 and M.A. 1640), 
and contributed to the Oxford collections of 
verse in 1638 and 1642. 

Painter is remembered as the author of 
' The Palace of Pleasure,' a valuable collection 
of one hundred stories or novels, translated 
from the Latin, Greek, French, and Italian. 
'The Cytie of Cyvelite, translated into Eng- 
lesshe by william paynter,' was entered on 
the ' Stationers' Registers ' by the publisher, 
William Jones, in 1562. But whether, as 
is commonly assumed, this entry refers to 
Painter's ' Palace,' or to some other work by 
him which is no longer extant, is open to 
question. In 1566 William Jones took out 
a new license for the ' printing of serten his- 
toryes collected oute of dyvers ryghte good 
and profitable authours by William Paynter.' 
There is no doubt that the work noticed thus 
was the first volume of ' The Palace of Plea- 
sure,' which was published in 1560, and was 
described on the title-page as ' beautified, 
adorned, and well furnished with pleasaunt 
Histories and excellent Nouells, selected out 
of diuers good and commendable Authors ' 
(London, by Henry Denham for Richard 
Tottell and William Jones). It was dedi- 
cated to Painter's official superior, the Earl 
of Warwick, and a woodcut of Warwick's 
crest, the bear and ragged staff, appears on the 
title-page. Sixty novels were included. A 
second volume, containing thirty-four stories, 
was issued in the following year, 1567, with 
a dedication to Sir George Howard, and an 
apology at the close for the temporary omis- 
sion, owing to the unexpected size of the book, 
' of sundry novels of merry devise.' The first 
volume was reissued without alteration in 
1569. The whole work was republished, by 
Thomas Marshe, in 1575, ' eftsones perused, 
corrected, and augmented,' with seven new 
stories. The second volume is undated. This 
is the definitive edition, and was reprinted, 
with a biography of Painter, by Joseph 
Haslewood, in 1813 (3 vols.), and again by 
Mr. Joseph Jacobs in 1890 (3 vols.) 

VOL. XLIII. 



Painter's reading was exceptionally wide, 
and he practically first made the Italian 
novelists known to English readers. The 
sources of his book may be classified thus : 
three stories (i. 6, 7, ii. 1) are derived from 
Herodotus ; three from ^Elian (i. 8-10) ; 
three from Plutarch (i. 27-8, ii. 3) ; thirteen 
from Aulus Gellius (i. 14-26); six from Livy 
(i. 1-4, ii. 6, 8) ; one from Tacitus (ii. 14) ; 
three from Quintus Curtius (i. 12-13, ii. 2). 
Among Italian writers no less than twenty- 
six come from Bandello, either directly or 
through the French translations of Belleforest 
or Boaistuau du Launay(i. 11, 40-6, ii. 4-5, 
7,9-10, 21-30, 32-3, 35). Sixteen come from 
Boccaccio (i. 30-9, ii. 16-20, 31); two each 
from Cinthio's 'Ecatomithi' (ii. 11, 15) and 
from Ser Giovanni Fiorentino's ' Pecorone ' 
(i. 5, 48) ; one each from Pedro di Messia's 
'Selva di varie Lezzioni' (i. 29), Straparola 
(i. 49), Masuccio's ' Novellino,' through the 
French 'Comptes du Monde Avantureux' (i. 
66); Guevara's 'Letters '(ii. 12); and'Pau- 
sanias and Manitius ' (ii. 13). Sixteen are 
from Queen Margaret's ' Heptameron' (i. 50- 
65). The second edition included (ii. 34) a 
translation from the Latin of Nicholas Mof- 
fan's (or a MofFa's) account of the death of 
the Sultan Solyman, which Painter com- 
pleted in 1557. 

The work was very widely read by Eliza- 
bethan Englishmen. It largely inspired 
Roger Ascham's spirited description of the 
moral dangers likely to spring from the dis- 
semination of Italian literature in English 
translations (Sckolemaster, ed. Arber, pp. 77- 
85). Many imitators of Painter sought to 
dispute with him his claims to popular favour 
(cf. FENTON, Certaine Tragicall Discourses, 
1567; FORTESCTJE, Foreste, 1571). A very 
obvious plagiarism was George Pettie's ' Petite 
Palace of Pettie his Pleasure,' 1 576. George 
Turberville [q. v.] .and George Whetstone 
[q. v.] also followed closely in Painter's foot- 
steps. But it is as the mine whence the Eliza- 
bethan dramatists drewthe plots of their plays 
or poems that Painter's work presents itself in 
the most interesting aspect. Shakespeare's 
' Rape of Lucrece,' ' Coriolanus, ' Timon of 
Athens,' ' All's well that ends well,' and 
'Romeo and Juliet' all owe something to 
Painter, and the influence of his book may 
be traced inWilmot's ' Tancred and Gismund ; ' 
in George Peele's ' Mahomet and Hyren the 
Fair Greek;' in Webster's 'Appius and Vir- 
ginia,' ' Duchess of Malfi,' and ' Insatiate 
Countess ; ' in the ' Widow ' by Ben Jon- 
son, Fletcher, and Middleton ; in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's ' Triumph of Death ; ' Flet- 
cher's ' Maid of the Mill ; ' Shirley's ' Love's 
Cruelty;' Marston's 'Dutch Courtesan' and 

G 



Paisible 



Pakeman 



' Sophonisba ; ' and in Massinger's ' Pic- 
ture.' 

Painter also freely translated into Eng- 
lish, with many original additions, William 
Fulke's ' Ant iprognosticon ' (1560). He has 
been credited with a similar attack on as- 
trology, entitled ' Foure Great Lyers . . . 
Written by W. P.,' London, by Robert 
Waldegrave, n.d., and with a broadside in 
verse (of which a copy belongs to the Society 
of Antiquaries) entitled 'A moorning diti 
upon the deceas of the high and mighti Prins 
Henry/ Earl of Arundel,' London, 1579. This 
piece ijs signed ' Guil. P. G.,' which is inter- 
preted <p,s ' Gulielmus Painter, Gent.' 

A fine signature of Painter is appended, 
with those of Philip Sidney and John Powell, 
to an acknowledgment of the receipt of am- 
munition by Sir Thomas Leighton, governor 
of the island of Guernsey. It is dated 8 June 
1585, and is now in the Record Office. 

[Hunter's manuscript Chorus Vatum, in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 24490, ff. 200 sq. ; Cooper's 
Athense Cantabr. ii. 538-9 ; Collier's Extracts 
from the Stationers' Registers, i. 66, 121, 165, 
ii. 105-7 ; Collier's Bibliographical Account, i. 
18, ii. 86-7; Haslewood's Introduction to his 
reprint of the ' Palace of Pleasure ; ' Mr. J. 
Jacobs's prefatory matter in his reprint.] S. L. 

PAISIBLE, JAMES (1656P-1721), 

flautist and composer, a native of France, 
born about 1656, is said to have come to Eng- 
land about 1680 (FETIS). He had patrons 
among his compatriots. The Duchesse de 
Mazarin, with the help of M. de St. Evre- 
mond, gave exquisite concerts at Paradise 
Row, Chelsea. For these St. Evremond's 
melodies were worked up and supplied with 
harmony and accompaniments by the musi- 
cian, resulting in such slight drawing-room 
musical scenes as ' Idyle,' ' Les Opera,' ' Les 
Noces d'Isabelle,' and ' Concert de Chelsey.' 
In one of these scenes Paisible is introduced 
by name, and may be supposed to have sung 
the part that of a young musician. An- 
other character is ' an old poet ' (St. Evre- 
mond ?). 

Parlez, Vieillard ; parlez, Paisible ; 
Gouterez-vous au bonheur si sensible? 

This, as well as a lively sketch of the mu- 
sician given by St. Evremond in a note to 
the duchess, must belong to a date prior to 
1700. St. Evremond describes Paisible as 
indolent, but with easy and agreeable man- 
ners. 

On 4 Dec. 1686 he procured a license from 
the vicar-general for his marriage with one 
Mary Davis. About 1691 he began to supply 
overtures and musical interludes to the Lon- 
don theatres. In 1703 his music AVBS per- 



formed 'before Her Majesty and the new 
King of Spain,' the occasion being the recep- 
tion by Anne at Windsor of the Archduke 
Charles, 29-31 Dec. 1703. From that year 
until 1714 Paisible composed the tunes to 
Isaac's dances for the birthday festivals of 
the queen, while he described himself in his 
will as having been in her service and in that 
of George I as ' musitioner,' with arrears of 
salary upaid. 

He lived in the parish of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields for some years before his death, 
which took place about August 1721. His 
will was signed 17 Jan. 1720-1, Peter La 
Tour being one executor, and Francis Dieu- 
part another, in charge of property in 
France. 

Paisible's published works include : 
1. 'Pieces a trois et quatre parties, pour 
les Flutes, Violons, et Hautbois,' &c., Am- 
sterdam. 2. ' Quatorze Senates a deux 
Flutes,' Amsterdam. 3. ' Brauls ' in ' Apollo's 
Banquet,' 1690. 4. ' Overture and Inter- 
ludes to " King Edward III," ' 1691 ; 5, to 
' Oroonoko ; ' and 6, to ' The Spanish Wives,' 
1696. 7. ' The Queen's Farewell ' in ' De- 
liciaj Musicae,' 1695. 8. ' Duetts for Flutes 
(Thesaurus Musicus),' 1693-6. 9. 'The 
Humours of Sir JohnFalstaff,' 1700. 10. ' She 
would and she would not,' 1703. 11. ' Love's 
Stratagem.' 12. 'Three Overtures,' 1704. 
13. 'Tunes to Mr. Isaac's Dances,' 1703- 
1715. 14. ' Six Sonatas of two Parts, for 
two Flutes,' 1710 ? 15. ' Six Setts of 
Aires for two Flutes and a Bass,' 1720 ? 
Manuscript music by Paisible for flute is 
preserved in British Museum Additional 
MSS. 30839 and 31429. The Mr. Paisible 
of Southampton, composer of a harpsichord 
lesson {Addit. MS. 34609), may be his son, 
the James Paisible referred to in Paisible's 
will. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 633 ; Hawkins's 
Hist, of Music, pp. 764, 794 ; St. Evremond's 
Works, 1740, passim; London Gazette, 3 Jan. 
1703-4; Faulkner's Chelsea, ii. 199; will regis- 
tered P.C.C. Marlborough, fol. 124; Husk's 
Catalogue.] L. M. M. 

PAISLEY, LOED. [See HAMILTON, 
CLAUD, 1543 P-1622.] 

PAKEMAN, THOMAS (1614P-1691), 
dissenting divine, was born in 1613 or 1614, 
and proceeded in 1629 to Clare College, Cam- 
bridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 1633, 
M.A. 1637. He was then employed for some 
years as a corrector in the king's print- 
house. About 1638 a petition was presented 
by him and three other correctors, all masters 
of arts, complaining that, ' notwithstanding 
the work is greater than ever, the number 



Pakeman 



Pakenham 



of correctors has been curtailed, and 80/. per 
annum taken off their pay by the farmers of 
the customs.' Archbishop Laud noted on 
the petition that the petitioners are to be 
continued in their pay and places until such 
time as he has time to hear them himself 
(Cal. State Papers, 1634-5, p. 407). 

Subsequently Pakeman joined the non- 
conformist ministry. On 28 Jan. 1643 he 
* began to be minister ' at Little Hadham, 
Hertfordshire (Parish Register). He signed 
a petition from ministers in Hertfordshire, 
presented to the lords on 24 July 1646, 
praying for church government according to 
the covenant (Lords' Journals, viii. 445 ; 
cf.Addit, MS. 15670, ff. 288, 361, 442). 

Before September 1648 Pakeman was offi- 
ciating as minister at Harrow- on-the-Hill, 
Middlesex. He was ejected by the Act of 
Uniformity, 1662. He then commenced to 
take pupils, and, owing to his excellent dis- 
cipline, ' he had,' Calamy says, ' the instruc- 
tion and boarding of several children of per- 
sons of quality and figure.' Both here and 
atOld Brentford, whither he shortly removed, 
he continued to preach and to administer the 
sacrament. He was assisted in his classes 
by Ralph Button [q. v.], who lived next 
door. On the passing of the Five Mile Act 
Button was imprisoned ; but Pakeman, by 
leaving Brentford, escaped. For a time he 
lived and preached constantly at Mrs. Meth- 
wold's, 'in Brompton, near Knightsbridge,' 
and thence he was received into the family 
of Erasmus Smith, where, Calamy says, he 
continued some years. 

In 1685 he settled with his children in the 
city, and attended the ministry of Richard 
Kidder [q. v.] at the church of St. Martin 
Outwich, where he sometimes received the 
sacrament. He also preached at the house of 
his son Thomas, who matriculated at St. Ed- 
mund Hall, Oxford, 18 Oct. 1662, aged 17 
(FOSTER, Alumni O.ron. early series, p. 1107). 
On one occasion, when not more than three 
or four neighbours were present, the city mar- 
shal seized both Pakeman and his son, and 
carried them before Sir Henry Tulse, the lord 
mayor (1684-5), who fined them. Pakeman 
removed to Stratford in 1687, where he con- 
tinued his ministrations. He held that ' all 
adult persons who came to hear ought to re- 
ceive the sacrament.' At Stratford he em- 
ployed a schoolmaster at his own expense 
to teach the poor children to read. Pake- 
man, who died in June 1691, is called by 
Baxter 'a grave, sound, pious, sober, and 
peaceable divine ' (Reliquiee, iii. 97). 

Besides Thomas, above mentioned, and 
Elizabeth, born in 1646, married at Bushey 
22 Sept. 1663 to Shadrach Brise of Kingston- 



on-Thames (CHESTER, Marriage Licenses, 
p. 186), Pakeman had seven children born 
and baptised at Harrow before 1659. 

[Calamy and Palmer, ii. 457 ; Kennett's Reg. pp. 
830,905; Calamy's Account of the EjectedMinis- 
ters, 1713, p. 468 ; Calamy's Abridgment, 1702, 
p. 279 ; Urwick's Nonconformity in Hertford- 
shire, pp. 751, 752; Registers of Harrow, per 
the Rev. F. H. Joyce, and of Little Hadham, per 
the Rev. James M. Bury ; Register of Cambridge 
University, per J. W. Clark ; those of Much 
Hadham and of Clare College have also been 
searched by Dr. Stanley Leathes and Dr. Atkin- 
son.] C. F. S. 

PAKENHAM, SIB EDWARD 
MICHAEL (1778-1815), major-general, 
second son of Edward Michael, second baron 
Longford, and his wife Catherine, second 
daughter of the Right Hon. Hercules Long- 
ford Rowley, was born at Longford Castle, 
co. Westmeath, 19 April 1778. His younger 
brother, Sir Hercules Robert Pakenham, is 
noticed separately. After a perfunctory edu- 
cation, he became, at the age of sixteen, a 
lieutenant in the 92nd foot (an Irish corps 
afterwards drafted), 28 May 1794 ; was made 
captain a few days later, and promoted to 
major in the 33rd or Ulster light dragoons 
on 6 Dec. in the same year, before he was 
seventeen. On 1 June 1798 he became major 
in the old 23rd light dragoons (disbanded 
in 1802), with which he served in Ireland 
during the rebellion. On 17 Oct. 1799 he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel 64th foot, 
and commanded that 'regiment at the re- 
duction of the Danish and Swedish West 
India islands in 1801. Socially, Pakenham 
appears to have been a general favourite. In 
the officers' mess of the 64th (now the Prince 
of Wales's North Staffordshire regiment) are 
some silver cups presented by the inhabitants 
of Sainte-Croix, one of the captured islands, 
in token of the esteem in which Pakenham 
and his officers were held by them. He com- 
manded the 64th at the capture of St. Lucia 
on 22 June 1803, when he was wounded. 
Returning home, he became a brevet colonel 
in 1805, and was appointed to a lieutenant- 
colonelcy in the 7th royal fusiliers, the first 
battalion of which he joined at Weymouth 
in 1806, and commanded at Copenhagen in 
1807 and the reduction of Martinique in 
1809, afterwards returning with the battalion 
to Nova Scotia. Pakenham joined Lord Wel- 
lington (who, in 1806, had married his sister 
Catherine) in the Peninsula after the battle 
of Talavera. There he was employed as 
an assistant adjutant-general to the fusi- 
liers ; the officers of the battalion placed 
his portrait in the mess, and presented him 
with a sword of the value of two hundred 



Pakenham 



8 4 



Pakenham 



guineas. He was appointed deputy adju- 
tant-general in the Peninsula on 7 March 
1810 (GlJRWOOD, Wellington Desp. iii. 806) ; 
commanded a brigade, consisting of the two 
battalions 7th fusiliers and the Cameron 
highlanders, in Sir Brent Spencer's division 
at Busaco and Fuentes dOnoro in 1810 
(CANNON, Hist. Rec. of Brit. Army, 7th Fusi- 
liers), and received the local rank of major- 
general in the Peninsula in 1811. His ser- 
vices with the headquarters staff during that 
year were noted in orders (GtTRWOOD, iv. 
669). At the battle of Salamanca, 22 July 
1812, described by Wellington as the best 
manoeuvred battle in the whole war, Paken- 
ham was in command of the third division, 
which broke the French centre. The two 
armies faced each other, and had been mov- 
ing on parallel lines for three days. They 
saw clearly, from opposite rising grounds, 
what went on in either camp, as the valley 
between was not more than half a mile wide. 
Marmont's design was to interpose between 
"Wellington and Badajos ; Wellington's ob- 
ject was to prevent this. In their eagerness 
to gain their point, the French leading divi- 
sions outmarched those following, and thus 
formed a vacant space in the centre, which 
Wellington saw. and at once turned to ac- 
count. ' Now's your time, Ned,' he said to 
Pakenham, who was standing near him ; and 
the words were scarcely spoken before Paken- 
ham gave the word to his division, and com- 
menced the movement which won the battle 
(Gleig in APPLETON'S Encycl. ofAmer. Bioyr.) 
Wellington wrote to the Horse Guards on 
7 Sept. following : ' I put Pakenham to the 
third division, by G eneral Picton's desire when 
he was ill ; and I am very glad I did so, as I 
must say he made the movement which led 
to our success in the battle of 22 July last 
with a celerity and accuracy of which I doubt 
if there are very many capable, and without 
both it would not have answered its end. 
Pakenham may not be the brightest genius, 
but my partiality for him does not lead 
me astray when I tell you that he is one of 
the best we have. However, he keeps the 
division till General Colville [see COLVILLE, 
SIR CHARLES] or some other shall return to 
it, and will thereupon go back to his Fusilier 
brigade ' (GTJRWOOD, vi. 434). Pakenham 
commanded the division at the capture of 
Madrid (ib. vi. 26). He became a major- 
general 4 June 1812, and in April 1813 was 
recommended for the post of adjutant-gene- 
ral (ib. vi. 424). He commanded the sixth 
division atSauroren (battle of the Pyrenees) 
(ib. vi. 640), was made K.B. 11 Sept. 1813, 
was appointed colonel of the 6th West India 
regiment the same year and was present as 



adjutant-general in the succeeding campaigns 
(ib. vii. 135, 201, 340, 430). He received the 
gold cross and clasps for Martinique, Busaco, 
Fuentes d'Onoro, Salamanca, Pyrenees, Ni- 
velle, Nive, Orthez, and Toulouse. On the 
reconstitution of the order of the Bath, he 
was made G.C.B. 4 Jan. 1815. 

The death of General Ross (of Bladens- 
burg) before Washington (in 1814) led to 
the selection of Pakenham to command the 
British force that had hitherto operated on 
the Chesapeake, which was now to be em- 
ployed against New Orleans. Pakenham 
ought to have joined it at Jamaica, whither 
reinforcements were sent ; but adverse winds 
detained him, and he did not reach his com- 
mand until after a landing had been effected 
at New Orleans, and an action had taken 
place, in which each side lost more than two 
hundred men. He found the army in a false 
position on a narrow neck of land flanked 
on one side by the Mississippi river, and on 
the other by an impassable morass. He had 
opposed to him one of the ablest generals the 
United States has produced Andrew Jack- 
son. After a costly reconnaissance, Paken- 
ham erected bastions of hogsheads of sugar, 
and mounted on them thirty guns ; but on 
1 Jan. 1815 these were destroyed by the 
American fire. In the week that followed 
both sides were reinforced. It is just pos- 
sible that, if Pakenham had been patient 
enough to wait the development of his plans, 
he might have carried the American lines 
and entered New Orleans. It was his in- 
tention to attack on both sides of the river 
before dawn on 8 Jan. 1815, but there was 
delay in crossing, and he unfortunately sent 
up the signal rocket before his men on the 
west side of the river were ready. He was 
killed in the unsuccessful assault that fol- 
lowed (Gleig in APPLETON'S Encycl. ofAmer. 
Biogr.} The enterprise cost the life of Paken- 
harn's second in command, Sir Samuel Gibbs 
[q. v.], and over three thousand officers and 
men in killed or wounded. 

[Foster's Peerage, under ' Longford ; ' Army 
Lists and London Gazettes, under dates ; Cannon's 
Hist. Records of Brit. Army, 64th Foot and 
7th Royal Fusiliers; Gurwood's Wellington Des- 
patches, vols. iii. iv. vi. and vii. ; Napier's Hist. 
Peninsular War, revised ed. ; Biography of Paken- 
ham by the late Rev. G. R. G-leig in Appleton's 
Encycl. of American Biography (all other bio- 
graphical notices that have appeared are incorrect 
in the extreme) ; Gleig's British Army at Wash- 
ington and New Orleans.] H. M. C. 

PAKENHAM, SIR HERCULES RO- 
BERT (1781-1 850), lieutenant-general, third 
son of Edward Michael, second baron Long- 
ford, and his wife Catherine, second daugh- 



Pakenham 



Pakenham 



ter of the Right Hon. Hercules Lang- 
ford Rowley, was born 29 Sept. 1781. He 
was brother of Sir Edward Michael Paken- 
ham [q. v.], and brother-in-law of the great 
Duke of Wellington. He was appointed 
ensign 40th foot on 23 July 1803, became 
lieutenant 3 Feb. 1804, was transferred to 
the 95th rifles (now the rifle brigade) in 
April the same year, and obtained his com- 
pany therein 2 Aug. 1805. He served in the 
expedition to Copenhagen and in Portugal, 
where he was slightly wounded at Obidos 
16-17 Aug. 1808. ' He is really one of the 
best officers of riflemen I have seen,' wrote 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, recommending him for 
promotion (Gu RWOOD, Wellington Despatches, 
iii. 129). He was promoted to a majority in 
the 7th West India regiment 30 Aug. 1810, 
remained with the Peninsular army, and was 
assistant adjutant-general of Picton's division 
up to the fall of Badajos,where he was severely 
wounded (gold cross for Busaco, Fuentes 
d'Onoro and Ciudad Rodrigo, and Badajos). 
After being repeatedly recommended for 
promotion, he was made a brevet lieutenant- 
colonel 27 April 1812, was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel 26th Cameronians 3 Sept. 
1812, and transferred as captain and lieu- 
tenant-colonel to the Coldstream guards 
25 July 1814, from which he retired on 
half-pay in 1817. He was made brevet 
colonel and aide-de-camp to the king 27 May 
1825, became a major-general 10 Jan. 1837, 
was appointed colonel 43rd light infantry 
9 Sept. 1844, commanded the Portsmouth 
district from 1843 to 1846, and became a 
lieutenant-general 9 Nov. 1846. He was 
made C.B. 4 June 1815, K.C.B. 19 July 
1838, and had the Peninsular silver medal 
and Roleia and Vimeiro clasps. He died 
suddenly at his residence, Langford Lodge, 
co. Antrim, on 7 March 1850. 

Pakenham married, in November 1817, 
Emily, fourth daughter of Thomas Stapyl- 
ton, lord Le Despenser, and had issue six 
sons (one of whom was killed at Inkerman 
and another at the relief of Lucknow) and 
three daughters. 

[Burke's Peerage, under 'Longford;' Army 
Lists ; Gurwood's Wellington Despatches, vols. 
iii. iv. and v.; Naval and Military Gazette, 
16 March 1850.] H. M. C. 

PAKENHAM, SIR RICHARD (1797- 
1868), diplomatist, the fifth son of Admiral 
Sir Thomas Pakenham [q. v.], by his wife, 
Louisa, daughter of the Right Hon. John 
Staples, was born at Pakenham Hall, Castle 
Pollard, in Westmeath, on 19 May 1797. 
He completed his education at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and, apparently without waiting 



to take a degree, entered the foreign office on 
15 Oct. 1817 as attache to his uncle, the Earl 
of Clancarty, at the Hague. His next ap- 
pointment was as secretary to the legation 
in Switzerland (26 Jan. 1824). Promoted on 
29 Dec. 1826 to the same position in Mexico, 
he was made minister plenipotentiary to the 
United Mexican States on 12 March 1835. In 
this capacity he seems to have been popular 
and efficient. Perhaps the most troublesome 
of his negotiations was for the abolition of the 
slave trade : the Mexican government ob- 
jected to the right of search, and the negotia- 
tions dragged on for lour years, but he ob- 
tained the treaty in 1841. He was in Mexico 
during the war between that kingdom and 
France, and in February 1839 was despatched 
to Vera Cruz, with the object of trying 
to effect a reconciliation between the two 
countries. On 13 Dec. 1843, while on leave 
in England, he was made a privy councillor, 
and on 14 Dec. appointed envoy extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary to the United 
States of America. Here some thorny ques- 
tions awaited him. One of his first duties was 
to take up that of the Oregon boundary. In 
this negotiation, though he did not carry the 
British points, he obtained the approval of his 
government. The attitude of Great Britain 
regarding Texas proved of greater difficulty. 
The relations between the two governments 
were not very cordial, and irritation was 
easily provoked on both sides. Pakenham 
left Washington on leave of absence in May 
1847, and, after remaining in Europe for an 
unusually prolonged period, ultimately pre- 
ferred to retire on pension rather than return 
to the States. He resumed his career on 
28 April 1851 as envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary at Lisbon. Here 
his diplomatic work was less arduous, and 
he rapidly ingratiated himself with the royal 
family of Portugal. In May 1855 he came 
to England on leave, and at his own request, 
on 28 June, retired on pension, but almost 
immediately (on 7 Aug.) was sent back to 
Lisbon on a special mission to congratulate 
Pedro V on attaining his majority. He re- 
turned to England once more in October 
1855, was awarded a diplomatic pension of 
the second class, and retired to Coolure, Castle 
Pollard, where he died, unmarried, on 28 Oct. 
1868. 

[Foreign Office List, 1868 ; Times, 31 Oct. 
1868 ; Burke's Peerage, s.v. ' Longford ; ' official 
information.] C. A. H. 

PAKENHAM, SIR THOMAS (1757- 
1836), admiral, third son of Thomas Paken- 
ham, first lord Longford, was born on 29 Sept. 
1757. He entered the navy in 1771 on board 



86 



Pakington 



the Southampton, with Captain Macbride, 
with whom he moved to the Orpheus in 
1773. In 1774 he was on the coast of Guinea 
with Cornwallis in the Pallas, and in 1775 
was acting lieutenant of the Sphinx on the 
coast of North America. In the following 
year he was promoted by Lord Shuldham to 
be lieutenant of the Greyhound frigate, and 
while in her saw much boat service, in the 
course of which he was severely wounded. 
In 1778 he joined the Courageux, com- 
manded by Lord Mulgrave, in the fleet under 
Keppel, and was present in the notorious 
action of 27 July. In the following spring 
he was moved into the Europe, going to North 
America with the flag of Rear-admiral Ar- 
buthnot, and on 21 Sept. 1779 was promoted 
to the command of the Victor sloop, newly 
captured from the enemy. He was then sent 
to the Jamaica station, where, on 2 March 
1780, he was posted by Sir Peter Parker the 
elder [q. v.] to the San Carlos. His old wound, 
received while in the Greyhound, broke out 
again, and compelled him to return to Eng- 
land in the autumn. In December 1780 he 
was appointed to the Crescent of 28 guns, 
attached to the fleet under Darby, which re- 
lieved Gibraltar in April 1781, and was sent 
on to Minorca in company with the Flora [see 
WILLIAMS-FREEMAX, WILLIAM PEEEE]. On 
their way back, in passing through the 
straits, they fell in, on 30 May, with two 
Dutch frigates, one of which, the Castor, 
struck to the Flora, while the other, the 
Brill, overpowered and captured the Cres- 
cent. The Crescent was immediately recap- 
tured by the Flora, the Brill making her 
escape ; but both Crescent and^Castor had 
received so much damage in the action that 
they fell into the hands of two French frigates 
on the way home, 19 June, the Flora escaping. 
Pakenham had, however, refused to resume 
the command of the Crescent, maintaining 
that by his surrender to the Brill his com- 
mission was cancelled, and that when re- 
captured the ship was on the same footing 
as any other prize (BEATSON, v. 390). For 
the loss of his ship he was tried by court- 
martial and honourably acquitted, it being 
proved that he did not strike the flag till, by 
the fall of her masts and the disabling of 
her guns, further resistance was impossible. 
He was therefore at once appointed to the 
Minerva frigate, which he commanded in 
the following year at the relief of Gibraltar 
by Lord Howe. In 1793 he commissioned 
the Invincible, and in her took part in the 
battle of 1 June 1794, when his conduct was 
spoken of as particularly brilliant (JAMES, 
Nav. Hist. i. 176-7), and he was recommended 
by Howe for the gold medal [see also GAM- 



BIER, JAMES, LORD]. In 1795 he was turned 
over to the 84-gun ship Juste, in the capture 
of which, on 1 June, he had had a principal 
hand. He was afterwards for some time 
master-general of the ordnance in Ireland, 
and had no further service in the navy. On 
14 Feb. 1799 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral, vice-admiral on 23 April 1804, and 
admiral on 31 July 1810. He was nominated 
a G.C.B. on 20 May 1820, and died on 2 Feb. 
1836. He married in 1785 Louisa, daughter 
of the Right Hon. John Staples, and had a 
large family. His fifth son Richard is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Biogr. i. 117; Kalfe's 
Nav. Biogr. ii. 220 ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Me- 
moirs ; Service Book in the Public Record Office ; 
Foster's Peerage.] J. K. L. 

PAKINGTON, DOROTHY, LADY (d. 
1679), reputed author of the 'Whole Duty 
of Man,' was youngest daughter of Thomas 
Coventry, lord Coventry [q. v.] (lord-keeper 
1625-1639), by his second wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Aldersley of Spurstow, 
Cheshire, and widow of William Pitchford. 
She was born in or near London, but the date 
has not yet been ascertained. She was mar- 
ried, in what year is unknown, to Sir John 
Pakington (1620-1680) [q. v.] of Westwood, 
Warwickshire. His house was the asylum 
of Dr. Henry Hammond [q. v.] from 1649- 
until Hammond's death in 1660. Between 
Hammond and Lady Pakington there existed 
the strongest religious sympathy, and her 
house, while Hammond occupied it, became 
the natural resort of eminent divines of simi-. 
lar views. Fell, Henchman, Morley, Alles- 
tree, Pearson, Gunning, and Fulman, who> 
acted as Hammond's amanuensis, all visited 
Westwood, and were Lady Pakington's fami- 
liar friends. When, therefore, the first edi- 
tion of the 'Whole Duty of Man' appeared 
anonymously in 1658 (under the title of ' The 
Practice of Christian Graces, or the Whole/ 
&c.), with an address to the publisher, Gar- 
thwait, by Hammond, in which Hammond 
said that he had read over all the sheets, it was 
not unnaturally conjectured that the book 
came from the house in which he was then 
living, while Lady Pakington's acknowledged 
learning, wide reading, and religious earnest- 
ness favoured the idea that she might be the 
author. Letters from her to Bishop Morley and 
others (communicated to the writer by Lord 
Hampton) are still preserved at Westwood ; 
they show by their excellent composition, 
not merely that Lady Pakington surpassed 
most ladies of her time in education, but that 
she was fully equal to the task of writing 
such a book. 



Pakington 



Pakington 



The first public allusion to her reputed 
authorship was not made till 1697 eighteen 

Ssars after her death when Dr. George 
ickes [q. v.] dedicated to her grandson his 
Anglo-Saxon and Mosso-Gothic grammar in 
his ' Linguarum Septentrionalium Thesau- 
rus.' Hickes there says that Lady Paking- 
ton's practical piety, talents, and excellence 
in composition entitled her to be called and 
esteemed ( ' dici et haberi ' ) the authoress of \ 
the 'Whole Duty.' In a pamphlet published 
in 1702, ' A Letter from a Clergyman in the 
Country,' &c., it is definitely asserted that 
Archbishop Dolben, Bishop Fell, and Dr. 
Allestree all agreed from their own know- 
ledge that the book was written by Lady j 
Pakington, and that she would not allow this ! 
to be made known during her life. In 1698 
a clergyman named Caulton made a declara- 
tion on his death-bed that Mrs. Eyre, a 
daughter of Lady Pakington, had nine years 
before shown him a manuscript of the book, 
which she affirmed to be her mother's own 
original copy a manuscript which has, how- 
ever, never since been seen, and which most 
probably was a copy made by Lady Dorothy 
for her own use from the original before pub- 
lication. But, at the same time, Mrs. Eyre 
asserted that none of the other books alleged 
to be by the author of the 'Whole Duty' 
were written by her, except ' The Causes of 
the Decay of Christian Piety;' whereas Fell, 
who was certainly acquainted with the secret, 
declares in his preface to the collected edition 
of the ' Works ' of the writer of the ' Whole 
Duty,' published in 1684, that they were all 
the work of one author, then deceased ; and of 
this author he speaks in the masculine gender. 
The language, moreover, throughout the 
various books by the writer of the ' W r hole 
Duty ' is that of a practised divine, as well as 
of a scholar. There is evidence that the writer 
was acquainted, not merely with Greek and 
Latin, but also with Hebrew, Syriac, and 
Arabic. He was one, too (as is shown by a 
passage in vii. of the ' Lively Oracles ' pub- 
lished in 1678), who had travelled ' in popish 
countries' among those 'whom the late 
troubles or other occasions sent abroad.' 

Of the many persons to whom the author- 
ship has been at various times ascribed, 
viz., Archbishop Sterne, Bishop Fell, Bishop 
Henchman, Bishop Chappell of Cork, Abra- 
hamWoodhead, ObadiahWalker, Archbishop 
Frewen, William Fulman, and Richard Al- 
lestree, besides one or two others, the pre- 
ponderance of evidence seems so strongly to 
. lie in favour of the last-named as practically 
to admit of little doubt on the matter. In 
behalf of Allestree an argument from agree- 
ment of time, learning, character, and friends, 



was put forth by the Rev. Francis Barham in 
an article in the ' Journal of Sacred Litera- 
ture' for July 1864 (pp. 433-5), and this view 
has been very strongly and convincingly ad- 
vocated, mainly from the internal evidence 
of style and vocabulary, by Mr. C. E. Doble, 
in three articles in the ' Academy ' for No- 
vember 1884. Mr. Doble concludes that Alles- 
tree was the author of all the printed works, 
as well as of one on the ' Government of 
the Thoughts,' still remaining in manuscript 
(Bodl. MS., Rawlinson, C. 700, a copy made 
from a copy written by Bishop Fell), but 
that Fell probably edited, and to a certain 
extent revised, them all. The external evi- 
dence for this view is chiefly, and suffi- 
ciently, found in an anonymous note in a 
copy of the 'Decay' (1675), which formerly 
belonged to White Kennett, and is now in 
the Bodleian Library ; this note is couched in 
the following terms : ' Dr. Allestree was au- 
thor of this book, and wrote it in the very 
same year wherein he went thro' a course 
of chymistry with Dr. Willis, which is the 
reason why so many physical and chymical 
allusions are to be found in it. And the 
copy of it came to the press in the doctor's 
own handwriting, as Tim Garthwaite [the 
publisher] told the present Archbp. of Cant. 
[Tenison], and his Grace affirm'd to me in 
Sept. 1713 ' (cf. Bibliographer, ii. 94 ; and for 
an account of a manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library, ib. p. 164, and HEARNE'S Diary, 
1885, i. 281). 

Lady Pakington dred on 10 May 1679, 
leaving one son and two daughters, and was 
buried in Hampton- Lovett church, Worces- 
tershire, on 13 May, ' being buried in linnen, 
the forfiture pay d according to the act ' (Burial 
Register). On a monument erected to her 
and her husband in the following century 
by her grandson, she is said to be 'justly re- 
puted the authoress of the " Whole Duty of 
Man." ' A portrait of her, ' Powle del.,' en- 
graved by V. Green, and published on 1 Jan. 
1776, is to be found in Nash's ' History of 
Worcestershire ' (1781, i. 3o2), where is 
printed a summary criticism of her alleged 
authorship by ' one who had examined the 
question,' and who concludes that she was 
only a copyist of the ' Duty.' 

[Besides the authorities cited above, see 
Ballard's Memoirs of British Ladies, 2nd edit. 
1775, pp. 220-35, where Lady Pakington's author- 
ship is maintained; Letters of W. Parry, H. Owen, 
andG. Ballard, pp. 125-134, vol. ii. of Letters by 
Eminent Persons, 1813; notes by Dr. Lort in 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, ii. 597-604; several 
communications in the first and third series of 
Notes and Queries. Evelyn in his Diary, under 
date of 16 July 1692, says that he was told by 



Pakington 



88 



Pakington 



Bishop [Tenison] of Lincoln that one Dr. Chaplin 
of University College, Oxford, was the author of 
the ' Duty ; ' for Archbishop Sterne's claim see 
Bibliographer, 1882, ii. 73-9. There is nothing 
among Lady Pakington's papers at Westwood 
(according to information courteously given by 
Lord Hampton) that throws any light upon the 
authorship.] W. D. M. 

PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN (d. 1560), 
serjeant-at-law, was eldest son of John 
Pakington, by Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Washbourne of Stanford, 
Worcestershire. He entered the Inner 
Temple, and was Lent reader in 1520. He 
must have had influence at court, as on 
21 June 1509 he was made chorographer of 
the court of common pleas. On 3 June 
1513 he had a grant of land in Gloucester- 
shire, and in 1515 was a collector of aids for 
that county. His place at the common pleas 
was regranted to himself and Austin Paking- 
ton on 12 Oct. 1525, and in 1529 he became 
treasurer of the Inner Temple. On 5 April 
1529 he had an extraordinary grant from 
the king namely, that he might wear his 
hat in his presence and in the presence of 
his successors, ' or of any other persons 
whatsoever, and not to be uncovered on any 
occasion or cause whatsoever against his 
will and good liking,' and that, if made a 
baron of the exchequer or serjeant-at-law, he 
should be exempt from knighthood. In 1532 
he was made serjeant-at-law, and was not 
knighted. He was heavily fined in 1531 for 
a misdemeanour in the conduct of his office. 
In 1535 he was made a justice of North 
Wales, and a commissioner to conclude and 
compound for all fines and debts due to 
Henry VII. On 31 Aug. 1540 he became 
custos rotulorum for Worcestershire. On 
29 Sept. 1540 he was commissioner to in- 
quire what jewels, &c., had been embezzled 
from the shrine of St. David's. For the rest 
of his life he worked in Wales, where he is 
spoken of as a judge, but he lived chiefly at 
Hampton-Lovett in Worcestershire. 

Henry VIII enriched Pakington with many 
grants, and knighted him on his return from 
Boulogne in 1545. He was from time to 
time in the commission of the peace for 
various counties. Under Edward VI he was, 
in 1551, nominated a member of the council 
for the Welsh marches. He was said to own 
thirty-one manors at the time of his death. 
Henry VIII had given him W r estwood, 
Worcestershire, and other estates, and he 
had trafficked in abbey lands to some extent 
(cf. Dep.-Keeper of PvJbl. Records, 10th Rep. 
App. pt. ii. p. 247), but the account must have 
been exaggerated. In the subsidy roll, in 
which the valuations were always unduly 



low, he was rated at no more than 50/. a 
year. Pakington died in 1560, and was buried 
at Hampton-Lovett. He married Anne, 
seemingly daughter of Henry Dacres, sheriff 
of London, and widow of Robert Fair- 
thwayte, and perhaps also of one Tychborne. 
She died in 1563. By her he had two daugh- 
ters : Ursula, who married William Scuda- 
more, and Bridget, who married Sir John 
Lyttleton of Frankley, Worcestershire, and 
after his death three other husbands. His 
grand-nephew, Sir John Pakington (1549- 
1625), is separately noticed. 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, v. 657, &c.; 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, vii. 23, 46; 
Nash's Worcestershire, i. 353 ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetage, p. 395; Metcalfe's Knights, p. 113 ; 
Strype's Annals of the Eeformation, m. ii. 457, 
Memorials, n. ii. 161.] W. A. J. A. 

PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN (1549-1625), 
courtier, was the son of Sir Thomas Paking- 
ton. His grandfather, Robert Pakington, 
younger brother of Sir John Pakington (d. 
1560) [q. v.], was a London mercer, was 
M.P. for the city in 1534, was murdered 
in London in 1537, and was buried at St. 
Pancras, Needler's Lane. The father, Tho- 
mas Pakington, inherited from his mother, 
Agnes (or Katharine), daughter of Sir John 
Baldwin (d. 1545) [q. v.], large estates in 
and near Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, 
and was also heir to his uncle, Sir John 
Pakington. He was knighted by Queen 
Mary on 2 Oct. 1553, and was sheriff of 
Worcester in 1561. He died at Bath Place, 
Holborn, on 2 June 1571, and was buried 
at Aylesbury on the 12th. He married 
Dorothy (1531-1577), daughter of Sir Tho- 
mas Kitson of Hengrave in Suffolk, by 
whom he had two daughters and one son. 
His widow, who was his sole executrix, 
acquired some celebrity by her interference 
in electioneering matters. On 4 May 1572 
she issued a writ in her own name as ' lord 
and owner of the town of Aylesbury,' ap- 
pointing burgesses for the constituency. She 
afterwards married Thomas Tasburgh of 
Hawridge in Buckinghamshire, and died 
2 May 1577. 

John, the only son of Sir Thomas, born in 
1549, was educated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, graduated B.A. on 13 Dec. 1569, and 
was a student of Lincoln's Inn in 1570. 
Pakington attracted the notice of Queen 
Elizabeth in her progress to Worcester in 
August 1575, when she invited him to 
court. In London he lived for a few years 
in great splendour, and outran his fortune. 
He was remarkable both for his wit and the 
beauty of his person. The queen, who took 



Faking ton 



8 9 



Pakington 



great pleasure in his athletic achievements, 
nicknamed him ' Lusty Pakington.' It is 
said that he once laid a wager with three 
other courtiers to swim from Westminster 
to London Bridge, but the queen forbade 
the match. From 1587 to 1601 Pakington 
was deputy-lieutenant forWorcester. In 1587 
he was knighted. In 1593 he was granted 
by the crown a patent for starch (NoAKE, 
Worcestershire Nuggets, p. 272 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 5th Rep. p. 277, 6th Rep. p. 257, 
7th Rep. p. 94). The queen, to help him 
in his financial difficulties, made him bow- 
bearer of Malvern Chase, and is said to have 
given him a valuable estate in Suffolk ; but 
when he went to the place and saw the dis- 
tress of the widow of the former owner, he 
begged to have the property transferred to 
her. Strict economy and a period of retire- 
ment enabled him to pay his debts, and a 
wealthy marriage in 1598 greatly improved 
his position. Pakington devoted much atten- 
tion to building, and to improving his estates 
in Worcestershire. The central portion of the 
house at Westwood, which after the civil 
war became the residence of the family, was 
his work. He also constructed a lake at 
Westwood, which unfortunately encroached 
on the highway. His right to alter the road 
being questioned, he impetuously had the 
embankments cut through, and the waters 
of his lake streamed over the country and 
coloured the Severn for miles. He was 
sheriff for the county of Worcester in 1595 
and in 1607. In June 1603 he entertained 
James I with great magnificence at his 
house at Aylesbury. In 1 607 Pakington, as 
justice of the peace for Worcestershire, re- 
sisted the jurisdiction claimed by the council 
of Wales over the county (WRIGHT, Ludlow, 
p. 419). 

Pakington died in January 1624-5, and 
was buried at Aylesbury. He married, in 
November 1598, Dorothy, daughter of Hum- 
phrey Smith, Queen Elizabeth's silkman, and 
widow of Benedict Barnham [q. v.] By her 
he had two daughters and a son (see below). 
The union was not a happy one. Early in 
1607 Pakington ' and his little violent lady 
. . . parted upon foul terms.' In 1617 she ap- 
pealed to the law, and Pakington was forced 
to appear before the court of high commis- 
sion, and was committed to gaol. It was 
the unpleasing duty of Lord-keeper Bacon 
(who had married Lady Pakington's daugh- 
ter, Alice Barnham) to give an opinion 
against his mother-in-law. In 1028 she 
quarrelled with her sons-in-law respecting 
the administration of her husband's estate, 
which was transferred to the sons-in-law in 
February 1629 (Lords' Journals, iii. pp. 827, 



862, 872, iv. pp. 23-4). In or about 1629 
she took a third husband (Robert Needham, 
first viscount Kilmorey), who had already 
been thrice married, and died in November 
1631. Subsequently she became the third 
wife of Thomas Erskine, first earl of Kellie 
[q.v.] He died on 12 June 1639, and she 
probably died about the same date. There 
is a portrait of Pakington at Westwood 
Park, Worcestershire. Of his three children, 
Anne, his elder daughter, married at Ken- 
sington, on 9 Feb. 1618-19, Sir Humphrey 
Ferrers, son of Sir John Ferrers of Tarn- 
worth Castle, Warwickshire; and, after his 
decease, Philip Stanhope, first earl of Ches- 
terfield. His second daughter, Mary, mar- 
ried Sir Richard Brooke of Nacton in Suffolk. 
The only son, JOHN PAKINGTON (1600- 
1624), born in 1600, was created a baronet 
in June 1620, and sat in parliament for Ayles- 
bury in 1623-4. He married Frances, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Ferrers of Tamworth, by 
whom he had one son, John (1620-1680), 
who succeeded to the title, and is separately 
noticed, and one daughter (Elizabeth), who 
married, first, Colonel Henry Washington, 
and, secondly, Samuel Sandys of Ombersley in 
Worcestershire. Pakington died in October 
1624, and was buried at Aylesbury. His 
widow married at St. Antholin, Budge Row, 
London, on 29 Dec. 1626, 'Mr. Robert 
Leasly, gent.' (Harl. Soc. Publ. Reg. viii. 61). 
The similarity of name may account for 
the improbable statement frequently made 
that she became the second wife of Alex- 
ander Leslie, first earl of Leven [q. v.] 

[Burke's Peerage, art. ' Hampton ; ' Stow's Sur- 
vey, vol. i. bk. iii. p. 29 ; Wot ton's Baronetage, ed. 
Kimber and Johnson, i. 180-6 ; Bacon's Works, 
ed. Spedding, Ellis, Heath, vii. 569-85, xi. 
13-14; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, iii. 375; 
Nash's Worcestershire, vol. i. p. xviii ; Metcalfe's 
Knights, pp. 113, 221; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Nichols's Progresses of Queen 
Elizabeth, iv. 76 et seq. ; Strype's Ecclesiastical 
Memorials, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 181 ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-10 p. 398, 1611-18 
p. 475 ; Official List of M.P.'s, vol. i. pp. xxix, 
456; Orridge's Citizens of London, pp. 168-70; 
Hep-worth Dixon's Personal Hist, of Lord Bacon, 
pp. 139, 145, 146, 154, 243-4; Lloyd's State 
Worthies, pp. 616-17 (a glowing character of 
Pakington); Gent. Mag. 1828, pt. ii. p. 197; 
Bishop of London's Marriage Licences (Harl. 
Soc. Publ. xxv.), p. 256 ; Registers of Kensing- 
ton (Harl. Soc. Publ. xvi.), p. 67.] B. P. 

PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN (1620-1680), 
second baronet, royalist, was the only son of 
Sir John Pakington (1600-1624), first baro- 
net [see under PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN, 1549- 
1625]. He was born in 1620, and succeeded 



Pakington 



Pakington 



to the baronetcy on the death of his father 
before he was four years of age. On the 
death of his grandfather, in the following 
year, he became the ward of Thomas Coventry, 
lord Coventry [q. v.] On 9 May 1638 he took 
the oath of allegiance, and on the follow- 
ing day was granted permission to travel 
abroad for three years, with the proviso 
that he was not to visit Rome. He does 
not, however, appear to have left Eng- 
land, and in March 1639-40 was returned 
to parliament for the county of Worcester 
and for the borough of Aylesbury. He 
represented the latter till August 1642, 
when he was disabled to sit in consequence 
of his having put the commission of array 
into execution in behalf of the king. He 
was present at the battle of Kineton on 
24 Oct. 1642. On 23 March 1645-6, hav- 
ing voluntarily surrendered himself to the 
speaker to compound, he was ordered by 
the House of Commons into the custody of 
the sergeant-at-arms, and to appear at the 
bar on the following morning. On 22 April 
1646 he begged for bail in order to pro- 
secute his composition, ' being much im- 
paired in health by his long restraint in 
thi^ hot season.' His request was granted 
on 28 May following. On 24 Oct. his fine 
was fixed at half the nominal value of his 
estate. Against this decision he remon- 
strated on 5 Jan. 1646-7, and on 15 July 
the fine was reduced to one-third. He was 
assessed for 3,OOQ/. by the committee for the 
advance of money on 6 March 1647-8, and 
on 26 Sept. 1648 sequestered for non-pay- 
ment. On 3 March 1648-9, on payment of 
3,OOOZ., he was granted possession of his 
estate, and was assisted in enforcing the 
payment of rent from his tenants. Early in 
May 1649 the townspeople of Aylesbury 
petitioned for the use of the pasture-ground 
called Heydon Hills (a portion of Paking- 
ton's estate) as a reward for their services to 
the parliament. The request was^. granted I 
on 11 Dec. Pakington received some abate- 
ment of his fine in consequence. In the 
conveyance drawn up, Thomas Scot [q. v.], 
regicide, burgess of Aylesbury, contrived to 
include other property and privileges over 
and above the pasturage granted, to which 
Pakington in his great extremities, and 
owing to the ' duresse and menaces ' of Scot 
and his confederates, was forced to agree on 
20 Jan. 1649-50. 

Pakington obeyed the summons of I 
Charles II, and appeared at the rendezvous 
at Pitchcroft, near Worcester, on 26 Aug. 
1651, with a reinforcement of horse. He was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester 
on 3 Sept. 1651, and was indicted at the 



Lent assizes in 1652. His estates were 
again sequestered. His trial for appearing 
at Pitchcroft did not actually take place till 
Lent 1653, when he was acquitted. In 
accordance with his own petition, permission 
to compound for his property at two years' 
value was granted him on 21 Aug. 1654. At 
the end of December he was again arrested, 
and sent to London, with Sir Henry Lyttel- 
ton, high sheriff for Worcester, for being in 
possession of arms, and was imprisoned in 
the Tower till September 1655. His name 
was included in a list of plotters against the 
Protector laid before the bailiffs of Kidder- 
minster and justices of the peace for Worces- 
ter in June 1655. In September 1659 his 
estates were again ordered to be seized, he 
being suspected of complicity in the rising 
of Sir George Booth (1622-1684) [q.v.] He 
was summoned to defend himself in October, 
but the matter appears to have gone no fur- 
ther, and the Restoration in May following 
relieved Pakington of his pressing difficulties. 
Throughout the period of the Commonwealth, 
Pakington and his wife made their house the 
asylum of Henry Hammond [q. v.] and of 
many of Hammond's friends, and Westwood 
was regarded as the headquarters of the old 
high-church party. 

In 1660 a grant of 4,OOOZ. to ' Edward 
Gregory ' was explained by the king to be 
meant for the benefit of Pakington, but was 
passed in another name, ' lest the example 
should be prejudicial.' Pakington sat in 
parliament as member for Worcestershire 
from 1661 to 1679. A special bill for 
vacating his constrained conveyance of Hey- 
don Hills in January 1649-50 was read in the 
commons on 17 May 1661, but was not passed 
till May 1664. In November 1661 Paking- 
ton informed Sir Edward Nicholas [q. v.] of 
the discovery of a supposed presbyterian 
plot in his neighbourhood, and forwarded 
him some intercepted letters which had been 
brought to him. Several ministers, Baxter 
among the number, were implicated, and 
arrests were made. The letters were pro- 
bably forgeries, and the charges were never 
proved. Andrew Yarrenton [q. v.], who 
wrote an account of the affair in 1681, 
regarded Pakington as the inventor of the 
plot (which frequently went by his name) 
and the writer of the letters. Pakington 
was the intimate friend of Bishop Morley 
[see MORLEY, GEORGE] and of Sir Ralph 
Clare [q. v.], and thus came into collision 
with Richard Baxter. Baxter accused 
Pakington of having intercepted a letter of 
his, which proved to be of a purely private 
nature, and of sending it to London. He 
described him as ' the man that hotly fol- 



Pakington 



Pakington 



lowed such work.' He was approved by the 
king as deputy-lieutenant for Worcestershire 
on 10 March 1662-3. 

Pakington died in January 1679-80, and 
was buried at Hampton-Lovett. He married 
Dorothy, daughter of his guardian, Lord 
Coventry [see PAKINGTON, LADY DOROTHY], 
by whom he had one son and two daughters. 
He made no will, but administration was 
granted to his son in March 1680. 

SIR JOHN PAKINGTON (1649-1688), third 
baronet, the only son, matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 3 May 1662. On 19 May 
1665 a license was granted to him to travel 
for three years with his tutor, Dr. Yerbury, 
and in July 1667 he was at Breda (Cal. 
State Papers, 1667, p. 260). He spent a 
retired life at Westwood, studying and be- 
friending the neighbouring clergy. George 
Hickes[q. v.], dean of Worcester, was much 
at Westwood, wrote many of his works 
there, and received Pakington's dying in- 
structions as to his burial. Under Hickes's 
tuition he became one of the finest Anglo- 
Saxon scholars of his time. He represented 
Worcestershire in parliament from 1685 to 
1687. He died in March 1688. He married, 
on 17 Dec. 1668, Margaret, second daughter 
of Sir John Keyt, bart., of Ebrington, 
Gloucestershire (Ebrington parish register). 
His only son, John, is separately noticed. 

[Burke's Peerage, art. 'Hampton;' Cal. of 
State Papers, 1637-8, 1640, 1654, 1655, 1660- 
1661, 1661-2, 1663-4, 1664-5, 1667; Wotton's 
Baronetage, i. 187 et seq. ; Nash's Worcester- 
shire, i. 352 (pedigree), n. App. cvi.; Calen- 
dar of Committee for Compounding, pp. 39, 
726, 1194-6; Cal. of Committee for the Ad- 
vance of Money, pp. 866-7 ; Official Lists of 
M.P.'s, i. 480, 484, 531, 556; Lords' Journals, 
xi. 522, 605; Commons' Journals, ii. 729, iv. 
486, 557, vi. 206, 331, vii. 209, viii. 470, 545; 
Green's Worcester, i. 278, 285 ; Case of Sir 
John Pakington (contemporary sheet) ; Syl- 
vester's Reliq. Baxterianae, pt. ii. p. 383 ; 
Yarrenton's Full Discovery, passim ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Hickes's Thesaurus, 
Pref. pp. ii-iv.] B. P. 

PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN (1671-1727), 
politician and alleged original of Addison's 
' Sir Roger de Coverley,' born on 16 March 
1671, was only son of Sir John Pakington, 
of Westwood,Worcestershire, the third baro- 
net [see under PAKINGTON, SIR JOHN, 1620- 
1680]. His mother, Margaret (d. 1690), was 
second daughter of Sir John Keyt, bart., of 
Ebrington, Gloucestershire. Dorothy, lady 
Pakington [q. v.], was his grandmother. 
Pakington's father, who died in 1688, en- 
trusted his education to the care of Lord 
Weymouth and his brothers, James and 
Henry Frederick Thynne. 



Hearne ( Collections, ed. Dohle, ii. 56) men- 
tions Pakington as one of the writers of St. 
John's College, Oxford ; but if he was at the 
university for a time, he did not take his de- 
gree. On 5 March 1690, although not yet 
nineteen, he was elected M.P. for Worcester- 
shire, and he sat for that county until his 

| death, except in the parliament of 1695-8, 
when he voluntarily declined the position. 
In July 1702 he was elected for Aylesbury, 
where some of his ancestors lived, as well as 
Worcestershire (Return of Members of Par- 

\ liament). In 1691 he married Frances, eldest 
surviving daughter of Sir Henry Parker, 
bart., of Honington, Warwickshire (Harl. 
Soc. Publ. xxxi. 191). 

Pakington's political views made them- 
selves conspicuous in the House of Commons 
in December 1699, when he proposed an ad- 
dress to the king to remove Gilbert Burnet 
[q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, from the office of 
preceptor to the Duke of Gloucester, on the 
ground that he was unfit for that trust be- 
cause he had hinted that William III came 
in by conquest. The matter, however, pro- 
ceeded no further (LTJTTRELL, Brief Relation 
of State Affairs, iv. 592). By 1700 Paking- 
ton was a widower, and on 26 Aug. a license 
was granted for his marriage, at All Saints, 
Oxford, to Hester, daughter and heiress of 
Sir Herbert Perrott of Harroldston, Pem- 
brokeshire (Harl. Soc. Publ. xxiv. 237) ; she 
died in 1715. 

On 3 Nov. 1702 Pakington made complaint 
to the house against .William Lloyd (1627- 
1717) [q. v.], bishop of AVorcester, and his son, 
William Lloyd, respecting the privileges of 
the house. The matter was taken into con- 
sideration on the 18th, when evidence was 
given that Lloyd had called upon Paking- 
ton not to stand for parliament, had tra- 
duced him to his clergy and tenants, and 
had threatened those who voted for him. 
Lloyd's son had alleged that Pakington had 
voted for bringing in a French government, 
and the bishop's secretary had said that 
people might as well vote for the Pre- 
tender. The rector of Hampton-Lovett (of 

, which living Pakington was patron) deposed 
that the bishop had charged Pakington with 
drunkenness, swearing, and immorality, and 
had urged against him a pamphlet written 
in vindication of the bill against the trans- 

1 lation of bishops. Lloyd said that Paking- 

i ton had published three libels against him 

I and other bishops, and he denied that he was, 
as Pakington alleged, author of ' The Cha- 
racter of a Churchman ' (see Somers Tracts, 

j 1813, ix. 477-81). The house resolved that 
the conduct of the bishop, his son and agents, 
had been ' malicious, unchristian, and arbi- 



Pakington 9 

trary, in high violation of the liberties and 
privileges of the Commons of England.' In 
an address to the queen they prayed that 
Lloyd might be removed from his position 
of lord almoner; and the attorney-general 
was ordered to prosecute Lloyd's son when 
his privilege as a member of the lower House 
of Convocation expired. The House of Lords 
urged that every one had a right to be heard 
in his own defence before suffering punish- 
ment; but on 20 Nov. the commons were 
informed that Anne had agreed to remove 
Lloyd from his place of almoner. On the 
25th the evidence was ordered to be printed 
(The Evidence given at the Bar of the House 
of Commons upon the complaint of Sir John 
Pakington . . . together with the Proceed- 
ings of the House, 1702 ; RAPIN, cont. by 
TINDAL, 1763, iii. 436-7). The feud con- 
tinued till 1705, when (6 June) Pakington 
wrote to Lloyd that dissenters were more 
in the bishop's favour than churchmen, and 
complained of annoyance to his friends, 
which would compel him, if it did not stop, 
to right himself again (HEAENE, Collections, 
ed. Doble, i. 25, 125 ; British Museum, Add. 
MS. 28005, f. 299). 

When the bill for preventing occasional 
conformity came before the house in No- 
vember 1703, Pakington made a speech in 
which he denounced those who stood neutral 
in matters so nearly concerning the church, 
and said that the trimmers had a hatred of 
the Stuarts which came to them by inheri- 
tance (CoBBETT, Par/. Hist. vi. 153). In a 
debate on 7 Dec. 1705, which arose out of a 
resolution of the lords that any one who 
said the Church of England was in danger 
was an enemy to the queen, church, and 
kingdom, Pakington drew attention to the 
licentiousness of the press, the numerous 
libels against the church, the increase of 
presbyterian conventicles, and the lords' 
resolution itself, as proofs that the church 
was in danger. The commons, however, 
agreed with the lords, in spite of Paking- 
ton's argument that the lords' resolution 
would be a convenient weapon in the hands 
of any evil minister who might wish to 
abolish episcopacy (ib. vi. 508). Pakington 
found another opportunity for expressing his 
high tory views on 4 Feb. 1707, when the 
Act of Ratification of the Articles of Union 
with Scotland was before the house. He 
said he was absolutely against the union, ' a 
measure conducted by bribery and corrup- 
tion within doors, and by force and violence 
without.' When the tumult that followed 
had subsided, he modified slightly his re- 
mark, asked whether persons who had be- 
trayed their trust were fit to sit in the 



Pakington 

house, and pointed out difficulties in having 
in one kingdom two churches which claimed 
to be 'jure divino ' (ib. vi. 560). The union, 
however, was soon approved by the house. 

On Harley's dismissal from the office of 
lord treasurer on 27 July 1714, Pakington 
was singled out for high office, and was 
probably offered a commissionership of the 
treasury (BoiER, Annals, p. 713). Upon 
Queen Anne's death, five days later, he and 
his friends were necessarily much alarmed, 
and on 5 Aug. Pakington made a complaint 
against Dr. Radcliffe for not attending her 
majesty when sent for by the Duke of Or- 
monde ; but the matter dropped when it was 
found that Radcliffe was not in his place in 
the house, no one seconding the motion of 
expulsion (BoYEK, Political State, August 
1714, p. 152 ; Wentworth Papers, 410). 
In September 1715, immediately after the 
outbreak of the rebellion on behalf of the 
elder Pretender, Stanhope acquainted the 
house that there was just cause to suspect 
six members, including Pakington, and that 
the king desired the consent of the commons 
to their arrest. The house readily concurred, 
and an address of thanks was presented. 
Pakington received warning through the 
landlord of a posthouse between Oxford and 
Worcester, where he was a good customer ; 
for a friendly messenger got the first horse, 
and the king's messenger did not arrive at 
Westwood until six hours after Sir John 
knew of the warrant of arrest. He was, 
however, waiting for the messenger, and 
said he was quite willing to go up to town 
by the stage-coach next day, which he did ; 
and, after examination before the council, he 
proved his innocence, and was honourably 
acquitted (A full and authentick Narrative 
of the intended horrid Conspiracy and Inva- 
sion : Containing the Case of . . . Sir John 
Packington, &c., 1715). Four years later 
(7 Dec. 1719) Pakington spoke against the 
peerage bill, when he found himself on the 
same side as the Walpoles and Steele. ' For 
my own part,' he said, ' I never desire to be 
a Lord, but I have a son and may one day 
have that ambition ; and I hope to leave 
him a better claim to it than a certain great 
man [Stanhope] had when he was made a 
peer.' He also opposed the measure because 
it was prejudicial to the rights of the heir 
to the throne, and would render the division 
between George I and his son irreconcilable 
(History and Proceedings of the House of 
Commons, 1741, i. 202, 209-10). 

Pakington was made recorder of Worcester 
on 21 Feb. 1725, and he died on 13 Aug. 
1727, and was buried with his ancestors at 
Hampton-Lovett, in accordance with the 



Pakirigton 



93 



Pakington 



wish expressed in the will which he made 
three days before his death. The cost of 
the funeral was not to exceed 200/. The 
will was proved on 27 Oct., and a large and 
elaborate monument was erected on the 
north side of the chancel in the church. 
This was moved into the Pakington chapel 
when the church was restored in 1858-9. 
Pakington's effigy, by J. Rose, reclines on 
the marble tomb, and an inscription pre- 
pared, as the will shows, beforehand states 
that he was an indulgent father, a kind master, 
charitable and loyal ; ' he spoke his mind in 
parliament without reserve, neither fearing 
nor flattering those in power, but despising 
all their offers of title and preferment upon 
base and dishonourable compliances.' Charles 
Lyttelton [q. v.], bishop of Carlisle, after- 
wards alleged that, as a matter of fact, Paking- 
ton had a secret pension from the whig minis- 
ter of 500/. a year, charged on the Salt Office ; 
but this is hardly probable, and Lyttelton 
was not a friendly critic. 

By his first wife Pakington had two sons 
John, who died at Oxford in 1712, aged 
nineteen, and Thomas, who entered Balliol 
College in 1715, aged nineteen, and died at 
Rome in 1724 and two daughters, Mar- 
garet and Frances, the latter of whom mar- 
ried Thomas, viscount Tracey (cf. LTJTTEELL, 
vi. 382; Wentworth Papers, 93; Tatler, 
No. 40, ed. Nichols, 1786, ii. 50, v. 364-6). 
Other children of Pakington died young. 
By his second wife he had a son, Herbert 
Perrott, who succeeded his father as baronet 
and M.P. for Worcestershire, and who had 
two sons, John and Herbert Perrott, after- 
wards sixth and seventh baronets. The title 
became extinct upon the death of Sir John 
Pakington, eighth baronet, in 1830, but was 
revived in 1846 in favour of John Somerset 
Russell, son of Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
the seventh baronet [see PAKINGTON, JOHN 
SOMERSET, first BARON HAMPTON]. 

Pakington is best known, not as a typical 
high tory and churchman, but as the sup- 
posed original of the Sir Roger de Coverley 
of the ' Spectator.' He seems, however, to 
have no just claim to that distinction. The 
name of the famous country gentleman was 
taken from the old country dance, and Tickell, 
Addison's editor, says that the whole of the 
characters in the periodical were feigned ; 
while the Spectator himself said (No. 262), 
' When I place an imaginary name at the 
head of a character, I examine every sylla- 
ble and letter of it, that it may not bear any 
resemblance to one that is real.' It is true 
that Eustace Budgell vaguely asserted, in 
the preface to his ' Theophrastus,' that most 
of the characters in the ' Spectator ' existed 



among the ' conspicuous characters of the 
day ; ' but it was Tyers (An Historical Essay 
on Mr. Addison, 1783) who first said that 
it was understood that Sir Roger was drawn 
for Sir John Pakington, a tory not without 
sense, but abounding in absurdities. It is 
difficult to understand how this story arose, 
for the two characters have remarkably few 
points of resemblance beyond the fact that 
they were both baronets of Worcestershire. 
Sir Roger was a bachelor, because he had 
been crossed in love by a perverse widow, 
while Pakington married twice. In March 
1711, when the ' Spectator ' was commenced, 
Pakington was 39, and an energetic and 
militant politician ; Sir Roger was 55, had 
no enemies, and visited London only occa- 
sionally, when his old-world manners seemed 
j strange to those who saw him, though in 
his youth he had been a fine gentleman 
about town. Sir Roger had, indeed, been 
more than once returned knight of the shire ; 
but Pakington sat continuously in the house. 
Sir Roger was not given to lawsuits, though 
he sat on the bench at assizes, and at quarter 
sessions gained applause by explaining ' a 
passage in the Game Act : ' but Pakington 
was a lawyer and a recorder, and able to 
take proceedings with success against oppo- 
nents like Bishop Lloyd. Sir Roger would 
hardly have opposed a bishop, though he 
were Lloyd or Burnet. Both came into 
their estates when they were young ; but Sir 
Roger, unlike Pakington, was a much stronger 
tory in the country than in town. Near 
Coverley Hall were the ruins of an old abbey, 
and the mansion was surrounded by ' pleas- 
ing walks . . . struck out of a wood, in the 
midst of which the house stands;' and there 
had been a monastery at Westwood, and the 
house was surrounded by two hundred acres 
of oak-trees ; but the description of Coverley 
Hall would apply to many country houses 
besides Westwood. Even if the idea of 
Coverley Hall were taken from Westwood, 
there would be no sufficient ground for say- 
ing that Pakington was the prototype of 
Sir Roger. 

George Hickes [q. v.], and others who 
would not take the oaths to William III, 
found a temporary refuge at Westwood in 
1689. There Hickes wrote a great part of 
his ' Linguarum Septentrionalium Thesaurus, 
and he subsequently dedicated his ' Gram- 
matica Anglo-Saxonica ' to Pakington. 

[Nash's History and Antiquities of Worcester- 
shire, i. 186, 350-3, 536-40 (with views of West- 
wood) ; Lipscombe's History of the County of 
Buckingham, ii. 14, 15; Burke's Peerage and 
Extinct Baronetage ; Foster's Alumni Oxoni- 
enses; State Papers, Treasury, 1637-1702 Ixii. 



Pakington 



94 



Pakington 



79, 1708-1714 cxxxv. 9, cliii. 7, clxxii. 8; 
Additional MS. (Brit. Mus.) 24121, f. 142; 
Tanner MSS. (Bodleian) cccv. 231 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 367, 2nd ser. iii. 46, 7th 
ser. ii. 447 ; Tindal's continuation of Rapin, 
iv. 212, 358-9; Wyon's History of Queen 
Anne, i. 216-17, 390-1, 481 ; Wills's Sir Roger 
de Coverley; information furnished by Lord 
Hampton, the Rev. Edwin Lewis, and Miss 
Porter.] G. A. A. 

PAKINGTON, JOHN SOMERSET, 
first BARON HAMPTON (1799-1880), born on 
20 Feb. 1799, was the son of William Russell 
of Powick Court, Worcestershire, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Herbert Perrott 
Pakington, bart., of Westwood Park in the 
same county. He was educated at Eton and 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he matriculated 
on 13 Feb. 1818, but did not graduate. On 
the death of his maternal uncle, Sir John 
Pakington, bart., in January 1830, the 
baronetcy became extinct, and the estates 
descended to him and his aunt, Anne Pak- 
ington (who died unmarried in 1846), as 
coheirs-at-law [see under PAKINGTON, SIR 
JOHN, 1671-1727]. On 14 March 1831 he as- 
sumed the surname of Pakington in lieu of 
Russell (London Gazette, 1831, pt, i. p. 496). 
He unsuccessfully contested, in the conser- 
vative interest, East Worcestershire in De- 
cember 1832, and West Worcestershire in 
May 1833 and January 1835. At the general 
election in July 1837 he was returned to 
parliament for Droitwich, and continued to 
represent that borough until the dissolution 
in January 1874. He spoke for the first time 
in the House of Commons, in the debate on 
Canadian affairs, on 22 January 1838 (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. xl. 346-52). In the session 
of 1840 he successfully carried through the 
house a bill for the amendment of the Sale 
of Beer Act, the principle of which was that 
no one should be allowed to sell intoxicating 
liquors unless he had a definite rating quali- 
fication (3 and 4 Viet. c. 61). While sup- 
porting the vote of want of confidence in the 
whig ministry on 29 Jan. 1840, he blamed 
the government for their ' concessions to the 
democratic spirit which had recently been 
making such strides,' and declared the adop- 
tion of the penny post to be ' a most un- 
worthy bidding for popularity ' (Parl. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. li. 754-60). In the following 
session he obtained the appointment of a 
select committee to inquire into the state of 
the colony of Newfoundland (ib. Ivii. 705- 
714) ; and in the session of 1844 his bill for 
amending the law respecting the office of 
county coroner was passed (7 and 8 Viet. c. 
92). He cordially supported the second read- 
ing of Peel's Maynooth College Bill on 15 April 



1845 (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. Ixxix. 718-22), 
but voted against the bill for the repeal of the 
corn laws in the following session. On 1 3 July 

1846 he was created a baronet of the United 
Kingdom. In the session of 1847 he intro- 
duced a bill for the more speedy trial and 
punishment of juvenile offenders (ib. xc. 430- 
437), which received the royal assent in July 
of that year (10 and 11 Viet. c. 82). On 
7 Feb. 1848 he was nominated a member of 
the select committee appointed to inquire 
into the condition and prospects of sugar and 
coffee planting in the East and West Indies, 
of which Lord George Bentinck was the 
chairman (Parl. Papers, 1847-8, vol. xxiii. 
pts. i.-iv. ; see DISRAELI, Lord George Ben- 
tinck : a Political Biography ', 1852, pp. 529- 
550), and on 3 July 1848 he was defeated 
in his attempt to impose a differential duty 
on sugar of 10s. per cwt. in favour of the 
British colonies by a majority of 62 (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. c. 4-10, 14, 78). In the 
session of 1849 he successfully carried through 
the Commons a bill for the prevention of bri- 
bery at elections (ib. cii. 1041-50), which was, 
however, thrown out in the lords (ib. cvii. 
1116). His Larceny Summary Jurisdiction 
Bill was passed in the following session (13 
and 14 Viet. c. 37). On the formation of 
Lord Derby's first administration, in February 
1852, Pakington was admitted to the privy 
council and appointed secretary for war and 
the colonies (London Gazette, 1852, i. 633-4). 
As colonial secretary he had charge of the 
bill for granting a representative constitu- 
tion to the colony of New Zealand (15 and 
16 Viet. c. 72), which he introduced into the 
House of Commons on 3 May 1852 (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. cxxi. 102-119, 136-8). On 
the defeat of the government in December 
1852, he retired from office with the rest of 
his colleagues. He was appointed a member 
of the committee of inquiry into the condi- 
tion of the army before Sebastopol on 23 Feb. 
1855 (Parl. Papers, 1854-5, vol. ix.) On 
16 March following he introduced an educa- 
tion bill, which contained the germ of the 
present system of school boards (Parl. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. cxxxvii. 640-72). It met with 
little favour from his own party, and Lord 
Robert Cecil (the present Marquis of Salis- 
bury) declared that, ' as far as religious in- 
struction was concerned, he looked upon the 
bill as the secular system in disguise ' (ib. 
cxxxvii. 685). In February 1857 Paking- 
ton again introduced an education bill (ib. 
cxliv. 776-85), but subsequently withdrew 
it. He voted for the third reading of the 
Oaths Bill on 25 June 1857, against the 
members of his own party (*'.' cxlvi. 367). 
Early in the following session he obtained 






Pakington 



95 



Pakington 



the appointment of a royal commission on 
popular education (ib. cxxviii. 1184). On 
8 March 1858 he was appointed first lord 
of the admiralty in Lord Derby's second ad- 
ministration, and on 25 Feb. 1859 he an- 
nounced in his speech on the navy estimates 
that the government had determined to make 
the experiment of building two iron-cased 
ships, which were afterwards known as the 
Warrior and the Black Prince (ib. clii. 910- 
912; and see clxix. 1100-1). Upon Lord 
Derby's defeat in June 1859 Pakington re- 
signed office, and was created a G.C.B. on the 
30th of that month (London Gazette, 1859, 
vol. i. pt. ii. p. 2361). He was appointed first 
lord of the admiralty again in Lord Derby's 
third administration in June 1866 ; and on 
8 March 1867 succeeded General Peel as 
secretary of state for war (ib. 1867, vol. i. 
pt. i. p. 1594). While returning thanks for 
his re-election at Droitwich on 13 March 1867 
he indiscreetly revealed the secret history of 
the ministerial Reform Bill (see Berroiv's 
Worcester Journal, 16 March 1867), in conse- 
quence of which his colleagues were exposed 
to much ridicule, and the measure became 
known as the 'Ten Minutes Bill.' He re- 
mained in office as secretary of war until 
Disraeli's resignation in December 1868. 

At the general election in February 1874 
Pakington was defeated at Droitwich, 
and on 6 March following he was created 
Baron Hampton of Hampton-Lovett, and of 
Westwood in the county of Worcester. He 
took his seat in the House of Lords on the 
10th of the same month (Journals of the 
House of Lords, cvi. 9-10), and spoke there 
for the first time on 22 May following, when 
he moved a resolution in favour of the ap- 
pointment of a minister of public instruction 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. ccxix. 683-8). 
He was appointed first civil service com- 
missioner in November 1875, and spoke for 
the last time in the House of Lords on 1 Aug. 
1879 (ib. 3rd ser. ccxlviii. 1837). He died in 
Eaton Square, London, on 9 April 1880, aged 
81, and was buried on the 15th in the family 
mausoleum in Hampton - Lovett Church, 
where there is a stained-glass window to his 
memory. 

Hampton was a conscientious and pains- 
taking administrator. Though a staunch 
churchman himself, he was tolerant in re- 
ligious matters ; and his views on the sub- 
ject of education, especially with regard to 
unsectarian teaching, were considerably in 
advance of his party. 

He married, first, on 14 Aug. 1822, Mary, 
only child of Moreton Aglionby Slaney of 
Shiffhal, Shropshire, by whom he had one son, 
John Slaney, who succeeded as second Baron 



Hampton, and died on 26 April 1893. His 
first wife died on 6 Jan. 1843. He married, 
secondly, on 4 June 1844, Augusta Anne, 
daughter of the Right Rev. George Murray, 
D.D., bishop of Rochester, by whom he had 
one son, Herbert Perrott Murray, who suc- 
ceeded as third Baron Hampton on the death 
of his half-brother. His second wife died on 
23 Feb. 1848. He married, thirdly, on 

5 June 1851, Augusta, daughter of Thomas 
Champion de Crespigny, and widow of Colonel 
Thomas Henry Davies of Elmley Park, Wor- 
cestershire, by whom he had no children. 
His widow died on 8 Feb. 1892, aged 92. 

He was chairman of the Worcestershire 
quarter sessions from 1834 to 1858, and was 
gazetted lieutenant-colonel of the Worcester- 
shire yeomanry cavalry in November 1859. 
He was an elder brother of the Trinity House, 
and served as president of the Institute of 
Naval Architects for twenty-one years. He 
was created a D.C.L. of Oxford University 
on 7 June 1853, and in October 1871 presided 
over the meeting of the Social Science Asso- 
ciation at Leeds. Three of his speeches were 
separately published, as well as an address 
on national education delivered by him on 
18 Nov. 1856 to the members of the Man- 
chester Athenaeum, London, 8vo. 

[Walpole's Hist, of England, vols. iii. iv. v. ; 
McCarthy's Hist, of our own Times; Turber- 
ville's Worcestershire in the Nineteenth Century, 
1852; Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, 1884, i. 
278, 351, ii. 28, 74, 188, 358, 367 ; Men of the 
Time, 1879, pp. 484-5^ Annual Eegister, 1880, 
pt. ii.pp. 159-60; Times, 10 and 16 April 1880; 
Illustrated London News, Berrow's Worcester 
Journal, and the Worcestershire Chronicle for 
17 April 1880 ; Burke's Peerage, 1893, p. 658 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, p. 1058; 
Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1864, pp. 73, 81; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; Official Ke- 
turns of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. 
pp. 372, 389, 406, 423, 438, 455, 471, 487.] 

G. F. E. B. 

PAKINGTON, WILLIAM (d. 1390), 
chronicler, was clerk and treasurer of the 
household of Edward, prince of Wales [q. v/], 
the ' Black prince,' in Gascony. He was, it 
is believed, a native of Warwickshire, where 
there are two villages named Packington 
(FULLER, Worthies, ii. 474), though there 
is also a village with that name on the 
border of Leicestershire, besides a hamlet in 
Weeford, Staffordshire. In 1349 he was 
presented by the king to the rectory of 
East Wretham, Norfolk, and in 1377 held 
the wardenship of the royal hospital of St. 
Leonard at Derby. Richard II appointed 
him keeper of the wardrobe in 1379, and on 

6 Jan. 1381 chancellor of the exchequer. 



Palairet 



9 6 



Palairet 



He was a canon of Windsor, and at one time 
rector of Ivinghoe, Buckinghamshire, and 
was presented by the king to the living of 
Wearmouth, Durham. On 20 Sept. 1381 the 
king appointed him archdeacon of Canter- 
bury, and on 28 Dec. he was admitted to the 
deanery of Lichfield, which he resigned on 
30 April 1390. He received a prebend of 
York in April 1383, was dean of the royal free 
chapel of St. Mary, Stafford, in 1384, and was 
installed prebendary of Lincoln in October 
1389. Shortly before his death, which took 
place on or before 25 July 1390, he received 
from the crown a prebend in the collegiate 
church of St. Edith in Tamworth, Stafford- 
shire, and was also appointed prebendary of 
St. Paul's, London. He wrote a chronicle 
in French from the ninth year of King John 
to his own time, and dedicated it to Prince 
Edward, and is said to have recorded the 
prince's exploits. Leland translated several 
extracts from a French epitome of this chro- 
nicle, and inserted them in his ' Collectanea.' 
From these extracts Mr. Maunde Thompson 
(Chronicon Galfridl Le Baker, pp. 183-4) 
concludes ' that much of Pakington's chro- 
nicle must have been word for word the same 
as the revised edition of the French " Brute," ' 
observing that this may perhaps afford a 
clue to the authorship of the second edition 
of the French version of the prose ' Brut ' 
chronicle, compiled in the reign of Ed- 
ward III, and ending at 1333. 

[Leland's Comment, de Scriptt. Brit. c. 402, 
ii. 365, ed. Hall, and Collectanea, i. 454 sq. (2nd 
edit.) ; Bale's Cat. Scriptt. Brit. cent. vi. c. 68, 
p. 490 (ed. 1557), adds nothing to Leland, but 
divides Pakington's Chronicle into two books, 
the 'Historia ' and the ' Acta quinque regum;' 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 569; Fuller's Worthies, 
ii. 474, ed. Nichols ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. 
i. 41, 562, ii. 171, iii. 209, 379, ed. Hardy; 
Thompson's Chron. Galfr. le Baker, pp. 183-4.] 

W. H. 

PALAIRET, ELIAS (1713-1765), phi- 
lologer, born in 1713 at Rotterdam, was de- 
scended from a French family that had taken 
refuge in Holland on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. After studying at Leyden 
he took holy orders, and became successively 
preacher at Aardenburg (1741), Doornik 
(1749), and Tournay. On coming to England 
he acted as pastor of the French church at 
Greenwich, and of St. John's Church, Spital- 
fields, and latterly preacher in the Dutch 
chapel at St. James's, Westminster. His 
abilities attracted the notice of John Egerton 
[q. v.], successively bishop of Bangor and 
Durham, who made him his chaplain. Pa- 
lairet died in Marylebone on 2 Jan. 1765 
(Gent. Mag. 1765, p. 46). He left all his 



property to his wife Margaret (Probate Act 
Book, P.C.C. 1765 ; will in P.C.C. 113, Rush- 
worth). 

His writings are : 1. ' Histoire du Patri- 
arche Joseph mise en vers hero'iques,' 8vo, 
Leyden, 1738. 2. ' Observations philolo- 
gico-criticfe in sacros Novi Fcederis libros, 
quorum plurima loca ex autoribus potissi- 
mum Grsecis exponuntur,' 8vo, Leyden, 
1752 ; several of Palairet's explanations were 
called in question in the ' Acta eruditorum 
Lipsiensiutn ' for 1757, pp. 451-8, and by 
Charles Louis Bauer in the first volume of 
' Stricturarum Periculum.' 3. ' Proeve van 
een oordeelkundig Woordenboek over de 
heiligeboeken des Nieuwen Verbonds,' 8vo, 
Leyden, 1754. 4. ' Specimen exercitationum 
philologico-criticarum in sacros Novi Foaderis 
libros,' 8vo, London, 1755 (another edit. 
1760) ; intended as a prospectus of a revised 
edition of his 'Observationes.' 5. 'Thesaurus 
Ellipsium Latinarum, sive vocum quae in 
sermone Latino suppressse indicantur,' 8vo, 
London, 1760 (new edit, by E. H. Barker, 
1829). This useful book is accompanied by 
a double index of authors and words. In 
the preface Palairet promised a revised edi- 
tion of Lambertus Bos's 'Ellipses Grsecse,' 
but he died before its completion. In 1756 
he corrected for William Bowyer the 'Ajax' 
and ' Electra ' of Sophocles, published in 
1758. His annotations on the treatises of 
Xenophon the Ephesian are printed in P. H. 
Peerlkamp's edition of that writer (4to, 
Haarlem, 1818). 

[Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek der Neder- 
landen ; Nouvelle Biographie Universelle (Mi- 
chaud); Nouvelle Biographie Gen^rale; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ii. 286, 313, 716.] G. G. 

PALAIRET, JOHN (1697-1774), author, 
born in 1697 at Montauban, was agent of the 
States-General in London and French teacher 
to three of the children of George II (Prince 
William, afterwards Duke of Cumberland, 
and the Princesses Mary and Louisa). He 
died in the parish of St. James's, Westmin- 
ster, in 1774 ( Gent. Mag. 1774, p. 598). He 
had been twice married, and left two sons 
Elias John and David and three daugh- 
ters. 

He wrote : 1. ' Nouvelle Methode pour 
apprendre a bien lire et a bien orthographier,' 
12mo, London, 1721 (12th edition 1758; 
new edit, by Formey, 8vo, Berlin, 1755). 
2. 'Abrege sur les Sciences et sur les Arts, 
en Francois & en Anglois,' 8vo, London, 
1736 (1740, 1741, 8th edit, revised by M. 
Du Mitand, 1788 ; 9th edit. 1792 ; an edi- 
tion by Gottlob Ludwig Munter appeared at 
Brunswick and Hildesheim in 1746). 3. ' A 



Palavicino 



97 



Palavicino 



New Royal French Grammar,' 8vo, London, 
1738 (3rd edit., the Hague, 1738 ; 8th edit., 
London, 1769). 4. ' Nouvelle Introduction 
a la GSographie Moderne,' 3 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1754-5. 5. ' Atlas Methodique,' 
fol. London, 1754 (53 maps). 6. ' Recueil 
des Regies d'Arithmetique,' 4to (Paris? 
1755?). 7. 'A Concise Description of the 
English and French Possessions in North 
America,' 8vo, London, 1755 (in French, 
1756). 

His correspondence with Count Bentinck 
in 1750, 1758, and 1761, in French, is among 
the Egerton MSS. in the British Museum, 
Nos. 1727 and 1746. A letter from him to 
the Duke of Newcastle in 1757 is in Addi- 
tional MS. 32871, f. 331. 

[Aa's Biographisch "Woordenboek der Neder- 
landen; Nouvelle Biographic Universelle (Mi- 
chaud); Nouvelle Biographie Generale; Nichols's 
Illustr. of Lit. iv. 634; Will in P.C.C. 26, Alex- 
ander; Will of Elizabeth Palairet, widow of his 
son David, in P.C.C. 183, Major.] G. G. 

PALAVICINp, SIR HORATIO (d. 1600), 
merchant and political agent, came of a cele- 
brated Italian family, the elder branch of 
which possessed a district on the Po called 
the Stato Palavicino, while the younger 
branch settled at Genoa; several members 
of it were appointed regents of Genoa by the 
Dukes of Milan, and more than one became 
a cardinal. One was in the service of the 
English kings, Henry VIII and Edward VI. 
Horatio's father, Tobias Palavicino, was pro- 
bably a merchant, and was living in 1579. 
Horatio was born at Genoa, but early in life 
was sent into the Netherlands, where he re- 
sided for some time ; thence he proceeded to 
England,where he was recommended to Queen 
Mary, and appointed collector of papal taxes. 
On Mary's death, Palavicino, according to 
tradition, abjured his Romanism, and, appro- 
priating the sums he had collected for the 
pope, laid the foundations of an enormous 
fortune. Devoting himself to commercial 
enterprise, he seems to have extended his 
business operations to most quarters of the 
globe. The wealth he thus acquired made 
him an important financial agent. He lent 
largely to Queen Elizabeth, Henry of Na- 
varre, and the Netherlands, and always at 
a usurious interest ; so greatly was Eliza- 
beth indebted to him that the fate of the 
kingdom was said to have depended upon 
him ; while on one occasion he furnished 
Henry of Navarre with no less than one 
hundred thousand French crowns. Pala- 
yieino's position as a collector of political 
intelligence was equally important, and his 
numerous commercial correspondents fre- 
quently enabled him to forestall all other 

VOL. XLIII. 



sources of information. He was himself often 
employed by the government to furnish in- 
telligence from abroad ; he was acting in this . 
capacity in 1581. In June he appears to have 
experienced some trouble for refusing to go to 
church (STRYPE, Annals, I. iii. 57, 273). In 
1583 he was at Paris befriending William 
Parry (d. 1585) [q. v.] In April 1584 
Richard Hakluyt [q. v.] wrote to Walsing- 
ham that Palavicino was willing to join in 
the western voyage. In 1585, when Philip 
Howard, first earl of Arundel [q. v.], was 
imprisoned, he sought the aid of Palavicino, 
as being ' an honest man,' in preparing his 
defence. On 7 Feb. 1585-6 Palavicino was 
recommended by Burghley to Leicester in the 
Low Countries, and in the same year he was 
granted a patent of denization. In 1587 he 
was knighted by Elizabeth, on which occasion 
Thomas Newton [q. v.] addressed to him an 
ode, which was printed that year in his ' II- 
lustrium Aliquot Anglorum Encomia,' and re- 
published in the second edition of Leland's 
' Collectanea,' 1770, v. 174. Early in 1588 he 
was in Germany ; he returned before the sum- 
mer, and asked to serve against the armada. 
He was consulted by Burghley about raising 
money to meet the invasion, equipped a vessel 
at his own cost, and was present as a volun- 
teer during the operations in the Channel and 
at Calais. It is generally stated that he com- 
manded a vessel against the armada, and his 
portrait is among the captains commemorated 
in the House of Lords' tapestry (MORANT and 
PINE, Tapestry of the-House of Lords, p. 16) ; 
but his name does not appear in the list of 
captains (MuRDlN, pp. 015-20; cf. Papers re- 
lating to the Armada, ed. Laughton, passim). 
In the following October Palavicino at- 
tempted on his own account a political in- 
trigue, in which the English government was 
probably not implicated, though Walsing- 
ham may have suggested some such scheme 
to Palavicino (ib. ii. 199 n.) He wrote to 
Alexander Farnese, the Spanish commander 
in the Netherlands, suggesting a scheme by 
which Alexander was to assume the sove- 
reignty of the Netherlands to the exclusion ot 
Philip, was to guarantee the cautionary towns 
to Elizabeth until her advances to the Dutch 
had been repaid, and to receive the support 
and perpetual alliance of England. Alex- 
ander rejected these proposals with indigna- 
tion, declaring that had Palavicino recom- 
mended them in person he would have killed 
him ; he sent a detailed account of the affair 
to Philip, who suggested that Palavicino 
should be invited to Flanders, and should 
be punished after he had disclosed all the 
information he could (MOTLEY, United 
Netherlands, ii. 539-41). 



Palavicino 



Palavicino 



In February 1589-90 Palavicino was sent 
into Germany, with an allowance of 50s. a 
day for diet ; in July he went as envoy to 
the French king ; in November he was again 
in Germany, which he revisited in 1591 and 
1592, maintaining a correspondence with the 
government, Sir Thomas Bodley [q. v.], am- 
bassador at the Hague, and other diplo- 
matists. His principal business was the 
negotiation of loans for the English and 
Dutch governments. In 1594 he once more 
applied for license to go abroad, but his 
active employment ceased soon afterwards, 
and he retired to his manor of Babraham, 
near Cambridge, where he died on 6 July 
1000. He was buried there on 17 July, and 
his funeral was kept on 4 Aug. His will is 
given in the ' Calendar of State Papers.' The 
queen owed him nearly 29,000/., which sub- 
sequently formed a matter of frequent dis- 
pute between his sons and the government, 
and was never fully paid. 

Palavicino was ' an extreme miser,' and 
' in every way distant from amiable, but. he 
possessed the best abilities.' Horace Wai- 
pole says he was an arras painter, and cer- 
tainly he supplied Elizabeth with arras, but 
that he painted arras himself is not so clear. 
He was also Italian architect to the queen. 
A number of his letters, written in a beauti- 
ful hand, are extant in the Cotton MSS. in 
the British Museum ; his ' Narrative of the 
Voyage of the Spanish Armada,' &c., is 
printed in the 'Calendar of State Papers,' 
under date August 1588, but it contains 
many errors ; he is also said to have published 
some Italian psalms (ib. 1594, p. 406), but 
these are not known to be extant. Theophilus 
Field [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Hereford, 
contributed to, and edited, 'An Italian's Dead 
Bodie.stucke with English Flowers; Elegies 
on the Death of Sir Oratio Pallavicino,' Lon- 
don, 1600, which he dedicated to Palavicino's 
widow. Bishop Hall also wrote ' Certaine 
Verses written and sent, in way of comfort, to 
her Ladiship,' which were printed in 'Album 
seu Nigrum Amicorum in obit. Hor. Pala- 
vicini,' London, 1600, 4to. The following 
quaint epitaph, quoted by Horace "Walpole, 
was found among the manuscripts of Sir John 
Carew of Ushington : 

Here lies Horatio Palavazene, 

Who robb'd the Pope to lend the Queene; 

He was a thiefe. A thiefe? Thou lyest, 

For whie ? He robb'd but Antichrist, 

Htm death with besome swept from Babram 

Into the bosom of old Abram. 

But then rame Hercules with his club, 

And struck him down to Belzebub. 

Tt had, however, been previously printed in 
a small volume of poetry, ' Kecreations for 



ingenious Headpieces, or a pleasant Grove 
for their Wits to walk in,' c., 1667. 

While in the Low Countries Palavicino 
married a certain ' very mean person,' whom 
he did not wish to acknowledge as his wife 
while his father was alive ; by her he had 
one son, Edward, whom, in deference to the 
wish of his second wife, he declared illegiti- 
mate and disinherited. Many years after his 
first wife's death Palavicino married at Frank- 
fort, on 27 April 1591, Anne, daughter of 
Egidius Hoostman of Antwerp ; she received 
patent of denization in England in the fol- 
lowing year. By her Palavicino had two 
sons and a daughter Henry, who died on 
14 Oct. 1015, without issue ; and Tobie, who 
was born on 20 May 1593 at Babraham, 
which was probably the occasion of an ode 
of twenty stanzas in Additional MS. 22583, 
f. 146, beginning, ' Italae gentis decos atque 
lumen.' Tobie squandered his father's wealth, 
was imprisoned in the Fleet, and died, leav- 
ing three sons and a daughter. Palavicino's 
family became closely connected with the 
Cromwells by a remarkable series of mar- 
riages. His widow, a year and a day after 
his death, married Sir Oliver Cromwell, the 
Protector's great-uncle ; the two sons, Henry 
and Tobie, married, on 10 April 1606, Sir 
Oliver's two daughters by a previous mar- 
riage, Catharine and Jane ; and the daughter, 
Baptina, married Sir Oliver's eldest son and 
heir, Henry. Subsequently another member 
of the family, Peter Palavicino, came to Eng- 
land as a merchant, was knighted on 19 June 
1687, and died in February 1694 (Ls NEVE, 
Knights, p. 412). 

[Authorities quoted ; Cotton MSS. passim ; 
Addit. MSS. 22583 f. 146, 24489 f. 446 (Hunter's 
Chorus Vatum) ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. and 
Spanish Ser. passim ; Murdin's State Papers, 
pp. 784, 796, 800, &c. ; Hatfield MSS. passim ; 
Collins's Letters and Memorials, ii. 319, 323, iii. 
2 '6; Rymer's Fcedera (Syllabus), ii. 812, 814, 
815, 821; Chamberlain's Letters, p. 112, and 
Leycester Corr. passim (Camden Soc.) ; Sir H. 
Spelman's Hist, of Sacrilege, ed. 1853, pp. 306-7 ; 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum, i. 
1 86 ; Noble's Memoirs of the House of Crom- 
well, ii. 173-80 ; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, ii. 
52; Camden's Britannia, ii. 138-9; Leland's 
Collectanea, ed. Hearne, App. i. 174; Coryat's 
Crudities, pp. 255, 259 ; Nichols's Progresses of 
James I, i. 100-3, 159, ii. 408, et seq.; Lit. 
A need. i. 676, v. 2556; Gough's Camden, ii. 
138; Papers relating to the Armada (Navy Re- 
cords Soc.) ; Masson's Milton, ii. 207, 357 ; 
Somers Tracts, i. 445 ; Morant's Essex, i. 8, 26 ; 
Lysons's Environs, ir. 275; Markham's Fighting 
Veres, p. 52; Collier's Bibl. Lit. i. 282-4; Gent. 
Mag. 1815 i. 298, 1851 i. 238-9; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. viii. 432, 533, 5th ser. xi. 216, 
xii. 38, 215, 7th ser. ix. 238-9.] A. F. P. 



Paley 



99 



Paley 



PALEY, FREDERICK APTHORP 

(1815-1888), classical scholar, was the eldest 
son of Edmund Paley, rector of Easingwold, 
near York, where he was born 14 Jan. 1815. 
He was grandson of Archdeacon William 
Paley [q. v.] Educated at Shrewsbury, and 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, he gra- 
duated BA. in 1838, but, owing to his dis- 
like of mathematics, he was unable to take 
a degree in honours. To classical studies he 
was devoted from early youth, although his 
interests were always wide, and as a boy he 
was a good mechanician and fond of natu- 
ral science. In 1838 he published his first 
book, a translation of G. F. Schomann's ' De 
Comitiis Atheniensibus.' He proceeded MA. 
in 1842, and received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. of Aberdeen in 1883. 

From 1838 to 1846 he was in residence at 
Cambridge, and, in addition to reading with 
pupils, assiduously studied classics and ec- 
clesiastical architecture. He was an original 
member of the Cambridge Camden Society, 
became honorary secretary and member of 
committee, and he contributed largely to the 
' Ecclesiologist ' while that paper was the 
organ of the society. He eagerly supported 
the restoration of the Round Church at Cam- 
bridge. During the progress of the Oxford 
movement, by which he was greatly influ- 
enced, he identified himself with the high- 
church party in his university. In 1846 he 
was suspected of having encouraged one of 
his pupils named Morris, a former pupil of 
Henry Alford[q.v.],tojoin the Roman church. 
(ALFORD,^4w Earnest Dissuasive from joining 
the Church of Rome, London, 1846), and he 
was ordered by the master and seniors to 
give up his rooms in college (Cambridge 
Chronicle, 31 Oct., 11 Nov., 26 Dec. 1846, 
26 July 1851). 

He accordingly left Cambridge, but not be- 
fore he had himself become a Roman catholic. 
He now sought employment as private tutor. 
From 1847 to 1850 he was tutor to Ber- 
tram Talbot, heir to the earldom of Shrews- 
bury. In 1850 he obtained a similar post in 
the Throckmorton family, and accompanied 
them on a visit to Madeira and Teneriffe for 
the benefit of his pupil's health (cf. Classical 
Review, iii. 82). From 1852 to 1856 he was 
non-resident tutor in the family of Kenelm 
Digby. He married in 1854, and after a 
brief sojourn at Westgate, Peterborough, 
where he took private pupils, he returned to 
the university in 1860, on the partial re- 
moval of religious disability, and settled at 
C>3 Jesus Lane, Cambridge. He subsequently 
lived at 17 Botolph Lane. 

Since 1844 an edition of ' ^Eschylus,' with 
Latin notes by him, had been appearing in 



parts, and, though coldly received abroad, 
the work was meeting with success in this 
country. During his absence from Cambridge 
of fourteen years (1846-1860) he had studied 
and written incessantly. Not content with 
producing several books -on classical and 
architectural subjects, he had carefully 
studied botany and geology. He investigated 
the habits of earthworms, and contemplated 
a work on this subject, but his design was 
anticipated by the appearance of Darwin's 
book. In 1878 he published his discoveries, 
in tabulated form, in two articles, entitled 
' The Habits, Food, and Uses of the Earth- 
Worm' (HAKDWICKE, Science Gossip, 1878. 
Nos. 162, 163). 

From 1860 to 1874 he was an assiduous 
private tutor at Cambridge. His pupils found 
in him a stimulating guide, who never con- 
sented to teach solely for the examinations. 
He examined in the classical tripos in 1873-4. 
In 1874 he was selected by Manning to be 
professor of classical literature at the new 
catholic university college at Kensington, 
and removed to Lowther Lodge, Lonsdale 
Road, Barnes. The college proved a failure, 
and Paley ceased to be professor in 1877. 
He was classical examiner to the university 
of London (1875-1880), and to the civil ser- 
vice commission. 

In 1881, owing to weakness of the chest' 
and lungs, he removed to Bournemouth. He 
bought a house in Boscombe Spa, which he re- 
named ' Apthorp.' There he died 9 Dec. 1888. 
He was buried in the Roman catholic church- 
yard, Boscombe. He was twice married : 
first, 31 July 1854, at Brighton, to Ruth, 
sixth daughter of G. M. Burchell, esq., of 
Scotsland, Bramley, Surrey (Times, 2 Aug. 
1854) ; she was killed in a carriage accident 
near Peterborough 26 May 1870, and was 
buried in Peterborough cemetery; he married, 
secondly, on 3 Oct. 1871, at Clifton, Selena 
Frances, youngest daughter of the late 
Rev. T. Broadhurst of Bath (Times, 6 Oct. 
1871). He left two sons and one daughter 
by his first wife ; his second wife survived 
him. 

Much of his published work is good, 
notably his introductions to the plays of 
Euripides, which are models of clearness, and 
his ' Manual of Gothic Mouldings,' which is 
admirably compiled. He was never at lei- 
sure, but he lacked patience for research. 
For years Donaldson's ' New Cratylus ' and 
' Varronianus ' formed his ultimate court of 
appeal in classics. He possessed scarcely 
any works by foreign scholars, and he never 
read German. With authors like the Latin 
poets, full of recondite learning, he was not 
competent to deal. His Greek and Latin 

H 2 



Paley 



TOO 



Paley 



compositions were marked by fluency and 
delicate taste, and his epigrams were ad- 
mired ; yet his English translations were 
deplorable. His defence of Euripides against 
the aspersions of A. W. Schlegel and his 
school was well reasoned, penetrating, and 
convincing. As an annotator of the Greek 
dramatists he exhibited intimacy with their 
diction, but showed no poetic imagina- 
tion. 

To the Homeric controversy Paley con- 
tributed a theory that the ' Iliad ' and 
' Odyssey ' as we have them were first put 
together out of a general stock of traditions, 
either in or not long before the age of 
Pericles. His theory was not accepted in 
England, but attracted notice in Germany. 
Another theory in which he placed firm faith 
was the ' Solar myth,' which he introduced 
into his books at every opportunity, until at 
last he applied it to the exegesis of St. John's 
Gospel. In the ' Journal of Philology ' (vol. x.) 
he wrote a paper ' On certain engineering diffi- 
culties in Thucydides's account of the escape 
from Platsea/ wherein he sought to prove that 
the story told by Thucydides is impossible, 
and to that end he made use of his knowledge 
of geology (cf. Classical Review, iv. 1). This 
article created a school of critics in Germany 
who impugn the credibility and accuracy of 
Thucydides. But Paley's opinion did not 
meet with general assent. 

Paley's chief publications were: 1. 'The 
Church Restorers : a Tale treating of Ancient 
and Modern Architecture and Church De- 
coration,' London, 1844, 8vo. 2. ' Ecclesio- 
logist's Guide to Churches at Cambridge,' 
1844, 12mo. 3. ' Illustrations of Baptismal 
Fonts.' 1844, 8vo ; only part of the letter- 
press is his. 4. '^Eschyli quse supersunt 
omnia,' 1844-7, 7pts.; in one vol. 1850. This 
work laid the foundation of Paley's reputa- 
tion as a Greek scholar. 5. ' Manual of 
Gothic Mouldings,' 1845, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1847 ; 
3rd ed. with additions by W. M. Fawcett, 
M.A., 1865; 4th ed. 1877; 5th ed. 1891. 
6. ' Manual of Gothic Architecture/ 1846, 
12mo. 7. ' A Brief Review of the Argu- 
ments alleged in Defence of the Protestant 
Position,' London, 1848, 8vo. 8. ' On the 
Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral,' 
Peterborough, 1 849, 8vo. 9. ' Proper- 
tius, with English Notes,' London, 1853, 
8vo; 2nd ed. 1872. 10. Ovid's Fasti,' 1854, 
12mo; 2nd ed. 1886; bks. i. and iii. 1888. 
11. 'The Tragedies of ^Eschylus, with 
English Notes,' London, 1855, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 
1861 ; 3rd ed. 1870 ; 4th ed. 1879. This is 
the first of Paley's contributions to the 
'Bibliotheca Classical 12. 'The Tragedies 
of Euripides,' 3 vols. London, 1857, &c. ; 



2nd ed. 1872, &c. 13. ' ^Eschylus : a Recen- 
sion of the Text,' Cambridge, 1858, 16mo ; 
' Cambridge Greek and Latin Texts.' 14. ' A 
few Words on Wheat-ears,' London, 1859. 
15. * Notes on twenty Parish Churches 
round Peterborough,' 1859. 16. ' Flora of 
Peterborough,' 1860. 17. 'The Epics of 
Hesiod, with English Notes,' London, 1861 r 
8vo; 2nd ed. 1883. For this work Paley 
read fourteen manuscripts. 18. ' Theocritus, 
with short Latin Notes,' Cambridge, 1863, 
8vo ; 2nd ed. 1869. 19. ' A Prose Transla- 
tion of yEschylus/ London, 1864, 8vo ; 2nd 
ed. 1871. 20. ' The Iliad of Homer, with 
English Notes,' 2 vols. London, 1866, 8vo; 
2nd ed. 1884. 21. 'Verse Translations- 
from Propertius, Book Five, with Revised 
Latin Text and brief English Notes,' Lon- 
don, 1866, 8vo. 22. 'Homer's Iliad, I.-XII./ 

1867, school edition. 23. 'Homer's Iliad, I.- 
XII. : Recension of the Text,' Cambridge, 
1867, 16mo. 24. ' On the Late Date and Com- 
posite Character of our Ilias and Odvssey,' 

1868, 4to. 25. ' Select Epigrams of Martial,' 
with W. D. Stone, Cambridge, 1868, 8vo. 
26. 'The Odes of Pindar, translated in to- 
English Prose, with Introduction and 
Notes,' 1868, 8vo. 27. 'Religious Tests- 
and National Universities,' 1871, 8vo. 
28. 'Aristotle's Ethics, V., X., translated 
into English,' 1872, 8vo. 29. 'Architec- 
tural Notes on Cartmel Priory Church/ 
Cartmel, 1872, 8vo. 30. ' Aristophanes' 
Peace, with English Notes/ 1873. 31. ' Plato's- 
Philebus, translated with Notes,' 1873, 8vo. 
32. ' Select private Orations of Demosthenes/ 
with J. E. Sandys, 2 vols. Cambridge, 
1874, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1886. 33. ' Milton's 
Lycidas, with a version in Latin Hexa- 
meters/ 1874. 34. ' Various Readings in 
Demosthenes De falsa legatione, for the 
Cambridge Philological Society/ 1874. 
35. 'Plato's Thesetetus, translated with 
Notes/ 1875, 8vo. 36. ' Aristophanes' Achar- 
nians, with English Notes/ 1876, 8vo. 
37. ' Homerus Periclis setate quinam habi- 
tus sit queeritur/ 1877. 38. ' Commentatio- 
in scholia yEschyli Medicea/ Cambridge, 

1878, 8vo. 39. ' Aristophanes' Frogs, with 
English Notes/ 1878. 40. ' Homeri quse 
nunc exstant an reliquis Cycli carminibus 
antiquiora jure habita sint/ London, 1878 r 
8vo. 41. 'Quintus Smyrnseus, and the 
"Homer" of the Tragic Poets/ London, 

1879. 42. 'On Post-Epic or Imitative 
Words in Homer/ London, 1879. 43. ' Greek 
Wit : Smart Sayings from Greek Prose 
Writings/ two series, 1880-1, 12mo. 44. ' So- 
phocles, with English Notes/ London, 1880 r 
8vo ; vol. ii. of Blaydes's edition. 45. ' Poems 
by Alfred, Lord Brave, edited with a Pre- 



Paley 



101 



Paley 



face on the latest School of English Poetry,' 
London, 1881, 8vo. 46. ' Bibliographia 
Graeca: an Enquiry into the Date and Origin 
of Book-writing among the Greeks,' Lon- 
don, 1881, 8vo. 47. 'A Short Treatise on 
Greek Particles and their Combinations,' 
1881, 8vo. 48. 'On Professor Mahaffy's 
"Epic Poetry" and "History of Classical 
Greek Literature," ' 1881 , 8vo. 49. ' ^Eschyli 
Eabulse 'l/tei-iSer, Xo^dpot, cum scholiis 
Graecis et brevi adnotatione critica,' Cam- 
bridge, 1883, 8vo. 50. ' The Truth about 
Homer, with Remarks on Professor Jebb's 
" Introduction," ' London, 1887, 8vo. 
51. ' The Gospel of St. John : a Verbatim 
Translation from the Vatican MS. ; with the 
notable Variations of the Sinaitic and Beza 
MSS., and brief Notes,' 1887, 8vo. 52. ' Frag- 
ments of the Comic Greek Poets, with 
Renderings in Verse,' London, 1888, 8vo ; 
2nd ed. 1892. 

Paley also contributed many articles and 
reviews of classical books to the ' Edinburgh 
Review,' the ' American Catholic Quarterly,' 

* Hermathena,' the ' Journal of Philology,' the 

* Transactions of the Cambridge Philological 
Society,' ' Eraser's Magazine,' the ' Journal 
of Hellenic Studies,' ' Athenaeum,' ' Academy,' 
' Macmillan's Magazine,' &c. He also edited 

'in ' Cambridge Greek Texts with Notes' the 
greater part of the Greek tragedies sepa- 
rately, his work for this series being con- 
tinued until his death. Every new edition 
of his books was practically a new work. 

[The Catalogues of the British Museum and 
of the Cambridge University Library ; infor- 
mation kindly communicated by Mrs. Paley, 
Apthorp, Boscombe, W. B. Palev, esq., Messrs. 
G. Bell & Sons, Professor J. E. B. Mayor, 
A. W Spratt, esq., Eev. Thomas Field, Bigby 
Rectory, Brigg, Lincoln; Eagle, June 1889; 
Cambridge Chronicle, 31 Oct. 1846, 11 Nov. 
1846, 4 June 1850, 26 July 1851 ; Times, 6 Oct. 
1871, 12 Dec. 1888; The Ecclesiologist, vols. 
i.-iv. ; Classical Review, iii. 80 ; Academy, 1888, 
p. 406; Athenaeum, 15 Dec. 1888; Rev. S. S. 
Lewis in Bursian's Jahresbericht, xvi. 15.] 

E. C. M. 

PALEY, WILLIAM (1743-1805). arch- 
deacon of Carlisle and author of the ' Evi- 
dences of Christianity,' born at Peterborough 
in July 1743, and baptised in the cathedral on 
30 Aug. following, was the eldest child of 
William Paley. The elder Paley, son of Tho- 
mas Paley, owner of a small estate at Lang- 
cliffe in the parish of Giggleswick, Yorkshire, 
in which the Paleys had been settled for many 
generations (see WHITAKEB, Craven, pp. 140, 
145), was a sizar at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, graduated B. A. in 1733-4, and in 1735 
became vicar of Helpston, Northamptonshire. 



He was also a minor canon at Peterborough. 
On 10 July 1742 he married Elizabeth Clap- 
ham of Stackhouse in Giggleswick In 1745 
he was appointed headmaster of Giggles- 
wick grammar school, with a salary of 8QI., 
afterwards raised to 200/. He held this post 
until 1799, when he died on 29 Sept. at the 
age of 88 ; his wife having died on 9 March 
1796, aged 83. The mother was a keen, 
thrifty woman of much intelligence. She 
had a fortune of 400/., which at the time of 
her death had been raised by good manage- 
ment to 2,200/. The father, a homely, sen- 
sible man, absorbed in his teaching, managed, 
with the help of a legacy of 1,500/., to ' scrape 
together "7,0001. (E. PALEY in Paley 's Works, 
1830, vol. i. p. xxiii). Their family consisted of 
William and three daughters. William Paley, 
the son, was educated at his father's school. 
He was a fair scholar, but specially interested 
in mechanics. He was too clumsy for boyish 
games, and his chief amusement from child- 
hood was angling. Though very kind to 
animals, he also joined in the then universal 
sport of cockfighting. A visit to the assizes 
at Lancaster interested him so much that he 
afterwards played at judging his school- 
fellows ; and after the sight of a travelling 
quack, he tried to extract a sister's teeth. 
On 16 Nov. 1758 he was entered as a sizar 
at Christ's College, riding to Cambridge 
with his father. He fell off his pony seven 
times on the road, his father only turning 
his head on such occasions to say, ' Take care 
of thy money, lad.' He returned to his home, 
and was sent to learn mathematics under 
William Howarth at TopclifFe, near Ripon. 
On 3 Aug. 1759 he was present at the 
trial of Eugene Aram at York, in which he 
was profoundly interested, remarking that 
Aram got himself hanged by his own clever- 
ness. 

In October 1759 he began his residence at 
Christ's, his father prophesying that he would 
be a great man, ' for he has by far the clearest 
head I ever met with in my life.' On 5 Dec. 
he was elected to a scholarship appropriated 
to Giggleswick school ; on the following day 
to a foundation scholarship and a Mildmay 
exhibition ; and on 26 May 1761 to a scho- 
larship founded by a Mr. Bunting. Anthony 
Shepherd, the college tutor, who became 
Plumian professor in 1760, thought him too 
good a mathematician to profit by the col- 
lege lectures, but required his attendance 
at the Plumian lectures. Paley was very 
sociable, and joined in the laugh at blunders 
caused by his frequent absence of mind, and 
his uncouth country dress and manners. He 
said afterwards (according to Meadley) that 
he was idle, though not immoral, for his 



Paley 



102 



Paley 



first two years. One morning, after a jovial 
evening, he was waked by a companion who 
had come to tell him that he was a ' damned 
fool' for wasting his abilities with men who 
had no ability to waste. Paley was duly 
impressed, took to early rising and syste- 
matic work, and became senior wrangler. 
His son doubts the story, principally because 
the two years' idleness seems to be incom- 
patible with other facts. The event may be 
misdated. Paley was intimate with Unwin, 
son of Cowper's Mrs. Unwin, in the year 
below him ; and was a private pupil of John 
Wilson, senior wrangler in 1761, and after- 
wards a judge. In the autumn of 1762 
Paley had to keep his act for the degree of 
B. A. He told themoderator, RichardWatson 
(afterwards bishop of Llandaff ), that he pro- 
posed to defend the thesis (taken from one 
of the text-books) ' ^Eternitaspcenarum con- 
tradicit divinis attributis.' He returned in 
a fright to say that the master of his college 
had objected to his defending such a doc- 
trine. By Watson's advice he therefore in- 
serted a ' non ' before ' contradicit ' (WATSON, 
Anecdotes ; Mead ley and E. Paley vary in the 
details). John Frere [q. v.] of Caius, father of 
John Hookham Frere, was his opponent, and 
was second to him in the mathematical 
tripos of 1763. Paley was recommended 
by Shepherd to be second usher in the aca- 
demy of a Mr. Bracken at Greenwich. He 
often went to the London theatres, and saw 
Garrick. He attended trials at the Old 
Bailey, and gained some knowledge of crimi- 
nal law. In 1765 he won one of the member's 
prizes at Cambridge by an essay comparing 
the stoic and the epicurean morality. Paley 
took the epicurean side, but nearly lost the 
prize because he had added notes in English to 
his Latin dissertation. He used afterwards 
to confess that he had entered Cambridge in 
a post-chaise with the windows down, and 
ordered the postilion to drive slowly, so that 
the successful candidate might be visible on 
his way to read the essay in the senate-house. 
His awkward manner set his audience laugh- 
ing during the recitation. Paley was or- 
dained deacon, and became curate to John 
Hinchliffe [q. v.], then vicar of Greenwich. 
He continued to officiate there, although he 
left his school to become tutor to the son of 
a Mrs. Orr, and quarrelled with the master 
for trying to conceal Mrs. Orr's offer of the 
appointment (E. PALEY, p. liv). Mrs. Orr 
was afterwards his warm friend till her death. 
On 24 June 1766 Paley was elected fellow of 
his college, and came again into residence. 
He was ordained priest in London on 21 Dec. 
1767. Shepherd was made the sole tutor of 
the college in 1768, but entrusted his duties 



as a lecturer to Paley and his friend John 
Law (1745-1810) [q. v.], second wrangler 
in 1766, and son of Bishop Edmund Law 
[q. v.], then master of Peter house and Knight- 
bridge professor at Cambridge. Paley and 
Law became intimate friends, and made ex- 
cursions together in the vacations, Law pro- 
viding a gig and Paley a horse. They once 
met Wilkes at Bath, and enjoyed an evening 
with him. They raised the reputation of 
the college by their lectures. Law took 
the mathematics, while Paley lectured upon 
' metaphysics, morals, and the Greek Testa- 
ment.' He lectured upon Locke to the fresh- 
men, according to Meadley, and from Locke 
proceeded to Clarke's ' Attributes ' and But- 
ler's ' Analogy.' E. Paley doubts the lectures 
on Locke, but gives specimens of his lec- 
tures upon other subjects. Manuscript notes 
of his lectures were in request throughout 
the university, and his good humour, power 
of illustration, and happy art of rousing at- 
tention made him popular. In his lectures 
upon divinity he took the view, maintained 
also in his ' Moral Philosophy,' that the 
Thirty-nine Articles were merely 'articles of 
peace,' inasmuch as they contained ' about 
240 distinct propositions, many of them in- 
consistent with each other.' It was impos- 
sible to suppose that the imposers could ex- 
pect any man to believe all (MEADLEY). 
Paley belonged to the 'Hyson Club 'esta- 
blished by the wranglers of 1757, in which 
year John Jebb (1736-1786) [q. v.] was se- 
cond. Paley was intimate with Jebb, but 
declined to join in the ' Feather's' petition 
of 1772 for a relaxation of the terms of sub- 
scription, on the ground that ' he could not 
aiford to keep a conscience.' He afterwards, 
however, wrote anonymously in defence of a 
pamphlet written in 1774 by Bishop Law in 
favour of relaxation (E. Paley confirms the 
authorship, which had been doubted). Paley 
heartily supported Jebb's abortive movement 
in 1774 for introducing annual examinations. 
Paley and Law were not officially appointed 
tutors till 13 March 1771. They had hitherto 
only received half the tuition fees, but in 
the next year succeeded in obtaining a ' tri- 
section ' from the senior tutor, Shepherd. 
Paley was popular at Cambridge, and the 
delight of combination rooms. Among his 
closest friends was Waring, the Lucasian 
professor, whose ' Miscellanea Analytica ' he 
corrected for the press in 1774. 

In 1774 Edmund Law, who had in 1768 
become bishop of Carlisle, appointed his son 
to a prebend in his cathedral. He was suc- 
ceeded at Christ's College by T. Parkinson, 
who for two years was Paley's colleague. 
Paley had acted as private tutor in addi- 



Paley 



103 



Paley 



tion to his public duties, and, according to 
Meadley, had shown his dislike for the prac- 
tice of ' rooting ' (the cant term for prefer- 
ment-hunting, invented by Paley according 
to the ' Universal Magazine ') by declin- 
ing to become private tutor to the son of 
Lord Camden. E. Paley, however, says 
that the offer was not actually made. He 
declined another offer from Prince Ponia- 
towski to become tutor to a Polish noble. 
Long afterwards, when Pitt attended the 
university church in 1784, Paley jocosely 
suggested as a suitable text : 'There is a lad 
here who hath five barley loaves and two 
small fishes ; but what are they among so 
many?' The story is often told as though 
he had actually preached the sermon. Paley 
had also the credit of protesting (in 1771), 
with his friend Law, against their senior 
tutor's offer of Christ's College Hall for a 
concert patronised by Lord Sandwich, until 
a promise had been given that Sandwich's 
mistress should not be present (MEADLEY, 
1810, p. 65). On 8 May 1775 he was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Musgrave, Cumber- 
land, worth about 80/. a year, by the Bishop 
of Carlisle. In the same autumn he became 
engaged to Miss Jane Hewitt, daughter of a 
spirit merchant in Carlisle. He returned to 
Cambridge, and on 21 April 1776 appeared 
for the last time as preacher at "Whitehall, 
having been appointed in 1771. On 6 June 
he was married to Miss Hewitt at Carlisle, 
and finally left Cambridge for Musgrave. 
He had been pnelector in his college 1767-9, 
Hebrew lecturer (probably a sinecurp) from 
1768 to 1770, and taxer in the university 
1770-1. His wife was a very amiable 
woman, but compelled by delicacy to a quiet 
life. Paley tried farming on a small scale 
by way of recreation. He failed, however, 
to pay his expenses, and gave it up. By the 
end of 1776 he received the vicarage of 
Dalston, Cumberland, worth 90/. a year, and 
in 1777 the vicarage of Appleby, worth 200/. 
a year, resigning Musgrave. He divided 
the year between his two parishes, and at 
Appleby was intimate with the master of 
the grammar school, Richard Yates, whose 
epitaph he wrote in 1781. He welcomed 
the barristers on the northern circuit, espe- 
cially his old tutor Wilson. In 1780 he was 
installed a prebendary at Carlisle, with an 
income of 400/. a year ; and in August 1782 
resigned Appleby on becoming archdeacon 
in succession to his friend John Law, who 
had been promoted to the bishopric of Clon- 
fert. The archdeaconry was a sinecure, the 
usual duties being performed by the chan- 
cellor. The rectory of Great Salkeld, worth 
120^ a year, was annexed to it. 



Paley was now urged by his friend Law 
to expand his lectures into a book. The re- 
sult was the ' Principles of Morals and Politi- 
cal Philosophy.' Paley had offered the manu- 
script to Faulder, a publisher in Bond Street, 
for 3001. Faulder was only willing to give 
2501. The negotiation was entrusted to the 
Bishop of Clonfert, who was in London. 
Paley meanwhile received an offer of 1,000/. 
from Milliken, a Carlisle bookseller, who 
must have had a higher opinion than most 
of his successors of the commercial value of 
ethical treatises. Paley communicated the 
offer to the bishop, who luckily received the 
letter before completing the bargain with 
Faulder. Faulder agreed to give .1 ,000/. be- 
fore the bishop left the house. The book 
was published in 1785, was adopted at once 
as a text-book at Cambridge, and went 
through fifteen editions during the author's 
life. Faulder must have made a good bar- 
gain. The famous illustration of the 'pigeons' 
in the chapter on ' Property ' got for him the 
nickname of ' Pigeon Paley.' Law warned 
him that it might exclude him from a bishop- 
ric. ' Bishop or no bishop,' said Paley, ' it 
shall go in' (E. PALEY, p. cclvi). 

At the end of 1785 Paley became chan- 
cellor of the diocese upon the death of Richard 
Burn [q. v.], author of ' The Justice of the 
Peace.' He took an active part in 1789 in 
the agitation against the slave trade, and 
drew up a paper which has disappeared, 
though a summary was published in the 
newspapers. Paley presided at a public meet- 
ing held at Carlisle on 9 Feb. 1792 for the 
same purpose, and drew up some printed re- 
solutions (given in MEADLEY, Appendix, pp. 
139-52). The mastership of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, was offered to him in the same 
year by Bishop Yorke of Ely ; but, after some 
hesitation, he decided that his position at, 
Carlisle was too satisfactory to be abandoned 
(E. PALEY, p. cxlviii). The offer is acknow- 
ledged in his dedication of the ' Evidences.' 
In 1790 appeared his most original book, the 
' Horae Paulinas.' It had less success than 
the others. He soon afterwards, however, 
received an application from some divines at 
Zurich for leave to translate it into German 
(E. PALEY, p. clvii). His wife died in May 
1791, leaving four sons and four daughters. 
In May 1792 he was presented by the dean 
and chapter of Carlisle to the vicarage of 
Aldingham, near Great Salkeld, worth 140/. 
a year. In 1793 he vacated Dalston for the 
vicarage of Stanwix, near Carlisle, to which 
he was presented by the new bishop, Vernon 
(afterwardsHarcourt). He had, he said, three 
reasons for changing : Stanwix was nearer his 
house in Carlisle, was worth 50/. a year 



Paley 



104 



Paley 



more, and his ' stock of sermons was recur- 
ring too rapidly.' He had published his 
'Reasons for Contentment' in 1792, as a 
warning against the revolutionary principles 
which were then exciting alarm. Paley 
thought this his best but it was his least suc- 
cessful performance. He always refrained 
from taking any active part in politics or 
professedly belonging to a party. This little 
book, though characteristic in its comfortable 
optimism, dealt too much in generalities to 
catch popular attention. In 1794, however, 
appeared his book upon the ' Evidences of 
Christianity,' which succeeded brilliantly. 
His services as a defender of church and 
state now clearly entitled him to preferment. 
In August 1794 Bishop Porteus, who had 
been a fellow of Christ's College with him, 
gave him the prebend of St. Pancras in the 
cathedral of St. Paul's. It was worth about 
ISO/, a year, and did not involve residence. 
In January 1795 Bishop Pretyman gave him 
the subdeanery of Lincoln, worth 700/. a 
year, when he resigned his prebend and the 
chancellorship at Carlisle. He held the 
archdeaconry till May 1805. He performed 
his exercises for the D.D. degree at Cam- 
bridge directly after his institution at Lin- 
coln, and amused his audience at a concio 
ad clerum by lengthening the penultimate 
of profur/us. Before he had left Cambridge 
Bishop Barrington of Durham offered him 
the rectory of Bishop- Wearmouth, worth 
1,200/. a year. He was inducted 14 March 
1795, and vacated Stanwix and Alding- 
ham. 

Paley lived from this time at Monkwear- 
mouth, except during his three months' an- 
nual residence at Lincoln. He avoided all 
trouble about tithes, which he had described 
in the ' Moral Philosophy ' as ' noxious to 
cultivation and improvement,' by granting a 
lease for life to the landowners. He con- 
gratulated himself upon avoiding the risks 
of collection, though at some diminution of 
income. A remark reported by Meadley j 
that lie now did not care for bad harvests is 
denied by his son, and, if made, was no | 
doubt intended as a joke. On 14 Dec. 
1795 he married Miss Dobinson of Carlisle. 
He lived comfortably and hospitably, was a 
good whist-player, and amused his neigh- 
bours by his peculiarities of horsemanship in 
the park. He was appointed justice of the 
peace, and is said to have shown himself 
irascible in that capacity. An attempt to 
limit the number of licenses to public-houses, 
in which his brother magistrates failed to 
support him, brought him some trouble. 

In 1800 he was for the first time attacked 
by a complaint which frequently recurred 



and involved great suffering. He was or- 
dered to give up all public speaking. He 
was sent to Buxton in 1802, where he made 
acquaintance with Dr. James Currie [q. v.] of 
Liverpool. His physician, John Clark (1744 
1805) [q. v.] of Newcastle, spoke highly of the 
courage which he displayed, and says that 
he was at that time writing the twenty-sixth, 
chapter of his ' Natural Theology,' in which 
he dwells upon the relief given by intervals 
of ease. This, his last book, appeared in the 
same year. He was still able to amuse him- 
self by reading, and spoke with great admi- 
ration of Malthus's essay on ' Population,' 
the second edition of which appeared in 
1803. In 1805 he began his residence in 
Lincoln, where he was soon prostrated by a 
violent attack of his complaint, and died 
peacefully on 25 May 1805. He was buried 
in Carlisle Cathedral on 4 June by the side 
of his first wife. He left ' a very competent 
fortune.' 

Paley was above the average height, and 
in later life stout. He was curiously clumsy, 
made grotesque gesticulations, and talked, as 
Meadley and Best agree, with broad north- 
country accent. His son only admits ' a 
want of refinement.' His voice was weak, 
though deep ; and he overcame the awkward 
effect of his pulpit appearances by his down- 
right sincerity. His son apologises for his 
abrupt conclusions by saying that he stopped 
when he had no more to say. The only ori- 
ginal portrait is said to be one taken by 
Romney, after 1780, for his friend Law. In 
1862 it was in the possession of Lord Ellen- 
borough, Law's nephew. He is represented 
with a fishing-rod in his hand. The portrait 
ascribed to Sir W. Beechey in the National 
Portrait Gallery is said to be a copy of this 
(Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ii. 388, 416). 
Lord Ellenborough states that Paley com- 
posed his books under pretence of fishing. 
From the statements of Meadley and his 
son, he seems to have been a poor angler, 
satisfied with a nibble in the course of a 
day's sport. He was given to brooding over 
his books, often writing and teaching his 
sons at the same time, and turning every 
odd moment to account. Though methodical 
in the distribution of his time, Paley's habit 
of scrawling down stray thoughts at inter- 
vals spoilt his handwriting, which was clear 
in his youth, but afterwards became almost 
illegible (a facsimile is given by E. Paley). 
His notebooks became a ' confused, incohe- 
rent, and blotted mass,' in which domestic 
details were mixed with fragments of argu- 
ment and hints for sermons. He was, how- 
ever, very particular about punctuation, and 
the only legible part of his manuscripts was 



Paley 



105 



Paley 



' prodigious commas,' ' as long as the printer's 
nose.' 

Paley, like his friends the Laws, inherited 
the qualities of a long line of sturdy north- 
country yeomen. He was the incarnation 
of strong common-sense, full of genial good 
humour, and always disposed to take life 
pleasantly. As a lawyer, the profession for 
which he thought himself suited, he would 
probably have rivalled the younger Law, who 
became Lord Ellenborough. He had no ro- 
mance, poetic sensibility, or enthusiasm ; but 
was thoroughly genial and manly. He was 
a very affectionate father and husband, and 
fond, like Sydney Smith, of gaining know- 
ledge from every one who would talk to him. 
He only met one person in his life from 
whom he could extract nothing. The phrases 
about his conscience and others given above, 
often quoted to prove his cynicism, seem 
rather to show the humourist's tendency to 
claim motives lower than the true ones. 

Nobody has surpassed Paley as a writer 
of text-books. He is an unrivalled expositor 
of plain arguments, though he neither showed 
nor claimed much originality. His morality 
is one of the best statements of the utilita- 
rianism of the eighteenth century. On the 
publication of his ' Moral Philosophy,' Ben- 
tham, then in Russia, was told by G. Wilson 
that his principles had been anticipated by 
* a parson and an archdeacon.' Bentham 
was stirred by the news to bring out his 
own 'Principles of Morals and Legislation,' 
1789 (see BENTHAM, Works, x. 163, 165, 167, 
195). As Wilson said, Paley differed from 
Bentham chiefly by adding the supernatural 
sanction, which appears in his famous defi- 
nition of virtue as ' doing good to mankind, 
in obedience to the will of God, and for the 
sake of everlasting happiness ' (Moral Phi- 
losophy, bk. i. ch. vi.) Paley acknowledged 
in his preface his great obligations to Abra- 
ham Tucker ; but, in fact, he neither did nor 
professed to do more than give a lucid sum- 
mary of the position of previous moralists 
of the same way of thinking. He differs 
from his predecessors chiefly in accepting 
more frankly a position which his opponents 
regarded as untenable. The limitations of 
his intellect appear in his blindness to the 
difficulties often expounded by more subtle 
thinkers. The book upon the ' Evidences ' 
is, in the same way, a compendium of a 
whole library of argument produced by the 
orthodox opponents of the deists during the 
eighteenth century, and his ' Natural Theo- 
logy ' an admirably clear account of the a 
posteriori argument congenial to his mode 
of thought, and given with less felicity by 
many other popular writers. In some notes 



published by his son (p. ccxxxiv) there are 
references to Boyle, Kay, Derham, and many 
other well-known authors ; and he was 
helped by his friend Law and by John. 
Brinkley [q. v.j with various suggestions. 

Paley 's common-sense method has been dis- 
credited by the later developments of philo- 
sophy and theology. In theological questions 
he sympathised with his friend Jebb and 
other Cambridge contemporaries, such as 
Frend, Wakefield, Walsh Watson, and Hey, 
some of whom became avowedly Unitarian ; 
while others, taking Paley's liberal view of 
the Thirty-nine Articles, succeeded in recon- 
ciling their principles to a more or less 
nominal adherence to the orthodox creed. 
Paley's laxity has been condemned. It is 
defended in his ' Moral Philosophy,' and ap- 
pears variously in his letters to a son of Dr. 
Perceval, who had scrupled about taking 
orders (printed in MEADLEY, App. p. 130 
seq., and WAYLAKD, p. xvii seq., from PER- 
CEVAL, Literary Correspondence). A writer 
in the ' Christian Life and Unitarian Herald ' 
of 11 July and 2 and 22 Aug. 1891 seems to 
prove satisfactorily, from Paley's notes for 
his lectures, now in the British Museum, 
that he accepted the Unitarian interpretation 
of most of the disputed texts. But, how- 
ever vague the interpretation put upon the 
subscription by Paley, there is no reason to 
doubt his absolute sincerity in believing that 
the doctrines which he accepted could be 
logically proved. Whether his peculiar com- 
promise between orthodoxy and rationalism 
can be accepted is a different question. His 
books, as he says in the preface to the 
' Natural Theology,' form a system, contain- 
ing the evidences of natural and of revealed 
religion, and of the duties which result from 
both. The system has gone out of fashion ; 
but the ' Evidences ' still hold their place as 
a text-book at his university, presumably 
from their extraordinary merits of style ; 
and the ' Natural Theology ' is still men- 
tioned with respect by many who dissent 
from its conclusions, or hold that it requires 
modification. 

Paley has been sometimes accused of pla- 
giarism. His own statement in the preface 
to the ' Moral Philosophy ' is a sufficient 
answer to the general charge. He was writ- 
ing a text-book, not an original treatise, and 
used whatever he found in his notes, in 
which he had inserted whatever struck 
him, often without reference to the original 
authors. He refers, he says, to no other 
books, even when using the thoughts, and 
' sometimes the very expressions,' of previous 
writers. If a writer upon theology were 
forbidden to use old arguments, the num- 



Paley 



106 



Paley 



ber of theological books would be limited 
indeed. Paley 's textbooks are so well written 
tbat they have been treated as original trea- 
tises, and an avowed summary of a whole 
literature is condemned for including the 
familiar arguments. Stress has also been laid 
upon special illustrations. Hallam shoAv - 
that Paley adopted some illustrations from 
Pufiendorf (Lit. of Europe, 1854, iii. 417). 
The famous illustration of the watch has been 
said to be a plagiarism from Nieuwentyt, 
an English translation of whose ' Religious 
Philosopher' reached a third edition in 1750. 
The question is discussed in the ' Athenaeum ' 
for 1848 (i. 803, 907, 933). The watch was, in 
fact, a commonplace. It occurs in Tucker's 
' Light of Nature ' and many other writers, 
and is traced by Hallam (ib. ii. 385) to a pas- 
sage in Cicero's ' Natura Deorum ' (for other 
references see STEPHEN, English Thought, i. 
409). 

Paley advised his pupils, if they should 
have to preach every Sunday, ' to make one 
sermon and steal five' (E. PALEY, p. xci). 
He apparently acted upon this principle. 
His son, in publishing some posthumous 
sermons, says that only one is ' stolen,' but 
adds that three are said to be founded upon 
sermons by Fleetwood ; and a correspondent 
of ' Notes and Queries ' (1st ser. xi. 484) 
states that another is slightly altered from a 
sermon by Bishop Porteus. 

Paley's works are: 1. ' A Defence of the 
" Considerations on the Propriety of requir- 
ing a Subscription to Articles of Faith " [by 
Bishop (Edmund) Law],' anon. 1774. 2. < Ob- 
servations on the Character and Example of 
Christ, and an Appendix on the Morality of 
the Gospel,' annexed to Bishop Law's ' Re- 
flections,' 1776. 3. ' Caution recommended 
in the Use and Application of Scripture 
Language,' visitation sermon preached at 
Carlisle on 15 July 1777, Cambridge, 1777, 
again, 1782. 4. 'The Clergyman's Compa- 
nion in visiting the Sick,' attributed to 
Paley, is merely a reprint of an old compi- 
lation (see E. PALEY, p. xcvii). 5. ' Advice 
addressed to the Young Clergy of the Diocese 
of Carlisle' (ordination sermon on 29 July 
1781), 1783. 6. ' A Distinction of Orders in 
the Church defended upon Principles of Public 
Utility ' (preached at Dublin on the consecra- 
tion of the Bishop of Clonfert, on 21 Sept. 
1782), 1782. 7. ' Principles of Moral and 
Political Philosophy,' 1785. A seventeenth 
edition of this appeared in 1809. An edition, 
with notes by A. Bain, appeared in 1802, and 
one, with notes by R. "Whately, in 1859. An 
'Analysis ' by C. V. Le Grice reached a fourth 
edition in 1822. The chapter on the Bri- 
tish constitution was reprinted separately in 



1792. 8. ' The Young Christian instructed 
in Reading and in the Principles of Religion ; 
compiled for the use of the Sunday-schools 
in Carlisle.' A charge of plagiarism was 
made against this by J. Robertson, author of 
a spelling-book from which Paley had ap- 
propriated passages. Paley's clever and 
amusing answer is given by Meadley (App. 
p. 156), and in Nichols's 'Anecdotes' (iii. 
502). 9. ' Bore Paulinas ; or the Truth of 
the Scripture History of St. Paul evinced by 
a Comparison of the Epistles which bear his 
name with the Acts of the Apostles and 
with one another,' 1790. A sixth edition 
appeared in 1809; editions, with notes, &c., 
by J. Tate, by T. R. Birks, and by J. S. 
Howson appeared in 1840, 1850, and 1877 
respectively. A German translation was 
published in 1797. 10. 'Charge to the 
Clergy of the Diocese of Carlisle,' 1790. 
11. ' Reasons for Contentment ; addressed to 
the Labouring Part of the British Public,' 

1793. 12. 'Memoir of Bishop Edmund 
Law,' in Hutchinson's ' History of Cumber- 
land' (1794) and the 'Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' and reprinted, with notes by Anony- 
mous, in 1800. 13. < A View of the Evi- 
dences of Christianity,' 1794. A fifteenth 
edition appeared inlSll : editions, with notes 
by T. R. Birks, R. Potts, and R. Whately, 
appeared in 1848, 1850, and 1859 respec- 
tively. An ' Analysis,' first published at 
Cambridge in 1795, went through several 
editions, and others have since appeared. 
' Rhymes for all the authors quoted in the 
first eight chapters ' was published at Cam- 
bridge in 1872, and an analysis, with ' each 
chapter summarised in verse,' by A. J. Wil- 
kinson, in 1792. 14. 'Dangers incidental 
to the Clerical Character ' (sermon at St. 
Mary's, Cambridge, on 5 July 1795), 1795. 

15. 'Assize Sermon at Durham,' 1795. 

16. ' Natural Theology ; or Evidence of the 
Existence and Attributes of the Deity col- 
lected from the Appearances of Nature,' 
1 802. A twentieth edition appeared in 1 820. 
'Natural Theology,' published 1835-9, in- 
cludes Paley's ' Natural Theology ' in vols. 
ii. and iii., with notes by Lord Brougham 
and Sir C. Bell. The other volumes are dis- 
sertations by Brougham. An Italian trans- 
lation appeared in 1808, and a Spanish in 
1825. 17. ' Sermons on Several Subjects,' 
printed in obedience to the author's will, 
for distribution among the inhabitants of 
Bishop- Wearmouth. A surreptitious reprint 

I induced Paley's executors to publish this, 
and to hand over the proceeds to charities. 

1 Other sermons were added in E. Paley's edi- 
tion of his works. 18. ' Sermons and Tracts, 

i 1808, contains Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 



Palfrey man 



107 



Palgrave 



14, 15. 19. ' Sermons on Various Subjects/ 
edited by E. Paley, 1825. The first collec- 
tive edition of Paley's works appeared in 
8 vols. in 1805-8 ; one by Alexander Chal- 
mers appeared in 5 vols. 8vo in 1819 ; one by 
R. Lynam in 4 vols. 8vo in 1825 ; one by Ed- 
mund Paley in 7 vols. 8vo in 1825, and again 
in 4 vols. in 1838 ; and one by D. S. Way- 
land in 5 vols. in 1837. A one-volume edi- 
tion was published in 1851. 

[A life of Paley, in Public Characters (1802, 
pp. 97-127), was read by Paley himself, who 
made a few totes upon it, used by his son ; 
another appeared in Aikin's General Bio- 
graphy, 1808. vii. 588-92. A careful Life by 
G. W. Meadley, his ' constant companion ' at 
Bishop-Wearmouth, was published in 1809, 
and a second edition, enlarged, in 1810. A 
longer Life, by his son Edmund, was prefixed 
to the edition of his works in 1825. It in- 
cludes some specimens of his notebooks, &c., but 
gives fewer facts than Meadley 's, whom it cor- 
rects on particular points, though his general 
accuracy is acknowledged. Other lives as that 
in Chalmers, one by Lynam prefixed to works in 
1823, and one by D. S. Wayland prefixed to 
works in 1837 depend upon Meadley. A good 
description of Paley's lectures is given in the 
Universal Magazine for 1805, ii. 414, 509, by 'a 
pupil,' probably W. Frend [q. v.] An account 
of his ' conversations ' at Lincoln, in the New 
Monthly Review for 1827, is by Henry Digby 
Best [q. v.] ; information has been kindly given 
by the master of Christ's College.] L. S. 

PALFREYMAN, THOMAS (d. 1589?), 
author, was a gentleman of the chapel royal, 
together with Tallis, Farrant, Hunnis, and 
other well-known musicians in Edward VI's 
reign. He continued in office till 1589, ap- 
parently the year of his death ( Cheque- Book of 
Chapel Royal, ed.Rimbault,pp.4, 195). John 
Parkhurst [q. v.], the bishop of Norwich, ad- 
dressed an epigram to Palfreyman and Robert 
Couch conjointly, and complimented them 
on their proficiency alike in music and theo- 
logy. Palfreyman seems to have lived in 
the parish of St. Peter, Cornhill. The fol- 
lowing works, all religious exhortations, are 
assigned to him: 1. 'An Exhortation to Know- 
ledge and Love of God,' London, 1560, 8vo. 
2. ' Tho. Palfreyman his Paraphrase on the 
Romans ; also certain little tracts of Mart. 
Cellarius,' London, n.d. 4to. 3. 'Divine 
Meditations,' London, by Henry Bynneman 
for William Norton, 1572, 8vo; dedicated 
to Isabel Harington, a gentlewoman of the 
Queen's privy chamber. 4. 'The Treatise 
of Heauenly Philosophic: conteyning therein 
not onely the most pithie sentences of God's 
sacred Scriptures, but also the sayings of 
certaine Auncient and Holie Fathers, Lon- 
don, by William Norton, 1578;' a 4to of 



nine hundred pages, dedicated to Thomas, 
earl of Sussex (Brit. Mus.) Unpaged lives 
of Moses and David are prefixed ; there follow 
long and tedious chapters on God, on Faith, 
and on various vices and virtues. 

In 1567 Palfreyman revised and re-edited 
' A Treatise of Morall Philosophy, contain- 
ynge the sayinges of the wyse/ which Wil- 
liam Baldwin had first published in 1547. 
Palfreyman's version of 1567 is described as 
' nowe once again augmented and the third 
tyme enlarged.' It was published by Richard 
Tottell on 1 July 1567, and was dedicated 
to Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon (Brit. 
Mus.) It was a popular book, and new edi- 
tions appeared in 1575, 1584, 1587, 1591, 
1596, 1610, 1620, and 1630. 

One Thomas Palfreman, described as a 
plebeian and native of Oxford, matriculated 
from All Souls' College on 8 July 1586, aged 
34. He may have been a son of the author. 
A second Thomas Palfryman proceeded B.A. 
from New Inn Hall, Oxford, on 14 May 1633 
(M.A. 1636), was incorporated at Cambridge 
in 1651, and became vicar of Threckingham in 
1637, and of Haceby, Lincolnshire, in 1638. 
His son, of the same names (B.A. from Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, 1662, M.A. 1665),was 
made vicar of Youlgrave, Derbyshire, in 1685. 

[Hunter's manuscript Chorus Vatum, Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 24490, f. 498 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Hazlitt's Handbook ; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.] 

S. L. 

PALGRAVE, SIR FRANCIS (1788- 
1861), historian, born in London in July 1788, 
was of Jewish parentage, his father being 
Meyer Cohen, a member of the Stock Ex- 
change. He was educated at home by Dr. 
Montucci, from whom he acquired a great 
facility in Italian. At eight he translated 
the ' Battle of the Frogs and Mice ' into 
French from a Latin version, and this was 
pubished by his father, with the title, 
' 'Ofjiifpov ftaTpaxofj.vofjLa'xia . . . traduite de la 
version Latine d'E. Berglere . . . par M. 
Francois Cohen de Kentish Town, ag6 de 
huit ans,' London, 1797, 4to, pp. 58 (Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Notes and Queries. 2nd ser. xii. 
66). In 1803 he was articled to Loggin & 
Smith, solicitors, of Basinghall Street, Lon- 
don, and afterwards acted as their managing 
clerk till 1822. when he took chambers in the 
King's Bench Walk, Temple. In 1827 he was 
called to the bar (Middle Temple), and was for 
several years principally engaged in pedigree 
cases before the House of Lords. In 1823, 
the year of his marriage, he had embraced 
the Christian faith, and at the same time 
changed the surname of Cohen to Palgrave, 
the maiden name of his wife's mother. 



Palgrave 



108 



Palgrave 



Palgrave had for a long time devoted his 
leisure to literary and antiquarian studies, 
and in 1818 edited a collection of Anglo- 
Norman chansons. From 1814 till 1821 he 
was a constant contributor to the ' Edin- 
burgh ' and ' Quarterly ' reviews, and he 
afterwards made occasional contributions 
till 1845. One of his most important articles 
was on the ' Fine Arts in Florence ' ( Quarterly 
Review, June 1840), in which he gave expres- 
sion (as also in his 'Handbook for Travellers 
in Northern Italy ') to certain views of art 
which have since found wide acceptance. 
Part of this article was extracted by the 
forger of Shelley's letters (in 1852), and 
passed off as the genuine composition of the 
poet. In 1821 Palgrave first gave attention 
to the publication of the public records, and 
in August 1822 a plan proposed by him was 
approved by the Commission of Records. 
From 1827 to 1837 he edited for the Record 
Commission the ' Parliamentary Writs,' the 

* Rotuli Curise Regis,' the ' Kalendars of the 
Treasury of the Exchequer,' 'Documents and 
Records illustrating the History of Scot- 
land/ and wrote his ' Essay upon the Original 
Authority of the King's Council.' In 1831 
he published a ' History of England ' in the 
Anglo-Saxon period for the Family Library. 
In 1832 he published ' The Rise and Progress 
of the English Commonwealth.' This book 
was, on its appearance, pronounced by the 

* Edinburgh Review ' (July 1832, pp. 305 f.) 
' the most luminous work that has been pro- 
duced on the early institutions of England.' 
Palgrave's friend, Hallam, described it 
{Middle Ages, 10th ed. 1853, vol. i. pref. to 
sup. notes, xii) as a work displaying ' omni- 
farious reading and a fearless spirit,' though 
it did not always carry conviction to a 
sceptical temperament. Freeman says that 
it still ' remains a memorable book,' and shows 
its author's ' characteristic union of research, 
daring, and ingenuity ' (Norman Conquest, 
i. 71, v. 334). 

In 1832 Palgrave was knighted, and was 
subsequently one of the Municipal Corpora- 
tions commissioners. In 1838 he was ap- 
pointed deputy - keeper of her majesty's 
records, an office which he held till his death. 
Palgrave gathered together at the rolls office 
the national muniments that had till then 
been dispersed in fifty-six offices, and the 
erection of the first block of the Record Repo- 
sitory was due to his exertions. As deputy 
keeper he issued twenty-two annual reports, 
beginning with 1840. In 1851 Palgrave pub- 
lished the first volume of his ' History of 
Normandy and England ; ' volume ii. appeared 
in 1857, but volumes iii. and iv. were published 
posthumously. The ' Edinburgh ' reviewer 



(April 1859, pp. 486 f.) commented severely 
on the eccentricity and discursiveness of 
Palgrave's style, some faults of which were 
probably due to his having dictated the work 
to an amanuensis. Mr. Freeman declares that 
he has found some of Palgrave's theories more 
fascinating than sound, but remarks that 
Palgrave was pre-eminent 'in asserting the 
great truth ' that imperial ideas influenced 
European politics long after A.D. 476. Pal- 
grave was accused by one of his critics of a 
' fanaticism ' for mediaeval historians, but 
Palgrave himself said that when he began 
to write, ' a dead set had been made at the 
middle ages.' There can be no question as 
to his services both in popularising and in 
promoting the critical study of mediaeval his- 
tory in England. 

Palgrave died on 6 July 1861, aged 72, at 
his house at Hampstead Green, Hampstead, 
where he lived next door to Sir Rowland 
Hill of the Post Office (WALFOKD, Old and 
New London, v. 490). He had been for many 
years a fellow of the Royal Society. A por- 
trait, by G. Richmond, painted in 1844, is in 
the possession of his son, Mr. R. H. Inglis 
Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Palgrave married, in 1823, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Dawson Turner of Great Yar- 
mouth, by whom he had issue (1) Francis 
Turner Palgrave (b. 1824), now professor of 
poetry at Oxford ; (2) William Gifford Pal- 
grave [q. v.],the Eastern traveller ; (3) Robert 
Harry Inglis Palgrave (b. 1827), F.R.S. ; 
(4) Sir Reginald F. D. Palgrave (b. 1829), 
appointed clerk to the House of Commons in 
1886. 

Palgrave's principal publications are as 
follows : 1. Opfjpov ^arpaxofj-vo/jia^ia, Lon- 
don, 1797, 4to (translated ; see above). 
2. ' Cy ensuyt une chanson . . . des grievouses 
oppressions qe la . . . commune de Engleterre 
souffre,' &c. [edited by P.], 1818, 4to. 3. The 
Parliamentary Writs . . . collected and edited' 
by P., 1827, &c., fol. 4. Wace's ' Le Romant 
des dues de Normandie,' ed. by P. [1828],4to. 
5. ' History of England,' vol. i. only, London, 
1831, 12mo (Family Library). 6. 'Con- 
ciliatory Reform,' London [1831], 8vo. 7. ' The 
Rise and Progress of the English Common- 
wealth' (Anglo-Saxon period), 2 parts, Lon- 
don, 1832, 4to. 8. 'Observations on ... the 
Establishment of New Municipal Corpora- 
tions,' London, 1832, privately printed, 8vo; 
another ed. 1833, 8vo. 9. 'An Essay on the 
Original Authority of the King's Council,' 
1834,8vo. 10. 'Rotuli Curice Regis,' ed. by P., 
1835, 8vo. 11. 'The Antient Kalendars and 
Inventories of the Treasury of His Majesty's 
Exchequer,' ed. by P., 1836, 8vo. 12. 'Docu- 
ments and Records illustrating the History 



Palgrave 



109 



Palgrave 



of Scotland,' vol. i. 1837, 8vo. 13. Truths 
and Fictions of the Middle Ages : the Mer- 
chant and the Friar,' London, 1837, 8vo. 
14. ' Annual Reports of the Deputy-Keeper 
of the Public Records' (Sir F. P.), 1840- 
1861 ; also ' Index ' to the same, published 
at London, 1865, fol. 15. ' Les noms et armes 
de Chivalers et Bachelers qe feurent en la 
bataylle a Borghbrigge,' ed. P. [1840 ?], fol. 
16. 'Handbook for Travellers m Northern 
Italy,' 1842, 12mo; and later editions to 
1877, 8vo. 17. 'The Lord and the Vassal: 
a familiar Exposition of the Feudal System 
in the Middle Ages,' 1844, 8vo. 18. ' The 
History of Normandy and England,' 4 vols. 
London, 1851-64, 8vo. 

[The above account is principally based on the 
Memoir in Gent. Mag. 1861, pt. ii. pp. 441-45. 
See also 23rd Report of the Deputy-Keeper of 
the Public Records (T. D. Hardy), pp. 3, 4; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. W. 

PALGRAVE, WILLIAM GIFFORD 

(1826-1888), diplomatist, second son of Sir 
Francis Palgrave [q. v.], deputy-keeper of 
the Public Records, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Dawson Turner, banker, of Great 
Yarmouth, was born at 22 Parliament 
Street, Westminster, 24 Jan. 1826. He 
was sent to Charterhouse (1838-1844),where 
he won the gold medal for classical verse, and 
became captain of the school. Thence he 
went to Trinity College, Oxford, where he 
had gained an open scholarship, and at the 
age of twenty, after only two and a half 
years' residence, he graduated, taking a first- 
class in literee humaniores and a second-class 
in mathematics. He already felt the attrac- 
tion of the East, and, turning aside from the 
promise of distinction in England which was 
before him, he at once went to India, and 
received a lieutenant's commission in the 
8th Bombay regiment of native infantry. In- 
heriting, as he did, his father's linguistic apti- 
tude, educated as he was beyond most Indian 
subalterns of his time, fearless, energetic, and 
resourceful in character, he appeared to have 
the prospect of a rapid rise in his profession ; 
but early impressions derived from reading 
a translation of the famous Arab romance 
' Antar 'returned upon him when in the East 
and gave him a bent towards missionary work 
among the Arabian peoples. He became a 
convert to Roman Catholicism, was received 
into a Jesuit establishment in the Madras 
presidency, and was ordained a priest. For 
fifteen years he continued connected with the 
Italian and French branches of the order. 
He was employed in its missionary work in 
Southern India until June 1853, when he 
proceeded to Rome. After engaging in study 



there until the autumn of that year, he went 
to Syria, where he was for some years a suc- 
cessful missionary, particularly in the town 
of Zahleh. He made many converts, founded 
numerous schools, and acquired an extra- 
ordinary familiarity with Arab manners and 
habits of life and thought. 

The often-repeated story that he had 
officiated as 'Imaum'in mosques is with- 
out foundation. His own repugnance to- 
Mohammedanism and the rules of his order 
alike made it impossible ; but he could, and 
did, pass without difficulty for a native of 
the East. When the Druse persecution of 
the Maronites broke out, he was invited 
by the Maronite Christians, among whom 
he had acquired great influence, to place him- 
self at their head and give them the bene- 
fit of his military training ; but, though will- 
ing to counsel them as a friend, he could 
not as a Jesuit take up arms and lead them. 
From the massacre at Damascus of June 1861 
he escaped with bare life, and the Syrian 
mission being for the time broken up, he re- 
turned to Western Europe. Napoleon III 
obtained from him a report on the causes of 
the persecution of the Syrian Christians, and 
he also visited England and Ireland. Later 
in 1861 he delivered lectures in various parts 
of Ireland on the Syrian massacres, which 
were afterwards republished from newspaper 
reports, under the title ' Four Lectures on 
the Massacres of the Christians in Syria,' 
London, 1861, 8vo. In 1862 he returned to 
Syria. 

For many years Arabia had remained closed 
to Europeans. Palgrave now undertook an 
adventurous journey across Central Arabia, 
which he accomplished in 1862 and 1863. 
His object was to ascertain how far mis- 
sionary enterprise was possible among pure 
Arabs, but he also accepted a mission from 
Napoleon III, who furnished funds for the 
journey, for the purpose of reporting on the 
attitude of the Arabs towards France, and 
on the possibility of obtaining pure Arabian 
blood-stock for breeding purposes in Europe. 
Passing as a Syrian Christian doctor and mer- 
chant, he found his best protection in his in- 
timate acquaintance with Arabian manners, 
speech, and letters. But he carried his life 
in his hands ; for, in the midst of the Wahabi 
fanatics of Central Arabia, detection would 
certainly have been his ruin. Once at Haill 
he was recognised as having been seen at 
Damascus, and at Riadh he was suspected 
and accused of being an English spy, but 
natural hardihood and presence of mind, aided 
by good fortune, secured his safety. The re- 
sult of his journey he embodied in one of 
the most fascinating of modern books of 



Palgrave 



no 



Palin 



travel, his 'Narrative of a Year's Journey 
through Central and Eastern Arabia,' pub- 
lished in 1865 (2 vols. London, 8vo. A French 
translation by E. Jonveaux appeared at Paris 
in 1866, and an abridgment of the same trans- 
lation in 1869). For a time the obscurity 
which hung over the objects of his mission 
excited a certain amount of hostile criticism 
respecting his motives in undertaking this 
daring and adventurous exploration ; but its 
merit and the address with which it was 
carried out never were in question. Shortly 
before his return to England, finding mission 
work in Arabia impracticable, he, with the 
consent of his superiors, severed his connec- 
tion with the Society of Jesus, and engaged 
in diplomatic work for the English govern- 
ment. 

In July 1865 he was despatched to Abys- 
sinia on a special mission to obtain from King 
Theodore the release of Consul Cameron and 
his fellow captives. He was directed to re- 
main in Egypt till June 18G6, when he re- 
turned home, and was at once appointed 
British consul at Soukhoum Kale. Next 
year he was transferred to Trebizond. While 
stationed there he made extensive journeys 
in the north of Asia Minor, and his obser- 
vations were embodied in a ' Report on the 
Anatolian Provinces of Trebizond, Sivas, 
Kastemouni, and Part of Angora,' in 1868 
(Catalogue of Foreign Office Library}. It is 
clear that he was keenly alive to the corrupt- 
ness and inefficiency of Ottoman rule as he 
observed it in Trebizond, in Turkish Georgia 
(1870), and on the Upper Euphrates (1872). 
In 1873 he was appointed consul at St. 
Thomas in the West Indies ; in 1876 he was 
transferred to Manila; two years later he 
was appointed for a short time consul-gene- 
ral in Bulgaria, and in 1879 he was sent 
to Bangkok. His health, never strong after 
the hardships to which he was exposed dur- 
ing his return journey after quitting Arabia, 
suffered severely by the Siamese climate, and 
his appointment to be minister-resident in 
Uruguay in 1884 was welcomed as likely to 
lead to his restoration to health. In this, 
however, he was disappointed. He died 
of bronchitis at Monte Video on 30 Sept. 
1888, and his body was brought to England 
and buried in St. Thomas's cemetery, Ful- 
ham. 

In spite of his brilliance, his official career 
was less distinguished than might have been 
anticipated. He was a great linguist, and 
acquired languages with extreme ease 
Japanese, for example, he learnt colloquially 
in two months but his interest in them was 
not that of a philologist ; he learnt them 
only for practical use, and when he no longer 



required them he ceased to speak them. He 
was a learned student of Dante, a good 
Latin scholar, and something of a botanist, 
and wherever he went, as his writings show, 
he was a keen observer. Some years after 
quitting the Society of Jesus, he came under 
the influence of various eastern religious 
systems, especially the Shintoism of Japan. 
This form of religious belief had attracted 
him during a trip to Japan, which he had 
visited while temporarily on leave from his 
duty at Bangkok. During the last three 
years of his life he became reconciled to the 
Roman catholic church, and died in that faith. 
In 1878 the Royal Geographical Society, to 
which in February 1864 he had communi- 
cated the geographical results of his Arabian 
journey, elected him a fellow, and he was 
also a medallist of the French Geographical 
Society and a member of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. He married, in 1868, Katherine, 
daughter of G. E. Simpson of Norwich, by 
whom he had three sons. There is an en- 
graved medallion-portrait of him, from a very 
lifelike relief by T. Woolner, R.A., prefixed to 
his ' Arabia,' and a photograph in the memoir 
in ' Men of Mark.' 

His published writings were, in addition 
to those mentioned : 1. ' Hermann Agha,' a 
fascinating romance of Eastern life (2nd 
edit. 2 vols. 1872, London, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 
1878). 2. 'Essays on Eastern Questions,' 
1872. 3. 'Dutch Guiana,' 1876. 4. 'Ulysses: 
or Scenes and Studies in many Lands.' 
Twelve essays reprinted from ' Fraser's/ 
' Cornhill,' and other periodicals, London, 
1887, 8vo. 5. ' A Vision of Life : Semblance 
and Reality,' a long and mystical religious 
poem, published posthumously in 1891, with 
which he had been occupied almost till the 
time of his death. 

[Preface to A Vision of Life; Proceedings of 
the Royal Geographical Society, November 1888; 
Thompson Cooper's Men of Mark, vol. iv. ; Times, 
2 Oct 1888 ; Athenaeum, 6 Oct. 1888; Saturday 
Review, 6 Oct. 1888 ; information from Sir 
Reginald Palgrave, K.C.B., and Mr. F. T. Pal- 
grave.] J. A. H. 

PALIN, WILLIAM (1803-1882), divine, 
youngest son of Richard Palin, who married 
Sarah Durden, was born at Mortlake, Surrey, 
on 10 Nov. 1803. While a private tutor 
he published in June 1829, when living at 
Southampton, ' The Persians of ^Eschylus, 
translated on a new plan, with copious Eng- 
lish Critical and Explanatory Notes.' On 
17 Dec. 1829 he matriculated from St. Alban 
Hall, Oxford, but he soon migrated to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1833, and M.A. 1851. He was admitted ad 



Palin 



Palk 



eundcm at Oxford on 21 June 1861 . Palin was 
ordained deacon by the Bishop of London on 
Trinity Sunday, 1833, as curate in charge of 
Stifford in Essex, and he remained in that 
position for more than twelve months. In July 
1834 he was instituted to the rectory, and he 
continued to be rector of Stifford until his 
death. Between 1861 and 1863 the parish 
church was restored through his exertions. 
With the assistance of one of his daughters, 
he compiled an account of ' Stifford and 
its Neighbourhood, Past and Present,' con- 
taining a description of twenty parishes in 
South Essex, which was printed for private 
circulation in 1871; and in the following 
year he issued in the same manner a supple- 
mentary volume, entitled ' More about Stif- 
ford and its Neighbourhood.' Both volumes 
contain many extracts from parish registers, 
and are full of information on social life in 
country districts during the past century. 
He died in the rectory-house at Stiftbrd on 
16 Oct. 1882, and was buried in Stiilbrd 
churchyard. 

Palin's wife was Emily Isabella Slaugh- 
ter, daughter of Stephen Long, solicitor, of 
Southampton Buildings, London. She was 
born in London on 7 July 1813, and died 
at Stiftbrd oil 27 March 1878. Their chil- 
dren were : Emily Isabella Jane, who has 
contributed to Shipley's ' Lyra Messianica,' 
' Sunday,' the ' Child's Pictorial,' and other 
papers : William Long, an artist ; Mary Eliza, 
who was married to Croslegh Dampier Cross- 
ley of Scaitcliffe, Lancashire ; and Fanny 
Elizabeth, who has also written verses for 
children. 

Palin's other works consisted of: 1. 'Vil- 
lage Lectures on the Litany,' 1837. 2. ' Bel- 
lingham: a Narrative of a Christian in Search 
of the Church,' 1839. 3. ' History of the 
Church of England, 1688-1717,' 1851. He in- 
tended, if encouraged, to bring the narrative 
down to the middle of this century, and the 
remaining portion was ' in a state of forward- 
ness,' but it was never published. The labour 
involved more research than was practicable 
for a country parson. He also wrote a paper 
on 4. ' TheWeekly Offertory : its Obligations, 
Uses, Results,' which went through two 
editions. 5. ' Squire Allworthy and Farmer 
Blunt on theW T eekly Offertory: a Dialogue,' 
1843. 6. ' Ten Reasons against Disestablish- 
ment,' 1873 and 1885. 7. 'The Christian 
Month : Original Hymns for each Day of the 
Month, set to music by Miss Mounsey.' Two 
hymns by him were contributed to Orby 
Shipley's ' Lyra Messianica,' 1864. From 
1853 to 1857 he edited the ' Churchman's 
Magazine,' and he contributed frequently to 
various church periodicals. 



[Men of the Time, 1865ed. ; Hist, of Stifford, 
pp. 72, 179-80; Guardian, 25 Oct. 1882, p. 1485; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon.] W. P. C. 

PALK, SIR ROBERT (1717-1798), 
governor of Madras, was the eldest son 
of Walter Palk, seventh in descent from 
Henry Palk, who was possessed of Ambrooke, 
Devonshire, in the time of Henry VII. Ro- 
bert was born at Ambrooke in December 
1717; he was at first intended for the church, 
took deacon's orders, and proceeded to Madras 
as one of the East India Company's chap- 
lains. He eventually, however, renounced 
his orders, and entered the civil service. He 
had by 1753 risen to the rank of member of 
the Madras council. In June 1753, during 
the contest for the Carnatic between Chunda 
Sahib, favoured by the French, and Mahom- 
med Ali, favoured by the English, Palk was 
deputed envoy to the rajah of Tanjore, and 
prevailed on that prince to give assistance 
to the English candidate. In January 1754, 
after the close of the contest, Palk and 
Vansittart were the two delegates appointed 
to discuss terms of settlement with the 
French agents, Lavaur,Kirjean, and Bausset, 
at Sadras,a Dutch settlement between Pondi- 
cherry and Madras. After an angry dis- 
cussion of eleven days, in the course of which 
the English accused the French of forging 
an imperial letter in support of their claims, 
the conferences were broken off. In April 
1754 Palk was again sent to Tanjore, the 
rajah of which had been wavering in his 
affection for the English, and for a second 
time succeeded in confirming his allegiance. 
Peace was eventually signed on 11 Jan. 1755, 
Mahommed Ali being at last recognised 
nabob of the Carnatic, and in January 1755 
Palk was sent to Arcot with Colonel Stringer 
Lawrence, with whom he now formed a life- 
long friendship, to conduct the nabob in 
triumph to Madras. 

In October 1763 George (afterwards baron) 
Pigot (d. 1777) [q.v.], the governor of Madras, 
resigned office. He was succeeded by Palk, 
who found himself called upon to formulate 
the relations between the English and the 
Deccan powers. Mahommed Ali had incurred 
heavy debts to the English, on account of their 
assistance to him during the past war. He 
had made cessions of territory and granted 
assignments on his revenue. But this being 
insufficient, he endeavoured to augment his 
income by plundering the weaker princes in or 
bordering on his own dominions. Palk, while 
ready to give the nabob any reasonable assist- 
ance in maintaining order within his actual 
boundaries, declined to help him in a policy 
of aggression. While, therefore, he assisted 
him to crush the rajah of Madura in October 



Palk 



112 



Palladius 



1764, he protected the ruler of Tanjore, Tul- 
jaji, against him. Inspite of many representa- 
tions from the nabob, Palk refused to sanction 
an attack on Tulja-ji; and when a dispute 
arose between the rulers of Tanjore and the 
Carnatic regarding the right of repairing the 
great embankment of the Kaveri river, Palk 
decided in favour of Tanjore. (For Palk's 
policy regarding Tanjore, see numerous letters 
in ROTJS'S Appendix, Nos. vi. x. xii. xiii.) 

In 1765 Robert, lord Olive [q. v.], obtained 
a grant from the moghul of the five districts 
known as the Northern Sircars for the Madras 
presidency. Colonel Calliaud was therefore 
sent up fromMadras to take possession of them. 
But the nizam of the Deccan, to whom they 
had pre viouslybelonged, resented the transfer, 
and invaded the Carnatic with a large army. 
Palk, alarmed for Madras, hurriedly directed 
Calliaud to come to terms with the nizam, 
and on 12 Nov. 1766 a treaty was signed at 
Hyderabad, by which the company agreed to 
leave the sircar of Guntur in the hands of 
the nizam's brother, Basalut Jung, and to 
pay a tribute of eight lacs a year for the 
remaining territory. This treaty is repro- 
bated by all historians as a grave act of 
pusillanimity. The worst article in the treaty, 
however, was that by which the English pro- 
mised to give the nizam military assistance 
'to settle the affairs of his government in 
everything that is right and proper,' a vague 
expression which involved the Madras govern- 
ment the following year in the nizam's 
attack on Hyder All, the sultan of Mysore. 
Palk resigned his governorship, and returned 
home in January 1767, and it would seem, 
from Hyder's own words (see WILKS, His- 
tory of Mysoor), that this enterprise on the 
part of the English was really due to Mr. 
Bourchier, Palk's successor. 

On his return to England Palk, who had 
accumulated a large fortune out in India, 
purchased Haldon House in Devonshire, the 
former seat of the Chudleigh family, which he j 
greatly enlarged. His old friend, General ' 
Lawrence, resided with him, and on his death 
in 1775 left all his property to Palk's children. 
In return Palk set up a large monument to 
Lawrence's memory on Pen Hill, Devonshire. 
Palk, who took a great interest in political 
matters, was member for Ashburton, Devon- 
shire, from 1767 to 1768, and from 1774 to 
1787. On 19 June 1772 he was created a 
baronet. He was a tory in sentiment, but 
resented Lord North's act, passed in 1773, 
for the regulation of the East India Company, 
and took up an independent attitude on 
matters connected with India. The Warren 
Hastings correspondence in the British 
Museum contains a large number of letters 



written by Sir Robert Palk from 1769 to 1782 
to Warren Hastings. They are mainly oc- 
cupied with sketches of current events, but 
show that Palk strongly supported his friend's 
interests in parliament and at the East India 
House. Palk died at Haldon House in May 
1798. Palk Strait, which separates Ceylon, 
from India, was named after him. 

He married, on 7 Feb. 1761, Anne, daughter 
of Arthur Vansittart, of Shottesbrook, Berk- 
shire, by whom he had three daughters and 
one son, named Lawrence, after the family 
friend, General Lawrence. He was succeeded 
in the baronetcy by his son Lawrence (e?. 
1813), M.P. for Devonshire, and Sir Law- 
rence's grandson, also named Lawrence and 
for many years M.P., was raised to the peer- 
age 29 April 1880 as Lord Haldon ; he died 
22 March 1883, and was succeeded by Law- 
rence Hesketh Palk, the second lord Haldon. 

[Histories of India by Marshman and Mill ; 
Wilks's Hist, of Mysoor ; Orme's Military Trans- 
actions in Hindostan ; Cornwallis Correspon- 
dence ; Rous's Appendix ; Hist, and Management 
of the East India Company; Letters from the 
East India Company's Servants ; Warren Hastings 
Correspondence ; Pohvhele's Hist, of Devonshire ; 
Gent. Mag. 1798, pt. i. p. 445; Betham's Baro- 
netage of England; Burke's Peerage.] 

G. P. M-Y. 

PALLADIUS (f. 431 ?), archdeacon and 
missionary to Ireland, is often confused with 
St. Patrick [q. v.] He was doubtless a native 
of a Greek city in Southern Gaul, and was 
thereby brought into relations with St. Ger- 
manus of Auxerre, with whom he is autho- 
ritatively associated. The highly doubtful 
tradition as to his British origin rests on the 
authority of late writers, like Antonius Posse- 
vinus the Jesuit, and a marginal note in a 
manuscript at Trinity College, Dublin, 'Pell. 
Britann. genere.' He is mainly known from 
a few references made to him by his contem- 
porary, Prosper of Aquitaine. First, under 
A.D.429, we are told that Agricola the Pelagian 
corrupted the churches of Britain by the 
poison of his doctrine, but that Pope Celes- 
tine was stirred up by the deacon Palladius 
to send Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, to dis- 
place the heretics, and direct the Britons to 
the catholic faith. Secondly, under 431 , Pal- 
ladius is said to have been sent ' to the Scots 
that believe in Christ as their first Bishop, 
by the ordination of Pope Celestine,' and 
the same act is referred to as a proof that 
' while the pope laboured to keep the Roman 
island catholic, he also made the barbarous 
island Christian, by ordaining a bishop for 
the Scots.' 

The mission of Palladius is also referred 
to by Bede, by the ' Old English Chronicle' 



Palladius i 

(which copies Bede confusedly), and by vari- 
ous Irish writers from the ninth century. The 
only information supplied by these sources 
worthy of acceptance is that Palladius, though 
he founded some churches in Ireland, was un- 
successful in his mission, quitted the country, 
crossed over into Britain, and died there very 
shortly after his landing. 

Many doubtful traditions are recorded of 
Palladius by later writers. In the scholia on 
* Fiacc's Hymn ' he is said to have landed de- 
finitely in Wicklow, and founded there seve- 
ral churches, including 'Teach-na-Roman,' or 
' the House of the Romans,' which is identi- 
fied with a site called Tigrony in the parish 
of Castle Mac Adam, co. Wicklow ; but, not 
being well received, he went round the coast 
of Ireland towards the north, until driven 
by a great tempest he reached the extreme 
partofModheidh (Kincardineshire?) towards 
the south, where he founded the church of 
Fordun, ' and Pledi is his name there.' 

The ' Second Life of Patrick' ('Vita Se- 
cunda ') says the missionary arrived among 
the hostile men of Leinster, but managed to 
baptise 'others' and build, besides Teach-na- 
Roman, a church called Cellfine, identified 
with Killeen Corman (where he left the books, 
relics, and tablets given him by Celestine), and 
another church, Domnach Arda, identified 
with Donard in West Wicklow, ' where are 
buried the holy men of the family [or at- 
tendants] of Palladius.' After a short time, 
concludes this story, the saint died ' in the 
plain of Girgin, at a place called Forddun. 
But others say he was crowned with mar- 
tyrdom.' 

The ' Fourth life of Patrick ' names the Lo- 
genians as the people among whom Palladius 
arrived, says a few believed in his message, 
but most rejected it, ' as God had not pre- 
destined the Hibernian people to be brought 
by him from the error of heathenism,' and 
asserts that the preacher's stay in Ireland 
was only ' for a few days.' 

The North British traditions about Pal- 
ladius are comparatively modern and unau- 
thentic, and can hardly be traced beyond the 
* Scotichronicon ' of John of Fordun in the 
fourteenth century. The ' Breviary of Aber- 
deen' (1509-10) contains the oldest known 
calendar, which marks 6 July as the festival 
of Palladius ' Apostle of the Scots.' 

According to the ' Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick,' Palladius was accompanied by 
* twelve men ' when he went ' to preach to the 
Gael,' and landed at Inver Dea in Leinster ; 
liischief opponent was Nathi, son of Garrchu ; 
he died of a natural sickness, after leaving 
Ireland, in the land of the Picts, and was 
buried in Liconium (Calendar of Oenyus). 

VOL. XLIII. 



Pallady 



A curious entry in the ' Leabhar Breac ' de- 
clares that Palladius was sent ' with a Gospel* 
by Pope Celestine, not to the Irish direct, but 
' to Patrick, to preach to the Irish.' 

The churches of Palladius were, according 
to 'The Four Masters' and Jocelyn, all built 
of wood. 

Prosper makes it clear that Palladius was 
sent to Ireland after its conversion to Chris- 
tianity, and not to undertake its conversion. 
Some Irish writers, in order to connect St. 
Patrick directly with Rome and to magnify 
his labours, have misquoted Prosper's words, 
and have misrepresented Palladius as being 
sent by Pope Celestine to convert Ireland for 
the first time, to have failed in his attempt, 
and to have been succeeded by Patrick, who 
finally effected the conversion of the Irish. 
The truth seems to be that Palladius arrived 
long after Patrick had begun his mission, 
which was conducted independently of papal 
sanction, and that both before and after Pal- 
ladius's arrival in Ireland Patrick's work 
proceeded, at any rate in the north of Ireland, 
with uninterrupted success. The later Irish 
biographers of St. Patrick have transferred 
some facts, true of Palladius only, to the 
successful ' Apostle,' and mingled the legends 
of both saints together. 

[Prosperof Aquitaine's Chronicle; Bede's Eccl. 
Hist. i. 13; Old English Chronicle, A.D. 430; 
ancient lives of St. Patrick, cf. especially the 
Tripartite Life, ed. by Whitley Stokes, pp. 560-4 
(Rolls Ser.); Breviary of Aberdeen for 6 July 
150910; Nennius's Hist, of Britons, esp. c. 55; 
Todd's St. Patr ck, pp. 278-80, 284-98; Reeve's 
Adamnan; Haddan ami Stubbs, i. 18, and vol. ii. 
pt ii. p. 290 ; Life in Diet, of Christian Biogr. ; 
Bright's Church Hist. pp. 349-50 ; Shearman's 
Loca Patriciana, esp. pp. 25-3.\ 402-12, 463-6; 
Stokes's Ireland and the Celtic Church, esp. p 23 ; 
Olden's Church of Ireland (National Churches 
Series), esp. pp. 10, 14, 406-12 ; Warren's Li- 
turgy and Ritual of Ce'tic Church, esp. pp. 30- 
32 ; Ussher's Eccles. Brit. Antiq t. vi. c. xvi. ; 
Bolland. torn. i. Maii, p. 259 ; Rees's Essay on 
the Welsh Saints, p. 128 ; and see art. PATRICK.] 

C. R. B. 

PALLADY, RICHARD (ft. 1533-1555), 
architect of the original Somerset House, 
Strand, was educated at Eton College, whence 
he was, in 1533, elected to a scholarship at 
King's College, Cambridge, but he does not 
appear to have taken a degree. In 1548-9, 
conjointly with Francis Foxhal, he purchased 
of the crown, for 1,522/. 16. 3^., the chantry 
of Aston, near Birmingham, with the manor 
of Ingon, Warwickshire, and other property. 
He became ' overseer of the works of the Duke 
of Somerset in the Strand,' London, which 
were commenced in 1546. The functions of 



Palliser 



114 



Palliser 



the ' overseer ' seem to have embraced at 
this period those of both architect and sur- 
veyor, and hence it is safe to credit Pallady 
with the design of Somerset House. The 
suggestion that John of Padua [q. v.] was 
responsible rests on no good authority. The 
works there were interrupted by the Duke's 
loss of power on 14 Oct. 1549, but were sub- 
sequently revived, and were still in operation 
in 1556. Meanwhile, in October 1549, Pallady 
was, with other servants and friends of the 
duke, committed to the Tower ; but he was 
liberated on 25 Jan. following, on entering 
into his recognisance in a thousand marks to 
be forthcoming before the lords of the council 
upon reasonable warning, to answer such 
charges as should be brought against him. In 
1554 and 1555 he was involved in litigation 
respecting the tithes of Warton in Lanca- 
shire, of which he had a lease from the dean 
and chapter of Worcester. 

His wife's name was Anne. ' The Con- 
fession of Anne Pallady as to Coxe's resort 
to Lady Waldegrave,' dated 1561, is in the 
Public Record Office (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80, p. 174). 

[Harwood's Alumni Eton. 4to, 1797, p. 154 ; 
Cooper's Athenoe Cantabr. 8vo, 1858, i. 125; 
Strype's Mem. ii. App. p. 92, and Life of Sir T. 
Smith, p. 42 ; Tytler's Edward VI and M-iry I, 
pp. 272, 275 ; Ducatus Lancastrian, i. 269, 298, 
302; Dep .-Keeper Publ. Records, 8th Rep. App. 
ii. 7.] W. P-H. 

PALLTSER, FANNY BURY (1805- 
1878), writer on art, born on 23 Sept. 1805, 
was daughter of Joseph Marryat, M.P., of 
Wimbledon, by his wife Charlotte, daughter 
of Frederic Geyer of Boston, New England. 
She was a sister of Captain Frederick Marryat 
[q. v.], the novelist. In 1832 she married 
Captain Richard Bury Palliser, who died in 
1852, and by whom she had issue four sons 
and two daughters. She took a leading part 
in the organisation of the international lace 
exhibition held at South Kensington in 1874. 
She died at her residence, 33 Russell Road, 
Kensington, on 16 Jan. 1878, and was buried 
in Brompton cemetery. 

She was a frequent contributor to the 
' Art Journal ' and the ' Academy,' and was 
the author of: 1. 'The Modern Poetical 
Speaker, or a Collection of Pieces adapted 
for Recitation . . . from the Poets of the Nine- 
teenth Century,' London, 1845, 8vo. 2. ' His- 
tory of Lace,' with numerous illustrations, 
London, 1865, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1875. This 
was translated into French by the Comtesse 
de Clermont Tonnerre. 3. ' Brittany and its 
Byways : some Account of its Inhabitants and 
its Antiquities,' London, 1869, 8vo. 4. 'His- 
toric Devices, Badges, and War Cries,' Lon- 



don, 1870, 8vo; enlarged and extended from 
a series of papers on the subject in the 'Art 
Journal.' 5. ' A Descriptive Catalogue of 
the Lace and Embroidery in the South Ken- 
sington Museum,' 1871 ; 2nd edit. 1873 ; 
3rd edit. 1881. 6. 'Mottoes for Monuments; 
or Epitaphs selected for Study or Applica- 
tion. Illustrated with Designs by Flaxman 
and others,' London, 1872, 8vo. 7. 'The 
China Collector's Pocket Companion,' Lon- 
don, 1874, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1875. 8. 'A Brief 
History of Germany to the Battle of Konig- 
gratz,' on the plan of Mrs. Markham's well- 
known histories. 

She translated from the French 'Hand- 
book of the Arts of the Middle Ages,' 1855, 
by J. Labarte, and ' History of the Ceramic 
Art' and 'History of Furniture,' 1878, both 
by A. Jacquemart. She also assisted her 
eldest brother, Joseph Marryat, in revising 
the second edition (1857) of his elaborate 
' History of Pottery and Porcelain.' 

[Academy, 26 Jan. 1878, p. 73; Art Journal, 
1878, p. 108; Preface to Florence Marryat's 
Life of Captain Marryat ; Reliquary, xviii. 
227.] T. C. | 

PALLISER, SIB HUGH (1723-1796), 
admiral, of an old family long settled in 
Yorkshire, was son of Hugh Palliser, a cap- 
tain in the army, who was wounded at Al- 
manza. His mother was a daughter of Hum- 
phrey Robinson of Thicket Hall, Yorkshire. 
He was born at Kirk Deighton in the West 
Riding on 26 Feb. 1722-3. In 1735 he was 
entered as a midshipman on board the Aid- 
borough, commanded by her brother, Nicholas 
Robinson. Two years later he moved, with 
Robinson, to the Kennington, in which he 
remained three years. He was then for a 
few months in 1740 in the Deptford store- 
ship and in the Tiger, and early in 1741 
joined his uncle in the Essex. He passed 
his examination on 12 May 1741, and, con- 
tinuing in the Essex, was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant on 18 Sept. 1741. In the 
beginning of the winter Robinson was superr 
seded in the command by Richard Norris, 
son of Sir John Norris (1660 P-1749) [q. v.]_, 
and Palliser, continuing with him, was first 
lieutenant of the Essex, in the action off 
Toulon, on 11 Feb. 1743-4 [see MATHEWS, 
THOMAS ; LESTOCK, RICHARD ]. Afterwards 
Palliser, with some of the other lieutenants 
of the Essex, preferred a charge of cowardice 
and misconduct against Norris, who fled from 
his trial and died in obscurity. 

On 3 July 1746 Palliser was promoted to 
be commander of the Weasel, and on 25 Nov. 
to be captain of the Captain, going out to 
the West Indies with the broad pennant of 
Commodore Legge. On Legge's death (19 Sept. 






Palliser 



Palliser 



1747) Palliser was moved into the 50-gun 
ship Sutherland, and in the following March 
was severely wounded by the accidental ex- 
plosion of the arm-chest, so that he was 
obliged to return to England for the recovery 
of his health. By December he Avas ap- 
pointed to the Sheerness frigate, in which 
he was sent out to the East Indies with 
news of the peace. He joined Boscawen on 
the Coromandel coast in July 1749, and re- 
turned to England in the following April, 
when the ship was ordered round to Dept- 
ford and was paid off. 

In January 1753 Palliser was appointed 
to the Yarmouth, guardship at Chatham, 
from which in March he was moved to the 
Seahorse, a small frigate employed during 
that and the next year on the coast of Scot 1 - 
land in the prevention of smuggling and 
of treasonable intercourse with France and 
Holland. In the end of September 1754 the 
Seahorse was ordered to refit at Sheerness ; 
thence she went to Cork, and sailed in 
January 1755, in charge of a convoy of trans- 
ports, for Virginia. By taking the southern 
route, a course with which the navigators of 
the day were not yet familiar, he avoided 
the winter storms, and arrived in the Chesa- 
peake in less than eight weeks, with the 
ships in good order and the men in good 
health. After waiting some months in 
Hampton Roads, he sailed for England on 
26 July, Commodore Keppel taking a passage 
with him, and arrived at Spithead on 22 Aug. 
[see KEPPEL, AUGUSTUS, VISCOUNT]. A month 
later he was appointed to the Eagle at Ply- 
mouth, and on joining her was sent early in 
October on a cruise off Ushant, where he 
captured several vessels coming home from 
Newfoundland. Within a fortnight he wrote 
that he had 217 prisoners on board, and he 
had sent some away. His cruise continued, 
apparently with equal success, till 22 Nov. 

During 1756 the Eagle was one of the 
fleet cruising off Ushant and in the Bay of 
Biscay under Hawke, Boscawen, or Knowles, 
and in 1757 was with Holburne off Louis- 
bourg. During the summer of 1758 Palliser 
commanded the Shrewsbury in the fleet off 
Ushant under Anson ; and in 1759, still in 
the Shrewsbury, took part in the operations 
in the St. Lawrence leading up to the re- 
duction of Quebec. In 1760 he was with 
Sir Charles Saunders [q. v.] in the Medi- 
terranean, and for some time had command 
of a detached squadron in the Levant. In 
1762 he was sent out to Newfoundland with 
a small squadron to retake St. John's ; but 
that service had been already accomplished, 
and he returned to England. In April 1764 
he was appointed governor and commander- 



in-chief at Newfoundland, with his broad 
pennant in the Guernsey. This was then a 
summer appointment, the ships coming home 
for the winter; but in Palliser's case was 
twice renewed, in 1765 and 1766, during 
which time he acted as a commissioner for 
adjusting the French claims to fishing rights, 
and directed a survey of the coasts, which' 
was carried out by James Cook [q. v.], after- 
wards known as the circumnavigator. 

In 1770 Palliser was appointed comp- 
troller of the navy, and on 6 Aug. 1773 was 
created a baronet. On 31 March 1775 he 
was promoted to the rank of 'rear-admiral, 
and was shortly afterwards appointed one of 
the lords of the admiralty, under the Earl 
of Sandwich [see MONTAGU, JOHN, fourth 
EARL OF SANDWICH]. In the same year, by 
the will of his old chief, Sir Charles Saunders,' 
he came into a legacy of 5,000/., and was 
appointed lieutenant-general of marines in 
succession to Saunders. On 29 Jan. 1778 
he was promoted to be vice-admiral of the 
blue ; and in March, when Admiral Keppel 
was appointed to the command of the Channel 
fleet, Palliser, while still retaining his seat 
at the admiralty, was appointed to command 
in the third post under him. 

For three days (24-27 July) the English 
and the French fleets were in presence of 
each other, Keppel vainly trying to bring 
the enemy to action. On the morning of 
the 27th Palliser's squadron was seen to 
have fallen to leeward, and Rear-admiral 
Campbell, the captain *of the fleet, made a 
signal to it to make more sail. This was a 
matter of routine, and it does not appear that 
Keppel had personally anything to do with 
the order ; but Palliser was much annoyed, 
and his annoyance increased when Keppel 
was enabled, by a shift of wind, to bring the 
enemy to action without waiting for the line- 
to get into perfect order, or for Palliser to 
get into his place. After a partial engage- 
ment the two fleets drew clear of each other, 
and Keppel made the signal to reform the 
line, hoping to renew the battle. Palliser, 
however, did not obey. He had attempted, 
with the rear squadron, to renew the action 
at once, and had wore towards the enemy, 
but, finding himself unsupported, wore back . 
again. In spite of signals and messages, lie 
did not get into his station till after night-- 
fall. When the next day broke the French 
fleet was not in sight, and Keppel returned 
to Plymouth. 

Keppel made no complaint of Palliser, and 
the fleet soon left for a cruise off Ushant: 
In its absence the failure was ascribed in the = 
newspapers to Palliser's conduct, and on the 
return of the fleet Palliser rudely desired 

12 



Palliser 



Palliser 



Keppel to write to the papers and contradict 
the report. Keppel refused, whereupon Pal- 
liser applied to the admiralty for a court- 
martial on Keppel, which resulted in an 
acquittal. The London mob celebrated the 
triumph of the popular party by gutting 
Palliser's house in Pall Mall, and by burning 
Palliser in effigy. In York they are said to 
have demolished the house of Palliser's sister, 
who went mad with the fright (WALPOLE, 
Letters, vii. 180). The story was probably 



The court-martial on Keppel had pro- 
nounced the charges ' malicious and ill- 
founded.' Palliser consequently resigned his 
appointments, and applied fora court-martial 
on himself. Keppel was directed to prepare 
the charge, but positively refused to do so. 
The admiralty, under the presidency of the 
Earl of Sandwich, were determined that the 
court should sit and should acquit their col- 
league. The court was packed in a way till 
then unknown : ships were ordered to sea if 
their captains were supposed to be hostile ; 
ships were called in if their captains were be- 
lieved to be favourable. The trial lasted for 
twenty-one days ; but there was no prose- 
cutor, there were no charges, and the pro- 
ceedings were rather of the nature of a court 
of inquiry. Finally, after three days of loud 
and angry contention, the court found that 
Palliser's ' conduct and behaviour were in 
many respects highly exemplary and merito- 
rious ; ' but, they added, they ' cannot help 
thinking it was incumbent on him to have 
made known to his commander-in-chief the 
disabled state of the Formidable, which he 
might have done.' They were of opinion that 
in other respects he was ' not chargeable with 
misconduct or misbehaviour,' and acquitted 
him accordingly, but neither unanimously nor 
honourably. A fair and independent court, 
with a capable prosecutor, would probably 
have arrived at a very different conclusion. 

Palliser at once requested to be reinstated 
in the offices which he had resigned. Though 
Lord Sandwich shrank from granting this 
request, he appointed Palliser governor of 
Greenwich Hospital next year, on the death 
of Sir Charles Hardy the younger [q. v.] A 
strong but vain protest was made by the op- 
position in the House of Commons. Keppel, 
in the course of the debate, said 'he had 
allowed the vice-admiral behaved gallantly 
as he passed the French line ; what he had 
to complain of was the vice-admiral's neglect 
of signals after the engagement ; for if the 
lion gets into his den and won't come out of 
it, there's an end of the lion.' On the down- 
fall of the ministry no attempt was made to 
disturb Palliser at Greenwich. He became 



an admiral on 24 Sept. 1787, and died at his 
country seat of Vach in Buckinghamshire, 
on 19 March 1796, ' of a disorder induced by 
the wounds received on board the Suther- 
land,' which for many years had caused him 
much suffering. He was buried in the parish 
church of Chalfont St. Giles, where there is 
a monument to his memory. He was un- 
married, and bequeathed the bulk of his 
fortune to his illegitimate son. The title 
descended to his grand-nephew, Hugh Pal- 
liser Walters, who took the name of Palliser, 
and from him to his son, on whose death it 
became extinct. Till 1773 Palliser always 
signed his name Pallisser ; in the summer of 
1773 he dropped one s, and always after- 
wards signed Palliser. His portrait, by 
Dance, was in the possession of the last 
baronet, who gave a copy of it to the Painted 
Hall at Greenwich. It has been engraved. 

Palliser's character was very differently 
estimated by the factions of the day, and his 
conduct on 27 July 1778 remains a mys- 
tery ; but the friend of Saunders, Locker, 
Mark Robinson, and Goodall can scarcely 
have been otherwise than a capable and brave 
officer. It is possible that the pain of his old 
wounds rendered him irritable, and led to his 
quarrel with Keppel. It was characteristic 
of Lord Sandwich to utilise it for party pur- 
poses. 

[Charnook's Biogr. Nav. v. 483 ; Naval Chron. 
xxxix.89; European Mag. 1796,p.219: Minutes 
of the Courts-Martial on Keppel and Palliser 
(published) ; Keppel's Life of Keppel ; Con- 
siderations on the Principles of Naval Discipline 
(17811; Pfrl. Hist.xx. xxi.; Beatson's Nav. and 
Mil. Memoirs; Official Letters, &c. in the Public 
Record Office.] J. K. L. 

PALLISER, JOHN (1807-1887), geo- 
grapher and explorer, born on 29 Jan. 1807, 
was eldest son of Wray Palliser (d. 1862), 
of Comragh, co. Waterford, sometime lieute- 
nant-colonel of the Waterford artillery militia, 
by Anne, daughter of John Gledstanes of 
Annsgift, co. Tipperary. Sir William Palli- 
ser [q. v.] was his younger brother. John 
was sheriff of Waterford during 1844, and 
served in the Waterford artillery militia as 
a captain. In 1847 he set out on a hunting 
expedition among the Indians of the western 
and north-western districts of America ; and, 
after going through many strange and dan- 
gerous adventures, returned to England, and 
published in 1853 his experiences under the 
title of 'Adventures of a Hunter in the 
Prairies,' of which the eighth thousand, 
with illustrations, and the title slightly 
altered, appeared in 1856. In the follow- 
ing year, Henry Labouchere [q. v.], secre- 
tary of state for the colonies, on the recom- 



Palliser 



117 



Palliser 



mendation of Sir Roderick Murchison, the 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
agreed to undertake the exploration of 
British North America between the parallels 
of 49 and 50 north latitude and 100 to 
115 west longitude. The treasury subscribed 
5,000/. for the purpose, and Palliser was on 
31 March 1857 appointed leader of the ex- 
pedition, to be assisted by Lieutenant Bla- 
kiston of the royal artillery as astronomer, 
Mr. Bourgeau as botanist, and Dr. Hector as 
the geologist. His instructions were to ex- 
plore a large part of the far west region of 
America to the shores of the Pacific, and 
topographically determine the British North 
American international boundary line from 
Lake Superior in Canada, across the main 
chain of the Rocky Mountains, and thence 
to the western sea-coast. 

In 1857 Palliser explored the White Fish 
and Kaministoquviah rivers, and inspected 
the country between the southern branch of 
the Saskatchewan and the boundary of the 
United States, besides determining the pos- 
sibility of establishing means of communi- 
cation between the rocky regions of Lakes 
Superior and Winnipeg and the prairie 
country. On a second expedition in 1858 
he proceeded to approach the Rocky Moun- 
tains from the Buffalo Prairie, between the 
North and South Saskatchewan, and then to 
explore the passes through the mountains 
lying within the British territory. For the 
results of this journey he was, in May 1859, 
awarded the Patron's or Victoria gold medal 
of the Royal Geographical Society. In 1860 
he again proceeded towards the South Sas- 
katchewan river, following .the course of the 
Red Deer river. He went westward to the 
Rocky Mountains, from the point whence he 
had turned in his first season's exploration, 
and thus completed the survey of the hitherto 
unknown prairie region. He also examined 
the country to the west of the Columbia 
river, establishing the fact of the connection 
of the Saskatchewan plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains with a route into the gold-mining 
regions of British Columbia. On his return 
to England he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and on 30 May 
1877 was awarded the companionship of St. 
Michael and St. George. He died unmarried 
at Comragh, co. Waterford, on 18 Aug. 1887. 

[Men of the Time. 186ft, p. 640; Times, 
29 Aug. 1887, p. 6; Parliamentary Papers, 1859, 
Session 2 No. 2542. 1860 No. 2732, and 1863 
No 3164; Proc. of Royal Geogr. Soc. London, 
1857. 1858, 1859.1 G-. C. B. 

PALLISER, WILLIAM (1646-1726), 
archbishop of Cashel, son of John Palliser, 
was born at Kirkby Wilk in Yorkshire, and 



received his early education at Northallerton 
under John Smith. At the age of fourteen 
he entered Trinity College, Dublin, of which 
he became a fellow in 1668. He received 
deacon's orders at Wexford in November 
1669, and priest's orders on the 28th of the 
following January, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. Palliser was elected ' medicus ' in 
Trinity College, Dublin, in October 1670, and 
appointed professor of divinity in that univer- 
sity in 1678. In the same year he delivered 
a Latin oration at the funeral of James 
Margetson [q. v.], protestant archbishop of 
Armagh. Palliser in October 1681 resigned 
his fellowship in Trinity College for the rec- 
tory of Clonfeacle, co. Tyrone. Four days 
after his retirement he was readmitted to 
Trinity College by dispensation, on his re- 
signing Clonfeacle. Henry Hyde, second earl 
of Clarendon [q. v.], lord lieutenant of Ire- 
land, in a letter in 1685 to the archbishop of 
Canterbury, in reference to a possible vacancy 
in the provostship of Trinity College, Dublin, 
mentioned Palliser as the ' fittest man ' for the 
post ; and added, ' He is of great learning and 
exemplary piety : he would make a very good 
bishop.' 

By patent dated 14 Feb. 1692-3 Palliser 
was appointed bishop of Cloyne, and received 
consecration at Dublin on the 5th of the fol- 
lowing month. He prepared, in compliance 
with a governmental order, an account of 
the diocese of Cloyne in 1693- 4, and furnished 
with it a plan for union of parishes. 

Palliser was translated to the archbishopric 
of Cashel in June 1694, and continued to oc- 
cupy it till his death on 1 Jan. 1726-7. The 
great wealth which he accumulated was in- 
herited by his only son, William Palliser. 
Archbishop Palliser made a gift of commu- 
nion plate to the cathedral of Cashel. He 
gave donations of money to Trinity College, 
Dublin, to which he also bequeathed a large 
number of his books, on condition that they 
should be always kept together as a collection 
in the library of the institution, and desig- 
nated ' Bibliotheca Palliseriana.' 

[State Letters of Henry, Earl of Clarendon, 
1765; Ware's Works, by Harris, 1739; Boulter's 
Letters, 1770; Mant'sHisr. of Church of Ireland, 
1840; Brady's Parochial Records, 1863; TaylorV 
Hist, of University of Dublin, 1845-89.] ' - of 

J.abl Col- 

PALLISER, SIR WILLI^h 7 April 
1882), major, the inventor of '29 Nov. 1640, 
was the fifth and youno Dec. 1641, taking 
Palliser (d. 1862), anflirds. He subscribed 
of John Pallid) (a enant of 1643, but seems 
Gledstanerave been a presbyterian. In 1648 
co. Waed the Gloucestershire ministers' tes- 
18 Xny. In October 1649 he resigned the 



Palliser 



118 



Palliser 






and at Trinity College, Dublin. Thence he 
went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and, after 
spending some time at Sandhurst, he obtained 
a commission as ensign in the rifle brigade 
on 22 April 1855. On 31 Aug. of that year 
he became lieutenant. He joined the first 
battalion in the Crimea, but saw no active 
service. The battalion returned to England 
in June 1856. In 1858 he exchanged into 
the 18th hussars, and on 5 Aug. 1859 he 
was promoted captain, lie was aide-de- 
camp to Sir W. Knollys at Aldershot for a 
time, and on 6 July 1860 he went to Dublin 
as brigade-major of cavalry. He remained 
there till 1864, when he accepted an un- 
attached majority on 4 Oct. In December 
1871 he retired altogether from the army. 

While he was still an undergraduate at 
Cambridge he had turned his mind to rifled 
ordnance and projectiles. Some shot of his 
design were tried at Shoeburyness in 1853, 
and a rifled mortar in 1855. He took out a 
patent for projectiles on 20 July 1854, and 
another for improvements in breechloading 
rifles, &c., on 8 March 1860. Two years later 
he made the first steps towards the three 
inventions which proved most fruitful, and 
with which his name is chiefly identified. 
On 11 Nov. 1862 he patented ' improvements 
in the construction of ordnance and in the 
projectiles to be used therewith,' and defined 
his principle as being to form the barrel of 
concentric tubes of different metals, or of 
the same metal differently treated, ' so that 
as nearly as possible, owing to their respec- 
tive ranges of elasticity, when one tube is on 
the point of yielding, all the tubes may be 
on the point of yielding.' One application 
of this principle was to insert tubes of coiled 
wrought iron an inner tube of more ductile, 
and an outer of less ductile, metal in a cast- 
iron gun suitably bored out. Guns so treated 
were found on trial to give excellent results, 
and the method afforded means of utilising 
the large stock of cast-iron smooth-bore 
ordnance. Sixty-eight-poundersmooth-bores 
were converted into 80-pounder rifled guns, 
and 8-inch and 32-pounder smooth-bores into 
rifled 64-pounders, at one-third of the cost of 
new guns. Some thousands of these ' con- 
verted guns' have taken their place in the 

~ narnent of our fortresses and coast batteries. 
h laterj 6 Dec 1862) Palliser took 

rt for screw-bolts, the object of 

J ~ a use the extension due to anv 
as he passed tn, , al th(j ghank ^^ 

to complain of was k connnecHo the screwed 
of signals alter the en b %}>_ , , , 
lion gets into his den and Won't 11 * 
it, there's an end of the lion.' On !\ a . n tne 
fall of the ministry no attempt was m 13 ^ 
disturb Palliser at Greenwich. He bec^ e " 



in -, C 
allowed 



curing armour-plates, and the principle proved 
so effectual that Palliser bolts without elastic 
washers were found to stand better than 
ordinary bolts with them. Supplemented as 
it afterwards was by Captain English's pro- 
posal of spherical nuts and coiled washers, 
the ' plus thread,' as it has been since called, 
satisfactorily solved the very difficult problem 
of armour-bolts. 

On 27 May 1863 he took out a patent for 
chill-casting projectiles, whether iron or steel, 
and either wholly or partially. James Nas- 
myth [q. v.] has claimed priority here, as he 
suggested the use of chilled cast-iron shot at 
the meeting of the British Association in 
October 1862 (Autobiography, p. 429). But 
whether or not Palliser owed the idea to 
him, an unverified suggestion does not go far 
to lessen the credit due to the man who 
worked it out experimentally both for shot 
and shell, overcame practical difficulties, such 
as the tendency of the shot to fly if cooled 
too quickly, and determined the best form of 
head for it, the ogival. The failure of Nas- 
myth's compressed-wool target showed that 
the proposals of even the ablest men cannot 
be adopted indiscriminately, and it was only 
by degrees that chilled shot proved their 
value. When tried in November 1863 they 
were found to be a marked improvement on 
ordinary cast iron, but it was not till 1866 
that they were recognised as actually superior 
tosteelfor the attack of wrought-iron armour, 
while their cost was only one-fifth. In that 
year they were introduced into the service, 
and the manufacture of steel projectiles 
ceased. Owing to the introduction of steel- 
faced armour, steel shot have now again 
superseded them. 

It would not be easy to find a parallel 
instance of inventive activity exerted so suc- 
cessfully in three different directions in the 
space of six months. Palliser's inventions were 
developed in subsequent patents, of which 
he took out fourteen dealing with guns, bolts, 
and projectiles, between 1867 and 1881. He 
also patented improvements in fastenings for 
railway-chairs, in powder-magazines, and in 
boots and shoes, between 1869 and 1873. 
In 1866 he published ' Notes of recent Ex- 
periments at Shoeburyness,' but withdrew it 
soon afterwards. During the siege of Paris 
he wrote several letters, to the 'Times' and 
some leading articles in it, which were after- 
wards embodied in a pamphlet on ' The Use 
of Earthen Fortresses for the Defence of 
London, and as a Preventive against In- 
vasion' (Mitchell, 1871). He proposed to 
surround London with a chain of unreA r etted 
earthworks, about five miles apart, extend- 
ing from Chatham to Reading, and to occupy 



Palliser 



119 



Palmer 



the most important strategical points between 
this chain and the coast by similar works, 
or clusters of works. What he proposed has 
since been partially carried out. In acknow- 
ledgment of his services he was made C.B. 
(civil) in 1868, and was knighted 21 Jan. 
1873. In 1875 he received the cross of a 
commander of the crown of Italy. After 
unsuccessfully contesting Devonport and 
Dungarvan, he was returned to parliament 
in 1880 for Taunton as a conservative. He 
headed the poll, beating Sir Henry James, 
who was returned with him, by eighty-one 
votes. In 1868 he had married Anne, daugh- 
ter of George Perham. 

He died in London 4 Feb. 1882, and was 
buried in Brompton cemetery. Before his 
death he complained that he was ' persecuted 
to the bitter end' by officials in the war 
office, and this complaint has since been re- 
peated by others, who have said that the 
treatment he received hastened his death. 
The grounds of it, as stated before the royal 
commission on warlike stores in 1887, are 
that, although his principles of gun con- 
struction were adopted for the conversion of 
old cast-iron guns, he could not get them 
applied to new guns ; and that when he peti- 
tioned in 1877 for a prolongation of his patent 
for chilled shot, it was opposed by the war 
office and refused, although the war depart- 
ment had no interest in the question, direct 
or indirect, as it had the free use of the in- 
vention. The answer made to this charge 
was that the war office had not opposed the 
prolongation. It had only asked that, if 
granted, the rights of the crown should be 
reserved, as Palliser had already received 
15,000/. as a reward for this invention. The 
prolongation was refused because the ac- 
counts rendered were not in sufficient detail, 
and because it was shown that there had 
already been a clear profit of 20,000/. from 
royalties on shot and shell made for foreign 
governments. The same course had been 
taken by the war office in regard to the pro- 
longation of the patent for guns, for which 
Palliser had received 7,5001. from the war 
department. 

WKAT RICHARD GLEDSTANES PAILISEK (d. 
1891), one of Sir William's elder brothers, 
became sub-lieutenant R.N. 13 May 1845, and 
lieutenant 28 Feb. 1847. He distinguished 
himself in 1854 in expeditions against Chinese 
pirates, being in command of the boats of her 
majesty's frigate Spartan, of which he was 
iirst lieutenant, lie stormed three forts, 
mounting seventeen guns, and he boarded the 
chief vessel of a pirate fleet and rescued a 
French lady who was a prisoner in it. In the 
act of boarding he himself fell between his own 



boat and the other, and broke several ribs. 
For his gallantry in these actions he was 
made commander 6 Jan. 1855. In 1857 he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Fitz- 
gerald of Muckridge House, co. Cork. He was 
placed on the retired list as a captain 21 April 
1870, and died in June 1891. 

[Proceedings of the Institution of Civil En- 
gin eerg, Ixix. 418 ; Professional Papers of the 
Corps of .Royal Engineers, xiii. 128, xiv. 163, 
xvi. 125; Minutes of Evidence taken before the 
Royal Commission on Warlike Stores in 1887, 
pars. 2402-7, 4157-60,6775-87,8612-23; Cata- 
logues of the Patent Office ; Times obituaries, 
6 Feb. 1882, 16 June 1891.] E. M. L. 

PALMAEIUS, THOMAS (Jl. 1410), 
divine. [See PALMER.] 

PALMER, ALICIA TINDAL (fl. 1810), 
novelist, is described as a native of Bath. 
Her first book, a novel in three volumes, 
' The Husband and Lover,' was published in 
1809. In the next year appeared ' The 
Daughters of Isenberg : a Bavarian Ro- 
mance,' in four volumes. It was sharply 
ridiculed by Gifford in the ' Quarterly ' (iv. 
61-7). Miss Palmer had previously sent him 
three \l. notes. Gifford did not return the 
money, but affected to assume that it was 
intended for charitable purposes, and wrote 
to Miss Palmer that, as she had not men- 
tioned the objects of her bounty, he hoped 
the Lying-in Hospital would not disappoint 
her expectations (MURRAY, Memoir and Cor- 
respondence, i. 180-1). In 1811 Miss Palmer 
published a third novel in three volumes, ' The 
Sons of Altringham,' written, so the preface 
states, to defray the expenses of the admis- 
sion of a boy to the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 
All three books are written in a high-flown 
and inflated style, and are without literary 
importance. In 1815 appeared Miss Palmer's 
' Authentic Memoirs of Sobieski.' Among 
the subscribers were Lord Byron and Ed- 
mund Kean. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1492; Biogr. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816.] E. L. 

PALMER, ANTHONY (1618P-1679), 
ejected independent, son of Anthony Palmer, 
was born at Great Comberton, Worcester- 
shire, about 1618. In 1634, at the age of 
sixteen, he became a student of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, graduated B.A. on 7 April 
1638, was admitted fellow on 29 Nov. 1640, 
and graduated M.A. on 16 Dec. 1641, taking 
orders shortly afterwards. He subscribed 
the league and covenant of 1643, but seems 
never to have been a presbyterian. In 1648 
he signed the Gloucestershire ministers' tes- 
timony. In October 1649 he resigned the 



Palmer 



120 



Palmer 



fellowship, took the engagement, and was 
admitted to the rectory of Bourton-on-the 
Water, Gloucestershire. He was one of the 
assistant commissioners for Gloucestershire 
to the ' expurgators ' (appointed by ordinance 
of 28 Aug. 1654). Wood says he was ' ana- 
baptistically inclin'd,' which means that, in 
accordance with the terms of his commis- 
sion, baptists (who abounded in Gloucester- 
shire) were not as such excluded from the 
ministry. At the Restoration he was driven 
from his rectory by royalists, and his goods 
were plundered. He put in a curate to do 
duty for him, ' but he being disturbed, they 
got one to read the common prayer ' (WOOD). 
He withdrew to London, and was ejected 
from his living by the Uniformity Act 
(1662). Wood says he was privy to the 
fanatical plot of November 1662, for which 
Thomas Tongue and others were tried on 
11 Dec. and executed on 22 Dec. ; but this 
is improbable. He gathered a congregational 
church at Pinners' Hall, Old Broad Street, 
where, on the indulgence of 1672, a joint 
lecture by presbyterian and congregational 
divines was established by London mer- 
chants. Palmer was not one of the lec- 
turers. He was ' of good ministerial abilities,' 
according to Calamy. He died on 26 Jan. 
1679, and was buried in the New Bethlehem 
graveyard, Moorfields (site in Liverpool 
Street, opposite the Broad Street railway 
station). 

He published : 1 . ' The Saint's Posture in 
Dark Times,' &c., 1650, 8vo. 2. ' The Tem- 
pestuous Soul calmed,' &c., 1653, 8vo ; 1658, 
8vo ; 1673, 8vo. 3. ' The Scripture Rail to 
the Lord's Table,' &c., 1654, 8vo (against 
the ' Humble Vindication,' 1651, by John 
Humfrey [q. v.]) 4. ' Memorials of Godli- 
ness and Christianity,' &c., 12mo (Wooo). 
5. 'The Christian's Freedom by Christ,' &c., 
12mo (WOOD). 6. ' The Gospel New Crea- 
ture/ &c., 1658, 8vo ; 1674, 8vo. 

Another ANTHONY PALMER (d. 1693) was 
admitted to the rectory of Bratton Fleming, 
Devonshire, about 1645, was ejected in 1662, 
and died in September 1693. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss) ii. 189, iii. 
1192 sq., Fasti (Bliss), i. 500, ii. 3; Calamy's 
Abridgment, 1713 p. 305, Account, 1713 p. 316, 
Continuation, 1727, i. 53, 320 sq. 493; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, ii. 256 sq.] 

A. G. 

PALMER, ANTHONY (1675 P-1749), 
New England pioneer, probably born in Eng- 
land about 1675, went out at an early age to 
Barbados, and made there a considerable for- 
tune as a merchant at Bridgetown, In 1707 
he was induced to invest in land in Phila- 
delphia, and, migrating thither, continued his 



mercantile ventures with success. In 1708 
he was summoned to the provincial council of 
Pennsylvania, of which he remained a member 
till his death. In 1718 he became a justice 
of the peace, shortly afterwards a judge of the 
court of common pleas, and in 1720 one of the 
first masters in chancery. In 1747 he was 
president of the council, and in May, when 
Governor Thomas resigned, he assumed the 
administration of the colony, and governed 
it, for eighteen months, through a period of 
great anxiety. England was at war with 
France and Spain, whose privateers were 
making constant descents on the coast of 
Delaware. The assembly, controlled by 
quakers, declined to take measures of defence. 
Palmer induced his government to act inde- 
pendently, and was remarkably successful. 
About the same time he made treaties of 
friendship with several Indian tribes, espe- 
cially those of the Six Nations. 

In 1730 he purchased Fairman Mansion 
at Philadelphia, and, cutting up part of the 
grounds into building lots, became the founder 
of what is now the Kensington district of 
Philadelphia. Here he lived in great state 
till his death in May 1749. 

His daughter Thomasine married the son 
and heir of Sir William Keith, governor of 
Pennsylvania. 

[The collections of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society.] C. A. H. 

PALMER, BARBARA, DUCHESS OP 
CLEVELAND (fl. 1675). [See VILLIEES.] 

PALMER, CHARLES JOHN (1805- 
1882), historian of Great Yarmouth, only 
son of John Danby Palmer, esq., by Anne, 
daughter of Charles Beart, esq., of Gorles- 
ton, Suffolk, was born at Yarmouth on 
1 Jan. 1805. The family had been settled 
in that town since the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. Charles was educated at a 
private school at Yarmouth, and in 1822 was 
articled to Robert Cory, F.S.A., an attorney, 
under whom he had previously served for 
two years, in order to qualify himself to be- 
come a notary public. He was admitted an 
attorney in June 1827, and practised at 
Yarmouth until physical infirmities neces- 
sitated his retirement. For many years he 
resided at No. 4 South Quay, in a house 
which his father had purchased in 1809, and 
which is a fine specimen of Elizabethan 
architecture. He became an alderman of 
the old corporation, and in August 1835 was 
elected mayor ; but the passing of the Muni- 
cipal Corporations Act prevented his taking 1 
the oath in the following September, and 
the new corporation elected Earth as chief 



Palmer 



121 



Palmer 



magistrate. Palmer occupied a seat in the 
reformed corporation as a representative of 
the south ward. In 1854 he was elected 
mayor, and was re-elected in the following 
year. He also served as deputy-lieutenant 
for the county of Suffolk. He was the chief 
promoter of the Victoria Building Company ; 
the erection of the Wellington pier was in 
great measure due to his energy ; and he took 
a prominent part in the establishment of the 
assembly and reading rooms. In 1830 he 
was elected a fellow of the Society of An- 
tiquaries. He died at his residence, Villa 
Graham, Great Yarmouth, on 24 Sept. 1882. 

He married Amelia Graham, daughter of 
John Mortlock Lacon, esq., but had no issue 
by her. 

Palmer edited 'The History of Great 
Yarmouth, by Henry Manship [q.v.],' Great 
Yarmouth, 1854, and wrote ' The History of 
Great Yarmouth, designed as a Continuation 
of Manship's History of that Town/ Great 
Yarmouth, 1856, 4to. 

His other works are : 1. ' The History and 
Illustrations of a House in the Elizabethan 
Style of Architecture, the property of John 
Danby Palmer, Esq., and situated in the 
borough-town of Great Yarmouth,' privately 
printed, London, 1838, fol., with numerous 
drawings and engravings by H. Shaw, F.S. A. 
A copy in the British Museum is entitled 
' Illustrations of Domestic Architecture in 
England during the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth,' and prefixed to it is a portrait of the 
author (private plate), engraved by W. Holl. 
2. ' A Booke of the Foundacion and Anti- 
quitye of the Towne of Greate Yermouthe : 
from the original manuscript written in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth : with notes and 
an appendix. Edited by C. J. Palmer,' Great 
Yarmouth, 1847, 4to. Dedicated to Dawson 
Turner. The reputed author of the manu- 
script is Henry Manship the elder. 3. ' Re- 
marks on the Monastery of the Dominican 
Friars at Great Yarmouth,' Yarmouth, 1852, 
8vo, reprinted from vol. iii. of the ' Norfolk 
Archaeology.' 4. ' The Perlustration of Great 
Yarmouth, with Gorleston and Southtown,' 
3 vols. Great Yarmouth, 1872-4-5, 4to. 
5. ' Memorials of the Family of Hurry, of 
Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and of New York, 
United States,' Norwich, privately printed, 
1873, 4to, with plates. 

Palmer also edited, with Stephen Tucker, 
Rouge Croix pursuivant, ' Palgrave Family 
Memorials,' privately printed, Norwich, 1878, 
4to, with illustrations. After his death ap- 
peared ' Leaves from the Journal of the late 
Chas. J. Palmer, F.S.A. Edited, with notes, 
by Frederick Danby Palmer/Great Yarmouth, 
1892, 4to, with portrait prefixed. 



[Information from Frederick Danby Palmer, 
esq. ; Yarmouth Mer.-ury, 30 Sept. 1882, p. 5; 
Times, 28 Sept. 1882, p. 9, col. 5; Gent. Mag. 
1856, pt. ii. p. 687; Solicitors' Journal, 7 Oct. 
1882, p. 731 ; Law Times, Ixxiii. 388 ; Guardian, 
1882, pt. ii. p. 1341 ; Notes and Queries, 1 Oct. 
1892, p. 280 ; Martin's Privately Printed Books- 
(1854), p. 473.] T. C. 

PALMER, CHARLOTTE (fi. 1780- 
1797), author, was engaged in the profes- 
sion of teaching. In 1780 she published 
with Newbery a novel in five volumes, 
' Female Stability ; or the History of Miss 
Belville.' It is written in epistolary fashion. 
On the title-page the author is called the 
late Miss Palmer, yet in 1797 appeared 
' Letters on Several Subjects from a Precep- 
tress to her Pupils who have left School.' It 
was addressed chiefly to real characters. 
Among the subjects are dress, choice of 
books, and clandestine marriage. The book, 
which ends with a poem entitled 'Pelew,' 
referring to Prince Lee-Boo, is a curious and 
instructive picture of the manners of the 
time (WELSH, Bookseller of Last Century, 
p. 281). 

Miss Palmer's other works are: 1. 'In- 
tegrity and Content : an Allegory,' 1 792. 

2. ' It is and it is not : a Novel,' 2 vols. 1792. 

3. ' A newly invented Copy-book,' 1797. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ii. 1492; Biogr. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816.] E. L. 

PALMER, EDWARD (f,. 1572), anti- 
quary, was the son of agentleman of Crompton 
Scorfen, Ilmington, Warwickshire, and be- 
longed to the old family of Palmer in that 
neighbourhood (cf. DUGDALE, Warwickshire, 
ed. 1730, p. 633). He was educated at Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford, and appears in the list 
of its students in 1572 (University Register, 
Oxf. Hist, Soc., vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 38). He 
took no degree, but, living on his patrimony, 
devoted himself to heraldry, history, and 
antiquities. He became known to learned 
men of his day, especially to Camden, who 
calls him (Britannia, 'Gloucestershire') a 
curious and diligent antiquary. He does not 
appear to have published anything, but Wood 
(Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 28 ; cf. Gent. 
Mag., 1815, pt. ii. p. 233) states that he made 
' excellent collections of English antiquities, 
which, after his death, coming into the hands 
of such persons who understood them not, 
were therefore . . .embezzled, and in a manner 
lost. He had also a curious collection of coins 
and subterrane antiquities, which in like sort 
are also embezzled.' A note by him on the 
valuation of coins current is in Cotton MS. 
Otho, E. X., fol. 301, b. ii. 

[Authorities cited above.] W. W. 



Palmer 



122 



Palmer 



PALMER, EDWARD HENRY (1840- 

1882), orientalist, was born on 7 Aug. 1840 
at Cambridge, where his father William 
Henry Palmer kept a private school. On i 
his mother's side he inherited Scots blood, 
for his maternal great-grandfather belonged 
to the clan Chisholm, and was hanged for 
his share in the rebellion of 1745. Left an 
orphan in infancy, Palmer was brought up 
by an aunt at Cambridge, and his educa- ; 
tion was carried on at the Perse grammar ; 
school, where he reached the sixth form be- ! 
fore he was fifteen. So far he was a mode- i 
rate classic and no mathematician, and per- 
haps the only sign of his future linguistic i 
achievements was his learning Romany at 
odd times on half-holidays by haunting the 
tents of gipsies, talking with tinkers, and 
spending his pocket-money on itinerant pro- j 
ficients in the tongue. He thus acquired a 
fluency in Romany and a knowledge of gipsy 
life and ways, which rivalled even that of Mr. 
C. G. Leland. On leaving school, at the age 
of sixteen, he entered the office of Hill & \ 
Underwood, wine merchants, of East cheap, 
London, and for three years performed the 
ordinary duties of a junior clerk, especially i 
in connection with the business at the docks, j 
In his scanty leisure he set himself to learn 
Italian by frequenting cafes where political 
refugees resorted, and conversing with organ- j 
grinders, conjurors, and sellers of plaster- j 
cast images. He thus collected a remarkable j 
vocabulary and was said to be able to talk 
in several Italian dialects. In a similar 
manner he learned to speak French fluently, 
and his success in acquiring languages in an 
unsystematic conversational way made him 
in later years a firm upholder of the oral 
method as opposed to the ordinary gramma- 
tical routine prescribed in English schools. 
His London evenings were often spent at 
the theatre, where he formed a lifelong 
friendship with Henry Irving ; or else in 
mesmeric experiments, in which he exhibited 
extraordinary powers. 

In 1859 he developed grave symptoms of 
pulmonary disease, and returned to Cam- 
bridge prepared to die, but suddenly and 
mysteriously recovered. While regaining 
his strength, Palmer took to amateur acting; 
wrote a farce, ' A Volunteer in Difficulties,' 
which was performed at the Cambridge 
Theatre in 1860; worked at drawing and 
modelling ; and published clever verse after 
the ' Ingoldsby Legends ' type, under the title 
'Ye Hole in yeWalle' (1860, 4to, after- 
wards reprinted in ' The Song of the Reed,' 
1877), which was illustrated by his own and 
a friend's pencil. About the close of 1860 
he made the acquaintance of Seyyid 'Abdal- 



lah, son of Seyyid Mohammad Khan Baha- 
dur of Oudh, and teacher of Hindustani at 
Cambridge. The acquaintance ripened into 
deep regard, and led Palmer to enter upon 
that study of oriental languages to which 
the rest of his brief life was devoted. In 
this pursuit he was greatly aided by other 
orientals then residing at Cambridge, especi- 
ally by the Nawab Ikbal-ad-dawla of Oudh. 
Palmer's progress was phenomenally rapid. 
He learnt Persian, Arabic, and Hindustani ; 
and as early as 1862 presented ' elegant and 
idiomatic Arabic verses ' to the lord almoner's 
professor, Thomas Preston. Palmer is said 
to have devoted eighteen hours a day to his 
studies. His indifference to games and sports 
and positive dislike to exercise left him un- 
usual time for work ; but, on the other hand, 
his eminently social instinct tended to long 
evening symposia. 

Some fellows of St. John's College at 
length discovered his remarkable gifts, and 
by their influence he was admitted as a sizar 
to St. John's on 9 Oct. 1863. He matricu- 
lated on 9 Nov. following, and on 16 June 
1865 was awarded a foundation scholarship. 
He graduated B.A. on 4 April 1867, with a 
third class in the classical tripos, and pro- 
ceeded MA., in absence, on 18 June 1870 ; 
but his main energies were given as an under- 
graduate to oriental studies. During this 
period he catalogued the Persian, Arabic, and 
Turkish manuscripts of King's and Trinity 
College (1870), and also of the university 
library ; and the university librarian, Henry 
Bradshaw, bore weighty testimony to the 
value of Palmer's work (Letter prefixed to 
Cat. King's Coll. MSS. published by Royal 
Asiatic Society, 1876). Palmer also culti- 
vated the habit of writing in Persian and 
Urdu by contributing frequently in those 
languages to the ' Oudh Akhbar ' and other 
Indian newspapers, and attracted an ad- 
miring clientele among the pundits of Hin- 
dustan. When he accompanied his friend, 
the Nawab Ikbal-ad-dawla, to Paris in 1867, 
the latter wrote a testimonial in which he 
stated that Palmer spoke and wrote Arabic, 
Persian, and Hindustani, like one who had 
long lived in the universities of the East 
(BESANT, Life of E. H. Palmer, pp. 42, 43). 
In 1868 he issued an ' address to the people 
of India,' in Arabic and English, on the 
death of Seyyid Mohammad Khan Bahadur. 
He had also given proof of his knowledge of 
a difficult branch of Persian scholarship in a 
little work entitled ' Oriental Mysticism : a 
treatise on the Sufiistic and Unitarian Theo- 
sophy of the Persians ' (1867), founded on 
the ' Maksad-i Aksa ' of 'Aziz ibn Moham- 
mad Nafasi, preserved in manuscript at 



Palmer 



123 



Palmer 



Trinity College ; and he had translated (1865) 
Moore's ' Paradise and the Peri ' into Per- 
sian verse. He was a member of the French 
Societe Asiatique and of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. On the strength of his publications 
and the testimony of many orientalists, native 
and European, Palmer was elected to a 
fellowship at St. John's College on 5 Nov. 
1867, after an examination by Professor E. B. 
Cowell, who expressed his ' delight and sur- 
prise ' at his ' masterly ' translations and 
' exhaustless vocabulary ' (BESANT, Life, pp. 
48, 49). 

The fellowship left Palmer at ease to pur- 
sue his studies. His ardent desire was now 
to visit the East. He had already (1867) 
sought for the post of oriental secretary to 
the British legation in Persia, and his candi- 
dature was supported by high testimonials, 
especially from India ; but such an appoint- 
ment was not in accordance with the tradi- 
tions of the foreign office, and Palmer, to 
his keen regret, never saw Persia. Another 
opportunity of eastern travel, however, pre- 
sented itself in 1869, when he was selected 
to accompany Captain (now Sir) Charles 
Wilson, R.E., Captain Henry Spencer Pal- 
mer [q. v.J, the Rev. F. Holland, and others, 
in their survey of Sinai, under the auspices of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. His prin- 
cipal duty was to collect from the Bedouin 
the correct names of places, and thus establish 
the accurate nomenclature of the Sinai penin- 
sula. He thus came for the first time into 
personal relations with Arabs, learnt to speak 
their dialects, and obtained an insight into 
their modes of thought and life. Moreover, 
the air of the desert greatly invigorated his 
health, which had suffered by excessive ap- 
plication and confinement at Cambridge 
(BESANT, Life, p. 70). In the summer of 
1869 he returned to England, only to leave 
again on 16 Dec. for another expedition. 
This time he and Charles Francis Tyrwhitt 
Drake [q. v.] went alone, on foot, without 
escort or dragoman, and walked the six 
hundred miles from Sinai to Jerusalem, 
identifying sites and searching vainly for 
inscriptions. They explored for the first 
time the Desert of the Wanderings (Tih),and 
many unknown parts of Edom and Moab, and 
accomplished a quantity of useful geogra- 
phical work. In this daring adventure 
Palmer made many friends among the Arab 
sheykhs, among whom he went by the name 
of 'Abdallah Etfendi ; and numerous stories 
are related of his presence of mind in moments 
of danger and difficulty, and of his extra- 
ordinary influence over the Bedouin, for 
which, perhaps, his early experiences among 
the Romany had formed a sort of initiation. 



The adventurous travellers went on to the 
Lebanon and to Damascus, where they met 
Captain Richard Burton, who was then con- 
sul there, and with whom Palmer struck up 
a friendship. The return home was made iu 
the autumn of 1870 by way of Constanti- 
nople and Vienna, where he formed the ac- 
quaintance of another famous orientalist, 
Arminius Vambery. A popular account of 
these two expeditions was written by Palmer 
in ' The Desert of the Exodus : Journeys on 
foot in the Wilderness of the Forty Years' 
Wanderings ' (2 vols. 1871, well illustrated 
with maps and engravings) ; and his Syrian 
observations of the Nuseyriya and other 
societies led to an article in the ' British 
Quarterly Review ' (1873) on ' the Secret 
Sects of Syria ; ' while the scientific results 
of the second expedition were detailed in a 
report to the Palestine Exploration Fund, pub- 
lished in its journal in 1871, and afterwards 
(1881) included in the volume of ' Special 
Papers relating to the Survey of Western 
Palestine.' Among other matters dealt with 
was the debated site of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and of course Palmer was easily able to 
prove that the ' Dome of the Rock ' was 
built in 691 by the Caliph 'Abd-el-Melik, 
and was not, as Fergusson had maintained, 
erected by Constantino the Great. Although, 
he never again took part in the expeditions 
of the Palestine Fund, he devoted much 
time and interest to the work of the society. 
In 1881 he transliterated and edited the 
'Arabic and English' Name-lists of the Sur- 
vey of Western Palestine,' and assisted in 
editing the 'Memoirs' of the survey (1881- 
1883) ; and in connection with his Palestine 
studies, he wrote, in collaboration with Mr. 
Walter Besant, a short history of Jerusalem, 
the City of Herod and of Saladin' (1871; 
new edit. 1888). 

Palmer now resumed his residence at Cam- 
bridge, where, for the most part, he studied 
and wrote and lectured for the next ten 
years. His enthusiasm for university work 
received a severe check at the outset by his 
rejection as a candidate for the Adams pro- 
fessorship of Arabic, in 1871, in favour of 
William Wright [q. v.] In the same year, 
however, the lord almoner's professorship 
became vacant, and Palmer was appointed by 
the then lord almoner, the Hon. and Very 
Rev. Gerald Wellesley, dean of Windsor. The 
post was Avorth only 40/. 10.?. a year, but it 
enabled him to retain his fellowship though 
married ; and on the day after his appoint- 
ment, 11 Nov. 1871, he married Laura Davis, 
to whom he had been engaged for several 
years. In 1873, in consequence of the crea- 
tion of the triposes of oriental languages, 



Palmer 



124 



Palmer 



his salary was increased by 2501. by the 
university with the condition that he should 
deliver three concurrent courses of lectures, 
on Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani, each 
term, and reside at Cambridge for eighteen 
weeks in the year. To this incessant and very 
moderately paid work he added many other 
labours. He was one of the interpreters to 
the Shah of Persia during his visit to Lon- 
don in 1873, and wrote an account of it 
in Urdu for a Lucknow paper. He pub- 
lished a ' Grammar of the Arabic Language ' 
(1874), which he afterwards reproduced in 
more than one modified form. He brought 
out a useful ' Concise Dictionary of the Per- 
sian Language ' (1876 ; 2nd edit. 1884), of 
which the English-Persian counterpart was 
edited from his imperfect materials after his 
death by Mr. Guy Le Strange (1883). 

Palmer's chief contributions to Arabic 
scholarship were 'The Poetical Works of 
Beha-ed-din Zoheir of Egypt, with a Metrical 
English Translation, Notes, and Introduc- 
tion' (2 vols. 1876-7; the third volume, 
which should have contained the notes, was 
never published), and his translation of the [ 
Koran for the ' Sacred Books of the East ' j 
(vols. vi. and ix., < The Quran,' 1880). The | 
former is the most finished of all his works, \ 
and is not only an admirable version of 
a typical Arabic writer of vers de societe, 
but is the first instance of a translation of 
the entire works of any Arabic poet. Palmer's 
verse was good in itself, as he had shown in the 
little volume of translations from the Persian 
and original pieces published in 1877 under 
the title of ' The Song of the Reed ; ' and his 
translation of Zoheir, by a happy use of equi- 
valent English metaphors and parallel me- 
trical effects, represents the original with 
remarkable skill. His Koran is also a very 
striking performance. It is immature, hastily 
written, and defaced by oversights which 
time and care would have avoided ; but it 
has the true Desert ring, a genuine orien- 
tal tone which is not found in the same de- 
gree in any other version. His ' Arabic 
Grammar,' like everything he did, took up 
new ground in Europe, though his method 
is familiar to the Arabs themselves. He 
was no born grammarian, and detested rules ; 
but he could explain and illustrate the diffi- 
culties of Arabic inflexion, syntax, and 
Erosody in a luminous manner, after the 
ishion of the Arabs, his masters. His other 
works were a brightly written little life of 
' Haroun Alraschid, Caliph of Bagdad ' (New 
Plutarch Series, 1881), full of characteristic 
anecdotes and verses from Arabic sources, 
but without any pretence to historical grasp 
or research ; an ' Arabic Manual,' with ex- 



ercises, &c. (1881), based upon his earlier 
grammar ; a brief ' Simplified Grammar of 
Hindustani, Persian, and Arabic ' (1882 ; 
2nd edit. 1885), in one hundred pages ; and 
two little books on Jewish history and geo- 
graphy, written for the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Christian Knowledge (1874). 

Besides these, he revised Henry Martyn's 
Persian New Testament for the Bible Society ; 
examined, in 1881-2, in Hindustani for the 
Civil Service Commission; assisted Eirikr 
Magniisson in translating Runeberg's ' Ly- 
rical Songs ' from the Finnish (1878) ; edited 
Pierce Butler's translation of Oehlenschla- 
ger's ' Axel og Walborg ' from the Danish, 
with a memoir (1874) ; joined C. G. Leland 
and Miss Tuckey in producing ' English Gipsy 
Songs in Romany, with Metrical English 
Translations '(1875); edited Triibner's series 
of ' Simplified Grammars ; ' read verse trans- 
lations from the Arabic to the Rabelais Club, 
which were printed in their 'Recreations,' and 
afterwards published in a series of papers on 
' Arab Humour ' in the ' Temple Bar Maga- 
zine ; ' wrote articles on ' Hafiz ' and ' Leger- 
demain ' for the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica;' 
indited burlesques for Cambridge amateur 
actors, and helped to edit the ' Eagle,' a St. 
John's College magazine, and 'Momus;' and 
developed a marvellous talent in conjuring, 
which he exhibited in legerdemain entertain- 
ments for charitable objects. Originally with 
a view (soon abandoned) to Indian practice, 
he was called to the bar in 1874 at the Middle 
Temple, and even went on the eastern circuit 
for two or three years, taking briefs occa- 
sionally, but chiefly as an amusement and by 
way of studying humanity. 

A man of so many talents and humours 
was scarcely in tune with university pre- 
cision. The death of his wife, after a long 
illness, in 1878, unsettled him, and though 
he married again in the folio wing year, Palmer 
grew tired of college life and lectures ; he was 
drawn more and more towards London and 
away from Cambridge. In 1881 he threw up 
his lectures, retaining only the professorship, 
with its nominal salary, and entered a new 
phase of his career, as a journalist. He had 
already written for the ' Saturday Review,' the 
' Athenaeum,' and occasionally for the 'Times/ 
In addition to these, he now, at the age of 
forty-one, began regular journalism on the 
staff of the ' Standard,' where he acted as a 
useful and rapid, though not perhaps very 
powerful, leader-writer on social and general, 
but not political (unless eastern), topics, from 
August 1881 until his departure for Egypt on 
a secret-service mission on 30 June 1882. 

So far as the purpose and origin of this 
mission are known, Palmer was sent by Mr. 



Palmer 



125 



Gladstone's government to attempt to detach 
the Arab tribes from the side of the Egyptian 
rebels, and to use his influence, backed by 
English gold,with the sheykhs of the Bedouin, 
to secure the immunity of the Suez Canal 
from Arab attack, and provide for its repair 
after possible injury at the hands of the par- 
tisans of Arabi (BESANT, Life, pp. 253-4). 
On his arrival at Alexandria, on 5 July 1882, 
he received instructions from Admiral Sir 
Beauchamp Seymour (afterwards Lord Alces- 
ter) [q. v.] to proceed to Jaffa, thence to enter 
the desert and make his way to Suez, inter- 
viewing the principal sheykhs on the route. 
On the llth Palmer had vanished, but 'Ab- 
dallah Effendi was riding his camel through 
the desert in great state, armed and dressed 
in the richest Syrian style, giving handsome 
presents to his old acquaintances among the 
Tiyaha, and securing their adhesion to the 
Khedive's cause against his rebel subjects 
in Egypt. The attitude of the sheykhs was 
all that could be desired ; and Palmer re- 
ported in sanguine terms that he had 'got 
hold of some of the very men whom Arabi 
Pasha has been trying to get over to his 
side ; and when they are wanted I can 
have every Bedawi at my call, from Suez 
to Gaza. ... I am certain of success ' (Jour- 
nal to his wife, in BESANT, pp. 270 ff.) 
After three weeks' disappearance in the de- 
sert, during which he endured intense fatigue 
under a burning sun, and carried his life in 
his hand with the coolness of an old soldier, 
Palmer evaded the Egyptian sentries and got 
on board the fleet at Suez on 1 Aug. The 
next day he was in the first boat that landed 
for the occupation of Suez, and was engaged 
in reassuring the non-combatant inhabitants. 
He was now appointed interpreter-in-chief 
to her majesty's forces in Egypt and placed 
on the staff of the admiral (Sir W. Hewett). 
His work among the Bedouin seems to have 
given unqualified satisfaction to the admiral 
and to the home government as represented 
by the first lord of the admiralty (Lord North- 
brook), and Palmer himself was convinced 
that, with 20,000/. or 30,000/. to buy their alle- 
giance, he could raise a force of fifty thousand 
Bedouin to guard or unblock the Suez Canal. 
On 6 Aug. a sum of 20,000/. was placed at his 
disposal by the admiral ; but Lord North- 
brook telegraphed his instructions that, while 
Palmer was to keep the Bedouin ' available 
for patrol or transport duty,' he was only to 
epend ' a reasonable amount' until the general 
came up and could be consulted. How far 
the friendly Arabs would have kept their pro- 
mises if the 20,000/. had ever reached them 
cannot of course be known. The prompt 
energy of Sir Garnet (now Viscount) Wolse- 



ley in occupying the canal probably antici- 
pated any possible movement on their part ; 
but the fact remains that they gave the in- 
vaders no trouble, and tbis may possibly have 
been due to Palmer's presents and personal 
influence. The bulk of the money never 
reached them, however, owing to the tragic 
fate which overtook the fearless diplomatist. 
He had been busily engaged for several days 
in arranging for a supply of camels for the 
army, but on 8 Aug. he set out to meet an 
assembly of leading sheykhs, whom he had 
convened to arrange the final terms of their 
allegiance. In accordance with Lord North- 
brook's instructions, he took with him only 
a ' reasonable amount ' of money 3,000. in 
English gold for this purpose, to begin with. 
He was ordered to take a naval officer as a 
guarantee of his official status, and out of 
seven volunteers he chose Flag-lieutenant 
Harold Charrington. Captain William John 
Gill, RE. [q. v.J, the well-known traveller, 
also accompanied him, with the intention of 
turning aside and cutting the telegraph-wire 
which crossed the desert and connected 
Cairo with Constantinople. Two servants 
attended them, besides camel-drivers ; and a 
certain Meter Abu-Sofia, who falsely gave 
himself out as a prominent sheykh, acted 
as a guide and protector. Their destination 
was towards Nakhl, but on the way Meter 
treacherously led them into an ambuscade 
on the night of 10-11 Aug. They were 
made prisoners and bound, while their bag- 
gage was plundered. There was at the time 
an order out from Cairo for Palmer's arrest, 
dead or alive ; but it is probable that the 
original motive of the attack was robbery. 
On the following morning, 11 Aug., the 
prisoners were driven about a mile to the 
Wady Sudr, placed in a row facing a gully, 
with a fall of sixty feet before them, and five 
Arabs behind them, told off each to shoot his 
man. Palmer fell by the first shot. The rest 
were despatched as they clambered down the 
rocks or lay at the bottom. The facts were 
only ascertained after a minute and intricate 
inquiry held by Colonel (now Sir Charles) 
Warren, R.E., who was sent out by govern- 
ment with Lieutenants Haynes and Burton, 
R.E., on a special mission, which ended in 
the conviction of the murderers. The frag- 
mentary remains of Palmer, Gill, and Char- 
rington were brought home and buried in 
the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral on 6 April 
1883. 

A portrait of Palmer, by the Hon. John 
Collier, hangs in the hall of St. John's Col- 
lege. 

[Personal knowledge ; Works of Palmer men- 
tioned above; Besant's Life and Achievements of 



Palmer 



126 



Palmer 



E. H. Palmer, 1883 (a sympathetic but highly 
coloured and uncritical biography by an intimate 
friend); Parl. Papers, C. 3494, 1883; Haynes's 
Man-hunting in the Desert, 1894 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; information from the master and Mr. 
R. F. Scott, senior bursar, of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, the librarian of King's College, and 
from the registrary of the university.] S. L.-P. 

PALMER, ELEANOR, LADY (1720?- 
1818), born about 1720, was the daughter 
and coheiress of Michael Ambrose, a wealthy 
brewer, second son of William Ambrose of 
Ambrose Hall, co. Dublin. During the period 
of Lord Chesterfield's viceroyalty of Ireland 
(1745-7), Miss Ambrose was pre-eminent 
among the court beauties. Chesterfield him- 
self greatly admired her, and was said to have 
called her 'the most dangerous papist in Ire- 
land.' At a ball given at Dublin Castle on 
the anniversary of the battle of the Boyne, 
when she appeared with an orange lily at her 
breast, the lord lieutenant improvised the 
lines : 

Say, lovely Tory, -where's the jest 
Of wearing orange in thy breast, 
When that same breast uncovered shows 
The whiteness of the rebel rose ? 

In 1752, when the Gunnings were proving 
formidable rivals, Miss Ambrose was married 
to Roger Palmer of Castle Lackin, Mayo, 
and Kenure Park, co. Dublin, who was then 
member for Portarlington. He was created 
a baronet on 3 May 1777. By him she had 
three sons : Francis, who predeceased her ; 
John Roger, the second baronet, who died 
6 Feb. 1819 ; and William Henry, third baro- 
net, who died 29 May 1840, leaving three 
sons and three daughters as the issue of his 
second marriage with Alice Franklin. Lady 
Palmer survived her husband, and, though 
rich, lived for some time before her death 
almost alone in a small lodging in Henry 
Street, Dublin. Here it was that Richard 
Lalor Shell visited her. He gave a highly 
coloured account of his visit, declaring that 
she was ' upwards of a hundred years old,' 
and was excessively vehement in her support 
of the catholic claims. With every pinch of 
snuff she poured out a sentence of sedition. 
A half-length portrait of Lord Chesterfield 
hung over the chimneypiece of the room. 

Lady Palmer died at Dublin, in full pos- 
session of her faculties, on 10 Feb. 1818, aged 
98. A pastel, seen at the Dublin National 
Portrait Exhibition in 1872, has since perished 
by fire. Seductive eyes, a dazzling complexion, 
and an arch expression, were the leading 
features of the portrait. 

[Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1892 ; 
Lodge's Genealogy of the Peerage ; Burke's 
Romance of the Aristocracy, ii. 5-9 ; Shell's 



Sketches, Legal and Political, ed. Savage, i. 136- 
138, the account being a reprint of an article in 
the New Monthly Mag. for February 1827 on 
the 'Catholic Bar;' Gent. Mag. 1818, i. 379; 
Miss Gerard's Celebrated Irish Beauties of the 
Last Century. 1895, pp. 14-28 ; Webb's Compend. 
Irish Biogr., art. ' Ambrose.'] G. LB G. N. 

PALMER, SIB GEOFFREY (1598^ 
1670), attorney-general to Charles II, son of 
Thomas Palmer of Carlton, Northampton- 
shire, by Catherine, daughter of Sir Edward 
Watson of Rockingham in the same county > 
was born in 1598. In 1623 he was called to 
the bar at the Middle Temple, of which 
inn he was elected treasurer in 1661. He 1 
was one of the original members of the Long 
parliament, in which he represented Stamford, 
Lincolnshire, and on 9 Feb. 1640-1 was 
added to the committee for ecclesiastical 
affairs. As one of the managers of Straf- 
ford's impeachment he advocated, 2-3 April 

1641, the fifteenth and sixteenth articles (of 
arbitrary government) with conspicuous 
moderation. He was one of the signatories 
of the protestation of 3 May following in 
defence of the protestant religion, but, on the 
passing of the act perpetuating the parlia- 
ment, joined the little knot of ' young men ' 
(among them Hyde and Falkland) who 
rallied to the king and formed his new council. 
Palmer protested with animation against 
Plampden's motion for the printing of the 
remonstrance in the course of the heated 
debate of 22-23 Nov. 1641, and in the excited 
temper of the house his protest was very 
nearly the cause of bloodshed (Sari. MS& 
clxii. fol. 180) ; he was threatened with 
expulsion from the house and actually com" 
mitted to the Tower, but was released on 
8 Dec. After the vote for putting the mi- 
litia ordinance into execution on 30 April 

1642, Palmer withdrew from the House of 
Commons. He was a member of the royalist 
parliament which met at Oxford on 22 Jan. 
1643-4. He was one of Charles's commis- 
sioners for the negotiation of the abortive 
treaty of Uxbridge, January-February 1644-; 
1645, and a later negotiation which did not 
advance beyond the stage of overture (De- 
cember 1645). He remained in Oxford 
during the siege, and on the surrender of 
the place (22 June 1646) had letters of com- 
position for his estates. The assessment was 
eventually (September 1648) fixed at 500/. 

On 9 June 1655 Palmer was committed to 
the Tower on suspicion of raising forces 
against the government, but was probably- 
released in the following September. 

On the Restoration Palmer was made at- 
torney-general, 29 May 1660. About the 
same time he was knighted and appointed to 



Palmer 



127 



Palmer 



the chief-justiceship of Chester, but held that 
office for a few months only. A baronetcy 
was conferred upon him on 7 June following. 
He retained the attorney-generalship until 
his death, which took place at his house in 
Harnpstead on 5 May 1670. His remains 
were interred in the parish church, Carlton. 

Palmer married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Francis Moore, serjeant-at-law, of Fawley, 
Berkshire, and had issue by her four sons 
and three daughters. 

Palmer edited, in 1633, the reports of his 
father-in-law, Sir Thomas Moore [q. v.] A 
volume of cases partly drawn from Godfrey's 
manuscript ' Reports ' (Lansdowne MS. 1080), 
appeared with judicial imprimatur, in 1678, as 
' Les Reports de Sir Gefrey Palmer, Chevalier 
et Baronet ; Attorney-General a son tres ex- 
cellent Majesty le Roy Charles le Second,' 
London, fol. They consist of cases chiefly 
in the king's bench from 1619 to 1629, and 
are considered to be of respectable authority, 
"Whether Palmer did more than edit them is 
doubtful. 

Prefixed to some copies is a fine engraving 
by White of Palmer's portrait by Lely. 
Another portrait, by an unknown hand, 
was, in 1860, in the possession of Mr. G. L. 
Watson. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ii. 61 ; "Wotton's Baronet- 
age, 1741, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 19 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist. Engl., 2nd edit., iii. 371 ; Bridges's North- 
amptonshire, ii. 292 ; Gardiner's Hist. Engl. ix. 
287, x. 77, 79 ; Commons' Journals, ii. 81, 324, 
335, v. 21 ; Dugdale's Orig. p. 222 ; Verney's 
Notes of Long Parl. (Camd. Soc.); Whitelocke's 
Mem. pp. 39, 125, 182, 338; Brameton's Auto- 
biogr. (Camd. Soc.), p. 83 ; Clarendon's Rebel- 
lion, ed. Macray, 1888, bk. iii. 106, bk. iv. 
52-8, 77n, bk. viii. 211, 233, bk. ix. 
164; Clarendon's Life, ed. 1827, i. 67; Cal. 
Clarendon State Papers, i. 371, 445; Remem- 
brancia, 1878, p. 205; Thurloe State Papers, i. 
56, iii. 537; Rush-worth's Hist. Coll. iv. 573, 
viii. 426-88; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1645-7 
p. 486, 1650 pp. 537, 563, 566, 1655 pp. 204, 309, 
088, 1659-67; Lansd. MS. 504, f. 75; Addit. 
MSS. 29550 if. 52, 64, 29555 f. 27 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 5th Rep. App. p. 153 ; Pepys's Diary, ed. 
Lord Braybrooke, i. 108, iv. 498; Wallace's 
Reporters, 1882, p. 224.] J. M. R. 

PALMER, GEORGE (1772-1853), 
philanthropist, born on 11 Feb. 1772, was 
eldest son of William Palmer of Wanlip, 
Leicestershire, and of London, merchant 
(1768-1821), by Mary, the only daughter 
of John Horsley, rector of Thorley, Hertford- 
shire, and sister of Dr. Samuel Horsley, 
bishop of St. Asaph. John Horsley Palmer 
[q. v.] was his younger brother. George was 
educated at the Charterhouse, which he left 
to enter the naval service of the East India 



Company. He made his first voyage in the 
Carnatic in 1786. In 1788 the narrow escape 
from drowning of a boat's crew under his 
command directed his attention to the equili- 
brium of boats and the means of preventing 
them from sinking. When commander of the 
Boddam in 1796 he received a complimentary 
letter from the court of directors for his con- 
duct in an encounter with four French fri- 
gates. Palmer's last voyage was made in 1799. 

In 1802 he entered into partnership with 
his father and brother, Horsley Palmer, and 
Captain Wilson as East India merchants and 
shipowners at 28 Throgmorton Street, Lon- 
don. In 1821 he held the office of master 
of the Mercers' Company, and in that capacity 
he attended the lord mayor, who acted as 
chief butler at the coronation of George IV 
on 19 July 1821, carrying the maple cup 
from the throne (Times, 20 July 1821, p. 3). 

In 1832 he was elected chairman of the 
General Shipowners' Society. He first be- 
came connected with the Kational Lifeboat 
Institution in 1826, and thenceforth devoted 
much time to its interests, and his plan of 
fitting lifeboats was adopted until 1858, 
when it was superseded by the system of 
self-righting lifeboats. Lifeboats on his plan 
were placed by the institution at more than 
twenty ports. He was deputy-chairman of 
the society for upwards of a quarter of a 
century, and never allowed any of his own 
ships to go to sea without providing them 
with the means of saving life. In February 
1853 he resigned his office, when the com- 
mittee voted him the gold medal with their 
special thanks on vellum. 

In 1832, when South Shields became a par- 
liamentary borough, he was a candidate in 
the conservative interest for its representa- 
tion, but was not elected. He afterwards 
sat in parliament for the southern division 
of Essex from 1836 to 1847, being successful 
in three severely contested elections. In 
1845, after encountering much opposition, 
he obtained legislative enactments pro- 
hibiting timber-laden vessels from carrying 
deck cargoes. 

He served as sheriff of Hertfordshire in 
1818, and afterwards as sheriff of Essex. For 
many years he supported at his own cost a 
corps of yeomanry, and acted as colonel of 
the corps. He died at Nazeing Park, Essex, 
on 12 May 1853, having married, on 29 Dec. 
1795, Anna Maria, daughter of William Bund 
of Wick, Worcestershire. She died on 13 Oct. 
1856, having had five children: George, born 
on 23 July 1799, captain West Essex Yeo- 
manry; William (1802-1858) [q.v.]; Francis, 
born 17 Sept. 1810, also a barrister, 5 May 
1837; Anna Maria, who died young; and 



Palmer 



128 



Palmer 



Elizabeth, who, in 1830, married Robert Bid- 
dulph, M.P. 

He was the author of ' Memoir of a Chart 
from the Strait of Allass to the Island Bouro,' 
1799, and of 'A New Plan for fitting all Boats 
so that they may be secure as Life Boats at 
the shortest notice,' 1828. 

[The Lite Boat, or Journal of the National 
Shipwreck Institution, July 1853, pp. 28-32; 
Illustr. London News, 21 May 1853, p. 402; Gent. 
Mag., June 1853, pp. 656-7; Times, 24 Oct. 
1872.] G. C. B. 

PALMER, SIB HENRY (d. 1611), naval 
commander, was of a family settled for some 
centuries at Snodland,near Rochester,whence 
they moved in the fifteenth century to Tot- 
tington by Aylesford. He is first mentioned 
as commanding a squadron of the queen's 
ships on the coast of Flanders in 1576. From 
that time he was constantly employed in the 
queen's service. In 1580 and following years 
he was a commissioner for the repair and 
maintenance of Dover harbour. In 1587 he 
had command of a squadron before Dunkirk, 
and in 1588, in the Antelope, commanded in 
the third post under Lord Henry Seymour 
in the Narrow Seas. When this squadron 
joined the fleet under the lord admiral before 
Calais on 27 July, Palmer was sent to Dover 
to order out vessels suitable to be used for 
fireships. Before these could be sent, fire- 
ships, hastily improvised, drove the enemy 
from their anchorage, and Palmer, rejoining 
Seymour, took a brilliant part in the battle 
off Gravelines on the 29th. When Seymour, 
with the squadron of the Narrow Seas, was or- 
dered back from the pursuit of the Spaniards, 
Palmer returned with him, and continued 
with him and afterwards with the fleet till 
the end of the season. He remained in 
command of the winter guard on the coast 
of Flanders. 

Through the next year he continued to 
command in the Narrow Seas, and in Sep- 
tember convoyed the army across to Nor- 
mandy. He was employed in similar service 
throughout the war, his squadron sometimes 
cruising as far as the coast of Cornwall, or 
ven to Ireland, but remaining for the most 
part in the Narrow Seas, and in 1596 block- 
ading Calais. On 20 Dec. 1598 he was ap- 
pointed comptroller of the navy, in place of 
William Borough [q. v.], and in 1600 had 
command of the defences of the Thames. In 
1601 he again commanded on the coast of 
Holland. After the peace he continued in 
the office of comptroller till his death. He 
died on 20 Nov. 1611 at Howlets in Bekes- 
borne, an estate which he had bought. He 
was twice married : first to Jane, daughter 



of Edward Isaac, and widow of Nicholas 
Sidley; secondly, to Dorothy, daughter of 
Scott, and widow of Thomas Hernden. 
By his first wife he had two sons, of whom 
the younger, Henry, succeeded his father as 
comptroller of the navy by a grant in re- 
version of 17 Aug. 1611. Howlets was left 
to Palmer's stepson, Isaac Sidley, who made 
it over to his half-brother Henry. 

A portrait of Palmer, by Mark Gheeraerts 
the younger [q. v.], belonged to David 
Laing. 

[Hasted's Hist, of Kent, ii. 191, iii. 715; 
Calendars of State Papers, Dora. ; Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada (Navy Eecords Soc.)] 

J. K. L. 

PALMER, HENRY SPENCER (1838- 
1893), major-general royal engineers, young- 
est son of Colonel John Freke Palmer of 
the East India Company's service, by his 
wife Jane, daughter of John James, esq., of 
Truro, Cornwall, and sister of Lieutenant- 
general Sir Henry James [q. v.], royal engi- 
neers, was born at Bangalore, Madras presi- 
dency, on 30 April 1838. He was educated at 
private schools at Bath, and by private tutors 
at Woolwich and Plumstead, and in January 
1856 obtained admission to the practical class 
of the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich, at a public competition ; he secured the 
seventh place among forty successful candi- 
dates, of whom he was the youngest. He 
was gazetted a lieutenant in the royal en- 
gineers on 20 Dec., and went to Chatham to 
go through the usual course of professional 
instruction. From Chatham he went to the 
southern district at the end of 1857, and was 
quartered at Portsmouth and in the Isle of 
Wight. 

In October 1 808 Palmer was appointed to 
the expedition to British Columbia under 
Colonel Richard Clement Moody, [q. v.] 
The expedition was originated by Lord 
Ly tton, then secretary of state for the colonies, 
and consisted of six officers and 150 picked 
artificers, surveyors, &c., from the royal en- 
gineers, with the double object of acting as 
a military force to preserve order and to carry 
out engineering works and surveys for the 
improvement of the newly created colony. 
During Palmer's service with the expedition 
he was actively engaged in making surveys 
and explorations, among them a reconnais- 
sance survey of the famous Cariboo gold 
region in 1862, accomplished under great 
difficulties. In that year he and his party 
were onlv saved by his coolness and address, 
and his knowledge of the Indian character, 
from massacre by the Bella Coola Indians at 
North Bentinck arm. The reports and maps 



Palmer 



129 



Palmer 



prepared by him in connection with these ; 
surveys were published from time to time in 
the parliamentary and colonial blue-books. \ 
Palmer also had a share in superintending 
the construction of roads, bridges, and other 
public works in the colony, among them the 
wagon road through the formidable canon 
of the Fraser river, between Lytton and 
Yale. 

Palmer returned to England at the end ; 
of December 1863, and joined the ordnance 
survey. He went first to Southampton and j 
then to Tunbridge, Kent, from which place, j 
as headquarters, he conducted the survey of 
the greater part of Kent and East Sussex, 
and parts of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. 
He was promoted second captain on 4 March 
1866. 

In the autumn of 1867 he was appointed 
one of the assistant commissioners in the 
parliamentary boundaries commission, under 
Mr. Disraeli's reform act, having for his legal 
colleague Joseph Kay [q. v.] Their district 
embraced the parliamentary boroughs in 
Kent and East Sussex, and the subdivision 
of West Kent and East Surrey for county 
representation. At this time he was engaged 
with his friend, Pierce Butler, of Ulcombe 
Rectory, Kent, in setting on foot a project 
of a survey of the Sinaitic Peninsula, which 
was ultimately brought to a successful issue. 
He went to Sinai in October 1868, and re- 
turned to England in May 1869, when he 
resumed his survey work at Tunbridge. 
Palmer contributed to the handsome volumes 
(published by the authority of the treasury) 
which were the fruits of the expedition, some 
two-fifths of the descriptive matter, together 
with the computation of the astronomical 
and other work of the survey ; the drawing 
of several of the maps and plans and the part 
editing of the whole work also fell to his share. 
After his return home he often lectured on 
the subject. Palmer was promoted major on 
11 Dec. 1873. In this year he was recom- 
mended to the astronomer-royal by Admiral 
G. H. Richards, then hydrographer to the 
admiralty, for a chief astronomership in one 
of the expeditions to observe the transit of 
Venus. He was nominated chief of the New 
Zealand party, and went through a course of 
practical preparation at the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, during which he gained 
the full confidence of Sir George Airy. He 
left England in June 1874, accompanied by 
Lieutenant (now major) L. Darwin, R.E., 
and Lieutenant Crawford, R.N., as his assist- 
ants. For his exertions and achievement in 
the work of observation of the transit he was 
highly praised by the astronomer-royal in his 
'Report to the Board of Visitors,' 1875. 

VOL. XLIII. 



Before leaving New Zealand, Palmer, at 
the request of the governor, the Marquis of 
Normanby, undertook an investigation of the 
provincial surveys throughout the colony, 
with the view of advising as to the bejst 
means of placing the whole system on an 
intelligent and scientific basis. He spent 
three or four months on this work, and em- 
bodied his recommendations in a blue-book 
report. He received the thanks of the 
government, and his report was adopted as 
a guide for future reforms. He rendered 
assistance to the French in determining the 
longitude of Campbell Island, for which 
he received the medal of the Institute of 
France. Palmer returned to England in 
June 1875. 

Resuming military duty, he went to Bar- 
bados in November 1875. He was appointed 
aide-de-camp to the governor, Sir John Pope- 
Hennessy [q. v.], and remained in this post 
through the riots of 1876, and until the 
governor's departure from the colony. In 
January 1878 he went to Hongkong, where, 
in addition to his ordinary duties, he was ap- 
pointed engineer of the admiralty works, and 
was again given the post of aide-de-camp to 
the governor. On 1 July 1881 he was pro- 
moted brevet lieutenant-colonel. In this 
year he designed a physical observatory for 
Hongkong, to comprehend astronomical, 
magnetical, meteorological, and tidal ob- 
servations. The design and report were ap- 
proved by the Kew committee of the Royal 
Society. Though the stheme was somewhat 
reduced for economical reasons, the obser- 
vatory was built in conformity with the 
design, and competent authorities regard it 
as a standard guide for observatories of that 
class. Palmer declined in 1882 to take charge 
of another expedition to observe the transit 
of Venus, but he made in that year an exact 
determination of the Hongkong observatory 
station at Mount Elgin, Kowloon, with in- 
struments lent to him from the United States 
surveying ship Palos. 

On 1 Oct. 1882 Palmer was promoted regi- 
mental lieutenant-colonel, and was ordered 
home. On his way he stayed at the British 
Legation in Tokio, Japan, and was requested, 
at the instance of Sir Harry Parkes [q. v.], by 
the Japanese government to prepare a project 
for waterworks for Yokohama. He com- 
pleted two alternative schemes of water- 
supply, one from Tamagawa, and the other 
from Sagamigawa. 

On Palmer's arrival in England in July 
1883, he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of the Manchester district. In the 
autumn of 1884 the Japanese government 
applied to the British government for Palmer's 



Palmer i 

services to superintend the construction of 
w&terworks in accordance with his design. 
Permission was given, and Palmer reached 
Japan in April 1885, and the works were 
at once started. On 1 July 1885 Palmer 
was promoted brevet colonel, and on 1 Oct. 
1887 he retired on a pension, with the 
honorary rank of major-general. The same 
date saw the successful completion of the 
waterworks, and in November he received 
from the emperor of Japan the third class 
of the order of the Rising Sun, in recognition 
of his services. Subsequently he received 
the queen's permission to wear the order. 
He also designed water-supply works for 
Osaka and Hakodate, and harbour works 
for the Yokohama Harbour Company, and 
a water-supply by means of a large irrigation 
siphon for Misakamura in Hiogo Ken, which 
was successfully carried out under his di- 
rection in 1889. His scheme for a water- 
supply to Tokio is now being executed. In 
1889 he undertook the superintendence of 
the Yokohama harbour works which he had 
designed, and was appointed engineer to the 
Yokohama Docks Company. It was while 
engaged in designing an extensive system of 
graving docks and a repairing basin that he 
died at Tokio on 10 March 1893. 

Palmer was a man of clear, vigorous in- 
tellect and breadth and liberality of view. 
lie had an extraordinary faculty for rapid 
calculation, and a rare power of assimilating 
and marshalling facts. He took a lively in- 
terest in Japan, and his graphic letters to 
the ' Times,' written in a genial and sympa- 
thetic spirit, did much to familiarise Eng- 
lishmen with the remarkable people among 
whom he dwelt. He possessed a keen sense 
of humour and power of anecdote. 

Palmer married, on 7 Oct. 1863, at New 
Westminster, British Columbia, Mary Jane 
Pearson, daughter of Archdeacon Wright, 
by whom he left a large family. 

Palmer was afrequent contributor to maga- 
zines and periodical literature. He was also 
the author of the following works : 1. ' Ord- 
nance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai, &c., 
by Wilson and Palmer,' fol. 1869. 2. ' The 
Ordnance Survey of the Kingdom : its objects, 
mode of execution, history, and present con- 
dition ; ' reprinted, and slightly altered, 
from ' Ocean Highways,' 8vo, London, 1873. 
">. ' Ancient History from the Monuments : 
Sinai from the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty to 
the present day,' London, 1878, 8vo ; new 
edition, revised throughout by Professor 
Sayce, 8vo, London, 1892. 

[Royal Engineers' Records ; War Office Re- 
cords; private sources : Royal Engineers' Journal, 
May 1893, obituary notice.] R. H. V. 



Palmer 






PALMER, HERBERT (1G01-1647), 
puritan divine, younger son of Sir Thomas 
Palmer, knt. (d. 1625), and grandson of Sir 
Thomas Palmer (1540-1626) [q. v.] of Wing- 
ham, Kent, was born at Wingham in 1601, 
and baptised on 29 March. His mother was 
the eldest daughter of Herbert Pelham of 
Crawley, Sussex. He learnt French almost as 
soon as English, and always spoke it fluently. 
His childhood was marked by precocious re- 
ligiousness. On 23 March 1616 he was ad- 
mitted fellow-commoner in St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge; he graduated B.A. 1619, 
M. A. 1622, and was elected fellow of Queens' 
College on 17 July 1623. He took orders 
in 1624, and proceeded B.D. in 1631. In 1626, 
on his way to visit his brother, Sir Thomas 
Palmer, bart. (d. 1666), at Wingham, he 
preached at Canterbury Cathedral. The re- 
port of his sermon reached the ears of Delme, 
minister of the French church at Canterbury, 
who made his acquaintance at Wingham, 
got him to preach again at St. George's, 
Canterbury, and made efforts to procure his 
settlement as lecturer. He was licensed by 
Archbishop Abbot for a Sunday afternoon 
lectureship at St. Alphage's, Canterbury, 
but did not, as Clarke supposes, resign his 
fellowship. He acted as a spiritual adviser, 
being consulted as ' a kind of oracle,' and 
did much religious visiting, though without 
pastoral charge. Occasionally he preached to 
the French congregation ; the first time he 
stood in their pulpit his diminutive appear- 
ance ' startled ' an old lady, who cried out, 
' Hola, que nous dira cest enfant icy ? ' 
Though not scrupling at the prescribed cere- 
monies, and strongly opposing the separatist 
party, he resisted the ' innovations ' favoured 
by Laud. He was articled for his puritanism, 
but the prosecution proved abortive. About 
1630 the dean, Isaac Bargrave [q. v.], put 
down his lectureship, on the ground that he 
had gone beyond his office by catechising 
and that his lecture drew ' factious persons ' 
out of other parishes ; the lecture was re- 
vived in consequence of an influentially 
signed petition to Abbot. His friends, 
headed by Thomas Finch (d. 1639), after- 
wards Earl of Winchilsea, twice unsuccess- 
fully endeavoured to secure for him a pre- 
bend at Canterbury. On the resignation of 
Thomas Turner, Laud, then bishop of Lon- 
don, presented him, at the instance of ' a 
great nobleman,' to the rectory of Ashwell, 
Hertfordshire ; he was instituted 9 Feb. and 
inducted 18 Feb. 1632. Laud, on his trial, 
referred to this among other evidences of his 
impartial patronage of merit ; he declined 
the religious ministrations of Palmer during 
his imprisonment in the Tower and at the 



Palmer 



Palmer 



block. In 1632 Palmer was made univer- 
sity preacher at Cambridge. At Ashwell he 
matured his system of catechising, giving 
prizes of bibles to those who could read, 
and 5s. to illiterates, on their reaching a 
proficiency which fitted them for admission 
to communion. Robert Baillie, D.D. [q.v.], 
reckoned Palmer ' the best catechist in Eng- 
land.' He originated the method of break- 
ing up the main answer into preparatory 
questions, to be answered by ' yes ' or ' no.' 
In 1633 he refused to read the ' Book of 
Sports.' He got his parishioners to bind 
themselves by subscribing a compact against 
drunkenness, sabbath-breaking, and so forth. 
He took sons of noblemen and gentry as 
boarders, under a resident tutor. Preaching 
a visitation sermon at Hitchin in 1638, he 
spoke freely against ' innovations.' In 1641 
he was chosen, with Anthony Tuckney, D.D. 
[q. v.], clerk of convocation for Lincoln diocese. 
On 19 July 1642 he was appointed by the 
House of Commons one of fifteen Tuesday 
lecturers at Hitchin, Hertfordshire. 

Palmer was appointed an original member 
of the Westminster assembly of divines by 
the ordinance of 12 June 1643. He removed 
to London, placing Ashwell in charge of 
John Crow, his half-brother, who became his 
successor (28 Sept. 1647), and was ejected 
in 1662. On 28 June 1643 he preached a 
political sermon before the House of Com- 
mons, whose thanks he received through Sir 
Oliver Luke. He became preacher at St. 
James's, Duke Place, and afterwards at the 
' new church ' in the parish of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster (represented since 1 843 by Christ 
Church, Westminster). He was also one of 
the seven morning lecturers at Westminster 
Abbey. On 11 April 1644 he was appointed 
by the Earl of Manchester master of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, in room of Edward 
Martin, D.D. [q.v.] ; in this capacity he was 
an able disciplinarian. Refugee students from 
Germany and Hungary were liberally assisted 
by him ; he gave benefactions for the in- 
crease of the college library. In the West- 
minster assembly, of which he was one of 
the assessors (from January 1646), he had 
much to do with the drawing up of the 
' directory,' and was anxious for a clause 
about pastoral visitation, which was not in- 
serted. As regards ordination, he differed 
both from presbyterians and independents, 
holding (with Baxter) that any company of 
ministers may ordain, and that designation 
to a congregation is unnecessary. He joined 
Light foot in pleading for private baptism. 
His chief work was in connection with the 
assembly's ' Shorter Catechism, 'though he did 
not live till its completion. To him was due 



the excellent method by which each answer 
forms a substantive statement, not needing 
to be helped out by the question. 

He died in August or September 1647, and 
is said to have been buried in the ' new 
church,' Westminster ; no register of the in- 
terments in that place is discoverable. There 
is an entry in the register of St. Mary the 
Less, Cambridge, not very legible, which has 
been read as giving 14 Aug. as the date of 
his burial there. Mr. W. G. Searle says he 
was present at an election of fellows on 
17 Aug., and thinks he died on 11 Sept.; 
his successor was elected on 19 Sept. He 
was unmarried. His portrait, in Clarke, 
shows an emaciated visage, sunk between 
his shoulders ; he wears moustache and thin 
beard, skull-cap and ruff, with academic gown, 
and leans on a cushion. Symon Patrick [q. v.], 
whom he befriended at college, calls him ' a 
little crooked man,' but says he was held in 
the highest reverence. He left a benefaction 
for poor scholars at Queens' College. 

He published, in addition to sermons be- 
fore parliament (1643-6) : 1. ' An Endeavour 
of making the Principles of Christian Re- 
ligion plain and easie,' &c., 1640, 8vo. 2. ' Me- 
morials of Godlinesse and Christianitie,' &c., 
1644-5, 12mo (three several pieces, the first 
reprinted ; the second is ' The Characters of 
a believing Christian, in Paradoxes and seem- 
ing Contradictions ; ' this was printed, with 
epistle dated 25 July 1645, in consequence 
of a surreptitious edition, issued 24 July, a 
reprint from which was included in the 
' Remaines,' 1648, 4to, of Francis Bacon 
[q.v.], and has often been cited as Bacon's) ; 
13th edit. 1708, 12mo; reprinted in Dr. 
Grosart's 'Lord Bacon,' &c., 1864, 8vo. 
3. ' Sabbatum Redivivum . . . the First 
Part,' &c., 1645, 4to (undertaken, and nearly 
finished, ' many years 'before, in conjunction 
with Daniel Cawdry [q.v.], and published 
as an exposition and defence of the Sabbath 
doctrine of the Westminster divines) ; the 
three remaining parts appeared in 1652, 4to. 
Robert Cox [q.v.] praises the work for its 
' great logical acuteness, perfect familiarity 
with the subject, and exemplary moderation 
and fairness.' 4. ' A full Answer to ... 
Four Questions concerning Excommunica- 
tion,' &c., 1645, 4to. He had a hand in 
' Scripture and Reason pleaded for Defen- 
sive Arms,' &c., 1643, 4to. In the ' Baptist 
Annual Register,' 1798-1801, edited by John 
Rippon, D.D. [q. v.], three of Palmer's letters 
of 1632 are printed. Dr. Grosart has a manu- 
script volume of sermons in Palmer's auto- 
graph dated 21 April 1626. 

[Foulis's Hist, of the Wicked Plots, 1662, p. 
183; Clarke's Lives of Thirty-two English 

K2 



Palmer 



132 



Palmer 



Divines, 1677, pp. 183 sq. ; Life by Philip 
Taverner, 1681 ; Middleton's Biographia Evan- 
gelica, 1784, iii. 190 sq. ; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, 1813, iii. 75 sq. ; Neal's Hist, of the 
Puritans (Toulmin), 1X22, iii. 102 sq., 403 sq. ; 
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, 1841, p. 602; Laud's 
Works, 1854, iv. 298; Symon Patrick's Works, 
1858, ix. 416 ; Grosart's Memoir in ' Lord Bacon 
not the Author of the Christian Paradoxes,' 1865 ; 
Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, 1865, 
i. 237 sq. ; Searle's History of Queens' College 
(Cambridge Antiquarian Society), 1871, pp. 532 
sq. ; Mitchell and Struthers's Minutes of West- 
minster Assembly, 1874; Mitchell's Westminster 
Assembly, 1883 ; Urwick's Nonconformity in 
Herts, 1884, pp. 771 sq. ; Cole MSS. vii. 156 sq.] 

A. G. 

PALMER, SIR JAMES (d. 1657), chan- 
cellor of the order of the Garter, was third 
son of Sir Thomas Palmer (1540-1626) [q. v.] 
of Wingham, Kent, by Margaret, daughter of 
John Pooley of Badley, Suffolk. Palmer ob- 
tained a place in the household of James I, 
and on 27 April 1622 was appointed a gentle- 
man of the bedchamber, with an annual salary 
of 2QOI. , afterwards raised to 500/. He appears 
early in life to have become one of the per- 
sonal friends of Charles when Prince of 
Wales, and to have continued so after his ac- 
cession to the throne. As an amateur artist of 
some merit Palmer shared the king's tastes, 
and assisted him with advice and in other 
ways in the formation of the celebrated royal 
collection of pictures. He is known to have 
copied several pictures in the royal collection, 
probably on a small scale, as one of Titian's 
' Tarquin and Lucretia' is noted among the 
king's collection of limnings as done by 
James Palmer after Titian, and given by him 
to the king. Palmer was one of the governors 
of the royal tapestry works at Mortlake, and 
in the catalogue of Charles I's collection is 
mentioned ' a little piece of Bacchus his feast, 
of many young children and angels, which 
the king delivered with his own hands to 
Sir James Palmer, for him to use for a pattern 
for the making of hangings, the which he 
has sent to Mortlack amongst the tapistry 
works.' Five pictures in the same collection 
are noted as 'placed in the Tennis Court 
Chamber at Sir James Palmer's lodgings.' 

When Sir Thomas Roe [q. v.], chancellor 
of the order of the Garter, was absent on a 
diplomatic mission, Palmer was appointed 
his deputy in February 1638, and in that 
capacity on 22 May moved the king to revive 
the ancient usage for the ladies of knights to 
wear some of the decorations of the order. 
He served three times as Roe's deputy, and 
on 2 March 1645 succeeded him as chan- 
cellor. The civil wars and the ensuing Com- 
monwealth must, however, have prevented 



him from receiving any of the emoluments 
of the office, and he died in 1657 before the 
restoration of the monarchy. Palmer's col- 
lection of pictures, which included many 
from Charles I's collection, was sold by 
auction on 20 April 1689. Palmer was twice 
married : first to Martha, daughter and heiress 
of Sir William Gerard of Dorney, Bucking- 
hamshire ; she died in 1617, and was buried 
at Enfield in Middlesex, where a monument 
by Nicholas Stone was erected to hermemory. 
By her he was father of Sir Philip Palmer 
of Dorney Court, and a daughter Vere, married 
to Thomas Jenyns of Hayes in Middlesex. 
Palmer married, secondly,Catherine,daughter 
of William Herbert, lord Powis, and widow 
of Sir Robert Vaughan, by whom he was- 
father of Roger Palmer (afterwards Earl of 
Castlemaine) [q. v.], whose marriage with the 
celebrated Barbara Villiers [q. v.] he did his- 
best to prevent. 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting (ed. Wornum) ; 
Ashmole's Order of the Garter ; Haydn's Book 
of Dignities ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Ser., 
1622, 1638, &c.] L. C. 

PALMER, JAMES (1585-1660), royalist 
divine, was born in the parish of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, in July 1585, and wa 
educated first at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge (the admission registers of which only 
begin in 1644), and subsequently at Oxford. 
He graduated B.A. 1601-2, MA. 1605, and 
B.D. 1613, at Cambridge, and was incorpo- 
rated at Oxford 9 July 1611. He was or- 
dained priest by Bancroft, and on 19 April 
1616 was appointed by the dean and chapter 
of Westminster vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet 
Street. In middle life he showed some puritan 
predilections, and informations of divers irre- 
gularities were laid against him in 1637. 
He was said to omit ' the prayer for the bishops 
and the rest of the clergy, and to read divine 
service sometimes in his gown, and sometimes 
without either surplice or gown, in his cloak r 
(State Papers, Dom. Charles I, ccclxxi. 6 Nov. 
1637). In March 1641-2 the House of Com- 
mons ordered Palmer to allow the free use 
of his pulpit to Simeon Ash twice a week 
( Commons Journals, ii. 479). Palmer appears 
to have preached frequently before both 
houses of parliament on their monthly days 
of humiliation. On 18 Oct. 1645 he resigned 
his vicarage, on account of failing health, to 
the committee for plundered ministers (A ddit. 
MS. 15669, f. 370). On the 15th of the fol- 
lowing month Thomas Golem an was pre- 
sented to the living (ib. p. 405). Walker 
and Lloyd erroneously include Palmer among 
the suffering and ejected clergy. He is cer- 
tainly not to be confounded with the Palmer 
for whom Charles demanded a safe-conduct 



Palmer i 

on 5 Dec. 1645, in order to bring proposals 
of peace (' Mercurius Rusticus' under date, 
quoted in NEWCOURT, and Notes and Queries, 
6th ser. vi. 83). Having acquired a competency 
by frugality (according to HATTON'S New View 
of London), he spent his time, after his volun- 
tary sequestration, in going ' up and down to 
look for poor ministers' widows that were 
sequestered, though sequestered himself, in- 
quiring for objects of charity.' He built 
and endowed a new almshouse over against 
the new chapel at Westminster for twelve 
poor people (LLOYD, Worthies, p. 512 ; 
WALKER, Sufferings, ii. 174). Attached were 
' a free school and a commodious habitation 
for the schoolmaster, and a convenient chapel 
for prayers and preaching, where he con- 
stantly, for divers years before his death, once 
a week gave a comfortable sermon.' He en- 
dowed the foundation with a 'competent 
yearly revenue of freehold estate, committed 
to the trust and care of ten considerable 
persons of ye place to be renewed as any of 
them dye.' Within the last ten years the alms- 
houses have been re-established in a new 
building in Rochester Row, Westminster. 
The educational portion of the endowment 
has been merged with other endowments in 
the united Westminster schools, and in the 
day-schools belonging to this institution there 
are a number of Palmer scholarships, pro- 
viding free education without clothing (Notes 
find Queries, ubi supra). 

Fuller warmly declared that he found more 
charity in this one sequestered minister than 
in many who enjoyed other men's sequestra- 
tions (Hist. Cambr. p. 173). Palmer died on 
5 Jan. 1659-60, and was buried in the church 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster, where a fine 
monument was erected to his memory by Sir 
William Playter, bart., ' a loving friend.' 
This monument now occupies a central place 
on a pier of the north wall of the church. 
The monument is of early classic design, and 
attributed to the school of Inigo Jones, and 
bears Palmer's bust and arms. The bust has 
all the appearance of being a faithful portrait, 
is painted in proper colours, with a black 
gown and black cap. 

Palmer was probably unmarried, and should 
doubtless be distinguished from James Palmer 
who obtained a license to marry Elizabeth 
Robinson of St. Mary, Whitechapel, on 8 Nov. 
1609 (Harl. Soc. Publ. xxv.316). In several 
authorities Newcourt and Walker, followed 
by Bailey (Life of Fuller, pp. 406, 589) 
Palmer is incorrectly called Thomas Palmer. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Addit. 
MS. 15669, ff. 370, 405 ; Notes and Queries, 6th 
ser. vi. 83-4, 136; Harl. Soc. Publ. xxv. 316; 
Walcott's Memorials of Westminster, p. 294; 



13 Palmer 

State Papers, Dom. Ca*. I, ccelxxi ; Stow's Sur- 
vey, bk. vi. p. 45 ; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 
315 ; Fuller's Hist, of Cambridge, p. 173 ; 
Walker's Sufferings, ii. 1 74 ; Lloyd's Worthies, 
p. 512 ; Bailey's Fuller, p. 406 ; Lords' and Com- 
mons' Journals.] W. A. S. 

PALMER, SIR JAMES FREDERICK 
(1804-1871), first president of the legislative 
council of Victoria, youngest son of John 
Palmer, rector of Great Torrington, Devon- 
shire, and prebendary of Lincoln, and of Jane, 
daughter of William Johnson, was born at 
Torrington in 1804. His great-uncle was Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. He was educated for the 
medical profession, and for some years prac- 
tised in London, where he was, till 1838, the 
senior surgeon to the St. George's and St. 
James's Dispensary. His health seems to 
have failed, and induced him to go out, in 
1839, to New South Wales ; he practised as a 
doctor at Port Phillip for some time, and then 
he began business as a manufacturer of cor- 
dials, eventually becoming a wine merchant. 

Taking a prominent part from the first in 
the social and political life of the new settle- 
ment, Palmer was made mayor of Melbourne 
in 1846, and in that capacity laid the founda- 
tion-stone of the Melbourne hospital. In 
September 1848 he was elected to the legis- 
lature of New South Wales as member for 
Port Phillip, for which he sat till July 1849. 
On the separation of Victoria he became, on 
29 Oct. 1851, member of the legislative coun- 
cil (the single chamber) for Normanby district, 
and was elected speak'er, though he frequently 
left the chair and interposed in debate. On 
23 Nov. 1855, when the constitution was 
altered, he was elected for the western pro- 
vince to the new legislative council, of which 
he became president on 21 Nov. 1856. He 
was re-elected five times, resigning in October 
1870 on account of the ill-health which had 
compelled his absence in England from March 
1861 to 18 June 1862. For several successive 
years he was chairman of the commissioners 
of education, and president of the board under 
the system instituted in 1862. He was 
knighted in 1857. On 23 April 1871, soon 
after his retirement, he died at his residence, 
Burwood Road, Hawthorn, and was buried 
at the Melbourne general cemetery. 

Palmer edited, with notes, 'The Works of 
John Hunter ' the anatomist, in 4 vols. 8vo, 
with a 4to volume of plates, 1835-7, and 
compiled, in 1837, a glossary to the' Dialogue 
in the Devonshire Dialect ' of his great-aunt, 
Mary Palmer [q. v.] 

He married, in 1832, Isabella, daughter of 
Dr. Gunning, C.B., inspector of hospitals. 

[Melbourne Daily Telegraph, 24 April 1871 t 
Mennell's Diet, of Austral. Biogr.] C. A. H. . 



Palmer 



134 



Palmer 



PALMER, JOHN (d. 1607), dean of 
Peterborough, a native of Kent, matriculated 
as a pensioner of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, on 25 Oct. 1567, and became scholar 
on 9 Nov. 1568. He graduated B.A. in 
1571, was admitted fellow of his college on 
12 March 1572-8, and proceeded M.A. in 
1575. In 1578, when Queen Elizabeth visited 
Audley End, Palmer was one of the oppo- 
nents in a philosophy disputation held before 
her by members of the university (26 July). 
In 1579-80 Palmer took the part of Richard 
when Thomas Legge's play of ' Richardus 
Tertius ' was performed before the queen in 
the hall of St. John's College, and he ac- 
quitted himself with great credit. Fuller, 
however, tells us that he ' had his head so 
possest with a princelike humour that ever 
after he did, what then he acted, in his 
prodigal expences.' Through the influence 
of Lord Burghley he was enabled to turn 
from the study of the civil law to divinity. 
On 12 July 1580 he was incorporated in the 
degree of M.A. at Oxford. He was made 
junior dean of his college (St. John's) on 
21 Jan. 1584-5, principal lecturer on 10 July 
1585, senior fellow on 3 Feb. 1586-7, senior 
bursar on 9 Feb. 1586-7, one of the proctors 
of the university in 1587, and senior dean on 
24 Sept. 1589. About the same time he was 
recommended by Lord Burghley for the post 
of public orator, but was not elected. In 
1587 and 1588 he took part in the proceed- 
ings for the expulsion of Everard Digby 
[q. v.] from his fellowship at St. John's Col- 
lege, and thus incurred the disapproval of 
Whitgift, who considered that he and the 
master, Whitaker, ' had dealt . . . contrary 
to their own statutes ; . . . contrary to the 
rule of charity; he might say of honesty also.' 
Palmer wrote to Lord Burghley, dated 5 Nov. 
1590, begging for ' good favour and protec- 
tion ' during some misunderstandings at St. 
John's College (Lansdowne MS. 63 [95]). 
He was elected to the mastership of Magda- 
lene College, and created D.D. in 1595. On 
30 Nov. 1597 he was granted the deanery of 
Peterborough (admitted 3 Dec.), on 3 March 
1597-8 obtained the advowson of Stanton 
in Derbyshire, and on 18 Nov. 1605 the pre- 
bend of Dernford in Lichfield Cathedral (ad- 
mitted 26 Nov.) 

Palmer was a noted spendthrift. It is 
said that he sold the lead off the roof of 
Peterborough Cathedral to help him out of 
his pecuniary difficulties. He resigned the 
mastership of Magdalene College in 1604, and 
died in prison, where he was confined for 
debt, about June 1607. 

Some Latin verses, ' Martis et Mercurii 
Contentio,' in 'Academic Cantabrigiensis 



lacrimse in obitum . . . Philippi Sidneii,' Lon- 
don, 1587 (pp. 20-1), by John Palmer, may 
have been by the dean of Peterborough, or 
they may have been by 

JOHN PALMER (d. 1614), archdeacon of 
Ely, who was elected to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, from Westminster in 1575, 
matriculated as a pensioner on 26 May 
1576, and became fellow in 1582. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1579, M.A. in 1583, and 
B.D. in 1592. In two beautifully written 
Latin letters to Burghley (1581 and 1582), 
Palmer begged for his interest in procuring 
him a fellowship at Trinity College (Lans- 
dovme MSS. 33, No. 38, f. 74 and 36, No. 48, 
f. 113). He was presented to the vicarage 
of Normanton in Yorkshire in 1591, and to 
that of Trumpington in Cambridge in 1592. 
On 5 June 1592 the queen, whose chaplain 
he was, presented him to a prebend (first 
stall) and the^ archdeaconry of Ely. With it 
he held the rectory of Wilburton and vicar- 
age of Haddenham, both in Cambridgeshire 
(Addit. MS. 5819, f. 86). He was presented 
to the livings of South Somercotes, Lincoln- 
shire, on 14 March 1596-7, and Alwalton, 
Huntingdonshire, on 13 Feb. 1601-2. He 
resigned his archdeaconry in 1600, and died 
in 1614. Previous to March 1593 Palmer 
had contracted a clandestine marriage in Sir 
Thomas Howard's chapel in Chest erford Park, 
Essex, with Katherine,' daughter of William 
Knevit, late of Little Vastern Park, co Wilts. 
Gent, deed.' (Sp. Lond. Marriage Licenses, 
Harl. Soc. xxv. 206). 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 457-8 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. (1500-1714); Nichols's Progresses 
of Queen Elizabeth, ii. 114; Baker's Hist, of St. 
John's College, Cambridge (Mayor), pp. 177-8; 
Reg. Univ. Oxford, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 351 ; Fuller's 
Worthies (Nichols), ii. 156; Le Neve's Fasti 
(Hardy), i. 352, 354, 597, ii. 539, iii. 620, 695 ; 
Strype's Whitgift, i. 517; Heywoodand Wright's 
Cambridge Univ. Transactions, i. 511 ; Strype's 
Annals, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 606-7; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1595-7, pp. 351, 540; 
Laud's Works, vol. vi. p. 352 ; Addit MS. 5846, 
if. 237, 255 ; Ely Episcopal Records (Gibbons), 
pp. 438, 487; Bentham's Ely, p. 278; Vicar- 
General's Books at Somerset House, vi. f. 130; 
Lansdowne MSS. 45, 56 f. 121, 23 May 1585; 
Cambridge University Registers, per the Re- 
gistrary.] B. P. 

PALMER, JOHN (1650-1 700?), colonial 
lawyer and public official, came from Bar- 
bados to New York a little before 1675, and 
in that year was appointed ranger of Staten 
Island, then constituted a separate jurisdic- 
tion. By a usage not uncommon at that 
time, he held office in several colonies. In 
1682 he was appointed a member of the 






Palmer 



135 



Palmer 



'council of East New Jersey, and in 1684 of 
that of New York. Earlier in 1084 he had 
been raised to the bench as judge of the court 
of oyer and terminer at New York. Two 
years later he was sent by Dongan. the go- 
vernor of New York, to act virtually as de- 
Suty-governor at Pemaquid, an outlying 
ependency to the north. There Palmer 
seems to have incurred odium by his arbi- 
trary conduct in the matter of land titles. 
In 1687 he was sent by Dongan as a spe- 
cial commissioner to Connecticut, to advo- 
cate the union of that colony with New 
York. In the same year he was sent to 
England to report for the king on colonial 
affairs. When James II attempted to con- 
solidate the northern colonies under the go- 
vernment of Andros, Palmer returned as a 
councillor to the new province, and was 
imprisoned by the Boston insurgents in 1689. 
While in prison he wrote a Justin' cation of 
the policy of Andros and his supporters, and 
circulated it in manuscript in New England. 
After the proclamation of William III at 
Boston, Palmer, together with Andros, was 
sent back to England. He there published 
his pamphlet under the title ' An Impartial 
Account of the State of New England, or 
the late Government t here vindicated ' ( 1 689) . 
It is a laboured production, and contrasts 
unfavourably with the vigorous writing of 
Increase Mather on the opposite side. It 
was republished in the next year at Boston 
with alterations, and both versions are re- 
printed in the ' Andros Tracts.' 

[Brodhead's Hist, of New York, vol. ii.; The 
Andros Tracts (Prince Soc.) ; Palfrey's Hist, of 
New England, vol. iii.] J. A. D. 

PALMER, JOHN (1742-1786), unita- 
rian divine, son of John Palmer, wig-maker, 
was born at Norwich in 1742. He was a 
protege of John Taylor, D.D. [q.v.], the 
Hebraist, who began his education, and, on 
becoming divinity tutor at Warrington aca- 
demy, placed Palmer (1756) at school in 
Congleton, Cheshire, under Edward Har- 
wood, D.D. [q.v.] He entered Warrington 
academy in 1759 ; Priestley was, from 1761, 
one of his tutors. In his last year he was 
constant supply (14 May 1763 to 15 Aug. 
1764) at Allostock, Cheshire. Some eccen- 
tricities hindered his acceptance in the 
ministry. He kept a school at Macclesfield, 
Cheshire. In 1772 lie became minister of 
King Edward Street Chapel, Macclesfield. 
There was an orthodox secession from his 
ministry ; he consequently resigned in 1779, 
and removed to Birmingham without regular 
charge, being in independent circumstances. 
At Birmingham he renewed his acquaintance 



with Priestley, and was a member of a fort- 
nightly clerical club which arranged the 
matter for the ' Theological Repository.' In 
1782 Priestley recommended him, without 
effect, as colleague to Joseph Bretland [q.v.] at 
Exeter. Palmer died of paralysis at Birming- 
ham on Tuesday, 26 Dec. 1786, and was buried 
in the Old Meeting graveyard on 2 Jan. 1787 ; 
Priestley preached (8 Jan.) his funeral ser- 
mon. He married, first, at Macclesfield, 
Miss Heald ; secondly, in 1777, the eldest 
daughter of Thomas White, dissenting minis- 
ter at Derby, by whom he left one daugh- 
ter. 

He published: 1. 'Free Remarks on a 
Sermon entitled "The Requisition of Sub- 
scription not inconsistent with Christian 
Liberty,'" &c., 1772, 8vo, anon. 2. 'A 
Letter to Dr. Balguy,' &c., 1773, 8vo (reply 
to the archidiaconal charge, 1772, by Tho- 
mas Balguy [q.v.]) 3. 'A New System of 
Shorthand ; being an Improvement upon 
. . . Byroni,' &c., 1774, 8vo. 4. 'An Ex- 
amination of Thelyphthora,' &c., 1781, 8vo 
[see MADAN, MARTIN], His contributions 
to the 'Theological Repository' (1709-71) 
are signed ' G. H. ; ' contributions in later 
volumes (1784-6) are signed 'Christophilos,' 
' Symmachus,' and ' Erasmus.' A letter from 
him is printed in Priestley's ' Harmony of 
the Evangelists ' (1780). 

[Theological Kepository, 1788, pp. 217sq. 
(memoir by Priestley) ; Monthly Kepository, 
1814, pp. 203 sq. ; Butt's Memoirs of Priestley, 
1831, i. 334,339, 355,' 3G2, 38', 390, 401 sq.; 
Urwick's Nonconformity in Cheshire, 18ti4, pp. 
235, 415 ; Beale's Memorials of the Old Meet- 
ing, Birmingham, 1882 ; manuscript records of 
Allostock congregation.] A. G... 

PALMER, JOHN (1729 P-1790), unita- 
rian divine, was born about 1729 in South- 
wark, where his father was an undertaker. 
His parents were independents, and he was 
educated for the ministry, in that body, 
under David Jennings, D.D. [q.v.] In 17or> 
he became assistant to John Allen M.D. (d. 
31 Dec. 1774, aged 72), presbyterian minis- 
ter at New Broad Street, London. Ou 
Allen's removal (1759) to Worcester, Palmer 
became pastor. The congregation declined, 
and ceased in 1772 to contribute to the 

Eresbyterian fund. On the expiry of the 
iase of the meeting-house (1780) the con- 
gregation was dissolved, and Palmer left tho 
ministry. He was a man of ability arid 
learning ; his defence of free-will againSt 
Priestley shows power. His religious vieWs 
coincided with those of his friend, Caleb 
Fleming D.D. [q.v.] From 1768 he was : a 
trustee of Dr. Daniel Williams's foundations, 
After 1780 he lived in retirement at Isling- 



Palmer 



136 



Palmer 



ton, where he died on 26 June 1790, aged 
61. He married a lady of considerable 
wealth. 

He published, in addition to funeral ser- 
mons for George II (1760) and Caleb Flem- 
ing (1779), and a funeral oration for Timothy 
Laugher (1769) : 1. ' Prayers for the use of 
Families,' &c., 1773, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1785, 
8vo. 2. ' Free Thoughts on the Inconsis- 
tency of conforming to any Religious Test as 
a Condition of Toleration,' &c., 1779, 8vo. 

3. ' Observations in Defence of the Liberty 
of Man as a Moral Agent,' &c., 1779, 8vo. 

4. ' An Appendix to the Observations,' &c., 
1780, 8vo. 5. 'A Summary View of the 
Grounds of Christian Baptism,' &c., 1788, 
8vo (a defence of infant baptism). He edited 
(1766, 4to) the posthumous commentaries of 
John Alexander (1736-1765) [q.v.] 

[Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 
1808, ii. 227 sq. ; Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 
1831-2, i. 328 sq., ii. 72, 538 ; Jeremy's Presby 
terian Fund, 1885, pp. 2, 161.] A. G. 

PALMER, JOHN (1742 P-1798), actor, 
born in the parish of St. Luke's, Old Street, 
London, about 1742, was son of a private 
soldier. In 1759 the father served under the 
Marquis of Granby, and subsequently, on the 
marquis's recommendation, became a bill- 
sticker and doorkeeper at Drury Lane Theatre. 
When about eighteen the son John recited 
before Garrick as George Barnwell and Mer- 
cutio ; but Garrick found no promise in him, 
and joined his father in urging him to enter 
the army. Garrick even got a small military 
appointment for him ; but Palmer refused to 
follow his counsel, and entered the shop of a 
print-seller on Ludgate Hill. 

On 20 May 1762, for the benefit of his father 
and three others, he made his first appearance 
on any stage, playing Buck in the ' English- 
man in Paris.' This performance he repeated 
for benefits on the 21st, 24th, and 25th. 
Palmer was then engaged by Foote, who said 

that his ' tragedy was d d bad,' but ' his 

comedy might do ' for the 'little theatre in the 
Haymarket,' now known as the Haymarket, 
where, in the summer of 1762, he was the ori- 
ginal Harry Scamper, an Oxford student, in 
Foote's ' Oracle.' Being refused an engage- 
ment by Garrick, whom he still failed to 
please, he joined a country company under 
Herbert, and played, at Sheffield, Richmond 
in ' Richard III.' Returning to London, he 
played, for the benefit of his father and others, 
George Barnwell in the ' London Merchant.' 
He then re-engaged with Foote, but was 
dismissed in the middle of the season. After 
acting at Portsmouth he was engaged by 
Garrick, at a salary of 20s. a week, for Drury 



Lane, but did not get higher than the Officer 
in ' Richard III ' (act ii. sc. i.) For his 
father's benefit Palmer appeared as Dick in 
the ' Apprentice.' At the Haymarket, in the 
summer of 1764, he was the original Sir Roger 
Dowlas in Foote's ' Patron.' Being refused at 
Drury Lane an increase of salary, he went to 
Colchester, under Hurst, and was so lightly 
esteemed that, but for the intercession of 
Mrs. Webb, an actress of influence, he would 
have been discharged. In Norwich he married 
a Miss Berroughs, who had taken a box for 
his benefit. He then gave, at Hampstead 
and Highgate, and in various country towns, 
Stevens's ' Lecture on Heads,' and, after 
playing with a strolling company, returned 
to London. In 1766, after refusing offers 
for Dublin and Covent Garden, he engaged 
with Garrick for Drury Lane, at a salary of 
25s. a week, raised in answer to his remon- 
strance to 30s. He appeared on 7 Oct. 1766 
as Sir Harry Beagle in the ' Jealous Wife.' 
He appears in the bills as ' J. Palmer,' being 
thus distinguished from his namesake, the 
elder John Palmer, known as ' Gentleman ' 
Palmer (see below), who took leading busi- 
ness in the company. 

Returning in the summer to the Hay- 
market, Palmer was on 2 July 1767 the ori- 
ginal Isaacos in the mock tragedy of the 
' Tailors,' and acted Ben Budge in the ' Beg- 
gar's Opera,' Morton in Hartson's ' Countess 
of Salisbury,' imported from Crow Street 
Theatre, Dublin, to the Lord William of 
Miss Palmer from Dublin, apparently no 
relation, and Young Rakish in the ' School- 
boy.' Back at Drury Lane, he was on 23 Oct. 
1767 the original Wilson in Garrick's 'Peep 
behind the Curtain, or the New Rehearsal;' 
Furnival, a worthless barrister, in Kenrick's 
' Widow'd Wife ; ' on 23 Jan. 1768 Sir Harry 
Newburgh in Kelly's ' False Delicacy,' and, 
21 March, Captain Slang in Bickerstatfe's 
'Absent Man,' and played also Young Wild- 
ing in the ' Liar,' and Colonel Tamper in 'The 
Deuce is in him.' 

The death of 'Gentleman Palmer 'in 1768 
was followed by the engagement of John 
Palmer for four years, at a salary rising from 
forty to fifty shillings a week. The parts as- 
signed him increased in number and import- 
ance. The death of Holland and the secession 
of other actors also contributed to his ad- 
vancement. It was, indeed, while replacing 
' Gentleman Palmer ' as Harcourt in the 
'Country Girl,' somewhere between 1766 
and 1768 most likely in 1767 that Jack 
Plausible, as the second Palmer was gene- 
rally called, established himself in Garrick's 
favour. He offered to play the part, with 
which he was quite unfamiliar, the following 



Palmer 



137 



Palmer 



day. ' Read it, you mean/ said Garrick, who 
held impossible the mastery of such a cha- 
racter within the time accorded. When at 
rehearsal Palmer read the part, Garrick ex- 
claimed : ' I said so ! I knew he would not 
study it.' At night Palmer spoke it with 
more accuracy than was often observable 
when better opportunities had been afforded 
him. Garrick also engaged Mrs. Palmer, who 
had never been upon the stage, and who, hav- 
ing through her marriage with an actor, for- 
feited the wealth she expected to inherit, was 
glad to accept the twenty shillings a week 
which, together with friendship never for- 
feited, Garrick proffered. Mrs. Palmer's ap- 
pearances on the stage appear to have been 
few, and are not easily traced. The initial J. 
was dropped in 1769-70 from the announce- 
ments of Palmer's name in the playbills. 
The omission gave rise to Foote's joke, that 
Jack Palmer had lost an I. Palmer was 
disabled for some months in consequence of 
an accident when acting Dionysius in the 
'Grecian Daughter,' to the Euphrasia of Mrs. 
Barry. The spring in her dagger refused to 
work, and she inflicted on him in her simu- 
lated fury a serious wound. In 1772 Palmer 
relinquished his summer engagement at the 
Haymarket in order to succeed Thomas King 
(1730-1805) [q. v.] at Liverpool, where he 
became a great favourite, and established 
himself as a tragedian. One circumstance 
alone militated against his popularity. He 
was said to ill-treat his wife. Alarmed at 
this report, he sent for that long-suffering 
lady, who came, and hiding, it is said, the 
bruises on her face inflicted by her husband, 
who was both false and cruel, walked about 
Liverpool with him and re-established him in 
public estimation. Not until 1776 did he re- 
appear at the Haymarket, which, however, 
from that time remained his ordinary place 
of summer resort. The retirement of Smith 
gave Palmer control all but undisputed over 
the highest comedy. Tribute to his special 
gifts is involved in his selection for Joseph 
Surface on the first performance of the ' School 
for Scandal,' 8 May 1777, a character in which 
he was by general consent unapproachable. 
Himself addicted to pleasure, for which he 
occasionally neglected his theatrical duties, 
he had a pharisaical way of appealing to 
the audience, which exactly suited the charac- 
ter, and invariably won him forgiveness. 
This it was, accompanied by his ' nice con- 
duct'of the pocket-handkerchief, thatsecured 
him the name of Plausible Jack, and esta- 
blished the fact that he was the only man who 
could induce the public to believe that his wife 
brought him offspring every two months. She 
brought him, in fact, eight children. After 



a quarrel with Sheridan, Palmer, approach- 
ing the dramatist with a head bent forward, 
his hand on his heart, and his most plausible 
Joseph Surface manner, and saying, ' If you 
could see my heart, Mr. Sheridan,' received 
the reply, ' Why, Jack, you forget I wrote 
it.' On 30 Aug. of the same year, at the 
Haymarket, he further heightened his repu- 
tation by his performance of Almaviva. 

In 1785 Palmer, yielding to his own ambi- 
tion and the counsel of friends, began to 
build the Royalty Theatre in Wellclose 
Square. Deaf to remonstrances, he persisted 
in his task, though the only licenses, wholly 
ineffectual, which he could obtain were those 
of the governor of the Tower and the magis- 
trates of the adjoining district. This build- 
ing he opened, 20 June 1787, with a per- 
formance of ' As you like it,' in which he 
was Jaques to the Rosalind of Mrs. Belfille, 
and ' Miss in her Teens,' in which he was 
Flash to the Miss Biddy of Mrs. Gibbs. The 
contest for places was violent. Apprehen- 
sive of an interference on the part of the 
authorities, he gave the representation for 
the benefit of the London Hospital. At the 
close Palmer read an address by Murphy, 
and said that performances would be sus- 
pended for the present. On 3 July the 
theatre was reopened for the performance of 
pantomimes and irregular pieces. Though 
backed up by friends, some of them of in- 
fluence and wealth, Palmer was never able 
to conquer the opposition of the managers 
of the patent houses. A pamphlet warfare 
began with ' A Review of the present Con- 
test between the Managers of the Winter 
Theatres, the Little Theatre in the Hay- 
market, and the Royalty Theatre in Well- 
close Square,' &c., 8vo, 1787. This, written in 
favour of Palmer, was answered anonymously 
by George Colman in ' A very plain State of 
the Case, or the Royalty Theatre versus the 
Theatres Royal,' &c., 8vo, 1787. In the same 
year appeared ' Royal and Royalty Theatres ' 
(by Isaac Jackman), ' Letter to the Author 
of the Burletta called" Hero and Leander,"' 
' The Trial of John Palmer for opening the 
Royalty Theatre, tried in the Olympian 
Shades,' and ' The Trial of Mr. John Palmer, 
Comedian and Manager of the Royalty 
Theatre,' &c. In 1788 appeared ' The Eastern 
Theatre Erected,' an heroic ' comic poem,' 
the hero of which is called Palmerio, and 
' Case of the Renters of the Royalty Theatre.' 
The polemic was continued after the death 
of Palmer, a list of the various pamphlets 
to which it gave rise being supplied in Mr. 
Robert Lowe's ' Bibliographical Account of 
Theatrical Literature.' Improvident and 
practically penniless through life, Palmer 



Palmer 



138 



Palmer 




ascribed to the treatment he received in con- 
nection with this speculation, in which 
nothing of his own was embarked, his subse- 
quent imprisonment for debt and the general 
collapse of his fortunes. 

In such difficulties was he plunged that 
he resided for some period in his dressing- 
room in Drury Lane Theatre, and when he 
was needed elsewhere he was conveyed in a 
cart behind theatrical scenery. On 15 June 
1789 he gave at the Lyceum an entertain- 
ment called 'As you like it,' which began 
with a personal prologue written by Thomas 
Bellamy [q. v.] He also played at Worces- 
ter and elsewhere, took the part of Henri 
du Bois, the hero in a spectacle founded on 
the taking of the Bastille, and, while a pri- 
soner in the Rules of the King's Bench, deli- 
vered three times a week, at a salary of 
twelve guineas aweek, Stevens's ' Lecture on 
Heads.' On 9 Nov. 1789 Drury Lane Theatre 
was closed, and Palmer, as a rogue and vaga- 
bond, was committed to the Surrey gaol. The 
public demanded him, however, and 1789-90 
is the only season in which he was not seen 
at Drury Lane. 

On 18 June 1798, the last night of the sea- 
son at Drury Lane, Palmer plaved Father 
Philip in the ' Castle Spectre ' "of ' Monk ' 
Lewis, and Comus, the former an original 
part, in which he had been first seen on the 
14th of the previous December. He then 
went to Liverpool, and was in low spirits, 
bewailing the death of his wife and that of a 
favourite son. He was announced to play in 
the ' Stranger,' but the performance was de- 
ferred. On 2 Aug. 1798 he attempted this 
part. No support of his friends could cheer 
him. He went through two acts with great 
effect. In the third act he was much agi- 
tated, and in the fourth, at the question of 
Baron Steinfort relative to his children, he 
endeavoured to proceed, fell back, heaved a 
convulsive sigh, and died, the audience suppos- 
ing, until the body was removed and the 
performance arrested, that he was merely 
playing his part. An attempt to reap a 
lesson from the incident was made by say- 
ing that his last words were, ' There is 
another and a better world.' It was said, too, 
that this phrase, which occurs in the third 
act, was to be placed on his tomb. "Whit- 
field, however, who played Steinfort, told 
Frederick Reynolds positively that Palmer 
fell in his presence, which is irreconcilable 
with this edifying version. A benefit for 
his children was at once held in Liverpool, 
an address by Thomas Roscoe [q. v.] being 
spoken, and realised a considerable sum. A 
benefit at the Haymarket on 18 Aug. 
brought nearly 700/. ; a third was given on 



15 Sept., the opening night at Drury Lane, 
when the ' Stranger ' was repeated. 

One of the most versatile as well as the most 
competent and popular of actors, Palmer 
played an enormous number of characters, 
principally at Drury Lane. Genest's list, 
which is far from complete, and does not 
even include all Palmer's original characters, 
amountsto over three hundred separate parts. 
Except singing characters and old men, there 
was nothing in which he was not safe, and 
there were many things in which he was fore- 
most. An idea of his versatility may be ob- 
tained from a few of the characters with which 
he was entrusted. These include Wellborn in 
' A New Way to pay Old Debts,' Face in the 
'Alchemist,' Pierre, Mercutio, lachimo, lago, 
Bastard in ' King John,' Slender, Teague, 
Trappanti, Young Marlow, Jaques, Buck- 
ingham in ' Henry VIII,' Ford, Ghost in 
' Hamlet ' and Hamlet, Colonel Feignwell, 
Bobadill, Valentine, and Ben in ' Love for 
Love,' Comus, Petruchio, Lofty in the ' Good 
Natured Man,' Puff in the ' Critic,' Lord 
Foppington, Lord Townly, Falstaff in the 
' Merry Wives of Windsor' and Henry IV, 
pt. i., Touchstone, Henry VIII, Inkle, 
Macduff, Macbeth, Octavian in the 'Moun- 
taineers,' Shylock, Prospero, Doricourt in the 
' Belle's Stratagem,' and innumerable others. 
Not less numerous are his original characters. 
Of these three stand prominently forth, the 
most conspicuous of all being Joseph Surface, 
which seems never to have been so well 
played since ; Almaviva in ' Spanish Barber,' 
and Dick Dowlas. Other original characters 
include Colonel Evans in the ' School for 
Rakes,' Captain Dormer in ' A Word to the 
Wise,' Dionysius in Murphy's ' Grecian 
Daughter,' Leeson in the ' School for Wives,' 
Siward in ' Matilda,' Sir Petronel Flash in 
' Old City Manners,' Solyman in the 'Sultan,' 
Jack Rubrick in the ' Spleen,' Earl Edwin 
in the ' Battle of Hastings,' Granger in 
' Who's the Dupe ? ' Sneer in the ' Critic,' 
Woodville in the 'Chapter of Accidents,' 
Contrast in the ' Lord of the Manor,' Sir 
Harry Trifle in the ' Divorce,' Almoran in 
the ' Fair Circassian,' Prince of Arragon in 
the piece so named, Lord Gayville in the 
' Heiress,' Don Octavio in the ' School for 
Guardians,' Sir Frederick Fashion in 'Se- 
duction,' Marcellus in ' Julia, or the Italian 
Lover,' Random in ' Ways and Means,' De- 
metrius in the ' Greek Slave,' Young Manly 
in the 'Fugitive,' Sydenham in the ' Wheel 
of Fortune,' Schedoni in the ' Italian Monk,' 
and Tonnage in the 'Ugly Club.' In tragedy 
Palmer was successful in those parts alone in 
which, as in Stukely, lago, &c., dissimulation 
is required. In comedy, thanks partly to his 



Palmer 



139 



Palmer 



fine figure, there are very many parts in which 
he was held perfect. His Young Wilding in 
the 'Liar' was by some esteemed his greatest 
character. Captain Flash, Face, Dick in the 
4 Confederacy,' Stukely, Sir Toby Belch, Cap- 
tain Absolute, Young Fashion, Prince of 
Wales in the ' First Part of King Henry IV,' 
Sneer, Don John, Volpone, Sir Frederick 
Fashion, Henry VIII, Father Philip in 
1 Castle Spectre,' Villeroy, and Brush are 
named as his best parts. Boaden declares 
him ' the most unrivalled actor of modern 
times ! ' and says ' he could approach a lady, 
bow to her and seat himself gracefully in 
her presence. We have had dancing- 
masters in great profusion since his time, 
but such deportment they have either not 
known or never taught.' His biographer 
says that his want of a ' classical education ' 
was responsible for his defects, which con- 
sisted of a want of taste and discrimination, 
and the resort to physical powers when judg- 
ment was at fault. His delivery of Collins's 
* Ode to the Passions ' was condemned as the 
one undertaking beyond his strength, and he 
is charged with unmeaning and ill-placed ac- 
cents. Dibdin says that he was vulgar, 
and Charles Lamb says that ' for sock or 
buskin there was an air of swaggering gen- 
tility about Jack Palmer. He was a gentle- 
man with a slight infusion of the footman.' 
In Captain Absolute, Lamb held, ' you 
thought you could trace his promotion to 
some lady of quality who fancied the hand- 
some fellow in a top-knot, and had bought 
him a commission.' In Dick Amlet he de- 
scribes Jack as unsurpassable. John Taylor 
condemns his Falstaff as heavy throughout. 
Among innumerable stories circulated con- 
cerning Palmer is one that his ghost appeared 
after his death. He was accused of forgetting 
his origin and ghinghimself airs. He claimed 
to have frequently induced the sheriff's officer 
by whom he was arrested to bail him out of 
prison. In his late years Palmer's unreadi- 
ness on first nights was scandalous. 

The authorship is ascribed to him of ' Like 
Master, Like Man,' 8vo, 1811, a novel in two 
volumes, with a preface by George Colman 
the younger. 

Portraits of Palmer in the Garrick Club 
include one by Russell, which was engraved 
by J. Collyer in 1787, a second by Arrow- 
smith as Cohenberg in the ' Siege of Belgrade,' 
a third by Parkinson as lachimo, and a fourth, 
anonymous, as Joseph Surface in the screen 
scene from the ' School for Scandal,' with 
King as Sir Peter, Smith as Charles Surface, 
and Mrs. Abington as Lady Teazle. A fifth, 
painted by Zoffany, representing Palmer as 
Face in the 'Alchemist,' with Garrick as 



Abel Drugger and Burton as Subtle, is in the 
possession of the Earl of Carlisle. 

ROBERT PALMEB (1757-1805?), the actor's 
brother, played with success impudent foot- 
men and other parts belonging to Palmer's 
repertory, and was good in the presentation 
of rustic characters and of drunkenness. He 
was born in Banbury Court, Long Acre, Sep- 
tember 1757, was educated at Brook Green, 
articled to Grimaldi the dancer, appeared as 
Mustard Seed in 'Midsummer Night's Dream' 
at Drury Lane when six years old, played in 
the country, and acted both at the Hay- 
market and Drury Lane. He survived his 
brother, and succeeded him in Joseph Sur- 
face and other parts, for which he was in- 
competent. Lamb compares the two Pal- 
mers together, and says something in praise 
of the younger. Portraits of ' Bob ' Palmer 
by Dewilde, as Tag in the ' Spoiled Child,' 
and as Tom in the ' Conscious Lovers,' are 
in the Mathews collection in the Garrick 
Club. Another brother, William, who died 
about 1797, played in opera in Dublin, and 
was seen at Drury Lane. 

JOHX PALMER the elder (d. 1768), known 
as ' Gentleman Palmer,' but who does not seem 
to have been related to the subject of this 
memoir, was celebrated as Captain Plume, as 
Osric, and as the Duke's servant in ' High 
Life below Stairs ; ' he was also a favourite in 
Orlando and Claudio, but especially in such 
'jaunty parts' as Mercutio. His wife, a 
Miss Pritchard, played from 1756 to 1768, 
and was accepted as Juliet and Lady Betty 
Modish, but was better in lighter parts, 
such as Fanny in the ' Clandestine Marriage.' 
' Gentleman Palmer,' who has been frequently 
confused with his namesake, died on 23 May 
1768, aged 40, his death being due to taking 
in mistake a wrong medicine. 

[A Sketch of the Theatrical Life of the late 
Mr. John Palmer. 8vo, 1798; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Doran's Annals of the 
English Stage, ed. Lowe: Thespian Dictionary; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; John Taylor's 
Records of my Life ; Boaden's Lives of Siddons, 
J. P. Kemble, J< rdan, and Inchbald ; Adolphus's 
Life of Bannister; Dibdin's History of the Stage; 
Clark Russell's Representative Actors; Georgian 
Era ; Dutton Cook's Half-hours with the Players ; 
Garrick Correspondence; Walpole's Letters, ed. 
Cunningham ; Bernard's Retrospections ; Cum- 
berland's Memoirs; O'Keeffe's Recollections; Ox- 
berry's Dramatic Mao-azine ; Theatrical Review; 
Tute Wilkinson's Wandering Patentee; Era 
Almanack, various years, &c.] J. K. 

PALMER, JOHN (1742-1818), pro- 
jector of mail-coaches, born at Bath in 1742, 
was the son of John Palmer, a prosperous 
brewer and tallow-chandler, and a member 



Palmer 



140 



Palmer 



of an old Bath family. His mother, Jane, 
was one of the Longs of Wraxall Manor, 
Wiltshire [see LONG, SIR JAMES], and she and 
her husband are commemorated on a tablet 
in the chancel of Weston Church, Bath. 
John Palmer the elder died on 13 April 1788, 
aged 68, and Jane Palmer on 4 Jan. 1783, 
also aged 68. Young Palmer was educated 
at first privately at Colerne, and afterwards 
at Marlborough grammar school. His father 
designed him for the church, but, although 
he preferred the army, he was ultimately 
placed in the counting-house of the brewery. 
He kept up his spirits by hunting with a 
pack of hounds which belonged to a clerical 
relative ; at the end of a year's hard work, 
however, his career as a brewer was ter- 
minated by incipient consumption, and he 
was compelled to leave Bath. 

His father had in 1750 become proprietor 
of a new theatre in the centre of Bath, and, en- 
couraged by its success, had opened in 1767 
another theatre in Orchard Street in a new dis- 
trict of the city, which also proved a profitable 
speculation. In 1768, having the support of 
the corporation, he accordingly obtained from 
parliament (8 Geo. Ill, cap. 10) an act grant- 
ing him a practical monopoly of theatrical 
property in Bath for twenty-one years. The 
young Palmer acted throughout this business 
as agent for his father in London, where he 
made some important friendships, but soon 
after his return to Bath, with restored health, 
he took the main control. The elder Palmer 
withdrew from the affairs of the Bath theatre 
in 1776, and on 12 April in that year a new 
patent was granted to 'John Palmer the 
younger, citizen of Bath,' and his executors, 
licensing him to establish a theatre at Bath 
for eight years, from 25 March 1789 (Patent 
Rolls, 16 Geo. Ill, pt. iv.) In 1779 Palmer 
became lessee also of the Bristol theatre, but 
he confided the management to others (LAii- 
MER, Annals of Bristol in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, p. 439). By working the two houses 
together, however, he was able to give ex- 
cellent entertainments in each city, usually 
on alternate days. The Bath theatre became 
famous for the performances of Henderson, 
King, Abingdon, Elliston, Siddons, &c.,whom 
it introduced to public notice. 

In the course of his journeys on business 
connected with the theatre, Palmer had ob- 
served that the state post was the slowest 
mode of conveyance in the country. The mail 
took three days between London and Bath, 
a journey Palmer frequently accomplished 
in one ; and letters of importance were con- 
stantly sent by stage-coach, in spite of heavy 
fees. Palmer was well acquainted with the 
wealth which had been acquired by Ralph 



Allen [q. v.], of Prior Park, through the in- 
stitution of cross-posts, and in 1782 he pre- 
pared a plan for the reform of the postal 
service, the main idea of which was that the 
mails should be conveyed by stage coaches in- 
stead of by post boys on worn-out horses. The 
coach was to be guarded, to carry no outside 
passengers, and to travel at a speed of eight 
or nine miles an hour ; and the mails were to 
leave London at eight in the evening, in- 
stead of after midnight, and were not to be 
detained for government letters. In October 
the plan was brought under the notice of 
Pitt, then chancellor of the exchequer, 
through Mr. Pratt, afterwards Lord Camden, 
Palmer's friend. One of Palmer's arguments 
was that the service would be so much im- 
proved that an increase of the postage would 
be justified ; and Pitt, anxious to avoid an in- 
creased coal-tax, at once took up the question, 
which was referred to the post office for ob- 
servations. In August 1783 the post office 
declared that the plan was impracticable. But 
on 21 June 1784 Pitt held a conference, at 
which were present the postmasters-general, 
Palmer, and the officials who had reported 
against the scheme, with the result that Pitt 
directed that the plan should be tried on the 
London and Bristol road. Palmer assisted 
at the departure of the first mail-coach from 
Bristol on 2 Aug. Every obstruction was 
placed in the way by the local postmasters 
on the route, but they were at once warned to 
strictly obey Palmer's orders. On 23 Aug. the 
treasury suggested that the mail-coach ser- 
vice should be extended to Norwich, Not- 
tingham, Liverpool, and Manchester. By 
the autumn of 1785 mail-coaches were run- 
ning, not only to those towns, but also to 
Leeds, Gloucester, Swansea, Hereford, Mil- 
ford Haven, Worcester, Birmingham, Shrews- 
bury, Holyhead, Exeter, Portsmouth, Dover, 
and other places. A service to Edinburgh 
was established in 1786. In February 1785 
the Bristol merchants and the Bath corpora- 
tion passed resolutions of thanks to Palmer 
(Bath Chronicle, 24 Feb. 1785). 

The services to places lying off the main 
roads were for a time thrown into much 
disorder. But these difficulties were gradually 
overcome, and the post-office revenue during 
the quarter ended 5 Jan. 1787 was 73,000/., 
as compared with 51,000/. in the correspond- 
ing quarter of 1784. The number of letters 
conveyed grew larger in spite of the increase 
in the rate of postage, the explanation being 
that the temptation to send correspondence 
clandestinely at a heavy charge was now 
removed. 

Palmer was not a disinterested reformer, 
and he pressed for a substantial remunera- 



Palmer 



141 



Palmer 



tion. He had been verbally promised through 
Pitt's secretary, Dr. Pretyman, in case the 
plan succeeded, two and a half per cent. 
on the increase of the post-office revenue 
during his life, with a general control of 
the office and its expenditure. But delays 
arose in settling the terms. In March 1786 
the postmaster-general endeavoured anew 
to procure the abandonment of Palmer's 
scheme. Pitt, however, was satisfied with 
Palmer's refutation of the allegations made 
against him, and on 11 Oct. Palmer was 
appointed comptroller-general of the post 
office. 

In his capacity as comptroller-general 
Palmer corrected many of the irregularities 
of the service, but the parliamentary com- 
mission of inquiry of 1788 still found nume- 
rous gross abuses in the post office. Of Palmer 
himself, however, they reported that he had 
exceeded the expectations held forth by him 
with regard to despatch and expense ; the 
revenue was augmented, and answers were 
returned to letters with a punctuality never 
before experienced, at a lower rate per mile 
than of old. They therefore thought Palmer 
entitled to the compensation he claimed, viz. 
his expenses up to 2 Aug. 1784, and two and 
a half per cent, on the total increase of 
revenue, as compared with an average of the 
revenue at that time, such allowance to in- 
clude salary and expenses. 

From June to October 1787 Palmer was 
in France, by direction of the treasury, 
for the purpose of settling with the inten- 
dant-general of the posts there a daily com- 
munication with England under improved 
regulations, as well as a similar plan for 
other parts of the continent. He did not 
succeed, and before his return Lord Walsing- 
ham, a man as energetic as Palmer him- 
self, had become postmaster-general. Palmer's 
jealousy was aroused as soon as Walsingham 
gave any instructions affecting the inland 
post, and the friction between the postmaster 
and the comptroller quickly became intense 
(JOYCE, History of the Post Office). 

A commission of inquiry was held in 
1789 to consider Palmer's appeals for pay- 
ment for his improvements in the postal ser- 
vice, and, after much discussion, the treasury, 
on 2 July 1789, granted two warrants, one 
for the payment of arrears, the other a war- 
rant in place of that of 1786, appointing 
Palmer surveyor and comptroller general. 
Among further reforms which Palmer now 
introduced was the establishment of a sepa- 
rate newspaper office ; before the postmaster- 
general knew any thing about it, the office was 
established, a staff of sorters appointed, and 
their wages fixed. When Walsingham asked 



for particulars in order that the plan might 
be properly sanctioned and the appointments 
confirmed, Palmer refused to comply with the 
request. Pitt pointed out that Palmer had 
power to suspend, but not to appoint, post- 
office servants. To this decision, however, 
as in other cases, Palmer paid no attention. 
Thenceforth the breach between Palmer and 
his official superior widened. In March 1790 
Lord Chesterfield was joined with Walsing- 
ham in the office of postmaster-general, and 
Palmer's autocratic policy was more effec- 
tually hindered. A quarrel between himself 
and his friend Charles Bonnor [q. v.], whom 
he had made deputy-controller, further jeopar- 
dised his position. Matters came to a head 
early in 1792, when the postmasters-general, 
in consequence of some discrepancies in the 
accounts, directed that letters for the city for 
the first delivery should be checked. The 
merchants in the city met on 15 Feb. and 
complained of the consequent delay in the 
receipt of their correspondence. Bonnor, the 
deputy comptroller, who owed everything 
to Palmer, published a pamphlet (' Facts re- 
lating to the Meeting on the Fifteenth of Fe- 
bruary at the London Tavern '), in which he 
alleged that the meeting had been promoted 
by Palmer to obtain an enlargement of his 
powers ; that Palmer had supplied to the 
chairman material for the attack, and that 
the delay complained of was a wilful contri- 
vance of Palmer's. A few days afterwards 
Palmer suspended Bonnor, and the post- 
masters-general, failing to extract from Pal- 
mer any explanation of this step, suspended 
him (7 March). On 2 May Pitt suggested 
that there should be a court of inquiry into 
the whole controversy. Soon, however, Bon- 
nor gave Walsingham a number of private 
letters, many of them compromising, which 
had passed between Palmer and himself 
during their intimacy. Pitt thereupon agreed 
that the postmasters-general must take their 
own course. Palmer was dismissed, but not 
in express words ; a fresh list of the esta- 
blishment was prepared, and from this list 
Palmer's name was omitted. A little later 
Pitt granted Palmer a pension of 3,000/. 
(from 5 April 1793). Bonnor became comp- 
troller of the inland department, but after 
two years he was dismissed. 

Palmer's plan had brought with it economy 
as well as safety and speed. Before 1784 the 
annual allowance for carrying the mails was 
4:1. to SI. a mile ; in 1792 the terms for the 
conveyance of mails were exemption from 
tolls and an annual allowance of rather over 
3^. a mile. Palmer had estimated the total cost 
of his plan at 30,000/. a year ; the actual cost 
was slightly over 12,0007. ( JOYCE, History of 



Palmer 



142 



Palmer 



the Post Office, p. 290). Before 1784 there 
had been constant robbery of the mails, in- 
volving great expense in prosecutions ; from 
1784 to 1792 no mail-coach was stopped or 
robbed. In 1788 no Iless than 320 towns 
which had formerly had a post thrice a week 
had one daily. The speed had been increased 
from five or six miles to seven miles an hour, 
in spite of badly made and hilly roads ; and 
the old and unsatisfactory coaches had all 
been replaced by 1792 by coaches supplied 
by a patentee named Besant (ib. pp. 282-3). 
Honours came to Palmer from many quar- 
ters. He had been presented with the free- 
dom of Liverpool, York, Hull, Chester, Mac- 
clesfield, Edinburgh, Ennis, Aberdeen, Perth, 
Glasgow, Gloucester, Inverness, and other 
towns; tokens had been struck in his honour, 
and a silver cup given him by the Glasgow 
chamber of commerce ; this was presented in 
1875 to the Bath corporation by his grand- 
daughter (MALET, Annals of the Road, p. 29). 
Palmer would have held a higher position as 
a postal reformer if he had aimed at cheapen- 
ing postage instead of merely so improving 
the service as to justify increased rates. 

Palmer had given up the management of 
the Bath Theatre in 1785, appointing others to 
carry on that business, as well as a large sper- 
maceti manufactory in Bath which belonged 
to him (Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 514-15). 
In 1796, and again in 1809, he was chosen 
mayor of Bath, and while occupying that 
position published a circular letter, propos- 
ing a general subscription for the public ser- 
vice. He himself gave liberally, and his 
wife's relatives, the Longs, contributed 
three thousand guineas (Annual Biography, 
1820, p. 72). Palmer was chosen M.P. for 
Bath in 1801, 1802, 1806, and 1807 ; but he 
accepted the Chiltern Hundreds in 1808, 
when his son, Charles Palmer (1777-1851) 
(see below), was elected in his place. 

From 1794 Palmer pressed his grievances 
connected with the post office upon the trea- 
sury. A committee of the house reported in 
Palmer's favour in 1799, but his claims to 
remuneration beyond his pension of 3,000/. 
were overruled by Pitt's government. After 
Pitt's death the question was reopened, the 
agitation being henceforth mainly conducted 
by the claimant's son Charles. Finally, in 18 1 3, 
Lord Liverpool's government introduced a bill 
for the payment to Palmer of 50,000/. from 
the consolidated fund without any fee or de- 
duction, and without affecting the pension of 
3,000/. a year granted in 1793. This bill 
(53 Geo. Ill, cap. 157), the fourth which had 
been introduced, was read a third time in the 
commons on 14 July 1813, and was at once 
accepted by the lords, who thus brought to 



a close a struggle which had cost Palmer 
13,000/. 

Palmer died at Brighton on 16 Aug. 1818. 
His remains were conveyed to Bath, and 
laid in the abbey church in the presence of 
the mayor and corporation ; but there is no 
inscription. Palmer married, on 2 Nov. 1786, 
Miss Pratt, probably a relative of his friend, 
Lord Camden ( Gent. Mag. 1786, ii. 995) ; 
but this must have been a second marriage, 
for in 1788 he described himself as having 
six children, and his eldest son was born in 
1777. Besides his eldest son, Charles, a son 
John became a captain in the navy, while 
a third son, Edmund Palmer, C.B., also in 
the navy, distinguished himself in 1814 by 
capturing a French frigate, and married a 
niece of Lord St. Vincent. This lady had 
in her possession (1864) a painting of her 
father-in-law a man of heroic size by 
Gainsborough. 

CHARLES PALMER (1777-1851), the eldest 
son, born at Weston near Bath on 6 May 
1777, was educated at Eton and Oriel Col- 
lege, Oxford, and entered the army as cornet 
in the 10th dragoons in May 1796. He served 
during the whole of the Peninsular war with 
his regiment, of which he acted as lieute- 
nant-colonel from May 1810 to November 
1814. The prince regent appointed him one 
of his aides-de-camp on 8 Feb. 1811, and he 
held the appointment until he was promoted 
major-general on 27 May 1825. He repre- 
sented Bath in the whig interest from 1808 
to 1826, and again from 1830 to 1837. He 
was a large vine-grower in the Gironde, and 
became, upon his father's death, the proprie- 
tor of the Bath theatre. He died on 17 April 
1851, having married Mary Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of John Thomas Atkins of Hunters- 
combe House, Buckinghamshire. He printed 
a ' Speech on the State of the Nation on the 
Third Reading of the Reform Bill,' 1832 
(Royal Military Calendar, 1820, iv. 243; 
SMITH, Parliaments of England, 1844, i. 27- 
28 ; Gent. Mag. 1851, ii. 92). 

[The fullest and best account of Palmer's 
work at the post office is to be found in Joyce's 
History of the Post Office, 1893. The subse- 
quent parliamentary struggle is described at 
length in the Parliamentary Debates, vols. ix. 
xi. xiv. xx. xxiii. xvi. The Papers relative to the 
Agreement with Mr. Palmer, 1797, contain the 
best representation of Palmer's case. The re- 
ports of the various select committees which con- 
sidered Palmer's case were reprinted in 1813 
in a parliamentary paper numbered 222 ; the 
evidence taken in 1813 is given in paper 260. 
Murch's Ralph Allen, John Palmer,and the Eng- 
lishPost Office, 1880, and Lewi ns's Her Majesty's 
Mails, 1 865, may also be consulted. For Pal- 
mer's connection with Bath, reference should be 



Palmer 



Palmer 



made to Peach's Historic Houses in Bath, 2nd 
ser. 1884, pp. 115-19, Rambles about Bath, 1876, 
pp.217, 234, and Street Lore of Bath, 1893, 
p. 140; Penley's Bath Stage, 1892, pp. 24, 25, 
33-8.47-9,64,95,117, 122; Warner's History 
of Bath. 1801, pp. 214, 336, 364; Earle's Guide 
to the Knowledge of Bath, 1864, pp. 227-9 ; 
Annual Biography, 1820, pp. 66-83; Genest's 
Account of the English Stage, vols. v. &c. ; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vols. v. and vi. The 
writer of this article has been indebted for in- 
formation to the Rev. E. H. Hardcastle, and for 
suggestions to both Mr. Joyce, C.B., and Mr. 
Peach of Bath.] G. A. A. 

PALMER, JOHN (/. 1818), traveller, 
apparently a native of Lynn, Norfolk, sailed 
from Liverpool on 28 March 1817 on a visit 
to the United States and Canada. During 
the voyage he had for companions "William 
Cobbett and his two sons. Soon after his 
return to England on 28 Feb. 1818, he pub- 
lished his ' Journal of Travels in the United 
States of North America and in Lower 
Canada,' 8vo, London, 1818. It contains 
particulars relating to the prices of land 
and provisions, remarks on the country and 
the people, an account of the commerce of 
the principal towns, and a description of a 
pair of sea-serpents that were said to have 
been seen off Marblehead and Cape Ann in 
1817. A Dutch translation of the book ap- 
peared at Haarlem in 1820, 8vo. Sydney 
Smith, in noticing the ' Journal ' in the 
' Edinburgh Review ' for December 1818, p. 
133, described it as having been written by 
a 'plain man, of good sense and slow judg- 
ment.' 

[Allibone's Diet, of Authors, ii. 1493 ; Apple- 
ton's Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.] G. G. 

PALMER, JOHN (BERNARD) (1782- 

1852), mitred abbot, born on 15 Oct. 1782, 
was son of William Palmer, a small farmer 
in the parish of Charmouth, Dorset, and was 
bred a low churchman. In 1806 he came to 
London to seek employment, chanced to at- 
tend the services at the Roman catholic 
chapel in Warwick Street, Regent Street, read 
' The Garden of the Soul,' and was converted 
to Roman Catholicism. He then entered 
the service of Thomas Weld of Lulworth 
Castle, Dorset, and in 1808 became a novice 
in the Cistercian monastery of St. Susan, 
Lulworth, where he was professed by the 
name of Bernard on 21 Nov. 1810. Harassed 
by government in 1817, the Lulworth com- 
munity found an asylum in the abbey o1 
La Meilleraie (Melleray), near Nantes, where 
Palmer received minor orders. In 1831 the 
abbey of La Meilleraie was suppressed anc 
dissolved by Louis-Philippe's government 



and, though a few of the monks were per- 
mitted to remain, the majority emigrated to 
Ireland, and founded the abbey of Mount 
Melleray, co. Waterford. In affiliation to this 
monastery was established in 1836 a little 
:ommunity of about nine brothers in Charn- 
wood Forest, Leicestershire. At first they 
resided in a cottage, where they were joined 
in March 1837 by Palmer, just released from 
:onfmement in Nantes. He had been detained 
there, notwithstanding the representations 
of the British consul, since the suppression of 
the abbey of La Meilleraie. 

In 1837 the* monks removed from the 
ottage to a little monastery which had been 
built for them in its immediate vicinity from 
funds contributed by Ambrose Lisle Phillipps 
and others of the faithful. On 31 July 1838 
Palmer received priest's orders, and in 1841 
was appointed superior of the house. The 
community rapidly grew in numbers, and in 
1844 the monastery was abandoned for a new 
and much larger structure, built in Pugin's 
severest lancet style, on a neighbouring emi- 
nence, to which was given the name of Mount 
St. Bernard. The major portion of the funds 
was contributed by the Earl of Shrewsbury 
and Ambrose Lisle Phillipps, the residue 
being raised by public subscription [see DB 
LISLE, AMBROSE LISLE MAECH PHILLIPPS]. 

By decrees of the congregation ' de propa- 
ganda fide,' ratified by Pius IX on 9 May 
1848, the monastery was constituted anabbey 
with independent jurisdiction, in union with 
the general chapter of the Cistercian Congre- 
gation of Strict Observance, that is to say 
in the Trappist obedience, in France, and 
Palmer was appointed abbot. As such he 
was consecrated on 18 Feb. 1849, with mitre, 
crosier, ring, and gloves. As the first 
English mitred abbot since the Reformation, 
Palmer occupies a conspicuous position in 
the history of the catholic revival of the 
nineteenth century. He possessed in an 
eminent degree the characteristics of the 
saint profound humility, boundless charity, 
and habit of severe self-mortification. After 
a long and painful illness, borne with exem- 
plary patience, he died of dropsy on 10 Nov. 

1852. On the 13th his remains were interred 
in a vault beneath the chapter-room of the 
abbey. 

[Tablet, 20 Nov. 1852; Catholic Directory, 

1853, p. 181: Gent. Mag. 1853, pt. i. p. 101 ; 
Concise History of the Cistercian Order, 1852 ; 
Metr. and Provinc. Cath. Almanac, 1855 ; 
Oliver's Collect, illustrating the History of the 
Catholic Religion, p. 371 ; An Appeal to the Ca- 
tholics of England in behalf of the Abbey Church 
of St. Bernard, Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, 
1842.] J. M. R. 



Palmer 



144 



Palmer 



PALMER, JOHN HORSLEY (1779- 

1858), governor of the Bank of England, 
born on 7 July 1779, was the fourth son of 
"William Palmer of Nazeing Park, Essex, 
merchant of London, magistrate and high 
sheriif of Essex, by his wife Mary, only daugh- 
ter of John Horsley, rector of Thorley, Hert- 
fordshire, and Newington Butts, and sister 
of Bishop Samuel Horsley. One brother, 
the Rev. William Jocelyn Palmer, was father 
of Roundell Palmer, first earl of Selborne 
[q. v.] Another brother, George Palmer [q. v.], 
entered into partnership with him and Cap- 
tain Wilson as East India merchants and 
shipowners in 1802. Elected a director of 
the Bank of England in 1811, and governor 
from 1830 to 1832, he was one of the lead- 
ing authorities of the time on currency and 
finance. In 1832 he gave evidence before the 
committee of secrecy on the Bank of England 
charter when he explained the causes of the 
panic of 1825, and the principle by which the 
bank regulated its issues (Report, pp. 7-70). 
He supplemented his arguments before the 
committee with ' The Causes and Conse- 
quences of the Pressure upon the Money 
Market ; with a Statement of the Action of 
the Bank of England from 1 Oct. 1833 to 
27 Dec. 1836,' London, 1837, 8vo. This im- 
portant pamphlet, which is still of considerable 
value, called forth replies from Samuel Jones 
Loyd (afterwards Lord Overstone) [q. v.], 
Samson Ricardo, and other writers. Palmer 
then published his ' Reply to the Reflections 
... of Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd on the Pam- 
phlet entitled " Causes and Consequences," ' 
&c., London, 1837, 8vo. This controversy 
did much to establish his reputation. On 
4 Dec. 1839 he was appointed a member of 
the royal commission on bankruptcy and 
insolvency. In 1840 he was examined at 
great length by the select committee on 
banks of issue (Report, pp. 103-41). When 
he retired from active business, in April 1857, 
he was senior director of the Bank of Eng- 
land. He died at Hurlingham, Middlesex, 
on 7\Feb. 1858. 

Palmer married, first, in November 1810, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Belli, and sister- 
in-law of Archbishop Howley, by whom he 
had issue three sons and three daughters. 
On her death, on 22 June 1839, he married, 
secondly, on 8 July 1841, at Lambeth 
Palace, Jane Louisa, fifth daughter of Samuel 
Pepys Cockerell of Westbourne, Middlesex. 
She died without issue on 13 Oct. 1865. In 
addition to the pamphlets mentioned above, 
Palmer published ' Reasons against the pro- 
posed Indian Joint-Stock Bank, in a Letter 
to G. G. de H. Larpent, Esq.,' London, 1836, 
8vo. 



[Burke's Peerage, s.v. 'Selborne ;' Gent. Mag. 
1832 ii. 171, 1840 i. 83, 1841 ii. 313, 1858 
i. 341 ; Bankers' Mag. 1858, p. 268 ; Maclaren's 
History of the Currency, pp. 173-8 ; Francis's 
History of the Bank of England, i. 346, ii. 62, 
132; Gilbart's Works, iv. pp. 257-9, 277, 278 ; 
M'Culloch's Literature of Political Economy, 
pp. 181, 182.1 W. A. S. H. 

PALMER, formerly BTJDWORTH, 
JOSEPH (1756-1815), miscellaneous writer, 
born in 1 756, was son of the Rev. William Bud- 
worth, master of Brewood school, Stafford- 
shire. At an early age he joined the 72nd 
regiment, or royal Manchester volunteers. 
He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, 
and proceeded with the regiment to Gibraltar. 
In the course of the siege of that fortress by 
the combined forces of France and Spain, he 
was severely wounded. He returned home 
with his regiment in 1783, and accepted a 
cadetship in the Bengal artillery, though he 
did not long remain in India. Subsequently 
he retired from the service ; but in the war 
occasioned by the French revolution, he 
volunteered as a captain in the North Hamp- 
shire militia. Shortly after leaving the 
army he married Elizabeth, sister of Roger 
Palmer, esq., of Rush, near Dublin, and of 
Palmerstown, co. Mayo, and succeeded, in her 
right, on the decease of her brother in 1811, 
to the estates and name of Palmer. He was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
on 4 June 1795 (GotTGH, Chronological List, 
p. 58). He died at Eastbourne, Sussex, on 
4 Sept. 1815, and was buried on the 14th in 
the churchyard of West Moulsey, Surrey, to- 
which parish he had been a liberal benefactor. 

His only daughter and sole heiress, Emma 
Mary, became the wife of W. A. Mackinnon r 
of Newtown Park, M.P. for Lymington. She 
died on 15 Nov. 1835, aged 43 (Gent. Mag* 
1835, pt. ii. p. 663). 

Palmer wrote much in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' under the signature ' Rambler/ 
His works are: 1. 'A Fortnight's Ramble 
to the Lakes in Westmoreland, Lancashire, 
and Cumberland. By a Rambler,' London, 
1792, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1795; 3rd edit. 1810; 
dedicated to William Noble, banker. To the 
latter edition were added ' A Re-visit to 
Buttermere, January 1795,' and ' Half-pay/ 
Many interesting anecdotes of the siege of 
Gibraltar, including particulars of his own 
military services, occur in pp. 358-82. 
2. ' Half-pay [a poem]. Written at Gibraltar 
on a very stormy evening, with the melan- 
choly prospect of going upon Half-pay,' 1794; 
dedicated to Colonel Hans Sloane, M.P. 
3. ' The Lancashire Collier-Girl. A true 
Story,' in ' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1795, 
pt. i. p. 197. This tale was widely dis- 



Palmer 



145 



Palmer 



seminated by the Society for Circulating 
Serious Tracts among the Poor, but with 
some alterations not approved by the author. 
4. ' The Siege of Gibraltar : a Poem,' Lon- 
don, 1795, 4to. 6. ' A View of the Village 
of Hampton from Moulsey Hurst. With the 
original "Lancashire Collier-Girl," 'London, 
1797, 12mo. 6. ' Windermere : a Poem,' 
London, 1798, 8vo. 7. A memoir of his 
father, the Rev. "William Budworth, and an 
account of an interesting conversation be- 
tween Bishop Hurd and himself, are in Ni- 
chols's ' Literary Anecdotes,' vol. iii. 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, pp. 45, 
418 ; Philip John Budworth's Memorials of 
the Parishes of Greensted-Budworth, Chipping 
Ongar, and High Laver, Ongar, 1876, 8vo; 
Gent. Mag. 1811 pt. ii. pp. 403, 404, 1815 pt. ii. 
pp. 285, 388, 1835 pt. ii. p. 663; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 334-40, viii. 445, ix. 140, 141, 155-7, 
x. 644; Upcott's English Topography, p. 125; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit., under ' Budworth.'] T. C. 

PALMER, JULINS (d. 1556), martyr, 
was the son of Roger Palmer, mercer or 
upholsterer, who was sheriff of Coventry in 
1525 and mayor in 1533 (Mayors, Bailiffs, 
and Sheriffs of Coventry, 1830, p. 3, &c.) 
His name Julins was apparently a form of 
Joscelin, and has been generally misspelt 
Julius. He was born at Coventry, but at 
an early age entered Magdalen College 
school, Oxford, where he was for some time 
a pupil of John Harley [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Hereford. He then became clerk 
at Magdalen College, and graduated B.A. in 
March 1547-8; in 1549 he was elected 
fellow, and in 1550 was appointed reader in 
logic. He soon attracted notice by his un- 
compromising Roman catholic opinions, and 
in 1552 was accused of having written 
libellous verses on the president. Palmer 
denied the charge, but attacked the reformers 
with such vehemence that his name was 
struck off the list of fellows before July. 
He then became a tutor in the household of 
Sir Francis Knollys [q. v.] 

On the accession of Mary he was restored 
to his fellowship, but a perusal of Calvin's 
' Institutes ' began to unsettle his religious 
opinions, and his orthodoxy was further 
shaken by reading Peter Martyr's ' Com- 
mentary on the First Epistle to the Corin- 
thians ' [see VERMIGLI, PIETKO MARTIRE] 
and witnessing the execution of Ridley and 
Latimer, which he strongly denounced. He 
now became as vehement a protestant as he 
had before been Roman catholic, absented 
himself from mass, and made a point of 
walking out whenever obnoxious ceremonies 
occurred in the church service. He avoided 
a second expulsion from his fellowship by 

VOL. XLIII. 



voluntarily leaving Oxford, and obtained the 
grant of a mastership in Reading grammar 
school. He was not long left in peace, for 
his study was searched by some of his ene- 
mies, and various anti-Roman catholic manu- 
scripts discovered, including a poem called 
' Epicedium,' written in answer to an epitaph 
on Gardiner by Peter Morwen [q. v.] They 
threatened to inform against him unless he 
at once left Reading. Palmer sought shelter 
with his mother, who, after her husband's 
death, had retired to Eynsham, but she 
refused it on account of his heretical opinions. 
He now apparently obtained letters from the 
president of Magdalen, recommending him 
for a mastership in a school in Gloucester- 
shire ; but an incautious visit to Reading to 
secure his manuscripts and arrears of pay 
led to his arrest. He was brought before 
the mayor, Robert Bowyer, and then taken 
to Newbury. Here he was examined before 
the consistory of Dr. Jeffrey on 16 July 
1556, and, after refusing to subscribe certain 
articles drawn up for him, was condemned 
to be burnt. The sentence was carried out 
on the following morning at the sandpits, 
which tradition identifies with some pits 
near the town on the Enbourn road (New- 
bury and its Environs, pp. 91-102). Besides 
his answer to Morwen, Strype attributes to 
Palmer various fugitive pieces, which were 
never printed and are not known to be 
extant. 

[Bloxam's Eeg. of Magdalen College, vol. ii. 
pp. xlvi, Iii, Ivii, 7-38, iii. 105-6, iv. 135 n.; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; Foxe's Acts 
and Mon. viii. 201-19, 721-2, and Martyrs, ed. 
1888, pp. 767-74 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 125, 
232 ; Strype's Annals, i. 737, ii. 512, and Eccl. 
Mem. i. 82, 574-85; Fuller's Worthies, ed. 
1662, iii. 120, and Church Hist. ed. Brewer, ii. 
466, iv. 181 ; Narratives of the Eeformatiott 
(Camden Soc.), pp. 85-131, 341 ; Harleian MS. 
425 ; Wordsworth's Eccl. Biography, iii. 125-6 ;. 
Soames's Hist, of the Eeformation, iv. 474-6 ; 
Glocester Eidley's Life of Eidley, p. 670 , 
Carwithen's Church of England, ed. 1849, i. 373; 
McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia ; Colville's 
Warwickshire Worthies, pp. 561-4 ; Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser.i. 43.] A. F. P. 

PALMER, MKS. MARY (1716-1794), 
author, eldest daughter and third child of 
Samuel Reynolds, master of the grammar 
school of Plympton Earl, Devonshire, by his 
wife, Theophila Potter, was a sister of the 
great painter, Sir Joshua Reynolds [q. v.] 
She was born 9 Feb. 1716, and was thus 
seven years Sir Joshua's senior. Her fondness 
for drawing is said to have had much in- 
fluence on him when a boy. In 1740 she 
furnished 601., half of the premium paid to 



Palmer 



146 



Palmer 



Thomas Hudson [q. v.], the portrait-painter, 
for Reynolds, and nine years later advanced 
money for his expenses in Italy. 

Miss Reynolds married, 18 July 1740, John 
Palmer of Torrington, Devonshire. He was 
educated for a solicitor, but never practised. 
In 1752 he built a house at Great Torrington 
(now known as Palmer House), and it was 
there that Dr. Johnson stayed with the Pal- 
mers when visiting Devonshire with Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. It is told that when Dr. 
Johnpon was asked by Mrs. Palmer if he liked 
pancakes, he replied, 'Yes; but I never get 
enough of them.' Whereupon Mrs. Palmer 
had a good supply served up, and the doctor 
ate thirteen. Palmer died in the autumn of 
1770, his wife surviving him until 27 May 
1794. 

Mrs. Palmer had two sons Joseph, dean of 
Cashel, and author of ' A Four Months' Tour 
in France,' 2 vols. 1776, and John, hon. canon 
of Lincoln and three daughters : Mary, 
Theopliila (familiarly known as Offy), and 
Elizabeth. Mary and Offy spent much time 
in London with their uncle, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, who painted Mary's portrait. He had 
great affection for them, and made Mary his 
heiress. She inherited nearly 100,000/., and 
married, in 1 792, Murrough O'Brien, fifth earl 
of Inchiquin, subsequently created Marquis 
of Thomond. Dying without issue, she left 
the property to her brother John. Offy sat 
for many of Sir Joshua's fancy subjects, 
notably for the ' Strawberry Girl.' In 1781 
she married Robert Lovell Gwatkin of Kil- 
lion, Cornwall, who is described by Miss 
Edgeworth as a true 'Roast Beef of old 
England, king and constitution man.' The 
same writer, in a letter to her sister, dated 
29 March 1831, thus speaks of Mrs. Gwat- 
kin : ' She has been very pretty, and, though 
deaf, is very agreeable enthusiastically and 
affectionately fond of her uncle indignant 
at the idea of his not having himself written 
the " Discourses : " " Burke or Johnson, in- 
deed ! no such thing he wrote them him- 
self. I am evidence ; he used to employ me 
as his secretary " ' (HAKE, Life and Letters 
of Maria Edgeworth, ii. 180-1). 

Miss Burney often met the Palmers at 
Sir Joshua's house. ' The Miss Palmers added 
to the grace of his table and of his evening 
circles by their pleasing manners and the 
beauty of their persons.' ' The eldest Miss 
Palmer seems to have a better understanding 
than Offy ; but Offy has the most pleasing 
face ' (Diary of Mme. D'Arblay, i. 108). 

Mrs. Palmer was the author of the admi- 
rable ' Devonshire Dialogue.' It is the best 
piece of literature in the vernacular of Devon, 
and gives some account of customs and charac- 



ters peculiar to the west of England. It was 
written in the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury to illustrate the most striking peculiari- 
ties of the western dialect. During her life- 
time the manuscript was shown to a few 
friends ; extracts were taken from it. and 
from time to time inserted in various perio- 
dicals without acknowledgment. A portion 
appeared in 1837 with a glossary by J. F. 
Palmer; a complete version was edited by 
Mrs. Gwatkin in 1839, and there is an edition 
dated 1869. The little book has been many 
times reprinted, and is still sold by the local 
booksellers. 

There are two portraits of Mrs. Palmer by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, both in the possession 
of her great-grandson, Mr. George Stawell 
of Great Torrington. One portrait was 
painted about 1747, and the other when 
Mrs. Palmer was apparently about sixty 
years of age. 

[Leslie's Life of Eeynolds, passim ; Allibone, 
ii. 1779; information kindly supplied by Sir 
E. E. Pearce-Edgcumbe.] E. L. 

PALMER, RICHARD (d. 1195), arch- 
bishop of Messina, was born in England of 
noble parentage, and was educated in France. 
His surname may indicate that he had been 
on a pilgrimage to Palestine before settling 
in Sicily, where, like many of his countrymen 
about this time, he found employment under 
the Norman kings. He was one of the principal 
counsellors of William the Bad, and early 
in that monarch's reign, perhaps in 1155, was 
elected bishop of Syracuse. The first mention 
of Richard seems to occur on 6 Dec. 1 157,when, 
as elect of Syracuse, he witnessed a charter 
of William the Bad (PiRRi, Sicilia Sacra, 
i. 74). When, in 1161, William was im- 
prisoned by some of his nobles at Palermo, 
Richard was foremost in rousing the people, 
and by his eloquence excited them to the 
king's rescue. It was Richard also who in 
1162 mitigated William's wrath against 
Salerno, and saved that city from destruction. 
When William the Bad died early in 1166, 
Richard was by his will appointed one of 
the chief counsellors of his son William the 
Good. Richard was anxious to obtain the 
archbishopric of Palermo, which see was 
then vacant. In this endeavour he had for 
a rival Gentilis, the bishop of Agrigentum, 
or Girgenti. Gentilis, by accusing Richard 
of pride and arrogance, stirred up the other 
bishops against him. The opposition failed 
for a time, but was afterwards renewed, on 
the ground that Richard had caused the re- 
moval of Gaito Petrus from the court by 
calling in Gilbert, count of Gravina, as grand 
constable. Gentilis and his supporters con- 



Palmer 



147 



Palmer 



trived to procure from Alexander III a sum- 
mons for Richard to come to the papal court 
for consecration, hoping by this means to re- 
move him from the royal presence. Richard 
evaded the command for the time, and then, 
by bribing Richard de Mandra, count of 
Molise, the royal constable, induced the 
count and Margaret, the king's mother, to 
declare that his presence was necessary for 
the royal service, and that his consecration 
must be postponed till a more fitting occasion. 
Peter of Blois [q. v.], who came to Sicily in 
company with Stephen of Perche in 1167, 
twice makes reference, possibly in allusion 
to Richard, to the absorption of the Sicilian 
prelates in affairs of state (Epist. 84, ap. 
MIGNE, cc. 1461, and De Institutions Epi- 
scopi, MIGNE, ccvii. 1110). During the early 
part of the reign of William the Good, 
Richard Palmer discharged the duties of 
chancellor, in conjunction with Matthew the 
Notary ; but Stephen of Perche, a kinsman 
of the queen, was chosen archbishop of 
Palermo, and then made chancellor. Stephen 
endeavoured, by the gift of two casals or 
villages, to appease Richard, who neverthe- 
less opposed the chancellor when, in 1168, 
he had Peter the Notary imprisoned, declaring 
that such a proceeding was contrary to 
Sicilian, if not to French, custom. According 
to one account, it was to Richard that Peter 
of Blois appealed against the attempt to 
force a brother of the Count of Loricello on 
the canons of Girgenti in place of Gentilis 
(PiRRi ; P. BLESENSIS Epist. 10, ap. MIGNE, 
ccvii, where the latter is given as addressed 
to G. capellanum regis Sicilise). Eventually 
the disturbances in Sicily were composed by 
the resignation of Stephen of Perche, and on 
29 Sept. 1169 Richard was one of those who 
were appointed ' Consulares Curise ' during 
the king's minority (GR^EVitis, iii. 728). A 
short time previously Richard 'had at length 
been consecrated, and had obtained from 
the pope, on 28 April 1169, the pallium, 
together with the privilege that his see was 
to be immediately subject to papal authority 
(MiGNE, cc. Epist. 616). 

During the few previous years Richard 
had been in correspondence with Thomas 
Becket. In 1168 Thomas wrote to him thank- 
ing him for his letters, and recommending 
to him his nephew Geoffrey. In 1169 
Thomas thanked Richard for his kindness to 
his relatives in their exile, and asked his 
favour for Stephen of Perche. But in another 
letter to the Bishop of Ostia, Thomas accused 
Richard of having supported ' our persecutors 
with money and advice,' and alleged that he 
had been won over by the hope of obtaining 
the bishopric of Lincoln (Materials for His- 



tory of Thomas Becket, vi. 396, vii. 26, 143). 
Richard is said to have counselled the 
marriage of William the Good with Joanna, 
daughter of Henry II of England, and he 
appears as one of the witnesses of the mar- 
riage settlement (RoG. Hov. ii. 97). When 
Joanna came to Sicily in 1177, Richard was 
one of the envoys sent to meet her with the 
fleet at St. Gilles, and took part in her coro- 
nation. He witnessed a charter on 12 Dec. 
1172 as ' regis familiaris ' (Gii-amus, iii. 733). 
At Syracuse he adorned his church with 
mosaics, and inserted glass in the windows. 
Richard was translated to the archbishopric 
of Messina before 9 Feb. 1 183, when Lucius III 
ordered his suffragans to obey him (Docu- 
menti per servire alia Storia di Sicilia, 1st 
ser. i. 32). He was archbishop of Messina 
when Richard I captured the city during his 
stay in Sicily in 1190. The archbishop was 
one of the supporters of Tancred, and on 
4 Oct. formed one of the embassy who en- 
deavoured to avert the English king's wrath 
(RICHARD OF DEVIZES, p. 22, Engl. Hist. 
Soc.) On 15 Feb. 1195 he obtained protec- 
tion for himself and his church from the 
emperor, Henry VI (Documenti, i. 33). He 
died on 7 Aug. 1195, and was buried in the 
church of St. Nicolas at Messina. His tomb 
bore the inscription : 

Anglia me genuit, instruxit Gallia, fovit 
Trinacris ; huic tandem corpus et ossa dedi. 

Some of Richard's charters as archbishop 
of Messina are printed in the ' Document! 
per servire alia Storia di Sicilia,' 1st ser. i. 
34-9. He is described as a learned and 
eloquent man (HUGO FALCANDTJS, 290 C). 
Bale gives him a place in his ' Centuriae ' 
(xiii. 74) as author of a book of epistles. 
None of Richard's letters seem to have sur- 
vived, though he apparently corresponded 
with Thomas Becket and Peter of Blois. 
The latter author, after he was settled in 
England, wrote to Richard, perhaps about 
1180, refusing an invitation to return to 
Sicily, and urging him to return himself, and 
spend his last years in his native land 
(Epist. 46). 

[The Chronicles of Komuald of Salerno and 
Hugo Falcandus, ap. Muratori viii. ; Pirri's 
Sicilia Sacra, ap. Grsevius, Thesaurus Antiq. et 
Hist. Sicilise, ii. 74, 82, 293-5, 608-11, iii. 
728; Petri Bleseusis Epist. 10, 46, 84, ap. 
Migne's Patrologia, ccvii.; Document! per servire 
alia Storia di Sicilia, 1st ser. vol. i. fasc. i., Soc. 
Siciliana per la Storia patria ; Caruso's Bibl 
Hist. Sicilise, ii. 985-6 ; La Lumia's Storia di 
Sicilia sotto Guglielmo il Buono, pp. 56-7, 66, 
68-9, 73, 78, 124, 174 ; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

L 2 



Palmer 



148 



Palmer 



PALMER, RICHARD, M.D. (d. 1625), 
physician, was a native of London. He 
entered Christ's College,Cambridge, and there 
graduated BA. in 1579. He migrated to 
Peterhouse, and there hecame MA. in 1583. 
He received a license to practise in London 
from the College of Physicians 9 April 1593, 
and was elected a fellow in February 1597. 
He was nine times censor between 1599 and 
1619, was treasurer from 1621 to 1624, and 
president in 1620. On 5 Nov. 1612 he at- 
tended with Dr. JohnGiffard at the bedside of 
Henry, prince of Wales. Several long con- 
sultations were held with Sir Theodore May- 
erne [q. v.], Dr. John Hammond, Dr. Henry 
Atkins [q. v.], and Dr. Butler, and in the 
presence of Sir Thomas Challoner and Sir 
David Murray (1567-1629) [q. v.], in Oc- 
tober 1612, and the result was that, on the 
opinion of the majority, a prescription known 
as diascordium was given to the prince, with 
no good effect, for he died next day. Palmer 
was present at the post-mortem examination, 
and in the original report his signature stands 
fourth of the six physicians. In the report, 
as printed by Mayerne, his name is last. He 
died early in 1625. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 1 1 ; Mayerne's Opera 
Medica, London, 1701 ; original record in Record 
Office; State Papers, Ixxi. 29.] N. M. 

PALMER, ROGER, EARL OF CASTLE- 
MAINE (1634-1705), diplomatist and author, 
was eldest son of Sir James Palmer [q. v.] of 
Hayes, Middlesex, and Dorney Court, Buck- 
inghamshire, by his second wife, Catherine, 
daughter of Sir William Herbert, K.B., 
created Lord Powis in 1674, and relict of Sir 
Robert Vaughan of Llydiarth, Montgomery- 
shire. 

Roger Palmer was born at Dorney Court 
on 3 Sept. 1634, and was educated at Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, which he entered 
on 25 March 1652. On 29 Oct. 1656 he was 
admitted a student at the Inner Temple, but 
was not called to the bar. An ardent loyalist, 
he was prevented only by his youth from 
serving under the royal standard during the 
civil war, and hazarded his life in the plots 
that preceded the Restoration. On 14 April 
1659 he married, at the church of St. Gregory 
by St. Paul's, London, Barbara [see VILLIERS, 
BARBARA, DUCHESS or CLEVELAND], only 
daughter of William Villiers, first viscount 
Grandison (CHESTER, Westminster Abbey Re- 
gisters, p. 330 n.) Upon the Restoration Mrs. 
Palmer became the mistress of the king, who, 
by patent of 11 Dec. 1661, raised her hus- 
band, thenM.P. for New Windsor, to the Irish 
peerage by the title of Earl of Castlemaine, 
co. Kerry, with remainder limited to his 



issue by her. This was done solely to pro- 
pitiate the mistress, whose jealousy was in- 
flamed by the Portuguese match, and was 
so little appreciated by her husband that 
the honour was literally forced upon him, 
nor did he ever take his seat in the Irisk 
House of Lords. The earl was a Roman 
catholic, and had his wife's first-born son,. 
Charles Fitzroy [see FITZROY, CHARLES, first. 
DFKE OF SOUTHAMPTON], baptised by a priest,, 
upon which the countess had him rebaptised 
by a minister of the church of England, at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, on 18 June. 
1662. This occasioned a violent domestic 
quarrel, which ended in Lady Castlemaine 
deserting her husband, and the latter going 
abroad. He travelled in France and Italy, 
and cruised in the Levant, in the Venetian 
squadron commanded by Admiral Andrea 
Cornaro (1664). He also served in the Duke 
of York's fleet during the Dutch war (1665-7), 
on which he wrote, in French, a memoir, 
translated into English by Thomas Price 
under the title ' A short and true Account of 
the Material Passages in the late War be- 
tween the English and Dutch,' London, 1 671 ^ 
2nd edit. 1672, 8vo. 

On the outbreak of the storm of anti- 
popish fanaticism which followed the fire of 
London, Castlemaine published ' The Catho- 
lique Apology,' a manly and eloquent vindi- 
cation of the loyalty of Roman catholics, 
which involved him in controversy with 
William Lloyd [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
St. Asaph (cf. bibliographical note infra). 
About this time he was formally separated 
from the countess, and in 1668 he accom- 
panied Sir Daniel Harvey on his mission to> 
the Porte. From Constantinople he passed 
into Syria, and, travelling along the northern 
coast of Africa, returned to Europe by Tan- 
gier. He was in the Netherlands during- 
the second Dutch war, in which he probably 
saw service. He returned to England in 
the autumn of 1677, and on 25 Oct. of the 
following year was denounced to the House 
of Commons as a Jesuit by Titus Gates- 
[q. v.], who swore that he had seen in the 
hands of Richard Strange, late provincial of 
the order of Jesus in England, a divorce from 
his wife granted to Castlemaine by the Roman 
curia, and that he had heard Castlemaine < de- 
clare his approbation of the White Horse con- 
sult about the king's death.' After an ex- 
amination before justices of the peace he 
was arrested and committed to the Tower 
(31 Oct.), but was admitted to bail on 23 Jan. 
1678-9. While awaiting his trial he pub- 
lished a narrative of the sufferings of former 
victims, entitled ' The Compendium ; or a 
Short View of the late Tryals in relation to. 



Palmer 



149 



Palmer 



the Present Plot against his Majesty and 
Government,' London, 1679, 4to. 

Gates having meanwhile fortified his case 
by the fabrication of fresh evidence, Castle- 
maine was examined before the king in 
council, and re-committed to the Tower on 
suspicion of complicity in the so-called Meal- 
tub plot on 2 Nov. 1679. He remained a close 
prisoner until his trial before Lord-chief-jus- 
tice Scroggs at the king's bench on 23 June 
1680. The crown was represented by At- 
torney Sir Creswell Levinz [q.v.], Solicitor- 
general Sir Heneage Finch [see FINCH, HENE- 
AGE, first EARL OF AYLESFORD], Sir George 
Jeffreys [see JEFFREYS, GEORGE, first BARON 
JEFFREYS], solicitor-general to the Duke of 
York, and Sir Francis Wythens [q. v.] Castle- 
maine defended himself, and with such signal 
skill and courage that, though much inter- 
rupted and browbeaten by court and counsel, 
he completely discredited the evidence of the 
informers and secured an acquittal. 

Castlemaine was a member of the little 
cabal of catholics who formed James II's 
secret council; and when the king deter- 
mined to establish overt relations with Rome, 
Castlemaine was accredited ambassador to 
the curia. He embarked at Greenwich on 
15 Feb. 1685-6, and reached Rome on Easter- 
eve (13 April, N.S.), but, though privately re- 
ceived by the pope (Innocent XI), did not 
enter the city in state until 8 Jan. 1687 
(N.S.) The delay was owing partly to In- 
nocent's illness, and partly to the elaborate 
preparations which Castlemaine thought it 
necessary to make in order to sustain his 
master's dignity. His major-domo, John 
Michael Wright, has left a curious account 
of his pompous entry, and the cold recep- 
tion accorded him by the pope (cf. list of 
authorities infra, and the satirical ode upon 
the embassy in Poems on Affairs of State, 
1716, ii. 402). Castlemaine's instructions 
were to solicit a cardinal's hat for the queen- 
consort's uncle, Prince Rinaldo d'Este; a 
bishopric in partibus for the king's most 
trusted adviser, thejesuit Edward Petre [q. v.] ; 
and to attempt the reconciliation of Innocent 
with Louis XIV. He found Innocent by no 
means propitious. He had no intention of 
being reconciled to the author of the Galli- 
can schism as long as the Gallican schism 
continued ; he had little faith in the stability 
of James's throne, and less in the policy of 
attempting the forcible conversion of Eng- 
land. With much ado, Castlemaine induced 
him to confer the coveted hat on Prince 
llinaldo, 2 Sept. 1686. In regard to Petre, 
his holiness proved inexorable. Not content 
with a first or even a second refusal, Castle- 
maine pressed his suit with more zeal than 



discretion in several audiences, which Inno- 
cent terminated by violent fits of coughing. 
Irritated by this treatment, Castlemaine at 
last sent him a written memorial not ob- 
scurely hinting at his possible departure if 
it were to continue. Innocent replied duly 
that he was his own master, and added 
significantly that the morning hours it was 
summer were best for travelling in Italy. 
Castlemaine remained, however, until, at In- 
nocent's instance, he was recalled by James, 
who humbly apologised for his agent's exces- 
sive zeal. On 16 June 1687 Sunderland, as 
president of the privy council, was compelled 
to write to the pope, begging pardon for the 
ambassador's misbehaviour (cf. abstract of 
correspondence between the English court 
and the pope in DOD'S Church History, iii. 
424-5). 

Castlemaine reached London in August 
1687, and was consoled with a place in the 
privy council, being dispensed from the oaths, 
and with bounties to the amount of between 
1,800/. and 2,0001. His name appears among 
the signatures to the certificate of the birth 
of the Prince of Wales, dated Whitehall, 
10 June 1688 (Addit. MS. 27448, f. 342). 
On the subsequent flight of the king, Castle- 
maine left Whitehall for his country seat in 
Montgomeryshire, taking with him, under a 
privy seal, plate from the royal household, 
for which damages were afterwards (22 May 
1691) recovered against him, to the value of 
2,500/., the privy seal being held invalid by 
reason of its being subsequent to the ' abdi- 
cation.' He was arrested at Oswestry, sent 
back to London, and committed to the Tower 
in February 1688-9, for ' suspicion of treason- 
able practices.' On 28 Oct. 1 689 he was brought 
to the bar of the House of Commons, and 
examined touching his embassy to Rome. 
He pleaded in justification the express com- 
mand of the king, but was recommitted to 
the Tower on the capital charge of ' endea- 
vouring to reconcile this kingdom to the see 
of Rome,' and ' other ' (unspecified) ' high 
crimes and misdemeanours.' On 10 Feb. 
1689-90 he was released, giving his own re- 
cognisance in 10,000/., and those of four 
sureties in 5,000/. each. He was excepted 
from the act of indemnity, and was recom- 
mitted to the Tower in the following August 
on suspicion of complicity in the Jacobite 
plot, but was released on bail on 28 Nov. 
In 1695, having been for some years abroad 
in France and Flanders, he fell under sus- 
picion of adhering to the king's enemies, 
was summoned to attend the Irish parlia- 
ment on 12 Sept., and, failing so to do, was 
indicted of high treason. To avoid outlawry 
he returned to England, surrendered himself 



Palmer 



Palmer 



on 28 Feb. 1695-6, and was committed to 
the Tower on suspicion of complicity in the 
assassination plot, but was released without 
trial, on condition of going over-seas, on 
18 July following. 

Castlemaine died at Oswestry on 21 July 
1705, and was buried in the vault of his 
mother's family at Welshpool. His wife's 
eldest daughter, Anne, who bore the surname 
Palmer until her marriage in 1675 with 
Thomas Lennard, fifteenth lord Dacre and 
earl of Sussex, was one of the trustees of 
Castlemaine's will, dated 30 Nov. 1696, by 
which the bulk of his property passed to his 
nephew, Charles Palmer. 

Castlemaine was a loyal and devout 
catholic, an accomplished linguist and ma- 
thematician, and the inventor of a globe 
described in a pamphlet published by him in 
1679, entitled ' The English Globe ; being a 
stable and immobil one, performing what ordi- 
nary Globes do and much more.' A full-length 
portrait of him, in a red cloak and large wig, 
is in the possession of Earl Powis ; a three- 
quarter-length, in the gallery at Dorney Court, 
was engraved for Anthony Hamilton's ' Me- 
moires de Grammont,' ed. 1793 ; a half- 
length, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, formerly at 
Strawberry Hill, was engraved to illustrate 
the brief notice of him in Horace Walpole's 
'Royal and Noble Authors,' ed. Park, v. 
212. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Castle- 
maine was author of: 1. 'An Account of 
the Present War between the Venetians and 
Turks ; with the State of Candie : in a Let- 
ter to the King [Charles II] from Venice,' Lon- 
don, 1666, 8vo ; Dutch and German transla- 
tions, the latter in ' Diarium Europaeum,' Th. 
xvii., Amsterdam and Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, 1668, 4to. 2. ' A Reply to the Answer 
of the Catholique Apology ; or a cleere Vin- 
dication of the Catholiques of England from 
all matter of fact charg'd against them by 
their Enemies,' London, 1668, 8vo. 3. ' A 
full Answer and Confutation of a scandalous 
Pamphlet [by William Lloyd] called a Sea- 
sonable Discourse, shewing the necessity of 
maintaining . . . the established Religion in 
opposition to Popery,' Antwerp, 1673, 4to. 

4. ' The Catholique Apology, with a Reply 
to the Answer ; together Avith a clear Refu- 
tation of the Seasonable Discourse, its rea- 
sonable Defence and Dr. Du Moulin's Answer 
to Philanax ; as also Dr. Stillingfleet's last 
Gunpowder-Treason Sermon, his Attaque 
about the Treaty of Munster, and all matter 
of fact charg'd on the English Catholiques 
by their Enemies,' Antwerp, 1674, 8vo. 

5. ' The Earl of Castlemaine's Manifesto,' 
1681, 8vo (a narrative of his trial for com- 



plicity in the popish plot, with a brief apology 
for the Roman catholic faith and vindication 
of the loyalty of Roman catholics). 

[Misc. Geneal. et Herald, i. 109-1 7,151-5; Col- 
lins's Peerage, ed. Brydges,v. 555 .; G-.E.C.'s Com- 
plete Peerage, ii. 183 ; Jenyns's Pedigree of the 
Palmers of Sussex; Castlemaine's Short and True 
Account of the late War between the Dutch and 
English, Preface ; Steinman's Barbara, Duchess 
of Cleveland; "Wotton's Baronetage, 1741, i. 44! ; 
Boyer's Annals Queen Anne,iv. 284; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Peerage, ' Palmer ;' Inner Temple Admission 
Eeg. 1541-1660, p. 361 ; Cal. State Papers, Dora. 
1628-9 pp. 503, 524,1661-5 ; Pepys's Diary, ed. 
Wheatley, 1893, i. 200, ii. 288 ; Lib. Hibern. i. 
Peer. pp. 9, 41 ; Lipscombe's Buckinghamshire, 
iii. 273 ; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, 
1789, iv. 88 ; Dodd's Church Hist. Engl. iii. 448 ; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist. Engl. 4th edit. iii. 228 ; 
Lingard's Hist. Engl. ix. 75 ; Macaulay's Hist. 
Engl. ii. 265-9, iii. 511; Burnet's Own Time (fol.), 
i. 94, 703; Ellis Corresp.ed. Ellis, i. 35, 298; Wei- 
wood's Memoirs, ed. Maseres, 1820, p. 162 ; Cam- 
pana di Cavelli, Les Derniers Stuarts a, S. Germain- 
en-Laye, i. 242, ii. 82, 88, 132, 144; Trenqualeon, 
West Grinstead et les Caryll, Paris, 1893, ii. 20 
et seq. ; Klopp, Fall des Hauses Stuart, drit. 
Band, p. 319 ; Clarke's Life of James II, ii. 75- 
77 ; Luttrell's Eelation of State Affairs ; Butler's 
Hist. Mem. Engl., Irish, and Scot. Cath. 1822, 
iii. 47 et seq. ; London Gazette, 7-10 Feb. 1686- 
1687; Secret Services of Charles II and James II 
(Camden Soc.) ; Howell's State Trials, xii. 598 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. App. p. 233, 5th Rep. 
App. pp.382, 385, 7th Rep. App. pp. 198, 463, 504, 
10th Rep. App. p. 233; Clarendon and Rochester 
Corresp. ii. 327 ; Irish House of Lords, i. 501 ; 
Mackintosh's Revolution of 1688, pp. 73-6; 
Wright's Ragguaglio della solenne Comparsa dell' 
Illustr mo Conte di Castelmaine ; Guarnacci, Vit. 
Pontiff. Roman, i. 302 ; Addit. MS. 9341, ff. 4-6 ; 
Addit. MS. 15396 (D'Adda Corresp.). ff. 33, 46, 
71,95,111, 292,317 etseq. ; Addit. MSS. 28225 
f. 130, 28226 f. 19; Halkett and Laing's Diet. 
Anon, and Pseudon. Lit.] J. M. R. 

PALMER, ROUNDELL, first EAKL OP 
SELBOKNE (1812-1895), lord chancellor, 
second son of William Jocelyn Palmer, rector 
of Finmere and of Mixbury, Oxfordshire, by 
Dorothea Richardson, daughter of the Rev. 
William Roundell of Gledstone, Yorkshire, 
was born at Mixbury on 27 Nov. 1812. His 
grandfather, "William Palmer of Nazing Park, 
Waltham, Essex, was a scion of the ancient 
family of Palmer of Wanlip, Leicestershire. 
George Palmer [q. v.] of Nazing Park, the 
philanthropist and politician, was his uncle, 
and William Palmer (1802-1858) [q. v.], 
Gresham professor of civil law, was his first 
cousin. His father, William Jocelyn Palmer, 
was a graduate of Brasenose College, Oxford 
(B.A. 1799, M. A. 1802, and B.D. 1811). Pos- 
sessed of private means, he exerted a para- 



Palmer 



Palmer 






mount influence over his parishioners, and was 
equally beloved and respected by them. He 
died at Mixbury on 28 Sept. 1853, aged 75. 
He had five sons besides Roundell, and five 
daughters. The eldest son, William, even- 
tually seceded to the Roman church [see 
PALMEK, WILLIAM, 1811-1879] ; the fourth 
son, Henry Roundell, entered the East India 
Company's marine service, and was lost at 
sea in 1835 ; the fifth, George Horsley, suc- 
ceeded his father as rector of Mixbury ; while 
Edwin, the youngest, became archdeacon of 
Oxford in 1878. 

After two years (1824-5) at Rugby, Roun- 
dell was transferred to Winchester College, 
of which Dr. Gabell was then headmaster, 
in the autumn of 1825. There he had for 
contemporaries Robert Lowe (afterwards 
Lord Sherbrooke) [q. v.] ; Edward (after- 
wards Lord) Cardwell [q. v.] ; Anthony Trol- 
lope [q. v.] ; William Monsell (now Lord 
Emly) ; and William George Ward [q. v.] 
After gaining his full share of school laurels, 
he matriculated on 3 May 1830 from Christ 
Church, Oxford. His academic course was 
brilliant in the extreme. Besides an open 
scholarship at Trinity College (1830), he 
gained in 1831 the chancellor's prize for 
Latin verse (subj ect, ' Numantia '), and in 1 832 
both the Ireland Greek scholarship and the 
Newdigate prize, with a poem on ' StafFa.' 
The latter, written, as the conditions required, 
in the metre of Pope, exhibited occasionally 
the influence of Wordsworth. In 1834 Pal- 
mer won a first-class in the classical schools 
and the Eldon law scholarship, and in 1835 
a Magdalen fellowship and the chancellor's 
Latin essay prize (subject, 'De Jure Clientele 
apud Romanes '). He graduated B.A. in 1834 
and M.A. in 1836. He also distinguished him- 
self on the tory side in the debates of the 
Union Society, and in the autumn of 1833 
formed, with several friends, including W. G. 
Ward, Archibald Campbell Tait [q. v.j, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury, John 
Wickens [q. v.], and George Mellish [q. v.] 
(both subsequently judges), a separate society 
called the ' Rambler ' club. This society came 
into being as a protest against the election 
of Edward Massie (1806-1893), a graduate 
of Wadham and Ireland scholar, as president 
of the Union. An animated debate followed 
in the Union on the momentous question 
whether the Ramblers should be permitted 
to retain their membership of the parent 
society, and that oratorical contest was the 
occasion of the spirited mock Homeric Greek 
poem, ' Uniomachia ' [see JACKSON, THOMAS, 
1812-1886]. With Tait and three other 
undergraduates, Palmer spent the long vaca- 
tion of 1833 at Seaton in Devonshire. The 



young visitors impressed the imagination of 
a local bard (the Rev. J. B. Smith, a dissent- 
ing minister), who referred to them in a pub- 
lished effusion entitled ' Seaton Beach' (Lon- 
don and Exeter, 1835), auguring, with sin- 
gularly happy presage, that Tait ' a mitred 
prelate ' might ' hereafter shine,' while Pal- 
mer might 'win deserved applause' as 'an 
ermined judge.' The poet, who had noticed 
Palmer's zeal in collecting rare pebbles 011 
the seashore, also credited him with an ambi- 
tion to explore ' nature's laws.' This estimate 
was fully justified by Palmer's habit through 
life of seeking relaxation from professional 
work in a study of many branches of natural 
history, and especially of botany. 

A high-churchman from the first, he took 
at this time a keen interest, but no active 
part, in the ecclesiastical controversies which 
had already begun to agitate the university. 
Of the friends whom he had made as an 
undergraduate, those with whom he was most 
closely associated in after years were Thomas 
Legh Claughton (afterwards bishop of St. 
Albans), Charles Wordsworth (afterwards 
bishop of St. Andrews), and John W T ickens. 
During his later career at the university he 
formed intimate relations with Frederick 
William Faber [q. v.] (afterwards superior of 
the London Oratory), and his early predilec- 
tions for theological discussion were thereby 
stimulated. But science and literature always 
shared with theology his intellectual inte- 
rests. From Charles Wordsworth he learned 
and Faber learned from him to study and 
appreciate the poetry of William Wordsworth, 
and he watched with admiration the develop- 
ment of Tennyson, who was his friend and 
neighbour when he subsequently settled at 
Blackmoor, and who dedicated ' Becket ' to 
him in 1884. 

But the study and practice of law were 
to be the business of Palmer's life. In No- 
vember 1834 he entered the chambers of 
the eminent conveyancer William Henry 
Booth; and on 9 June 1837 he was called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, of which on 
23 April 1849 he was elected a bencher, and 
in 1864 treasurer. While waiting for briefs 
he contributed to the ' British Critic,' but only 
on colourless topics, such as Greek grammar 
(see British Critic, October 1840), and he 
maintained his connection with the univer- 
sity in other ways. In the contest for the 
poetry chair in 1842, which the narrow 
ecclesiastical spirit of the time converted 
into a party question, he actively supported 
the 'Tractarian' candidate, Isaac Williams; 
and on the suspension of Dr. Pusey, on 2 June 
1843, for preaching a sermon on the mystery 
of the holy eucharist, which was censured 



Palmer 



152 



Palmer 



by a court of ' Six Doctors,' he expressed a 
decided opinion that the action of the vice- 
chancellor was illegal. Academic dignities 
were freely bestowed on him as his career 
advanced. He was created D.C.L. and an 
honorary fellow of Magdalen in 1862, and 
honorary student of Christ Church in 1867. 
From 1861 to 1863 he was counsel to the uni- 
versity and deputy steward, and on the death 
of Lord Carnarvon in 1891 he was appointed 
high steward. 

To the practice of the law Palmer brought 
a mind as keen and subtle as that of one of 
the great mediaeval schoolmen, a rare power 
of easy and persuasive speech, a learning 
and knowledge of affairs equally wide, pro- 
found, and exact, the abstemiousness of an 
ascetic, a vigorous constitution, untiring 
energy, and a high and chivalrous sense of 
the duty of the advocate. Though the equity 
bar was never stronger than in his day 
among his many rivals were Richard Bethell 
(afterwards Lord Westbury) [q. v.] and Hugh 
McCalmont (afterwards Earl) Cairns [q. v.] 
he rose rapidly in his profession, soon made 
a large income, and took silk in Hilary vaca- 
tion 1849. 

According to Lord Westbury, Palmer's 
only defect as an equity pleader was a habit 
of pursuing a fine train of reasoning on a 
matter collateral to his main argument, a 
defect resulting from that subtlety of mind 
with which nature had superabundantly en- 
dowed him, and which, kept under due con- 
trol, makes the consummate lawyer. This 
subtlety, united with vast learning, compre- 
hensiveness of view, and the inexhaustible 
patience which he applied to the mastery of 
the most intricate complications of law and 
fact, gave to his opinions while counsel some- 
thing of the weight of judicial decisions. 
In court his rare gift of luminous exposition 
and the singular persuasiveness of his man- 
ner lent to his arguments an air of irre- 
fragableness which during the zenith of his 
powers caused him to be regarded by clients 
as all but indispensable. His style was se- 
verely simple, and was rarely relieved by 
action. He seldom fixed his eyes on the 
judge, but seemed rather to be talking to 
himself, yet all the while he was perfectly 
alive to the impression he was producing both 
on the bench and within the bar, and knew 
as if by instinct when to develop a point 
which had told, and how to glide stealthily 
over a weak place in his argument. His 
memory was prodigious, so that he rarely 
needed to refer to his brief, and was able to 
meet unforeseen emergencies by prompt re- 
ferences to cases in point. 

Before becoming a law officer of the crown 



Palmer had little or no experience of com- 
mon-law practice, and he never found it pos- 
sible to acquire the needful dexterity in cross- 
examination, and the peculiar tact indispen- 
sable for addressing juries. Finding the work 
extremely irksome, he protected himself as 
far as possible from retainer in such cases by 
charging unusually heavy fees. When re- 
tained, however, he spared no pains to fit 
himself for the discharge of his duty. 

While his reputation at the bar was steadily 
rising, Palmer was returned to parliament in 
the Peelite interest for Plymouth at the 
general election of July 1847. Like most 
equity lawyers, he did not show to great 
advantage on the floor of the House of 
Commons; but his speeches, if rarely im- 
passioned, were always lucid and weighty, 
and an extremely pure accent and melodious 
enunciation went far to compensate for a 
somewhat monotonous delivery. His maiden 
speech, on the government of Xew Zealand 
bill (13 Dec. 1847), was a warm eulogium on 
the bishop of Xew Zealand (G. A. Selwyn), 
whose recent political action had elicited 
much adverse comment, both in the colony 
and at home. 

Though nominally a conservative, Palmer 
was in truth an independent, and lent an 
earnest support to the movement for the 
emancipation of the Jews (Hansard, 3rd 
ser. xcviii. 642). In regard, however, to all 
that concerned the church of England, and 
the traditional methods of higher culture, 
his conservatism was intense, and led him to 
oppose, in 1850, the government plan for a 
commission of inquiry into the state of the 
universities. His opposition to the ecclesi- 
astical titles bill, introduced in consequence 
of the ' No Popery ' hubbub raised on occasion 
of the so-called papal aggression, brought him 
into collision with the dominant feeling of the 
country ; and at the election of July 1852 he 
lost his seat, but his rival, Charles John Mare, 
was unseated on petition, and Palmer was 
returned in his stead on 2 June 1853. To 
the Oxford University bill of 1854 he gave 
a qualified support, and was indefatigable in 
amending it in committee. In the great 
pitched battle of February-March 1857, on 
Palmerston's Chinese policy, he fought under 
Cobden's standard, and led, in a speech of 
great power, the final assault on the govern- 
ment. Defeated at the subsequent general 
election, he did not re-enter parliament until 
he succeeded Sir W 7 illiam Atherton as soli- 
citor-general in Lord Palmerston's ministry 
on 28 June 1861. He was then returned for 
Richmond, Yorkshire, which seat he retained 
until his elevation to the peerage. On 5 Aug. 
1861 he was knighted. On 2 Oct. 1863 he 



Palmer 



153 



Palmer 



was advanced to the attorney-generalship, 
which he held until the fall of Lord John 
Russell's second administration in July 
1866. 

On the accession of Mr. Gladstone to 
power, in December 1868, Palmer declined 
the great seal and a peerage rather than 
consent to the disendowment of the Irish 
church. He had taken no part in the debates 
raised in the session of 1867 on Mr. Glad- 
stone's resolution on the subject. On the 
second reading of the Irish church disesta- 
blishment bill he attacked it strongly as an 
act of injustice (22 March 1869), and voted 
with the minority against it next day. He 
did his best to amend the measure in com- 
mittee. But on other questions he gave an 
independent support to the administration. 
On the reference of the Alabama dispute to the 
international court of arbitration at Geneva, 
he appeared as counsel for Great Britain, and 
argued a hopeless case with the utmost 
patience, tact, and ability. He was generally 
said at the time to have refused the offer of 
a fee of 30,000/. for his services, but he is 
known to have accepted remuneration on a 
satisfactory scale, and the popular story can- 
not be corroborated. 

On 15 Oct. 1872 Palmer succeeded Lord 
Hatherley as lord chancellor, and was sworn 
of the privy council. Three days later he 
was raised to the peerage of the United 
Kingdom by the title of Baron Selborne of 
Selborne in the county of Southampton. In 
1865 he had purchased the Temple and Black- 
moor estates (of about eighteen hundred 
acres) in the parish of Selborne, Hampshire, 
and he built there a house on the site of 
Blackmoor farmhouse. While digging the 
foundations the workmen discovered a rich 
hoard of Roman pottery and coins, an ac- 
count of which Selborne contributed to the 
edition of Gilbert White's ' Natural History 
of Selborne,' published in 1875. He procured 
the formation of Blackmoor into a separate 
ecclesiastical district, to the endowment of 
which he contributed not only a large sum 
of money, but also a church, a parsonage, 
and schools. 

As lord chancellor, Selborne at once pro- 
ceeded to grapple in a large and statesmanlike 
spirit with the urgent and formidable problem 
of judicature reform upon which a royal com- 
mission had already reported. His measure, 
if carried in its original form, would not only 
have united the superior courts of law and 
equity and London court of bankruptcy into 
one supreme court in two principal divisions, 
original and appellate, but have transferred 
to the latter division the appellate jurisdic- 
tion, not only of the privy council but of the 



House of Lords, in all but ecclesiastical cases 
or such as originated in Scotland, Ireland, or 
the colonies or dependencies of the crown. 
So radical a reform, however, found favour 
neither with the profession, nor with the 
public, nor with the House of Lords ; and, 
though the appellate jurisdiction of the privy 
council in admiralty and lunacy matters was 
transferred to the new court of appeal, that of 
the House of Lords was preserved intact. 
The London court of bankruptcy was also 
permitted to retain its independent existence, 
though it has since been merged in the su- 
preme court. With these and some less im- 
portant modifications the measure became 
law on 5 Aug. 1873, and effected a most 
salutary reform. Besides putting an end 
to the multiplicity of courts of original juris- 
diction in which English justice had been 
administered for centuries, it provided for 
the gradual fusion of law and equity into a 
common system. The first effort indeed of 
the attempt to administer law and equity 
concurrently was to increase the uncertainty 
incident to both, and old practitioners loudly 
denounced the ' fusion ' as sheer ' confusion;' 
but the gain to our jurisprudence in pre- 
cision and symmetry is already apparent, 
and must in the end do more to expedite 
and cheapen the administration of justice 
than the most ingeniously devised system 
of procedure. 

As a law lord sitting in court Palmer dis- 
played a conspicuous 'reverence for precedent, 
which never degenerated into superstition. 
He knew exactly how to penetrate to the 
true ratio decidendiof a case, and so to elicit 
universal principles from particular decisions, 
and how to draw a fine distinction without 
falling into the vice of hair-splitting. Hence, 
both as a judge of first instance, sitting for 
Lord Romilly at the rolls court in 1873, and 
as lord chancellor, he contributed not a little 
to the extension and refinement of some of 
the leading doctrines of our equitable juris- 
prudence. The principal fault of his judg- 
ments was an appearance of excessive elabo- 
ration, the facts being stated with perhaps 
supererogatory fulness and minuteness, and 
side issues pursued at tedious length. In 
these respects they compare unfavourably 
with those of his great contemporaries, Lord 
Cairns and Sir George Jessel. 

With the return of the conservatives to 
power under Disraeli in February 1874, Sel- 
borne was succeeded on the woolsack by Lord 
Cairns. As a member of the opposition, he 
took a leading part in the debates in the 
upper house. His speech of 20 May 1875 on 
the constitutional question involved in the 
transport, during peace and without consent 



Palmer 



Palmer 



of parliament, of troops belonging to the 
Indian native army from India to Malta 
is, with the reply of Lord Cairns, the locus 
classicus on that important topic. Notwith- 
standing his high-churchmauship, he sup- 
ported Archbishop Tait's Public Worship 
Regulation Bill of 1874 and the Burials Bill 
of 1880. But the first measure he only re- 
garded as a pis-aller. 

On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's se- 
cond administration Selborne returned to 
the woolsack, 28 April 1880, and on 29 Dec. 
1882, on the occasion of the opening of the 
new law courts in the Strand, was created 
Viscount Wolmer of Blackmoor in the county 
of Southampton, and Earl of Selborne. Sel- 
borne fully concurred in Mr. Gladstone's Irish 
policy so far as it was merely agrarian, and he 
retained office until the fall of the adminis- 
tration in June 1885. He was prevented 
from entering Mr. Gladstone's third cabinet 
(formed in February 1886) by inability to 
follow his former chief in his sudden es- 
pousal of the cause of home rule. The 
grounds of his dissent Selborne made public 
in a letter to the ' Times ' of 23 April 1886. 
As a liberal-unionist he played a potent if 
not very prominent part in the long struggle 
which followed, and, in September 1893, 
spoke with effect in the House of Lords 
against the Home Rule Bill presented by 
Mr. Gladstone's government. Meanwhile 
he succeeded in effecting some minor but 
useful measures of law reform, and took part 
in the agitation against the proposal of Lord 
Rosebery's ministry to disestablish and dis- 
endow the Welsh church (1893-4). His 
interest in public affairs remained unabated 
until his death, which took place at his 
residence, Blackmoor, Petersfield, on 4 May 
1895. He was then in his eighty-third year. 
His remains were interred on 8 May in the 
church of St. Matthew, Blackmoor, which he 
had himself built. 

At all periods of his life a devout and loyal 
son of the church of England, Selborne ad- 
mirably illustrated her history and litera- 
ture both in his hymnal, entitled 'The Book 
of Praise' (Golden Treasury series), London, 
1863, and in his ' Notes of some Passages 
in the Liturgical History of the English 
Church' (London, 1878, 8vo). He also 
contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' 9th edit. (1881), a scholarly article 
on hymns, of which a separate reprint ap- 
peared in 1892 under the title ' Hymns : 
their History and Development in the Greek 
and Latin Churches, Germany^ and Great 
Britain,' London, 8vo. The depth of his re- 
ligious convictions is apparent in his inau- 
gural address as rector of the university of 



St. Andrews, 21 Nov. 1878 (published in 
pamphlet form), and his address as president 
of the Wordsworth Society, 7 July 1886 
(Transactions of the Wordsworth Society, 
No. viii.) In ' A Defence of the Church of 
England against Disestablishment,' London, 
1886, 8vo, 4th edit. 1888, and 'Ancient 
Facts and Fictions concerning Churches and 
Tithes,' London, 1888, 8vo, he reproduced 
and reinforced with much learning and 
lucidity the argument of Selden in favour 
of the unbroken continuity of the reformed 
church of England with the church founded 
by St. Augustine. 

Selborne was for some years chairman of 
the house of laymen of the province of Can- 
terbury. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society on 7 June 1860, and was an 
hon. LL.D. of Cambridge University. From 
his early years he was a member of the 
Mercers' Company, as his father and grand- 
father had been before him, and he was elected 
master in 1876. During his mastership he 
visited the company's estates in Ireland, and 
also attended carefully to home affairs of the 
corporation. 

Selborne's portrait in oils, as an old man a 
masterpiece by Mr. G. F. Watts, R. A. hangs 
in the drawing-room at Lincoln's Inn, where 
also an engraving by W. Holl, from a sketch 
of his profile by Mr. Richmond, R.A., shows 
him as he was in early manhood. A third 
portrait, painted by Mr. Ouless, is in the 
hall of Magdalen College, Oxford ; a fourth, 
a good likeness by Miss Busk, is in the hall 
of Trinity College, Oxford ; and a fifth, by 
Mr. Wells, is in the Mercers' Hall, London. 

Selborne married, on 2 Feb. 1848, Lady 
Laura Waldegrave (d. 1885), second daugh- 
ter of William, eighth earl Waldegrave, by 
whom he had issue one son, William Walde- 
grave, viscount Wolmer, his successor in title 
and estate, and four daughters. 

Selborne left autobiographical memorials, 
which are to be published. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Ward's W. G. Ward 
and the Oxford Movement, and W, G-. Ward and 
the Catholic Revival ; Davidson and Benham's 
Life of A. C. Tait ; Newman's Letters, ed. Anne 
Mozley, ii. 321 ; Charles Wordsworth's Annals of 
my Early Life, 1806-48, and Annals of my Life, 
1847-56; Greville Memoirs, pt. ii.vol. iii.p. 400; 
Times, 6 May 189o; Solicitors' Journal, 1] May 
1895; private information.] J. M. R. 

PALMER, SAMUEL (d. 1724), pam- 
phleteer, was educated for the dissenting 
ministry under John Ker or Kerr, M.D., 
noted as a nonconformist teacher of philo- 
sophy at Bethnal Green (afterwards at 
Highgate). On the death of Henry Read 
Palmer succeeded him (about 1698) as minis- 



Palmer. 



'55 



Palmer 



ter of the presbyterian congregation in Gravel 
Lane, South wark. John Dunton describes 
him (1705) as an excellent preacher without 
notes, a diligent catechist, a good classic, and 
' beloved by all the clergy and gentlemen of 
the church of England who have had an 
opportunity to know him.' In 1703, in the 
midst of the ' occasional conformity ' agita- 
tion, Samuel Wesley (1662P-1735) [q.v.], 
father of John Wesley, published a ' Letter ' 
to parliament censuring the dissenters' pri- 
vate academies. Palmer published anony- 
mously a spirited ' Defence of the Dissen- 
ters' Education in their Private Academies : 

in answer to Mr W y's . . . Reflections,' 

1703. In reply to Wesley's ' Defence ' of his 
' Letter/ Palmer issued in 1705, with his 
name, a ' Vindication of the Learning, 
Loyalty, Morals, and most Christian Beha- 
viour of the Dissenters towards the Church 
of England.' This Dunton thought con- 
clusive, and Matthew Henry [q. v.] wrote 
highly of it. Of Wesley's ' Reply ' (1707) 
Palmer took no notice. Palmer's pamphlets 
throw important light on the aims and 
methods of nonconformist training. Be- 
tween October 1706 and October 1709 Pal- 
mer took orders in the established church. 
Orton's Northampton manuscript of 1731 
alleges that he thought himself neglected 
by dissenters. On 20 April 1710 he became 
vicar of All Saints' and St. Peter's, Maldon, 
Essex, and held this living till 1724, the year 
of his death, according to Morant. There is 
no entry of his burial at Maldon. Wilson 
cites a doubtful rumour that ' his conduct 
became scandalous.' 

He published, in addition to single ser- 
mons (1703-26 ?) and the pamphlets noticed, 
' Moral Essays on ... English, Scotch, and 
Foreign Proverbs,' &c., 1710, 8vo. 

[Morant's Hist, of Essex, 1768, i. 334 ; Pro- 
testant Dissenters' Magazine, 1799, p. 13; Wil- 
son's Dissenting Churches of London, 1814, iv. 
196 ; Dunton's Life and Errors, 1818, i. 379 sq., 
ii. 724 ; Williams's Memoirs of Matthew Henry, 
1828, p. 184 ; Calamy's Own Life, 1830, i. 459, 
ii. 505 ; information from the Eev. E. R. Hor- 
wood, Maldon.] A. Or. 

PALMER, SAMUEL (d. 1732), printer, 
worked in a house in Bartholomew Close, 
London, afterwards occupied by the two 
Jameses the typefounders (RowE MORES, 
Dissert. upon English Typogr. Founder s,\119>, 
pp. 61-3). In 1725 Benjamin Franklin ' got 
into work at Palmer's, a famous printing 
house in Bartholomew Close,' where he ' con- 
tinued near a year,' and ' was employed in 
composing the second edition of Wollas- 
ton's "Religion of Nature'" (Autobiography 
in Works, Boston [1840], i. 56-9). In March 



1729 Palmer circulated a prospectus of ' The 
Practical Part of Printing, in which the 
Materials are fully described and all the 
Manual Operations explained ' (BIGMORE and 
WYMAN, Bibliography of Printing, ii. 109). 
But as the letter-founders, printers, and book- 
binders feared ' the discovery of the mystery 
of those arts ' (PSALMANAZAR, Memoirs, 1765, 

S240), the Earls of Pembroke and Oxford, 
r. Richard Mead [q. v.], and others, per- 
suaded him to change his plan, and write a 
history of printing, of which several parts 
were actually published about two-thirds 
of the book -when Palmer died. 

On 15 Feb. 1731 a printing-press was set 
up at St. James's House for the Duke of 
York and some of the princesses to work 
under Palmer's supervision (Gent. Mag. i. 
79). Although his business was large and 
successful, and he was 'a sober, industrious 
man, and free from all extravagance, 'Palmer 
ultimately became bankrupt (PSALMANAZAR, 
p. 242). He was ailing two years before his 
death (History of Printing, p. 311), which 
took place on 9 May 1732 (Gent. Mag. 1732, 
p. 775). He ' was a good printer, but a bad 
historian, ignorant, careless, and inaccurate ' 
(J. Lewis's ' Letter to Ames ' in NICHOLS'S 
Illustr. of Lit. iv. 174). Dibdin speaks still 
more contemptuously of ' that wretched pil- 
ferer and driveller, Samuel Palmer ' (KibL 
Decameron, ii. 379). 

Palmer's ' History of Printing ' was com- 
pleted after his death by George Psalmanazar 
[q. v.], theFormosan impostor, who expressed 
the hope that he would ' find the materials 
in so good an order that there will be little 
to do but to print after his [Palmer's] manu- 
script.' In his ' Memoirs ' (pp. 241-3), how- 
ever, Psalmanazar claimed to have written 
the whole book. It appeared as ' The 
General History of Printing, from its first 
invention in the City of Mentz to its first 
progress and propagation thro' the most 
celebrated cities in Europe, particularly its 
introduction, rise, and progress here in Eng- 
land,' London, 1732, 4to. A ' remainder ' 
edition was issued by A. Bettesworth and 
other booksellers with a new title in black 
and red, 'A General History of Printing 
from the first Invention of it in the City of 
Mentz,' &c., 1733. Ames's copy of the 
' History,' with manuscript notes, was pur- 
chased by Bindley in 1786. The second part, 
containing the practical part, ready for print- 
ing, was also in the possession of Ames 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, v. 264). 

It could not have been, as is sometimes 
stated, Palmer the printer who accompanied 
John Dunton as apprentice and servant in 
his American tour, since Dunton relates 



Palmer 



156 



Palmer 



{Life and Errors, 1818, i. 131) how 'Sam, 
having a greater fancy to shooting than 
bookselling, got a post in the army, and, 
riding to see his captain, was drown'd.' Nor 
should the printer be confounded with the 
Samuel Palmer who collected Greek and 
Syriac manuscripts in the East (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. i. 540, 645, 649). 

[Gough's Memoir of Ames in Dibdin's ed. of 
Typogr. Antiq. i. 33, 45 ; Hansard's Typographia, 
1825, pp. 75, 78 ; Timperley's Encyclopaedia, 
1842, pp. 647-8 ; Eeed's Old English Letter 
Foundries, 1887.] H. R. T. 

PALMER, SAMUEL (1741-1813), non- 
conformist biographer, was born at Bedford 
in 1741. He was educated at the Bedford 
grammar school, and studied for the ministry 
(1758-62) at the Daventry academy under 
Caleb Ashworth, D.D. [q. v.] In 1762 he 
became afternoon preacher to the independent 
(originally presbyterian) congregation at 
Mare Street, Hackney, and was ordained on 
21 Nov. 1763. From 10 June 1763 he occa- 
sionally assisted "William Langford, D.D. 
(1704-1755), at the Weigh-house Chapel, 
Little Eastcheap, and was the regular morn- 
ing preacher there from 20 June 1765 to 
28 Dec. 1766. He then succeeded William 
Hunt as morning preacher at Mare Street, 
and remained in charge of the congregation, 
which removed in 1771 to St. Thomas's 
Square, till his death. For some years, from 
about 1780, he had a boarding-school. He 
was a quiet, instructive preacher, with little 
animation but some pathos, his theological 
views being closely allied to those of his 
friend, Job Orton [q. v.] As a pastor he 
was exemplary; his influence on younger men 
was great ; and he early adopted the Sunday- 
school institution in connection with his 
church. Henry Foster Burder [q. v.] was 
his assistant from October 1811 ; but Palmer 
remained active in his charge to the last, 
preaching with vigour on the Sunday pre- 
vious to his death. He died on 28 Nov. 
1813, and was interred on 6 Dec. in the 
burial-ground at St. Thomas's Square. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Thomas N. 
Toller of Kettering, Northamptonshire. He 
left a numerous family. His son Samuel en- 
tered Daventry academy in 1786, and be- 
came a schoolmaster at Chigwell, Essex. 

Palmer's reputation rests on his ' Pro- 
testant Dissenters' Catechism ' and his ' Non- 
conformist's Memorial.' The catechism was 
undertaken at the request of several minis- 
ters, who wanted a supplement to the 
Westminster assembly's 'Shorter Cate- 
chism,' giving the grounds of dissent. The 
manuscript was revised by Philip Furneaux 
[q. v.] and Job Orton, and published in 1772, 



12mo. Its two sections deal with the history 
and principles of nonconformity. It was im- 
mediately successful, reaching a third edition 
in 1773, and it has been constantly reprinted, 
with additions and revisions by various 
editors ; the twenty-ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1890, 8vo. A translation intoWelsh 
was first published in 1775, 12mo. An edition 
adapted for Irish presbyterians was published 
at Belfast, 1824, 12mo. As it was too long 
for its original purpose, Palmer issued ' The 
Protestant Dissenters' Shorter Catechism . . . 
a Supplement to the Assembly's,' &c., 1783, 
12mo. 

At Orton's suggestion Palmer undertook 
an abridgment of the ' Account of the Minis- 
ters . . . Ejected,' &c., 1713, 8vo, by Ed- 
mund Calamy, D.D. [q. v.], incorporating the 
' Continuation/ &c., 1727, 8vo, 2 vols., and 
rearranging the county lists of livings alpha- 
betically. The work was published in parts, 
as 'The Nonconformist's Memorial,' &c., 
1775-8, 8vo, 2 vols. ; an enlarged edition, 
with inferior portraits, was published in 
1802-3, 8vo, 3 vols. Palmer should be con- 
sulted for his additions ; otherwise he does 
not supersede Calamy. He took pains with 
his work, and created fresh interest in the 
subject ; but his corrections of Calamy are 
inadequate, he omits important documents, 
his bibliography is slovenly, and his typo- 
graphical eiTors are vexatious. His projected 
additional volumes on the lives of the earlier 
puritans, and ' an account of the principal 
dissenting ministers since the ejectment,' 
were never executed. 

He published funeral sermons for Samuel 
Sanderson (1776), Caleb Ashworth, D.D. 
(1775), Samuel Wilton, D.D. (1778), John 
Howard (1790), Habakkuk Crabb (1795), 
and other separate sermons (1774-90); also: 
1. 'The Calvinism of the Protestant Dis- 
senters asserted,' &c., 1786, 8vo. 2. ' A 
Vindication of the Modern Dissenters,' &c., 
1790, 8vo, against William Hawkins (1722- 
1801) [q.v.] 3. 'An Apology for the Chris- 
tian Sabbath,' 1799, 8vo. 4. ' Memoirs of 
. . . Hugh Farmer' [q.v.], &c., 1804, 8vo 
(anon.) 5. ' Memoirs of . . . Matthew Henry,' 
1809, 4to, prefixed to ' Henry's Miscellaneous 
Works ; ' also separately. 6. ' Dr. Watts no 
Socinian,' &c., 1813, 8vo. He edited, with 
notes, Johnson's ' Life of Watts/ 1785, 8vo, 
and Orton's ' Letters to Dissenting Minis- 
ters/ &c., 1806, 8vo, 2 vols., with memoir. 
He contributed to the ' Protestant Dissenter's 
Magazine ' and ' Monthly Repository.' His 
life of Samuel Clark, the Daventry tutor, 
is in the ' Monthly Repository/ 1806 ; that 
of Caleb Ashworth, D.D. [q. v.], is in the 
same magazine, 1813. 



Palmer 



157 



Palmer 



[Funeral Sermon, by Toller, 1814; Monthly 
Eepository, 1814 p. 65, 1822 pp. 164, 286; 
Orton's Letters, 1806, ii. 127, 129, 133, 143 ; 
Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, 
i. 186 sq.] A. G. 

PALMER, SAMUEL (1805-1881), 
poetical landscape-painter, the son of a book- 
seller, was born in Surrey Square, St. Mary's, 
Newington, on 27 Jan. 1805. A delicate 
and very sensitive child, he was not sent 
early to school. His nurse, Mary Ward 
(afterwards his servant), was a woman of 
superior mind, and his father taught him 
Latin and Greek, and encouraged a love for 
the Bible and English literature, especially 
the older poets. Later he was sent to Mer- 
chant Taylors' School ; but his father soon 
removed him, in order that he might study 
art, for which he had shown some inclina- 
tion. When he was nearly thirteen years 
old he lost his mother, a shock from which 
he is said not to have recovered for many 
years. It was now settled that he was to 
be a painter. He received his first lessons 
from an obscure artist named Wate, and in 
1819 was fortunate enough to have three of 
his landscapes accepted at the Royal Aca- 
demy, and two at the British Institution. 
One of the latter (either ' Bridge Scene ' or 
' Landscape Composition ') was bought by a 
Mr. Wilkinson for seven guineas. In this 
year his address, given in the Royal Aca- 
demy Catalogue, was 126 Houndsditch, but 
next year it was 10 Broad Street, Blooms- 
bury. 

Palmer exhibited sparingly at the Royal 
Academy in 1820, and from 1822 to 1826, 
and at the British Institution in 1821 and 
1822. During this period he formed the ac- 
quaintance of John Linnell [q. v.], his future 
father-in-law, who gave him valuable coun- 
sel and instruction in art. Linnell intro- 
duced him to John Varley [q. v.], William 
Mulready [q. v.], and William Blake (1757- 
1827) [q. v.] The introduction to Blake took 
place in 1824, when Blake was about half- 
way through his illustrations to Job. Though 
Blake was sixty-seven years old, and had but 
three more years to live, his imagination and 
power of design were at their highest, and 
had a profound influence upon Palmer. Their 
intercourse lasted about two years when there 
was a temporary breakdown in Palmer's 
health; and partly on this account, and 
partly in order to make designs from Ruth, 
he, accompanied by his father, left London 
for Shoreham,near Sevenoaks in Kent, where 
he remained for about seven years at a cot- 
tage named ' Waterhouse.' 

A small competence enabled them to live 
with extreme frugality in the simple enjoy- 



ment of a country life, passed in the midst 
of beautiful scenery and cheered by con- 
genial companionship. Among their friends 
and visitors were George Richmond (now 
R.A.), Edward Calvert [q.v.] both ardent 
admirers of Blake a cousin named John 
Giles, and Henry Walter, an animal-painter. 
This little society went by the name of ' The 
Ancients.' The days were spent in painting- 
and walking, the evenings in reading Eng- 
lish poetry and music, and they were fond of 
nightly rambles. Palmer at that time played 
the violin and sang, but he afterwards gave 
up the practice of music to devote himself 
more exclusively to painting. At Shoreham 
he painted in oil, and made many water- 
colour sketches from nature and studies in 
poetical landscape, mostly in sepia and ivory 
black. The subjects were principally pas- 
toral or scriptural, and were treated in a. 
spirit of primitive simplicity akin to that of 
Blake's wood-engravings to Thornton's ' Pas- 
torals,' which had also a strong influence on 
E. Calvert. In these years of poetical 
musing in the presence of nature, seen by 
the light of his favourite poets, the ideal of 
his art was formed. The only works ex- 
hibited from 1827 to 1832 were ' The De- 
luge, a sketch,' and ' Ruth returned from 
Gleaning,' which appeared at the Royal 
Academy in 1829. In 1832 his address in 
the Royal Academy Catalogue is 4 Grove 
Street, Lisson Grove, a small house bought 
with a legacy, and h*ere he settled in this or 
the following year. 

A sudden activity marks this period. In 
1832 he took a sketching tour in North 
Wales, and sent seven works to the Royal 
Academy, in 1833 six, and in 1834 five, as 
well as a like number to the British Insti- 
tution. About this time he paid his first 
visit to Devonshire, a country the scenery of 
which, with its ' heaped-up richness,' gave 
him all he desired in landscape. This visit 
is marked by a ' Scene from Lee, North 
Devon/ which appeared at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1835, and the exhibited drawings 
of the next two years tell of a visit to North 
Wales. 

In 1837 Palmer married Hannah, the 
eldest daughter of John Linnell. The mar- 
riage, in deference to the views of his 
father-in-law and to his after regret, was 
performed at a registry office. His friend 
George Richmond having taken to himself a 
wife about the same time, the two couples 
went off together to Italy, where Palmer 
and his wife stayed two years. Mrs. Palmer 
made copies from the old masters for her 
father, and also sketched from nature. Some 
of her Italian views were exhibited at the 



Palmer 



158 



Palmer 



Royal Academy in 1840 and 1842. They 
seem to have spent most of their time in 
Rome, but made some stay at Naples. Pal- 
mer's first contribution to the Royal Academy 
after his return was ' Pompeii, the Street of 
the Tombs' (1840), which was followed by 
other Italian drawings in 1841 and 1842. 
In the latter year a son was born to him. He 
had confined himself almost, if not entirely, 
to water-colour while he was abroad ; and 
though he resumed painting in oils after Ms 
return from Italy, and never lost the desire 
to work in that medium, he practically aban- 
doned it after 1843, when he was elected an 
associate of the (now Royal) Society of 
Painters in Water-colours. After this he 
left off exhibiting at the Royal Academy 
and the British Institution, and contributed 
only to the exhibitions of his society. In 
the first year or two he exhibited many 
Italian drawings, delicate in colour and care- 
fully drawn, but not strongly distinguished 
from the work of other men. Henceforth his 
subjects were mostly English pastorals 
aged oaks and cornfields, gleaners and nut- 
ting-parties, gipsy-dells, and rising storms 
or belonged to the classes of ' Romantic,' 
' Classic,' or ' Ideal.' Among the latter were 
illustrations of the ' Pilgrim's Progress ' and 
Spenser, and such designs as ' St. Paul land- 
ing in Italy,' ' Robinson Crusoe guiding his 
Raft up the Creek,' ' Farewell to Calypso,' 
or ' Mercury driving away the Cattle of Ad- 
rnetus.' In 1855 he exhibited for the first 
time a drawing from Milton, ' The Dell of 
Comus,' which was followed by two other 
illustrations from the same masque in 1856. 
His favourite effects were twilight, sunsets, 
and moonlights ; and once he went out of 
his usual course to record in a striking draw- 
ing an unusual phenomenon, ' The Comet of 
1859, as seen from the skirts of Dartmoor.' 

During these years he eked out his slender 
income by giving drawing lessons. In 1843 
he again visited North Wales. In 1845 he 
was at Margate, and spent some time at 
Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire. In 
1846 he made some drawings, which were 
engraved on wood, for the illustration of 
Dickens's ' Pictures from Italy.' In 1847 he 
lost his only daughter (born 1844), an event 
which he felt intensely, and which caused 
him to leave Lisson Grove for Kensington 
(!A Victoria Road) in the spring of 1848. In 
December of this year his father died. At 
Victoria Road and at 6 Dover Place, Marl- 
borough Place, Kensington, whither he moved 
about 1850, he commenced the practice of 
etching. Among his neighbours and friends 
in that locality were T. O. Barlow, R.A., and 
C. W. Cope, R.A. the former an engraver, 



and the latter as clever with the etching- 
needle as the paint-brush. He was elected 
a member of the Etching Society in 1853, 
his probationary etching being a beautiful 
little plate called ' The Willows.' Ten out 
of Palmer's thirteen etchings were executed 
at Kensington. 

In 1854 Palmer was elected a full member 
of the Water-colour Society, to which he 
continued to contribute from two to eight 
drawings annually. In 1856 he undertook 
nine illustrations to Adams's ' Sacred Alle- 
gories.' In 1857 he sketched in Cornwall, 
and in 1858 and 1860 in Devonshire. On 
sketching excursions, with no luggage but 
one spare shirt, and associating much with, 
the country folk, he travelled a great deal 
on foot, and often walked throughout the 
night. 

He still found it hard to make a living, 
and grew despondent and tired even of his 
work, and in 1861 he sustained a very severe 
blow in the death of his eldest son at the 
age of nineteen. He removed from London, 
and after a year's stay at Reigate, took up 
his residence at Furze Hill House, Mead 
Vale, Redhill, 'where he spent the remaining 
twenty years of his life. Although he did 
not produce much, partly through failing 
health and partly from his excessive care 
and deliberation, it is to this period that his 
finest work belongs. 

It was due to the sympathetic suggestion 
of a stranger, Mr. L. R. Valpy, that Palmer 
found a field in which he could exercise all 
his finest faculties and employ them to 
realise the dreams of a lifetime. This was a 
commission for drawings in illustration of 
'L'Allegro' and 'II Penseroso,' two of those 
' minor poems ' of Milton, a brass-clamped 
copy of which, given to him by his nurse on 
her death-bed, he had carried with him 
wherever he went for twenty years. ' I 
never,' he once wrote, ' knew such a sacred 
and home-felt delight as when endeavouring, 
in all humility, to realise, after a sort, the 
imagery of Milton.' Fortunately the grow- 
ing infirmities of his body seem to have been 
accompanied by an increase in the clearness 
and completeness of his imagination, and 
though he took long about these drawings, 
fearing to part with them till they had re- 
ceived those ' final gossamer touches and 
tendernesses ' which he compared to the ' few 
last sunglows which give the fruits their 
sweetness,' they may be regarded as the su- 
preme expression of the man and the artist. 
Brilliant, rich, and powerful in colour, they 
are finished to a degree seldom attained, and 
yet, despite their elaboration, contain no 
touch unfelt or useless. 



Palmer 



159 



Palmer 



These were all exhibited at the "Water- 
colour Society in the following order : ' The 
Lonely Tower,' 'A Towered City,' and 
'Morning,' 1868 (winter exhibition), 'The 
Curfew,' 1870 (summer), ' The Waters Mur- 
muring,' 1877 (summer), ' The Prospect ' 
and ' The Eastern Gate/ 1881 (winter), and 
'The Bellman,' 1882 (summer). The last 
two were perhaps the finest of all. 

Among other fine drawings belonging to 
this period were : ' The Brother come Home 
from Sea,' ' The Chapel by the Bridge,' ' The 
Golden Hour,' ' Lycidas,'' ' A Golden City ' 
(a dream of Rome), ' Tityrus restored to his 
Patrimony,' and ' Sabrina.' 

At Redhill he again took up his etching- 
needle and added three more plates ('The 
Bellman,' ' The Lonely Tower,' and ' Open- 
ing the Fold ') to the ten he had finished at 
Kensington. Palmer delighted in etching 
even more than in painting, and his plates 
are like his drawings visions of tender 
poetry, powerful and subtle in illumination, 
and finished to the last degree. For the 
Etching Club, besides his probationary plate, 
' The Willow,' he executed seven plates. 
These were published by the Club : ' The 
Vine ' (two subjects on one plate), in 1852 ; 
'The Sleeping Shepherd,' 'The Skylark,' and 
'The Rising Moon,' in 1857; 'The Herds- 
man ' in 1865, < The Morning of Life ' in 1872, 
and 'The Lonely Tower' in 1880. 'The 
Herdsman's Cottage,' a sunset scene, was 
published as ' Sunrise ' in the ' Portfolio ' for 
November 1872; ' Christmas' in 'A Memoir 
of S. Palmer,' 1882 ;' The Early Ploughman ' 
in Hamerton's ' Etching and Etchers ; ' ' The 
Bellman,' by the Fine Art Society, in 1879 ; 
and ' Opening the Fold' in the artist's ' Eng- 
lish Version of the Eclogues of Virgil,' 
published posthumously in 1883. 

On this work of translating and illustrating 
the Eclogues he had been engaged for many 
years before his death. Of the illustrations, 
only one had been completely etched. Four 
more were in progress and were completed 
by his son, Mr. A. H. Palmer. The five 
plates, with photographic reproductions of the 
remaining designs, were published with the 
translation. 

During his later years his circumstances 
were easier, his prices higher, his commissions 
constant, and little occurred to disturb the 
even tenor of his life. He saw few visitors, 
and seldom left home except now and then to 
pay a visit to Mr. J. C. Hook (now R. A.) at 
Churt, but spent most of his time in musing 
and meditating over his designs and reading 
his favourite authors. One of the very few 
new friends he made was Mr. J. Merrick 
Head of Reigate, his legal adviser and exe- 



cutor, who possesses several choice examples 
of his art. 

After a life distinguished by its innocence, 
its simplicity, and its devotion to an artistic 
ideal for which he sacrificed all worldly 
considerations, Palmer died on 24 May 1881. 

Palmer was one of the most original and 
poetical of English landscape-painters, and 
almost the last of the ideal school of land- 
scape, which, based mainly on the pictures of 
Claude, was represented in England by Wil- 
son and Turner, and many others. Claude, 
Turner, Blake, and Linnell had a distinct 
influence in developing Palmer's genius, but 
his work stands apart by itself. As a man 
he was loved by all who knew him. His 
circle of acquaintances was small, but his 
friendships were deep. His religious convic- 
tions were strong, his opinions on other points 
conservative in character, and often founded 
on slender knowledge, but they were always 
the result of much reflection. The warmth 
of his feeling and a genuine vein of humour 
added vivacity to his conversation and corre- 
spondence. His translation of the ' Eclogues 
of Virgil ' is unequal and diffuse, but shows 
true poetical feeling and contains some beau- 
tiful passages ; but his best prose (as in the 
preface to this volume, and his delightful 
letters, many of which have been published) 
is superior to his verse. 

A collection of Palmer's works was ex- 
hibited shortly after his death by the Fine 
Art Society, and seventeen of his finest 
drawings were lent to the winter exhibition 
of the Royal Academy in 1893. 

[Life and Letters of Samuel Palmer by A. H. 
Palmer; Samuel Palmer: Memoir by A. H. 
Palmer; Notes by F. G. Stephens on Exhibition 
of Palmer's works at the Fine Art Society in 
1881 ; Shorter Poems of John Milton, with illus- 
trations by Samuel Palmer and preface by A. H. 
Palmer; Roget's 'Old' Water-colour Society; 
Gilchrist's Life of William Blake ; Story's Life 
of John Linnell ; Life of Edward Calvert ; An 
English Version of the Eclogues of Virgil by 
Samuel Palmer ; Athenaeum, 4 June and 5 Nov. 
1881 ; Portfolio, November 1872.] C. M. 

PALMER, SHIRLEY (1786-1852), 
medical writer, born at Coleshill, Warwick- 
shire, 27 Aug. 1786, was son of Edward 
Palmer, solicitor, by his second wife, Bene- 
dicta Mears. Educated at Coleshill grammar 
school, and at Harrow, under the Rev. Joseph 
Drury, D.D., Palmer became a pupil of Mr. 
Salt, surgeon, of Lichfield, father of Henry 
Salt [q. v.], the Abyssinian traveller, and 
subsequently studied under Abernethy at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London. He became 
a member of the Royal College of Surgeons 
in 1807, and graduated M.D. at Glasgow in 



Palmer 



160 



Palmer 



1815. Settling at Tamworth, Staffordshire, 
he was twice elected high bailiff of the 
town. In 1831 he established a practice at 
Birmingham, but still maintained his resi- 
dence and connection at Tamworth. He 
died 11 Nov. 1852, at Tamworth, and was 
buried in the new churchyard, which had 
once formed part of his garden. He married, 
on 29 Sept. 1813, Marie Josephine Minette 
Breheault, a French refugee of good family. 

Palmer published : 1. 'The Swiss Exile,' a 
juvenile denunciation of Napoleon in heroic 
verse in thirty or forty pages (4to, n. d.), 
dedicated to Miss Anna Seward. 2. ' Popu- 
lar Illustrations of Medicine,' London, 1829, 
8vo. 3. ' Popular Lectures on the Verte- 
brated Animals of the British Islands,' Lon- 
don, 1832, 8vo. 4. ' A Pentaglot Dictionary 
[French, English, Greek, Latin, and German] 
of the Terms employed in Anatomy, Physio- 
logy, Pathology, {practical Medicine,' &c., 
London, 1845. 

Palmer edited the 'New Medical and 
Physical Journal,' along with William Shear- 
man, M.D., and James Johnson, from 1815 
to 1819 ; the 'London Medical Reposi- 
tory,' along with D. Uwins and Samuel 
Frederick Gray, from 1819 to 1821. To both 
periodicals he contributed largely, as well as 
to the 'Lichfield Mercury' while John 
Woolrich was editor, and to the first five 
volumes of the 'Analyst.' 

[His works in the British Museum ; Simms's 
Bibliotheca Staffordiensis.] C. F. R. P. 

PALMER or PALMARIUS, THOMAS 
(jtf. 1410), theological writer, was a friar of 
the house of Dominicans in London. He took 
the degree of doctor of theology, and assisted 
in 1412 at the trial of Sir John Oldcastle 
(FoxE, Acts and Monuments, iii. 329, 334). 
He was a friend of Richard Clifford [q. v.], 
bishop of London ; was skilful in disputation, 
and wrote orthodox works to repair the 
schisms of the church. These were : 1 . ' Super 
facienda unione,' which Leland saw at West- 
minster (Coll. iii. 48). 2. 'De Adoratione 
Imaginum libellus,' beginning ' Nunquid 
domini nostri crucifix!,' now in the Merton 
College MS. Ixviii. f. 18 b. The second part 
is entitled ' De Veneratione Sanctorum,' and 
begins 'Tractatum de sanctorum venera- 
tione.' 3. ' De original! peccato ' (MS. Mer- 
ton, z'6.), beginning ' Ego cum sim pulvis 
et cinis.' Tanner ascribes the rest of the 
manuscript to him ' De peregrinatione,' on 
the pilgrimages to Canterbury but the ma- 
nuscript does not name Palmer as the author. 
4. ' De indulgentiis.' 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Pits, De Illustribus 
Anglise Scriptoribus, p. 591.] M. B. 



PALMER, SIB THOMAS (d. 1553), 
soldier, was the youngest of the three sons 
of Sir Edward Palmer, by his wife, the sister 
and coheiress of Sir Richard Clement, of the 
Moat, Ightham, Kent. His grandfather, John 
Palmer, of Angmering, Sussex, was a member 
of a family that had settled in Sussex in the 
fourteenth century ; and of his father's two 
younger brothers, Robert was the founder of 
the Palmers of Parham in Sussex, while Sir 
Thomas served with distinction in the garrison 
at Calais. He was early attached to the court, 
and in 1515 he was serving at Tournay. On 
28 April 1517 he was one of the feodaries of 
the honour of Richmond. The same year he 
became bailiff of the lordship of Barton-on- 
Humber, Lincolnshire. He was a gentleman- 
usher to the king in 1519, and at the Field of 
the Cloth of Gold in 1520. On 22 Aug. 1519 
he was made overseer of petty customs, of the 
subsidy of tonnage and poundage, and regu- 
lator of the custom-house wherries ; in 1521 
he became surveyor of the lordship of Henley- 
in- Arden, and he also had an annuity of 20J. 
a year. He served in the expedition of 1523, 
and the same year had a grant of the manor 
of Pollicot, Buckinghamshire. The next year 
he had a further grant of ground in the 
parish of St. Thomas the Apostle, London. 
On 10 Nov. 1532 he was knighted at Calais, 
where he had become captain of Ne wen- 
ham Bridge. He was favourably noticed by 
Henry VIII, who played dice with him, 
and in 1533 he became knight-porter of 
Calais, an office of considerable importance. 
He was taken prisoner by the French in 
an expedition from Guisnes, and had to ran- 
som himself. He gave an account of this 
and other services to Cromwell in a letter of 
1534. He acted as commissioner for Calais 
and its marches in 1535 in the collection 
of the tenths of spiritualities. Palmer was 
at the affair of the Bridge of Arde in 1540, 
and the next year, wanting to secure a 
special pension, had leave to come over to 
London to try and secure it. In July 1543, 
when treasurer of Guisnes, he went with 
the force under Sir John "Wallop against 
the French, and in August 1545 Lord Grey 
sent him on a message to the king. In this 
year he was captain of the 'Old Man' at 
Boulogne, presumably resigning it to his 
brother. 

When Henry VIII died, Palmer had 
secured a reputation for unbounded courage. 
Though he hated Somerset, he was at first a 
member of his party, and was told off for ser- 
vice on the border. In 1548 he several times 
distinguished himself by bringing provisions 
into Haddington ; but, having command of 
the lances in an expedition from Berwick, 



Palmer 



161 



Palmer 



his ' sellfwyll and glorie in that joorney dyd ' 
cast awaye the whoalle power, for they were 
all overthrowen.' He seems none the less 
to have continued to hold his appointments 
at Calais. On 11 June 1550 he was sent with 
Sir Richard Lee to view the forts on the 
Scottish border, and provide for their re- 
pair. 

Palmer, on 7 Oct. 1550, was the first to 
disclose Somerset's treason, the declaration 
being made in Warwick's garden (cf. DIXON, 
Hist, of the Church of England, ii. 393, 397- 
398). He had evidently hoped to rise with 
Northumberland ; having secured several 
monastic grants, he was building himself a 
house in the Strand. On 18 Feb. 1551-2 he 
had a pardon for all treasons, doubtless to 
clear him from all suspicion as a former fol- 
lower of Somerset ; and on 3 March follow- 
ing he was appointed a commissioner for 
the division of the debatable land on the 
borders. He was an adherent of Lady Jane 
Grey, and had been too prominent to 
escape when Northumberland fell. He was 
sent to the Tower on 25 July 1553, arraigned 
and condemned on 19 Aug., and brought out 
for execution on 22 Aug., with Sir John 
Gates, the Duke of Northumberland, and 
others. He had heard mass before execution, 
and taken the sacrament in one kind ; but 
when he came on the scaffold, covered with 
the blood of those who had just been be- 
headed, he made a manly speech, in which 
he said that he died a protestant. 

Of Sir Thomas's two elder brothers, the 
first, Sir John, known as ' Buskin Palmer ' 
or ' Long Palmer,' was sheriff of Surrey and 
Sussex successively in 1533 and 1543. He 
became a noted dicer, and, having been con- 
stantly in the habit of winning money from 
Henry VIII at cards, he was hanged, though 
upon what exact grounds or at what date is 
uncertain. 

His second brother, SIR HENRY PALMER 
{d. 1559), ' of "Wingham ' in Kent, was a 
man of much greater repute. He commenced 
a soldier's career by serving as a ' spear of 
Calais,' but about 1535 he became acting 
bailiff of Guisnes ; he was bailiff in 1539, and j 
in the same place held the offices of master , 
of the ordnance, treasurer, supervisor and 
warden of the forest. He was a gentleman 
of the king's household in 1544. He dis- 
tinguished himself greatly in the capture of 
Boulogne in 1544, and had his arm broken. 
He now came to Boulogne as member of the 
council, and as early as 1546 was master of 
the ordnance. In August 1549 he retired from 
the Bullenberg, with leave of Lord Clinton, 
and levelled the walls. He was in consequence 
degraded, and Lord Clinton reprimanded. , 

VOL. XLIII. 



Palmer was not a coward, but saw that the 
small forts could not be held if more men were 
not supplied. His place as captain of ' the 
Old Man ' seems to have been given to Sir 
John Norton. When Queen Jane came to the 
throne he must have been in great danger. 
He was arrested by Sir Thomas Moyle in July 
1553, but was soon at large, as in December 
he was at Calais again. He stayed on there 
during Mary's reign. In December 1559 he 
made an expedition from Guisnes with Lord 
Grey, and was badly wounded in the arm in 
an attack on a fortified church. In the French 
attack on Calais in 1558 he was reported to 
be killed, but he seems only to have been 
taken prisoner, and was subsequently ran- 
somed. He returned to his seat at Wing- 
ham, which he had secured after the disso- 
lution of the monasteries in 1553, and he 
died there before September 1559. The pedi- 
gree of 1672 states that there was a portrait 
of him at Wingham. Sir Henry Palmer 
married Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Winde- 
bank of Guisnes, and left three sons Sir 
Thomas [q. v.], ' the Travailer,' Arnold, and 
Edward. 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Chron. of 
Calais, p. 42, &c., Chron. of Queen Mary and 
Queen Jane, p. 21, &c , in the Camden Soc. ; 
State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. x. ; Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, vols. vii., &c. ; Lit. Rem. of 
King Edw. VI (Roxb. CJlub), p. 353, &c. ; Cal. of 
State Papers, Dotn. Sen. .154 7-80, p. 105, Add. 
1547-65, p. 492, For. Ser/1553 - 8. p. 230 ; Froude's 
Hist, of Engl. vol. vi. ; Zur. Letters, 3rd ser. 
(Parker Soc.), pp. 367, 577; Metcalfe's Knights; 
Pedigree of the Palmers of Sussex, 1672, pri- 
vately printed 1867; Strype's Mem. of the Ref. 
ii. i. 123, &c., ii. 207, &c., in. i. 24, &c., ii. 182, 
&c., Annals, i. i. 64, n. ii. 22, &c., Cranmer, 
p. 451; Betham's Baronetage, i. 212, &c.; Nico- 
las's Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII and 
of Princess Marv ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, iii. 
700, &c.] W. A. J. A. 

PALMER, SIR THOMAS (1540-1626), 
' the Travailer,' born in 1540, was the third 
son of Sir Henry Palmer of Wingham, Kent, 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Richard 
Windebank of Guisnes, and was nephew of 
Sir Thomas Palmer (d. 1553) [q. v.] He 
was high sheriff of Kent in 1595, and in 
the following year went on the expedition to 
Cadiz, when he was knighted. In 1606 he 
published ' An Essay of the Meanes how to 
make our Travailes into forraine Countries 
the more profitable and honourable,' London, 
4to. Here Palmer discussed the advantages 
of foreign travel, and some of the political 
and commercial principles which the traveller 
should understand. The book is dated from 
Wingham, where the author is said to have 

M 



Palmer 



162 



Palmer 



kept, with great hospitality, sixty Christ- 
mases without intermission. He was created 
a baronet on 29 June 1621. He died on 
2 Jan. 1625-6, aged 85, and was buried at 
Wingham. He married Margaret, daughter 
of John Pooley of Badley, Suffolk, who died 
in August 1625, aged 85. Of his three sons, 
all knighted, Sir Thomas died before his 
father, and was himself father of Herbert 
Palmer [q. v.] The second son, Sir Roger, 
was master of the household to Charles I, 
and the third son, Sir James, is noticed sepa- 
rately. 

The ' Travailer' must be distinguished from 
Thomas Palmer or Palmar, a Roman catholic 
scholar, who graduated B. A. from Brasenose 
College, Oxford, in 1553, but who subse- 
quently became a primary scholar of St. 
John's College, and was in 1563 appointed 
principal of Gloucester Hall. He was a 
zealous catholic, and, after a steady refusal 
to conform, he had in 1564 to retire from 
his headship to his estates in Essex, where 
persecution is said to have followed him. 
Wood describes him as an excellent orator, 
and ' the best of his time for a Ciceronian 
style' (FosTEE, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
WOOD, Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 150; DODB, Church 
History, ii. 90). 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. Elizabeth, cclix. 
2; Wood's Athene Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1194; 
Berry's Kent Genealogies, p. 259 ; Hasted's 
Kent, iii. 700 ; Burke's Extinct Baronetae, 
appendix.] W. A. S. H. 

PALMER, THOMAS (/. 1644-1666), 
independent minister and agitator, born about ! 
1620, was said to be a clergyman's son. In ! 
1644 he became, probably after serving as a 
soldier, chaplain to Skippon's regiment. He ! 
was vicar, or perpetual curate, of St. Lau- j 
rence Pountney from 24 Nov. 1644 to j 
22 April 1646. Early in the latter year he j 
was presented by the Westminster assembly 
to the rectory of Aston-upou-Trent in Derby- 
shire. The living had been sequestered from \ 
a royalist, Richard Clark or Clerke, who in ! 
April 1646 made an effort to regain possession j 
of the parsonage. A fifth part of the value ! 
of the rectory was allowed to Clark's wife by 
the committee for plundered ministers on 
13 June. In March 1646-7 Palmer obtained 
an ordinance from the lords for settling him- 
self in the rectory, when he disputed the right i 
of Clark's family to the portion of the revenue ! 
allotted to them. 

Palmer has been identified with the Thomas i 
Palmer who matriculated from Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 22 Jan. 1648-9, was demy 
from 1648 to 1655, graduated B.A. on 26 Feb. 
1651-2, was chosen fellow of Magdalen in 



1653, and graduated M.A. on 13 June 1654. 
In 1658 he communicated the articles agreed 
upon by the independent ministers at Oxford 
to the congregations of Derbyshire and Not- 
tinghamshire. He attended meetings of the 
Nottingham presbyterian classisin 1658 and 
1659. In 1659 he described himself as 
' pastor of a church of Christ in Nottingham.' 
He was ejected from both rectory and fellow- 
ship in 1660, after which he wandered about 
the country preaching and fanning 'the flames 
of rebellion.' In November 1661 he was hold- 
ing meetings on the premises of a rich brewer 
at Limehouse, and a year later, though dis- 
guised, was taken prisoner at Egerton in Kent, 
and imprisoned at Canterbury. Early in 1663 
he was residing in Rope Alley, Little Moor- 
fields, London, and described as a dangerous 
person, holding the Fifth-monarchy opinions. 
About June he was imprisonedat Nottingham 
for preaching in conventicles. In the autumn 
of 1663 he distinguished himself as an agi- 
tator in the Farnley Wood plot, having under- 
taken to raise a troop of horse to meet at 
Nottingham on 12 Oct. He was specially 
mentioned in the king's proclamation of 
10 Nov. 1663 for ' The Discovery and Appre- 
hension of Divers Trayterous Conspirators,' 
but escaped from Nottingham to London. 
In the summer of 1666 Palmer is stated to 
have gone to Ireland ' to do mischief.' He 
is described as a tall man, with flaxen hair. 

He published : 1. ' The Saint's Support in 
these sad Times,' London, 1644. 2. ' Chris- 
tian's Freedom, or God's Deed of Gift to his 
Saints,' London, 1646 (WOOD). 3. ' A Ser- 
mon on 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23,' London, 1647 
(WooD). 4. 'A Little View of this 
Old World, in two books. I. A Map of 
Monarchy ... II. An Epitome of Papacy,' 
London, 1659. 

[Wood's Athene (Bliss), vol. iv. col. 1194; 
Wilson's Hist, of St. L;utrence Pountne}', pp. 
91., 102; Addit. MSS. 15670 ff. 129, 209/25463 
ff. 167-8; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Hep. p. 163; 
Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. p. 511 ; Burrows's 
Re%. of Visitors of Univ. of Oxford, p. 518; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, i. 392; Car- 
penter's Presbyterianism in Nottingham, pp. 36, 
38 ; Cal. State Papers, 16G1-2, Dom. Ser.pp. 161, 
555 ; Lords' Journals, ix. 69, 74, 122,128 ; Tha 
Intelligencer, 30 Nov. 1663, pp. 111-12; State 
Papers, 1662-3, Ixvii. (54), 1664, xcii. (58 i), c. 
(24), ci. (29 i).] B. P. 

PALMER, THOMAS FYSHE (1747- 
1802), Unitarian minister, was born at Jek- 
well, in the parish of Northill, Bedfordshire, 
in July 1747. His mother belonged to the 
Palmer family of Nazeing Park, Essex [see 
under PALMER, GEORGE and JOHN HORS- 
LEY], His father, who was the representative 



Palmer 



163 



Palmer 



of the family of Fyshe of Essex, assumed the 
additional name of Palmer. Having received 
his elementary education under the Kev. Mr. 
Gunning at Ely, Palmer was sent to Eton, 
and thence to Cambridge, entering Queens' 
College in 1765, with the purpose of taking 
orders in the church of England. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1769, M.A. in 1772, and B.D. 
in 1781. He obtained a fellowship of Queens' 
College in 1781, and officiated for a year as 
curate of Leatherhead, Surrey. While at 
Leatherhead he was introduced to Dr. John- 
son, and dined with him in London ; on which 
occasion they discussed, according to Boswell, 
the inadequate remuneration of the poorer 
clergy. About this time the writings of Dr. 
Priestley of Birmingham, advocating progres- 
sive unitarianism, so powerfully influenced 
Palmer that he decided to abandon the creed 
in which he had been reared, and to renounce 
the brilliant prospects of church preferment 
that were open to him. A Unitarian so- 
ciety had been founded by William Christie, 
merchant, at Montrose, and Palmer offered 
his services as a preacher (14 July 1783). 
In November 1783 Palmer reached Montrose, 
and remained as Christie's colleague till May 
1785. At that date he removed to Dundee 
to become pastor of a new Unitarian society 
there, and he founded the Unitarian church 
still in existence in that city. At the same 
time he preached frequently in Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Arbroath, and Forfar, and formed 
Unitarian societies in all these places. In 
1789 he took temporary charge of the society 
at Newcastle. In 1792 his sermons in Edin- 
burgh attracted the attention of literary 
circles, and several pamphlets were published 
in refutation of his doctrines. 

When the agitation for political reform 
began in 1792, Dundee became one of its 
chief centres in Scotland. A society called 
the ' Friends of Liberty ' was formed in 1793, 
and met in the Berean meeting-house in the 
Methodist Close, beside the house where 
Palmer lived in the Overgait. The society 
was composed mainly of operatives. One 
evening in June 1793 Palmer was induced 
to attend a meeting, when George Mealmaker, 
weaver in Dundee, brought up the draft of 
an address to the public which he purposed 
circulating as a handbill. Mealmaker's 
grammar was defective, and Palmer revised 
it, modifying some strong expressions. 
When it left his hands it was no more than 
a complaint against the government for the 
extravagant war taxation in which the 
country had been involved, and a claim for 
universal suffrage and short parliaments. 
The address was sent to be printed in ; Edin- 
burgh in July 1793. The authorities were 



foolishly alarmed, and interpreted the diS- 
semiuation of this and similar documents as 
the beginning of a new reign of terror. 
They determined to meet the anticipated revo- 
lution in time, and, in the belief that they 
were attacking a revolutionary leader, Palmer 
Avas arrested in Edinburgh on 2 Aug. on a 
charge of sedition as the author of the docib- 
inent. At the preliminary legal inquiry he 
refused to answer the questions put to him, 
pleading his ignorance of Scots law. He 
was confined in Edinburgh gaol, but afterr 
wards liberated on bail. An indictment wa's 
served \ipon him directing him to appear at 
the circuit court, Perth, on 12 Sept. to an- 
swer to the charge of treason. The presiding, 
j udges were Lord Eskg rove (Ilae) and Alexan- 
der, lord Abercromby ; the prosecutor was Mr. 
Burnett, advocate-depute, assisted by Allan 
Maconochie, afterwards Lord Meadowbank 
[q. v.]; and Palmer was defended by John 
Clerk, afterwards Lord Eldin [q. v.], and Mr. 
Haggart. A number of preliminary objec- 
tions to the indictment were offered, one of 
these being founded on the spelling of his 
name ' Fische ' instead of ' Fyshe,' but these 
were all rejected. One of the first witnesses 
was George Mealmaker, who admitted that 
he was the author of the address, and stated 
that Palmer was opposed to its publication. 
Other officials of the ' Friends of Liberty ' 
corroborated, and the evidence proved nothing 
relevant to the charge 'beyond the fact that 
Palmer had ordered one thousand copies to be 
printed, but had given no instructions as to 
distribution. Both the judges summed up 
adversely, and, when the jury found the ac- 
cused guilty, he was sentenced to seven years' 
transportation. The conviction of Palmer, 
following so close upon that of Thomas Muir 
[q. v.], raised a storm of indignation among 
the whig party throughout the kingdom ; 
and during February and March 1794 re- 
peated attempts were made by the Earl of 
Lauderdale and Earl Stanhope in the House ' 
of Lords, and by Fox and Sheridan in the 
House of Commons, to obtain the reversal of 
the sentence. But the government, under 
Pitt, was too strong for the opposition, and 
these efforts were unavailing. Palmer was. 
detained in Perth Tolbooth for three months, 
and was thence taken to London and placed 
on the hulk Stanislaus at Woolwich, where 
he was put in irons and forced to labour for 
three months with convicted felons. On 
11 Feb. 1794 he, Skirving, and Muir were, 
sent on board the Surprise with a gang of. 
convicts to Botany Bay. Their embarka- , 
tion took place at this date in order to fore- 
stall the debate on their case in the House.! 
of Commons, though the vessel did not leave.' 

H 2 






Palmer 



164 



Palmer 



Britain till the end of April. The sufferings 
they endured on the passage, and the indig- 
nities put upon them, were fully detailed in 
the ' Narrative ' which Palmer wrote after 
landing. The vessel arrived at Port Jackson, 
New South Wales, on 25 Oct., and as Palmer 
and his companions had letters of introduc- 
tion to the governor, they were well treated, 
and had contiguous houses assigned to them. 
In two letters (now in the possession of the 
Rev. H. Williamson, Unitarian minister, Dun- 
dee), dated June 1795 and August 1797, 
Palmer speaks enthusiastically of the climate 
and natural advantages of the infant colony, 
which had been founded in 1788. ' I have no 
scruple,' he writes, ' in saying it is the finest 
country I ever saw. An honest and active 

foveruor might soon make it a region of plenty. 
Q spite of all possible rapacity and robbery 
(on the part of the officials), I am clear that it 
will thrive against every obstacle.' Besides 
cultivating the land, the exiled reformers 
constructed a small vessel, and traded to 
Norfolk Island, establishing a dangerous 
but lucrative business. At the close of 1799 
Palmer and his friend James Ellis who had 
followed him from Dundee as a colonist 
combined with others to purchase a vessel in 
which they might return home, as Palmer's 
sentence expired in September 1800. They 
intended to trade on the homeward way, and 
provisioned the vessel for six months; but 
their hopes of securing cargo in New Zea- 
land were disappointed, and they were de- 
tained off that coast for twenty-six weeks. 
Thence they sailed to Tongatabu, where a 
native war prevented them from landing. 
They steered their course for the Fiji Islands, 
where they were well received ; but while 
making for Goraa, one of the group, their 
vessel struck on a reef. Having refitted 
their ship, they started for Macao, then 
almost the only Chinese port open to foreign 
traffic. Adverse storms drove them about 
the Pacific until their provisions were ex- 
hausted, and they were compelled to put in 
to Guguan, one of the Ladrone Islands, then 
under Spanish rule, though they knew that 
Spain and Britain were at war. The Spanish 
governor treated them as prisoners of war. 
At length Palmer was attacked with dysen- 
tery, a disease that had originated with him 
when confined in the hulks, and, as he had 
no medicines with him, his enfeebled consti- 
tution succumbed. He died on 2 June 1802, 
and was buried by the seashore. Two years 
afterwards an American captain touched at 
the Isle of Guguan, and, having ascertained 
where Palmer had been buried, he caused the 
body to be exhumed and conveyed on board 
his vessel, with the governor's permission. 



The remains were taken to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, and reinterred in the cemetery 
there. Of Palmer's immediate relatives three 
is no survivor, the last of them being his 
nephew, Charles Fyshe Palmer, who was 
member for Readingfrom 1818 to 1834, when 
he retired. A monument was erected in the 
Calton burying-ground, Edinburgh, in 1844 
to commemorate Palmer, Muir, and their 
fellow-martyrs in the cause of reform. 

Palmer's publications were few and frag- 
mentary, being mostly magazine articles and 
pamphlets. To the ' Theological Repository' 
he contributed regularly in 1789-90, under 
the signature ' Anglo-Scotus.' In 1792 he 
published a controversial pamphlet entitled 
' An Attempt to refute a Sermon by H. D. 
Inglis on the Godhead of Jesus Christ, and 
to restore the long-lost Truth of the First 
Commandment.' His 'Narrative of the 
Sufferings of T. F. Palmer and W. Skirving ' 
was published in 1797. Several of his letters 
have been published in the biographies of 
leading contemporary Unitarians. 

plillar's Martyrs of Reform; Monthly Re- 
pository, vi. 135; Belsham's Memoir of Theo- 
philus Lindsey, p. 352 ; Turner's Lives of Emi- 
nent Unitarians, ii. 214; Heaton's Australian 
Diet, of Dates, 1879, p. 160 ; Bos-well's Johnson, 
ed. BirkbeckHill, i. 467, iv. 125 n. ; Annual Reg. 
1793, p. 40; Scots Mag. 1793, pp. 565, 617; 
Christian Reformer, iv. 338 ; Monthly Mag. xrii. 
83; Trial of Palmer, ed. Skirving, 1793 ; local 
information.] A. H. M. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1539 ?-l 605), 
divine, of Nottinghamshire descent (HAWES, 
Hist, of Framlingham, p. 231), was born 
about 1539 (epitaph). He was educated at 
! Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and graduated 
i B.A. in 1559-60. He was elected fellow of 
I that house in 1560, while Grindal. who re- 
j mained his constant patron, was master. He 
took holy orders in 1560, and three years 
later became Grindal's chaplain. From 
: 24 Sept. 1565 to 14 Aug. 1574 he was pre- 
, bendarv of Mora in the cathedral church of 
! St. Paul's; from 20 Dec. 1566 till 11 Oct. 
1570 vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry; and from 
17 June 1570 to 12 April 1573 prebendary 
of Riccall, in the cathedral church of York. 
According to the catholic historian, Ni- 
; cholas Sanders, Palmer persisted in attend- 
ing Thomas Percy, seventh earl of North- 
| umberland [q. v.], on the scaffold, in 1572, 
against the earl's express wish. On 13 Oct. 
1575 he was collated to the prebend of Nor- 
well Palishall in the church of Southwell. 
This prebend he held till his death. On 
i 13 March 1576-7 he officiated at the en- 
, thronisation of Edwin Sandys r q. v.J, arch- 
1 bishop of York (SiRYPE, Anna!*, n. ii. 42). 



Palmer 



'65 



Palmer 



In the disputation with the Jesuit William 
Hart, who was executed at York 15 March 
1583 (DoDD, iii. 162), Palmer was associated 
withHutton on account of his logical powers. 
Bridgewater (Aquepontanus), the catholic 
historian, represents Palmer as worsted. Pal- 
mer sat in the convocation of the province of 
York in March 1586, which granted a subsidy 
and benevolence to the queen (STRYPE, Whit- 
gift, i. 499). In 1598 he was made D.D. at 
Cambridge, and in 1599 was a member of 
the ' commissio specialis de schismate suppri- 
mendo' (24 Nov. 1579 ; RTMER, Foedera, xvi. 
386 ; Pat. 42 Eliz. 31 M. 24, 302). He was 
also rector of Kirk Deighton, York, 5 March 
1570, to some time before 8 June 1577, and 
of Wheldrake, Yorkshire, from 7 Feb. 1576- 
Io77 to his death in 1605. He died at 
Wheldrake on 23 Oct. 1605, and was buried 
in York minster. In the south aisle of the 
choir there is a mural tablet bearing an in- 
scription (FRANCIS DRAKE, Eboracum,-p. 508), 
which speaks of his wife, Anna, the daughter 
of the memorable Dr. Rowland Taylor [q. v.], 
the martyr parson of Hadley. Seven of Pal- 
mer's children by her survived him. In the 
Tanner MSS. at the Bodleian Library, No. 50, 
are notes of a sermon preached by Palmer at 
Paul's Cross 11 Aug. 1566, on 1 Cor. x. 12. 

[Cooper's Ath. Cant. ; Willis's Cathedrals, i. 
80 ; John Bridgewater's (Aquepontanus) Concer- 
tatio Eccl. Cath. in Anglia adversus Calvino- 
papistiis et Puritanos, 1588. pp. 48, 106ft; 
Hutton Corresp. (Surtees Soc.), pp. 57, 66 ; 
Hawes's Hist, of Framlingham, p. 331 ; Drake's 
Ebor.cum, pp. 232, 359, 508, 567 ; Coxe's Cat. 
of Tanner MSS. ; Strype's Grindal, p. 279 ; 
Annals, n. ii. 42, Whitgift, i. 499 ; Newcourt 
Repert. i. 181, 386; Dodd's Church Hist. ed. 
Tierney, iii. 152; Taylor's Ecclesia Leodiensis ; 
information kindly furnished by Rev. J. W. Gel- 
dart, rector of Kirk Deighton, and by Rev.Sidney 
Smith, rector of Wheldrake.] W. A. S. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1824-1856), 
the Rugeley poisoner, second son of Joseph 
Palmer of Rugeley, Staffordshire, a timber 
merchant and sawyer, by Sarah Bentley, his 
wife, was born at Rugeley, where he was 
baptised on 21 Oct. 1824. After receiving 
his education at the grammar school of his 
native town he was apprenticed to a firm of 
wholesale druggists at Liverpool, from which 
he was dismissed for embezzlement. He was 
then apprenticed to a surgeon at Heywood, 
near Rugeley, where he misconducted him- 
self, and ultimately ran away. He afterwards 
became a pupil at the Stafford Infirmary, and 
subsequently came up to London to complete 
his medical studies, and was admitted a 
student of St Bartholomew's Hospital. He 
was admitted a member of the Royal College 



of Surgeons on 10 Aug. 1846, and was ap- 
pointed house-surgeon to Mr. Stanley at St. 
Bartholomew's on 8 Sept. 1846. Resigning 
this post in the following month, he started 
as a general practitioner at Rugeley, and on 
7 Oct. 1847 married Ann, an illegitimate 
daughter of Colonel Brookes of Stafford, by 
whom he had five children, all of whom, 
except the eldest, died in infancy. After 
carrying on a very limited practice for several 
years he took to the turf, and became both 
the owner and breeder of racehorses. Falling 
into pecuniary difficulties, he got involved in 
a number of bill transactions, which appear 
to have begun in 1853. On 29 Sept. 1854 his 
wife died of ' bilious cholera.' At her death 
he received 13,000/. on policies which he had 
effected on her life, though he only possessed 
a life interest in his wife's property to the 
extent of 3,000/. Nearly the whole of this 
insurance money was applied to the dis- 
charge of his liabilities, and he subsequently 
raised other large sums, amounting together 
to 13,500/., on what purported to be accept- 
ances of his mother's. 

Palmer's brother Walter died suddenly in 
his presence on 16 Aug. 1855. Owing to the 
suspicious circumstances of Walter's deatli 
the insurance office refused to pay Palmer a 
policy of 13,000/. which he held on hisbrother's 
life, and he was thus deprived of the only 
means by which the bills could be provided for. 
On 15 Dec. 1855 Palmer was arrested on the 
charge of poisoning his friend John Parsons 
Cook, a betting man, who had died at the Tal- 
bot Arms, Rugeley, in the previous month. 
In consequence of the suspicions which were 
aroused by the evidence given at Cook's in- 
quest the bodies of Palmer's wife and brother 
were exhumed, and at the inquests verdicts of 
wilful murder were found against Palmer in 
both cases. It was also commonly reported 
that he had murdered several other persons 
by means of poison. The excitement became 
so great in the immediate neighbourhood that 
it was considered unadvisable that Palmer 
should be tried at Stafford assizes. The lord 
chancellor accordingly introduced into the 
House of Lords, on 5 Feb. 1856, a bill em- 
powering the queen's bench to order certain 
offenders to be tried at the Central Criminal 
Court, which received the royal assent on 
11 April following (19 & 20 Viet. cap. 16). 
Palmer was tried at the Old Bailey on 14 May 
1856 before Lord-chief-justice Campbell. 
The attorney-general (Sir Alexander Cock- 
burn) and Edwin James, Q.C., assisted by 
W. H. Bodkin, W. N. Welsby, and J. W. 
Huddleston, conducted the prosecution ; while 
Mr. Serjeant Shee, W. R. Grove, Q.C., with 
J. Gray and E. V. H. Kenealy, were retained 



Palmer 



1 66 



for the defence. Palmer was found guilty 
on 27 May, after a trial which lasted twelve 
days. True bills for the murder of his wife 
and of his brother William had also been 
returned against Palmer, but, in consequence 
of. his conviction in Cook's case, they were 
not proceeded with. He was removed from 
Newgate to Stafford gaol, outside which he 
was hanged on 14 June 1856. He was buried 
within the precincts of the prison in accord- 
ance with the terms of the sentence. 

The trial excited an extraordinary inte- 
rest, ' enjoying the attention not only of this 
country, but of all Europe' (Life of Lord 
Chancellor Campbell, 1881, ii. 344). Camp- 
bell, who summed up strongly against the 
prisoner, devoted fourteen continuous hours 
to the preparation of his address (ib. ii. 345). 
When the verdict was returned, Palmer wrote 
vtpon a slip of paper, which he handed to his 
attorney, ' The riding did it ' (Serjeant Bal- 
Irmfine's Experiences of a Barristers Life, 
1890, p. 132). Cockburn greatly distin- 
guished himself by his masterly conduct of 
the prosecution, and is said to have replied at 
the end of the case without the aid of a single 
note. The prosecution had to rely upon circum- 
stantial evidence alone, but it is impossible to 
suggest any innocent explanation of Palmer's 
conduct. It was ' proved to demonstration,' 
says Sir Fitz.Tames Stephen, ' that he was in 
dire need of money in order to avoid a pro- 
secution for forgery; that he robbed his 
friend of all he had by a series of devices 
which he must have instantly discovered if 
he had lived; that he provided himself with 
the means of committing the murder just 
before Cook's death; and that he could neither 
produce the poison he had bought nor sug- 
gest any innocent reason for buying it ' 
(General View of the Criminal Law of Eng- 
land, p. 271). The theory of the prosecution 
was based mainly upon the death having 
been caused by strychnine, though no strych- 
nine was discovered in the body. The fact 
that antimony was found in the body was 
never seriously disputed. Probably there was 
some mystery in the case which was never 
discovered, for Palmer asserted to the last 
that Cook ' was not poisoned by strychnine.' 
Indeed, Palmer is said to have been 'anxious 
that Dr. Herapath should examine the body 
for strychnine, though aware that he said he 
could detect the fifty-thousandth part of a 
gtfain ' (ib. p. 271). Possibly Palmer may 
have discovered some way of administering 
that drug which rendered detection impos- 
sible. His modus operandi throughout bsars 
a curious resemblance to that of Thomas 
Griffiths Wainewright [q. v.] 

In Mansfield and Nottingham there was 



a general belief that Lord George Ben- 
tinck was one of Palmer's many victims 
(JENNINGS, Rambles among the Hills, 1880, 
p. 144), but, beyond the fact that Lord George 
I was in the habit of making bets with Palmer, 
there does not appear to be the slightest 
foundation for the belief. The authorship 
of 'A Letter to the Lord Chief Justice Camp- 
bell,' &c. (London, 1856, 8vo), in which his 
conduct of the trial was vehemently at- 
tacked, was disclaimed by the Rev. Thomas 
Palmer, the poisoner's brother, whose name 
appeared on the title-page. 

[Illustrated Life. Career, and Trial of Wil- 
liam Palmer of Rugeley, containing an un- 
abridged edition of the 'Times' Report of his 
Trial for Poisoning John Parsons Cook, 1856; 
Central Criminal Court Proceedings, 1855-6, 
xliv. 5-225 ; Stephens's General View of the 
Criminal Law of England, 1890. pp. 231-72; 
Tiiylor on Poisoning by Strychnine, with Com- 
ments on the Medical Evidence given at the 
Trial of William Palmer, 1856; Taylor's Prin- 
ciples and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence, 
1883, i. 100,197 377, 442-3, ii. 629-30; Phar- 
maceutical Journal, xv. 532-4, xvi. 5-11 ; St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital Reports, v. 241 ; An- 
rual Register, 1855 Chron. pp. 186-92, 1856 
Chron. pp. 387-539 ; Serjeant Ballantine's Ex- 
periences of a Barrister's Life, 1890, p. 132; 
Staffordshire Advertiser, 15 and 22 Dec. 1855 ; 
Simms's Bibliotheca Staffordiensis, pp. 345-6 
(with an elaborate bibliography) ; Greville Me- 
moirs, 3rd ser., 1887, ii. 46-7 ; Notes and Queries, 
6th er. ix. 69. J G. F. R. B. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1802-1858), 
conveyancer and legal author, second son of 
George Palmer [q.v.] of Nazeing Park, Essex, 
M.P. for the southern division of that county 
from 1836 to 1847, by Anna Maria, daughter 
of William Bund of Wick Episcopi, Worces- 
tershire, was born on 9 Nov. 1802. He matri- 
culated at Oxford (St. Mary Hall) on 16 Feb. 
1822, graduated B.A. in 1825, and proceeded 
M.A. in 1828. In May 1830 he was called to 
thebaratthe Inner Temple, where he acquired 
a large practice as a conveyancer. In 1836 he 
was appointed to the professorship of civil 
law at Gresham College, which he held until 
his death on 24 April 1858. Palmer was a 
man of high principle and unostentatious 
philanthropy. He did not marry. 

He is author of the following : 1. ' An In- 
quiry into the Navigation Laws,' London, 
1833, 8vo. 2. 'Discourse on the Gresham 
Foundation ; or two introductory Lectures 
delivered at the Roval Exchange,' London, 
1837, 8vo. 3. 'The Law of Wreck considered 
with a View to its Amendment,' London, 
1843, 8vo. 4. ' Principles of the Legal Pro- 
vision for the Relief of the Poor. Four lee- 



Palmer 



167 



Palmer 



tares partly read at Gresham College in 
Hilary Term 1844,' London, 1844, 8vo. 

[Guardian, 28 April 1858; Gent. Mag. 1843 
pt. ii. p. 181, 1858 pt. i. p. 679; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. E. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1811-1879), 
theologian and archaeologist, eldest son of 
William Jocelyn Palmer, rector of Mixbury, 
Oxfordshire, by Dorothea Richardson, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. William Roundell of Gled- 
stone, Yorkshire, was born on 12 July 1811. 
Archdeacon Palmer and Roundell Palmer, 
first earl of Selborne [q. v.],were his brothers. 
He was educated at Rugby and Oxford, 
where he matriculated on 27 July 1826, and 
was elected to a demyship at Magdalen Col- 
lege. In 1830 lie obtained the chancellor's 
prize with a Latin poem, ' Tyrus,' and a 
first-class in the classical schools. In 1831 
lie graduated B.A. (17 Feb.), and in 1832 
took deacon's orders and a Magdalen fellow- 
ship. In 1833 he proceeded M. A., and gained 
the chancellor's prize with a Latin ' Oratio 
de Comcedia Atticorum,' printed the same 
year. During the next three years he was 
tutor in the university of Durham, during 
the three years 1837-9 examiner in the clas- 
sical schools at Oxford, and from 1838 to 
1843 tutor at Magdalen College. 

An extreme high churchman, Palmer an- 
ticipated in an unpublished Latin introduc- 
tion to the Thirty-nine Articles composed for 
the use of his pupils in 1839-40 the in- 
genious argument of the celebrated ' Tract 
XC.' He took, however, little active part in 
the tractarian movement, but occupied his 
leisure time in the study of various forms 
of ecclesiastical polity and theological belief. 
In 1840 he visited Russia in order to examine 
oriental Christianity in its principal seat, and 
to obtain if possible an authoritative recogni- 
tion of the Anglican claim to intercommunion. 
Ijetters of commendation and introduction 
from Dr. Martin Joseph Routh [q. v.], pre- 
sident of Magdalen College, and the British 
ambassador at the Russian court, gained him 
the ear of the highest functionaries in the 
Russian church. The difficulty of persuad- 
ing them that the church of England was a 
branch of the catholic church was greatly 
aggravated by the recent admission to com- 
munion by the English chaplain at Geneva 
of Princess Galitzin and her eldest daughter, 
both of whom had renounced the Greek 
church. Prince Galitzin had sought by letter, 
but had failed to obtain, from Archbishop 
Howley [q. v.] an opinion on the question 
whether apostates from the Russian church 
could lawfully take the communion in the 
church of England. At the prince's desire 



Palmer corresponded with the ladies, the 
younger of whom he induced to return to 
the Russian church. During his stay in 
Petersburg he edited R. W. Blackmore's 
translation of Mouravieff's ' History of the 
Church in Russia,' Oxford, 1842, 8vo. His 
claim for admission to communion in the 
1 Russian church, pressed with the utmost per- 
tinacity and ingenuity for nearly a year, was 
at length decisively rejected by the metro- 
politan of Moscow. 

On his return to England in the autumn 
of 1841, Palmer submitted to Bishop 
Blomfield, as ordinary of continental chap- 
! lains, the question on which Archbishop 
| Howley had maintained so discreet a reserve, 
I and received an affirmative answer. Too 
! late to break a lance in defence of ' Tract XC.,' 
' he was in time to repel with animation a 
i charge of Romanism' levelled at himself (cf. 
i his Letter to the Rev. C. P. Golightly ; his 
' Letter to a Protestant-Catholic, both pub- 
! lished at Oxford in 1841, 8vo ; andhisZe^fer 
to the Rev. Dr. Hampden, Oxford, 1842, 8vo). 
' An able ' Protest against Prusso-Anglican 
j Protestantism,' which he lodged with Arch- 
bishop Howley in reference to the recently 
i established Jerusalem bishopric, was, at the 
1 archbishop's request, withheld from publica- 
tion. He issued, however, the notes and ap- 
pendices thereto, under the title ' Aids to Re- 
flection on the seemingly Double Character 
of the Established Church,' Oxford, 1841, 
8vo, and recurred to *the same topic in an 
anonymous ' Examination of an Announce- 
ment made in the Prussian State Gazette 
concerning the " Relations of the Bishop of the 
United Church of England and Ireland in 
Jerusalem " with the German Congregation 
of the Evangelical Religion in Palestine,' 
Oxford, 1842, 8vo. 

Bent on renewing his application for ad- 
mission to communion in the Greek church, 
Palmer early in 1842 visited Paris, and 
laid the whole case before Bishop Lus- 
combe [q. v.], in whose chapel the Princess 
Galitzin, then resident in Paris, was in the 
habit of communicating. He had several in- 
terviews with the princess, but failed to 
alter her views. Bishop Luscombe refused, 
however, to furnish her with a certificate of 
communion on the eve of her departure for 
Russia, and thus Palmer on his return to 
Petersburg was able to exclude her from 
communion in the English chapel there. His 
second application for admission to commu- 
nion in the Russian church, though supported 
by letters commendatory from Bishop Lus- 
combe and a vast magazine of ingenious dis- 
sertations of his own on the position of the 
church of England in the economy of Chris- 



Palmer 



168 



Palmer 



tendom, only elicited an express and explicit 
rejection on the part of the Russian church 
of the Anglican claim to catholicity. After 
a minute examination of the entire case, the 
holy governing synod declined to admit him 
to communion unless he acknowledged the 
Thirty-nine Articles of religion to be ' in their 
plain literal sense and spirit ' a full and per- 
fect expression of the faith of the churches 
of England and Scotland, and to contain 
forty-four heresies ; unless he renounced and 
anathematised the said heresies, the Thirty- 
nine Articles as containing them and the 
churches of England and Scotland as impli- 
cated in them ; and further admitted the 
Greek church to be the oecumenical church, 
and were received into the same as a 
proselyte. 

The oecumenical character of the Greek 
church Palmer readily admitted ; he also 
renounced and anathematised the forty- 
four heresies, but demurred to their alleged 
presence in the Thirty-nine Articles. On 
the question whether what he had done 
amounted to a renunciation of the churches 
of England and Scotland, he appealed to 
Bishop Luscombe and the Scottish Episcopal 
College. 

On his return to England Palmer occupied 
himself in the composition of a ' Harmony 
of Anglican Doctrine with the Doctrine of 
the Eastern Church ' (Aberdeen, 1846 ; Greek 
translation, Athens, 1851) and in the prepara- 
tion of his case for the Scottish Episcopal 
College. The latter, which occupies a thick 
and closely printed volume, entitled 'An 
Appeal to the Scottish Bishops and Clergy, 
and generally to the Church of their Com- 
munion,' Edinburgh, 1849, 8vo, was dismissed 
unheard by the Scottish Episcopal Synod 
assembled in Edinburgh on 7 Sept. 1849. 

Soon after the decision of the privy council 
in the Gorham case in 1852 Palmer again 
sought admission to the Greek church, but 
recoiled before the unconditional rebaptism 
to which he was required to submit. In 
1853 appeared his learned and ingenious ' Dis- 
sertations on Subjects relating to the Ortho- 
dox or Eastern-Catholic Communion,' Lon- 
don, 8vo. On the eve of the Crimean war 
he studied the question of the Holy Places 
at Jerusalem. The winter of 1853-4 he 
passed in Egypt. He afterwards went into 
retreat under Passaglia at Rome, and there 
was received into the Roman church, the rite 
of baptism being d ispensed with , in the chapel 
of the Roman College on 28 Feb. 1855. 

For the rest of his life Palmer resided at 
Rome in the Piazza di Santa Maria in Cam- 
pitelli, where he died on 4 April 1879, in his 
sixty-eighth year. His remains were interred 



(8 April) in the cemetery of S. Lorenzo in 
Campo Verano. 

Palmer was a profoundly learned theolo- 
gian, and (when he chose) a brilliant writer. 
His piety was deep and fervent, and, though 
a trenchant controversialist, he was one of 
the most amiable of men. In later life, not- 
withstanding broken health, he made labo- 
rious researches in ecclesiastical history and 
archaeology. He left voluminous manu- 
scripts, chiefly autobiographical. Dr. New- 
man, to whom he used to pay an annual visit 
at Birmingham, edited after his death his 
' Notes of a Visit to the Russian Church in. 
the Years 1840, 1841,' London, 1882, 8vo. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Pal- 
mer was author of the following: 1. 'Short 
Poems and Hymns, the latter mostly Trans- 
lations,' Oxford, 1843. 2. Tairevri dva(poph 
rols irarpidpxais, Athens, 1850. 3. Aiarpi- 
/3al Trepi TTJS 'A-fy\iKrjs 'EKK\r)(rias, Athens,. 
1851. 4. Atarpt/3ai Trtpl rf/s d/woXtKJJr 
fKK\r)(Tias, Athens, 1852. 5. ' Remarks on 
the Turkish Question,' London, 1858. 6. ' An 
Introduction to Early Christian Symbolism; 
being the Description of a Series of Four- 
teen Compositions from Fresco-paintings, 
Glasses, and Sculptured Sarcophagi ; with 
three Appendices,' London, 1859, 8vo ; new- 
edition, under the title ' Early Christian 
Symbolism : a Series of Compositions,' &c., 
ed. J. G. Northcote and W. R. Brownlow, 
London, 1885, fol. 7. ' Egyptian Chronicles : 
with a Harmony of Sacred and Egyptian 
Chronology, and an Appendix on Babylonian: 
and Assyrian Antiquities,' London, 1861, 
2 vols. 8vo. 8. ' Commentatio in Librum 
Danielis,' Rome, 1874. 9. 'The Patriarch 
Nicoii and the Tsar,' from the Russian, Lon- 
don, 6 vols. 1871-6. 

[Rugby School Reg. ; Bloxam's Magd. Coll. 
Reg. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Oxford Honours 
List; Notes of a Visit to the Eussian Church ,. 
ed. Cardinal Newman, -with the above-mentioned 
Appeal ; Egyptian Chronicles (Introduction) ; 
Neale's Life of Patrick Torrv, D.D., 1856, chap, 
vi. ; Tablet, 17 March 1855, and 12 April 
1879; Guardian, 9 and 16 April; Times, 
12 April 1879; Academy, 1879, i.348; Charles 
Wordsworth's Annals of my Life, 1847-56, pp. 
74-8 ; Liddon's Life of Pusey, ii. 287 ; Allies'* 
Life's Decision, p. 337 ; E. G. Kirwan Browne's- 
Annals of the Tractarian Movement, 1856, p. 180 ; 
T. Mozley's Reminiscences ; Ornsby's Memoirs 
of Hope-Scott, ii. 12; Month, 1872, p. 168; 
North Amer. Eev. 1863, pt. i. Ill; Eclectic- 
Review, July 1862; Dublin Review, vol. xli. ; 
Ibrahim Hilmy's Lit. Egypt.] J. M. R. 

PALMER, WILLIAM (1803-1885), 
theologian and ecclesiastical antiquary, only 
son of William Palmer, military officer, of 



Palmer 



169 



Palmer 



St. Mary's, Dublin, was born on 14 Feb. 
1803. He graduated B.A. at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1824, and, after taking holy 
orders, migrated to Oxford, where he was 
incorporated at Magdalen Hall 20-23 Oct. 
1828, and proceeded M.A. 28 Jan. 1829. 
From Magdalen Hall he removed to Worces- 
ter College in 1831. Tn 1832 he published 
'Origines Liturgicse, or Antiquities of the 
English Ritual and a Dissertation on Pri- 
mitive Liturgies,' Oxford, 2 vols. 8vo ; 4th 
edit. 1845, a learned and scholarly work on 
a subject then much neglected, which brought 
him into personal relations with Keble, 
Hurrell Froude, Hugh James Rose, John 
Henry Newman, and others of the party 
afterwards known as tractarian. He brought 
to Oxford an intimate knowledge of the 
controversy with Rome, gained by a study 
of Bellarrnine and other eminent Roman 
catholic apologists. His own principles were 
fixed in the high-church school. Papers by 
him against dissent appeared in Hugh James 
Rose's 'British Magazine' in 1832. In the 
following year he published a vigorous pam- 
phlet against comprehension, entitled ' Re- 
marks on Dr. Arnold's Principles of Church 
Reform,' London, 8vo, and formed, in con- 
cert with Rose and Hurrell Froude, the 
' Association of Friends of the Church.' for 
the maintenance ' pure and inviolate ' of the 
doctrines, the services, and the discipline of 
the church. The association was at once 
turned to account by Newman as a vehicle 
for the circulation of the ' Tracts for the 
Times,' of which one, and one only, was con- 
tributed by Palmer. His keen eye, practised 
in the polemics of Rome, soon detected the 
trend of the movement, and he held aloof 
from it on Newman's rejecting his suggestion 
of a committee of revision. 

In 1838 he published an ingenious 'Treatise 
on the Church of Christ,' London, 2 vols. 
8vo; 3rd edit. 1842, designed to prove that 
the church of England was a branch of the 
catholic church co-ordinate with the Roman 
and Greek churches. Of this work, Mr. 
Gladstone wrote in the ' Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,' August 1894, that it was ' perhaps the 
most powerful and least assailable defence 
of the position of the Anglican church from 
the sixteenth century.' In 1840 appeared his 
' Apostolical Jurisdiction and Succession of 
the English Episcopacy vindicated against 
the Objections of Dr. Wiseman in the Dublin 
Review ' (vols. v. vii. and viii.), London, 8vo. 
The same year he contributed to the ' Eng- 
lishman's Library ' (vol. v.) ' A Compendious 
Ecclesiastical History from the Earliest 
Period to the Present Time,' London, 1 2mo. 
On the appearance of Dr. Wiseman's attack 



on ' Tract XC.,' Palmer published a trenchant 
counter-attack, entitled 'A Letter to N. 
Wiseman, D.D. (calling himself Bishop of 
Melipotamus), containing Remarks on his 
Letter to Mr. Newman,' Oxford, 1841, 8vo; 
reprinted, with seven subsequent letters in 
reply to Wiseman's rejoinder, under the title 
' Letters to N. Wiseman, D.D., on the Errors 
of Romanism,' Oxford, 1842, and London, 
1851, 12mo. In this controversy Palmer 
displayed regrettable heat (cf. an anonymous 
pamphlet, attributed to Peter Le Page Re- 
nouf, entitled The Character of the Sev. 
W. Palmer as a Controversialist, &c., London, 

1843, 8vo). 

The appearance in 1843 of Palmer's ' Nar- 
rative of Events connected with the Publi- 
cation of Tracts for the Times,' London, 8vo, 
precipitated the crisis which led to the 
secession of W. G. AVard and Newman. 
Ward replied at enormous length in the 
celebrated ' Ideal of a Christian Church,' 

1844, and Newman unveiled the inner 
workings of his mind in his ' Development 
of Christian Doctrine,' 1845. Palmer replied 
to both books in his ' Doctrine of Develop- 
ment, and Conscience considered in relation 
to the Evidences of Christianity and of the 
Catholic System,' London, 1846, 8vo. The 
' Narrative ' was reprinted, with introduction 
and supplement, in 1883 (London, 8vo), and 
is the primary authority for the history of 
the earlier phases of the tractarian move- 
ment. In 1875 he issued, under the pseu- 
donym ' Umbra Oxoniensis ' and the title 
' Results of the Expostulation of the Right 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone in their Relation to 
the Unity of Roman Catholicism,' London, 
8vo, a clever and acrimonious attack on the 
papacy. 

Palmer was instituted to the vicarage of 
Whitchurch Canonicorum, Dorset, in 1846, 
and held the prebend of Highworth in the 
church of Sarum from 1849 to 1858. He 
claimed and assumed the title of baronet on 
the death of his father in 1865. He died in 
London in 1885. 

Palmer married, in October 1839, Sophia, 
eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Francis 
Beaufort, K.C.B., by whom he had issue an 
only son, who survives. 

Palmer is characterised by Newman as the 
only thoroughly learned man among the 
initiators of the tractarian movement ; and 
Perrone described him as ' theologorum 
Oxoniensium facile princeps,' and added, 
' Talis cum sit, utinam noster esset ! ' Db'llin- 
ger also held a high opinion of his abilities. 

[Dublin Grad. ; Palmer's Narrative, cited 
above ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Clergy List ; 
Newman's Apologia, chap, ii.; Newman's Letters, 



Palmeranus 



170 



Palsgrave 



1891, Essays, Critical and Historical, 2nd edit. 
i. 143-85, ii. 454 ; Mozley's Eeminiscences, i. 
308 ; Liddcm's Life of Pusey ; Wordsworth's 
Annals of my Early Life, pp. 340-3; Church's 
Oxford Movement; Cox's Kecollections of Ox- | 
ford, 1868; Stephens's Life of Walter Farquhar 
Hook, ii. 63 ; Heresy and Schism, by the Eight 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Nineteenth Century, 
August 1894 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. i. 
349, 494; information from F. B. Palmer, esq. ; 
private information.] J. M. R. 

PALMERANUS or PALMERSTON, 
THOMAS (/. 1310), Irish monk. [See 
THOMAS HIBERNICUS.] 

PALMERSTON, VISCOUNTS. [See 
TEMPLE, HENRY, second VISCOUNT, 1739- 
1802 ; TEMPLE, HENRY JOHN, third VIS- 
COUNT, 1784-1865.] 

PALMES, SIR BRYAX (1599-1654), 
royalist, born in 1599, was eldest son of 
Sir Guy Palmes of Ashwell, Rutland, and 
Lindley, Yorkshire, by Anne, daughter of 
Sir Edward Stafford (FosiER, Yorkshire 
Pedigrees, vol. ii.) On 17 March 1614-15 
he matriculated at Oxford from Trinity Col- 
lege (FOSTER, Alumni O.von. 1500-1714, iii. 
1 111), but did not graduate. He was elected 
M.P. for Stamford in 1625-6, and for Aid- 
borough, Yorkshire, in 1639-40. An inti- 
mate friend of William Browne (1591-1645) 
[q. v.], he made a tour in France with him. 
Browne addressed to Palmes, who was then 
staying at Saurnur, his humorous poem, writ- 
ten at Thouars, on the ' most intolerable 
jangling of the Papists' bells on All Saints' 
Night ' (BROWNE, Poems, ed. Goodwin, ii. 
229). At the outbreak of the civil war 
Palmes raised a regiment for the king (Cal. 
State Papers,Dom. 1640-1). He was knighted 
on 2 1 April 1642 (METCALFE,.Z?oo& of Knights, 
p. 198), and created D.C.L. at Oxford on 
1 or 2 Nov. following. On 20 Oct. 1646 he 
was forced to compound for his estate for 
68 \l. (Cal. of Comm.fur Compounding, pp. 
661, 1316, 1643), and on 1 Sept. 1651 was 
assessed at 200/., but no proceedings were 
taken (Cal. ofComm.for Advance of Money, 
iii. 1388). Palmes died at Lindley about 
August 1654 (Administration Act Book, 
P.C.C., 1653-4, vol. ii. f. 647). By his wife 
Mary, daughter and coheiress of Gervase 
Teverey of Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, 
who died before him, he had three sons and 
four daughters. 

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 41 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1640-1, pp. 492, 577; 
Yorkshire Archseolog. and Topograph. Journal, 
i. 95.] G. G. 

PALSGRAVE, JOHN (d. 1554), chap- 
lain to Henry VIII, was a native of London, 
where he received his elementary education. 



Subsequently he entered Corpus Christ i Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and proceeded to the degree 
of B.A. (Addit. MS. 5878, f. 63). He then 
migrated to the university of Paris, where 
he graduated M.A., and acquired a thorough 
knowledge of French. From the privy purse 
expenses of Henry VIII in January 1512- 
1513, it appears that Palsgrave,who had been 
ordained priest, was ' scolemaster to my Lady 
Princes,' i.e. Mary, the king's sister, who 
afterwards married Louis XII of France. 
On 29 April 1514 he was admitted to the 
prebend of Portpoole in the church of St. 
Paul, London (LE NEVE, Fasti, ii. 428). 
Having instructed the Princess Mary in the 
French tongue, he accompanied her to France 
on her marriage, and she never forgot his 
services (BREWER, Letters and Memorials of 
Henry VIII, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 1459, 1460). 
On 3 April 1515 she wrote from Paris to 
Wolsey begging that Palsgrave might have 
the living of Egylsfeld in the diocese of 
Durham, or the archdeaconry of Derby. In 
1516 he was collated by At water, bishop of 
Lincoln, to the bene6ce of Ashfordby, Leices- 
tershire, vacant by the death of Henry Wil- 
cocks, D.C.L., whose executors were ordered 
in 1523 to pay him 68/. for dilapidations. 
He also obtained the rectories of Alderton 
and Holbrook in Suffolk, and Cawston, Nor- 
folk. Sir Thomas More, writing to Erasmus 
in 1517, mentions that Palsgrave was about 
to go to Louvain to study law, though he 
would continue his Greek and Latin ; and 
Erasmus, in a letter from Louvain, dated 
17 July the same year, informs More that 
Palsgrave had left for England. In 1523 he 
entered into a contract with Richard Pynson 
[q. v.], stationer of London, for the printing of 
sixty reams of paper at 6s. 8d. a ream ; and 
there is another indenture for printing 750 
copies of Palsgrave's ' Lesclarcissement de la 
langue Francoyse,' one of the earliest at- 
tempts to explain in English the rules of 
French grammar. Pynson engaged to print 
daily a sheet on both sides, and Palsgrave 
undertook not to keep him waiting for ' copy.' 
This curious contract has been printed, with 
notes, by Mr. F. J. Furnivall, for the Philo- 
logical Society, London [1868], 4to. 

In 1525 among the officers and councillors 
appointed to be resident and about the person 
of Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond, natural 
son of Henry VIII, then six years of age, who 
had been appointed lieutenant-general north 
of the Trent, was Palsgrave, his tutor, who was 
allowed three servants and an annual stipend 
of 13/. 6s. 8d. (NICHOLS, Memoir of the Duke 
of Richmond, 1855, pp. xxiii, xxiv). His sig- 
nature is attached to several of the docu- 
ments issued in that and subsequent years by 



Palsgrave 



171 



Palsgrave 



the council of the north. Writing to the king 
with reference to his pupil in 1529, Palsgrave 
asserts ' that according to [my] saying to you 
in the gallery at Hampton Court, I do my 
uttermost best to cause him to love learning, 
and to be merry at it ; insomuch that without 
any manner fear or compulsion, he hath 
already a great furtherance in the principles 
grammatical both of Greek and Latin.' In 
another letter, addressed to Lady Elizabeth 
Tailboys the same year, he remarks: 'The 
King's Grace said unto me in the presence 
of Master Parre and Master Page, I deliver, 
quod he, unto you three, my worldly jewel ; 
you twain to have the guiding of his body, 
and thou, Palsgrave, to bring him up in virtue 
and learning.' 

In 1529 Palsgrave, thanked More for his 
continued friendliness, and acknowledged 
that he was more bound to him than to any 
man, adding : ' I beseech you for your accus- 
tomed goodness to continue until such time 
that I may once more tread under foot this 
horrible monster, poverty.' At this period 
he told Sir William Stevynson that all he 
had to live by and pay his debts and support 
his mother Avas little more than 50/. for 
Alderton, 'and Holbroke be but 20/., Kay- 
ston 18/., my prebend in Polles 4/., and my 
wages 20 marks ; and was indebted 92/.' 
Stevynson was asked to tell his old pupil, 
the queen-dowager of France, that Palsgrave 
desired the benefice of Cawston, Norfolk. In 
the Record Office there is a draft 'obligation,' 
dated 1529, by which Palsgrave undertakes 
to pay Thomas Cromwell "I. 6s. 8d. on his 
procuring a papal bull, under lead, called a 
union, for uniting the parish church of Alder- 
ton to the prebend of Portpoole in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

In 1531 he repaired to the university of 
Oxford, and the next year was incorporated 
M.A. there, and took the degree of B.D. 
(WOOD, Athcnce O.ron. ed. Bliss, i. 121). On 
28 Oct. 1532 he informed one William St. 
Loe that he was about to keep house at 
Blackfriars, where ' I could have with me 
your son, Mr. Russell's son, a younger brother 
of Andrew Baynton, and Mr. Noryce's son, 
of the king's privy chamber.' He intended 
previously to spend some time at Cambridge 
'for three reasons : (1) I am already B.D., 
and hope to be D.D. ; (2) I could get a man 
to help me in teaching, as this constant at- 
tendance hurts my health. And I go to 
Cambridge rather than Oxford, because I 
have a benefice sixteen miles oft'.' 

On 3 Oct. 1533 he was collated by Arch- 
bishop Cranmer to the rectory of St. Dun- 
stan-in-the-East, London (NEWCOUET, Re- 
pertvrium, i. 334), and on 7 Nov. 1545 he was 



instituted to the rectory of Wadenhoe, 
Northamptonshire, where he resided until 
his death, which took place in 1554, before 
3 Aug. (BRIDGES, Hist, of Northamptonshire, 
ii. 390). 

His principal work is : 1. 'Lesclarcissement 
de la Langue Francoyse, compose par maistre 
Jehan Palsgraue Angloys, natyf de Londres 
et gradue de Paris,' London, 1530, black- 
letter, folio, with dedication to Henry VIII. 
Pynson seems to have printed only the first 
two parts of two sheets and a half (signed A. 
in four, B in two, C in four), and fifty-nine 
leaves. After these comes a third part, with 
a fresh numbering of leaves from 1 to 473. 
The printing was finished on 18 July 1530 
by John Haukys, this work being the only 
known production of his press. The king's 
grant to Palsgrave of a privilege of seven 
years for his book is dated at Ampthill 
2 Sept. anno regni XXII. The book was 
originally intended to be a kind of dictionary 
for the use of Englishmen seeking to acquire 
a knowledge of the French tongue. In this 
respect it has been superseded by later works, 
but it is now used in England for another 
purpose, as one of the best depositories of 
obsolete English words and phrases ; and it 
is of the greatest utility to those who are 
engaged in the study of the English language 
in the transition state from the times of 
Chaucer, Gower, and Wiclif to those of 
Surrey and Wyat. In his epistle to the 
king's grace the author says he had written 
two books before on the same subject, and 
had presented them to Queen Mary of France, 
and also to the Prince Charles Brandon, 
duke of Suffolk, ' her most worthy espouse.' 
These were probably manuscript books, as 
no such printed works are known (Addit. 
MS. 24493, f. 93). Very few copies of the 
original ' Lesclarcissement ' are now in exist- 
ence. Two are in the British Museum, one 
containing manuscript notes by Sir Nicholas 
Harris Nicolas. Perhaps one reason for its 
scarcity was the determination of the author 
that other teachers of French should not ob- 
tain copies. Consequently he ' willed Pyn&on 
to sell no copies to any other persons than such 
as he should command to have them, lest his 
profit by teaching the French tongue might be 
mynished.' The copy in the Mazarin Library 
at Paris is the only one known in France. This 
was reprinted at the public expense under 
the auspice^ of the minister of public instruc- 
tion and the editorship of F. G6nin, Paris, 
1852, 4to, pp. 889. It is included in the 
' Collection de Documents Inedits sur 1'IIis- 
toire de France.' 

His other works are: 2. 'Joannis Pals- 
gravi Londinensis Ecphrasis Anglica in 



Paltock 



172 



Paltock 



Comoediam Acolasti. The Comedy of Acolas- 
tus translated into oure Euglysshe tongue 
after suche maner as chylderne are taught in 
the Grammer Schole, fyrst worde for worde 
. . . and afterwarde accordynge to the sence 
. . . with admonitions . . . for the more per- 
fyte instructynge of the lerners, and ... a 
brefe introductory to ... the dyvers sortes 
of meters/ Latin and English, London (Tho. 
Berthelet), 1540, 4to (Brit. Mas.); dedicated 
to Henry VIII. This work was originally 
writteninLatinbyWilliamFullonius. 3. 'An- 
notationes verborum.' 4. ' Annotationes par- 
ticipiorum.' 5. ' Epistolse ad diversos.' 

He probably, either with or without his 
name, printed other works. One John Wil- 
liamson, jun., writing to Cromwell, says: 
' Please it you also to know that I have sent 
you oon hundreth bookes entitled " Le 
Myrour de Verite," whiche I have receyved 
this present dale of MaisterPalgrave' (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 3rd ser. ii. 212). 

Davy, on the authority of Watt, erro- 
neously ascribes to Palsgrave, through a 
curious blunder, the authorship of ' Cate- 
chismus. Translated by W. Turner, Doctor 
of Phisicke,' London, 1572, 8vo (Athence 
Suffolcienses, i. 93). The real title of this 
work is 'The Catechisme . . . used in the 
dominions that are under . . . Prince Fre- 
derike the Palsgrave of the Rhene/ London 
(R. Johnes), 1572, 8vo. 

[Addit. MSS. 19105, f. 57 b, 19165, f. 93; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 435, 470 
(Dibdin), iii. 3632; Baker's Biogr. Dram. 1812, 
i. 560, ii. 4 ; Bale's Scriptt. Brit. Cat. pars i. p. 
710; Beloe's Anecd. vi. 344; Brewer and 
Gairdner's Letters and Memorials of Henry VIII; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 119, 545; Dodd's 
Church Hist. i. 228; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
early series, iii. 1111; Kennett MS. 46, f. 36; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), pp. 636, 839, 
849, 1769; Palgrave Family Memorials, by 
Palmer and Tucker, p. 203 ; Pits, De Anglise 
Scriptoribus, p 703 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 571 ; 
Miss Wood's Letters, i. 180, 202.] T. C. 

PALTOCK, ROBERT (1697-1767), ro- 
mance-writer, born in 1697, was only son of 
Thomas Paltock of St. James's, Westminster. 
His father was the third husband of his 
mother, Anne, whose first and second hus- 
bands were respectively Mr. Johnson of Wood- 
ford, Essex, and Edward Curie or Curll (d. 
1691), jeweller,of Red Lion Square, Holborn. 
His grandfather, John Paltock (1624-1682), 
attorney, of Thavie's Inn, London, who mar- 
ried on 14 Sept. 1648 Elizabeth (1631-1707), 
fourth daughter of Francis Steward of Braugh- 
ing, Hertfordshire (CHESTER, London Mar- 
riage Licenses, ed. Foster, col. 1013 ; CLTJT- 
TERBFCK, Hertfordshire, iii. 150), benefited 



greatly under the will (P.C.C. 81, Penn) 
of his uncle, Thomas Paltock (d. 1670), of 
Botwell, in the parish of Hayes, Middlesex, 
and of Kingston-upon-Thames, and left pro- 
perty in London, Suffolk, Middlesex, Essex, 
and Hertfordshire (will in P.C.C. 89, 
Cot tie) . After the death of Robert's father in 
1701 (cf. Letters of Administration, P.C.C. 
12 April 1701) his mother lived chiefly 
at Enfield, Middlesex. Robert seems to 
have been a favourite with his paternal 
grandmother, for in her will, proved on 
7 Feb. 1706-7, she left him, on his coming 
of age, one hundred and fifty pounds and her 
house at Enfield, provided that her daughter, 
Elizabeth Paltock, should die without lawful 
issue (will in Commissary Court of London, 
Bk. 1706-7, f. 247). Robert's mother died 
at Enfield in January 1711-12 (Parish Re- 
gister), leaving her son to the care of her 
' loving friends,' Robert Nightingale and. 
John Grene, or Green, of Enfield (will in 
P.C.C. 75, Barnes). Like many of his 
kinsfolk, Robert became an attorney, and 
for several years resided in Clement's Inn, 
London. From the will of his brother-in- 
law, Brinley Skinner (d. 1764) of Ryme 
Intrinsica, Dorset, sometime consul at Leg- 
horn, it is clear that before August 1759 
Paltock had quitted Clement's Inn for a 
residence in Back Lane, St. Mary, Lambeth 
(will in P C.C. 485, Simpson). 

Paltock died in Back Lane on 20 Marcli 
1767 (cf. Letters of Administration, P.C.C. 
15 April 1767), and was buried at Ryme In- 
trinsica (HiJTCHiNS, Dorset, 3rd ed. iv. 
493-4), By his marriage to Anna, daughter 
of John Skinner, Italian merchant, of Austin 
Friars, London (ib. ii. 609), he had issue 
John (1731-1789), a Bengal merchant ; 
Robert (b. 1737), surgeon at Ryme Intrin- 
sica, who became possessor of the Skinner 
property there on the death of his cousin, 
Eleanor Boddington, in March 1795 (ib. iv. 
492) ; Anna, who ' married a clergyman with 
eight children ; ' and Eleaiior, who married 
twice. Mrs. Paltock was buried at St. Mary, 
Lambeth, on 14 Jan. 1767 (Par. Reg.) 

Paltock's fame rests enduringly on his 
original and fascinating romance, entitled 
' The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, 
a Cornish Man . . . With an Introduction 
by R. S., a passenger in the Hector/ 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1751 ; with plates by Boitard. 
It is dedicated to Elizabeth, countess of 
Northumberland, whom Paltock took (so he 
gallantly assured her) as the prototype of 
his enchanting heroine Youwarkee. The in- 
troduction and dedication are signed with 
the initials ' R. P./ and for many years the 
author's full name was unknown. But in 



Paltock 



173 



Paman 



the ' Monthly Magazine 'for December 1802 
(p. 379) a correspondent signing himself 
' Libernatus ' gave the author's name cor- 
rectly, and added that the present was not 
the original title, ' that being " Peter Pan- 
tile," or something like it, which the book- 
sellers objected to.' It has been plausibly 
suggested that Paltock named his hero after 
John Wilkins, bishop of Chester, who, in the 
second part of his ' Mathematical Magick,' 
had seriously discussed the question whether 
men could acquire the art of flying. The 
original agreement for the sale of the manu- 
script of ' Peter Wilkins ' was brought to 
light in 1835 at a sale of books and manu- 
scripts which had once belonged to Robert 
Dodsley the publisher, and was acquired by 
James Crossley [q. v.] of Manchester, a por- 
tion of whose library was sold in 1884. 
According to this document, Paltock re- 
ceived for the copyright 201., twelve copies 
of the book, and ' the cuts of the first im- 
pression ' (proof impressions of the illustra- 
tions). Some copies of the book are said to 
be dated 1750, which is probable, as it 
appears in the list of new books announced 
in the ' Gentleman's Magazine' for November 
1750. An edition appeared immediately 
afterwards at Dublin, so the book must have 
had some sale, despite the sneering criticism 
of the ' Monthly Review.' A new edition 
appeared at London in 1783, and another at 
Berwick in 1784. It was included in Weber's 
* Popular Romances,' 1812, and published 
separately, with some charming plates by 
Stothard, in 1816, 2 vols. 12mo. Within the 
last fifty years it has been frequently issued, 
entire or mutilated, in a popular form. An 
excellent reprint of the original edition, with 
some of the quaint plates by Boitard, was 
published under the editorship of Mr. A. H. 
Bullen in 1884, 2 vols. 8vo. ' Peter Wilkins ' 
afforded material for a pantomime, ' with 
songs,' produced at Sadler's Wells in 1800. 
A 'melodramatic spectacle in two acts/ 
founded on the romance, was acted at Co- 
vent Garden on 16 April 1827 (printed in 
vol. xxv. of Lacy's ' Acting Edition of Plays '). 
In 1763 a French translation by Philippe 
Florent de Puisieux was issued at Paris, 
3 vols. 16mo, and was included in vols. xxii.- 
xxiii. of De Perthe's ' Voyages Imaginaires ' 
(1788-9). A German translation was pub- 
lished in 1767 at Brunswick, 8vo. 

Of ' Peter Wilkins ' Coleridge is reported 
to have spoken in terms of enthusiastic ad- 
miration (Table-Talk, ed. 1851, pp. 331-2). 
So at hey, in a note on a passage of the 
'Curse of Kehama,' says that Paltock's 
winged people ' are the most beautiful crea- 
tures of imagination that ever were devised,' 



and adds that Sir Walter Scott was a warm 
admirer of the book. With Charles Lamb at 
Christ's Hospital the story was a favourite ; 
while Leigh Hunt never wearied of it (cf. 
his essays in London Journal, 5 Nov. 1834; 
Book for a Corner, ed. 1868, i. 68). 

In 1751 appeared a dull tale called ' Me- 
moirs of the Life of Parnese, a Spanish Lady : 
interspersed with the story of Beaumont and 
Sarpeta. Translated from the Spanish manu- 
script, by R. P., Gent.,' London, 12mo. As 
it is dedicated to Frances (1723-1810), wife 
of Commodore Matthew Mitchell or Michell 
(1706-1752), M.P., of Chitterne, Wiltshire, 
who was Paltock's second cousin, there can 
be no doubt that Paltock was the author, 
although the book is unworthy of him. 

Paltock has been doubtfully identified 
with the ' R. P., Biographer,' who published 
in 1753 ' Virtue Triumphant and Pride 
Abased in the Humorous History of Dicky 
Gotham and Doll Clod ' (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. ix. 372). The ' Monthly Review,' 
in some six lines of condemnation, considers 
it to have been written for the express en- 
tertainment of the kitchen, but no details 
are given, and no copy of the book is acces- 
sible. 

[Athenaeum, 2 Aug. 1884 p. 145, 16 Aug. 1884 
p. 206, 14 Feb. 1885, p. 215; Introduction to 
Peter Wilkins, ed. Bullen, 1884; Bo.-ise and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ; Boase's Collect. 
Cornub. ; Will of Edward Curll in P.C.C. 186, 
Vere; Will of Robert* Paltock in P C.C. 105, 
Gee, 1705; Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 1 1 9 ; 
Hoare's Wiltshire Hundred of Heytesbury, i. 
172, 174-5 ; Hutchins's Dorset, 1803, ii. 603 ; 
Allibone's Diet. ii. 1495 ; cf. both Foster's and 
Harleian Society's editions of Chester's London 
Marriage Licenses.] G. G. 

PAMAN, HENRY, M.D. (1626-1695), 
physician, son of Robert Paman, was born 
at his father's estate of Chevington, Suffolk, 
in 1626. He entered as a sizar at Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, on 22 June 1643, where 
William Sancroft [q.v.] was his tutor. They 
became friends for life. He migrated to St. 
John's College on 22 July 1646, graduated 
B.A. the same year, and was elected a fel- 
low of that college. He became M.A. in 
1650, and was incorporated M.A. at Oxford 
on 11 July 1655. On 20 June 1656 he kept 
an act for a medical degree before Professor 
Francis Glisson [q. v.], maintaining the thesis 
' Morbis acutis convenit dieta tenuissima ' 
(note in Glisson's handwriting, vol. iii. of his 
papers). In the same year he was senior 
proctor, and in 1658 he graduated M.D., 
being incorporated M.D. at Oxford on 13 July 
1669. He was elected public orator at Cam- 
bridge on 5 March 1674, and held office till 



174 



Pandulf 



9 July 1681. Eight Latin letters written by 
him in this capacity were printed under the 
title 'Literse Academife Cantabrigiensis ab 
Henrico Paman cum esset orator publicus 
scriptse ' (WARD, Gresham Professors, ap- 
pendix, p. xvi). They are addressed to the 
astronomer, John Hevel, on 12 May 1674 ; 
to James, duke of Monmouth, on 12 June 
1674, and twice without date; to Charles II 
on 11 Sept. 1674; to Chief-justice Sir Francis 
North ; to William, duke of Newcastle, on 
7 Aug. 1676 ; to Sancroft, archbishop of 
Canterbury, on 8 Jan. 1677. In 1677 Paman 
went to reside in Lambeth Palace with Arch- 
bishop Sancroft. On 21 June 1679 he was 
appointed professor of physic at Gresham 
College, and on 1 Dec. 1679 he was elected 
F.R.S. In 1683 he was admitted a candidate 
at the College of Physicians, and elected a 
fellow on 12 April 1687. He graduated 
LL.D. at Cambridge in 1684, and was there- 
upon appointed master of the faculties by 
Sancroft. He resigned his professorship on 
21 June 1689. When Sancroft declined the 
oaths to William III and left Lambeth, 
Paman also declined, and gave up his master- 
ship of the faculties. He went to live in the 
parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden, where he 
died in June 1695 ; he was buried in the 
parish church. He was rich, and, after pro- 
viding for his relations, left considerable 
sums of money and books to St. John's Col- 
lege, to Emmanuel College, to the College 
of Physicians, and to his native parish. 
Though he published nothing himself, he is 
known to every reader of medicine, because 
a Latin letter by him to Dr. Thomas Syden- 
ham [q. v.] is published in Sydenham's works 
as a preface to the treatise ' De Luis Veneriae 
historic!, et curatione.' It praises Sydenham's 
method, and urges him to write on this sub- 
iect. Sydenham (ed. Pechey, 1729, p. 244) 
says that Paman had long been his friend, 
and adds, ' I always valued your friendship 
as a most precious thing.' 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 446 ; Ward's Lives 
of the Professors of Gresham College, 1740; 
manuscripts in Sloane collection in Brit. Mus. 
3309 vol. iv., and 4162 vol. iii.] N. M. 

PANDULF (d. 1226), papal legate and 
bishop of Norwich, is usually identified with 
Pandulfus Masca, a member of a noble Pisan 
house of that name, who was made cardinal- 
priest of the Twelve Apostles by Lucius III 
in December 1182, discharged some important 
papal legations, and wrote the lives of some 
of the popes (MuRATORi, Her. Ital. Scriptores, 
vol. iii. pt. i. p. 276 ; cf. however, MAS LATKIE, 
Tresor de Chronologic, c. 1188, who refers to 
CAEDELLA, M. emorie Storiche de Cardinali,i.} 



Ciaconius, in his life of Pandulf Masca, has 
also told us that he was made subdeacon by 
Calixtus II (1119-1124), so that, if the re- 
ceived identification is accepted, our Pandulf 
must have died more than a hundred years 
after receiving the subdiaconate. Moreover, 
Ciaconius so early as 1677 clearly pointed 
out the error of identifying Pandulf the 
English legate with Pandulf Masca. Never- 
theless the identification is still often made, 
and even in so accurate a work as Dr. Stubbs's 
' Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum' (p. 38) the 
bishop of Norwich is called ' Pandulf Masca.' 
But it is quite clear that the later Pandulf 
was never a cardinal at all (he is only called 
cardinal in John of Ypres 1 Chron. de St. 
Berlin in BOUQUET, xviii. 604), and when 
he first crosses English history is regularly 
described as the pope's subdeacon simply 
(see the life of Pandulfus Masca in CIA- 
coxius, Hist. Pontificum Rom. et S. R. E. 
Cardinalium, i. 1114-15, Rome, 1677; cf. 
also MURATORI, Rer. Ital. Scriptores, vol. iii. 
pt. i. pp. 276-8, which corrects and adds to 
the biography of Ciaconius). 

Pandulf was a Roman by birth (Ann. 
Worcester, p. 404), and became a clerk of the 
papal court under Innocent III. When the 
quarrel between Innocent III and King John 
with regard to the disputed succession to 
the archbishopric of Canterbury had already 
lasted more than four years, John began to 
realise the necessity of ending the struggle, 
and besought the pope to send envoys to' 
treat with him about peace (Ann. Burton, 
pp. 209-10). Innocent accepted the English 
king's advances, and selected Pandulf for the 
mission, along with a knight of St. John 
named brother Durandus. Pandulf is va- 
riously described as 'magister' (Ann. Osney, 
p. 55), ' domini papse subdiaconus' (MATT. 
PARIS, ii. 531 ; WYKES, p. 56), and ' quidam 
de capellanis domini papse' (Ann. Marc/am, 
p. 36). The pope calls both envoys 'fami- 
liares nostros,' andinMagna Charta and other 
official documents Pandulf is called 'domini 
papte subdiaconus et familiaris' (cf. John's 
submission, Fcedera, i, 115; Ann. Burton, 
p. 218). The nuncios reached England at 
the end of July 1211 (' post festum S. Jacobi ;' 
Ann. Waverley, p. 266). As they travelled 
through England they were received with 
extraordinary demonstrations of popular re- 
joicing (Ann. Osney, p. 55 ; WTKES, p. 56). 
John came back from his AVelsh expedition 
to meet them in August at Northampton. A 
great council of nobles also assembled at the 
same place. The Burton ' Annals ' (pp. 209- 
217) preserve a long and almost suspiciously 
minute and circumstantial account of the 
negotiations that ensued. The nuncios de-- 



Pandulf 



175 



Pandulf 



manded the restoration of Langton and the 
exiled bishops. John answered angrily that 
he would hang Langton if he could catch 
him, and that he was only bound to obey 
the pope in things spiritual. Pandulf replied 
that John was equally bound to obey the 
pope in things temporal as in things spi- 
ritual. A long and angry historical con- 
troversy ensued, in which Pandulf said that 
John was striving to uphold the infamous 
laws of William the Bastard, rather than the 
excellent laws of Saint Edward. At last 
Pandulf formally promulgated John's excom- 
munication, and declared the English ab- 
solved from their allegiance. John did his 
best to frighten Pandulf, and hanged and 
mutilated various criminals in his presence 
to break his resolution. But the undaunted 
subdeacon remained firm, and actually saved 
one of the criminals, who was a clerk, from the 
royal sentence. John did not venture to do 
violence to the papal envoys, and they safely 
returned to the continent. The only results 
of the mission were that some of the king's 
clerks returned with them to open up further 
negotiations with the pope (Ann. Margam, 
p. 31), and that the interdict was slightly 
relaxed in the case of dying persons {Ann. 
Waverley, p. 271). Pandulf now joined 
Stephen Langton and the exiled bishops in 
Flanders {Ann. Dunstable, p. 36). He then 
returned to Rome (Ann. Osney, p. 55 ; Ann. 
Margam, p. 31). Perhaps he accompanied 
Langton, who also went to Rome about the 
same time. It should be added that some 
writers, including Dr. Pauli (Geschichte von 
England, iii. 365-6), reject the whole story 
of this first mission, believing it to be based 
upon the fancy of the Burton annalist, who 
described the great scene between the king 
and the papal envoy. But, though this is cer- 
tainly suspicious, there seems other evidence 
for the fact of the mission (Ann. Waverley,^. 
271 ; Ann. Margam, pp. 30-1 ; Cont. FLOR. 
WIG. ii. 169; Flores Hist. ii. 140; MATT. 
PARIS, Hist. Major, ii. 531 ; Chron. Rotoma- 
ffensis in BOUQUET, xviii. 360). Many of these 
writers, however, may simply copy the Burton 
and Waverley annalists ; the silence of earlier 
writers like Walter of Coventry (ii. 211), 
and the absence of any reference to the matter 
in either English or papal documents, make 
for the sceptical view. 

John's difficulties now came to a crisis, 
and the negotiations renewed by his envoys 
at Rome were vigorously pressed forward. 
On 27 Feb. 1213 Innocent wrote to John, 
announcing a fresh embassy. Pandulf and 
Durand were again the nuncios. They brought 
with them the hard conditions of John's sub- 
mission, drawn up at Rome with the consent 



of John's envoys (Flores Ilist.il. 143 ; Calen~ 
dar of Papal Letters, i. 37). Passing through 
France, Pandulf saw Philip Augustus, and 
forbade him invading England until the 
mission was accomplished. Two templars 
preceded Pandulf over the Channel. Early 
in May they were graciously received by 
John at Ewell, near Dover. On 13 May 
Pandulf himself saw the king at Dover, and 
threatened him with immediate French in- 
vasion if he would not submit to the holy 
see. On 15 May John's humiliation was 
completed. 

Before numerous witnesses John formally 
surrendered his crown to Pandulf, as the 
pope's proctor, and received it back from the 
nuncio's hands as a fief of the holy see (the 
documents of submission and reconciliation 
are printed in the Annals of Burton, pp. 21 8- 1 
223; RYMER, Fccdera, i. 108, 111-12; Epp. 
Innocentiilll, ed. Migne. The impression pro- 
duced in Europe is well illustrated in W. 
Brito's Philippidos in BOUQUET, xvii. 233). 
Pandulf received 8,000/. as an instalment 
of the compensation promised for the damage 
sustained by the church during the interdict. 
Matthew Paris tells us, in his rhetorical way, 
how Pandulf trampled this money under foot 
as an earnest of the future subjection of 
England to Rome (Hist. Major, ii. 546). 
Pandulf seems soon after to have returned 
to France, where he gave the 8,000/. to the 
exiled bishops, and persuaded them to go back 
to England. The return of Langton and the 
bishops ended the acute phase of the struggle. 

Pandulf held an interview with Philip 
Augustus at Gravelines (BOUQUET, xviii.604, 
but cf. ib. 565, which says at Calais), where 
the French were waiting to invade England. 
Philip thought himself cheated by the pope, 
and was very angry with Innocent and his 
agent for accepting the submission of John, 
and thus frustrating his expected easy con- 
quest of England. But Pandulf was soon 
back again in England, where he now busied 
himself in settling the complicated details 
that still remained to be arranged before the 
relations of England and Rome again became 
normal. A personage of greater weight than 
the humble subdeacon now appears on the 
scene. Nicholas, cardinal bishop of Tusculum, 
was appointed papal legate before 6 July, and 
sent to England to complete Pandulf's work. 
He arrived in England about Michaelmas. 
Pandulf was jointly commissioned with him 
to inquire about arrears of Peter pence due to 
the pope from England (Epp. Inn. Ill, iii. 
960, ed. Migne). He was also still employed 
in collecting money to compensate the suf- 
ferers from the interdict, in mediating between.' 
John and the W T elsh, and other business. Hd 



Pandulf 



176 



Pandulf 



attended the solemn relaxation of the in- 
terdict by the legate and Langton at St. 
Paul's (Flores Hist. ii. 148). He exacted 
100,000 marks from John for damages (Cal. 
Papal Letters, i. 40 ; Epp. Inn. Ill, iii. 953, 
ed. Migne). The records of Evesham ( Chron. 
Evesham, pp. 231-4) show how his heavy 
Land was felt in every monastery in England. 
Pandulf at this time constantly crossed and 
recrossed the Channel (' ultro citroque discur- 
rens,' WALT. Cov. ii. 223). In June 1214 he 
was at Anjou (Fcedera, i. 122). Matthew 
Paris says that he was now sent to Rome by 
the legate, against whose actions the English 
bishops had appealed. This must have been 
early in 1214. At Rome he fought fiercely 
with Simon Langton [q. v.], who was also 
there (Hist. Major, ii. 571-2). But it was 
a defeat for Pandulf that the bishop of Tus- 
culum's mission was brought to an end, 
though thisfact necessitated his own presence 
again in England. He remained in this 
country for nearly all the rest of John's reign. 
He was at the king's side during the critical 
struggle of 1215 (ib. ii. 589). He is men- 
tioned in the preamble to Magna Charta as 
one of the faithful band who adhered to John 
to the last, and by whose counsel the great 
charter of liberties was issued on 15 June 
1215 (Select Charters, p. 296). In article 62 
of the charter Pandulf is associated with the 
archbishops of Canterbury and Dublin, and 
some other bishops, as sureties for the gene- 
ral pardon and pacification promised by the 
king (ib. p. 305). But John immediately 
sought means of repudiating his word, and 
saw no better way out of his difficulties than 
to keep the pope and Pandulf thoroughly 
on his side. The bishopric of Norwich had 
been vacant since the death of John's old 
minister, Bishop Grey, in 1214. On 18 July 
he urged the prior and convent to make an 
election, according to the advice of Peter des 
Roches [q. v.] and other prelates, and the man- 
date of the pope. Before 9 Aug., on which day 
he is described as bishop-elect, Pandulf seems 
to have been in some way elected to the 
vacant see (PATJLI, iii. 443, from Rot. Pat. 
p. 152. LE NEVE, Fasti Eccl. Angl. ii. 460, 
ed. Hardy, is certainly wrong in putting the 
election as late as 1218). In August 1216 
Pandulf is described by the pope as bishop- 
elect (Cal. Papal Letters, i. 141: cf. also 
Ann. Dunstable, p. 43 ; Ann. Tewkesbury, p. 
61 ; and Ann. Worcester, p. 405). All these 
three chroniclers date the election in 1215. 
The Worcester ' Annals ' also say he was 
elected ' prsecepto domini papae.' But there 
may well have been some irregularity in the 
election. On 16 Aug. a papal letter was laid 
before the assembled bishops at Brackley, 



when the archbishop was ordered to excom- 
municate the king's enemies, and Pandulf 
was associated with Peter des Roches, bishop 
of Winchester, and the abbot of Reading in 
compelling obedience to this mandate (WALT. 
Cov. ii. 223). John now persuaded Pandulf 
to go to Rome and explain to Innocent the 
miserable plight of his new vassal (RYMEE, 
Fcedera, i. 135 ; cf. MATT. PAEIS, ii. 613). 
On 13 Sept., the same day, Pandulf witnessed 
at Dover a charter to St. Oswald's Priory, at 
Nostell (Cal. Papal Letters, i. 52). He was 
there on 4 Sept. (Fcedera, i. 137). But before 
Paudulf had started for Rome Innocent III 
issued on 25 Aug. a bull quashing Magna 
Charta. The arrival of the bull in England 
doubtless made Pandulf's journey unneces- 
sary. Anyhow, he remained in England, where 
he now ventured to excommunicate by name 
the leaders of the baronial party, who in their 
turn appealed to the Lateran council then 
about to sit (WALT. Cov. ii. 224). Langton 
now resolved to set out for Rome, but Pandulf 
suspended him on the eve of his taking ship 

(COGGESHALL, p. 174; MATT. PARIS, ii.629- 

630. WALT. Cov. (ii. 225) says followed 
him across the Channel and suspended him 
abroad). John seized Langton's estates, and 
Innocent confirmed Pandulfs action. After 
the barons in their despair had called on Louis 
of France, the arrival of Cardinal Gualo, a 
new papal legate, again relegated Pandulf to 
the subordinate position which he had held 
during the mission of Nicholas of Tusculum. 
Pandulfs movements during the first two 
years of the reign of Henry III are not 
easy to trace. His name occurs in few 
English state papers, and the chroniclers 
tell us little of his movements. The 
'Annals of Worcester' (p. 409) make the 
' bishop of Norwich ' present at the new 
Worcester Cathedral on 7 June 1218, and 
this could only have been Pandulf. But he 
may well have spent most of his time at 
the papal curia, where he is now described 
as ' papal notary ' ( Cal. Papal Reg. i. 56) 
and the 'pope's chamberlain ' (ib. i. 57). He 
obtained by the papal favour various bene- 
fices in England, including preferment in 
the dioceses of Salisbury and Chichester, a3 
well as the church of Exminster, which, 
however, was contested against him by one 
Adam Aaron, who claimed to be in lawful 
possession of it, and had a sufficiently strong 
case for Honorius III to refer its examina- 
tion to the archbishop of Canterbury on 
18 July 1218 (ib. i. 56). Pandulf was also 
charged with the collection of a crusading 
twentieth (ib. i. 57), an employment which 
may well have brought him again to Eng- 
land. He was not, however, consecrated to 



Pandulf 



177 



Pandulf 



the bishopric of Norwich, though now 
generally recognised as bishop-elect. On 
12 Sept. 1218 Pandulf was appointed papal 
legate in England, in succession to Cardinal 
Gualo, who had begged for leave to retire 
from the thankless post (ib. i. 58). A few 
days earlier (4 Sept.) Pandulf was allowed 
to ' provide for ' his ' kinsman Giles,' a 
papal subdeacon, with any suitable bene- 
fice in his diocese, despite Giles already 
holding the distant archdeaconry of Thessa- 
lonica (ib. i. 58). And on the same day 
Honorius issued an injunction that the 
"bishops in whose diocese Pandulf possessed 
benefices were not to molest him or dispose 
of his rights (ib.'i. 58). A nephew of Pandulf, 
'who took his uncle's name, was included in 
his household during his legation in Eng- 
land (ib. i. 70). 

Gualo left England on 23 Nov. 1218, and 
Pandulf arrived on 3 Dec. (COGGESHALL, p. 
263 ; cf. Ann. Waverley, p. 291). The new 
prelate's arrival synchronised with most im- 
portant events in England. William Mar- 
shall, earl of Pembroke, died in May 1219, and 
Tvith him expired the exceptional authority 
entrusted to the regent. The ministers now 
governed in the name of the youthful king. 
"Hubert de Burgh, the justiciar, and Peter 
<les Roches, bishop of Winchester, the tutor 
of the king, were the most important of 
these. The chancellor had been practically 
suspended, and his functions were carried 
out by a vice-chancellor, Ralph Neville. 
Hubert and Peter were not in agreement 
oetween themselves. These circumstances 
made it easy for Pandulf to practically 
exercise the first place in the state, John's 
surrender of the kingdom having given the 
pope an admitted temporal authority in ad- i 
dition to the spiritual authority inherent in [ 
"his office. From the death of Pembroke to 
Tiis own recall in the summer of 1221, a 
space of rather more than two years, Pan- 
dulf almost acted as king of England. 

The success of Pandulf s administration is 
the best proof that his love of money was not 
incompatible with statesmanlike capacity. 
Truces were made with France and Scot- 
land, the revenue was increased, the country 
prospered under the peace, and the absence 
of the leaders of the civil war on crusade 
gave men time to forget the ancient dis- 
sensions. The young king was crowned 
a second time at Westminster, on which 
occasion Pandulf, though present, judiciously 
left to Archbishop Langton the duty of 
officiating at the ceremony (Ann. Dumtaple, 
p. 57). Pandulf s correspondence, printed in 
Shirley's 'Royal Letters' (vol. i.), shows, 
however, that no details of government were 

VOL. XLIII. 



too minute to occupy the legate's atten- 
tion. We find him appointing colleagues 
to the sheriffs in their work of collecting the 
revenue (Royal Letters, i. 27), stimulating 
the sluggishness of the justiciar and the 
bishop of Winchester in repressing the 
Jewish usurers (ib. i. 35), and taking so 
active a part in the administration of Gas- 
cony that the first business of a returned 
seneschal was to seek out an interview with 
him (ib. i. 49). Though suffering from ill- 
health, Pandulf did not relax his efforts. 
He undertook troublesome journeys to 
Wales or the borders in the vain hope of 
pacifying Llywelyn. He vigorously used 
the papal name to put down ' adulterine 
castles.' He drove away usurping castel- 
lans from royal castles, and would not allow 
any subject to have more than one such 
stronghold in his charge. He secured 
faithful custodians for the remaining strong- 
holds, and forbad the election of new castles 
(Ann. Dunst. p. 65 ; Royal Letters, i. 100, 
121, 535, cf. p. xxiii). He excommunicated 
the Earl of Albemarle for delaying to sur- 
render his castles. He procured the re- 
sumption of large tracts of royal domain. 
He persuaded the king of Man to surrender 
his island to the pope, as John had sur- 
rendered England (Cal. Papal Letters, i. 
69). The communes of southern France 
wrote imploring his protection, or justifying 
their conduct (Royal t Letters, i. 122, 132, 
141). In peremptory tones he bade the 
ministers put down robberies, or redress his 
servants' grievances. 

Though not specially greedy for himself, 
Pandulf obtained from the pope permission 
to convert for the payment of his debts, ' as 
far as it can be done without scandal,' the 
proceeds of non-conventual churches in his 
diocese and the manors in his gift (Cal. 
Papal Letters, i. 68). Nor was his influence 
less upon the church than on the state. The 
large number of letters of Honorius III 
calendared in Mr. Bliss's ' Calendar of Papal 
Letters ' shows that in most matters Pan- 
dulf acted in direct obedience to his master's 
injunctions, though the same source gives 
plenty of evidence of the self-restraint of 
pope and legate alike, and of their desire to 
avoid giving cause for scandal. Pandulf 
filled up bishoprics and smaller benefices at 
his pleasure, appointing, for example, John, 
abbot of Fountains, by papal provision to 
the bishopric of Ely (ib. i. 74 ; WALT. Cov. 
ii. 241), receiving the resignation of bishop 
William of Saint Mere 1'Eglise of London 
(Ann. Dunst. p. 65), and protecting foreign 
holders of English preferments against the 
greediness of English lords and their clerks 



Pandulf 



178 



Pandulf 






(Royal Letters, i. 77). He attended some 
famous ecclesiastical ceremonies, such as the 
translation of St. Thomas of Canterbury 
(Ann. Sermondsey, p. 454), where he also 
gave place to Langton to officiate at the 
ceremony in his own cathedral. It was by 
Pandulf 's advice that Langton ordered the 
feast of St. Thomas the Martyr to be ob- 
served in England with the same solemnities 
as a Sunday (WALT. Cov. ii. 246). Pandulf 
attended the laying of the first stone of the 
present Salisbury Cathedral (Ann. Tewkes- 
bury, p. 66). He busied himself in pro- 
moting a crusade, obtaining a graduated tax 
from England, which was destined to help 
the king of Jerusalem (Ann. Dunstaple, p. 
67) ; but he allowed the necessities of state 
to absolve Hubert de Burgh from the cru- j 
sading vow which he had taken (ib. p. 128 ; [ 
Cal. Papal Letters, i. 63. It is strongly 
to Pandulf's credit that an English chro- | 
nicler (Flores Hist. ii. 173) should testify ; 
emphatically to the legate's great services in ' 
appeasing the still hot factions of England ; 
and in ending the last remnants of civil : 
war. 

Despite Pandulf's tact, his great activity 
and high-handed action could not but pro- ' 
voke opposition. He joined with Peter des 
Roches in demanding the appointment of a 
Poitevin noble to act as seneschal of Poitou 
and Guienne in succession to Geoffrey Neville ; 
(d. 1225) [q. v.], who had resigned in Novem- i 
ber 1219. But the cry of the citizens of Niort 
that there could come no worse calamity to . 
the land than the investment of one of their i 
feudal neighbours with royal authority over ; 
them was answered by Hubert de Burgh, 
who, after a long struggle, procured the ap- 
pointment of an English seneschal. Hence- 
forth Pandulf and the justiciar were sworn 
enemies. But Pandulf had already an enemy 
in Archbishop Langton. "When he first 
came to England, Honorius III had directed 
him not to seek for consecration as bishop of 
Norwich, on the ground that as bishop-elect 
he did not owe the obedience to his metro- 
politan which naturally followed upon his 
consecration (Royal Letters, i. 533). But 
despite this, Langton persisted in attempts 
to bring him under his jurisdiction, so that 
Pandulf had to get a second bull from Rome 
to keep him free from the primate's autho- 
rity. Langton and Hubert now seem (Shirley's 
Preface to Royal Letters, i. xxiv-xxvi) to 
have joined together to make Pandulf's posi- 
tion impossible. Langton, thwarted at home, 
went to Rome, where his great influence 
prevailed upon Honorius to promise that, so 
long as Langton lived, the legatine power 
should be discharged by the archbishop of 



Canterbury, and that no special legate a 
latere should be sent to England (Ann. Dun- 
staple, p. 74). The pope must have written 
to Pandulf ordering him to resign his lega- 
tion. On 19 July 1221 Pandulf solemnly 
resigned his functions in the presence of 
several bishops at Westminster (Flores Hist. 
ii. 172-3). Langton himself did not get 
back from Rome until August. 

The legate's abrupt retirement was 
smoothed over by his being sent by the king 
on a mission to Poitou to procure a prolon- 
gation of the truce (Ann. Dunstaple, p. 75). 
From Poitou he went to Rome. There was 
no longer any reason for delaying his conse- 
cration to the bishopric to which he had been 
elected seven years before. On 29 May 1222 
Pandulf was consecrated bishop of Norwich 
by Honorius III in person (Ann. Waverley, 
p. 296). 

Pandulf's name is not very closely asso- 
ciated with the English diocese, though he 
made some contributions towards the repair 
of the fabric of his church (CoTTOJf, p. 394). 
He was still attached to the service of 
Henry III. In 1223 he was present at the 
funeral of Philip Augustus at Saint Denis 
(Guil. Armoricus in BOUQUET, xvii. 115). 
It was believed in England that he urged 
the pope not to allow Philip's son Louis VIII 
to be crowned until he had redeemed a 
former oath of restoring Normandy to Eng- 
land. But ' notwithstanding this,' says the 
chronicler, ' Louis was duly crowned ' (Ann. 
Dunst. p. 81). After the coronation Pandulf 
was sent by Henry III, along with the 
bishop of Ely, to demand from Louis the 
fulfilment of his former promises, but nothing 
came of this (RALPH DE COGGESHALL, p. 191 ; 
MATT. PARIS, iii. 77-8). 

Pandulf soon after appears again at Rome, 
where in 1225 he gave good advice with a 
strong Anti-French bias to Henry Ill's 
proctors at the curia (Royal Letters, i. 257). 
He died at Rome (Ann. Waverley, p. 302) 
011 16 Aug. 1226 (Cont. FLOE. WIG. ii. 174; 
John de Tayster in PEKTZ'S Mon. Germ. 
Script, xxviii. 587). Stubbs (Reg. Sacrum 
Anylicanum, p. 38) puts his death on 16 Sept. 
His body was taken to England and buried 
in Norwich Cathedral (CoTTOK, p. 394 ; 
WEEVEK, Funeral Monuments, p. 869). 

[Annals of Margam, Tewkesbury, Burton, 
Osney, Wykes, Dunstaple, Bermondsey, and 
Waverley in Annales Monastic! (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Cont. Flor. Wig. (Enel. Hist. Soc. ) ; Eoyal Let- 
ters of the Reign of Henry III, vol. i., with Dr. 
Shirley's very important Preface (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Matthew Paris's Hist. Major, vols. ii. and iii. 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Flores Historiarum, ii. (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Bliss's Calendar of Papal Registers, Let- 



Paniter 



179 



Panizzi 



ters, vol. i. 1198-1304; lialph de Coggeshall 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Rymer's Foedera, vol. i. pt. i. (Re- 
cord edit.) ; Walter of Coventry (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Epistolse Innocenlii III in Migne's Patrologia 
Latina, vols. ccxvi. ccxvii. ; Godwin, De Prsesuli- 
bus Anglise (1743), pp. 429-30 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Angl. ii. 460, ed. Hardy ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. vols. i. and ii., and Select Charters ; Pauli's 
Geschichte von England, vol. iii. ; Pearson's Hist, 
of England, especially ii. 1 24-8 ; Ciaconius's Vitae 
Pontificum et Cardinalium, vol. i.] T. F. T. 

PANITER. [See PANTER.] 

PANIZZI, SIR ANTHONY (1797-1879), 
principal librarian of the British Museum, 
was born on 16 Sept. 1797, at Brescelloin the 
duchy of Modena. His father, Luigi Panizzi, 
was the son of a lawyer named, like his son, 
Antonio : his mother, Caterina Gruppi, was 
likewise of a family connected with the law. 
Panizzi received his education at a school at 
Reggio, whence he proceeded to the univer- 
sity of Parma, and graduated in the faculty 
of law in 1818. He then commenced prac- 
tice as an advocate, obtaining considerable 
distinction, and, notwithstanding his youth, 
receiving the office of inspector of the schools 
of his native town from the Duke of Modena, 
who entertained a personal regard for him. 
This favour did not prevent his conspiring 
with other young patriots to overthrow the 
worst of all the petty Italian tyrannies of 
that epoch. He was initiated as a Carbonaro 
in March 1820, and himself admitted others. 
In May 1822 the assassination of a police 
agent redoubled the fears and vigilance of 
the government, and, as a consequence of 
the inquiries set on foot, Panizzi was arrested 
in October of that year. Escaping by the 
connivance of an official, he fled to Lugano, 
and there published, with the fictitious im- 
print of Madrid, a pamphlet ' I Process! di 
Rubiera,' denouncing the cruelties andjudicial 
iniquities of the Modenese government. The 
work was rigidly suppressed and is now ex- 
ceedingly rare. The government indicted 
Panizzi in his absence, sentenced him to death 
as contumacious, and debited him with the 
costs of the legal proceedings, for which he 
disclaimed responsibility in a humorous letter. 
After a short stay at Lugano he made his way 
to London, where he was welcomed by Ugo 
Foscolo, who despatched him to Liverpool 
with a letter of introduction to Roscoe, the 
chief patron of Italian literature in Eng- 
land. Roscoe received him most kindly, 
provided him with numerous clients for his 
Italian lessons, and introduced him to the 
intellectual society which Liverpool at that 
time boasted, one of whose members, Francis 
Havwood, the translator of Kant, became a 
' lifelong friend. Panizzi had, in all proba- 



bility, already become known to Brougham 

through Foscolo, and their intimacy was 

cemented when, in 1827, he accompanied thp 

great advocate to Lancaster, to the famous 

trial of Edward Gibbon Wakefield [q. v.], 

involving points of continental marriage law 

' on which Panizzi's aid was of material ser- 

\ vice. Brougham requited him by the doubtful 

j benefit of procuring him, in 1828, the Italian 

I professorship at University College. The 

I emoluments of the post soon proved to be a 

disadvantageous exchange for the tuition he 

had carried on so vigorously at Liverpool ; 

but this incited Brougham, as chancellor and 

an ex-ofticio trustee of the British Museum, 

toprovide for him more effectually by securing 

his appointment as assistant librarian in that 

institution in April 1831. 

The administration of the museum was at 
that time at a lower ebb than at any period 
of its history. There were eminent, men 
among the officers, and the collections had 
lately been enriched by two most magni- 
ficent additions, the Elgin marbles and the 
king's library ; but the premises were anti- 
quated, the grants insufficient, and the entire 
system of government unenlightened and il- 
liberal. Panizzi's immediate official superior, 
the Rev. Henry Hervey Baber [q. v.J, was a 
man of great capacity, but there was nothing 
for him to do worthy of his abilities, and 
I still less for his subordinate, whose official 
| time was mainly occupied for several years 
j in writingout the titles of uncatalogued pam- 
phlets in the king's library, or of the French 
| revolutionary tracts presented by John \Vil- 
I sonCroker. Panizzi's attention was naturally 
much given to literature; he had already pub- 
lished an Italian grammar and chrestomathv 
for his scanty flock at University College, and 
| he now carried on with vigour his great edi- 
tion of Boiardo's ' Orlando Innamorato ' and 
Ariosto's ' Orlando Furioso,' the first volume 
of which had been published in 1830. His 
rescue of Boiardo, long completely eclipsed by 
the fame of his adapter Berni, was the great 
literary achievement of his life. The prelimi- 
nary essay, which occupies most of the first 
volume, was valuable in its day as an indica- 
tion of the indebtedness of European chivalric 
fiction to Celtic romance, but has inevitably 
been superseded. He also thoroughly purified 
his authors much-corrupted text, and subse- 
quently published an elegant edition of his 
minor poems. The work endeared him to 
patrons of Italian literature like Thomas 
Grenville [q. v.],William Stewart Rose [q.v.], 
and Lady Dacre, and promoted his intimacy 
at Holland House, where he soon became a 
favourite guest and the wielder of a social 
influence entirely disproportioned to his pub- 



Panizzi 



i So 



Panizzi 



lie position or pecuniary circumstances. An- 
other literary undertaking, the preparation 
of the catalogue of the library of the Royal 
Society, produced an embittered quarrel, 
which fortunately terminated in a pamphlet 
instead of a lawsuit. 

In 1834 the trustees, dissatisfied with the 
unsatisfactory progress of a subject-catalogue 
of the museum library, which had long been 
in progress according to a scheme framed by 
the Rev. Thomas Hartwell Home [q. v.J, 
called upon Baber to prepare a plan for an 
alphabetical catalogue. Baber proposed that I 
the execution of this work should be en- 
trusted to the superintendence of Panizzi ; 
but an inferior plan was adopted, and Panizzi 
shared the task with others. It soon ap- 
peared that he performed more work than j 
any two of his colleagues, and a sub-corn- | 
mittee of trustees recommended that his ' 
salary should be raised in consequence. ! 
The rejection of this proposal by the gene- I 
ral board occasioned Grenville's secession ; 
from the trustees' meetings. At this time 
the governing body was imperatively sum- 
moned to set its house in order by a parlia- 
mentary committee presided over by Mr. 
Sotheran Estcourt, but mainly inspired by 
Sir Benjamin Hawes [q. v.] This inquiry, 
to which Panizzi contributed important 
evidence and ample statistical information, 
though set on foot through the intrigues of 
a discarded minor official, produced valuable 
reforms, and constituted an epoch in the 
history of the museum. The new era was : 
most effectively symbolised in Panizzi him- | 
self, who succeeded Baber as keeper of : 
printed books in July 1837, the year after j 
the termination of the committee's sittings. 
Plis elevation over his senior in office, the 
Rev. Henry Francis Gary [q. v.], occasioned 
much comment and remonstrance, but was 
inevitable, Gary being by his own admission 
incapable of the fatigue of a laborious post. 
Panizzi behaved with perfect delicacy, and 
nothing would have been said but for the 
illiberal prejudice against his foreign extrac- 
tion from which, to the discredit of his adopted 
country, and though he had been naturalised 
as early as 1832, he suffered more or less 
during all his life in England. 

Panizzi assumed office at a critical period, 
when the library was to be removed from 
Montague House to its new quarters, when 
the catalogue had to be undertaken in earnest, 
and when the deficiencies of the collection 
had to be ascertained and made good. The 
first undertaking, under the immediate super- 
vision of John Winter Jones and Thomas 
"Watts [q. v.], was carried out with a celerity 
and an absence of friction which astonished 



everybody. The progress of the catalogue 
was by no means equally smooth and rapid. 
The trustees left it optional with Panizzi 
to undertake or decline this vast addition 
to his ordinary labours, which he accepted 
in December 1838. The next step was to 
frame the catalogue rules, in which, with 
the assistance of Jones, Watts, and others, 
Panizzi proved himself the greatest legis- 
lator the world of librarianship had yet 
seen, and his work, in essentials, will never 
be superseded. Some of the rules may be 
over-minute, and the undertaking may in 
some respects have been planned on too ex- 
tensive a scale; but the real causes of the de- 
lays which excited so much criticism were 
insufficiency of staff and the unfortunate 
decision of the trustees, in spite of Panizzi's 
warnings, to proceed in strict alphabetical 
order, and print each letter as soon as it 
could be made ready for the press. This 
occasioned enormous hindrance first, in 
ascertaining, or rather trying to ascertain, 
what books should come under a particular 
letter, and afterwards in carrying on the 
printing of one portion of the catalogue 
simultaneously with the preparation of 
another. The only visible result of Panizzi's 
labours for many years was the solitary 
volume printed in 1841, and great dissatis- 
faction prevailed. But in 1849 Panizzi per- 
suaded the trustees to dismiss the idea of 
printing for the present, and to engage an 
efficient staff of transcribers to copy titles 
on movable slips, after a plan suggested in- 
dependently by Wilson Croker and Mr. E. A. 
Roy of the library. He was thus enabled to 
place the groundwork of a comprehensive 
catalogue before the public in September 
1850. It must be admitted that Panizzi 
did not see the advantages of print, either 
as regarded the circulation of the catalogue 
or the economy of space. His manuscript 
catalogue, after serving excellently for a 
time, at last proved impracticable under the 
multitude of accessions; it assumed un- 
wieldy proportions which rendered it in- 
creasingly difficult to consult, or even to 
house. The extent of the accessions was 
mainly due to the success of Panizzi's efforts 
to supply the deficiencies of the library 
efforts in which no other librarian of his period 
could have succeeded, for no one else pos- 
sessed his personal influence either with the 
treasury or with public-spirited collectors. 
Having in 1843 prepared, with the assistance 
of Jones and Watts, a most able exposition 
of these deficiencies in nearly every branch 
of literature but classics, he procured in 
1845 an annual grant of 10,000/., the judi- 
cious administration of which, under him 



Panizzi 



181 



Panizzi 



and his successors, has elevated the museum 
library from the sixth or seventh to the 
second, if not the first, place among the 
libraries of the world. One of the most im- 
portant additions it ever received, the be- 
quest of the Grenville Library in 1846, was 
entirely due to Panizzi's personal influence 
[see GRENVILLE, THOMAS]. 

By 1848 the public dissatisfaction with 
the administration of the museum in most 
of its departments prompted, however, 
far more by lack of space than by dis- 
trust of the staff had reached a point 
which was held to justify the appointment 
of a royal commission of inquiry. The idea 
seems to have arisen with the men of 
science, who were justly scandalised at the 
crowded condition of the natural history col- 
lections; but the centre of interest speedily 
shifted to the printed book department. 
Panizzi's success in rebutting all the accusa- 
tions brought against his management was 
universally acknowledged, and the most im- 
portant result of the investigation was to 
virtually transfer the administration of the 
museum to him from the secretary, whose 
mind gave way during the sittings of the 
commission ; while the commissioners' pro- 
posals for a more radical change of system 
were allowed to drop. Two years afterwards 
the insufficiency of space, so far as regarded 
the library, was effectually remedied for a 
long time by Panizzi's grand conception of 
the reading-room and its annexes, by which 
lie will be better remembered than by any 
other of his achievements. The waste of 
space through the emptiness of the great 
quadrangle must have struck every one, but 
no suggestion for occupying it with an ad- 
ditional library appears to have been made 
except by Thomas Watts in 1836. Professor 
William Hosking [q. v.] and Edward Haw- 
kins (1780-18G7) [q.v.], keeper of antiquities, 
brought forward in 1845-50 schemes for a 
central hall for sculpture, which passed un- 
noticed. Panizzi's first design was sketched 
by him on 18 April 1852, and submitted to 
the trustees on 5 May following. It merely 
contemplated a flat-roofed building, and it 
does not precisely appear when the striking 
architectural feature of the dome was added. 
After a controversy with Wilson Croker 
and Sir Charles Barry, who wished the space 
to be devoted to a central hall for anti- 
quities, Panizzi's plans were approved by the 
trustees and the government, and it would 
now be universally admitted that the world 
contains no edifice more carefully devised, 
down to the minutest details, or better 
adapted to subserve the double purpose of 
storage for immense contents and accommo- 



dation for a numerous public. The founda- 
tions were laid in May 1854, and the build- 
ing was inaugurated by a reception given 
by Panizzi on 2 May 1857. A year previously 
he had become principal librarian, having 
succeeded Sir Henry Ellis on 6 March 1856. 
The minor improvements introduced by him 
during his nineteen years' tenure of office as 
keeper of printed books are far too numerous 
to be noticed here ; but one, the stricter en- 
forcement of the Copyright Act, must be 
mentioned, on account of the obloquy to 
which it for a time subjected him. 

As principal librarian Panizzi displayed 
the same energy and administrative capacity 
that he had exhibited in a subordinate 
station, but no very important question 
agitated his term of office, except one in 
which he unfortunately took the wrong side. 
He was a strong advocate for the removal of 
the natural history collections, chiefly, it 
was thought, from impatience and dislike of 
the men of science, whom he could never 
endure. ' He would,' said Macaulay, ' give 
three mammoths for one Aldus.' It is in- 
deed improbable that any influence would 
have prevailed upon any government to 
sanction the large expenditure which the 
proper accommodation of all the multifarious 
collections of the museum at Bloomsbury 
would have entailed ; and if proper accom- 
modation for all was not to be provided, it 
was better that a part* should be removed. 
It is also true that some vehement opponents 
of the dislocation of the museum, in their 
zeal for the interests of art and archaeology, 
worked against their own object by their 
grudging recognition of the claims of science. 
It is nevertheless to be regretted that Panizzi 
should have supported the removal other- 
wise than as a necessary evil. Wiser ad- 
ministrative measures were the trisection of 
the unwieldy department of antiquities, a 
fourth subdivision being added subsequently, 
and the appointment of a superintendent of 
all the natural history collections in the 
person of Professor Ilichard Owen [q. v.] 
The most remarkable acquisitions during 
Panizzi's administration were archaBological, 
including the Temple vases and bronzes, the 
Farnese sculptures, the fruits of excavations 
at Halicarnassus, Camirus, and Carthage, 
and the Christy collection of prehistoric an- 
tiquities. The great Castellani purchase came 
immediately after his resignation, but his 
influence was believed to have contributed 
to it. Another important transaction in 
which he was deeply concerned was the ad- 
mission of the staff of the museum, whose 
friend he had always been, to the benefits of 
the Civil Service Superannuation Act, a 



Panizzi 



182 



Panizzi 



measure which had the additional advantage 
of establishing the position of the museum 
as a recognised branch of the civil service. 
The staff expressed their sense of obligation 
in the presentation on different occasions of 
Panizzi's bust by Marochetti and portrait by 
Watts, both of which are deposited in the 
museum. His resignation took place in June 
1866. He had wished to resign a year earlier, 
but retained his post for a time in deference 
to the representations of the trustees. 

During the whole of his official career at 
the museum Panizzi had lived a second life 
of incessant occupation with politics, espe- 
cially as they affected the movement for the 
liberation of Italy, and he had attained to 
great influence through his association with 
two very dissimilar classes of people Italian 
patriots and whig ministers. He enjoyed the 
full confidence of Russell, Palmerston, and 
Clarendon, and as early as 1845 effected a 
temporary reconciliation between Thiers and 
Palmerston. Thiers wrote him confidential 
letters on the Spanish marriages, and his re- 
plies may rank as state papers. This influ- 
ence was usefully exerted on behalf of his own 
country. He had been a Carbonaro when 
conspiracy afforded the only outlet for pa- 
triotism, but had afterwards rallied cordially 
to the house of Savoy, and concurred in 
all essentials with the policy of his friend 
Gavour. When anything in the proceed- 
ings of the Italian patriots alarmed the 
English government, Panizzi was always at 
hand to explain and extenuate, and this in- 
terposition continued until it was no longer 
needed. Even \vhen Italian freedom had 
been won, Panizzi was engaged to exercise a 
wholesome supervision over Garibaldi during 
the latter's visit to England. The most dra- 
matic episode of his political activity was his 
championship of the Neapolitan state pri- 
soners, whose cause he stimulated Mr. Glad- 
stone to undertake. He went to Naples at con- 
siderable personal risk to inquire into their 
case, and, when his efforts on the spot proved 
fruitless, organised, partly at his own ex- 
pense, an elaborate scheme for their escape. 
'.For four years,' says Mr. Cartwright in the 
' Quarterly Review,' ' he clung to his idea, 
collected by indefatigable energy the means 
necessary for its realisation, and finally 
brought it to the verge of execution. No in- 
cident in his life is anything like so illus- 
trative of his power for bold conception, and 
for making men and things bend before his 
steady, persistent, and subtle will.' At a 
later period he seemed likely to play a part 
in French politics, having been introduced 
by his friend Prosper Merimee into the inmost 
circle around Napoleon III, with whom he 



spent a considerable time at Biarritz. But, 
although he was much caressed, and himself 
conceived a warm attachment to the em- 
peror, the sturdiness of his Italian patriotism 
seems to have proved unpalatable. Cavour 
wished to make him director of public in- 
struction, but he refused to be drawn away 
from England, although he accepted an 
Italian senatorship. 

Panizzi's last years were passed in retire- 
ment at his London residence, 31 Blooms- 
bury Square, almost in the shadow of the 
museum. Their chief events were an all but 
fatal illness early in 1868, and the distinction 
of K.C.B. conferred upon him in 1869. Some 
few years later, at a suggestion from high 
quarters, he elaborated, with all his old 
energy, a scheme for placing the South Ken- 
sington Museum under the administration of 
the trustees of the British Museum, which 
was discussed for a time, but produced no 
result. His last years were severely tried by 
bodily afflictions, but cheered by the atten- 
tions of many old friends, among whom Mr. 
Gladstone was conspicuous. He died on 
8 April 1879, and was interred at St. Mary's 
catholic cemetery, Kensal Green. His por- 
trait and bust at the museum have been 
mentioned. Another portrait, and a very fine 
one, by Watts, painted about 1850, is at 
Holland House, and Panizzi's appearance in 
the latter years of his life is well conveyed 
in the etching by Mr. Louis Fagan, prefixed 
to his biography. 

Panizzi was unquestionably a very great 
man. Had Italy been a free country in his 
youth, he would have entered public life and 
risen to the highest honours of the state. 
Diverted to a narrower sphere, his energies 
sufficed to regenerate and remodel a great 
institution, which but for him might long 
have lagged behind the requirements of the 
age. His services to the museum are to be 
measured, not so much by what he actually 
effected for it, great as some of these achieve- 
ments were, but by the new spirit which he 
infused into it, the spring of all that it has 
done and is doing after him. His principles 
of administration have been thus summarised : 
(1) The museum is not a show, but an in- 
stitution for the diffusion of culture. (2) It 
is a department of the civil service, and 
should be conducted in the spirit of other 
I public departments. (3) It should be 
i managed with the utmost possible liberality. 
Views like these were congenial to a nature 
whose main attribute was magnanimity. 
Except for an occasional pettiness in hunting 
and worrying small offenders, Panizzi's faults, 
equally with his merits, belonged to a warm 
and impetuous nature, capable of any exer- 



Panke 



183 



Panter 



tion where a great end was to be gained, and 
not always entirely scrupulous in its pursuit, 
but capable also of tender affection and dis- 
interested kindness. On some few points he 
was narrow and prejudiced, but in the main 
his judgment, both of men and things, was 
remarkably sound ; and he was equally at 
home in the broadest principles and in the 
nicest minutiae of administration. His plans 
for the extension of the library were con- 
ceived in the most catholic spirit. His dis- 
taste for science was undoubtedly a great 
disadvantage to him, but it redounds the 
more to his credit that he should have pro"- 
vided as well for the scientific as for any 
other department of the library. His lite- 
rary tastes were those of a scholar of the 
eighteenth century. He read and re-read 
I)ante, Virgil, and Horace. He superintended 
Lord Vernon's magnificent edition of Dante, 
wrote on the identity of the Aldine type- 
cutter, Francesco da Bologna, with Francesco 
Francia (1858, a privately printed pamphlet 
written in Italian), and occasionally contri- 
buted to the ' Foreign Quarterly,' ' Edin- 
burgh,' and ' North British ' Reviews, and to 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (8th edit.) 

[Pagan's Life of Sir Anthony Panizzi, 1880; 
Cowtau's Biographical Sketch of Sir Anthony 
Panizzi, 1873 ; Cowtan's Memories of the British 
Museum, 1872; Edwards's Founders and Bene- 
factors of the British Museum ; Lettere ad 
Antonio Panizzi di uomini illustri e di aniici 
Italian!, pubblicate da Luigi Pagan ; Prosper 
Merimee's Lettres a, M. Panizzi (Panizzi's own 
letters to Merimee were destroyed in the burning 
of the latter's house under the Commune) ; W. C. 
Cartwright in the Quarterly Review, vol. cli. ; 
R. Garnett in the Athenaeum of 19 April 1879; 
personal knowledge.] R. Gr. 

PANKE, JOHN (fl. 1608), divine, is 
stated by Wood to have been a ' very fre- 
quent and noted preacher of his time . . . 
well read in theology . . . and a very zealous 
enemy in his writings and preachments 
against the Papists.' He was educated at 
Oxford, but at what college is not known. 
Upon leaving Oxford he held the vicarage of 
Broadhinton, Wiltshire, and afterwards the 
rectory of North Tid worth, Wiltshire, both 
in the Salisbury diocese. His last work is 
dated from Salisbury, where, according to 
Wood, he ' had some cure.' 

He was author of: 1. 'Short Admonition, 
by way of Dialogue, to all those who 
hitherto upon pretence of their unworthines 
have dangerously in respect of their Salva- 
tion withdrawn themselves from comming 
to the Lordes Table,' &c., Oxford, 1604, 8vo. 
2. The Fal of Babel by the Confusion of 
Tongues, directly proving against the Papists 



of this and former ages ; that a view of their 
writings and bookes being taken, it cannot 
be discerned by any man living what they 
should say, or howbe understoode, in the 
question of the sacrifice of the Masse, the 
Reall presence or Transubstantiation, &c. 
By John Panke,' Oxford, 1608, 4to ; 1613, 
4to. This is dedicated from Tidworth, 1 Nov. 
1607, to the heads of colleges at Oxford. 
3. ' Eclogarius, or Briefe Summe of the 
Truth of that Title of Supreame Governour, 
given to his Majestie in causes spirituall and 
Ecclesiasticall, &c. ; not published before. 
By John Panke,' Oxford, 1612, 4to. 4. ' Col- 
lectanea, out of St. Gregory the Great and 
St. Bernard the Devout, against the Papists 
who adhere to the present Church of Rome, 
in the most fundamental Points between 
them and us,' Oxford, 1618, 8vo. This is dedi- 
cated ' from the Close at Saruin, 24 January 
1618,' to George Churchowse, mayor of 
Sarum. It was reprinted at Salisbury, 1835, 
8vo, under the title of 'Romanism condemned 
by the Church of Rome.' 

[Wood's Athenoe Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 274 ; 
Hoare's Modern Wiltshire, Hundred of Ambres- 
bury, p. 92 ; Brit. Mus. Libr. Cat.] R. B. 

PANMURE, EARLS OF. [See MATILE, 
PATRICE:, first EARL, d. 1661 ; MAULE, JAMES, 
fourth EARL, 1659 P-1723 ; MAULE, HARRY, 
titular EARL, d. 1734.] 

PANMURE, BAHONS. [See MAULE, 
WILLIAM RAMSAY, first BARON PANMURE of 
Brechin and Navar, Forfarshire, 1771-1852 ; 
MAULE, Fox, second BARON PANMURE (of the 
United Kingdom), and eventually eleventh 
EARL OF DALHOUSIE (in the peerage of Scot- 
land), 1801-1874.] 

PANMURE, LORD OF. [See PHILIP DE 

VALONIIS (VALOGNES), d. 1215.] 

PANTER, DAVID (d. 1558), bishop of 
Ross, son of David Panter, who was brother 
of Patrick Panter [q. v.] His mother was 
Margaret Crichtoun, widow countess of 
Rothes. He first appears as vicar of Car- 
stairs, and subsequently as prior of St. Mary's 
in Galloway, and as commendator of the 
abbey of Cambuskenneth. He was in France 
in February 1541-2 on some unknown errand, 
and on 31 March 1543 was sent thither with 
Sir John Campbell of Lundie on a mission 
to the French king. He had already acted 
for some time as secretary to James V. He 
returned in June with John Hamilton, abbot 
of Paisley, in time to assist Cardinal Bea- 
ton's opposition to the English matrimonial 
schemes of the English court. The letters 
of the English ambassadors, preserved in 
Sadler's ' Papers,' and Buchanan's bitter 



Panter 



184 



Panton 






criticism testify to the strength of his in- Museum. A selection formed the first volume 
fluence on behalf of France. In December of Ruddiman's ' Epistolse Jacobi Quarti, 
he was ordered by the governor to deliver Jacobi Quinti, et Marise Regum Scotorum/ 
back, according to custom, the badge of published in 1724 [see PANTER, DAVID]. A 
knighthood of the Golden Fleece to the Em- | reproduction of his signature will be found 
peror Charles V. In 1545 he was elected in Small's edition of the ' Works of Gavin 



bishop of Ross, and in May of that year was 
sent on a mission to the king of France, 
the emperor, and Mary of Hungary. He was 
abroad for seven years. On his return he re- 
ceived consecration to his bishopric at Jed- 
burgh, before a brilliant assembly of the 
Scots nobles. He died, according to Holin- 
shed, at Stirling on 1 Oct. 1558. 

Some of his official letters are printed in 
Ruddiman's ' Epistolse,' 1724, vol. ii. 

[Preface to vol. ii. of Ruddiman's Epistolse ; 
Lesley's History; Holinshed's Chronicles ; Bu- 
chanan's History ; Sadler Papers, i. 221 et seq. ; 
Keith's Catalogue of Bishops.] G. G. S. 

PANTER, PANNITER, or PAN- 



Douglas' (vol. i. p. Lxxxv). 

[Preface to vol. i. of the Epistolse, described 
above ; Boece's Murthlac. et Aberdon. Episcopp.. 
Vitas (Spalding Club) ; Buchanan's History; Ex- 
chequer Rolls of Scotland, vol. xiii. ; Pinkerton,. 
vol. ii. ; Keith's Catalogue of Bishops ; Gaird- 
ner's Letters of Richard III (Rolls Ser.), vol. 
ii. p. Ixvi ; Smith's Days of James IV, p. 189.] 

G. G. S. 

PANTIN, THOMAS PINDAR (1792- 
1866), theological writer, son of Thomas 
Pantin of St. Sepulchre's, London, born in 
1792, matriculated from Queen's College, 
Oxford, 24 June 1817, and graduated B.A. 
in 1821, and M.A. in 1827. He was in- 
stituted rector of Westcote, Gloucestershire,. 



THER, PATRICK (1470 P-1619), abbot of i n 1828, and remained there until his death 

Cambuskenneth, was born about 1470 at O n 2 Sept. 1866. He was succeeded at 

Montrose, probably at Newman's Walls, half Westcote by his kinsman, John Wicliffe- 

a mile north of the burgh, where his family Pantin. 

had resided from the time of Robert III. He 

was educated in Scotland, and later was a 

fellow student with Hector Boece [q. v.] at 

the College Montaigu at Paris. He returned 

about 1500, and was appointed rector of 

Feteresso in Mearns, and preceptor of the 

Maison-Dieu at Brechin. James IV en- 



Pantin wrote several small polemical 
works directed against Roman catholic 
claims : 1 . ' Observations on certain Passages 
in Dr. Arnold's Christian Duty of granting 
the Roman Catholic Claims ; relating to the- 



Supremacy of the Bishop and the Idolatry 
of the Church of Rome,' Lutterworth, 1829, 
trusted him with the education of Alexan- gvo. 2. ' The Novelty of Popery in Matters- 
der, his illegitimate son, afterwards arch- o f Faith and Practice,' London, 1837. 3. 'The 
bishop of St. Andrews, and in 1505 gave Church of England. Apostolical in its Ori- 
him the post of royal secretary. Inthiscapa- ^ Episcopal inits'Government, and Scrip- 
city he wrote the remarkable series of state tural in its Belief; wherein also its Claim* 
letters on which his reputation as a latinist J n Opposition to Popery and Dissent are- 
rests. In 1510 he appears as custumar- j considered and asserted,' London, 1849, 8vo. 
general for Scotland. He was probably soon He also edited, with additional notes, Bishop 
afterwards elected abbot of Cambuskenneth, Stillingfleet's ' Origines Britannicse' (2 vols. 
which title he held in 1515-16. After the '' 
death of James IV he fell into disgrace on 
account of his opposition to the regent John, 
duke of Albany. In August 1515 he was 
imprisoned in Inchgarvie in the Firth of 
Forth, and his property was confiscated. He 
was soon, however, reconciled, and he set out 
for France on 17 May 1517 in the company 

of Gavin Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, to aid ' antiquary, was born in Wales in 1731. He- 
the schemes of the bishop of Ross, and to was distinguished for his knowledge of Welsh 
effect the treaty with Francis I known as the history and antiquities, and formed a col- 
treaty of Rouen. He is styled in the ex- lection of Welsh manuscripts contained in 
chequer rolls of 1516 and 1518 rector of nearly one hundred volumes. This collection 
Tannadice. He died at Paris in 1519. He J included the manuscripts left to him by Evan 
had a natural son David, who was legitimised Evans [q. v.], the Welsh poet and antiquary, 



Oxford, 1842), and Bishop Bull's ' Corrup- 
tions of the Church of Rome,' with a pre- 
face and notes (London, 1836). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1888; Gent. 
Mag. 1866, ii. 559; Darling's Cycl. Bibliogr. 
pp. 2283, 2852 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

PANTON, PAUL (1731-1797), Welsh 



on 12 Aug. 1513. 

His official letters are extant in four 
manuscripts, three in the Advocates' Li- 



on whom Panton had settled an annuity. 
The Evans manuscripts consisted of more 
than eighty volumes, some of which were 



brary, Edinburgh, and one in the British ancient, though the greaternumber were tran- 



Panton 



185 



Panton 



scripts from the Wynsstay and Hengwrt ' 
libraries (Myvyrian Arch. 2nd ed. p. xii). 
Panton's collection was deposited in the 
library of his residence, Plas Gwyn, in the ' 
parish of Llan Edwen, Anglesey, North Wales 
(CARLISLE, Topogr. Diet, of Wales, ' Llan i 
Edwen'), and was opened freely to anti- 
quaries. Panton died in 1797. The manu- 
scripts were left to his son, Paul Panton of 
Plas Gwyn, who allowed the editors of ' The 
Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales' to make 
free use of them for that work (Preface, dated 
1801). In 1852 the manuscripts were de- 
scribed (WILLIAMS, Diet, of Eminent Welsh- 
men, s.v. ' Panton') as still in the library at 
Plas Gwyn. In 1875 many of the manu- 
scripts were said to be in the possession of 
Paul Panton, R.N., of Garreglwyd,Holyhead, 
Anglesey, a descendant of the original owner 
(NICHOLAS, County Families of Wales, 1875, 
i. 47). 

[Authorities cited above.] W. W. 

PANTON, THOMAS (d. 1685), gambler, 
was youngest son of John Panton, the re- 
presentative of an old Leicestershire family, 
living at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. When the 
nucleus of a regular army was formed by 
Charles II in 1661, Panton, who appears to 
have attended the king abroad and already 
enjoyed a titular colonelcy, obtained a com- 
mission in his majesty's life-guards, and 
also held a captaincy in the foot-guards. He 
drew his pay from both regiments till 1667, 
when, having become a Roman catholic, he 
resigned his commissions into the king's 
hands during a review in St. James's Park. 
He won the favour of several of the ladies about 
the court, and relieved them of considerable 
sums at the card-table. Some of his gal- 
lantries are recorded by Lucas, but it was 
as a card-player that Panton really excelled. 
' There was no game,' says Lucas, ' but 
what he was an absolute artist at it, either 
upon the Square or Foul play. . . . His chief 
game was Hazard, and in one night at this 
play he won as many thousand pounds as 
purchased him an estate of above 1,500 a 
year.' After this coup, Panton married, 
bought the manor of Cuxhall in Bucknall, 
and other estates in Herefordshire, and 
entirely abjured all games of chance. He 
speculated, however, in property about Lon- 
don, bought from Mrs. Baker, about 1670, 
the well-known seventeenth-century gaming- 
house known as ' Piccadilly Hall,' improved 
this property, and in 1671 began building a 
' fair street of good houses,' now known as 
Panton Street, between the Haymarket and 
Hedge Lane (Dorset Street). He died in 
1685, and was buried on 26 Oct. of that 



year in Westminster Abbey. His widow 
Dorothy resided in ' a capital mansion on 
the east side of the Haymarket ' until her 
death on 1 April 1725, at the age of eighty- 
four; she was buried by the side of her 
husband on 5 April. Her will, dated 1 June 
1722, was proved on 8 April 1725 by her 
eldest son, Brigadier-general Thomas Pan- 
ton. The latter carried intelligence of the 
battle of Blenheim to the States-General 
(BoYER,^4wze,p. 154), was severely wounded 
at Malplaquet on 11 Sept. 1709 (PELET, 
Mem. Miht. ix. 370), took the news of the 
capture of Douay to the court of St. James's 
in 17 10 (LTJTTRELL), and returned to the camp 
at Bouchain in September 1711, bearing the 
queen's inquiries as to Marlborough's health 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. App. p. 143). 
He became major-general 1 May 1730, lieu- 
tenant-general 5 Nov. 1735, and died 20 July 
1753, the oldest general in the army (BEAT- 
SON, Political Inde.r, ii. 130; Gent. Mag. 
1753, p. 344). Pauton's eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth (d. 1700), married about 1679 
Henry, fifth lord Arundell of Wardour. 
Another daughter, Dorothy, married, in 1675, 
William Stanley of Chelsea, and predeceased 
her husband, who died of delirium tremens, 
under strange circumstances, in 1691 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. App. v. 347). 

[Lucas's Memoirs of Celebrated Gamesters, 
pp. 59-67; Chester's Westminster Abbey Regis- 
ters, pp. 214, 313; Remembrancia City of Lon- 
don, 1878, p. 19 n. ; D'Alton's Army Lists, pt. i. 
pp. 1, 27 ; Letter-boots of John Hervey, first 
earl of Bristol, 1895; Wheatleyand Cunningham's 
London, iii. 26-7 ; Thornbury's London, Old and 
New, vol. iv. ; G.E.C.'s Peerage, i. 158 ; Luttrell's 
Brief Hist. Relation, vi. 393 ; Timbs's Century 
of Anecdote, i. 37.] T. S. 

PANTON, THOMAS (1731-1808), 
sportsman, born in 1731, was son of Thomas 
Panton, who was master of the king's run- 
ning-horses at Newmarket. A sister, Mary, 
married in 1750 Peregrine Bertie, fourth duke 
of Ancaster. Thomas Panton the younger 
lived as a country gentleman at Fen Ditton 
in Cambridgeshire, and was high sheriff for 
that county in 1 789. He kept foxhounds, and 
is said once to have killed a fox close to the 
Rubbing House at Newmarket, after a twenty- 
five mile run without a check. The time, 
unhappily, is not recorded. His chief reputa- 
tion was gained as an owner of racehorses ; 
he was a member of the Jockey Club in 1753, 
within a few years of its foundation, and 
figured conspicuously on the turf until his 
death. That he enjoyed a good character may 
be assumed from the fact that the author of 
that scurrilous book ' The Jockey Club ' (1792) 
could find no harm to say of him. ' Tommy 



Pantulf 



1 86 



Panton's address ' is one of the ingredients 
prescribed in the poetical squib ' A Receipt 
to make a Jockey.' He won the Derby in 
1786 with Noble. His best horse probably 
was Feather. He died on 29 Nov. 1808 at 
Newmarket. 

[Black's Jockey Club and its Founders ; Post 
and Paddock by H. H. Dixon; Ann. Keg. 1789, 
1808 ; Gent. Mag. for 1808.] J. A. D. 

PANTULF, HUGH (d. 1224 ?), sheriff 
of Shropshire, was a son of Ivo, grandson of 
William Pantulf or Pantolium [q.v.] He first 
appears as a witness to a charter at Shrews- 
bury, 1175-6 (Ei'TOX, Shropshire, viii. 154), 
and in 1178 was amerced for a trespass on the 
king's forest in Northamptonshire (DuGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 434). After Michaelmas 1179 
he was made sheriff, and remained in office 
till Michaelmas 1189 (ErTOST, ix, 165). In 
1186 he witnessed a charter at Feckenham 
(ErTON, Court and Itinerary, p. 270), and 
towards the close of that year acted as 
justiciar in the Staffordshire circuit, and 
sat at Lichfield. In 1187 his tour extended 
through Staffordshire, Shropshire, Hereford- 
shire, Worcestershire, and pleas and conven- 
tions were held and tallages assessed by him 
(ib. p. 281). In 1188 he was at Gedding- 
ton, Northamptonshire, with the king, and in 
February 1189 (ib. p. 298) a fine was levied in 
the Curia Regis at Shrewsbury before Hugh. 
Again in that year he held pleas in Glouces- 
tershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, and Staf- 
fordshire. In 1190 he was in the king's court 
at Westminster (EYTOX, vii. 12). He received 
lands in Herefordshire from Richard I ( Testa 
de Nevill, p. 56). In 1204 he was the king's 
messenger, with a safe-conduct to Gwenwyn- 
wyn, prince of Powis (Rot. Pat. p. 45), and 
in 1206 he was at John's court at Nottingham. 
He was charged with waste and neglect in 
controlling the stores of the royal castles 
during his sheriffdom, and made to pay part of 
the deficiency on the sheriff's ferm, amount- 
ing to 360/. Is. \0d. ; of this he was excused 
20(M. (EYTON, iii. 68). His name appears on 
the scut age rolls of 1194-7. In the ' Testa 
de Nevill (p. 54-5) he is stated to have held 
by barony. He died before December 1224. 
He married Christiana, daughter of William 
Fitzalan [q. v.], and received as her dowry 
Badminton in Herefordshire, which he 
granted to Lilleshall Abbey in 1215-18. He 
had five sons William, Ivo, Alan, Hugh, 
and one R., prebendary of Bridgnorth. 

WILLIAM (d. 1233) succeeded him. Pro- 
bably it was he who in 1210 served John in 
his Irish campaign, and received grants of 
laud in Kilkenny, Cells, and Carrickfergus, 
Fowre, and Dublin, for which in 1224 he 



was charged 81. lls. 4rf. (EYTOX, ix. 167, n.) 
Before 1226 he married Hawise FitzWarin 
(ib. vii. 75). In December 1225 he was 
ordered to render account at Westminster 
for a fifteenth taken in Shropshire (ib. ix. 
168), where he held five knights' fees of 
the lands escheated from Robert of Belleme 
[q. v.] In 1226 a close writ ordered the settle- 
ment of a dispute between him and Madoc ap 
Griffin at Bromfield to be made at Oswestry. 
He died in 1233. By a second wife, Alice, 
he left one daughter. Matilda, w r ho married, 
first, Ralph le Botyler, and then Walter le 
Hopton, and died before 1292 (DUGDALE, pp. 
434-5). 

[Authorities cited.] M. B. 

PANTULF or PANTOLIUM, WIL- 
LIAM (d. 1112?), Norman knight, was one 
of Roger of Montgomery's tenants in the dis- 
trict of Hiemes in the diocese of Seez. His 
mother's name was Beatrice, and she held 
lands ' apud Fossas ' (not identified). Wil- 
liam received large grants of land, and held 
authority in Roger's earldom of Shrews- 
bury, founded after 1071. He held eleven 
manors in Odenet Hundred, and Wem was 
their head. In 1073-4 he was in Normandy, 
and gave the two churches of Noron, near 
Falaise, and St. Evreux in Ouche, with forty 
marks to establish a cell at Noron, and tithes 
of all the churches and places and goods 
which should belong to him. The monks of 
St. Evreux contributed 16/. to a pilgrimage 
to the shrine of St. Giles, near Nismes, 
which he was about to make. On 23 Oct. 1077 
he was present with William I at the con- 
secration of the church of Bee, and then 
went with a former abbot of St. Evreux to 
serve Robert Guiscard in Apulia. He was 
treated with honour, and was offered a gift 
of three cities if he would stay, but he re- 
turned to Normandy. In December 1082 he 
fell under suspicion of complicity in the 
murder of the Countess Mabel, Earl Roger's 
mother, who had deprived Pantulf of his 
castle of Piretum (Perai en Saonnais). Pan- 
tulf had had dealings with the murderer, 
Hugh of Jalgey, and took refuge with his 
family at the monastery of St. Evreux. He 
submitted to the ordeal of hot iron before 
the king's court at Rouen, and was acquitted. 
He gave four silk altar-cloths from Apulia 
to St. Evreux as a thank-offering. His estates 
were confiscated by Earl Roger (ORDERICFS 
VITALIS, ii. 433) /but in 1085-6 he was in 
possession of twenty-nine manors in Shrop- 
shire, and others in Staffordshire and War- 
wickshire. After the death of William I, in 
1087, Pantulf revisited Apulia, and in June 
1092 gave the relics of St. Nicholas to Noron. 



Paoli 



187 



Paoli 



Robert of Bellerne [q. v.] deprived him of 
his lands for an unknown reason, and when 
Belleme rebelled, in 1102, Pantulf offered 
him his services. They were rejected, and 
he turned to Henry II, who put Stafford 
Castle in his custody, with two hundred 
soldiers. Pantulf detached Belleme's Welsh 
ally, Prince lorwerth ab Bleddyn [q. v.], by 
negotiation, and he persuaded the garrison 
of Bridgnorth to surrender to the king. The 
fief of Roger de Courcelles was probably his 
reward for these services (EYTON, Shropshire, 
viii. 46). 

In 1112 Pantulf and his wifeLescelina and 
sons Philip, Ivo, and Arnulf confirmed their 
gifts to St. Evreux, and granted sixty marks 
in silver to the new church, which William 
did not live to see completed. Pantulf died 
about 1112. His eldest son, Philip, succeeded 
to his Norman, his second son, Robert, to 
his English, estates. 

ROBERT (^/7. 1130), according to the cartu- 
lary of the nunnery of Caen, robbed the nuns 
of six pounds of silver (ORDERlCFS,ed.LePre- 
vost, iii. 221 n.) In the Bedfordshire pipe roll, 
1130 (p. 104), an entry is found concerning 
a trial by combat between him and Hugh 
Malbanc, whose estates were contiguous to 
Robert's. 

Ivo (d. 1176 ?), probably Robert's son, suc- 
ceeded him. He attested a charter of Stone, 
Staffordshire, 1130-5, a royal charter in De- 
cember 1137-8 (Pipe. Roll), and made grants 
to Shrewsbury and Combermere Abbeys, 
1141-55. He appears in 1165 in the 'Liber 
Niger (ed. Ilearne, i. 144), and in the Staf- 
fordshire pipe rolls of 1167 and 1168-9. He 
made a grant to Haughmond Abbey in 1175- 
1176, and died about 1176. He had three 
sons by a first wife Hugh [q. v.], Hameline, 
and Brice, and two by Alice de Verdon 
William and Norman (_ERDESWICK, Stafford- 
shire, p. 493). 

[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Le Prevost, vols. ii. iii. 
aud iv. ; Eyton's Shropshire, ix. 157 sqq. and 
passim, and Court and Itinerary of Henry II ; 
Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 32, 90-5; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, iii. 693, 727, 860, 864; Erdes- 
wiek's Staffordshire, pp. 14, 139, 493 ; Dug- 
dale's Baronage, i. 434 ; Gaston le Hardy's paper 
on Un Gentilhomme Normand au XI. Siecle in 
Mem. Soc. Antiq. Norman. 3rd ser. vol. vi. Dec. 
1867, p. 735.] M. B. 

PAOLI, PASCAL (1725-1807), Corsican 
general and patriot, born on 25 April 1725, 
in the village of Rostino in Corsica, was 
the second son of Hyacinth Paoli, one of the 
leaders of the Corsican revolt of 1734 against 
the Genoese. Pascal's mother was Dionisia 
Valentini, daughter of one of the lesser 
nobles or caporali. Clement, Pascal's elder 



brother by ten years, was another patriot 
leader of the Corsicans. In 1736 Theodore, 
baron of Neuhof, having been proclaimed 
king by the Corsicans, the Genoese (to whose 
exchequer the French government was deeply 
indebted) applied for French help to expel 
Theodore and re-establish their own supre- 
macy. A French force, under the Marquis 
de Maillebois, defeated Hyacinth Paoli in 
the Nebbio in 1738, and disarmed the 
islanders. Pascal, then a boy of fourteen, 
went into exile with his father to Naples. 
There he was placed at the military college, 
under a Jesuit tutor, Anthony Genovese, pro- 
fessor of philosophy and political economy. 
After a brilliant career at the academy, Pas- 
cal received his commission as lieutenant in 
the cavalry regiment, mainly composed of 
Corsican exiles, of which his father was colo- 
nel. The young officer obtained a colonelcy 
and won distinction by his daring conduct 
of an expedition against the bandits of Cala- 
bria. In the meantime, the French having 
evacuated Corsica in 1741, the islanders' re- 
sentment of the Genoese yoke grew more 
acute, and in 1752 they again took up arms, 
and proclaimed Jean Paul Gaffori gene- 
ralissimo. The Genoese procured Gaffori's 
assassination on 2 Oct. 1753, and the indig- 
nation thus aroused rendered any reconcilia- 
tion impossible. 

Thereupon a new constitution was decreed, 
and, after some temporary expedients, the 
Corsicans decided to offer the dictatorship 
to Pascal Paoli. Under his father's advice. 
Pascal had been preparing himself, as if 
Avith some presentiment of the high de- 
stiny awaiting him, to acquire a complete 
mastery of the art of government. When 
the assembled chiefs of Corsica finally re- 
solved upon offering him the post of ruler 
of the island, Paoli was just entering his 
thirtieth year. On 29 April 1755 he dis- 
embarked in Corsica at the mouth of the 
river Golo, and on 25 July 1755 the supreme 
council elected him their generalissimo. His 
chief opponent at the outset was his former 
colleague arid compatriot, Emmanuel Matra, 
who, jealous of the power awarded to Paoli, 
stirred up a civil war against him, and suc- 
ceeded in enlistingthe support of theGenoese. 
Matra surprised Paoli in the convent of 
Bozio, and the patriot was only saved by 
Matra's death in March 1756. Paoli vigo- 
rously carried on the war against theGenoese, 
and, having driven them successively from 
Bastia, Calvi, and San Lorenzo, he eventually 
drove them out of Ajaccio. Despairing of 
reconquering Corsica by their own arms, 
Genoa turned once more for aid to France, 
and a secret treaty was signed at Compiegne 



Paoli 



188 



Paoli 



on 7 Aug. 1764 by which the French pro- 
mised their military aid to the Genoese for 
the space of four years. During those years 
Paoli vainly appealed to the Europeanpowers 
against the action of France. Count Marboeuf 
landed six battalions in the island in October 
1764, and occupied most of the strong places. 
After four years of armed truce, diversified 
by the capture of Capraja by Paoli, both 
Genoese and patriots realised that their re- 
spective situations were untenable in the 
presence of a strong French force. By the 
treaty of Versailles, negotiated between Choi- 
seul and the Genoese plenipotentiary Sorba 
on 15 May 1768, Genoa finally yielded up 
Corsica to France in consideration of the ex- 
pense in which the French crown was in- 
volving itself by its efforts to reduce the ! 
island. The Paolists were naturally no party ! 
to the treaty, and they determined upon a 
vigorous resistance. Their defence of iso- 
lated situations was heroic, but the dispro- 
portion of forces did not admit of a doubt- 
ful issue to the contest. Large reinforcements 
reached the French from Toulon, to the num- 
ber of twenty-two thousand men, under Count 
Vaux. A decisive battle took place on 9 May 
1769 at Pontenuovo, and the Corsicans, after 
fighting heroically under the personal com- 
mand of Paoli, were completely defeated. The 
French conquerors immediately afterwards 
entered Corte, and a little later on overran 
the whole island. Paoli retired to the neigh- 
bourhood of the parish church of Vivario 
with a few followers. Near Vivario the 
remnant of his army, reduced to 537 men, 
was surrounded by four thousand of the 
enemy. Paoli addressed a stirring harangue 
to his compatriots, urging them at the risk of 
a glorious death to cut their way during the 
night through the French troops. This they 
did, and, after lying concealed for two days 
in the ruins of a convent on the seashore, 
Paoli, with some of his friends, embarked on 
an English frigate at Porto Vecchio, and on 
16 June 1769 was landed at Leghorn. He 
was received with the greatest enthusiasm, 
the English ships displaying their colours 
and discharging their artillery. A few days 
afterwards his brother Clement, with about 
three hundred other fugitives, including 
among them some of the most noted chiefs, 
reached Leghorn in another English vessel. 
The Italian princes received the exiles with 
great hospitality, the Grand Duke Leopold 
of Tuscany assigning lands to such among 
them as chose to settle in his dominions. 
Many entered the service of the king of Sar- 
dinia, and a few others went to Minorca. 
Everywhere the Corsican refugees were re- 
ceived with respect and admiration. The 



total loss sustained by the French troops in 
conquering Corsica exceeded ten thousand 
men, of whom 4,324 were killed. 

During Paoli's fourteen years' rule he 
virtually stamped out the vendetta, which 
for centuries had decimated the population. 
He promoted throughout the island agricul- 
ture, commerce, and other civil occupations. 
He established a university at Corte on 
25 Nov. 1764, and a school in every village 
in Corsica. He organised an army ; he formed 
a flotilla. His revenue was one million livres, 
or 40,000/. sterling, and he founded a mint 
at Murato (cf. BOTTA, Storia ff Italia, bk. 46). 

On 21 Sept. 1769 Paoli arrived in London. 
Wesley records in his ' Journal ' (iii. 370) 
that ' the great Paoli landed in the dock at 
Portsmouth but a very few minutes after he 
(Wesley) had left the water-side ; ' adding, 
1 surely He who hath been with him from his 
youth up hath not sent him into England 
for nothing.' On 10 Oct. Boswell, who had 
visited Paoli in Corsica and had published the 
first biography of the hero, presented him to 
Dr. Johnson, who observed to Boswell after- 
wards that ' Paoli had the loftiest port of any 
man he had ever seen.' The prime minister, 
the Duke of Grafton, obtained for the exile 
a pension of 1,2001. a year on the civil list, 
which the general enjoyed for twenty years. 
He was introduced at court, and graciously 
received by George III. Later on he was 
elected a member of The Club, where he 
became the intimate personal friend of the 
Johnsonian group, more particularly of Dr. 
Johnson himself, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Ed- 
mund Burke, and Oliver Goldsmith. 

Soon after the first outburst of the great 
French revolution, when the convention 
decreed that Corsica was thenceforth merely 
one of the departments of France, Mirabeau 
proposed, from the tribune of the National 
Assembly, that General Paoli should be re- 
called from exile to rule once more over 
Corsica. Resigning his pension before quit- 
ting England, Paoli repaired to his native 
land. Immediately on his arrival he was 
elected mayor of Bastia and commander-in- 
chief of the national guard. In April 1790 
Paoli appeared at the bar of the National 
Assembly in Paris, where he was received 
with enthusiasm. He there delivered an 
address to the assembly, in the course of 
which he promised fidelity to the new order 
of things in France. On being presented to 
Louis XVI, Paoli was appointed by the king 
lieutenant-general and military commandant 
of Corsica. Returning to the island, he re- 
asserted his authority and re-established his 
paternal rule. During the autumn of 1791 
Napoleon Bonaparte, then in his twenty- 



Paoli 



189 



Paoli 



second year, was brought into personal his wont, in a most liberal and hospitable 
communication with Paoli, who took so 
prescient a view of the future emperor's 
character, and at the close of one interview 
said to him prophetically, ' You were cast in 
an antique mould ; you are one of Plutarch's 
The whole world will talk of you ' 



manner, he contrived to save enough to leave 
his relatives in Italy no inconsiderable pro- 
perty. His house was at No. 200 Edgware 
Road, where, on 5 Feb. 1807, after a short 
and painful illness, he died at the age of 
eighty-two. His remains were interred on 



(STENDHAL, Vie de Napoleon, i. 85). Paoli was 13 Feb. in the old catholic cemetery at St. 

rapidly estranged from the republican govern- Pancras, at the end of what was thenceforth 

ment at Paris. He was attacked in nume- called the Paoli Avenue. A tomb was erected 

rous pamphlets, some of which are very scur- on which was engraved a long Latin inscrip- 

rilous, issued at Paris by Philippe Buonarroti tion penned by Francisco Pietri. A cenotaph 

and others (a number of these are bound to Paoli was afterwards placed in the south 

together in the British Museum, F. 1116). aisle of Westminster Abbey, over which was 

The execution of the king made him despair placed a white marble bust of him by Flax- 

of obtaining any further advantage from Cor- man. Eighty years after his interment his 

sica's association with France. His hope remains were, by permission of the British 

thenceforth was to secure the political inde- government, exhumed on 31 Aug. 1889 (see 

pendence of his fellow-countrymen by bring- ; Times, 2 Sept.), and were removed to Corsica, 

ing them under the protection of England, in obedience to the express desire of its in- 

The Bonapartes being directly opposed to this habitants. A monument was raised in his 

policy, and in favour of Corsica's amalgama- honour upon the site of his birthplace by the 

tion with France, Paoli ordered the summary council general of the island. 



arrest and expulsion of every member of that 
family from the island. They fled from Calvi 
to Marseilles, while the Paolists burned the 
family mansion at Ajaccio and sacked the 
whole property of the Bonapartes in Corsica. 



Lamartine has well said of Paoli, in his 
' History of the Girondins,' that his glory is 
out of all proportion to the smallness of his 
country: ' Corsica remains still in the place of 
a mere province, but Paoli assumes his among 



At Paris Paoli's name was inscribed on the | the ranks of great men.' The nobility of his 

list of proscription. In the meantime Paoli character was illustrated by his whole life, 

rallied his compatriots around him in Corsica, both in exile and in power, by his daring on 

and applied to the British commanders in the the battlefield and his wisdom in council,by his 

Mediterranean, both naval and military, to own heroic acts and by the striking tributes 

assist him in driving the French garrisons paid to him by the greatest among his contem- 

out of the island. This was successfully poraries. Alfieri inscribed to him his tragedy 
accomplished with the co-operation of Ad- 



miral Viscount Samuel Hood [q. v.] and 
General Sir David Dundas. A sufficient force 
-was landed at Fiorenza on 8 Feb. 1794, and 
Bastia surrendered on 10 June. A deputa- 
tion meanwhile had been despatched to 
London by Paoli, offering, in his name, the 
sovereignty of Corsica to George III. The 
acceptance of this offer by the king of Eng- 
land was announced on 17 June, and two 
days afterwards Sir Gilbert Elliot (later 



raised to the peerage as first Lord Minto) 
*[q. v.] provisionally assumed viceregal autho- 
rity over the Corsicans. Paoli had expected mirable effigy of the Corsican general in the 
to be nominated viceroy, but on learning of ; portrait painted by Richard Cosway in the 



of ' Timoleon.' Frederick the Great sent 
him a sword of honour emblazoned with the 
words ' Patria Libertas.' Napoleon, in spite 
of the deadly antagonism in which they had 
parted, had the magnanimity, at the close of 
his career, to express his regret, in the 
' Memorials of St. Helena,' that he had never 
been able, in the midst of all his preoccupa- 
tions with great affairs, to summon Paoli to 
his side, to consult with him, when, as em- 
peror and king, he was virtually master of 
Europe. Besides Flaxman's bust of Paoli in 
Westminster Abbey, there is another ad- 



Elliot's formal appointment in 1795, he for a 
second time settled in England. On leaving 
Corsica he earnestly recommended his com- 
patriots to remain firm in their allegiance to 
the British crown as their only security for 
political independence. In 1796, however, 
disaffection to English rule was so widespread 
that the English evacuated the island, which 
lias since been united with France. 

On returning to London Paoli resumed his 
pension, and though he lived, according to 



Royal Gallery at Florence. A fine engrav- 
ing from this forms the frontispiece to Klose's 
life of the patriot, while another engraved 
portrait appears in the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for 1768 (p. 174). Paoli's only literary 
remains are a volume of letters and mani- 
festos. 

[Marshal Sebastiani's Li fe of Pascal Paoli , und er 
the pseudonym of Pompei's fitat actuel de la 
Corse, Paris, 1821 ; Arrighi's Histoire de Paoli, 
2 vols. Paris, 1843; Klose's Leben Paskal 



Papillon 



190 



Papillon 



Paoli, Brunswick, 1853 ; D'Oria's Pasquali de' 
Paoli, Genoa, 1869 ; Bartoli's Histoire de Pascal 
Paoli, nouvelle edit, revue, Bastia, 1 889 ; Bos- 
well's Account of Corsica, London, 1768; Bos- 
well's Life of Dr. Johnson, London, 1790; 
Lencisa's Pasquale Paoli e le Guerre d'lndipen- 
denza della Corsica, Milan, 1790; Neuhoff's 
Description of Corsica, with Life of Paoli, Lon- 
don, 1795; Feydel's Das corsische Kleeblatt, 
Bonaparte, Theodore und Paoli, especially pp. 
66-86, Zeitz, 1803; Buruaby's Journal of a Tour 
in Corsica, with sixty-three letters from General 
Paoli to the author, London, 1804 ; A Review of 
the Conduct of General Pascal Paoli, addressed 
to the Right Hon. William Beckford, London, 
1770 ; Discours du General Paoli (Deputation de 
Corse), et reponse du President de 1'Assemblee 
Nationale, Paris, 1790 ; II Generale de' Paoli ai 
suoi compatriotti Traduzione di lettere di ufizio 
al Generale de' Paoli de' due commissary Pleni- 
potenziarj di Sua Maesta Britannica nel Medi- 
terraneo, il Vice-Ammiraglio Lord Hood ed il 
Cavaliere George Elliot, &c., Corte, 1794; 
Botta's Storia d' Italia, continuata da quella del 
Guicciardini sino al 1814, 4 vols. quarto, Italy, 
1826.] C. K. 

PAPILLON, DAVID (1581-1655?), 
architect and military engineer, younger son 
of Thomas Papillon, captain of the guard and 
valet-de-chambre to Henri IV of France, by 
his wife Jeanne Vieue de la Pierre, was bom 
in France on 14 April 1581. The family was 
Huguenot, and contributed a victim to the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. To it belonged 
Clement Marot's friend, Almanque Papillon 
(1487-1559), author of ' Le Nouvel Amour,' 
and valet-de-chambre to Francois I ; pro- 
bably also Antoine Papillon, the friend of 
Erasmus. In 1588 David Papillon's mother 
sailed with him and his two sisters for Eng- 
land. Their ship was wrecked off Hythe ; 
the mother perished, the children were saved, 
and, though their father continued to reside in 
France until his death, were brought up in 
England, probably by relatives domiciled in 
London. David adopted the profession of 
architect and military engineer, throve, and 
purchased an estate at Lubbenham, Leicester- 
shire, and built thereon Papillon Hall. He 
was treasurer of Leicestershire from 1642 to 
1646. He published in 1645 an ' Essay on 
Fortification,' and gave effect to his prin- 
ciples in the following year by fortifying Glou- 
cester for the parliament. He was author of 
a moral and religious essay entitled ' The 
Vanity of the Lives and Passions of Men,' 
London, 1651, 4to ; and left in manuscript 
a philosophical essay on forms of govern- 
ment, entitled ' Several Political and Military 
Observations,' and a French version of the 
' Comfort to the Afflicted,' and two other 
works of the puritan divine, Robert Bolton 



[q. v.] He probably did not live to see the 
Restoration. A portrait, engraved by Cross, 
is prefixed to his ' Essay on Fortification.' 

Papillon married twice. His first wife 
(m. 1611, d. 1614) was Marie, daughter of 
Jean Castel, probably pastor, as Papillon was 
deacon, of the French church in London. 
His second wife (m. 4 July 1615) was Anne 
Marie, granddaughter of Giuliano Calan- 
drini, a convert to the reformed faith, who 
migrated from Lucca to Lyons between 1557 
and 1567, and died at Sedan some time after 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

Papillon had issue by both wives, his 
! seventh and youngest child being Thomas 
Papillon [q. v.] 

[A. F. W. Papillon's Memoirs of Thomas 
Papillon, 1887.] J. M. R. 

PAPILLON, THOMAS (1623-1702), 
merchant and politician, third son of David 
Papillon [q. v.] by his second wife, Anne 
Marie Calandrini, was born at Roehampton 
House, Putney, on 6 Sept. 1623. He went to 
school at 'Drayton, Northamptonshire, was 
articled in 1637 to Thomas Chambrelan, a 
London merchant, and in the following year 
was apprenticed to the Mercers' Company, of 
which he received the freedom in 1646. 

Papillon was implicated in the riotous pro- 
j ceedings of 26 July 1647, when the mob broke 
! into St. Stephen's and forced parliament to 
j rescind the recent ordinance by which the 
city of London was deprived of the control 
of its militia. When the independent party 
regained the ascendency (August), he slipped 
off to France to avoid arrest, but returned in 
November, and was committed to Newgate 
in the following February, but, after some 
demur, was released on bail. About the 
same time he began business on his own ac- 
j count as a general merchant, and thereafter, 
except to petition the council of state against 
an illegal impost on lead in 1653, and to de- 
fend the autonomy of the French church, of 
[ which he was a deacon, against the privy 
j council in 1657, took little or no part in pub- 
i lie affairs iintil the Restoration. He was 
| then placed on the council of trade and 
j foreign plantations, and in 1663 on the di- 
! rectorate of the East India Company, which 
I he had entered on its reconstruction in 1657. 
He continued to serve on the directorate 
until 1670, and in 1667 watched the interests 
of the company at Breda during the negotia- 
tions with Holland. He was also on the 
directorate from 1675 to 1682, with the ex- 
! ception of 1676, when, having given offence 
to the king, he was excluded at his instance. 
! The reason of his ill-odour at court was pro- 
bably the stout, and eventually successful, 



Papillon 



191 



Papillon 



resistance which he had offered in the law 
courts to a claim by the farmers of excise 
for excessive duty on brandy. He was 
deputy-governor of the company in 1680 
and 1681. 

Papillon was returned to parliament as 
member for Dover on 11 Feb. 1672-3, and 
kept the seat until the dissolution of 28 March 
1681. During that period he was a frequent 
and effective speaker, and sat on sixty-eight 
committees. A staunch adherent of the 
country party, he censured in committee of 
the whole house (March 1676) the vexatious 
pass system by which English merchant 
ships were deprived of protection on the 
high seas unless provided with government 
licenses, and supported (18 Feb. 1677-8) the 
motion for making the army vote conditional 
on the disclosure of foreign alliances. A 
strong protestant, he evinced the courage of 
his opinions by moving on 18 Nov. 1678 the 
committal to the Tower of the secretary of 
state, Sir Joseph Williamson [q. v.] ; but, 
while sharing the popular ' popish plot ' in- 
fatuation, he rose superior to the preter- 
natural suspicion which it engendered in 
others. A friend to Ireland and free trade 
within the United Kingdom, he opposed in 
May 1679 the bill for continuing the act pro- 
hibiting the importation into England of Irish 
cattle. Out of doors he made himself ob- 
noxious to the court by identifying himself 
with the defence of the menaced corpora- 
tion of Dover, and by his spirited, though 
unsuccessful, assertion, on occasion of the 
indictment of Lord Shaftesbury at the Old 
Bailey (24 Nov. 1681), of the right of grand 
juries to examine witnesses in secret [see 
COOPER, ANTHONY ASHLEY, first EARL OF 
SHAFTESBURY]. His candidature for the 
shrievalty of London in the following year 
thus became the occasion of a trial of strength 
between the court and the country parties. 
(For details see MOORE, SIR JOHN, 1020- 
1702, and NORTH, SIR DUDLEY). On 6 Nov. 
1684 a subservient jury awarded Sir John 
Moore's successor in the mayoralty, Sir 
"William Pritchard, whom Papillon had 
attacked for making a false return to a 
mandamus to swear him in as sheriff, the 
monstrous sum of 10,000^. damages in an 
action of false imprisonment [see MAYNARD, 
SIR JOHN, 1602-1690]. To avoid payment 
Papillon mortgaged his estates to his son- 
in-law, and absconded to Utrecht. On the 
revolution he came home, and was returned 
to the Convention parliament for Dover on 
10 Jan. 1688-9. He retained that seat until 
169;", On 25 Oct. of that year he was elected 
for London, which he continued to represent 
until the dissolution of 19 Dec. 1700. Soon 



after his return he joined the new East India 
Company he had terminated his connection 
with the old company on the defeat of a 
scheme for its reconstruction on a broader 
basis in 1681 and in January 1693-4 was 
chairman of the committee of the House of 
Commons on the affair of the Redbridge, 
East Indiaman, arrested in the Thames as 
an ' interloper ' by the admiralty at the in- 
stance of the old company (cf. MACAULAY, 
Hist, of England, ed. 1858, iv. 476). He 
afterwards laboured hard to promote a good 
understanding between the rival companies, 
with a view to their ultimate amalgamation. 

In November 1689 Papillon accepted the 
first commissionership for victualling the 
navy, the onerous duties of which he dis- 
charged with equal energy and integrity, 
though grievously hampered by the niggard- 
liness of parliament, until his resignation on 
26 May 1699. He died in London on 5 May 
1702. His remains were interred on the 21st 
in the parish church, Acrise, Kent, the manor 
of which he had purchased in 1666. 

Papillon married, in Canterbury Cathedral, 
on 30 Oct. 1651, Jane, daughter of Thomas 
Broadnax of Godmersham, Kent, by whom 
(d. 1698) he had, with other issue, Elizabeth, 
born on 27 July 1658, married on 30 March 
1676 to Edward Ward [q. v.], afterwards 
lord chief baron of the exchequer; and Philip 
(1660-1736), his heir-at-law, born on 26 Nov. 
1660, M.P. for Dover in the reign of Queen 
Anne. 

' A Treatise concerning the East India 
Trade : being a most profitable trade to the 
Kingdom, and best secured and improved by 
a company and joint stock. Wrote at the 
instance of Thomas Papillon, Esqr., in his 
house, and printed in the year 1680,' was 
reprinted in 1696, London, 4to. 

Papillon's eldest brother, PHILIP PAPILLON 
(1620-1641), born on 1 Jan. 1620, graduated 
B.A. from Exeter College, Oxford, in 1638, 
and proceeded M.A. in 1641, in which year 
he died. He published the tragedy of his 
friend and fellow collegian Samuel Hardinge 
[q. v.], entitled ' Sicily and Naples,' in 1640, 
and prefixed to it a preface signed 'P. P.' in 
defiance of the author's wish. With Har- 
dinge and several other members of Exeter 
College, he wrote verses urging William 
Browne of Tavistock to publish his promised 
continuation of ' Britannia's Pastorals ' 
(BROWNE, Poems, ed. Gordon Goodwin, ii. 3, 
337). 

[A. F. W. Papillon's Memoirs of Thomas 
Papillon ; Pepys's Diary ; Evelyn's Diary ; Lut- 
trell's Relation of State Affairs ; Cobbett's State 
Trials, viii. 759, x. 319; Grey's Par!. Debates, 
vii. 102, 388, viii. 85, 121-4, 142; Cal. State 



Papilon 



192 



Papin 



Tapers, Dom. 1664-8, Colonial, America, and 
West Indies, 1661-8; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Hep. App. p. 134; History and Proceedings of the 
House of Commons from the Eestoration, 1742, 
ii. 295 ; Hasted's Kent, 1790, iii. 346-48.] 

J. M. E. 

PAPILON or PAPYLION, RALPH, 
called DE ARTJNDEL (d. 1223), abbot of West- 
minster, was a native of London (RALPH DE 
DICETO, ii. 172), and became a monk of West- 
minster. In 1200 he was chosen by the monks 
as their abbot at Northampton in the presence 
of the king (zJ.) He received benediction in 
St. Paul's, London, from William de Sancta 
Maria, bishop of London (NICHOLS, Leicester- 
shire, ii. 708). In 1201 he was summoned to 
Is ormandy by King John (RALPH DE DICETO, 
p. 173). At his instance the feasts of St. Lau- 
rence, St. Vincent, and St. Michael, and of the 
translation of St. Benedict were celebrated 
in copes with extra wine and pittances, and, to 
defray the expense, he gave the abbey the 
manor of Benfleet. In 1213 the house was 
visited by Nicholas, bishop of Tusculum and 
legate, and Ralph was deposed on charges of 
incontinency and neglect of the fabric, and 
Lis seal was broken in the chapter-house. He 
received the manors of Teddington and Sud- 
tmry to support himself, and died on 12 Aug. 
1223 (Ann. Dunst. i. 170). He was the first 
abbot buried in the nave of Westminster 
{ WIDMORE). He must be distinguished from 
Ralph (d. 1160?) [q. v.], theological writer 
and almoner of Westminster. 

[Authorities cited.] M. B. 

PAPIN, DENIS (1647-1712 ?), natural 
philosopher, son of Denys Papin and Magda- 
leine Pineau, was born at Blois on 22 Aug. 
1647. He studied medicine at the university 
of Angers, taking his degree in 1669. He 
devoted himself to natural philosophy and 
mechanics, and became assistant to Huyghens 
at the laboratory of the academy at Paris. 
In 1675 he left Paris and proceeded to Lon- 
don, where he became connected with Robert 
Boyle [q. v.], who employed him to make a 
translation of a theological treatise. From 
1676 to 1679 he assisted Boyle in his ex- 
periments with the air-pump. To this period 
"belongs Papin's invention of the digester, 
an apparatus for boiling food under pres- 
sure. This was shown to the Royal Society 
at a meeting held on 22 May 1679, and in 
the following year Papin published an ac- 
count of it under the title ' A New Digester, 
or Engine for softening Bones.' Under the 
date 12 April 1682 Evelyn records in his 
' Diary ' how he took part in a ' philosophical 
supper ' at the Royal Society, cooked in Papin's 
digester. A French translation appeared at 
Paris in 1682, and in 1687 he issued ' A Con- 



tinuation of the New Digester of Bones.' 
Of all Papin's inventions this was the most 
practical, and is in use at this day. His 
portrait at the university of Marburg repre- 
sents him holding in his hand a copy of his 
account of the digester, open at the place 
where the apparatus is figured. 

From July to December 1679 Papin was 
employed at the Royal Society by Hooke as 
an amanuensis, and during part of 1680 he 
was again at Paris with Huyghens. He was 
elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1680, 
and in 1681 he left England for Venice, 
where he remained for three years, acting as 
curator of a scientific society established by 
Sarotti. He renewed his connection with 
the Royal Society in 1684, and on 2 April 
of that year he was appointed curator at a 
salary of 30/. per annum, his principal duty 
being to exhibit experiments at the meetings. 
Brief notes of many of these experiments are 
given in Birch's ' History of the Royal Society,' 
vol. iv., while others are described at greater 
length in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 
In 1688 he became professor of mathematics 
at the university of Marburg, and in 1695 
he removed to Cassel, where he assisted his 
patron, the landgrave of Hesse, in making 
experiments upon a great variety of subjects. 
At the end of 1707 he was again in London, 
endeavouring to interest the Royal Society 
in his steam-navigation projects, and to in- 
duce them to institute comparative experi- 
ments of his steam engine and that of Savery. 

Papin's claims to be regarded as ' the in- 
ventor of the steam engine ' have been advo- 
cated with considerable warmth by many 
French writers, but his labours in this direc- 
tion have little connection with his career 
in England, and all the evidence adduced 
is inconclusive (cf. a very careful summary 
of his claims in ROBERT L. GALLOWAY'S 
Steam Engine and its Inventors, and an article 
by the present writer in the Engineer, 19 May 
1876). It is often asserted that he actually 
made a steam engine, which he fitted in a 
boat in which he intended to cross the sea 
to England. It is true that he did construct 
a boat with paddle-wheels, which was de- 
stroyed by the boatmen on the Weser at 
Miinden in 1707 ; but there is no evidence 
whatever that the boat was propelled by 
steam power. In 1876 a large cast-iron cylin- 
der preserved at the Royal Museum at Cassel 
was exhibited at the loan collection of scien- 
tific instruments at South Kensington as the 
cylinder of Papin's steam engine ; but it was 
conclusively shown by Sir Frederick Bram- 
well in ' Science Lectures at South Kensing- 
ton ' (1878, i. 112) that it could not possibly 
have formed any part of a steam engine. 



Papin 



193 



Papineau 



From the time of his arrival in England 
in 1707 he seems to have lived on small pay- 
ments received from the Royal Society ; but 
all his early friends were dead, and little is 
heard of him. The date and place of his death 
are alike unknown. The last certain evi- 
dence of his existence is furnished by a letter 
from him to Sir Hans Sloane, dated 23 Jan. 
1712, preserved among the papers at the Royal 
Society. 

There is a portrait of Papin, dated 1689, 
in the hall of the university at Marburg, 
which is engraved in De la Saussaye and 
Pean's book referred to below. He is com- 
memorated in his native town of Blois by a 
statue erected in 1881. 

ISAAC PAPIN (1657-1709), theologian, son 
of Isaac Papin, receiver-general at Blois, by 
his wife, who was a sister of Claude Pajon, 
was born at Blois on 27 March 1657, and 
was probably related to Denis Papin. Isaac 
came into prominence as an advocate of the 
tolerant ' universalist ' party among the 
French protestants, as opposed to the ' par- 
ticularists ' under Pierre Jurieu. After com- 
pleting his studies at Geneva and Saumur, he 
refused to sign a condemnation of ' Pajonism,' 
as the advanced views were stigmatised, and 
was consequently debarred from a career in 
the protestant church. In 1686 he came over 
to England, where he was granted deacon's 
and subsequently priest's orders by Turner, 
bishop of Ely. Through the influence of his 
English friends he obtained in 1687 the post 
of professor in the church of the protestant 
refugees at Danzig; but he was still pur- 
sued by the hostility of Jurieu, and had to 
resign his appointment. He was subse- 
quently admitted by Bossuet (15 Jan. 1690) 
into the Roman catholic communion. He 
died in 1709. Of his numerous expository 
and controversial works (all of which were 
written in French) a collective edition was 
published at Paris in 1823, with a brief me- 
moir and justification (see Life prefixed to 
Hecueil, 1823 ; HAAG, France Protestante ; 
HAGENBACH, Hist . of Doctrines ; McCuN- 
TOCK and STEOITG, Cyclopedia ; Nouvelle 
Biogr. G6n6rale ; CHALMEES, Biogr. Diet.) 

[Authorities cited. The best authority for the 
facts of Denis Papin's career is Ernst Gerland's 
Leibnizens und Huygens' Briefwechsel mit Papin 
(Berlin, 1881), which contains transcripts of a 
large number of letters collected from various 
public libraries on the continent and in Eng- 
land. He also gives a complete list of Denis 
Papin's writings, together with a number of re- 
ferences to books and periodicals in which Papin's 
discoveries and inventions are described. De la 
Saussaye and Pean's La Vie et les Ouvrages de 
Denis Papin (Paris, 1869) was never completed, 

VOL. XLIII. 



the first volume only having been published 
The want of the second and concluding volume, 
which was intended to contain the author's 
' pieces justificatives,' considerably impairs the 
value of the work.] E. B. P. 

PAPINEAU, LOUIS JOSEPH (1786- 
1871), Canadian rebel, came of a French 
family which emigrated to Canada towards 
the end of the seventeenth century. He was 
born in Montreal on 7 Oct. 1786, his father, 
Joseph Papineau (d. 1831), a notary, being a 
member of the first legislative assembly for 
Lower Canada, established in 1791. Papineau 
was educated at the seminary of Quebec, and 
on leaving college he began to read for the 
bar. While still a law student he acquired 
a great reputation among the French Cana- 
dians for his oratorical talents and opposition 
to the existing political system. In 1809 he 
was elected to the legislative assembly of 
Lower Canada for the county of Kent. In 
1811, however, he elected to sit for the west 
ward of the city of Montreal. He was called 
to the bar in 1811, but was too much devoted 
to politics to practise as an advocate. He 
opposed the war with America in 1812, but, 
when it became ineA'itable, he entered the 
militia and served through the campaign of 
that year. He commanded the company 
which guarded the American prisoners taken 
at Detroit. In 1815 Papineau was appointed 
speaker of the legislative assembly of Lower 
Canada. He held this office, at a salary of 
1,000/. a year, till 1837. 'From the beginning 
of his career he was looked on as the head 
of the French Canadian party. The English. 

fovernment tried to gain him over, and in 
820 Lord Dalhousie, the governor of Lower 
Canada, offered him a seat on the executive 
council. Papineau at first accepted, but, 
finding that there was no chance of his ad- 
vice being ever taken, immediately resigned. 
In 1823 he visited Europe, in company with 
John Neilson (1776-1848) [q. v.J, to protest, 
in the name of the French Canadians, against 
the proposed union of Upper and Lower 
Canada. His mission was successful, and he 
returned in 1823. In 1827 Papineau's hosti- 
lity to the executive government had become 
so marked that Lord Dalhousie refused to ac- 
cept him as speaker. The assembly, however, 
insisted on their choice, and Dalhousie re- 
signed. The French Canadian party, who en- 
joyed a large majority in the legislative 
assembly, strongly desired to obtain control 
over certain duties imposed in 1774, and cer- 
tain hereditary profits obtained by the crown 
from the sale of public lands. In 1831 the 
British parliament surrendered the former. 
They resolved to retain the latter, on which 
the French Canadians demanded that the 

o 



s 



Papineau 



194 



Papworth 






legislative council of Lower Canada, then 
nominated by the governor, should be made 
elective. This being refused by the home 
government, the legislative assembly of Lower 
Canada retaliated by refusing supplies. Papi- 
neau eagerly joined in the cry for an elective 
council. In November 1835 he held a con- 
ference at Quebec with William Lyon Mac- 
kenzie [q. v.], the head of the Upper Cana- 
dian reformers, and made arrangements for 
regular correspondence and co-operation be- 
tween the advanced parties in each province. 
In 1835 the English government had sent 
out a commission, presided over by Lord Gos- 
ford, the new governor of Lower Canada, to 
examine into the grievances of the colonists. 
The commissioners were distrusted, and the 
legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused 
to grant supplies or discuss any compromise. 
At length, in March 1837, the English go- 
vernment finally declared an elective tipper 
house to be impossible, and authorised the 
governor of Lower Canada to pay the ex- 
penses of his government, now greatly in 
ai'rear, out of the public money in his hands. 
The news of this decision brought matters in 
Lower Canada to a crisis. In June 1837 
Lord Gosford issued a proclamation warning 
the people against agitators. Papineau 
answered this by making a progress through 
the province, denouncing the government 
i'n violent speeches. On 18 Aug. 1837 the 
Lower Canadian legislature assembled. On 
its refusal to grant supplies, the assembly 
was at once prorogued* Papineau was now 
deprived of his captaincy in the militia. He 
Still continued his attacks on the govern- 
ment, and on 23 Oct. 1837 attended, in com- 
pany with Dr. Wolfred Nelson [q. v.], the 
celebrated meeting of delegates from ' the 
six counties ' of Lower, Canada, held at 
St. Charles, where armed rebellion was 
finally decided on. Papineau, however, whose 
talents were little fitted for decisive action, 
seems at this point to have grown suddenly 
pacific. He began to suggest, instead of an 
appeal to arms, some form of negotiation, 
accompanied by a threat to give up the use 
of British manufactures. His colleague, Dr. 
Nelson, however, carried the people with 
him, and rebellion was resolved upon. 
Warrants for the arrest of Papineau and 
Nelson on a charge of high treason were now 
issued. But Papineau, instead of joining 
Nelson and the other rebels at St. Denis, fled 
across the frontier to United States territory. 
His apparent pusillanimity brought upon 
him a storm of derision from English writers 
(e.g. footnote in Bell's translation of GAR- 
NEAU'S Histoire de Canada ; and see discus- 
sion of the point, in a pamphlet published in 



1848 at Montreal, Papineau et Nelson, Blanc 
et Noir). 

During the whole of the Canadian rebel- 
lion Papineau remained on American soil, 
a proclamation having been issued in June 
1838 by the new high commissioner, Lord 
Durham, threatening him with death if he 
returned to Canada. This proclamation was 
rescinded by the home government the same 
year. Papineau tried vainly to bring about 
American intervention in the Canadian 
struggle. In 1839 he made his way to Paris, 
where he remained till 1847. An amnesty 
was now issued for all concerned in the 
Canadian troubles, and Papineau returned to 
Canada. He entered the lower house of the 
now united Canadian legislature, and re- 
mained there till 1854. He succeeded in 
obtaining a grant of 4.500/., arrears of his 
salary as speaker. During his latter years 
he advocated the revival of the old system 
of division into Upper and Lower Canada, 
but with no effect. In 1854 he retired into 
private life. He died at his residence of 
Montebello on-Afn*l 1871. 

[David's Vie de Papineau ; Lindsey's Life of 

William Lyon Mackenzie ; Morgan's Sketches 

i of Celebrated Canadians ; Rose's Cyclopaedia of 

I Canadian Biography ; Histories of Canada by 

Bryce, Garneau, and With row; Canadian Parl. 

Eeports ; English Parl. Eeports ; Ann. Reg. 

1836-7; see also Spencer Walpole's Hist, of 

England, iii. 413-28.] G. P. M-Y. 

PAPWORTH, EDGAR GEORGE 

(1809-1866), sculptor, born on 20 or 21 Aug. 
1809, was only son of Thomas Papworth 
(1773-1814), ' builder, plasterer, and archi- 
tect,' who conducted the last stucco and 
plastering works carried on in London on a 
large scale. These works were founded by 
Thomas's father, John Papworth (1750- 
1799), and were situated in Great Portland 
and Newman Streets. John Papworth was 
' master-plaisterer ' at St. James's and Ken- 
sington Palaces from 1780, and executed 
much stucco and plastering at the palaces, at 
Somerset House, and at Greenwich Chapel. 
Edgar early exhibited talents for drawing, 
modelling, and design in sculpture, and at an 
early age was placed as a pupil with Edward 
Hodges Baily, R. A. [q. v.] He was living at 
the time at the house of his uncle, John 
Buonarotti Papworth [q. v.], architect. He 
was entered, 15 Dec. 1826, at the age of seven- 
teen, as a student of the Royal Academy of 
Arts ; in December 1829 he obtained the 
silver medal for a model from the antique ; 
in December 1831 another silver medal for a 
figure ; December 1833 the gold medal for a 
group of Leucothea presenting the scarf to 
Ulysses ; and in 1834 he was elected to the 



Papworth 



195 



Papworth 



travelling studentship of the academy. In 
1836 he sent from Rome a Psyche. He re- 
turned home in 1837 in ill-health, but ex- 
hibited in 1838 a head of Flora, and another 
of Psyche. 

While in Rome he made sketches for a 
panorama of that city; these he enlarged, and 
exhibited about 1844 for a short time in a 
gallery in Great Portland Street. He etched 
' Original Sculptural Designs/ which he had 
executed in Rome, and published them in 
folio in 1840. 

Meanwhile he continued to exhibit, chiefly 
busts, statuettes, and sketch designs, sent 
from his studio in Seymour Street, St. Pan- 
eras. The most popular of his ideal works 
were 'Adam and Eve,' executed for Mr. 
Foster-White, treasurer to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital ; ' The Woman of Samaria/ for Mr. 
James Brand; and (1856) 'The Moabitish 
Maiden/ a commission from the prince con- 
sort. Among the numerous busts of eminent 
men he executed those of Captain Speke, 
of Sir Richard Burton, and of Admiral 
Blake, erected in the shire hall at Taunton. 
Bunyan's memorial tomb in Bunhill Fields, 
London, was also his work. In the com- 
petition of June and July 1857 for the Wel- 
lington monument for St. Paul's Cathedral 
his model received the third prize of 3001., 
out of eighty-three designs submitted ; that 
by Alfred Stevens was one of the five re- 
ceiving 1001. each. These designs are now 
at South Kensington Museum. 

In 1859 he exhibited at the academy 'The 
Young Emigrant ' and < The Bride.' 

In his later years his circumstances were 
embarrassed owing to his extravagant .and 
careless habits. He died on 26 Sept. 1866, 
aged 65, and was buried in Highgate ceme- 
tery. He married Caroline Baily, a daugh- 
ter of his first master ; she died on 22 May 
1867. His eldest son, Edgar George, follows 
his profession. 

[Family information ; Builder, 1857, p. 417.] 

W. P-H. 

PAPWORTH, GEORGE (1781-1855), 
architect, third son of John Papworth (1750- 
1799) and uncle of Edgar George Papworth 
[q. v.], was born 9 May 1781 . On his father's 
death in 1799 he became a pupil and clerk in 
the office of his elder brother, John Buona- 
rotti Papworth [q. v.J From 1804 to 1806 he 
was engaged at Northampton in the office of 
an architect named Kershore. From 1806 to 
1812 he superintended the affairs of the 
company working in Dublin the patent of Sir 
James Wright, bart. [q. v.], for the manufac- 
ture of stone tubes for pipes and for cutting 
circular work. Finally settling in Dublin, he 



practised architecture, and gained many dis- 
tinguished patrons, including Lords West- 
meath and Gormanston. In 1812 he was 
employed on large additions at the Dublin 
Library Society in D'Olier Street ; in 1822 
on the court-house at Castlebar, co. Mayo ; 
in 1824-6 on Portumna Castle, co. Gal way, 
for the Marquis of Clanricarde. Between 1822 
and 1827 he constructed the King's bridge 
over the river Liffey, near Phoenix Park, 
Dublin. This was an early example of work 
in cast iron. Beautiful in design and light 
in appearance, it consisted of one arch 
100 feet in span, and was very thoroughly