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G. A. A. . 
J. G. A. . 
P. J. A.. . 
W. A. J. A. 
W. A. . . . 
E. B-L. . . 
G. F. E. B. . 
M. B. . . . 
E. B. . . . 
T. B. . . . 
C. E. B. . 
L. B. ... 
G. C. B. . 
T. G. B. . 
G. S. B. . 
W. B-T. . 
E. H. B. . 
E. C. B. . 
W. C-B. . 
J. W. C-K. 
A. M. C. . 
A. M. C-E. 
T. C. ... 
C. H. C. . 
W. P. C. . 
L. C. . . 
J. A. D. . 

G. A. AlTKEN. 


Miss A. M. CLEBKE. 
Miss A. M. COOKE. 
. C. H. COOTE. 



G. T. D. . . G. THOBN DBUEY. 


C. H. F. . . C. H. FIBTH. 





J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBEBT, LL.D., F.S.A. 



E. E. G. . . E. E. GBAVES. 

J. M. G. . . THE LATE J. M. GBAY. 


J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 


E. G. H. . . E. G. HAWKE. 

T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDEESON. 

W. A. S. H. W. A. S. HEWINS. 



C. L. K. . . C. L. KINGSFOED. 





E. H. L. . . EOBIN H. LEGGE. 


List of Writers. 

W. B. L. . 
J. E. M. . 
E. C. M. . 
L. M. M. . 

C. M. . . . 
N. M. . . . 
G. P. M-Y. 
J. B. M. . 

E. N. . . . 
A. N. . . . 
G. LE G. N. 

D. J. O'D. 

F. M. O'D. 
J. B. P. . 
J. F. P. . 

A. F. P. . 

B. P. . . . 
D'A. P. . . 
B. B. P. . 
W. E. K. . 






. J. B. PAYNE. 

. J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 


. Miss PORTER. 



. W. E. BHODES. 

J. M. B. 

T. S. . . 

W. A. S. 

C. F. S. 

B. H. S. 

G. W. S. 

L. S. . . 
i G. S-H. . 
; C. W. S. 

J. T-T. . 

H. B. T. 
i T. F. T. 
, E. V. . . 

B. H. V. 

G. W. . . 
M. G. W. 

C. W-H. , 
B. B. W. 
W, W.. 

J. M. BIGG. 
W. A. SHAW. 









*V* In vol. xliv. ( p. 303, col. 2, 1. 2) the sentence following the words died in 1827 should read ; ' Pennsylvania Castle 
passed on the death of the second son, Thomas Gordon Penn, to his first cousin, William Stuart the heir-at-law, who 
transferred it to Colonel Stewart Forbes, a near relative ; it was purchased, with its historical contents, by J. Merrick 
Head, esq., in 1887.' 










PEREIRA, JONATHAN (1804-1853), 
pharmacologist, was born at Shoreditch, 
London, on 22 May 1804. His father, an 
underwriter at Lloyd's, was in straitened 
circumstances, and Pereira was sent, when 
about ten years old, to a classical academy 
in Queen Street, Finsbury. Five years later 
he was articled to a naval surgeon and apothe- 
cary named Latham, then a general practi- 
tioner in the City Road. In 1821 he became 
a pupil at the Aldersgate Street general dis- 
pensary, where he studied chemistry, materia 
medica, and medicine under Dr. Henry Clut- 
terbuck [q. v.], natural philosophy under Dr. 
George Birkbeck [q. v.], and botany under 
Dr. William Lambe (1765-1847) [q. v.] In 
1822 he entered St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
and, qualifying as licentiate of the Society of 
Apothecaries in March 1823, when under 
nineteen, was at once appointed apothecary to 
the dispensary. He then formed a students' 
class, for whose use he translated the ' London 
Pharmacopoeia' of 1824, published ' A Selec- 
tion of Prescriptions' in English and in Latin, 
and ' A General Table of Atomic Numbers 
with an Introduction to the Atomic Theory,' 
and drew up a ' Manual for Medical Students/ 
which was afterwards,with his consent, edited 
by Dr. John Steggall. Having qualified as a 
surgeon in 1825, he was, next year, appointed 
lecturer on chemistry at the dispensary, and 
soon after ceased for some years to publish, 
devoting much of his time to the collection 
of materials for his great work on materia 
medica. In 1828 he became a fellow of the 
Linnean Society. A powerful man, with an 
iron constitution, he rose at six in the morn- 
ing, and for many years worked sixteen 
hours a day. He took lessons in French and 
German for the purposes of his work, and, 
though possessing a very retentive memory, 
made copious notes on all he read. In 1828 


he began to lecture on materia medica at 
Aldersgate Street, and, until about 1841, he 
delivered two or three lectures every day. 

On his marriage, in September 1832, he 
resigned the post of apothecary to the dis- 
pensary to his brother, and began to practise 
as a surgeon in Aldersgate Street; but in 
the winter of the same year he was made 
professor of materia medica in the new 
medical school which took the place of the 
Aldersgate Street dispensary ; and, in 1833, 
was chosen to succeed Dr. Gordon as lec- 
turer on chemistry at the London Hos- 
pital. His lectures on materia medica were 
printed in the * Medical Gazette ' between 
1835 and 1837, translated into German, and 
republished in India. In 1838 he was elected 
fellow of the Royal Society. The two parts of 
his magnum opus, ' The Elements of Materia 
Medica,' first appeared in 1839 and 1840, and 
in the former year he was made examiner in 
materia medica to the university of London. 
He was offered the chair of chemistry and 
materia medica at St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital, but declined it on being required to 
resign all other posts. At this time he was 
making 1,000/. a year by his lectures, and 
had so large a class at Aldersgate Street 
that he built a new theatre for them at a cost 
of 700/. Nevertheless, in 1840 he resolved to 
leave London for two years in order to gra- 
duate at a Scottish university, but changed 
his plans to become a candidate for a vacant 
assistant-physicianship at the London Hos- 
pital. Within a fortnight he prepared for 
and passed the examination for the licentiate- 
ship of the College of Physicians a needful 
qualification. About the same time he ob- 
tained the diploma of M.D. from Erlangen, 
and was elected to the post he sought. On 
the foundation of the Pharmaceutical So- 
ciety in 1842, he gave two lectures at their 



school of pharmacy in Bloomsbury Square 
on the elementary composition of foods, 
which he afterwards amplified into a ' Trea- 
tise on Food and Diet/ published in 1843. 
In that year he gave three lectures on 
polarised light, and, on being chosen the 
first professor of materia medica of the so- 
ciety, delivered the first complete course in 
this subject given to pharmaceutical chemists 
in England. In 1845 he became fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians. His prac- 
tice as a physician increasing, he gradually 
gave up lecturing, resigning his chair at the 
London Hospital in 1851 when he became a 
full physician to the hospital, but continuing 
to give a winter course at the Pharmaceutical 
Society until 1852. He died from the results 
of an accident on 20 Jan. 1853, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. He had 
extensive foreign correspondence ; always in- 
sisted on seeing drugs, if possible, in the 
condition in which they were imported ; exa- 
mined them both with the microscope and 
the polariscope ; and paid equal attention to 
their botanical, chemical, and physiological 
characters. His collection became the pro- 
perty of the Pharmaceutical Society. A 
medal by Wyon was struck in his memory 
by the Pharmaceutical Society, and a bust, 
by McDowall, was executed for the London 
Hospital. There is also an engraved portrait 
of him, by D. Pound, in the ' Pharmaceutical 
Journal' for 1852-3 (p. 409). 

Besides thirty-five papers, mostly in the 
' Pharmaceutical Journal,' 1843-52, many 
unsigned contributions, and a translation of 
Matteucci's ' Lectures on the Physical Phe- 
nomena of Living Beings,' which he super- 
intended in 1847, Pereira's works include : 
1. ' A Translation of the Pharmacopoeia of 
1824,' 1824, 16mo. 2. < A Selection of Pre- 
scriptions . . . for Students . . . ' 1824, 16mo, 
which, under the title ' Selecta e Prsescriptis,' 
has gone through eighteen editions down to 
1890, besides numerous editions in the 
United States. 3. ' Manual for Medical Stu- 
'dents,' 1826, 18mo. 4. ' General Table of 
Atomic Numbers,' 1827. 5. 'The Elements 
of the Materia Medica,' 1839-40, 8vo ; 2nd 
edit, under the title of f Elements of Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics,' 2 vols. 1842, 8vo; 
3rd edit. vol. i. 1849, and vol. ii., edited by 

A. S. Taylor and G. O. Rees, 1853; 4th edit. 
1854-7, and oth edit., edited -by R. Bentley 
and T. Redwood, 1872 ; besides several edi- 
tions in the United States. 6. 'Tabular 
View of the History and Literature of the 
Materia Medica,' 1 840, 8 vo. 7. ' A Treatise on 
Food and Diet,' 1843, 8vo. 8. ' Lectures on 
Polarised Light,' 1843, 8vo; 2nd edit, by 

B. Powell, 1854. 

[Pharmaceutical Journal, 1852-3, p. 409 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1853, i. 320-2; Alii bone's Diet. p. 

1562; Koyal Society's Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers, iv. 825-6 ; Proceedings of the Linnean 
Society, ii. 237.] GK S. B. 

1549), traveller and physician. [See BOOEDE 

PERIGAL, ARTHUR (1784 P-1847), 
historical painter, descended from an old 
Norman family driven to England by the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes, was born 
about 1784. He studied under Fuseli at 
the Royal Academy, and in 1811 gained the 
gold medal for historical painting, the sub- 
ject being ' Themistocles taking Refuge at 
the Court of Admetus.' He had begun in 
1810 to exhibit both at the Royal Academy 
and at the British Institution, sending to 
the former a portrait and ' Queen Katherine 
delivering to Capucius her Farewell Letter 
to King Henry the Eighth,' and to the latter 
' The Restoration of the Daughters of CEdipus ' 
and l Helena and Hermia ' from the ' Mid- 
summer Night's Dream.' These works were 
followed at the Royal Academy by ' Aridseus 
and Eurydice' in 1811, his l Themistocles ' in 
1812, 'The Mother's last Embrace of her In- 
fant Moses ' in 1813, and again in 1816, and 
by a few pictures of less importance, the last 
of which, ' Going to Market,' appeared in 
1821. His contributions to the British In- 
stitution included l Roderick Dhu discovering 
himself to Fitz James ' in 1811, the ' Death 
of Rizzio ' in 1813, ' Joseph sold by his 
Brethren' in 1814, 'Scipio restoring the Cap- 
tive Princess to her Lover' in 1815, and, 
lastly, < The Bard ' in 1828. He for some 
time practised portrait-painting in London ; 
but about 1820 he appears to have gone to 
Northampton, and afterwards removed to 
Manchester. Finally he settled in Edin- 
burgh, where he obtained a very good con- 
nection as a teacher of drawing, and from 
1833 onwards exhibited portraits and land- 
scapes at the Royal Scottish Academy. 
Perigal died suddenly at 21 Hill Street, Edin- 
burgh, on 19 Sept. 1847, aged 63. 

His son, AETHTJE PEEIGAL (1816-1884), 
landscape-painter, born in London in August 
1816, was instructed in painting by his 
father. At first a drawing-master in Edin- 
burgh, he sent in 1838 to the exhibition of 
the Royal Scottish Academy a study of John 
Knox's pulpit and some scenes in the Tros- 
sachs, and from that time became a regu- 
lar contributor of landscapes, sending more 
than three hundred. He roamed in search 
of subjects over all parts of Scotland, and 
occasionally into the mountainous districts 



of England and Wales. He repeated^ 
visited Switzerland and Italy, and also made 
an extended tour in Norway ; but his pre- 
ference was for the scenery of the Scottish 
Highlands and the banks of the Tweed anc 
Teviot. In 1841 he was elected an associate 
of the Royal Scottish Academy, and in 1868 
he became an academician. He painted also 
in water-colours, and exhibited occasionally 
at the Royal Academy and other London 
exhibitions. He was a keen and skilful 
angler. He died suddenly at 7 Oxford Ter- 
race, Edinburgh, on 5 June 1884, and was 
buried in the Dean Cemetery. ' Moorland, 
near Kinlochewe, Ross-shire,' by him, is in 
the National Gallery of Scotland. 

[Edinburgh Evening Courant, 20 Sept. 1847; 
Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1810- 
1821 ; British Institution Exhibition Catalogues 
(Living Artists), 1810-28 ; Royal Scottish Aca- 
demy Exhibition Catalogues, 1833-47; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists of the English School, 
1878. For the son, see Scotsman, 6 June 1884 ; 
Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. 
Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9, ii. 273 ; Royal 
Scottish Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1838- 
1884; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 
1861-84.] RE. G. 


1881), engineer and inventor, second son 
of Jacob Perkins, was born at Newbury 
Port, Massachusetts, at the end of the last 
century. He came to England in 1827, 
and was for some time associated with his 
father in perfecting his method of engraving 
bank-notes, and of using steam under very 
high pressure. Following up the latter sub- 
ject, Perkins introduced a method of warm- 
ing buildings by means of hot water circu- 
lating through small closed pipes, which came 
into extensive use, and was the foundation 
of a large business carried on first in Harpur 
Street, and subsequently in Francis Street, 
now Seaford Street, Gray's Inn Road, Lon- 
don. The method was improved from time 
to time, the various modifications being em- 
bodied in patents granted in 1831 (No. 6146), 
1839 (No. 8311), and 1841 (No. 9664). In 
1843 he took out a patent (No. 9664) for the 
manufacture of iron by the use of super- 
heated steam, which contained the germ of 
subsequent discoveries relating to the con- 
version of iron into steel and the elimination 
of phosphorus and sulphur from iron. The 
patent includes also a number of applications 
of superheated steam. 

In later years the system of circulating 
water in closed pipes of small diameter, 
heated up to two thousand pounds per square 

inch of steam pressure, was applied to the 
heating of bakers' ovens. This has been ex- 
tensively adopted ; it possesses the advantage 
that the heat may be easily regulated. It was 
patented in 1851 (No. 13509), and subse- 
quently much improved. He also took out 
a patent in 1851 (No. 13942) for railway 
axles and boxes. 

He was elected an associate of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers in May 1840, but, 
being of a somewhat retiring disposition, he 
seldom took part in the discussions. He 
died on 22 April 1881, at the age of eighty- 
one. His son Loftus is noticed separately. 

[Memoir in Proceedings of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, vol. Ixvii. pt. i.] R. B. P. 

TOPHER (1547 P-1622), diplomatist, master 
of requests and dean of Carlisle, is said by 
Colonel Chester to have been closely related 
to the ancestors of Sir Thomas Parkyns 
[q. v.] of Bunny, Nottinghamshire, though 
the precise relationship has not been ascer- 
tained, and his name does not appear in the 
visitations of Nottinghamshire in 1569 and 
1611 (CHESTER, Westminster Abbey Register, 
p. 120). He was born apparently in 1547, 
and is probably distinct from the Christopher 
Perkins who was elected scholar at Winches- 
ter in 1555, aged 12, and subsequently became 
rector of Eaton, Berkshire (KiKBY,' p. 133). 
He was educated at Oxford, and graduated 
B.A. on 7 April 1565 ; but on 21 Oct. next 
year he entered the Society of Jesus at Rome, 
aged 19. According to Dodd, he was an emi- 
nent professor among the Jesuits for many 
years ; but gradually he became estranged 
from them, and while at Venice, perhaps about 
1585, he wrote a book on the society which, 
in spite of a generally favourable vie\* ^seems 
;o have been subsequently thought by the 
English government likely to damage the 
society's cause (cf. Col. State Papers, Dom. 
1594-7, pp. 125-6). The book does not appear 
,o have been published. About the same time 
Burghley's grandson, William Cecil (after- 
wards second Earl of Exeter), visited Rome ; 
an indiscreet expression of protestant opinions 
-here exposed him to risks from which he was 
saved by Perkins's interposition. Perkins is 
said to have returned with young Cecil, who 
recommended him to his grandfather's favour ; 
3ut in 1587 he was resident at Prague, being 
described in the government's list of recusants 
ibroad as a Jesuit (STRYPE, Annals, in. ii. 
599). There he became acquainted with Ed- 
vard Kelley [q. v.], the impostor ; in June 
.589 Kelley, either to curry favour with the 
English government or to discount any re- 
relations Perkins might make about him, 

B V 



accused him of being an emissary of the pope, 
and of complicity in a sevenfold plot to 
murder the queen. Soon afterwards Perkins 
arrived in England, and seems to have been 
imprisoned on suspicion. On 12 March 1590 
he wrote to Walsingham, expressing a hope 
that Kelley ' will deal sincerely with him, 
which he doubts if he follow the counsel of 
his friends and ghostly fathers, the Jesuits ; ' 
he appealed to a commendation from the 
king of Poland as proof of his innocence ( Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1589-90, 12 March). 
This seems to have been established, for on 
9 May he was granted 300/. for his expenses 
on a mission to Poland and Prussia (MuRDiN, 
p. 793). 

From this time Perkins was frequently 
employed as a diplomatic agent to Denmark, 
Poland, the emperor, and the Hanseatic 
League ; his missions dealt principally with 
mercantile affairs, in which he gained con- 
siderable experience. In 1591 he was am- 
bassador to Denmark, having his first audience 
with the king on 4 July, and on 22 Dec. re- 
ceived an annuity of one hundred marks for 
his services. He proceeded to Poland in 
January 1592, and was in Denmark again in 
the summer. In June and July 1593 he was 
negotiating with the emperor at Prague ; in 
1595 he visited Elbing, Liibeck, and other 
Hanse towns, and spent some time in Poland. 
He says he was acceptable to the Poles gene- 
rally, and the king tried to induce him to 
enter his service ; but the clergy were bitterly 
hostile, and the pope offered 2,000/. for his 
life. In 1598 he was again sent to Denmark, 
returning on 8 Dec. ; in 1600 he was employed 
in negotiating with the Danish emissaries at 
Emden. His letters from abroad, preserved 
among the Cotton MSS., give a valuable 
account of the places he visited, especially 
Poland and the Hanse towns. During the 
intervals of his missions he acted as principal 
adviser to the government in its mercantile 
relations with the Baltic countries ; on 3 Jan. 
1593 he was on a commission to decide with- 
out appeal all disputes between the English 
and subjects of the French king in reference 
to piracies and depredations committed at 
sea, and on 3 July was on another to inquire 
into and punish all abettors of pirates. 

His frequent appeals for preferment, on 
the ground of his services and inadequacy of 
his salary, were answered by his appointment 
as dean of Carlisle in 1595. On 20 Feb. 
1596-7 he was admitted member of Gray's 
Inn, being erroneously described as ( clerk of 
the petition to the queen and dean of Can- 
terbury' (FOSTER, Register, p. 91). On 
] 6 Sept. 1597 he was elected M.P. for Ripon, 
and again on 21 Oct. 1601 ; he frequently 

took part in the mercantile business of the 
house (cf. D'EwES, Journals, pp. 650, 654, 
657). On the accession of James I his 
annuity was increased to 100/. ; in 1603 he 
was on a commission for suppressing books 
printed without authority ; on 23 July he 
was knighted by the king at Whitehall, and 
on 20 March 1604-5 was admitted commoner 
of the college of advocates. From 1604 to- 
161 1 he was M.P. for Morpeth ; he also acted 
as deputy to Sir Daniel Donne [q. v.], master 
of requests, whom he succeeded in 1617. IIL 
1620 he subscribed 371. 10s. to the Virginia. 
Company, and paid 50/. He died late in 
August 1622, and was buried on 1 Sept. on 
the north side of the long aisle in West- 
minster Abbey (CHESTER, Westminster Abbey 
Register, p. 119). 

In 1612 a ' Lady Parkins,' perhaps a first 
wife of Perkins, forfeited her estate for con- 
veying her daughter to a nunnery across the 
sea (Cal. State Papers, 1611-18, p. 107). 
Perkins married, on 5 Nov. 1617, at St. Mar- 
tin's-in-the-Fields, London, Anne, daughter 
of AnthonyBeaumont of Glenfield, Leicester- 
shire, and relict of James Brett of Hoby in 
the same county. She was sister of the 
Countess of Buckingham, whose son, George 
Villiers, became duke of Buckingham, and 
mother, by her first husband, of Anne, second 
wife of Lionel Cranfield, first earl of Middle- 
sex [q. v.] Perkins's marriage is said to have 
been dictated by a desire to push his fortunes^ 
but he stipulated to pay none of his wife's 
previous debts. Buckingham, hearing of this- 
condition, put every obstacle in his way, 
and Perkins in revenge is said to have left 
most of his property to a servant ; but his; 
will, dated 30 Aug. 1620, in which mention 
is made of his sister's children, does not bear- 
out this statement (CHESTER, Westminster 
Abbey Register, p. 120). Perkins's widow 
survived him, and had an income of about 
700^. of our money. 

[Cotton. MSS. Jul. E. ii. 63-4, F. vi. 52, Nero 
B. ii. 204-5, 207-9, 211-12, 214-17, 218, 220-3, 
240-1, 260, iv. 38, 195, ix. 161, 165 et seq, 
170, 175 b, 178, xi. 300 (the index is very in- 
complete and inaccurate) ; Cal. State Papers,. 
Dom. 1581-1622, passim; Rymer's Fcedera, orig. 
edit, passim ; Murdin's State Papers, pp. 793, 
801 ; Chamberlain's Letters (Camden Soc.),. 
passim ; Official Returns of M.P.'s, i. 436, 441 - 
Wood's Fasti, i. 166-7 ; Foster's Alumni, 1500- 
1714; Chester's London Marriage Licenses and 
Westminster Abbey Register; D'Ewes's Jour- 
nals, passim ; Goodman's Court of James I, ed. 
Brewer, i. 329, 335 ; Nichols's Progresses of 
James I, i. 207 ; Metcalfe's Book of Knights * 
Archseologia, xxxviii. 108; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 
246; Spedding's Bacon, xii. 214; Brown 's Genesis- 
of the United States ; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 



417-18; Strype's Annals, in. ii. 599, iv. 1-3, 
220 ; Whitgift, ii. 504 ; Lives of Twelve Bad 
Men, ed. Seccombe, pp. 49-50.] A. F. P. 

PERKINS, HENRY (1778 - 1855), 
book collector, was born in 1778, and be- 
came a partner in the firm of Barclay, Per- 
kins, Co., brewers, Southwark. He was 
elected a fellow of the Linnean Society in 
1825, and was also a fellow of the Geologi- 
cal and Horticultural Societies. In 1823 
he commenced the formation of a library at 
his residence, Springfield, near Tooting, 
Surrey, which he soon enlarged at the 
sale of Mr. Dent's collection. Messrs. 
John and Arthur Arch of 61 Cornhill, Lon- 
don, were then appointed his buyers, and 
rapidly supplied him with many scarce and 
valuable books. He died at Dover on 
15 April 1855, when his library came to his 
relative, Algernon Perkins of Hanworth Park, 
Middlesex, who died in 1870. The books were 
sold by Gadsden, Ellis, & Co. at Hanworth 
on 3, 4, 5, and 6 June 1873, the 865 lots produc- 
ing 26,000/., being the largest amount ever 
realised for a library of the same extent; 
ten volumes alone going for ten thousand 
guineas. The ' Mazarin Bible,' two volumes, 
printed upon vellum, purchased for 504/., 
sold for 3,400/. ; another copy, on paper, ob- 
tained for 195/., brought 2,690/. ; 'Biblia 
Sacra Latina/ two volumes, printed upon 
vellum in 1462, the first edition of the Latin 
Bible with a date, bought at Dent's sale for 
173/. 5.s., sold for 7801. Miles Coverdale's 
Bible, 1535, imperfect, but no perfect copy 
known, purchased for 89/. 5s., brought 400/. 
Among the manuscripts, John Lydgate's 
* Sege of Troy ' on vellum, which cost 
99/. 15s., went for 1,370/. ; 'Les CEuvres 
Diverses de Jean de Meun,' a fifteenth-cen- 
tury manuscript of two hundred leaves, 
brought G90/., and ' Les Cent Histoires de 
Troye,' by Christine de Pisan, on vellum, 
with one hundred and fifteen miniatures, 
executed for Philip the Bold, duke of Bur- 
gundy, sold for 650/. The 865 lots averaged 
in the sale rather more than 30/. each. 

[Times, 4, 5, 6, and 7 June 1873 ; Athenaeum, 
1 March 1873 pp. 279-80, 14 June 1873 pp. 
762-3 ; Proceedings of Linnean Soc. of London, 
1855-9, p. xliii ; Livres payes en vente publique 
1000 fr. et au-dessus, depuis 1866 jusqu'a ce 
jour, aperqu sur la vente Perkins a Londres, 
Etude Bibliographiqne par Philomneste Junior, 
Bordeaux, 1877 ; A Dictionary of English Book 
Collectors, pt. ii. September 1892.] GK C. B. 


1545), jurist, was educated at Oxford, but 
left the university without taking a degree. 
Going to London, he was called to the bar of 
the Inner Temple, and is spoken of as a 

' t ere ' He ma ? P ssi bly have been 
the John Perkins who was a groom of the 
royal chamber in 1516. He died in 1545, and 
is said to be buried in the Temple Church. 
Perkins is remembered by a popular text- 
book which he wrote for law students. Its 
title is, as given by Wood, ' Perutilis Tracta- 
tus sive explanatio quorundam capitulorum 
valde necessaria,' but the first edition pro- 
bably had no title-page. It was printed in 
1530 in Norman-French. An English transla- 
tion appeared in 1642, and another in 1657. 
There is a manuscript English version in Brit. 
Mus. Harl. MS. 5035, which wasmade in the 
time of James I. A copy of the book itself 
forms Brit. Mus. Hargrave MS. 244. The 
fifteenth edition, by Richard J. Greening, 
was issued in 1827. Fulbeck, in his ' Direc- 
tion or Preparative to the Study of the 
Law,' praises Perkins for his wit rather than 
his judgment. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Greening's Preface to 
Perkins ; Fulbeck's Direction, ed. Stirling, p. 72 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 147; Reg. 
Univ. Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc.). i. 149 ; Boase's 
Eeg. Collegii Exoniensis (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 
p. 757 ] W. A. J. A. 

PERKINS, JOSEPH (ft. 1711), poet, 
born in 1658, was the younger son of George 
Perkins of Slimbridge, Gloucestershire. He 
matriculated from Oriel College, Oxford, on 
16 July 1675, and graduated B.A. in 1679. 
After leaving Oxford he obtained a post as 
chaplain in the navy, and sailed to the Medi- 
terranean in the Norfolk under Admiral Ed- 
ward Russell (afterwards Earl of Orford) 
[q. v.J He was very prolific in compli- 
mentary verse, and wrote Latin elegies on 
Sir Francis Wheeler (1697) and other naval 
worthies ; he was, however, cashiered in the 
course of 1697 for having, it was alleged, 
brought a false accusation of theft against a 
naval officer. He wrote a highly florid Latin 
elegy upon the Duke of Beaufort, which was 
printed in 1701, and by flattering verses and 
dedications, together with occasional preach- 
ing, he was enabled, though not without ex- 
treme difficulty, to support a large family. 
His efforts to obtain preferment at Tunbridge 
Wells and at Bristol were unsuccessful. In 
1707 he produced two small volumes of 
verse : ' The Poet's Fancy, in a Love-letter 
to Galatea, or any other Fair Lady, in Eng- 
lish and Latin ' (London, 4to), and ' Poema- 
tum Miscellaneorum a Josepho Perkins Liber 
primus ' (no more printed) (London, 4to). 
Most of his miscellanies were in Latin, and 
he styled himself the ' Latin Laureate,' or, to 
air his Jacobite sympathies, the ' White Poet.' 
He tried to curry favour among the non- 
jurors, and wrote in 1711 'A Pcem, both in 



English and Latin, on the death of Thomas 
Kenn ' (Bristol, 4to). The poet's elder brother, 
George, became in 1673 vicar of Fretherne 
in Gloucestershire ; but he himself does not 
appear to have obtained a benefice, and no- 
thing is known of him subsequent to 1711. 
In addition to the works named, two sermons 
and several elegies were separately published 
in his name. 

An engraving of Perkins by White is 
mentioned by Bromley. 

[Works in British Museum; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Eawl. 
MSS. iii. 199, iv. 102.] T. S. 

PERKINS, LOFTUS (1834-1891), en- 
gineer and inventor, son of Angier March 
Perkins [q. v.], was born on 8 May 1834 in 
Great Coram Street, London. At a very 
early age he entered his father's manufactory, 
and in 1853-4 he practised on his own account 
as an engineer in New York. Returning to 
England, he remained with his father until 
1862, and from that time to 1866 he was in 
business at Hamburg and Berlin, designing 
and executing many installations for warm- 
ing buildings in various parts of the continent. 
He again returned to England in 1866, when 
he entered into a partnership with his father, 
which continued to the death of the latter 
in 1881. 

Perkins inherited much of the inventive 
capacity of his father and grandfather, and 
from 1859 downwards he took out a very 
large number of patents. The chief subjects 
to which he directed his attention \vere, how- 
ever, the use of very high pressure steam as 
a motive power, and the production of cold. 
His yacht Anthracite, constructed in 1880, 
was fitted with engines working with steam 
at a pressure of five hundred pounds on the 
inch, and it is probably the smallest ship that 
ever crossed the Atlantic steaming the entire 
distance. The Loftus Perkins, a very re- 
markable Tyne ferryboat, was worked with 
compound engines on his system with boilers 
tested to 200 Ib. (Engineer, 2 June 1880). 
His experiments on the production of cold 
resulted in the ' arktos,' a cold chamber suit- 
able for preserving meat and other articles 
of food. It is based on the separation of 
ammonia gas from the water in which it is 
dissolved, the liquefaction of the gas, and 
the subsequent revaporisation of the am- 
monia, with the reabsorption of the gas by 
the water. This was his last great work, 
and his unremitting attention to it caused a 
permanent breakdown of his health. 

He became a member of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers in 1861, and of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers in 1881. He 

died on 27 April 1891, at his house in 
Abbey Road, Kilburn, London. He married 
an American, a daughter of Dr. Patten. He 
left two sons, both of whom are engaged 
in their father's business, now carried on by 
a limited company. 

[Obituary notice in the Engineer, 1 May 1891, 
which contains a full account of his various in- 
ventions, and private information ; Proc. Inst. 
C. E. vol. cv.J E. B. P. 

PERKINS, WILLIAM (1558-1602), 
theological writer, son of Thomas Perkins 
and Hannah his wife, both of whom survived 
him, was born at Marston Jabbett in the parish 
of Bulkington in Warwickshire in 1558. In 
June 1577 he matriculated as a pensioner of 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where he appears 
to have studied under Laurence Chaderton 
[q. v.], from whom he probably first received 
his puritan bias. His early career gave no 
promise of future eminence; he was noted 
for recklessness and profanity, and addicted 
to drunkenness. From these courses he was, 
however, suddenly converted by the trivial 
incident of overhearing a woman in the street 
allude to him as ' drunken Perkins,' holding 
him up as a terror to a fretful child. 

In 1584 he commenced M.A., was elected 
a fellow of his college, and began to be/widely 
known as a singularly earnest and effective 
preacher. He preached to the prisoners in 
the castle, and was appointed lecturer at 
Great St. Andrews, where both the members 
of the university and the townsmen flocked 
in great numbers to listen to him. Accord- 
ing to Fuller (Holy State, ed. 1648, p. 81), 
' his sermons were not so plain but that the 
piously learned did admire them, nor so 
learned but that the plain did understand 
them ; ' and he seems to have possessed the art 
of conducting his argument after the strictly 
logical method then in vogue, while pre- 
serving a simplicity of language which made 
him intelligible to all. His reputation as a 
theologian progressed scarcely less rapidly, 
and at a time when controversy between the 
anglican and puritan parties in the univer- 
sity was at its height, he became noted for 
his outspoken resistance to all that savoured 
of Roman usage in the matter of ritual. In 
a < commonplace ' delivered in the chapel of 
his college (13 Jan. 1586-7), he demurred 
to the practice of kneeling at the taking of 
the sacrament, and also to that of turning to 
the east. Being subsequently cited before 
the vice-chancellor and certain of the heads, 
he was ordered to read a paper in which he 
partly qualified and partly recalled what 
he was reported to have said. From this 
time he appears to have used more guarded 



language in his public discourses, but his 
sympathy with the puritan party continued 
undiminished, and, according to Bancroft 
(Daungcrous Positions, ed. 1593, p. 92), he 
was one of the members of a ' synod ' which in 
1589 assembled at St. John's College to re- 
vise the treatise ' Of Discipline ' (afterwards 
' The Directory '), an embodiment of puritan 
doctrine which those present pledged them- 
selves to support. In the same year he was 
one of the petitioners to the authorities of 
the university on behalf of Francis Johnson 
[q. v.], a fellow of Christ's, who had been com- 
mitted to prison on account of his advocacy 
of a presbyterian form of church govern- 
ment (STRYPE, Annals, iv. 134 ; Lansdowne 
MSS. Ixi. 1 9-57). His sense of the severity 
with which his party was treated by Whit- 
gift, both in the university and elsewhere, 
is probably indicated in the preface to his 
Arm ilia Aurea ' (editions of 1590 and 1592), 
it being dated ' in the year of the last suffer* 
ings of the Saints.' In the same preface he 
refers to the attacks to which he was him- 
self at that time exposed, but says that he 
holds it better to encounter calumny, how- 
ever unscrupulous, than be silent when duty 
towards 'Mater Academia' calls for his 
testimony to the truth. He also took occa- 
sion to express in the warmest terms his 
gratitude for the benefits he had derived 
from his academic education. The l Armilla ' 
excited, however, vehement opposition owing 
to its unflinching Calvinism, and, according 
to Heylin (Aerius Redivivus, p. 341), was 
the occasion of William Barret's violent at- 
tack on the calvimstic tenets from the pulpit 
of St. Mary's [see BARRET, WILLIAM J?. 1595] ; 
but the work more especially singled out by 
the preacher for invective was Perkins's ' Ex- 
position of the Apostles' Creed,' just issued 
(April 1595) from the university press, in 
which the writer ventured to impugn the 
doctrine of the descent into hell (STRYPE, 
Whitgift, ed. 1718, p. 439). 

Against the distinctive tenets of the 
Roman church, Perkins bore uniformly 
emphatic testimony ; and the publication of 
his < Reformed Catholike ' in 1597 was an 
important event in relation to the whole 
controversy. He here sought to draw the 
boundary-line indicating the essential points 
of difference between the protestant and the 
Roman belief, beyond which it appeared to 
him impossible for concession and concilia- 
tion on the part of the reformed churches to 
go. The ability and candid spirit of this 
treatise were recognised by the most com- 
petent judges of both parties, and William 
Bishop'[q. v.], the catholic writer, although 

.niln/l 4-l<r> Vir\r>lr in Tn'a <rintlir>lip. Dp- 

assailed the book in his ' Catholic De- 

formed/ was fain to admit that he had not 
seene any book of like quantity, published 
by a Protestant, to contain either more 
matter, or delivered in better method ; ' while 
Robert Abbot [q. v.], afterwards bishop of 
Salisbury, in his reply to Bishop, praises Per- 
kins's ' great trauell and paines for the 
furtherance of true religion and edifying' of 
the Church.' 

Perkins's tenure of his fellowship at 
Christ's continued until Michaelmas 1594, 
when it was probably vacated by his marriage. 
He died in 1602, having long been a martyr 
to the stone. He was interred in St. An- 
drew's church at the expense of his college, 
which honoured his memory by a stately 
funeral. The sermon on the occasion was 
preached by James Montagu (1568 P-1618) 
[q. v.], master of Sidney- Sussex College, who 
had been a fellow-commoner at Christ's, and 
one of Perkins's warmest defenders against 
the attack of Peter Baro [q. v.] His will was 
proved, 12 Jan. 1602-3, by his widow, whose 
name was Timothie, in the court of the vice- 
chancellor. To her he bequeathed his small 
estate in Cambridge, and appointed his 
former tutor, Laurence Chaderton, Edward 
Barwell, James Montagu, Richard Foxcroft, 
and Nathaniel Cradocke (his brother-in-law) 
his executors. To his father and mother, 
' brethren and sisters,' he left a legacy of ten 
shillings each. Of his brother, Thomas Per- 
kins of Marston, descendants in a direct line 
are still living. 

Perkins's reputation as a teacher during the 
closing years of his life was unrivalled in 
the university, and few students of theology 
quitted Cambridge without having sought 
to profit in some measure by his instruc- 
tion ; while as a writer he continued to be 
studied throughout the seventeenth cen- 
tury as an authority but little inferior to 
Hooker or Calvin. William Ames [q.v.] 
was perhaps his most eminent disciple; but 
John Robinson [q. v.], the founder of Con- 
gregationalism at Leyden, who republished 
Perkins's catechism in that city, diffused 
his influence probably over a wider area ; 
while Phineas Fletcher [q. v.], who may 
have heard him lecture in the last year 
of his life, refers to him in his 'Miscel- 
lanies ' thirty years later as ' our wonder, 
' living, though long dead.' Joseph Mead or 
Mede [q. v.], Bishop Richard Montagu [q. v.J, 
Ussher, Bramhall (in his controversy with 
the bishop of Chalcedon, William Bishop), 
Herbert Thorndike, Benjamin Calamy, and 
not a few other distinguished ornaments of 
both parties in the church, all cite, with more 
or less frequency, his dicta as authoritative. 
By Arminius he was assailed in his' Exarnen 




(1612) with some acrimony ; and Hobbes 
singled out his doctrine of predestination as 
virtual fatalism. 

The observation of Fuller that it was he 
who * first humbled the towering speculations 
of philosophers into practice and morality ' 
indicates the real secret of Perkins's re- 
markable influence. While he conciliated 
the scholarship of his university by his re- 
tention of the scholastic method in his treat- 
ment of questions of divinity, he abandoned 
the abstruse and unprofitable topics then 
usually selected for discussion in the schools, 
and by his solemn and impassioned discourse 
on the main doctrines of Christian theology 
conceived, in his own phrase, as ' the science 
of living blessedly for ever ' (Abridgement, 
p. 1) he won the ear of a larger audience. 
Method and fervour presented themselves in 
his writings in rare combination ; and Ames 
(Ad Lect. in the De Conscientia) expressly 
states that, in his wide experience of conti- 
nental churches, he had frequently had oc- 
casion to deplore the want of a like syste- 
matic plan of instruction, and the evils con- 
sequent thereupon. Whether he actually 
disapproved of subscription is doubtful. Ac- 
cording to Fuller, he generally evaded the 
question. He, however, distinctly gives it 
as his opinion that ' those that make a separa- 
tion from our Church because of corruptions 
in it are far from the spirit of Christ and 
his Apostles' (Works, ed. 1616, iii. 389). 
His sound judgment is shown by the manner 
in which he kept clear of the all-absorbing 
millenarian controversy, and by his energetic 
repudiation of the prevalent belief in as- 
trology. On the other hand, he considered 
that atheists deserved to be put to death 
(Cases of Conscience, ed. 1614, p. 118, II. 
ii. 1). 

The remarkable popularity of Perkins's 
writings is attested by the number of lan- 
guages into which many of them were 
translated. Those that appeared in English 
were almost immediately rendered into 
Latin, while several were reproduced in 
Dutch, Spanish, Welsh, and Irish, ' a thing,' 
observes John Legate [q. v.], the printer, in 
his preface to the edition of the ' Collected 
Works ' of 1616-18, 'not ordinarily observed 
in other writings of these our times.' Of 
his l Armilla Aurea' fifteen editions appeared 
in twenty years (HicZMAtf, Hist. Quinq. 
p. 500). 

Perkins's right hand was maimed (see 
LTJPTON, Protestant Divines, 1637, p. 357), 
and in his portrait, preserved in the com- 
bination-room of Christ's College, this defect 
is visible. The portrait was engraved for the 
' Hercoologia ' of Henry Holland in 1620, and 

there is another engraved portrait in Lupton, 
p. 347. 

In Baker MS. vi. 2776 ( = B. 269) there 
are extracts from the registers relating to 
his family ; but there appears to be no 
sufficient warrant for assuming that he was 
in any way related to Sir Christopher Per- 
kins [q. v.J, dean of Carlisle. 

Of his collected works very incomplete 
editions appeared at Cambridge in 1597, 1600, 
1603, 1605; a more complete edition, 3 vols. 
folio, 1608, 1609, 1612; at London in 1606, 
1612, 1616; at Geneva, in Latin, fol. 1611, 
2 vols. 1611-18 and 1624; a Dutch transla- 
tion at Amsterdam, 3 vols. fol. 1659. 

The collected editions of Cambridge or 
London include the following tracts, which 
were originally published separately: 1. 'Pro- 
phetica, sive de unica ratione concionandi,' 
Cambridge, 1592 ; Basle, 1602 ; in Eng- 
lish by Thomas Tuke, London, 1606. 
2. ' De Prsedestinationis modo et ordine,' 
&c., Cambridge, 1598 ; Basle, 1599 ; in Eng- 
lish in f Collected Works ' (1606), by Francis 
Cacot and Thomas Tuke. 3. 'A Commen- 
tarie, or Exposition vpon the five first chap- 
ters of the Epistle to the Galatians, etc. . . . 
with a svpplement vpon the sixt chapter 
by Rafe Cvdworth,' &c., Cambridge, 1606, 
1617. 4. ' A godly and learned Exposition 
. . . vpon the three first chapters of the 
Revelation. . . . Preached in Cambridge,' 
1595 ; 2nd edit, by Thomas Pierson, 1606. 

5. ' Of the calling of the ministerie, Two 
treatises: describing the duties and digni- 
ties of that calling. Delivered pvblikely in 
the vniversite of Cambridge,' London, 1605. 

6. ' A discovrse of the damned art of witch- 
craft,' &c., Cambridge, 1608, 1610. 7. ' A 
treatise of God's free grace and mans free will,' 
Cambridge, 1602. 8. 'A treatise of the Vo- 
cations, or Callings of men,' &c., Cambridge, 
1603. 9. ' A treatise of mans imaginations. 
Shewing his naturall euill thoughts,' &c. 
10. * 'EirtfiKeia, or a treatise of Xtian equity 
and moderation,' Cambridge, 1604. 11. 'A 
godly and learned Exposition of Christ's ser- 
mon in the Mount,' &c.,4to, Cambridge, 1608. 

12. ' A clowd of faithfvll witnesses, leading 
to the heauenly Canaan,' &c., London, 1622. 

13. ' Christian (Economic: or, a short svrvey 
of the right manner of erecting and ordering 
a Familie,' &c. 14. 'A resolution to the 
Country- man, prouing it vtterly vnlawfull 
to buie or vse our yearely Prognostications.' 
15. ' A faithfvll and plaine Exposition vpon 
the two first verses of the 2. chapter of Ze- 
phaniah. . . . Preached at Sturbridge Faire, 
in the field.' 16. 'The Combate betweene 
Christ and the Deuill displayed.' 17. 'A 
godly and learned Exposition vpon the whole 



epistle of Jude, containing threescore and 
sixe sermons,' &c. 18. 'A frvitfvll dialogve 
concerning the ende of the World.' 

The treatises not included in the ' Col- 
lected Works ' are : 1. 'An Exposition of the 
Lord's Prayer,' London, 1582, 1593, 1597. 
2. ' Perkins's Treatise, tending to a declara- 
tion whether a man be in a state of Damnation 
or a state of Grace,' London, 1589, 1590, 1592, 
1595,1597. 3. 'Armillaaurea, a Guil. Perkins; 
accessit Practica Th. Bezse pro consolandis 
atfiictisconscientiis,' Cambridge, [1590], 1600; 
translation of same, London, 1591, 1592, 
Cambridge, 1597 ; editions of the Latin ori- 
ginal also appeared at Basel, 1594, 1599. 
4. ' Spiritual Desertions,' London, 1591. 
5. [His Catechism under the title] 'The 
foundation of Xtian Religion: gathered 
into sixe principles to be learned of ignorant 
people that they may be fit to heare Sermons 
with profit,' &c., London, 1592, 1597, 1641, 
Cambridge, 1601 ; translated into Welsh by 
E. R., London, 1649, and into Irish by God- 
frey Daniel. 6. ' A Case of Conscience, the 
greatest that ever was,' &o. . . . 'Whereunto 
is added a briefe discourse, taken out of Hier. 
Zanchius,' London, 1592, 1651 ; Cambridge, 
] 595, 1606 ; also in Latin by Wolfgang Meyer, 
Basel, 1609. 7. 'A Direction for the Govern- 
ment of the Tongue according to God's Word,' 
Cambridge, 1593, 1595 ; in Latin by Thomas 
Drax, Oppenheim, 1613. 8. ' Salve for a 
Sickman, or a treatise containing the nature, 
differences, and kinds of Death,' &c., Cam- 
bridge, 1595 (with Robert Some's 'Three 
Questions'); with other works, Cambridge, 
1597. 9. ' An Exposition of the Symbole or 
Creede of the Apostles,' &c., Cambridge, 1 595, 
1596, 1597 ; London, 1631. 10. 'Two Trea- 
tises : I. Of the nature and practice of repent- 
ance. II. Of the combat of the flesh and the 
spirit,' Cambridge, 1595 (two editions), 1597. 
11. 'A discourse of Conscience,' &c. (with 
* Salve,' &c.), Cambridge, 1597. 12. ' The 
Grain of Mustard seed, or the least measure 
of Grace that is, or can be, effectual to Salua- 
tion,' London, 1597. 13. 'A declaration of 
the true manner of knowing Christ crucified' 
(with other works), Cambridge, 1597. 14. 'A 
reformed Catholike: or, a Declaration shew- 
ing how neere we may come to the present 
Church of Rome in sundrie points of Reli- 
gion : and wherein we must for ever depart 
from them,' &c., Cambridge, 1597, 1598; in | 
Spanish, by William Masspn, 1599, Antwerp, I 
1624 ; in Latin, Hanau, 1601. 15. ' How to 
live and that well : in all estates and times,' | 
&c., Cambridge, 1601. 16. ' Specimen Digesti 
sive Harmonise Bibliorum Vet. et Nov. Testa- 
menti,' Cambridge, 1598 : Hanau, 1602. 17. 'A 
warning against the idolatry of the last times. 

And an instruction touching religious or di- 
vine worship,' Cambridge, 1601 ; in Latin by 
W. Meyer, Oppenheim, 1616. 18. ' The True 
Gaine : more in Worth than all the Goods in 
the World,' Cambridge, 1601. 19. < Gulielmi 
Perkinsi problema de Romanse fidei ementito 
catholicismo, etc. Editum post mortem 
authoris opera et studio Samuel Ward,' 
Cambridge, 1604 ; translation in ' Collected 
Works.' 20. ' The whole treatise of the cases 
of Conscience,' Cambridge, 1606 and 1608 ; 
London, 1611. 21. 'A Garden of Spiritual 
Flowers. Planted by Ri. Ro[gers] = Will. 
Per[kins],' 1612. 22. 'Thirteen Principles of 
Religion : by way of question and answer/ 
London, 1645, 1647. 23. 'Exposition on 
Psalms xxxii. and c.' ' 24. ' Confutation of 
Canisius's Catechism.' 25. ' The opinion of 
Mr. Perkins, Mr. Bolton, and others concern- 
ing the sport of cockfighting/ &c. . . . ' now 
set forth by E[dmund] E[llis],' Oxford, 1600 
(in ' Harleian Miscellany '). 26. ' An 
Abridgement of the whole Body of Divinity, 
extracted from the Learned works of that 
ever-famous and reverend Divine, Mr. Wil- 
liam Perkins. By Tho. Nicols,' London, 
16mo, 1654. 27. 'Death's Knell, or, The 
Sick Man's Passing Bell,' 10th edit., b.l., 

[Information supplied by Dr. Peile, master of 
Christ's College, and F. J. H. Jenkinson, esq., 
university librarian; Baker MS. B. 269; Fuller's 
Holy and Profane State ; Colvile's Worthies of 
Warwickshire, pp. 573-6 ; Dyer's Cambridge 
Fragments, p. 130; Cooper's Athenae Canta- 
brigienses, ii. 335-41 ; Bowes's Catalogue of 
Books printed at or relating to the University 
and Town of Cambridge ; Mullinger's Hist, of 
the University of Cambridge, vol. ii.] 

.T. B. M. 

1862), Canadian commercial pioneer and man 
of science, was son of Moses and Mary Perley, 
who were cousins. They came of an old Welsh 
family which settled in 1630 in Massachu- 
setts. This son, born in Mauger Ville, New 
Brunswick, on 31 Dec. 1804, was educated at 
St. John. In 1828 he became an attorney, 
and in 1830 was called to the bar ; but his 
tastes took him to outdoor life, and he went 
into the milling and lumbering (i.e. timber- 
cutting) business. Active in efforts for at- 
tracting capital into New Brunswick, and in 
advertising the capabilities of the province, 
he was appointed commissioner of Indian 
affairs and emigration officer. In this capa- 
city he made several tours among the Indians, 
the first of which began in June 1841, and 
took him through the territory of the Melicete 
and Micmac Indians. The Micmacs at Burnt 
Creek Point elected him head chief. 




In 1846 Perley was chosen to report on the 
capabilities of the country along a projected 
line of railway. In 1847 he was sent on a 
mission to England in connection with this 
proposal. On his return he commenced that 
series of explorations among the fisheries of 
New Brunswick with which his name is chiefly 
associated. In 1849 he reported on those of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; in August 1850 
he was appointed to inquire into the sea and 
river fisheries of New Brunswick, and de- 
voted two months to the work, covering 
nine hundred miles, of which five hundred 
were accomplished in canoe. A year later 
he examined the fisheries of the Bay of 
Fundy. From notes made in these missions 
he compiled his ' Catalogue of Fishes of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia/ 1851. 

During the next two or three years he 
compiled the trade statistics in aid of the 
negotiations for a reciprocity treaty between 
Canada and the United States, and when, 
in 1854, the treaty was concluded, he was 
appointed a commissioner to carry out its 

Perley died at Forteau, Labrador, on 
17 Aug. 1862, on board H.M.S. Desperate, 
while on an official tour. He married, in 
September 1829, Jane, daughter of Isaac 
Ketchum, and had eight children, the only 
survivor of whom, Henry Fullerton Perley, 
is now chief engineer to the Canadian go- 

Perley contributed articles to many Eng- 
lish and American periodicals, and his 
various reports are well written. He was a 
good public lecturer, was interested in litera- 
ture and science, and founded the Natural 
History Society of New Brunswick. He was 
also an ardent sportsman. 

His chief reports were published sepa- 
rately, at Frederickton, and are : 1 . ' Re- 
port on Condition of Indians of New Bruns- 
wick,' 1846. 2. 'Report on Forest Trees of 
New Brunswick,' 1847. 3. 'Report on 
Fisheries of the Bay of St. Lawrence,' 1849. 
4. ' Report on Fisheries of Bay of Fundy,' 
1851, to which is appended the 'Descriptive 
Catalogue of Fishes.' 5. ' Reports on the Sea 
and River Fisheries of New Brunswick,' 1852. 
0. ' Handbook of Information for Emigrants 
to New Brunswick,' 1856. 

[Morgan's Bibliotheca Canadensis, Ottawa, 
1867; Perley 's works ; private information.] 

C. A. H. 

PERNE, ANDREW (1519 P-1589), dean 
of Ely, born at East Bilney, Norfolk, about 
1519, was son of John Perne. Educated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, he gra- 
duated B.A. early in 1539, and proceeded 
M.A. next year. He became a fellow of St. 

John's in March 1540, but a few months later 
migrated to Queens' College, where he was 
also elected a fellow. For three weeks he 
held fellowships at both colleges together, 
but soon identified himself with Queens', 
where he acted as bursar from 1542 to 1544, 
as dean in 1545-6, and as vice-president from 

1551. He served as proctor of the university 
in 1546. He proceeded B.D. in 1547, and 
D.D. in 1552, and was incorporated at Oxford 
in 1553. He was five times vice-chancellor 
of the university (1551, 1556, 1559, 1574, 
and 1580). 

Perne gained in early life a position of in- 
fluence in the university, but his success in 
life was mainly due to his pliancy in matters 
of religion. On St. George's day 1547 he 
maintained, in a sermon preached in the 
church of St. Andrew Undershaft, London, 
the Roman catholic doctrine that pictures 
of Christ and the saints ought to be adored, 
but he saw fit to recant the opinion in the 
same church on the following 17 June. In 
June 1549 he argued against transubstantia- 
tion before Edward VI's commissioners for 
the visitation of the university (FoxE. Acts}, 
and just a year later disputed against Martin 
Bucer the Calvinist doctrine of the sufficiency 
of Scripture (MS. Corpus Christi Coll. Cambr. 
102, art. 1). In 1549 he was appointed 
rector of Walpole St. Peter, Norfolk, and in 
1550-1 was rector of Pulham. Subsequently 
he held the livings of Balsham, Cambridge- 
shire, and Somersham, Huntingdonshire. 
Edward VI, convinced of his sincerity as a 
reformer, nominated him one of six chap- 
lains who were directed to promulgate the 
doctrines of the Reformation in the remote 
parts of the kingdom. For this service Perne 
was allotted a pension of 40/. a year. He 
was one of those divines to whom Edward's 
articles of religion were referred on 2 Oct. 

1552. On 8 Nov. he became a canon of 
Windsor. W 7 hen convocation met shortly 
after Queen Mary's accession, he, in accor- 
dance with his previous attitude on the sub- 
ject, argued against transubstantiation ; but 
Dr. Weston, the prolocutor, pointed out that 
he was contradicting the catholic articles of 
religion. Aylmer attempted to justify Perne's 
action, but Perne had no intention of resist- 
ing the authorities, and his complacence did 
not go unrewarded. 

Early in 1554 he was appointed master of 
Peterhouse, and next year formally subscribed 
the fully denned Roman catholic articles then 
promulgated. As vice-chancellor he received 
in 1556 the delegates appointed by Cardinal 
Pole to visit the university. He is said to 
have moderated the zeal of the visitors, and 
he certainly protected John Whitgift, a fellow 



of his college, from molestation. His pusil- 
lanimous temper is well illustrated by the 
facts that he not only preached the sermon 
in 1556 when the dead bodies of Bucer and 
Fagius were condemned as heretics (FoxE), 
but presided over the senate in 1560, when a 
grace was passed for their restoration to their 
earlier honours. On 22 Dec. 1557 he became 
dean of Ely. 

As soon as Elizabeth ascended the throne, 
Perne displayed a feverish anxiety to conform 
to the new order of things, and in 1562 he 
subscribed to the Thirty-nine articles. He 
took part in the queen's reception when 
she visited Cambridge in August 1564, and 
preached before her a Latin sermon, in which 
he denounced the pope, and commended 
Henry VI and Henry VII for their bene- 
factions to the university (NiCHOLS, Pro- 
gresses, iii. 50, 105-6). Elizabeth briefly com- 
plimented him on his eloquence, but she 
resented his emphatic defence of the church's 
power of excommunication which he set forth 
in a divinity act held in her presence a day 
or two later, and next year his name was 
removed from the list of court preachers. 
In 1577 he was directed with others to frame 
new statutes for St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the mastership. In 1580 he endeavoured 
to convert to protestantism John Feckenham, 
formerly abbot of Westminster, who was in 
prison at Wisbech. In October 1588 he 
officially examined another catholic prisoner, 
Sir Thomas Tresham, at the palace of Ely, 
and obtained from him a declaration of 
allegiance to the queen. In 1584 his old 
pupil, Archbishop Whitgift, vainly recom- 
mended him for a bishopric. 

Perne died while on a visit to Archbishop 
"Whitgift at Lambeth on 26 April 1589, and 
was buried in the parish church there, where 
a monument was erected to his memory by 
his nephew, Richard Perne. A portrait is at 

To the < Bishops' Bible ' Perne contributed 
translations of ' Ecclesiastes ' and the ' Song 
of Solomon.' He was an enthusiastic book- 
collector, and was credited with possessing 
the finest private library in England of his 
time. At Peterhouse he built the library, and 
to it, as well as to the university library, he 
left many volumes. He also bequeathed 
lands to Peterhouse for the endowment of two 
fellowships and six scholarships. Among 
numerous other bequests to friends and uni- \ 
versity officials w r as one to Whitgift of his j 
best gold ring, Turkey carpet, and watch. 

Immediately after his death he was hotly 
denounced by the authors of the Martin Mar- 
Prelate tracts as the friend of Archbishop } 

Whitgift and a type of the fickleness and lack 
of principle which the established church 
encouraged in the clergy. The author of 
1 Hay any more Worke ' nicknamed him 
' Old Andrew Turncoat.' Other writers of 
the same school referred to him as ' Andrew 
Ambo,' Old Father Palinode,' or Judas. The 
scholars at Cambridge, it was said, translated 
' perno ' by ' I turn, I rat. I change often.' It 
became proverbial to say of a coat or a cloak 
that had been turned that it had been Perned 
(Dialogue of Tyrannical Dealing}. On the 
weathercock of St. Peter's Church in Cam- 
bridge were the letters A. P. A. P., which 
might be interpreted (said the satirists) as 
either Andrew Perne a papist, or Andrew 
Perne a protestant, or Andrew Perne a 

Gabriel Harvey, in his well-known contro- 
versy with Nash, pursued the attack on Pern e's 
memory in 1 592. Perne, while vice-chancellor 
in 1580, had offended Harvey by gently repri- 
mandinghim for some ill-tempered aspersions 
on persons in high station. Nash, in attack- 
ing Harvey, made the most of the incident, 
and Harvey retorted at length by portraying 
Perne as a smooth-tongued and miserly syco- 
phant. Nash, in reply, vindicated Perne's 
memory as that of ' a careful father of the 
university,' hospitable, learned, and witty. 
Perne was reputed to be ' very facetious and 
excellent at blunt-sharp jest, and loved that 
kind of mirth so as to be noted for his wit 
in them ' (Fragmenta Aulica, 1662). Fuller 
represents Perne as a master of witty retort. 
But he seems, while in attendance on Queen 
Elizabeth, to have met his match in a fool 
named Clod, who described him as hanging 
between heaven and earth (DoKAN, Court 
Fools, p. 168). 

ANDEEW PEKNE (1596-1654), doubtless 
a kinsman of the dean of Ely, was fellow 
of Catherine Hall, Cambridge, from 1622 to 
1627, when he was made rector of W T ilby, 
Northamptonshire ; he held puritan opinions, 
and was chosen in 1643 one of the four 
representatives from Northamptonshire to 
the Westminster assembly. He preached 
two sermons before the House of Commons 
during the Long parliament one on the oc- 
casion of a public fast, 31 May 1643, which was 
printed ; the other on 23 April 1644, at the 
< thanksgiving' for Lord Fairfax's victory 
at Selby. He died at Wilby on 13 Dec. 
1654, and was buried in the chancel of his 
church, where an inscription to his memory 
is still extant. A funeral sermon by 
Samuel Ainsworth of Kelmarsh was pub- 
lished (William Perkins on the ' Life and 
Times of Andrew Perne of W 7 ilby' in 
Northampton Mercury, 1881). 




[Cooper's Athense Cantabr.ii. 45-50; Maskell's 
Mar-Prelate Controversy, pp. 131-3, 159; Nash's 
"Works, ed. Grosart ; Harvev's Works, ed. Gro- 
sart ; Fuller's Worthies ; Cooper's Annals of 
Cambridge ; Heywood and Wright's University 
Transactions ; Dr. Jessopp's One Generation of 
a Norfolk House ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
ii. 185.] S. L. 

(d. 1400), mistress of Edward III, was, 
according to the hostile St. Albans chronicler 
(Chron. Antjlice, p. 95), a woman of low 
birth, the daughter of a tiler at Henney, 
Essex, and had been a domestic drudge. 
Another account makes her the daughter of 
a weaver from Devonshire (see Duchetiana, 
p. 300). It seems, however, more reasonable 
to suppose that, as a lady of Queen Philippa's 
household, she was a member of the Hertford- 
shire family of Ferrers with which the abbey 
of St. Albans had a long-standing quarrel 
(Gesta Abbatum S. Albani, iii. 49, 199-209). 
Sir Richard Ferrers was M.P. for Hertford- 
shire in several parliaments of Ed ward II and 
the early years of Edward III (Return of 
Members of Parliament}, and was sheriff of 
Hertfordshire and Essex from 1315 to 1319, 
and again in 1327, 1329, and 1330. He may 
be the same Sir Richard Ferrers who, in 
consequence of his quarrel with St. Albans, 
suffered a long imprisonment from 1350 on- 
wards, was outlawed in 1359, and whose 
son, Sir Richard Ferrers, in vain endeavoured 
to obtain redress (Gesta Abbatum, iii. 199- 
209). Alice may have been the daughter of 
Sir Richard Ferrers the elder ; if so, this 
circumstance would go far to explain the 
manifest hostility of the St. Albans chro- 
nicler. It has, however, been alleged that 
she was daughter of John Ferrers or Piers 
of Holt, by Gunnora, daughter of Sir Thomas 
de Ormesbye, and was twice married first, 
to Sir Thomas de Narford ; and, secondly, to 
Sir William de Windsor (PALMER, Perlus- 
tration of Great Yarmouth, ii. 430 ; BLOME- 
FIELD, Hist. Norfolk, i. 319, xi. 233). The 
first incident definitely known about her is 
that she had entered the service of Queen 
Philippa as ' domicella cameree Reginae ' pre- 
viously to October 1366 (Notes and Queries, 
7th ser. vii. 449). It has been contended that 
'domicella camerse Reginae' is the equiva- 
lent of ' woman of the bedchamber,' and that 
the designation was applied only to married 
women (ib. vii. 449, viii. 47). But it is de- 
finitely stated that the manor of Wendover, 
which was bestowed on her in 1371, was 
granted to her 'ten qu'ele fuist sole' 
(Rolls of Parliament, iii. 1300), and she was 
a single woman when she obtained pos- 
session of Oxeye, apparently in 1374 (Gesta 

Abbatum, iii. 236). She was married or at 
any rate betrothed to William de Windsor 
in 1376 (Chron. Anglia, p. 97); she is else- 
where stated to have been his wife for a 
long time previously to December 1377 
(Rolls of Parliament, iii. 416). The contem- 
porary chronicles and records do not show 
that she was ever the wife of Thomas de 
Narford, and the statement is probably due 
to a confusion. 

Alice Ferrers became the mistress of Ed- 
ward III in the lifetime of Queen Philippa, 
and her connection with the king may date 
from 1366, when she had a grant of two 
tuns of wine. In 1367 she had custody of 
Robert de Tiliol, with his lands and marriage, 
and in 1375 had similar grants as to the heir 
of John Payn and Richard, lord Poynings. 
In 1371 she received the manor of Wen- 
dover, and in 1375 that of Bramford Speke, 
Devonshire. On 15 April 1372 as much as 
397/. was paid for her jewels (DEVON, Issues 
of Exchequer, pp. 193-4). On 8 Aug. 1373 
Edward bestowed on her ' all the jewels, 
&c., which were ours, as well as those of our 
late consort, and came into the hands of 
Euphemia, wife of Walter de Heselarton, 
\ Knight, and which were afterwards received 
by the said Alice from Euphemia for our use' 
(Fcedera, iii. 989). This grant has not un- 
| naturally exposed both her and Edward to 
unfavourable, though perhaps exaggerated, 
comment, but it was not a grant of all 
! Philippa's jewels, as sometimes stated. On 
2 June 1374 the sum of 1,615/. 3s. lid. was 
[ paid, through her hands, to her future hus- 
i band, William de Windsor (DEVO^, Issues of 
\ Exchequer, p. 197). In 1375 she rode through 
! Chepe ward from the Tower, dressed as the 
Lady of the Sun, to attend the great jousts 
that were held at Smithfield (NICOLAS, Chro- 
nicle of London, p. 70). In the following year, 
on 20 May, robes were supplied her to appear 
in another intended tournament (BELTZ, 
Memorials of the Garter, p. 10). Alice had 
obtained great influence over the king, and 
is alleged to have used her position to acquire 
property for herself by unlawful means. In 
this statement the St. Albans chronicler pro- 
bably has in view her dispute with his own 
abbey as to the manor of Oxeye, which com- 
menced in 1374 (Gesta Abbatum, iii. 227- 
249). She is also accused of having inter- 
fered with justice in promoting lawsuits by 
way of maintenance, and of having actually 
appeared on the bench at Westminster in 
order to influence the judges to decide cases 
in accordance with her wishes ( Chron. Anglice, 
p. 96 ; Rolls of Parliament, ii. 329). Her 
position induced John of Gaunt and his sup- 
porters, William, lord Latimer (1329?-! 381) 



[q. v.], and others, to seek her assistance. 
The scandal which she had caused no doubt 
contributed also to their unpopularity. When 
the Good parliament met in April 1376, one 
of the first acts of the commons was to 
petition the king against her, and to inform 
him that she was married to Windsor, now 
deputy of Ireland. Edward declared with 
an oath that he did not know Alice was 
married, and begged them to deal gently 
with her. A general ordinance was passed 
forbidding women to practise in the courts 
of law, and under this Alice was sentenced 
to banishment and forfeiture. She is alleged 
to have sworn on the cross of Canterbury to 
obey the order, but after the death of the 
Prince of Wales, and recovery of power by 
Lancaster, she returned to court, and the 
archbishop feared to put the sentence of ex- 
communication in force against her ( Chron. 
AnglifB, pp. 100, 104). She joined with Sir 
Richard Sturry and Latimer in procuring 
the disgrace of Sir Peter De la Mare [q. v.] 
The Bad parliament met on 27 Jan. 1377, 
and reversed the sentences against Alice and 
her supporters (Rolls of Parliament, ii. 374). 
She resumed her old practices, interfered on 
behalf of Richard Lyons, who had been con- 
demned in the previous year ; prevented the 
despatch of Nicholas Dagworth to Ireland, 
because he was an enemy of Windsor ; and 
protected a squire who had murdered a 
sailor, as it is said, at her instigation. Even 
William of Wykeham is alleged to have 
availed himself of her aid to secure the re- 
stitution of the temporalities of his see (ib. 
iii. 126-14 ; Chron. Anglia, pp. 136-8). Ed- 
ward was manifestly dying, but Alice buoyed 
him up with false hopes of life, until, when 
the end was clearly at hand, she stole the 
rings from off his fingers and abandoned 
him. In his last moments Edward is stated 
to have refused her proffered attentions 
(ib. pp. 143-4 ; but in the Ypodigma Neustrite, 
p. 324, she is stated to have been with him 
till his death). 

In the first parliament of Richard II 
Alice Perrers was brought before the lords, 
at the request of the commons, on 22 Dec. 
1377, and the sentence of the Good parlia- 
ment against her confirmed (Rolls of Par- 
liament, iii. 126). In the following year her 
husband appealed for leave to sue for a re- 
versal of judgment, on the ground that she 
had been compelled to plead as ' femme 
sole/ though already married, and by reason 
of other informalities (ib. iii. 40-1). On 

14 Dec. 1379 the sentence against her was 
revoked (Pat. Roll, 3 Richard II), and on 

15 March 1380 Windsor obtained a grant of 
the lands that had been hers (Gesta Ab- 

batum, iii. 234). In 1383 Alice had ap- 
parently recovered some of her favour at 
court. In the following year her husband 
died, in debt to the crown. His nephew and 
heir, John de Windsor, vexed Alice with 
lawsuits. She could obtain no relief from 
her husband's debts, though in 1384 the 
judgment against her was repealed so far as- 
that all grants might remain in force (Rolls 
of Parliament, iii. 1866). Her dispute with 
the abbey of St. Albans as to Oxeye still 
continued (Gesta Abbatum,\\\. 249). In 
1389 she had a lawsuit with William of 
Wykeham as to jewels which she alleged 
she had pawned to him after her indictment. 
Wykeham denied the charge and won his 
case. In 1393 John de Windsor was in 
prison at Newgate for detaining goods be- 
longing to Alice de Windsor, value 3,000/. ? 
and to Joan her daughter, value 4,000/. (Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. vii. 451). In 1397 Alice 
once more petitioned for the reversal of the 
judgment against her, and the matter was 
referred for the Icing's decision, apparently 
without effect (Rolls of Parliament, iii. 3676). 
Her will, dated 20 Aug. 1400, was proved 
on 3 Feb. 1401. She directed that she should 
be buried in the parish church of Upminster, 
Essex, in which parish her husband had pro- 
perty (NICOLAS, Testamenta Vetusta, pp. 
152-3). Her heirs were her daughters Jane 
and Joane ; the latter, at all events, seems 
to have been Windsor's daughter, for in 
1406, as Joan Despaigne or Southereye, 
she successfully claimed property at Up- 

In judging Alice's character it must be 
remembered that the chief witness against 
her is the hostile St. Albans chronicler. 
But other writers refer to her as Edward's 
mistress (e.g. MALVEKNE ap. HIGDEN, viii. 
385, Rolls Ser.) ; and though the charges 
of avarice and intrigue may be exaggerated, 
it is impossible to doubt the substantial 
accuracy of the story. Still, some historians 
have taken a favourable view of her charac- 
ter (BAKSTES, History of Edward III, p. 872; 
CAKTE, History of England, ii. 534), and it 
has been ingenuously suggested that she was 
only the king's sick-nurse (Notes and Queries, 
u.s.) Sir Robert Cotton, in a similar spirit,, 
speaks of her mishap that she was friendly 
to many, but all were not friendly to her. 
In any case, Alice had used her position to- 
acquire considerable wealth, and, in addition 
to the grants made to her, could purchase 
Egremont Castle before her marriage (*. 
u.s.), and also owned house property at 
London. In her prosperity John of Gaunt 
had given her a hanap of beryl, garnished 
with silver gilt ; after her fall he obtained 



certain of her houses in London, and her 
hostel on the banks of the Thames. An in- 
ventory of her jewels, value 470/. 18s. 8d. 
and confiscated in 1378, is printed in 'Archaeo- 
logia' (xx. 103). Other lists of property be- 
longing to her are given in ' Notes and 
Queries ' (7th ser. vii. 450). The St. Albans 
chronicler says Alice had no beauty of face 
or person, but made up for these defects by 
the blandishment of her tongue. Naturally 
her influence over the king was ascribed to 
witchcraft, and a Dominican friar was 
arrested in 1376 on the charge of having 
been her accomplice (Chron. Anglice, pp. 
95, 98). 

[Chron. Angliae, 1328-88 ; Walsingham's 
Gesta Abbatum S. Albani and Ypodigma Neu- 
strise (Rolls Ser.); Eolls of Parliament; Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser. vols. vii. and viii., especially 
vii. 449-51, by 'Hermentrude,' where a number 
of valuable notes from unpublished documents 
are collected ; Moberly's Life of Wykeham, pp. 
113-14, 121 ; Morant's History of Essex, i. 
107; Sharpe's Calendar of Wills in the Court 
of Husting, ii. 202, 301 ; Sir C-. F. Duckett's 
Duchetiana ; other authorities quoted.] 

C. L. K. 

PERRIN, LOUIS (1782-1864), Irish 
]udge, is said to have been born at Water- 
ford on 15 Feb. 1782. His father, JEAN 
BAPTISTE PERRIN (Jl. 1786), was born in 
France, and, coming to Dublin, became a 
teacher of French. He often resided for 
months at a time in the houses of such of 
the Irish gentry as desired to acquire a know- 
ledge of the French tongue. He mixed in 
the political agitations of the period, and 
on 26 April 1784 was elected an honorary 
member of the Sons of the Shamrock ; and 
is said in 1795 to have joined in the invita- 
tion to the French government to invade 
Ireland. In his later years he resided at 
Leinster Lodge, near Athy, co. Kildare. 
The date of his death is not given ; but he 
was buried in the old churchyard at Palmers- 
town. He was the author of: 1. 'The 
French Student's Vade-meciim/ London, 
1750. 2. ' Grammar of the French Tongue,' 
1768. 3. 'Fables Amusantes,' 1771. 4. 'En- 
tertaining and Instructive Exercises, with 
the Rules of the French Syntax,' 1773. 
5. ' The Elements of French Conversation, 
with Dialogues,' 1774. 6. ' Lettres Choisies 
sur toutes sortes de sujet,' 1777. 7. 'The 
Practice of the French Pronunciation alpha- 
betically exhibited,' 1777. 8. 'La Bonne 
Mere, contenant de petites pieces drama- 
tiques,' 1786. 9. ' The Elements of English 
Conversation, with a Vocabulary in French, 
English, and Italian,' Naples, 1814. The 
majority of these works went to many edi- 

tions, and the ' Fables ' were adapted to the 
Hamiltonian system in 1825. 

Louis Perrin was educated at the diocesan 
school at Armagh. Removing to Trinity 
College, Dublin, he gained a scholarship there 
in 1799, and graduated B.A. in 1801. At 
the trial of his fellow-student, Robert Em- 
met, in 1803, when sentence of death was 
pronounced, Perrin rushed forward in the 
court and warmly embraced the prisoner. 
He devoted himself with great energy to the 
study of mercantile law ; in Hilary term 
1806 was called to the bar, and was socn 
much employed in cases where penalties 
for breaches of the revenue laws were 
sought to be enforced. When Watty Cox, 
the proprietor and publisher of ' Cox's 
Magazine,' was prosecuted by the govern- 
ment for a libel in 1811, O'Connell, Burke, 
Bethel, and Perrin were employed for the 
defence ; but the case was practically con- 
ducted Toy the junior, who showed marked 
ability in the matter. He was also junior 
counsel, in 1811, in the prosecution of Sheri- 
dan, Kirwan, and the catholic delegates for 
violating the Convention Act. In 1832 he 
became a bencher of King's Inns, Dublin. 

He was a whig in politics, supported ca- 
tholic emancipation, and acquired the sobri- 
quet of ' Honest Louis Perrin.' On 6 May 
1831, in conjunction with Sir Robert Harty, 
he was elected a representative in parliament 
for Dublin. Being unseated in August, he 
was returned for Monaghan on 24 Dec. 1832, 
displacing Henry Robert Westenra, the pre- 
vious tory member. At the next general 
election he came in for the city of Cashel, 
on 14 Jan. 1835, but resigned in the follow- 
ing August, to take his seat on the bench. 
In the House of Commons he strove to pre- 
vent grand jury jobbery, and made an able 
speech on introducing the Irish municipal 
reform bill ; and he was untiring in his efforts 
to check intemperance by advocating regu- 
lations closing public-houses at eleven o'clock 
at night. 

From 7 Feb. 1832 to February 1835 he was 
third serjeant-at-law, from February to April 
1835 first serjeant, and on 29 April 1835, on 
the recommendation of the Marquis of Nor- 
manby, he succeeded Francis Blackburne 
[q. v.j as attorney-general. While a Ser- 
jeant he presided over the inquiry into the 
old Irish corporations, and on his report the 
Irish Municipal Act was founded. After 
the death of Thomas B. Vandeleur, he was 
appointed a puisne justice of the king's bench, 
Ireland, on 31 Aug. 1835. In the same year 
he was gazetted a privy councillor. He was 
most painstaking in the discharge of his im- 
portant functions ; and, despite some pecu- 



liarities of manner, may be regarded as one 
of the most able and uprigilt judges who 
have sat on the Irish bench. He resigned 
on a pension in February 1860, and resided 
near Rush, co. Dublin, where he frequently 
attended the petty sessions. He died at 
Knockdromin, near Rush, on 7 Dec. 1864, 
and was buried at Rush on 10 Dec. He 
married, in April 1815, Hester Connor, 
daughter of the Rev. Abraham Augustus 
Stewart, chaplain to the Royal Hibernian 
School, Dublin, by whom he had seven sons, 
including James, a major in the army, who 
fell at Lucknow in 1857 ; Louis, rector of 
Garrycloyne, Blarney, co. Cork; William, 
chief registrar of the Irish court of bank- 
ruptcy (d. 1892); Charles, major of the 66th 
foot from 1865; and Mark, registrar of judg- 
ments in Ireland. 

[For the father: ~W. J. Fitzpatrick's Secret 
Service under Pitt, 1892, pp. 199, 218, 245, 
246; Life of Lord Plunket, 1867, i. 218. For 
the son: ,T. K. O'Flanagan's Irish Bar, 1879, 
pp. 307-15; Gent. Mag. 1865, pt. i. pp. 123- 
124; Freeman's Journal, 8 Dec. 1864, p. 2, 
12 Dec. p. 3 ; information from the Her. Louis 
Perrin and from Mark Perrin, esq.] Or. C. B. 

1673), royalist divine, probably born in 
Hampshire in 1623, was educated at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. 1641, and M.A. 1645, and was elected 
to a fellowship (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th 
Rep. p. 481). He was ejected from his fel- 
lowship by the parliamentary commissioners 
under the ordinance of 13 Feb. 1645-6. On 
2 Jan. 1649-50 his name appears for the 
last time in the college books as owing the 
society 4/. 10s. 2d. At the Restoration he 
was admitted to the rectory of St. Mil- 
dred's, Poultry, to which that of St. Mary 
Colechiirch was annexed on 1 Feb. 1671 
(NEWCOTJRT, i. 503; WOOD, iv. 241). He pro- 
ceeded D.D. at Cambridge on 2 July 1663 ; 
his theses (' Potestas ecclesise in censuris est 
Jure Divino,' and ' Xon datur in terris pastor 
universalis totius ecclesiae ') were printed. 
On 3 Nov. 1664 he was installed prebendary 
of St. Peter's, Westminster, and on 2 Aug. 
1667 prebendary of London (Chiswick stall). 
On 29 March 1670 he was collated to the arch- 
deaconry of Huntingdon (CHESTER, West- 
minster Abbey Reg. p. 174). He was also 
sub-almoner to Charles II. He died at West- 
minster on 31 Aug 1673, and was buried on 
2 Sept. in the abbey * within the south monu- 
ment door ' (ib. p. 181). His wife had died 
on 15 June 1671. His will, dated 26 Aug. 
1673, is in the prerogative court, and was 
proved on 16 Oct. 1673. In accordance with 
its terms, the executors, William Clark, D.D., 

dean of Winchester, and Robert Peacock, 
rector of LongDitton, Surrey, purchased land, 
the rents of which were to be given in per- 
petuity to the vicars of Buckingham. 

Perrinchief wrote, besides separately issued 
sermons: 1. 'The Syracusan Tyrant, or the 
Life of Agathocles, with some Reflexions on 
the Practices of our Modern Usurpers,' Lon- 
don, 1661 (dedicated to Thomas, earl of South- 
ampton) ; republished London, 1676, as ' The 
Sicilian Tyrant, or the Life of Agathocles.' 
2. 'A Discourse of Toleration, in answer to a 
late book [by John Corbet (1620-1680), q. v.] 
entituled A Discourse of the Religion of Eng- 
land,' London, 1667 ; Perrinchief opposed 
toleration or any modification of the esta- 
blishment. 3. ' Indulgence not justified : 
being a continuation of the Discourse of 
Toleration in answer to the arguments of a 
late book entituled a Peace Offering or Plea 
for Indulgence, and to the cavils of another 
[by John Corbet], called the Second Dis- 
course of the Religion in England,' London, 

Perrinchief also completed the edition pre- 
pared by William Fulman [q. v.] of ' BacriAt/oi : 
the Workes of King Charles the Martyr,' with 
a collection of declaration and treaties, Lon- 
don, 1662, and compiled a life for it from Ful- 
man's notes and some materials of Silas Titus. 
This life was republished in 1676 as ' The 
Royal Martyr, or the Life and Death of King 
Charles I,' anon. ; and was included in the 
1727 edition of the EIKWV /Sao-iA**??, as 'written 
by Richard Perencheif, one of his majesties 

[Luard's Grad. Cantabr. ; Wood's Athena? 
Oxon. iv. 241, 625, Fasti, ii. 186, 374 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of Univ. Oxon. 
1674,ii.243; State Papers, Dom. Car. Entry 
Books 19, f. 147 ; Newcourt's Kepertorium; Lansd. 
MSS. 986 f. 164, 988 f. 2586; Walker's Suffer- 
ings of the Clergy, ii. 151 ; information kindly 
sent by A. Gv Peskett, master of Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and Mr. J. W. Clark, registrary 
of the university, Cambridge.] W. A. S. 

PERRING, JOHN SHAE (1813-1869), 
civil engineer and explorer, was born at Bos- 
ton in Lincolnshire on 24 Jan. 1813. He 
was educated atDonington grammar school, 
and then articled, on 28 March 1826, to 
Robert Reynolds, the surveyor of the port of 
Boston, under whom he was engaged in sur- 
veying, in the enclosure and drainage of 
the Fens, in the improvements of Boston 
Harbour and of Wainfleet Haven, and the 
outfall of the East Fen, in the drainage of 
the Burgh and Croft marshes, and other 
works. In 1833 he proceeded to London, and 
was there employed in engineering establish- 
ments. In March 1836 he went to Egypt, 




under contract with Galloway Brothers of 
London, as assistant engineer to Galloway 
Bey, then manager of public works for Ma- 
homed Ali, viceroy of Egypt. One of the 
first undertakings on which Perring was en- 
gaged was the construction of a tramway 
from the quarries near Mex to the sea. After 
the death of Galloway he became a member 
of the board of public works, was consulted 
as to the embankment of the Nile, advocated 
the establishment of stations in the Desert 
between Cairo and Suez to facilitate the 
overland transit, and was employed to make 
a road with the object of carrying out this 

From January to August 1837 he was 
busy helping Colonel Howard Vyse and 
others in making a survey of the pyramids at 
Gizeh, and in the execution of plans, draw- 
ings, and maps of these monuments. He had 
already published ' On the Engineering of the 
Ancient Egyptians,' London, 1835, six num- 
bers. The years 1838 and 1839 he spent in 
exploring and surveying the pyramids at Abou 
Roash, and those to the southward, including 
Fayoom. His services to Egyptian history 
are described in ' The Pyramids of Gizeh, 
from actual survey and admeasurement, by 
J. E. [sic] Perring, Esq., Civil Engineer. Illus- 
trated by Notes and References to the several 
Plans, with Sketches taken on the spot by 
E. J. Andrews, Esq., London, 1839, oblong 
folio. Part i. : The Great Pyramid, with a map 
and sixteen plates ; part ii. : The Second and 
Third Pyramids, the smaller to the southward 
of the Third, and the three to the eastward 
of the Great Pyramid, with nineteen plates ; 
part iii. : The Pyramids to the southward of 
Gizeh and at Abou Roash, also Campbell's 
Tomb and a section'of the rock at Gizeh, with 
map of the Pyramids of Middle Egypt and 
twenty-one plates.' Perring's labours are also 
noticed in Colonel R. W. H. H. Vyse's < Ope- 
rations carried on at the Pyramids of Gizeh 
in 1837, with account of a Voyage into Upper 
Egypt, and an Appendix containing a Survey 
by J. S. Perring of the Pyramids of Abou 
Roash,' 3 vols. 4to, 1840-2 (i. 143 et seq., ii. 
1 et seq., iii. 1 et seq.), with a portrait of Per- 
ring in an eastern costume. Perring, before 
leaving Egypt, made a trigonometrical sur- 
vey of the fifty-three miles of country near 
the pyramids. The value of these researches, 
all made at the cost of Colonel Vyse, are fully 
acknowledged in C. C. J. Bunsen's ' Egypt's 
Place in Universal History,' 5 vols. 1854 
(ii. 28-9, 635-45), where it is stated that 
they resulted in furnishing the names of six 
Egyptian kings till then unknown to his- 

Perring returned to England in June 1840, 

and on 1 March 1841 entered upon the duties 
of engineering superintendent of the Llanelly 
railway docks and harbour . x In April 1844 he 
became connected with the Manchester, Bury, 
and Rossendale railway, which he helped to 
complete ; and, after its amalgamation with 
other lines, was from 1846 till 1859 resident 
engineer of the East Lancashire railway. He 
was subsequently connected with the Rail- 
way, Steel, and Plant Company, was engineer 
of the Ribblesdale railway, and constructed 
the joint lines from Wigan to Blackburn. He 
was also engineer of the Oswaldtwistle and 
other waterworks. Finally, he was one of 
the engineers of the Manchester city rail- 
ways. On 6 Dec. 1853 he was elected a 
member of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers, and in 1856 a member of the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers. He died at 
104 King Street, Manchester, on 16 Jan. 

[Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of Civil 
Engineers, 1870, xxx. 455-6; Proceedings of 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1870, pp. 
15-16.] G-. C. B. 

PERRONET, VINCENT (1693-1785), 
vicar of Shoreham and methodist, youngest 
son of David and Philothea Perronet, was 
born in London on 11 Dec. 1693. His father, 
a native of Chateau d'Oex in the canton of 
Berne, and a protestant, came over to Eng- 
land about 1680, and was naturalised by act 
of parliament in 1707, having previously 
married Philothea Arther or Arthur, a lady 
of good family, whose paternal grandfather, 
an officer of the court of Star-chamber, lost a 
considerable estate near Devizes, Wiltshire, 
during the civil war. David Perronet died 
in 1717. One of his elder brothers, Christian, 
was grandfather of the celebrated French 
engineer Jean Rodolphe Perronet (1708- 
1794), director of the 'ponts et chaussees' of 
France, and builder of the bridge of Neuilly, 
and of the bridge e de la Concorde ' (formerly 
Pont Louis XVI) in Paris ; he was a foreign 
member of the Royal Society, England, and 
of the Society of Arts, London. 

Vincent Perronet, after receiving his earlier 
education at a school in the north of England, 
entered Queen's College, Oxford, whence he 
graduated B.A. on 27 Oct. 1718 (Cat. of 
Graduates) ; in later life he was described 
as M.A. On 4 Dec. 1718 he married Charity, 
daughter of Thomas and Margaret Good- 
hew of London, and, having taken holy 
orders, became curate of Sundridge, Kent, 
where he remained about nine years ; in 
1728 he was presented to the vicarage of 
Shoreham in the same county. He was of 
an extremely religious temperament, believed 



that lie received many tokens of a special 
providence, and wrote a record of them, 
headed ' Some remarkable facts in the life of 
a person whom we shall call Eusebius ' (ex- 
tracts given in the Methodist Magazine, 
1799), wherein he relates certain dreams, es- 
capes from danger, and the like, as divine 
interpositions. On 14 Feb. 1744 he had his 
iirst interview with John Wesley, who was 
much impressed by his piety (J. WESLEY, 
Journal, ap. Works, i. 468). Both the Wes- 
leys visited him and preached in his church 
in 1746. When Charles Wesley preached 
there a riot took place, the rioters following 
the preacher to the vicarage, threatening, and 
throwing stones, while he was defended by 
one of Perronet's sons, Charles. From that 
time both the Wesleys looked to Perronet 
for advice and support ; he was, perhaps, their 
most intimate friend, and they respected his 
judgment no less than they delighted in his 
religious character. He attended the metho- 
dist conference of 15 June 1747. In April 
1748 Charles Wesley consulted him about 
Ms intended marriage ; in 1749 he wrote to 
C. Wesley exhorting him to avoid a quarrel 
with his brother John, to whom Charles had 
lately behaved somewhat shabbily, and a 
letter from him in February 1751 led John 
Wesley to decide on marrying (TYEKMAJST, 
Life ofJ. Wesley, ii. 6, 104). 

He wrote in defence of the methodists, 
was consulted by the Wesleys in reference to 
their regulations for itinerant preachers, in 
one of which he was appointed umpire in case 
of disagreement, and was called ' the arch- 
bishop of methodism ' (ib. p. 230). Two of 
his sons, Edward and Charles, were among 
the itinerant preachers. His wife, who died 
in 1763, was buried by John Wesley, who also 
visited him in 1765 to comfort him under 
the loss of one of his sons. He encouraged 
a methodist society at Shoreham, headed by 
Ms unmarried daughter, ' the bold masculine- 
minded ' Damaris, entertained the itinerant 
preachers, attended their sermons, and had 
preaching in his kitchen every Friday even- 
ing. He held a daily bible-reading in his 
house, at 6rst at five A.M., though it was 
afterwards held two hours later. In 1769 
lie had a long illness, and, when recovering 
in January 1770, received visits from John 
Wesley and from Selina, Countess of Hunt- 
ingdon [see HASTINGS, SELINA], who describes 
Mm as ' a most heavenly-minded man ' 
(Life and Times of Selina, Countess of Hunt- 
ingdon, i. 317). In 1771 he upheld J. Wes- 
ley against the countess and her party at the 
time of the Bristol conference. When in 
his ninetieth year he was visited by J. Wes- 
ley, who noted that his intellect was little if 


at all impaired. In his last days he was 
attended by one of his granddaughters by 
Ms daughter Elizabeth Briggs. He died on 
y May 178o m his ninety-second year, and 
was buried at Shoreham by Charles Wesley, 
who preached a funeral sermon on the occa- 


Perronet was a man of great piety, of a 
frank, generous, and cheerful temper, gentle 
and affectionate in disposition, and courteous 
in manner. His habits were studious ; he at 
one time took some interest in philosophical 
works so far as they bore on religion, though 
he chiefly gave himself to the study and ex- 
position of biblical prophecy, specially with 
reference to the second advent and the mil- 
lennium (Methodist Magazine, 1799, p. 161). 
He owned a farm in the neighbourhood of 
Canterbury, and was in easy circumstances. 
By his wife Charity, who died on 5 Feb. 
1763, in her seventy-fourth year, he had at 
least twelve children, of whom Edward is 
noticed below; Charles, born in or about 
1723, accompanied C. Wesley to Ireland in 
1747, became one of the Wesleys' itinerant 
preachers, was somewhat insubordinate in 
1750, and deeply offended J. Wesley by 
printing and circulating a letter at Norwich 
contrary to his orders in 1754 ; he advo- 
cated separation from the church, and license 
to the preachers to administer the sacra- 
ment, against the orders of the Wesleys, and 
took upon himself to do so both to other 
preachers and some members of' the society, 
being, according to C. Wesley, actuated by 
' cursed pride.' He was enraged by the sub- 
mission of his party, and afterwards ceased 
to work for the Wesleys, residing at Canter- 
bury with his brother Edward, where he died 
unmarried on 12 Aug. 1776. Of the other 
sons, Vincent, born probably in 1724, died in 
May 1746 ; Thomas died on 9 March 1755 ; 
Henry died 1765 ; John, born 1733, died 
28 Oct. 1767 ; and William, when return- 
ing from a residence of over two years in 
Switzerland, whither he had gone on business 
connected with the descent of the family 
estate, died at Douay on 2 Dec. 1781. Of Per- 
ronet's two daughters, Damaris, her father's 
'great stay,' was born on 25 July 1727, 
and died unmarried on 19 Sept. 1782 ; and 
Elizabeth married, on 28 Jan. 1749, William 
Briggs, of the custom-house, the Wesleys' 
secretary (Gent. Mag. January 1749, xix. 44) 
or one of J. Wesley's * book-stewards ' (see 
WHITEHEAD, Life of Wesley, ii. 261). Eliza- 
beth and Edward alone survived their father. 
Of all Perronet's children, Elizabeth alone had 
issue, among whom was a daughter, Philothea 
Perronet, married, on 29 Aug. 1781, at Shore- 
ham, to Thomas Thompson [q. v.], a merchant 





of Hull. From the marriage of Elizabeth 
Perronet to William Briggs was descended 
Henry Perronet Briggs [q. v.], subject and 
portrait painter. 

Perronet published : 1. ' A Vindication of 
Mr. Locke,' 8vo, 1736. 2. ' A Second Vin- 
dication of Mr. Locke,' 8vo, 1738 [see under 
BTJTLER, JOSEPH]. 3. ' Some Enquiries 
chiefly relating to Spiritual Beings, in which 
the opinions of Mr. Hobbes ... are taken 
notice of,' 8vo, 1740. 4. ' An Affectionate 
Address to the People called Quakers/ 8vo, 
1747. 5. 'A Defence of Infant Baptism,' 
12mo, 1749. 6. ' Some Eemarks on the En- 
thusiasm of Methodists and Quakers com- 
pared ' (see under LAVINGTON, GEOKGE, and 
London Magazine, 1749, p. 436). 7. 'An 
Earnest Exhortation to the strict Practice of 
Christianity,' 8vo, 1750. 8. 'Third Letter 
to the author of the Enthusiasm of Metho- 
dists ' (London Mag. 1752, p. 48). 9. l Some 
Short Instructions and Prayers,' 8vo, 4th 
edit. 1755. 10. t Some Reflections on Ori- 
ginal Sin,' &c., 12mo, 1776. 11. ' Essay on 
Recreations,' 8vo, 1785. 

Perronet's portrait was engraved by J. 
Spilsbury in 1787 (BROMLEY), and is given in 
the ' Methodist Magazine,' November 1799. 
EDWARD PERRONET (1721-1792), hymn- 
writer, son of Vincent and Charity Perronet, 
was born in 1721. He was John Wesley's 
companion on his visit to the north in 1749, 
and met with rough treatment from the mob 
at Bolton. He became one of Wesley's 
itinerant preachers, was on most friendly 
terms with both John and Charles Wesley, 
who spoke of him as { trusty Ned Perronet,' 
and seems to have made an unfortunate sug- 
gestion that led John Wesley to marry Mrs. 
Vazeille (TYERMAN, ii. 104). Yet even by 
that time his impatience of control had 
caused some trouble to John Wesley, who, 
in 1750, wrote to him that, though he and 
his brother Charles Perronet behaved as he 
liked, they either could not or would not 
preach where he desired (ib. p. 85). In 
1754-5 Perronet, in common with his brother 
Charles, urged separation from the church 
and the grant of license to the itinerants to 
administer the sacraments. He was at that 
date living at Canterbury (see above) in a 
house formed out of part of the old archi- 
episcopal palace. His attack on the church 
in the ' Mitre ' in 1756 caused the Wesleys 
deep annoyance ; they prevailed on him to 
suppress the book, but he appears to have 
given some copies away to his fellow-itine- 
rants, after promising to suppress it. Charles 
Wesley wrote a violent letter to his brother 
John on the subject on 16 Nov. of that year, 
speaking of the ''levelling, devilish, root-and- 

branch spirit which breathes in every line 
of the "Mitre,"' declaring that Perronet had 
from the first set himself against them, and 
had poisoned the minds of the other preach- 
ers ; that he wandered about from house 
to house ' in a lounging way of life,' and that 
he had better ' go home to his wife ' at Can- 
terbury. Among Perronet's offences noted 
in this letter, the writer says that on a late 
visit to Canterbury he had seen his own and 
his brother's ' sacrament hymns ' so scratched 
out and blotted by him that scarcely twenty 
lines were left entire (ib. p. 254). By 1771, 
and probably earlier, he had ceased to be 
connected with Wesley ; he joined the 
Countess of Huntingdon's connexion, and 
preached under her directions at Canterbury, 
Norwich, and elsewhere, with some succes's. 
The countess, however, remonstrated with 
him for his violent language about the 
church of England, and he therefore ceased 
to work under her (Life of Selina, Countess 
of Huntingdon, ii. 134-5), and became 
minister of a small chapel at Canterbury 
with an independent congregation. He died 
on 8 Jan. 1792, and was buried in the south 
cloister of the cathedral of Canterbury, near 
the transept door. Unlike his father, he 
seems to have been hot-headed, uplifted, 
bitter in temper, and impatient of all con- 
trol. In old age he was crusty and eccentric. 
In 1892 nonconformists at Canterbury held 
a centenary festival to commemorate his 
work in that city. From the letter of C. 
Wesley referred to above, it would seem that 
he had a wife in 1756. There is, however, a 
strong belief among some of the descend- 
ants of Vincent Perronet that Edward never 
married. It is possible that the wife spoken 
of by C. Wesley was one in expectancy, and 
that the marriage never took place ; he cer- 
tainly left no children. 

His published works are : 1. ' Select Pas- 
sages of the Old and New Testament versi- 
fied,' 12mo, 1756. 2. ' The Mitre, a sacred 
poem,' 8vo, printed 1757 (a slip from a book- 
seller's catalogue gives the date 1756, with 
note ' suppressed by private authority : ' it 
was certainly printed in 1756, but a new 
title-page may have been supplied in 1757 ; 
see copy in the British Museum, with manu- 
script notes and corrections, and presentation 
inscription from the author, signed E. P. in 
monogram) ; it contains a dull and virulent 
attack on the Church of England. It was 
published without the author's name. In 
one of the notes the author says, ' I was born 
and am like to die a member of the Church 
of England, but I despise her nonsense.' 
3. ' A Small Collection of Hymns,' 12mo, 
1782. 4. 'Occasional Verses, moral and 



sacred,' 12mo, 1785; on p. 22 is Perronet's 
well-known hymn, ' All hail the power of 
Jesu's name,' which first appeared in the 
' Gospel Magazine/ 1780, without signature. 

[Life of V. Perronet in Methodist Mag. vol. 
xxi i. January-April 1799 ; Tyerman's Life of J. 
Wesley, 2nd edit. ; Whitehead's Life of Wesley ; 
J. Wesley's Journal, ap. Works, 1829 ; Jackson's 
Journal, &c., of C. Wesley ; Life and Times of 
Selina, Countess of Huntingdon ; Gent. Mag. 
January 1749 xix. 44, July 1813 Ixxxii. 82; 
Day of Kest,new ser. (1879), i. 765 ; W. Gadsby's 
Companion to Selection of Hymns ; J. Gadsby's 
Memoirs of Hymn-writers, 3rd edit. ; Julian's 
Diet, of Hymnology, art. 'Perronet, Edward,' by 
Dr. G-rosart; family papers and other informa- 
tion from Miss Edith Thompson.] W. H. 

PERROT, GEORGE (1710-1780), baron 
of the exchequer, born in 1710, belonged to 
the Yorkshire branch of the Perrots of Pem- 
brokeshire . He was the second son of Thomas 
Perrot, prebendary of Ripon and rector of 
Welbury in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
and of St. Martin-in-Micklegate in the city 
of York, by his wife Anastasia, daughter of 
the Rev. George Plaxton, rector of Barwick- 
in-Elmet in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
After receiving his education at Westminster 
School, he was admitted a student of the 
Inner Temple in November 1728, and was 
called to the bar in 1732. In May 1757 he 
was elected a bencher of his inn, and in 1759 
was made a king's counsel. On 16 April 1760 
he opened the case against Laurence Shirley, 
fourth earlFerrers, who was tried for the mur- 
der of John Johnson by the House of Lords 
(HowELL, State Trials, xix. 894). On 24 Jan. 
1763 he was called to the degree of serjeant, 
and appointed a baron of the exchequer in 
the place of Sir Henry Gould the younger 
[q. v.] He was seized with a fit of palsy at 
Maidstone during the Lent assizes in 1775, 
and shortly afterwards retired from the 
bench with a pension of 1,200. a year. 
Having purchased the manor of Fladbury 
and other considerable estates in Worcester- 
shire, he retired to Pershore, where he died 
on 28 Jan. 1780, in the seventieth year of 
his age. A monument was erected to his 
memory in the parish church at Laleham, 
Middlesex, in pursuance of directions con- 
tained in his widow's will. He was never 

He married, in 1742, Mary, only daughter 
of John Bower of Bridlington Quay, York- 
shire, and widow of Peter Whitton, lord 
mayor of York in 1728. Perrot left no 
children. His widow died on 7 March 1784, 
aged 82. According to Horace Walpole, 
Perrot while on circuit ' was so servile as to 
recommend' from the bench a congratulatory 

address to the king on the peace of 1763 
(History of the Reign of George III, 1894, 
i. 2J2). His curious power of discrimination 
may be estimated by the conclusion of his sum- 
ming-up on a trial at Exeter as to the right 
to a certain stream of water : ' Gentlemen, 
there are fifteen witnesses who swear that 
the watercourse used to flow in a ditch on 
the north side of the hedge. On the other 
hand, gentlemen, there are nine witnesses 
who swear that the watercourse used to flow 
on the south side of the hedge. Now, gen- 
tlemen, if you subtract nine from fifteen 
there remain six witnesses wholly uncon- 
tradicted ; and I recommend you to give 
your verdict accordingly for the party who 
called those six witnesses ' (Foss, Judges of 
England, 1864, viii. 355). It appears from 
a petition presented by Perrot to the House 
of Commons that in 1769 he was the sole 
owner and proprietor of the navigation of 
the river Avonfrom Tewkesbury to Evesham. 
[The authorities quoted in the text; Barn- 
well's Perrot Notes, 1867, pp. 108-9; Memorials 
of Ripon (Surtees Soc. Publ. 1886), ii. 315; 
Nash's Worcestershire, 1781, i. 383, 447-8, 
Suppl. pp.59, 61 ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1846, 
i. 128; Martin's Masters of the Bench of the 
Inner Temple, 1883, p. 76; Alumni Westmon. 
1852, p. 546; Gent. Mag. 1775 p. 301, 1780 
p. 102, 1784 pt. i. p. 238; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. 
v. 347,411.] G. F. E. B. 

PERROT, HENRY (fl. 1600-1626), epi- 
grammatist. [See PAKEOT.] 

PERROT, SIE JAMES (1571-1637), poli- 
tician, born at Harroldston in Pembrokeshire 
in 1571, is stated to have been an illegitimate 
son of Sir John Perrot [q. v.] by Sybil Jones 
of Radnorshire. He matriculated from Jesus 
College, Oxford, as Sir John's second son, on 
8 July 1586, aged 14, left the university with- 
out a degree, entered the Middle Temple in 
1590, and, 'afterwards travelling, returned 
an accomplish'd gentleman' (WOOD). He 
settled down upon the estate at Harroldston 
which had been given him by his father, and 
seems for a time to have devoted himself to 
literary composition. In 1596 was printed 
at Oxford, in quarto, by Joseph Barnes, his 
exceedingly rare ' Discovery of Discontented 
Minds, wherein their several sorts and pur- 
poses are described, especially such as are 
gone beyond y e Seas,' which was dedicated 
to the Earl of Essex, and had for its object 
to ' restrain those dangerous malecontents 
who, whether as scholars or soldiers, turned 
fugitives or renegades, and settled in foreign 
countries, especially under the umbrage of 
the king of Spain, to negociate conspiracies 




and invasions ' (cf. OLDYS, ' Catalogue of 
Pamphlets in the Harleian Library/ Harl. 
Misc. x. 358). This was followed in 1600 
by ' The First Part of the Consideration of 
Hvmane Condition : wherein is contained 
the Morall Consideration of a Man's Selfe : 
as what, who, and what manner of Man he 
is,' Oxford, 4to. This was to be followed by 
three parts dealing respectively with the 
political consideration of things under us, the 
natural consideration of things about us, 
and the metaphysical consideration of things 
above us ; none of which, however, appeared. 
Perrot also drew up ' A Book of the Birth, 
Education, Life and Death, and singular 
good Parts of Sir Philip Sidney,' which Wood 
appears to have seen in manuscript, and 
which Oldys ' earnestly desired to meet with,' 
but which was evidently never printed. In 
the meantime Perrot had represented the 
borough of Haverfordwest in the parliament 
of 1597-8, and during the progress of James I 
to London he was in July 1603 knighted at 
the house of Sir William Fleetwood. He sat 
again for Haverfordwest in the parliament 
of 1604, and in the 'Addled parliament' of 
1614, when he took a vigorous part in the 
debates on the impositions, and shared to 
the full the indignation expressed by the 
lower house at the speech of Bishop Richard 
Neile [q. v.], questioning the competence of 
the commons to deal with this subject. When 
parliament met again in 1621 it contained few 
members who were listened to with greater 
willingness than Perrot, who combined expe- 
rience with a popular manner of speaking. It 
was he who on 5 Feb. 1621 moved that the 
house should receive the communion at St. 
Margaret's, and who, in June, moved a declara- 
tion in favour of assisting James's children 
in the Palatinate, which was received by the 
house with enthusiasm, and declared by Sir 
Edward Cecil to be an inspiration from 
heaven, and of more effect ' than if we had 
ten thousand soldiers on the march.' Later 
on, in November 1621, he spoke in favour of 
a war of diversion and attack upon Spain in 
the Indies. Hitherto he had successfully com- 
bined popularity in the house with favour at 
court, and had specially gratified the king 
by supporting his plan to try Bacon's case 
before a special commission ; but in December 
the warmth of his denunciation of the Spanish 
marriage, and his insistence upon fresh 
guarantees against popery, caused him to be 
numbered among the 'ill-tempered spirits.' 
He was, in consequence, subjected to an 
honourable banishment to Ireland, as a mem- 
ber of Sir Dudley Digges's [see DIGGES, SIR 
DUDLEY] commission for investigating certain 
grievances in Ireland (WOOD; cf. GA.RDINEK, 

History, iv. 267). In the parliament of 1624 
Perrot, as representative for the county of 
Pembroke, played a less conspicuous part ; 
but in that of 1628, when he again represented 
Haverfordwest, he made a powerful speech 
against Laud. 

Perrot played a considerable part in his 
native county. In 1624 he became a lessee 
of the royal mines in Pembrokeshire, and 
from about that period he commenced acting 
as deputy vice-admiral for the Earl of Pem- 
broke. In August 1625 he wrote to the 
government that Turkish pirates were upon 
the south-west coast, having occupied Lundy 
for over a fortnight, and made numerous 
captives in Mounts Bay, Cornwall. From 
1626 he acted as the vice-admiral or repre- 
sentative of the admiralty in Pembrokeshire, 
and wrote frequently to Secretary Conway 
respecting the predatory habits of the Welsh 
wreckers, and the urgent necessity of forti- 
fying Milford Haven. He was a member of 
the Virginia Company, to which he sub- 
scribed 371. 10s. In 1630 he issued his 'Medi- 
tations and Prayers on the Lord's Prayer and 
Ten Commandments,' London, 4to. He died 
at his house of Harroldston on 4 Feb. 1636-7, 
and was buried in the chancel of St. Mary's 
Church, Haverfordwest. He married Mary, 
daughter of Robert Ashfield of Chesham, 
Buckinghamshire, but left no issue. Some 
commendatory verses by him are prefixed to 
the ' Golden Grove ' (1608) of his friend 
Henry Vaughan. 

[Barnwell's Perrot Notes (reprinted froix 
Archseol. Cambr.), 1867, p. 59 ; Wood's Athene, 
ed. Bliss, ii. 605-6 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Metcalfe's Book of Knights; Le 
Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights, p. 165; Old 
Parliamentary Hist. v. 525, viii. 280 ; Cobbett's 
Parl. Hist. i. 1306, 1310, 1313; Gardiner's Hist. 
ofEngl. iv. 28,67, 128, 235, 255; Spedding's 
Bacon, xiii. 65 ; Williams's Eminent Welshmen ; 
Williams's Parliamentary History of Wales ; 
Madan's Early Oxford Press (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 
pp. 40, 49.] T. S. 

PERROT, SIR JOHN (1527 P-1592), 
lord deputy of Ireland, commonly reputed to 
be the son of Henry VIII, whom he re- 
sembled in appearance, and Mary Berkley 
(afterwards the wife of Thomas Perrot, esq., 
of Istingston and Harroldston, in Pembroke- 
shire), was born, probably at Harroldston, 
about 1527 (NAUNTON, Fragmenta Regalia ; 
Archceologia Cambrensis, 3rd ser. vol. xi.) 
He was educated apparently at St. David's 
(CaL State Papers, Irel. Eliz. ii. 549), and at 
the age of eighteen was placed in the house- 
hold of William Paulet, first marquis of Win- 
chester [q. v.] Uniting great physical strength 
to a violent and arbitrary disposition, he was 




much addicted to brawling, and it was to a 
fracas between him and two of the yeomen of 
the guard, in which he was slightly wounded, 
that he owed his personal introduction to 
Henry VIII. The king, whether he was 
acquainted with the secret of his birth or 
whether he merely admired his courage and 
audacity, made him a promise of preferment, 
but died before he could fulfil it. Perrot, how- 
ever, found a patron in Edward VI, and was by 
him, at his coronation, created a knight of the 
Bath. His skill in knightly exercises secured 
him a place in the train of the Marquis of 
Northampton on the occasion of the latter's 
visit to France in June 1551 to negotiate a 
marriage between Edward VI and Elizabeth, 
the infant daughter of Henry II. He fully 
maintained the reputation for gallantry he 
had acquired at home, and by his bravery in 
the chase so fascinated the French king that 
he offered him considerable inducements to 
enter his service. 

Returning to England, he found himself in- 
volved in considerable pecuniary difficulties, 
from which he was relieved by the generosity 
of Edward. The fact of his being a pro- 
testant did not a,t first militate against him 
with Queen Mary ; but, being accused by one 
Gadern or Cathern, a countryman of his, of 
sheltering heretics in his house in Wales, and, 
among others his uncle, Robert Perrot, reader 
in Greek to Edward VI and Alexander Nowell 
[q. v.] (afterwards dean of Lichfield), he was 
committed to the Fleet. His detention was of 
short duration, and, being released, he served 
under the Earl of Pembroke in France, and 
was present at the capture of St. Quentin 
in 1557. His refusal, however, to assist 
Pembroke in hunting down heretics in south 
Wales caused a breach in their friendly re- 
lations, though it did not prevent the earl 
from generously using his influence to bring 
to a successful issue a suit of Perrot's for the 
castle and lordship of Carew. At the coro- 
nation of Elizabeth, Perrot was one of the 
four gentlemen chosen to carry the canopy of 
state, and being apparently shortly after- 
wards appointed vice-admiral of the seas 
about south W T ales and keeper of the gaol 
at Haverfordwest, he for some years divided 
his time between the court and his estate 
in Pembrokeshire. 

Since the outbreak of the rebellion in Ire- 
land of James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald [q. v.] 
in 1568, it had been the settled determination 
of Elizabeth and her ministers to establish a 
presidential government in Munster similar 
to that in Connaught. In November 1570 the 
post was offered to Perrot, and was somewhat 
reluctantly accepted by him. He sailed from 
Milford Haven and arrived at Waterford on 

27 Feb. 1571. A day or two afterwards 
Fitzmaurice burned the town of Kilmallock, 
and Perrot, recognising the importance of 
reaching the seat of his government with- 
out loss of time, hastened to Dublin, and, 
having taken the oath before Sir Henry Sid- 
ney [q. v.], proceeded immediately to Cork. 
From Cork he marched directly to Kilmal- 
lock, where he took up his quarters in a half- 
burned house, and issued a proclamation to 
the fugitive townsmen to return and repair 
the walls and buildings of the town. While 
thus engaged, information reached him one 
night that the rebels had attacked Lord 
Roche ; whereupon, taking with him his own 
troop of horse, he pursued them as far as 
Knocklong. But finding they were likely 
to make good their escape among the neigh- 
bouring bogs, he caused his men to dismount 
and to follow them in their own fashion, 
and had the satisfaction of killing fifty of 
them, whose heads he fixed on the market- 
cross of Kilmallock. Having placed the 
town in a posture of defence, Perrot pursued 
his journey to Limerick, capturing a castle 
belonging to Tibbot Burke on the way. 
From Limerick, where the Earl of Thomond, 
O'Shaughnessy, and Sir Thomas of Desmond 
came to him, he proceeded to Cashel, where 
he hanged several ' grasy merchants, being 
such as bring bread and aquavita or other 
provisions unto the rebels/ and so by way of 
Fethard, Clonmel, Carrick-on-Suir, and Lis- 
more, near where he captured Mocollop 
Castle, back to Cork, which he reached on 
the last day of May. 

Fixing his headquarters at Cork, he made 
excursions into the territories of the ' White 
Knight ' and the McSwiney s, and ' slew many 
of the rebels and hanged as many as he might 
take.' Though greatly harassed by his in- 
cessant warfare, Fitzmaurice had managed 
to enlist a large body of redshanks, and with 
these he scoured the country from Aharlow 
to Castlemaine, and from Glenflesk to Balti- 
more. Perrot, who spared neither himself nor 
his men in his efforts to catch him, in vain 
tempted him to risk a battle in the open, but, 
meeting him on the edge of a wood, he at- 
tacked and routed him, and forced his allies 
across the Shannon. On 21 June he sat down 
before Castlemaine, but after five weeks was 
compelled, by lack of provisions, to raise the 
siege. His eagerness to terminate the rebel- 
lion led him to countenance a proposal for 
the restoration of Sir John of Desmond as a 
counterpoise to Fitzmaurice [see FITZGERALD, 
SIE JOHN FITZEDMUND, 1528-1612], and even 
induced him to listen to a proposal of Fitz- 
maurice to settle the question by single 
combat. Fitzmaurice, as the event proved, 




bad no intention of meeting Perrot on equal 
terms; and, after deluding- him with one ex- 
cuse and another, finally declared that a duel 
was out of the question. ' For,' said he, ' if 
I should kill Sir John Perrot the queen of 
England can send another president into 
this province ; but if he do kill me there is 
none other to succeed me or to command as 
I do ' (RAWLINSON, Life, p. 63). Perrot swore 
to ' hunt the fox out of his hole ' without 
further delay. Shortly afterwards he was 
drawn by a trick into a carefully prepared 
ambush. Outnumbered by at least ten or 
twelve to one, he would certainly have lost 
his life had not the opportune arrival of Cap- 
tain Bowles with three or four soldiers caused 
Fitzmaurice, who mistook them for the ad- 
vance guard of a larger body, to withdraw 
hastily. Even this lesson did not teach Perrot 
prudence. For having, as he believed, driven 
Fitzmaurice into a corner, he allowed himself 
to be deluded into a parley, under cover of 
which Fitzmaurice managed to withdraw his 
men into safety. In June 1572 he again sat 
down before Castlemaine, and, after a three 
months' blockade, forced the place to sur- 
render. He encountered Fitzmaurice,who was 
advancing to its relief at the head of a body 
of Scoto-Irish mercenaries, in MacBrianCoo- 
nagh's country. Fitzmaurice, however, with 
the bulk of his followers, managed to make 
good his escape into the wood of Aharlow. 
Perrot's efforts to expel them were crippled by 
the refusal of his soldiers to serve until they 
received some of their arrears of pay. But 
the garrison at Kilmallock, assisted by Sir 
Edmund and Edward Butler, rendered admir- 
able service ; and Fitzmaurice, finding himself 
at the end of his tether, sued for mercy. Per- 
rot reluctantly consented to pardon him. He 
was somewhat reconciled to this course by 
Fitzmaurice's submissive attitude, and com- 
forted himself with the hope that the ex- 
rebel, having seen the error of his ways, 
would eventually prove f a second St. Paul.' 
Having thus, as he vainly imagined, re- 
stored tranquillity to Munster, he begged to 
be allowed to return home. During his tenure 
of office he had killed or hanged at least 
eight hundred rebels, with the loss of only 
eighteen Englishmen, and had done some- 
thing to substitute English customs for Irish 
in the province. But the service had told 
severely on his constitution; and for every 
white hair that he had brought over with him 
he protested he could show sixty. He was 
dissatisfied with Elizabeth's determination to 
restore Gerald Fitzgerald, fifteenth earl of 
Desmond [q. v.] ; he was annoyed by reports 
that reached him of Essex's interference with 
his tenantry; and, though able to justify him- 

self, he could ill brook to be reprimanded -by 
the privy council for his conduct in regard 
to the Peter and Paul, a French vessel hailing 
from Portugal with a valuable cargo of spices, 
which he had caused to be detained at Cork. 
A graceful letter of thanks from Elizabeth, 
desiring him to continue at his post, failed 
to alter his resolution ; and in July 1573 he 
suddenly returned to England without leave. 
His reception by Elizabeth was more gra- 
cious than he had reason to expect ; and 
pleading ill-health as an excuse for not re- 
turning to Munster, where he was even- 
tually superseded by Sir William Drury 
Sl> v.], he retired to Wales. To Burghley he 
eclared that it was his intention to lead a 
countryman's life, and to keep out of debt. 
But as one of the council of the marches, 
and vice-admiral of the Welsh seas, he found 
plenty to occupy his attention, especially in 
suppressing piracy along the coast (cf. Gent. 
Mag. 1839, ii. 354). In May 1578 a com- 
plaint was preferred against him by Richard 
Vaughan, deputy-admiral in South Wales, 
of tyrannical conduct, trafficking with pi- 
rates, and subversion of justice. Perrot had 
apparently little difficulty in exonerating him- 
self ; for he was shortly afterwards appointed 
commissioner for piracy in Pembrokeshire. 

In August 1579 he was placed in command 
of a squadron appointed to cruise off the 
western coast of Ireland, to intercept and de- 
stroy any Spanish vessels appearing in those 
waters. On 29 Aug. he sailed from the Thames 
on board the Revenge with his son Thomas. 
On 14 Sept. he anchored inBaltimore Bay ; and 
after spending a few days on shore, ' where they 
were all entertained as well as the fashion of 
that country could afford/ he sailed to Cork, 
and from Cork coasted along to Waterford, 
where he met Sir William Drury, who shortly 
before his death knighted his son Thomas and 
Sir William Pelham [q. v.] After coasting 
about for some time, and the season of the 
year growing too late to cause any further 
apprehension on the part of Spain, Perrot 
determined to return home. In the Downs 
he fell in with one Deryfold, a pirate, whom 
he chased and captured off the Flemish coast ; 
but on trying to make the mouth of the 
Thames he struck on the Kentish Knocks. 
Fortunately he succeeded in getting off the 
sand, and reached Harwich in safety. During 
his absence his enemies had tried to undermine 
his credit with the queen; and early in 1580 
one Thomas Wyriott, a justice of the peace, 
formerly a yeoman of the guard, exhibited cer- 
tain complaints against 'his intolerable deal- 
ings.' Wyriott's complaints were submitted 
to the privy council, and, being pronounced 
slanderous libels, Wyriott was committed to 



the Marshalsea. But he had powerful friends 
at court; and shortly after Perrot's return to 
Wales he was released, and letters were ad- 
dressed to the judges of assize in South Wales, 
authorising them to reopen the case. Though 
suffering from the sweating sickness, Perrot 
at once obeyed the summons to attend the 
assizes at Haverfordwest. He successfully 
exculpated himself and obtained a verdict of 
a thousand marks damages against Wyriott. 
He had acquired considerable reputation as 
president of Munster, and a plot or plan which 
he drew up at the command of the queen in 
1581 'for the suppressing of rebellion and the 
well-governing of Ireland ' marked him out as 
a suitable successor to the lord deputy, Arthur 
Grey, fourteenth lord Grey de Wilton [q. v.], 
who was recalled in August 1582. Never- 
theless, he was not appointed to the post till 
17 Jan. 1584, and it was not till 21 June that 
he received the sword of state from the chan- 
cellor, Archbishop Adam Loftus [q. v.] From 
his acquaintance with the southern province 
he was deemed well qualified to supervise 
the great work of the plantation of Mun- 
ster. His open instructions resembled those 
given to former viceroys ; but among those 
privately added by the privy council was one 
directing him to consider how St. Patrick's 
Cathedral and the revenues belonging to it 
might be made to serve l as had been there- 
tofore intended ' for the erection of a college 
in Dublin. His government began propi- 
tiously, and a remark of his expressive of his 
desire to see the name of husbandman or 
yeoman substituted for that of churl was, 
according to Fenton, widely and favourably 
commented upon. The day following his 
installation order was issued for a general 
hosting at the hill of Tara, on 10 Aug., for 
six weeks. In the interval Perrot prepared to 
make a tour of inspection through Connaught 
and Munster for the purpose of establishing 
Sir Richard Bingham [q. v.] and Sir John 
Norris (1547 P-1597) [q. v.] in their respective 
governments. He had already received the 
submission of the chieftains of Connaught and 
Thomond, and was on his way from Limerick 
to Cork when the news reached him that a j 
large body of Hebridean Scots had landed in 
O'Donnell's country. Norris was inclined 
to think that rumour had, as usual, exag- 
gerated the number of the invaders ; but 
Perrot, who probably enjoyed the prospect 
of fighting, determined to return at once to 
Dublin and, as security for the peace of Mun- 
ster, to take with him all protectees and 
suspected persons. 

On 26 Aug. he set out for Ulster, accom- 
panied by the Earls of Ormonde and Tho- 
mond and Sir John Norris. At Newry he 

learned that the Scots had evaded the ships 
sent to intercept them at Lough Foyle and 
had returned whence they came. Half a 
mile outside the town Turlough Luineach 
O'Neill [q. v.] met him, and put in his only 
son as pledge of his loyalty, as did also Ma- 
gennis, MacMahon, and O'Hanlon. But 
having come so far, Perrot determined to cut 
at the root, as he believed, of the Scoto-Irish 
difficulty, and to make a resolute effort to 
expel the MacDonnells from their settle- 
ments along the Antrim coast. An attempt, 
at which he apparently connived (State 
Papers, Irel. Eliz. cxii. 90, ii.), to assassinate 
Sorley Boy MacDonnell [q.v.] failed, and 
Perrot, resorting to more legitimate methods 
of warfare, divided his forces into two divi- 
sions. The one, under the command of the 
Earl of Ormonde and Sir John Norris, ad- 
vanced along the left bank of the Bann and 
scoured the woods of Glenconkein; while 
himself, with the other, proceeded through 
Clandeboye and the Glinnes. On 14 Sept. 
he sat down before Dunluce Castle, which 
surrendered at discretion on the second or 
third day. Sorley Boy escaped to Scotland, 
but Perrot got possession of ' holy Columb- 
kille's cross, a god of great veneration with 
Sorley Boy and all Ulster,' which he sent to 
Walsingham to present to Lady Walsing- 
ham or Lady Sidney. A mazer garnished 
with silver-gilt, with Sorley Boy's arms en- 
graved on the bottom, he sent to Lord Burgh- 
ley. An attempt to land on Rathlin Island 
was frustrated by stormy weather, and, feel- 
ing that the season was growing too advanced 
for further operations, Perrot returned to 

Meanwhile he had not been unmindful 
of his charge regarding St. Patrick's. On 
21 Aug. he submitted a plan to Walsingham 
for converting the cathedral into a court- 
house and the canons' houses into inns of 
court, and for applying the revenues to the 
erection of two colleges. When the project 
became known, as it speedily did, it was vehe- 
mently opposed by Archbishop Loftus [q. v.] 
On 3 Jan. 1585 Perrot was informed that 
there were grave objections to his scheme, and 
that it was desirable for him to consult with 
the archbishop. Perrot for a time refused to de- 
sist from his project, and never forgave Loftus 
for opposing him. There can be little doubt 
that his blundering hostility towards the arch- 
bishop was a principal cause of his downfall. 
Another scheme of his for bridling the 
Irish by building seven towns, seven bridges, 
and seven fortified castles in different parts 
of the country fared equally unpropitiously. 
Given 50,000/. a year for three years, he 
promised to permanently subjugate Ireland 



and took the unusual course of addressing the 
parliament of England on the subject. But 
Walsingham, to whom he submitted the letter 
(printed in the ' Government of Ireland/ pp. 
44 sq.) promptly suppressed it, on the ground 
that the queen would certainly resent any one 
but herself moving parliament. Nor indeed 
did his manner of dealing with the Hebridean 
Scots argue well for his ability to carry out 
his more ambitious project. Scarcely three 
months had elapsed since the expulsion of 
Sorley Boy before he again succeeded in 
effecting a landing on the coast of Antrim. 
He was anxious, he declared, to become a 
loyal subject of the crown, if only he could 
obtain legal ownership of the territory he 
claimed. But Perrot insisted on unqualified 
submission, and, despite the remonstrances of 
the council, began to make preparations for 
a fresh expedition against him. When 
Elizabeth heard of his intention, she was 
greatly provoked, and read him a sharp lec- 
ture on 'such rash, unadvised journeys with- 
out good ground as your last journey in the 
north.' As it happened, Sir Henry Bagenal 
and Sir William Stanley were quite able to 
cope with Sorley Boy, and the Irish parlia- 
ment being appointed to meet on 26 April, 
after an interval of sixteen years, Perrot 
found sufficient to occupy his attention in 

A German nobleman who happened to be 
visiting Ireland was greatly impressed with 
his appearance at the opening of parliament, 
and declared that, though he had travelled all 
over Europe, he had never seen any man com- 
parable to him ; for his port and majesty of 
personage.' But Perrot's attempt to ' manage ' 
parliament proved a complete failure. A 
bill to suspend Poynings' Act, which he 
regarded as necessary to facilitate legisla- 
tion, was rejected on the third reading by a 
majority of thirty-five. Another bill, to 
substitute a regular system of taxation in 
lieu of the irregular method of cess, shared 
a similar fate, and Perrot could only pro- 
rogue parliament, and advise the punish- 
ment of the leaders of the opposition. 
Tired of his inactivity, Perrot resumed his 
plan of a northern campaign, and having 
appointed Loftus and Wallop, who strongly 
disapproved of his intention, justices in his 
absence, he set out for Ulster on 16 July. 
But misfortune dogged his footsteps. For 
hardly had he reached Dungannon when wet 
weather rendered further progress impossible. 
His time, however, was not altogether wasted. 
For besides settling certain territorial diffe- 
rences between Turlough Luineach O'Neill 
and Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone [q. v.], he 
reduced Ulster to shire ground. He re- 

turned to Dublin at the beginning of Sep- 
tember. Six weeks later Sorley Boy re- 
captured Dunluce Castle, and resumed his- 
overtures for denization. Perrot, who was 
' touched with the stone,' and provoked at 
the coolness of his colleagues, felt the dis- 
grace bitterly, and begged to be recalled. 
Eventually he consented to pardon Sorley 
Boy, and to grant him letters of denization 
on what were practically his own terms. In 
one respect Perrot could claim to have been 
fairly successful. The composition of Con- 
naught and Thomond with which his name- 
is associated, though proving by no mean 
commensurate with his expectations, and 
due in a large measure to the initiative of 
Sir Henry Sidney, was a work which un- 
doubtedly contributed to the peace and 
stability of the western province. Parlia- 
ment reassembled on 26 April 1586, and,, 
after passing acts for the attainder of the Earl 
of Desmond and Viscount Baltinglas, was- 
dissolved on 14 May. 

With Loftus and Wallop Perrot had long 
been on terms of open hostility, and even 
Sir Geoffrey Fenton, who at first found him. 
1 affable and pleasing,' had since come to 
change his opinion in that respect. Perrot, 
it is true, could count on the devotion of 
Sir Nicholas White and Sir Lucas Dillon ; 
but their influence in the council was com- 
paratively small, and their goodwill exposed 
him to the charge of pursuing an anti-Eng- 
lish policy. Nor were his relations outside 
the council much better. Sir John Norris 
and Captain Carleil had long complained of 
his overbearing and tyrannical behaviour. 
Perrot's conduct towards Sir Richard Bing- 
ham added him to the long list of avowed 
enemies. Early in September 1586 a large- 
body of redshanks invaded Connaught at 
the invitation of the Burkes of county Mayo 
and Bingham, who felt himself unable to 
cope with them, sent to Perrot for rein- 
forcements. The deputy not only complied 
with his request, but, in opposition to the 
advice of the council, went to Connaught 
himself. He had, however, only reached 
Mullingar when he received information 
that the Scots and their allies had been 
completely overthrown and almost an- 
nihilated by Bingham at Ardnaree on the 
river Moy. But instead of returning to 
Dublin, he continued his journey to Galway,. 
though by so doing he inflicted a heavy and 
unnecessary expense on the country. His. 
own statement that he had been invited 
thither was manifestly untrue. But whether 
he was jealous of Bingham's success, as 
seems likely, or whether he really disap- 
proved of his somewhat arbitrary method of 


2 5 


government, his presence had undoubtedly 
the effect of weakening the president's au- 
thority and stimulating the elements of 
discontent in the province. His language 
towards the council was certainly most re- 
prehensible, and unfortunately he did not 
confine his abuse to words. In January 
1587 he committed Fenton to the Marshal- 
sea on pretext of a debt of 70/. owing to 
him. But though compelled by Elizabeth 
instantly to set him at liberty, he seemed to 
have lost all control over himself. Only a 
few days afterwards he committed the indis- 
cretion of challenging Sir Richard Bingham, 
and on 15 May he came to actual blows in the 
council chamber with Sir Nicholas Bagenal. 
The fault was perhaps not altogether on his 
side, but government under the circumstances 
suffered, and in January Elizabeth announced 
her intention to remove him. 

In May one Philip Williams, a former 
secretary of Perrot, whom he had long kept 
in confinement, offered to make certain reve- 
lations touching his loyalty, and Loftus took 
care that his offer should reach Elizabeth's 
ears. This was the beginning of the end. 
Williams was released on bail, not to quit 
the country without special permission, in 
June ; but he steadily refused to reveal his 
information to any one except the queen her- 
self. In December Sir William Fitzwilliam 
[q. v.] was appointed lord deputy, but six 
months elapsed before he arrived in Dublin. 
Meanwhile, racked with the stone, and feeling 
his authority slipping away from him inch 
by inch, Perrot's position was pitiable in the 
extreme. But it must be said in his favour 
that when he surrendered the sword of state 
on 30 June 1588, Fitzwilliam was compelled 
to admit that he left the country in a state 
of profound peace. Shortly before his de- 
parture he presented the corporation of Dublin 
with a silver-gilt bowl, bearing his arms and 
crest, with the inscription ' Relinquo in pace' 
(cf. GILBERT, Cat. Municipal Records, ii. 
220). He sailed on Tuesday, 2 July, for 
Milford Haven, leaving behind him, accord- 
ing to Sir Henry Wallop, a memory ' of so 
hard usage and haughty demeanour amongst 
his associates, especially of the English nation, 
as I think never any before him in this place 
hath done.' After his departure Fitzwilliam 
complained that, contrary to the express orders 
of the privy council, he had taken with him 
his parliament robes and cloth of state. 

Among others a certain Denis Roughan or 
O'Roughan, an ex-priest whom Perrot had 
prosecuted for forgery, offered to prove that 
he was the bearer of a letter from Perrot to 
Philip of Spain, promising that if the latter 
would give him Wales, Perrot would make 

Philip master of England and Ireland. The 
letter was a manifest forgery, but it derived a 
certain degree of plausibility from the recent 
betrayal of Deventer by Sir William Stanley 

&. v.] One Charles Trevor, an accomplice of 
Roughan's, knew the secret of the forgery, 
and, according to Bingham, Fitzwilliam could 
have put his hand on him had he liked to do 
so. But in a collection of the material points 
against Perrot, drawn up by Burghley on 
15 Nov. 1591, O'Roughan's charge finds no 
place, though the substance of it was after- 
wards incorporated in the indictment. Still, if 
there was no direct evidence of treason against 
him, there was sufficient matter to convict 
him of speaking disparagingly of the queen. 
Notwithstanding Burghley's exertions in hia 
favour, there was an evident determination 
on the part of Perrot's enemies to push the 
matter to a trial, and there is a general concur- 
rence of opinion in ascribing the pertinacity 
with which he was prosecuted to the malice 
of Sir Christopher Hatton (cf. Cal State 
Papers, Eliz. Add. 12 March 1591). Accord- 
ing to Sir Robert Naunton, who married 
Perrot's granddaughter, Perrot had procured 
Hatton's enmity by speaking scornfully of 
him as having made his way to the queen's- 
favour < by the galliard,' in allusion to his 
proficiency in dancing. But Naunton was un- 
aware that Hatton owed him a deeper grudge 
for having seduced his daughter Elizabeth 
(Archceol. Cambr. 3rd ser. xi. 117). 

After a short confinement in Lord Burgh- 
ley's house, Perrot was in March 1 591 removed 
to the Tower. More than a year elapsed before 
his trial, and on 23 Dec. he complained that 
his memory was becoming impaired through 
grief and close confinement. On 27 April 
1592 he was tried at Westminster on a charge 
of high treason before Lord Hunsdon, Lord 
Buckhurst, Sir Robert Cecil, and other spe- 
cially constituted commissioners. According 
to the indictment he was charged with con- 
temptuous words against the queen, with 
relieving known traitors and Romish priests, 
with encouraging the rebellion of Sir Brian 
O'Rourke [q. v.], and with treasonable cor- 
respondence with the king of Spain and the 
prince of Parma. Practically the prosecution, 
conducted by Popham and Puckering, con- 
fined itself to the charge of speaking con- 
temptuously of the queen. Perrot, who was 
extremely agitated, did not deny that he might 
have spoken the words attributed to him, but 
resented the interpretation placed upon them. 
Being found guilty, he was taken back to the 
Tower. He still hoped for pardon. < God's 
death ! ' he exclaimed. ' Will the queen suffer 
her brother to be offered up a sacrifice to the 
envy of his frisking adversary ? ' His last will 



and testament, dated 3 May 1592, is really a 
vindication of his conduct and an appeal for 
mercy. He was brought up for judgment on 

26 June, but his death in the Tower in Sep- 
tember spared him the last indignities of the 
law. A rumour that the queen intended to 
pardon him derives some colour from the fact 
that his son, Sir Thomas, was restored to his 
estates. Two engraved portraits of Perrot 
are in existence, one in the * History of Wor- 
cestershire,' i. 350, the other prefixed to the 
' Government of Ireland ' by E. C. S. (cf. 

Perrot married, first, Ann, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Cheyney of Thurland in Kent, 
by whom he had a son, Sir Thomas Perrot, 
who succeeded him, and married, under mys- 
terious circumstances (STKYPE, Zz/e of Bishop 
Aylmer, and Lansdowne MS. xxxix. f. 172), 
Dorothy, daughter of Walter Devereux, earl 
of Essex. Perrot's second wife was Jane, 
daughter of Sir Lewis Pollard, by whom 
he had William, who died unmarried at St. 
Thomas Court, near Dublin, on 8 July 1597 ; 
Lettice, who married, first, Roland Lacharn 
of St. Bride's, secondly, Walter Vaughan of 
St. Bride's, and, thirdly, Arthur Chichester 
[q. v.], baron Chichester of Belfast, and lord 
deputy of Ireland; and Ann, who married 
John Philips. Among his illegitimate chil- 
dren he had by Sybil Jones of Radnorshire a 
son, Sir James Perrot, separately mentioned, 
and a daughter, who became the wife of 
David Morgan, described as a gentleman. By 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton, he had a daughter, also called Elizabeth, 
who married Hugh Butler of Johnston. 

[Barnwell's Notes on the Perrot Family in 
Archseol. Cambrensis, 3rd ser. vols. xi. xii. ; 
Dwnn's Heraldic Visitntion of Wales, i. 89 ; 
Naunton's Frag. Regal.; Lloyd's State Worthies; 
Fenton's Hist, of Tour through Pembrokeshire ; 
Eawlinson's Life of Sir John Perrot; The Govern- 
ment of Ireland under Sir John Perrot by E.C.S.; 
Cal. State Papers, Eliz., Ireland and Dom. ; 
Camden's Annals ; Bagwell's Ireland under the 
Tudors; Annals of the Four Masters; Hardi- 
man's Chorographical Description of West Con- 
naught; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 254; 
MSS. Brit. Mus. Lansdowne 68, 72, 156 ; Harl. 
35, 3292; Sloane, 2200, 4819; Addit. 32091, ff. 
240, 257 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Eep. pp. 45, 
51, 367, 8th Eep. p. 36.] E. D. 

PERROT, JOHN (d. 1671?), quaker 
sectary, born in Ireland, was possibly de- 
scended, though not legitimately, from Sir 
John Perrot [q. v.], lord-deputy "of Ireland. 
It is hardly likely that he was the John 
Perrot fined 2,000/. in the Star-chamber on 

27 Jan. 1637, and arraigned before the court 
of high commission on 14 and 21 Nov. 1639 

(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1636-7 p. 398, 
1639-40 pp. 271, 277). 

Before 1656 Perrot joined the quakers, 
and was preaching in Limerick. The next 
year he started, with the full authority of 
the quaker body and at its expense, with one 
John Love, also an Irishman, on a mission to 
Italy, avowedly to convert the pope. Perrot 
passed through Lyons, and on 12 Aug. 1657 
he was at Leghorn. There he wrote a trea- 
tise concerning the Jews, and both travellers 
were examined by the inquisition and dis- 
missed. In September, diverging from their 
original route, they reached Athens, whence 
Perrot wrote an' Address to the People called 
Baptists in Ireland.' A manuscript copy is 
in the library of Devonshire House. He also 
wrote an epistle to the Greeks from ' Egripos,' 
that is the island of Negroponte (now called 
Eubcea). Returning to Venice, he inter- 
viewed the doge in his palace, and presented 
him with books and an address, afterwards 
printed. A work dated from the Lazaretto 
in Venice indicates either that he had fallen 
ill or was in prison. 

On arriving in Rome, probably in 1658, 
Perrot and Love commenced preaching 
against the Romish church, and were arrested. 
Love suffered the tortures of the inquisition 
and died under them. Perrot, whose zeal 
knew no bounds, was more appropriately 
sent to a madhouse, where he was allowed 
some liberty and wrote numerous books, ad- 
dresses, and epistles. These he was suffered 
to send to England to be printed, and many 
of them appeared before his release; His 
detention excited much sympathy in Eng- 
land. SamuelFisher (1605-1655) [q.v.], John 
Stubbs, and other Friends went to Rome 
in 1660 to procure his freedom. Two other 
Friends, Charles Bayley and Jane Stokes, also 
unsuccessfully attempted it, Bayley being 
imprisoned at Bordeaux on the way out. 
Some account of his experiences he contri- 
buted to Perrot's 'Narrative,' 1661. 

In May 1661 Perrot was released; but on 
his return to London he was received with 
some coldness. He was accused of extrava- 
gant behaviour while abroad. Fox and others 
condemned the papers issued by him from 
Rome, one of which propounded that the re- 
moval of the hat during prayer in public was 
a formal superstition, incompatible with the 
spiritual religion professed by quakers. This 
notion gained ground rapidly, and was adopted 
for a time by Thomas Ell wood [q.v.] and Ben- 
jamin Furly [q. v.] ; but Fox at once attacked 
'it in a tract issued in 1661 (Journal, ed. 1765, 
p. 332). Perrot was unconvinced, although 
many of his friends soon forsook him. He 
was indefatigable in preaching his opinions 



in various parts of England or Ireland, and 
attracted large audiences. He was arrested, 
with Luke Howard (1621-1699) [q. v.], at a 
meeting at Canterbury on 28 Aug. 1661, and 
again at the Bull and Mouth, Aldersgate 
Street, on a Sunday in June 1662, when he 
was brought before Sir Richard Browne (d. 
1669) [q. v.l, lord mayor. 

In the autumn of 1662 Perrot and some 
of his followers emigrated to Barbados, 
where his wife and children joined him later, 
and where he was appointed clerk to the 
magistrates. He seems to have still called 
himself a quaker, but gave great offence by 
wearing l a velvet coat, gaudy apparel, and 
a sword,' while he was now as strict in ex- 
acting oaths as he had formerly been against 
them. Proceeding on a visit to Virginia, he 
induced many quakers there to dispense with 
the formality of assembling for worship, and 
otherwise to depart from the judicious rules 
laid down by Fox. 

Perrot formed many projects for improving 
the trade of Barbados by tobacco plantations; 
he built himself a large house, surmounted by 
a reservoir of water brought from a distance 
of some miles ; he was also presented with 
a sloop, to carry freight to Jamaica. But 
his schemes came to no practical result. 
He died, heavily in debt, in the island of 
Jamaica, some time before October 1671. His 
wife Elizabeth and at least two children 
survived him. 

Perrot's i natural gifts ' were, says Sewel, 
'great,' and he possessed a rare power of 
fascination. His following was at one time 
considerable ; but the attempts made by 
John Pennyman [q. v.] and others to give 
it permanence failed. His unbalanced and 
rhapsodical mysticism caused Fox, with his 
horror of ' ranters ' and the warning of James 
Naylor's case fresh in his mind, to treat him 
as a dangerous foe to order and system within 
the quaker ranks. A believer in perfection, 
Perrot held that an inspired man, such as 
himself, might even be commanded to com- 
mit carnal sin. According to Lodowicke 
Muggleton [q. v.], with whom Perrot had 
many talks, he had no personal God, but an 
indefinite Spirit (Neck of the Quakers Broken, 
p. 22). Martin Mason [q. v.], although he de- 
clined to accept his vagaries, celebrated his 
talents in some lines ' In Memoriam ' pub- 
lished in the ' Vision.' 

Perrot's works were often signed l John, 
the servant of God,' ' John, called a Quaker,' 
and ' John, the prisoner of Christ.' Some are 
in verse, a vehicle of expression objected to 
by Fox as frivolous and unbecoming. To 
this objection Perrot cautiously replied that 
' he believed he should have taken it dearly 

well had any friend (brother-like) whom they 
offended turned the sence of them into prose 
when he sent them from Home.' 

Besides a preface to the ' Collection of Se- 
veral Books and Writings of George Fox the 
Younger' [see under Fox, GEOKGE], London, 
1662, 2nd edit. 1665, his chief tracts (with 
abbreviated titles) are : 1. 'A Word to the 
World answering the Darkness thereof, con- 
cerning the Perfect Work of God to Salva- 
tion/ London, 4to, 1658. 2. ' A Visitation 
of Love and Gentle Greeting of the Turk,' 
London, 4to, 1658. 3. ' Immanuel the Sal- 
vation of Israel,' London, 4to, 1658; re- 
printed with No. 2 in 1660. 4. (With 
George Fox and William Morris) ' Severall 
Warnings to the Baptized People,' 4to, 1659. 

5. ' To all Baptists everywhere, or to any 
other who are yet under the shadows and 
wat'ry ellement, and are not come to Christ 
the Substance,' London, 4to, 1660 : reprinted 
in 'The Mistery of Baptism,' &c., 1662. 

6. ' A Wren in the Burning Bush, Waving 
the Wings of Contraction, to the Congregated 
Clean Fowls of the Heavens, in the Ark of 
God, holy Host of the Eternal Power, Salu- 
tation,' London, 4to, 1660. 7. 'J. P., the 
follower of the Lamb, to the Shepheards 
Flock, Salutation, Grace,' &c., London, 4to, 

1660, 1661. 8. 'John, to all God's Impri- 
soned People for his Names-Sake, whereso- 
ever upon the Face of the Earth, Saluta- 
tion,' London, 4to, 1660. 9. 'John, the 
Prisoner, to the Risen Seed of Immortal 
Love, most endeared Salutation,' &c., Lon- 
don, 4to, 1660. 10. 'A Primer for Chil- 
dren/ 12mo, 1660, 1664. 11. ' A Sea of the 
Seed's Sufferings, through which Runs a 
River of Rich Rejoycing. In Verse,' Lon- 
don, 4to, 1661. 12. 'To all People upon the 
Face of the Earth,' London, 4to, 1661. 
13. ' Discoveries of the Day-dawning to the 
Jewes/ London, 4to, 1661. 14. 'An Epistle 
to the Greeks, especially to those in and 
about Corinth and Athens/ London, 4to, 

1661. 15. ' To the Prince of Venice and all 
his Nobles/ London, 4to, 1661. 16. ' Blessed 
Openings of a Day of good Things to the 
Turks. Written to the Heads, Rulers, An- 
cients, and Elders of their Land, and whom- 
soever else it may concern/ London, 4to, 
1661. 17. ' Beames of Eternal Brightness, or, 
Branches of Everlasting Blessings ; Spring- 
ing forth of the Stock of Salvation, to be 
spread over India, and all Nations of the 
Earth/ &c., London, 4to, 1661. 18. ' To the 
Suffering Seed of Royalty, wheresoever Tri- 
bulated upon the Face of the whole Earth, 
the Salutation of your Brother Under the 
oppressive Yoak of Bonds/ London, 4to, 
1661 19. 'A Narrative of some of the 



Sufferings of J. P. in the City of Rome/ 
London, 4to, 1661. 20. ' Two Epistles. . . . 
The one Touching the Perfection of Hu- 
mility. . . . The other Touching the 
Righteous Order of Judgement in Israel,' 
London, 4to, 1661. 21. 'Battering Rams 
against Rome : or, the Battel of John, the 
Follower of the Lamb, Fought with the Pope, 
and his Priests, whilst he was a Prisoner in 
the Inquisition Prison of Rome,' London, 
small 8vo, 1661. 22. 'Propositions to the 
Pope, for the proving his Power of Remitting 
Sins, and other Doctrines of his Church, as 
Principles destroying Soules in Darkness, 
and undeterminable Death. To Fabius 
Ghisius, Pope, at his Pallace in Monte Ca- 
vallo in Roma,' broadside, June 1662. 
23. 'John Perrot's Answer to the Pope's 
feigned Nameless Helper ; or, a Reply to the 
Tract Entituled, Perrott against the Pope,' 
London, broadside, 1662. 24. 'TheMistery 
of Baptism and the Lord's Supper,' London, 
4to, 1662. 25. ' A Voice from the Close or 
Inner Prison, unto all the Upright in Heart, 
whether they are Bond or Free,' London, 
4to, 1662. 26. ' To the Upright in Heart, 
and Faithful People of God: an Epistle 
written in Barbados,' London, 4to, 1662. 
27. ' Glorious Glimmerings of the Life of 
Love, Unity, and pure Joy. Written in 
Rome . . . 1660, but conserved as in ob- 
scurity until my arrival at Barbados in the 
year 1662. From whence it is sent the 
second time to the Lord's Lambs by J. P.,' 
London, 4to, 1663. 28. 'To all Simple, 
Honest-intending, and Innocent People, 
without respect to Sects, Opinions, or dis- 
tinguishing Names ; who desire, &c. I send 
greeting/ &c., London, 4to, 1664. 29. ' The 
Vision of John Perrot, wherein is contained 
the Future State of Europe ... as it was 
shewed him in the Island of Jamaica a little 
before his Death, and sent by him to a Friend 
in London, for a warning to his Native 
Country/ London, 1682, 4to. A tract, ' Some 
Prophecies and Revelations of God, con- 
cerning the Christian World/ &c., 1672, 
translated from the Dutch of ' John, a ser- 
vant of God/ is not Perrot's, but by a Fifth- 
monarchy man. 

[Hidden Things brought to Light, &c., printed 
in 1678, a pamphlet containing letters by Per- 
rot in defence of himself; Taylor's Loving and 
Friendly Invitation, &c., with a brief account 
of the latter part of the life of John Perrot and 
his end, 4to, 1683; Fox's Journal, ed. 1765, pp. 
32,5, 332, 390 ; Rutty's Hist, of Friends in Ire- 
land, p. 86 ; The Truth exalted in the Writings 
of John Burnyeat, 1691, pp. 32, 33, 50 ; Besse's 
Sufferings, i. 292, ii. 394, 395; Bowden's Hict. 
of Friends in America, i. 350 ; Storrs Turner's 

Quakers, 1889, p. 150; Beck and Ball's Hist, of 
Friends' Meetings, pp. 45, 88 ; Sewel's Hist, of 
the Rise, &c., ed. 1799, i. 433, 489, 491 ; Smith's 
Catalogue, ii. 398-404; Ell wood's Autobiography, 
ed. 1791, pp. 220-3. Information about Perrot 
and his disciples is to be found in the manu- 
script collection of Penington's Works, ff. 58-62, 
at Devonshire House."] C. F. S. 

PERROT, ROBERT (d. 1550), organist 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, second son of 
George Perrot of Harroldston, Pembroke- 
shire, by Isabel Langdale of Langdale Hall 
in Yorkshire, was born at Hackness in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire. He first ap- 
peared at Magdalen College as an attendant 
upon John Stokysley or Stokesley [q. v.], 
afterwards bishop of London (who was sup- 
posed to have been too intimate with his 
wife). By one of the witnesses at the visi- 
tation of Bishop Fox in 1506-7 he is men- 
tioned as having condoned the offence for a 
substantial consideration. In 1510 Perrot 
was appointed instructor of choristers, and 
in 1515, being about that time made organist, 
he applied for a license ' to proceed to the 
degree of Bachelor of Music.' His request 
was granted on condition of his composing 
a mass and one song, but it does not appear 
from the college register whether he was 
admitted or licensed to proceed. Tanner, 
however, states that he eventually proceeded 
doctor of music. He was not only an emi- 
nent musician, but also a man of business, 
and he appears to have been trusted by the 
college in the purchase of trees, horses, and 
various commodities for the use of the col- 
lege. He was at one time principal of Trinity 
Hall, a religious house before the dissolution, 
and then converted into an inn. Having ob- 
tained a lease of the house and chapel from 
the municipality of Oxford, Perrot de- 
molished them both, and ' in the same place 
built a barn, a stable, and a hog-stie ' (WooD, 
City of Oxford, ed. Peshall, p. 77). About 
1530, upon the dissolution of the monas- 
teries, he purchased Rewley Abbey, near 
Oxford, and sold the fabric for building ma- 
terials in Oxford. In 1534 he was receiver- 
general of the archdeaconry of Buckingham 
(WiLLis, Cathedrals Oxford, p. 119), and 
receiver of rents for Christ Church, Oxford. 
He was also receiver of rents for Littlemore 
Priory, near Oxford. ' He gave way to fate 
20 April 1550, and was buried in the north isle 
or alley joining to the church of St. Peter- in- 
the-East in Oxford ' ( WOOD, Fasti). By his 
will (dated 18 April 1550, and printed in full 
by Bloxam ) he left most of his property to his 
wife Alice, daughter of Robert Gardiner of 
Sunningwell, Berkshire ; and Alice Orpewood, 
a niece of Sir Thomas Pope [q. v.], founder of 



Trinity College, Oxford. He does not appear 
in his will to have been a benefactor to his 
college (as stated by Wood) ; but his widow, 
-who died in 1588, bequeathed ' twenty 
shillings to be bestowed amongst the Pre- 
sident and Company' of the foundation. 
Perrot had issue six sons and seven daugh- 
ters. Among his sons were : Clement, or- 
ganist of Magdalen College 1523, fellow of 
Lincoln 1535, rector of Farthingstone, North- 
amptonshire, 1541, and prebendary of Lincoln 
1544; Simon (1514-1584), Fellow of Mag- 
dalen 1533, founder of the Perrots ' on the 
Hill ' of Northleigh, Oxfordshire ; Leonard, 
clerk of Magdalen in 1533, and founder of the 
second Perrot family of Northleigh ; and 
Robert, incumbent of Bredicot, Worcester- 
shire, 1562-85. 

Tanner says that Robert Perrot composed 
and annotated * Hymni Varii Sacri,' while, 
according to Wood, ' he did compose several 
church services and other matters which 
have been since antiquated;' but nothing of 
his appears to be extant. 

Among the probable descendants of Robert 
Perrot, though the pedigree in which the suc- 
cession is traced from theHarroldston branch 
is very inaccurate, was SIE RICHARD PERROTT 
(d. 1796), bart., eldest son of Richard Perrott 
of Broseley in Shropshire. He was in per- 
sonal attendance upon the Duke of Cumber- 
land at Culloden. He then entered the 
Prussian service, and fought in the seven 
years' war, obtaining several foreign decora- 
tions, and being employed in various confi- 
dential negotiations by Frederick the Great. 
He succeeded his uncle, Sir Robert, first ba- 
ronet, in May 1759, and died in 1796, leaving 
issue by his wife Margaret, daughter of Cap- 
tain William Fordyce, gentleman of the bed- 
chamber to George III (BuRKE, Peerage). A 
portrait of Sir Richard was engraved by V. 
Green in 1770 (BROMLEY). The scandalous 
' Life, Adventures, and Amours of Sir R[ich- 
ard] P[errott],' published anonymously in 
1770, may possibly be taken as indicating 
that the services rendered by the founder of 
the family were of a delicate nature, but was 
more likely an ebullition of private malice. 

[Barnwell's Notes on the Perrot Family, 1867, 
pp. 80-90; Bloxam's Register of Magdalen 
College, vols. i. and ii. passim ; Warton's Life 
of Sir Thomas Pope, 1 750, app. p. xxi ; Wood's 
Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 42; Tanner's Bibliotheca, 
p. 593.] 

PERRY, CHARLES (1698-1780), tra- 
veller and medical writer, born in 1698, was 
a younger son of John Perry, a Norwich 
attorney. He spent four years at Norwich 
grammar school, and afterwards a similar 
period at a school in Bishop's S tor tford, Hert- 

fordshire. On 28 May 1717 he was admitted 
at Caius College, Cambridge, as a scholar, and 

gaduated M.B. in 1722 and M.D. in 1727. 
e was a junior fellow of his college from 
Michaelmas 1723 to Lady-day 1731. On 
5 Feb. 1723 he also graduated at Ley den. Be- 
tween 1739 and 1742 he travelled in France, 
Italy, and the East, visiting Constantinople, 
Egypt, Palestine, and Greece. On his return 
he published his valuable ' View of the Le- 
vant, particularly of Constantinople, Syria, 
Egypt, and Greece,' 1743, fol., illustrated with 
thirty-three plates ; it was twice translated 
into German, viz., in 1754 (Erlangen, 3 vols.), 
and in 1765 (Rostock, 2 vols.) A reissue of 
the original, in three quarto volumes, in 
1770, was dedicated to John Montagu, earl 
of Sandwich. 

Perry appears to have practised as a phy- 
sician after his return to England in 1742. 
He died in 1780, and was buried at the east 
end of the nave in Norwich Cathedral. An 
elder brother was buried in 1 795 near the spot. 
The tablet,with a laudatory Latin inscription, 
seems to have been removed, and Blomefield 
misprints the date of death on it as 1730. 

Perry published the following medical 
works: 1. 'Essay on the Nature and Cure 
of Madness,' Rotterdam, 1723. 2. ' Enquiry 
into the Nature and Principles of the Spaw 
Waters ... To which is subjoined a cursory 
Inquiry into the Nature and Properties of 
the Hot Fountains at Aix-la-Chapelle,' Lon- 
don, 1734. 3. ' Treatise on Diseases in 
General, to which is subjoined a system 
of practice,' 2 vols., 1741. 4. 'Account of 
an Analysis made of the Stratford Mineral 
Water,' "Northampton, 1744, severely criti- 

Explanation of the Hysterica Passio, with 
Appendix on Cancer/ 1755, 8vo. 6. 'Disqui- 
sition of the Stone and Gravel, with other 
Diseases of the Kidney,' 1777, 8vo. He also 
communicated to the Royal Society ' Experi- 
ments on the Water of the Dead Sea, on the 
Hot Springs near Tiberiades, and on the 
Hammarn Pharoan Water' (Phil. Trans. 
Abridgment, viii. 555). 

[Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk (continued by 
Parkin), 1805, iv. 197; information kindly sup- 
plied by Dr. Venn and the librarian of Caius 
College Peacock's Index of English Students at 
Leyden; Bibl. Univ. des Voyages, 1808, i. 220 
(by G. B. de la Eicharderie) ; Watt's Bibl. Brit, 
i 747- Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit. ii. 1566; 
Perry's Works.] G. LB G. N. 

PERRY, CHARLES (1807-1891), first 
bishop of Melbourne, the youngest son of 
John Perry, a shipowner, of Moor Hall, Essex, 




was born on 17 Feb. 1807, and was educated 
first at private schools at Clapham and Hack- 
ney, then for four years at Harrow, where he 
played in the eleven against Eton on two oc- 
casions ; then at a private tutor's, and finally 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he en- 
tered in 1824. He was senior wrangler in 
1828, and first Smith's prizeman, as well as 
seventh classic. He entered at Lincoln's Inn 
12 Nov. 1830, and for one year studied law; 
subsequently, taking holy orders, he went to 
reside in college, graduated M.A. in 1831, be- 
came a fellow of Trinity and proceeded D.D. 
in 1837, and was tutor from that time to 
1841. In 1841 he resigned his fellowship on 
his marriage, and bought the advowson of the 
living of Barnwell. Dividing the parish into 
two districts, he placed them in the hands of 
trustees, erected a new church with the help 
of his friends, and became the first vicar of 
one of the new districts, which he christened 
St. Paul's, in 1842. 

In 1847, when the then wild pastoral 
colony of Victoria was constituted a diocese 
independent of New South Wales, Perry was 
chosen to be its bishop. The post was not to 
his worldly advantage. About 800/. a year 
was the most he drew at the best of times, 
and he was a poor man till near the close 
of his life. He was consecrated, with three 
other colonial bishops (one being Gray, first 
bishop of Capetown), at Westminster Abbey 
on 29 June 1847. He went out with his 
wife and three other clergymen in the Stag, 
a vessel of 700 tons, and after a voyage of 
108 days reached Melbourne on Sunday, 
23 Jan. 1848. When Perry arrived in the 
c )lonv there was only one finished church 
Lhere," Christ Church at Geelong ; two others 
were in course of construction at Melbourne. 
He found three clergy of the Church of 
England already there, and three he brought 
with him. In his first public address he ex- 
pressed his desire to live on friendly terms 
with all denominations of Christians, but he 
declined to visit Father Geoghan on the 
ground of conscientious distrust of the 
Komish church. He made constant jour- 
neys through the unsettled country, oiten 
thirty or forty miles at a stretch; he bravely 
faced the anxieties caused by the gold rush 
and its attendant demoralisation. For the 
first five years of his colonial life he resided 
at Jolimont. The palace of Bishop's Court 
was built in 1853. 

Perry's influence was perhaps most notably 
shown in the passing of the Church Assembly 
Act, which constituted a body of lay repre- 
sentatives to aid in the government of the 
church (1854). Doubts as to its constitutional 
validity were raised at home, and in 1855 the 

bishop went home to argue the case for the 
bill. His pleading was successful, and the 
act became the precedent for similar legis- 
lation in other colonies. After his return, on 
3 April 1856, he conferred on all congrega- 
tions the right to appoint their own pastor al- 
ternately with himself, and instituted a system 
of training lay readers for the ministry. 

Perry's first visit to Sydney seems to have 
been in 1859. In 1863-4 he made a second 
visit to England, during which he was select 
preacher at Cambridge, and assisted at the 
consecration of Ellicott, bishop of Gloucester. 
On 29 June 1872 the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of his consecration was celebrated with en- 
thusiasm at Melbourne. On 26 Feb. 1874, on 
the erection of the diocese into a metropolitan 
see, he left the colony amid universal regret ; 
and when he had arranged for the endowment 
of the new see of Ballarat in May 1876, he 
finally resigned. 

Perry's years of retirement were devoted 
to furthering the interests of the church at 
home, particularly the work of the Church 
Missionary Society and Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel. He attended and 
addressed every church congress from 1874 
till 1888. He took a leading part in promot- 
ing the foundation of the theological colleges, 
Wycliffe Hall at Oxford and Ridley Hall at 
Cambridge, and actively aided in the man- 
agement of the latter. In 1878 he was 
appointed prelate of the order of St. Michael 
and St. George and canon of Llandaff. He 
was in residence each year at Llandaff till 
1889, when a stroke of paralysis caused his 
resignation. Thenceforward he resided at 
32 Avenue Road, Regent's Park, London, and 
died there on 1 Dec. 1891. He was buried at 
Harlow in Essex. A memorial service was 
held on the same day at Melbourne, when his 
old comrade, Dean Macartney, himself ninety- 
three years of age, who had come out with 
him in 1848, preached the sermon. 

Bishop Perry was a stout evangelical 
churchman, equally opposed to ritualistic 
and rationalistic tendencies. He published 
1 Foundation Truths' and other sermons. 

Perry married, on 14 Oct. 1841, Frances, 
daughter of Samuel Cooper, who survived 
him. He celebrated the fiftieth anniversary 
of his wedding shortly before his death. 
His portrait, by Weigall, is at Ridley Hall, 
Cambridge. A memorial has been erected 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne. The 
service of plate which was presented to him 
on leaving Melbourne was bequeathed to 
the master's lodge at Trinity College, Cam- 

[Melbourne Argus, 4, 6, and 7 Dec. 1891 ; Sum- 
mary of Macartney's funeral sermon in latter 



issue; Goodman's Church in Victoria during the 
Episcopate of Bishop Perry, London, 1892, which 
contains some autobiographical notes by Perry.] 

C. A. H. 

PERRY, FRANCIS (d. 1765), engraver, 
was born at Abingdon, Berkshire, and ap- 
prenticed to a hosier ; but, showing some 
aptitude for art, he was placed first with one 
of the Vanderbanks, and afterwards with 
Richardson, to study painting. Making, 
however, no progress in this, he became clerk 
to a commissary, whom he accompanied to 
Lichfield, and there made drawings of the 
cathedral, which he subsequently etched. 
Perry eventually devoted himself to drawing 
and engraving topographical views and an- 
tiquities, working chiefly for the magazines. 
He engraved two views of the cloisters of 
St. Katherine's Church, near the Tower, for 
Dr. Ducarel's paper on that church in Nichols's 
' Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica,' and 
' A Collection of Eighteen Views of Anti- 
quities in the County of Kent,' also portraits 
of Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York ; 
Dr. Ducarel, after A. Soldi ; and Dr. Thomas 
Hyde, after Cipriani. But he is best known 
by his engravings of coins and medals, which 
he executed with great neatness and accu- 
racy. The sixteen plates in Dr. Ducarel's 
' Anglo-Gallic Coins,' 1757, are by him ; and 
in 1762 he commenced the publication of a 
series of gold and silver British medals, of 
which three parts, containing ten plates, ap- 
peared before his death, and a fourth subse- 
quently. In 1764 he exhibited with the 
Free Society of Artists his print of Dr. 
Hyde and a pen-and-ink view at Wai worth. 
Perry had the use of only one eye, and 
habitually etched on a white ground, which 
facilitated his working by candlelight. 
Though painstaking and industrious, he could 
only earn a precarious living. He died on 
3 Jan. 1765. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers; Bromley's Cat. 
of English Portraits ; Redgrave's Diet, of Ar- 
tists ; Universal Cat. of Books on Art.] 

F. M. O'D. 

PERRY, GEORGE (1793-1862), mu- 
sician, born at Norwich in 1793, was the son 
of a turner, an amateur bass singer who took 
part in the annual performance of an oratorio 
at the cathedral, under Dr. John Christmas 
Beckwith [q. v.] Through Beckwith's instru- 
mentality Perry became a member of the ca- 
thedral choir. His voice, if not refined, was 
powerful, and his musical propensity very 
marked. After quitting the choir Perry learnt 
the violin from Joseph Parnell, a lay clerk of 
the cathedral; pianoforte from Parnell's son 
John ; harmony, it is supposed, from Bond, 
a pupil of Jackson of Exeter j and the higher 

branches of composition from a clever ama- 
teur, James Taylor. 

About 1818 Perry succeeded Binfield as 
leader of the band at the Royal Theatre at 
Norwich, then an institution enjoying con- 
siderable reputation. While still resident in 
his native town Perry wrote an oratorio, 
'The Death of Abel ' (text by George Bennett 
of the Norwich Theatre), which was first 
performed at a Hall concert in Norwich, and 
afterwards repeated by the Sacred Harmonic 
Society in 1841 and 1845. Shortly after his 
appointment to the theatre he wrote another 
oratorio, ' Elijah and the Priests of Baal,' to 
a text by the Rev. James Plumptre [q. v.], 
which was first performed in Norwich on 
12 March 1819. In or about 1822 Perry was 
appointed musical director of the Haymarket 
Theatre in London, where he wrote a number 
of operas. One of them, ' Morning, Noon, and 
Night,' was produced, with Madame Vestris 
[q. v.] in the cast, in 1822. 

From opera, however, Perry soon turned 
again to oratorio, and in 1830 he produced 
' The Fall of Jerusalem,' the text compiled by 
Professor Taylor from Mil man's poem. While 
still holding his appointment at the Hay- 
market, Perry became organist of the Quebec 
Chapel, a post he resigned in 1846 for that of 
Trinity Church, Gray's Inn Road. 

When the Sacred Harmonic Society was 
founded in 1832, Perry was chosen leader of 
the band, and at their first concert, on 
15 Jan. 1833, the programme contained a 
selection from his oratorios ' The Fall of Je- 
rusalem ' and ' The Death of Abel.' Perry 
assiduously supported this society, and during 
his sixteen years' connection with it was 
never absent from a performance, and only 
once from a rehearsal. In 1848 Surman, the 
conductor, was removed from his post, and 
Perry performed the duties until the close of 
the season, when he severed his connection 
with the society on the election of Michael 
Costa [q. v.] to the conductorship. 

In addition to the works already men- 
tioned, Perry wrote an oratorio, ' Hezekiah ' 
(1 847) ; a sacred cantata, ' Belshazzar's Feast ' 
(1836); a festival anthem with orchestral 
accompaniment, * Blessed be the Lord thy 
God,' for the queen's accession (1838). His 
* Thanksgiving Anthem for the Birth of the 
Princess Royal' (1840) was performed with 
great success by the Sacred Harmonic So- 
ciety, the orchestra and chorus numbering 
five hundred, Caradori Allan being the 
solo vocalist. He also wrote additional ac- 
companiments to a number of Handel's works, 
besides making pianoforte scores of several 
more. Perry died on 4 March 1862, and was 
buried at Kensal Green. Perry's undoubted 

Perry 3 2 

gifts enabled him to imitate rather than to 
create. His fluency proved disastrous to the 
character of his work. It is said that he was 
in the habit of writing out the instrumental 
parts of his large compositions from memory 
Before he had made a full orchestral score, 
and he frequently composed as many as four 
or five works simultaneously, writing a page 
of one while the ink of another was drying. 
[Norfolk News, 19 April 1862 ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music, s.v. Perry ; Sacred Harmonic Society, 
&c. ; private information.] R. H. L. 

PERRY or PARRY, HENRY (1560?- 
1617 ?), Welsh scholar, was born at Green- 
iield, Flint, about 1560. He was descended 
from Ednowain Bendew, founder of one of 
the fifteen tribes of North Wales (Bishop 
Humphreys's additions to WOOD'S Athena 
Oxon.} He matriculated from Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, 20 March 1578-9, at the age of 
eighteen, and graduated B.A. (from Glouces- 
ter Hall) 14 Jan. 1579-80, M.A. 23 March 
1582-3, and B.D. (from Jesus College) 
6 June 1597 (Alumni Oxon.} On leaving 
the university, about 1583, he went abroad, 
and, after many years' absence, returned to 
Wales as chaplain to Sir Richard Bulkeley 
of Baron Hill, near Beaumaris. During his 
stay at Beaumaris he married the daughter 
of Robert Vaughan, a gentleman of the 
place. An attempt was made by his enemies 
to show that his first wife (of whom nothing 
is known) was still living, but Perry suc- 
ceeded in clearing his reputation. He may 
possibly be the ' Henry Parry, A.M.,' who, 
according to Browne Willis (St. Asaph, edit. 
1801, i. 315), was rector of Llandegla be- 
tween 1574 and 1597. He was instituted to 
the rectory of Rhoscolyn on 21 Aug. 1601, 
promoted to that of Trefdraeth by Bishop 
Rowlands on 30 Dec. 1606, installed canon 
of Bangor on 6 Feb. 1612-13, and received in 
addition from Rowlands the rectory of Llan- 
fachreth, Anglesey, on 5 March 1613-14. The 
date of his death is not recorded, but as his 
successor in the canonry was installed on 
30 Dec. 1617, it probably took place in that 

Dr. John Davies, in the preface to his 
* Dictionary ' (1632), speaks of l Henricus 
Perrius vir linguarum cognitione insignis' 
as one of many Welsh scholars who dur- 
ing the preceding sixty years had planned a 
similar enterprise. But the only work pub- 
lished by Perry was ' Egluryn Ffraethineb ' 
(' Elucidator of Eloquence'), aWelsh treatise 
on rhetoric, the outlines of which had pre- 
viously been written by William Salesbury 
[q. v.], translator of the New Testament into 
Welsh. This appeared in London in 1595 


in the new orthography adopted by John 
David Rhys in his recently published gram- 
mar (1592). A reprint, with many omissions, 
was issued by Dr. William Owen Pughe 
[q. v.] (London, 1807), and this was reprinted 
at Llanrwst in 1829. The preface shows 
that Perry knew something of eleven lan- 

[Wood's Athense Oxonienses, with Bishop 
Humphreys's additions ; Kowlands's Cambrian 
Bibliography, 1869; Kowlands's Mona Antiqua 
(catalogue of clergy) ; Hanes Llenyddiaetli 
Gymreig, by G-weirydd ap Rhys.] J. E. L. 

PERRY, JAMES (1756-1821), journalist, 
son of a builder, spelling his name Pirie, was 
born at Aberdeen on 30 Oct. 1756. He re- 
ceived ^he rudiments of his education at 
Garioch cii.. "'"' fT >e shire of Aberdeen, from 
the Rev. W. Tait, . . ian of erudition, and 
was afterwards trained at the Aberdeen high 
school by the brothers Dunn. In 1771 he 
was entered at Marischal College, Aberdeen 
University, and he was placed under Arthur 
Dingwall Fordyce to qualify himself for the 
Scottish bar. Through the failure of his 
father's speculations he was compelled to 
earn his own bread. He was for a time an 
assistant in a draper's shop at Aberdeen. He 
then joined Booth's company of actors, where 
he met Thomas Holcroft [q. v.], with whom 
he at first quarrelled, but was later on very- 
friendly terms (cf. HOLCROFT, Memoirs, i. 
293-300). Perry is said to have been at one 
time a member of Tate Wilkinson's com- 
pany, when he fell in love with an actress who 
slighted him. His cup of misery was filled on 
his return to Edinburgh, when West Digges, 
with whom he was acting, told him that his 
brogue unfitted him for the stage. Perry then 
sought fortune in England, and lived for two 
years at Manchester as clerk to Mr. Dinwiddie, 
a manufacturer. In this position he read many 
books, and took an active part in the debates 
of a literary and philosophical society. In 
1777, at twenty-one years old, he made his 
way to London with the highest letters of 
recommendation from his friends in Lan- 
cashire, but failed to find employment. During 
this enforced leisure he amused himself with 
writing essays and pieces of poetry for a paper 
called 'The General Advertiser.' One of his 
pieces attracted the attention of one of the 
principal proprietors of the paper who was 
junior partner in the firm of Richardson & 
Urquhart, booksellers. Perry was conse- 
quently engaged as a regular contributor at 
a guinea per week, with an additional half- 
guinea for assistance in bringing out the 
' London Evening Post.' In this position he 
toiled with the greatest assiduity, and during 


the trials of the two admirals, Keppel and 
Palliser, he sent up daily from Portsmouth 
eight columns of evidence, the publication 
of which raised the sale of the ' General 
Advertiser' to a total of several thousands 
each day. At the same time he published 
anonymously several political pamphlets and 
poems, and was a conspicuous figure in the 
debating societies which then abounded in 
London. He is said to have rejected offers 
from Lord Shelburne and Pitt to enter par- 

Perry formed the plan and was the first 
editor of the l European Magazine/ which 
came out in January 1782 ; he conducted it 
for twelve months. He was then offered by 
the proprietors, who were the chief book- 
sellers in London, the post of editor of the 
' Gazetteer,' and he accepted tho o^ . on con- 
dition that he should ' allowed to make 
the paper an organ of the views of C. J. Fox, 
whose principles he supported. One of Perry's 
improvements was the introduction of a suc- 
cession of reporters for the parliamentary 
debates, so as to procure their prompt pub- 
lication in an extended form. By this ar- 
rangement the paper came out each morning 
with as long a chronicle of the debates as 
used to appear in other papers in the follow- 
ing evening or later. He conducted the 
* Gazetteer/ for eight years, when it was 
purchased by some tories, who changed its 
politics, and Perry severed his connection 
with it. During apart of this time he edited 
' Debrett's Parliamentary Debates.' 

About 1789 the 'Morning Chronicle' was 
purchased by Perry and a Scottish friend, 
James Gray, as joint editors and proprietors. 
The funds for its acquisition and improve- 
ment were obtained through small loans from 
Ransoms, the bankers, and from Bellamy, 
the caterer for the House of Commons, and 
through the advance by Gray of a legacy of 
500/. which he had just received. In their 
hands the paper soon became the leading 
organ of the whig party. Perry is described as 
'volatile and varied,' his partner as a profound 
thinker. Gray did not long survive; but 
through Perry's energy the journal main- 
tained its reputation until his death. Its cir- 
culation was small for some years, and the cost 
of keeping it on foot was only met by strict 
economy; but by 1810 the sale had risen to 
over seven thousand copies per diem. Perry 
was admirably adapted for the post of editor. 
He moved in many circles of life, l was every 
day to be seen in the sauntering lounge along 
Pall Mall and St. James's Street, and the 
casual chit-chat of one morning furnished 
matter for the columns of the next day's 
" Chronicle.'" In the shop of Debrett he 




made the acquaintance of the leading whigs, 
and, to obtain a complete knowledge of French 
affairs, he spent a year in Paris ' during the 
critical period ' of the Revolution. On taking 
over the newspaper Perry lived in the narrow 
part of Shire Lane, off Fleet Street, lodging 
with a bookbinder called Lunan,who had mar- 
ried his sister. Later Perry and his partner 
Gray lived with John Lambert, the printer of 
the ' Morning Chronicle,' who had premises 
in Shire Lane. Eventually the business was 
removed to the corner house of Lancaster 
Court, Strand, afterwards absorbed in Wel- 
lington Street. The official dinners of the 
editors in this house were often attended by 
the most eminent men of the day, and Person 
playfully dubbed them 'my lords of Lan- 
caster.' John Taylor states that Perry had 
chambers in Clement's Inn (Records of mv 
Life, i. 241-2). 

During Perry's management many leading 
writers contributed to the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle.' Ricardo addressed letters to it, and 
Sir James Mackintosh wrote in it. Charles 
Lamb was an occasional contributor, and 
during 1800 and 1801 Thomas Campbell fre- 
quently sent poems to it, chief among them 
being < The Exile of Erin,' the < Ode to Winter,' 
and ' Ye Mariners of England ' (BEATTIE, Life 
of Campbell, i. 305, &c.) Hazlitt was at first 
a parliamentary reporter and then a theatrical 
critic. Perry expressed dissatisfaction with 
the length of his contributions, which in- 
cluded some of his finest criticisms. Cole- 
ridge was also a contributor, and Moore's 
' Epistle from Tom Cribb ' appeared in Sep- 
tember 1815. Serjeant Spankie is said to 
have temporarily edited it, and he introduced 
to Perry John Campbell, afterwards lord 
chancellor and Lord Campbell, who was 
glad to earn some money with his contri- 
butions to its pages (Life of Lord Camp- 
bell, i. 45-182). During the last years of 
Perry's life the paper was edited by John 
Black [q. v.] 

The success of the 'Morning Chronicle' 
was not established without prosecutions 
from the official authorities. On 25 Dae. 
1792 there appeared in it an advertisement 
of the address passed at the meeting of the 
Society for Political Information at the Talbot 
Inn, Derby, on the preceding 16 July. An 
information ex officio was filed in the court 
of king's bench in Hilary term 1793, and a 
rule for a special jury was made in Trinity 
term. Forty-eight jurors were struck, the 
number was reduced to twenty-four, and the 
cause came on, but only seven of them ap- 
peared in the box. The attorney-general did 
not pray a tales, and the case went off. In 
Michaelmas term the prosecution took out a 




rule for a new special j ury, and, on the opposi- 
tion of the defendants, the case was argued 
before Buller and two other judges, when it 
was laid down ' that the first special jury 
struck, and reduced according to law, must 
try the issue joined between parties.' Ulti- 
mately the case came before Lord Kenyon 
and a special jury on 9 Dec. 1793, the de- 
fendants being charged with ' having printed 
and published a seditious libel.' Scott (after- 
wards Lord Eldon) prosecuted, and Erskine 
defended. The jury withdrew at two in the 
afternoon, and after five hours they agreed 
to a special verdict, ' guilty of publishing, but 
with no malicious intent.' The j udge refused 
to accept it, and at five in the morning of 
the following day their verdict was f not 
guilty.' This result is said to have been due 
to the firmness of one juryman, a coal mer- 
chant (State Trials, xx'ii. 954-1020). 

On 21 March 1798 Lord Minto brought 
before the House of Lords a paragraph in the j 
1 Morning Chronicle' of 19 March, sarcasti- 
cally setting out that to vindicate the im- 
portance of that assembly ' the dresses of the 
opera-dancers are regulated there.' Printer j 
and publisher appeared next day, when Lord 
Minto proposed a fine of 507. each and im- 
prisonment in Newgate for three months. 
Lord Derby and the Duke of Bedford pro- 
posed a reduction to one month, but they 
were defeated by sixty-nine votes to eleven, j 
Perry and Lambert were committed accord- j 
ingly (HANSARD, xxxiii. 1310-13). During 
the term of this imprisonment levies of i 
Perry's friends were held at Newgate, and 
presents of game, with other delicacies, were 
sent there constantly. On his release from 
gaol an elaborate entertainment was given 
to him at the London Tavern, and a ' silver- 
gilt vase ' was presented to him. 

Perry was tried before Lord Ellenborough 
and a special jury on 24 Feb. 1810 for in- 
serting in the ' Morning Chronicle' on 2 Oct. ! 
1809 a paragraph from the ' Examiner' of | 
the brothers Hunt that the successor of J 
George III would have ' the finest oppor- 
tunity of becoming nobly popular.' Perry 
defended himself with such vigour that the 
jury immediately pronounced the defendants 
not guilty (State Trials, xxxi. 335-68). 

With increasing prosperity Perry moved 
into Tavistock House, in the open space at 
the north-east corner of Tavistock Square, 
London, and also rented Wandlebank House, 
Wimbledon, near the confines of the parish 
of Merton. Tavistock House was afterwards 
divided, and the moiety which retained that 
name was occupied by Charles Dickens. 
The house was long noted for its parties 
of political and literary celebrities, and Miss 

Mitford, who from 1813 was a frequent 
visitor, says that ' Perry was a man so 
genial and so accomplished that even when 
Erskine, Romilly, Tierney, and Moore were 
present, he was the most charming talker at 
his own table ' (L'EsTRANGE, Life of Miss 
Mitford, in. 254). His house near Merton 
adjoined that of Nelson, who stood godfather 
to his daughter, and wrote him a letter on 
the death of Sir William Hamilton (Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. v. 293). On the banks 
of the Wandle, near this house, some ma- 
chinery for multiplying pictures, designated 
the ' polygraphic art,' was set up by Perry. 
It resulted in failure, and after some years 
the premises were converted into a corn-mill. 
In his hands this undertaking was not a 
success, but it was afterwards let at a good 
profit. Particulars and a plan of this estate, 
comprising house, mill, calico factory, and 
in all 160 acres of land, were flrawn up by 
Messrs. Robins for a sale by them on 24 July 

Perry's health began to decline about 1817 
through an internal disease, which compelled 
him to undergo several painful operations. 
In 1819 Jekyll writes that he was ' quite 
broken up in health and cannot last.' His 
physicians recommended him to spend the 
close of his life at his house at Brighton, and 
he died there on 5 Dec. 1821. He was buried 
in the family vault in Wimbledon church 
on 12 Dec., where a tablet to his memory 
was erected by the Fox Club on the east side 
of the south aisle. He married, on 23 Aug. 
1798, Anne Hull, who bore him eight chil- 
dren. Apprehensive of consumption, she took 
a voyage to Lisbon for the benefit of her 
health. Her recovery was completed, and 
she was in 1814 on her way back to England 
in a Swedish vessel when it was captured by 
an Algerine frigate and carried off to Africa. 
She suffered much through these trials, and 
even after her release, by the exertions of 
the English consul, was detained six weeks 
waiting for a vessel to take her away. Her 
strength failed, and she died at Bordeaux, 
on her way home, in February 1815, aged 42. 
Their son, Sir Thomas Erskine Perry, is men- 
tioned separately. Another son was British 
consul at Venice (cf. SALA, Life and Adven- 
tures, ii. 94-5). A daughter married Sir 
Thomas Frederick Elliot, K.C.M.G., assistant 
under-secretary of state for the colonies, and 
soothed the last years of Miss Berry (Journals, 
iii. 513). Perry maintained his aged parents 
in comfort, and brought up the family of his 
sister by her husband Lunan, from whom she 
was divorced by Scottish law. This sister 
married Porson in November 1795, and died 
on 12 April 1797. Porson lived with Perry ' 




before and after his marriage, and it was at 
his house inMerton that the Greek professor 
lost through fire his transcript of about half 
of the Greek lexicon of Photius and his notes 
on Aristophanes (' Porsoniana ' in ROGERS'S 
Table Talk, p. 322). 

Perry had remarkably small quick eyes and 
stooped in the shoulders. Leigh Hunt adds 
that he ' not unwillingly turned his eyes 
upon the ladies.' His fund of anecdote was 
abundant, his acquaintance with secret his- 
tory 'authentic and valuable.' J. P. Collier 
complains that he was ' always disposed to 
treat the leaders of the whigs with subser- 
vient respect. He never quite lost his retail 
manner acquired in the draper's shop at Aber- 
deen.' He is said to have died worth 1 30,000/. , 
the sale of his paper realising no less than 
42,000/. His library of rare and valuable 
editions of standard works was dispersed a 
few weeks after his death. Letters from him 
are in Tom Moore's ' Memoirs ' (viii. 127-8, 
146-7, 177-9), Dr. Parr's 'Works' (viii. 120), 
and in Miss Mitford's 'Friendships' (i. 110- 
111). He reprinted, with a preface of thirty- 
one pages, the account of his trial in 1810, 
and lie drew up a preface for the reprint from 
the ' Morning Chronicle ' of November and 
December 1807 of 'The Six Letters of A. B. 
on the Differences between Great Britain and 
the United States of America.' 

A portrait was painted by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence. Of this Wivell made a drawing 
which was engraved by Thomson in the 
'European Magazine' for 1818. An original 
drawing of Perry in water-colours by John 
Jackson, R.A., is at the print room of the 
British Museum. 

[Gent. Mag. 1797 pt. i. p. 438, 1798 pt. ii. 
p. 722, 1815 pt. i. p. 282, 1821 pt. ii. pp. 565-6 ; 
Ann. Biogr. and Obituary, vii. 380-91 ; European 
Mag. 1818 pt. ii. pp. 187-90 ; Grant's Newspaper 
Press, i. 259-80 ; Fox-Bourne's Newspapers, i. 
248-68, 279, 363-7 ; F. K Hunt's Fourth Estate, 
ii. 103-13; Andrews's Journalism, i. 229-33, 
248, 265-6, ii. 40, 48 ; Cunningham's London 
(ed. Wheatley), ii. 365, iii. 349; Watson's Life 
of Porson, pp. 125-9 ; Collier's Old Man's Diary, 
pt. ii. pp. 42-5, 86 ; Jerdan's Men I have known, 
pp. 329-35; Miller's Biogr. Sketches, i. 147-9; 
P. L. Gordon's Personal Memoirs, i. 235-63, 280- 
285; Bardett's Wimbledon, pp. 83, 89, 170-1.] 

W. P. C. 

PERRY, JOHN (1670-1732), civil en- 
gineer and traveller, second son of Samuel 
Perry of Rodborough, Gloucestershire, and 
Sarah, his wife, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Nott, was born at Rodborough in 1670. He 
entered the navy, and at the beginning of 
1690 is described as lieutenant of the ship 
Montague, commanded by Captain John 

Lay ton. In January 1690 he lost the use of 
his right arm, from a wound. received during 
an engagement with a French privateer! 
In 1693 he superintended the repair of the 
Montague in Portsmouth harbour, on which 
occasion he devised an engine for throwing 
out water from deep sluices. In the same 
year he appears as commander of the fireship 
Cygnet, attached to the man-of-war Diamond, 
the commander of the latter being Captain 
Wickham. While the two vessels were 
cruising about twenty leagues off Cape Clear, 
on 20 Sept. 1693, they were attacked by two 
large French privateers, and compelled to 
surrender. Perry declares.that his superior, 
Wickham, gave him no orders, and struck his 
flag after a slight resistance, thus leaving 
the Cygnet a helpless prey to her stronger 
assailant. Wickham, however, maintained 
that Perry refused to co-operate with him, 
and was also guilty of a dereliction of duty in 
not setting fire to his ship before the French- 
men boarded her. Perry being put on his 
trial before a court-martial, Captain Wick- 
ham's charges were held proved, and Perry 
was sentenced to a fine of 1,000/. and ten 
years' imprisonment in the Marshalsea. 
While in prison he wrote a pamphlet en- 
titled ' Regulations for Seamen,' in the ap- 
pendix of which he gave a long statement of 
his case, protesting bitterly against the in- 
justice of his condemnation. The pamphlet 
is dated 18 Dec. 1694. Perry eventually 
obtained his release, for in April 1698 he is 
mentioned as having been introduced by 
Lord Carmarthen to the czar Peter, then on 
a visit to England. Peter, struck with Perry's 
knowledge of engineering, engaged him to 
go out to Russia immediately, to superintend 
the naval and engineering works then under 
progress in that country. Perry was pro- 
mised his expenses, an annual salary of 300/., 
and liberal rewards in case his work proved 
of exceptional value. 

Perry arrived in Russia in the early summer 
of 1698. He was first employed to report on 
the possibility of establishing a canal between 
the rivers Volga and Don. This being de- 
clared feasible, the work was begun in 1700, 
but the progress made was slow, owing to 
the incapacity of the workmen, the delay in 
supplying materials, and the opposition of the 
nobility. Perry also was much annoyed at the 
czar's neglect to pay him any salary. In Sep- 
tember 1701 Perry, who now received the title 
of ' Comptroller of Russian Maritime Works/ 
was summoned to Moscow, and early in 1702 
ordered to Voronej, on the right bank of the 
river of that name, to establish a dock. This 
was completed in 1703, after which Perry 
was employed in making the Yoronej river r 



navigable for ships of war the whole way 
from the city of Voronej to the Don. To 1710 
Perry continued to be employed in surveys 
and engineering work on and around the river 
Don. After some delay, caused by the Turkish 
war of 1711, he received instructions to draw 
plans for making a canal between St.. Peters- 
burg and the Volga. He fixed on a route, the 
works were begun, but Perry was now ren- 
dered desperate by the czar's continued refusal 
to reward his services. A final petition to Peter 
was followed by a quarrel, and Perry, afraid 
for his life, put himself under the protection 
of the English ambassador, Mr. Whitworth, 
and returned undr his care to England in 
1712. During fourteen years' service in 
Russia, he had only received one year's 
salary. In 1716 he brought out an interest- 
ing work on the condition of Russia, entitled 
' State of Russia under the present Tsar.' It 
contains a full account of the personal 
annoyances suffered by Perry during his stay 
in Russia. 

In 1714, tenders being invited to stop the 
breach in the Thames embankment at Dagen- 
ham, Perry offered to do the work for 25,000/. 
The contract was, however, given to William 
Boswell, who asked only 16,300/. Boswell 
having found his task impossible, the work 
was entrusted to Perry in 1715. He com- 
pleted it successfully in five years' time ; but 
the expenses so far exceeded anticipation that, 
though an extra sum of 15,000/. was granted 
to him by parliament, and a sum of 1,000/. 
presented to him by the local gentry, Perry 
gained no profit by the transaction. He pub- 
lished an account thereof in 'An Account of 
the Stopping of Dagenham Breach' (1721). 
In 1724 Perry was appointed engineer to the 
proposed new harbour works at Rye. He 
subsequently settled in Lincolnshire, and was 
elected a member of the Antiquarian Society 
at Spalding on 16 April 1730. He died at 
Spalding, while acting as engineer to a com- 
pany formed for draining the Lincolnshire 
fens, in February 1732. 

[Perry's works ; Report of Lawsuits relating 
to Dagenham Breach Works, John Perry, Ap- 
pellant, and. William Boswell, Respondent ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 115, vi. 104: Smiles's 
Lives of the Engineers, i. 73-82.] G. P. M-Y. 

PERRY, SAMPSON (1747-1823), pub- 
licist, was born at Aston, Birmingham, in 
1747, and was brought up to the medical pro- 
fession. While acting as surgeon, with the 
rank of captain, to the Middlesex militia, he 
published in 1785 a 'Disquisition on the Stone 
and Gravel,' and in 1786 a ' Treatise on Lues 
Gonorrhoea.' In 1789 he started or revived 
the 'Argus,' a violent opposition daily paper. 

In 1791 he was twice sentenced to six months' 
imprisonment for libels respectively on John 
Walter of the ( Times,' and on Lady Fitz- 
gibbon, wife of the Irish lord chancellor. He 
was also fined 100/. for accusing the king and 
Pitt of keeping back Spanish news for stock- 
jobbing purposes, and was convicted of a libel 
on the House of Commons, which, he alleged, 
did not really represent the country. To avoid 
imprisonment for this last offence, he fled, in 
January 1793, to Paris, where on a previous 
visit he had made, through Thomas Paine, the 
acquaintance of Condorcet, Petion, Brissot, 
Dumouriez, and Santerre. A reward of 100/. 
was offered by the British government for his 
apprehension. He joined the British revolu- 
tionary club, gave evidence at Marat's trial 
respecting the attempted suicide of a young 
Englishman named Johnson, was arrested 
with the other English residents in August 
1793, and spent fourteen months in Paris 
prisons. Herault de Sechelles summoned 
him, on the trial of the Dantonists, to testify 
to the innocence of his negotiations with the 
English whigs, but the trial was cut short 
without witnesses for the defence being heard . 
On his release at the close of 1794 Perry 
returned to London, surrendered on his out- 
lawry, and was imprisoned in Newgate till 
the change of ministry in 1801. While in 
Newgate he published ' Oppression : Ap- 
peal of Captain Perry to the People of Eng- 
land ' (1795), ' Historical Sketch of the 
French Revolution' (1796), and ' Origin of 
Government' (1797). On his liberation he 
edited the ' Statesman,' and had cross suits 
for libel with Lewis Goldsmith [q. v.], being 
awarded only a farthing damages. At the 
close of his life he was in pecuniary straits, 
and was an insolvent debtor, but was on the 
point of being discharged in 1823 when he 
died of heart disease. Twice married, he 
left a widow and family. 

[Gent. Mag. 1823, pt. ii. p. 280; Annual Re- 
gister, 1791 p. 16, 1792 p. 38; Morning Chro- 
nicle, 25 July 1823 ; Ann. Biogr. 1824 contains 
a fabulous account of his escape from the guillo- 
tine ; Andrews's Hist, of British Journalism; 
Alger's Englishmen in French Revolution ; 
Athenaeum, 25 Aug. and 1 Sept. 1894.] 

J. G. A. 

1889), astronomer, was born in London on 
26 Aug. 1833. His father, Stephen Perry, 
was head of the well-known firm of steel- 
pen manufacturers in Red Lion Square. His 
mother died when he was seven years old. 
At nine he was sent to school at Gifford 
Hall, whence, after a year and a half, he was 
transferred to Douay College in France. 
During his seven years' course there a voca- 




tion to the priesthood developed in him, and 
he proceeded for theological study to the 
English College at Rome. He entered the 
Society of Jesus on 12 Nov. 1853, and in 
1856 came to Stonyhurst for training in 
philosophy and physical science. His mathe- 
matical ability led to his being appointed to 
assist Father Weld in the observatory; he 
matriculated in 1858 at the university of 
London, studied for a year under De Morgan, 
then attended the lectures in Paris of Cauchy, 
Liouville, Delaunay, Serrat, and Bertrand. 
On his return to Stonyhurst, late in 1860, he 
was nominated professor of mathematics in 
the college and director of the observatory; 
but the three years previous to his ordination, 
on 23 Sept. 1866, were spent at St. Beuno's 
College, North Wales, in completing his 
theological course; the two years of pro- 
bation customary in the Jesuit order fol- 
lowed ; so that it was not until 1868 that he 
was able definitively to resume his former 

His public scientific career began with 
magnetic surveys of western and eastern 
France in 1868 and 1869, and of Belgium in 
1871. Father Sidgreaves, the present di- 
rector of the Stonyhurst observatory, assisted 
him in the first two sets of operations, Mr. 
W. Carlisle in the third. The successive pre- 
sentations before the Royal Society of their 
results, as well as of the magnetic data col- 
lected at Stonyhurst between 1863 and 1870, 
occasioned Father Perry's election to fellow- 
ship of the Royal Society on 4 June 1874. 
He became a fellow of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society on 9 April 1869, and was 
chosen to lead one of four parties sent by it 
to observe the total solar eclipse of 22 Dec. 
1870. His station was at San Antonio, 
near Cadiz ; his instrument, the Stonyhurst 
9^-inch Cassegrain reflector, fitted with a 
direct- vision spectroscope ; his special task, 
the scrutiny of the coronal spectrum, in the 
discharge of which he was, however, impeded 
by the intervention of thin cirro-stratus clouds 
(Monthly Notices, xxxi. 62, 149 ; Memoirs 
Royal Astron. Society, xli. 423, 627). 

Perry's services were thenceforward indis- 
pensable in astronomical expeditions, and he 
shrank from none of the sacrifices, including 
constant suffering from sea-sickness, which 
they entailed. On occasion of the transit of 
Venus on 8 Dec. 1874, he was charged with 
the observations to be made on Kerguelen 
Island. They were fundamentally success- 
ful ; but the dimness of the sky marred 
the spectroscopic and photographic part of 
the work. The stay of the party in this 
1 Land of Desolation' was protracted to nearly 
five months by the necessity and difficulty, 

in so atrocious a climate, of determining its 
absolute longitude. This end was attained 
in the face of innumerable hardships and the 
gloomy prospect of half-rations. After a 
stormy voyage Father Perry left the Volage 
at Malta, and was received by the pope at 
Rome. His graphic account of the adventure 
was reprinted in 1876 from the ' Month,' vols. 
vi. and vii. A ' Report on the Meteorology 
of Kerguelen Island,' drawn up by him for 
the meteorological office, appeared" in 1879, 
while his statement as to the astronomical 
results of his mission was included in the 
official report on the transit. 

For the observation of the corresponding 
event of 6 Dec. 1882, he headed a party 
stationed at Nos Vey, a coral reef close to 
the south-west shore of Madagascar, where, 
favoured by good weather, he completely 
carried out his programme. Father Sid- 
greaves, his coadjutor here, as at Kerguelen, 
described the expedition in the 'Month' for 
April 1883. Father Perry next formed part 
of the Royal Society's expedition to the West 
Indies for the solar eclipse of 19 Aug. 1886. 
His spectroscopic observations, made in the 
island of Carriacou, were much impeded by 
mist. His report appeared in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' clxxx. 351. Again, 
as an emissary of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, he was stationed at Pogost on the 
Volga to observe the eclipse of 19 Aug. 1887 ; 
but this time the clouds never broke. His 
last journey was to the Salut Islands, a 
French convict settlement off Guiana. This 
time he was charged by the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society with the photography of 
the eclipsed sun on 22 Dec. 1889, for the 
purpose of deciding moot-points regarding 
the corona. In the zeal of his preparations, 
however, he disregarded danger from the 
pestilential night air, contracted dysentery, 
and was able, only by a supreme effort, to 
expose the designed series of plates during 
the critical two minutes. Then, in honour of 
their apparent success, he called for ' three 
cheers' from the officers of her majesty's ships 
Comus and Forward, in which the eclipse 
party had been conveyed from Barbados, 
adding, < I can't cheer, but I will wave my 
helmet.' But collapse ensued. He was taken 
on board the Comus, and Captain Atkinson 
put to sea in the hope of catching restora- 
tive breezes. But the patient died on the 
afternoon of 27 Dec. 1889, and was buried 
at Georgetown, Demerara, where he had 
been expected to deliver a lecture on the 
results of the eclipse. The photographs 
taken by him were brought home, necessarily 
undeveloped, by his devoted assistant, Mr. 
Rooney, but proved to have suffered 

Perry 3 

damage from heat and damp. A drawing 
from the best preserved plate by Miss Violet 
Common was published as a frontispiece to 
the 'Observatory' for March 1890, with a 
note by Mr. W. H. Wesley on the character 
of the depicted corona. 

Perry's character was remarkable for sim- 
plicity and earnestness. He had the trans- 
parent candour of a child ; his unassuming 
kindliness inspired universal affection. In 
conversation he was genial and humorous, 
and he enjoyed nothing more than a share in 
the Stonyhurst games, exulting with boyish 
glee over a top score at cricket. Yet his 
dedication to duty was absolute, his patience 
inexhaustible. Enthusiastic astronomer as 
he was, he was still before all things a priest. 
He preached well, and his last two sermons 
were delivered in French to the convicts of 
Salut. The astronomical efficiency of the 
Stonyhurst observatory was entirely due to 
him, his efforts in that direction being ren- 
dered possible by the acquisition in 1867 
of an 8-inch equatorial by Troughton and 
Simms. Various other instruments were 
added, including the 5-inch Clark refractor 
used by Prebendary T. W. Webb [q. y.] Two 
small spectroscopes were purchased in 1870 ; 
a six-prism one by Browning was in constant 
use from October 1879 for the measurement 
of the solar chromosphere and prominences ; 
and a fine Rowland's grating, destined for 
systematically photographing the spectra of 
sun-spots, was mounted by Hilger in 1888. 
In 1880 Perry set on foot the regular de- 
lineation by projection of the solar surface, 
and the drawings, executed by Mr. McKeon 
on a scale of ten inches to the diameter, 
form a series of great value, extending over 
nineteen years. By their means Perry dis- 
covered in 1881, independently of Trouve- 
lot, the phenomenon of ' veiled spots ; ' and 
he made the Stonyhurst methods of investi- 
gating the solar surface the subject of a Friday 
evening discourse at the Royal Institution 
in May 1889, as well as of a paper read before 
the Royal Astronomical Society on 14 June 
1889 (Memoirs, xlix. 273). But while his 
chief energies were directed to solar physics, 
his plan of work included also observations 
of Jupiter's satellites, comets, and occulta- 
tions, besides the maintenance of a regular 
watch for shooting stars. The magnetic and 
meteorological record was moreover extended 
and improved. 

His popularity as a lecturer was great. 
He drew large audiences in Scotland and the 
nortli of England, discoursed in French to the 
scientific society of Brussels in 1876 and 1882 
(Annales, tomes i., vi.), and to the Catholic 
scientific congress at Paris in 1888, delivered 


addresses at South Kensington in 1876, in 
Dublin in 1886, at Cambridge, and before 
the British Association at Montreal in 1884. 
His success was in part due to the extreme 
carefulness of his preparation. Thoroughness 
"and uncompromising industry were indeed 
conspicuous in every detail of his scientific 

Perry served during his later years on the 
council of the Royal Astronomical Society, 
on the committee of solar physics, and on 
the committee of the British Association for 
the reduction of magnetic observations. He 
was a member of the Royal Meteorological 
Society, of the Physical Society of London, 
and delivered his inaugural address as presi- 
dent of the Liverpool Astronomical Society 
almost on the eve of his final departure from 
England. The Academia Pontificia dei Nuovi 
Lincei at Rome, the Societe Scientifique of 
Brussels, and the Society Geographique of 
Antwerp enrolled him among their members, 
and he received an honorary degree of D.Sc. 
from the Royal University of Ireland in 1886. 
He took part in the international photo- 
graphic congresses at Paris in 1887 and 1889. 
Numerous contributions from him were pub- 
lished in the ' Memoirs ' and l Notices ' of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' of the Royal Society, in the ' Ob- 
servatory,' f Copernicus,' f Nature,' and the 
' British Journal of Photography.' He had 
some slight preparations for an extensive 
work on solar physics. A 15-inch refractor, 
purchased from Sir Howard Grubb with a 
fund raised by public subscript ion,was erected 
as a memorial to him in the Stonyhurst ob- 
servatory in November 1893. 

[Father Perry, the Jesuit Astronomer, by the 
Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J., 2nd ed. 1890 (with por- 
trait); Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 1. 
168 ; Proc. Eoyal Soc. vol. xlviii. p. xii ; Nature, 
xli. 279 ; E. P. Thirion, Revue des Questions 
Scientifiques, Brussels, 20 Jan. 1890; The Ob- 
servatory, xiii. 62,81, 259; Sidereal Messenger, 
No. 85 (with portrait) ; Men of the Time, 12th ed. 
1887; Times, 8 Jan. 1890; Tablet, 11 and 25 Jan. 
1 and 22 Feb. 1890.] A. M. C. 


(1806-1882), Indian judge, born at Wandle- 
bank House, Wimbledon, on 20 July 1806, 
was the second son of James Perry [q. v.], 
proprietor and editor of the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle,' by his wife Anne, daughter of John 
Hull of Wilson Street, Finsbury Square, 
London. He was baptised in AVimbledon 
church on 11 Oct. 1806, Lord Chancellor 
Erskine and Dr. Matthew Raine of the 
Charterhouse being two of his sponsors 
(BARTLETT, History and Antiquities of Wim- 
bledon, 1865, pp. 115-16), and was educated 




at Charterhouse and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1829. 
He was admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn 
on 3 Feb. 1827, and was for some time a 
pupil of John Patteson [q. v.], afterwards a 
justice of the king's bench; but, taking a 
"dislike to the law, he went in 1829 to 
Munich, where he resided with his friend, the 
second Lord Erskine, the British minister, 
and studied at the university. On his return 
to England, in the beginning of 1831, Perry 
took an active part in the reform agitation. 
He became honorary secretary of the Na- 
tional Political Union of London, and founded 
the Parliamentary Candidate Society, the 
object of which was, according to the pro- 
spectus, dated 21 March 1831, * to support 
reform by promoting the return of fit and 
proper members of parliament.' He was 
proposed as a candidate for Wells at the 
general election in the spring of 1831, but 
subsequently withdrew from the contest at 
the advice of his committee. At the general 
election in December 1832 he unsuccessfully 
contested Chatham in the advanced liberal 
interest against Colonel Maberly, the govern- 
ment candidate. Having left the society of 
Lincoln's Inn on 30 May 1832, he was ad- 
mitted to the Inner Temple on 2 June fol- 
lowing, and was called to the bar on 21 Nov. 
1834. Though he joined the home circuit, 
Perry appears to have devoted himself to 
law reporting. In this work he collaborated 
with Sandford Nevile, and subsequently with 
Henry Davison. With Nevile he was the 
joint author of ' Reports of Cases relating to 
the Office of Magistrates determined in the 
Court of King's Bench,' &c. [from Michael- 
mas term 1836 to Michaelmas term 1837], 
London, 1837, 8vo, pts. i. and ii. (incom- 
plete), and ' Reports of Cases argued and 
determined in the Court of King's Bench, 
and upon Writs of Error from that Court to 
the Exchequer Chamber,' &c. [from Michael- 
mas term 1836 to Trinity term 1838], Lon- 
don, 1837-9, 1838, 8vo, 3 vols. He was 
associated with Davison in the production of 
* Reports of Cases argued and determined in 
the Court of King's Bench, and upon Writs 
of Error from that Court to the Exchequer 
Chamber,' &c. [from Michaelmas term 1838 
to Hilary term 1841], London, 1839-42, 8vo, 
4 vols. 

Having lost the greater part of his fortune 
by the failure of a bank in 1840, Perry 
applied to the government for preferment, 
and was appointed a judge of the supreme 
court of Bombay. He was knighted at 
Buckingham Palace on 11 Feb. 1841 (Lon- 
don Gazette, 1841, pt. i. p. 400), and was 
sworn into his judicial office at Bombay on 

10 April in the same year. In May 1847 he 
was promoted to the post of chief justice in 
;he place of Sir David Pollock, and continued 
;o preside over the court until his retirement 
lorn the bench in the autumn of 1852. 
Owing to his strict impartiality in the ad- 
ministration of justice and his untiring 
exertions on behalf of education, Perry was 
exceedingly popular among the native com- 
munity of Bombay. A sum of 5,000/. was 
subscribed as a testimonial of their regard 
for him on his leaving India in November 
1852 ; this sum, at his request, was devoted 
to the establishment of a Perry professorship 
of law. Soon after his return to England he 
wrote several letters to the ' Times,' under 
the pseudonym of 'Hadji,' advocating the 
abolition of the East India Company and 
the constitution of an independent council 
under the executive government. At a by- 
lection in June 1853 he unsuccessfully 
contested Liverpool. In May of the follow- 
ing year he was returned for Devonport in 
the liberal interest, and continued to sit for 
that borough until his appointment to the 
India council. He spoke for the first time 
in the House of Commons on 26 June 1854 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cxxxiv. 691-4), and 
in August following took part in the debate 
on the revenue accounts of the East India 
Company, when he expressed his desire that 
'our government in India should assume 
the most liberal form of policy that was 
compatible with the despotism that must 
always exist in an Asiatic country ' (ib. 
cxxxv. 1463-71). On 22 Dec. 1854 he 
warmly supported, in an able and interesting 
speech, the third reading of the Enlistment 
of Foreigners Bill (ib. cxxxvi. 830-7). On 
10 May 1855 he unsuccessfully moved for 
the appointment of a select committee to 
consider how the army of India might be 
made ' most available for a war in Europe 
(ib. cxxxviii. 302-22, 358-9). On 4 March 
1856 he protested against the annexation of 
Oude, and moved for a return ' enumerating 
the several territories which have been 
annexed or have been proposed to be annexed 
to the British dominions by the governor- 
general of India since the close of the Punjab 
war ' (ib. cxl. 1855). On 18 April he called 
the attention of the house to the increasing 
deficit of the India revenue, and attacked 
Lord Dalhousie's policy of annexation (ib. 
clxi 1189-1207). He was also a strenuous 
advocate of the policy of admitting natives 
to official posts in India. On 10 June IS 
he brought forward the subject of the right! 
of married women, and moved that < the rules 
of common law which gave all the personal 
property of a woman in marriage, and all 


subsequently acquired property and earnings, 
to the husband are unjust in principle and 
injurious in their operation' (ib. cxlii. 1273- 
1277, 1284). In the following session he 
both spoke and voted against the govern- 
ment on Cobden's China resolutions (ib. 
cxliv. 1457-63, 1847). On 14 May 1857 he 
brought in a bill to amend the law of pro- 
perty as it affected married women (ib. 
cxlv. 266-74), which was read a second time 
on 15 July, and subsequently dropped. 
He moved the second reading of Lord Camp- 
bell's bill for more effectually preventing the 
sale of obscene books and pictures (20 & 21 
Viet. c. 83), and joined frequently in the 
discussion of the Divorce and Matrimonial 
Causes Bill in committee. Perry gave his 
hearty concurrence to the first reading of 
Lord Palmerston's Government of India Bill 
on 12 Feb. 1858 (ib. cxlviii. 1304-12), and 
supported the introduction of the Sale and 
Transfer of Land (Ireland) Bill on 4 May 
following (ib. cl. 40-1). He took a pro- 
minent part in the discussion in committee 
of the third Government of India Bill, and 
on the third reading of the bill declared his 
' solemn conviction that it would not last 
more than four or five years, and that in 
that time the council would probably be 
found unworkable' (ib. cli. 1087-8). He 
spoke for the last time in the house on 
19 July 1859, during the debate on the 
organisation of the Indian army, when he 
insisted that ' in future the government of 
India must be more congenial to the feelings 
and wishes of the people ' (ib. civ. 40-4). 
Shortly after Lord Palmerston's reinstate- 
ment in office Perry was appointed a mem- 
ber of the council of India (8 Aug. 1859). 
On his resignation of this post, a few months 
before his death, the queen gave her approval 
to his admission to the privy council. He 
was, however, too ill to be sworn in. He 
died at his residence in Eaton Place, Lon- 
don, on 22 April 1882, aged 75. 

Perry married, first, in 1834, Louisa, only 
child of James M'Elkiney of Brighton, and 
a niece of Madame Jerome Bonaparte ; she 
died at Byculla on 12 Oct. 1841. He married, 
secondly, on 6 June 1855, Elizabeth Mar- 
garet, second daughter of Sir John Van den 
Bempde-Johnstone, bart., and sister of Har- 
court, first lord Derwent, who still survives. 

Perry wrote: 1. 'Letter to Lord Campbell, 
Lord Chief Justice of England, on Reforms 
in the Common Law ; with a Letter to the 
Government of India on the same subject, 
&c.,' London, 1850, 8vo. 2. 'Cases illustra- 
tive of Oriental Life and the application of 
English Law to India decided in II. M. Su- 
preme Court at Bombay,' London, 1853, 8vo. 

3 Perryn 

3. < A Bird's-eye View of India, with Ex- 
tracts from a Journal kept in the provinces, 
Nepal,' &c., London, 1855, 8vo. He trans- 
lated Savigny's ' Treatise on Possession, 
or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law,' 
London, 1848, 8vo, and wrote an introduc- 
tion to ' Two Hindus on English Education 
. . . Prize Essays by Narayan Bhai and 
Bkaskar Damodar of the Elphinstone Insti- 
tution, Bombay,' Bombay, 1852, 8vo. He 
also contributed a ' Notice of Anquetil du 
Perron and the Fire Worshippers of India ' 
and ' the Van den Bempde Papers ' to the 
'Biographical and Historical Miscellanies' 
of the Philobiblon Society, and an article of 
his on ' The Future of India ' appeared in 
the ' Nineteenth Century ' for December 
1878 (iv. 1083-1104). 

[New Monthly Magazine, cxvii. 382-91 (with 
portrait) ; Law Magazine and Review, 4th ser. 
vii. 436; Law Journal, xvii. 234; Solicitors' 
Journal, xxvi. 438 ; Times, 12 Jan. and 24 April 
1882; Illustrated London News, 29 April 1882 ; 
Men of the Time, 10th edit. 1879 ; Dod's Peer- 
age, &c., 1882; McCalmont's Parliamentary 
Poll Book, 1879, pp. 47, 72, 155, 164; Official 
Return of Lists of Members of Parliament, 
pt. ii. pp. 414, 431, 446 ; Whishaw's Synopsis 
of the Bar, 1835, pp. 108-9 ; Grad. Oantalr. 
1856 ? p. 298; Parish's List of Carthusians, 1879, 
p. 182; Lincoln's Inn and Inner Temple Re- 
gisters ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vii. 287 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

PERRYN, SIR RICHARD (1723-1803), 
baron of the exchequer, son of Benjamin 
Perryn of Flint, merchant, by his wife, Jane, 
eldest daughter of Richard Adams, town 
clerk of Chester, was baptised in the parish 
church of Flint on 16 Aug. 1723. He was edu- 
cated at Ruthin grammar school and Queen's- 
College, Oxford, where he matriculated on 
13 March 1741, but did not take any degree. 
He was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn 
on 6 Nov. 1740, and on 27 April 1746 mi- 
grated to the Inner Temple, where he was 
called to the bar on 3 July 1747. Perryn 
commenced practice in the court of chancery, 
and gradually acquired such a reputation there 
as to be employed during the latter years of 
his practice in almost every cause. On 20 July 
1770 he became vice-chamberlain of Chester 
(OBMEKOD, History of Cheshire, 1882, i. 61), 
and in the same year was made a king's 
counsel and a bencher of the Inner Temple. 
On 6 April 1776 he kissed hands on his ap- 
pointment as baron of the exchequer in the 
place of Sir John Burland, and was knighted 
on the same day (London Gazette, 1776, No. 
11654). He was called to the degree of serjeant- 
at-law and sworn into office on the 26th of the 
same month (BLACKSTONE, Reports^ 1781, ii. 



1060). Perry n retired from the bench in the 
long vacation of 1799 (DTJRNTOKD and EAST 
Term Reports, 1817, viii. 421), and died at 
his house at Twickenham on 2 Jan. 1803, 
aged 79. He was buried on the 10th of the 
same month in ' the new burial-ground ' at 
Twickenham, and a tablet was erected to his 
memory in the south chancel wall of the old 
parish church. 

Perryn married Mary, eldest daughter of 
Henry Browne of Skelbrooke in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, by whom he had several 
children. His wife died on 19 April 1795, 
aged 73. An engraved portrait of Perryn by 
Dupont, after Gainsborough, was published 
in 1779. Some remarks on Perry n's charge 
to the grand jury of Sussex at the Lent 
assizes in 1785 are appended to ' Thoughts 
on Executive Justice with respect to our 
Criminal Laws, particularly on the Circuits, 
London, 1785, 8vo. 

[Foss's Judges of England, 1864, viii. 356 ; 
Strictures on the Lives and Characters of the 
most Eminent Lawyers of the present day, 1790, 
pp. 175-9; Cobbett's Memorials of Twickenham, 
1872, pp. 74, 75, 96-7, 363-4 ; Martin's Masters 
of the Bench of the Inner Temple, 1883, p. 81 ; 
Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools, 1818, ii. 
944 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 171 5-1 886, iii. 1101; 
Lincoln's Inn Admissions; Gent. Mag. 1795 pt. 
i. p. 440, 1803 pt. i. p. 89 ; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. v. 
367, 435, vi. 198.1 Gr. F. E. B. 

(1633-1702), Jesuit, born in Staffordshire in 
1633, of an ancient catholic family, made 
his humanity studies in the college of the 
English Jesuits at St. Omer. He entered 
the Society of Jesus at Watten on 7 Sept. 
1653, under the name of John Harcourt, and 
was professed of the four vows on 2 Feb. 
1670-1 . About 1668 he had been appointed 
professor of philosophy at Liege, and from 
1672 to 1679 he was professor of theology 
there, appearing from that time under his 
real name of Persall. In 1683-5 he was a 
missioner in the Hampshire district. He 
was appointed one of the preachers in ordi- 
nary to James II, and resided in the Jesuit 
college which was opened in the Savoy, 
London, on 24 May 1687. Upon the break- 
ing out of the revolution in December 1688 
he effected his escape to the continent. In 
1694 he was declared rector of the college 
at Liege. He was appointed vice-provincial 
of England in 1696, and in that capacity 
attended the fourteenth general congregation 
of the society held at Home in the same 
year. In 1701 he was a missioner in the 
London district, where probably he died on 
9 Sept. 1702. 

Two sermons by him, preached before 
James II arid his (jueen, and printed sepa- 
rately in London in 1686, are reprinted in 
A Select Collection of Catholick Sermons 
preached before King James II,' &c., 2 vols., 
London, 1741, 8vo. 

n" Hist iiU94; Fole y' s Records, 

v 300, vii. 588 ; Jones's Popery Tracts, p. 455 
Ulivers Jesuit Collections, p. 157.] T. C 

PERSE, STEPHEN (1548-1615), founder 

of the Perse grammar school at Cambridge, 
born in 1548, was son of John Perse (' me- 
diocris fortune') of Great Massingham, Nor- 
folk. He was educated at Norwich school, 
and on 29 Oct. 1565 was admitted pensioner 
of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He 
graduated B.A. 1568-9, and proceeded M.D. 
1582. He was fellow of the college from 
October 1571 till his death, and bursar in 
1570 and 1592. Perse was a practising phy- 
sician, who became rich before his death, as 
his will shows that he held considerable landed 
property in the town of Cambridge. He died 
unmarried on 30 Sept. 1615, and was buried 
in the college chapel. His will, dated 27 Sept. 
1615, gave 100/. towards the building of the 
new library should it be commenced within 
a definite time, which it was not, and Perse 
also founded six fellowships and six scholar- 
ships at Caius College ; but the bulk of his 
property was left to found a free grammar 
school for the benefit of the town of Cam- 
bridge, with one lodging chamber for the 
master and another for the usher. In his 
will he also laid down certain provisions for 
the conduct of the school, to be carried out 
by the master and fellows of his college. A 
suitable site was found in what is now known 
as Free School Lane, at the back of Corpus 
Christ! College, and buildings were erected. 
The first master was Thomas Lovering, M.A., 
of Pembroke College, who, as he was after- 
wards said to have made the boys of Norwich 
grammar school * Minerva's darlings,' was 
probably competent. He occurs as master in 
1619. Among the pupils who passed through 
the school was Jeremy Taylor. At the be- 
ginning of this century the school had de- 
cayed. From 1805 to about 1836 no usher 
is recorded to have been appointed. From 
1816 to 1842 the large schoolroom was used 
as a picture-gallery to contain theFitzwilliam 
collection. A print is extant of the school 
when thus employed. In 1833 an informa- 
tion was filed in the court of chancery by the 
attorney-general against the master and fel- 
lows of Gonville and Caius College with a 
view to the better regulation of Dr. Perse's 
Denefactions. The cause was heard before 
Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, on 31 May 

Persons ^ 

1837. By his lordship's direction a reference 
was made to one of the masters of the court, 
who approved a scheme for the administra- 
tion of the property and application of the 
income on 31 July 1841. Under this scheme 
new buildings were erected, and the school 
became a flourishing place of education. In 
1873 a new scheme was approved by the 
endowed schools commission, in virtue of 
which, among other changes, a school for 
girls was established. In 1888, on the re- 
moval of the school to a more convenient 
position on the Hills Road, the old site and 
buildings were bought by the university for 
12,500/. (3 May). The buildings, which at 
first were only adapted to the purposes of 
an engineering laboratory, have since been 
in great part pulled down; but the fine 
Jacobean roof, part of the original structure, 
has been carefully preserved. Perse also 
.founded almshouses, which have also been 
rebuilt ; they are now situated in Newn- 

[Information kindly supplied by Dr. Venn 
and J. W. Clark, esq. ; the Perse School, Cam- 
bridge (notes by J. Venn and S. C. Venn) ; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iii. 93, &c. ; 
Bass Mullinger's Hist, of the Univ. of Cambridge, 
ii. 551 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, iii. 302-3 ; Willis 
and Clark's Architect. Hist, of the University of 
Cambridge, iii. 36, 199, 202.] W. A. J. A. 

PERSONS, ROBERT (1546-1610), 

Jesuit. [See PARSONS.] 

DRUMMOKD, JAMES, fourth EARL and first 
titular DUKE, 1648-1716 ; DRUMMOND, JAMES, 
fifth EARL and second titular DUKE, 1675- 
1720; DRUMMOKD, JAMES, sixth EARL and 
third titular DUKE, 1713-1747.] 

PERTRICH, PETER (d. 1451), chan- 
cellor of Lincoln Cathedral. [See PART- 

PERUSINUS, PETRUS (1530 P-1586 ?), 
historian and poet. [See BIZARI, PIETRO.] 

PERY (1719-1806), eldest son of the Rev. 
Stackpole Pery, and grandson of Edmond 
Pery, esq., of Stackpole Court in co. Clare, 
was born in Limerick in April 1719. His 
family came originally from Lower Brittany, 
and rose into prominence in the reign of 
Henry VIII. Educated to be a lawyer, 
Edmond was called to the Irish bar in Hi- 
lary term 1745, and speedily attained a high 
position in his profession. In 1751 he was 
elected M.P. for the borough of Wicklow. 
He at first acted with government, but gra- 
dually adopted a more independent attitude, 

z Pery 

and was teller for the rejection of the altered 
money bill on 17 Dec. 1753. The journals 
of the Irish House of Commons bear witness 
to his activity in promoting the interests 
of Ireland, and particularly of the city of 
Dublin, of which he was a common coun- 
cillor. On 7 Jan. 1756 he presented heads 
of a bill for the encouragement of tillage ; 
on 28 Feb. heads of a bill for the better 
supplying the city of Dublin with corn and 
flour ; and on 2 March heads of a bill to 
prevent unlawful combination to raise the 
price of coals in the city of Dublin. Most 
of his measures gradually found their way 
into the statute-book, but at the time he 
experienced considerable opposition from 
government, and at the close of the session 
1756 he thought himself justified in opposing 
the usual address of thanks to the lord lieu- 
tenant, the Duke of Devonshire. 

In the following session he took part in the 
attack on the pension list (cf. WALPOLE, Me- 
moirs of the Reign of George II, iii. 70), and, in 
order to secure proper parliamentary control 
of the revenue of the country, he supported a 
proposal to limit supply to one year, with the 
object of insuring the annual meeting of par- 
liament. In consequence of a rumour of an 
intended union with England, a serious riot 
took place in Dublin in September 1759, and 
Pery thought it right to co-operate with 
government. There, however, appears to be 
no foundation for Walpole's statement (ib. 
p. 254) that he allowed himself to be ' bought 
off,' though it is probable he was offered the 
post of solicitor-general, which was after- 
wards conferred on John Gore, lord Annaly 
[q. v.] He displayed great interest in the 
prosperity of his native city ; and when Lime- 
rick was in 1760 declared to be no longer a 
fortress, he was instrumental in causing the 
walls to be levelled, new roads to be made, 
and a new bridge and spacious quays to be 
built. At the general election of 1760 he was 
returned without opposition for the city of 
Limerick, which he continued to represent 
in successive parliaments till his retirement 
in 1785. 

In 1761 he had a serious illness. On his 
return to parliament he recommenced his on- 
slaught on the pension list. An amendment to 
the address, moved by him at the opening of 
the session in October 1763, opposing the view 
that the ' ordinary establishment ' included 
pensions, was adopted by the house, and was 
the means of wresting a promise from govern- 
ment that no new pension should be granted 
on the civil list ' except upon very extra- 
ordinary occasions.' But all his efforts to 
obtain an unqualified condemnation of the 
system (Hib. Mag. vii. 668, 800 ; Commons' 




Journals, vii. 227) ended in failure. On the 
resignation of John Ponsonby [q. v.], Pery 
was elected speaker of the Irish House of 
Commons on 7 March 1771. He did not, as 
was usual, affect to decline the honour con- 
ferred upon him, but on being presented for 
the approbation of the crown he admitted 
that it was the highest point of his ambition, 
and that he had not been more solicitous to 
obtain it than he would be to discharge the 
duties of the post. On 1 May he was sworn 
a member of the privy council. 

His conduct in the chair fully approved 
the wisdom of his election. For not only 
did he preserve that strict impartiality which 
his position demanded, but at a time when the 
privileges of the commons were extremely 
liable to infringement he stood forth as their 
zealous defender. On 19 Feb. 1772 the house 
was equally divided on a motion censuring 
an increase in the number of commissioners of 
the revenue. Pery gave his casting vote in 
favour of the motion. ' This,' said he, ' is a 
question which involves the privileges of the 
commons of Ireland. The noes have opposed 
the privilege : the noes have been wrong ; 
let the privileges of the commons of Ireland 
stand unimpeached, therefore I say the ayes 
have it' (GKATTAST, Life of Gmttan, i. 109; 
Hib. Mag. viii. 27). Again, in presenting 
the supplies to the lord lieutenant at the 
close of the session 1773, he spoke boldly 
and forcibly on the deplorable state of the 
country, and on the necessity of removing 
the restrictions placed by England on Irish 
commerce. Equally patriotic and regardful 
of the privileges of the commons was his 
declaration that the Tontine Bill of 1775 
was virtually a bill of supply, and therefore 
to be returned to the house for presentation 
to the lord lieutenant. In 1776 the friends 
of the late speaker Ponsonby made an in- 
effectual effort to prevent his re-election. 
Though debarred by his position from taking 
any open part in the political struggles of 
the day, he lent a generous support to the 
Relief Bill of 1778, and it was chiefly to his 
judicious management that the bill, though 
shorn of its concessions to the presbyterians, 
was allowed to pass through parliament. In 
1778 he visited England in order to promote 
the concession of free trade. He approved 
of the volunteer movement, and Grattan de- 
rived great practical assistance from him in 
the struggle for legislative independence. 
He was re-elected to the speakership in 1783. 
He objected to Pitt's commercial propositions 
of 1785 ; but feeling the frailties of age press- 
ing upon him, he resigned the chair on 4 Sept., 
and retired from parliamentary life. In re- 
cognition of his long and faithful services 

his majesty George III was pleased to grant 
him a pension of 3,000/. a year, and to raise 
him to the peer-age by the title of Viscount 
Pery of Newtown-Pery in the county of 
Limerick. Though strongly opposed to the 
union, he declared that, if it were really de- 
sired by parliament and the country, he 
would feel it his duty to surrender his own 
opinion, and to give his best assistance in 
arranging the details of it (LECKY, Hist, of 
England, viii. 295). Ultimately he voted 
against it. He died at his house in Park 
Street, London, on 24 Feb. 1806, and was 
buried in the Cal vert family vault at Hunsdon 
in Hertfordshire. 

Pery married, first, on 11 June 1756, Patty, 
youngest daughter of John Martin, esq., who 
died without issue; secondly, on 27 Oct. 1762, 
Elizabeth Vesey, eldest daughter of John 
Denny, lord Knapton, and sister of Thomas, 
viscount De Vesci, by whom he had issue 
two daughters : Diana Jane, who married 
Thomas Knox, eldest son of Thomas, viscount 
Northland; and Frances, who' married Ni- 
cholas Calvert, esq., of Hunsdon in Hert- 
fordshire. His daughters inherited his per- 
sonal property ; but the family estate, worth 
8,000/. a year, descended to his nephew, 
Edmund Henry Pery, earl of Limerick [q. v.] 
To judge from such of his speeches as have 
been preserved, Pery was a terse rather than 
a brilliant speaker; but his conduct in the 
chair was greatly admired by Fox, on his 
visit to Dublin in 1777. In private life, not- 
withstanding his grave and somewhat severe 
demeanour, he was polite and urbane, and 
to young people extremely indulgent. 

An engraved portrait is prefixed to a short 
memoir of him published during his life in the 
' Hibernian Magazine ' (vii. 575). He pub- 
lished anonymously in 1757 ' Letters from 
an Armenian in Ireland,' very pleasantly 
written, and containing some curious and 
valuable reflections on the political situation 
in Ireland. His correspondence and me- 
moranda of his speeches form part of the 
collection of Lord Emly of Tervoe, co. Lime- 
rick, of which there is some account in the 
eighth report of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission (App. pp. 174-208). 

[Hibernian Mag. vii. viii. ; Grattan's Life of 
Henry Grattan, i. 104-12 ; Journals of the House 
of Commons, Ireland, passim ; Hardy's Life of 
Charlemont ; Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign of 
George II ; Official List of Members of Parlia- 
ment ; Gent. Mag. 1806, pt. i. p 287.; Beresf-rd 
Corresp. i. 27, 42, 48, 79, 114; Lemhans Hist, 
of Linferick, p. 322 ; Lecky's Hist, of England, 
iv 414 478 509, viii. 295, 344; Hist. MSS. 
Comm.'lst Rep. p. 128 3rd Rep. p. 146 8t 
Rep pp. 174-208, 9th Rep. App. n. 54, 1. 




Rep. App. ix. (Earl of Donoughmore's MSS.), 
12th Rep. App. x. (Earl of Cbarlemont's MSS.), 
13th Rep. App. iii. (MSS. of J. B. Fortescue); 
MSS. Brit. Mus. 33100 if. 320, 481, 33101 
f. 101, 31417 f. 254, 34419 if. 129, 178; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. xii. 867 ; Webb's Compen- 
dium.] R. D. 

LIMERICK (1758-1845), was the only son of 
William Cecil Pery, lord Glentworth (1721- 
1794), bishop successively of Killaloe and 
Limerick, who was raised to the Irish peerage 
on 21 May 1790, by his first wife, Jane 
Walcot. He was a nephew of Edmond 
Sexton Pery, viscount Pery [q. v.], speaker 
of the Irish House of Commons. Born in Ire- 
land on 8 Jan. 1758, Edmund was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, but did not take 
a degree. He travelled on the continent of 
Europe, and in 1786 entered the Irish House 
of Commons as member for the county of 
Limerick. He retained this seat till 4 July 
1794, when he succeeded to the Irish peerage 
on the death of his father, Lord Glentworth. 

Though of overbearing manners and small 
talent, Pery was a successful politician. He 
closely attached himself to the protestant as- 
cendency party, which monopolised all power 
after Lord Fitzwilliam's recall in 1794. For 
his services to the government Glentworth 
in 1795 was made keeper of the signet, and 
in 1797 clerk of the crown and hanaper. On 
the outbreak of the rebellion of 1798 he raised 
a regiment of dragoons for service against the 
rebels at his own expense. He strongly sup- 
ported Lord Clare in furthering the scheme 
for a union between England and Ireland. 
He spoke frequently on its behalf in the Irish 
House of Lords, and did much to obtain the 
support of influential citizens of Dublin. In 
return for these services he was created a 
viscount in 1800, and was one of the twenty- 
eight temporal lords elected to represent the 
peerage of Ireland in the parliament of the 
United Kingdom after the legislative union 
had been carried out. On 11 Feb. 1803 he 
was raised to the dignity of Earl of Limerick 
in the peerage of Ireland ; and on 11 Aug. 
1815 he was made an English peer, by the 
title of Lord Foxford. Subsequently Lime- 
rick resided greatly in England. He took a 
prominent part in Irish debates in the House 
of Lords, and steadily opposed any concession 
to the Irish catholics. He died on 7 Dec. 
1845, in Berkshire, and was buried in Lime- 
rick Cathedral. Barrington describes him 
as ' always crafty, sometimes imperious, and 
frequently efficient,' and adds, ' He had a 
sharp, quick, active intellect, and generally 
guessed right in his politics.' 

Limerick married, on 29 Jan. 1783, Alice 

Mary, daughter and heiress of Henry Ormsby 
of Cloghan, co. Mayo, by whom he had issue. 
He was succeeded in his titles and property 
by his second grandson, William Henry Ten- 
nison Pery. 

[Lodge's Peerage; "Webb's Compendium of 
Irish Biography ; Sir Jonah Barrington's His- 
toric Memoirs of Ireland ; Cornwallis Corre- 
spondence ; Irish Parliamentary Debates ; Eng- 
lish Parliamentary Debates.] G. P. M-Y. 

PERYAM, SIR WILLIAM (1534-1604), 

judge, was the eldest son of John Peryam of 
Exeter, by his wife Elizabeth, a daughter of 
Robert Hone of Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire 
(POLE, Collections for Devon, p. 149). lie 
was born at Exeter in 1534, and was a cousin 
of Sir Thomas Bodley [q. v.] His father, a 
man of means, was twice mayor of Exeter, 
and his brother, Sir John, was also an alder- 
man of that town and a benefactor of Exeter 
College, Oxford. William Peryam was edu- 
cated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
was elected fellow on 25 April, but resigned 
en 7 Oct. 1551, and sat for Plymouth from 
1562to 1567. He joined the Middle Temple, 
where his arms are placed in the hall, was 
called to the bar in 1565, became a serjeant- 
at-law in Michaelmas term 1579, and on 
13 Feb. 1581 was appointed a judge of the 
common pleas. Upon Sir Christopher Hat- 
ton's death in 1591, he was named one of 
the commissioners to hear causes in chan- 
cery, and he was frequently in commissions 
for trials of political crimes, particularly 
those of Mary Queen of Scots, the Earls of 
Arundel and Essex, and Sir John Perrot. 
Accordingly in January 1593 he was pro- 
moted to be chief baron of the exchequer, 
and was knighted, and presided in that court 
for nearly twelve years. On 9 Oct. 1604 he 
died at his house at Little Fulford, near 
Crediton, Devonshire, and was buried at 
Little Fulford church, in which neighbour- 
hood he had bought large estates. He had 
also built a l fayre dwelling house ' (POLE, 
Collections for Devon, p. 221) at Credy 
Peitevin or Wiger, which he left to his 
daughters, and they sold it to his brother 
John. A picture, supposed to be his portrait, 
and ascribed to Holbein, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London (Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. vi. 88, 135). He was thrice married : 
first, to Margery, daughter of John Holcot 
of Berkshire; secondly, to Anne, daughter of 
John Parker of North Molton, Devonshire ; 
thirdly, to Elizabeth, a daughter of Sir Ni- 
cholas Bacon [q. v.], lord-keeper; and he left 
four daughters, of whom the eldest, Mary, 
was married to Sir William Pole [q. v.] of 
Colcombe, Devonshire, and Elizabeth to Sir 




Robert Basset of Heanton-Punchardon, De- 
vonshire; Jane married Thomas Poyntz of 
Hertfordshire; and Anne, William Williams 
of Herringstone, Dorset. His widow, in 1620, 
endowed a fellowship and two scholarships 
at Balliol College, Oxford, out of lands at 
Hambledon and Princes Risborough in Buck- 

[Boase's Registrura Coll. Exon. (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc.), pp. 66, 370 ; Foss's Judges of England ; 
Prince's Worthies; Pole's Collections for Devon; 
Dugdale's Origines, pp. 48, 225 ; State Trials, i. 
1167, 1251, 1315, 1333; App. 4th Rep. Public 
Records, 272-96 ; Walter Yonge's Diary, p. 8 ; 
Green's Domestic State Papers, 1591-1603 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Strype's Works, Index ; 
Official Returns of Members of Parliament.] 

J. A. H. 

PERYN, WILLIAM (d. 1558), Domini- 
can, was probably connected with the Perins 
of Shropshire, though his name does not 
occur in the visitation of that county of 1623. 
He early became a Dominican, and was edu- 
cated at the house of that order in Oxford. 
He thence went to London, where he was a 
vigorous opponent of protestant opinions. For 
some time he was chaplain of Sir John Port 
[q. v.] On the declaration of royal supremacy 
In 1534 he went abroad, but took advantage 
of the catholic reaction to return in 1543, 
when he supplicated for the degree of B.D. at 
Oxford. On the accession of Edward VI he is 
said to have recanted on 19 June 1547 in the 
church of St. Mary Undershaft, but soon left 
England (GASQTJET and BISHOP, Edward VI 
and the Book of Common Prayer, p. 50). He 
returned in 1553, when he was made prior of 
the Dominican house of St. Bartholomew in 
Smithfield, the first of Mary's religious esta- 
blishments. On 8 Feb. 1558 he preached at 
St. Paul's Cross, and died in the same year, 
"being buried in St. Bartholomew's on 22 Aug. 
(STKYPE, Eccl. Mem. in. ii. 116). 

Peryn was author of: 1. ' Thre Godlye . . . 
Sermons of the Sacrament of the Aulter,' 
London [1545?], 8vo (Brit. Mus.) Dibdin 
describes an edition dated 1546, a copy of 
which belonged to Herbert. Tanner mentions 
another edition of 1548. It is dedicated 
to Edmund [Bonner], bishop of London. 
2. ' Spiritual Exercyses and Goostly Medita- 
cions, and a neare waye to come to perfection 
and lyfe contemplatyve/ London, 1557, 8vo 
(Brit. Mus.) ; another edit., Caen, sm. 8vo, 
1598(HAZLITT). 3. <De frequenter celebranda 
Missa,' which does not seem to be extant 

[Wood's Atheme Oxon. i. 248, Fasti, i. 119 ; 
Foster's Alumni, 1500-1714; Strype's Eccl. 
Mem. m.i. 471, 501, ii. 2, 116; Dodd's Church 
Hist. i. 528 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 593 ; 

Quetif 's Scriptt. Ord. Prsedicat. ed. Echard, ii. 
157 b; Simler's Bibl. Gesneriana; Pits, p. 571; 
Ames's Typogr. Antiq., ed. Dibdin, iv. 230 ; Haz- 
litt's Collections, ;5rd ser. Suppl. p. 80; Stow's 
Annals, p. 594 ; Foxe's Acts and Mon. vii. 598 ; 
Dixon's Hist, of the Church of England, iii. 39 ; 
Bigsby's Repton, p. 157 ; works in Brit. Mus. 
br.] A. F. P. 

(1718-1778), bart., historical writer, born at 
Hawn, Worcestershire, on 27 Jan. 1718, was 
the eldest son of Sir Thomas Peshall (1694- 
1759) of Eccleshall, Staffordshire, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Samuel Sanders of 
Ombersley, Worcestershire. The family of 
Peshall was of very ancient origin. One of the 
early forms of the name was Passelewe, and 
three members of the family who nourished 
in the thirteenth century are separately 
noticed. Sir John took holy orders, and in 
1771 was preferred to the rectory of Stoke 
Bliss in Herefordshire. He resided a great 
deal in Oxford, where he died on 9 Nov. 
1778. He was buried at Hawn. Peshall 
married, on 12 July 1753, Mary, daughter 
and coheir of James Allen, vicar of Thax- 
ted in Essex, by whom he left issue. 

Peshall wrote < The History of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford to the Death of William 
the Conqueror,' Oxford, 1772, 8vo. This is 
a slight performance, though it attempts to 
trace the origin of the university to druidi- 
cal times, and describes Alfred as merely 
1 refreshing the life of the institution ' (p. 
20). The authorities on which the book is 
founded are treated in the chapter on ' The 
Mythical Origin of Oxford ' in Mr. Parker's 
Early History of Oxford ' (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), 
1885. He also edited from the manuscript 
in the Bodleian, with additions of his own, 
Anthony a Wood's ' Antient and Present 
state of the City of Oxford/ 1773, 4to. 

[Wotton's Baronetage, i. 122; Gent. Mag. 
1778, ii. 164; pedigree of family among Ash- 
mole MSS. in Bodleian Library; Duocumb's 
Herefordshire, ii. 164; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

PESTELL, THOMAS (1684P-1659P), 

divine, was educated at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, whence he graduated B.A. in 
1605 and M.A. in 1609. He became vicar of 
Packington, Leicestershire, in 1613, and a 
year or two later chaplain to Robert Devereux, 
third earl of Essex [q. v.] He gained a reputa- 
tion as a preacher, and published a sermon, 
' The Good Conscience,' in 1615, with a dedica- 
tion to Sir Philip Stanhope of Shelford, Not- 
tino-hamshire. Two other sermons, entitled 
'The Car[e]les Calamitie' (1615) and 'The 
Poor Man's Appeale ' (1623), were licensed 
for the press; and a fourth, < Gods \isita- 


4 6 


tion,' preached at Leicester, appeared in 1630. 
He was soon afterwards appointed a royal 
chaplain, and preached before the king. In 
1640 he preached before the council at York. 
In 1644 he resigned his living at Packington 
to his son Thomas, and, during the early 
days of the civil wars, complained that he 
was five times robbed and plundered of his 
goods and cattle. In 1650 he contributed 
two poems to ' Lachrymse Musarum ' on the 
death of Henry, lord Hastings, and in 1652 
commendatory verse to Benlowes's 'Theo- 
phila.' In 1659 he collected some sacred 
verse and sermons preached before the war 
in ' Sermons and Devotions, Old and New, 
revewed and publisht . . . with a Discourse 
of Duels/ dedicated to Thomas, viscount 
Beaumont, and Robert, ' heir to Mr. Rich. 
Sutton of Tongue in Leicestershire.' He 
doubtless died very 'soon afterwards. 

A collection of unprinted poems by Pestell 
or his father was lent by a descendant to 
Nichols, who printed many of them in his 
* History of Leicestershire.' Nichols's ex- 
cerpts include an elegy on Francis Beau- 
mont. The volume of verse entitled ' Scin- 
tillulse Sacrse/ of which two copies are among 
the Harleian MSS. (Nos. 6646 and 6922), is 
attributed to Pestell, but some part at least 
is probably by his son Thomas. 

He married a daughter of Mrs. Katherine 
Carr. His elder son, THOMAS PESTELL (1613- 
1701), graduated B.A. in 1632 and M.A. in 
1636 from Queens' College, Cambridge. He 
rather than his father seems to have written 
a Latin comedy, entitled ' Versipellis,' which 
was acted at Cambridge in 1638. It was 
not printed. Pestell succeeded his father 
at Packington in 1644, and was ejected in 
1646 by the Westminster assembly ; he was 
subsequently rector of Markfeld and con- 
frater of Wigston's Hospital, Leicester. He 
contributed verses to ' Lachrymae Musarum ' 
(1650) in memory of Henry, lord Hastings. 

The second son, William (d. 1696), who 
graduated B.A. in 1634 and M.A. in 1638 
from Queens' College, Cambridge, became 
in 1644 rector of Cole-Orton, whence he 
and his wife were driven by the parlia- 
mentary soldiers under Sir John Gell with 
such brutality that his father appealed in his 
behalf to Sir George Gresley. He appears 
to have resumed his benefice at the Restora- 
tion, and in 1667 was instituted to Raven- 
stone in addition. He was buried at Cole- 
Orton. He was author of a poetic l Con- 
gratulation to his sacred Majesty on his 
Restoration,' 1661. 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. 737-8, 927,940; 
Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum, in Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 24488, f. 328.] S. L. 

PETER (d. 1085), bishop of Lichfield, 
was chaplain of William I, and custodian of 
the see of Lincoln in 1066 (Chron. Monast. 
de Abingdon, i. 492, Rolls Ser.) He was 
consecrated by Lanfranc at Gloucester, pro- 
bably in 1072. In 1075, at a synod held by 
Lanfranc in London, a decree was passed for 
the removal of certain bishoprics to more 
populous places. In accordance with this 
decree Peter removed the see of Lichfield 
to Chester. There he made the church of St. 
John's his cathedral church, instituting a dean 
and canons, for whose maintenance he pro- 
vided. The see was situated at Chester only 
until 1106, but some of the canonries inaugu- 
rated by Peter remained there until 1541, 
when the modern see of Chester was created. 
In 1076 Peter was sent by Lanfranc to assist 
the archbishop of York in certain consecra- 
tions {Anglo-Saxon Chron. i. 387, Rolls Ser.) 
In 1085 he died, and was buried at Chester, 
being the only bishop of the earlier foundation 
who was buried there. 

[Chron. Monast. de Abingdon, i. 492 (Kolls 
Ser.); Ann. Monast. i. 185 (Rolls Ser.); Whar- 
ton's Anglia Sacra, i. 433, 445, 457 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti ; Gervase of Canterbury's Actus Pont. ii. 
366; Florence of Worcester in Petrie's Monu- 
menta, p. 624 a; William of Malmesbury, pp. 
68,308-9; Higden'sPolychron.vii. 292; Stubbs's 
Regist. Sacr. Angl. p. 22; Freeman's Norm. Conq. 
iv. 417 seq.] A. M. C-E. 

PETER or BLOIS (fi. 1190), archdeacon 
of Bath and author, was born at Blois pro- 
bably about 1135. His parents, who were 
dead before 1170, belonged to noble families 
of Brittany, and his father, though not 
wealthy, enjoyed an honourable position 
(Epp. 34, 49). He had two brothers Wil- 
liam, who was author of some comedies and 
other pieces, and for a time abbot of Matine 
(Maniaci) in Calabria (ib. 90, 93) ; to the other's 
son one of his epistles (No. 12) is addressed. 
He had also two sisters one called Chris- 
tiana (ib. 36), and the other mother of Ernald, 
abbot of St. Laumer at Blois (ib. 131, 132). 
He calls William, prior of Canterbury, and 
Pierre Minet, bishop of Perigord from 1169 
to 1182, his cousins (ib. 32, 34). It is un- 
likely that he was ever, as sometimes stated, 
a pupil of John of Salisbury [q. v.] (SCHAAR- 
SCHMIDT, J. Sarisberiensis, p. 59), but lie 
perhaps studied at Tours, and was possibly 
a fellow-student of Uberto de Crivelli (Pope 
Urban III) under Robert of Melun [q. v.] 
(STTJBBS, Epistola Cantuarienses, 556, n. 3). 
In Epistle 101 he describes his own studies 
as a boy, mentioning that he had to get the 
letters of Hildebert of Le Mans by heart, and 
read Trogus Pompeius, Josephus, Suetonius, 
Tacitus, Livy, and other historians. Towards 




1160 lie went to study jurisprudence at 
Bologna, and seems to have lectured there 
on civil law (Ep. 8). From Bologna in 1161 
he proceeded to Rome to pay his court to 
Pope Alexander III ; on his way he was taken 
prisoner and ill-treated by the followers of 
the antipope Victor IV, but escaped by 
being let down the wall in a basket without 
having ' bowed his knee to Baal ' (Ep. 48). 
On his return to France he began to study 
theology at Paris, where he knew Odo de 
Suilly, the future bishop of Paris, and sup- 
ported himself by teaching (cf. Epp. 9, 26, 
61, 101, 126). 

In 1167 Peter went to Sicily with a 
number of other French scholars in the train 
of Stephen du Perche, who had been elected 
archbishop of Palermo and invited to assist 
in the government during the minority of 
William II. He was appointed tutor to 
the young king in succession to the English- 
man Walter, afterwards archbishop of Pa- 
lermo fq. v.], and held this position for a year. 
He was also sigillarius or keeper of the royal 
seal, and, according to his own statement, 
the rule of the kingdom depended on him 
after the queen and Stephen du Perche. His 
position excited much rivalry, and his enemies 
endeavoured to remove him from court by 
having him nominated, first to the arch- 
bishopric of Naples, and afterwards, on two oc- 
casions, to the see of Rossano in Calabria ; but 
Peter refused all their offers (Epp. 72, 131 : 
the manuscripts read ' Roffen,' but cf. Hist. 
Lift. xv. 371). Peter made many friends 
in Sicily, including the famous historians 
Romuaid of Salerno and Hugo Falcandus, 
and the Englishmen Walter and Richard 
Palmer (d. 1195) [q. v.] ; to one of the latter 
he appealed against the intended injustice to 
the see of Girgenti. But the character both 
of the country and its people was distaste- 
ful to him, and he always refers to his 
Sicilian career with abhorrence, and refused 
an invitation from Richard of Syracuse to 
return (Epp. 10, 46, 66, 90, 93, 116). At the 
time of the fall of Stephen du Perche in 
1169, Peter was lying ill, and was entrusted 
to the care of Romuaid of Salerno. On his 
recovery he begged the king's leave to depart. 
William reluctantly granted him permission, 
and, as Peter did not like the idea of riding 
through Sicily and Calabria, obtained him a 
passage on a Genoese vessel. At Genoa he 
was well received by the magnates who had 
known him in Sicily (Ep. 90). Thence he 
proceeded to the papal court, and from there 
travelled as far as Bologna in the company 
of the papal legates who were going to Eng- 
land (Ep. 22 ; cf. Mat. for History of T. 
Hecket, vii. 314-16, but though the letter 

dates from 1170 Peter may, perhaps, have 
been with Gratian and Vivian in 1169) 

, Peter probably returned to France some 
time in 1170 and resumed teaching at Paris 
He was, however, in great straits for money, 
but was relieved by the timely assistance of 
Reginald FitzJocelin [q. v.], then archdeacon 
of Salisbury and afterwards bishop of Bath 
whose friendship he had perhaps made at 
Paris five years before (Epp. 24, 163). 
Epistle 230, in which he applies for a prebend 
at Salisbury, may belong to this time, and 
Peter may have now received the prebend 
which he afterwards held in that church. 
His friendship for Reginald brought him 
into ill-repute with the supporters of Thomas 
of Canterbury, but Peter warmly defended 
his friend from the charges which were 
brought against him. A little later he re- 
ceived an invitation from William, arch- 
bishop of Sens, offering him a post in his 
court and a prebend at Chartres; Peter 
alleges that he was ousted from this post by 
one Master Gerard probably Gerard La 
Pucelle and that in his hope for it he had 
refused many advantageous offers. In reply- 
ing about the same time to a similar offer 
from Pierre Minet, bishop of Perigord, he 
says that he had been waiting to see if a 
certain promise would prove illusory (ib. 24, 
34, 72, 128). Not long afterwards he en- 
tered the service of Rotrou, archbishop of 
Rouen (ib. 33, 67), as secretary. In 1173 
he was at Paris with Rotrou and Arnulf 
of Lisieux on a mission for Henry II (ib. 
71, 153) ; he had perhaps already entered 
the service of the king, who, he says, first in- 
troduced him to England (ib. 127, 149). On 
24 June 1174 Reginald FitzJocelin was con- 
secrated bishop of Bath, and soon afterwards, 
perhaps in 1175, made Peter his archdeacon. 
When Richard (d. 1184) [q. v.] became arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Peter, apparently with- 
out terminating entirely his connection with 
the royal court, became attached to him as 
cancellarius or secretary (ib. 5, 6, 38; see 
Ancient Charters, p. 72). In 1177 Richard 
sent Peter and Gerard la Pucelle as his 
proctors to the Roman court in the matter 
of his dispute with the abbey of St. Augus- 
tine's, Canterbury. Peter and Gerard were 
at the Roman court on 3 April 1178. 'Their 
mission was unsuccessful: but Peter remained 
at Rome till July in the vain endeavour to 
arrange the affair favourably (Chron. St. Au- 
gustine, 421-2, Rolls Ser. ; THOEN, ap. Scrip- 
tores Decem, 1821-3 ; cf. Epp. 68, 158). In 
1176 John of Salisbury became bishop of 
Chartres, and Peter, who was now a canon 
of that church, addressed several letters to 
him during the next few years. In one, Peter 


4 8 


recommended the bishop's nephew Robert to 
John, but afterwards complained that Robert 
had received the provostship which he had 
hoped to obtain for himself (Epp. 70, 114, 
130). Another of his friends against whom 
he found occasion to complain was Bishop 
Reginald of Bath, who had suspended Peter's 
vice-archdeacon, contrary to the privileges 
which Peter had obtained from the Roman 
court at the Lateran Council in 1179 (ib. 58). 
In the autumn of 1 181 he was sent by the 
archbishop to the king in the matter of the 
see of Lincoln (Ep. 75). On ]9 Aug. 1183 
he was at Canterbury when Waleran of 
Rochester swore fealty to Christ Church 
(GERVASE, i. 306). 

In 1184 Baldwin became archbishop, and 
several letters written in his name by Peter 
in the next few years are extant (Epp. 96, 
98, 99). Peter at first acted vigorously in de- 
fence of the archbishop's proposed church at 
Hakington. Gervase, mentioning Peter's 
presence at the conference at Canterbury on 
11 Feb. 1187, describes him as the * shame- 
less artificer of almost all this mischief.' 
Soon afterwards Peter was despatched by 
Baldwin to the Roman court ; but he stopped 
on the way to obtain support from important 
persons in France, and did not reach Verona 
until June (GERVASE, i. 354, 356). Peter and 
his colleague William, precentor of Wells, 
were unable to effect anything against the 
inveterate hostility of Pope Urban, but re- 
mained at the court till the pope left Verona 
in September (ib. i. 366-9 ; Epp. Cant. 72, 
81). Peter rode with the pope on his way 
to Ferrara, and importuned him on behalf of 
Baldwin. Urban, in wrath, replied, ' May I 
never mount horse again if I do not shortly 
dismount him from his archbishopric ! ' That 
very night Urban was taken ill at Sutoro or 
Futoro, and on 20 Oct. died at Ferrara (Ep. 
216). Peter reported the news to Baldwin 
with indecent satisfaction, and announced the 
accession of Gregory VIII (Epp. Cant. 107). 
He remained at the court for some time longer 
in Baldwin's interest, and in all spent eight 
months to no purpose, except to incur a heavy 
burden of debt. A few years later he pleaded 
to Prior Geoffrey of Canterbury that he had 
only undertaken the business at the bidding 
of Henry II (Epp. 39, 238). However, he 
was present in the archbishop's service when 
the Christ Church envoys came to the king 
at Le Mans in February 1189, and by Bald- 
win's command broke the seal of the royal 
letter, that additional clauses might be in- 
serted (Epp. Cant. 283). The news of the 
battle of Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem 
had arrived while Peter was present at the 
Roman court (cf. Ep. 224, which reports the 

former event to Henry II, and Passio 
Reginaldi, iii. 261), and from this his lively 
interest in the progress of the third crusade 
perhaps originates. 

The death of Henry II in 1189 deprived 
Peter of his most powerful friend ; in the 
following year Archbishop Baldwin went on 
the crusade, and Peter says he would have 
left England had it not been for the support 
he received from the bishops of Durham and 
Worcester (Ep. 127). In 1190, if not before, 
he received the royal deanery of Wolver- 
hampton, for he appeals to Longchamp, as 
chancellor and legate, for aid against the 
sheriff of Staffordshire (ib. 108). Peter 
strongly condemned Hugh de Nonant [q. v.] 
for his share against Longchamp in October 
1191 (ib. 87, 89). Almost immediately after- 
wards he went to Queen Eleanor in Nor- 
mandy, and during the next few years acted 
as her secretary (ib. 144-6). Reginald Fitz- 
Jocelin died in December 1191 ; Peter had 
perhaps been on bad terms with his old friend, 
for he was soon afterwards, if not previ- 
ously, deprived of his archdeaconry (ib. 149, 
216). But, as some compensation, he obtained, 
perhaps in 1192, the archdeaconry of London 
from Richard Fitzneale [q. v.], together with 
the prebend of Hoxton. After Hubert Walter 
became archbishop, Peter seems for a time to 
have resumed his position as secretary at 
Canterbury (ib. 122, 135). Peter's letters 
during his last years are full of complaints 
of his poverty, and suggestions that his merits 
had been unjustly slighted. Much to his 
distaste, Richard Fitzneale had made him 
take priest's orders (ib. 123, 139). The burden 
of his archdeaconry was too great for him, 
and it was so poor that, like a dragon, 
he must live on wind ; and in 1204 we find 
him appealing to Innocent III to increase 
his revenues, and to relieve him from the 
annoyance caused by the pretensions of the 
precentor (ib. 151, 214, 217, 244 ; cf. RA.LPH 
DE DICETO, i. pref. p. Ixxxi, Rolls Ser.) His 
fellow canons at Salisbury unreasonably re- 
quired him to reside, though his prebend was 
so poor that it would not pay his expenses 
(Ep. 133). The canons of Wolverhampton 
were unruly, and, though supported by the 
king and archbishop, he could not make 
the necessary reforms ; in consequence he 
resigned his deanery to Hubert Walter, 
who proposed to introduce Cistercian monks 
(ib. 147, 152 ; cf. DUGDALE, Monast. Angl. 
vi. 1443, 1446 ; Cal. Rot. Glaus, i. 8, 25 b, 
56; Peter's resignation may have been as 
late as 1204 ; after Hubert's death the king 
appointed a new dean on 5 Aug. 1205, ib. i. 
44 b). The rents of a prebend which Peter 
had at Rouen had been wrongfully withheld 




from him for five years in 1197 (Ep. 141). 
Old age and the loss of friends and position 
made residence in England, where he ' heard 
a tongue that he knew not/ increasingly dis- 
tasteful, and in one of his latest letters he 
begs Odo, bishop of Paris, to grant him some 
benefice, that if he could not live in his 
native land, at least he might be buried 
there (ib. 160). The last certain reference to 
Peter is in a charter which cannot be dated 
earlier than March 1204, where he is styled 
archdeacon of London (Academy, 21 Jan. 
1893, p. 59). But he may be the Peter of 
Blois who held a canonry at Kipon, a piece 
of preferment which he might have obtained 
through his friendship with Ralph Haget, 
abbot of Fountains (cf. Epp. 31, 105). 
The Ripon tradition favours the identifica- 
tion (cf. RAII^E, Historians of the Church of 
York, ii. 480). Peter, the canon of Papon, 
was alive as late as 1208, when he had his 
goods seized during the interdict ( CaL Close 
Rolls, i. 108 b). On 20 May 1212 an order 
was given that the executors of Peter of 
Blois, sometime archdeacon of London, should 
have free disposal of his goods (ib. i. 117 ); 
but there is no evidence how long Peter 
had then been dead. A jewelled morse (i.e. 
the clasp of a cope) and chasuble that had 
once belonged to Peter were formerly pre- 
served in the treasury at St. Paul's (SIMPSON, 
St. Paul's and Old City Life, pp. 22-3). 

Peter's letters reveal him as a man full of 
literary vanity, ambitious for worldly ad- 
vancement, and discontented with his prefer- 
ments, which he thought unequal to his 
merits. Probably his character rendered him 
unfit for a high position, though his un- 
doubted, if superficial, ability made him useful 
in the humbler capacity of a secretary. Letter- 
writing came easily to him, and he boasted 
that he could dictate to three scribes at once 
while he wrote a fourth letter in his own 
hand, a feat with which 110 one else but 
Julius Caesar was credited (Ep. 92). His 
learning was, however, varied and unques- 
tioned ; he had some knowledge of medi- 
cine (ib. 43), was an authority on both the 
canon and civil law (ib. 19, 26, 115, 242), 
and quotes with apparent knowledge the 
Latin classics, especially Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, 
and Juvenal, the Roman historians Livy 
and Suetonius, as well as later writers like 
Valerius Maximus and Trogus Pompeius. 
His chief, interest was in history, whether 
ancient or modern, and he confesses that 
theology was a later study, though he shows 
some acquaintance with the Latin fathers. 
His writings,and especially his letters, display 
considerable literary merit, though rhetorical 
and overburdened with constant quotations. 


This last feature exposed him to adverse 
criticism in his lifetime ; but Peter defended 
his method of composition, which placed him 
'like a dwarf on the shoulders of giants' 
(Ep. 92), and boasted that he had plucked 
the choicest flowers of authors whether an- 
cient or modern (De Amicitia Christiana 
iii. 130). 

I. EPISTOL^. Peter's letters are the most 
interesting of his works, and, from the his- 
torical point of view, the most important. He 
professes that they were not written with a 
view to publication, and, in excusing their 
' native rudeness,' pleads that as spontaneous 
productions they will possess a merit which 
does not belong to more laboured composi- 
tions (Ep. 1). The letters themselves suggest 
a different conclusion, and some were probably 
revised at the time of collection (STUBBS,Zec- 
tureson Mediceval and Modern History, p.127). 
Others no doubt were written with elaborate 
care in the first place. The collection of his 
letters was originally undertaken at the re- 
quest of Henry II (Ep. 1). The collected 
letters may not have been first published till 
some years later, but Peter's intention was 
known at least as early as 1190 ($.92). In 
a third letter he alludes to the difficulty of 
getting his letters correctly copied (ib. 215). 
There was not improbably more than one 
edition in Peter's own lifetime. A copy of 
Peter's letters was among the books which 
his patron, Hugh de Puiset [q. v.], left to 
Durham Priory on his death in March 1195 
( Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. i. 4). 
Goussainville's edition contains 183 letters ; 
the earlier editions gave twenty more, which 
Goussainville omitted as wanting in au- 
thority. In Giles's edition these twenty 
letters are restored, and others added, which 
professedly bring the total number up to 245 
(there is an error in the numbering). But 
of the letters published by Goussainville, 162 
and 165-183 are probably not by Peter (Hist. 
Lift. xv. 388, 399). Of those added by Giles 
214-17, 219, 222-4, 230, 232, 234, 238-40, 
244-6, and 248 are the most probably genuine ; 
while 189,200-2, 207-8, 211,218, 225-6,229, 
231, and 236 have obviously no connection 
with Peter, and many of the others are very 
doubtful. Epistle 247 is a repetition of 134, 
and 249 a continuation of 15. To the letters 
in the collected editions must be added the 
letter written by Peter and William of 
"Wells from the papal court in October 1187, 
which is printed in 'Epistolae Cantuarienses ' 
(pp 107-8), The manuscripts of Peter's letters 
are very numerous ; Hardy (Descript. Cat 
British History, ii. 553-8) gives a list ot 
over a hundred. A definitive edition of the 
letters has yet to appear. A full account 




of their contents as printed by Goussain- 
ville is given in the ' Histoire Litteraire " 
(xv. 345-400). 

II. OPTJSCULA. Peter was the author of a 
number of short treatises on various sub- 
jects, to which he refers himself as his 
''Opuscula' (cf. Ep. 215). In his 'Invec- 
tiva in depravatorem operum' (Opera, ii. 
p. Ixxxvi) he gives the following list, which 
he does not profess to be complete : ' Com- 
pendium super Job,' l Liber Exhortationum ' 
(i.e. sermons), 'Dialogus ad Regem Henri- 
cum,' 'De lerosolymitana Peregrinatione,' 
* De Praestigiis Fortunse,' ' De Assertione 
Fidei,' * Contra Perfidiam Judaeorum,' ' De 
Confessione et Penitentia,' and ' Canon Epi- 
scopalis.' The following extant treatises are 
ascribed to Peter: 1. 'De Silentio servando,' 
a fragment (GILES, ii. pp. iii-iv). 2. ( De 
lerosolymitana Peregrinatione acceleranda ' 
(ib. .pp. iv-xxi) ; written in 1188-9 to urge 
on the third crusade. 3. ' Instructio Fidei 
Catholicse ab Alexandro III ad Soldanum 
Iconii' (ib. pp. xxi-xxxii). This is not a 
work of Peter of Blois ; it is preserved by 
Matthew Paris (ii. 250-60), and is by him 
assigned to 1169. It has been wrongly con- 
fused with the ' De Assertione Fidei,' to which 
Peter, writing about 1198, refers as ' opus 
meum novellum;' the ' De Assertione Fidei' 
seems to be lost (cf. Opera, ii. p. Ixxxvi; 
Histoire Litteraire, xv. 402-3). 4. 'De Con- 
fessione Sacramentali ' (GILES, ii. pp. xxxii- 
liii). 5. 'De Poenitentia, vel satisfactione 
a Sacerdote injungenda ' (ib. ii. pp. liv-lxi). 
6. ' Canon Episcopalis, id est, Tractatus de 
Institutione Episcopi ' (ib. ii. pp. Ixi-lxxxii). 
This treatise is addressed to John of Cou- 
tances, who was bishop of Worcester from 
1196 to 1198, and may therefore be as- 
signed to 1197. 7. ' Invectiva in Deprava- 
torem Operum Blesensis ' (ib. ii. pp. Ixxxi-c). 
This treatise was written, apparently about 
1198, in reply to strictures which had been 
passed on his ' Compendium super Job.' 

8. ' De Arte Dictandi.' Giles only gives the 
prefatory epistle, since the tract is merely 
an abridgment of a work of St. Bernard. 

9. ' De Transfiguratione Domini ' (GILES, iii. 
1-13) ; addressed to Frumold, bishop of 
Arras before 1183 (Hist. Litt. xv. 402). 

10. 'De Conversione S. Pauli ' (GILES, iii. 
13-1 9). These last two treatises are included 
by Merlin in Peter's sermons, to which class 
they more naturally belong. 11. * Com- 
pendium super Job ' (ib. iii. 19-62) ; also 
styled ' Basiligerunticon, id est Ludus 
Henrici senioris Regis ; ' written at the re- 
quest of Henry II, after the two previous 
pieces. 12. ' Contra Perfidiam Judasorum ' 
(ib. iii. 62-129). 13. ' De Amicitia Chris- 

tiana et de Caritate Dei et Proximi : Trac- 
tatus Duplex ' (ib. iii. 130-261) ; also attri- 
buted to Cassiodorus, and included in his 
works in the ' Bibliotheca Patrum Maxima,' 
xi. 1326-1354, ed. Lyons. But the prefa- 
tory epistle seems to show that it is by Peter 
of Blois. 14. 'Passio Reginald! Principis 
olim Antiocheni ' (ib. iii. 261-89). This deals 
with the death of Reginald of Chatillon in 

1187, and seems to have been written in 

1 188. Peter states that he obtained his in- 
formation from letters addressed to the pope 
and archbishop of Canterbury (p. 278). 
15. ' Dialogus inter Regem Henricum II et 
Abbatem Bonsevallensem ' (GiLES, iii. 289- 
307). The last two were first printed by 
Giles. 16. 'De Utilitate Tribulationum ' 
(ib. iii. 307-33). The numerous copies of 
this tract are mostly anonymous, though it 
is ascribed to Peter in two late manuscripts 
(Merton College, Nos. 43 and 47). M. 
Haureau (Notices et Extraits, iv. 125-8) 
thinks that it is not by Peter, and was 
probably written at the end of the thir- 
teenth century. 17. ' Tractatus Quales 
sunt ' (GILES, iii. 333-40). This is probably 
not by Peter, but by William de Trahinac, 
prior of Grandmont (Hist. Litteraire, xv. 
406-8). 18. ' De Divisione et Scriptoribus 
Sacrorum Librorum' (GiLES, iii. 403-11). 
19. 'Remedia Peccatorum,' omitted by Giles 
as being only a compilation from St. Gre- 
gory (ib. iv. 376). In addition to these 
works Peter wrote, 20. ' De Prsestigiis 
Fortunae.' This tract, which is several times 
mentioned in Peter's letters (Epp. 4, 19, 77 ; 
cf. Contra Depravatorem Operum, ii. p. 
Ixxxvi), was written in praise of Henry II, 
and is perhaps the ' Liber de actibus regis ' 
of which he speaks in Epistle 14 (Op. i. 
p. 46). It has unfortunatelv perished, though 
Oudin (De Script. Eccl. ii. 1647) thought he 
had seen a copy. The fragment printed by 
Goussainville appears to be really an extract 
from the ' Policraticus ' of John of Salisbury. 
21. 'Vita Wilfridi.' Leland (Coll. iii. 169) 
says that he saw a copy of this work, dedi- 
cated to Geoffrey, archbishop of York, at 
Ripon (cf. RAINE, Hist, of Church of York, 
ii. 480) ; an extract preserved by Leland is 
given in the ' Monasticon Anglicanum' (ii. 
133). Other treatises ascribed to Peter are 
merely copies of isolated letters, e.g. the 

' De Periculo Prselatorum ' is Epistle 102, and 
the ' De Studio Sapientiae ' Epistle 140. 

III. SEEMONS. Sixty-five sermons are 
printed in Goussainville's edition, and in the 
third volume of Giles's edition. Bourgain 
praises them for their straightforward vigour 
La Chaire Franqaise, p. 63). In Busee's 
edition of 1600 some sermons of Peter 



Comestor were printed in error as by Peter 
of Blois. 

IV. POEMS. In one of his letters (Ep. 76) 
Peter mentions that in his youth he had 
written trifles and love songs, and in Epistle 
12 refers to the verses and playful pieces he 
had written at Tours. But in his latter 
years he abandoned these pursuits, and, in 
reply to a request from G. D'Aunai, sent him 
a poem in his riper style (Ep. 57). This poem 
Dr. Giles (iv. 337-48) has printed, on the au- 
thority of some manuscripts, as two separate 
poems : (1) ' Cantilena de Luctu Carnis et 
Spiritus ; ' and (2) ' Contra Clericos voluptati 
deditos, sive de vita clericorum in plurimis 
reprobata.' The latter is given in a con- 
temporary manuscript (Bodl. MS. Add. 
A 44) as four separate poems (see English 
Historical Review, v. 326, where a collation 
of this manuscript and of Bodl. Lat. Misc. 
d. 6 is given). Dr. Giles prints five other 
poems which are ascribed to Peter. But the 
'De Eucharistia ' is by Pierre le Peintre, and 
the ' De Penitentia ' is probably by John 
Garland [q. v.] (HATJKEAU, Notices et Ex- 
traits, ii. 29, 65). The others are two short 
pieces, l De Commendatione Vini ' and 
' Contra Cerevisiam/ from Cambridge Uni- 
versity MS. Gg. 6.42 ; and a longer incomplete 
poem which occurs in the manuscript of the 
letters in Laud. MS. 650 after Epistle 111 
(Ep. 148 in Giles's edition). Borel (Tresor 
de Rechercfies et Antiquites Gauloises) gives 
four lines of French verse professing to be by 
Peter of Blois ; they may be either by the 
archdeacon of Bath or by the namesake to 
whom he addressed Epistles 76 and 77 (Hist. 
Litteraire, xv. 417). 

Peter's epistles were printed in a folio 
volume published at Brussels about 1480, 
though neither the date nor place is given. 
Jacques Merlin edited the Epistles, Sermons, 
* Compendium super Job,' ' Contra Perfi- 
diam Judaeorum,' 'De Confessione,' and 'De 
Amicitia Christiana,' Paris, 1519, fol. His 
' Opera ' were edited by Jean Busee in 1600, 
Maintz, 4to ; Busee afterwards published a 
supplementary volume of ' Paralipomena 
Opusculorum/ Cologne, 1605 and 1624, 
8vo, giving the tracts 'Contra Perfidiam 
Judseorum/ 'De Amicitia Christiana/ and 
< De Caritate Dei et Proximi.' BuseVs 
edition was reprinted in the ' Bibliotheca 
Patrum/ xiL, Cologne, 1618. In 1667 
Pierre de Goussainville edited the ' Opera 
Omuia' at Paris, folio; this edition was 
reproduced in the ' Bibliotheca Patrum/ 
xxiv. 911-1365, Lyons. In 1848 J. A. 
Giles published the complete works in 
four volumes. Goussainville's and Giles's 
editions form the joint basis of the edition 

in Migne's ' Patrologia Latina/ vol. ccvii. 
The ' De Amiciccia Cristiana ' was printed 
[Cologne? 1470 ?],4to, and the 'Expositio 
super Job' [1502], 4to. The 'Canon Epi- 
scopahs,' together with several of the letters 
is printed, under the title 'De Vita, Moribus, 
et Officiis Praesulum,' inMerlo's ' Instructions 
Selectissimae' (1681), pp. 488-559. 
^ Peter of Blois was long credited with a con- 
tinuation, to 1118, of the spurious chronicle 
of Ingulf [q. v.] According to the prefatory 
letter, Peter undertook the work at the re- 
quest of the abbot of Croyland, at whose 
request he also wrote a ' life ' of St. Guthlac. 
The continuation of Ingulf is a manifest for- 
gery, and is not in Peter's style ; it is printed 
in Fulman's ' Quinque Scriptores/ which 
forms the first volume of the ' Rerum 
Anglicarum Scriptores Veteres,' Oxford, 
1684. The ascription to Peter of a ' Vita 
Guthlaci' (see Acta Sanctorum, April, ii. 
37) is probably equally false. Epistle 221 
(GiLES, ii. 182) professes to be addressed 
by Peter to the abbot and monks of Croy- 

[The main facts of Peter's life are to be found 
only in his own letters ; his exaggerated sense of 
his own importance makes it necessary to accept 
his statements with caution ; but the independent 
allusions to him, so far as they go, corroborate the 
general truth of his own account without giving 
him a position of such prominence as he claims 
for himself. Some of the difficulties raised by 
statements made in the letters may be due to 
the fact that they were probably revised long 
after the date of their original composition. 
The Kev. W. Gr. Searle of Cambridge, from a 
careful study of Peter's works, is inclined to doubt 
the trustworthiness of many of the statements 
found in them ; but the results of his investiga- 
tions havenotyet been published. Contemporary 
references to Peter of Blois are contained in G-er- 
vase of Canterbury's Opera, i. 306, 354, 356, 
366-9, and the Epistolse Cantuarienses (Rolls 
Ser.),and in the Calendar of Close Rolls, i. 108*, 
117&; a charter, in which Peter appears as a 
witness in conjunction with Archbishop Richard, 
is given in Ancient Charters, p. 72 (Pipe Roll 
Soc.) See also Historia S. Augustini Cantuan- 
ensis, pp. 421-2; Materials for History ot 
Thomas Becket (Rolls Ser.); Memorials of 
Ripon, i. 10, 255, ii. 253; and Memorials of 
Fountains, i. 133, 159-63 (Surtees Soc.) There 
is a very full account in the Hist. Litteraire de 
France, xv. 341-413. See also Wright's Biogr. 
Brit. Litt. Anglo-Norman Period, pp. 36 
Stubbs's Lectures on Mediaeval and Modern 
History ; Haureau's Notices et Extraits, &c., 
i 137 n 29, iii. 226, iv. 125, v. 67-8, 213, 217 ; 
Church's Early History of the Church of Wells ; 
La Lumia's Sicilia sotto G-uglielmo il Buono, 
DP 110-11, 230; Caruso's Bibl. Hist. Sic. 11. 
287- Bourgain's La Chaire Frangaise au Douzieme 



Siecle, pp. 51, 63-4, 153-4; Hardy's Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of British History; Brit. Mus. 
Cat, ; other authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

PETER HIBEKNICUS, de Hibernia or 
de Isernia (Jl. 1224), jurisconsult, was pro- 
bably of Irish birth. He became a subject 
of the emperor Frederick II, who sent him 
in 1224 to teach law in the newly established 
university of Naples (Lib. iii. Ep. 11, of 
Petri de Vineis Epistolce, ed. 1566). Peter 
de Hibernia taught Thomas de Hibernia, 
a learned Franciscan [see THOMAS], and 
Thomas Aquinas before 1243 was taught 
physical science at Naples by Master Peter 
de" Hibernia (Acta Sanctorum, March 1, p. 
660). In some manuscripts of the emperor 
Frederick's letter appointing the professor of 
law at Naples his initial appears as B or R, 
and his surname as de Isernia. It is pro- 
bable that the jurisconsult is identical with 
a Master Peter de Isernia, to whom another 
letter in De Vineis's collection is addressed 
(Lib. iii. Ep. 10). The second letter is gene- 
rally (HUILLAKD-BREHOLLES, Hist. Diplom. 

Frederici Secundi, ii. 449) ascribed to the pen 
of Frederick II, and dated, like the first, 
June 1224. Ficker (BOHMER, Regesta Im- 
peril V, No. 1537) is, however, of opinion that 
the second letter was written by Conrad IV 
in 1252, as the writer speaks not of founding 
but of restoring a university at Naples. The 
writer states that he has heard good reports 
of Peter's character, and remembers the faith- 
ful services rendered by Peter to his father. 
He invites Peter to give lectures in Naples, 
in return for a payment of a certain number 
of ounces of gold ; the number varies in the 
manuscripts. Another letter in a Berlin 
manuscript of De Vineis's collection (Lib. iv. 
Ep. 8) is addressed to scholars, and laments 
the death of Master Peter de Hibernia, a 
grammarian. But De Vineis's printed edition 
of 1566 adds to the obscurity in which Peter's 
career is involved by substituting in this 
letter the name of Bernhard in one passage 
and Master G. in another for that of Peter. 
Peter de Hibernia, the tutor of Thomas 
Aquinas, was buried in the convent of Aquila, 
in the province of Abruzzo Molie (WADDING, 
Ann. Min. iv. 321, ad an. 1270). According 
to Tanner, Peter de Hibernia wrote theo- 
logical works. 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca ; Tiraboschi's Storia 
della Letteratura Italiana, iv. i. 48, 125-6, ii. 
286; Petri de Vineis Epistolse, ed. 1566 and 
1609.] M. B. 

PETER DBS ROCHES (d, 1238), bishop 
of Winchester, a native of Poitou, served 
under Richard I in his wars as knight and 
clerk, and became one of his chamberlains, 

witnessing in that capacity a charter dated 
30 June 1198 (MSS. Dom. Fonteneau, in 
municipal library of Poitiers, Ixxii. 58 ; 
M. LECOINTRE-DUPONT, Discours a la Societe 
des Antiquaires de V Quest, p. 6). On 19 June 
1 109 he was acting as treasurer of the chap- 
ter of St. Hilary of Poitiers (Close Rolls, 
i. 1 ), and on 30 July of the same year 
received from King John, as prior of Loches, 
all the king's rights in the gifts of the pre- 
bends of that church. He continued in 
John's service as a clerk, accompanying him 
in his journeys abroad (see Close, Charter, and 
Patent Rolls}. On 26 Dec. 1202 he was sent 
to arrange a truce with Philip Augustus, and, 
among other favours, received from John on 
the following 3 Jan. the deanery of St. Martin's 
of Angers (Patent Rolls, pp. 22, 22 b\. The loss 
of Poitou and Anjou by John deprived Peter 
of these benefices.' But in 1205 he received the 
lands of the Countess of Perche in England 
(Norman Rolls, p. 1 31 ), and the custody of the- 
bishoprics of Chichester (1 April 1204) and 
Winchester (21 Sept.) during their vacancy, 
with the perpetual vicarship of Bamburgh. 
Before 5 Feb. 1205 he was elected to th& 
see of Winchester (Close Rolls, i. 18 b). The- 
election was disputed ; but he and his rival, 
Richard, dean of Salisbury, went to Rome 
(' Osney Annals ' in Ann. Monast. iv. 51), and 
Peter triumphed. He received consecration 
from Innocent III himself on Sunday, 
25 Sept. (Annales de Wintonia, ii. 79) He 
brought back an ineffective papal mandate 
regulating the collection of Peter's pence, of 
which he was to be receiver-general for the 
kingdom (Annales de Waverleia, ii. 257). 
He at once applied the revenues of his see 
to the discharge of his debts, probably in- 
curred in the purchase of the rich presents 
which he distributed at Rome (Roa. WEXD 
ii. 9). 

On the death of Hubert Walter, on 12 July 
1205, John's long struggle with Innocent III 
began. Peter throughout stood by the king, 
and though his lands, like those of the other 
bishops, were seized by way of retaliation 
for the papal interdict, John ordered them to 
be restored on 5 April 1208 (RYMER, Fcedera, 
Record ed. i. 100). On 23 March Peter re- 
ceived a charter confirming the liberties of 
the bishopric ( Charter Rolls, p. 183). In 1209 
he, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, earl of Essex [q. v.J, 
and the Earl of Chester [see BLTJNDEVILL, 
RANTJLF] led an army into Wales, and in the- 
first week of October took part in some abor- 
tive negotiations with Stephen Langton [q. v.] 
atDover(^?m. PFav.ii.263). Peter's avowedly 
secular ambition was attacked at the time in 
the satire of * Flacius Illyricus ' (WEIGHT, 
Political Songs, Camden Soc., pp. 10, 11 : 




Wintoniensis armiger 
Prsesidet ad scaccarium, 
Ad computandum impiger, 
Piger ad evangelium, 
Regis revolvens rotulum ; 
Sic lucrum Lucam superat, 
Marco marcam prseponderat, 
Et librae librum subjicit. 

Peter and the bishop of Norwich [see GEE Y, 
JOHN DE, iZ.1214] were almost the only bishops 
left in England in 1211, when Innocent III 
threatened to depose John; and, despite 
Peter's known devotion to John, the papal 
nvoy Pandulf [q. v.] imposed on him and the 
bishop of Norwich the duty of absolving 
John's subjects from their allegiance (An- 
nales de Burtonia, i. 215). At the end of July 
1213, after his surrender and absolution, the 
king went to Poitou, and left the realm in 
the charge of Peter and Geoffrey Fitz-Peter; 
but he directed them to follow the counsel of 
Langton (cf. ROG. WEND. ii. 82). 

In October, on the death of Geoffrey Fitz- 
Peter, Peter succeeded to the office of jus- 
ticiar, much to the disgust of the barons, 
who resented the promotion of an alien 
(RALPH COGGESHALL, p. 168). Next year he 
.acted as one of John's pledges for the pay- 
ment of forty thousand marks to the church 
and for the observance of the peace with 
the archbishop (RoG. WEND. ii. 101 ; Ann. 
Burt. i. 221). On 1 Feb. (RYMER, Hague 
edit. i. 59) he became guardian of the realm 
for a second time in the king's absence. He 
mainly occupied himself in sending help 
in men and munitions of war to the king, 
and the barons' anger turned to fury {Ann. 
Wav. ii. 281). In the crisis ending in the 
granting of the Great Charter which followed 
John's return on 19 Oct., he acted through- 
out as the king's trusted servant. After In- 
nocent III had annulled the Great Charter, 
Peter, the abbot of Reading, and the legate 
Pandulf joined in urging Langton to pro- 
mulgate the papal sentence of excommunica- 
tion against the barons, and, on Langton's 
refusal, suspended him (RoG. WEND. ii. 
154-5). They afterwards furnished Inno- 
cent III with the names of the barons to be 
personally excommunicated (MATT. PARIS, 
Chronica Majora, ii. 643). The following 
year (1216) Peter was sent with others on 
the fruitless mission of seeking to induce 
Philip Augustus to prevent his son Louis 
from invading England (RALPH COGGESHALL, 
p. 180). Among the French invader's first 
successes was the capture of Peter's castle 
of Odiham, after a stubborn defence of six- 
teen days (RoG. WEND. ii. 182-3). On 
29 May, at Winchester, he excommunicated 
Louis and his adherents, but fled with the 

young king, Henry III, next day, on his 
approach (Ann. Wint. ii. 82). 

At the coronation of Henry III at Glou- 
cester, on 28 Oct., Peter, under the authority 
of the legate Gualo, placed the plain circlet 
of gold on the young prince's head and 
anointed him king (RoG. WEND. ii. 198). 
He was appointed Henry's guardian, either 
by the earl marshal, acting as cusfcos regis 
et regni (Histoire de Guillaume leMarechal, 
ed. P. Meyer, Soc. de 1'Histoire de France, 
1 893-4, ii. 198), or, according to Peter's own 
claim, by the common consent (cf. WALT. 
Cov. ii. 233). His position as guardian did 
not prevent him from accompanying the 
royal army, and taking a decisive part in the 
relief of Lincoln (20 May 1217). The legate 
left the army on its march at Newark, 
leaving to Peter, as his deputy, the absolution 
and encouragement of the troops, who had 
assumed white crosses (Annales de Dun- 
staplia, iii. 49). ' Learned in war,' Peter led 
the fourth division of the army, and was en- 
trusted by the earl marshal with the com- 
mand of the arbalisters, whom he directed 
to kill the horses of the Frenchmen when 
they charged ( Guillaume le Marechal, ii. 222, 
224). While reconnoitring he left his retinue, 
and alone penetrated to the castle of Lin- 
coln, which was held by its lady against the 
French. After encouraging her with news 
of help, he ventured into the town, where he 
discovered a gate between the castle and 
town which was easy to batter down. He 
then returned to his army, and, after some 
fighting, brought it into the city (ib. ii. 230-2). 
Peter played a less glorious part in the battle 
of Dover (24 Aug. 1217). According to Mat- 
thew Paris (Chron. Maj. iii. 28) he, the earl 
marshal, and other barons, on the approach 
of the French fleet of Eustace the Monk, 
declined to take part in the attack, roughly 
telling Hubert de Burgh [q. v.] that ' they 
were neither soldiers of the sea, pirates, not 
fishermen ; but he could go and die.' The eulo- 
gistic metrical biography of the earl marshal 
does not corroborate the story. When Louis 
of France departed in 1217 he handed over 
the Tower of London to Peter (Fragment 
of Merton Chronicle in Pieces Justificatives to 
Ch.-Petit DutailWs Louis VII, p. 515). In 
1219, when the earl marshal lay on his death- 
bed, he commissioned his son to withdraw 
King Henry from Peter's custody and trans- 
fer him to the legate Pandulf. The bishop 
of Winchester resisted almost by force the 
execution of the order, but ultimately for 
the moment yielded up his charge (Guillaume 
le Marechal, ii. 286-90). After the death 
of the earl marshal, however, on 1 1 May 
1219, Peter continued to act as guardian ot 




the king, whom he entertained at Winchester 
nt the following Christmas (Koa. WEND. ii. 
237 ; WALT. Cov. ii. 259), and shared with 
Hubert de Burgh and Pandulf the direction 
of the government. 

He was present at the siege of William de 
Fortibus, earl of Aumale, in Biham, early in 
1221 ; but on 19 Sept. he took the cross, and 
left England with the bishop of Hereford 
and Faukes de Breaute [q. v.] (Ann. Wan. ii. 
295). Peter had been elected archbishop of 
Damietta, and that place seems to have been 
their destination; but on the news of its 
capture they turned homewards (Ann. Dunst. 
in. 75; RALPH COGGESHALL, p. 190). He 
attested several acts of the king in the latter 
part of the year (Close Rolls, i. 4706, 4725, 
&c.) On 18 Sept. 1222 he gave the first 
benediction to Richard of Barking, the new 
abbot of Westminster ; and in the same 
year took part in an arbitration which de- 
cided that that abbey was independent of 
the bishop of London (MATT. PARIS, iii. 74, 

Jealous of Hubert de Burgh and the natural 
head of the Poitevin party, Peter was probably 
more than privy to the plot which was con- 
certed in 1223 by his friend Faukes de 
Breaute, the Earls of Chester and Aumale, 
and Brienne de 1'Isle, to surprise the Tower 
of London and remove the justiciar. Hubert 
denounced him as a traitor to the king and 
kingdom, and he retired from the council 
violently threatening the justiciar (Ann. 
Dunst. iii. 84). Langton brought about a 
temporary reconciliation at Christmas at 
Northampton, and Honorius III, in a letter 
to Henry on 18 Jan. 1224, intervened in 
Peter's behalf (Royal Letters Henry III, i. 
218). But Hubert, who had the ear of the 
king, used his power against Peter. The 
bishop and the earl of Chester retaliated 
by withdrawing, in 1224, from the army, 
which had been sent against Faukes de 
Breaute, with whom they probably had an 
understanding (Ann. Dunst. iii. 86). But 
in the same year the bishop was with the 
king's army in Wales (Close Rolls, i. 6066). 
On 28 Sept. Henry III summoned him to 
answer for his encroachments on the royal 
forest rights in Hampshire* (id. i. 633), and 
the bishop replied by an excommunication 
directed against the foes of the church (Ann. 
Wint. ii. 84). Next year (1226) the king 
and the bishop resumed friendly relations (cf. 
Close Rolls, ii. 19 ; Royal Letters Henry III. 
i. 261). 

Though Henry still trusted Peter, he was 
weary of the bishop's tutelage. In February 
1227 the king, at the instigation of Hubert, 
renounced his guardianship, and dismissed 

all his followers from the court. The king's 
attitude, coupled with the continued strength 
of Hubert's influence, led Peter to quit Eng- 
land and join the crusade which was prepar- 
ing under the leadership of Frederick II. 
Henry had already written, on 3 Nov. 1226, 
recommending him to the emperor's favour 
(Close Rolls, ii. 204). Frederick II, on his 
arrival in the Holy Land in 1228, found 
there a considerable army, of which the 
bishop of Winchester was one of three 
leaders (RoG. WEND. ii. 351). Ceesarea and 
Joppa were fortified mainly with the aid of 
Peter's money, and after the conclusion of 
Frederick's truce (18 Feb. 1229) he and 
the bishop entered Jerusalem together on 
8 April (Palm Sunday) (Ann. Margam, i. 
37). Among the accusations brought against 
Frederick II by Gregory IX was one of 
having besieged Peter and his companion, the 
bishop of Exeter, in their houses while in 
the Holy Land. But Matthew Paris says 
Peter des Roches mediated successfully be- 
tween the pope and the emperor ( Chron. Maj. 
iii. 490), and Frederick appealed to the testi- 
mony of Peter and his fellow-bishop that his 
truce with Saladin was not a dishonourable 
one (Richardus de S. Germane in MUEATOEI'S 
Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, torn. vii. col. 
1016; see also letter of 28 Aug. 1230 in 
tique de Frederic II, iii. 218). During his 
stay in the Holy Land he, with the concur- 
rence of the patriarch of Jerusalem, caused 
the order of the canons at St. Thomas the 
Martyr at Acre, founded by Hubert Walter, 
to be changed into a house of the order of 

the Sword of S 


and had it removed to 

a healthier situation, nearer the sea. Peter 
started home in 1231, having succeeded in 
ingratiating himself with both pope and 
emperor. On his way through France he 
arranged a truce for three years between the 
king of France on the one side and the king 
of England, with the earls of Brittany and 
Chester, on the other. He arrived at "Win- 
chester on 1 Aug. 1231, and went to the 
assistance of the king in Wales, giving him 
more aid than all the other bishops put to- 
gether. At the close of the campaign he 
invited the king, the justiciar, and the other 
royal officers to spend Christmas with him 
at Winchester, where he lavished on them 
enough victuals, vestments, gold, silver, 
jewels, and horses to have sufficed for a royal 
coronation (Ann. Dunst. iii.126; ROG.WEND. 
iii. 13). 

The bishop employed his accession of popu- 
larity to avenge himself on Hubert. Suitable 
weapons were not wanting. The bishop had 
been charged by the pope to excommunicate 




eighty-one persons who had despoiled the 
Italian clergy in England, and the guilty 
persons had met with no discouragement 
from Hubert. Peter, moreover, suggested 
to the king that the royal poverty, which 
prevented him from taking active measures 
against the plundering raids of Llywelyn 
of Wales [see LLYWELYN AB IOEWETH, d. 
1240] on the border counties, was due to the 
bad government or dishonesty of his minis- 
ters. Hubert and his friends were displaced, 
Stephen Segrave [q. v.] was made justiciar, 
and a nephew of Peter des Roches, Peter de 
Rievaux [q. v.], was made treasurer (29 July 
1232, ROG. WEND. iii. 31). The late justiciar 
was summoned to answer an inquiry into 
his administration [see BURGH, HUBERT DE]. 
At his trial he brought various accusations 
against Peter. But the bishop had triumphed, 
and was now supreme. He and his partisans 
had ' immutably perverted the heart of the 
king ' (MATT. PARIS, iii. 244). 

Armed bodies of Poitevins were summoned 
from beyond seas. All offices were filled by 
Peter's adherents, most of whom were his 
fellow-countrymen. Richard Marshal, third 
earl of Pembroke [q. v.], placed himself at the 
head of the malcontents, and, demanding the 
dismissal of Peter and the Poitevins, talked of 
driving out the king and his evil counsellors, 
and electing another ruler in case of refusal. 
The bishop, on his part, boasted that he had 
been the trusted adviser of the emperor, 
and would counsel no half-measures (MATT. 
PARIS, iii. 240,246; Annals of Winchester, ii. 
86). The news that foreign mercenaries had ar- 
rived led the barons to refuse to attend two 
councils summoned by the king, one at Oxford 
on 24 June 1233, and one at Westminster on 
11 July (RoG. WEND. iii. 51). Pembroke fled 
to Wales and allied himself with Llywelyn, 
whereupon Peter and Stephen Segrave ad- 
vised Henry to summon his military tenants 
to Gloucester on 14 Aug. In that assembly 
Pembroke was proclaimed a traitor, and the 
king declared war on him. On 9 Oct. a 
council met at Westminster. When com- 
plaint was made of the treatment of the earl 
marshal, Peter insolently claimed for the king 
despotic rights over the persons and property 
of rebellious barons. The bishops thereupon 
excommunicated Peter and the king's other 
evil counsellors, despite Peter's remonstrance 
that he was exempt from their power and was 
subject only to papal censure. In November 
Peter accompanied the king in his cam- 
paign about Gloucester against Pembroke, but 
the king's inadequate forces compelled him 
to remain inactive. The earl's supporters, 
under Richard Siward, ravaged the bishop's 
lands at Winchester. 

But Henry was growing tired of Peter's 
domination. As far back as 24 June 1233 
a Dominican friar, Robert Bacon, assured 
Henry he would never have any peace until 
he dismissed him (MATT. PARIS, iii. 244). 
It was rumoured that the bishop of Win- 
chester had promised to make the realm 
subject to the emperor (RoG. WEND. iii. 66). 
At length he overreached himself by pro- 
curing the election of his friend, John le 
Blund or Blunt [q. v.], as archbishop of 
Canterbury. He lent money to Blunt, and 
wrote to the emperor in his favour (ib. iii. 
50; MATT. PARIS, iii. 243). But the pope 
quashed the election on the ground that 
Blunt was a pluralist, and named Edmund 
Rich [q. v.], whose arrival was the signal for 
Peter's fall. The bishops at once drew up a 
long accusation against Peter. Henry was re- 
minded that it was owing to Peter's counsels 
that his father had lost the love of his sub- 
jects. The king was deeply impressed by Ed- 
mund's saintly character, and on 10 April 1234 
he ordered Peter to retire to his bishopric, and 
cease to occupy himself with secular affairs 
(RoG. WEND. iii. 78). On 11 May Peter's 
enemies burnt his town of Ivinghoe. In a 

great council on 1 June the archbishop of 
anterbury read a copy of the letter which 
Peter had sent to Hugh FitzGerald in Ire- 
land, directing him to murder the Earl of Pem- 
broke on his arrival in that country. The 
king said that, in ignorance of its contents, he 
had affixed his seal to the document under the 
compulsion of Peter and his other counsel- 
lors. Peter and his nephew were summoned 
to the royal presence to account for their 
financial administration and their use of the 
royal seal. An attempt at flight on their 
part was foiled at Dover, and they took 
refuge in Winchester Cathedral (28 June). 
On 2 July Richard Siward and others made 
a vain search for them, and captured the 
horses of the bishop and the prior. Peter 
excommunicated them, and laid an interdict 
on the church and city ; but the marauders 
at once repented and were absolved. The 
city and church were reconciled the day 
after (Ann. Wint. ii. 86). Next year Peter 
was pardoned by the mediation of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Flores Historiarum,^. 
Luard, ii. 213). 

On ] 1 March 1235 he left Winchester to 
place his wealth and military experience at 
the service of the papacy, by invitation ot 
Gregory IX, who was at war with the 
Romans (Ann. Wint, ii. 87; MATT. PARIS, 
iii. 304, 309; ROG. WEND. iii. 103). Henry 
warned the emperor, Frederick II (27 April 
1235), against placing any confidence 11 
Peter's account of the recent proceedings 



against him, and feared that Peter might 
create in Frederick's mind hostility to his 
present counsellors (Royal Letters, i. 467). 
The papal expedition proved successful. 
Peter and Raymond VII of Toulouse defeated 
the Romans at Viterbo with great slaughter 
(MATT. PAKIS, iii. 304). He returned to 
England, broken in health, about 29 Sept. 
1236 (ib. iii. 378). When Frederick II sum- 
moned a conference of princes at Vaucouleurs, 
Henry selected Peter des Roches as one of 
his representatives. But he refused the 
mission, on the ground that the king, who, 
in his latest communication with the em- 
peror, had spoken ill of him, would expose 
himself to a charge of fickleness if he now 
pronounced him a trusted counsellor (ib. iii. 
393). In the same year the legate Otho 
brought about a public reconciliation be- 
tween Peter and Hubert de Burgh and his 
other enemies (ib. iii. 403). His last public 
utterance was characteristic. An embassy 
had come in 1238 from the Saracens, asking 
aid against the Tartars. Peter, who happened 
to be present, gave his opinion, ' Let the dogs 
devour one another and perish. We, when 
we come to the remnant of the enemies of 
Christ, shall slay them, and clean the sur- 
face of the earth ; and the whole world shall 
be subject to one catholic church; and there 
shall be one shepherd and one flock.' He 
died on 9 June 1238 at Farnham. His heart 
was buried at Waverley, his body in a modest 
tomb he had chosen for himself in Winchester 
Cathedral (MATT. PAKIS, iii. 489 ; Ann. Wav. 
ii. 319). 

Peter was the founder of numerous 
churches. On his manor of Hales, which 
John had granted him for that purpose on 
16 Oct. 1214 ( Charter Rolls, 201 6), he erected 
a Premonstratensian abbey, which was nearly 
finished on 6 June 1223 (Close Rolls, i. 530 ; 
DTJGDALE, Monasticon, ed. 1817-33, vol. vi. 
pt. ii. p. 926). In 1221 he founded at Win- 
chester a house of Dominican friars (DTJG- 
DALE, vol. vi. pt. iii. p. 1486). His other foun- 
dations were the Premonstratensian abbey 
of Titchfield in Hampshire in 1231 (ib. 
vi. 931), the Austin priory of Selborne in 
the same county in 1233 (ib. vi. 510), and a 
hospital of St. John the Baptist at Ports- 
mouth some time in John's reign (ib. vi. 761). 
He intended to found two Cistercian abbeys, 
and left money and instructions in his will 
for that purpose. They were founded by his 
executors in 1239, one at a place which was 
called ' locus Sancti Edwardi ' on 25 July, 
and the other at Clarte-Dieu in France 
(Ann. Wav. ii. 323). He left fifty marks to 
the house of St. Thomas of Acre. 

Peter des Roches was a typical secular 

bishop. By turns he was warrior, military 
engineer, builder, financial agent, states- 
man, and diplomatist, and his life almost 
began and ended amid the clash of arms. 
Never sparing in magnificence when the oc- 
casion demanded it, he was an admirable 
manager, and left his bishopric in an excel- 
lent condition. The monks of St. Swithin's, 
Winchester, like the people and barons of 
England, found him a hard master, and they 
objected to the election of William de Valence, 
another foreigner and the king's nominee, to 
the vacant see, ' eo quod Petrus de Rupibus 
durus ut rupes fuerit ' (Annales de Theokes- 
beria, i. 110). 

[The Charter, Patent, Close, Norman, and 
other Rolls published by the Record Commis- 
mission, are of primary importance, especially 
for the earlier years. The narrative sources are 
Roger of Wendover, the Chronica Majora of 
Matthew Paris, the Annals of Winchester, Dun- 
stable, Worcester, Osney, Margam, Burton, and 
Tewkesbury (in Annales Monastic!, ed. Luard) ; 
Ralph Coggeshall, the Historical Collections of 
Walter of Coventry, including the Chronicle of 
the Canon of Barn-well, and the continuations 
of Gervase of Canterbury and William of 
Newbury (all published in the Rolls Series). 
The French poem L'Histoire de Gruillaume le 
Marechal (ed. P. Meyer, Societe de 1'Histoire 
de France, 1893-4) supplies several interest- 
ing episodes, and contradicts the previous autho- 
rities on some points. The chief modern works 
are Stubbs's Constitutional History, Ch. -Petit 
Dutaille's Etude sur la vie et le regne deLouisVII 
(1187-1226), Paris, 1894, and M. Lecointre-Du- 
pont's Pierre des Roches, eveque de Winchester 
(Poitiers, 1868). The last book attributes to 
Peter's influence the efforts put forth to hold the 
English lands in Aquitaine and reconquer those 
already lost.] W. E. R. 

(d. 1268), ninth count of Savoy, and mar- 
quis in Italy, was sixth son of Thomas I of 
Savoy by Margaret de Faucigny. He was 
born at the castle of Susa in Italy, according 
to Guichenon in 1203, but perhaps the true 
date may be as much as ten years later 
(MuGNiER, p. 159). Boniface of Savoy [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury, was his younger 
brother, and Eleanor and Sanchia of Pro- 
vence, the wives of Henry III and Richard 
of Cornwall, were his nieces. Peter was in- 
tended originally for an ecclesiastical career, 
and was made a canon of Valence in Dau- 
phine ; in 1224 there is a reference to him as 
' clericus ; ' in 1226 he is mentioned as canon 
of Lausanne and provost of Aosta (ib. p. 31 ; 

WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 58, 65, 71-2 ; CARTJTTI, 

i. 183), and in 1229 as provost of Geneva. In 
the latter year he was procurator of the see 
of Lausanne during a vacancy (Monumenta 




Histories Sabaudite, vol. iv. pt. i. p. 1308). But 
a few years later he resigned his ecclesiastical 
preferments, and in February 1234 married 
at Chatillon his cousin Agnes, daughter and 
heiress of Aymon, count of Faucigny (CA- 
RUTTI, i. 200 ; he obtained an indulgence for 
this marriage on 7 May 1247 ib. i. 266). 
After the death of their father Peter had 
been involved in a dispute with his brother, 
Amadeus IV, as to his inheritance ; the 
matter was arranged on 23 July 1234, when 
Amadeus gave him the castles of Lompnes 
and S. Raimbert in Bugey (WURSTEMBERGER, 
iv. 96). The ' Chroniques de Savoye' (Mon. 
Hist. Sabaud. i. 151-4, 162-5) represent Peter 
as making great conquests in the Pays de 
Vaud and Valais ; but the narrative is very 
confused, and, so far as concerns Peter, to a 
large extent fabulous (MUGNIER, p. 163). 
However, his marriage had secured him the 
prospect of a considerable territorial position, 
which he much increased by subsequent ac- 
quisitions. In 1237 he was engaged in war- 
fare with William, count of Geneva, whose 
sons took him prisoner, and on 12 May Ama- 
deus intervened on his behalf (WURSTEM- 
BERGER, iv. 110, 251). On 23 June 1240 he 
accepted the advocacy of the monastery of 
Payerne in Vaud (ib. iv. 130). He was at this 
time styled Count of Romont. 

About the end of 1240 Peter went to Eng- 
land, at the invitation of Henry III, who 
gave him large estates and made him Earl 
of Richmond. He was knighted by Henry 
on 5 Jan. 1241 in Westminster Abbey, and 
on the following day the king held a great 
feast in his honour (MATTHEW PARIS, iv. 85). 
Later in the year he proposed to hold a 
tournament at Northampton, which was 
prohibited by the king, out of favour, as it 
was alleged, for the foreigners, whose defeat 
seemed probable (ib. iv. 88). On 28 Sept. 
Peter received the castle of Lewes, but shortly 
afterwards, fearing the envy of Earl Richard 
of Cornwall [q. v.] and the English nobles, 
begged leave to return to Savoy. Henry at 
first granted him permission, but afterwards 
recalled him, and Peter reluctantly resumed 
the office of sheriff of Kent, with the castles 
of Rochester and Dover, and the wardenship 
of the Cinque ports (ib. iv. 177-8 ; Flores 
Historiarum, ii. 251 ; DOYLE). Peter is men- 
tioned as one of the royal councillors in 
January 1242, and in February was sent 
with Peter of Aigueblanche [q. v.], the Sa- 
voyard bishop of Hereford, on a mission 
to prepare for Henry's intended expedition 
to Poitou. He escaped a French ambush 
with difficulty, and returned to England 
shortly before Easter (MATT. PARIS, iv. 187, 
190). It was perhaps in view of this ex- 

pedition that in June 1241 Peter had been 
directed to obtain the services of the Count 
of Chalon and William of Vienne (Fccdera, 
i. 395). On 5 May 1242 he surrendered the 
castle of Dover, and on 13 May apparently 
sailed with Henry to Poitou. On 2G May 
Henry, who was then at Pons in Saintonge, 
gave Peter formal direction to negotiate a 
marriage between Richard of Cornwall and 
Sanchia of Provence. With this purpose 
Peter was present as Richard's proctor at 
Tarascon on 19 July (CARUTTI, i. 237 ; WURS- 
TEMBERGER, iv. 154). After a short visit to 
Savoy he returned to England in September, 
and in the following year rejoined Henry, 
with whom he was present at Bordeaux on 
5 July 1243 (MUGNIER, p. 43). According 
to Matthew Paris (iv. 365), Peter was one 
of the king's messengers to the magnates in 
the parliament of 1244. But Peter seems to 
have returned to his native country in the 
summer of this year. According to the ' Chro- 
niques de Savoye,' the Count of Geneva had 
attacked his lands in Vaud, and Henry sup- 
plied him with men and money for the war 
(Mon. Hist. Sabaud. i. 167-8). During his 
stay abroad Peter materially extended his 
power by means of friendly agreements with 
the bishops of Lausanne and Sion, and the 
lords of Fruence (ib. vol. iv. pt. ii. pp. 1443-6, 
1460 : CARUTTI, i. 251-3; WURSTEMBERGER, 
iv. 177-81, 195, 198). 

Peter returned to England early in 1247, 
bringing with him a bevy of foreign ladies 
to be married to English nobles ; two were 
married to Edmund de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, 
and Richard, son of Hubert de Burgh [q. v.] 
(MATT. PARIS, iv. 598, 628). This proceeding 
excited much indignation in England, and the 
feeling was perhaps increased by Peter's ob- 
taining the wardship of various young nobles, 
e.g. of John, earl of Warenne [q. v.], in 1241, 
of John Gilford [q. v.] in 1248, and of Robert 
Ferrers, earl of Derby [q, v.],in 1257 (Fcedera, 
i. 399; WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 245, 338, 341, 
450, 676 ; for other instances, see MUGNIER, 

ment of February 1248 (1L 
In October 1249 he received the castles and 
honours of Hastings andTickhill, and was one 
of the ambassadors appointed to treat with 
France (DOYLE ; WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 240). 
On 5 March 1250 he had power to prolong the 
truce with France, being associated for this 
purpose with Simon de Montfort (SHIRLEY, n. 
60) From Paris he went on to Savoy, and on 
29 June made an agreement with Willn 
count of Geneva, by which the latter accepted 
him for lord (Mon. Hist. Sabaud.- vol. . iy. 
pt. ii. p. 1490; WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 248 



CAETTTTI, i. 286). At the same time he was 
engaged in a quarrel with Albert Seigneur de 
1 a Tour du Pin in Dauphin6, which was settled 
by the mediation of Peter de Grandson in 
September (ib. i. 289). During this visit, as 
on his last one, Peter contrived to materially 
increase his possessions in Vaud (MUGNIEE, 
pp. 87-8), and on 20 Aug. 1251 his father- 
in-law made a donation of Faucigny in his 
favour (Mon. Hist. Sabaud. vol. iv. pt. ii. 
p. 1501). 

After extending, it is said, his journey to 
Italy (MUGNIEE, p. 92), Peter returned to 
England, and on 4 Jan. 1252 was one of the 
arbiters to decide the amount due to Simon 
de Montfort for his expenses in Gascony 
(SiiiELEY, ii. 69). Peter had adopted a mo- 
derate attitude in English politics, and was 
now and for some years to come on friendly 
terms with Earl Simon, to whom his services 
at this juncture were of special advantage (cf. 
MAESH, Epistolce ap. Mon. Franciscana, pp. 
123, 152 ; BEMONT, p. 93). This did not inter- 
fere with Peter's friendship for the king. Ac- 

cording to Matthew Paris (v. 356), in this same 
year (1252) he presumed on Henry's favour to 
oppress the abbey of Jervaux. It is probable, 
therefore, that the letter in which John of 
Brittany intervened on behalf of Jervaux 
(SHIELET, ii. 30) belongs to this time. Peter 
was present in the parliament of April- May 

1253, and now or previously undertook to 
join in Henry's intended crusade (Fcedera, 
\. 487, 489). In August he accompanied 
Henry to Gascony, where he remained, with 
some intervals, till October 1254 (ib. i. 501, 
527-8 ; Roles Gascons, i. 2083, 2566, 4131, 
4224 ; MATT. PAEIS, v. 410 ; MUGKEEE, pp. 
104, 106). He was employed in the ne- 
gotiations with the French court in May 

1254, and in those as to Sicily with the pope. 
In November he went to Savoy ; his brother 
Amadeus had died in the previous year, and 
Peter and Philip of Savoy renewed their old 
claim to a further share of their father's 
lands ; this question was settled by arbitra- 
tion in February 1255 (ib. pp. 116-17 ; WTTRS- 
TEMBEEGEE, iv. 386-7). Peter remained in 
Savoy till May, when Adolph of Waldeck, 
as vicar of the empire, invited him to become 
protector of Berne, Morat, and Hasli (ib. iv. 
393-7). About the same time he was asso- 
ciated with Simon de Montfort in a commis- 
sion to treat with Louis of France (SHIELEY, 
ii. 117). But on 8 June he was at Lyons, 
where he made a will (Mon. Hist. Sabaud. 
vol. ii. pp. 1535-6). There was some idea 
that he might return to Gascony, and Henry 
directed his son Edward to be guided by 
his advice (Fcedera, i. 560). But Peter went 
back to Savoy, where in August he enter- 

tained William de Kilkenny [q. v.] at Belley 
(MATT. PAEIS, v. 508). Thomas of Savoy had 
been imprisoned by the citizens of Turin, 
and in 1256 Peter, with his brothers Philip 
and Boniface, laid siege to that city in order 
to rescue him (ib. v. 548, 564). 

In June 1257 Peter was appointed to nego- 
tiate with France, as the colleague of Simon 
de Montfort and with John Mansel [q. v.], as 
to the Sicilian business with the pope (Foedera, 
i. 627-34). But in October he was still at 
Chillon and St. Maurice (MTTGNIER, p. 133 ; 
WUESTEMBEEGEE, iv. 469-71), though he 
probably went to Paris soon after, and in 
February 1258 crossed over to England 
(MATT. PAEIS, v. 650). He was present with 
the king at Westminster on 8 March (ib. v. 
672), and in the parliament which met in 
the following month. He joined with Simon 
de Montfort and the Earls of Norfolk and 
Hereford in the solemn confederation on 
12 April (BEMONT, p. 159), and therefore 
clearly supported the baronial policy which 
forced Henry to accept the committee of 
twenty-four. Though not a member of the 
original committee, Peter was on 8 May 
sent, with Simon de Montfort, to renew the 
truce with France (Fasdera, i. 654). At the 
parliament of Oxford in June he was chosen 
one of the council of fifteen, and also one 
of the twenty-four commissioners of the aid 
(Ann. Mon. i. 449-50). He took part in the 
action of the barons against the Poitevins, 
and joined in the letter to the pope against 
Aymer or ^Ethelmser de Valence (d. 1260) 
[q. v.] (Foedera, i. 662). In August he was 
one of the ambassadors to treat with Scotland 
(ib. i. 668), and in January 1259 was one of 
the commissioners sent to meet Richard of 
Cornwall and receive his oath to abide by the 
provisions (MATT. PAEIS, v. 732). During 
the summer of 1259 he was employed in the 
negotiations for peace with France (SHIELEY, 
ii. 138; Fcedera, i. 678-81), and in arrang- 
ing the marriage of Henry's daughter Beatrix 
with John of Brittany. That prince laid 
claim to his ancestral earldom of Richmond, 
and Henry promised to grant his wish if 
Peter would agree to the surrender (ib. i. 
682, 693). Eventually it was arranged that 
John should receive as compensation a pen- 
sion of two thousand marks, and Peter re- 
tained the earldom till 1266 (WUESTEM- 
BEEGER, iv. 527, 533, 564, 567, 708 ; SHIE- 
LEY, ii. 210). Peter was with the king in 
France at the end of 1259. He had always 
belonged to the moderate section of the 
baronial party, and, as the breach between 
Richard de Clare and Simon de Montfort 
became manifest, passed over to the royal 
side. As a consequence, Earl Simon pro- 




cured his removal from the council (BEMONT, 
pp. 187, 351). Peter was instrumental in 
effecting the reconciliation between Henry 
and his son Edward in 1260, and was one of 
the king's advisers in his breach of the pro- 
visions in 1261 (Flares Historiarum, iii. 255 ; 
Cont. GEKVASE, ii. 211, 213; Ann. Mon. iv. 
128). It was alleged that Richard de Clare 
was poisoned at Peter's table in July 1262 
(ib iii. 219). 

When the war broke out in 1263 the hos- 
tility of the English towards all foreigners 
compelled Peter to leave the country. His 
nephew Boniface, count of Savoy, had just 
been defeated in Piedmont, and lay dying 
in prison at Turin. Peter was at Chambe'ry 
on 7 June ; three days later he took the 
titles of Count of Savoy and marquis in 
Italy, in succession to Boniface. Shortly 
afterwards he crossed the Alps, and reduced 
Turin to submission. He returned north 
in time to attend the conference at Bou- 
logne in September (Cont. GERVASE, ii. 225). 
On 17 Oct. King Richard invested him 
with his county at Berkhampstead, and 
made him vicar of the empire in Savoy, 
Chablais, and Aosta, and granted him the 
lands of Hartmann de Kybourg in Vaud 
(WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 600-28). In Decem- 
ber Henry vainly endeavoured to obtain 
Peter's admission to Dover (Cont. GERVASE, 
ii. 230). Peter took no part in the war 
of 1264; in June he was with Queen 
Eleanor at St. Omer, endeavouring to collect 
a force for the invasion of England, and 
during the autumn was at Damme in Flan- 
ders with a like purpose (Chron, Edward I 
and Edward II, i. 64 ; WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 
647-55 ; MUGNIER, pp. 149-56). It is pos- 
sible that he may have afterwards crossed 
over to his castle of Pevensey, and defended 
it in person against the younger Simon de 
Montfort, and he was perhaps at Pevensey 
in March 1265, when he was summoned to 
attend at London on 1 June (Fosdera, i. 601 ; 
BEMONT, p. 234). However, in May he was 
certainly at Romont in Vaud, and probably 
did not again return to England (WURSTEM- 
BERGER, iv. 684-5). After the battle of 
Evesham, restitution of Peter's lands, which 
had been seized by the barons, was ordered to 
be made on 12 Sept. ; but before 6 May 1266 
the earldom of Richmond was bestowed on 
John of Brittany, though Peter does not 
appear to have abandoned his claim to it 
(Fosdera. i. 817, 835 ; WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 
749, 760). In October 1265 Peter became 
involved in a war with Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
the future emperor, in defence of his sister, 
Margaret of Kybourg. This quarrel was ter- 
minated by a treaty at Morat on 8 Sept. 1267 

(ib. iv. 696, 739). Peter died on 16 or 17 May 
1268, after a long illness, probably at Pierre- 
Chatel in Petit-Bugey, and not, as is some- 
times stated, at Chillon (ib. iii. 1 1 6-17, iv. 752 ; 
MUGNIER, p. 363). He was buried in the 
abbey of Ilautecombe on 18 May (Mon. Hist. 
Sabaud. i. 174, 674 ; the date of his death 
has been wrongly given as 7 June). 

By his wife, who survived him, he had an 
only daughter, Beatrix (d. 1310), married as 
a child in 1241 to Guy VII of Dauphin6, 
and after Guy's death to Gaston of B6arn in 
1273 (WURSTEMBERGER, iv. 149, 813). By his 
last will, dated 7 May 1268, Peter left most 
of his English property to his niece Eleanor. 
His palace in London was bequeathed to the 
hospice of the Great St. Bernard, from which 
community Eleanor purchased it. This palace, 
outside the city of London, t in vico vocato 
le Straund,' had been the house of Brian de 
Lisle, and was bestowed on Peter by Henry 
in 1246 (CARUTTI, i. 263). Eleanor gave it 
to her son Edmund. To these circumstances 
the historic Savoy palace owes its name and 
its still subsisting association with the duchy 
of Lancaster. The famous castle of Chillon 
in Vaud is even now much as Peter made it 
when it was his favourite residence. In 1250 
he had acquired from the church of St. 
Maurice in Chablais the ring of St. Maurice 
(ib. i. 290). This ring was afterwards used 
in the investiture of the counts and dukes 
of Savoy, as it had been in that of the 
ancient kings of Burgundy. 

Peter is described in the ' Chroniques de 
Savoye' as 'a prudent man, proud, hardy, 
and terrible as a lion ; who so held himself 
in his time that he put many folk in sub- 
jection under him, and was so valiant that 
men called him " le petit Charlemagne " ' 
(Mon. Hist. Sabaud. i. 146, cf. 605, 672). His 
good government and wise legislation en- 
deared him to his subjects ; while his acqui- 
sitions in Vaud and Valais materially in- 
creased the power of his family, though they 
afforded a subject of dispute between the 
heirs of his daughter and his successors as 
count of Savoy. In English politics his 
position must be clearly distinguished from 
that held by Henry's Poitevin kinsmen, or 
even by his own brother, Boniface. Matthew 
Paris (iv. 88) calls him, with justice, ' vir 
discretus et providus ; ' he was the wisest 
of Henry's personal friends and counsellors ; 
but, while he remained loyal to the king, 
he had a just appreciation of his position as 
an English earl, and of the need lor reform. 
It was unfortunate for Henry that I 
obligations in his native land prevented him 
from identifying himself more entirely with 
his adopted country. 



[For Peter's English career the original 
authorities are: Matthew Paris, Annales Mo- 
nastici, Flores Hist., Cont. of Gervase of Can- 
terbury, Marsh's Letters in Monumenta Fran- 
ciscana (there is a friendly letter to Peter on 
pp. 282-4), Shirley's Koyal and Historical 
Letters (all these in Kolls Ser.); Liber de An- 
tiquis Legibus, and Eishanger's De Bellis, &c., 
(both in Camden Soc.) ; Rymer's Foedera, orig. 
edit. ; Roles Gascons, vol. i. (Documents inedits 
sur 1'Hist. de France) ; Bain's Cal. of Documents 
relating to Scotland, vol. i. For his history in 
Savoy see MonumentaHistorise PatriaeSabaudise, 
esp. vol. i. Scriptores, and vol. iv. Chartse (the 
Chroniques in vol. i. are of late date, and very 
confused and legendary; they make Peter a knight 
of the Garter) ; Caruttijs Kegesta Comitum Sa- 
baudise; Gingins's Les Etablissements du Comte 
Pierre II; Guichenon's Histoire de la royale 
Maison de Savoie, i. 280-7, and the Preuves in 
iv. 73-9. Wurstemberger's Peter der Zweite 
Graf von Savoyen, Zurich, 1858, is an elaborate 
monograph in 4 vols., the last containing a col- 
lection of documents and extracts illustrative of 
Peter's history. See also Mugnier's Les Savoy- 
ards en Angleterre (which was published at Cham- 
bery in 1890); Bemont's Simon de Montfort ; 
Prothero's Life of Simon de Montfort ; Blaauw's 
Barons' War; Whitaker's Hist, of Richmond- 
shire; Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 111-12."] 

C. L. K. 

bishop of Hereford, was a Savoyard of high 
rank (' natione Burgundus,' Flores Hist. ii. 
480), and belonged to a junior branch of the 
house of the lords of Briancon, viscounts of 
the Tarentaise or valley of the upper Isere in 
Savoy, and possessors of considerable estates 
in Graisivandan (MENABREA, Des origines 
feodales dans les Alpes occidentals, pp. 408- 
410, 462). The younger branch of the house 
derived its name from the fief of Aigue- 
blanche, also situated in the Tarentaise. 
Peter seems to have been a son of the younger 
brother of Aimeric de Bria^on, who was the 
head of the house after 1234. The Briancons 
were closely attached to the rising fortunes 
of the house of Savoy. Accordingly, Peter 
of Aigueblanche became the clerk of Wil- 
liam of Savoy, the warlike bishop-elect of 
Valence, one of the numerous sons of Count 
Thomas of Savoy ; Matthew Paris describes 
him as William's l familiaris clericus et pro- 
curator expensarum ' (Hist. Major, iv. 48). 
He accompanied his master to England when 
the latter, in 1236, escorted his niece Eleanor 
of Provence [q. v.] on her journey to Eng- 
land to become the wife of Henry III, and 
was thus brought into close contact with 
the English king. William left England in 
1237, and Peter probably accompanied him. 
But on his master's death at Viterbo in No- 
vember 1239, Peter returned to England, 

and was warmly received by the king. He 
became the warden of the king's wardrobe. 
In 1239 he was already archdeacon of Salop. 
Shortly after Henry procured him the bishop- 
ric of Hereford, vacant by the retirement of 
Bishop Ralph of Maidstone into the Fran- 
ciscan convent at Gloucester. The see was 
poor, and Henry was reluctant to bestow on 
Peter a trifling recompense for his services. 
He consequently made a vain effort to induce 
the monks of Durham to permit the election 
to the palatine bishopric of Durham, which 
had been vacant since 1237, of either Peter 
of Aigueblanche or his wife's uncle, Boniface, 
the future archbishop of Canterbury. On 
the failure of this proposal, Peter, on Sunday, 
23 Dec. 1240, was consecrated bishop of Here- 
ford at St. Paul's by Walter Cantelupe, bishop 
of Worcester, and Walter Grey, archbishop 
of York (MATT. PARIS, iv. 74-5). The king 
was present, with a large number of nobles. 
The monks of Canterbury protested against 
his consecration elsewhere than in their cathe- 
dral. Peter held the bishopric until his 
death; Henry III thrice repeated his at- 
tempts to procure his translation to a richer 
see in 1241 to London, in 1254 to Lincoln, 
and in 1256 to Bordeaux. But the king's 
efforts met with no success. 

Peter was ignorant of the English tongue 
(ib. v. 442, ' Anglicum idioma ignoravit '), 
and made no effort to carry on the admini- 
stration of his see in person. He was still 
the king's ( special councillor,' and continued 
closely attached to the service of the court 
and of the queen's uncles. Of these latter 
Peter of Savoy [q.v.] now chiefly repre- 
sented the family in England. The bishop 
of Hereford witnessed the grant made to this 
prince of the earldom of Richmond in 1241, 
and was, early in 1242, despatched with him, 
on a mission to France. They were com- 
missioned to announce to the Poitevins faith- 
ful to the English cause the speedy arrival 
of Henry III to raise troops for the pro- 
jected war in Poitou, and to negotiate for a 
marriage between Richard, earl of Cornwall, 
Henry Ill's brother, and Sanchia, the younger 
sister of Queen Eleanor. The bishop showed 
great activity, sometimes alone, sometimes in 
conjunction with Peter of Savoy. He spent 
most of the summer in Guienne, at Bordeaux 
and Bazas, where Henry III now held his 
court; but he also found time for a hasty 
journey to Provence, where, on 17 July, he 
and Peter of Savoy signed at Tarascon the 
marriage treaty for the alliance of Richard 
and Sanchia (the act is printed by WTTR- 
STEMBERGER, Peter II von Savoyen, iv. 87, 
and in CIBRARIO and PROMTS, Documenti e 
Sigilli di Savoja, ii. 143 ; MUGNIER, pp. 39- 




40, describes minutely the seal of the bishop 
affixed to it). On 17 Aug. Peter of Aigue- 
blanche was again witnessing documents in 
Guienne. He probably returned to England 
with Henry in October 1243. 

Another of the queen's uncles, Boniface, 
bishop-elect of Belley, had been in 1241 
nominated to the see of Canterbury, but he 
did not appear in England until 1244. In 
the interval Peter of Aigueblanche acted 
as his agent in England, receiving in 1243 
permission to reside in the archiepiscopal 
manor at Lambeth, and in the same year 
appointing, as Boniface's proctor, officials 
throughout the archbishopric of Canterbury 
( Tewkesbury Annals, p. 133). He also availed 
himself of his position to pay some of the 
debts of his old master, William of Valence, 
from the archiepiscopal funds. When at 
length the papal consent was given to Boni- 
face's election to Canterbury, Peter was in- 
structed to solemnly hand over to him the 
pallium sent from the papal court on 12 April 
1244 (BERGER, Registres fflnnocent IV, 
vol. i. Nos. 585, 586). On Boniface's arrival 
in England he associated himself closely 
with Peter in defending the bishop of Win- 
chester, William of Ealeigh [q. v.], from the 
immoderate displeasure of Henry. The re- 
sult was a breach between the king and the 
Savoyard bishops, who were backed up by 
the pope and by the stricter clerical party. 
Peter went with Bishop Walter of Cantelupe 
to remonstrate with Henry at Reading, but 
Henry fled to London to avoid their ' whole- 
some admonitions' (MATT. PARIS, iv. 285, 
294-5). Henry was soon, however, followed 
and rebuked. Boniface wrote to Peter, urging 
him to persevere in his rebukes to the king 
(ib. iv. 297-8), and at last Henry gave 

Towards the end of 1244 Peter went be- 
yond sea along with the bishop of Worces- 
ter, the archbishop-elect, Boniface. Matthew 
Paris makes a great mystery of their ' secrel 
business ' (ib. iv. 403), but their main object 
was to visit the pope at Lyons and attend 
the council there. On 15 Jan. 1245 Boni- 
face was consecrated at Lyons by Inno- 
cent IV in person, the two English bishops 
assisting. The council was opened on 28 Jun 
and closed on 17 July, Peter attended its 
sessions. When the pope granted the se< 
of Canterbury the firstfruits of all vacan 
benefices within the province for seven years 
he made the bishop of Hereford collector o 
this unprecedented tax (ib. iv. 508). Jointly 
with Archbishop Boniface, Peter received on 
behalf of Henry III the homage of Coun 
Amadeus of Savoy, and granted him back th 
castles of Bard and Avigliano, and the town 

f Susa and Saint-Maurice in the Valais, pos- 
essions which Amadeus condescended to 
hold of the English king in return for a yearly 
)ension (cf. Royal Letters, ii. 200-1, in which 
Peter gives Henry III reasons why the hold- 
ng of the lordship of these Alpine passes will 
>e to the advantage of England). Peter 
_eceived several marks of the pope's special 
avour, among others the right of not ad- 
mitting papal provisions unless the bulls 
expressly mentioned that the provision was 
granted notwithstanding this concession. 

In October 1249 Peter was commissioned, 
ointly with Peter of Savoy, to treat for 
a prolongation of the truce with France. 
At the same time he was empowered with 
;he archbishop of York to clear up a pos- 
sible irregularity in Henry Ill's marriage, 
by reason of a precontract between him 
and Joan of Ponthieu. It was not until 
29 March 1251 that Peter pronounced in the 
cathedral of Sens the papal sentence which 
nullified the precontract and validated the 
marriage of Henry and Eleanor (WURSTEM- 
BERGER, vol. iv. Nos. 242, 269). In 1250, 
Peter, like many other English barons and 
prelates, took the cross, with the view of 
following Saint Louis on his crusade (MATT. 
PARIS, v. 98). He took, however, no steps 
to carry out his vow. He was still beyond 
sea when the parliament met in October 
1252. He returned to England with Boni- 
face on 18 Nov., and joined the archbishop in 
a fierce quarrel with William of Lusignan, 
bishop-elect of Winchester, one of Henry Ill's 

In August 1253 Peter accompanied 
Henry III to Gascony, and busily occupied 
himself with the affairs of that distracted 
province. He punished the marauding of 
some Welsh soldiers so severely that cer- 
tain of the English barons, their lords, 
threatened to leave the army (ib. v. 442). 
His name almost invariably appears in the 
first place on the numerous letters patent 
which he witnessed about this time (e.g. 
Roles Gascons, i. 270, 271, 272). It has been 
inferred that he was in consequence the chief 
of the king's council in Gascony (MuaxiER, 
p. 104), but it is clear that his precedence is 
simply due to his episcopal rank. Towards 
the end of the year Peter was sent on an 
important mission to Alfonso X of Castile to 
negotiate the proposed double marriage of 
Edward, the king's son, with Alfonso's sister 
Eleanor, and that of Beatrice, the king's 
daughter, with one of Alfonso's brothers. On 
Peter's return from Toledo, Henry confirmed 
his acts at Bazas on 8 Feb. 1254. In conside- 
ration of his ' grave expenses and labours and 
his laborious embassy to Spain,' Henry re- 



mitted Peter an old debt to the crown of 
300/., granted him the custody of two 
Shropshire manors, and made him a present 
of three tuns of Gascon wine (Roles Gascons, 
i. 305, 307). Peter was the first witness to 
the grant of Wales, Ireland, and Gascony to 
the king's son Edward on 14 Feb. 1254 (ib. 
i. 309). He then returned to Spain with 
John Mansel, and on 31 May 1254 signed a 
treaty with Alfonso at Toledo, by which the 
Castilian king yielded up his pretended 
claims on Gascony. In October he was with 
Henry at Bordeaux, just before the king's 
re-embarkation for England. He was thence 
despatched, along with Henry of Susa, arch- 
bishop of Ernbrun, to Innocent IV, who, in 
March 1254 had granted the Sicilian throne 
to Henry Ill's younger son, Edmund [see 
LANCASTER, EDMUND, EARL or, 1245-1296], 
and was now threatening to revoke the grant 
if help were not sent to him in his struggle 
against Manfred. Peter was given full 
powers to treat. But Innocent died at Naples 
in December, and Peter of Aigueblanche 
completed the negotiations with Innocent's 
successor, Alexander IV. On 9 April 1255 
Alexander duly confirmed the grant of the 
Sicilian throne to Edmund on somewhat 
stringent conditions. He also made a series 
of grants of church revenues in England to 
provide Henry with funds for pursuing Ed- 
mund's claims. Among these was a tenth 
of ecclesiastical revenues according to the 
new and strict taxation. This latter had 
originally been assigned to the crusade, and 
Peter had in 1252 been appointed with others 
to collect it and hand it over to the king 
when he went beyond sea (Buss, Cal. Papal 
Letters, i. 279). These exactions were re- 
sented with extraordinary bitterness by the 
English prelates and monasteries, and the 
majority of the monastic chroniclers accuse 
Peter of Aigueblanche of being the author 
of their ruin. Peter's methods of procuring 
money were certainly characterised by much 
chicanery. According to Matthew Paris 
(Hist. Major, v. 510-13, ' De nimis damnosa 

Sroditione Episcopi Herefordensis ') and the 
sney chronicler (pp. 107-8), he procured 
from the king blank charters, sealed by 
various English prelates, and filled them up 
at Rome with pledges to pay large sums of 
money to various firms of Florentine and 
Sienese bankers who had advanced money to 
the pope on Henry's account. Most of the 
English bishops and monasteries were con- 
sequently called upon to pay sums of money 
to Italian bankers. Peter seems to have 
procured a blank document dated at London 
on 6 Sept. 1255, with the seals of seven 
English bishops, and to have subsequently 

inscribed in it words making it appear that 
the bishops had witnessed and consented to 
Peter's acceptance, as their proctor, of the 
conditions attaching to the papal grant of 
Apulia to the English king (MURATORI, An- 
tiquitates ItaL vol. vi. col. 104 D). This 
seems to have been interpreted by Henry as 
pledging the credit of the English clergy to 
support Edmund's attempt on the Sicilian 
crown, and all the expenses involved in it. 
Paris speaks of Peter's ' foxlike cunning,' and 
says that ' his memory exhales a detestable 
odour of sulphur.' The Osney chronicler 
draws the moral that prelates should keep 
their seals more carefully in the future (cf. 
Dunstaple Chronicle, p. 199 ; WYKES, pp. 
125-7 ; Cont. FLOR. WIG. ii. 185). 

In May 1255 Alexander IV commissioned 
Rustand, a papal subdeacon and native of 
Gascony, to collect the crusading tenth in 
England. His arrival excited a great com- 
motion among the English. In the parlia- 
ment of October 1255 Henry could get no 
money, and Richard of Cornwall violently 
attacked the bishop of Hereford (MATT. 
PARIS, v. 520-1). At the same time the 
prelates met in London, and, headed by 
the bishop of Worcester, resisted Rustand 
and appealed to the pope (ib. v. 524-5). 
Peter strove in vain to divide them (ib. 
v. 527). It was said that he had bound 
the English bishops to pay two hundred 
thousand marks to the pope. Meanwhile, 
Peter crossed over to Ireland, where also 
he was empowered to collect the tenth. He 
travelled armed, and was surrounded by a 
band of armed men (ib. v. 591). Paris adds 
that he took a large share of the spoil as his 
own reward. 

Peter did not remain long in England or 
Ireland. In 1256 he was again in Gascony, 
where he acted as deputy for the new duke, 
Edward. On 17 Jan. 1257 he received a 
letter of thanks from Henry for his services 
in Gascony (Fcedera, i. 353). It appears 
from this that he was conducting important 
negotiations with Alfonso of Castile and with 
Gaston of Bearn. But he was now of pon- 
derous weight, and was moreover attacked 
with a polypus in his nose, which disfigured 
his face. He was compelled to retire to 
Montpellier to be cured. Matthew Paris re- 
joices indecently in the bishop's misfortunes, 
and sees in his ' shameful diseases ' the judg- 
ment of God for his sins (Hist. Major, v. 
647). But either Matthew exaggerated 
Peter's complaints, or the Montpellier doctors 
effected a speedy cure. In the summer of 
1258 Peter was in Savoy, and began his 
foundation at Aiguebelle, which he com- 
pleted several years later. 



Peter was again in England in 1261, when 
he was one of three persons elected on the 
king's part to compromise some disputes with 
the barons (Ann. Osen. p. 129). His past his- 
tory necessarily made him a royalist partisan 
during the barons' wars, and his border dio- 
cese, where the marchers and Llywelyn of 
Wales took opposite sides, was exposed to 
the fiercest outbursts of the strife. Late in 
1262 Llywelyn threatened Hereford, and 
Peter, on the pretext of a fit of the gout, 
kept himself away from danger at Gloucester, 
while providing the castle of Hereford with 
garrison and provisions. In June 1263 Henry 
visited Hereford and wrote angrily to the 
bishop, complaining that he found in that 
city neither bishop, dean, official, nor pre- 
bendaries ; and the letter peremptorily or- 
dered him to take up his residence in his 
cathedral city under pain of forfeiture of 
temporalities (WILKINS, Concilia, i. 761). 
Peter was forced to comply ; but the result 
justified his worst fears. When regular hos- 
tilities had broken out in May 1263 between 
Montfort and the king, he was the very first 
to bear the brunt of the storm. The barons 
swooped down on Hereford, seized him in 
his own cathedral, robbed him of his trea- 
sure, slew his followers, and kept him a close 
prisoner at Eardisley Castle (Liber de An- 
tiquis legibus, p. 53 ; RISHANGEU, p. 17, Rolls 
Ser. ; COTTOX, p. 139). The Savoyard canons 
whom Peter had introduced into the cathe- 
dral shared his fate (Flores Hist. ii. 480). 
Even the royalist chronicler Wykes (p. 134), 
though rebuking the barons for sacrilegiously 
assaulting God's anointed, admits that Peter 
had made himself odious to the realm by his 
intolerable exactions. The marcher lord, 
John Fitzalan of Clun, now seized Peter's 
castles at P>ishop's Castle and Ledbury 
North, and, being on the king's side, was 
enabled to hold them until the bishop's 
death, six years afterward? (Swinfield Roll, 
p. xxii). Moreover, Harno L'Estrange, cas- 
tellan of Montgomery, took violent posses- 
sion of three townships belonging to Led- 
bury North, and alienated them so com- 
pletely from the see that in the next reign 
they still belonged to Llywelyn of Wales. 
As 'both these marches were on the king's 
side, it looks as if Peter was made a scape- 
goat of the royalist party. It is probably 
during his present distress that Peter alien- 
ated all claims to certain churches which he 
had hitherto contested with St. Peter's Ab- 
bey, Gloucester (Hist, et Cart. Mon. Glouc 
ii. 276, 284, Rolls Ser.) 

On 8 Sept. the king and the barons patchec 
up an agreement, and Peter, with his com- 
panions in misfortune, was released (Flores 

Hist. ii. 484 ; RISHANGER, De Hello, p. 14). 
Before the year was out he accompanied 
lenry III to await the arbitration of St. 
Louis at Amiens (Flores Hist. ii. 486 ; RISH- 
ANGER, De Bello, p. 17 ; Ann. Tewkesbury, 
)p. 176, 179). After the mise of Amiens he 
still lingered on the continent, being dis- 
gusted with his unruly diocese, whose tem- 
soralities were still largely withdrawn from 
iis control. In February 1264 he obtained 
from the pope an indulgence that, in con- 
sideration of his imprisonment and the other 
11s he had suffered ' at the hands of certain 
sons of malediction,' he should not be cited 
before any ordinary judge or papal legate 
without special mandate (Boss, i. 410). 
After the battle of Lewes he was with Queen 
Eleanor and the exiles at Saint-Omer, hoping 
to effect an invasion of England ('Ann. 
Lond.' in STUBBS'S Chron. of Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 64, Rolls Ser.) 

Before the final triumph of the royalist 
cause, Peter retired to Savoy, and never left 
again his native valleys. He had always 
kept up a close connection with his old home. 
Besides his ancestral estates he had acquired 
some ecclesiastical preferment in Savoy. Up 
to 1254 he held the Cluniac priory of Ynimont 
in the diocese of Belley, which in May 1255 
he exchanged for the priory of Sainte-Helene 
des Millieres (Buss, i. 301). On 7 Sept. 
1255 Boniface granted to the new prior the 
castle of Sainte-Helene, to be held of him 

a fief. 

It was now that Peter published the 
statutes for his college of canons near Aigue- 
belle, and completed the construction of the 
buildings destined to receive it. He dedi- 
cated his foundation to St. Catherine, and 
established in it a provost, precentor, trea- 
surer, and ten other canons, five of whom 
were necessarily priests, and who were to 
perform the service according to the use of 
Hereford. The statutes, dated 21 April 

1267. were published for the first time by 
M. Mugnier (pp. 299-307), who points out 
(p. 233) that Peter pointedly abstained from 
obtaining the sanction or recognition of his 
acts from the bishop of Maurienne, the dio- 
cesan. Soon afterwards he drew up his will. 
To his nephew, Peter of Aigueblanche who 
had succeeded to the lordship of BrianQonand 
the headship of the house, and was at a later 
period the favourite friend of Peter of Savoy- 
he left nearly all the property that was not 
bequeathed to the college of St. Catherine. 
The witnesses to the will included several 
canons of St. Catherine's. He died on 27 Nov. 

1268, and was buried, as he had directed, in 
his collegiate church, where, in the fifteenth 
century, a sumptuous monument of bronze 


6 4 


was erected over his remains. The monu- 
ment and great part of the church were de- 
stroyed during the French Revolution. It is 
described and partly figured in'Archseologia,' 
xviii. 188. The surviving portion forms the 
present church of Raudens. 

Despite Peter's evil reputation, he gave 
proof of liberality not only at Aiguebelle, 
but also at Hereford, where he was a liberal 
benefactor of the cathedral. If he packed 
the chapter with his kinsfolk, he showed zeal 
in forcing non-resident canons to reside for 
half the year in the churches where they held 
a prebend, and in making them proceed to the 
grade of holy orders necessary for their charge. 
In 1246 his new statutes on these points 
duly received papal confirmation (Buss, 
i. 229). He was celebrated in the church of 
Hereford for his long and strenuous defence 
of the liberties of see and chapter against 
* the citizens of Hereford and other rebels 
against the church.' He bought the manor 
of Holme Lacy and gave it to his church, 
appropriated the church of Bocklington to 
the treasurer, gave mitres, and chalice, vest- 
ments and books, and various rents (Mo- 
nasticon, vi. 121 6). Peter also left lands pro- 
ducing two hundred bushels of corn for the 
clerks of the cathedral, and as much for 
the poor of the city. As regards the fabric 
of his church, he is sometimes reputed to be 
the builder of the beautiful north-west tran- 
sept of Hereford Cathedral, though in its 
present form it is clearly of later date. Be- 
tween this and the north end of the choir- 
aisle he erected a sumptuous tomb for him- 
self, which remains the oldest monument to 
a bishop of Hereford, and is certainly the 
most striking monument in the cathedral. 
The delicacy of the details of the sculpture 
is thought to suggest Italian rather than 
English or French models. The bishop is 
represented in the effigy with a beard and 
moustache (HAVERGAL, Fasti Herefordenses, 
pp. 176-7 ; Monumental Inscriptions of Here- 
ford, p. 3). The monument is figured in 
Havergal's ' Fasti Herefordenses,' plate xix. 
It is not clear whether it remained a ceno- 
taph, or whether, after the very common 
custom of the time, some portions of the 
bishop's remains were brought from Savoy 
to be placed within it. It was generally be- 
lieved at Hereford that the body lay there 
and the heart in Savoy; but the reverse 
seems much more likely. 

Bishop Peter's younger kinsfolk were 
amply provided for in his church at Here- 
ford. He appointed one of his nephews, 
John, to the deanery of Hereford. After his 
uncle's death this John claimed his English 
lands as his next heir; but it is not clear 

that he succeeded in England (Calendarium 
Genealogicum, p. 185), though in the Taren- 
taise we find him sharing in the inheri- 
tance with Aimeric, his brother. Another 
claimant, Giles of Avenbury, drove him 
away from the deanery of Hereford. How- 
ever, on an appeal to Rome he was rein- 
stated (Swinfeld Roll, Ixxvii, clxxi, &c.) 
He lies buried at Hereford, in a tomb near 
his uncle's monument. Dean John secured 
for his nephews, Peter and Pontius de Cors, 
the church of Bromyard (ib. ccv), so that 
it was long before the diocese of Hereford 
was rid of the hated ' Burgundians.' An- 
other nephew of the bishop, James of Aigue- 
blanche, was archdeacon of Salop and canon 
of Hereford, and authorised by Innocent IV 
to hold a benefice in plurality so long as 
he resided at Hereford and put vicars in 
his other churches (BLISS, i. 229, cf. p. 232). 
In 1256, however, he was allowed five years' 
leave of absence to study (ib. i. 338). Other 
Hereford stalls went to other nephews, 
Aimon and Aimeric, of whom the latter, 
who became chancellor of Hereford, per- 
formed homage in 1296 to the archbishop 
of Tarentaise for the lordship of Brian^on 
as head of his family (BESSON, Memoires 
pour Vhistoire ecclesiastique des dioceses de 
Geneve, Tarantaise, Maurienne, &c., ed. 1871). 
Nor were the bishop's elder kinsfolk neg- 
lected. His brother, the clerk, named Master 
Aimeric, was in 1243 promised by Henry III 
a benefice worth sixty marks (Roles Gascons. 
i. 152). 

[Fran9ois Mugnier's Les Savoyards en Angle- 
terre au XIII 6 siecle et Pierre d'Aigueblanche 
(Chambery, 1890) is a careful book that collects 
nearly all that is known about Peter's career, 
and gives complete references to the Savoyard 
authorities, and a most valuable appendix of 
inedited documents, though it misses some of 
the English authorities, and does not always 
disentangle Peter's biography from the general 
history. Wurstemberger's Peter der Zweite, Graf 
yon Savoyen (4 vols. Bern, 1856), also contains 
important notices of Peter, and in the fourth 
volume an appendix of original documents, many 
of which illustrate his career. The chief original 
sources include Matthew Paris's Hist. Major, ir. 
v. and vi., Annales Monastic!, FloresHistoriarum, 
Bart. Cotton., Eishanger's Hist. Angl. (all in 
Rolls Ser.) ; Expenses Roll of Bishop Swinneld, 
Rishanger's Chron. de Bello (both in Camden 
Soc.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. ; Berger's Regis- 
tres d'Innocent IV, Bibl. de 1'Ecole francaise 
de Rome ; Potthast's Regesta Pont. Roman. ; 
Epistolae e Reg. pont. Rom. tome iii., in Monu- 
menta Germanise, Hist. ; Bliss's Calendar of 
Papal Registers (papal letters), vol. i. ; Francisque 
Michel's Roles Gascons, in Documents Inedits ; 
Havergal's Fasti Herefordenses ; Le Neve's Fasti 



Eccl. Angl. i. 459-82, ed. Hardy; Godwin, De 
Praesulibus, 1743, pp. 485-6 ; Phillott's Diocesan 
History of Hereford, pp. 76-82.] T. F. T. 

nicler. [See ICKHAM.] 

. 1290?), chro- 

PETER MARTYR (1500-1562), re- 

PETER the WILD BOY (1712-1785), a 

protege of George I, was found in 1725 in 

the woods near Hamelin, about twenty-five 

miles from Hanover. In the words of con- 

temporary pamphleteers, he was observed 

1 walking on his hands and feet, climbing 

trees like a squirrel, and feeding on grass and 

moss.' In November 1725 he was deposited 

in the house of correction at Zell, and in the 

same month he was presented to George I, 

who happened to be on a visit to Hanover. 

The king's interest and curiosity were ex- 

cited ; but the wild boy was not favourably 

impressed, and escaped to his wood and took 

refuge in a lofty tree, which had to be cut 

down before he was recaptured. In the 

spring of 1726, by the king's command, he 

was brought to England and ' exhibited to 

the nobility.' The boy, who appeared to be 

about fourteen years old, was baptised and 

committed to the care of Dr. Arbuthnot ; but 

he soon proved to be an imbecile, and could 

not be taught to articulate more than a few 

monosyllables. In the meantime the cre- 

dulity of the town had been put to a severe 

test. In April there appeared, among various 

chapbooks on the subject, a pamphlet (now 

rare) entitled ' An Enquiry how the Wild 

Youth lately taken in the woods near Han- 

over, and now brought over to England, 

could be there left, and by what creature he 

could be suckled, nursed, and brought up.' 

This work, after demonstrating that the 

phenomenon had been predicted by William 

Lilly a hundred years before, discussed the 

question of the wild boy's nurture, and re- 

jected the claims of the sow and the she-wolf 

in favour of those of a she-bear. Dean Swift 

arrived in London from Ireland about the 

same time that the wild boy came from 

Hanover, and on 16 April 1726 he wrote to 

Tickell that little else was talked about. He 

proceeded to satirise the popular craze in 

one of the most sardonic of his minor pieces, 

' It cannot rain but it pours ; or London 

strewed with Rarities, being an account of 

. . . the wonderful wild man that was 

nursed in the woods of Germany by a wild 

beast, hunted and taken in toils ; how he be- 

haveth himself like a dumb creature, and is 

a Christian like one of us, being called Peter ; 

and how he was brought to the court all in 


green to the great astonishment of the 
quality and gentry.' This was followed at a 
short interval by a squib written in a similar 
vein, and probably the joint production of 
Swift and Arbuthnot, entitled < The Most 
Wonderful Wonder that ever appeared to the 
Wonder of the British Nation' (1726, 4to). 
The topic was further exploited by Defoe in 
' Mere Nature delineated, or a Body with- 
out a Soul, being Observations upon the 
Young Forester lately brought to town with 
suitable applications ' (1726, 8vo). When, 
in 1773, James Burnett, lord Monboddo 
[q. v.], was preparing his ' Origin and Pro- 
gress of Language,' he seized on some of the 
most grotesque features of Swift's description 
of the wild boy, such as that he neighed like a 
horse to express his joy, and pressed them 
into the service of his theory of the lowlv 
origin of the human race. Monboddo's com- 
parison of the wild boy with an ourang- 
outang is extremely ludicrous (Origin and 
Progress of Language, i. 173). As soon as 
the first excitement about Peter had sub- 
sided, and it was established that he was an 
idiot, he was boarded out with a farmer at 
the king's expense. He grew up strong and 
muscular and was able to do manual labour 
under careful supervision ; his intelligence 
remained dormant, but he developed a strong 
liking for gin. In 1782 Monboddo visited 
him at Broadway Farm, near Berkhampstead, 
where he died in August 1785. A portrait 
of the ' Wild Boy,' depicting a handsome old 
man with a white beard, was engraved for 
Caulfield's 'Portraits of Remarkable Per- 
sons.' A manuscript poem on the ' Wild Boy,' 
called 'The Savage/ is among the manu- 
scripts of the Earl of Portsmouth at Hurst- 
bourne (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep., App. 
p. 63). 

[Wilson's Wonderful Characters contains a 
long account of the ' Wild Boy,' with various con- 
temporary descriptions and a portrait. See also 
Timperley's Encyclopaedia of Printing ; Swift's 
Works, ed. Scott ; Granger's Wonderful Museum ; 
Monboddo's Origin and Progress of Language ; 
Arbuthnot's Works, ed. Aitken, pp. 107, 108, 
475 ; William Lee's Defoe, i. li.] T. S. 

PETER, DAVID (1765-1837), inde- 
pendent minister, was born at Aberystwith 
on 5 Aug. 1765. When he was seven years 
old his father, who was a ship carpenter, 
moved to New Quay, Cardiganshire. As a 
boy he showed great quickness of under- 
standing, and when he had studied for some 
time with the Rev. David Davies of Castell 
Hywel, his father, who was a churchman, 
wished him to become a clergyman. He pre- 
ferred, however, to join the independents, and 
became a member of the church at Penrhiw 




Galed in March 1783. Soon after lie com- 
menced to preach, and in the course of a year 
or two, having made a little money by keep- 
ing school, proceeded to the presbyterian 
college, which was then at Swansea. In 
1789 he was appointed assistant-tutor in this 
institution, a position he resigned in 1792, in 
order to take the pastorate of Lammas Street 
church, Carmarthen, where he was ordained 
on 8 June. The college at Swansea was 
broken up in 1794, but in the following year 
it was re-established at Carmarthen, and 
Peter was appointed president. He held this 
office, in conjunction with his pastorate, until 
his death, which took place on 4 May 1837. 
He married, first, the widow of a Mr. Lewis 
of Carmarthen, who died in 1820 ; and, se- 
condly, a sister of General Sir William Nott 
[q. v.] 

Peter translated Palmer's 'Protestant Dis- 
senters' Catechism,' Carmarthen, 1803. But 
he is best known as the author of ' Hanes 
Crefydd yng Nghymru,' Carmarthen, 1816 ; 
second edition, Colwyn, 1851 an account of 
Welsh religion from the times of the Druids 
to the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
The book is one which shows fairly wide 
reading, and it is free from sectarian bias. 
The first edition has prefixed to it an en- 
graved portrait by Blood. 

[Hanes Eglwysi Anibynnol Cymru, by Rees 
and Thomas J J. E. L. 

PETER, WILLIAM (1788-1853), poli- 
tician and poet, born at Harlyn, St. Merryn, 
Cornwall, on 22 March 1788," was the eldest 
son of Henry Peter (d. 1821), who married, on 
24 June 1782, Anna Maria, youngest daughter 
of Thomas Rous of Piercefield, Monmouth- 
shire. He matriculated from Christ Church, 
Oxford, 27 Jan. 1803, and graduated B.A. 
19 March 1807, M. A. 7 Dec. 1809. After living 
for a few years in London, where he was called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 28 May 1813, 
he returned to his native county and settled 
on his property, which had been much aug- 
mented by his marriage. He became a justice 
of the peace and deputy-lieutenant for Corn- 
wall, and was conspicuous among the country 
gentlemen who agitated for electoral reform. 
When the close boroughs in that county were 
abolished by the first Reform Act, he was 
invited to stand for the enlarged constituency 
of Bodmin, and was returned at the head of 
the poll on 11 Dec. 1832. He sat until the 
dissolution of parliament on 29 Dec. 1834; 
but the enthusiasm for reform had then died 
away, and he refrained from contesting the 
constituency. Soon after that date Peter 
retired to the continent, and spent his days 
among his books or in the company of the 

chief men of letters in Germany. In 1840 
he received the appointment of British consul 
in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, where he 
remained until his death. He died at Phila- 
delphia on 6 Feb. 1853, and was buried in 
the churchyard of St. Peter, where a monu- 
ment to his memory was erected at the ex- 
pense of a number of the leading citizens. 
He married, on 12 Jan. 1811, Frances, only 
daughter and heiress of John Thomas of 
Chiverton in Perranzabuloe, Cornwall. She 
died on 21 Aug. 1836, having had issue ten 
children. His second wife, whom he married 
at Philadelphia in 1844, was Mrs. Sarah 
King, daughter of Thomas Worthington of 
Ohio and widow of Edward King, son of 
Rufus King of New York. She is described 
as ' one of the most distinguished women in 
American society,' the founder of a school 
of design for women at Philadelphia. Peter's 
eldest son, John Thomas Henry Peter, fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, died in July 1873. 
The third son, Robert Godolphin Peter, for- 
merly fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, 
became rector of Cavendish, Suffolk. 

Peter ... was the author or editor of: 

1. ' Thoughts on the Present Crisis, in a 
Letter from a Constituent to his Represen- 
tative,' 1815 ; 2nd edit., with considerable 
additions, in the ' Pamphleteer,' viii. 216-80. 

2. ' Speeches of Sir Samuel Romilly in the 
House of Commons,' 1820, 2 vols. ; memoir 
by Peter in vol. i. pp. vii-lxxi. 3. ' Sacred 
Songs, being an attempted Paraphrase or 
Imitation of some Portions and Passages of 
the Psalms, by W. Peter,' 1828 ; new edit., 
with other poems, by l a Layman,' 1834. 
4. ' Poems by Ralph Ferrars (i.e. William 
Peter) ; ' a new edit. London, 1833. 5. ' A 
Letter from an ex-M.P. to his late Consti- 
tuents, containing a Short Review of the 
Acts of the Whig Administration,' 1835 ; 
2nd edit. 1835. 6. < William Tell, from the 
German of Schiller,' with notes and illustra- 
tions, Heidelberg, 1839 ; 2nd edit. Lucerne, 
1867. 7, < Mary Stuart, from the German 
of Schiller,' with other versions of some of 
his best .poems, Heidelberg, 1841 . 8. ' Maid 
of Orleans and other Poems,' Cambridge, 
1843. 9. ' Agamemnon of ./Escliylus,' Phi- 
ladelphia, 1852. 10. 'Specimens of the 
Poets and Poetry of Greece and Rome,' by 
various translators, Philadelphia, 1847. This 
was pronounced ' the most thorough and 
satisfactory popular summary of ancient 
poetry ever made in the English language.' 
11. ' Johannis Gilpin iter, Latine redditum. 
Editio altera,' Philadelphia, 1848. 

Several specimens of Peter's poetical com- 
positions are in Griswold's 'Poets and 
Poetry,' 1875 edit. pp. 240-3, and someremi- 




niscences of his native parish are in the 
1 Complete Parochial History of Cornwall,' 
iii. 321. There was printed at Philadelphia, 
in 1842, a volume of letters to him from 
Job R. Tyson on the 'resources and com- 
merce of Philadelphia, with Mr. Peter's 
answer prefixed.' 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Allibone's Diet, of 
English Literature ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. 
Cornub. ii. 463-4, 1310 ; Boase's Collect. Cornub. 

. 724-5 ; Gent. Mag. 1853, pt. i. pp. 441-2 ; 

rs. S. J. Bale's Woman's Record, 2nd edit. 
pp. 870-1 ; Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, iv. 
54-9.] W. P. C. 

MORDATJNT, HESTRY, second EARL, 1624?- 
1697 ; MORDAUNT, CHARLES, third EARL, 

(d. 1193), reputed chronicler. [See BENE- 

alleged chronicler. [See JOHN.] 


1846), miscellaneous writer, was born on 

23 March 1780, at Macduff, Banffshire, of 

which his father, William Peterkin, was 

parish minister. His father was translated to 

Lea dhills, Lanarkshire, in 1785, and in 1787 

to Ecclesmachan, West Lothian, where he 

died in 1792. Alexander's education, begun 

at the parish school, was completed in Edin- 

burgh, and he closed his university curricu- 

lum as a law student in 1803. In this year 

he was enrolled in the first regiment of royal 

Edinburgh volunteers, feeling with Scott and 

others that the time needed a strong civilian 

army. After a full training in the office of a 

writer to the signet, Peterkin was duly quali- 

fied as a solicitor before the supreme courts 

(S. S. C.), and he began his professional career 

at Peterhead before 1811 as 'attorney, notary 

public, and conveyancer.' He was sheriff- 

substitute of Orkney from 1814 to 1823, 

when he returned to Edinburgh. For some 

years he combined journalism with his legal 

work ; he was connected with newspapers in 

Belfast and Perth, and in 1833 he became 

editor of the ' Kelso Chronicle.' He was a 

strenuous and unsparing controversialist, 

and, as ' a whig of 1688,' faced, with indo- 

mitable courage and energy, the exciting 

questions of the time. In those days horse- 

whips, duels, and riots tended to supplement 

the animosities of political discussion, and 

Pet erkin had occasion to test the advantages 

accruing from a splendid physique and a 

military training. He left the ' Kelso Chro- 

nicle ' on 27 May 1835. In his later years 
le was known as a leading ecclesiastical 
awyer, while still devoting his leisure to 
iterary work. He died at Edinburgh on 
9 Nov. 1846. Peterkin married in 1807 Miss 
jriles, daughter of an Edinburgh citizen, by 
whom he had two sons and five daughters. 
A lover of literature for its own sake, 
3 eterkin numbered among his friends Scott, 
Jeffrey, Wilson, and the leading contem- 
porary men of letters in Edinburgh. He 
was a vigorous and lucid writer, his earlier 
nanner being somewhat florid, and his po- 
emical thrusts occasionally more forcible 
than polite. His writings on Orkney and 
Shetland may be consulted with advantage, 
and his learned and systematic ' Booke of the 
[Jniversall Kirk ' has a distinctly authorita- 
tive value. 

Besides numerous pamphlets, miscel- 
laneous papers in many periodicals, and an 
anonymous tale of Scottish life, ' The Parson- 
age, or my Father's Fireside,' Peterkin pub- 
lished : 1. 'The Rentals of Orkney,' 1820. 

2. 'Notes on Orkney and Zetland/ 1822. 

3. ' Letter to the Landowners, Clergy, and 
other Gentlemen of Orkney and Zetland,' 
1823. 4. 'Scottish Peerage,' 1826. 5. 'Com- 
pendium of the Laws of the Church,' pt. i. 
1830, pt.ii. 1831, supplement 1836. 6. ' Me- 
moir of the Rev. John Johnston, Edinburgh,' 
1834. 7. ' The Booke of the Universall Kirk 
of Scotland,' 1839. 8. ' The Constitution of 
the Church of Scotland as established at the 
Revolution, 1689-90,' 1841. All were pub- 
lished at Edinburgh. Peterkin also edited 
Graham's ' Sabbath,' with biography, 1807 ; 
Robert Fergusson's 'Poems, 'with biography, 
1807-9, reprinted 1810; Currie's 'Life of 
Burns,' with prefatory critical review, 
1815; and ' Records of the Kirk of Scotland,' 

(1814-1889), was successively editor of the 
'Berwick Advertiser,' sub-editor of the 
'Edinburgh Advertiser,' and on the staff 
of the London ' Times,' from which he re- 
tired about 1853, owing to uncertain health. 
He published a poem, 'The Study of Art,' 

[Information from Peterkin's second son, Mr. 
W A Peterkin, Trinity, Edinburgh, and from 
Mr. Thomas Craig, Kelso ; Scott's Fasti Eccles.; 
Cursiter's Books and Pamphlets relating to Ork- 
ney and Zetland.] T - B - 


1746) phvsician, son of John Peters of Lon- 
don, was born in 1695. He matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford on 31 March 1710, 
graduatedB. A. in 1713 and M. A. not till 1 / 24. 




Dr. Richard Mead [q. v.] encouraged him t 
study medicine, and lent him a copy of the rare 
editio princeps, printed at Verona in 1530, o 
that Latin poem of Hieronymus Frascatoriu, 
entitled ' Syphilis,' which has provided a scien 
tific name for a long series of pathologica 
phenomena. Peters published an edition o 
' Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus ' in 1720. Ii 
is a quarto finely printed by Jonah Bowyei 
at the Rose in St. Paul's Churchyard, am 
has a portrait of Frascatorius engraved b] 
Vertue for frontispiece. The contents of thi 
dedication to Mead indicate that the mind o 
the editor was more occupied with literary 
than with scientific questions, for the only 
allusion he makes to the contents of the 
poem is to offer emendations of three lines 
(bk. ii. ver. 199 and 428 and bk. iii. ver. 41) 
He is said to have graduated M.D. at Leyden 
in 1724, but his name does not appear in 
Peacock's ' Index.' He was elected a Rad- 
cliffe travelling fellow on 12 July 1725, and 
graduated M.B. and M.D. at Oxford on 8 Nov. 
1732. In 1733 he was appointed physician- 
extraordinary to the king, and was elected a 
fellow of the College of Physicians of London 
on 16 April 1739, in which year he was also 
appointed physician-general to the army. He 
was physician to St. George's Hospital from 
April 1736 to February 1746, and was a censor 
in the College of Physicians in 1744 ; but illness 
prevented him from serving his full period. He 
published in the ' Philosophical Transactions' 
(vol. xliii.) in 1744-5, ' The Case of a Person bit 
by a Mad Dog,' a paper on hydrophobia, in 
which he expresses a favourable opinion as 
to the usefulness of warm baths in that 
disease. He died in 1746. There are two 
letters in his hand to Sir Hans Sloane in the 
British Museum referring to his fellowship. 

[Manuscript notes on the Radcliffe Travelling 
Fellows by Dr. J. B. Nias, kindly lent by the 
author; Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 143 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.; London Magazine, 1746, p. 209; 
Gent. Mag. 1746, p. 273; Works; Addit. MS. 
4055, ff. 136, 137, in Brit. Mus.] N. M. 

PETERS, CHARLES (1690-1774), He- 
brew scholar, born at Tregony, Cornwall, on 
1 Dec. 1690, was the eldest child of Richard 
Peters of that place. The statement in the 
< Parochial History of Cornwall ' (iii. 203-4), 
that his ancestor was an Antwerp merchant 
who fled to England to escape persecution, 
may be dismissed from consideration. He 
was educated at Tregony school under Mr. 
Daddo, and matriculated from Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 3 April 1707, graduating 
B.A. 27 Oct. 1710, M.A. 5 June 1713, and 
being a batteler of his college from 8 April 
1707 to 20 July 1713. Having been ordained 

in the English church, he was curate of St. 
Just in Roseland, Cornwall, from 1710 to 
1715, when he was appointed by Elizabeth, 
baroness Mohun, to the rectory of Boconnoc 
in that county. He remained there until 
1723, and during his incumbency built the 
south front of the old parsonage-house, with 
the apartments behind it, On 10 Dec. 1723 
Peters was instituted to the rectory of Brat- 
ton-Clovelly, Devonshire, and in November 
1726 was appointed to the rectory of St. 
Mabyn in his native county, holding both 
preferments until his death. To the poor of 
St. Mabyn he was very charitable ; and, being 
himself unmarried, he educated the two 
eldest sons of his elder brother. He died at 
St. Mabyn on 11 Feb. 1774, and was buried 
in the chancel of the parish church on 13 Feb. 
A portrait of him in oils belonged to Arthur 
Cowper Ranyard [q. v.] 

Peters knew Hebrew well (by the en- 
thusiastic Polwhele he was called l the first 
Hebrew scholar in Europe '), and at St. 
Mabyn he was able to pursue his studies 
without interruption. In 1751 he published 1 
' A Critical Dissertation on the Book of Job/ 
wherein he criticised Warburton's account, 
proved the book's antiquity, and demon- 
strated that a future state was the popular 
belief of the ancient Jews or Hebrews. A 
second edition, corrected and with a lengthy 
preface of ninety pages, appeared in 1757 ;. 
the preface was also issued separately. War- 
burton, in the notes to the ' Divine Legation 
of Moses,' always wrote contemptuously of 
Peters. The retort of Bishop Lowth in the 
latter's behalf, in his printed letter to War- 
burton (1765), was that 'the very learned 
and ingenious person,' Mr. Peters, had given, 
iis antagonist ' a Cornish hug,' from which 
ae would be sore as long as he lived. Peters 
3ublished in 1760 'An Appendix to the 
Critical Dissertation on Job, giving a Fur- 
ther Account of the Book of Ecclesiastes/ 
with a reply to some of Warburton's notes ; 
and in 1765 he was putting the finishing 
;ouches to a more elaborate reply, which was 
never published, but descended to his nephew 
with his other manuscripts. 

After the death of Peters, in accordance- 
with his desire expressed two years pre- 
viously a volume of his sermons was printed 
n 1776 by his nephew Jonathan, vicar of St. 
Element, near Truro. Some extracts from 
he private prayers, meditations, and letters 
>f Peters are in Polwhele's 'Biographical 
Sketches ' (i. app. pp. 17-28). 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 464-5, 
74-5 ; Boase's Collectanea Cornub. p. 727 ; 
Boase's Exeter Coll. Commoners, p. 250 ; Ni- 
hols's Lit. Illustrations, viii. 633 ; Polwhele's 


6 9 


Biogr. Sketches, i. 71-5 ; Gent. Mag. 1795, pt. ii 
p. 1085 ; Lowth's Letter to Author of Divine 
Legation, pp. 23-4.] W. P. C. 

1660), independent divine, baptised on 
29 June 1598, was younger son of Thomas 
Dyck woode alias Peters, and Martha, daugh- 
ter of John Treffry of Treffry, Cornwall 
(BoASE, Bibl. Cornub. ii. 465, iii. 1310). Con- 
temporaries usually styled him ' Peters ; ' he 
signs himself * Peter.' His elder brother 
Thomas is noticed separately. At the age 
of fourteen he was sent to Cambridge, where 
lie graduated B. A. in 1617-18 as a member of 
Trinity College, and M. A. in 1622 (GAEDINEE, 
Great Civil War,'\i. 323). A sermon which 
he heard at St. Paul's about 1620 struck him 
with the sense of his sinful estate, and another 
.sermon, supplemented by the labours of Tho- 
mas Hooker, perfected his conversion. For a 
time he lived and preached in Essex, marry- 
ing there, about 1624, Elizabeth, widow of 
Edmund Read of Wickford, and daughter of 
Thomas Cooke of Pebmarsh in the same 
county (A Dying Father's Legacy, 1660, p. 
99 ; Bibl. Cornub. iii. 1310). This marriage 
connected him with the Winthrop family, 
for Edmund Read's daughter Elizabeth was 
the wife of John Winthrop the younger. 

Peters returned to London to complete his 
theological studies, attended the sermons of 
Sibbes, Gouge, and Davenport, and preached 
occasionally himself. Having been licensed 
and ordained by Bishop Montaigne of Lon- 
don, he was appointed lecturer at St. 
Sepulchre's. ' At this lecture/ he says, ' the 
resort grew so great that it contracted envy 
and anger, though I believe above an hun- 
dred every week were persuaded from sin to 
Christ' (Legacy, p. 100). In addition to 
this, Peters became concerned in the work 
of the puritan feoffees for the purchase of 
impropriations. He was suspected of hetero- 
doxy, and on 17 Aug. 1627 subscribed a sub- 
mission and protestation addressed to 'the 
bishop of London, setting forth his adhesion 
to the doctrine and discipline of the English 
government, and his acceptance of episcopal 
government (PRYNNE, Fresh Discovery of 
Prodigious Wandering Stars, 1645, p. 33). 
But, according to his own account, he ' would 
not conform to all,' and he thought it better 
to leave England and settle in Holland. His 
departure seems to have taken place about 
1629 (A Dying Father's Last Legacy, p. 100) : 
In Holland Peters made the acquaintance 
of John Forbes, a noted presby terian divine, 
with whom he travelled into Germany to see 
Gustavus Adolphus, and of Sir Edward 
Harwood, an English commander in the 
Dutch service, who fell at the siege of Maes- 

tricht m 1632. It seems probable that Peters 
wasHarwood's chaplain (Harleian Miscel- 
lany, iv. 271 ; PETERS, Last Report of the 
English Wars, 1646, p. 14). About 1632 
or possibly earlier, he became minister of the 
English church at Rotterdam. Sir William 
Brereton (1604-1661) [q.v.J, who visited 
Rotterdam in 1634, describes Peters as < a 
right zealous and worthy man/ and states 
that he was paid a salary of five thousand 
guilders by the Dutch government (Travels 
of Sir William Brereton, Chetham Soc. 1844, 
pp. 6, 10, 11, 24). Under the influence of 
their pastor the church speedily progressed 
towards the principles of the independents, 
and Peters was encouraged in his adoption 
of those views by the approbation of his col- 
league, the learned William Ames (1571- 
1633) [q. v.], who told him ' that if there 
were a way of public worship in the world 
that God would own, it was that ' (Last Re- 
port, p. 14). Peters preached the funeral 
sermon of Ames, and had a hand in the pub- 
lication of his posthumous treatise, entitled 
' A Fresh Suit against Roman Ceremonies ' 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1631-3 p. 213, 
1634 pp. 279, 413). 

The English government, at the instiga- 
tion of Archbishop Laud, was at this time 
engaged in endeavouring to induce the Bri- 
tish churches in Holland to conform to the 
doctrine and ceremonies of the Anglican 
church, and its attention was called to the 
conduct of Peters by the informations given 
by John Paget and Stephen Gofie to the Eng- 
lish ambassador. He had drawn up a church 
covenant of fifteen articles for the accept- 
ance of the members of his congregation, 
and showed by his example that he thought 
it lawful to communicate with the Brownists 
in their worship. In consequence of these 
complaints and disputes, Peters made up his 
mind to leave Holland for New England 
'HANBURY, Historical Memorials relating to 
the Independents, i. 534, ii. 242, 309, 372, iii. 
139; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633-4, p. 
318, 1635, p. 28; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
6394, ff. 128, 146). 

As far back as 1628 Peters had become 
connected with the Massachusetts patentees, 
and on 30 May 1628 had signed their in- 
structions to John Endecott (HuTCnmsoN, 
History of Massachusetts Bay, 1765, i. 9) . His 
relationship with John Winthrop supplied 
an additional motive for emigration, and he 
also states that many of his acquaintance 
when going for New England had engaged 
him to come to them when they sent for him 
(Last Legacy, p. 101). Accordingly, evading 
with some difficulty the attempt of the Eng- 
ish government to arrest him on his way 



from Holland, Peters arrived at Boston in 
October 1635 (Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 5th ser. 
i. 211). 

On 3 March 1635-6 he was admitted a 
freeman of Massachusetts, and on 21 Dec. 
following was established as minister of the 
church at Salem. From the very first he 
took a prominent part in all the affairs of the 
colony. He began by arranging, in conjunc- 
tion with Henry Vane, a meeting between 
Dudley and "Winthrop, in order to effect a 
reconciliation between them. His own views, 
as well as his connection with the Winthrop 
family, led him usually to act in harmony 
with Winthrop. In ecclesiastical matters 
Peters was at this time less liberal than he 
subsequently became. He disapproved of 
the favour which Vane as governor showed 
to Mrs. Hutchinson, and publicly rebuked 
him for seeking to restrain the deliberations 
of the clergy, telling him to consider his 
youth and short experience of the things of 
God (WINTHROP, History of New England, 
ed. Savage, i. 202, 211, 249, 446). At the 
trial of Mrs. Hutchinson in November 1637, 
Peters was one of the chief accusers, and 
endeavoured to browbeat a witness who 
spoke in her favour (HUTCHINSON, History 
of Massachusetts Bay, 1765, ii. 490, 503, 519). 
He also maintained orthodoxy and eccle- 
siastical authority by excommunicating Roger 
Williams and others, and utilised the execu- 
tion of one of his flock to warn the spectators 
to take heed of revelations and to respect the 
ordinance of excommunication (ib. i. 420; 
WINTHROP, i. 336). More to his credit were 
his successful endeavours to appease the dis- 
sensions of the church at Piscataqua, and his 
indefatigable zeal in preaching (ib. i. 222, 225, 
ii. 34; Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 3rd ser. iii. 106). 
Under his ministry the church at Salem and 
the whole community increased in numbers 
and prosperity (ib. 1st ser. vi. 250). 

Ecclesiastical duties, however, occupied 
only a portion of the time and energy of 
Peters. He interested himself in the founda- 
tion of the new colony at the mouth of the 
Connecticut, and endeavoured to reconcile 
the disputes between the English settlers 
there and the Dutch (WINTHROP, ii. 32). 
Influenced by what he had seen in Holland, 
he made the economic development of the 
colony his special care. In one of his first 
sermons at Boston he urged the government 
4 to take order for employment of people 
(especially women and children) in the 
winter time, for he feared that idleness 
would be the ruin of both church and 
commonwealth.' He went from place to 

Slace ' labouring to raise up men to a public 
:ame of spirit/ till he obtained subscrip- 

tions sufficient to set on foot the fishing 
business. And * being a man of a very pub- 
lic spirit and singular activity for all occa- 
sions,' he procured others to join him in 
building a ship, in order that the colonists 
might be induced by his example to provide 
shipping of their own. On another occasion, 
when the colony was in distress for provi- 
sions, Peters bought the whole lading of a 
ship and resold it to the different commu- 
nities, according to their needs, at a much 
lower rate than they could have purchased 
it from the merchants (ib. i. 210, 221, 222, 
ii, 29). 

In 1641 the fortunes of the colony were 
greatly affected by the changed situation in 
England. The stream of emigration stopped, 
trade decreased, and it was thought neces- 
sary to send three agents to England who 
should represent the case of the colony to 
its creditors, and appeal to its friends for 
continued support. Peters was selected as 
one of these agents, in spite of the opposi- 
tion of Endecott. They were also charged 
'to be ready to make use of any oppor- 
tunity God should offer for the good of the 
country here, as also to give any advice 
as it should be required for the settling 
the right form of church discipline there/ 
With this combined ecclesiastical and com- 
mercial mission Peters left New England in 
August 1641 (ib. ii. 30, 37). He succeeded 
in sending back commodities to the value of 
500/. for the colony ; but finding the fulfil- 
ment of his mission obstructed by the dis- 
tractions of the time, and his own means 
running short, Peters accepted the post of 
chaplain to the forces raised by the adven- 
turers for the reduction of Ireland. From 
June to September 1642 he served in the 
abortive expedition commanded by Alex- 
ander, lord Forbes, and wrote an account of 
their proceedings (*A True Relation of the 
Passages of God's Providence in a Voyage 
for Ireland . . . wherein every day's work 
is set down faithfully by H. P., an eye-wit- 
ness thereof,' 4to, 1642 ; cf. CARTE, Ormond, 
ii. 315 ; WHITELOCKE, Memorials, iii. 105). 
On his return to England Peters speedily 
became prominent in controversy, war, and 
politics. He preached against Laud at Lam- 
beth, spoke disrespectfully of him during 
his trial, and was said to have proposed 
that the archbishop should be punished 
by transportation to New England (LAUD, 
Works, iv. 21, 66; PRYNNE, Canterburies 
Doom, 1646, p. 56 ; A Copy of the Petition 
. . . by the Archbishop of Canterbury . . . 
wherein the said Archbishop desires that he 
may not be transported beyond the seas into 
New England with Master Peters, 4to, 1642). 



He published, with a preface of his own, a 
vindication of the practices of the indepen- 
dents of New England, written by Richard 
Mather [q. v.], but frequently attributed to 
Peters himself (' Church Government and 
Church Covenant discussed in an Answer of 
the Elders of the several Churches in New 
England to Two-and-thirty Questions,' 4to, 
1643). In September 1643 the committee 
of safety employed Peters on a mission to 
Holland, there to borrow money on behalf 
of the parliament, and to explain the justice 
of its cause to the Dutch (Cal. Clarendon 
Papers, i. 244). As a preacher, however, he 
was more valuable than as a diplomatist, and 
his sermons were very effective in winning 
recruits to the parliamentary army (Er- 
WAKDS, Gangrcena, iii. 77). He also became 
famous as an exhorter at the executions of 
state criminals, attended Richard Challoner 
on the scaffold, and improved the opportunity 
when Sir John Hotham was beheaded (Rusir- 
WOETH, v. 328, 804). But it was as an army 
chaplain that Peters exerted the widest in- 
fluence. In May 1644 he accompanied the 
Earl of Warwick in his naval expedition for 
the relief of Lyme, preached a thanksgiving 
sermon in the church there after its accom- 
plishment, and was commissioned by Warwick 
to represent the state of the west and the 
needs of the forces there to the attention of 
parliament (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644, 
pp. 266, 271). This was the prelude to greater 
services of the same nature rendered to Fair- 
fax and the new model. As chaplain, Peters 
took a prominent part in the campaigns of 
that army during 1645 and 1646. Whenever 
a town was to be assaulted, it was his busi- 
ness to preach a preparatory sermon to the 
storming parties : and at Bridgwater, Bristol, 
and Dartmouth his eloquence was credited 
with a share in inspiring the soldiers (SPEIGGE, 
Anglia JRediviva, pp. 77, 102, 180 ; VICARS, 
Burning Bush, 1646, p. 198). After a victory 
he was equally effective in persuading the 
populace of the justice of the parliamentary 
arms, and con verting neutrals into supporters. 
During the siege of Bristol he made converts 
of five thousand clubmen ; and when Fair- 
fax's army entered Cornwall, his despatches 
specially mentioned the usefulness of Peters 
in persuading his countrymen to submission 
(SPRIGGE, p. 229 ; Cal. State Papers. Dom. 
1645-7, p. 128; Master Peter's Message from 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, 4to, 1645). 
. In addition to his duties as a chaplain, 
Peters exercised the functions of a confidential 
agent of the general and of a war correspon- 
dent. Fairfax habitually employed him to 
represent to the parliament the condition of 
his army, the motives which determined his 

movements, and the details of his successes. 
His relations of battles and sieges were eagerly 
read, and formed a semi-official supplement 
to the general's own reports. Cromwell fol- 
lowed the example of Fairfax, and on his behalf 
Peters delivered to the House of Commons 
narratives of the capture of Winchester and 
the sack of Basing House (SPRIGGE, Anglia 
Rediviva, pp. 141-4, 150-3). It was a fitting 
tribute to his position and his services that 
he was selected to preach, on 2 April 1646, 
the thanksgiving sermon for the recovery of 
the west before the two houses of parliament 
(' God's Doings and Man's Duty,' 4to, 1646). 
Here, as elsewhere in his sermons, he 
handled the political and social questions of 
the moment with an outspoken courage and 
sometimes a rough eloquence which explain 
his popularity as a preacher. He pleaded 
for more charity between the sects, for less 
bitterness in theological controversy, and for 
more energy in the reform of abuses and social 
evils. Among the independents his influence 
was great, and he was styled by one of his 
opponents l the vicar-general and metropoli- 
tan of the independents both in Old and New 
England' (EDWARDS, Gangrcena, ii. 61). But 
moderate men among his old friends in New 
England held that he gave too much coun- 
tenance to the extremer sects (Massachusetts 
Hist. Soc. Coll 4th ser. viii. 277). The pres- 
byterians generally regarded him with the 
strongest aversion. 'All here,' wrote Baillie 
in 1644, 'take him for a very imprudent and 
temerarious man ' (Letters, ed. Laing, ii. 
165). Thomas Edwards eagerly scrutinised 
his sermons for proofs of heresy, and proved 
without difficulty that they contained expres- 
sions against the Scots, the covenant, and the 
king ; and even independents like St. John 
were shocked by some specimens of his pulpit 
humour (Gangrcena, iii. 120-7 ; Thurloe 
Papers, i. 75). No one advocated toleration 
more strongly than Peters, but his arguments 
were rather those of a social reformer than a 
divine. He regarded doctrinal differences 
as of slight importance, suggested that if 
ministers of different views dined oftener 
together their mutual animosities would dis- 
appear, and that if the state would punish 
every one who spoke against either presby- 
tery or independency, till they could define 
the terms aright, a lasting religious peace 
might be established (PETERS, Last Re- 
port of the English Wars, 1646, 4to, pp. 7-8). 
In the same pamphlet, which was derisively 
termed ' Mr. Peter's Politics,' he set forth his 
political views. Now that the war was 
over, a close alliance should be made with 
foreign protestants, and at home the refor- 
mation of the law, the development of trade, 



and the propagation of the gospel should be 
vigorously taken in hand (ib. pp. 8-13). He 
added in a vindication of the army, published 
in the following year, a list of twenty neces- 
sary political and social reforms (A Word 
for the Army, 1647 ; Harleian Miscellany, 
v. 607). 

During the quarrel between the army and 
the parliament, Peters acted throughout with 
the former, preached often at its headquar- 
ters, and vigorously defended its actions. He 
protested on his trial that he had not been 

6 ivy to the intended seizure of the king at 
olmty, nor taken part in any of the army's 
councilo. In June 1647 he had an interview 
with Charles at Newmarket, and was favour- 
ably received by Charles, who was reported 
to have said ' that he had often heard talk of 
him, but did not believe he had that solidity 
in him he found by his discourses.' Subse- 
quently he had access to the^ king at Wind- 
sor, and, according to his own statement, pro- 
pounded to his majesty three ways to pre- 
serve himself from danger (RusHWORTH, 
Historical Collections, vi. 578, vii. 815, 943 ; 
Last Legacy, p. 103 ; Trial of the Regicides, 
p. 173 ; A Conference between the King's Most 
Excellent Majesty and Mr. Peters at New- 
market, 4to, 1647). 

When the second civil war broke out, 
Peters took the field again, and did good 
service at the siege of Pembroke in procuring 
guns for the besiegers (Cromwelliana, p. 40). 
He also helped to raise troops in the Mid- 
land counties, and negotiated, on behalf of 
Lord Grey of Groby, for the surrender of the 
Duke of Hamilton at Uttoxeter. In New 
England it was commonly reported that 
Peters himself had captured Hamilton ( The 
Northern Intelligencer, 1648, 4to ; BTJRNET, 
Lives of the Dukes of Hamilton, ed. 1852, pp. 
491-3 ; WINTHROP, ii. 436). 

Rumour also credited him with a share in 
drawing up the ' Army Remonstrance' of 
20 Nov. 1648, and Lilburne terms him the 
'grand journey-man or hackney-man of the 
army.' In the discussions on the * agreement 
of the people ' he spoke on the necessity of 
toleration, quoted the example of Holland, 
and urged the officers to ' tame that old 
spirit of domination among Christians ' which 
was the source of so much persecution (GARDI- 
NER, Great Civil War, iv. 236; Clarke Papers, 
ii. 89, 259). The royalist newspapers repre- 
sented Peters as one of the instigators of the 
king's trial and execution, which he denied 
himself in his post-Restoration apologies ; but 
his sermons during the trial, as was proved 
by several witnesses, justified the sentence 
of the court. In one of them he took for his 
text the words ( To bind their kings in chains 

and their nobles with fetters of iron,' and 
applied to Charles the denunciation of the 
king of Babylon in Isaiah xiv. 18-20 (ib. ii. 
30 ; GARDINER, iv. 304, 314 ; Trial of the 
Regicides, pp. 170). In like manner Peters 
was credited with a part in contriving ' Pride's 
Purge,' though all he did was to release two 
of the imprisoned members by Fairfax's 
order, and to answer the inquiries of the rest 
as to the authority by which they were de- 
tained with the words ' By the power of the 
sword ' (GARDINER, iv. 272). Towards in- 
dividual royalists Peters often showed great 
kindness, and at his trial in 1660 he was able 
to produce certificates from the Earl of Nor- 
wich and the Marquis of Worcester express- 
ing their thanks for his services to them. At 
Hamilton's trial, also in March 1649, Peters 
was one of the witnesses on behalf of the duke 
(Trial of the Regicides, p. 173 ; BURNET, p. 

The establishment of the republic and the 
end of the war seemed to set Peters free to 
return to New England, and at intervals 
since 1645 he had announced to "Winthrop 
his intention of embarking as soon as possible. 
His wife had been despatched thither in 
1645. ' My spirit,' he wrote in May 1647, 
1 these two or three years hath been restless 
about my stay here, and nothing under 
heaven but the especial hand of the Lord 
could stay me ; I pray assure all the country 
so.' At one time, however, illness, at an- 
other the necessity of first disposing of his 
property in England, at others the state of 
public affairs, prevented his departure (Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. vi. 108, 110, 112). He 
was also detained by the wish to assist in the 
reconquest of Ireland,whither he accompanied 
Cromwell in August 1649. Peters landed at 
Dublin on 30 Aug., having been entrusted by 
the general with the charge of bringing up 
the stragglers left behind at Milford Haven 
(GARDINER, History of the Commonwealth and 
Protectorate, i. 119). He was one of the first 
to announce the fall of Drogheda to the parlia- 
ment, was present at the capture of Wexford, 
and returned again to England in October to 
superintend the forwarding of reinforcements 
and supplies. Cromwell even commissioned 
him to raise a regiment of foot for service in 
Ireland, but that project seems to have fallen 
through, owing to the illness of Peters him- 
self, and to some difficulties raised by the 
council of state (GILBERT, Aphorismical Dis- 
covery, ii. 262; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1649-50, pp. 349, 390, 432; YONGE, Eng- 
land's Shame, 1663, p. 75). Peters remained 
in South Wales during the spring of 1650, 
employed in business connected with the ex- 
pedition, and in persuading the Welsh to 




take the engagement of adherence to the par- 
liament (Cromwelliana, pp. 75, 81 ; WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, iii. 166). He took no part 
in the expedition to Scotland, but seems to 
have been present at the battle of Worces- 
ter, and exhorted the assembled militia regi- 
ments on the significance of their victory 
(GAKDINEK, History of the Commonwealth, 
i. 445). According to the story which he 
subsequently told to Ludlow, he perceived 
that Cromwell was excessively elevated by 
his triumph, and predicted to a friend that 
he would make himself king (LTJDLOW, Me- 
moirs, ed. 1894, ii. 9). 

The fortunes of Peters were now at their 
zenith. On 28 Nov. 1646 parliament had 
conferred upon him by ordinance a grant of 
2007. per annum out of the forfeited estates of 
the Marquis of Worcester, and he had also 
been given in 1644 the library of Archbishop 
Laud (Lords 1 Journals, viii. 582; Last Legacy, 
p. 104). According to his own statement, 
however, what he had received was simply 
a portion of Laud's private library, worth 
about 1407. (ib.) When John Owen accom- 
panied Cromwell to Scotland as his chaplain, 
Peters was made one of the chaplains of the 
council of state in his place (17 Dec. 1650), 
and subsequently became permanently esta- 
blished as one of the preachers at Whitehall, 
with lodgings there and a salary of 2007. a 
year (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650 p. 472, 
1651 p. 72, 1651-2 pp. 9, 56). Friends from 
New England who visited him there were 
struck by his activity and his influence. ' I 
was merry with him, and called him the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in regard of his atten- 
dance of ministers and gentlemen, and it 
passed very well,' wrote William Coddington 
(Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. vii. 281). To 
Roger Williams Peters explained that his 
prosperity was more apparent than real, and 
confided the distress caused him by the in- 
sanity of his wife and its effect on his public 
life. l He told me that his affliction from his 
wife stirred him up to action abroad; and 
when success tempted him to pride, the bitter- 
ness in his bosom comforts was a cooler and a 
bridle to him ' (KNOWLES, Life of Roger Wil- 
liams, 1834, p. 261 ; MASSON, Life of Milton, 
iv. 533). In his letters he complains fre- 
quently of ill-health, especially of melan- 
cholia, or, as it was then termed, ' the spleen/ 
and both in 1649 and again in 1656 he was 
dangerously ill. His fear was, as he expressed 
it, that he would ' outlive his parts ' (Mass. 
Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. vi. 112). 

Whenever Peters was in health, his rest- 
less energy led him to engage in every kind 
of public business. In March 1649 he pre- 
sented to the council of state propositions 

for building frigates which were referred to 
the admiralty committee (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1649-50). One of the questions he 
had most at heart was the reform of the law. 
W T hile in Massachusetts he had twice been 
appointed on committees for drawing up a 
code of laws for the colony, and in Holland 
he had seen much which he thought worthy 
of imitation in England. On 17 Jan. 1652 
parliament appointed a committee of twenty- 
one persons for the reformation of the law, 
of whom Peters was one. None of them,' 
writes Whitelocke, ' was more active in this 
business than Mr. Hugh Peters, the minister, 
who understood little of the law, but was 
very opinionati ve, and would frequently men- 
tion some proceedings of law in Holland, 
wherein he was altogether mistaken ' (Me- 
morials, ed. 1853, iii. 388). In a tract pub- 
lished in July 1651, entitled 'Good Work 
for a Good Magistrate/ he summed up his 
scheme of reforms, proposing, among other 
things, a register of land titles and wills, 
and suggesting that when that was esta- 
blished the old records in the Tower, being 
merely monuments of tyranny, might be 
burnt (p. 33). R. Vaughan of Gray's Inn 
answered his proposals in detail on behalf 
of the lawyers, and Prynne furiously de- 
nounced the ignorance and folly shown in his 
suggestion about the records ('A Plea for 
the Common Laws of England/ 1651, 8vo ; 
' The Second Part of a Short Demurrer to 
the Jews long-discontinued Remitter into 
England, by William Prynne/ 1656, 4to, 
pp. 136-47). In the same pamphlet Peters 
proposed the setting up of a bank in London 
like that of Amsterdam, the establishment 
of public warehouses and docks, the insti- 
tution of a better system for guarding 
against fires in London, and the adoption of 
the Dutch system of providing for the poor 
throughout the country. Unfortunately none 
of these public-spirited proposals led to any 
practical result. 

Peters did not limit his activity to domestic 
affairs. During the war with the Dutch in 
1652 and 1653 he continually endeavoured 
to utilise his influence with the leaders of 
the two countries to heal the breach. At 
his instigation, in June 1652, the Dutch 
congregation at Austin Friars petitioned 
parliament for the revival of the conferences 
with the Dutch ambassadors, which had just 
then been broken off, and the demand was 
earnestly supported by Cromwell. Confident 
of the approval of the army leaders, who 
were opposed to the war, Peters even ven- 
tured to write to Sir George Ayscue and bid 
him to desist from fighting his co-religionists. 
Ayscue, however, sent the letter to parlia- 




ment, and Peters was severely reprimanded 
(notes supplied by Mr. S. R. Gardiner). In 
April 1653 the Dutch made an overture to 
negotiate. A contemporary caricature re- 
presents Peters introducing the four Dutch 
envoys sent in July 1653 to Secretary Thurloe. 
In the same month he was described as pub- 
licly praying and preaching for peace, and, 
though it is said that he was forbidden to hold 
any communication with the ambassadors, it 
is probable that he was one of the anonymous 
intermediaries mentioned in the account of 
their mission (THTJRLOE, i. 330 ; Gal. Clarendon 
Papers, ii. 196, 223 ; GEDDES, John de Witt, 
i. 281, 360 ; STUBBE, Further Justification of 
the Present War against the United Nether- 
lands, 1673, pp. 1, 81). 

In this series of attempts at mediation the 
conduct of Peters, however indiscreet, was 
dictated by a laudable desire to prevent the 
effusion of protestant blood; but in another 
instance his motive seems to have been 
simply a wish to put himself forward. 
When Whitelocke was sent as ambassador 
to Sweden, Peters sent by him to Queen 
Christina a mastiff and ' a great English 
cheese of his country making,' accompanied 
by a letter stating the reasons which had 
led to the execution of Charles I and the 
expulsion of the Long parliament. With 
many apologies for the presumption of the 
sender, Whitelocke presented them to Chris- 
tina, ' who merrily and with expressions of 
contentment received of them, though from 
so mean a hand ' (WHITELOCKE, Journal of 
the Embassy to Sweden, ed. H. Reeve, i. 283 ; 
THTTRLOE, i. 583). 

During the Protectorate, Peters, who was 
a staunch supporter of Cromwell, continued 
to act as one of the regular preachers at 
Whitehall, but was more closely restricted 
to his proper functions. Besides preaching, 
he took an active part in ecclesiastical affairs 
and in the propagation of the gospel in the 
three kingdoms. In July 1652 he and other 
ministers had been instructed to confer with 
various officers ' about providing some godly 
persons to go into Ireland to preach the 
gospel' (CaL State Papers, Dom. 1651-2, p. 
351). He corresponded with Henry Crom- 
well, praising his administration, and urging 
him to maintain ' a laborious, constant, 
sober ministry ' as the thing most necessary 
for the preservation of Ireland (Lansdowne 
MSS. 823, f. 32). 

Report credited Peters with the inspira- 
tion of the policy adopted by the commis- 
sioners for the propagation of the gospel in 
Wales, but he was not one of the original 
' propagators ' appointed by the ordinance of 
22 Feb. 1650, and no good evidence is ad- 

duced in support of the statement (WALKER, 
Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 147 ; YONGE, 
England's Shame, pp. 80-6). 

Peters was a member of a committee ap- 
pointed by the army to assist the commis- 
sioners for the propagation of the gospel 
among the Indians in New England, but he 
quarrelled with the commissioners, who, in 
February 1654, charged him with hindering 
instead of helping their work. At one time 
he roundly asserted that ' the work was but 
a plain cheat, and that there was no such 
thing as a gospel conversion amongst the In- 
dians.' At another he complained that the 
commissioners obstructed the work by re- 
fusing to allow the missionaries employed a 
sufficient maintenance. They answered that 
he was dissatisfied simply because the work 
was coming to perfection and he had not 
had the least hand or finger in it (Hutchin- 
son Papers, Prince Soc. i. 288). There was 
doubless an element of truth in these charges, 
for Peters, in one of his letters to Winthrop, 
owned that he would rather see the money 
collected spent on the poor of the colony 
than on the natives (Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 
4th ser. vi. 116). He vindicated himself, how- 
ever, from a charge of embezzlement which 
had also been brought against him (Rawlinson 
MS. C. f. 934, f. 26, Bodleian Library). The 
Protector, to whom these charges were 
doubtless known, showed his continued con- 
fidence by appointing Peters one of the 
' Triers ' whose business was to examine all 
candidates for livings (Ordinance, 20 March 
1653-4 ; SCOBELL, Acts, p. 279). Peters was 
also frequently applied to personally when 
ministers were to be approved or chaplains 
recommended for employment (CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 1654 pp. 124, 553, 1655 p. 

In December 1655, when Menasseh Ben 
Israel [see MENASSEH] presented his petition 
for the readmission of the Jews to England, 
Peters was one of the ministers appointed to 
discuss the question with the committee of the 
council of state. But though he had advo- 
cated the cause of the Jews as early as 1647, 
he seems now to have raised a doubt whether 
the petitioners could prove that they really 
were Jews (ib. 1655-6, pp. 52, 57, 58; Crom- 
welliana, p. 154). During the later years of 
the Protectorate Peters was less prominent, 
partly owing to ill-health, and in August 
1656 he informed Henry Cromwell that he 
' was very much taken off by age and other 
worry from busy business ' (Lansdowne MSS. 
823, f. 34 ; Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll 3rd ser. i. 
183). On 1 May 1657 he preached a rous- 
ing sermon to the six regiments assembled 
at Blackheath to serve in the expedition to 




Flanders (Mercurius Politicus, 30 April to 
7 May 1657). In July 1658 he was sent to 
Dunkirk, apparently to inquire into the pro- 
vision made for the spiritual needs of the 
newly established garrison. He utilised the 
opportunity to inquire into the administra- 
tion of the town in general, and to obtain 
several interviews with Cardinal Mazarin. 
Lockhart, the governor, praised the ' great 
charity and goodness ' Peters had shown in 
his prayers and exhortations, and in visiting 
and relieving the sick and wounded. In a 
confidential postscript to Thurloe he added : 
' He returns laden with an account of all 
things here, and hath undertaken every man's 
business. I must give him that testimony, 
that he gave us three or four very honest 
sermons ; and if it were possible to get him to 
mind preaching, and to forbear the troubling 
of himself with other things, he would cer- 
tainly prove a very fit minister for soldiers.' 
' He hath often,' he continued, l insinuated 
into me his desire to stay here, if he had a 
call ; ' but the prospect of his establishment 
in Dunkirk was evidently distasteful to the 
governor (THURLOE, vii. 223, 249). 

On the death of the Protector, Peters 
preached a funeral sermon, selecting the 
text, ' My servant Moses is dead ' {Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. p. 143). During the 
troubled period which followed he took little 
part in public affairs, probably owing to ill- 
health. He deplored the overthrow of Ri- 
chard Cromwell, protested that he was a 
stranger to it, and declared that he looked 
upon the whole business as l very sinful and 
ruining.' When Monck marched into Eng- 
land, Peters met him at St. Albans and 
preached before him, to the great disgust of 
the general's orthodox chaplain, John Price 
(MASERES, Select Tracts, ii. 756). On 
24 April, in answer to some inquiries from 
Monck, he wrote to Monck saying * My weak 
head and crazy carcass puts me in mind of 
my great change, and therefore I thank 
God that these twelve months, ever since 
the breach of Richard's parliament, I have 
meddled with no public affairs more than 
the thoughts of mine own and others pre- 
sented to yoursolf ' ( manuscripts of Mr. Ley- 
bourne PophcHB). No professions of peace- 
ableness, however true, could save him from 
suspicion. The restored Rump deprived him 
of his lodgings at Whitehall in January 
1660, and on 11 May the council of state or- 
dered his apprehension (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1659-60, pp. 305, 338, 575, 360). 
Pamphlets, ballads, and caricatures against 
him testified to his general unpopularity 
(Cat. of Prints in Brit. Mus., satirical, i. 
518, 522, 528, 532, 535-42). On 7 June the 

For 4 manuscripts,' etc., read * Hist. 
MSS. Comm.y Leyborne-Popham MSS., 
p. I7Q.' Notices of Peters' sermons will be 

House of Commons ordered that he and 
Cornet Joyce should be arrested, the two 
being coupled together as the king's supposed 
executioners. On 18 June he was excepted 
from the Act of Indemnity (Kennet Register, 
pp. 176, 240). Peters, who had hidden him- 
self to escape apprehension, drew up an 
apology for his life, which he contrived to 
get presented to the House of Lords. It 
denies that he took any share in concerting 
the king's death, and gives an account of his 
public career, substantially agreeing with 
the defence made at his trial and the state- 
ments contained in his ' Last Legacy ' (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 115). Peters was 
arrested in Southwark on 2 Sept. 1660, and 
committed to the Tower. His trial took 
place at the Old Bailey on 13 Oct. The chief 
witness against him was Dr. William Young, 
who deposed to certain confessions made to 
him by Peters in 1649, showing that he had 
plotted with Cromwell to bring the king to 
the block. Other witnesses testified to sup- 
posed consultations of Peters with Crom- 
well and Ireton for the same purpose, and to 
his incendiary sermons during the king's 
trial. Peters proved the falsity of the rumour 
that he. had actually been present on the 
scaffold by showing that he was confined to 
his chamber by illness on the day of the 
king's execution, but he was unable to do 
more than deny that he used the particular 
expressions alleged to have been uttered by 
him. He was found guilty and condemned 
to death ( Trial of the Regicides, 4to, 1660, 
pp. 153-84). During his imprisonment Peters 
' was exercised under great conflict in his own 
spirit, fearing (as he would often say) that 
he should not go through his sufferings with 
courage and comfort.' But, in spite of re- 
ports to the contrary, he met his end with 
dignity and calmness. On 14 Oct. he 
preached to his fellow-prisoners, taking as 
his text Psalm xlii. 11. He was executed at 
Charing Cross on 16 Oct. with his friend John 
Cook (d. 1660) [q. v.] One of the bystanders 
upbraided Peters with the death of the king, 
and bade him repent. ' Friend,' replied Peters, 
'you do not well to trample on a dying 
man. You are greatly mistaken: I had 
nothing to do in the death of the king.' 
Cook was hanged before the eyes of Peters, 
who was purposely brought near by the 
sheriff's men to see his body quartered. ' Sir,' 
said Peters to the sheriff, * you have here 
slain one of the servants of God before mine 
eyes, and have made me to behold it, on 
purpose to terrify and discourage me; but 
God hath made it an ordinance to me for my 
strengthening and encouragement,' ' Never/ 
said the official newspaper, ' was person suf- 



fered death so unpitied, and (which is more) 
whose execution was the delight of the 
people' (Mercurius Publicus, 11-18 Oct. 
p. 670 ; The Speeches and Prayers of some of 
the late King's Judges, 4to, 1660, pp. 58-62 ; 
Eebels no Saints, 8vo, 1661, pp. 71-80). 

The popular hatred was hardly deserved. 
Peters had earned it by what he said rather 
than by what he did. His public-spirited 
exertions for the general good and his kind- 
nesses to individual royalists were forgotten, 
and only his denunciations of the king and 
his attacks on the clergy were remembered. 
Burnet characterises him as ' an enthusias- 
tical buffoon preacher, though a very vicious 
man, who had been of great use to Cromwell, 
and had been very outrageous in pressing 
the king's death with . the cruelty and rude- 
ness of an inquisitor ' ( Own Time, ed. 1833, 
i. 290). His jocularity had given as much 
offence as his violence, and pamphlets were 
compiled which related his sayings and attri- 
buted to him a number of time-honoured 
witticisms and practical jokes (The Tales and 
Jests of Mr. Hugh Peters, published by one 
that formerly hath been conversant with the 
author in his lifetime, 4to, 1660; Hugh 
Peters his Figaries, 4to, 1660). His reputa- 
tion was further assailed in songs and satires 
charging him with embezzlement, drunken- 
ness, adultery, and other crimes ; but these 
accusations were among the ordinary con- 
troversial weapons of the period, and deserve 
no credit (Don Juan Lamberto, 4to, 1661, pt. 
ii. chap. viii. ; YONGE, England's Shame,8vo, 
1663, pp. 14, 19, 27, 53). They rest on no 
evidence, and were solemnly denied by 
Peters. In one case the publisher of these 
libels was obliged to insert a public apology 
in the newspapers (Several Proceedings in 
Parliament, 2-9 Sept. 1652). An examina- 
tion of the career and the writings of Peters 
shows him to have been an honest, upright, 
and genial man, whose defects of taste and 
judgment explain much of the odium which 
he incurred, but do not justify it. 

In person Peters is described as tall and 
thin, according to the tradition recorded by 
one of his successors at Salem, but his por- 
traits represent a full-faced, and apparently 
rather corpulent man (Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 
1st ser. vi. 252). A picture of him, described 
by Cole, as showing ' rather a well-looking 
open-countenanced man,' was formerly in the 
master's lodge at Queens' College, Cambridge 
(Diary of Thomas Burton, i. 244). One 
belonging to the Rev. Dr. Treffry was ex- 
hibited in the National Portrait Collection 
of 1868 (No. 724^ ; the best engraved portrait 
is that prefixed to ' A Dying Father's Last 
Legacy,' 12mo, 1660. A list of others is 

given in the catalogue of the portraits in 
the Sutherland Collection in the Bodleian 
Library, and many satirical prints and cari- 
catures are described in the British Museum 
Catalogue of Prints and Drawings (Satires, 
vol. i. 1870). 

Peters married twice : first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Cooke of Pebmarsh, 
Essex, and widow of Edmund Read of Wick- 
ford in the same county ; she died about 
1637. Secondly, Deliverance Sheffield ; she 
was still alive in 1677 in New England, and 
was supported by charity (Hutchinson Paper s, f 
Prince Soc. ii. 252). ,By his second marriage 
Peters had one daughter, Elizabeth, to whom 
his ' Last Legacy ' is addressed. She is said to 
have married and left descendants in America, 
but the accuracy of the pedigree is disputed 
(CAULFIELD, Reprint of the Tales and Jests 
of Hugh Peters, 1807, p. xiv ; Hist, of the 
Rev. Hugh Peters, by Samuel Peters, New 
York, 1807, 8vo). 

Hugh Peters was the author of the fol- 
lowing pamphlets : 1. ' The Advice of that 
Worthy Commander Sir Edward Harwood 
upon occasion of the French King's Prepara- 
tions . . . Also a relation of his life and death ' 
(the relation is by Peters), 4to, 1642 ; re- 
printed in the ' Ilarleian Miscellany,' ed. 
Park, iv. 268. 2. < A True Relation of the 
passages of God's Providence in a voyage for 
Ireland . . . wherein every day's work is set 
down faithfully by H. P., an eye-witness 
thereof,' 4to, 1642. 3. < Preface to Richard 
Mather's Church Government and Church 
Covenant discussed,' 4to, 1643. 4. ' Mr. 
Peter's Report from the Armies, 26 July 
1645, with a list of the chiefest officers taken 
at Bridgewater,' &c., 4to, 1645. 5. ' Mr. 
Peter's report from Bristol,' 4to, 1645. 
6. ' The Full and Last Relation of all things 
concerning Basing House, with divers other 
Passages represented to Mr. Speaker and 
divers Members in the House. By Mr. Peters 
who came from Lieut.-Gen. Cromwell,' 4to, 
1645. 7. 'Master Peter's Message from 
Sir Thomas Fairfax with the narration 
of the taking of Dartmouth/ 4to, 1646. 
8. ' Master Peter's Message from Sir Thomas 
Fairfax . . . with the whole state of the 
west and all the particulars about the 
disbanding of the Prince and Sir Ralph 
Hopton's Army,' 4to, 1646. 9. 'God's 
Doings and Man's Duty,' opened in a ser- 
mon preached 2 April 1646, 4to. 10. < Mr. 
Peter s Last Report of the English Wars, 
occasioned by the importunity of a Friend 
pressing an Answer to seven Queries,' 1646, 
4to. 11. 'Several Propositions presented to 
the House of Commons by Mr. Peters con- 
cerning the Presbyterian Ministers of this 




Kingdom, with the discovery of two great 
Plots against the Parliament of England/ 
1646, 4to. 12. ' A Word for the Army and 
Two Words for the Kingdom,' 1647, 4to; 
reprinted in the ' Harleian Miscellany/ ed. 
Park, v. 607. 13. ' Good Work for a good 
Magistrate, or a short cut to great quiet, by 
honest, homely, plain English hints given 
from Scripture, reason, and experience for 
the regulating of most cases in this Common- 
wealth/ by H. P., 12mo, 1651. 14. A pre- 
face to ' The Little Horn's Doom and Down- 
fall/ by Mary Gary, 12mo, 1651. 1.5. ' /Eter- 
nitati sacrum Terrenum quod habuit sub hoc 
pulvere deposuit Henri cus Ireton/ Latin 
verses on Henry Ireton's death, fol. [1650]. 

16. Dedication to * Operum Gulielmi Amesii 
volumen prinium/ Amsterdam, 12mo, 1658. 

17. ' A Dying Father's Last Legacy to an 
only Child, or Mr. Hugh Peter's advice to 
his daughter, written by his own hand during 
his late imprisonment/ 12mo, 1 660. 18. ' The 
Case of Mr. Hugh Peters impartially com- 
municated to the view and censure of the 
whole world, written by his own hand,' 4to, 
1660. 19. ' A Sermon by Hugh Peters 
preached before his death, as it was taken 
by a faithful hand, and now published for 
public information/ London, printed by John 
Best, 4to, 1660. 

A number of speeches, confessions, ser- 
mons, &c., attributed to Peters, are merely 
political squibs and satirical attacks. A list 
of these is given in ' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis.' 
There are also attributed to Peters : 1. ' The 
Nonesuch Charles his character/ 8vo, 1651. 
This was probably written by Sir Balthazar 
Gerbier [q. v.], who after the Restoration as- 
serted that Peters was its author (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 79). 2. 'The Way 

^to the Peace and Settlement of these Nations. 

. . . By Peter Cornelius van Zurick-Zee/ 4to, 
1659 ; reprinted in the * Somers Tracts/ ed. 
Scott, vi. 487. 3. ' A Way propounded to 
make the poor in these and other nations 
happy. By Peter Cornelius van Zurick-Zee/ 
4to, 1659. A note in the copy of the latter 
in Thomason's Collection in the British Mu- 
seum, says : ' I believe this pamphlet was 
made by Mr. Hugh Peters, who hath a man 
named Cornelius Glover.' 

[An almost exhaustive list of the materials for 
the life of Peters is given in Boase and Courtney's 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, i. 465, iii. 1310. The 
earliest life of Peters is that by William Yonge, 
M.D. England's Shame, or the unmasking of a 
politic Atheist, being a full and faithful rela- 
tion of the life and death of that grand impostor 
Hugh Peters, 12mo, 1663. This is a scurrilous 
collection of fabrications. The first attempt at 
an impartial biography was an historical and 

critical account of Hugh Peters after the manner 
of Mr. Bayle, published anonymously by Dr. 
William Harris in 1751, 4to, reprinted, in 1814* 
in his Historical and Critical Account of the 
Lives of James I, Charles I, &c., 5 vols, 8vo. 
This was followed in 1807 by the Life of Hugh 
Peters, by the Eev. Samuel Peters, LL.D., New 
York, 8vo. Both were superseded by the Rev. 
J. B. Felt's Memoir and Defence of Hugh 
Peters, Boston, 1851, 8vo; thirty-five letters by 
Hugh Peters are printed in the Collections of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th ser. 
yi. 91-117, vii. 199-204; a list of other letters 
is given in Bibliotheca Cornubiensis. Peters 
gives an account of his own life in his Last 
Legacy, pp. 97-115, which should be compared 
with the autobiographical statements contained 
in his Last Report of the English Wars, 1646, 
the petition addressed by him to the House of 
Lords in 1660 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. i. 
115), and the statements made by him during his 
trial.] C. H. F. 

PETERS, MES. MARY (1813-1856), 
hymn-writer, daughter of Richard Bowly 
and his wife, Mary Bowly, was born at 
Cirencester in Gloucestershire on 17 April 
1813. While very young she married John 
Me William Peters, sometime rector of Quen- 
ington in the same county, and afterwards 
vicar of Langford in Oxfordshire. The death 
of her husband in 1834 left her a widow at 
the age of twenty-one. She found solace in 
the writing of hymns and other literary 
pursuits. She wrote a work in seven 
volumes, called l The World's History from 
the Creation to the Accession of Queen 
Victoria.' It is, however, as a hymn-writer 
that Mrs. Peters will be best remembered. 
She contributed hymns to the Plymouth 
Brethren's ' Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual 
Songs/ London, 1842, 8vo. Her poetical 
pieces, fifty-eight in number, appeared in 
1847 under the title ' Hymns intended to 
help the Communion of Saints ' (London). 
Selections from this volume are found in 
various hymnals both of the established 
and nonconformist churches, such as ' The 
Hymnal Companion/ Snepp's ' Songs of 
Grace and Glory/ Windle's 'Church and 
Home Psalter and Hymnal/ 'The General 
Hymnary/ &c. Among her most admired 
hymns are those beginning: 'Around Thy 
table, Holy Lord/ 'Holy Father, we address 
Thee/ ' Jesus, how much Thy name unfolds ! r 
and ' Through the love of God our Saviour/ 
The first and last named are in very general 

Mrs. Peters died at Clifton, Bristol, on 
29 July 1856. 

[Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, and private 
sources.] W. B. L. 

Zierickzee, a town in the province of Zeeland. 
Plockboy propounded the organisation of a 
socialistic commonwealth (see E. Bernstein 
in Die Vorldufer des Neueren Sozia/ismus 




(1742-1814), portrait and historical painter 
and divine, was born in the Isle of Wight in 
1 742. His father, Matthew Peters, is described 
as ' of the Isle of Wight, gent. ; ' he appears 
to have held a post in the customs at Dublin, 
where the son was brought up (FosxEK, 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886). There he attended 
the school of design, of which Robert West 
was then master. In 1759 he obtained a 
premium from the Society of Arts. He 
joined the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
and exhibited in Spring Gardens portraits, 
principally in crayons, from 1766 to 1769. 
He also exhibited two works at the Free 
Society of Artists. It is probable that he 
had been to Italy before 1766, as his con- 
tributions in that year included ' A Floren- 
tine Lady in the Tuscan Dress ' and * A Lady 
in a Pisan Dress.' In 1769 he was living in 
Welbeck Street, Portman Square, and, be- 
sides seven portraits at Spring Gardens, he 
had one at the exhibition (the first) of the 
Royal Academy. Except in 1772, 1775, and 
1779, he exhibited regularly at this academy 
till 1780, though he spent some portion of 
this period in Italy, as his address is given 
as Venice in the catalogues of 1773 and 
1774., While in Italy on this or another 
occasion (he visited Rome twice) he made a 
copy of Correggio's St. Jerome (' II Giorno ') 
at Parma, which is now in the church of 
Saffron Walden, Essex. He was elected an 
associate of the academy in 1771, and a full 
member in 1777. The only portraits to 
which names are given in the catalogues 
are 'Mr. Wortly Montagu in his dress as 
an Arabian Prince ' (1776) and ' Sir John 
Fielding as Chairman of the Quarter Sessions 
for the City of Westminster' (1778). He also 
seems to have painted a portrait of his father, 
which was engraved by J. Murphy in 1773 
(BKOMLEY). Besides portraits, he exhibited 
1 A Girl making Lace ' (1770), ' A Woman 
in Bed,' ' A Country Girl,' and ' St. John' 
(1777), and 'A View of Liverpool' (1780). 

He had now attained a considerable posi- 
tion as an artist ; but for some years before 
this he had seriously turned his attention to 
the church, for 'which profession he had been 
intended in his youth. He matriculated from 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 24 Nov. 1779, and 
graduated B.C.L. in 1788 ; he took orders in 
1783, and in the same year became rector of 
Eaton, Leicestershire. He did not exhibit 
in 1781 or 1 782, but in 1783 he sent his second 
sacred subject, ' An Angel carrying the Spirit 
of a Child to Paradise.' This picture is at 
Burghley, and the angel is a portrait of Mary 
Isabella, afterwards wife of Charles, fourth 
duke of Rutland. In 1785 appeared his next 

and last contributions to the Royal Academy 
'The Fortune Teller ' and two full-lengths 
of noblemen (the Duke of Manchester and 
Lord Petre), ' grand-masters ' of the Free- 
masons, for Freemasons' Hall. 

He painted two other ' grand-masters,' the 
Duke of Cumberland and the prince-regent ; 
several subjects for Boy dell's Shakespeare 
Gallery, from ' Much Ado about Nothing,' 
'Henry VIII,' and 'The Merry Wives of 
Windsor,' and some religious pictures, one 
of which, the ' Annunciation/ he presented 
in 1799, as an altar-piece, to Exeter Cathe- 
dral. It was a subject of coarse ridicule by 
Paley, and was removed about 1853. Among 
others were ' Cherubs,' ' The Guardian Angel/ 
and the ' Resurrection of a Pious Family/ the 
last of which was sold at Christie's in 1886 
for 23/. 2s. Many of his works were engraved 
by Bartolozzi, J. R. Smith, Marcuard, Simon, 
Thew, and Dickinson, and became very popu- 
lar. Although never rising to the first rank, 
and severely attacked by such satirists as 
Peter Pindar (Dr. Wolcot) and Antony Pas- 
quin (John Williams), he was a clever artist 
and pleasant colourist, and one or two of 
his scenes from Shakespeare (especially Mrs. 
Page and Mrs. Ford reading Falstaff's love- 
letter) are animated with a sprightly humour. 
His portraits at Freemasons' Hall were burnt 
in the fire of 1883. 

His career as a clergyman was prosperous. 
He became rector of Knighton, Leicestershire, 
and Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, in 1788, pre- 
bendary of Lincoln Cathedral in 1795, and 
chaplain to the Marquis of Westminster and 
the prince-regent. He married a niece of Dr. 
Turton, a physician of large practice, and 
died at Brasted Place. Kent, on 20 March 

[Redgrave's Diet.; Redgraves' Century of 
Painters ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters, ed. Graves 
and Armstrong ; Algernon Graves's Diet.; Pye's 
Patronage of British Art ; Bedford's Art Sales ; 
Peter Pindar's "Works; Antony Pasquin's Royal 
Academicians, a Farce ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. xii. 272, 6th ser. vii. 313, 389, viii. 54, 253 ; 
Catalogues of the Royal Academy, &c.] C. M. 

PETERS or PETER, THOMAS (d. 1654), 
puritan divine, was son of Thomas Dyck- 
woode, alias Peters, who married at Fowey, 
Cornwall, in June 1594, Martha, daughter of 
John Treffry of Treffry, and elder brother 
of Hugh Peters [q. v"] He matriculated 
from Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1610, 
and graduated B.A. oh 30 June 1614, M.A. 
6 April 1625. For many years, probably 
from 1628, he was vicar of Mylor in his 
native county of Cornwall. He emigrated 
to" America, arriving in New England, ac- 
cording to one historian, on 15 July 1639 




(FELT, Eccl. Hist. New England, i. 410, 564, 
592-3, 615) ; but the more probable state- 
ment is that he was driven out of Cornwall 
by the troops of Sir Ralph Hopton in 1643, 
and reached America in 1644. Peters was 
at Saybrook, Connecticut, in the summer of 
1645, and afterwards with John Winthrop 
the younger at Pequot plantation. When 
this became the permanent settlement of 
New London, he was appointed in May 1646 
its first minister ; and, as he ' intended to 
inhabite in the said plantation,' was asso- 
ciated by the court at Boston With Winthrop 
in its management. A letter from him com- 
plaining of the Indian chief Uncus, ' for some 
injurious hostile insolencies/ was read before 
the commissioners of the United Colonies in 
September 1646, and in the following July 
he was reproved ; but the commissioners did 
not think that the complaints justified any 
stronger proceedings (Records of New Ply- 
mouth, ed. Pulsifer, i. 71-3, 99-100). Mean- 
time Peters had been ill ; and on an in- 
vitation from his old parish in Cornwall 
had sailed from Boston in December 1646. 
He returned to England by way of Spain, 
leaving Nantucket on 19 Dec. 1646, and ar- 
riving at Malaga on 19 Jan. 1646-7, after ' a 
full month of sad storms.' Peters again 
ministered at Mylor, and died there in 1654, 
in the fifty-seventh year of his age. A 
gravestone in the churchyard records his 
memory. His wife, who is said to have been 
a sister of Winthrop, did not accompany him 
to New England. 

Peters is described by Cotton Mather as 
' a worthy man and a writer of certain 
pieces ' (Magnolia Christi Americana, bk. iv. 
chap, i.) He himself, in the preface to his 
sermon, ' A Remedie against Ruine/ preached 
before the judges at the Launceston assizes, 
17 March 1651-2, says that he ' never before 
peep'd in the Presse beyond the letters of 
my name.' A long preface deals with his 
differences with the Rev. Sampson Bond, 
rector of Mawgan in Meneague, Cornwall, 
whom he had accused of unsoundness, and 
of having stolen about a fourth of a ser- 
mon from the Rev. Daniel Featley [q. v.] 
The charge resulted in an accusation against 
Peters of perjury. But the case ended in a 
victory for him. Letters from Peters are in 
W T inthrop's f History of New England,' 1853 
edit. pp. 463-4; the 'New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register,' ii. 63-4 ; and in 
the 'Massachusetts Historical Society's Col- 
lections', 3rd ser. i. 23-4, 4th ser. vi. 519-20, 
viii. 428-33. He is said to have been of a 
milder disposition than his brother Hugh. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 475, 
iii. 1081; Foster's Oxford Alumni; Allen's 

American Biogr. Diet. (1857 edit.); Gaulkins's 
New London, pp. 43-53 ; Savage's G-eneal. Diet, 
iii. 402-3 ; Farmer's Geneal. Reg. pp. 224-5.1 

W. P. C. 


MAN (1800-1886), legal writer, third son of 
Christian F. Petersdorff, furrier, of 14 Gough 
Square, London, and of Ivy House, Totten- 
ham, was born in London on 4 Nov. 1800. 
He became a student of the Inner Temple 
on 24 Sept. 1818, and was called to the bar 
on 25 Jan. 1833. He was for some time one 
of the counsel to the admiralty, and by 
order of the lords of the admiralty he com- 
piled a complete collection of the statutes 
relating to the navy, to shipping, ports, and 
harbours. He was created a serjeant-at-law 
on 14 June 1858, and nominated, on 1 Jan. 
1863, a judge of the county courts, circuit 57 
(north Devonshire and Somerset), an ap- 
pointment which he resigned in December 
1885. He was killed by accidentally falling 
into the area of his house, 23 Harley Street, 
London, on 29 July 1886. On 15 Nov. 1847 
he married Mary Anne, widow of James 
Mallock, of 78 Harley Street, London. 

He was the author of: 1. 'A General 
Index to the Precedents in Civil and Criminal 
Pleadings from the Earliest Period/ 1822. 
2. ' A Practical Treatise on the Law of Bail,' 
1824. 3. 'A Practical and Elementary 
Abridgment of Cases in the King's Bench, 
Common Pleas, Exchequer, and at Nisi Prius 
from the Restoration/ 1825-30, 15 vols. 
4. ' A Practical and Elementary Abridg- 
ment of the Common Law as altered and 
established by the Recent Statutes/ 1841- 
1844, 5 vols. ; 2nd edit. 6 vols. 1861-4 ; with 
a ' Supplement/ 1870 ; and a second edition of 
the ' Supplement,' 1871. 5. ' The Principles 
and Practice of the Law of Bankruptcy and 
Insolvency/ 1861 ; 2nd edit. 1862. 6. < Law 
Students' and Practitioners' Commonplace 
Book of Law and Equity. By a Barrister/ 
1871. 7. 'A Practical Compendium of the 
Law of Master and Servant, and especially 
of Employers and Workmen, under the Acts 
of 1875,' 1876. 

[Debrett's House of Commons, 1 885, ed. Mair, 
p. 367: Law Journal. 7 Aug. 1886, p. 467. ] 

G-. C. B. 

PETERSON, ROBERT (/. 1600), trans- 
lator, was a member of Lincoln's Inn. He 
published: 1. A translation of 'Galateo/ the 
celebrated treatise on manners written by 
Giovanni della Casa, archbishop of Bene- 
vento. This translation, now very rare, is 
entitled ' Galateo of Maister John della Casa, 
Archebishop of Beneuenta. Or rather a 
treatise of the manners and behaviours it 



behoveth a man to use and eschewe in his 
familiar conversation. A worke very ne- 
cessary and profitable for all Gentlemen or 
other. First written in the Italian tongue 
and now done into English. Imprinted at 
London for Raufe Newbery,' 1576. The 
book is dedicated to l my singular good Lord 
the Lord Robert Dudley, Earle of Leycester, 
and contains dedicatory verses to the trans- 
lator in Italian by F. Pucci and A. Citolini ; 
in Latin sapphics by Edward Cradock [q. v.] ; 
in English by Thomas Drant [q. v.], Thomas 
Browne, and one J. Stoughton. It was re- 
printed privately in 1892, with introduction 
by H. J. Reid. 2. ' A Treatise concerning 
the Causes of the Magnificence and Greatnes 
of Cities, Devided into three bookes by Sig. 
Giovanni Botero, in the Italian Tongue, now 
done into English. At London, Printed by 
T. P. for Richard Ockould and Henry Tomes,' 
1606. Dedicated to 'my verie good Lord, 
Sir Thomas Egerton, Knight' (WATT, Bibl. 
Brit.} The original was published at Milan, 
1596. From the dedications it appears that 
Peterson had received favours from the Earl 
of Leicester and Lord Ellesmere. Copies of 
both these works, which are very rare, are 
in the British Museum Library. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), p. 903 ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.] E. C. M. 

PETHER, ABRAHAM (1756-1812), 
landscape-painter, a cousin of William 
Pether [q. v.], was born at Chichester in 
1756. In childhood he showed a great talent 
for music, and at the age of nine played the 
organ in one of the Chichester churches. 
Adopting art as his profession, he became 
a pupil of George Smith, whom he greatly 
surpassed. He painted river and moun- 
tain scenery, with classical buildings, in a 
pleasing though artificial 'style, somewhat 
resembling that of Wilson ; but his reputa- 
tion rests on his moonlight subjects, which 
attracted much admiration, and earned for 
him the sobriquet of ' Moonlight ' Pether. 
He was partial to the combination of moon- 
light and firelight, as in such subjects as 
' Eruption of Vesuvius,' ' Ship on Fire in a 
Gale at Night,' ' An Ironfoundry by Moon- 
light,' &c., which he painted with fine feel- 
ing and harmony of colour. Pether was a 
large exhibitor with both the Free and the 
Incorporated Societies from 1773 to 1791, 
and at the Royal Academy from 1784 to 
1811. His 'Harvest Moon,' which was at 
the Academy in 1795, was highly praised at 
the time. He had an extensive knowledge 
of scientific subjects, and in his moonlight 
pictures the astronomical conditions are 
always correctly observed. He was also a 

clever mechanic, constructing optical instru- 
ments for his own use, and lectured on elec- 
tricity. Although his art was popular, 
Pether was never able to do more than 
supply the daily wants of his large family, 
and when attacked by a lingering disease, 
which incapacitated him for work and even- 
tually caused his death, he was reduced to 
freat poverty. He died at Southampton on 
3 April 1812, leaving a widow and nine 
children quite destitute ; and the fact that 
they were unable to obtain any assistance 
from the Artists' Benevolent Fund was made 
the occasion of a fierce attack upon the ma- 
nagement of that society. Abraham Pether 
is known among dealers as ' Old ' Pether, to 
distinguish him from his son Sebastian, who 
is noticed separately. 

THOMAS PETHEK (fl. 1781), who was pro- 
bably a brother of Abraham as, according 
to the catalogues, they at one time lived to- 
gether was a wax modeller, and exhibited 
portraits in wax with the Free Society from 
1772 to 1781. 

[Pilkington's Diet, of Painters; Bryan's Diet,, 
ed. Stanley ; Pye's Patronage of British Art, p. 
332; Dayes's Works, 1805; Exhibition Cata- 
logues.] F. M. O'D. 

PETHER, SEBASTIAN (1790-1844), 
landscape-painter, eldest son of Abraham 
Pether [q. v.], was born in 1790. He was a 
pupil of his father, and, like him, painted 
chiefly moonlight views and nocturnal con- 
flagrations. His works of this class are sin- 
gularly truthful and harmonious in colour, 
and should have brought him success ; but 
early in life the necessity of providing for a 
large family drove him into the hands of the 
dealers, who purchased his pictures for trifling 
sums for copying purposes, to which they 
readily lent themselves, and consequently 
they were rarely seen at exhibitions. In 
1814 Pether sent to the Royal Academy 
' View from Chelsea Bridge of the Destruc- 
tion of Drury Lane Theatre,' and in 1826 
A Caravan overtaken by a Whirlwind/ 
The latter was a commission from Sir J. 
Fleming Leicester ; but as the subject was 
not suited to the painter's talent, this soli- 
dary piece of patronage was of no real benefit 
io him. His life was one long struggle with 
adversity, which reached its climax when, in 
1842, three pictures which, with the help of 
a friendly frame-maker, he sent to the Royal 
Academy were rejected. Pether resembled 
lis father in his taste for mechanical pur- 
suits, and is said to have suggested the idea 
of the stomach-pump to Mr. Jukes the sur- 
geon. He died at Battersea on 14 March 
L844, when a subscription was raised for his 




family. Pictures attributed to Sebastian 
Pether frequently appear at sales, but they 
are usually dealers' copies. His genuine 
works are rare. 

[Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. 
Stanley; Art Union, 1844, p. 144; Seguier's 
Diet, of Painters.] F. M. O'D. 

PETHER, WILLIAM (1738 P-1821), 
mezzotint-engraver,was born at Carlisle about 
1738, and became a pupil of Thomas Frye 
[q. v.], with whom he entered into partnership 
in 1761. In 1762 he engraved Frye's portrait 
of George III in three sizes, and during the 
following fifteen years executed a number of 
engravings after various English, Dutch, and 
Italian masters, especially Rembrandt and 
Joseph Wright of Derby, whose strong effects 
of light and shade he rendered with remark- 
able taste and intelligence. His plates of 
' The Jewish Bride,' 1763, ' Jewish Rabbi,' 
1764, < Officer of State,' 1764, and ' Lord of 
the Vineyard,' 1766, after Rembrandt, and 
* A Lecture on the Orrery,' 1768, ' Drawing 
from the Gladiator,' 1769, 'The Hermit,' 
1770, and ' The Alchymist,' 1775, afterWright, 
are masterpieces of mezzotint work. Pether 
engraved altogether about fifty plates, some 
of which were published by Boydell, but the 
majority by himself at various addresses in 
London. He was also an excellent minia- 
turist, and painted some good life-sized por- 
traits in oil, three of which Mrs. Bates the 
singer, the brothers Smith of Chichester, and 
himself in a Spanish dress he also engraved. 
He was a fellow of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, and contributed to its exhibitions 
paintings, miniatures, and engravings from 
1764 to 1777. In the latter year he sent his 
own portrait, above mentioned, with the dis- 
guised title, 'Don Mailliw Rehtep.' He was 
also an occasional exhibitor with the Free So- 
ciety and the Royal Academy. Pether's career 
was marred by his restless temperament, 
which rendered him incapable of pursuing 
continuously any one branch of art, and 
sometimes led him into employing his facul- 
ties on subjects quite foreign to his profes- 
sion. He constantly changed his residence 
from London to the provinces and back 
again, and being to society, although 
an agreeable and accomplished man, gradu- 
ally sank into obscurity and neglect. His 
latest plate published in London is dated 
1793, and he exhibited at the Royal Academy 
for the last time in 1794. About ten years 
later he appears to have settled at Bristol, 
where he earned a livelihood as a drawing- 
master and picture-cleaner, and there he en- 
graved the portraits of Edward Colston the 
philanthropist, after Richardson, and Samuel 


Syer, the historian of Bristol, the latter 
dated 1816. Pether died in Montague Street, 
Bristol, on 19 July 1821, aged 82 or 83, hav- 
ing been long forgotten in the world of art. 
He had many pupils, the most eminent of 
whom were Henry Edridge and Edward 
Dayes. The latter, in his ' Sketches of Ar- 
tists,' speaks of him with great admiration, 
both as an artist and a man. An engraved 
portrait of Pether is mentioned by Bromley. 
[Miller's Biographical Sketches, 1826 ; Cbal- 
loner Smith's British Mezzotint Portraits; 
G-raves's Diet, of Artists ; Dayes's Works, 1805 ; 
Bristol Mirror, 28 July 1821 ; information from 
Mr. W. George of Bristol.] F. M. O'D. 

PETHERAM, JOHN (d. 1858), anti- 
quary and publisher, issued, under the gene- 
ral title of ' Puritan Discipline Tracts,' be- 
tween 1843 and 1847, from 71 Chancery Lane, 
London^ with introductions and notes, re- 
prints of six rare tracts dealing with the 
Martin Mar-Prelate controversy of 1589-92. 
Their titles are : ' An Epitome/'An Epistle,' 
' Pappe with a Hatchet,' ' Hay any Worke for 
Cooper , u An Almond for aParrat,''and Bishop 
Cooper's 'Admonition,' 8vo. He also edited 
'A Brief Discourse of the Troubles begun at 
Frankfort, 1575,' London, 1846, sm. 8vo, and 
a ' Bibliographical Miscellany,' 5 pts. (1859, 
in one vol.) He wrote a useful ' Historical 
Sketch of the Progress and Present State of 
Anglo-Saxon Literature in England,' London, 
1840, 8vo, and 'Reasons for establishing an 
Authors' Publication Society,' 1843, a pam- 
phlet in which he recommended great reduc- 
tions in the prices of bookstand publication at 
net prices only. Petheram afterwards had 
a secondhand bookseller's shop in Holborn, 
where he died in December 1858. 

[Maskell's History of the Martin Mar-Prelate 
Controversy, 1845; Publishers' Circular, 31 Dec. 
1858.] H. K. T. 

PETIT, JOHN LOUIS (1801-1868), 
divine and artist, born at Ashton-under- 
Lyne, Lancashire, was son of John Hayes 
Petit, by Harriet Astley of Dukinfield Lodge, 
Lancashire. The family was originally settled 
at Caen, and was of Huguenot opinions [see 
LEWIS PETIT (1736-1780), son of John Petit 
of Little Aston, Staffordshire, was born in 
the parish of Shenstone, Staffordshire, and 
graduated from Queens' College, Cambridge, 
B.A. 1756, M.A. 1759, and M.D. 1766. He 
was elected fellow of the College of Phy- 
sicians in 1767, was Gulstonian lecturer in 
1768, censor in that year, 1774, and 1777, and 
was elected physician to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital on the death of Dr. Anthony Askew 
[q. v.j in 1774. He died on 27 May 1780 



, Coll. ofPhys. ii. 281 ; Original Minute- 
book of St. Bartholomew's Hospital). 

John Louis Petit was educated at Eton, 
and contributed to the l Etonian,' then in its 
palmiest days. He was elected to a scholar- 
ship at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1822, 
graduated B. A. in 1823 and M. A. in 1826, and 
on 21 June 1850 was admitted ad eundem at 
Oxford. He took holy orders in 1824, but 
undertook no parochial work. 

Petit showed a taste for sketching in early 
years, and his drawings in pencil and Indian 
ink were very delicate and correct. His fa- 
vourite subject was old churches, and great 
part of his life was spent in visiting and 
sketching them. His drawings were ra- 
pidly executed, and his sketches were always 
finished on the spot. In 1839 he made 
his first extensive tour on the continent. 
The results appeared in his ' Remarks on 
Church Architecture' (1841, 2 vols 8vo), 
with illustrations. It was followed in 1846 
by ' Remarks on Architectural Character,' 
royal fol. In the same year Petit published 
a lecture which he had delivered on 24 Feb. 
1846 to the Oxford Society for promoting 
the study of Gothic architecture, under the 
title ' Remarks on the Principles of Gothic 
Architecture as applied to ordinary Parish 
Churches.' It was succeeded by the ' Archi- 
tecture of Tewkesbury Abbey Church,' royal 
8vo, 1846 ; ' Architectural Notes in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Cheltenham,' and ' Remarks on 
Wimbourne Minster,' 1847; ' Remarks on 
Southwell Minster,' with numerous good il- 
lustrations, 1848 ; ' Architectural Notices re- 
lating to Churches in Gloucestershire and 
Sussex,' 1849 ; ' Architectural Notices of the 
curious Church of Gillingham, Norfolk/ and 
an 'Account of Sherborne Minster,' 1850. 
In 1852 Petit published an ' A ceount of Brink- 
burn Priory,' a paper upon coloured brick- 
work near Rouen, and some careful notices 
of French ecclesiastical architecture. On 
12 July 1853 he read before the Architec- 
tural Institute of Great Britain a paper 
on the l Architectural History of Boxgrove 
Priory,' which was published the same year, 
tpgether with some ( historical remarks and 
conjectures' by W. Turner. 

In 1854 appeared Petit's principal work, 
' Architectural Studies in France, imperial 
8vo. It was beautifully illustrated with fine 
woodcuts and facsimiles of anastatic draw- 
ings by the author and his companion, Pro- 
fessor Delamotte. It showed much learn- 
ing and observation, and threw light upon 
the formation of Gothic in France, and on 
the differences between English and French 
Gothic. A new edition, revised by Edward 
Bell, F.S.A., with introduction, notes, and 

index, appeared in 1890. The text remained 
unaltered, but the illustrations were reduced 
in size, and a few added from Petit's unused 
woodcuts. In 1854 Petit also published a 
valuable lecture delivered to the members of 
the Mechanics' Institute at Northampton on 
21 Dec. of the preceding year, on ' Archi- 
tectural Principles and Prejudices.' In 1864- 
1865 he travelled in the East, and executed 
some striking drawings. He died at Lich- 
field on 1 Dec. 1868, from a cold caught 
while sketching. 

Petit was one of the founders of the Bri- 
tish Archaeological Institute at Cambridge in 
1844, and to its journal contributed, among 
other papers, an account of St. Germans 
Cathedral in the Isle of Man. He was also 
F.S.A., an honorary member of the Institute 
of British Architects, and a governor of 
Christ's Hospital. He was a learned and 
elegant writer, but was best known as an 
artist. Besides the work already noticed, he 
produced a few delicate etchings on copper. 
Specimens of his oil paintings are rare, but 
show a good sense of colour. Two of them 
belong to Mr. Albert Hartshorne and Mr. 
B. J. Hartshorne, who also possess many of 
his water-colour sketches. A poem by Petit, 
entitled ' The Lesser and the Greater Light/ 
was printed for the first time by his sister in 

[Architect, 2 Jan. -1869, by Albert Harts- 
horne ; Luard's Grad. Cant. ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Athenaeum, 26 Dec. 1868; Guardian, 
9 Dec. 1868 ; Watford's Men of the Time, 1862 ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of English Artists ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves ; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. ii. 1571 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. LE G. N. 


1720), brigadier-general and military en- 
gineer, was descended from the ancient family 
of Petit des Etans, established near Caen in 
Normandy. He came to England on the re- 
vocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. He 
served in the train as engineer in Ireland from 
19 June 1691, the date of his commission, to 
1 May 1692. He was employed in the ord- 
nance train which proceeded with the Channel 
fleet on the summer expeditions to act on the 
French coast in both 1692 and 1693, when 
he was one of the twelve engineers under Sir 
Martin Beckman, the king's chief engineer. 
The attempts on the French coast were not 
very successful, and the train was landed at 
Ostend after the battle of Landen, 19 July 
1693. It was under the command-in-chief of 
the Duke of Leinster, and took part in the 
capture of Furnes, Dixmude, and Ghent. 
Petit wintered at Ghent, and returned to 
England with the train. After the treaty of 



Ryswick in 1697, a permanent train was 
formed ; but several engineers were placed 
on half-pay, and Petit appears to have been 
brought into the train again in 1699. 

On 6 April 1702 Petit was included in the 
royal warrant for an ordnance train to ac- 
company the expedition to Cadiz under the 
Duke of Ormonde and Admiral Sir George 
Rooke. Colonel Peter Carles commanded the 
train. The expedition sailed from Spithead 
on 12 July, and on 21 July anchored outside 
the Bay of Bulls at Cadiz. Petit was sent 
to reconnoitre, and the troops were landed 
in accordance with his proposals. The town 
of Rota surrendered, but, after some abortive 
operations on the Matagorda peninsula, the 
attack was abandoned. The expedition sailed 
for Vigo, and on 12 Oct. a successful attack 
was made on that town, in which Petit took 
an active part. 

Petit returned to England, and on 24 July 
1703 was included in the royal warrant 
forming an ordnance train, which proceeded 
to Portugal under the command, first, of the 
Duke of Schomberg, and later of the Earl of 
to assist the Archduke Charles in the invasion 
of Spain. Petit took part in the campaign 
against the Duke of Berwick. The Earl of 
Galway reported on 30 Nov. 1704 that Petit 
'is very capable; but he was taken in Porta- 
legre, and has been sent into France. It will 
be very well to get -him exchanged one of the 
first, and send him back hither.' Directions 
were given accordingly. 

In September, when the British govern- 
ment heard of the capture of Gibraltar by 
Rooke, an ordnance train was prepared, of 
which Petit was one of the engineers, for 
the service of the new acquisition, the train 
being under the command of Talbot Ed- 
wardes. The train arrived on 18 Feb. 1705, 
and the siege, which the Spaniards had begun 
seven months before, was raised on 20 April. 

Petit was now appointed chief engineer to 
command the ordnance train for the capture 
of Barcelona under the Earl of Peterborough, 
and sailed in the fleet under Sir Clowdisley 
Shovell on 28 July from Gibraltar. The troops 
were disembarked at Barcelona on 22 Aug., 
and invested the city. After the strong fort 
of Monjuich had been carried by storm on 
3 Sept. 1 705, Petit erected three siege batteries 
against the city, all on the west side one of 
nine guns, another of twelve, and the last of 
upwards of thirty guns, from which a con- 
tinuous fire was kept up. Petit then erected 
another battery of six guns on a lower piece 
of ground opposite to the weakest part of 
the walls. Although he was wounded, he 
was not long absent from duty. The breach 

was made practicable, and on 4 Oct. the city 

On 6 April 1706 King Philip, at the head 
of a large army, invested Barcelona by land 
while the Count de Toulouse blockaded it by 
sea. A small ordnance train was in the city 
under Petit. Owing to his exertions the 
fortification had been placed in an efficient 
condition, while the place was well provided 
with guns, ammunition, and defensive mate- 
riel. At Monjuich Petit had completed the 
half-formed outworks, with a good line of 
bastioned fortifications, with ditches, covered 
way, and glacis, and had thrown up a small 
lunette in front of a demi-bastion on the left. 
He had mounted several guns on the new 
ramparts, and the old fort formed a strong 
keep to the new main line of defence in front. 
Moreover, between the fortress and Mon- 
juich, in substitution for the small detached 
work of St. Bertram, which had been demo- 
lished, Petit had constructed a continuous 
line of entrenchment with a palisaded ditch. 
The siege was pushed forward with vigour. 
On 15 April the advanced lunette was cap- 
tured, and a lodgment in it converted into a 
five-gun battery. On the 21st the enceinte 
of Monjuich was stormed and captured, and 
the besiegers were able to concentrate their 
attention on the fortress itself. Petit, who 
was the soul of the defence, constructed en- 
trenchments to isolate the weak points. On 
3 May the besiegers commenced mining, but 
Petit met them with countermines, and, by 
blowing in their galleries, checked their ad- 
vance. On 8 May Sir John Leake arrived 
with a relieving squadron, and the siege was 
raised. The success of the defence brought 
great credit to Petit, to whose zeal, activity, 
and engineering resources it was mainly due. 
The Archduke Charles wrote a letter to Queen 
Anne from Barcelona on 29 May expressing 
his obligation to Petit. 

Petit, who had been promoted colonel, was 
with the train at Almanza when, on 25 April 
1707, the Earl of Galway was defeated by 
Berwick. On 11 May Petit arrived at Tortosa, 
where he was charged with the duty of pre- 
paring that fortress for a siege. On 11 June 
1708 the Duke of Orleans invested the place 
with twenty-two thousand men. The trenches 
were opened on 21 June, and three days later 
sixteen guns, besides mortars, opened fire. 
The defence was spirited. But on 8 July 
Orleans had sapped to within fourteen yards 
of the counterscarp, while twenty-seven guns 
were battering the escarp. The next night 
he assaulted and carried the covered way. 
The garrison made a determined sortie, ef- 
fecting considerable injury to the works of 
the besiegers, and at its conclusion Petii 


8 4 


sprang a mine, which he had placed in the 
covered way, with good effect. All the 
efforts of the defenders were, however, un- 
availing, and on 10 July the town capitu- 

It may be assumed that Petit was ex- 
changed almost immediately, for in August 
1708 General Stanhope took him with him 
as chief engineer in his expedition to Minorca. 
He effected a landing on 26 Aug., and laid 
siege to Port Mahon. The place fell on 
30 Sept., and a few days later the whole 
island surrendered to the British. Petit was 
appointed governor of Fort St. Philip, the 
citadel of Port Mahon, and lieutenant- 
governor of the island. He built a large 
work for the defence of Port Mahon harbour. 
He was promoted brigadier-general for his 
services, and given the command in Minorca. 
He was at this time a lieutenant-colonel in 
the army, and also a captain in Brigadier 
Joseph Wightman's regiment of foot (cf. a 
petition of his wife Mariana to receive his 
captain's pay by his authority for herself and 
four children). From March 1709 Petit was, 
according to the ' Muster Rolls,' in Spain 
until March 1710, when he returned to 
Minorca. He remained there until 1713, 
when he returned to England. 

After the treaty of Utrecht the engineers 
were reduced to a peace footing. But as 
England had acquired Gibraltar, Minorca, 
and Nova Scotia, an extra staff was required 
for each of those places. Petit is shown on 
the rolls in May 1714 at the head of the new 
establishment for home service, and seems to 
have been employed at the board of ordnance. 
On the accession of George I Petit was sent, 
in September 1714, to Scotland, to assist 
General Maitland in view of the threatened 
rising of the clans, and to report on the state 
of the works at Fort William, as well as at 
Dumbarton and other forts and castles in the 
west of Scotland. On 27 Nov. a warrant 
was issued for the formation of an ordnance 
train for Scotland, and Petit was appointed 
chief engineer. Petit and six other engineers 
went by land, leaving the train to follow by 
sea. The ships carrying the train lay wind- 
bound at the mouth of the Thames. Petit 
was consequently ordered to make up a train 
of eighteen, twelve, and nine pounders, and 
six small field-pieces from the guns at Edin- 
burgh and Berwick, and to hire out of the 
Dutch and British troops such men as had 
skill in gunnery to the number of fifty for 
gunners and matrosses, to be added to the 
old Scots corps of gunners, then at Stirling. 
He was also instructed to get together what 
ammunition and other warlike stores would 
be necessary, and nine thousand men, either 

for siege or battle, in readiness, with the 
utmost expedition, together with pontoons 
for crossing rivers. The Jacobite rebellion 
was soon suppressed. Petit then marched 
with Cadogan's army by Perth to Fort Wil- 
liam, and later surveyed land at the head of 
Loch Ness for a fort. 

On 3 July 1716 a warrant was issued ap- 
pointing Petit chief engineer and commander- 
in-chief of the office of ordnance at Port 
Mahon, Minorca. He appears to have re- 
turned to England the following year. In 
1717 he was employed to design four barracks 
and to report upon their sites in Scotland to 
prevent robberies and depredations of the 
highlanders. In 1718 Petit was again at 
Minorca as chief engineer, and in September 
reported that he was making defensible the 
outworks for covering the body of St. Philip's 
Castle. The board of ordnance reported to 
Secretary Craggs on 14 Oct. that the cost of 
the work would probably be 50,000/., besides 
stores of war, and that only 16,965/. had been 
supplied. In 1720 Petit went to Italy for 
his health, and, dying at Naples, was buried 
there. His eldest son, Robert, was a captain 
and engineer, and was stationed at Port 
Mahon when his father died. John Louis 
Petit [q. v.] was a descendant. 

[War Office Eecords ; Conolly MSS. ; Porter's 
History of the Corps of Royal Engineers; Gust's 
Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century ; 
Armstrong's History of Minorca, 1752; Carleton 
Memoirs, 1 728 ; Royal Warrants ; Smollett's His- 
tory of England, 1807; Board of Ordnance Let- 
ters; Rae's History of the Late Rebellion, 1718 ; 
Patten's History of the Rebellion of 1715, 1745 ; 
Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne, 1735; Addit. 
MSS. Brit. Museum.] R. H. V. 

THOMAS (fi. 1536-1554), printer, was sup- 
posed by Ames ' to be related to the famous 
John Petit,' the Paris printer ( Typogr. Antiq. 
i. 553). His house was at the sign of the 
Maiden's Head in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
London, where he produced in 1536 an 
edition of the ' Rudder of the Sea.' He also 
printed Taverner's New Testament (1539), 
the'Sarum Primer' (1541,1542, 1543, 1544, 
1545) , Chaucer's ' Workes ' (n. d.), and ' Sarum 
Horse '(1541, 1554). 

On 6 April 1543 he, ' Whitchurch, Beddle, 
Grafton, Middleton, Maylour, Lant and 
Keyle, printers, for printing of suche bokes as 
wer thowght to be unlawfull, contrary to 
the proclamation made on that behalff, wer 
committed unto prison ' (Acts of the Privy 
Council, 1890, new ser. i. 107). All except 
Petit were subsequently released from the 
Fleet, on declaring 'what nomber offbookes 
and ballettes they have bowght wythin thiese 



iij yeres,' and what merchants had introduced 
'Englisshe bokes of ill matter' (ib. pp. 117, 
125). Between 1536 and 1554 about thirty- 
nine books bear his name as printer or pub- 
lisher, among them being several law-books. 
[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Dibdin), iii. 507-16; 
Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Eegisters, 
i. 394, vol. v. p. cii ; Dickinson's List of Service 
Books, 1850; Catalogue of Books in British Mu- 
seum to 1640; Hazlitt's Handbook and Collec- 
tions, 1867-89; Hansard's Typographia, 1825, 
p. 118.] H. K. T. 

PETIT, WILLIAM (d. 1213), lord 
justice of Ireland, was a follower of Hugh de 
Lacy, first earl of Meath (d. 1186) [q. v.], 
and probably went over to Ireland with him 
in 1171. He received from him Castlebrack 
in the present Queen's County, and Rath- 
kenny, co. Meath. In 1191 he served as 
lord-justice of Ireland. He again appears 
as co-justice with Peter Pipard in a charter 
granted between 1194 and 1200 to St. Mary's 
Abbey, Dublin. He was a witness to two 
charters to the same abbey, which can be 
dated 1205 and 1203-7, and to other charters 
of less precise date granted to St. Mary's 
and to St. Thomas's Abbey, Dublin. On 
26 March 1204 he was appointed, with three 
others, to hear the complaint of Meiler Fitz- 
Henry [q. v.], lord justice of Ireland, against 
William de Burgh (Patent Rolls, p. 39). On 
20 March 1208 he was sent by John with 
messages to the lord justice of Ireland (Close 
Rolls, i. 106 b\ On 28 June 1210 Petit ap- 
peared at Dublin, with others, as a messenger 
from Walter de Lacy, second earl of Meath 
[q. v.], praying the king to relax his ire and 
suffer Walter to approach his presence (Ca- 
lendar of Documents relating to Ireland, i. 
402). In 1212 he and other Irish barons 
supported John against Innocent III (ib. 
p. 448). He died in 1213. He granted to 
St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, certain lands at 
Machergalin, near the abbey of Kilsenecan. 
His son was taken by King John as a hostage 
for Richard de Faipo. His widow in February 
1215 offered 100 marks for liberty to remarry 
as she pleased, and for the replacement of her 
son as hostage by the son of Richard de Faipo 
himself (Close Rolls, ii. 86). 

[Close and Patent Eolls, and Calendar of 
Documents relating to Ireland, vol.i., as quoted 
above ; Munimenta Hibernica (Record Comm.) 
iii. 56 ; Francisque Michel, Anglo-Norman 
Poem on the Conquest, of Ireland, pp. 148-9 ; 
Annals of Ireland in Cartulary of St. Mary's 
Abbey, ii. 312; the same cartulary, i. 30, 69, 
143, 144 et passim, Register of St. Thomas's 
Abbey, pp. 9, 12, 34, 38, 48, 253, 254, 255 (both 
in the Rolls Ser.); Gilbert's Hist, of the Viceroys 
of Ireland, p. 55.] W. E. R. 

LIAM (1136-1208), author. [See WILLIAM 

PETIVER, JAMES (d. 1718), botanist 
and entomologist, son of James and Mary 
Petiver, was born at Hillmorton, near Rugby, 
Warwickshire, between 1660 and 1670. He 
was, from 1676, educated at Rugby free 
school (Rugby School Register, p. 1) under 
the patronage of a kind grandfather, Mr. 
Richard Elborowe' (Sloane MS. 3339, 
f. 10), and was apprenticed, not later than 
1683, to Mr. Feltham, apothecary to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London. He be- 
came an intimate correspondent of John Ray 
[q. v.], and his assistance is acknowledged 
in the prefaces to the second volume of Ray's 
'Historia Plantarum' (1688) and to his 
'Synopsis Stirpium' (1690). By 1692 he 
was practising as an apothecary ' at the 
White Cross, near Long Lane in Aldersgate 
Street,' and in the same street, if not in the 
same house, he resided for the rest of his 
life. In 1695, when he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society, he wrote the list of 
Middlesex plants for Gibson's edition of 
Camden's ' Britannia' (pp. 335-40, and Sloane 
MS. 3332, f. 129), all the other county lists 
being contributed by Ray. Petiver became 
apothecary to the Charterhouse, and seems 
to have had a good practice, though not one 
of a high order, since he advertised various 
quack nostrums. 

He corresponded with naturalists in all 
parts of the world, and formed a large mis- 
cellaneous museum. Though in 1696 he 
seems to have been mainly devoted to ento- 
mology, and his business prevented him from 
often leaving London, he made frequent bota- 
nising expeditions round Hampstead with his 
friends Samuel Doody and Adam Buddie 
[q. v.], and by 1697 had altogether between 
five and six thousand plants (ib. 3333, f. 255). 
In 1699 he visited John Ray at Black Notley 
in Essex, and in 1704 contributed lists of 
Asiatic and African plants to the third volume 
of his 'Historia Plantarum.' In 1707 his uncle 
Richard Elborowe died, bequeathing 7,000/. 
to him, but he seems never to have obtained 
the money from his half-brother, Elborowe 
Glentworth, the sole executor (ib. 3330 f. 
937, 3331 f. 608, 3335 f. 9). From 1709, if 
not earlier, Petiver acted as demonstrator of 
plants to the Society of Apothecaries (FiELD, 
Memoirs of the Botanick Garden at Chelsea, 
p. 25). In 1711 he went to Leyden, mainly to 
purchase Dr. Hermann's museum for Sloane 
(Sloane MSS. 3337 f. 160, 3338 f. 28, 4055 
f. 155). In the autumn of 1712 he madej a 
trip to the Bath and Bristow,' and in 1715 




he went with James Sherard [q. v.], the phy- 
sician, to Cambridge (ib. 2330, f. 914). His 
health seems by this time to have failed, and 
early in 1717 he was incapable of any active 
exertion. He died, unmarried, at his house 
in Aldersgate Street about 2 April 1718. 
His body lay in state at Cook's Hall until 
the 10th, when it was buried in the chancel 
of St. Botolph's Church, Aldersgate Street, 
Sir Hans Sloane, Henry Levett [q. v.], phy- 
sician to the Charterhouse, and four other 
physicians acting as pall-bearers. 

His collections, for which, according to 
Pulteney (Biographical Sketches, ii. 32), Sir 
Hans Sloane, before his death, offered 4,000/., 
were purchased, with his books and manu- 
scripts, by Sloane, and are now in the British 
Museum. The manuscripts are mixed up 
with letters addressed to Sloane ; and the her- 
barium, consisting of plants from all countries, 
forms a considerable portion of the Sloane 
collection, now at the Natural History Mu- 
seum at South Kensington. Petiver's Latin 
was, at least sometimes, composed for him 
by Tancred Robinson [q. v.] (Sloane MS. 
3330), and he borrowed largely, without 
much acknowledgment, from the botanical 
manuscripts of Adam Buddie. Though a 
good observer, and industrious in his endea- 
vours to make science popular, he is often 
hasty and inaccurate in his botanical writ- 
ings. His name was commemorated by 
Plumier in the genus Petiveria, tropical 
American plants, now taken as the type of 
an order. 

Petiver published : 1. ' Museum Peti- 
verianum,' 1695-1703, 8vo, in ten centuries, 
each describing one hundred plants, ani- 
mals, or fossils. 2. ' Gazophylacium Naturse 
et Artis,' 1702-9, folio, in ten decades, 
each containing ten plates, with descriptions. 
3. ' The Monthly Miscellany, or Memoirs 
for the Curious,' 1707-9, 3 vols. con- 
taining the commencement of 'Botanicum 
Londinense, or the London Herbal.' 4. ' Plan- 
tarum Genevae Catalogus,' 1709. 5. ' Pteri- 
graphia Americana. Icones continens plus- 
quam C C C C Filicum,' 1712, folio, twenty 
plates. 6. ' Aquat. Animalium Amboinee 
Catalogus/ 1713, twenty-two plates. 7. 'Her- 
barii Britannici clariss. D. Raii Catalogus 
cum Iconibus ad vivum delineatis ; ' other 
copies having the title ' Catalogue of Mr. 
Ray's English Herball,' vol. i. with fifty 
copperplates, comprising over six hundred 
outline figures, 1713, folio; vol. ii. with 
twenty-two plates and about 280 figures, 
1715; reprinted by Sir Hans Sloane in 
1732. 8. ' Plantarum Etrurise rariorum Ca- 
talogus,' 1715, folio. 9. ' Plantarum Italiae 
marinarum et Graminum Icones,' 1715, 

folio, five plates. 10. ' Hortus Peruvianus 
medicinalis,' 1715, seven plates. 11. ' Mons- 
pelii desideratarum Plantarum Catalogus,' 
1716, folio. 12. l Proposals for the Con- 
tinuation of an Iconical Supplement to Mr. 
John Ray his " Universal History of Plants," ' 

1716. 13. ' Graminum, Muscorum, Fun- 
gorum . . . Concordia,' 1716, folio. 14. 'Pe- 
tiveriana, sive Collectanea Naturae,' iii. 1716- 

1717, folio. 15. 'Plantee Silesiacse rariores,' 
1717, folio, a single sheet. 16. 'Plantarum 
yEgyptiacarum rariorum Icones,' 1717, folio, 
two plates and one sheet. 17. ' English Butter- 
flies,' 1717, six plates. Undated: 18. 'Bota- 
nicum Anglicum,' labels for the herbarium. 
19. ' Hortus siccus Pharmaceuticus,' labels. 
20.' Rudiments of English Botany, 'four plates 
and one sheet. 21. 'James Petiver his Book, 
being Directions for gathering Plants,' one 
sheet. 22, 'Brief Directions for the easie 
making and preserving Collections,' one 
sheet. 23. ' Plants engraved for Ray's " Eng- 
lish Herball," ' folio, one sheet. Petiver also 
published many separate plates, mostly of 
rare American plants. He contributed twenty- 
one papers to the ' Philosophi cal Transactions ' 
(vols. xix.-xxix.) between 1697 and 1717, 
explanatory of specimens of exotic plants, 
animals, minerals, fossils, and drugs exhi- 
bited by him. These are enumerated by 
Pulteney (Biographical Sketches, ii. 38-42). 
Many of his minor works became scarce, 


Opera Historian! Naturalem spectantia,' 

1764, 2 vols. fol. and 1 vol. 8vo. 

[Trimen and Dyer's Flora of Middlesex. 
1869, pp. 379-86, and authorities there cited ; 
Pulteney's Biographical Sketches of the Progress 
of Botany ; Sloane MSS.] G-. S. B. 


1889), contractor and politician, eldest son 
of William Peto of Cookham, Berkshire, 
who died on 12 Jan. 1849, by Sophia, daugh- 
ter of Ralph Allowoy of Dorking, was born 
at Whitmoor House, parish of Woking, 
Surrey, on 4 Aug. 1809. While an appren- 
tice to his uncle Henry Peto, a builder, at 
31 Little Britain, city of London, he showed 
a talent for drawing, attended a technical 
school, and later on received lessons from a 
draughtsman, George Maddox of Furnival's 
Inn, and from Mr. Beazley, an architect. 
After spending three years in the carpenter's 
shop he went through the routine of brick- 
layer's work, and learnt to lay eight hun- 
dred bricks a day. His articles expired in 
1830. In the same year Henry Peto died, and 
left his business to Samuel Morton and 



another nephew, Thomas Grissell (1801- 
1874). The firm of Grissell & Peto during 
their partnership, 1830-47, constructed many 
buildings of importance. The first was the 
Hungerford Market (1832-3)^-after a public 
competition for 42,400/. ; there followed 
the Reform (1836), Conservative (1840), and 
Oxford and Cambridge (1830) club-houses, 
the Lyceum (1834), St. James's (1835), and 
Olympic (1849) theatres, the Nelson Column 
(1843), all the Great Western railway works 
between Hanwell and Langley (1840), 
large part of the South Eastern railway 
(1844), and the Woolwich graving dock. 

It was during the construction of the rail- 
way works that Grissell and Peto dissolved 
their partnership, on 2 March 1846, the former 
retaining the building contracts, including 
the contract for the houses of parliament, 
which had been commenced in 1840 by the 
firm, and the latter retaining the railway 
contracts. Among the works taken over 
by Peto was the construction of a large 
portion of the South-Eastern railway, that 
between Folkestone and Hy the, including the 
viaduct and tunnel and the martello towers. 
He also made a large portion of the Eastern 
Counties railway between Wymondham and 
Dereham, Ely and Peterborough, Chatteris 
and St. Ives, Norwich and Brandon; the 
sections between London and Cambridge, 
and Cambridge and Ely (1846), the Dorset- 
shire portion of the London and South- Wes- 
tern railway (1846), and the works in con- 
nection with the improvement of the Severn 
navigation under Sir William Cubitt. 

Edward Ladd Betts (1815-1872), who 
had undertaken the construction of the South- 
Eastern railway between Reigate and Folke- 
stone, entered, in 1846, into partnership with 
Peto, which lasted. The works undertaken 
by the firm of Peto & Betts between 1846 and 
1872 embraced the loop line of the Great 
Northern railway from Peterborough through 
Lincolnshire to Doncaster; the East Lincoln- 
shire line connecting Boston with Louth ; 
the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton 
rail way (1852); the first section of the Buenos 
Ay res Great Southern railway; the Duna- 
berg and Witepsk railway in Russia ; the 
line between Blidah and Algiers, and the 
boulevards, with warehouses underneath, at 
the latter place ;*the Oxford and Birmingham 
railway ; the Hereford, Ross, and Gloucester 
railway, 1852 ; the South London and Crys- 
tal Palace railway, 1853 ; the East Suffolk 
section of the Great Eastern railway ; the 
Victoria Docks, London (1852-5), the Nor- 
wegian Grand Trunk railway between Chris- 
tiana and Eidsvold ; and the Thames graving 

In connection with Thomas Brassey fq v 1 
and E. L. Betts, Peto executed lines of rail- 
way in Australia, 1858-63 ; the Grand Trunk 
railway of Canada, including the Victoria 
Bridge (opened October 1860) ; the Canada 
works at Birkenhead; the Jutland and 
Schleswig lines, 1852 (Illustr. London News, 
11 Nov. 1854) ; the railway between Lyons 
and Avignon, 1852; and the London, Til- 
bury, and Southend railway, 1852. 

Peto, Betts, and Thomas Russell Crampton 
were in partnership in carrying out the con- 
tracts of the Rustchuk and Varna railway, 
and the metropolitan extensions of the Lon- 
don, Chatham, and Dover railway, 1860; 
Peto and Betts constructed the portion be- 
tween Strood and the Elephant and Castle 
(< Memoir of E. L. Betts,' in M in. of Proc. 
of Instit. Civil Engineers, 1873, xxxvi. 285- 
288). Peto's last railway contract was one 
for the construction of the Cornwall mineral 
railway in 1873. 

Peto was a member of the baptist deno- 
mination, and a benefactor to it by providing 
the funds for the erection of Bloomsbury 
(1849) and Regent's Park chapels. But his 
tolerant disposition led him also to restore 
the parish church on his estate at Somerley- 
ton, Suffolk. A staunch liberal in politics, 
he entered parliament as member for Nor- 
wich in August 1847, and sat for that con- 
stituency until December 1854. From 1859 
to 1865 he represented Finsbury, and lastly 
be was member for Bristol from 1865 until 
his resignation on 22 April 1868. During 
bis parliamentary career he was the means 
of passing Peto's Act, 1850, which rendered 
more simple the titles by which religious 
bodies hold property, and he advocated the 
Burials Bill in 1861, 1862, and 1863 (Peto's 
Burial Bill, by Anglicanus Presbyter, 1862). 
On 26 Feb. 1839 Peto had been elected an 
associate of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers, and on 1 Sept. 1851 he became deputy 
chairman of the metropolitan commissioners 
of sewers. He aided in starting the Great 
exhibition of 1851 by offering a guarantee of 
50,000^, and was subsequently one of her 
majesty's commissioners. During the Crimean 
war he suggested to Lord Palmerston that 
le should construct a railway between Bala- 
lava and the entrenchments. A line of 
thirty-nine miles in length was accordingly 
laid down by him in 1854-5, and proved of 
much service to the army before Sebastopol. 
Peto and Brassey presented vouchers for 
every item of expenditure, and received pay- 
ment without commission. The contract 

ng under government, though without 
srofit, obliged Peto to resign his seat in par- 
.iament, but for his services he was created 




a baronet on 14 Feb. 1855. He spent the 
autumn of 1865 in America, and published 
next year ' The Resources and Prospects of 
America, ascertained during a Visit to the 

On 11 May 1866 Peto & Betts suspended 
payment, owing to the financial panic, with 
liabilities amounting to four millions and 
assets estimated at five millions. This disaster 
obliged Peto to resign his seat for Bristol in 
1868, when Disraeli and Mr. Gladstone paid 
tributes to his character, the latter referring 
to him as ' a man who has attained a high 
position in this country by the exercise of 
rare talents and who has adorned that posi- 
tion by his great virtues ' (HANSARD, 27 March 
1868 p. 359, 22 April p. 1067). He bore his 
reverse of fortune with great resignation. He 
for some time lived at Eastcote House, Pinner, 
and then at Blackhurst, Tunbridge Wells, 
where he died on 13 Nov. 1889. He was 
buried at Pembury. 

He married, first, on 18 May 1831, Mary, 
eldest daughter of Thomas de la Garde 
Grissell, of Stockwell Common, Surrey ; she 
died on 20 May 1842, leaving a son Henry 
Peto (b. 1840), M.A., barrister-at-law and 
two daughters. Peto married, secondly, on 
12 July 1843, Sarah Ainsworth, eldest daugh- 
ter of Henry Kelsall of Rochdale, by whom 
he had issue six sons and four daughters. 

Peto published several pamphlets, includ- 
ing : 1. ' Divine Support in Death,' 1842. 
2. ' Observations on the Report of the De- 
fence Commissioners, with an Analysis of 
the Evidence,' 1862 ; to which three replies 
were printed. 3. ' Taxation, its Levy and 
Expenditure, Past and Future; being an 
Enquiry into our Financial Policy,' 1863. 

[Sir Morton Peto, a Memorial Sketch (1893), 
with two portraits ; Record of the Proceedings 
connected with the Presentation of a Service of 
Plate to Sir S. M. Peto at Lowestoft, 18 July 
1860, 1860 ; Minutes of Proceedings of Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers, 1890, xcix. 400-3 ; Fos- 
ter's Baronetage (1883), pp. 504-5; Illustr. Lon- 
don News, 1851 xviii. 105-6, 1857 xxx. 24-6, 
1860 xxxvii. 147; Helps's Life of Mr. Brassey, 
1872, pp. 163-5, 184, 216 ; Freeman, 22 Nov. 
1889, pp. 769, 773; Engineer, 22 Nov. 1889, p. 
438; London Figaro, 23 Nov. 1889, p. 10, with 
portrait; Times, 12 May 1866 p. 9, 15 Nov. 
1889 p. 10.] G-. C. B. 

PETO, WILLIAM (d. 1558), cardinal, 
whose name is variously written Petow, Pey- 
tow, and Peytoo (the last form used by him- 
self), was a man of good family (HARPS- 
FIELD, Pretended Divorce of Henry VIII, 
p. 202, Camden Soc. ; HOLINSHED, Chro- 
nicle, iii. 1168, ed. 1587). De Thou and 
others say he was of obscure parentage, 

WnaUVAA \^^1~1.UIAJL V O-J-W VV CIO ^<^XJ.JLt/Ok 

Princess Mary, Henry VII I's daugl 
early years (Col. State Papers, Ve 

simply because his parents are unknown a 
fact for which one writer likens him to Mel- 
chizedek. Holinshed and some others call 
his Christian name Peter, apparently by a 
sort of confusion with his surname. He was 
related to the Throgmortons of Warwick- 
shire, or at least to Michael Throgmorton, a 
faithful attendant of Cardinal Pole, brother 
of Sir George Throgmorton of Coughton. 
As he seems to have been very old when he 
died, his birth must be referred to the fif- 
teenth century^ He was confessor to the 

;hter, in her 
enetian, vi. 

239). At the time when he first became con- 
spicuous he was provincial of the Grey friars- 
in England. On Easter Sunday (31 March) 
1532 he preached before Henry VIII, at their 
convent at Greenwich, a bold sermon de- 
nouncing the divorce on which the king had 
set his mind, and warning him that princes, 
were easily blinded by self-will and flattery. 
After the sermon the king called him to an 
interview, and endeavoured to argue the point 
with him, but could not move him, and, as- 
Peto desired to attend a general chapter of 
his order at Toulouse, the king gave him leave 
to go. Next Sunday the king ordered his- 
own chaplain, Dr. Hugh Curwen [q. v.J, to- 
preach in the same place. Curwen contra- 
dicted what Peto had said, till he was himself 
contradicted by Henry Elston, warden of the 
convent. Peto was then called back to Green- 
wich and ordered to deprive the warden f 
which he refused to do. and they were both 
arrested. It seems that he was committed to- 
' a tower in Lambeth over the gate ' (Letters 
ancPPapers, Henry VIII, vol. xii. pt. ii. p. 333). 
In the latter part of the year, however, he 
was set at liberty and went abroad. He, at 
least, appears by the registers of the Fran- 
ciscan convent at Pontoise to have been there 
for some time on 10 Jan. 1533. Later in that 
year both he and Elston were at Antwerp to- 
gether. His real object in wishing to go abroad 
the year before was to cause a book to be 
printed in defence of Queen Catherine's 
cause ; and at Antwerp he got surreptitiously 
printed an answer, or at least the preface to- 
an answer, to the book called ' The Glass of 
Truth' published in England in justification 
of the king's divorce. It was entitled ' Phi- 
lalethae Hyperborei in Anticatoptrum suum, 
quod propediem in lucem dabit, ut patet 
proxima pagella, parasceue ; sive adversus 
improborum quorundam temeritatem Illus- 
trissimam Angliee Reginam ab Arthuro 
Wallise principe priore marito suo cognitam 
fuisse impudenter et inconsulte adstruen- 
tium, Susannis extemporaria.' It professed 
to be printed at ' Lunenburg ' by Sebastian 


8 9 


Golsen in July 1533, but doubtless the place 
and printer's name were both fictitious, for 
it does not appear that Liineburg (some two 
hundred and fifty miles from Antwerp) then 
possessed a printing press. Whether it was 
his own composition may be questioned; but 
he and his colleague Elston, who now lodged 
with him at Antwerp, were active in getting 
it conveyed into England, where, of course, it 
was destroyed whenever discovered by the 
authorities. A solitary copy is in the Gren- 
ville Library in the British Museum. 

Stephen Vaughan, a friend of Thomas 
Cromwell, at Antwerp, made careful inquiry 
about Peto and the book, and believed that 
the latter was written by Bishop Fisher. He 
learned also that Sir Thomas More had sent 
his books against Tyndale and Frith to Feto 
at Antwerp. Moreover, a friar came over 
from England every week to Peto. ' He 
cannot,' said Vaughan, ' wear the cloaks and 
cowls sent over to him from England, they 
are so many.' It was said Peto tried to 
enlist even Tyndale's sympathy against the 
king in the matter of the divorce, and sent 
him a book on that subject to correct ; but 
Tyndale refused to meddle with it. Vaughan 
tried hard to get him entrapped and sent to 
England, but failed. Peto even sent over 
to England two friars of his own order 
to search for books which might be useful 
to him, and they visited Queen Catherine. 
He seems to have remained in the Low 
Countries for some years, for in March 1536 
we find him at Bergen-op-Zoom ; and in 
June 1537 John Hutton, governor of the 
merchant adventurers at Antwerp, reports 
how an English exile, desiring to act as 
spy upon Cardinal Pole at Liege, procured 
a letter from Peto to his cousin, Michael 
Throgmorton, who was with the cardinal 
there. Peto himself went soon after to the 
cardinal at Liege, whence he was sent in 
August by Throgmorton to Hutton with 
a message touching a proposed conference 
between Pole and Dr. Wilson, the king's 
chaplain (ib. Henry VIII, vol. xii. pt. ii. 
No. 619 must be later than No. 635). In 
December he was at Brussels, conferring 
with Hutton about a letter in which he 
offered his allegiance to the king and service 
to Cromwell. 

Nothing seems to have prevented his re- 
turn to England except Henry's repudiation 
of the pope's supremacy. He did not object 
to the suppression of monasteries, if only 
they were put to better uses, and he ad- 
mitted there were grave abuses that required 
correction. Hutton, writing to Cromwell 
on 20 Jan. 1538, describes him as one who 
could not flatter, who grew very hot in 

argument, and who might easily be got to 
let out secrets which he would have kept if 
questioned directly. But he saw that Eng- 
land was no safe place for him, and meant 
to go to Italy. In April he was seen at Mainz 
on his way thither, having laid aside his friar's 
habit for the journey by leave of the general 

bill of attainder passed against Cardinal Pole 
and others (31 Hen.VIII, c. 15, not printed), 
and for some years little or nothing is known 
about him, except that he wandered about 
on the continent, and was for some time at 
Rome. It was there in 1547, as the Vatican 
records show, that Paul III appointed him 
bishop of Salisbury, though he could not 
give him possession of the bishopric. 

On Mary's accession he seems to have re- 
turned to England. But, feeling himself too 
old for the proper discharge of episcopal func- 
tions, he resigned the bishopric of Salisbury, 
and was settled at his old convent at Green- 
wich when Mary restored it. He was highly 
esteemed by Paul IV, who, as Cardinal Ca"- 
raffa, had known him at Rome, and from the 
commencement of his pontificate had thought 
of making him a cardinal. On 14 June 1557 
Paul proposed him in a consistory, and he 

was elected in his absence, the pope con- 
ferring on him at the same time the legate- ^ 
shi in Enland of which he deprived Cardinal 

Pole [see POLE, REGINALD]. These appoint- 
ments, however, Peto at once declined as a 
burden unsuited to his aged shoulders. They 
were, moreover, made in avowed disregard 
of the wishes of Queen Mary, who stopped 
the messenger bearing the hat to him. And 
though Cardinal Charles Caraffa, whom the 
pope sent that year to Philip II in Flanders, 
was commissioned among other things to 
get Peto to come to Rome (PALLAVICINO, 
lib. xiv. c. 5), the attempt was ineffectual. 
Peto was already worn out with age, and 
apparently in his dotage 'vecchio rebam- 
bito,' as the English ambassador represented 
to the pope ; and the proposed distinction 
only caused him to be followed by a jeering- 
crowd when he went through the streets of 
London. He died in the following April 

[Annales Minorum, xix ; Cardella's Memorie 
Storiche de' Cardinal!, iv. 370; Pallavicino's 
Hist, of the Council of Trent ; Letters and Papers 
Henry VIII, vols. v. sqq. ; Gal. State Papers, 
Spanish, vol. iv. No. 934, Venetian, vols. iv. 
and vi.l J - G - 

PETOWE, HENRY (fl. 1603), poetaster, 
was a native of London, and marshal of the 
Artillery Garden there in 1612 and later 



years. As ' Marescallus Petowe ' lie signs 
verses on the London Artillery Garden in 
Munday's edition of Stowe (1622). A pe- 
destrian versifier himself, he sincerely admired 
Marlowe's genius, and attempted to continue 
Marlowe's poem in ' The Second Part of 
Hero and Leander, conteyning their further 
Fortunes, by Henry Petowe. Sat cito, si sit 
bene. London, printed by Thomas Purfoot 
for Andrew Harris,' 1598, 4to. In a dedica- 
tory epistle to Sir Henry Guilford, Petowe 
says that 'being inriched by a gentleman, 
a friend of mine, with the true Italian dis- 
course of these lovers' further fortunes, I 
have presumed to finish the historic.' The 
address to the reader calls the poem Hhe 
firstfruits of an unripe wit, done at certaine 
vacant howers.' It is poor in style and in- 
cident, but is preceded by a striking enco- 
mium of Marlowe. A copy of the book is 
in the Bodleian Library. Specimens appear in 
Dyce's edition of Marlowe, 1858,pp.xlii,398- 
401. Next year Petowe published 'Philo- 
casander and Elanira, the faire Lady of Bri- 
taine. Wherein is discovered the miserable 
passions of Love in exile, his unspeakable 
Joy receaved againe into favour, with the 
deserved guerdon of perfit Love and Con- 
stancie. Hurtfull to none, but pleasaunt 
and delightfull for all estates to contemplate. 
By Henry Petowe. Dulcia non meruit qui 
non gustavit amara,' printed by Thomas Pur- 
foot, 1599, 4to, 26 leaves. This is dedicated 
to * his very friend, Maister John Cowper,' 
in three six-line stanzas. It is preceded by 
verses signed N. R. Gent, and Henry Snell- 
ing, and by three verses by the author ' to the 
quick-sighted Readers.' The poem plagiarises 
the works of Surrey, Churchyard, Gascoigne, 
and others, and indicates that the author was 
courting a lady named White, perhaps an 
attendant on Queen Elizabeth (cf. British 
Bibliographer, i. 214-17). Petowe's 'Eliza- 
betha quasi vivens. Eliza's Funerall. A fewe 
Aprill drops showred on the Hearse of dead 
Eliza. Or the Funerall teares of a true-hearted 
Subject. By H. P.,' London, printed by E. 
Allde for M. Lawe, 1603, 4to, is dedicated 
to Richard Hildersham. After the metrical 
' Induction ' and the poem comes ' the order 
and formall proceeding at the Funerall.' The 
poetical part of the volume is reprinted in 
Sir E. Brydges's ' Restituta,' iii. 23-30, and 
the whole of it in the ' Harleian Miscellany,' 
x. 332-42, and in Nichols's 'Progresses of 
Queen Elizabeth,' 1823, iii. 615. There fol- 
lowed ' Englands Caesar. His Majesties most 
Royall Coronation. Together with the manner 
of the solemne shewes prepared for the honour 
of his entry into the Cittie of London. Eliza 
her Coronation in Heaven. And Londons 

sorrow for her Visitation. By Henry Petowe/ 
London, printed by John Windet for Mat- 
thew Law, 1603, 4to. This is dedicated to 
six young gentlemen whose initials only are 
given. There are allusions in the poem to 
the ravages of the plague in London in 1603. 
The poem is noticed in Sir E. Brydges's ' Re- 
stituta,' iii. 30-4, and reprinted in the ' Har- 
leian Miscellany, 'x. 342-50, and in Nichols's 
' Progresses of King James I,' 1828, i. 235. 
' Londoners, their Entertainment in the 
Countrie, or a whipping of Runnawayes. 
Wherein is described London's Miserie, the 
Countries Crueltie, and Mans Inhumanitie ' 
(London, 1604, 4to, b. 1., printed by H. L. 
for C. B.), is a tract relating to the plague of 
1603 (Comim,BridffewaterCataloffue,ip. 175). 
Another work on the plague of 1625 is en- 
titled ' The Countrie Ague, or London her wel- 
come home to her retired Children. Together 
with a true Relation of the warlike Funerall 
of Captain Richard Robyns, one of the twentie 
Captaines of the trayned Bands of the Citie 
of London, which was performed the 24 day of 
September last, 1625. ... By Henry Petowe, 
Marshall of the Artillerie Garden, London,' 
printed for Robert Allot, 1626, 4to. The tract 
is dedicated to ' Colonell Hugh Hamersley 
and all the Captains of the Artillerie Garden.' 
The dedication speaks of another tract by the 
author, l London Sicke at Heart, or a Caveat 
for Runawayes,' as published ten weeks pre- 
viously. Two other books, whose titles only 
seem to have survived, have been ascribed to 
Petowe: 1. 'A Description of the Countie of 
Surrey, containing a geographicall account of 
the said Countrey or Shyre, with other things 
thereunto apertaining. Collected and written 
by Henry Patt owe,' 1611 (CoRSER, Collectanea 
Anglo-Poetica, ix. 147). 2. ; An honourable 
President for Great Men by an Elegiecall 
Monument to the Memory of that Worthy 
Gentleman, Mr. John Bancks, Citizen and 
Mercer of London, aged about 60 yeeres, and 
dyed the 9th day of September, Anno Dom. 
1 620. By Mariscal Petowb ' (HAZLITT, Hand- 
book, p. 454). The collection of epigrams by 
H. P., entitled ' The Mous-trap,' 1606, some- 
times attributed to Petowe, is by Henry 
Parrot [q. v.] 

[Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, ix. 143- 
147 ; Bibliotheca Anglo-Poetica, p. 255 ; and 
authorities cited above ; Brit. Mus. Libr. Cat. ; 
Hunter's manuscript Chorus Vatum (in Addit. 
MS. 24487, f. 100).] R. B. 

PETRE, BENJAMIN (1672-1758), Ro- 
man catholic prelate, born 10 Aug. 1672, was 
son of John Petre (1617-1690) of Fidlers or 
Fithlers, Essex (who was a younger brother 
of William Petre [q. v.], the translator), by 



his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Pincheon, esq., of Writtle in that county. 
He was educated at the English College, 
Douay, and, after being admitted to the 
priesthood, became tutor to Lord Derwent- 
water, who was subsequently beheaded for 
treason. He was consecrated bishop of Prusa, 
in partibus, on 11 Nov. 1721, and appointed 
coadjutor, cum jure successionis, to Bonaven- 
ture Giffard [q.v.], vicar-apostolic of the 
London district. On the death of that pre- 
late on 12 March 1733-4, he succeeded to the 
vicariate. He resided chiefly at Fidlers, died 
on 22 Dec. 1758, and was buried in old St. 
Pancras churchyard. He was succeeded by 
Dr. Richard Challoner [q. v.] 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 158, 161- 
163, 257; Catholic Directory, 1894, p. 56; 
Howard's Koman Catholic Families, pt. i. p. 45.] 

T. C. 

PETRE, EDWARD (1631-1699), known 
as Father Petre or Peters, confessor of 
James II, born in London in 1631, was the 
second son of Sir Francis Petre, bart., of the 
Cranham branch of the family, of which the 
Barons Petre constituted the eldest branch. 
His mother was Elizabeth, third daughter of 
SirJ ohn Gage, bart., of Firle Place, Sussex, and 
grandson of Sir John Gage [q. v.], constable of 
the Tower under Henry VIII. The story told 
in ' Revolution Politicks,' implying that he 
was educated at Westminster under Busby, is 
apocryphal. His family being devout Roman 
catholics, he was sent in 1649 to study at St. 
Omer, and three years later he entered the So- 
ciety of Jesus at Watten, under the name of 
Spencer, though he was not professed of the 
four vows until 2 Feb. 1671 . He obtained some 
prominence in the society, not so much for 
learning as for boldness and address. On the 
death of his elder brother Frances, at Cran- 
ham in Essex, about 1679, he succeeded to 
the title, and about the same time he received 
orders from his provincial, and was sent on 
the English mission. Being rector of the 
Hampshire district at the time of the popish 
plot (1679), he was arrested and committed 
to Newgate ; but, as Oates and his satellites 
produced no specific charges against him, he 
was released, after a year's confinement, in 
June 1680. In the following August he be- 
came rector of the London district and vice- 
provincial of England ; and, intelligence of 
this appointment having leaked out, he was 
promptly rearrested and imprisoned until 
6 Feb. 1683. Exactly two years after his 
liberation James II ascended the throne, 
and at once summoned Petre to court. His 
correspondence with Pere La Chaise and 
other ' forward ' members of the society 

marked him out for promotion, and he soon 
gave evidence of his zeal and devotion. To 
him was given the superintendence of the 
royal chapel; he was made clerk of the royal 
closet, and he was lodged in those apart- 
ments at Whitehall which James had oc- 
cupied when he was Duke of York. The 
queen appears to have regarded him with 
coldness, or even aversion, but he found an 
all-powerful ally in Sunderland. With 
Sunderland, along with Richard Talbot and 
Henry Jermyn (afterwards Lord Dover) 
[q. v.], he formed a sort of secret inner 
council, and it was by the machinations of 
this cabal that Sunderland eventually sup- 
planted Rochester in the king's confidence ; 
at the same time the king entrusted to Petre 
the conversion of Sunderland. James re- 
cognised in him < a resolute and undertaking 
man,' and resolved to assign him an official 
place among his advisers. As a preliminary 
step, it was determined to seek some prefer- 
ment for him from Innocent XI. In De- 
cember 1686 Roger Palmer, earl of Castle- 
maine [q. v.], was sent to Rome to petition 
the pope to this effect. The first proposal 
apparently was that the pope should grant 
Petre a dispensation which would enable him 
to accept high office in the English church, 
and Eachard states that the dignity ulti- 
mately designed for Petre was the arch- 
bishopric of York, a see which was left vacant 
(from April 1686 to November 1688) for this 
purpose. The pope, however, who had little 
fondness for the Jesuits, proved obdurate, both 
to the original request and to the subsequent 
proposal which Sunderland had the effrontery 
to make, that Petre should be made a cardinal. 
Innocent professed himself utterly unable to 
comply ' salva conscientia,' and added that 
' such a promotion would very much reflect 
upon his majesty's fame ' (see abstract of the 
correspondence in DODD'S Church Hist. iii. 
424-5 ; If Adda Correspondence in Addit. 
MS. 15396). He shortly afterwards ordered 
the general of the Jesuits to rebuke Petre for 
his ambition. 

Notwithstanding this rebuff, and in strong 
opposition to the wishes of the queen, James 
on 11 Nov. 1687 named Petre a privy council- 
lor, along with the catholic lords Powis, 
Arundel, Belasyse, and Dover. The impolicy 
of such an appointment was glaring. James 
subsequently owned in his * Memoirs ' (ii. 
77) that he was aware of it ; but he ' was 
so bewitched by my Lord Sunderland and 
Father Petre as to let himself be prevailed 
upon to doe so indiscreete a thing.' Petre him- 
self stated that he accepted the king's ofier 
with the greatest reluctance, and it may cer- 
tainly have been that he was over-persuaded 



by Sunderland. Until he took his seat at the 
council board his elevation was kept a pro- 
found secret from every one save Sunderland, 
whose efforts to remove Rochester from the 
council he henceforth powerfully seconded. 
With Sunderland he also took an active part in 
' regulating ' the municipal corporations and 
revising the commission of the peace. In 
December he was appointed chief almoner, 
and he had an important voice in filling up 
the vacant fellowships at Magdalen College. 
During these proceedings the pope's nuncio 
D'Adda frequently had occasion to write to 
Rome of Petre's rashness and indiscretion, 
while he said, with perfect truth, that his 
appointment gave a very powerful handle 
against the king (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th 
Rep. App. p. 225, 10th Rep. App. v. p. 119). 
The proclamation which the king caused to 
be made in the ' Gazette ' of 2 Jan. 1687-8, 
to the effect that the queen was with child, 
was the signal for a crop of the most scur- 
rilous broadsides against the king's confessor; 
and when the young prince was born, on 
Trinity Sunday, it was plainly insinuated 
that Petre was the father. Many versions, 
however, represented him as merely being 
the medium of the transference of the child 
from the ' miller's wife ' to the queen's bed. 
When the crisis came in November 1688, 
Petre resolutely adjured the king not to leave 
Westminster (BARiLLOtf, 9, 18, 22, 25 Nov. ; 
DFMONT, Lettres Historiques, November 
1688). This was probably the best advice 
that Petre had ever tendered to his sovereign, 
but he was thought to speak from interested 
motives it being well known that he was 
most obnoxious to the rabble, and that his 
life would not be worth a day's purchase 
if he were left behind at Whitehall. Petre 
took ample precautions to avert this con- 
tingency. The night before the king's de- 
parture he slept at St. James's, whence, 
making his exit next day by a secret passage, 
he escaped to Dover in disguise, and suc- 
ceeded in reaching France before his master. 
He never saw James again. His rooms at 
Whitehall were occupied by Jeffreys for a 
short time after his flight; when Jeffreys 
himself decamped to Wapping, they were 
broken into by a protestant mob (cf. Twelve 
Bad Men, ed. Seccombe, p. 92). Petre spent 
the next year quietly at St. Omer, unheeding 
the torrent of abusive pamphlets and broad- 
sides with which he was assailed. In De- 
cember 1689 he was at Rome, but ' not much 
lookt on there ' (LTTTTRELL, i. 616). In 1693 
he was appointed rector of the college at 
St. Omer, where the enlightened attention 
that he paid to the health and cleanliness 
of the community made him highly valued 

(OLIVER, Collections). In 1697 he was sent 
to Watten, where he died on 15 May 1699. 
His voluminous correspondence was trans- 
ferred from St. Omer to Bruges, where it 
was unfortunately lost during the suppres- 
sion of the Jesuits by the Austrian govern- 
ment in October 1773. A few of his letters, 
however, are preserved among Lord Braye's 
papers at Stamford Hall, Rugby (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 10th Rep. App. vi. p. 124). The 
abiding hatred with which he was regarded 
by the London mob was shown by the burn- 
ing in effigy to which he was submitted on 
Guy Fawkes day and Queen Elizabeth's birth- 
day until the close of Anne's reign. 

There is no contemporary likeness of Petre 
(excepting caricatures) ; an imaginary por- 
trait is given a conspicuous position in 
E. M. Ward's well-known picture in the 
National Gallery, ' James II receiving the 
news of the landing of the Prince of Orange/ 
Satirical portraits are affixed to numerous 
broadsides. Of those in the British Museum 
the following are characteristic : 1 . Petre as 
man-midwife, 10 June 1688 (F. G. STEEVENS, 
Cat. i. No. 1156). 2. Petre sitting by a cradle 
explaining to the miller's wife that the Society 
of Jesus must have an heir (ib. No. 1158). 
3. Petre nursing the infant on board the yacht 
upon which the queen and her child embarked 
in their flight. 4. Petre as a conjuror with a 
satchel of 'Hokus Pokus' slung round his 
neck (ib. No. 1235). In an elaborate caricature 
entitled 'England's Memorial' (1689) the 
Jesuit is depicted as ' Lassciveous Peters.' His 
flight from Whitehall is also illustrated by 
numerous medals. The portrait prefixed to 
the scandalous ' History of Petre's Amorous 
Intrigues ' is of course unauthentic. 

Petre's younger brother Charles (1644- 
1712) was also educated as a Jesuit at St. 
Omer, and was attached to the English 
mission ; he was included among Oates's in- 
tended victims, but succeeded in evading 
arrest. He was favoured by James II, and fled 
from Whitehall shortly after his brother in 
November 1688. He was arrested at Dover, 
but was soon liberated, and subsequently held 
various offices at St. Omer, where he died on 
18 Jan. 1712. 

[Foley's Records of the English Province of 
the Society of Jesus, v. 372, vii. 590; Oliver's 
Collections, 1848, p. 164 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ; 
D'Orleans's Revolutions in England, p. 304 ; 
Quadriennium Jacobi, 1689; Higgons's Short 
View of English History, p. 329; Macpherson's 
Original Papers, 1775; Burnet's Own Time; 
Eachard's Hist, of England, vol. ii.; Rapin's 
Hist, of England, vol. ii.; Ranke's Hist, of Eng- 
land, vol. v. ; Macaulay's Hist. 1858, ii. 319; 
Lingard's Hist, of England, x. 61, 98, 128, 170 ; 




Bloxam's Magdalen College and James II (Oxf. 
Hist. Soc.); Kyan's William III, 1836, p. 120; 
Banks's Life of William III ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist, of England; Eoxburgh Ballads, iv. 316; 
Bagford Ballads, ed. Ebbsworth, ii. 317; The 
Muses Farewell to Popery and Slavery, 1689 ; 
Keresby's Diary ; Hatton Correspondence (Cam- 
den Soc.) ; Cartwright's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; 
Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain ; Lons- 
dale's Memoirs of the Reign of James II, 1857 ; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 104, vi. 418, 589, 
2nd ser. i. 31. See also An Account of the Life 
and Memorable Actions of Father Petre appended 
to the Popish Champion, 1689; An Ironical 
Friendly Letter to Father Petre concerning his 
part in the late King's Government, 1690; A 
Dialogue between Father Peters and the Devil, 
1687; Rome in an Uproar, or the Pope's Bulls 
brought to the Baiting Stake by old Father Petre, 
1689 ; Les Heros de la Ligue on la Procession 
Monacale conduitte par Louis XIV pour la con- 
version des Protestans de son Royaume, Paris, 
1691 ; and Histoire des intrigues amoureuses du 
PerePeters,jesuite . . . ou Ton voit ses avantures 
les particuliers, Cologne, 1698.] T. S. 

PETRE, SIK WILLIAM (1505 P-1572), 
secretary of state, born at Tor Newton, 
Devonshire, about 1505, was son of John 
Petre, said to be a rich tanner of Torbryan, 
Devonshire, by his wife Alice or Alys, daugh- 
ter of John Collinge of Woodlands in the same 
county. He was the eldest son of a family of 
nine ; of his four brothers, the eldest, John 
(d. 1568), who is supposed by family tradi- 
tion'to have been senior to William, inherited 
Tor Newton ; the second was chief customer 
at Exeter ; Richard, the third, is stated to have 
been chancellor of Exeter and archdeacon of 
Buckingham ; but the only preferment with 
which Le Neve credits him is a prebend in 
Peterborough Cathedral, which he received 
on 14 Jan. 1549-50 and resigned on 5 Oct. 
1565 ; he was, however, installed precentor of 
Ely Cathedral on 28 Dec. 1557, and, though 
disapproving of Elizabeth's ecclesiastical 
policy, retained his office until 1571 (OLIVEK, 
Collections, p. 198). The youngest brother, 
Robert (d. 1593), was auditor of the exchequer. 

William was educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford, and elected fellow of All Souls' in 
1523, whence he graduated bachelor of civil 
and canon law on 2 July 1526, and D.C.L. on 
17 Feb. 1532-3. Probably about 1527 he 
became principal of Peckwater's or Vine 
Hall, and tutor to George Boleyn (after- 
wards Viscount Rochford) [q. v.] (LLOYD, 
State Worthies,pA30 ; cf. WOOD, Athena, i. 
98). It was no doubt through the influence 
of Boleyn's sister Anne that Petre was in- 
troduced at court and selected for govern- 
ment service. He was sent abroad, and re- 
sided on the continent, chiefly in France, 

for more than four years. On his return he 
was appointed a clerk in chancery. He had 
secured the favour of Cromwell and Cran- 
mer, who spoke in November 1535 of making 
Petre dean of arches, there ' being no man 
more fit for it.' Anne Boleyn also sent him 
presents, and promised him any pleasure it 
was in her power to give. On 13 Jan. 1536 
he was appointed deputy or proctor for 
Cromwell in his capacity as vicar-general. 
In the same year he was made master in 
chancery, and granted the prebend of Lang- 
ford Ecclesia in Lincoln Cathedral, which he 
resigned next year. He was largely en- 
gaged in visiting the lesser monasteries. On 
16 June 1536 Petre appeared in convocation 
and made a novel claim to preside over its 
deliberations, on the ground that the king 
was supreme head of the church, Cromwell 
was the king's vicegerent, and he was Crom- 
well's deputy. After some discussion his 
claim was allowed. In the same year he 
was placed on a commission to receive and 
examine all bulls and briefs from Rome, and 
in 1537 was employed to examine Robert 
Aske [q. v.] and other prisoners taken in the 
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire rebellions. In 
1536 he had been appointed visitor of the 
greater monasteries in Kent and other 
southern counties. He was one of the most 
zealous of the visitors; in 1538 he procured 
the surrender of twenty monasteries, and in 
the first three months of 1539 thirteen more 
fell before him ; his great achievement was 
the almost total extirpation of the Gil- 
bertines, the only religious order of English 
origin (cf. DIXON'S Church Hist. ii. 26-30, 
116; GASQTJET, Henry VIII and the Monas- 

In 1539 Petre was one of those appointed 
to prepare a bill for the enactment of the 
Six Articles, and in the following year was 
on the commission which declared the nul- 
lity of Henry's marriage with Anne of 
Cleves. Early in 1543 he was knighted ; in 
the same year he served on various commis- 
sions to examine persons accused of heresy, 
and was appointed secretary of state in 
Wriothesley's place. On 9 July 1544 he was 
selected to assist Queen Catherine in carry- 
ing on the regency during Henry's absence, 
and to raise supplies for the king's expedition 
to Boulogne. In 1545 he was sent ambas- 
sador to the emperor, and at the end of the 
year was summoned to the privy council. 
He was appointed an assistant executor to 
Henry's will in 1547. 

During Edward VI's reign Petre's im- 
portance and activity increased. In August 
1547 he was entrusted with the great seal 
for use in all ecclesiastical affairs. In 1549 




he served on commissions to visit the uni- 
versity of Oxford, to inquire into heresies, to 
examine the charges against Lord Seymour 
of Sudeley, and to try Bonner. He did not 
take part in Bonner's trial after the first 
day, and it was rumoured that he i was 
turning about to another party.' On 6 Oct. 
he was sent by Somerset to the council to 
demand the reason of their coming together, 
but, finding them the stronger party, he re- 
mained and signed the council's letter to the 
lord mayor denouncing the protector ; four 
days later he also signed the proclamation 
against Somerset. In February 1550 he was 
sent to Boulogne to negotiate the terms of 
peace with France, and in the following May 
exchanged ratifications of it at Amiens. In 
the same year he was treasurer of firstfmits 
and tenths, and one of the commissioners to 
examine Gardiner ; he was also sent to New 
Hall, Essex, to request Mary to come to 
court or change her residence to Oking. In 
August 1551 Petre was one of those who 
communicated to Mary the council's decision 
forbidding mass in her household, and in 
October was appointed to confer with the 
German ambassadors on the proposed protes- 
tant alliance ; in December he was on a com- 
mission for calling in the king's debts. In 
1553 hedrewup the minutes for Edward VI's 
will and, in the interest of Lady Jane Grey, 
signed the engagement of the council to 
maintain the succession as limited by it. 
On 20 July, however, he, like the majority 
of the council, declared for Mary. He re- 
mained in London during the next few days 
transacting secretarial business, but his wife 
joined Mary and entered London with her. 

Petre had been identified with the coun- 
cil's most obnoxious proceedings towards 
Mary, and his position was at first insecure. 
He resumed attendance at the council on 
12 Aug., but in September it was rumoured 
that he was out of office. He was, however, 
installed chancellor of the order of the Garter 
on 26 Sept., when he was directed by the 
queen to expunge the new rules formulated 
during the late reign. He further ingra- 
tiated himself with Mary by his zeal in trac- 
ing the accomplices of Wyatt's rebellion and 
by his advocacy of the Spanish marriage. 
Petre now devoted himself exclusively to his 
official duties ; he rarely missed attendance 
at the council, and was frequently employed 
to consult with foreign ambassadors. He 
acquiesced in the restoration of the old 
religion, and took a prominent part in the 
reception of Pole and ceremonies connected 
with the absolution of England from the 
guilt of heresy. But with great dexterity he 
succeeded in obtaining from Paul IV a bull 

confirming him in possession of the lands 
he had derived from the suppression of 
the monasteries (DUGDALE, Monasticon, vi. 
1645). It was on his advice that Mary 
in 1557 forbade the landing of the pope's 

to declining 
in 1557. 

On Elizabeth's accession Petre was one of 
those charged to transact all business pre- 
vious to the queen's coronation, and was still 
employed on various state affairs, but his at- 
tendances at the council became less frequent. 
They cease altogether after 1566, and Petre 
retired to his manor at Ingatestone, Essex, 
where he devoted himself to his charitable 
foundations. He died there, after a long ill- 
ness, on 13 Jan. 1571-2, and was buried in 
Ingatestone church, where a handsome altar- 
tomb to his memory, between the chancel and 
south chapel, is still extant. 

Petre's career is strikingly similar to those 
of other statesmen of his time, such as Cecil, 
Mason, and Rich, who, 'sprung from the 
willow rather than the oak,' served with 
equal fidelity Henry, Edward, Mary, and 
Elizabeth. Camden calls him l a man of ap- 
proved wisdom and exquisite learning,' and 
Strype says he was ' without spot that I 
could find except change of religion.' He 
was ' no seeker of extremity or blood, but of 
moderation in all things.' As a diplomatist 
his manner was ' smooth, reserved, resolved, 
yet obliging : ' ( Ah ! * said Chatillon of Petre 
at Boulogne in 1550, 'we had gained' the 
last two hundred thousand crowns without 
hostages, had it not been for that man who 
said nothing.' In his later years he was 
said to be a papist, a creed to which his 
descendants have consistently adhered. But 
his piety was not uncompromising, and 
did not stand in the way of his temporal 
advancement ; as he himself wrote to Cecil, 
' we which talk much of Christ and his holy 
word have, I fear me, used a much contrary 
way ; for we leave fishing for men, and fish 
again in the tempestuous seas of this world 
for gain and wicked mammon.' Though lie 
was less rapacious than his colleagues in 
profiting by the fall of Somerset, Petre 
acquired enormous property by the dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries ; in Devonshire alone 
he is said to have secured thirty-six thou- 
sand acres ; but his principal seat was at 
Ingatestone, Essex, which he received on 
the dissolution of the abbey of St. Mary's, 
Barking. The hall which he built there 
still stands almost unimpaired (cf. BAKRETT, 
Essex Highways, &c., 2nd ser. pp. 32, 178-80). 
A considerable portion of his wealth,however, 




was spent on charitable objects ; lie founded 
almshouses at ( Ingatestone, and designed 
scholarships for 'All Souls'College, Oxford, but 
his chief benefactions were to Exeter College, 
Oxford, and entitle him to be considered its 
second founder (for full details see BOASE, 
Registrum Coll. Exon. pp. Ixxxv et seq.) In 
other ways Petre was a patron of learning ; 
his correspondence with English envoys 
abroad contains frequent requests for rare 
books. He was himself governor of Chelms- 
ford grammar school, and Ascham benefited 
by his favour, which he is said to have re- 
quited by dedicating to Petre his ' Osorius 
de Nobilitate Christiana.' A mass of Petre's 
correspondence has been summarised in the 
'Calendars of State Papers,' and many of the 
originals are in the Cottonian, Harleian, and 
Additional MSS. in the British Museum; 
his transcript of the notes for Edward VI's 
will is in the Inner Temple Library. Two 
undoubted portraits of Petre, with one of 
doubtful authenticity, all belonging to the 
Right Rev. Monsignor Lord Petre, were ex- 
hibited in the Tudor exhibition ; of these, one 
(No. 159), by Sir Antonio More, was painted 
' retatis suse xl ; ' the third portrait (No. 149) 
is by Holbein, but bears the inscription on the 
background ' eetatis suee 74 An. 1545,' which 
does not agree with the facts of Petre's life 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 7th ser. ix. 247, 334, 
415). Another portrait is in the hall of 
Exeter College, Oxford. 

Petre married, first, about 1533, Gertrude, 
youngest child of Sir John Tyrrell, knt., of 
Warley, and his wife Anne, daughter of 
Edward Norris ; she died on 28 May 1541, 
leaving two daughters, one of whom, Dorothy 
(1534-1618), married Nicholas Wadham 
[q. v.], founder of Wadham College, Oxford ; 
and the other, Elizabeth, married John Gost- 
wick. Petre married, secondly, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Browne, lord mayor of 
London, and relict of John Tyrrell (d. 1540) 
of Heron, Essex, a distant cousin of Sir 
John Tyrrell, father of Petre's first wife (see 
pedigree in the Visitation of Essex, 1558). 
Anthony Tyrrell [q. v.] was the second Lady 
Petre's nephew. She died on 10 March 1581- 
1582, and was buried by her husband's side in 
Ingatestone church. By her Petre had two 
daughters, Thomasine and Katherine, and 
three sons, of whom two died young ; the 
other, John (1549-1613), was knighted in 
1576, sat in parliament for Essex in 1585-6, 
was created Baron Petre of Writtle, Essex, by 
James I on 21 July 1603, and died at West 
Horndon, Essex, on 11 Oct. 1613, being buried 
in Ingatestone church. He augmented his 
father's benefactions to Exeter College, con- 
tributed 95/. to the Virginia Company (BROWN, 

Genesis U.S.A.}, and became a Roman catho- 
lic. Exeter College published in his honour 
a thin quarto entitled ' Threni Exoniensium 
in obitum . . . D. Johannis Petrei, Baronis 
de Writtle,' Oxford, 1613 (Brit. Mus.) He 
married Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Wai- 
grave, or Waldegrave, and left four sons, of 
whom the eldest, William, second Lord Petre, 
was father of William Petre (1602-1677) 
[q. v.], and grandfather of William, fourth 
baron Petre [q. v.] 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom., For., and Venetian 
series ; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. 
Gairdner ; Burghley State Papers, passim ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Privy Council ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edition; Cotton. MSS. Cal. B. x. 101, 
Galba B. x. 210, 225; Harl. MS. 283, f 187- 
Addit. MSS. 25114 ff. 333, 344, 346, 32654 ff. SO* 
123, 32655 ff. 95, 152, 247-8, 32656 ff. 28, 185, 
226 ; Ashmole MSS. 1 1 21 f. 231, 1137 f. 142, 1729 
f. 192; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714: Bur- 
rows's Worthies of All Souls'; Boase's Registrum 
Coll. Exon., Stapleton's Three Oxford Parishes, 
and Plummer's Elizabethan Oxford (all published 
by Oxford Hist. Soc.); Wood's Fasti, i. 73, 74, 93, 
158, and City of Oxford, i. 597 ; Lit. Remains of 
Edward VI (Roxburghe Club), passim ; Chron. 
of Queen Jane, pp. 82, 88, 90, 109, Narr. of 
Reformation, pp. 282, 284, Annals of Queen 
Elizabeth, p. 11, Machyn's Diary, passim, and 
Wriothesley's Chron. ii. 31 (all published by 
Camden Soc.) ; Camden's Britannia and Eliza- 
beth ; Stow's Annals ; Holinshed's Chronicles ; 
Sir John Hayward's Life and Raigne of Edward 
the Sixt, 1630; Lloyd's State Worthies, pp. 
430-4 ; Prince's Worthies of Devon, ed. 1701, 
pp. 496, 500 ; Moore's Devon, pp. 87-91 ; Strype's 
Works, Index; Dodd's Church Hist.; Fuller's 
Church Hist. ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church of 
England ; Burnet's Reformation ; Foxe's Actes 
and Mon. ; Oliver's Collections, pp. 197-8; 
Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 
2nd ser. pp. 292-3, &c.; Coote's Civilians, p. 31 ; 
Burgon's Gresham, i. 36, 228, &c. ; Newcourt's 
Repertorium, ii. 347 ; Hasted's Kent, i. 267 ; 
Morant's Essex, i. 115, 209; Ashmole and Beltz's 
Order of the Garter ; Archseologia, xxi. 39, xxx. 
465, xxxviii. 106; Segar's Baronagium Geneal. ; 
Collins's Peerage, vii. 28, 33 ; G. E. C.'s Complete 
Peerage; Visitation of Devonshire, 1564 (Harl. 
Soc.), passim; Berry's Essex Genealogies; Genea- 
logical Collections illustrating the Hist, of Roman 
Catholic Families in England, ed. J. J. Howard, 
pt i Miscell. Geneal. et Heraldica, new ser. ii. 
152 ; Tytler's Edward VI, i. 76, 228, 427 ; Lin- 
gard's and Froude's Histories; Gent. Mag. 1792, 
ii. 998 ; English Hist. Rev. July 1894; Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. ix. 247, 334, 415.] A. F. P. 

PETRE, WILLIAM (1602-1677), trans- 
lator, the third son of William, second lord 
Petre (1575-1637) of Writtle in Essex, and 
great-grandson of Sir William Petre [q. v.], 
was born in his father's house at Ingatestone, 


9 6 


Essex, 28 July 1602. His mother, who died 
in 1624, was Catherine, second daughter oJ 
Edward Somerset, fourth earl of Worcester. 
His family, who remained Roman catholic, 
had been steady benefactors of Exeter College, 
Oxford, whither he was sent as gentleman 
commoner, matriculating on 5 Feb. 1612, at 
the early age of ten. In the following year, 
however, when Wadham College was com- 
pleted by his great-aunt, Dame Dorothy 
Wadham, he migrated thither, and * became 
the first nobleman thereof (Wooo). In 
October 1613 his eldest brother John died, 
and the society of Exeter dedicated a threnody 
to the family (MADA.N, Early Oxford Press, 
p. 92). About the same time he was joined 
at Wadham by his elder brother Robert, and 
the two brothers, both of whom left without 
taking degrees, presented to the college two 
fine silver tankards, which were sacrificed to 
the royal cause on 26 Jan. 1643. After leaving 
Oxford he was entered of the Inner Temple. 
Subsequently he travelled in the south of 
Europe, and, according to Wood, 'became 
a gent, of many accomplishments.' In 1669 
he issued from St. Omer a translation of the 
then popular ' Flos Sanctorum ' of the Jesuit 
Pedro de Ribadeneira, originally published 
at Barcelona in 1643, fol. The translation, 
which was entitled 'Lives of the Saints, 
with other Feasts of the Year according to 
the Roman Calendar,' is continued down to 
1669. The first edition soon became scarce, 
and a second, corrected and amended, was 
issued at London in 1730, folio. Petre's 
rendering has been commended by Southey 
and Isaac Disraeli. Petre died on the estate 
at Stanford Rivers in Essex which had been 
given him by his father, and he was buried 
in the chancel of Stanford Rivers church. 
His wife Lucy, daughter of Sir Richard 
Fermor of Somerton, Oxfordshire by whom 
he had three sons and two daughters was 
buried by his side in March 1679. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1144; 
Gardiner's Register of Wadham, i. 21 ; Collins's 
Peerage, vii. 36 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 278 ; 
Morant's Hist, of Essex, ' Hundred of Ongar,' 
p. 152; Disraeli's Curiosities of Literature; 
Howard's Roman Catholic Families of England, 
pt. i. p. 44.] T. S. 

PETRE (1622-1684), was the eldest son of 
Robert, third lord Petre (1599-1638), who 
was the great-great-grandson of Sir William 
Petre [q. v.] His mother, who was married 
in 1620 and died two years after her son, 
in 1685, was Mary, daughter of Anthony 
Browne, second viscount Montagu. William 
Petre [q. v.], the translator of Ribadeneira, 
was his uncle. He was one of the ' cavaliers ' 

imprisoned in 1655, but until well advanced 
in life did nothing to attract public notice. In 
1678, however, he, as a devout Roman catho- 
lic, involuntarily drew upon himself the atten- 
tions of the perjurer Titus Gates, who charged 
him with being privy to the alleged popish 
plot. Gates swore in his deposition before 
Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey [q. v.] that he 
had seen 'Lord Peters receive a commission 
as lieutenant-general of the popish army 
destined for the invasion of England from 
the hands of Joannes Paulus de Oliva, the 
general of the Jesuits ' (cf. art. Ixxi. of Oates's 
Narrative, 1679). He repeated these state- 
ments, with em bellishments, before the House 
of Commons in October 1678, and the house 
promptly sent for Lord-chief-justice Scroggs, 
and instructed him to issue warrants for the 
apprehension of all the persons mentioned 
in Oates's information (Commons' Journals, 
23-28 Oct. 1678). Together with four other 
Roman catholic lords Powis, Belasyse, 
Arundel, and Stafford who were similarly 
accused of being destined for high office 
under the Jesuitical regime, Petre was com- 
mitted to the Tower on 28 Oct. 1678. Articles 
were exhibited against him by the commons 
in April 1679, yet, in spite of repeated demands 
for a trial by the prisoners' friends, and of the 
clamour of the partisans of Gates on the other 
hand, no further steps were taken until 23 June 
1680, when Lord Castlemaine, who had sub- 
sequently been committed, was tried and ac- 
quitted. A few months later Viscount Staf- 
ford was tried, condemned, and executed; 
but the patrons of the plot derived no benefit 
from his death, and nothing was said of the 
trial of the other * popish lords,' though the 
government took no step to release them. 
Their confinement does not appear to have 
been very rigorous. Nevertheless Petre, who 
was already an old man, suffered greatly in 
health ; and when, in the autumn of 1683, 
he felt that he had not long to live, he' drew 
up a pathetic letter to the king. In this he 
says : ' I have been five yeares in prison, and, 
what is more grievous to me, lain so long 
under a false and injurious calumny of a 
horrid plot and design against your majestie's 
person and government, and am now by the 
disposition of God's providence call'd into 
another world before I could by a public 
trial make my innocence appear.' This letter 
was printed, and provoked some protestant 
' Observations,' which were in turn severely 
criticised in ' A Pair of Spectacles for Mr. 
Observer ; or Remarks upon the phanatical 
Observations on my Lord Petre's Letter,' 
possibly from the prolific pen of Roger 
L'Estrange. When, however, Petre actually 
died in the Tower, on 5 Jan. 1683-4, a certain 




amount of public compassion was awakened. 
The remaining papist lords were brought 
before the court of king's bench by writ of 
habeas corpus on 12 Feb. 1683-4, when the 
judges asserted that the prisoners ought long 
ago to have been admitted to bail. Petre was 
buried among his ancestors at Ingatestone 
on 10 Jan. 1683-4. There is a portrait at 
Thorndon Hall, Essex. 

By his first wife, Elizabeth (d. 1665), 
daughter of John Savage, second earl Rivers, 
Petre had no issue ; by his second wife, Brid- 
get (d. 1695), daughter of John Pincheon of 
Writtle, he had an only daughter, Mary, who 
was born in Covent Garden on 25 March 1679, 
married, on 14 April 1696, George Heneage of 
Hainton in Lincolnshire, and died on- 4 June 
1704. The first lady was probably the ' Lady 
Peters ' slightingly referred to by Pepys (April 
1664) as 'impudent,' ' lewd,' and a ' drunken 
jade.' The peerage descended in succession to 
his brothers John (1629-1684) and Thomas, 
and the latter, who died on 10 Jan. 1706, left 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Clifton of Lytham, Lancashire, an only son, 
Robert, seventh lord Petre. It was this baron 
who in 1711, being then only twenty, and very 
* little' for his age, in a freak of gallantry cut 
off a lock of hair from the head of a celebrated 
beauty, his distant kinswoman, Arabella Fer- 
mor. It was to compose the feud that sprang 
from this sacrilegious act that Pope wrote his 
' Rape of the Lock,' first published in ' Lintot's 
Miscellany ' in May 1712. Lord Petre mar- 
ried, on 1 March 1712, not Miss Fermor 
who about 1716 became the wife of Francis 
Perkins of Ufton Court, near Reading, and 
died in 1738 but a great Lancashire heiress 
named Catherine Walmesley, by whom, upon 
his premature death on 22 March 1713, he 
left a posthumous son, Robert James, eighth 
lord Petre. The eighth lord married, on 2 May 
1732, Anne, only daughter of James Radcliffe, 
the unfortunate earl of Derwentwater [q. v.] 
(Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Courthope, v. 
96 ; SPENCE, Anecdotes). 

[The Declaration of the Lord Petre upon his 
death, touching the Popish Plot, in a letter to 
his Most Sacred Majestie, 1683 (this letter is 
reprinted in Somers' Tracts, viii. 121); Obser- 
vations on a Paper entitled The Declaration of 
Lord Petre; Howard's Eoman Catholic Families 
of England, pt. i. p. 8; G-. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, 
vi. 247; Collins's Peerage, vii. 36 ; Lingard's Hist, 
ix. 181, x. 47; Morant's Essex ; Evelyn's Diary; 
Luttrell's Relation, vol. i.] T. S. 

Scottish divine, born about 1594, was third 
son of Alexander Petrie, merchant and 
burgess of Montrose. He studied at the 
university of St. Andrews, and graduated 


M.A. in 1615. From 1620 to 1630 he was 
master of the grammar school of Montrose. 
Having received a presentation to the parish 
of Rhynd, Perthshire, from Charles I, he was 
ordained by Archbishop Spotiswood in July 
1632, and inducted to the charge by the pres- 
bytery of Perth. Petrie joined heartily in 
the covenanting movement, and was in 1638 
a member of the general assembly held at 
Glasgow which overthrew episcopacy. In 
several subsequent assemblies he took an 
active part as a member of committees. 

In 1642 a Scottish church was founded in 
Rotterdam for Scottish merchants, soldiers, 
and sailors, and Petrie was selected as the 
first minister by the presbytery of Edinburgh. 
He was approved by the general assembly, 
and was inducted by the classis or presbytery 
of Rotterdam on 30 Aug. 1643. The salary 
was provided by the States-General and the 
city authorities, and the church formed part 
of the Dutch ecclesiastical establishment; but 
it was exempt from the use of the Dutch 
liturgical formularies, and was allowed to 
retain the Scottish usages. The introduction 
of puritan innovations in the church at Rot- 
terdam soon afterwards caused much discord, 
as many of the members were warmly at- 
tached to the old forms prescribed in Knox's 
Liturgy. These difficulties were eventually 
overcome, mainly owing to Petrie's influence. 

In 1644 Petrie published at Rotterdam a 
pamphlet entitled ' Chiliasto Mastix, or the 
Prophecies in the Old and New Testament 
concerning the Kingdom of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ vindicated from the Misinterpretations 
of the Millenaries, and specially of Mr. [Ro- 
bert] Maton [q. v.], in his book called " Israel's 
Redemption." ' Maton's book had been taken 
up by the independents and baptists, and had 
been widely circulated among Petrie's flock, 
and this pamphlet was written as an antidote. 
In 1649 Petrie was employed in some of the 
negotiations with Charles II, who was then 
in Holland. During the later years of his 
life he devoted much time to the preparation 
of his great work, 'A Compendious History 
of the Catholic Church from the year 600 
until the year 1600, showing her Deforma- 
tion and Reformation,' &c., a folio volume 
published at the Hague by Adrian Black in 
1662. The chief interest of the work, which 
displays considerable learning and research, 
lies in the fact that it contains copious 
extracts from the records of the early general 
assemblies of the church of Scotland, which 
were destroyed by fire in Edinburgh in 1701. 
Petrie died in September 1662. He was 
highly esteemed by his fellow-citizens and 
by the Dutch clergy, and the congregation 
largely increased during his ministry. There 


9 8 


is a portrait of Petrie in possession of the 
consistory, of which an engraving is given 
in Stevens's ' History of the Scottish Church, 
Rotterdam.' It is a face indicative of sagacity 
and force of character, and does not belie the 
reputation Petrie had of possessing a some- 
what hasty temper. 

He left two sons Alexander, minister of 
the Scots church at Delft ; George, an apo- 
thecary and three daughters: Christian, 
married to Andrew Snype, minister of the 
Scots church at Campvere ; Isobel, married, 
first to William Wallace, merchant, secondly 
to Robert Allan ; and Elspeth, married to 
George Murray. 

[Scot's Fasti Eccl. Scot. ; Stevens's Hist, of 
the Scottish Church, Kotterdam ; Baillie's Let- 
ters ; Wilson's Presbytery of Perth ; the Scottish 
Church, Rotterdam, 250th Anniversary, Amster- 
dam, 1894.] G. W. S. 

PETRIE, GEORGE (1789-1866), Irish 
antiquary, only child of James Petrie, a por- 
trait-painter, was born in Dublin in 1789. 
His grandfather, also named James, was a 
native of Aberdeen who had settled in Ire- 
land, and his mother was daughter of Sache- 
verel Simpson of Edinburgh. In 1799 he 
was sent to the school in Dublin of Samuel 
White, who was the schoolmaster of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan [q. v.] and of Thomas 
Moore [q. v.] He attended the art school of 
the Dublin Society, and before he was four- 
teen was awarded the silver medal of the 
society for drawing a group of figures. He 
early became devoted to the study of Irish 
antiquities, and in 1808 travelled in Wick- 
low, and made notes of Irish music, of eccle- 
siastical architecture, and of ancient earth- 
works and pillar-stones. He visited Wales, 
making landscape sketches, in 1810, and in 
1813 came to London and was kindly treated 
by Benjamin West, to whom he had an in- 

After his return to Ireland he painted 
landscapes, chiefly in Dublin, W T icklow, Kil- 
dare, the King's County, and Kerry, and 
in 1816 he exhibited at Somerset House 
pictures of Glendalough and Glenmalure, 
both in Wicklow. Lord Whitworth bought 
them. In 1820 Petrie contributed ninety- 
six illustrations to Cromwell's f Excursions 
in Ireland/ and afterwards many others to 
Brewer's ' Beauties of Ireland,' to G. N. 
Wright's 'Historical Guide to Dublin/ to 
Wright's 'Tours/ and to the 'Guide to 
Wicklow and Killarney.' Nearly all these 
illustrations deserve careful study, and have 
much artistic merit as well as absolute anti- 
quarian fidelity. At the first exhibition of 
the Royal Hibernian Academy in 1826, Petrie 
exhibited a large picture of Ardfinane, a 

picturesque castle standing above a many- 
arched bridge on the north bank of the Suir. 
He exhibited the next year 'The Round 
Tower of Kilbannon/ co. Galway, and ' Dun 
Aengus/ a great cashel in Aranmor, co. Gal- 
way. He was elected an academician in 1828, 
and exhibited 'The Twelve Pins in Conne- 
mara/ a group of sharp-pointed mountains, 
and ' The Last Round of the Pilgrims at Clon- 
macnoise.' In 1829 he painted ' The Knight 
and the Lady ' and ' Culdean Abbey/ a ruin 
in the dried-up marsh known as 'Inis na 
mb6o/ to the right of the road from Thurles 
to Roscrea. He was appointed librarian to 
the Hibernian Academy in 1830, and ex- 
hibited six pictures, and in 1831 nine. In 
the course of his studies for these pictures he 
made many tours throughout Ireland, tra- 
velled along the whole course of the Shannon, 
thoroughly studied Clonmacnoise, Cong, Kil- 
fenora, the Aran islands, and many other 
ecclesiastical ruins. 

When Csesar Otway [q. v.] began the 
' Dublin Penny Journal/ of which the first 
number appeared on 30 June 1832, Petrie 
joined him, and wrote many antiquarian 
articles in the fifty-six weekly numbers 
which appeared. He was the sole editor of 
the 'Irish Penny Journal/ which appeared 
for a year in 1842. Both contain much ori- 
ginal information on Irish history never be- 
fore printed, and the best articles are those 
of Petrie and John O'Donovan [q. v.] Petrie 
joined the Royal Irish Academy in 1828, was 
elected on its council in 1829, and worked 
hard to improve its museum and library. At 
the sale of the library of Austin Cooper in 
1831 he discovered and purchased the auto- 
graph copy of the second part of the ' Annals 
of the Kingdom of Ireland/ called by Colgan 
the ' Annals of the Four Masters.' For the 
museum his exertions procured the reliquary 
known as the cross of Cong, the shrine called 
' Domhnach airgid/ and the Dawson collec- 
tion of Irish antiquities. 

From 1833 to 1846 he was attached to the 
ordnance survey of Ireland, and, next to John 
O'Donovan, was the member of the staff who 
did most to preserve local history and his- 
torical topography. His studies on Tara, 
written in November 1837, were published by 
the Royal Irish Academy as an ' Essay on the 
Antiquities of Tara/ a work which contains 
all that is known on the topography of the 
ancient seat of the chief kings of Ireland. 
More may probably be learnt by careful ex- 
cavations, and certainly by a fuller considera- 
tion of Irish literature than Petrie, who was 
ignorant of Irish, could give ; but every one 
who has visited the locality can testify to the 
accuracy of Petrie and to the scholar-like 




character of his method of investigation. The 
first memoir of the survey appeared in 1839, 
but the government of the day soon after 
decided to stop this invaluable public work 
on the ground of expense. A commission 
was appointed in 1843, which recommended 
the continuance of the work, after examining 
Petrie and other witnesses, but, neverthe- 
less, it was never resumed. The Royal Irish 
Academy awarded Petrie a gold medal for 
his essay on Tara ; but Sir William Betham 
[q. v.], whose theories on Irish antiquities 
had been demolished by Petrie, was so much 
opposed to this well-deserved honour that he 
resigned his seat on the council. In 1833 
Petrie was awarded a gold medal for an 
' Essay on the Origin and Uses of the Round 
Towers of Ireland/ and this was published, 
with many additions, under the title of ' The 
Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland,' in 
1845, with a dedication to his two warmest 
supporters in his studies, Dr. William Stokes 
[q. v.] and Viscount Adare, afterwards third 
earl of Dunraven [see QTTIN, EDWIN RICHAED 
WINDHAM]. Many books had been written 
on the subject before this essay, and main- 
tained one or other of the views that these 
towers, of which there are still remains of 
more than a hundred in Ireland, were Phoeni- 
cian fire-temples, towers of sorcerers, astro- 
nomical observatories, centres for religious 
dances, temples of Vesta, minarets for pro- 
claiming anniversaries, watch-towers of the 
Danes, tombs, gnomons, homes of Persian 
magi, and phallic emblems. Petrie demolished 
all these hypotheses, showed that the towers 
were Christian ecclesiastical buildings of 
various dates, and that in some cases the 
actual year of building was ascertainable 
from the chronicles. His evidence is abundant, 
admirably arranged, and conclusive ; but the 
great advance in knowledge which it repre- 
sents can only be appreciated by looking at 
the previous writings on the subject. An 
' Essay on the Military Architecture of Ire- 
land' was never printed. 

Besides these, he wrote numerous papers 
on Irish art in description of various anti- 
quities, and all of these contain careful and 
original investigations. He also made a col- 
lection of Irish inscriptions, which has since 
his death been edited, with additions, by Miss 
Margaret Stokes, with the title of ' Christian 
Inscriptions in the Irish Language.' In 
1816 he had written an 'Essay on Music ' in 
the ' Dublin Examiner,' and he was devoted 
throughout life to Irish music, collecting 
airs wherever he travelled, and playing them 
admirably on the violin. In 1855 he pub- 
lished 'the Ancient Music of Ireland,' a 
collection of songs and airs made in all parts 

of Ireland, on which many musicians and 
musical writers have since levied contribu- 
ions. A second volume was projected, but 
never appeared. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the university of Dub- 
Lin in 1847, and in 1849 a pension on the civil 
list. To his last years he travelled in Ireland, 
in 1857 again visited the isles of Aran, and 
in autumn 1864 made his last journey to the 
one region he had never seen, the Old Glen 
in the parish of Glencolumkille in Donegal, 
a region containing many curious antiquities 
and numerous primitive descendants of Co- 
nall Gulban. He died at his house in Charles 
Street, Dublin, on 17 Jan. 1866, and was 
buried in Mount Jerome cemetery, near Dub- 
lin. He was throughout life a disinterested 
student of Irish architecture, decorative art, 
music, and topography, and to all these sub- 
jects made permanent and important contri- 
butions. He seemed devoid of any ambition 
but that of making his subject clear, gave 
generous help to many other workers, and 
was beloved by a large circle of friends. His 
life has been admirably written by his friend 
Dr. William Stokes, and contains a list of his 
papers read before the Royal Irish Academy, 
of his contributions to the ' Dublin Penny 
Journal ' and the ( Irish Penny Journal,' and 
of his illustrations to books. 

[Stokes's Life and Labours in Art and Archaeo- 
logy of George Petrie, London, 1868 ; Graves's 
Eloge on the late George Petrie, Dublin, 1866 ; 
Works.] N. M. 

PETRIE, HENRY (1768-1842), anti- 
quary, born in 1768, was the son of a dancing- 
master who resided at Stockwell, Surrey. 
He was probably connected with John Petrie, 
M.P. for Surrey in 1796. The son was in- 
tended to follow in his father's profession, 
but soon showed an aversion to it, and 
devoted himself to antiquarian research. 
Through Thomas Frognall Dibdin [q. v.], 
whom Petrie is said to have instructed in 
the art of deportment and dancing, he was 
introduced to George John, second earl 
Spencer [q. v]., who warmly encouraged his 
researches. Petrie formed a close friendship 
with Dibdin, and rendered him valuable aid 
in the production of his bibliographical works. 
On the death of Samuel Lysons [q.v.] in 
1819, Petrie was appointed keeper of the 
records in the Tower of London. 

After prolonged study of the materials for 
early English history, Petrie about 1816 con- 
ceived the project of publishing a complete 
'corpus historicum' for the period. A 
similar scheme had been suggested by John 
Pinkerton [q. v.] about 1790, and keenly 
advocated by Gibbon. It came to nothing 
H 2 




through Gibbon's death, and Petrie was the 
first to revive it. During 1818 and 1819 
various meetings were held at Earl Spen- 
cer's house to further the project ; it was 
agreed that no such scheme could be under- 
taken by private enterprise, and an appeal 
was made for government aid. Petrie was 
selected to draw up a plan. His aim was to 
make the body of materials to be published 
absolutely complete, and to include extracts 
from Greek and Roman writers containing 
all references to early Britain ; copies of all 
inscriptions on stone or marble ; all letters, 
charters, bulls, proceedings of councils and 
synods; laws, engravings of coins, medals, 
and seals ; besides general histories, annals, 
and chronicles of England, and histories of 
particular monasteries. 

The plan was presented to the record com- 
mission in 1821, and was sanctioned by the 
government and parliament. The work com- 
menced in 1823, with Petrie as chief editor, 
assisted by the Rev. John Sharpe (1769- 
1859) [q. v.] The Welsh portion was en- 
trusted to John Humffreys Parry (1786- 
1825) [q. v.] and to Aneurin Owen [q. v.], 
and was published in 1841. The main portion 
entrusted to Petrie proceeded steadily until 
1832, when it was interrupted by his illness. 
But in 1835, when the whole text of the first 
volume had been completed, and a large col- 
lection of materials made for further volumes, 
the work was suspended by an order of the 
record commissioners, due to a misunder- 
standing between them and Petrie. 

Petrie died unmarried at Stockwell, Surrey, 
on 17 March 1842, before the undertaking was 
resumed. One volume was finally completed 
and published in 1848 by Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy [q. v.], who had been trained by Petrie. 
It bore the title 'Monumenta Historica Bri- 
tannica, or Materials for the History of Great 
Britain from the Earliest Period to the Nor- 
man Conquest/ Hardy acknowledged valu- 
able aid derived from Petrie's manuscripts in 
his 'Descriptive Catalogue of Materials' pub- 
lished in 1862. Petrie also edited ' Magni 
Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae/ 1830, 4to ; and 
his translation of the earlier portion of the 
* Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' was reprinted from 
the ' Monumenta ' in the ' Church Historians 
of England/ 1854, vol. ii. pt. i. 

[Prefaces to the Monumenta and Descriptive 
Catalogue by Sir T. D. Hardy; Edinburgh Rev. 
xlvi. 472 ; Dibdin's Bibliographical Decameron, 
passim, Literary Companion, i. 103, 104, 154, 
320, and Literary Reminiscences, pp. 453, 716, 
717; Gent. Mag. 1834 i. 375, 1842 ii. 661-2, 
1851 ii. 628; Annual Register, 1842, p. 258; 
Gorton's Biogr. Diet., Suppl. ; Manning and 
Bray's Surrey, ii. 233, 235.] A. F. P. 

PETRIE, MARTIN (1823-1892), colonel, 
was born on 1 June 1823, at the Manor House, 
King's Langley, Hertfordshire, being the 
second son of Commissary-general William 
Petrie (d. 1842), who had seen active service 
in Egypt, Italy, and France. His mother Mar- 
garet was daughter and coheiress of Henry 
Mitton of the Chase, Enfield. Colonel Petrie 
was sixth in descent from Alexander Petrie, 
D.D. [q. v.] His infancy was spent in Portugal, 
and his childhood at the Cape of Good Hope, 
at which places his father held appointments. 
In youth he was chiefly in France, Italy, and 
Germany. On 14 April 1846 he entered the 
army as an ensign in the royal Newfoundland 
corps, and served for eleven years in North 
America, becoming a lieutenant on 7 Jan. 
1848 and captain on 5 May 1854. On 26 Jan. 
1855 he was transferred to the 14th foot regi- 
ment, and left Newfoundland on 20 March 
in the small steamer Vesta, which carried 
twenty-four passengers, seven of them, in- 
cluding Captain Petrie, being officers on their 
way to join regiments in the Crimea. When 
three hundred miles off St. John's the vessel, 
already damaged by ice-floes, was caught in 
a terrific storm, and the engine-room was 
flooded. Petrie's mechanical skill and great 
courage enabled him to save the ship. He 
was called the ' hero of the Vesta ; ' but his 
hands were so severely lacerated and frost- 
bitten that he was invalided for some time, 
and could not proceed to the Crimea. 

In May 1856 Petrie joined the Royal Staff 
College, and in December 1858 he passed the 
final examination, coming out first on the list. 
He was attached to the topographical depart- 
ment of the war office from 10 March 1859 to 
30 June 1864 ; and in 1860, during his first year 
there, he brought out a standard work in three 
volumes, ' The Strength, Composition, and 
Organisation of the Armies of Europe/ show- 
ing the annual revenue and military expen- 
diture of each country, with its total forces 
in peace and war. In 1863 he published a 
volume giving more detailed information re- 
specting the British army, ' The Organisa- 
tion, Composition, and Strength of the Army 
of Great Britain/ which reached a fifth 
edition in 1867. Petrie also compiled two 
important volumes, ' Equipment of Infantry ' 
and 'Hospital Equipment' (1865-6), forming 
part of a series on army equipment. For the 
long period of eighteen years (1864-1882) he 
was examiner in military administration at 
the staff college, and latterly at the Royal 
Military College also. He became major oil 
13 July 1867, and exchanged to the 97th foot 
on 18th Dec. ; in July 1872 he retired on half- 
pay, in 1876 became colonel, and in 1882 with- 
drew from the service. Petrie read some 




papers on military matters at the Royal 
United Service Institution, of which he was 
a member ; and as an enthusiastic freemason 
he was master of the St. John's, Newfound- 
land, lodge, and a member of the Quatuor 
Coronati lodge in London. He took an active 
interest in philanthropic and religious work, 
and was a trustee of the Princess Mary Village 

Petrie died on 19 Nov. 1892, at his house, 
Hanover Lodge, Kensington Park, London, 
and was buried at Kensal Green. His wife, 
Eleanora Grant, youngest daughter of Wil- 
liam Macdowall of Woolmet House, Mid- 
lothian, and granddaughter of Sir William 
Dunbar of Durn, baronet, died on 31 Jan. 
1886, leaving two daughters, of whom the 
elder, authoress of ' Clews to Holy Writ,' 
1892, is the wife of Professor Carus- Wilson of 
McGill University, Montreal, and the younger 
is an honorary missionary of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society in Kashmir. 

[Private information ; war office records.] 

G. A. A. 


550?). [See PEDROG.] 

PETRONIUS (d. 654), fifth abbot of St. 
Augustine's, Canterbury, is said to have been 
a Roman, and to have been hallowed abbot 
of St. Augustine's by Archbishop Honorius 
[q. v.] in 640, two years after the date 
assigned to the death of his predecessor 
Gratiosus. This delay is explained by the 
supposition that Honorius was absent on 
some journey. The date assigned to the 
death of Petronius is 654. There was no re- 
cord or tradition of his place of burial in the 
fifteenth century, nor is there any early 
authority known for his existence. An 
epitaph describes him as a good man, a teacher 
of his monks, and a lover of purity. 

[Elmham'sHist. S. August. Cant. pp. 175, 183, 
ed. Hardwick (Rolls Ser.) ; Thorn's Chron. S. 
August. Cant. col. 1769, ed. Twysden; Somner's 
Antiq. of Cant. pt. ii. p. 164, ed. Batteley ; Dug- 
dale's Monasticon, i. 120; Diet. Chr. Biogr. 
art. ' Petronius ' (5) by Bishop Stubbs.] W. H. 

PETRUCCI, LUDOVICO (fi. 1619), poet 
and soldier of fortune, born at Siena, was son 
of Aridante Petrucci, alias Petruccioli, ' no- 
bile ' of the territory of Peligliano, Tuscany. 
The father served under Orsino, count of Pe- 
ligliano, in the Venetian service against the 
Turks, distinguished himself in the capture 
of Castel Nuovo, and died of a wound eight 
days after his return. Ludovico was educated 
in Tuscany, but subsequently became a soldier 
of fortune. Having renounced Catholicism, 
he was imprisoned by the inquisition at 

Padua, remaining in prison four years (see 
in his Farrago his poems ' sopra la crudelta 
del Inquisitor di Padova '). 

He then entered the service of Venice, 
describing himself as at the time povero 
mendico, and obtained in 1603 the grade of 
serving-major. Subsequently he transferred 
himself to the imperial army, and served in 
the Hungarian wars in the regiments, first 
of Count Sulma, and then of Ferdinand de 
Kolonitsch. In 1607 he became a captain in 
the Hungarian army. He subsequently en- 
tered the service of "the Prince of Branden- 
burg and Neuburg, and met some English- 
men at Diisseldorf. According to his own 
statement in his * Apologia,' he served nine 
years ' in bello Hungarico ; ' but this can only 
apply to the whole of his stay in Germany. 

Meeting with no success in his military 
career, he removed to England in 1610, and, 
visiting Oxford on the recommendation of 
the Earl of Pembroke, 'entered into the 
public library in the beginning of the year 
following.' He became a commoner of St. 
Edmund Hall, and later of Balliol. In spite 
of certificates which he obtained to the con- 
trary, he was suspected in the university 
of being a spy and popishly affected. Ac- 
cordingly, he was forced, or at least desired, 
to depart, ' such was the jealousy of the 
puritan party in the university.' Wood de- 
scribes him as ' phantasticall ' and unsettled 
in mind. In his ' Apologia ' he prints several 
certificates of his conformity to the church 
of England during his stay there. An epistle 
' Candido Lettore,' in his 'Apologia,' is dated 
from the Fleet, 10 July 1619, where he was 
in prison. Granger mentions a portrait. 

Petrucci wrote : 1. ' Raccolta d' alcune 
rime del cavaliere Ludovico Petrucci, nobile 
Toscano, in piu luoghi e tempi composte e a 
diversi prencipi dedicate ; con la silva delle 
sue persecution!,' Oxford, 1613 ; in Italian 
and Latin ; dedicated in prose to King 
James, and in verse to all the royal family. 
The poems themselves consist of adulatory 
or other addresses to various notabilities, in- 
cluding Bacon and Archbishop Abbot, with 
occasional insertions of prose letters sent to 
him, and of certificates of character. The work 
concludes with a long and critical enumera- 
tion of his patrons, including many Oxford 
men and English politicians. 2. ' Apologia 
equitis Ludovici Petrucci contra calumnia- 
tores suos una cum responsione ad libellum 
a Jesuitis contra serenissimum Leonardum 
Donatum ducem Venetum promulgatum,' 
appeared at London in 1619, with portrait by 
Thomas Pothecary (Italian and Latin) ; the 
work is imperfect, and does not include the 
reply to the Jesuits mentioned in the title. 




It is dedicated to King James, with verse ad- 
dresses to his various English patrons. Then 
follows a farrago of verses, narrative, certifi- 
cates, addresses, &c., as in the ' Raccolta.' His 
main contention is that the charges against 
him resulted from a plot of the Jesuits. Cer- 
tain l Rime al re ' by Petrucci are among the 
Royal MSS. 140, vii. 

[The only authority is Petrucci 's scattered and 
incoherent statements and certificates in his 
works, from which Wood (Athense, ii. 293) has 
compiled a notice. Cf. Foster's Alumni; Sta- 
tioners' Kegister (under date 27 Nov. 1587), and 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 22, for the De- 
scription of Scotland set forth by Petrucci.] 

W. A. S. 

PETRUS (d. 606 ?), first abbot of St. 
Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, was both a 
monk and a priest (BEDE, Historia Ecdesias- 
tica, i. cc. 27, 33), and was one of the com- 
panions of St. Augustine [q. v.] on his mission 
to England in 596-7. Either at the end of 
597 or the beginning of 598, Augustine sent 
him in company with Lawrence or Lauren- 
tius [q. v.], afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury, to Pope Gregory to announce the success 
of the mission and to lay before him certain 
questions. He apparently brought back the 
pope's replies in 601. Ethelbert (552 P-616) 
[q. v.], king of Kent, was building the 
monastery of SS. Peter and Paul, later called 
St. Augustine's, at the time of Augus- 
tine's death, and Petrus was appointed its 
first abbot. His name appears in a charter 
of Ethelbert to the monastery recording his 
appointment as abbot, and in a charter of 
Augustine concerning the exemption of the 
house, but both are undoubtedly spurious 
(ELMHAM, pp. 114, 119-21). While fulfilling 
a mission to Gaul on which he had been sent 
by Ethelbert, he was drowned in a creek of 
the sea at Amfleet or Ambleteuse, a short 
distance north of Boulogne, probably on 
30 Dec. 606. The year of his death, given 
by Elmham as 607, depends on the date 
assigned to the death of Augustine, for it is 
said by Elmham to have taken place one 
year seven months and three weeks after- 
wards (ib. p. 126). The year of Augustine's 
death, which is not certainly ascertained, is 
taken here to be 604. The people of the 
country buried the body of Petrus without 
any marks of respect, not knowing who he 
was. A miraculous light appeared by night 
above his grave, and those who lived in the 
neighbourhood were thus taught that he was 
a holy man ; so they made inquiries as to 
who he was and whence he came, removed 
his body to Boulogne, and there buried it 
in the church of St. Mary the Virgin with 
fitting honour (BEDE, u.s. c. 33). Petrus is 

said to have been highly esteemed by Augus- 
tine, so that for his sake Augustine gave to 
the new monastery the gifts sent him by 
Gregory. An epitaph on him is given by 
Elmham. There is an unprinted ' Life of 
Petrus,' written by Eadmer, in Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, manuscript no. 371, f. 
416, and it is perhaps to this that Elmham 
refers in his * History of the Monastery' 
(p. 111). Malbrancq, writing in the seven- 
teenth century and quoting from the records 
of the church of Boulogne, gives some par- 
ticulars of his life, on which it would at least 
not be safe to lay any stress, such as that 
Petrus was employed by Ethelbert to preach 
to the Northumbrians and did so with 
success, that his habits were ascetic, that he 
worked miracles, and that his body was 
translated to Boulogne by an earl named 
Fumertius. His obit was kept at Canterbury, 
and was, according to the Benedictine mar- 
tyrology, on 30 Dec., though the English 
martyrology places it on 6 Jan., which, it is 
suggested, may have been the day of his 
translation (STFBBS). 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. i. cc. 27, 33 (Engl. Hist, 
Soc.); Elmham's Hist. Mon. S. Aug. Cant. pp. 
2,92,94,96, 111, 114, 121, 126 (Rolls Ser.); 
Thome's Chron. S. Aug. Cant. cols. 1760-6, ed. 
Twysden, ap Decem Scriptt. ; Hardy's Cat. of 
Materials, i. 206-7 (Rolls Ser.); Acta SS. Ord. 
Ben. ii. 1 ; Acta SS. Bolland., January, i. 334-5; 
Malbrancq's De Morinis, i. 285-8 ; Somner's 
Antiq. of Canterbury, pt. 2, pp. 164, ed.Batteley ; 
Diet. Chr. Biogr. art. Petrus ' (72), by Bishop 
Stubbs.] W. H. 

PETT, PETER (d. 1589), master-ship- 
right at Deptford, is described as the great- 
grandson of Thomas Pett of Skipton in Cum- 
berland (LE NEVE, Pedigrees of the Knights, 
pp. 155-6). But Skipton is in Yorkshire, and, 
though some of his kin may have settled in the 
north, it is more probable that he belonged to 
the family of the name which early in the 
fifteenth century owned property at Pett in 
the parish of Stockbury in Kent (HASTED, 
Hist, of Kent, ii. 525 n.) Heywood stated 
in 1637 that for two hundred years and 
upwards men of the name had been officers 
and architects in the royal navy (CHARNOCK, 
Hist, of Marine Architecture, ii. 284). It 
appears well established that Pett's father, 
also Peter, was settled at Harwich, probably 
as a shipbuilder. Pett himself was certainly 
in the service of the crown from an early age ; 
he was already master-shipwright at Dept- 
ford in the reign of Edward VI, and there he 
continued till his death on or about 6 Sept. 
1589. During this time he had a principal 
part in building most of the ships of the 
navy, though the details are wantin g. Richard 



further information, see Autobiography of 
Phmeas Pett, ed. W. G. Perrin, 1018. 




Chapman, who built the Ark, was brought 
up by Pett, and so also, in all probability, 
was Matthew Baker, with whom, from 1570, 
Pett was associated in the works at Dover. 
In 1587 he and Baker accused Sir John Haw- 
kyns [q. v.], then treasurer of the navy, of mal- 
practices in connection with the repair of the 
queen's ships. The charges were apparently 
held to be the outcome of pique or jealousy. 
Hawkyns was annoyed, but suffered no ma- 
terial injury, and Pett remained in his office. 
In 1583 he was granted arms, or, on a fess gules 
between three ogresses, a lion passant of the 
field ; and the crest, out of a ducal coronet, a 
demi-pelican with wings expanded. He was 
twice married. By his first wife he had at 
least two sons : Joseph, who succeeded him 
at Deptford as master-shipwright, and died 
on 15 Nov. 1605 ; and Peter, who carried on 
business as a shipbuilder at Wapping. By 
his second wife, Elizabeth Thornton, sister 
of Captain Thornton of the navy, he had also 
two sons Phineas, who is separately noticed ; 
and Noah, who in 1594 was master of the 
Popinjay with his uncle Thornton and four 
daughters, one of whom, Abigail, was cruelly 
beaten to death with a pair of tongs by her 
stepfather, Thomas Nunn, in 1599. Nunn, 
who was a clergyman, received the queen's 
pardon for his crime, but died immediately 
afterwards (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 28 May 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom. ; Defeat of 
the Spanish Armada (Navy Eecords Soc.); Auto- 
biography of Phineas Pett (Harl. MS. 6279).] 

J. K. L. 

PETT, PETER (1610-1670?), commis- 
sioner of the navy, fifth son of Phineas 
Pett [q. v.], was born at Deptford on 6 Aug. 
1610. He was brought up by his father 
as a shipwright; while still very young 
was his father's assistant at Deptford and 
Woolwich, and in 1635-7 built the Sovereign 
of the Seas under his father's supervision. 
In 1647 he was ordered by the parliament a 
gratuity of 10 for building the Phosnix at 
Woolwich. He would seem to have been then 
appointed master-shipwright at Chatham, and 
in 1648 to have sent up important informa- 
tion to the parliament, and to have been 
mainly instrumental in preserving the ships 
at Chatham from revolting. Probably as a 
re ward for this service, he was appointed com- 
missioner of the navy at Chatham, an office 
analogous to that of the present superin- 
tendent of the dockyard, with the important 
difference that Pett, as a practical man, exer- 
cised immediate and personal control over 
the several departments of the yard, and was 
thus largely responsible for the efficiency of 

the ships during the Dutch wars. That 
during the Commonwealth the ships were 
fairly well maintained is matter of history 
but Pett excited a strong feeling of animosity 
by filling all the more important posts in the 
yard with his near relatives. As early as 
November 1651 complaints were laid by some 
of the subordinate officials, includino- the 
chaplain, that members of the family worked 
into each other's hands, that stores were 
wasted or misappropriated, that higher wages 
were charged than were paid, and that false 
musters were kept. A special inquiry was 
ordered in the following January, when Pett 
had little difficulty in proving that the 
charges were malicious ; but it is clear that 
there were great opportunities for fraud and 
reasonable grounds for suspicion. The com- 
missioner's cousin, Joseph Pett, was master- 
shipwright at Chatham ; another cousin, Peter 
Pett, was master-shipwright at Deptford; 
a younger brother, Christopher, assistant 
master-shipwright at Woolwich; another 
brother, Phineas, clerk of the check at Chat- 
ham, and a cousin, Richard Holborne, master- 
mast-maker. When, in the following summer 
his cousin Peter at Deptford died, he was able 
to have his brother Christopher promoted to 
the vacancy, and Peter's son Phineas ap- 
pointed assistant. Pett was also permitted 
to undertake private contracts for building 
ships of war (Cal. State Papers. Dom. 7 Jan 

He was reappointed to his office after the 
Restoration, and remained in it till 29 Sept. 
1667, when he was charged with being the 
main cause of the disaster at Chatham in 
June, and was summarily superseded. He 
was accused, in detail, of having neglected 
or disobeyed orders from the Duke of York, 
the Duke of Albemarle, and the navy com- 
missioners to moor the Royal Charles in a 
place of safety, to block the channel of the 
Medway by sinking a vessel inside the chain, 
to provide boats for the defence of the river, 
and to see that the officers and seamen were 
on board their ships (ib. 19 Dec. 1667). On 
18 June he was sent a prisoner to the Tower, 
on the 19th was examined before the council, 
and on 22 Oct. before the House of Com- 
mons. There was talk of impeaching him, 
but the accusation was merely the outcome 
of a desire to make him answerable for the 
sins of those in high places, and the matter 
was allowed to drop. The general feeling 
was clearly put by Marvell, in the lines be- 
ginning : 

After this loss, to relish discontent, 
Some one must be accused by Parliament : 
All our miscarriages on Pett must fall ; 
His name alone seems fit to answer all. 




After being deprived of his office, Pett dis- 
appears from view. He married, on 8 Sept. 
1632, Catherine (b. August 1617), daughter 
of Edward Cole of Woodbridge, Suffolk (Re- 
gister of St. Mary's, Woodbridge, by favour 
of Mr. Vincent B. Redstone). Mention is 
made of one SDn, Warwick. 

Pett has been confused with his cousin 
Peter, the master-shipwright at Deptford, 
who died in 1652, and with each of that 
Peter's two sons, Sir Peter [q. v.], advocate- 
general for Ireland, and Sir Phineas Pett, 
master-shipwright at Chatham, who was 
knighted in 1680, was comptroller of stores, 
and resident commissioner at Chatham, and 
is to be distinguished from the commissioner 
Peter's brother Phineas, a clerk of the check 
at Chatham. Three others, named Phineas 
Pett, were at the same time in the naval 
service at Chatham or in the Thames, one of 
whom was killed in action in 1666, while in 
command of the Tiger. The name Phineas 
Pett continued in the navy till towards the 
close of last century. 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom., the indexes 
to which have so confused the Peters and the 
Phineases as to be useless ; the only possibility 
of clearing the confusion is by reference to the 
original documents, and by carefully distinguish- 
ing the signatures; Pepys's Diary; Harl. MS. 
6279.] J. K. L. 

PETT, SIK PETER (1630-1699), lawyer 
and author, son of Peter Pett (1593-1652), 
master-shipwright at Deptford, grandson of 
Peter Pett of Wapping, shipbuilder, and 
great-grandson of Peter Pett (d. 1589) [q.v.], 
was baptised in St. Nicholas Church, Dept- 
ford, on 31 Oct. 1630. He was educated in 
St. Paul's School and at Sidney-Sussex Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was admitted in 
1645. After graduating B.A. he migrated to 
Pembroke College, Oxford, and in 1648 was 
elected to a fellowship at All Souls'. He then 
graduated B.C.L. in 1650, was entered as a 
student at Gray's Inn, and settled there ' for 
good and all ' about a year before the Restora- 
tion. From 1661 to 1666 he sat in the Irish 
parliament as M.P. for Askeaton. He was 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple in 
1664. When the Royal Society was formed, 
in 1663, Pett was one of the original fel- 
lows, elected on 20 May, but was expelled 
on 18 Nov. 1675 for ' not performing his 
obligation to the society.' He was probably 
absorbed in other interests. He had been 
appointed advocate-general for Ireland,where 
he was knighted by the Duke of Ormonde. 
He was also much engaged in literary work, 
more or less of a polemical nature. A short 
tract of his, headed ' Sir Peter Pett's Paper, 
1679, about the Papists/ is in the Public 

Record Office (SJiaftesbury Papers, ii. 347). 
His published works are : 1. 'A Discourse 
concerning Liberty of Conscience,' London, 
1661, 8vo. 2. 'The Happy future Estate 
of England,' 1680, fol. ; republished in 1689 
as ' A Discourse of the Growth of England 
in Populousness and Trade ... By way of 
a Letter to a Person of Honour.' 3. ' The 
obligation resulting from the Oath of 
Supremacy . . . / 1687, fol. He edited also 
the ' Memoirs of Arthur [Annesley], Earl of 
Anglesey,' 1693, 8vo, and ' The genuine Re- 
mains of Dr. Thomas Barlow, late Lord Bishop 
of Lincoln,' 1693, 8vo. He died on 1 April 
1699. Pett has been often confused with his 
father's first cousin, Peter, commissioner of the 
navy at Chatham, who is separately noticed. 

[Knight's Life of Colet, p. 407; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon.; Wood's Athense, iv. 576 ; St. Paul's School 
Reg. p.*43 ; Burrows's Worthies of All Souls', 
pp. 476, 540.] J. K. L. 

, PHINEAS (1570-1647), master- 
builder of the navy and naval commissioner r 
elder son of Peter Pett (d. 1589) [q. v.], by 
his second wife, Elizabeth Thornton, was 
born at Deptford on 1 Nov. 1570. After 
three years at the free school at Rochester,. 
and three more at a private school at 
Greenwich, he entered Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, in 1586. After his father's death, 
in September 1589, Phineas was left destitute, 
and in 1590 was bound ' a covenant servant ' 
to Richard Chapman, the queen's master-ship- 
wright at Deptford. Within three years Chap- 
man died, and he shipped as carpenter's mate 
on board the Edward and Constance, in the 
second expedition of Edward Glemham [q. v.] 
The voyage had no great success, and after two 
years of hardship and privation Pett found 
himself again in London as poor as when he 
started. In August 1595 he was employed 
' as an ordinary workman ' in rebuilding the 
Triumph at Woolwich. Afterwards he 
worked, under Matthew Baker, on the Re- 
pulse, a new ship which was being got ready for 
the expedition to Cadiz. During this winter 
Pett studied mathematics, drawing, and the 
theory of his profession, in which Baker gave 
him much assistance and instruction. In 
April 1597 Lord Howard, the lord admiral, 
who was much at Baker's house, accepted him 
as his servant. It was not, however, till near 
Christmas 1598 that Howard was able to em- 
ploy him in ' the finishing of a purveyance of 
plank and timber ' in Norfolk and Suffolk, 
which occupied Pett through the whole of 
1599 ; and in June 1600 Howard appointed 
him ' keeper of the plankyard, timber, and 
other provisions ' at Chatham, ( with promise of 
better preferment to the utmost of his power/ 

For further 

information see Autobiography of Phineas 
Pett, ed. W. G. Perrin, 1918. 




A quarrel with Matthew Baker followed, and 
for the next ten or twelve years, according 
to Pett's story, Baker lost no opportunity of 
doing him a bad turn. According to Pett, 
the administration of the dockyards was at 
the time altogether swayed by personal in- 
terest, jealousy, and malicious intrigue. 

In March 1601 Pett was appointed 
assistant to the master-shipwright at Chat- 
ham. In November 1602 his good service 
in fitting out the fleet in six weeks won for 
him Mr. Greville's 'love, favour, and good 
opinion ; ' and shortly after the accession of 
King James he was ordered by Howard to 
build a miniature ship a model, it would 
seem, of the Ark for Prince Henry. This 
was finished in March 1603-4, and Pett took 
her round to the Thames, where on the 22nd 
the prince came on board. The admiral pre- 
sented Pett to him; and on the following 
day Pett was sworn as the prince's servant, 
and was appointed captain of the little vessel. 
He was also granted the reversion of the 
places held by Baker or his brother Joseph, 
whichever should first become vacant ; and in 
November 1605, on the death of Joseph, he 
succeeded as master-shipwright at Deptford. 
In 1607 he was moved to Woolwich, and 
there remained for many years, favourably re- 
garded by Howard, John Trevor, the surveyor 
of the navy, and Mansell, the treasurer ; and, 
in consequence, hated and intrigued against 
by their enemies and his own, of which, as a 
successful man, he had many. 

In October 1608 he laid the keel of a new 
ship, the largest in the navy, which was 
launched in September 1610 as the Prince 
Royal; but in April 1609 definite charges of 
incompetence displayed in her construction 
were laid against him by the Earl of North- 
ampton, instigated by Baker and George Wey- 
mouth [q. v,]/a great braggadocio.' A com- 
mission was ordered to investigate the matter, 
and reported in Pett's favour; but as North- 
ampton refused to accept their decision and 
continued to press the charges, the king had 
the case formally tried before him at Woolwich 
on 8 May, and Pett was formally acquitted 
on all points. 

In 1612 Pett was the first master of the 
Shipwrights' Company, then incorporated by 
royal charter. In 1613 he was in the Prince 
with Howard when he took the Lady Eliza- 
beth and her husband, the Palatine, to 
Flanders; and was ordered by Howard to 
dine at his table during the voyage. In 
1620-1 he seems to have accompanied Sir 
Robert Mansell [q. v.] in the expedition 
against the Algerine pirates; and in 1623 
went to Santander in the Prince, which he 
had fitted specially for the reception of the in- 

fanta (cf. GARDINER, Hist. v. 120). Charles I, 
on his accession to the throne, gave him a 
gold chain valued at 104J. In June 1625 
he was at Boulogne in the Prince, which 
brought the young queen to Dover on the 
12th. In August 1627 he was sent to Ports- 
mouth to hasten the equipment of the fleet, 
and, continuing there, e saw many passages 
and the disaster which happened to the 
Lord Duke [of Buckingham].' In February 
1629-30 he was appointed an assistant to 
the principal officers of the navy, and in the 
following December one of the principal 
officers and a commissioner of the navy. He 
still, however, continued to exercise the 
supervision over Deptford and Woolwich 
yards, assisted to a great extent by his son 
Peter (1610-1670?) [q. v.] In 1635 he was 
sent to Newcastle to provide timber, &c., for 
a new ship to be built at Woolwich, the keel 
of which was laid on 21 Dec. She was 
launched on 13 Oct. 1637, and named the 
Sovereign of the Seas the largest and most 
highly ornamented ship in the English navy. 
A model of her, possibly contemporary, is 
preserved in the museum of the Royal Naval 
College at Greenwich. 

But though the Prince Royal and the 
Sovereign of the Seas were the chief pro- 
ducts of Pett's art, he was more or less re- 
sponsible for every ship added to the navy 
during the reigns of James I and Charles I, 
as well as for many of the largest merchant 
ships then built, among others the Trade's 
Increase and the Peppercorn [see DOWNTON, 
ing this period shipbuilding was improved 
and the size of ships increased. It has been 
said that the secrets of the trade were pre- 
served in the Pett family handed down 
from father to son (CHARNOCK, Hist, of 
Marine Architecture, ii. 284) ; but Phineas 
Pett learned nothing directly from his father, 
and indirectly only so far as Chapman and 
Baker were his father's associates. The ex- 
cellence which he attained and handed down 
to his successors may be more justly assigned 
to his Cambridge training and his subse- 

?uent studies in mathematics. He died in 
647, and was buried at Chatham on 21 Aug. 
Pett was married three times : (1) in 1598, 
to Anne, daughter of Richard Nichols of 
Highwood Hill in Middlesex ; she died in 
February 1626-7; (2) in July 1627, to 
Susan, widow of Robert Yardley, and mother, 
or stepmother, of the wife of his son John ; 
she died in July 1636 ; (3) in January 1636-7, 
to one Mildred. By his first wife he had 
three daughters and eight sons, the eldest of 
whom, John, a captain in the navy, married, 
in 1625, Katharine, daughter of Robert 


1 06 


Yardley, and died in 1628. Peter, the fifth 
son, is separately noticed ; Phineas, the 
seventh (b. 1618), was in 1651 clerk of the 
check at Chatham; and Christopher, the 
youngest (b. 1620), was master-shipwright at 
Deptford, where he died in 1668, leaving a 
widow, Ann, and four children. 

[The principal authority for the life of Pett is 
his autobiography Harl. MS. 6279 a late 
seventeenth or early eighteenth centur}' copy. 
It appears to be trustworthy as to its facts, 
though with a strong personal bias. A lengthy 
abstract is printed in Archseologia, xii. 207 
et seq. Pett is frequently mentioned in the 
Calendars of State Papers, Domestic ; see also 
Birch's Life of Prince Henry.] J. K. L. 

PETTIE, GEORGE (1548-1589), writer 
of romances, was younger son of John Le 
Petite or Pettie of Tetsworth and Stoke 
Talmage, Oxfordshire, by his wife Mary, 
daughter of William Charnell of Snareston, 
Leicestershire. He became a scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1564, and graduated B.A. 
on 29 March 1569. According to Wood, Wil- 
liam Gager [q. v.] of Christ Church, his junior 
by eight or nine years, was his i dear friend/ 
and each encouraged the other's literary pre- 
dilections. Pettie travelled beyond the seas, 
and apparently had some military experience. 
On returning home he devoted his leisure to 

The popularity bestowed on i The Palace of 
Pleasure ' (1566-7) of William Painter [q. v.] 
encouraged Pettie to attempt a similar ven- 
ture. His work appeared under the title of 
'A Petite Pallace of Pettie his Pleasure, con- 
tayning many pretie Hystories by him, set 
foorth in comely Colourss, and most delight- 
fully discoursed.' It had been licensed for 
the press to Richard Watkins on 6 Aug. 1576, 
and was published soon afterwards, without 
date. The publisher Watkins, rather than 
Pettie, was, it appears, responsible for the 
title, which is a barefaced plagiarism of that 
of Painter's volumes. Pettie, in his preface, 
says he mainly wrote for gentlewomen, and 
deprecated all comparison with the ( Palace of 
Pleasure.' The printer adds a note, stating 
that he knew nothing of the author or of the 
author's friend who offered him the manu- 
script. In an ensuing l Letter of G[eorge] 
P[ettie] to R. B., concerning this Woorke,' 
dated from ' Holborn, 12 July,' the author 
apologises for modernising the classical tales 
'amourous stories ' Wood calls them with 
which he mainly deals. R. B. are, it has been 
suggested, the reversed initials of Barnaby 
Rich [q. v.] The stories, twelve in number, are 
entitled, respectively ' Sinorix and Gamma/ 
' Tereus and Progne/ ' Germanicus and 
Agrippina/ ' Amphiaraus and Eriphile/ 

' Iciliusand Virginia/ < Admetus and Alcest/ 
' Scilla and Minos/ 'Curiatius and Horatia/ 
' Cephalus and Procris/ * Minos and Pasiphse/ 
' Pigrnalions freinde and his Image/ and 
' Alexius.' The book was at once popular, 
and two other editions, mainly differing from 
the first by the omission of the prefatory 
matter, but set up from new type, appeared 
in the same year. Other editions appeared 
in 1580 and 1598 by James Roberts, and in 
1608 and 1613 by George Eld. 

Pettie also translated the first three books 
of Guazzo's ' Civile Conversation/ through 
the French. Richard Watkins obtained a 
license for the publication on 27 Feb. 1580-1. 
The first edition appeared in that year with 
a dedication addressed from Pettie's lodging 
near St. Paul's, London, on 6 Feb. 1581, to 
Marjorie, wife of Sir Henry Norris, baron 
Norris of Rycote [q. v.] The work is in prose, 
with afew verses interspersed. Asecond issue 
by Thomas East was dated 1586, and included 
a fourth book of Guazzo, begun by Pettie, 
but completed from the Italian by Bartholo- 
mew Young. 

Pettie died, writes Wood, in July 1589, 
' in the prime of his years, at Plymouth, being 
then a captain and a man of note.' He was 
buried in ' the great Church ' at Plymouth. 
Lands at Aston-Rowant, Kingston, and 
Tetsworth, which his father had given him, 
he left to his brother Christopher. Another 
brother, Robert, was father of Mary Pettie, 
who was mother of Anthony a Wood. Wood, 
who was thus grandnephew of George Pettie,, 
says that Pettie f was as much commended for 
his neat stile as any of his time/ but of the 
' Petite Pallace 'Wood wrote that it was in his 
day ' so far from being excellent or fine that 
it is more fit to be read by a schoolboy or a 
rustical amorata than by a gent, of mode 
and learning.' Wood only kept a copy in 
his library for the respect that by reason of 
his kinship he ' bore to the name of the 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 552; 
Wood's Life and Times, ed. Clark (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.), i. 32-7; Lee's Thame, p. 216; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Hunter's manuscript Chorus Va- 
tum inAddit. MS. 24488, f. 58; Eitson's English 
Poets; Collier's Stationers' Registers, 1570-87, pp. 
20, 139; Warton'sHist.ofEngl.Poetry,iv.336-7; 
Park's British Bibliographer, ii. 392.] S. L. 

PETTIE, JOHN (1839-1893), painter, 
born at East Linton, Haddingtonshire, on 
17 March 1839, was the son of Alexander 
Pettie, a tradesman of some means, and of 
Alison, his wife. The elder Pettie did not 
make the conventional resistance to his son's 
evident vocation for art. At the age of seven- 
teen Pettie began his training at the Trustees' 




Academy in Edinburgh, under the auspices 
of Robert Scott Lauder [q. v.] Among his 
fellow-students were Mr. Orchardson, Mr. 
McWhirter, Mr. MacTaggart, Mr. Peter Gra- 
ham, Mr. Tom Graham, and George Paul 
Chalmers [q. v.], all of whom became distin- 
guished painters. The careers of Pettie and 
his companions mark a distinct development 
in the history of the modern Scottish school, 
which had its origin in the personality of 
Lauder, their master. The pictorial aims and 
ambitions of the group wholly differed from 
those of their immediate predecessors, among 
whom may be reckoned Sir Noel Paton, the 
brothers Faed, Mr. Erskine Nicol, and Robert 
Herdman. With all of these the chief pre- 
occupation was the telling or illustration of 
a story, the making of a dramatic point, the 
insistence on some domestic affection, hu- 
morous or pathetic. Pettie's work, on the 
other hand, invariably embodies some purely 
pictorial motive over and above the subject, 
specially aiming at a rich resonance of colour. 
His fame springs mainly from the success with 
which he pursued this latter ideal. 

Pettie's first exhibited picture, ' The Prison 
Pet,' appeared at the Scottish Academy in 
1859, and was followed by 'False Dice,' 
' Distressed Cavaliers,' and ( One of Crom- 
well's Divines.' In 1860 he made his debut 
as an exhibitor in London, sending to the 
Royal Academy a picture, 'The Armourers/ 
which found a place on the line. His next 
effort, 'What d'ye lack, Madam?' a study of 
JenkinVincent in the 'Fortunes of Nigel,' was 
no less popular. Thus encouraged, the young 
painter made up his mind in 1862 to join his 
friend Mr. Orchardson, who had settled in 
London some twelve months before. The two 
artists shared a studio for several years, first 
in Pimlico, and later at 37 Fitzroy Square, 
afterwards the home of Ford Madox Brown. 
Pettie was the earlier of the pair to win a 
wide recognition, his daring and assertive 
harmonies soon compelling attention. ^ It 
was, however, to a robust capacity for taking 
pains, no less than to the more proclamatory 
style of his talent, that Pettie owed his ac- 
ceptance as leader, when more young men 
came southwards to swell the band of Lon- 
don Scots. Prolific as he was industrious, 
he soon became one of the best known of 
British painters, and his rapid succession of 
canvases found a ready sale among dealers 
and private collectors. His first contribution 
to the Royal Academy after his migration 
was another scene from Scott, ' The Prior and 
Edward Glendinning.' In 1863 he was re- 
presented by ' The Trio,' ' The Tonsure,' and 
1 George Fox refusing to take the Oath ; ' in 
1864 by 'At Holker Hall;' in 1865 by 'The 

Drumhead Court-martial ; ' and in 1866 by 
' An Arrest for Witchcraft,' a vigorous and 
dramatic piece of work, which secured his 
election as A.R.A. A year before, on 24 Aug. 
1865, he had married Miss Elizabeth Ann 
Bossom, the sister-in-law of another Scottish 
painter, Mr. C. E. Johnson, and had deserted 
Mr. Orchardson to set up house for himself. 
In 1873 he was elected a full member of the 
Royal Academy in succession to Sir Edwin 
Landseer, contributing 'Jacobites, 1745' as 
his diploma picture. In 1881 he moved from 
St. John's Wood Road, where he had lived 
since 1869, to a house of his own building, 
the Lothians, in FitzJohn's Avenue, Hamp- 
stead, which he occupied for the rest of his 

Between 1860 and his death, in 1893, 
Pettie sent about 130 pictures to the Royal 
Academy, to say nothing of the numerous 
works which went privately to their destined 
homes. The following are among the best 
and most deservedly popular of his later pro- 
ductions : ' Terms to the Besieged ' (1872), 
'The Flag of Truce' (1873), 'Sword and 
Dagger Fight ' (1877), ' A Death Warrant ' 
(1879, now at Hamburg), 'Before his Peers' 
(1881), ' Monmouth and James II ' (1882), 
'The Vigil ' (1884 ; Chantrey Fund collec- 
tion), ' Challenged ' and 'Sir Peter Teazle' 
(1885), 'The Chieftain's Candlesticks '(1886; 
a vigorous and brilliant piece of bravura, per- 
haps his most striking work), ' The Traitor ' 
(1889), and 'The Ultimatum' (1892). In his 
later years Pettie turned his attention to por- 
traiture with considerable success, and left 
unfinished several important commissions at 
his death. He was fond of painting his 
friends ' in costume.' His most striking 
portrait, perhaps, is that of Mr. Charles 
Wyndham in the part of David Garrick. 

The dash and vigour of Pettie's finer work 
were characteristic not only of the painter, 
but of the man ; and yet he was the least 
assertive and self-confident of craftsmen. 
A.n indefatigable worker, he felt the con- 
viction he constantly proclaimed, that his 
only merit, his only hope of success, lay in 
his capacity for hard and unremitting toil. 
In his best years his work exhibited a glow 
and transparency of colour which have seldom 
been surpassed ; in his later period he be- 
trayed a tendency on the one hand towards 
a hasty coarseness of execution, on the other 
towards a violence in his colour contrasts, 
which will probably lead to a future neglect 
of the pictures produced during the last few 
years of his life. For about eighteen months 
before his death he suffered from an affection 
of the ear, which eventually proved to be 
the result of an abscess on the brain. This 




produced paralysis, to which he succumbed 
at Hastings on 21 Feb. 1893 at the early age 
of fifty-four. He was buried in Paddington 
cemetery on 27 Feb. 1893. Kindly, genial, 
and hospitable, he was always ready to help 
and encourage the more struggling members 
of his own profession. 

Pettie left three sons and a daughter (wife 
of Mr. Hamish McCunn, the musical com- 

A representative exhibition of Pettie's 
work was held at Burlington House in the 
winter of 1894. The best portrait of him is 
one by Mr. Arthur Cope, in the possession of 
Mrs. Pettie. 

[Catalogues of the Koyal Academy ; private 
information.] W. A. 


(1791-1865), surgeon and antiquary, was son 
of William Pettigrew, whose ancestor, the 
Gowan priest, ' Clerk Pettigrew/ is men- 
tioned by Sir Walter Scott in < Hob Roy.' 
The father was a naval surgeon, who served 
in the Victory long before the time of Nelson. 
Thomas was born in Fleet Street, London, 
on 28 Oct. 1791, and was educated at a 
private school in the city. He began to 
learn anatomy at the age of twelve, left 
school at fourteen, and, after acting for two 
years as assistant to his father in the per- 
formance of his duties as a parish doctor, he 
was apprenticed at the age of sixteen to John 
Taunton, the founder of the City of London 
Truss Society. He afterwards entered as a 
pupil at the Borough hospitals, at the same 
time acting as demonstrator of anatomy in 
the private medical school owned by his 
master Taunton. He was admitted a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 
on 19 June 1812, and a fellow on 11 Dec. 
1843, but as early as 1808 he had been elected 
a member of the Medical Society of London, 
and in 1811 he was made one of its secretaries, 
in opposition to Dr. Birkbeck. In 1813 he 
was appointed registrar, and took up his 
abode in the society's house in Bolt Court, 
Fleet Street. In 1808, as one of the founders 
of the City Philosophical Society, which met 
in Dorset Street, Salisbury Square, he gave 
the first lecture, choosing as his subject * In- 
sanity;' and in 1810 he helped to establish 
the Philosophical Society of London, where 
he gave the inaugural address ' On the Objects 
of Science and Literature, and the advan- 
tages arising from the establishment of Philo- 
sophical Societies.' In 181 3 he was appointed, 
by the influence of Dr. John Coakley Lettsom 
[q.v.], secretary of the Royal Humane Society, 
a post he resigned in 1820, after receiving in 
1818 the society's medal for the restoration of 

a case of apparent death. In 1819, together 
with the Chevalier Aldini of the imperial 
university of Wilna, Pettigrew engaged in 
experiments, at his house in Bolt Court, in 
the employment of galvanism in cases of sus- 
pended animation. The result of these ex- 
periments was a joint publication entitled 
' General Views of the Application of Gal- 
vanism to Medical Purposes, principally in 
cases of suspended Animation.' While he 
was acting as secretary to the Royal Humane 
Society Pettigrew became known to the Duke 
of Kent, who made him first surgeon extra- 
ordinary, and later surgeon in ordinary to 
himself, and, after his marriage, surgeon to 
the Duchess of Kent. In this capacity he 
vaccinated their daughter, the present Queen 
Victoria, the lymph being obtained from one 
of the grandchildren of Dr. Lettsom. The 
Duke of Kent shortly before his death recom- 
mended Pettigrew to his brother, the Duke 
of Sussex. The latter appointed Pettigrew 
his surgeon, and, at his request, Pettigrew 
undertook to catalogue the library in Ken- 
sington Palace. The first volume of this 
work was published in two parts in 1827. 
It was entitled ' Bibliotheca Sussexiana.' A 
second volume was brought out in 1839 ; it 
was commenced upon too large a scale, for 
the volumes issued deal only with the theo- 
logical division of the library, and the cata- 
logue remained incomplete when the books 
were sold in 1844 and 1845. The catalogue 
was well received, and, as an acknowledgment 
of the value of his literary work, Pettigrew 
was presented with the diploma of doctor of 
philosophy from the university of Gottingen 
on 7 Nov. 1826. 

Pettigrew in 1816 became surgeon to the 
dispensary for the treatment of diseases of 
children, then newly founded in St. Andrew's 
Hill, Doctors' Commons, which has since 
become the Royal Hospital for Children and 
Women in the Waterloo Road. This post 
he resigned in 1819, when he was elected 
surgeon to the Asylum for Female Orphans. 
In this year, too, he delivered the annual 
oration at the Medical Society, selecting as his 
subject ' Medical Jurisprudence,' and pointing 
out the very neglected position then occupied 
by forensic medicine in England. In 1819 he 
removed from Bolt Court to Spring Gardens, 
and became connected with the West London 
Infirmary, an institution established by Dr. 
Golding, which was the immediate forerunner 
of the Charing Cross Hospital. Pettigrew 
was appointed surgeon to the Charing Cross 
Hospital, upon its foundation, and lectured 
there upon anatomy, physiology, pathology, 
and the principles and practice of surgery. 
He resigned his post of senior surgeon in 




1835, in consequence of a disagreement with 
the board of management, and for some years 
after his resignation he devoted himself to 
private practice, living in Savile Row. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1827, and in 1830 he took a leading part in 
the election of the Duke of Sussex to the 
office of president, on the retirement of Mr. 
Gilbert. He was a prominent freemason for 
many years before his death. 

Pettigrew's love for antiquities grew upon 
him as his age increased. In 1834 his at- 
tention was drawn to the subject of mummies, 
and he published a book on embalming. In 
1843, when the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation was founded, he at once took a leading 
part in its management. He acted as its 
treasurer, and during its early years the town 
meetings were held at his house. In 1854 his 
wife died, and he gave up the practice of his 
profession to devote himself to antiquarian 
and literary pursuits, at the same time re- 
moving to Onslow Crescent. He died on 
23 Nov. 1865. 

His chief works are : 1. 'Views of the Base 
of the Brain and the Cranium,' London, 4to, 
1809. 2. ' Memoirs of the Life and Writings 
of the late John Coakley Lettsom, M.D./ 8vo, 
3 vols., London, 1817. 3. ' Biographical Me- 
moir of Dr. Thomas Cogan (1736-1818) [q. v.], 
a Founder of the Royal Humane Society,' ' An- 
nual Report of the Royal Humane Society ' 
for 1818. 4. ' History of Egyptian Mummies, 
and an Account of theWorship and Embalm- 
ing of the Sacred Animals,' 4to, London, 1834. 

5. ' The Biographies of Physicians and Sur- 
geons in Rose's Biographical Dictionary, from 
" Claude Nicholas le Cat" onwards,' 1857. 

6. 'Bibliotheca Sussexiana : a descriptive 
Catalogue, accompanied by Historical and 
Biographical Notices of the Manuscripts and 
Printed Books contained in the Library of 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, in 
Kensington Palace,' London, 2 vols. in three 
parts, imperial 8vo, 1827 and 1839 ; part i. 
contains 294 pages, and part ii. contains 516 

7. 'The Medical Portrait Gallery, 

containing Biographical Memoirs of the most 
celebrated Physicians and Surgeons, &c.,' 
4 vols. imperial 8vo, London, 1840. Petti- 
grew tells us that this work was begun to 
divert his thoughts after the death of his 
eldest son in 1837. 8. ' On Superstitions con- 
nected with the History and Practice of 
Medicine and Surgery/ London, 8vo, 1844. 
9. ' Life of Vice-admiral Lord Nelson,' 2 vols., 
8vo, London, 1849. In this work Pettigrew 
first conclusively proved the nature of the tie 
connecting Lord Nelson with Lady Hamilton, 
and furnished evidence of the birth of their 
child. 10. 'An Historiall Expostulation 

against the Beastlye Abusers both of Chy- 
rurgerie and Physyke in oure tyme, by John 
Halle/ edited for the Percy Society, 1844. 
His antiquarian works appear chiefly in 
the ' Journal of the British Archaeological 
Association ' and in the ' Archasologia ' of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

[Autobiography in the Medical Portrait Gal- 
lery, 1844, vol. iv. (with an engraved portrait) ; 
obituary notices in Gent. Mag. 1866, i. 136, and 
in the Journal of the British Archaeological As- 
sociation for 1866, pp. 327-35.] D'A. P. 

(1708-1781), antiquary, born in 1708, was 
son of the Rev. Francis Pettingal of New- 
port, Monmouthshire. He matriculated at 
Jesus College, Oxford, on 15 March 1725, 
and graduated B.A. in 1728. He was after- 
wards incorporated at Cambridge, probably at 
Corpus Christi College, whence he graduated 
M.A. in 1740, and D.D. at a later date. 

He was for some years preacher at Duke 
Street chapel, Westminster, and on 3 June 
1757 was appointed prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. On 28 July 1758 he was in- 
stalled prebendary of Lincoln. On 16 Jan. 
1752 he was elected a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries (see list inBibl. Topogr.Brit. 
vol. x.), and read three papers before it, viz. 
'On the Courts of Pye Powder/ 'On the 
Gule of August/ and ' Observations on an 
Altar with Greek Inscription at Corbridge, 
Northumberland ' (Archceologia, i. 190, ii. 
60, 92). He died in the autumn of 1781. 

Pettingall also published : 1. 'A Disserta- 
tion on the Origin of the Equestrian Figure 
of the George and of the Garter/ 1753 (cf. 
Blackwood's Magazine, xli. 744). 2. 'The 
Latin Inscriptions on the Copper Table dis- 
covered in the year 1732, near Heraclea . . . 
more particularly considered and illustrated/ 
1760, 4to. 3. 'A Dissertation upon the 
Tascia or Legend on the British Coins of 
Cunobelin, and others/ 1763, 4to. 4. ' An 
Enquiry into the Use and Practice of Juries 
among the Greeks and Romans, from whence 
the origin of the English Jury may probably 
be deduced/ 1769, 4to. 

He also translated A. C. F. Houtteville's 
'Discours Historique et Critique sur la 
M6thode des Principaux Auteurs qui ont 
6crit pour ou centre le Christianisme/ with a 
preface and notes, 1739. Appended to it 
is ' A Dissertation on the Life of Apollonius 
Tyaneus, with some Observations on the 
Platonists of the latter [sic] school.' 

A son, THOMAS PETTINGALL (1745-1826), 
tutor and censor of Christ Church from 1774 
to 1779, was afterwards Whitehall preacher, 
and in 1782 became rector of East Hamp- 
stead, Berkshire. 




[Alumni Westmonast. ; Alumni Oxon. ; G-rad, 
Cant. ; Lo Neve's Fasti Eccles. Angl. ii. 
131,438; Walcot's Memorials of Westminster 
p. 72; Gent. Mag. 1781 p. 442, 1826 i. 379; 
Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit. ii. 1573 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; authorities cited.] G. Ls G. N. 

PETTITT, HENRY (1848-1893), dra- 
matist, the son of Edwin Pettitt, a civil 
engineer, and the author, under the pseu- 
donym of Herbert Glyn, of some works of 
fiction, was born 7 April 1848 at Smeth- 
wick, near Birmingham, and educated at a 
school kept by the Rev. William Smerdon. 
Thrown on his own resources at the age of 
thirteen, he made various experiments, in- 
cluding an attempt on the stage at Sadler's 
Wells, and was for two years clerk in the 
head offices in London of Messrs. Pickford & 
Co., the carriers. He wrote without remune- 
ration for various periodicals, and obtained, 
about 1869, a post as junior English master 
in the North London Collegiate School, High 
Street, Camden Town. Still writing for 
periodicals and for the stage, he at length 
obtained 51. for ' Golden Fruit/ a drama pro- 
duced at the East London Theatre 14 July 
1873. Before this time he had written, in col- 
laboration with Mr. Paul Merritt, ' British 
Born,' in a prologue and three acts, produced 
17 Oct. 1872 at the Grecian, of which theatre 
Mr. Merritt had been a principal support. In 
1875 he gave to the Grecian, in conjunction 
with Mr. George Conquest, ' Dead to the 
World ' 12 July, and ' Sentenced to Death ' 
14 Oct., and, with no collaborator, ' The Pro- 
mised Land, or the Search for the Southern 
Star,' 13 Sept. Next year he gave to the 
same house, still in association with Mr. Con- 
quest, ( Snatched from the Grave ' 13 March, 
1 Queen's Evidence ' 5 June, ' Neck or 
Nothing ' 3 Aug., and the ' Sole Survivor' 
5 Oct. ; and to the Britannia, in collabora- 
tion with G. H. Macdermott, 'Brought to 
Book' 8 May. In 1877 he wrote for the 
Grecian, in conjunction with Mr. Conquest, 
'Schriften the One-eyed Pilot' 2 April, 
' During her Majesty's Pleasure' 21 May, 
and ' Bound to succeed, or a Leaf from the 
Captain's Log-book,' 22 Oct. From the 
same partnership sprang 'Notice to Quit' 
20 April 1879, the ' Green Lanes of Eng- 
land ' 5 Aug., ' A Royal Pardon, or the 
House on the Cliff' 28 Oct., and the ' Queen's 
Colours ' 31 May 1879. Alone he wrote the 
'Black Flag, or Escaped from Portland,' 
9 Aug., and ' An Old Man's Darling/ a one- 
act comedy, 12 Nov. The other pieces were 
melodramas, and are chiefly interesting as 
showing fertility of invention. ' Brought to 
Justice,' by Pettitt and Merritt, was given on 
27 March' 1880 at the Surrey. In the same 

year he supplied the Grecian with a panto- 
mime, ' Harlequin King Frolic.' This piece 
is said to have had the longest run of any 

Meanwhile he found employment in a more 
important sphere. On 31 July 1880 the 
' World/ by Paul Merritt, Henry Pettitt, and 
Augustus (afterwards Sir Augustus) Harris, 
was given at Drury Lane, and marked the 
beginning of a very prosperous era both for 
Pettitt and the playhouse. In 1880 and 
1881 he visited America to look after his 
royalties and superintend the production of a 
version of { Le Voyage en Suisse/ which he 
wrote for the Hanlon-Lee troupe . In America 
he seems to have given the ' Nabob's Fortune.' 
On 31 Dec. 1881 'Taken from Life' was 
played at the Adelphi, and on 18 Nov. 1882 
' Love and Money/ by Pettitt and Charles 
Reade, followed at the same house. ' Pluck, 
or a story of 60,000/.,' by Pettitt and Harris, 
was given at Drury Lane 5 Aug. 1882. In 
' In the Ranks ' (Adelphi, 6 Oct. 1883) he 
had for collaborator Mr. George R. Sims. 
On 1 Dec. Pettitt gave at the Olympic the 
' Spider's Web/ first seen at the Grand 
Theatre, Glasgow, the 28th of the previous 
May. 'Human Nature/ by Pettitt and 
Harris, came out at Drury Lane 12 Sept. 
1885. 'Harbour Lights/ by Pettitt and 
Sims, followed at the Adelphi on 23 Dec., 
and was in turn succeeded at Drury Lane 
by ' A Run of Luck/ written in conjunction 
with Augustus Harris. 28 Aug. 1886. On 
28 July 1887 the Adelphi produced the 
' Bells of Haslemere/ written in conjunction 
with Mr. Sydney Grundy, and on 19 July 
1887 the ' Union Jack/ due to the same col- 
laboration. On 23 Dec. this was succeeded 
by the ' Silver Falls/ by Pettitt and Sims, 
which, on 14 Sept. 1889, gave way to 
' London Day by Day/ by the same writers. 
'Faust up to Date/ by Pettitt and Sims, 
was seen at the Gaiety 30 Oct. 1888. To 
Drury Lane he supplied, with Augustus 
Harris, ' A Million of Money/ 6 Sept. 1890, 
and he took part with Sims in ' Carmen up 
to Date/ a burlesque, at the Gaiety 4 Oct. 
1890, previously seen in Liverpool. ' Master 
and Man/ by Pettitt and Sims, had been 
transferred from Birmingham to the Prin- 
cess's 18 Dec. 1889. 'A Sailor's Knot' 
(Drury Lane, 5 Sept. 1891) is claimed for 
Pettitt alone, while the ' Prodigal Daughter/ 
17 Sept. 1892. is by him and Sir Augustus 
Harris. The ' Life of Pleasure/ a drama, by 
Pettitt and Sir Augustus Harris, 21 Sept. 
1893, was his last play. To make room for 
the pantomime, it was transferred to the 
Princess's, at which house it ran until 
February 1894. 



This list, which does not claim to be com- 
plete, gives an idea how productive was 
Pettitt during his few years of dramatic 
activity. His plays showed considerable 
knowledge of dramatic effect, a sense of 
situation, and general deftness of execution. 
His characters are conventional, and do not 
dwell in the memory, and his style is with- 
out literary quality. He was eminently 
successful, however, accumulating in a few 
years, while leading an open-handed life, a 
personalty declared for probate purposes to 
be 48,4777. Pettitt was a popular and, in 
the main, an unassertive man. He died in 
London on 24 Dec. 1893. 

[Personal knowledge ; Athenseum, variou 8 
years ; Daily Telegraph, 25 Dec. 1893 ; Archer's 
Theatrical World, 1893.] J. K. 

PETTO, SAMUEL (1624 P-1711), puri- 
tan divine, born about 1624, was possibly son 
of Sir Edward Peto,who died 24 Sept. 1658, 
by his wife Elizabeth, a daughter of Sir Gre- 
ville Verney (cf. Pedigree in DTTGDALE'S 
Warwickshire, i. 472, Harl. Soe. xii. 173). 
He entered as a sizar at Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, 15 June 1644, matriculated 19 March 
1645, and graduated M. A. About 1648 he was 
appointed rector or 'preacher of the word 'at 
Sandcroft, one of the ten parishes of the 
deanery or township of South Elmham, Suf- 
folk. In May 1658 the council recommended 
him to the trustees for the maintenance of 
ministers for a grant of 501. per annum (State 
Papers, Interregnum, Council Book I, pp. 78, 
589). He was strongly independent, even 
favouring unordained preaching. He left 
Sandcroft before the enforcement of the act 
of uniformity. The living was vacant 15 Jan. 
1661-2, 'per cessionem.' 

Petto then removed to Wortwell, Norfolk, 
near Harleston, and preached at Redenhall, 
Harleston, Wortwell, and Alburgh. In 
1672, on the Declaration of Indulgence, he 
was licensed as a congregational teacher at his 
own house at Wortwell-cum- Alburgh, and 
at the house of John Wesgate at Redenhall- 
cum-IIarleston, near Sandcroft (BROWNE, 
Congregationalism in Norfolk and Suffolk, 
pp. 335, 488). He also helped in the ministry 
of the neighbouring congregational church at 
Denton. He removed to Sudbury before 1675, 
and became, previous to 1691, pastor of the 
Friars' Street independent chapel there (cf. 
The Independents of Sudbury, p. 53). 

Petto was held in great respect in the dis- 
trict. He died in 1711, and was buried in the 
churchyard of All Saints, Sudbury, 21 Sept. 

Petto published: 1. 'The Voice of the 
Spirit, or an Essay towards a Disco verie of 
the Witnessings of the Spirit,' London, 

1654. 2. ' Roses from Sharon, or sweet 
Experiences gathered up by some precious 
Hearts whilst they followed in to know the 
Lord,' London, 1654, printed with No. 1 
(with John Martin, minister at Edgefield, 
Norfolk, and Frederick Woodal of Wood- 
bridge). 3. ' The Preacher sent, or a Vin- 
dication of the Liberty of Public Preaching 
by some Men not Ordained,' London (30 Jan.), 
1657-8. 4. 'A Vindication of the Preacher 
sent, or a W arrant for Public Preaching 
without Ordination/ London, 1659 (with 
Woodal, in reply to Matthew Poole's ' Quo 
Warranto '). 5. ' The Difference between the 
Old and New Covenant stated and explained,' 
London, 1674 (reprinted at Aberdeen, 1820, 
as ' The Great Mystery of the Covenant of 
Grace '). 6. ' Infant Baptism of Christ's Ap- 
pointment,' London, 1687. 7. 'Infant Bap- 
tism vindicated from the Conceptions of Sir 
Thomas Grantham [q. v.],' London, 1691. 
8. ' A Faithful Narrative of the Wonderful 
and Extraordinary Fits which Mr. Thomas 
Spatchet, late of Dunwich and Cookly, was 
under by Witchcraft, as a Misterious Pro- 
vidence,' London, 1693 (Petto was an eye- 
witness of the events described). 9. ' The 
Revelation unvailed . . .,' London, 1693 ; 
(reprinted with ' Six Several Treatises,' infra, 
Aberdeen, 1820). Calamy also credits Petto 
with 'Two Scripture Catechisms, the one 
shorter and the other larger,' 1672. He com- 
municated an account of a parhelia observed 
in Suffolk, 28 Aug. 1698, to the Royal Society 
( ( Transactions,' No. 250, p. 107) ; joined with 
John Manning in publishing, in 1663, ' Six 
several Treatises of John Tillinghast ; ' pre- 
fixed ' The Life of Mrs. Allen Asty ' to a 
sermon by Owen Stockton, London, 1681 
(reprinted by Religious Tract Society, as 
' Consolation in Life and Death '). 

[W. W. Hodson's Story of the Independents of 
Sudbury; Calamy's Account, p. 648, Continua- 
tion, p. 796 ; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memo- 
rial, iii. 285; Notes and Queries, vii. xii. 129; 
Suckling's Suffolk, i. 183; David's Noncon- 
formity in Essex, p. 372 ; Hanbury's Memorials, 
i. 357 ; information kindly supplied by C. K. 
Robinson, master of Catharine Hall, Cambridge, 
by the Rev. W. Morley Smith, rector of St. 
Cross, and by George Unwin, esq., of Chilworth, 
Surrey, a descendant.] W. A. S. 

PETTUS, SIE JOHN (1613-1690). deputy 
governor of the royal mines, was the third 
son of Sir Augustine Pettus of Rackheath, 
Norfolk, by his second wife, Abigail, third 
daughter of Sir Arthur Heveningham of 
Heveningham, Suffolk. Born in 1613, he 
entered the service of Charles I in 1639, and 
was knighted on 25 Nov. 1641, as a mark of 
the king's favour to Sir Richard Gurney [q. v.], 




lord mayor of London, whose daughter Eliza- 
beth Pettus had married in 1639. Taken pri- 
soner by Cromwell at Lowestoft, he was ex- 
changed after fourteen months' confinement 
in Windsor Castle. He then raised a full 
regiment of horse at his own charge,but, 'this 
being almost discharged, he betook himself 
to garrison work ' at Bath and Bristol. On the 
fall of the latter city in 1645 his life was saved 
by Colonel Charles Fleetwood [q. v.], to whom 
he was related by marriage, and from whom 
he received other ' civilities.' Four charges 
were brought against him by the committees 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, to two of which he 
gave satisfactory answers on his examination 
by the committee of sequestrations in Sep- 
tember 1645. In November 1646 the remain- 
ing two charges were still unheard. In that 
year, however, he compounded, receiving 
aid from Charles Fleetwood, whose friend- 
ship for him caused Pettus to be suspected 
of disloyalty to the royal cause. He took 
part in attempts to save the life of Charles I, 
and had to sell estates worth 420/. a year to 
meet the expenses. After the king's execu- 
tion he supplied Charles II with money from 
time to time. He was ' clapt up ' by Brad- 
shaw for corresponding with Charles, but 
after examination by the council of state he 
was set free on bail of 4,000. In August 
1651 he was assessed at 600/., but, his debts 
amounting to 5,960/., he escaped with the 
payment of 40J. In 1655 he addressed a 
petition to Cromwell, expressing fidelity to 
his government, and became deputy governor 
of the royal mines. He became M.P. for 
Dunwich on 21 March 1670, and in 1672 he 
was appointed deputy lieutenant for Suffolk, 
deputy to the vice-admiral, and colonel of 
a regiment of the trained bands. In these 
offices he rendered valuable service during 
the Dutch war, and was instrumental in ob- 
taining 10,000. for the sick and wounded. 
Originally a man of considerable wealth, he 
had purchased Cheston Hall, Suffolk, and 
other estates ; but he lost more than 20,000. 
in the royal cause, and in later life he appears 
to have been several times imprisoned for 
debt. In July 1679 he wrote to Sancroft from 
the king's bench prison, begging for a loan 
of 20/. to set him free, and in 1683 he was 
said to be 'now reduced to nothing.' He 
was deputy governor of the royal mines 
for more than thirty-five years. He died in 

Pettus had issue a son, who died in 1662, 
and a daughter, Elizabeth, who married 
Samuel Sandys, and died on 25 May 1714, 
aged 74. His relations with his wife were 
unhappy. She deserted him in 1 657 , returned 
after five years' absence, but after a short time 

left him again and entered a nunnery. In 
1672 she procured his excommunication. In 
defence of his conduct he published ' A Narra- 
tive of the Excommunication of Sir J. Pettus, 
of the County of Suffolk . . . obtained against 
him by his lady, a Roman Catholic . . . with 
his . . . Answers to several aspersions raised 
against him by her,' London, 1674, 4to. 

Pettus also published : 1. ' Fodinee Regales ; 
or the History, Laws, and Places of the chief 
Mines and Mineral Works in England, Wales, 
and the English Pale in Ireland, as also of 
the Mint and Mony . . . with a clavis,' &c., 
London, 1670, fol. This work was under- 
taken at the request of Prince Rupert and 
Shaftesbury. 2. 'England's Independency 
upon the Papal Power,' &c., London, 1674, 
4to, consisting of two reports by Sir J. 
Davies and Sir E. Coke, with a preface by 
Pettus. 3. ' Volatiles from the History of 
Adam and Eve, containing many unques- 
tioned Truths and allowable Notions of several 
Natures,' London, 1674, 8vo. 4. ' The Case 
and Justification of Sir J. Pettus . . . con- 
cerning two charitable Bills now depending 
in the House of Lords, under his care, one 
for the better settling of Mr. Henry Smith's 
Estate . . . the other for settling of chari- 
table uses in the Town of Kelshall,' &c. [Lon- 
don], 1677-8, fol. 5. < The Constitution of 
Parliaments in England, deduced from the 
time of King Edward II, illustrated by King 
Charles II, in his Parliament summon'd the 
18 of Feb. 1660-1, and dissolved 24 Jan. 
1678-9, with an Appendix of its Sessions,' 
London, 1680, 8vo. 6. ' Fleta Minor, or the 
Laws of Art and Nature ... in ... assaying, 
fining, refining . . . of confin'd Metals. Trans- 
lated from the German of Lazarus Ereckens, 
Assay-master-general of the Empire of 
Germany. Illustrated with forty-four Sculp- 
tures,' London, 1683, fol. Manuscript copies 
by Pettus of his prefaces are among the Raw- 
linson MSS. (Bodleian Library, C. 927). 
Pettus wrote several other works, not pub- 
lished, including ' The Psalms in Metre' and 
' King David's Dictionary,' and he left several 
works unfinished, including a history of his 
private life from 1613 to 1645. 

An engraving of Pettus at the age of seventy 
is prefixed to his 'Fleta Minor.' Granger 
mentions a portrait in the possession of Lord 
Sandys at Ombersley, Worcestershire. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650 ix. 151, 
Charles II, x. 154, xx. 65, clxii. 51, cclv. 247; 
Cal. of Committee for Advance of Money, 1642- 
1656, pt. iii. p. 1378 ; Rawlinson MSS. (Bodleian 
Library), A. xxxiii. ff. 69, 87, C. 927 ; Tanner 
MSS. (Bodleian Library) xxxv. 84, Ixix. 107, 
cxv. 95, 96, 109, 111, 115, 120, 124, 126,cxxxviii. 
81, ccxc. 158, cccxii. 86; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th 


Hep. pp. 139, 377, 378,381, 382, 383, 387, 7th Rep. 
p. 796, 9th Kep. pt. ii. p. 89, llth Rep. App. 
iv. 26; Thurloe State Papers, iv. 277; Nalson's 
Collection, ii. 680 ; Loveday's Letters, Dom. and 
For. ; Memoirs of the Verney Family, iii. 208 ; 
Luttrell's Brief Relation of State Affairs, i. 534, 
iv. 444 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 402 ; 
Suckling's Hist, of Suffolk, ii. 198; Gardner's 
Historical Account of Dunwich, pp. 41, 91 ; 
Page's Supplement to the Suffolk Traveller, 
p. 215 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist. iv. 91 ; Gurney's 
Record of the House of Gurney, pt. iii. p. 534; 
Donaldson's Agricultural Biogr. p. 34 ; Return 
of Members of Parl. pt. i. p. 528; Metcalfe's 
Book of Knights, p. 197; Collins's Peerage, 
ix. 225 ; Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 407 ; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 478.] 

W. A. S. H. 

PETTY, SIB WILLIAM (1623-1687), 
political economist, born at Romseyin Hamp- 
shire on 26 May 1623, was son of a clothier. 
As a child he showed a marked taste for ma- 
thematics and applied mechanics, 'his princi- 
pal amusement,' according to Aubrey, ' being 
to look on the artificers, e.g. smyths, the 
watchmakers, carpenters, joiners, &c.; and at 
twelve years old he could have worked at any 
of these trades ' (Bodleian Letters, ii. 482). 
He went to sea at an early age; but his preco- 
cious talents excited the envy of the seamen, 
and they deserted him on the coast of France, 
with a broken leg. Instead of trying to re- 
turn to England, he raised some money by 
teaching English and navigation, and en- 
tered himself as a student at the Jesuit Col- 
lege at Caen, where he received a good gene- 
ral education, and became an accomplished 
French linguist. He is next heard of in the 
royal navy, but on the outbreak of the civil 
war again retired to the continent. He 
studied at Utrecht and Amsterdam, and ma- 
triculated as a student of medicine at Leyden 
on 26 May 1644. He subsequently passed to 
Paris, and joined the coterie which met at the 
house of Father Mersenne, the mathematician, 
in the French capital. He there became the 
friend of Hobbes, whose influence on his sub- 
sequent philosophical and political opinions 
may be clearly traced in his writings. He also 
carried on a correspondence with Dr. John 
Pell [q. v.], the mathematician, at Amsterdam, 
and made the acquaintance of the Marquis of 
Newcastle and Sir Charles Cavendish, who 
were refugees at Paris. On his return to Eng- 
land in 1646, he for a time took up his father's 
business as a clothier, and devoted himself 
to the study of mechanical improvements in 
textile processes. *He soon gained some repu- 
tation by the invention of a manifold letter- 
writer, and a ( Tractate on Education ; ' in the 
latter he sketched out the idea of a scientific 
society on the lines on which the Royal So- 


3 Petty 

ciety was afterwards founded. In order to 
continue his medical studies, he left Romsey 
and removed to Oxford. He took the degree 
of doctor of physic in 1649, and became a 
member of a scientific and philosophical club 
which used to meet at his own rooms and 
those of Dr. Wilkins ; this club may be re- 
garded as the parent of the Royal Society, of 
which Petty lived to be one of the founders. 

On the reorganisation of the university 
by the commissioners of the Commonwealth, 
Petty was appointed a fellow of Brasenose 
and deputy to the professor of anatomy, Dr. 
Clayton, whom he succeeded in 1651, having 
in the interval obtained a wide reputation by 
reviving the supposed corpse of one Ann Green 
[q. v.], who had been hanged for murder and 
pronounced dead by the sheriff. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed physician-general 
to the army in Ireland, and greatly added to 
his reputation by reorganising the medical 
services and terminating the waste and con- 
fusion which existed. But his combination 
of mathematical knowledge and organising 
power designated him for a more important 
task. The government of the Commonwealth 
was engaged in the resettlement of Ireland, 
and contemplated the division of the forfeited 
estates of the Irish landowners among the 
numerous creditors of the Commonwealth in 
payment of their claims. These creditors fell 
into three classes : (1) the army, which had 
large arrears of pay due to it; (2) the 'ad- 
venturers,' who had advanced large sums to 
equip that army ; and (3) a large number of 
miscellaneous claimants. It was proposed 
to confiscate the properties of all the native 
proprietors, whether Irish or Anglo-Irish, 
whether catholic or protestant, who could 
not prove what was termed ' constant good 
affection' to the English government during 
the recent troubles, and to pay all the credi- 
tors of the Commonwealth with the confis- 
cated estates. But, in order to carry out 
this plan, it was first necessary to survey 
the country, and measure and map out these 
estates. Petty soon after his arrival im- 
pugned the accuracy of the plans of Benjamin 
Worsley, the surveyor-general, and offered 
to carry out the necessary operations more 
quickly, cheaply, and thoroughly. In the dis- 
pute which foliowed Worsley was supported 
by the fanatical or anabaptist section of the 
army, while Petty was supported by the party 
of the Protector, who, at this juncture, sent 
over Henry Cromwell on a mission of inquiry 
CHAELES]. Finally, Worsley's plan known 
as ( the Grosse survey ' which had been put 
into operation in some places, was rejected. 

Another survey, known as the 'Civil Sur- 




vey,' was entrusted to a commission in order to 
ascertain the exact position and extent of the 
forfeited estates, with a view to their subse- 
quent distribution among the army ; and to 
Petty was entrusted the task of measuring 
and mapping these estates. Petty's survey 
came to be known as the < Down Survey,' be- 
cause it was measured 'down' on maps. It 
was the first attempt at carrying out a survey 
on a large scale and in a scientific manner, the 
nearest approach to Petty's methods having 
been the survey of Tipperary by Strafford, 
which, with a few corrections, was adopted by 
Petty for that county. Petty also undertook 
to make a complete map of the whole of Ire- 
land, by counties and baronies, for which he 
was to receive a separate salary ; this was not 
specified at the time, and, as a matter of fact, 
was never afterwards wholly paid. This map 
was a completely distinct undertaking from 
the survey and mapping of the forfeited 
estates, and was not completed till the middle 
of the reign of Charles II in 1673, and mainly 
at the expense of Petty himself, to whom the 
undertaking had fortunately become a labour 
of love. It was printed at Amsterdam, and 
was declared by Evelyn the most exact map 
of the kind which had yet appeared (EvELYtf, 
Diary, ii. 96). 

The skilful and rapid manner in which he 
carried out the measurement and mapping of 
the army lands caused all the subsequent 
stages in the completion of the settlement 
of Ireland to be practically entrusted to his 
supervision. He mapped and measured the 
ad venturers' lands, and was the practical head 
of the committees which successively distri- 
buted the lands to the army, the adventurers, 
and the various private grantees. In these 
transactions his cousin John, who shared his 
abilities in surveying, and Thomas Taylor 
were his principal assistants. While the 
operations were in progress, he was con- 
tinually exposed to the watchful jealousy 
of Worsley, whose abilities he had probably 
underrated. Petty still further exasperated 
his rival by an imprudent use of mockery 
and cynical jokes at the expense of the 
high pretensions of religion, combined with 
an almost unlimited rapacity, which distin- 
guished him and many of the officers of the 
army. On the other hand, Petty gained 
the confidence of Henry Cromwell, who ap- 
pointed him his private secretary and addi- 
tional clerk to the privy council, and placed 
complete reliance on his ability and honesty. 
It should be borne in mind that Petty never 
actually held the appointment of surveyor- 
general of Ireland to the Commonwealth, 
but was nominally employed either with or 
under Worsley, who retained the title of 

surveyor-general throughout the whole of 
these transactions, until he was superseded 
by Vincent Gookin [q. v.] a few months before 
the end of the protectorate. 

The rapidity and thoroughness of Pettj T 's 
work are acknowledged by Clarendon (Life, 
p. 116). The work of distribution provoked, 
however, endless animosities and jealousies 
among the officers ; and all who were dis- 
appointed made Petty responsible for their 
disappointments. The principal ground of 
complaint was that the whole of the army 
debt had not been paid, and that a large 
portion of the forfeited estates had been 
used, owing to the embarrassed condition 
of the finances of the Commonwealth, in 
meeting the expenses of the survey, and, 
among other charges, the salary of Petty 
himself. The act of parliament, however, 
under which the survey had been carried out, 
expressly provided for this, and the decision 
was that of the privy council and not of Petty. 
Some lands near Limerick, which had been 
given to Petty instead of to a Colonel Wink- 
worth, and were reputed among the best in 
Ireland, formed a special ground of complaint. 
The mouthpiece of the opposition was Sir 
Hierome Sankey, a military officer. Aided 
by Worsley, he pursued Petty with great acri- 
mony, attacking him before the Irish privy 
council, in the parliament of Richard Crom- 
well to which they both had been elected 
in the restored Rump (1659), and in the 
councils of the army officers. Petty, however, 
defended himself with success ; and the attack 
of Sankey in parliament proved a complete 
failure. During the complicated events be- 
tween the death of the Protector and the 
Restoration when the grantees of the Com- 
monwealth were everywhere entering on their 
Irish estates Petty was frequently employed 
as the bearer of secret despatches between 
Henry Cromwell in Ireland and Richard 
Cromwell, Secretary Thurloe, Lord Faucon- 
berg, General Fleetwood, and others in Eng- 
land. He was therefore naturally involved in 
the ruin of the Cromwellian party in 1659. 
Deprived of all his appointments and ejected 
from Brasenose by the triumphant republi- 
cans, he retired to London, and there calmly 
awaited events in the society of his former 
Oxford allies, most of whom had removed to 
London. He was one of the members of the 
Rota Club which Antony Wood notes as 
' the place of ingenious and smart discourse,' 
and one of the chosen companions of Pepys 
at Will's coffee-house, where all that was 
most brilliant in English literary and scien- 
tific society was in the habit of meeting to 
discuss the events of 'the day. The Crom- 
wellian party having fallen, and the ani- 


mosity of the pure republicans of whom 
Sankey was a leader being only too clear, 
Petty readily acquiesced in the Restoration. 
Charles II affected the society of scientific 
men, and took a special interest in shipbuild- 
ing. With his brother the Duke of York, he 
extended a willing welcome to Petty, whose 
acquaintance he had probably made as one 
of the members of a deputation from, the 
Irish parliament, in which Petty sat for 
Enniscorthy. The king appears to have been 
charmed with his discourse, and protected 
him against the attacks of the extreme 
church and state party, which resented his 
latitudinarian opinions and viewed with 
dislike his connection with the Cromwell 
family, which Petty refused to abandon or 
disown. On the occasion of the first incor- 
poration of the Royal Society (22 April 1662), 
of which he was one of the original members, 
Petty was knighted ; and he received assur- 
ances of support from the Duke of Ormonde, 
who had probably not forgotten the efforts of 
Gookin and Petty on behalf of the ' ancient 
protestants,' of whom the duke was one, at 
the time of the transplantation. His cousin, 
John Petty, was at the same time made sur- 
veyor-general of Ireland. 

Petty contributed several scientific papers, 
mainly relating to applied mechanics and 
practical inventions, to the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' of the Royal Society. He de- 
vised a new kind of land carriage ; with Sir 
William Spragge he tried to fix an engine 
with propelling power in a ship ; he invented 
1 a wheel to ride upon ; ' and constructed a 
double-keeled vessel which was to be able to 
cross the Irish Channel and defy wind and 
tide. This last scheme was his pet child, and 
he returned to it again and again. It is re- 
markable that the earlier trials of this class of 
ship of which several were built were more 
successful than the later. Petty maintained 
his confidence to the last in the possibility 
of building such a vessel ; and in modern 
days the success of the Calais-Douvres in 
crossing the English Channel, though with 
the assistance of steam-power, has to a great 
extent justified his views. He sought to in- 
terest the Royal Society in very many other 
topics. l A Discourse [made by him] before 
the Royal Society . . . concerning the use 
of duplicate proportion . . . with a new hy- 
pothesis of springing or elastique motions,' 
was published as a pamphlet in 1674. An 
* Apparatus to the History of the Common 
Practices of Dyeing,' and ' Of Making Cloth 
with Sheep's Wool,' are titles of other com- 
munications made to the society (SPRATT, 
Royal Society ; BIRCH, Royal Society, i. 55- 

5 Petty 

The Acts of Settlement and Explanation 
(14, 15 Car. II, c. 2, 17, and 18 Car. Ill, c. 2, 
Irish Statutes), which decided or attempted 
to decide between those in actual possession 
of the greater part of the land of Ireland 
and those who at the Restoration claimed 
to be reinstated, secured Petty in a consider- 
able portion of his estates. These estates, 
after the termination of the survey, he had 
greatly enlarged by prudent investments in 
land. The ' Down Survey ' was also declared 
to be the only authentic record for reference 
in the case of disputed claims. During the 
whole of the remainder of his life, however, 
Petty was involved in a continual struggle 
with the farmers of the Irish revenue, who 
set up adverse claims to portions of his 
estates, and revived dormant claims for quit- 
rents. These pretensions he resisted with 
varying success, according as parties in Eng- 
land and Ireland ebbed and flowed. On one 
occasion in 1676 he involved himself in 
serious trouble by the freedom with which 
he spoke of the lord chancellor of England ; 
on another he became the victim of the as- 
saults of one Colonel Vernon, a professional 
bravo of the school of Blood. He was also 
challenged to fight a duel by Sir Alan Brod- 
rick ; but having the right, as the challenged 
party, to name place and weapon, he named 
a dark cellar and an axe, in order to place 
himself, being short-sighted, on a level with 
his antagonist. He thereby turned the chal- 
lenge into ridicule, and the duel never took 
place. He received a firm support through- 
out the greater part of these transactions 
from the king and the Duke of Ormonde, 
though on at least two occasions he risked 
the loss of their favour by his firm deter- 
mination to assert whatever he believed to 
be his just rights. It is much to the honour 
of the king and the duke, the latter of whom 
Petty describes as ' the first gentleman of 
Europe' (Life of Petty, p. 139, letter to 
Southwell, March 1667), and to whose eldest 
son, the Earl of Ossory, he was warmly at- 
tached, that the independent attitude of Petty 
never caused more than a temporary estrange- 
ment. At the time of the excitement incident 
to the < popish plot,' Petty kept his head, not- 
withstanding the hatred of the system of the 
Roman church of which his writings show 
abundant evidence. He supported the mode- 
rate policy of the Duke of Ormonde on the 
ground that, even if the Roman catholic 
population wished to rebel, their means did 
not permit them to do so. His dislike also 
of the extreme protestant party led him to 
suspect the motives of those who exagge- 
rated the danger. He was twice offered 
and refused a peerage. In the letter con- 

I 2 




taining the refusal of the first offer, he 
told the bishop of Killaloe, through whom 
it was made, that he would ' sooner be a 
copper farthing of intrinsic value than a 
brass half-crown, how gaudily soever it be 
stamped or gilded ' (Life of Petty, p. 155). 
His ambition was, however, to be a privy 
councillor with some public employment, 
an honour which just escaped him during 
the events of 1679, owing to the failure of 
Temple's plans for reorganising the privy 
councils of England and Ireland. He seems 
to have been especially desirous of being 
made the head of a statistical office which 
should enumerate the population correctly, 
reorganise the valuation of property, and 
place the collection of the taxes on a sound 
basis, and should also take measures against 
the return of the ravages of the plague, and 
protect the public health. His special hos- 
tility was directed against the system of 
farming the revenue of Ireland, which in 
1682 he had the satisfaction of seeing abo- 
lished ; but his own plans were not accepted. 
His constant and unceasing efforts at ad- 
ministrative and financial reform raised up 
a host of enemies, and he never, therefore, 
could get favour at court beyond the per- 
sonal good will of the king. He was, how- 
ever, made judge of admiralty in Ireland, 
a post in which he achieved a dubious 
success, and a commissioner of the navy in 
England, in which character he received 
commendation from the king ' as one of the 
best commissioners he ever had.' Evelyn 
draws a brilliant picture of his abilities. 
* There is not a better Latin poet living,' he 
says, ' when he gives himself that diversion ; ' 
nor is his excellence less in Council and pru- 
dent matters of state ; but he is so exceed- 
ing nice in sifting and examining all possible 
contingencies that he adventures at nothing 
which is not demonstration. There were not 
in the whole world his equal for a superin- 
tendent of manufacture and improvement of 
trade, or to govern a plantation. If I were 
a Prince I should make him my second Coun- 
sellor at least. There is nothing difficult to 
him . . . But he never could get favour at 
Court, because he outwitted all the projec- 
tors that came neare him. Having never 
known such another genius, I cannot but 
mention those particulars amongst a multi- 
tude of others which I could produce' 
(EVELYN, Diary, i. 471, ii. 95-7). His friend 
Sir Robert Southwell, clerk to the privy 
council, with whom he carried on a constant 
correspondence, once advised him not to go 
beyond the limits prescribed by the extent 
of the royal intelligence (Life, p. 284). 
Pepys gives an equally favourable view of 

the charm of his society. Describing a dinner 
at the Royal Oak Farm, Lombard Street, in 
February 1665, he enumerates the brilliant 
company and describes the excellent fare ; but, 
' above all,' he adds, f I do value Sir William 
Petty,' who was one of the party. Neither, 
however, the praises of Pepys or Evelyn, 
nor the great undertaking he so successfully 
carried out in Ireland, nor his scientific at- 
tainments, considerable as they were, are hi& 
chief title to fame. His reputation has prin- 
cipally survived as a political economist; and 
he may fairly claim to take a leading place 
among the founders of the science of the origin 
of wealth, though in his hands what he termed 
political arithmetic was a practical art, rather 
than a theoretical science. 'The art itself is- 
very ancient,' says Sir William Davenant/ but 
the application of it to the particular objects- 
of trade and revenue is what Sir William 
Petty first began ' (DAVENANT, Works, i. 128- 
129). Petty wrote principally for immediate 
practical objects, and in order to influence the 
opinion of his time. To quote his own words, 
he expressed himself in terms of number, 
weight, and measure, and used only ' argu- 
ments of sense,' and such as rested on 'visible- 
foundations in nature ' (Petty Tracts, pub- 
lished by Boulter Grierson, Dublin, 1769, 
p. 207). > 

Early in life Petty had gained the friend- 
ship of Captain John Graunt [q. v.], and had 
co-operated with him in the preparation of a 
small book entitled ' Natural and Political 
Observations . . . made upon the Bills of 
Mortality [of the City of London] ' (1662). 
This, which was followed in 1682 by a similar 
work on the Dublin bills, may be regarded as 
the first book on vital statistics ever pub- 
lished. Of its imperfections, owing to the 
paucity of the materials on which it was 
founded, nobody was more conscious than the 
author himself. He never ceased; for this 
reason, to urge on those in authority the neces- 
sity of providing a system and a government 
department for the collection of trustworthy- 
statistics (cf. RANZE, Hist, of England, iii. 
586). In 1662 Petty published < A Treatise 
of Taxes and Contributions ' (anon, and often 
reprinted). In 1665 he wrote a financial tract 
entitled ' Verbum Sapienti,' and in 1672 < The 
Political Anatomy of Ireland.' Both were 
circulated in manuscript, but neither seems 
to have been printed until 1691 . In 1682 was- 
issued a tract on currency/ Quant ulumcunque 
concerning Money ; ' and in 1683 (London, 
8vo), appeared ' Another Essay in Political 
Arithmetick concerning the Growth of the 
City of London : with the Periods, Causes, 
and Consequences thereof.' The publisher 
explains, in the preface to the second edition 




in 1686, that a preliminary essay * On the 
Growth and Encrease and Multiplication of 
Mankind ' (to which reference is made) was 
not to be found; but he prefixes a syllabus or 
4 extract ' of the work, as supplied by a corre- 
spondent of the author. Distinct from both 
these essays were ' Two Essays in Political 
Arithmetick, concerning the People, Housing 1 , 
Hospitals, &c., of London and Paris . . . tend- 
ing to prove that London hath more people 
than Paris and Rouen put together,' which ap- 
peared, simultaneously with a French trans- 
lation, in 1686. Various objections raised 
to the conclusions here arrived at were an- 
swered by Petty, in the following year, in 
his 'Five Essays in Political Arithmetick,' a 
brief pamphlet, printed in French and Eng- 
lish on opposite pages (London, twice 48 pp. 
8vo). About the same time appeared ' Ob- 
servations upon the Cities of London and 
Rome' (London, 1687, 8vo). This group of 
essays is completed by ' Political Arithmetick, 
or a Discourse concerning the extent and 
value of Lands, People, Buildings; Hus- 
bandry, Manufacture, Commerce, Fishery, 
Artizans, Seamen, Soldiers ; Public Re- 
venues, Interest, Taxes . . .' (London, 1690, 
8vo), dedicated to William III by the au- 
thor's son ' Shelborne.' This work, written 
by Petty as early as 1676 or 1677, but refused 
a license as likely to give offence in France, 
had nevertheless been printed, doubtless 
without Petty's consent, in 1683. It then 
appeared in the form of an appendix to J. S.'s 
' Fourth Part of the Present State of Eng- 
land,' 1683 (a spurious continuation of Cham- 
foerlayne), under the separate title ' England's 
Guide to Industry; or, Improvement of Trade 
for the Good of all People in General . . . 
by a person of quality ' (The only perfect 
<Jopy known of this unauthorised edition is 
in the Bodleian Library.) 

All these works may be said to belong to 
what, in modern days, has been called the in- 
ductive school of political economy, though 
they contain some instances of purely deduc- 
tive reasoning, e.g. a speculation on ' a par 
of land and labour,' which occurs in the 
'Treatise of Taxes' (ch. iv.) In the reign of 
Charles II the whole system of administration 
and finance was passing through a period of 
transition. The old 'prohibitory' school, the 
ideas of which were aimed against the export 
of the precious metals, was dying, and the 
' mercantile ' system was struggling into its 
place. This system sought to develop trade, 
l)ut to regulate it with a view to encourage 
the import of the precious metals into the 
country. Petty saw clearly the folly of the 
prohibitory system, and his acute mind having 
analysed the sources of wealth as being labour 

and land, and not the mere possession of the 
precious metals, he went very near to arriving 
at a correct theory of trade. On the one hand, 
he had before him the example of Holland, 
which approached more nearly to being a 
free port than any other country, levying its 
taxation by a general excise on all articles 
of consumption ; and, on the other, the ex- 
ample of France, which, under Colbert, was 
beginning the commercial legislation which 
was soon to involve Europe in a prolonged 
war of tariffs. Petty decided in favour of 
the example of Holland. But he nevertheless 
still believed that there was some inherent 
superiority in the precious metals over other 
articles of wealth, and seems to contemplate 
that, under possible circumstances, it might 
be necessary to check the importations ex- 
ceeding the exportations, in order to prevent 
the precious metals from leaving the country. 
On the other hand, he condemned elsewhere 
attempts ' to persuade water to rise of itself 
above the natural spring' ( Treatise on Taxes, 
ch. vi. ; Pol. Arith. ch. i. 224, ii. 235), and 
many similar expressions condemnatory of 
interference with the natural course of 

Besides his correct analysis in the ' Trea- 
tise of Taxes ' of the origin of wealth, which 
is one of Petty's principal titles to fame, 
passages in his various works show that he 
had clearly grasped the importance of the 
division of labour, and of the multiplication 
of wealth proceeding part passu with the in- 
crease of population ; that he understood the 
folly of laws against usury; the nature of 
exchange ; and the reasons why the precious 
metals are the best measure of value, though 
he involved himself in a hopeless attempt 
to find a ' par of value ' for the precious 
metals as well as for other commodities. 
The ' Political Anatomy of Ireland ' is an 
able description of the land and people of 
the country, and analyses the best means 
of developing its resources. The hostile 
commercial policy of the English parlia- 
ment made Petty a strong partisan of a union 
between the two countries as the only 
means of preventing the natural industries 
of the smaller island being struck down 
by her jealous and selfish neighbour, and 
thus confirmed the natural leaning of his 
mind in the direction of unrestricted trade. 
He was a strong partisan of religious free- 
dom, and here again found reasons in sup- 
port of a union, as he believed that only by 
this means could the Roman catholics of Ire- 
land, if admitted to power, be prevented 
from persecuting the protestants ; while, on 
the other hand, he thought it desirable to 
strengthen the Roman catholic interest in 




England against the bigotry of the extreme 

Petty's concluding years were darkened by 
the events which succeeded the accession of 
James II. The king was personally well 
disposed to him, and listened with atten- 
tion to his scheme for reorganising the 
revenue and the administration ; while Petty, 
partly from a general optimism, which, not- 
withstanding all his struggles and many 
disappointments, was one of the most pleas- 
ing features of his character, partly from 
his suspicion of both the great contending 
parties in church and state, was disposed, 
like Penn, to take a favourable view of the 
king's intentions. The disappointment, when 
it came, was, for this reason, probably the 
more keenly felt. Whether he heard before 
his death of the attack on the little indus- 
trial settlement which he had founded at 
Kenmare in Kerry, does not exactly appear ; 
but his friend, Lord Weymouth, who dined 
with him at the Royal Society immediately 
before his death, attributes the change which 
he observed in him to distress at the news 
from Ireland. He died on 16 Dec. 1687 in 
London, and was buried in the abbey church, 
Romsey, where a monument was erected to 
him in the present century. The king appears 
to have maintained his personal goodwill to 
Petty to the last, and probably regretted 
the disastrous effects of his own policy on 
the fortunes of his friend in Ireland. 

Petty married, in 1667, Elizabeth, widow 
of Sir Maurice Fenton, and daughter of Sir 
Hardress Waller [q. v.], regicide. She was 
created Baroness Shelburne by James II on 
31 Dec. 1688. By this lady, who died in 
February 1708, Petty had three surviving 
children, Charles, Henry, and Anne. The 
two sons were successively created Lord 
Shelburne, but both died childless. The 
Petty estates thereupon passed to John Fitz- 
maurice, second surviving son of Petty's 
daughter Anne, who had married Thomas 
Fitzmaurice, first earl of Kerry, in whose 
favour the Shelburne title was again revived. 
Anne Petty appears to have inherited much 
of her father's mathematical and business 
faculties, and was declared by William, earl 
of Shelburne, to have brought into the Fitz- 
maurice family 'whatever degree of sense 
may have appeared in it, or whatever wealth 
is likely to remain in it' (Life of Shel- 
burne, i. 3). 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Petty wrote a ' History of the Down Survey/ 
edited with notes for the Irish Archaeological 
Society in 1851 by Sir Thomas Larcom, and 
' Reflections upon some Persons and Things 
in Ireland/ which is a popular account of 

the same transactions in the shape of letters 
between himself and an imaginary corre- 
spondent (London, 1660) ; also a ' Brief of 
the Proceedings between Sir Hierome San- 
key and the Author' (London, 1659). His 
will contained a curious and characteristic 
summary of his life and struggles. It was 
printed in 1769 as an introduction to the 
volume of 'Petty Tracts' (Dublin); but a 
more accurate reprint is to be found in the 
' Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy r 
(vol. xxiv. ' Antiquities/ pt. i.), being given 
by Mr. Harding, in the appendix to his in- 
teresting accounts of the Irish surveys. A 
succinct catalogue of all his writings Avas left 
by Petty among his papers, in which lie ac- 
knowledges his share in the authorship of the 
' Discourse against the Transplantation into 
Connaught/ which had hitherto been attri- 
buted exclusively to Vincent Gookin [q. v.] 
Among his papers he left a set of pithy 
instructions to his children, which show a 
curious mixture of worldly wisdom and high 

John Aubrey, one of Petty's friends, left 
an account of his personal appearance. ' He 
is a proper handsome man/ the antiquary 
writes, ' measures six foot high, good head 
of brown hair, moderately turning up vide 
his picture as Dr. of Physick his eyes are 
of a kind of goose-grey, but very short- 
sighted ; and as to aspect beautiful, and pro- 
mise sweetness of nature ; and they do not 
deceive, for he is a marvellous good-natured 
person, and evcnr\ayxvos. Eyebrows thick, 
dark, and straight (horizontal). His head 
is very large (paKpoKtyaXos) ' (Bodleian 
Letters, ii. 487). 

Several portraits of Petty exist, the best 
being that of him as ' Doctor of Physic ' by 
Lely, now in the possession of Mr. Charles 
Monck of Coley Park, Reading. Aubrey 
alludes to a picture by Logan, which is pro- 
bably that to be seen on the frontispiece of the 
maps of Ireland engraved by Sandys ; and to 
another by Samuel Cooper. There is also a 
portrait by Closterman at Lansdowne House, 
in the possession of the Marquis of Lans- 
downe ; an engraving of it, by J. Smith, is 
in the National Gallery, Dublin. In the 
' Bibliotheca Pepysiana ' at Cambridge are 
two good drawings of the * double-bottomed ' 
ship. A model of this ship, which is stated 
to have existed at Gresham College, has been 

[Much information in regard to Petty is to be 
found in Aubrey's Lives (Bodleian Letters,vol.ii.), 
in Wood's Athense Oxon., in the Diary of Pepys, 
and in Evelyn's Memoirs. A careful study by the 
German economist Roscher appeared in 1857 in 
the Transactions of the Royal Scientific Society 




of Saxony. The notes by Sir Thomas Larcom to 
his edition of the Down Survey and the studies 
on the Irish Surveys, by Mr. Harding, also con- 
tain many interesting details on Petty's life. A 
list of his published works appears in Wood's 
Athenae Oxon., and a full and valuable biblio- 
graphy, by Professor Charles H. Hull, appeared 
in Notes and Queries in September 1895. A full 
biography was published in 1895 by the pre- 
sent writer, a descendant, with full extracts from 
Petty's papers and correspondence now at Bo- 
wood.] E. F. 

LANSDOWNE, better known as LORD SHEL- 
BURNE (1737-1805), was the elder son of the 
Hon. John Fitzmaurice, who assumed the 
name of Petty in 1751, and was subse- 
quently created Earl of Shelburne, by his 
wife Mary, daughter of Colonel the Hon. 
William Fitzmaurice of Gallane, co. Kerry. 
He was born in Dublin on 20 May 1737, and 
spent the first four years of his life in a re- 
mote part of the south of Ireland with his 
grandfather, Thomas Fitzmaurice, first earl 
of Kerry, whose wife was the only daughter 
of Sir William Petty [q. v.] According to his 
own account of his youthful days, his early 
education was ' neglected to the greatest de- 
gree.' He was first 'sent to an ordinary 
publick school,' and was afterwards ' shut 
up with a private tutor ' while his father and 
mother were in England. At the age of 
seventeen he went to Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he matriculated on 11 March 1755, 
and ' had again the misfortune to fall under 
a narrow-minded tutor' (Life, i. 14, 17; 
Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, ii. 467). Receiving 
a commission in the 20th regiment of foot, 
he left the university in 1757 without taking 
a degree, and served in the expedition to 
Rochefort. In June 1758 he exchanged into 
the 3rd regiment of foot-guards, and subse- 
quently served under Prince Ferdinand and 
Lord Graiiby in Germany, where he dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Minden 
and at Kloster Kampen. While abroad he 
was returned to the House of Commons for 
the family borough of High Wycombe, in the 
place of his father, who was created a peer 
of Great Britain on 17 May 1760. On 
4 Dec. 1760 he was rewarded for his military 
services with the rank of colonel in the army 
and the post of aide-de-camp to the king. 
At the general election in 1761 he was again 
returned for High Wycombe, and was also 
elected to the Irish parliament for the county 
of Kerry. The death of his father in May 
1761 prevented him from sitting in either 
House of Commons, and on 3 Nov. 1761 he 
took his seat in the English House of Lords 
as Baron Wycombe (Journals of the House of 

Lords, xxx. 108). During this year he was 
employed by Bute in his negotiations for an 
alliance with Henry Fox [q. v.] Disgusted, 
however, with Bute's hesitation, Shelburne, in 
a maiden speech on 6 Nov., pronounced boldly 
in the House of Lords for the withdrawal of 
the troops from Germany. On 5 Feb. 1762 he 
again urged their withdrawal, and signed a 
protest against the rejection of the Duke of 
Bedford's amendment to the address (ROGERS, 
Protests of the House of Lords. 1875, ii. 62- 
65). Preferring to maintain an independent 
course of action, Shelburne refused to accept 
office under Bute, though he undertook the 
task of inducing Fox to accept the leader- 
ship of the House of Commons, and was 
entrusted with the motion approving of the 
preliminaries of peace on 9 Dec. 1762. Fox, 
on claiming his reward for gaining the con- 
sent of the house to the peace, accused Shel- 
burne of having secured his services by a 
misstatement of the terms [see Fox, HENRY, 
first BARON HOLLAND], a charge which has 
been satisfactorily refuted by Lord Edmond 
Fitzmaurice in his account of the so-called 
< pious fraud ' (Life, i. 153-229). Bute con- 
tinued to show his undiminished confidence 
in Shelburne as a negotiator by employing 
him as his intermediary with Lord Gower, 
the Duke of Bedford, and others during the 
formation of Grenville's ministry. Shelburne 
was to have been secretary of state in the 
new administration, but, owing to Grenville's 
opposition, he was obliged to content himself 
with the inferior office of president of the 
board of trade and foreign plantations, 
with a seat in the cabinet ( Grenville Papers, 
1852-3, ii. 35-8, 41). He was sworn a mem- 
ber of the privy council on 20 April 1763, 
but soon found himself at variance with his 
colleagues. A few days after he had taken 
office Shelburne exposed the blunder which 
Halifax had made in issuing a general war- 
rant for the arrest of the author of the 
famous No. 45 of the ' North Briton.' With 
Egremont he was frequently in collision on. 
questions both of policy and of administra- 
tion. So dissatisfied did Shelburne become- 
with his position that he was with difficulty 
persuaded by Bute to remain in office. In 
August he was employed by Bute in an in- 
trigue, the object of which was to displace 
Grenville and to bring back Pitt, with the 
Bedford connection {Chatham Correspon- 
dence, 1830-40, ii. 235 w.) On the failure 
of the negotiations between Pitt and the 
king, Shelburne resigned the board of trade 
(2 Sept.), but at the same time assured the 
king that he still meant to support the 
government. He, however, soon afterwards 
attached himself to Pitt, and joined the ranks 




of the opposition (Grenmlle Papers, ii. 203, 
226, 236). On 29 Nov. he took part in the 
debate on the proceedings against Wilkes, 
and spoke against the resolution that ' privi- 
lege of parliament does not extend to the 
case of writing and publishing seditious 
libels.' For his speech on this occasion Shel- 
burne was dismissed from his staff appoint- 
ment (8 Dec.), and on his next appearance 
at court no notice was taken of him by the 
king. Shelburne thereupon retired into the 
country, where he occupied himself in the 
improvement of his estates, and in the col- 
lection of manuscripts. 

On 25 April 1764 he took his seat in the 
Irish House of Lords as Earl of Shelburne 
(Journals of the Irish House of Lords, i v. 31 1 ) . 
He refused Rockingham's invitation to return 
to the board of trade, and at the opening of 
the session, on 17 Dec., he attacked the policy 
of the Stamp Act. On 10 Feb. 1766 he spoke 
warmly against the declaratory resolutions, 
maintaining that there were only ( two ques- 
tions for the consideration of Parliament 
repeal, or no repeal 'and that ' it was unwise 
to raise the question of right, whatever their 
opinions might be ' (Life, i. 376-7). In the 
following month he assisted Rockingham in 
passing the repeal of the Stamp Act. 

Upon Pitt's return to power, Shelburne was 
appointed secretary of state for the southern 
department (23 July 1766). In order to put 
an end to the evils of a divided administra- 
tion of the colonies, the board of trade was 
reduced to a mere board of report by an 
order of council of 8 Aug. 1766. By these 
means the entire administration of the colo- 
nies was placed under the undivided control 
of Shelburne, who immediately set to work 
to regain the good will of the American 
colonists. He assured their agents in Eng- 
land of the intention of the government to 
adopt a conciliatory policy, and of his own 
determination to remove any well-founded 
grievances. He also instructed the governors 
of the various colonies to furnish him with 
particulars of all matters in dispute, and to 
report on the actual condition of their re- 
spective governments. Finding, however, 
that his conciliatory measures were thwarted 
by his colleagues during Chatham's absence, 
Shelburne ceased attending the meetings of 
the cabinet for some time, and merely at- 
tempted, in his executive capacity of secre- 
tary of state, to neutralise as far as possible 
the disastrous effects of Townshend's policy. 
Shelburne's position was one of peculiar 
difficulty. Hated by the king, and de- 
nounced by his colleagues, he was naturally 
anxious to retire ; while he also felt bound to 
keep his place so long as Chatham held the 

privy seal. By the appointment of Lord 
Hillsborough as a third secretary of state 
in January 1768, Shelburne was relieved of 
bis charge of the American colonies. But, 
in spite of this change, the differences be- 
tween Shelburne and his colleagues con- 
tinued to increase. In April he successfully 
opposed the adoption of Hillsborough's in- 
judicious instructions to Governor Bernard 
with reference to the circular letter of the 
Massachusetts assembly. In June he vainly 
protested against the annexation of Corsica 
by France. In September all the members 
of the cabinet were agreed upon coercive 
measures against the American colonists, 
with the exception of Shelburne, and Chat- 
ham, who was still absent through illness. 
Shelburne is also said to have been the only 
one who was against the expulsion of Wilkes 
from the House of Commons (Grenmlle 
Papers, iv. 371), a measure which was 
clamorously demanded by the king's friends. 
On 5 Oct. 1768 Grafton wrote to Chatham, 
and demanded Shelburne's dismissal. To 
this Chatham refused to agree, but imme- 
diately afterwards tendered his resignation 
to the king on the ground of his shattered 
health. On 19 Oct. Shelburne, who appears 
to have been ignorant of Chatham's retire- 
ment from office, obtained an audience of 
the king, and resigned the seals. 

At the opening of parliament on 9 Jan. 
1770, Shelburne supported Chatham's attack 
upon the government, and called attention 
to the alarming state of affairs on the con- 
tinent, where England was without an ally. 
On 1 May he spoke in favour of the bill for 
the reversal of the proceedings in the House 
of Commons against Wilkes, and declared 
that Lord North deserved to be impeached 
(Par 1. Hist. xvi. 965). Three days after- 
wards he supported Chatham's motion con- 
demning the king's answer to the remon- 
strance of the city of London, and alluded 
in scathing terms to the secret influence of 
the king's friends (ib. xvi. 972-4). During 
the debate on the Duke of Richmond's 
American resolutions, Shelburne made a 
violent attack upon the ministers, and asserted 
that they ' were so lost to the sentiments of 
shame that they gloried in their delinquency ' 
(ib. xvi. 1024-6). On 22 Nov. he renewed 
his attack upon the ministers, and declared 
that the country would ' neither be united at 
home nor respected abroad, till the reins of 
government are lodged with men who have 
some little pretensions to common sense and 
common honesty' (ib. xvi. 1113-14). On 
14 Feb. 1771 he spoke ' better than he had 
ever done ' while pointing out the many ob- 
jections to the convention with Spain with 




reference to the Falkland Islands (WALPOLE, 
Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, 
iv. 182). Disheartened by the divided state 
of the opposition, Shelburne went abroad in 
May 1771, accompanied by his friend and 
political intimate, Isaac Barre [q. v.] While 
at Paris he made the acquaintance of the 
Abbe Morellet, to whom he owed his con- 
version to the doctrines of the economic 
school. Upon his return to England, he 
interested himself on behalf of the noncon- 
formists in their attempt to procure exemp- 
tion from subscribing to the Thirty-nine 
Articles. He also warmly opposed the pass- 
ing of the Royal Marriage Bill. During the 
debate on the East India Company's Regula- 
tion Bill on 17 June 1773, Shelburne became 
involved in a long altercation with the Duke 
of Richmond, ' which lasted almost the 
whole of that and the two following days ' 
(Life, ii. 274). His speech contributed 
largely to the success of the bill, and ' it was 
universally said that Lord Shelburne showed 
more knowledge in the affairs of India than 
all the Ministers in either House ' ( Chatham 
Correspondence, iv. 284 n.) The differences 
between the two sections of the whig party 
were still further increased by Shelb time's 
support of James Townshend in opposition 
to Wilkes, and by his refusal to sign the 
memorial of the whig peers against the Irish 
absentee tax. On 20 Jan. 1775 he supported 
Chatham's motion for the withdrawal of the 
troops from Boston, and condemned 'the 
madness, injustice, and infatuation of co- 
ercing the Americans into a blind and ser- 
vile submission ' (Parl. Hist, xviii. 162-3). 
On 1 Feb. he both spoke and voted for Chat- 
ham's plan of conciliation (ib. xviii. 206-7, 
216), and on 7 Feb. made a violent attack upon 
Lord Mansfield, whom he accused of being 
the author of the American measures passed 
in the previous session (ib. xviii. 275-6, 281- 
282, 283). At the opening of the session in 
October 1775 he supported Rockingham's 
amendment to the address, and declared that 
* an uniform lurking spirit of despotism ' had 
pervaded every administration with regard to 
their American policy (ib. xviii. 722-6). He 
supported the petition of the American con- 
gress (ib. xviii. 920-7), and opposed the 
American Prohibitory Bill as being ' to the 
last degree hasty, rash, unjust, and ruinous' 
(ib. xviii. 1083-7, 1095, 1097-1100). In 
March 1776 he spoke in favour of Grafton's 
proposals for conciliation with America (ib. 
xviii. 1270-2). 

At the opening of the session on 31 Oct. 
1776, Shelburne denounced the king's speech 
as ' a piece of metaphysical refinement,' 
and the defence set up for it as ' nothing 

more than a string of sophisms, no less 
wretched in their texture than insolent in 
their tenor ' (ib. xviii. 1384-91). In April 
1777 he protested strongly against the pay- 
ment of the arrears of the civil list (ib. xix. 
181-6). On 30 May he supported Chatham's 
motion for an address to the crown for 
putting a stop to the hostilities in America, 
and fiercely attacked Archbishop Markham 
for preaching doctrines subversive of the 
constitution (ib. xix. 344-7, 349-51). Shel- 
burne's speech on this occasion was described 
by the younger Pitt ' as one of the most in- 
teresting and forcible' that he had ever 
heard or could even imagine (Chatham Cor- 
respondence, iv. 438). In the debate on Lord 
North's conciliatory bills on 5 March 1778, 
Shelburne declared that ' he would never 
consent that America should be indepen- 
dent ' (Parl. Hist. xix. 850-6 ; see also Chat- 
ham Correspondence, iv. 480-4). During 
this month North attempted to persuade 
Chatham and Shelburne to join the govern- 
ment. But Shelburne quickly put an end 
to the negotiations by expressing his opinion 
that, if any arrangement was to be made 
with the opposition, ' Lord Chatham must be 
dictator,' and that a complete change in the 
administration was absolutely necessary. 
He took part in the adjourned debate on the 
state of the nation the day after Chatham 
had been taken ill in the house (8 April 
1778), and once more impeached the con- 
duct of the ministry which was ' the ruin 
as well as the disgrace of this country ' 
(Parl. Hist. xix. 1032-52, 1056-8). His 
motion, on 13 May following, that the House 
of Lords should attend Chatham's funeral in 
Westminster Abbey was lost by a single 
vote (ib. xix. 1233-4). The leadership of 
Chatham's small band of adherents now de- 
volved upon Shelburne, who still persevered 
in his opposition to Lord North. In the de- 
bate on the address on 26 Nov., he can- 
didly asserted that ' he would cheerfully 
co-operate with any set of men ' to drag the 
ministers from office (ib. xix. 1306-19), 
though in the following month he solemnly 
declared that ' he never would serve with 
any man, be his abilities what they might, 
who would either maintain it was right or 
consent to acknowledge the independency of 
America' (ib. xx. 40). In February 1779 
Shelburne refused to entertain the overtures 
made through Weymouth for the purpose of 
inducing him, Grafton, and Camden to form a 
government; and, in order to cement the 
ranks of the opposition, he promised, at 
Grafton's request, not to contest the treasury 
with Rockingham in the event of the forma- 
tion of a whig ministry. 

Petty . 



On 2 June 1779 Shelburne called attention 
to the distressed state of Ireland, and ' desired 
the House to recollect that the American war 
had commenced upon less provocation than 
this country had given Ireland' (ib. xx. 663-9, 
675). On 1 Dec. he again called attention 
to the affairs of Ireland, and moved a vote 
of censure upon the administration for their 
neglect of that country, but was defeated 
by 82 votes to 37 (ib. xx. 1157-69, 1178). 
He supported the Duke of Richmond's mo- 
tion for an economical reform of the civil 
list (ib. xx. 1263-6), and made a violent at- 
tack upon the king during the discussion of 
the army extraordinaries (ib. xx. 1285-91 ; 
see also Life, iii. 67). On 8 Feb. 1780 he 
moved for the appointment of a committee of 
both houses to inquire into the public ex- 
penditure, but was defeated by a majority 
of 46 votes (ParL Hist. xx. 1318-32, 1362, 
1364^70). On 22 March he fought a duel 
in Hyde Park with Lieutenant-colonel Wil- 
liam Fullarton [q.v.], whom he had offended 
by some remarks in the House of Lords (ib. 
xxi. 218; see also pp. 293-6, 319-27). Owing 
to the prevalent suspicion that Fullarton 
was an instrument of the government, Shel- 
burne, who was slightly wounded in the 
groin, became an object of popular favour. 
Several towns conferred their freedom on 
him, and the committee of the common 
council of London sent to inquire after his 
health. Shelburne was unjustly accused of 
having privately encouraged the excesses of 
the mob during the Gordon riots. After 
Rockingham's abortive negotiation with the 
king in July, the opposition again became 
divided, and Shelburne retired into the 
country. The only speech which he made 
during the session of 1780-1 was on 25 Jan. 
1781, when he denounced the injustice of the 
war with Holland, and confessed that, ' in re- 
spect to the recovery of North America, he 
had been a very Quixote.' Moreover, he de- 
clared that ' much as he valued America,' 
and ' fatal as her final separation would 
prove, whenever that event might take place 
... he would be much better pleased to see 
America for ever severed from Great Britain 
than restored to our possession by force of 
arms or conquest ' (ib. xxi. 1023-43). At 
Grafton's request, Shelburne returned to 
London for the following session. At the 
meeting of parliament, on 27 Nov. 1781, he 
moved an amendment to the address, and 
pointed out the impossibility of continuing 
the struggle with America (ib. xxii. 644-50). 
During the debate on the surrender of Corn- 
wallis in February 1782, Shelburne once 
more asserted that he ' never would consent 
under any possible given circumstances to 

ackno'wledge the independency of America ' 
(id. xxii. 987-8). 

When Lord North resigned in the fol- 
lowing month, Shelburne declined to form 
an administration, and urged the king to 
send for Rockingham. The king ultimately 
agreed to accept Rockingham as the head 
of the new ministry, but he refused to 
communicate with him personally, and em- 
ployed Shelburne as his intermediary in the 
negotiations. Though the Rockingham ad- 
ministration was formed on the express un- 
derstanding that the king would consent to 
acknowledge the independence of America, 
Shelburne, in spite of his previous pro- 
tests, accepted the post of secretary of 
state for the home department (27 March 
1782). One of his first official acts was 
to cause a circular letter to be sent round to 
all the principal towns suggesting the im- 
mediate enrolment of volunteers for the na- 
tional defence. On 17 May he carried reso- 
lutions for the repeal of the declaratory act 
of George I, and for other concessions to 
Ireland, without any serious opposition in the 
House of Lords (ib. xxiii. 35-8, 43). 

Shelburne's proposals for parliamentary 
reform, for a general reform of the receipt 
and expenditure of the public revenue, and 
for the impeachment of Lord North were 
severally rejected by the cabinet. The dif- 
ferences between Shelburne and Fox, who 
regarded each other with mutual distrust 
and jealousy, culminated in the negotiations 
for peace [see Fox, CHARLES JAMES]. But 
though at difference with his colleagues on 
questions of policy, he retained the confidence 
of the king, who freely consulted him on 
Burke's bill for the reform of the civil list 
(Life, iii. 154-62). On 3 July, two days after 
Rockingham's death, Shelburne, while sup- 
porting the second reading of Burke's bill, 
expressed a hope that he should be able ' to 
introduce a general system of economy not 
only in the offices mentioned in the bill, but 
into every office whatever ' (Par 1. Hist, xxiii. 
143-4; see also Life, iii. 328-37). The 
popular effect of this bill was, however, con- 
siderably lessened by the previous grant of 
pensions to two of Shelburne's staunchest 
adherents. On Shelburne's appointment as 
first lord of the treasury, Fox, who had re- 
commended the king to send for the Duke 
of Portland, resigned office with other mem- 
bers of the Rockingham party. Shelburne 
attempted to form an administration which 
should be subservient neither to the king nor 
to the whigs. William Pitt was appointed 
chancellor of the exchequer, while Thomas 
Townshend and Lord Grantham received the 
seals of secretaries of state. Of the eleven 




ministers who formed Shelburne's cabinet, 
seven were Chathamite whigs, two had been 
followers of Buckingham, Grantham had not 
identified himself with any political party, 
and Thurlow represented the king (Life, iii. 
229). During the debate on the change of 
ministry on 10 July, Shelburne took the 
opportunity of stating his firm adherence to 
'all those constitutional ideas which for seven- 
teen years he had imbibed from his master 
in politics, the late Earl of Chatham.' He 
also declared that he had never altered his 
opinion with regard to the independence of 
America, and ' to nothing short of necessity 
would he give way on that head' (Part. 
Hist, xxiii. 191-5, 196). Parliament rose 
on the following day, and Shelburne was 
now able to give his undivided attention to 
the peace negotiations at Paris. Thomas 
Grenville (1755-1846) [q. v.], Fox's envoy 
to Vergennes, was succeeded by Alleyne 
Fitzherbert (afterwards Baron St. Helens) 
[q. v.], and Richard Oswald [q. v.] was for- 
mally empowered to conclude a peace with 
the American colonies. With much skill 
Shelburne managed to draw away the Ame- 
ricans from their allies, and in like man- 
ner to detach France from Spain and the 
northern powers. Though, after much re- 
luctance, he conceded the absolute indepen- 
dence of the American colonies, he firmly re- 
sisted the surrender of Gibraltar, in spite of 
the king's wish to get rid of it. A provisional 
treaty of peace between Great Britain and 
the United States of America was signed at 
Paris on 13 Nov. 1782, and on 20 Jan. 1783 
preliminary articles of peace with France 
and Spain were concluded, a truce being at 
the same time settled with the States- 
General. Weakened by dissensions in his 
cabinet, Shelburne vainly endeavoured to 
procure the support of North and Fox. On 
17 Feb. 1783 the coalition of these statesmen 
against Shelburne became patent. The ad- 
dress approving of the peace, though carried 
in the lords by a majority of thirteen, was 
defeated in the commons by a majority of 
sixteen. Shelburne defended the treaties in 
a powerful speech, and boldly asserted his 
disbelief in the opinion then prevalent that 
the prosperity of the country depended on 
commercial monopoly. ' I avow,' he said, 
' that monopoly is always unwise ; but if 
there is any nation under heaven who ought 
to be the first to reject monopoly, it is the 
English ' (Part. Hist, xxiii. 407-20). On the 
morning of 22 Feb. Lord John Cavendish's 
resolution censuring the terms of peace was 
carried in the commons by 207 votes to 190 ; 
and on the 24th Shelburne, convinced that 
the king was playing a double game, resigned 

office. The charge against Shelburne that 
he had availed himself of his political infor- 
mation to speculate profitably in the stocks 
during the negotiations for peace, is entirely 
without foundation (Edinburgh Eeview, xxv. 

Upon the formation of the coalition mini- 
stry Shelburne retired into the country. At 
Pitt's request, however, he returned to town 
in May to attack Lord John Cavendish's 
financial measures, when he took the op- 
portunity of vindicating his own conduct, 
and l thanked God that he remained inde- 
pendent of all parties' (Part. Hist, xxiii. 
806-18, 824, 825-6). Shortly afterwards 
Shelburne went abroad for some months. 
Owing to his great unpopularity, Shelburne 
was not asked by Pitt to join the administra- 
tion in December 1783. The king, more- 
over, was deeply incensed against Shelburne 
on account of his resignation in the previous 
February and his absence from the division 
on Fox's East India bill. Shelburne now 
ceased to take a prominent part in public 
affairs, and did not again take office. In 
spite of the treatment which he had received, 
Shelburne gave Pitt every assurance of his 
support, and on 6 Dec. 1784 was created 
Viscount Calne and Calstone, Earl Wycombe, 
and Marquis of Lansdowne in the peerage of 
Great Britain. In July 1785 he both spoke 
and voted in favour of the Irish commercial 
propositions (Parl. Hist. xxv. 855-64), and 
on 1 March 1787 he supported the treaty of 
commerce with France in an exceedingly 
able speech (ib. xxvi. 554-61). During the 
further discussion of the French treaty he 
became involved in an acrimonious discus- 
sion with the Duke of Richmond (ib. xxvi. 
573 et seq.), which put an end to their friend- 
ship, and nearly brought about a duel, the 
general wish among the whigs being that 
'one should be shot and the -other hanged 
for it' (Life and Letters of Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
first EarlofMinto, 1874, i. 135). The under- 
standing between Lansdowne and Pitt was 
first disturbed by a difference of opinion 
with regard to Indian affairs. Lansdowne 
entertained a great admiration for Warren 
Hastings. 'The Foxites and Pittites,' he 
writes to Bentham, 'join in covering every 
villain, and prosecuting the only man of 
merit ' (Life, iii. 476). In March 1788 he 
offered a determined opposition to the East 
India declaratory bill (Cornwallis Corre- 
spondence, 1859, i. 355, 362; Part. Hist. 
xxvii. 227-33, 256-9). In December 1788 
he supported the government on the regency 
question (ib. xxvii. 874-84, 890). In the 
debate on the convention with Spain on 
13 Dec. 1790, Lansdowne called the atten- 

tion of the house to the rejection of the 
pacific system which had been inaugurated 
by the peace of 1782 (ib. xxviii. 939-48), and 
in the following year he vigorously denounced 
the policy of maintaining the integrity of 
the Turkish empire against Russia (ib. xxix. 
46-52, 441-8). In the beginning of 1792 
the king made an overture to Lansdowne, 
who replied in a singularly obscure paper on 
men and manners, and the negotiation 
abruptly terminated (Life, iii. 500-4). In 
May Lansdowne expressed his strong dis- 
approval of the proclamation against sedi- 
tious writings (Parl. Hist. xxix. 1524-7), and 
in December he warmly opposed the alien bill 
(ib. xxx. 159, 164-6). In 1793 he unsuccess- 
fully protested against the war with France 
(ib. xxx. 329-31, 422-3), and vainly opposed 
the Traitorous Correspondence Bill (ib. xxx. 
728-30, 732-6). His motion in favour of 
peace with France was defeated by 103 votes 
to thirteen on 17 Feb. 1794 (ib. xxx. 1391- 
1407, 1424). In the same year he opposed 
the Habeas Corpus Suspension Bill (ib. xxxi. 
598-601), and supported the Duke of Bed- 
ford's motion for putting an end to the 
French war (ib. xxxi. 683-5, 687). In 1795 
he opposed the bill for continuing the Habeas 
Corpus Suspension Act (ib. xxxi. 1287-9), 
and the Seditious Meetings bill (ib. xxxii. 
534-9, 551-2, 554). The estrangement 
between Lansdowne and Pitt led to a gra- 
dual reconciliation between Lansdowne and 
Fox, who informed Lord Holland in Fe- 
bruary 1796 that ' we are indeed now upon 
a very good footing, and quite sufficiently so 
to enable us to act cordially together, if any 
occasion offers to make our doing so useful ' 
(RUSSELL, Memorials and Correspondence of 
C. J. Fox, 1854, iii. 129). Lansdowne's 
motion in favour of reform in the public 
offices was defeated by a majority of ninety- 
two on 2 May 1796 (Parl. Hist, xxxii. 1041- 
1052). In March 1797 he indignantly denied 
the charge of Jacobinism which had fre- 
quently been imputed to him, and declared 
that he only ' desired the present system 
should be changed for a constitutional system ' 
(ib. xxxiii. 193-4). On 30 May following he 
expressed a hope that an attempt at parlia- 
mentary reform would be made ' while it 
could be done gradually, and not to delay its 
necessity till it would burst all bounds ' (ib. 
xxxiii. 761-2). During the debate on the 
address at the opening of the session in No- 
vember 1797, Lansdowne, in an eloquent 
speech, insisted on the necessity of making 
peace with France, and urged the ministers 
to adopt a policy of conciliation both at home 
and abroad (ib. xxxiii. 872-9). In March 
1798 he supported the Duke of Bedford's 

motion for the dismissal of the ministers (ib. 
xxxiii. 1332-6, 1352). In March 1779, and 
again in April 1800 he declared himself in 
avour of union with Ireland (ib. xxxiv. 672- 
680, xxxv. 165-9). When the king's illness, 
n 1801, seemed likely to necessitate a re- 
gency, Lord Moira was instructed by the 
Prince of Wales to ascertain Lansdowne's 
views. After several conversations a cabinet 
was agreed upon, with Lansdowne and Fox 
as secretaries of state, Sheridan as chancellor 
of the exchequer, and Moira as first lord of the 
treasury (Life, iii. 559-62). These arrange- 
ments, however, were quickly frustrated by 
the recovery of the king and the formation 
of the Addington ministry. On 20 March 
1801 Lansdowne made a formal declaration 
of his altered views on the question of neutral 
rights (Parl. Hist. xxxv. 1197-9). He spoke 
for the last time in the House of Lords on 
23 May 1803, and once more urged the go- 
vernment to adopt a policy of conciliation 
with regard to France (ib. xxxvi. 1505-7). 
He died at Lansdowne House, Berkeley 
Square, London, on 7 May 1805, and was 
buried at High Wycombe in the family vault 
in the north aisle of the chancel of All Saints' 
Church, without any monument or inscrip- 
tion to his memory. 

Lansdowne was appointed major-general 
on 26 March 1765 (dated 10 July 1762), 
lieutenant-general on 26 May 1772, and 
general on 19 Feb. 1783. He was elected 
and invested a knight of the Garter on 
19 April 1782, and was installed by dispensa- 
tion on 29 May 1801 (NICOLAS, History of 
the Orders of British Knighthood, 1842, vol. ii. 
p. Ixxiii). 

He married, first, on 3 Feb. 1765, Lady 
Sophia Carteret, only daughter of John, earl 
Granville, in whose right he acquired large 
estates, including Lansdowne Hill, near 
Bath, from which he afterwards took his 
title of marquis. By her he had two sons, 
viz. : (1) John Henry, second marquis of 
Lansdowne, and (2) William Granville, who 
died on 28 Jan. 1778. Shelburne's first wife 
died on 5 Jan. 1771, aged 25, and was buried 
in the mausoleum in Bowood Park. A monu- 
ment was erected to her memory in the 
south aisle of All Saints' Church, High 
Wycombe. He married, secondly, on 9 July 
1779, Lady Louisa Fitzpatrick, second daugh- 
ter of John, first earl of Upper Ossory, by 
whom he had an only son, Henry, third 
marquis of Lansdowne [q. v.], and a daugh- 
ter, born on 8 Dec. 1781, who died an in- 
fant. His second wife died on 8 Aug. 1789, 
aged 34. 

Lansdowne was one of the most unpopular 
statesmen of his time. He was commonly 




known as * Malagrida,' a nickname given him 
for the first time in the ' Public Advertiser ' 
for 16 Sept. 1767 (WOODFALL, Junius, 1814, 
ii. 473), while caricatures represented him as 
Guy Fawkes in the act of blowing up his 
comrades. Henry Fox denounced him as ' a 
perfidious and infamous liar ' (WALPOLE, 
Memoirs of the Reign of George III, i. 203). 
George III spoke of him as ' the Jesuit of 
Berkeley Square ' (Correspondence, of King 
George III with Lord North, 1867, ii. 234). 
Horace Walpole declared that ' his falsehood 
was so constant and notorious that it was 
rather his profession than his instrument. . . . 
A Cataline and a Borgia were his models in 
age when half their wickedness would have 
suited his purposes better' (Journal of the 
Reign of George III, 1859, ii. 566-7). Burke 
frequently expressed the most extravagant 
detestation of him. ' If Lord Shelburne was 
not a Cataline or a Borgia in morals/ he 
said on one occasion, * it must not be ascribed 
to anything but his understanding' (Part. 
Hist, xxiii. 183). Even as late as 1793 many 
of the leading whigs had 'not only a distrust, 
but an unwarrantable hatred of his very 
name ' (LoKD HOLLAND, Memoirs of the 
Whiff Party, 1852, i. 45). Two familiar 
anecdotes well illustrate the general belief 
in his insincerity. The one is Goldsmith's 
unfortunate though well-meant remark to 
Lansdowne, 'Do you know that I never 
could conceive the reason why they call you 
Malagrida, for Malagrida was a very good 
sort of man ' (HARDY, Memoirs of the Earl 
of Charlemont, 1810, p. 177). The other, the 
story of Gainsborough flinging away his 
pencil after a second attempt to draw a like- 
ness of Lansdowne, and exclaiming, ' D 

it ! I never could see through varnish, and 

there's an end ' (Autobiography of Mrs. Piozzi, 

1861, i. 338). The same reproach is urged 

against him in the ' Rolliad ' (1795, pt. i. p. 


A Noble Duke affirms I like his plan; 

I never did, my Lords ! I never can 1 

Shame on the slanderous breath which dares 


That I, who now condemn, advis'd the ill. 
Plain words, thank Heaven, are always under- 
stood ; 
I could approve, I said, but not I wou'd. 

Judged by the standard of the time, nothing 
that Lansdowne did sufficiently accounts 
for his extreme unpopularity amongst his 
contemporaries. Much of it was doubtless 
due to his outspoken contempt for political 
parties, and his preference for measures to 
men ; much also to his affected and ob- 
sequious manners, his extremely suspicious 

temper, and his cynical judgment of the 
motives of others. Though possessed of great 
abilities, Lansdowne was wanting in tact, and 
without any skill in the management of men. 
' His art,' said Lord Loughborough, ' had a 
strong twang of a boarding-school education. 
It resembles more a cunning woman's than 
an able man's address ' (Journal and Corre- 
spondence of Lord Auckland, 1861-2, i. 19). 
As a speaker he had few superiors in the 
House of Lords. Lord Camden is said to 
have f admired his debating powers above 
those of any other peer in his time, Lord 
Chatham alone excepted ' (George Hardinge 
quoted in CAMPBELL'S Lives of the Chan- 
cellors, 1846, v. 362) ; while Bentham, on the 
other hand, says that ' his manner was very 
imposing, very dignified, and he talked his- 
vague generalities in the House of Lords in 
a very emphatic way, as if something grand 
were at the bottom, when, in fact, there 
was nothing at all ' ( The Works of Jeremy 
Bentham, 1843, x. 116). Lord Holland, 
in his discriminating character of Lans- 
downe, says that 'in his publick speeches- 
he wanted method and perspicuity, and was 
deficient in justness of reason, in judgment, 
and in taste ; but he had some imagination, 
some wit, great animation, and both in sar- 
casm and invective not unfrequently rose to 
eloquence' (Memoirs of the Whig^Party, i. 
41). Deficient as he was in many of the re- 
quisite qualifications of a leader, Lansdowne 
was really more of a political philosopher than 
a statesman. In many of his views he was far 
in advance of his own times. He warmly 
supported the cause of parliamentary and 
economical reform. He was in favour of 
Roman catholic emancipation and complete 
religious equality. He was one of the earliest 
and most zealous advocates of free trade. 
He hailed the French revolution with en- 
thusiasm, and persistently advocated a close 
alliance between England and France. He 
protested against the policy of maintaining 
the integrity of the Turkish empire, and was- 
in favour of the neutral flag in time of war. 
Bentham always said that * he was the only 
minister he ever heard of who did not fear 
the people' (ib. p. 41 n.) Disraeli, who calls 
Lansdowne ' one of the suppressed characters 
of English history,' says that he was ' the first 
great minister who comprehended the rising 
importance of the middle class' (Sybil, 1845, 
i. 34, 37). 

Lansdowne was a munificent patron of 
literature and the fine arts. His house was 
the centre of the most cultivated and liberal 
society of the day. Bentham, Dumont, 
Franklin, Garrick, Johnson, Sir William 
Jones, Price, Priestley, Mirabeau, Morellet, 




and Romilly were numbered among his many 

In spite of his political cares, Lansdowne 
always carefully supervised the administra- 
tion of his large estates. He told Johnson 
on one occasion that ' a man of rank who 
looks into his own affairs may have all that 
he ought to have, all that can be of any use, 
or appear with any advantage, for five thou- 
sand pounds a year ' (BoswELL, Life of John- 
son, 1887, iii. 265). He employed Capability 
Brown in laying out the grounds at Bowood, 
and added a wing to the house, the chief 
portion of which had been erected by his 
father. Lansdowne House, on the south side 
of Berkeley Square, was built by the Brothers 
Adam between 1765 and 1767 for the Earl 
of Bute, who sold it before completion to 
Lansdowne for 22,0007. As both these 
ministers were popularly supposed to have 
largely benefited from the conclusion of a 
great war, the house was said to have been 
' constructed by one peace, and paid for by 
another' (WKAXALL, Historical Memoirs, 
1815, ii. 308). Lansdowne sold Wycombe 
Abbey to Robert, first baron Carrington, in 
August 1798. The sale of Lansdowne's huge 
library of printed books by Messrs. Leigh & 
Sotheby lasted thirty-one days, and realised j 
over 6,700/. His collections of (1) maps, i 
charts, and prints, (2) political and historical 
tracts and pamphlets, and (3) coins and i 

medals, were sold by the same auctioneers 
in April and May 1806. His valuable col- 
lection of manuscripts, which included the 
original state papers of Lord Burghley, the 
correspondence of Sir Julius Caesar, and the 
collections of Bishop White Kennett and 
Le Neve, were purchased for the British 
Museum in 1807, a parliamentary grant of 
4,9257. being voted for that purpose (Cat. 
Lansd. MSS. 1819). The collection of pic- 
tures which he had formed at Bowood was 
sold in 1809 (BRITTON, Autobiography, 1850, 
pt. i. p. 356). Of the art collections made 
by Lansdowne, the gallery of ancient statuary 
at Lansdowne House, purchased from Gavin 
Hamilton, alone remains, though that was 
also offered for sale in 1810 (see Cat. of 
Lansdowne Marbles, fyc., 1810). 

The ' Letters of Junius ' have been some- 
times attributed to Lansdowne, while Britton 
supposed that Lansdowne and Dunning as- 
sisted Barre in writing them ( The Authorship 
of the Letters of Junius Elucidated, 1848). 
The authorship is, however, said to have been 
denied by Lansdowne a week before his death, 
when he told Sir Richard Phillips that he 
knew Junius ' and all about the writing and 
production of those letters ' {Life, vol. i. pp. 
viii, ix, ii. 199 n.) 

Lansdowne left in manuscript portions 
of an autobiography, an incomplete memo- 
randa of the events of 1762, and several 
other fragmentary papers, most of which 
have been printed in his ' Life.' An in- 
teresting letter on sepulchral decorations, 
addressed by Lansdowne to the committee 
appointed for erecting a monument to John 
Howard's memory, is printed in the ' Gen- 
tleman's Magazine ' for 1791 (pt. i. pp. 395- 

The portrait of Lansdowne, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, in the National Portrait Gallery, 
is a study for the larger picture which belongs 
to the Marquis of Lansdowne. Another por- 
trait of Lansdowne by Reynolds is the pro- 
perty of the Earl of Morley ; this has been 
engraved by S. W. Reynolds. Another por- 
trait by the same painter, of Lansdowne in 
company with Dunning and Barre, belongs 
to Lord Northbrook ; this has been engraved 
by William Ward. There is also an en- 
graving of Lansdowne by Bartolozzi after 
Gainsborough. A whole-length caricature 
of Lansdowne was published by Saver in 

[Besides Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice's Life of 
William, Earl of Shelburne, 1875-6, and the 
other works quoted in the text, the following 
books have also been consulted : Wai pole's 
Letters, 1857-9 ; the Political Memoranda of 
Francis, fifth Duke of Leeds (Camden Soc. Publ.), 
1884 ; Trevelyan's Early Hist, of Charles James 
Fox, 1881 ; Lord John .Russell's Life and Times 
of Charles James Fox, 1859-66 ; Lord Stanhope's 
Life of Pitt, 1861-2 ; Lord Albemarle's Memoirs 
of the Marquis of Kockingham, 1852; Duke of 
Buckingham's Memoirs of the Courts and 
Cabinets of George III, 1853, vol. i.; Diaries and 
Correspondence of James Harris, first Earl of 
Malmesbury, 1844, vols. i. and ii. ; Diaries and 
Correspondence of the Right Hon. George Rose, 
1860, i. 23-33; John Nicholls's Recollections and 
Reflections, &c., 1822, i. 1-61, 209-10, 389; Sir 
G. C. Lewis's Essays on the Administrations of 
Great Britain, 1864, pp. 1-84 ; Jesse's Memoirs of 
the Life and Reign of George III, 1867 ; Lecky's 
Hist, of England, 1st edit., vols. iii. and iv. ; 
Lord Mahon's Hist, of England, 1858, vols. v. 
vi. vii. ; Bancroft's Hist, of the United States of 
America, 1876, vols. iii. iv. v. vi. ; Win- 
sor's Hist, of America, 1888, vol. vii. ; Edin- 
burgh Review, cxlv. 170-204 ; Quarterly Re- 
view, cxxxviii. 378-420 ; Lodge's Portraits, 
1850, viii. 171-77 ; Edwards's Memoirs of 
Libraries, 1859, i. 468-9, 524-5; Beauties of 
England and Wales, 1801-18, i. 364, 365, vol. 
xv. pt. i. pp. 541-51 ; Wheatley's London Past 
and Present, 1891, i. 163, ii. 366 ; Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biogr. 1878, pp. 201-3 ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, 1886, ii. 318-9; G. E. C.'s 
Complete Peerage, v. 17 ; Foster's Peerage, 1883, 
pp. 411-12; Gent. Mag. 1765 p. 97, 1771 p. 47, 

Petty-Fitzmaurice 127 Petty-Fitzmaurice 

1778 p. 94, 1779 p. 375, 1781 p. 593, 1789 pt. ii. 
p. 768, 1805 pt. i. pp. 491-2 ; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, 1890; Official Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 109, 123, 
665 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vi. 467, 489, 
vii. 35, 55. Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice's report 
on the Shelburne papers belonging to the Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne will be found in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. pp. 125-47, 5th Rep. pp. 215- 
260, 6th Rep. pp. 235-43.] G. F. R. B. 


third MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE (1780-1863), 
statesman, was the only son of the second 
marriage of William Petty, second earl of 
Shelburne and first marquis of Lansdowne 
[q. v.] His mother was Lady Louisa Fitz- 
patrick, daughter of John, earl of Upper 
Ossory. He was born on 2 July 1780 at 

Lansdowne House, and was educated at 
Westminster School, under the special care 
of a private tutor, the Rev. Mr. Debarry, and 
from his earliest years was trained with a 
view to public life. From Westminster 
School he was sent, together with Lord Ash- 
burton, under the tutelage of Mr. Debarry, 
to Edinburgh. Shelburne is said to have 
chosen Edinburgh rather than Oxford for his 
son's academic training owing to the advice 
of his friend, Jeremy Bentham (FiTZMAFRlCE, 
Life of Shelburne, iii. 565). At Edinburgh 
he attended the lectures of Professor Dugald 
Stewart, with Henry John Temple, after- 
wards third Viscount Palmerston [q. v.], 
Brougham, Cockburn, Jeffrey, Horner, and 
Sydney Smith, and the political ideas of Petty 
and his fellow students were formed, to some 
extent, in Stewart's class-room. While at 
Westminster School Petty had been a fre- 
quent attendant at the debates in the House 
of Commons, and at Edinburgh he became a 
prominent member of the Speculative Society, 
to which he was admitted on 17 Jan. 1797, and 
of which he was elected an honorary member 
on 1 May 1798. From Edinburgh he proceeded 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated M.A. 1801. In 1811 he was created 
LL.D. On leaving the university in 1802 
he set out, on the conclusion of the peace of 
Amiens, on the grand tour, in the company 
of M. Etienne Dumont, an intimate friend of 
Mirabeau, and the translator into French of 
Bentham's works. Returning to England on 
the renewal of the war, he almost immediately 
entered the House of Commons as member 
for Calne, at the age of twenty-two. He 
appears to have first directed his attention to 
financial questions, and delivered his maiden 
speech in 1804 on the Bank Restriction Act. 
The leaders of both parties soon marked the 
political promise displayed by the young 
member. Fox wrote of him, ' The little he 

has done is excellent ; good sense and good 
language to perfection' (Fox, Correspon- 
dence, iii. 246) ; and Pitt showed his apprecia- 
tion by making him an offer of subordinate 
office in 1804 (STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, iv. 
190). This Petty declined, being determined 
to attach himself to Fox. In April 1805 he 
made a very able speech (HORNER, Corre- 
spondence, i. 300) in answer to Pitt's attempt 
to defend Lord Melville as treasurer of the 
navy, and left no doubt as to the party to 
which he was to belong through life. On 
the meeting of parliament in January 1806 
he was selected to move an amendment to 
the address ; but Pitt was lying on his death- 
bed, and at the last moment the opposition 
refrained from the attack (Gent. Mag. 1806, 
i. 161). On the formation, after the death 
of Pitt, of the administration of ' All the 
Talents ' under Lord Grenville, Petty found 
himself chancellor of the exchequer at he 
age of twenty-five. He took office as member 
for the university of Cambridge, having se- 
cured the seat (vacated by the death of Pitt) 
after a contest with Lord Althorp and Lord 
Palmerston. It was of this election and of 
Petty's and Palmerston's rival candidatures 
that Byron wrote in the * Hours of Idle- 
ness : ' 

One on his power and place depends, 
The other on the Lord knows what, 

Each to some eloquence pretends, 

Though neither will convince by that. 

The young chancellor of the exchequer, find- 
ing that the exigencies of the war made fresh 
taxation absolutely necessary, boldly intro- 
duced on 28 March 1806, and carried after 
considerable opposition, a new property tax, 
raising the tax from six and a half per cent, 
to ten per cent., and at the same time cutting 
down and regulating more strictly the exemp- 
tions (DowELL, Hist, of Taxation, ii. 113). 
The best service that he rendered during 
his brief term of office was in bringing for- 
ward the New Auditors Bill on 21 May 1806, 
when he forcibly directed public attention to 
the condition of the finance of the country, 
showing that there were arrears of public 
money not accounted for amounting to the 
sum of 455,000,000/. On 29 Jan. 1807 he 
produced a novel and ingenious but unsound 
scheme for providing for the next fourteen 
years' war expenditure. The money was to 
be raised by annual loans, to be charged on 
the war taxes, then estimated to produce 
28,000,000/. a year, and provision was made 
for interest on the loans, and for a sinking 
fund for their redemption, by the appropria- 
tion of the extra war taxes. Portions of the 
pledged war taxes, when successively libe- 

Petty-Fitzmaurice 128 Petty-Fitzmaurice 

rated by the redemption of the loans through 
the action of the sinking fund, would, it 
was supposed, if the war continued, become 
capable of again being pledged on the raising 
of fresh loans in a revolving series. The 
eleven resolutions in which this plan was 
formulated were, after severe criticism, agreed 
to by the house ; but on the Grenville ad- 
ministration going out of office, they were 
subsequ ently negatived on 1 4 J uly 1 807 . The 
ministry resigned on 8 April 1807, on the 
king's demand for a pledge from the cabinet 
against the introduction of the catholic 
question, and on 8 May Petty lost his seat for 
the university of Cambridge (BULWER, Life 
of Lord Palmerston, i. 22), mainly in conse- 
quence of his expressed sympathy with the 
catholic claims. He entered the new parlia- 
ment, which met on 22 June 1807, as member 
for Camelford, and immediately became a 
prominent and active leader of the opposi- 
tion. On 21 Jan. 1808. on the discussion of 
the address, he strongly supported Mr. Whit- 
bread in his condemnation of the attack on 
Copenhagen, and spoke frequently on all 
questions of importance during the session. 
In November 1809, on the death of his half- 
brother, who had succeeded his father as 
second Marquis of Lansdowne, Petty's career 
in the House of Commons terminated at a 
moment when his services as a leader were 
specially required (ib. i. Ill), and the influ- 
ence which for the rest of his life he exer- 
cised over his party was maintained by him, 
as Marquis of Lansdowne, in the House of 

For twenty years following on the death 
of Fox the disorganisation of the whig party 
was complete, the opposition at times appear- 
ing only to exist in the drawing-rooms of 
Lansdowne, Devonshire, and Holland houses. 
During this period Lord Lansdowne took a 
regular and prominent part in the debates 
in the House of Lords. He proved himself 
a warm supporter of the abolition of the 
slave trade, moving an address to the regent 
on the subject on 30 June 1814, and on 
1 June 1815 moving the second reading of 
a bill designed to prevent English subjects 
from lending capital to assist in the carrying 
on of the trade ; again, five years later, on 
9 July 1819, he co-operated with Wilber- 
force by taking charge in the lords of an 
address to the crown similar to that moved 
at the same date in the commons. He 
showed warm sympathy with the South Ame- 
rican insurgents in their struggle for inde- 
pendence by opposing on 28 June 1819 the 
Foreign Enlistment Bill, a measure designed 
to prevent British subjects fighting on behalf 
of revolted colonies. Lansdowne's views on 

the development of trade were clearly ex- 
pressed, in May 1820, in a speech proposing 
the appointment of a committee to consider 
the means of extending our foreign commerce, 
when he pronounced himself in favour of free 
trade. A true liberal in his love of tolerance, 
he opposed on 6 Dec. 1819 the second reading 
of the bill for the prevention of blasphemous 
and seditious libels ; moved on 2 April 1824 
thellnitarian Marriage Bill ; and subsequently 
advocated the removal of the political dis- 
abilities of the Jews. But catholic emancipa- 
tion was the political question which more 
than any other engrossed his attention during 
this period. When supporting Lord Donough- 
more's introduction of the Irish Roman ca- 
tholic petition in the House of Lords on 
18 June 1811, he declared that the grant- 
ing of the catholic claims was in his opinion 
necessary to the completion of the union ; 
he again supported Lord Donoughmore's 
motion to call attention to the petition of 
the Roman catholics praying for relief, on 
17 May 1819, and in 1824 he introduced two 
bills evidently designed to prepare the way 
for the consideration of the whole Roman 
catholic question in the next session ; the 
first of these measures conferred the parlia- 
mentary franchise on English catholics, the 
second declared them eligible for various 
offices, and removed the disability of the 
Duke of Norfolk from exercising the office 
of earl marshal. Though both bills were re- 
jected, Lansdowne received the support of 
five cabinet ministers, including Lord Liver- 

In April 1827 Lansdowne was mainly 
instrumental in bringing about the coalition 
between a section of the whigs and the fol- 
lowers of Canning. Two conditions of this 
alliance were that the Roman catholic ques- 
tion should not be made a cabinet question 
(STAPLETON, Life of Canning, iii. 341), and 
that parliamentary reform should be a for- 
bidden subject (Diary of Lord Colchester, 
iii. 486). Although the bulk of the whig 
party agreed with Canning on the catholic 
question, and supported his later foreign 
policy, Lansdowne's action in supporting 
a coalition occasioned a temporary split in 
the party, Lord Grey and Lord Althorp, 
and a considerable following, refusing to 
either join or support the ministry (WAL- 
POLE, Life of Lord John Russell, i. 134). The 
Duke of Bedford wrote to Lord John Russell, 
29 April 1827, that Lansdowne had 'been the 
victim and dupe of the two greatest rogues, 
politically speaking, in the kingdom ' (ib. i. 
135). Although his action displeased mem- 
bers of his party, it gave great satisfaction to 
O'Connell (Correspondence of O'Connell, i. 

Petty-Fitzmaurice 129 Petty-Fitzmaurice 

137). Very shortly after the formation of 
this coalition administration, Lansdowne en- 
tered the cabinet without office ; but in July 
1827 Sturges Bourne, probably by previous 
arrangement, gave place to him in the home 
department. On the death of Canning, the 
news of which Lansdowne was deputed to 
announce to the king at Windsor, another 
ministerial crisis ensued, but was overcome 
by Lansdowne and his friends assisting Lord 
Goderich to form a ministry (BUCKINGHAM, 
Memoirs of the Court of George IV, ii*349). 
Possibly this was the one occasion in his life 
when he would not have been unwilling to 
become prime minister ; certainly his friends 
thought at the moment that his pretensions 
were not sufficiently asserted. Lord John 
Russell expressed the opinion, 16 Aug. 1827, 
that, ' whilst honest as the purest virgin, 
Lansdowne was too yielding, too mild, and 
most unfit to deal with men in important poli- 
tical transactions' (Life of 'Lord John Russell, 
i. 137). The appointment of Herries as 
chancellor of the exchequer caused him to 
threaten, if not actually to tender, his re- 
signation (Times, 3 Sept. 1827; Memoir of 
Herries, i. 218), and he appears to have re- 
mained in office only at the express wish of 
the king (MooEE, Memoirs, v. 198). But the 
new administration broke up on 8 Jan. 1828, 
when the whigs retired from the cabinet. 
The split in the whig party thus came to an 

When Sir F. Burdett's resolution on the 
"Roman catholic question was passed in the 
commons, Lansdowne, now freed from the 
constraint of office, brought the resolution 
before the House of Lords (9 July 1828), but 
was defeated by a majority of forty-four. In 
1829 he severely censured the government 
for their policy in Portugal in supporting 
Dom Miguel, and, 18 March 1830, he strongly 
supported the Duke of Richmond's motion 
for an inquiry into the internal state of the 
country. He was appointed lord lieutenant 
of Wiltshire 16 Nov. 1829. 

On the formation of the whig administra- 
tion, 21 Nov. 1830, Lord Grey is said to 
have proposed Lansdowne as first lord of 
the treasury (GREVILLE, iii. 244), and sub- 
sequently offered him the foreign office (Life 
of Lord John Russell, i. 120) ; he preferred 
the office of president of the council (Diary 
of Lord Ellenborough, ii. 302). He was com- 
pletely at one with the rest of the ministry 
on the question of reform, and resigned, with 
the other members of the cabinet, on the king 
refusing to empower the prime minister to 
create a sufficient number of peers to secure 
a majority. On the royal assent being given 
to the Reform Bill by commission, Lansdowne 


was one of the five commissioners. He re- 
tained his place as president of the council 
after Lord Grey's resignation in 1834 and the 
appointment of Lord Melbourne as prime 
minister (cf. Lord John Russell to Lans- 
downe, 6 Feb. 1835, Lansdowne Papers). In 
Melbourne's second administration of 1835 he 
resumed his old office. His interest in the 
question of national education made the presi- 
dency of the council an especially congenial 
office. From the date of the first grant in 1833 
he was an advocate of state assistance for the 
purposes of education, provided that the be- 
stowal of grants was accompanied by the 
right of inspection. On 5 July 1839 he made, 
in answer to the archbishop of Canterbury, 
perhaps the most important speech which had 
up to that time been delivered in parliament 
on the subject. He pointed out that, in the 
matter of education, England was behind 
the chief nations in Europe ; he reminded 
the house that at that moment 80,000 
children in four of the great manufacturing 
towns of the north were growing up in hope- 
less ignorance. ' In them,' he said, ' you may 
see the rising Chartists of the next age.' This 
speech was published, and was widely read. 
Lansdowne resigned with Lord Melbourne's 
government on 30 Aug. 1841. He had been 
made K.G. on 5 Feb. 1836. 

Although Lansdowne had declared him- 
self a free-trader in 1820, he was not at first 
in favour of the absolute repeal of the corn 
laws, and did not support Lord Brougham's 
motion on the subject, February 1839. He 
declared himself a friend of free trade, and 
of change in the corn laws, 24 Aug. 1841, 
but appears to have been a believer in the 
advantage of a fixed duty, and he abandoned 
that view (26 Jan. 1846) only after the public 
declaration of Sir Robert Peel. He spoke 
in support of the second reading of Peel's 
corn bill, pointing out the failure of protec- 
tive legislation in past history. 

In Lord John Russell's ministry of July 
1846, Lansdowne again became president 
of the council (GKEVILLE, ii. 405). He 
brought forward the subject of Irish distress 
in the lords, 25 Jan. 1847, and when he in- 
troduced the relief bill for destitute Irish, 
15 Feb. 1847, expressed his opinion that the 
tendency of legislation should be to diminish 
the number of small tenants. He intro- 
duced, 17 Feb. 1848, a bill for legalising the 
carrying on of diplomatic relations with the 
court of Rome, a measure which met with 
considerable opposition, and gave him a good 
opportunity of exhibiting his tact and skill 
in managing the lords. In May 1848 he 
acted with Lord John Russell in putting 
pressure on Palmerston, and in insisting 011 

Petty-Fitzmaurice 13 Petty-Fitzmaurice 

the submission of all foreign office despatches 
to the prime minister (GKEVILLE, 2nd ser. 
iii. 174). On 25 May 1848 he introduced 
the bill for the removal of Jewish disabilities. 
On 7 May 1849 he moved in the lords the 
repeal of the navigation laws, and prophesied 
an immediate extension of British commerce 
as the result. 

In 1850 he led the opposition in the 
cabinet to Lord John Russell's proposals for 
a new reform bill (Life of Lord John Russell, 
ii. 100), and was successful in forcing its 
withdrawal ; his opinions on the matter he 
confided to Greville, when the latter in- 
formed him that his presence in the cabinet 
was regarded by many as a guarantee that 
no strong measure would be taken. * They 
may rely with entire confidence on me, for 
you may be sure that if any strong measure 
was to be contemplated by the cabinet, I 
should immediately walk out of it '(GEE VILLE, 
2nd ser. iii. 414). He was not in favour of the 
prolongation of the official existence of Lord 
John Russell's disunited ministry, and on 
their resignation showed his feeling (23 Feb. 
1852) in the House of Lords by declaring 
that the retention of office by a government 
which does not obtain the amount of support 
necessary to enable it to conduct with effi- 
ciency the queen's affairs becomes produc- 
tive of evil to the country. On the same 
occasion he took a formal leave, in dignified 
language, of the house. But though some- 
what infirm through attacks of gout, he was 
not yet destined to retire from public life. 
On the death of the Duke of Wellington 
he spoke eloquently on the loss sustained 
by the nation (11 Nov. 1852). The same 
duty had fallen to his lot on the death of 

On the resignation of Lord Derby in De- 
cember 1852, the queen sent for Lansdowne 
and the Earl of Aberdeen. Lansdowne was 
at the time crippled with gout, and declined 
the responsibility of forming a government. 
He arrived, however, at an understanding 
with Lord Aberdeen, and entered his cabinet 
without office (MARTIN, Life of the Prince 
Consort, ii. 482). Again, on the resignation 
of Lord Aberdeen, 1 Feb. 1855, the queen 
sought the assistance of Lansdowne, and at 
his advice sent first for Lord Derby, then for 
Lord John Russell, and finally for Lord Pal- 
merston, whose cabinet Lansdowne entered 
without office 22 Feb. 1855. He declined 
the offer of a dukedom in September 1857. 
The following lines appeared in ' Punch ' on 
the occasion : 

Lord Lansdowne won't be Duke of Kerry, 
Lord Lansdowne is a wise man very, 
Punch drinks his health in port and sherry. 

Despite increasing infirmity, he maintained 
a regular attendance in the House of Lords 
until 4 March 1861, when he made his last 
recorded speech. During the last year of his 
life he spent most of his time at Bowood, 
where he died, from the effects of a fall, 31 Jan. 
1863. He was buried in the mausoleum at 

Through life Lansdowne was, as Lord 
Campbell described him, l a very moderate 
whig ' (Autobiography of Lord Campbell, ii. 
205).. Though a prominent leader of the 
whig party for over fifty years, he never ac- 
quired the character of a party man. ' The 
very happy temper ' and ' strong natural 
judgment ' which Lord Shelburne remarked 
in his character in early life never failed 
him, and doubtless produced that love of 
moderation which dominated his political 
character. A member of three different 
coalition administrations, he appears to 
have been happily designed for making such 
constructions possible. Although not an 
obstinate minister in council, but, in Lord 
Campbell's words, ' one who sincerely tries 
to pass measures which he does not entirely 
relish ' (id. ii. 208), his political views were 
clear and definite ; he proved himself a con- 
sistent and powerful advocate of the removal 
of political disabilities occasioned by religious 
opinions. Though no ardent parliamentary 
reformer, he saw the necessity of the Reform 
Bill of 1832, and gave it strong support. He 
had proclaimed himself in favour of free trade 
twenty years before his party recognised its 
possibility. In Irish affairs he was no sympa- 
thiser with the aspirations of O'Connell, but 
was inclined to temper a very firm support of 
the existing government with generosity. In 
his view of foreign policy he was influenced 
by the spirit of Canning, but was invariably 
governed by a sense of patriotism which, early 
in his career, prevented him sharing the 
romantic French sympathies entertained by 
his cousin, Lord Holland, and made him a 
determined supporter of the Napoleonic war. 
At the end of his public life he took up a 
similar attitude in the very different circum- 
stances of the Crimean struggle. His great 
experience in affairs and the length of his 
public service made him supreme in questions 
of political precedent and etiquette (ib. ii. 
208), and gave him for a time an influence 
possessed in like degree by no other states- 
man. On this account he was chosen, on the 
Duke of Wellington's death, to fill the latter's 
place as informal adviser on political and 
constitutional questions to the crown. He 
understood well the sentiment of the House 
of Lords, and was a skilful and successful 
leader of that assembly. He lacked ambition, 

Petty-Fitzmaurice 131 


as lie confessed to Moore (MooKE, Memoirs, 
v. 244). And Lord John Russell, writing to 
him in 1829, lamented that the pure gold of 
his integrity was not ' mixed with a little 
more alloy of ambition and self-love, for then 
you might be stamped with the king's head, 
and pass current through the country' (Life 
of Lord John Russell, i. 148). 

The wide social influence which Lans- 
downe exercised proved of no small service to 
his party. Under him the reputation which 
BowoodandLansdowne house had secured in 
the lifetime of Lord Shelburne as meeting- 
places not only for politicians, but for men of 
letters and of science, was fully maintained. 
In the patronage of art and literature Lans- 
downe exercised considerable discretion, and 
re-established the magnificent library and 
collections of pictures and marbles which 
had been made by his father, and dissipated 
during a short period of possession by his half- 
brother. Most delicate in his acts of genero- 
sity, he freed the poet Moore from his financial 
troubles (RUSSELL, Life of Moore, ii. 341, iii. 
231, vii. 97) ; he assisted Sydney Smith to 
long-waited-for preferment (REID, Life of 
Sydney Smith, p. 263), and he secured a 
knighthood for Lyell (Life of Sir Charles 
Lyell, ii. 114). 

Lansdowne married, 30 March 1808, Lady 
Louisa Emma Fox-Strangways, fifth daugh- 
ter of Henry Thomas, second earl of Ilchester, 
by whom he had two sons ; the second suc- 
ceeded him as Marquis of Lansdowne, and is 
noticed separately. 

Numerous portraits of him are in exis- 
tence ; several are in the possession of the 
present Marquis of Lansdowne at Bowood ; 
one, painted by Lawrence, hangs in the 
National Portrait Gallery. His bust stands 
in Westminster Abbey, with an inscription 
jointly composed by Dean Stanley and his 
grandson, Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice; and 
there is a statue at Bowood presented to him 
in 1853 by public subscription, in recogni- 
tion of his public services. 

[Hansard Parl. Reports, and Annual Regis- 
ter, 1805-60; Times, 1 Feb. 1863; Saturday 
Review, 4 Feb. 1863; Walpole's Life of Lord 
John Russell; Torrens's Life of Lord Mel- 
bourne ; Bulwer's Life of Lord Palmerston ; 
Horner's Memoirs ; Moore's Memoirs ; Lord 
Eamond Fitzmaurice's Life of Earl Shelburne ; 
Greville's Journals ; Lord Colchester's Diary ; 
Stapleton's Political Life of Canning; Lord 
Stanhope's Life of Pitt ; Lord Dudley's Letters ; 
Life of Lord Grey ; Buckingham's Courts and 
Cabinets of the Regency; Memoir of Herri es, and 
information kindly given by the Marquis of 
Lansdowne and Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice.] 

W. C-K. 


(1816-1866), under-secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, was the second and only sur- 
viving son of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, third 
marquis of Lansdowne [q.v.], by his marriage 
with Lady Louisa Emma Fox-Strangways, 
fifth daughter of Henry Thomas, second earl 
of Ilchester. He was born on 5 Jan. 1816 at 
Lansdowne House, London, and was edu- 
cated at Westminster School and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He sat in the House 
of Commons for Calne from 1847 to 5 July 
1856, and was a junior lord of the treasury 
in Lord John Russell's administration from 
December 1847 to August 1849. In July 
1856 he was summoned to the House of 
Lords in his father's barony of Wycombe, and 
became under-secretary of state for foreign 
affairs under Lord Palmerston from 1856 to 
1858. In 1859 he was elected chairman of 
the Great Western Railway Company, which 
position he resigned shortly after the death 
of his father on 31 Jan. 1863. He was made 
knight of the Garter in 1864. He received 
an offer of office from Lord Derby the day 
before his death, which took place suddenly 
on 5 July 1866 ; he was seized with paralysis 
at White's Club, and died within a few hours 
afterwards at Lansdowne House. He was 
buried in the mausoleum at Bowood. 

Lansdowne, unlike his father, took small 
interest in politics ; he possessed, however, an 
admirable capacity for administrative work, 
which well fitted him for the post of chairman 
of the Great Western Railway Company. 

He married, first, on 18 Aug. 1840, Lady 
Georgiana Herbert, daughter of George 
Augustus, eleventh earl of Pembroke ; and, 
secondly, Emily Jane Mercer Elphinstone 
de Flahault, baroness Nairne in her own 
right, eldest daughter of the Comte de Fla- 
hault and the Baroness Nairne and Keith, 
by whom he had two sons. The elder suc- 
ceeded him as fifth Marquis of Lansdowne, 
and has served the offices of governor-general 
of Canada, viceroy of India, and secretary of 
state for war. Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice is 
the second son. 

[Burke's Peerage; Ann. Reg. 1866; Gent. 
Mag. 1866; Times, 13 July 1866.] W. C-K. 

PETTYT, THOMAS (1510 P-1558 ?), 
military engineer, born about 1510, known as 
the ' Surveyor of Calais,' was employed at 
Calais during the reign of Henry VIII. In 
1547 he went to Scotland to report on the 
condition of some of the castles and fortified 
places. He was then sent to strengthen the 
defences of Berwick. 

In April 1548 Pettyt accompanied Lord 




Grey, as his chief engineer, when he marched 
with a strong force to Edinburgh, and thence 
to Haddington. Pettyt had barely time to 
place the fortifications of Haddington in a 
proper state of defence when a combined 
force of French and Scots fourteen thousand 
strong attacked the place. The siege was 
obstinate and protracted. Pettyt had no 
pioneers nor any skilled labour, and was 
compelled to trust entirely to the troops com- 
posing the garrison for the repair of the old 
and the execution of the necessary new works 
of defence. His arrangements, however, 
were successful. Although the ramparts 
were much injured, the assailants never ven- 
tured to storm ; and at length a relieving army, 
under Lord Shrewsbury, forced the allies to 
retire, and raised the siege. But Pettyt, who 
in his zeal had too much exposed himself, 
was taken prisoner, and his services were so 
highly valued that Lord Grey exchanged for 
him the brother of the Lady Buccleuch. 

In 15-49 Pettyt was employed with Sir R. 
Cotton in the north of England, under the 
orders of the Earl of Rutland. In 1553 he 
was back at Calais, and remained there for 
the next four years, superintending the im- 
portant defences of Calais and Guisnes. It 
is believed that he was killed at the latter 
place when it was besieged and captured by 
the French in 1558. 

The following plans and drawings by 
Pettyt are in the British Museum : ' Platt 
of the Lowe Country at Calais, made in 
37 Henry VIII' (1545-6); 'Map roughly 
drawn of the Country of Guynes and Bole- 
nois ; ' l Map of Fields near Guisnes ; ' ' Map 
of Town and Castle of Guisnes.' 

[Gal. State Papers ; Life of Lord G-rey of Wil- 
ton (Camd. Soc.), 18*7; Porter's Hist, of the 
Corps of Royal Engineers ; Literary Memoirs of 
Edward VI (Roxburghe Club), ii. 308 ; Chronicle 
of Calais (Camd. Soc.), p. xxix.] R. H. V. 

PETYT, WILLIAM (1636 - 1707), 
archivist and antiquary, was born in 1636, 
in the township of Hazlewood and Storiths, 
in the parish of Skipton in Craven, York- 
shire (WHITAKEE, Hist, of Craven, ed. 
Morant, p. 436). His brother Sylvester was 
principal of Barnard's Inn in 1715, and died 
in 1719 ; and two portraits of him are men- 
tioned by Bromley, one in Barnard's Inn 
and the other in the Inner Temple library ; 
the latter is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery (cf. NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ii. 132). 
William studied common law in the Middle 
Temple, and was called to the bar on 12 Feb. 
1670 ' for his service done in asserting and 
defending the rights and privileges of this 
society.' He was autumn reader in 1694 

and treasurer in 1701. For many years he 
was keeper of the records in the Tower of 
London. In this capacity he became ac- 
quainted with most of the historians of his 
time, and he was always eager to render them 
assistance in their researches and to place 
his manuscript collections at their disposal. 
As his epitaph states: 'Municipalia patrise 
jura, historiam, antiquitates, monumenta, 
actaque parliamentaria optime callebat ; an- 
tiques constitutions legumac libertatum An- 
glise strenuissimus assertor erat.' A list of 
the records in the Tower, drawn up by him, is 
printed in the ' Catalogus Manuscriptorum 
Anglise' (ii. 183). Petyt also made a collec- 
tion of parliamentary tracts, in above eighty 
volumes, relating to the interregnum. These 
were of great service to the compilers of 
the ' Parliamentary or Constitutional His- 
tory of England,' 2nd edit., 24 vols., London, 
1762-3, 8vo. He resided at Chelsea, where 
he built a vestry, and also a school, with apart- 
ments for the teacher (FAULKNER, Hist, of 
Chelsea, i. 167, 255, ii. 92, 111). He died 
at Chelsea on 3 Oct. 1 707 (BoTER, Annals 
of Queen Anne, vi. 382), and was buried in 
the west part of the Temple Church, where 
a monument was erected to his memory, 
with a long Latin inscription which illus- 
trates his biography. His portrait has been 
engraved by R. White. 

His published works are : 1. f Miscel- 
lanea Parliamentaria ; containing Presidents ; 
(1) Of Freedom from Arrests ; (2) Of Cen- 
sures. . . . With an Appendix, containing 
several Instances wherein the Kings of Eng- 
land have consulted and advised with their 
Parliaments : (1) In Marriages ; (2) Peace 
and War ; (3) Leagues ; and other Weighty 
Affairs of the Kingdom,' London, 1680, 8vo. 
Dedicated to William Williams, speaker of 
the House of Commons. 2. 'The An- 
tient Right of the Commons of England 
Asserted ; or a Discourse, proving by Re- 
cords, and the best Historians, that the 
Commons of England were ever an Essen- 
tial Part of Parliament.' Dedicated to 
Arthur, earl of Essex, London, 1680, 8vo. 
Replies to this work were published by 
William Atwood in ' Jus Anglorum ab an- 
tiquo,' 1681 ; by Dr. Robert Brady in < A 
Full and Clear Answer' (anon.), 1681, and 
in 'An Introduction to the Old English 
History,' 1684; and by W. E. in 'Flori- 
legus ; or a Commentary upon some Modern 
Books,' 1705 (cf. LOCKE, Works, 1812, iii. 
273). 3. 'Britannia Languens, or a Dis- 
course of Trade ; shewing the Grounds and 
Reasons of the Increase and Decay of Land- 
Rents, National Wealth and Strength. With 
Application to the late and present State 




and Condition of England, France, and the 
United Provinces' (anon.), London, 1680 
and 1689, 8vo. The preface is signed 
' Philanglus.' McCulloch remarks: 'This 
work bears in various respects a strong re- 
semblance to that of Roger Coke, but is 
shorter, and written in a less affected 
manner. . . . The reasonings and statements 
by which the author endeavours to show 
how the results, which he deplores, had 
been brought about, and how they might 
best be obviated, exhibit a curious mixture 
of truth and error, intelligence and pre- 
judice ' (Literature of Political Economy, 
p. 41). 4. 'Jus Parliamentarium ; or the 
Auncient Power, Jurisdiction, Rights, and 
Liberties of the Most High Court of Par- 
liament, Revived and Asserted,' 2 pts. Lon- 
don, 1739, fol., a posthumous publication, 
dedicated by the editor to Charles Seymour, 
duke of Somerset. 

Petyt's manuscripts were left in trust 
to friends, with an injunction that the col- 
lection should be preserved in its integrity, 
and deposited in a library, for the building 
of which he bequeathed 150/. Ultimately, 
however, the manuscripts found their way 
to the library of the Inner Temple, where 
they still remain (Nos. 512-38). They 
consist of twenty-six volumes in folio (dis- 
tinguished by the letters of the alphabet 
up to BB), and relate to the government of 
England from the time of the Britons, the 
authority of parliament (including Petyt's 
printed tracts in his controversy with Dr. 
Brady), Scotland, Ireland, regal writs, &c. 
These volumes are frequently referred to by 
Daines Barrington in the third edition of 
his 'Observations on the Statutes,' and are 
cited by Strype and others. They contain 
many transcripts of documents from re- 
cords in the Tower, as well as from printed 
books. Volume F consists of l A Supple- 
ment to Dr. Brady's Introduction to the 
old English History, by the Author of 
" Jani Anglorum Facies nova'" [William 
Atwood]. Volume U : ' Speculum Scotise, 
or a short View of the Antient and Modern 
Government of Scotland, together with a 
brief Account of that of England, by Way 
of Parallel,' with an appendix of documents. 
Volume W : * Historica collectanea de 
regno Scotise ex chartis antiquissimis, codi- 
cibus manuscriptis, chronicis typis exaratis, 
rotulis schedisque pervetustis, in archivis 
Turris Lond. aliisque monumentis mem- 
branuceis alibi conservatis ; cum appendice 
in qua varia instr amenta conjiciuntur, notis 
illustrata.' AA, Royal charters, writs re- 
lating to ecclesiastical matters, election of 
bishops, &c., in the time of the Norman 

kings. BB, Collections relating to the 
reigns of John and Henry III. Of the 
contents of nearly all these volumes there 
are full lists in an old manuscript cata- 
logue preserved with Petyt's books. Still, 
no proper calendar of them has hitherto 
been compiled, and their character is little 
known ; while of the materials for the his- 
tory of the Roman recusants in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century, which are 
alike abundant and interesting, largely 
dealing with the conflict between the secu- 
lar clergy and the Jesuits, no public use ap- 
pears ever to have been made. A portion 
of the contents of two of the ecclesiastical 
volumes was calendared as a specimen of 
the collection by Mr. Henry Thomas Riley, 
in the second report of the * Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission' (Appendix, p. 151) ; and 
additional notes, with some corrections, 
are included in the eleventh report (1888. 
pt. vii. 227). 

[Masters of the Bench, p. 54 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. ii. 130; Granger's Biogi 1 . Hist, of England, 
5th edit. v. 2 74 ; Bridgeman's Legal Bibliography ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Brit. (Bohn), p. 1846 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit.] T. C. 

PEVERELL, THOMAS (d. 1419), bishop 
successively of Ossory, Llandaff, and Worces- 
ter, was a member of the Suffolk branch of the 
Peverell family. He was educated at Oxford, 
and became a Carmelite friar. In 1397 he 
was elected bishop of Ossory in Ireland, but 
was translated to Llandaff on 16 Nov. 1398 
(LE NEVE, Fasti Ecclesies Anylicance, ii. 248 ; 
RYMEK, Foedera, orig. ed. viii. 62, calls him 
bishop of Leighlin). On 23 Oct. 1399 he 
consented, with other magnates, to commit 
Richard II to safe and secret custody (Rot. 
ParL iii. 4266, 427 a). On 27 June 1406 he 
sealed the exemplification of the act settling 
the crown on the heirs male of the body of 
Henry IV (ib. iii. 576#). His support was 
rewarded next year by his translation to the 
see of Worcester on 4 July 1407 (LE NEVE, 
iii. 60). There he seems to have been active 
against the lollards. In 1409 he examined 
John Badby [q. v.], and, after convicting him 
of heresy in his opinions concerning tran- 
substantiation, sent him to Thomas Arundel 
[q. v.], the archbishop of Canterbury. He lent 
considerable sums of money to Henry IV 
and Henry V. On 27 July 1412 Henry IV 
repaid him a loan of 400/. (RYMEK, Foedera, 
orig. ed. viii. 767), and in 1415 he lent 
Henry V 300/. (extracts from the Issue Roll 
of the Exchequer, Henry III to Henry VI, 
ed. Devon, pp. 402-3). He died on 1 March 
1419. He was buried in the church of the 
Carmelites at Oxford, probably that of the 



liouse established near the north gates, out- 
side the city wall, by Edward I (see DUG- 
DALE, Monasticon,vi. 1577 ; LE NEVE, iii. 60). 
According to Bale he was a doctor of divinity, 
and the author of several theological works, 
none of which are known to be extant. 

[Authorities cited in text; Ware's Hist, of 
the Bishops and Hist, and Antiquities of Ire- 
land, ed. 1704, Diocese of Dublin, p. 32 ; God- 
win, De Praesulibus Anglise, ed. 1743, ii. 46, 
189; Bale's Illust. Majoris Britannise Script. 
Summarium, ed. 1559, p. 542.] W. E. K. 

PEVERELL, WILLIAM (Jl. 1155), of 
Nottingham, baron, was son or grandson of 
William Peverell. The elder Peverell is said 
to have been a natural son of William the 
Conqueror, and his mother a daughter of 
Ingelric, founder of the collegiate church of 
St. Martin's-le-Grand, London, but the sole 
authority is Dugdale's quotation of Robert 
Glover [q. v.], Somerset herald. The younger 
Peverell appears among the witnesses to a 
charter to the church of Salisbury on 8 Sept. 
1131 (ROUND, Geoffrey deMandeville, p. 266), 
and to a charter of Stephen at Oxford between 
22 March and 26 April 1136 (RICHAKD OF 
HEXHAM in Chronicles of Stephen, Henry II, 
and Richard I, Rolls Ser. iii. 150). In 1138 
he and other northern magnates bound them- 
selves to resist David of Scotland after 
that king had refused to listen to proposals 
for peace (ib. iii. 162). In the battle of the 
Standard the same year William was one of 
the chief commanders (HEN. HUNT. Rolls 
Ser. p. 264). He was taken prisoner at 
Lincoln, fighting on Stephen's side, in 1141 
(Cont. of SYM. DUNELM. by John of Hexham, 
Rolls Ser. ii. 308). Matilda took his castle 
of Nottingham and entrusted it to William 
Paganel [see under PAGANEL, RALPH] ; but, 
in 1142, during the latter's absence, Peverell's 
men surprised it by night and expelled all 
the adherents of Matilda from the town (ib. 
ii. 309, 311-12). In 1153 Henry of Anjou 
granted his lands to Ranulf, earl of Chester 
(d. 1153) [q. v.] (J. H. Round in English His- 
torical Review, x. 91). Ranulf died the same 
year, being poisoned by Peverell, according 
to rumour (GERVASE OF CANTERBURY, i. 155 : 
Robert de Monte in Chronicles of Stephen, &c., 
Rolls Ser. iv. 183). 

In 1155, on Henry II's advance north- 
wards, Peverell fled from Yorkshire to a 
monastery near Nottingham (probably Len- 
ton), where he received the tonsure and 
assumed the monastic habit. But on Henry's 
approach to Nottinghamshire, he again fled 
(CTERVASE, i. 161). His lands were confis- 
cated, this time on the pretext of his com- 
plicity in the death of Ranulf. The sheriff of 
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire accounted 

for his lands to the king in 1160 and 1165- 
1171 (see PipeRolls, Pipe Roll Soc.) Peverell 
probably concealed himself in some monas- 
tery. He is not heard of again. 

[Authorities cited ; Planche's Family of Peve- 
rell of Nottingham in Journal of British Archaeo- 
logical Association, viii. 198 ; Freeman's Norman 
Conquest and William Rufus, passim ; Dugdale's 
Baronage of England, i. 437.] W. E. R. 

PEYTO, WILLIAM (d. 1558), cardinal. 
[See PETO.] 

PEYTON, SIR EDWARD (1588 P-1657), 
parliamentarian, was eldest son and heir of 
Sir John Peyton of Isleham, Cambridgeshire, 
by his wife Alice, daughter of Sir Edward 
Osborne [q. v.] The father was M.P. for 
Cambridgeshire in 1592 and 1604, and high 
sheriff of the county in 1593 and 1604. He 
was knighted in 1596, and was eleventh on 
the list of eighteen on whom the dignity of 
baronet was first conferred on 22 May 1611. 
He died at Isleham. on 19 Dec. 1616, and 
was buried beneath an elaborate monument 
in the church there. Edward was educated 
at Bury school and at Cambridge. On his 
marriage in 1604 his father gave him the 
manor of Great Bradley, Suffolk. On 4 Feb. 
1610-11 he was knighted at Whitehall, and 
on 16 Aug. 1611 was admitted to Gray's 
Inn. He succeeded to the baronetcy and to 
the family estates at Isleham on his father's 
death in 1616. A staunch puritan in reli- 
gion, he was elected M.P. for Cambridgeshire 
to the parliament meeting in 1621, and sat 
for the same constituency till the dissolution 
of the second parliament in Charles I's reign, 
in 1626. His intemperate displays of puritan 
zeal led the Duke of Buckingham to recom- 
mend, about 1627, his removal from the office 
of custos rotulorum for Cambridgeshire. 
Thenceforth Peyton was an avowed enemy 
of the court and of the established church. 
His temper was violent, and in October 1632 
he was summoned before the Star-chamber 
for riotously waylaying some neighbours and 
provoking them to fight (Cal. State Papers, 
1631-3, p. 424). In 1638 a warrant for his 
arrest was issued by Archbishop Laud and 
other members of the ecclesiastical commis- 
sion court (ib. 1638-9, p. 206). 

Peyton's estates suffered under his rule. Be- 
fore 1642 he had alienated, with the enforced 
assent of his eldest son John, his chief pro- 
perty at Isleham, receiving annuities, it is 
said, for his own life and that of his heir. 
The manor of Wicken he made over to the 
eldest surviving son of his second marriage, 
Thomas, of Rougham, Suffolk. 

In the war of pamphlets of 1641-2, which 
preceded the final breach between king and 



parliament, Peyton played an active part on 
the side of the parliament. In 1641 he pub- 
lished ' The King's Violation of the Rights oJ 
Parliament/ and in 1642 ' A Discourse con- 
cerning the fitness of the Posture necessary 
to be used on taking the Bread and Wine at 
the Sacrament/ to which Roger Cocks issued 
a reply. Peyton advocated a sitting posture. 
He also contributed some prefatory verses to 
Humphry Mills's 'Night Search/ pt. 
(1641). When war broke out Peyton took up 
arms against the king, and claimed to have 
fought at Edgehill, Newbury, and Naseby, 
and to have been imprisoned after Edgehill 
in Banbury Castle. Sir Robert Heath placed 
his name in 1643 in the list of those whom 
the king proposed to impeach. His property 
underwent further injury in the course of 
the war. He complained that at Broad Chalk, 
Wiltshire, where his brother Robert had been 
vicar since 1629, he was robbed of 400 /. worth 
of household stuff by the royalist garrison of 
Langford, and the furniture was not restored 
to him when the place was captured by Crom- 
well. In fact, the parliamentary party, despite 
his services in its behalf, paid his property 
hardly more respect than the royalists. His 
son Thomas fought for the king ; and, as it 
was reported that Peyton had made over 
to him much landed property, attempts 
were made by the committee for compound- 
ing to sequestrate the remnant of Peyton's 
estates. The claims of the parliament were 
satisfied by Peyton and his sons in 1651 
(Cal. Committee for Compounding, pt. ii. 

Meanwhile Peyton had published in 1647 
his ' Highway to Peace, or a Direction set forth 
for the composing of these unhappy Diffe- 
rences betwixt King, Parliament, Army, City, 
and Kingdom.' In 1652 Peyton gave more 
conspicuous proof of his revolutionary sym- 
pathies in ' The Divine Catastrophe of the 
Kingly Family of the House of Stuarts ; or a 
short History of the Rise, Reign, and Ruin 
thereof; wherein the most secret and cham- 
ber Abominations of the two last Kings are 
discovered, Divine Justice in K. Charles, his 
overthrow vindicated, and the Parliament 
Proceedings against him clearly justified. By 
Sir Edw. Peyton, Kt. and Bart., a diligent 
Observer of those Times/ London, 1652, 8vo. 
In a dedication to ' the supreme authority of 
this nation, assembled in this present Parlia- 
ment/ Peyton traces the hand of God in the 
king's defeat and death. Wood denounced 
the work as ' most despicable and libellous/ 
' full of lies, mistakes, and nonsense.' Though 
inspired by a fanatical hatred of the first two 
Stuart kings, and disfigured by many per- | 
versions of historical facts, Peyton supplies i 

some useful details of court life. The religious 
views which he here expounded approximated 
to those of the Fifth-monarchy men. He an- 
ticipated the establishment of a theocracy 
such as the Jews enjoyed under Moses. The 
work was reprinted in 1730, when the pub- 
lisher, William Bowyer, jun., was, with the 
promoter of the publication, Charles Davis, 
taken into custody by order of the House of 
Commons, on the charge of publishing a se- 
ditious libel. Sir Walter Scott included the 
work in his ' Secret History of the Court of 
James I' (Edinburgh, 1811, ii. 301-466). 

Peyton died intestate in 1657. He was 
described as ' of Wicken ' in the letters of ad- 
ministration issued on 1 July to his widow 

Peyton was thrice married: first, in 1604, 
at Streatham, to Martha, daughter of Robert 
Livesay of Tooting; she died in 1613. His 
second wife was Jane, daughter of Sir James 
Calthorpe, and widow of Sir Edmund Thimel- 
thorpe. His third wife, whom he married 
in December 1638 at St. James's, Clerkenwell, 
is said to have been Dorothy, daughter of 
Edward Bale of Stockwell, although in the 
license her surname is given as Minshawe 
(Bishop of London's Marriage Licences, Harl. 
Soc. p. 239). After Peyton's death she mar- 
ried Edward Low, vicar of Brighton, and 
she was buried at Brighton on 10 April 1681. 
By each wife Peyton had issue. His eldest 
son John, by his first marriage (1607-1693), 
was third baronet. The second son, Edward, 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel of horse by 
the parliamentary general, Basil Feilding. 
earl of Denbigh, on 23 March 1643-4 (State 
Papers, 1644, p. 66). His eldest daughter, 
Amy, was wife of Henry Lawrence [q. v.], 
president of Cromwell's council of state. 

Robert (d. 1685), eldest son of Thomas 
(1617-1683), eldest child of Sir Edward's 
second marriage, who owned the estate of 
Wicken, emigrated to Virginia and settled 
in Mathews county, where he named his 
residence Isleham, after the old estate of the 
family. Robert was father of five sons, and 
the Virginian Isleham remained in the hands 
of his descendants till 1830. The baronetcy 
of right descended to Robert's sons, but the 
title was, until 1815, borne by the descend- 
ants of Robert's younger brother Charles, of 
Grrimston, Norfolk. 

[Notes ki ndly furnished by Miss Bertha Porter ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii. 320-1 ; 
tVaters's Chesters of Chicheley, pp. 238 seq. ; 
EEerald and Genealogist, vi. 63 seq.] S. L. 

PEYTON, EDWARD (d. 1749), com- 
modore, entered the navy in 1707 as a volun- 
teer per order on board the Scarborough. 




He afterwards served as a volunteer on 
board the Kingston in the expedition to the 
St. Lawrence in 1711, and as a midshipman 
in the Aldborough and Elizabeth. He passed 
his examination on 4 Aug. 1715, and on 
30 April 1727 was promoted by Sir Charles 
Wager [q. v.] to be a lieutenant of the Royal 
Oak in the fleet off Cadiz. In July 1728 he 
was appointed to the Gibraltar, and in June 
1734 to the Dursley galley. On 4 April 
1740 he was promoted to be captain of the 
Greyhound frigate on the home and Lisbon 
station. He afterwards commanded the 
Kennington on the Lisbon station and in 
the Mediterranean, and early in 1744 was 
appointed to the 60-gun ship Medway, one 
of the squadron under Commodore Curtis 
Barnett [q. v.], which sailed in May for the 
East Indies. After leaving Madagascar, the 
Medway, with the Diamond frigate in com- 
pany, was sent to blockade the Straits of 
Malacca, where she captured a large French 
merchant ship, which was added to the 
squadron as a 40-gun ship of war under the 
name of the Medway's Prize. 

On Barnett's death, 2 May 1746, the com- 
mand devolved on Peyton, who, on receiv- 
ing intelligence of a French squadron having 
come on the coast, sailed from Fort St. 
David's to look for it. On 25 June he fell 
in with it off Negapatam, superior in number 
of ships and men to that with Peyton, but 
inferior in discipline, equipment, and in all 
the qualities which distinguish ships of war 
from merchant vessels. It consisted, in fact, 
of such ships as La Bourdonnais, the go- 
vernor of Mauritius, had been able to get 
together and equip out of the resources of 
the colony, manned to a great extent by 
negroes, and commanded by himself, a re- 
tired merchant captain. But of this Peyton 
was ignorant ; he had with him but six 
ships, one of which was a 20-gun frigate 
and seeing before him a squadron of nine 
large ships, which, by means of paint anc 
quakers, appeared to carry more guns than 
they did, he avoided coming to close action 
After a distant cannonade the two squadrons 
separated for the night. The next day th( 
position was the same ; the French lay-to 
waiting for the English to attack, and Pey- 
ton, still under the impression that the 
enemy's force was vastly superior, called a 
council of war, and, without difficulty, ob- 
tained from it a resolution in favour of re 
tiring to Trincomalee. 

La Bourdonnais, on his part, went t( 
Pondicherry, where he hoped to obtain guns 
powder, provisions, and other necessary 
stores. These, however, were refused b} 
the jealousy of Dupleix, the French governor 

general, and La Bourdonnais, having refitted 
as he best could, sailed in quest of Peyton, 
whom he met on 6 Aug. again off Nega- 
>atam. For three days La Bourdonnais 
vainly endeavoured to bring him to close ac- 
ion, and then returned to Pondicherry. Pey- 
on made the best of his way to the Hooghly,. 
where he remained, though he knew that 
Madras was exposed to attack. It was cap- 
ered on 10 Sept., and on 3 Oct. a hurricane- 
caught La Bourdonnais's ships in the open 
roadstead, and wrecked, shattered, or dis- 
persed them. But even the knowledge of 
jhis disaster could not tempt Peyton south,, 
and he was still in the Hooghly in Decem- 
ber, when Commodore Thomas Griffin [q. v.l 

rrived as successor to Barnett. 

Griffin, on understanding the state of 
affairs, put Peyton under arrest and sent 
lim to England, where, as no charges were . 
preferred against him, he was released. He- 
died shortly afterwards, on 4 April 1749; 

oppressed,' according to Charnock, 'with. 
?rief and indignation at the treatment he 
tiad experienced.' He was married, and had 
issue, among others, a son Joseph, who died 
an admiral in 1804 and left numerous de- 
scendants to the navy [see PEYTON, SIR 
JOHN STETJTT]. Charnock, who may be con- 
sidered as representing the opinion of Ad- 
miral John Forbes [q. v.], who must have 
known Peyton personally, considers that 
Peyton's conduct was not reprehensible. 
It is quite possible that Peyton was not want- 
ing in personal courage; it can scarcely be 
doubted that he was wanting both in the 
judgment and in the high moral courage 
needed in an efficient commander. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. v. 55 ; Commission and 
"Warrant Books and Passing Certificate in the- 
Public Record Office ; a Narrative of the Trans- 
actions of the British squadrons in the East 
Indies during the late war. ... By an officer who 
served in those squadrons (8vo, 1751); Orme's- 
Hist. of the Military Transactions ... in Indo- 
stan, 2nd edit., i. 63 ; Memoire pour le Sieur de 
la Bourdonnais, avec les pieces justificatives 
(1750), pp. 40 et seq. ; M6moires historiques de 
B. F. Mahe de la Bourdonnais . . . recueillis et 
publics par son petit-fils (1827), pp. 60 et seq.] 

J. K. L. 

PEYTON, SIE HENRY (d. 1622?), 
adventurer, was son of Thomas Peyton of 
Bury St. Edmunds, custumer of Plymouth, 
by his wife Cecilia, daughter of John Bour- 
chier, second earl of Bath. He served in 
the Low Countries at an early age; was 
knighted by the king at Royston in May 
1606, and joined the household of Henry, 
prince of Wales. He subscribed 37 /. 10*. 
towards the fund for colonising Virginia in 




1607. In 1613 he was promised the post 
of governor of Brill in Holland (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 212). In 1618 he 
was given the command, with Sir Henry 
Mainwaring, of a fleet enlisted in the ser- 
vice of the Venetian republic. He died ' be- 
yond seas' after 1622. His will, dated 
11 April 1618, was proved on 20 Feb. 1623- 
1624. He married at Long Ditton, Surrey, 
on 22 Sept. 1607, Mary, widow of Andrew 
(d. 1601), son of Sir Richard Rogers of Brian- 
stone, Dorset ; she was fourth daughter of 
Edward Seymour, first duke of Somerset, the 
protector, by his second wife. She was buried 
in Westminster Abbey on 18 Jan. 1619-20. 
Another Henry Peyton, born on 4 Aug. 
1604, was third son of Sir John Peyton of 
Doddington, and grandson of Sir John Pey- 
ton [q. v.] He was educated at Merchant 
Taylors' school, was a royalist, and, having 
forgotten his own password, was killed by 
his own soldiers at Banbury during the civil 

[Brown's G-enesis of the United States; Ches- 
ter's Westminster Abbey Kegisters.] 

PEYTON, SIR JOHN (1544-1630), go- 
vernor of Jersey, was the second son of John 
Peyton of Knowlton in Kent (d. 26 Oct. 
1558), by Dorothy, daughter of Sir John 
Tyndale, K.B. Before 1564 he went to Ire- 
land to serve under his father's friend and 
neighbour, Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.] of Pens- 
hurst. In 1568 he was again in Ireland with 
Sidney, then lord deputy, and became a mem- 
ber of his household and the occasional bearer 
of his despatches to England. In 1585 he 
served with the expedition to the Nether- 
lands under the Earl of Leicester. In Decem- 
ber, Peyton was garrisoned in the fortress of 
Bergen-op-Zoom, and did good service during 
the following year, in spite of great difficulties 
through want of supplies (Peyton to Leicester, 
11 Oct. 1586; Cotton MS. Galba, C. X. f. 
59). In 1586 he received the honour of 
knighthood. In July 1588 he was appointed 
colonel in the forces levied for the defence 
of the queen's person in the threatened attack 
of the Spanish armada. 

In 1593 he was granted the receivership 
of the counties of Norfolk and Huntingdon, 
and of the city of Norwich. In June 1597 
he was appointed lieutenant of the Tower of 
London. When Raleigh was under his care 
in 1603, the prisoner's 'strange and dejected 
mind ' gave Peyton much trouble ; Raleigh 
used to send for him five or six times a day 
in his passions of grief (Addit. MS. 6177, ff. 
127, 128). 

Early in March 1603, when the queen was 
lying dangerously ill and the question of the 

succession was engaging general attention, 
Peyton, as lieutenant of the Tower, received 
communications from King James of Scot- 
land. But he avoided all political intrigues 
{Correspondence of James VI, p. liii). On 
the death of the queen on 23 March, and the 
proclamation of King James by the council, 
Peyton at once despatched his son to Edin- 
burgh to assure the king of his loyalty. He 
was not, however, sworn a member of the 
privy council, and on 30 July was removed 
from the lieutenancy of the Tower, and 
appointed, in accordance apparently with his. 
own wish, to the less conspicuous post of 
governor of Jersey (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1603-10, pp. 25-6 ; Addit. MS. 6177, f. 128). 
He took the usual oath before the royal court 
of Jersey on 10 Sept. 1603. 

In the following month some old conver- 
sation he had had about the succession was 
raked up at court, and his loyalty was called in 
question. Cecil informed him of his danger ; 
Peyton at once furnished a defence, dated 
10 Oct. 1603, enclosing a full narrative of 
the conversation, and the matter dropped 
(cf. WATERS, Chester s ofChicheley, i. 294-7). 
In January 1603-4 he is stated to have 
1 been disgraced for entertaining intelligence 
between Cobham and Raleigh,' with whom 
his son was very intimate (EDWARDS, Life 
of Raleigh, i. 373). 

Peyton's tenure of the governorship of 
Jersey was far from peaceful. The island at 
the time of his appointment was strictly 
presbyterian. But Peyton, as an ardent 
episcopalian, endeavoured to alter the form, 
of the church government (HEYLYN, Aerius 
Redivivus, p. 396). Complaints were made 
by both parties to the king in council, and 
all were summoned to London in June 1623. 
The presby terians were divided among them- 
selves, and Peyton triumphed. Canons esta- 
blishing episcopalian government were ap- 
proved on 30 June 1623, and David Bandi- 
nel [q. v.] was appointed dean. 

Disputes in civil matters also occupied the 
governor's attention. With the leader of 
the popular party, Sir Philip de Carteret 
(1584-1643) [q. v.], and with John Herault 
[q. v.], bailiff of Jersey, he was involved in 
constant strife. Peyton claimed the right 
of appointment to civil offices in the islands, 
and in 1617 the council declared that the 
charge of the military forces alone rested 
in the governor. The bailiff was entitled 
to control the judiciary and civil service. 
In 1621 Peyton, however, succeeded in 
getting Herault suspended from office and 
imprisoned in England. In 1624, when the 
case against Herault was heard in London, 
he was cleared of blame, and Peyton was 




ordered to pay him the arrears of official 

Peyton left Jersey finally in 1628, when 
his son was appointed his lieutenant. Since 
his wife's death, in February 1602-3, he fixed 
his private residence, when in England, at 
Doddington in the Isle of Ely. He died on 
4 Nov. 1630, and was buried at Doddington 
on 15 Dec. Wotton (Baronetage, ed. Kimber 
and Johnson, ii. 340) states that he was 
ninety-nine at the time of his death, and on 
the monument of his granddaughter, Mrs. 
Lowe, at Oxford, he is stated to have been 
in his hundred-and-fifth year. He himself, 
however, gives his age as seventy-nine in 
February 1624, and as eighty in December 
of the same year. He may therefore safely 
be concluded to have died at eighty-six. 

Peyton was regarded with affection by such 
friends as Sir Philip Sidney, Peregrine Bertie, 
lord Willoughby de Eresby [q. v.], and Henry 
Cuff or Cuffe [q. v.], Essex's secretary (Corre- 
spondence of James VI, Camd. Soc. p. 92). 
In Sloane MS. 2442 is a collection made by 
Peyton of l several instructions and direc- 
tions given to divers Ambassadors and other 
commissioners appointed to treat with foreign 
princes about affairs of state, and also some 
things concerning the Island of Jersey and 
Count Mansfield,' &c. It was presented 
to Charles II by his grandson, Algernon 
Peyton, D.D., rector of Doddington. He 
married on 8 June 1578, at Oatwell in Nor- 
folk, Dorothy, only child of Edward Beaupre 
of Beaupre Hall, Oatwell (by his second 
wife, Catharine Bedingfield), and widow of 
Sir Robert Bell (d. 1577) [q. v.] Her large 
property gave Peyton a position in the 

His only son, SIR JOHN" PEYTON (1579- 
1635), was born in 1579, was admitted fellow- 
commoner of Queens' College, Cambridge, in 
1594, and was knighted on 28 March 1603. 
He served in the Low Countries in 1612 and 
1617, and from 1628 to 1633 was appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Jersey on behalf of 
his father. He died in 1634-5, having mar- 
ried, on 25 Nov. 1602, Alice, second daugh- 
ter of his cousin, Sir John Peyton of Isle- 
ham [see under PEYTON, SIB EDWARD]. He 
was noticeable for his literary tastes, which 
secured for him the friendship of his neigh- 
bour, Sir Robert Bruce Cotton [q. v.] Among 
the manuscripts in the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Library (2044, K.k, v. 2), is < The First 
Part of the Observations of Sir John Peyton 
the younger, knt., Lieutenant-Governor of 
Jersey, during his travailes/ It was appa- 
rently written in Jersey in 1618, from notes 
taken when abroad in 1598 and 1599. By 
his will, dated 24 Feb. 1634-5 (P. C. C. 33, 

Sadler), he appointed his wife Alice his sole 
executrix ; she was buried at Doddington on 
28 March 1637. 

[Waters's Genealogical Memoir of the Ches- 
ters of Chicheley, pp. 287-98, 310-22 ; Le 
Quesne's Constitutional Hist, of Jersey, pp. 165- 
173, 215-62; Falle's Account of Jersey, ed. 
Darell, pp. 131-2, 224-5, 410; Gal. State 
Papers, 1581-1635; Collins's Peerage, 1812. ii. 
10; Nichols's Progresses of James I, p. 58; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ii. 188; Ely Epi- 
scopal Records, pp. 283, 288, 289; Rymer's 
Foedera (original edit.), xviii. 570, 580, 838 ; 
Memoir of William Madison Peyton, p. 323 ; 
Hoskin's Charles II in the Channel Islands, pp. 
28-33.] B. P. 

1838), captain in the navy, born in London 
on 14 Jan. 1786, was the son of William 
Peyton of the navy office, grandson of Ad- 
miral Joseph Peyton (d. 1804), and great- 
grandson of Commodore Edward Peyton 
[q. v.] His father's three brothers, too, were 
all in the navy; one of them, John, who 
died a rear-admiral in 1809, was captain of 
the Defence in the battle of the Nile. 
His grandmother was a daughter of Com- 
mander John Strutt; his mother was the 
daughter of Commander Jacob Lobb, who 
died in command of the Kingfisher sloop 
in 1773, and was sister of Captain William 
Granville Lobb, afterwards a commissioner 
of the navy. 

Peyton went first to sea in October 1797, 
on board the Hector, off Cadiz ; was then 
for three years in the Emerald in the Medi- 
terranean, and in January 1801 was ap- 
pointed to the San Josef, Nelson's flagship 
in the Channel. With Nelson he was moved 
to the St. George, in which he was in the 
Baltic and afterwards off Cadiz and in the 
West Indies, for part of the time under the 
command of his uncle, Captain Lobb. During 
1802-3 he served, in quick succession, in 
several frigates in the Channel or in the 
North Sea, and in August 1803 was sent out 
to the Victory, carrying Nelson's flag oft' 
Toulon. In March 1805 he was appointed 
acting-lieutenant of the Canopus, from which 
he was moved in May to the Ambuscade 
frigate with Captain William Durban, em- 
ployed during the next two years in the 
Adriatic. Peyton's commission as lieutenant 
was dated 7 Oct. 1805. In July 1807, having 
been sent to destroy a vessel which ran her- 
self ashore near Ortona, he was wounded in 
the right elbow by a musket-bullet ; the arm 
had to be amputated, and he was invalided. 

On 1 Dec. 1807 he was promoted to the 
rank of commander, and from June 1809 to 
February 1811 he commanded the Ephira 



brig in the North Sea, in the Walcheren ex- 
pedition, and afterwards off Cadiz. He was 
then appointed to the Weazel in the Archi- 
pelago ; and on 26 Sept. 1811 was posted to 
the Minstrel of 20 guns, in which, and 
afterwards in the Thames, he was employed 
on the coast of Valencia and Catalonia till 
near the end of the war, during which time 
he was repeatedly engaged with the enemies' 
batteries and privateers, and received the 
thanks of Sir Edward Pellew [q.v.], the 
commander-in-chief. In September 1813 the 
Thames returned to England and was paid 
off. On 25 Jan. 1836 he was nominated a 
K.C.H., and in June 1836 was appointed to 
the Madagascar of 46 guns, in which he went 
out to the West Indies. In the spring of 
1838 he was compelled to invalid, and died 
in London on 20 May. He married, in 1814, 
a daughter of Lieutenant Woodyear, R.N., 
of St. Kitts, and had issue three daughters 
and two sons, the eldest of whom, Lumley 
Woodyear, died a retired commander in 

[Marshall's Roy. Nav. Biogr. vi. (suppl. pt. 
ii.), 438 ; Navy Lists ; James's Naval History; 
Service Book in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

PEYTON, THOMAS (1595-1626), poet, 
said to have been born at Royston, Cam- 
bridgeshire, in 1595, was probably a younger 
son of Sir John Peyton of Isleham, and 
brother of Sir Edward Peyton [q. v.], but 
his name does not figure in the genealogies. 
After being educated at Royston he pro- 
ceeded to Cambridge, and in 1613 was ad- 
mitted a student of Lincoln's Inn. Of a 
studious and religious temperament, he pro- 
duced in London in 1620 the first part of a 
poem entitled ' The Glasse of Time in the 
First Age, divinely handled by Thomas 
Peyton of Lincolnes Inne, gent.' The vo- 
lume opens with addresses in verse to King 
James, Prince Charles, Lord-chancellor 
Bacon, and the ' Reader.' The poem con- 
sists of 168 stanzas, of varying lengths, in 
heroic verse. It relates the story of man's 
fall, as told in the Bible. There are many 
classical allusions and digressions into con- 
temporary religious topics. Peyton writes 
as a champion of the established church, and 
a warm opponent of the puritans. In 1623 
he continued the work in a second volume 
entitled ' The Glasse of Time in the Second 
Age,' and brought the scriptural narrative 
to Noah's entrance into the ark. A further 
continuation was promised, but was never 
written. Some of the episodes in Peyton's 
poem notably his descriptions of Paradise 
and of Lucifer very faintly suggest some 
masterly passages on the same subject in 

Milton's ' Paradise Lost/ but the resem- 
blances are not close enough to render it 
probable that Milton was acquainted with 
his predecessor's efforts (cf. North American 
Review, October 1860). Copies of Peyton's 
two volumes are in the British Museum. A 
reprint appeared at New York in 1886, 
Peyton died in 1626. 

[Peyton's Glasse of Time, with introduction 
New York, 1886.] 

1890), poetess, born on 26 Nov. 1827, was 
the daughter of R. Davis, who was in 
early years an officer in the army, and 
was through life devoted to art. At one 
time possessed of considerable property 
in Oxfordshire, he became before his death 
innocently involved in the failure of his 
father-in-law's bank, the chief banking 
institution in Montgomeryshire. The 
straitened circumstances of the family pre- 
vented Emily from receiving any regular 
education, but her father encouraged her to 
study and practise painting and poetry. Pe- 
cuniary troubles at home, however, darkened 
her youth with melancholy. She found relief 
in a visit to the continent, and in 1853 
she married J. E. Pfeiffer, a German merchant 
resident in London, a man of warm heart 
and sterling worth. At a very youthful 
age she produced a volume of verse, l The 
Holly Branch.' In 1857 appeared her first 
literary attempt of genuine promise, * Valis- 
neria,' an imaginative tale which, though 
much less powerful, may be compared to 
Sara Coleridge's ' Phantasmion.' Conscious 
of the imperfection of her education, she 
worked hard at self-culture, and published no 
more until 1873, when her poem of ' Gerard's 
Monument ' (2nd edit. 1878) made its ap- 
pearance. From that time forth her industry 
was conspicuous. A volume of miscellaneous 
poems appeared in 1876, ' Glan Alarch' in 
1877, 'Quarterman's Grace 'in 1879, 'Sonnets 
and Songs' in 1880, ' Under the Aspens ' in 
1882, and ' The Rhyme of the Lady of the 
Rock ' in 1884. A long journey undertaken 
in the last year through Eastern Europe, 
Asia, and America was gracefully described 
in 'Flying Leaves from East and W est '. in 
1885. At the same time Mrs. Pfeiffer in- 
terested herself in the social position of 
women, and issued in 1888 ' Woman and 
Work,' reprints of articles from periodicals 
on the subject. She also desired to reform 
modern female costume, and wrote in the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in advocacy of a modi- 
fied return to classical precedents. Her hus- 
band died in January 1889, and she never 
recovered from the blow. She wrote and 




published * Flowers of the Night,' later in 
the same year, but she survived Pfeiffer only 
a year and a day, dying at their house in 
Putney in- January 1890. In accordance 
with her husband's wish, she had devoted a 
portion of their property to the establish- 
ment of an orphanage, and had designed the 
endowment of a school of dramatic art. By 
her will she left money to trustees to be 
applied to the promotion of women's higher 
education; 2,000/. from this fund was allotted 
towards erecting at Cardiff the Aberdare Hall 
for women-students of the university of South 
Wales, which was opened in 1895. 

As a poetess, Mrs. Pfeiffer resembled Mrs. 
Browning. With incomparably less power, 
she was uplifted by the same moral ardour 
and guided by the same delicate sensitive- 
ness. Her sentiment is always charming. 
Her defects are those of her predecessor 
diffuseness and insufficient finish ; nor had 
she sufficient strength for a long poem. She 
succeeds best in the sonnet, where the 
metrical form enforces compression. She was 
also accomplished in embroidery, and she 
left to a niece a fine collection of her paint- 
ings of flowers, which are executed with 
great taste and skill. 

[A. H. Japp in Miles's Poets and Poetry of 
the Century ; Athenaeum and Academy, 1 Feb. 
1890; Western Mail, 8 Oct. 1895; private in- 
formation.] K. G. 

(1510 P-1560), lawyer, physician, and trans- 
lator, is said to have been son of Thomas 
Phaer of Norwich (FENTON, Tour in Pem- 
brokeshire, 1811, p. 505). The family ap- 
pears to have been of Flemish origin. Phaer 
was educated at Oxford and at Lincoln's 
Inn, and was favourably noticed by William 
Paulet, first marquis of Winchester [q. v.] 
1 As a lawyer he attained,' says Wood, l to 
a considerable knowledge in the municipal 
laws,' and he wrote two legal handbooks. 
The first Robert Redman published for him 
in 1535 : it was entitled ' Natura Brevium, 
newly corrected in Englishe with diuers 
addicions of statutes, book-cases, plees.' . . . 
In 1543 Edward Whitchurch issued Phaer's 
' Newe Boke of Presidentes in maner of a 
register, wherein is comprehended the very 
trade of makyng all maner euydence and 
instrumentes of Practyse, ryght commodyous 
and necessary for euery man to knowe.' He 
was rewarded for his endeavours to popu- 
larise legal methods by the appointment of 
' solicitor ' in the court of the Welsh marches, 
and settled at a house in Kilgerran or Cil- 
gerran Forest, Pembrokeshire. 

With his practice of law Phaer com- 

bined a study of medicine, which he began 
before 1539. In 1544, according to Her- 
bert (although the earliest edition extant in 
the Bodleian Library is dated 1546), he 
published with Whitchurch a popular medi- 
cal treatise, entitled ' The Regiment of Life/ 
a version through the French of ' Regimen 
Sanitatis Salerni,' of which a translation by 
Thomas Paynell [q. v.] had already been 
published in 1528 [see HOLLAND, PHILE- 
MON]. Phaer appended to his rendering ' A 
goodly Bryefe Treatise of the Pestylence, 
with the causes, signs, and cures of the same/ 
* Declaration of the Veynes of Man's Body, 
and to what Dyseases and Infirmities the 
opening of every one of them doe serve/ and 
{ A Book of Children.' Phaer claims in this 
volume to have first made medical science 
intelligible to Englishmen in their own lan- 
guage. An edition, ' newly corrected and 
enlarged/ appeared in 1553 (by John Kings- 
ton and Henry Sutton in some copies, and 
by William How for Abraham Veale in 
others). Other editions are dated 1560, 
1565 (?), 1567, 1570 (?), and 1596. The 
' Treatise of the Plague ' was reprinted in 
1772, < with a preface by a physician [W. T.]/ 
and some extracts figured in an appendix to 
' Spiritual Preseruatiues against the Pesti- 
lence/ 1603, by Henry Holland (d. 1604) 
[q. v.], and in ' Salomon's Pesthouse, by 
I. D./ 1630. 

On 6 Feb. 1558-9 Phaer graduated M.B. 
at Oxford, with leave to practise, and pro- 
ceeded M.D. on 21 March. He stated in 
his supplication for the first degree that he 
had practised medicine for twenty years, 
and had made experiments about poisons 
and antidotes. 

Despite his twofold occupation as lawyer 
and doctor, Phaer found leisure for literary 
work. In 1544 he contributed a commen- 
datory poem to Philip Betham's 'Military 
Precepts.' He supplied a poetical version 
of the legend of 'Howe Owen Glendower, 
being seduced by false prophecies, toke upon 
him to be Prince of Wales/ to the first edi- 
tion of the ' Mirror for Magistrates/ 1559. 
Warton also says he had seen an old ballad 
called ' Gads-hill by Faire.' A ballad < on the 
robbery at Gaddes-hill' was entered in the 
registers of the Stationers' Company in 
1558-9. In 1566 after Phaer's death- 
Thomas Purfoot procured a license to publish 
' Certen Verses of Cupydo, by M. Fayre/ 
who is identified with Phaer. The work is 
not known to be extant. 

Meanwhile, on 9 May 1555, he began the 
translation of Virgil's ' ^Eneid ' into English 
verse, by which he is best known. The first 
book was completed on 25 May, the third on 




10 Oct., the seventh on 7 Dec. 1557. Each 
book occupied him, on the average, about 
twenty days. In 1558 there appeared, with a 
dedication to Queen Mary, ( The seven first 
bookes of the Eneidos of Virgill converted 
into Englishe meter by Thomas Phaer, 
esquier, sollicitour to the king and quenes 
maiesties [i.e. Philip and Mary], attending 
their honorable counsaile in the marchies of 
Wales, anno 1558, 28 Maij,' London (by 
John Kingston), 1558, 4to. At the conclu- 
sion of the fifth book (4 May 1556), he noted 
that he had escaped l periculum Karmerdini ' 
an apparent reference to some accident 
that he sustained at Carmarthen. He 
completed two more books (eighth and ninth) 
by 3 April 1560, and had begun the tenth 
when he injured his hand. 

Phaer died at Kilgerran in August 1560, 
before resuming his labours on Virgil. His 
will is dated 12 Aug. He directed that he 
should be buried in Kilgerran parish church, 
and requested his friend George Ferrers to 
write his epitaph. A direction to his wife 
to apply 51. of his estate after his death to 
an unspecified purpose, on which his wife 
and he had come to an understanding in his 
lifetime, ^is believed to refer to the com- 
memorative rites of the Roman catholic 
church, and is held to prove, in the presence 
of Phaer's loyal dedication of his ' JEneid ' 
to Queen Mary, that he adhered to the old 
faith. His wife Ann was residuary legatee, 
and he made provision for three daughters : 
Eleanor (who had married Gruffyth ap 
Eynon), Mary, and Elizabeth. A eulogistic 
* epytaphe of maister Thomas Phayre ' ap- 
peared in Barnabe Googe's ' Eglogs,' 1563. 

In 1562 Phaer's nine completed books of 
his translation of Virgil were edited by Wil- 
liam Wightman, ' receptour of Wales.' The 
volume, which was dedicated to Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, was entitled ' The nyne fyrst bookes 
of the Eneidos of Virgil converted into 
Englishe vearse by Tho. Phaer, doctour of 
phisike, with so muche of tenthe booke as 
since his death (1560) coulde be founde in 
unperfit papers at his house in Kilgaran 
Forest in Pembrokeshire,' London (by Row- 
land Hall for Nicholas England), 1562, 4to. 

In 1584 Thomas Twine completed the 
translation of the ' /Eneid,' and issued what 
he called ' the thirteen bookes of Eneidos,' 
with a dedication to Robert Sackville, son of 
Lord Buckhurst; the thirteenth book was 
the supplement of Maphseus Vegius. 

Phaer's translation is in fourteen-sj liable 
rhyming ballad metre, is often spirited, and 
fairlv faithful. Although Gawin Douglas 

fq. v.l was the earliest translator of Virgil 
(1553) i 

in Great Britain, and the Earl of 

Surrey's translation of two books appeared 
in 1557, Phaer was the first Englishman to 
attempt a translation of the whole work. 
His achievement was long gratefully remem- 
bered. Arthur Hall [q. v.], when dedicating 
his Homer to Sir Thomas Cecil in 1581, 
laments the inferiority of his efforts to Phaer's 
'Virgilian English.' Stanihurst's clumsy 
version of the '^Eneid' (1586) was derided 
by Nash as of small account beside Phaer's 
efforts (pref. to GKEENE'S Menaphm, 1587). 
Puttenham, in his ' English Poesie,' bestows 
similar commendation on Phaer. 

[Wood's AthenseOxon. ed. Bliss, i. 316 ; J.K. 
Phillips's Hist, of Cilgerran, pp. 98-102 ; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. ; Hunter's MS. Chorus 
Vatum, in Addit. MS. 24490, f. 77; Fuller's 
Worthies; George Owen's History of Pembroke- 
shire, 1892 ; Fenton's Tour in Pembrokeshire, 
1811 ; Shakespeare Society's Papers, 1849, iv. 
1-5; Hazlitt's Bibliographical Collections.] 

S. L. 


1678), divine. [See WHITE, WILLIAM.] 


(1812-1885), first commissioner of British 
Burma, born at Shrewsbury on 7 May 1812, 
was son of Richard Phayre, esq., of Shrews- 
bury, by his wife, daughter of Mr. Ridgway, 
publisher, of 169 Piccadilly. Colonel Phayre 
of Killoughram Forest, co. Wexford, was his 
grandfather. He was educated at Shrews- 
bury School, and became a cadet in the Bengal 
army in 1828. He was transferred to Maul- 
main in 1834, was promoted lieutenant in 
1838, and accompanied the expedition against 
the Wa-lien tribe in 1841 . He was nominated 
in 1846 principal assistant to the commissioner 
of the Tenasserim provinces of Lower Burma, 
and thus formed his first connection with that 
country, with which his later life was mainly 
associated. He rejoined his regiment, and 
accompanied it to the Punjab in 1848 ; but 
in 1849 he returned to Burma as captain and 
commissioner of Arakan, and as assistant to 
Captain (afterwards Sir Archibald) Bogle. 
In Arakan he was well trained in the details 
of civil administration, and his spare time 
was employed in acquiring an intimate know- 
ledge of the Burmese language. He was 
transferred in 1852 to the commissionership 
of Pegu (in Lower Burma) on its annexation 
after the second Burmese war. The province 
flourished under his rule, and his success was 
emphatically acknowledged by Lord Canning 
in 1856. During his tenure of this office in 
1854 he accompanied as interpreter the mis- 
sion sent by the king of Burma to the 
governor-general of India, and in 1857 was 
sent to Amarapiira in charge of a mission 




to the Burmese court with Dr. John Forsyth, 
of Afghanistan and Jalalabad fame, and 
Thomas Oldham [q. v.] f superintendent of 
the Geological Survey of India, and Cap- 
tain (afterwards Sir Henry) Yule as secre- 
tary. The desired treaty was not obtained ; 
but information of much value concerning 
the country, the people, and their govern- 
ment was collected (see Yule's Report). 
Phayre was promoted major in 1855, and 
lieutenant-colonel in 1859. In 1862 the 
province of British Burma was formed by 
combining the divisions known as Arakan, 
Irawadi, Pegu, and Tenasserim, and Phayre 
was appointed chief commissioner. He was 
made C.B. in 1863. His success attracted 
the favourable attention of Sir John Law- 
rence, who, when Phayre contemplated de- 
parture on sick leave, wrote on 2 Feb. 1867 
expressing his deep regret, and recommended 
him for the distinction of K.C.S.L Phayre 
left Burma in the course of that year, and 
never returned. His successor, Colonel Albert 
Fytche, justly reported that his administra- 
tion was throughout conspicuously wise and 

During his absence on leave (February 
1868) he declined Sir Stafford Northcote's 
offer of the post' of resident at Haidarabad, 
one of the best appointments in India. Next 
year he travelled to India, visited Kashmir, 
China, Japan, and America, and, returning 
home in 1870, settled at Bray, near Dublin, 
for four years. He was promoted major- 
general in 1870, and lieutenant-general in 
1877. In 1874 he was appointed by Lord 
Carnarvon to be governor of the Mauritius. 
His administration was both successful and 
popular, and he held office till the end of 1878, 
when he retired from the army and was 
created G.O.M.G. Settling again at Bray, 
he employed himself in compiling the ( His- 
tory of Burma,' which he published in 1883. 
The book is an excellent piece of work, 
founded chiefly on the ' Maharajaweng,' or 
' Chronicles of the Kings of Burma,' and on 
other Burmese authorities. One of his last 
public acts was to write a letter to the 
' Times ' (13 Oct. 1885) intimating his ap- 
proval of the annexation of independent 
Upper Burma. He died unmarried at Bray 
on 14 Dec. 1885, and was buried at Ennis- 

Phayre was tall, dignified in bearing, and 
excessively courteous in manner. By his 
firmness, justice, and liberality he built up 
the great province of Burma, where his name 
became a household word. 

There is a portrait of Phayre in uniform, 
painted by Sir Thomas Jones, P.R.H.A., in 
the coffee-room of the East India United 

Service Club, and a statue has been erected 
to his memory in Rangoon. 

Phayre's publications, besides the ' History 
of Burma/ are ' Coins of Arakan, of Pegu, 
and of Burma ' (part of the ' International 
Numismata Orientalia'), 1882, 4to, and many 
papers detailed in the l Proceedings of the 
Royal Geographical Society' (1886, p. 111). 

[Information kindly furnished by his brother, 
Sir Eobert Phayre, K.C.B. ; Yule's Narrative 
of Major Phayre's Mission to the Court of Ava 
(Calcutta, 1856) ; Proceedings of the Eoyal 
Geographical Society, 1886, viii. 103-12, obit, 
notice by Colonel. Yule.] W. B-T. 


(1619 P-1682), regicide, possibly a son of 
Emmanuel Phaire,whoin 1612 became rector 
of Kilshannig, co. Cork, was born about 1619, 
for on 24 March 1654 his age is reported as 
thirty-five. He came into prominence in 
connection with the outbreak of the second 
civil war. In February 1648 he held a com- 
mand as lieutenant-colonel in the south of 
Ireland, when he was arrested, with three 
other officers, for refusing to join the royalist 
rising under Murrough O'Brien, first earl of 
Inchiquin [q. v.] (CARTE, Life of Ormonde, 
iii. 356). On 4 Oct, these four were ex- 
changed for Inchiquin's son, and brought to 
Bristol in December by Admiral Penn, whence 
Phayre made his way to London. The warrant 
for the execution of Charles was addressed, 
on 29 Jan. 1649, to Colonel Francis Hacker 
[q. v.], Colonel Hercules Huncks, and Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Phayre. He was present on 
the 30th at Whitehall when the orders were 
drawn up for the executioner. In April he 
was given command of a Kentish regiment 
to join Cromwell's expedition to Ireland. In 
November the town of Youghal capitulated 
to him, and he was made one of the com- 
missioners for settling Munster. On 10 April 
1650 he took part, under Broghill, in the 
victory at Macroom over the royalist forces 
under Boethius MacEgan, the Roman ca- 
tholic bishop of Ross. Next year (1651) he 
was appointed governor of Cork county, 
and held this office till 1654. He was a 
parliamentary republican, dissatisfied with 
the rule of the army officers, and unfriendly 
to the protectorate. He seems to have re- 
tired to Rostellan Castle, co. Cork. 

In 1656 Henry Cromwell reported that 
Phayre was attending quaker meetings. He 
does not appear to have become a member 
of the Society of Friends, though one of his 
daughters (by his first wife) married a Friend. 
It is somewhat remarkable that Phayre him- 
self married, as his second wife, Elizabeth, 
second daughter of Sir Thomas Herbert 




(1606-1682) [q. v.], the faithful attendant on 
Charles I in his last hours. The marriage 
tookplace on 16 Aug.1658 at St. Werburgh's, 
Dublin. On 8 July 1659 the committee of 
safety gave Phayre a commission as colonel 
of foot to serve under Ludlow in 'Ireland. 
At the Restoration he was arrested in Cork 
(18 May 1660), and sent prisoner to Dublin. 
Thence he was removed to London, and sent 
to the Tower in June. He doubtless owed 
his life, and the easy treatment he experienced, 
to his connection with Herbert ; Clancarty, 
whose life he had spared, also pleaded for 
him. On 2 Nov. (Hacker had been hanged 
on 19 Oct. ; Huncks had saved himself by 
giving evidence) he petitioned the privy 
council to release his estate from sequestra- 
tion, and permit him to return to Ireland. 
This was not granted, but in December the 
sequestration was taken off his Irish estates, 
and he was given the liberty of the Tower on 
parole. On 3 July 1661 he was released for 
one month, on a bond of 2,000/. ; he was not 
to go beyond the house and gardens of Her- 
bert, his father-in-law, in Petty France, 
Westminster. On 19 July another month's 
absence was permitted him, with leave to go 
to the country for his health. On 28 Feb. 
1662 he was allowed to remove to Herbert's 
house for three months. After this he seems 
to have gained his liberty. It was at this 
period that he made the acquaintance of 
Lodowicke Muggleton [q. v.], whose tenets 
he adopted. Some time in 1662 he brought 
Muggleton to Herbert's house and introduced 
him to his wife, who also became a convert. 
Their example was followed by their daugh- 
ters Elizabeth and Mary, and their son-in- 
law, George Gamble, a merchant in Cork, 
and formerly a quaker. 

On 6 April 1665 Phayre was living at 
Cahermore, co. Cork, when he was visited by 
Valentine Greatrakes [q. v.], the stroker, who 
had served in his regiment in 1649. Greatrakes 
cured him in a few minutes of an acute 
ague. In 1666 Phayre was implicated in the 
abortive plot for seizing Dublin Castle. Both 
Phayre and his family corresponded with 
Muggleton. Phayre's first letter to Muggle- 
ton was dated 20 March 1670 ; his second 
letter (Dublin, 27 May 1675) was sent by 
Greatrakes, who was on a visit to London 
and Devonshire. 

Phayre died at the Grange, near Cork, in 
1682, probably in September ; he was buried 
in the baptist graveyard at Cork. His will, 
dated 13 Sept. 1682, was proved in November. 
By his first wife, whose name is not known 
(but is traditionally said to have been Gamble), 
he had a son, Onesiphorus, whose wife, Eliza- 
beth Phayre, died in 1702 ; a daughter Eliza- 

beth, married to Richard Farmer, and a 
daughter Mary, married to George Gamble. 
By his second wife, who was living on 25 May 
1686 (the date of her last letter to Muggle- 
ton), he had three sons : Thomas (d. 1716), 
Alexander Herbert (d. 1752), and John, and 
three daughters. 

[Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-61 ; Smith's 
Cork, 1774, i. 205, ii. 175, 178; Eeeve and 
Muggleton's Spiritual Epistles, 1755 ; Supple- 
ment to the Book of Letters, 1831; Webb's 
Fells of Swarthmoor, 1867, pp. 95 sq. ; Council 
Book of the Corporation of Cork (Caulfield), 
1876, p. 1164; O'Hart's Irish and Anglo-Irish 
Landed Gentry, 1884, p. 15; Cork Historical 
and Archaeological Journal, June 1893, pp. 449 
sq. ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. xii. 47, 311, 
6th ser. ii. 150, iv. 235, 371 ; Ludlow's Memoirs, 
ed. Firth ; extracts from family papers furnished 
(1871) by W. J. O'Donnovan, esq., a descendant 
of Onesiphorus Phayre.] A. G. 


1614), speaker of the House of Commons 
and master of the rolls, was fourth and 
youngest son of Thomas Phelips (1500-1588) 
of Montacute, Somerset, by his wife Eliza- 
beth (d. 1598), daughter of John Smythe 
of Long Ashton in the same county. His 
father stood godfather to Thomas Coryate 
[q. v.], and ' imposed upon him' the name 
Thomas. Edward was born about 1560, for 
according to Coryate, who refers to him as 
' my illustrious Maecenas/ he was ' 53 or 
thereabouts' in 1613. He does not appear 
to have been, as Foss suggests, the Edward 
Philipps who graduated B.A. in 1579, and 
M.A. on 6 Feb. 1582-3 from Broadgates 
Hall, Oxford. He joined the Middle Temple, 
where he was autumn reader in 1596. In 
1601 he entered parliament as knight of the 
shire for Somerset. On 11 Feb. 1602-3 he 
was named serjeant-at-law, but, owing to 
the queen's death, did not proceed to his 
degree until the following reign. On 17 May 
he was made king's Serjeant and knighted. 
In November he took part in the trial of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, but did not share in ' the 
brutal manner in which Coke conducted the 
prosecution.' He was re-elected to parlia- 
ment for Somerset on 11 Feb. 1603-4, and 
on 19 March was elected speaker. Accord- 
ing to Sir Julius Caesar, he was ' the most 
worthy and judicious speaker since 23 Eliza- 
beth.' Though his orations to the king were 
tedious, he did ' his best to help the king's 
business through on some critical occasions.' 

On 17 July 1604 he was granted the office 
of justice of common pleas in the county 
palatine of Lancaster. In this capacity he 




was very active against the catholics. On 
one occasion he condemned a man to death 
* simply for entertaining a Jesuit,' and is said 
to have declared that, as the law stood, all 
who were present when mass was celebrated 
were guilty of felony. He was one of those 
appointed to examine the ' gunpowder plot ' 
conspirators, and in January 1606 opened the 
indictment against Guy Fawkes. He was 
also chancellor to Prince Henry. On 2 Dec. 
1608 he was granted the reversion of the 
mastership of the rolls, but did not succeed 
to the office until January 1611. Yelverton, 
Coke, and Montagu all spoke highly of his 
conduct as a judge, though the last admitted 
that he was 'over swift in judging.' On 
14 July 1613 he was appointed ranger of all 
royal forests, parks, and chases in England. 

Besides his house in Chancery Lane, and 
another at Wanstead, Essex, where he enter- 
tained the king, Phelips built a large mansion 
at Montacute, which is still standing, and in 
the possession of his descendants. He died 
on 11 Sept. 1614, having married, first, Mar- 
garet (d. 28 April 1590), daughter of Robert 
Newdegate of Newdegate, Surrey, by whom 
lie had two sons, Sir Robert [q. v.] and 
Francis ; secondly, Elizabeth (d. 26 March 
1638), daughter of Thomas Pigott of Doder- 
sall, Buckinghamshire. There is a portrait 
of Phelips at Montacute House. 

[Pholips MSS. preserved at Montacute House, 
and calendared in Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 
App.; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-14; 
Winwood's State Papers, ii. 36, &c. ; Commons 
Journals, passim ; Parl. Hist. i. 969, 1045, &c. ; 
State Trials, ii. 164, 1062, 1073, 1079 ; Official 
Returns of Members of Parl. ; Nichols's Pro- 
gresses of James I ; Coryate's Crudities, passim ; 
Spedding's Life and Letters of Bacon, iv. 57, 
240 ; Dugdale's Origines, p. 218; Foss's Judges 
of England ; Sandford's Genealog. Hist. p. 562 ; 
Manning's Speakers ; .Tardine's Gunpowder Plot, 
p. 45 ; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Fore- 
fathers, 3rd ser. pp. 451-2 ; Visitation of Somer- 
set (Harl. Soc.), p. 85 ; Genealogical Collections 
of Roman Catholic Families, ed. J. J. Howard, 
pt. ii. No. iv. : Gardiner's Hist, of England.] 

A. F. P. 

PHELIPS, SIR ROBERT (1586 P-1638), 
parliamentarian, eldest son of Sir Edward 
Phelips [q. v.], and his first wife Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Newdegate of Newde- 
gate, Surrey, is said to have been born in 1586. 
He entered parliament as member for East 
Looe, Cornwall, in 1603-4, and sat in it till 
its dissolution on 9 Feb. 1610-11. Tn 1603 
he was knighted with his father. In July 
1613 he was travelling in France, and in 
the same year was granted the next vacancy 
in the clerkship of the petty bag. In April 

1614 he was elected to parliament as member 
for Saltash, Cornwall, and made some mark 
by joining in the attack on Richard Neile 
[q. v.], then bishop of Lincoln, for his speech 
in the House of Lords reflecting on the com- 
mons. In 1615 he went to Spain in attend- 
ance on John Digby, afterwards Earl of Bristol 
[q. v.], who was engaged in negotiating the 
Spanish match. He kept a diary of his move- 
ments for a few days (printed in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 1st Rep. App. pp. 59-60), and wrote 
an essay on the negotiation, which is among 
the manuscripts at Montacute House. Pro- 
bably, like Digby, he was not favourably dis- 
posed towards it. 

In 1621 Phelips was returned to par- 
liament as member for Bath, and at once 
took a prominent part in its proceedings. 
On 5 Feb. he accused the catholics of re- 
joicing at Frederick's defeat in Bohemia, and 
meditating a second * gunpowder plot.' It 
was on his motion (3 March) that the house 
turned its attention to the patent for gold 
and silver thread; he served on the com- 
mittee appointed to inquire into the matter, 
and brought up its report, which furnished 
the main charges against Sir Giles Mom- 
pesson [q. v.] (GARDINER, iv. 47). In the 
same month he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee to inquire into the charges of bribery 
brought against Bacon ; on the 17th he pre- 
sented its report in a speech of great force and 
moderation, and was ordered to lay the evi- 
dence before the House of Lords. In May he 
was one of the first to urge the house to punish 
Edward Floyd [q. v.] In November he warmly 
attacked Spain, and proposed to withhold 
supplies ; a few days later he supported the 
commons' petition against the catholics and 
the Spanish marriage. For his share in these 
proceedings he was on 1 Jan. 1622 arrested at 
Montacute, whither he had retired, and on 
the 12th imprisoned in the Tower. Here he 
remained, in spite of his brother's petition, 
until 10 Aug. 

In January 1623-4, when James was in- 
duced to summon another parliament, he 
insisted that Phelips and others should be 
excluded. Phelips was, however, elected for 
Somerset, and allowed to take his seat, pro- 
bably by Buckingham's intercession. He 
again demanded war with Spain, but came 
into no open collision with the court. In 
the first parliament of the new reign Phelips 
again sat for Somerset, and assumed an atti- 
tude of pronounced hostility to Buckingham. 
In the first days of the session he supported 
an abortive motion for immediate adjourn- 
ment, in order to defer the granting of supplies. 
A few days later he carried a motion that 
two subsidies only should be granted. On 



5 July he wished the house to discuss the 
question of impositions, and rebutted the 
king's claim to impose duties on merchandise 
at will. He also objected to the liberation 
of priests at the request of foreign ambas- 
sadors. In August, when parliament reas- 
sembled at Oxford, Pheiips pursued his former 
policy. On 10 Aug., in a high strain of elo- 
quence, he denned the position taken up by 
the commons, and laid down the lines on 
which the struggle was fought until the Long 
parliament (FoKSTER, Life of Eliot, i. 239- 
241). Next day parliament was dissolved. 
' As far as the history of such an assembly 
can be summed up in the name of any single 
man, the history of the Parliament of 1625 
is summed up in the name of Pheiips. . . . 
At Oxford he virtually assumed that unac- 
knowledged leadership which was all that 
the traditions of Parliament at that time per- 
mitted. It was Pheiips who placed the true 
issue of want of confidence before the House ' 
(GARDINER, v. 432). 

Another parliament was summoned for 

6 Feb. 1625-6. Pheiips was naturally one 
of those pricked for sheriff to prevent their 
election as members. Nevertheless he se- 
cured his election, and attempted in vain to 
take his seat (FORSTER). In the same year 
he was struck off the commission of the peace 
for Somerset, and refused to subscribe to the 
forced loan. In March 1627-8 he was once 
more returned for Somerset. He was present 
at a meeting of the leaders at Sir Robert 
Cotton's house a few days before the session 
began, and again took an active part in 
the proceedings of the house. He protested 
against the sermons of Sibthorpe and Main- 
waring, and was prominent in the debates 
on the petition of right, but the informal 
position of leader was taken by Sir John Eliot. 

From this time Pheiips is said to have in- 
clined more towards the court. In 1629 
Charles wrote, urging him to look to the 
interest of the king rather than to the favour 
of the multitude, and in 1633 he sided with 
the court against the puritans on the question 
of suppressing wakes. In the same year he 
protested his devotion to the king, and was 
again put on the commission for the peace. 
But in 1635 he took part in resisting the 
collection of ship-money. He died ( of a cold, 
choked with phlegm,' and was buried at Mon- 
tacute on 13 April 1638. 

Pheiips was an impetuous, ' busy, active 
man, whose undoubted powers were not 
always under the control of prudence.' Ac- 
cording to Sir John Eliot, his oratory was 
ready and spirited, but was marred by ' a 
redundancy and exuberance,' and ' an affected 
cadence and delivery;' he had 'a voice of 


much sweetness,' and spoke extempore. A 
portrait by Vandyck, preserved at Montacute, 
represents him holding a paper which formed 
the ground of the impeachment of Bacon. He 
married Bridget, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Gorges, knt., of Longford, Wiltshire. By her 
he had four daughters and three sons, of whom 
the eldest, Edward (1613-1679), succeeded 
him, became a colonel in the royalist army, 
and had his estates sequestrated. The second 
son Robert also became a colonel in the 
royalist army, helped Charles II to escape 
after the battle of Worcester, was groom of 
the bedchamber to him, M.P. for Stockbridge 
1660-1, and Andover 1684-5, is said to have 
been chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster 
(his name does not appear in Haydn), and 
died in 1707, being buried in Bath Abbey. 
The notes he drew up of Charles's escape are 
in Addit. MS. 31955, f. 16. 

[Gal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-35, passim ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. App. 1st and 3rd Eep. passim, 
12th Kep. App. pt. i. p. 464; 13th Eep. App. 
pt. vii. passim; Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 3195-5 
f. 16, 32093 f. 32, 34217 1 15; Journal? of 
House of Commons, passim; D'Ewes's Journals ; 
Parl. Hist. ; Official Eeturn of Members^ Par- 
liament ; Strafford Papers, i. 30-1, ii. 164; 
Nichols's Progresses of James I, i. 207, 213 n. ; 
Archseologia, xxxv. 343 ; Speddine's Bacon, v. 
61, 65, vii. passim ; Forster's Life of Eliot, 
throughout; Gardiner's Hist, of England, passim ; 
Metcalfe's Book of Knights ; Genealogical Col- 
lections of Catholic Families, ed. Howard; Visita- 
tion of Somersetshire (Harl. Soc.) ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry.] A. F. P. 

PHELPS, JOHN (/. 1649), regicide, 
matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, on 20 May 1636, describing himself as 
aged 17, and the son of Robert Phelps of 
Salisbury (FosTEK, Alumni Oxon. 1st ser. p. 
1155). His first employment seems to have 
been that of clerk to the committee for 
plundered ministers. On 1 Jan. 1648-9 he 
was appointed clerk-assistant to Henry 
Elsing, clerk of the House of Commons, 
and on 8 Jan. was selected as one of the 
two clerks of the high court of justice which 
sat to try Charles I (Commons' Journals, vi. 
107 ; NALSON, Trial of Charles I, 1682, pp. 
7, 9). The original journal of the court, 
attested under the hand of Phelps, and pre- 
sented by the judges to the House of Com- 
mons, was published by John Nalson in 1682 
(ib. p. xiv ; Commons' 1 Journals, vi. 508). In 
1650 Phelps was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple. On 14 Oct. 1652 he was 
made clerk to the committee of parliament 
chosen to confer with the deputies of Scot- 
land on the question of the union (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1651-2, p. 439). He was em- 





ployed as official note-taker at the trial of 
Vowell and Fox in 1654, and was also con- 
cerned in the trial of Slingsby and Hewitt 
in 1658 (ib. 1654 p. 235, 1658-9 p. 11). 
From 7 to 14 May 1659 he again acted as 
clerk of the House of Commons (Commons' 
Journals, vii. 644, 650). By these different 
employments Phelps made sufficient money 
to purchase a part of the manor of Hampton 
Court, which was bought from him in 1654 
for the use of the Protector (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1654, pp. 180, 223;. 

At the Restoration the House of Commons 
included Phelps and his fellow-clerk Brough- 
ton among the regicides, and on 14 May 1660 
voted their arrest (Commons' Journals, viii. 
25). Prynne was ordered to secure all the 
public documents which were among the 
papers of Phelps, and his goods were also 
seized (ib. pp. 27, 32, 43, 47). On 9 June it 
was further voted that he should be excepted 
from the Act of Indemnity for future punish- 
ment by some penalty less than death ; and 
on 1 July 1661 he was attainted, in company 
with twenty-one dead regicides (ib. pp. 60, 
286). Phelps, however, succeeded in evading 
all pursuit, and in 1662 he was at Lausanne in 
company with Ludlow. At the close of that 
year he and Colonel John Biscoe bought 
goods at Geneva and other places, and re- 
solved to try to make a livelihood by trading 
in Germany and Holland (LTTDLOW, Me- 
moirs, ii. 344, ed. 1894). In 1666 he appears 
to have been in Holland, and his name was 
included in a list of exiles summoned on 
21 July to surrender themselves within a 
given time to the English government (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, pp. 342, 348, 
358). The date and the place of his death 
are unknown. A tablet to his memory was 
erected a few years ago in St. Martin's Church, 
Vevay (LUDLOW, ii. 513 ; Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. vi. 13). 

[Authorities cited in text.] C. H. F. 

PHELPS, SAMUEL (1804-1878), actor, 
the seventh child and second son of Robert 
M. Phelps and his wife Ann, daughter of 
Captain Turner, was born 13 Feb. 1804, at 
1 St. Aubyn Street, Plymouth Dock, now 
known as Devonport. Coming of a Somer- 
set stock, he was both by his father's and 
mother's side connected with people of posi- 
tion and affluence. His father's occupation 
was to supply outfits to naval officers. A 
younger brother, Robert Phelps (1808-1890), 
was a good mathematician. He graduated 
B.A. from Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
took holy orders. In 1833 he was elected 
fellow of Sidney Sussex, and from 1843 till 
his death was master of that college. 

Samuel was educated in his native town, 
and at a school at Saltash kept by Dr. Samuel 
Reece. Left an orphan at sixteen, he was 
sheltered by his eldest brother, who put him 
in the office of the ' Plymouth Herald,' where 
he was employed as j unior reader to the press. 
In his seventeenth year he tried his fort unes in 
London, and became reader to the ' Globe ' and 
the ' Sun ' newspapers. Phelps had acquired 
theatrical tastes, had made the acquaintance 
of Douglas Jerrold, and of William Edward 
Love [q. v.] the ' polyphonist,' and was, with 
them, a member of an amateur theatrical 
company giving frequent performances at a 
private theatre in Rawstorne Street, Clerken- 
well. At the Olympic he made, in his twenty- 
second year, an appearance as an amateur, 
playing Eustache de Saint Pierre in the 
'Surrender of Calais,' and the Count of 
Valmont in the t Foundling of the Forest.' 
His success induced him to take to the 
stage as an occupation, and having first 
married, 11 Aug. 1826, at St. George's 
Church, Queen Square, Bloomsbury, Sarah 
Cooper, aged sixteen, he accepted an en- 
gagement of eighteen shillings a week on the 
York circuit. In 1830 he acquired at Shef- 
field some popularity in parts so diverse as 
King John, Norval, and Goldfinch in the 
' Road to Ruin.' In 1832 he enlisted under 
Watkin Burroughs for the Belfast, Preston, 
and Dundee theatres, and subsequently 
under Ryder for Aberdeen, Perth, and In- 
verness, playing in the northernmost towns 
the Dougal Creature to Ryder's Rob Roy 
and Sir Archy McSarcasm in 'Love a la 
Mode.' He was next heard of in Worthing, 
and then in Exeter and Plymouth. He was 
now announced as a tragedian, playing 
King Lear and Sir Giles Overreach, Vir- 
ginius, Richard III, lago, Sir Edward Morti- 
mer in the ' Iron Chest/ and incurred the 
general fate of being advanced as a rival to 
Kean. This flattering comparison he sup- 
ported by taking in Devonport, where he 
played, the lodgings previously occupied by 
Kean. Advances came from Bunn for 
Drury Lane, Webster for the Haymarket,and 
Macready for Covent Garden. In the end 
Phelps signed with Macready, who came to 
Southampton on 14 Aug. and saw him in the 
' Iron Chest.' The engagement was to begin 
at Covent Garden in the following October. 

In the interval Phelps played a short sea- 
son at the Haymarket under Webster. On 
28 Aug. 1837, as ' Mr. Phelps from Exeter,' he 
made at that playhouse, as Shylock, his first 
appearance in London. His reception was 
favourable, and he was credited by the press 
wiith judgment and experience, as well as a 
good face, figure, and voice. Sir Edward 




Mortimer, Hamlet, Othello, and Richard III 

On 27 Oct., as Jaffier in < Venice Preserved,' 
to the Pierre of Macready, Phelps made his 
d6but at Covent Garden. This was succeeded 
by Othello to Macready's lago. Difficulties 
followed, and Phelps, bound by his engage- 
ment for the next two years, was cast for 
secondary characters: Macduff,Cassius, First 
Lord in ' As you like it,' Dumont in ' Jane 
Shore,' Antonio in the ' Tempest,' Father 
Joseph (an original part) in ' Richelieu,' and 
Charles d'Albret in ' Henry V.' He was also 
seen in ' Rob Roy.' At the Haymarket 
(August 1839 to January 1840) he alternated 
with Macready the parts of Othello and lago 
to the Desdemona of Miss Helen Faucit. His 
Othello was then and subsequently preferred 
to that of Macready, to which it was indeed 
superior. Master Walter in the 'Hunch- 
back ' and Jaques in ' As you like it ' were 
also played. 

In January 1840 Phelps, with Macready, 
Mrs. Warner, and Miss Faucit, was engaged 
for Drury Lane by W. J. Hammond, whose 
management soon proved a failure, and the sea- 
son closed in March. During this period Phelps 
played Gabor to Macready's Werner, Darnley 
in ' Mary Stuart,' and Joseph Surface. Cast at 
the Haymarket in 1841 for Friar Laurence in 
* Romeo and Juliet,' he fumed, resigned his en- 
gagement, and wrote to the * Spectator,' giving 
his reasons for his action. D uring two months 
of 1841 he superintended at the Lyceum the 
performance of 'Martinuzzi' (the 'Patriot'), 
by George Stephens, enacting the Cardinal 
Regent, Mrs. Warner being the Queen-Mother. 
The representation strengthened greatly the 
reputation of both players. After visiting the 
country, and ' starring ' at the Surrey, he en- 
gaged with Macready for three years, reduced 
subsequently to two, at Drury Lane. Here 
he was seen in the first season as Antonio 
in the ' Merchant of Venice/ the Ghost in 
' Hamlet,' and other characters. In the fol- 
lowing season came Adam in ' As you like it,' 
Belarius in * Cymbeline/Stukeley, Gloucester 
in ' Jane Shore,' Hubert in ' King John,' Mr. 
Oakley in the ' Jealous Wife,' Leonato in 
1 Much Ado about Nothing,' &c. On 8 Feb. 

1842 he was the original Captain Channel in 
Jerrold's * Prisoners of War ; ' on 10 Dec. the 
original Lord Lynterne in Westland Mar- 
ston's ' Patrician's Daughter,' and on 11 Feb. 

1843 the original Lord Tresham in Brown- 
ing's ' Blot on the 'Scutcheon;' 24 April saw 
him as the first Lord Byerdale in Knowles's 
' Secretary,' and, 18 May, Dunstan in Smith's 
1 Athelwold.' At the Haymarket, meanwhile, 
he had been, in 1842, the first Almagro in 
Knowles's 'Rose of Arragon.' In the autumn 

of 1843 he played at Covent Garden, under 
Henry Wallack, Gaston de Foix in Bouci- 
cault's ' Woman.' 

D uring these years Phelps had risen s teadily 
in public estimation. His portrait as Hubert 

was painted by SirWilliam Charles Ross [q.v.~ 
for the queen. William Leman Rede ~ 

__j [q. v.J 

declared his Almagro a magnificent piece of 
acting ; and Jerrold, in ' Punch,' with charac- 
teristic ill-nature, declared that Phelps on 
the Haymarket stage had publicly presented 
Charles Kean with an extinguisher. Mac- 
ready at the close of the engagement gave 
Phelps 300/., and tried vainly to secure him as 
a companion on a proposed American trip. 

After some representations in the north of 
England, Phelps took advantage, in May 1844, 
of the removal by the legislature of the pri- 
vileges of the patent theatres to open jointly 
with Mrs. Warner and Thomas Greenwood the 
theatre at Sadler's Wells. He was the first 
actor to make such an experiment, and while 
the poetical drama was at its lowest ebb in 
the theatres of the west end, he succeeded in 
filling the * little theatre ' in Islington, and in 
' making Shakespeare pay ' for nearly twenty 
years. This period of management constitutes 
the most enterprising and distinguished por- 
tion of Phelps's career, and his chief claim to 
distinction. He was an intelligent and spirited 
manager, and Sadler's Wells became a recog- 
nised home of the higher drama, and, to some 
extent, a training school for actors. 

The experiment began on Monday, 27 May 
1844, with ' Macbeth,' Phelps playing the 
Thane, and Mrs. Warner Lady Macbeth. 
The performance won immediate recogni- 
tion. Later in the first season Phelps was 
seen in Othello, the Stranger, Mr. Oakley, 
Werner, Shylock, Sir Peter Teazle, Sir An- 
thony Absolute, Hamlet, Virginius, Julian 
St. Pierre in Knowles's ' Wife,' Melantius 
in the l Bridal,' Sir Giles Overreach, King 
John, Luke in Massinger's ' City Madam,' 
Claude Melnotte, Don Felix in the ' Won- 
der,' Richard III in the original play of 
Shakespeare instead of that of Gibber, which 
had long held possession of the stage, Rover 
in ' Wild Oats,' Nicholas Flam in Buckstone's 
piece so named, Frank Heartall in the ' Sol- 
dier's Daughter,' Sir Edward Mortimer, and 
Cardinal Wolsey, and played in the ' Priest's 
Daughter,' by T. J. Serle. In many of these 
characters he had been seen before ; one or 
two were wholly unsuited to him, and more 
than one were monopolised by Macready. 
Much hard work is, however, represented in 
these successive productions, all of them well 
supported by a company including George 
John Bennett [q. v.], Henry Marston, Jane 
Mordaunt (a sister of Mrs. Nisbett), and Miss 

L 2 




Cooper. Mrs. Warner was at the outset all 
but invariably the heroine. Among repre- 
sentations in the following season were Wil- 
liam Tell, Henri IV in Sullivan's ' King's 
Friend' (an original part, 21 May 1845), 
' Richelieu/ Beverley in the ' Gamester,' 
Romont in the 'Fatal Dowry' (perhaps his 
greatest quasi-tragic part), Rolla in ' Pizarro,' 
Lear, Leontes, Evelyn in ' Money,' and Hast- 
ings in 'Jane Shore.' In 1846-7 Mrs. Warner 
retired from management. The theatre opened 
with the 'First Part of King Henry IV,' 
Phelps playing Falstaff ; Creswick making, as 
Hotspur, his first appearance in London, and 
Mrs. H. Marston playing Mistress Quickly. 
Phelps's characters included Brutus, Mor- 
daunt in the ' Patrician's Daughter ' (Miss 
Addison appearing as Lady Mabel), Mercutio, 
the Duke in ' Measure for Measure,' Damon 
in ' Damon and Pythias,' Adrastus in Tal- 
fourd's ' Ion,' Arbaces in l A King and no 
King ' of Beaumont and Fletcher, not seen 
since 1788. On 18 Feb. 1847 he produced, 
for the first time, 'Feudal Times,' by the Rev. 
James White [q. v.], and played Walter Coch- 
rane [Earl of Mar]. Prospero, Reuben Glen- 
roy in Morton's ' Town and Country,' Bertram 
in Maturin's ' Bertram,' and the Provost in 
Lovell's ' Provost of Bruges ' followed. The 
season 1847-8 opened with ' Cymbeline/ 
Phelps playing Leonatus (23 Nov.) On 3 Nov. 
he was the original John Savile in White's 
| John Savile of Haysted.' On 27 Dec. 1847, 
in mounting ' Macbeth,' he dispensed, for the 
first time since the Restoration, with the sing- 
ing witches. Jaques followed, and after that 
Malvolio and Falstaff in the ' Merry Wives of 
Windsor.' Next season (1848-9) opened with 
' Coriolanus.' Isabella Glyn [q. v.] now re- 
placed Miss Addison, for Phelps did not keep 
his leading actresses long. Leon in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's ' Rule a Wife and have a Wife ' 
followed, and was succeeded by the 'Honest 
Man's Fortune,' altered by R. H. Home from 
Beaumont and Fletcher, in which Phelps 
played Montague. On 10 May 1849 he was 
the original Calaynos in a tragedy so named 
by G. H. Boker, an American. 

On 22 Oct. 1849 Phelps was Antony in a 
performance, the first for a century, of Shake- 
speare's ' Antony and Cleopatra.' This was 
perhaps Phelps's most successful revival. 
On 12 Dec. Phelps was the original Garcia, 
in 'Garcia, or the Noble Error,' of F. G. 
Tomlins, and on 11 Feb. 1850 the original 
Blackbourn in George Bennett's ' Retribu- 
tion.' He also added to his repertory Jeremy 
Diddler and Octavian in the ' Mountaineers.' 
On 22 Aug. 1850 Leigh Hunt's ' Legend of 
Florence was revived, with Phelps as Fran- 
cesco Agoianti. Nov. 20 saw Webster's 

' Duchess of Malfi,' adapted by R. H. Home. 
Phelps took the part of Ferdinand. Timon of 
Athens was first assumed 15 Sept. 1851. On 
27 Oct. he appeared as Ingomar, and on 27 Nov. 
was first seen in his great comic character, Sir 
Pertinax Macsycophant, in Macklin's ' Man 
of the World.' On 6 March 1852 he was 
the original James VI in White's 'James VI, 
or the Gowrie Plot.' In the following- 
season, 1852-3, he revived ' All's well that 
ends well,' play ing Parolles; 'KingHenry V,' 
playing the King ; and the ' Second Part of 
King Henry IV,' doubling the parts of 
Henry and Justice Shallow. Bottom, long 
esteemed Phelps's greatest comic character, 
was first seen October 1853. ' Pericles,' not 
acted since the Restoration, was revived 
14 Oct. 1854, Phelps playing Pericles. His 
only other new part in that season was 
Bailie Nicol Jarvie in ' Rob Roy.' Christo- 
pher Sly, in the ' Taming of the Shrew,' was 
first seen in December 1856. In the ' Two- 
Gentlemen of Verona,' produced on 18 Feb.. 
1857, Phelps did not act. Don Adriano- 
de Armado, in 'Love's Labour's Lost,' was 
first seen 30 Sept. 1857. Lord Ogleby, 
in the ' Clandestine Marriage,' followed on 
4 Nov. On 19 Jan. 1858, as one of a series 
of festival performances for the marriage of 
the princess royal, he played Macbeth at 
Her Majesty's Theatre. Dr. Cantwell, in 
the ' Hypocrite,' was first taken 13 Oct. 1858,, 
and on 11 Dec. Penruddock in the ' Wheel 
of Fortune.' On 14 Sept. 1859 he played for 
the first time Job Thornberry in ' John Bull, r 
and on 1 8 Oct. was the original Bertuccio in 
the 'Fool's Revenge,' Tom Taylor's adaptation 
of ' Le Roi s'amuse.' In May 1859 Phelps 
had made a not very successful visit to Berlin 
and Hamburg, where he is said to have played 
' King Lear ' to empty benches. In the spring 
of 1860 he appeared under Harris at the 
Princess's, playing a round of characters. 

The following season, 1860-1 , was the first 
of Phelps's sole management of Sadler's Wells r 
Greenwood, upon whose financial and busi- 
ness capacity Phelps had entirely relied, 
having retired. The season was only memo- 
rable for the appearance of his son Edmund, 
who played Ulric to his father's Werner. On 
24 Jan. 1861 he appeared with his company 
at Windsor Castle in ' Richelieu.' At the 
outset of Phelps's last season (1861-2) at 
Sadler's Wells, he appeared in the title- 
role of an adaptation of Casimir Delavigne's 
' Louis XL' A piece called ' Doing for the- 
Best,' in which he played Dick Stubbs, a car- 
penter, was a failure. But the withdrawal 
of Greenwood had transferred to Phelps's 
shoulders business responsibilities for which 
he was unfitted, and on 15 March 1862 his 




spirited and honourable enterprise at Sadler's 
Wells came to an end. In his farewell speech 
at the theatre he stated that he had made 
it the object of his life and the end of his 
management to represent the whole of Shake- 
speare's plays. He had succeeded in pro- 
ducing thirty-four of them, and they were 
acted under his management between three 
and four thousand nights. 

In 1863 he began a long engagement at 
Drury Lane, under Falconer and Chatterton, 
-during which he appeared in most of his 
favourite characters. In October 1863 he 
played Manfred, and in October 1866 Me- 
phistopheles in ' Faust.' In 1867 he was 
the Doge in Byron's ' Marino - Falieri.' In 
September 1868 he created some sensation 
by his performance of King James I and 
Trapbois in Halliday's adaptation of the 

* Fortunes of Nigel.' After fulfilling engage- 
ments in the country, he was for a time lessee 
of Astley's, where he lost money. He re- 
appeared on 23 Sept. 1871 at Drury Lane as 
Isaac of York in Halliday's adaptation of 
4 Ivanhoe.' On 16 Dec. 1871 he played at the 
Princess's Dexter Sanderson, an original part 
in Watts Phillips's ' On the Jury.' After act- 
ing in Manchester, under Calvert, he went 
to the Gaiety, under Hollingshead, where he 
played Falstaff and other parts. During a 
short engagement at the Queen's Theatre he 
appeared as Henry IV. Subsequently (1877 
and 1878) he acted at the Imperial Theatre 
(Aquarium) under Miss Marie Litton [q. v.], 
the last part he took being Wolsey in 

* Henry VIII.' His engagement with Miss 
Litton he could not complete owing to failing 
health, and other engagements made with 
Ohatterton in 1878-9 he was unable to fulfil. 
A series of colds prostrated him, and he died 
on 6 Nov. 1878, at Anson's Farm, Coopersale, 
near Epping, Essex. His remains were 
brought to the house he long occupied, 
420 Camden Road, and on the 13th were 
interred at Highgate. 

Phelps was a sound, capable, and powerful 
actor. Alone among men of consideration he 
held up in his middle and later life the banner 
of legitimate tragedy. He was not in the 
full sense a tragedian, being deficient in 
passion or imagination, grinding out his 
words with a formal and at times rasping 
delivery. Romont in the ' Fatal Dowry ' of 
Massinger marked the nearest approach to 
tragic grief, but he was good also in Arbaces, 
Melantius, and Macduff. In Othello, Lear, 
Macbeth, Sir Giles Overreach, and other 
heroical parts he was on the level of Charles 
Kean and Macready. He lived, however, in 
davs when conventional declamation of tra- 
y fell into evil odour, and when experi- 

ments so revolutionary as Fechter's Hamlet 
won acceptance. Thus, though a favourite 
with old stagers, and the recipient of warm 
praise from certain powerful organs of criti- 
cism, he lived to hear his tragic method con- 
demned and his mannerisms ridiculed. It 
was otherwise in comedy. His Sir Pertinax 
Macsycophant was a marvellously fine per- 
formance. His Bottom had all the sturdiness 
and self-assertion of that most complacently 
self-satisfied of men. Shallow was an ad- 
mirable performance, Malvolio was comic, 
and Falstaff, though upbraided with lack of 
unction, had marvellous touches. In Scot- 
tish characters he was generally excellent. 
There was, indeed, something dour and 
almost pragmatical about Phelps's own na- 
ture that may account for his success in 
such parts. 

Among those who have paid tribute to his 
worth and ability are Tom Taylor, Jerrold, 
Heraud, Tomlins, Bayle Bernard, and Pro- 
fessor Morley. Westland Marston praised 
highly his Tresham in ' A Blot on the 
'Scutcheon,' and has something to say for 
his Richelieu, Virginius, and Timon. Dut- 
ton Cook credits him with the possession 
of a marvellously large and varied reper- 
toire. All allow him pathos. It was in 
characters of rugged strength, however, that 
he conspicuously shone. 

Intractable and difficult to manage, Phelps 
still won general respect, and passed through 
a long and arduous career without a breath 
of scandal being whispered against him. He 
took little part in public or club life. His 
great delight when not acting was to go 
fishing with a friend. He is said to have 
known most trout-streams in England. 

By his wife, who died in 1867, he had 
three sons and three daughters. The eldest 
son, William Robert (d. 1867), was for some 
years upon the parliamentary staff of the 
' Times,' and was subsequently chief justice 
of the admiralty court at St. Helena. The 
second son, Edmund (d. 1870), was an actor. 
The best portrait of Phelps was painted by 
Johnstone Forbes-Robertson, his friend, and, 
in a limited sense, his pupil. It presents the 
actor as Cardinal Wolsey, is a striking like- 
ness, and was purchased by the members for 
bhe Garrick Club, where it now is. It has 
been engraved, by permission of the commit- 
tee, for the life by his nephew. Phelps was 
tall, and remained spare. 

[Personal knowledge ; information privately 

supplied by Mr. W. May Phelps ; W. May Phelps 

and J. Forbes-Robertson's Life and Life-Work 

f Phelps, 1886 ; Coleman's Memoirs of Phelps, 

886 ; Westland Marston's Recollections of 

A.ctors ; Pascoe's Dramatic List.] J. K. 



PHELPS, THOMAS (fl. 1750), astro- 
nomer, was born at Chalgrove, Oxfordshire, 
in January 1694. In 1718 he was a stable- 
man in the service of Lord-chancellor Thomas 
Parker (afterwards Earl of Macclesfield) [q.v.], 
but rose to higher employments through his 
good conduct and ability. George Parker, 
second earl of Macclesfield [q. v.], took him 
into his observatory in 1742, and he was the 
first in England to detect the great comet of 
1743. His observations of it on 23 Dec. were 
published without his name in the t Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' (xliii. 91). A curious 
engraving, preserved in the council-room of 
the Royal Astronomical Society, represents 
Phelps as just about to make an observation 
with the Shirburn Castle five-foot transit, 
which John Bartlett, originally a shepherd, 
prepares to record. The print dates from 1776, 
when Phelps was 82, Bartlett 54 years of age. 

[Scattered Notices of Shirburn Castle in Ox- 
fordshire, by Mary Frances, Countess of Mac- 
clesfield, 1887; Rigaiid's Memoirs of Bradley, 
pp. Ixxxiii-iv ; "Weld's Hist, of the Royal Soc. 
ii. 3.] A. M. C. 

PHELPS, WILLIAM (1776-1856), 
topographer, son of the Rev. John Phelps of 
Flax Bourton, Somerset, matriculated from 
Balliol College, Oxford, in 1793, and gra- 
duated B.A. from St. Alban Hall in 1797. 
He took holy orders, was vicar of Meare and 
Bicknoller, Somerset, from 1824 till 1851, 
when he became rector of Oxcombe, Lincoln- 
shire. There he died on 17 Aug. 1856. He 
published ' A Botanical Calendar ' in 1810 and 
guide-books to the Duchy of Nassau (1842) 
and Frankfort-on-the-Main (1 844) . But his 
chief work was a very elaborate ' History and 
Antiquities of Somersetshire,' with a learned 
historical introduction and illustrations. 
Seven parts were issued between 1835 and 
1839, when they reappeared in two volumes. 
The undertaking was left incomplete. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Phelps's Works; Gent. 
Mag. 1836 i. 174sq.] 

PHERD, JOHN (d. 1225), bishop of 
Ely, properly called JOHN OF FOUNTAINS, 
was a Cistercian monk of Fountains, and was 
chosen ninth abbot of his house in December 
1211. He received the benediction from 
Ralph, bishop of Down, at Melrose (Chron. 
de Mailros, p. Ill, Bannatyne Club). In 
July-September 1213 he was employed on 
official business by the king, perhaps in con- 
nection with the taxation of, the Cistercians 
(Rot. Litt. Glaus, i. 132, 143). At a chapter- 
general of the Cistercians in 1218 he was one 
of the abbots appointed to deal with difficult 
cases concerning the order in England (MAR- 
TENE, iv.1323). On 26 April 1219 he was one 

of three ordered by the pope to inquire into 
the proposed canonisation of St. Hugh of 
Lincoln (Cal. Papal Registers, i. 59, 66; 
MATT. PARIS, iii. 58). The election of 
Robert of York to the bishopric of Ely 
having been quashed by the pope, Pherd 
was appointed to that see by Pandulf, the 
legate, and Stephen Langton, acting under 
authority from Honorius (Ann. Mon. iii. 
56, iv. 412). He was accordingly elected 
24 Dec. 1219, and received the royal assent 
on the same day. He was consecrated by 
Langton at Westminster on 8 March 1220, 
and was enthroned at Ely on 25 March 
(MATT. PARIS, iii. 58; LE NEVE, Fasti, 
i. 328). Oii 2 June he was appointed with 
Richard Poore [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury r 
to inquire into the charges against Richard 
de Marisco [q. v.], bishop of Durham. With 
this purpose he went to Durham, and paid 
a visit to Fountains on his way. On 6 Feb. 
1221 proceedings were stayed, pending an 
appeal by Richard de Marisco, but were 
again resumed on 1 July. ; the matter was 
unsettled at Pherd's death ; he was engaged 
with it in 1224 and 1225 (Ann. Mon. iii. 
62, 67; MATT. PARIS, iii. 62-4; Cal. Papal 
Registers, i. 72, 78, 82, 93, 97, 101, 104). He 
was employed on various matters by Pope 
Honorius (ib. i. 89, 90, 95-6), and was one 
of the bishops who witnessed the confirma- 
tion of the Great Charter on 11 Feb. 1225 
(Ann. Mon. i. 231). He died at Downham 
on 6 May 1225, and was buried in the 
cathedral, towards the altar of St. Andrew 
(Anglia Sacra, i. 635). His tomb was 
opened ' when the choir was moved into 
the presbytery' (BENTHAM,, Ely, p. 76). 
He gave a cope and other vestments and 
a pastoral staff to the cathedral, and be- 
queathed the tithes of Hadham for his com- 
memoration. In the { Flores Historiarum 7 
(ii. 172, Rolls Ser.) he is described as 'a 
just and simple man who abhorred evil.' The 
Bollandists include him in their catalogue 
of * prsetermissi ' under 9 June (Acta Sanc- 
torum, June, ii. 147). In contemporary 
chronicles he is always described simply as 
Johannes de Fontibus, or Johannes Eliensis. 
The name Pherd appears to be due to an error 
of Burton, who misread Elien 1 in the manu- 
script (Monasticon Eboracense, p. 210; cf. 
Memorials of Fountains, i. 134). 

[Matthew Paris, Annales Monastici, Cartu- 
larium de Rameseia (all three in Rolls Ser.) ; 
Memorials of Fountains, i. 134-6 (Surtees Soc.) ; 
Wharron's Anglia Sacra, i. 634-5 ; Bliss's 
Calendar of Papal Registers.] C. L. K. 

son of Peter Phesant, barrister-at-law, of 
Gray's Inn, by his wife Jane, daughter of 



Vincent Fulnetby, was born probably at his 
father's manor of Barkwith, Lincolnshire, 
about 1580. The father was reader at Gray's 
Inn in Lent 1582, and also attorney-general in 
the northern parts. The son, on 26 Oct. 1602, 
entered Gray's Inn, where he was called to 
the bar in 1608, elected ancient in 1622, being- 
then one of the ; common pleaders' for the city 
of London, bencher in 1623, and reader in the 
autumn of 1624. On 19 May 1640 he was 
called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, and 
on 10 March following was prayed as counsel 
by attorney-general Sir Thomas Herbert on 
his impeachment, but excused himself on the 
score of ill-health. In 1641 he was justice 
of assize and nisi prius for the county of 
Nottingham. He was recorder of London 
in the interval, 2-30 May 1643, between the 
dismissal of Sir Thomas Gardiner [q. v.] and 
the election of Sir John Glynne [q. v.] 

On 30 Sept. 1645 Phesant, who had been 
recommended for a judgeship in the parlia- 
ment's propositions for peace of 1 Feb. 1642-3, 
was voted a judge of the court of common 
pleas by the House of Commons, and on the 
28th of the following month was sworn in as 
such. On the abolition of the monarchy he 
accepted a new commission on condition that 
the fundamental laws were not abolished. 
He died on 1 Oct. following, at his manor of 
L T pwood, near Ramsay, Huntingdonshire, 
and was buried in Upwood church. 

Phesant married, about 1609, Mary Bruges, 
of a Gloucestershire family, who, dying about 
the same time as himself, was buried by his 
side. By her he had several children. Phe- 
sant's epitaph credits him with ability, con- 
scientiousness, and courage. 

[Philipps's Grandeur of the Law, p. 195 ; Old- 
field and Dyson's Tottenham, p. 82 ; Marshall's 
Genealogist, iv. 25 ; Douthwaite's Gray's Inn ; 
Foster's Gray's Inn Admission Eegister ; Over- 
all's Analytical Index to Remembrancia, p. 511 ; 
Parl. Hist. ii. 1125, 1327; Dugdale's Orig. p. 
295, Chron. Ser. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1635- 
1636 p. 194, 1637-8 p. 197, 1649-50 p. 197; 
Cal. Committee for Advance of Money, vol. i. 
(1642-5), p. 312 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. 
App. p. 64, 5th Rep. App. p. 89, 7th Rep. 
App. pp. 29, 46; Clarendon's Rebellion, bk. vi. 
231 ; Whitelocke's Memorials, pp. 174, 178, 
378, 409 ; Sir John Bramston's Autobiogr. (Cam- 
den Soc.) ; Inderwick's Interregnum, p. 155; 
Noble's Protectoral House of Cromwell, 3rd edit, 
i. 430; Bray ley's Beauties of England and Wales, 
vii. 549*.] J. M. R. 

DANICAN (1726-1795), chess-player and 
composer, was the youngest son of Andre 
Danican,^ a musician, and member of the 
Grande Ecurie, the chambre and the chapelle 

of Louis XIV, by his second wife, Elisabeth 
Leroy. The family had long been connected 
with the French court in the capacity of 
musicians. When his great-grandfather, 
Michel Danican, a native of Dauphin6 and 
a celebrated oboist, first appeared at court, 
Louis XIII exclaimed, ' I have found another 
Filidori,' this being the name of a Sienese 
hautboy-player who had caused a sensation 
at the French court by his brilliant perform- 
ance. The royal compliment procured for the 
family the agnomen ' Philidor.' * 

Francois Andre was born at Dreux on 
7 Sept. 1726. At the age of six he entered 
the Chapelle du Roy at Versailles, and learned 
harmony of Andre Campra. About eighty 
musicians were constantly in waiting at the 
chapelle, and, cards not being allowed in the 
sanctuary, they had a long table inlaid with a 
number of chessboards. Philidor learnt the 
game by watching his elders, and various 
anecdotes are told of the amazement caused 
by his prowess when he was first admitted to 
play. Scarcely less precocious as a musician, 
at the age of eleven he composed a motet, 
which was performed in the chapelle. When 
his voice broke he left the chapelle, at the age 
of fourteen, and went to Paris, with a view to 
supporting himself, like Rousseau, by giving 
lessons and copying music. But he seems to 
have neglected his pupils for the chess cafes, 
in particular the Cafe de la Regence, where 
fortune guided him to the board of M. de 
Kermuy, Sire de Legal, the best player in 
France. From Legal he derived the by no 
means new idea of playing without seeing the 
board, and his feat of playing two games in 
this manner simultaneously was commemo- 
rated by Diderot in his article ' Echecs ' in 
the ' Encyclopedic ' as an extraordinary ex- 
ample of strength of memory and imagina- 
tion. About the same period (1744-5) Phili- 
dor assisted Rousseau to put into shape the 
latter's opera ' Les Muses Galantes.' 

In the autumn of 1745, owing to the 
pressure of creditors, Philidor made a tour in 
Holland. At Amsterdam he supported him- 
self by exhibition game's at chess and at Polish 
draughts. At The Hague he met some Eng- 
lishmen, at whose invitation he came to 
England in the latter part of 1747. The 
principal chess club in England at this time 
held its meetings at Old Slaughter's Coffee- 
house in St. Martin's Lane. The best Eng- 
lish player, who was the strongest player 
Philidor met, with the exception of his old 
tutor, M. de Legal, was Sir Abraham Jans- 
sen. During his stay in London he played a 
match of ten games with Philip Starnma, a 
native of Aleppo, and author of * Les Strata- 
gemes du jeu d'Echecs/ giving him the move, 




allowing the drawn games to be held as won 
by Stamma, and betting five to four on each 
game. The Syrian won one game, and one 
was drawn. In the following year Philidor 
returned to Holland, where he composed his 
' Analyse du jeu des Echecs.' While at Aix- 
la-Chapelle he was advised by Lord Sand- 
wich to visit Eyndhoven, a village between 
Bois-le-Duc and Maestricht, where the Bri- 
tish army was encamped. Philidor there 
played chess with the Duke of Cumberland, 
who subscribed for a number of copies of the 
work, and procured many other subscribers. 
In consequence, the book was originally pub- 
lished in London, in 1749, 8vo, under the title 
* L 'Analyse des Echecs : contenant une nou- 
velle me"thode pour apprendre . . . ce noble 
jeu.' An English translation appeared in 
1750, London, 8vo, and an enlarged French 
edition in 1777. Since that date it has been 
translated into most European languages, 
and frequently re-edited. The best edition 
is that of George Walker [q. v.], London, 
1832, 12mo. The book, which marks an epoch 
in the history of the game, was the most 
perfect exponent of a school of chess which, 
in opposition to the Italian school of the 
eighteenth century, directed the attention 
of students principally to the middle game, 
and to the building up of a strong central 
position with the help of the pawns. Phili- 
dor's exposition is mainly characterised by 
the value attached to the pawns, which he 
called 'the soul of the game,' and by the 
able demonstration of the possibility of giving 
mate with a rook and bishop against a rook. 
Here, however, Philidor has required some 
correction from later writers. He thought 
the mate of rook and bishop against rook 
could always be forced ; whereas this is true 
in special position only. The argument is 
conducted by means of games, with illustra- 
tive notes. 

The greater part of the seven years follow- 
ing 1747 was spent by Philidor'in England, 
although in 1751, by the king of Prussia's in- 
vitation, he visited Potsdam, where the in- 
terest aroused by his presence is recorded by 
Euler, the famous mathematician. In 1753 
Philidor undertook to set to music Con- 
greve's ' Ode to St. Cecilia's Day/ and his 
composition was performed at the Haymarket 
on 31 Jan. 1754. Handel heard it, and highly 
commended the choruses, though he said that 
the style of the airs left room for improvement. 
Recalled by Diderot and other friends to Paris 
in November 1754, Philidor devoted him- 
self almost exclusively to musical composi- 

In 1772 he revisited England, where a new 
chess club had been established at the Salopian 

Coffee-house, and where Count Briihl was 
now the leading amateur. The formation of 
another new chess club in St. James's Street, 
in 1774, gave a fresh impetus to the game in 
England. One of the club's first steps was to 
provide an annual subscription as an induce- 
ment to Philidor to spend each season (Fe- 
bruary-June) in London. In 1775 he came 
to London in accordance with this arrange- 
ment, and to the new chess club he dedicated 
the new edition of his ' Analyse,' to which 
every member, including Gibbon and C. J. 
Fox, subscribed. He frequently advertised 
in the London papers that he would repeat 
the tour de force of playing two or three 
games at once blindfold. 

Meanwhile Philidor did not neglect 
musical production. In 1779 he set to 
music Horace's ' Carmen Seculare,' which 
was performed on three nights at the Free- 
masons' Hall with success, and was re- 
peated in 1788 at an entertainment given 
by the knights of the Bath. In 1789 he 
produced an English ' Ode,' followed by 
a 'Te Deum/ to celebrate the recovery of 
George III. 

Philidor sympathised with the French re- 
volutionary movement of 1789, but after the 
September massacres in 1792 he came back 
to London, and was a frequent guest at the 
table of Count Briihl. Although; at the 
conclusion of the reign of terror, anxious to 
return to his family in Paris, he was unable 
to get his name erased from the list of sus- 
pected Emigres. He died at No. 10 Little 
Ryder Street, London, on 24 Aug. 1795. 

As a chess-player Philidor stood, in his own 
day, absolutely alone. A number of his games 
are preserved in Walker's valuable t Selection 
of Games at Chess played by Philidor and his 
Contemporaries ' (London, 1835 ; it is also 
included in his larger work ( Chess Studies,' 
1844, reprinted 1893). His genius is com- 
memorated among chess-players by ( Phili- 
dor's Defence' and 'Philidor's Legacy.' As 
a musician, Philidor, in the words of Fetis, 
possessed more ' musical science ' than any 
of his French contemporaries. His harmony 
is more varied than that of Duni, Monsigny, 
and Gr6try, although the latter two easily 
surpassed him in melodic grace and dramatic 
instinct. He was the first to introduce on the 
stage the 'air descriptif ' ('Le Marechal ') and 
the unaccompanied quartet ('Tom Jones'), 
and to form a duet of two independent and 
apparently incongruous melodies. His use 
of the chorus and instrumentation was supe- 
rior to that of any other French composer, 
and his compositions were treated as models, 
and given out as subjects of study in the 
Conservatoire at Paris as late as 1841 (cf. 




Gustave Chouquet in GEOVE'S Diet, of Musi- 

Philidor, whose domestic life was ex- 
tremely happy, married, at St. Sulpice, Paris, 
on 13 Feb. 1760, Angelique Henrietta Elisa- 
beth Richer, sister of the famous singer, and 
left one daughter and four sons, one of whom, 
Andr6, survived until 1845. An anonymous 
portrait in the museum at Versailles was en- 
graved for vol. iii. of the chess periodical, 
' Le Palamede,' and there is another en- 
graving made by Samuel Watts for Kenny's 
edition of the * Analysis ' (1819). A bust, 
executed in terra-cotta by Pajon, was pre- 
sented by the city of Paris to Madame Phili- 
dor in 1768 ; while a portrait by Robineau 
is stated to have been purchased by the Lon- 
don Chess Club. 

[George Allen's Life of Philidor (1863), with 
a supplementary essay on Philidor as Chess-au- 
thor and Chess-player, by Tassilo von Heydebrand 
und der Lasa, constitutes the most valuable 
authority, being based upon careful investiga- 
tion of the known materials. Subsequent to 
this, however, is the appreciative estimate by 
Gustave Chouquet in Grove's Dictionary of 
Musicians. The most valuable of the contem- 
porary sources are the life in La Borde's Essai sur 
la Musique, Paris, 1760; Anecdotes of Mr. 
Philidor, communicated by himself [by Eichard 
Twiss] in ' Chess,' 1789, vol. ii. ; ' Closure of the 
Account of Mr. Philidor ' in Twiss's Miscel- 
lanies, 1805, ii. 105-114, the article, 'Philidor 
peint par lui-meme, in Palamede, vii. 2-16, and 
the 'Lettres de Philidor' in Palamede, 1847, 
passim. The most complete lists of his compo- 
sitions are given in Fetis and in Champlin's Cy- 
clopedia of Music and Musicians. See also pre- 
face to the 'Analysis,' ed. George Walker, 1832 ; 
Tomlinson's Chess Player's Annual, 1856, p. 
160; Brainne's Hommes Illustres de 1'Orleanais, 
i. 75 ; Piot's Particularites ineiites concernant 
]es oeuvres musicales de Gossec et de Philidor ; 
Clement's Musici ens Celebres, p. 101 ; La France 
Musicale, December 1867, February 1868; Castil- 
Blaze's De 1'Opera, i. 17 ; Chalmers's Biographi- 
cal Dictionary ; Burney's Hist, of Music ; Me- 
moir in Rees's Cyclopaedia; L'Intermediaire des 
Chercheurs et Curieux, xix. 679, 731, xx. 23, 79, 
xxiii. 36, 146, 177, xxiv. 52; there is an allu- 
sion to Philidor in Balzac's Maison du Chat qui 
pelote. The writer is indebted to the Eev. W. 
Wayte for a revision of the article.] T. S. 


PHILIP II OF SPAIN (1527-1598). [See 
under MARY I, queen of England.] 

PHILIP OF MONTGOMERY (fl. 1100). [See 
under ROGER OF MONTGOMERY, d. 1094.] 

PHILIP DE THAUN (ft. 1120), Anglo- 
Norman writer, probably belonged to a Nor- 
man family of Thaun or Than, near Caen, 

but had come to England, perhaps with his 
uncle Hunfrei de Thaun, 

Ii chapelein Yhan 
E Seneschal lu rei. 

The Abb6 de la Rue identified Yhan with 
Hugh Bigod (d. 1107), but this is lin- 
guistically impossible, and Mr. Wright is no 
doubt correct in taking it to mean the Eudo 
or Odo Dapifer who died on 29 Feb. 1120 
(DUGDALE, Monast. Angl. iv. 607). Philip 
wrote : 1. ' Li Cumpoz ' or ' Computus/ 
less correctly styled by Wright ' Li Livre 
des Creatures.' This is a treatise on the 
ecclesiastical calendar in six-syllabled verse, 
compiled from Bseda, Gerland, and other 
writers on the ' Computus/ for the use of 
clerks. The probable date of its composition 
was between 1113 and 1119. There are 
seven manuscripts, viz., Cotton, Nero A. v., 
Arundel 230, and Sloane 1580 in the British 
Museum, MS. C. 3. 3. in the Lincoln Ca- 
thedral Library, and three in the Vatican. 
2. ' Li Bestiaire ' or ' Physiologus/ which is 
dedicated to Adelaide of Louvain as queen 
of Henry I, and must therefore have been 
written between 1121 and 1135, perhaps in 
1 125. Like the ' Computus,' the ' Physiologus ' 
is based on Latin originals, and is for the 
most part written in six-syllabled verse, 
though in the latter portion an octosyllabic 
metre is employed. There is only one 
manuscript, viz. Cotton, Vespasian, E. x. 
Philip is the first Anglo-Norman writer as 
to whom we have any distinct information, 
and is, perhaps, the earliest poet in the 
langue cfoil whose work has survived. 
Though his writings, and especially the 
' Computus,' have little poetical merit, they 
are of great value for the history of Anglo- 
Norman literature. Both the 'Computus' 
and the ' Physiologus ' were edited by 
Wright in his ' Popular Treatises on Science 
during the Middle Ages,' pp. 20-131, with 
translations. The 'Physiologus' has also 
been edited by Dr. M. F. Mann, and the 
1 Computus ' by Dr. E. Mall. 

[Histoire Litteraire de France, ix. 173, 190, x. 
pp. Ixxi-ii, xiii. 60-2 ; Wright's Biogr. Brit. Litt. 
Anglo-Norman, pp. 86-7; Mann's Physiologus 
des P. von Thaun und seine Quellen ; Mall's 
Computus des Philipp vori Thaun, mit einer 
Einleitung iiber die Sprache des Autors ; De la 
Rue's Bardes; Archaeologia, xii. 301-6; Gaston 
Paris's Litterature Fra^aise au Moyen Age, 
100; Jahrbuchfiir romanische und englische 
Literatur, v. 358-60, vii. 38-43 (on the Com- 
putus and its manuscripts); Komanische For- 
schung, v. 399.] c - L - K - 

PHILIP DE BRAOSE (/. 1172), warrior. 
[See BRAOSE.] 




PHILIP OF POITIERS (d. 1208 ?), bishop 
of Durham, was a favourite clerk of Richard I. 
He accompanied the latter on. his crusade of 
1189, and was present at his marriage with 
Berengaria of Navarre at Cyprus in 1191 
(WALTER or COVENTRY, ii. 184, Eolls Ser.) 
"When he returned to England is not clear ; 
but Richard, during his captivity in 1193, is 
Said to have procured for him the arch- 
deaconry of Canterbury, but whether he held 
it is uncertain (RoG. Hov. iii. 221, Rolls Ser.) 
In the same year, at the king's wish, he 
was presented to the deanery of York by 
Archbishop Geoffrey (d. 1212) [q._v.] in de- 
fiance of the wish of the canons (ib. p. 222). 
The latter, however, succeeded in getting 
the papal confirmation for the election of 
their candidate, Simon of Apulia, and Philip 
was probably never installed. In November 
or December 1195, again by royal favour, he 
was elected to the bishopric of Durham at 
Northallerton in Yorkshire, in the presence 
of Archbishop Hubert of Canterbury. Hove- 
den says Philip was ordained to the priest- 
hood on 15 June 1196 by Henry, bishop of 
Llandaff, but this is not clear (loc. cit. iv. 9). 
He was abroad part of that year with the 
king, and was sent to England by the latter 
on financial business. The king about the 
same time gave him permission tore-establish 
the mint at Durham, and he secured for his 
nephew, Aimeric de Tailbois, the arch- 
deaconry of Carlisle, to which he added that 
of Durham (ib. pp. 13-14). At the end of 
the year he was in Normandy with Richard, 
and was sent by him to Rome to plead his 
cause against the archbishop of Rouen, who 
had laid Normandy under interdict because 
of the building of Chateau Gaillard. There 
Philip succeeded in arranging the terms of 
a compromise with the archbishop of Rouen, 
and was at last consecrated to the see of 
Durham by Celestine III on 20 April 1197 
Script, tres, Surtees Soc. p. 18). 

In 1198 Philip was one of Richard's re- 
presentatives at the election of his nephew, 
the emperor Otto IV, at Cologne. On his 
return to England he obtained through royal 
influence the restoration and enlargement 
of certain Durham properties; a portion, 
however, he lost the same year in a law- 
suit with Robert of Turnham (Roa. Hov. 
iv. 55, 68-9). In September King Richard 
wrote him an extant letter, giving an account 
of his war in France (ib. pp. 58-9). He 
made fruitless efforts at mediation between 
the king and Archbishop Geoffrey of York, 
and was himself engaged in a serious quarrel 
with his cathedral clergy with regard to 
certain rights of presentation to benefices. 

During the progress of this dispute, Philip's 
nephew, the archdeacon of Durham, besieged 
the monks in St. Oswald's church, but 
ultimately Philip yielded the point at issue 
(GEOFFREY OF COLDINGHAM, loc. cit. p. 19 ; 
ROG. Hov. loc. cit. pp. 69-70). 

On 23 May 1199 Philip assisted in con- 
secrating William de Ste. Mere 1'Egliseto the 
see of London, and on the 27th was present 
at the coronation of King John, though he 
protested against its taking place in the 
absence of Archbishop Geoffrey of York. 
John showed favour to Philip, and employed 
him in 1199 on a mission to induce the king 
of Scots to do homage. Next year Philip 
brought about a meeting between the two 
kings, and was one of the witnesses of the act 
of homage performed at Lincoln on 22 Nov. 
1200 (RoG. Hov. iv. 140-1). In the latter 
year he obtained the royal license for hold- 
ing fairs at Northallerton and Howden, and 
in 1201 set out on a pilgrimage to Compos- 
tella. He was at Chinon in May, and there 
witnessed to the claim of Richard's queen, 
Berengaria, to her dower. He came home 
in 1202. 

Philip was one of the papal agents in the 
famous suit of Giraldus Cambrensis [q. v.] 
concerning the status of the see of St. 
David's, and in 1203 received letters from 
Innocent III on the subject (GiR. CAMBR. 
iii. 70, 282, &c., Rolls Ser.) In the great 
quarrel with Innocent III (1205-13) he is 
mentioned as one of John's evil counsellors. 
He died apparently in 1208, in the midst of 
the strife. His body is said to have been 
contemptuously buried by laymen outside 
the precincts of his church. 

Philip's character is painted darkly by 
Geoffrey of Coldingham (loc. cit.} as that of 
an unscrupulous and violent man. Over 
his will there was strife between the arch- 
deacon of Durham and the prior and chapter, 
and Innocent III interfered in 1211. 

[Richard of Coldingham in Hist. Dunelm. 
Script, tres, pp. 17 sq. and Append. Ixvii. ; 
Regist. Palat. Dunelm. vols. i. ii. and iii.; 
Roger of Hoveden, vol. iii., Walter of Coventry, 
vol. ii., Giraldus Cambrensis, vol. iii., Matt. 
Paris' s Chron. Majora, vol. ii., Gervase of Canter- 
bury, i. 530 (all in Eolls Ser.) ; Had. de Diceto, 
ii. 152; Ralph of Coggeshall, Chron. Angl. p. 
70 ; Rotulus Cancellarii, p. 60, Eotuli de Liberate, 
&c., ed. Hardy, pp. 7, 101 (both EecordComm.) ; 
Eotuli Curise'Eegis, i. 433, ii. 259, ed. Palgrave ; 
Eymer's Foedera, i. 96, 1 34-5, ed. 1 704 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccles. Angl. iii. 284, ed. Hardy ; Stubbs's 
Eegist Sacr. Angl. p. 35.] A. M. C-E. 

REMI (1246P-129G) was long treated by 
English authorities as an Anglo-Norman 




poet, to whom were assigned two romances, 
called respectively ' La Manekine ' and ( Jehan 
de Dammartin et Blonde d'Oxford.' Both 
show a close knowledge of Scottish and Eng- 
lish life and topography in the thirteenth 
century, and were first published by English 
societies the former by the Bannatyne Club 
in 1840 (ed. Francisque Michel), and the 
latter by the Camden Society (1858, ed. Le 
Roux de Lincy). The unique manuscript of 
these poems, however, which is in the National 
Library at Paris (7609- Fonds Fra^ais), in- 
cludes besides them several poems of Philippe 
de Beaumanoir (1246 P-1296), a well-known 
jurist and poet, who compiled the l Coutumes 
de Beauvaisis.' There is little doubt that 
Philippe de Remi and Philippe de Beau- 
manoir were identical ; the latter, a younger 
son, held land at Remi, near Compiegne, 
was long known as Philippe de Remi, and 
became Sire de Beaumanoir by the death of 
his elder brother Girard. Moreover, the 
poems attributed to Philippe de Remi show 
an intimate acquaintance on the part of 
their author with Beauvaisis and adjoining 
country (BoRDiER, Athenceum Franqais, 1853, 
p. 932). The poems prove that Philippe 
had visited England, possibly in the suite 
of Simon de Montfort. Simon's family held 
land in Clermont and at Remi itself; and 
in June 1282 Amaury de Montfort, Simon's 
son, granted Philippe some lands in fee, ' pour 
1'amour de li et pour son bon serviche ' (see 

I Pieces justificatives ' to BOKDIEK'S Philippe 
de Beaumanoir, No. xiv, pt. i. p. 108). From 

II May 1279 to 7 May 1282 Philippe was 
bailiff of Robert, count of Clermont, sixth 
son of St. Louis ; from November 1284 to 
1288 seneschal of Poitou ; in 1288 seneschal 
of Saintonge ; in 1289 and 1290 bailiff of Ver- 
mandois ; in the course of 1292 seneschal of 
Saintonge, bailiffof Senlis, and bailiff of Tou- 
raine ; and again bailiff of Senlis from March 
1293 till his death in the beginning of 1296. 
The 'Coutumes de Beauvaisis' was begun 
while he was bailiff of the county of Cler- 
mont, and finished in 1283. ' Le Roman de 
la Manekine ' and ' Le Roman de Jehan de 
Dammartin et Blonde d'Oxford ' were pro- 
bably composed by him between 1264 and 

[The chief authority is the biography of 
Philip of Beaumanoir, by M. H. L. Bordier, in 
Philippe de Eemi Sire de Beaumanoir, Juris- 
consulte et Poe'te National du Beauvaisis, Paris, 
1869-73, in two parts, pp. 1-422; the second part 
contains his complete poetical works. The iden- 
tification of Philippe de Eemi with Philippe de 
Beaumanoir has since been confirmed with new 
proofs by M. Edouard Schwan in the Romanische 
Studien herausgegeben von Edward Boehmer, iy. 

.351. The best edition of the poems of Beau- 
manoir is that of M. Hermann Suchier (Societe 
des Anciens Textes Francois), 2 vols. 8vo, 1884- 
1885. The Coutumede Clermont en Beauvaisis 
has been edited by Thaumas de la Thaumassiere 
(1690) and Count Beugnot (1840).] W. E. K. 

PHILIP BE VALONIIS (d. 1215), lord of 

Panmure. [See VALONIIS.] 

SON (1770 P-1851 ?), physician and physio- 
logist, was born in Scotland, his surname 
being originally Wilson. He studied medi- 
cine at Edinburgh, and graduated M.D. on 
25 June 1792, with an inaugural dissertation 
' De Dyspepsia,' and in the same year pub- 
lished the first of a long series of medical 
works. Being admitted fellow of the Royal 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh on 3 Feb. 
1795, he practised in that city for a few 
years, and gave a course of lectures on medi- 
cine. About 1799 he settled at Winchester, 
and afterwards removed to Worcester, being 
elected in 1802 physician to the Worcester 
General Infirmary. He was successful in 
practice, but in 1817 resigned his appoint- 
ment, and removed to London. On 22 Dec. 
1820 he was admitted licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians, and on 25 June 1834 
a fellow. In 1835 he delivered and published 
the Gulstonian lectures l On the Influence 
of the Nervous System in Disease.' He was 
also elected fellow of the Royal Society. 
Before removing to London he had assumed 
the additional surname of Philip ; his books 
appeared up to 1807 under the name of Wil- 
son, and after that date under that of Wilson 
Philip, by which he is generally known. 

Wilson Philip, after carrying on for many 
years a large and apparently lucrative prac- 
tice in Cavendish Square, was overtaken by 
misfortune in his old age. About 1842 or 
1843 he suddenly disappeared from London. 
Dr. Munk states that his investments were 
injudicious, and the scheme in which he had 
placed his accumulated fortune failed, so 
that he had to leave the country to avoid 
arrest for debt. He went to Boulogne, and 
is thought to have died there, his name dis- 
appearing from the list of the College of 
Physicians in 1851. It is conjectured that 
these circumstances may have suggested to 
Thackeray the career of Dr. Firmin in ' The 
Adventures of Philip.' 

Wilson Philip deserves to be remembered, 
not only as a popular physician, but as an 
assiduous and successful worker in the ad- 
vancement of medicine by research, even 
while he was busily engaged in practice. 
His researches in physiology and pathology 
had considerable importance in their day. 




lie was one of the first to employ the micro- 
scope in the study of inflammation, and his 
observations attracted much attention, both 
at home and abroad ; the work in which 
they were contained (' An Experimental En- 
quiry') being translated into German and 
Italian ; and they have been often quoted 
since. He was also a physiological experi- 
menter, and the principles which he states 
to have guided him in the performance of ex- 
periments on living animals are both rational 
and humane. His more practical works, 
especially on indigestion, were widely circu- 
lated, and translated into several languages. 
They show large medical experience. The 
following list gives all the more important 
of his numerous published works. Most of 
them are in the library of the Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Society: 1. * Inquiry into 
the Remote Cause of Urinary Gravel,' Edin- 
burgh, 1795, 8vo ; in German by Stendal, 
1795. 2. i Experimental Essay on the Man- 
ner in which Opium acts on the Living Ani- 
mal Body,' Edinburgh, 1795, 8vo. 3. ' Trea- 
tise on Febrile Diseases,' 4 vols. Winchester, 
1799-1804, 8vo ; German translation by 
Topelmann, Leipzig, 1804-1812 ; French by 
L6tu, 1819 ; portions of this work were re- 
published as ' Treatise on Simple and Erup- 
tive Fevers/ 4th edit. London, 1820, 8vo; 
and f Treatise on Symptomatic Fevers,' 4th 
edit. London, 1820. 4. ' Observations on 
the Use and Abuse of Mercury,' Winchester, 
1805, 8vo. 5. ' Analysis of the Malvern 
Waters,' Worcester, 1805, 8vo. 6. 'Essay 
on the Nature of Fever,' Worcester, 1807, 
8vo. 7. ' Observations on a Species of Pul- 
monary Consumption,' Worcester, 1817, 8vo. 
S. ' Experimental Enquiry into the Laws of 
the Vital Functions, partly reprinted from 
the " Philosophical Transactions," 1815 and 
1817,' London, 1817, 8vo ; 4th edit. 1839 ; 
in German by Sontheimer, Stuttgart, 1822 ; 
also in Italian by Tantini, 1823. 9. ' Treatise 
on Indigestion and its Consequences,' Lon- 
don, 1821, 8vo ; 6th edit. 1828 ; Appendix, 
' On Protracted Cases of Indigestion,' 1827 ; 
translated into German by Hasper, 1823, and 
Wolf, 1823; also into Dutch by Hymans, 
Amsterdam, 1823. 10. 'Treatise on Pro- 
tracted Indigestion and its Consequences,' 
London, 1842, 8vo. 11. ' Treatise on Diseases 
which precede Change of Structure,' London, 
1830, 8vo. 12. ' Observations on Malignant 
Cholera,' London, 1832, 8vo. 13. < Inquiry 
into the Nature of Sleep and Death,' Lon- 
don, 1834, 8vo. He also contributed to the 
1 Philosophical Transactions ' several papers, 
among which were those ' On the Nature of 
the Powers on which the Circulation of the 
Blood depends,' 1831 j 'Relation between 

Nervous and Muscular Systems,' 1833 ; ' On' 
the Nature of Sleep,' 1833; to the 'London 
Medical Gazette,' where in 1831 he carried 
on a controversy with Dr. William Prout 
[q. v.], criticising the latter's Gulstonian 
lectures ; and to the ' Edinburgh Medical and 
Surgical Journal,' ' The Medico-Chirurgical 
Transactions,' and other periodicals. 

[Munk'sColl.ofPhys.l878,iii.227; (Upcott's) 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Callisen's Medi- 
zinisches Schriftsteller Lexikon, Copenhagen, 
1830, &c. vol. xv.; Gurlt und Hirsch's Bio- 
graphisches Lexikon der Aerzte, iv. 556.] 

J. F. P. 

PHILIP^JOHN (ft. 1566), author, pro- 
duced in 1566 three black-letter tracts, 
chiefly in doggerel verse, describing the 
curious trial at Chelmsford of three witches, 
Elizabeth Frauncis, Agnes Waterhouse, 
and the latter's daughter Joan, a girl of 
eighteen. Mrs. Waterhouse was burnt to 
death on 29 July 1566. The colophon of 
each of Philip's tracts, which appeared in 
London, gives the name of the printer as 
William Powell, that of the publisher as 
William Pickeringe, and the date of issue 
as 13 Aug. 1566. The first tract bears the 
title ' The Examination and Confession 
[before Dr. Cole and Master Fortescue] of 
certaine Wytches at Chemsforde in the 
Countie of Essex' (26 July 1566), with 
woodcuts of Sathan, a white-spotted cat 
given to Elizabeth Frauncis by her grand- 
mother, her instructress in witchcraft ; of a 
toad, into which the cat was afterwards 
metamorphosed, and of a dog with horns, 
who was the familiar of Joan Waterhouse 
(Lambeth and Bridgewater House). A new 
edition was entered to Thomas Lawe, 
15 July 1589. Philip's second tract is called 
'The Second Examination and Confession 
of Mother Agnes Waterhouse and Jone her 
Daughter, upon her arainement, with the 
Questions and Answers of Agnes Browne, 
the Child on whom the Spirit haunteth at 
this present, deliberately declared before 
Justice Southcote and Master Gerard, the 
Queens Atturney, 26 July 1566 ' (Lambeth). 
The third tract is entitled ' The End and 
last Confession of Mother Waterhouse at 
her Death, 29 July 1566 ' (Lambeth). 

[Philip's Tracts; Collier s Bibliographical Cat.] 

S. L. 

PHILIP, JOHN (1775-1851), South 
African missionary, was the son of a school- 
master of Kirkcaldy, Fife, where he was born 
on 14 April 1775. At an early age he was 
apprenticed to a linen manufacturer in Leven. 
For three years, from 1794, he filled a clerk- 
ship in Dundee. Acquiring some repute as 




a speaker, he decided to enter the congrega- 
tional ministry, and was admitted to Hoxton 
Theological College, where he studied for 
three years. 

After assisting the Rev. Mr. Winter at 
Newbury, Berkshire, he was appointed in 
1804 to the first Scottish congregational 
chapel in Great George Street, Aberdeen. 
He remained there until 1818, when, at the 
invitation of the London Missionary Society, 
in whose work he had already taken an active 
interest, he joined John Campbell in con- 
ducting an inquiry into the state of the 
South African missions. The deputation 
landed at Cape Town on 26 Feb. 1819, and 
found the mission stations much neglected 
and colonial opinion strongly opposed to the 
gentle methods favoured by the missionaries 
in dealing with the natives. Philip asserted 
that the native races were oppressed by the 
settlers, and in 1820 set forth a policy of con- 
ciliation in a memorial to Acting-governor 
Donkin on behalf of the Griquas ; while 
Campbell and he furnished to the society in 
1822 a report which painted the situation in 
the darkest colours. The directors of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society resolved to establish 
a central mission-house at Cape Town, and 
appointed Philip the first superintendent of 
their South African stations. At the same 
time he undertook the pastorate of the new 
Union chapel at Cape Town, which was 
opened in December 1822. For the rest of 
his working life he made this a centre of 
agitation on behalf of the native races, tra- 
velling a great deal through the borders of 
the colony to inspect the mission- stations and 
to collect evidence in support of his theories. 
He supplied the commissioners, who visited 
the Cape in 1823, with statistics of bar- 
barities alleged to have been committed by 
the settlers ; issued in 1 824 'Distressed Settlers 
in Cape Town ; ' and in 1826 visited England 
to excite English philanthropic opinion in 
behalf of the Hottentots and Kaffirs. During 
his stay he wrote and published (April 1828) 
his well-known' Researches in South Africa,' 
a diffuse account of the Cape mission, con- 
taining a bitter attack upon the colonial 
government. The House of Commons, on the 
motion of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton [q. v.], 
supported by Sir George Murray, colonial 
secretary, resolved, on 19 July 1828, that the 
Cape government be instructed to carry out 
Philip's recommendations. Armed with this 
official sanction of his policy, he returned 
to Africa in October 1829 to find his un- 
popularity increased. William Mackay, land- 
drost of Somerset, one of the incriminated 
officials, sued Philip for libel. The trial, 
which caused immense excitement through- 

out the colony, ended, on 16 July 1830, in 
a unanimous verdict for Mackay. Philip's 
supporters at home raised a large fund to 
indemnify him against costs, amounting to 
1,1 OO/. ; but colonial opinion supported the 

With the advent of a whig government at 
home in 1831, Philip's friends were able to 
control the policy of the colonial office. The 
new governor, Sir Benjamin D'Urban, who 
assumed office in January 1834, sympathised 
with Philip's aims. But a Kaffir war fol- 
lowed in December of the same year, and 
on its termination a British protectorate was 
extended over the Transkei. Philip, sup- 
ported by a very few followers, denounced this 
settlement, although even the missionaries 
stationed among the Kaffirs approved of it. 
Failing to retain the sympathies of the 
governor, Philip left for England on 28 Feb. 
1836, with the Messrs. Read, Jan Tshatshu 
(a Kaffir), and Andries Stoffle (a Hottentot), 
in whose company he made several lecturing 
tours in Great Britain, to rouse public opinion 
against the Cape government. All three ap- 
peared in the same year before a parlia- 
mentary committee of inquiry, presided over 
by Fowell Buxton, and Philip himself was 
mainly responsible, with the chairman, for 
the voluminous report issued in 1837 by the 
committee, who adopted his views against 
a preponderating weight of evidence. Earl 
Glenelg, colonial secretary, dismissed Go- 
vernor D'Urban, who was replaced by Major- 
general Napier in January 1838, and Philip 
returned a month later to act as unofficial 
adviser to the new governor in all questions 
relating to the treatment of the natives. He 
advocated the establishment of a belt of 
native states to the north and east of the 
colony, and he undertook prolonged tours in 
1839 and 1842 to promote this object. But 
fresh troubles soon occurred on the borders, 
and the Kaffir war of 1846 finally proved 
the futility of his schemes. Even Mr. Fair- 
bairn, editor of the ' Commercial Advertiser/ 
who had supported his policy from the first, 
now declared for war. Jan Tshatshu, once 
the companion of his English tour, had 
joined the invading Kaffir bands. From this 
time Philip took little part in public affairs. 
His eldest son, William, a missionary of 
some promise, had been accidentally drowned 
in the Gamtoos river, near Hankey, on 
1 July 1845, and this loss greatly affected 
his health. In 1847 his wife died (23 Oct.) 
The outbreak of hostilities in the Orange 
River territory in 1848 completely destroyed 
his hopes of maintaining independent native 
states against colonial aggression, and in 
1849 he severed his connection with politics. 




He resigned his post at Cape Town, and re- 
tired to Hankey, where he died on 27 Aug. 

Philip was a man of good physique and of 
much energy. A powerful and convincing 
speaker, he was well fitted to champion his 
cause in England, although in the colony he 
never led more than a very small minority. 
His friends were constrained to admit that 
he was somewhat arbitrary and self-willed 
(WARDLA.W, p. 31 ; Missionary Magazine, 
1851, pp. 186-7). He did much useful work 
in promoting the interests of education, both 
among the colonists and the natives; although 
his more ambitious plans failed, he was the 
most prominent politician in Cape Colony for 
thirty years. 

He was survived by a son, the Rev. Tho- 
mas Durant Philip, 'also a missionary at 
Hankey, and two daughters. 

[Theal's History of South Africa, vols. iii. iv. ; 
Ealph Wardlaw's Funeral Sermon with Appen- 
dix, 8vo, 1852; Eobert Philip's The Elijah of 
South Africa, or the Character of the late John 
Philip, 8vo, London, 1851 ; Missionary Maga- 
zine for 1836 to 1851 ; Missionary Register for 
1819, &c.] E. G. H. 

PHILIP, JOHN BIRNIE (1824-1875), 
sculptor, son of William and Elizabeth Philip, 
was born in London on 23 Nov. 1824. His 
family was originally Scottish, but had been 
long settled in England. At the age of 
seventeen he entered the newly established 
government school of design at Somerset 
House, where he studied under John Rogers 
Herbert, R.A. [q. v.], and when the latter 
resigned his mastership and opened a school 
in Maddox Street, Philip was one of the pu- 
pils who seceded with him. His earliest work 
was done in the houses of parliament, then in 
course of erection, and this brought him into 
contact with Augustus Welby Northmore 
Pugin [q. v.], by whom he was much in- 
fluenced. Philip first appeared at the Royal 
Academy in 1858, sending an alto-relievo of 
Michael and Satan for the tympanum of the 
porch of St. Michael's Church, Cornhill, and 
a bust of Dean Lyall, and during the next 
five years exhibited recumbent effigies of 
Queen Catherine Parr (for her tomb at Sude- 
deley Castle), Canon Mill (for Ely Cathedral), 
and the Countess of Pembroke and Lord Her- 
bert of Lea (for Wilton Church) . Among his 
other public commissions were the reredos 
of Ely Cathedral (1857), the monument to 
Sir Charles Hotham at Melbourne (1858), 
the reredos of St. George's Chapel, Windsor 
(1803), the monument to the officers of the 
Europa in York Minster (1868), a bust of 
Richard Cobden for the Halifax Chamber of 
Commerce (1867), statues of Lord Elgin and 

Colonel Baird for Calcutta, eight statues of 
kings and queens for the Royal Gallery in 
the Palace of Westminster, the, statues on 
the front of the Royal Academy, Burlington 
House, and (in conjunction with Mr. H. H. 
Armstead) the whole of those on the facade 
of the new foreign office. In 1864, when 
Sir Gilbert Scott's design for a national me- 
morial to the Prince Consort in Hyde Park 
had been accepted, Philip was one of the 
sculptors who were engaged to carry it out, 
and to this his time was almost exclusively 
devoted for eight years. To him and Mr. 
Armstead was entrusted the execution in 
marble of the friezes on the podium, Philip 
undertaking those on the north and west 
sides, which were to represent the great 
sculptors and architects of the world ; this 
work, which he completed in 1872, and by 
which he is best known, was received with 
well-deserved admiration, the figures, eighty- 
seven in number, being most picturesquely 
and harmoniously grouped and carved in high 
relief with great skill. Philip also modelled 
for the canopy of the memorial four bronze 
statues of Geometry, Geology, Physiology, 
and Philosophy, and the eight angels clustered 
at the base of the cross on the summit. Philip 
did much decorative work in other directions, 
such as the capitals of the columns on Black- 
friars Bridge and some of the ornaments on 
the new general post office. In 1873 he 
sent to the academy a classical subject, 
1 Narcissus,' and in 1874 a figure of a waiting 
angel and a marble panel entitled l Suffer 
little children to come unto Me ; ' his last 
work was the statue of Colonel Akroyd, 
M.P., erected at Halifax. During the early 
part of his career Philip occupied a studio 
in Hans Place, but later he removed to 
Merton Villa, King's Road, Chelsea ; there 
he died of bronchitis, after two days' illness, 
on 2 March 1875, and was buried in the 
Brompton cemetery. Philip married, in 1 854, 
Frances Black (who is still living), and left 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Art Journal, 
1875, p. 144; Dafforne's Albert Memorial, its 
History and Description, 1877 ; Royal Academy 
Catalogues ; private information.] F. M. O'D. 

PHILIP, ROBERT (1791-1858), divine, 
born at Huntly in Aberdeenshire in 1791, 
was the eldest son of an elder in the church 
of George Cowie, the founder of indepen- 
dency in the north of Scotland. His father's 
death in 1806 was followed by his departure 
for Aberdeen, where he obtained a situation 
as clerk in the Grandholm works. He de- 
veloped the tastes and aptitudes of a genuine 
student, and at the age of nineteen was 




admitted to Hoxton academy. Four years 
later, in 1815, he commenced work as minis- ! 
ter at Liverpool and devoted much atten- 
tion to the welfare of seamen, for whose 
benefit he published a small volume of ser- 
mons entitled 'Bethel Flag.' On 1 Jan. 
1826 he came to London to take charge of 
Maberly Chapel, Kingsland, and henceforth 
devoted himself with assiduity to the pro- 
duction of a series of religious manuals, 
which had a very great vogue in their day 
both in England and America. He became 
known also as a powerful advocate of the 
claims of the London Missionary Society, 
whose operations he sought to extend, es- 
pecially in China ; and he was a convinced 
opponent of the opium traffic. In 1852 the 
honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him by Dartmouth College, U.S.A. He re- 
signed the Maberly Chapel, owing to failing 
health, in 1855, and died at his residence on 
Newington Green on 1 May 1858. Philip 
married, in 1818, Hannah Lassell, the sister 
of William Lassell [q. v.], and left issue. 

Of Philip's numerous works, most interest 
attaches to his ' Life and Times of the Rev. 
George Whitefield,' London, 8vo, 1837, and 
his ' Life, Times, and Characteristics of John 
Bunyan,' 1839, 8vo. The former was ad- 
versely criticised by Sir James Stephen in 
the i Edinburgh Review,' Ixvii. 506. Both 
are largely composed of extracts and are 
of small biographical value, but both are 
somewhat remarkable on account of the 
vigour and originality of their style and the 
strength of their evangelical tone. His other 
works include : 1. ' Christian Experience : 
Guide to the Perplexed/ 1828, 12mo ; 10th 
edit. 1847, 18mo. 2. ' Redemption, or the 
New Song in Heaven,' 1834 and 1838, 18mo. 
3. ' The God of Glory : Guide to the Doubt- 
ing,' 5th edit. 1838, 18mo. 4. 'Eternity 
Realized : Guide to the Thoughtful,' 5th 
edit. 1839, 18mo. 5. 'On Pleasing God: 
Guide to the Conscientious,' 3rd edit. 1837, 
ISmo. 6. ' Communion with God : Guide 
to the Devotional,' 7th edit. 1847, 18mo. 
These six works were republished with an 
introductory essay by Albert Barnes in New- 
York in 2 vols. 12mo, and again in 1867, 
in 1 vol. 8vo, under the title of ' Devotional 
Guides.' Two other volumes 'Manly Piety 
in its Principles' (2nd edit. 1837, 18mo) 
and ' Manly Piety in its Realisations ' (2nd 
edit. 1837, 18mo) were republished in New 
York in one volume, 1838, as ' The Young 
Man's Closet Library.' The four works 
' The Marys, or Beauty of Female Holiness ' 
(3rd edit. 1840, 18mo), 'The Marthas, or 
Varieties of Female Piety' (3rd edit. 1840, 
18mo), 'The Lydias, or Developments of 

Female Character ' (3rd edit. 1841, 18ino), 
'The Hannahs, or Maternal Influence on 
Sons' (3rd edit. 1841, 12mo) were similarly 
published collectively as 'The Young Ladies' 
Closet Library,' and passed through nume- 
rous editions. Philip also published an ' In- 
troductory Essay to the Practical Works of 
the Rev. R. Baxter,' 4 vols. 1838 and 1847; 
' The Life and Opinions of the Rev. William 
Milne,' 1839 and 1840, 8vo ; ' The Life and 
Times of the Rev. John Campbell,' 1841, 
8vo ; and a record of the life of his intimate 
friend, John Philip [q. v.], the African mis- 
sionary, under the title ' The Elijah of South 
Africa,' 1852, 8vo. Philip also published 
various sermons, and pamphlets upon China 
and the opium question. 

[Congregational Year Book, 1859, p. 213; 
McClintock and Strong's Cyclopsedia of Biblical 
Literature ; Southey's Life and Correspondence, 
v. 233; Allibone's Diet, of English Literature; 
Philip's Devotional Guides, ed. Barnes, 1867; 
Brit. Mus. Cat. ; private information.] T. S. 


POT, SIR JOHN (d. 1384), mayor of Lon- 
don, was no doubt a native of Kent, but 
the statement of Heath (Grocers 1 Company, 
p. 182) that he was born at Upton Court in the 
parish of Sibertswold or Shebbertswell, near 
Dover, cannot be correct, though the estate 
was held by his descendants (HASTED, ix. 
377). He bore the same arms sable, a bend 
ermine as the Philipots of Philpotts, near 
Tunbridge (ib. v. 224 ; STOW, Survey of Lon- 
don, bk. v. p. 114). His first wife brought 
him the manor of the Grench (or Grange) at 
Gillingham, near Chatham. 

Philipot became a member of the Grocers' 
Company of London (founded in 1345 by the 
amalgamation of the pepperers and spicerers), 
one of whose earliest members was a Phely- 
pot Farnham, and he soon accumulated con- 
siderable wealth (HEATH, pp. 47, 56). Ed- 
ward III gave him the wardship of the heir of 
Sir Robert de Ogle [q. v.] in 1362, appointed 
him in the following year a receiver of for- 
feitures on merchandise at Calais, and in 
1364 licensed him to export thither wheat 
and other victuals (DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 
262 ; Fcedera, iii. 693, 741, Rec. ed.) Phili- 
pot lent the king money and acted as his pay- 
master (Brantingham's Issue Roll, p. 145; 
DEVON, Issues, p. 195). He sat for London 
in the parliament of February 1371, in which 
the clerical ministers were removed, and in 
the great council summoned in June to 
remedy the miscalculations of their succes- 
sors (Returns of Members, i. 185-6). In the 
crisis' after the Good parliament, Philipot 




with Nicholas Brembre [q. v.], a fellow- 
grocer, and also connected with Kent, and 
William Walworth [q. v.], headed the op- 
position of the ruling party in London to 
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, who found 
support among the lesser traders then en- 
gaged, under the leadership of John de 
Northampton [q. v.], in attacking the mono- 
poly of municipal power enjoyed by the great 

On the collapse of the Good parliament 
the Duke of Lancaster proposed in the par- 
liamentwhich he packed in January 1377 to 
replace the mayor by a captain, and give the 
marshal of England power of arrest within 
the city (19 Feb.) Philipot is said to have 
risen and declared that the city would never 
submit to such an infraction of its liberties ; 
but this must be a mistake, as he did not sit 
in this parliament (Chronicon Anglice, p. 120; 
Returns of Members, i. 196). The proposal, 
coupled with the insult inflicted on the bishop 
of London (William Courtenay) by Lan- 
caster and the marshal (Henry Percy, first 
earl of Northumberland [q. v.]) at the trial 
of Wiclif a few hours later, provoked the 
riot of the following day, when Lancaster 
and Percy had to fly for their lives. Lan- 
caster failed to prevent the deputation of 
the citizens, headed by Philipot, from ob- 
taining an interview with the old king, who 
heard their explanations and gave them a 
gracious answer. But the duke was impla- 
cable, and the city officers sought to appease 
him by a somewhat humiliating repara- 
tion. The citizens as a body, however, 
would have nothing to do with it, and 
though the king, at Lancaster's instigation, 
turned out the mayor (Staple), they at once 
(21 March) chose Brembre in his stead 
( Collections of a London Citizen, p. 254 ; 
Chron. Angl. pp. 127, 133 ; Fcedera, iii. 

As soon as the king's death, on 21 June 
1377, became known in the city, an influen- 
tial deputation was sent to the young prince 
Richard II and his mother, and Philipot, act- 
ing as spokesman, assured him of the loyalty 
of the city, and begged him to reconcile them 
with the Duke of Lancaster ( Chron. Angl. 
p." 147). The triumph of the principles 
of the Good parliament in the first parlia- 
ment of the new reign (October 1377) was 
marked by the appointment of Philipot and 
Walworth, at the request of the commons, 
to be treasurers of the moneys granted for 
the war with France (Rot. Parl. iii. 7, 34). 
They and other London merchants lent the 
king 10,000/. on the security of three crowns 
and other royal jewels (Fcedera, iv. 31-2). 
The capture of the Isle of Wight and burning 

of Hastings by the French, and the seizure 
by a Scot, the son of one John Mercer, with 
a squadron of Scottish, French, and Spanish 
ships, of a number of English merchant ves- 
sels at Scarborough, meanwhile threw the 
country into a state of great alarm, which 
was aggravated by vehement suspicions of 
the loyalty of John of Gaunt to his young 
nephew. Philipot rapidly fitted out a small 
squadron and a thousand armed men, at his 
own expense, pursued Mercer, and wrested 
from him his prizes, and fifteen Spanish 
vessels as well (Chron. Angl. p. 199). His 
patriotism and success roused those who re- 
sented the national humiliation to great 
enthusiasm, and were boldly contrasted with 
the inactivity, if not treachery, of the duke 
and the magnates. He thereby incurred the 
ill-will of the nobles, who sneered at Richard 
as t king of London,' and declared that Phili- 
pot had no right to act as he had done on his 
own responsibility. But he roundly told the 
Earl of Stafford, who complained to him of 
his action, that if the nobles had not left 
the country exposed to invasion he would 
never have interfered (ib. p. 200). At the 
height of his popularity he was chosen mayor 
for 1 378-9, and filled the office with his usual 
activity and generosity. He had the city 
ditch cleaned out, levying a rate of fivepence 
per household for the purpose, and enforced 
order and justice so admirably that his 
measures were taken as a precedent nearly 
forty years later (Sxow, Survey of London, 
bk. i. p. 12 ; Liber Albus, i. 522). Lord 
Beauchamp of Bletsho in December 1379 
appointed Philipot one of his executors, 
bequeathing him l my great cup gilt which 
the King of Navarre gave me' (Testamenta 
Vetusta, p. 104). In the year after his 
mayoralty he earned the effusive gratitude 
of the city by defraying the cost of one of 
two stone towers, sixty feet high, built below 
London Bridge, between which a chain was 
suspended across the river to assure the safety 
of the city and shipping against possible 
French attacks (RiLEY, Memorials, p. 444). 
He was a member of the commission ap- 
pointed in March of that year, at the request 
of the commons, to inquire how far the heavy 
taxation could be lightened by greater eco- 
nomy in administration (Rot. Parl. iii. 373). 
He may have sat in this parliament, but the 
London writs are wanting. In the summer 
he provided ships for the Earl of Bucking- 
ham's expedition to Brittany ; and when the 
delay in starting forced many to pledge their 
armour, Philipot, as the St. Albans chronicler 
heard from his own lips, redeemed no fewer 
than a thousand jacks (Chron. AngL^. 266). 
It was to him that the intercepted corre- 




spondence of Sir Ralph Ferrers with the 
French was brought, and Ferrers being with 
John of Gaunt in the north, Philipot 
journeyed thither and saw him safely in- 
terneddn Durham Castle (ib. p. 278). 

At the crisis of the peasants' revolt, in June 
1381, Philipot came with the mayor to the 
young king's assistance, and Wai worth having 
slain Tyler in Smithfield, he and four other 
aldermen were knighted with Wai worth on 
the spot (RILBY, p. 451 ; FABYAN, p. 531). 
He was granted an augmentation of his coat- 
armour ; and it may have been now that 
Richard gave him an estate of 40/. a year 
(HEATH, p. 184 ; HASTED, iv. 237). In No- 
vember he again represented London in par- 
liament (Returns of 'Members^. 208). Filling 
the same position in the May parliament of 
the next year, Philipot was put on a com- 
mittee of merchants to consider the proposed 
loan for the king's expedition to France, and 
was appointed a 'receiver and guardian' of 
the tonnage and poundage appropriated to 
the keeping of the sea (Rot. Parl. iii. 123-4). 
But John of Northampton, who was now 
mayor and busy depressing the influence of 
the greater companies, had him deposed from 
his office of alderman (WALSINGHAM, ii. 71). 
In the spring and summer of 1383 Philipot 
carried out the transport arrangements for 
Bishop Spencer and his crusaders, and sat for 
London in the October parliament (ib. pp. 
88, 95: DEVON, p. 222: Returns of Members. 
L 218). 

He died in the summer of 1384, 'not 
leaving his like behind in zeal for the king 
and the realm,' and was buried with his 
second (?) wife before the entrance into the 
choir of the Greyfriars Church (now Christ 
Church), London (Chron. Angl. p. 359; 
HASTED, iv. 239). He left his manor at 
Gillingham to his second son, whose son 
John exchanged it, in 1433, for Twyford, 
Middlesex, with Richard, son of Adam 
Bamme, mayor of London in 1391 and 1397 
(ib^) A chapel which Philipot built there 
was used as a barn in Hasted's time, and 
is figured in the ' Bibliotheca Topographica 
Britannica ' (No. vi. pt. i.) His house in 
London was in Langbourne Ward, on the 
site of the present Philpot Lane, which was 
named after him (HEATH, p. 184). He be- 
queathed lands to the city of London for the 
relief of thirteen poor people for ever (STOW, 
bk. i. p. 261). 

Philipot was at least twice married to 
Marjery Croydon, daughter of Richard Croy- 
don, alderman of London, who brought him 
the manor at Gillingham ; and to Jane 
Stamford (HASTED, iv. 236, 239). Hasted 
mentions two sons. A daughter, Margaret 


Philpot, married, first, T. Santlor, and, se- 
condly, John Neyland, and dying after 1399, 
was buried in the church of the Greyfriars 
(STOW, Survey, bk. iii. p. 133 ; Liber Albus, 
i. 682). Descendants of his dwelt at Upton 
Court, Sibertswold, near Dover, until the 
reign of Henry VII. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
Record ed. ; Returns of Members of Parliament, 
1878 (Blue Book); Kalendars and Inventories 
of the Exchequer, Issue Roll of Brantingham, 
and Devon's Issues published by the Record 
Commission ; Chronicon Anglise, 1328-88 ; Wal- 
singham's Historia Anglicanaand the Liber Albus 
in Rolls Ser. ; Collections of a London Citizen 
(Camden Soc.); Stow's Survey of London, ed. 
Strype, 1720 ; Heath's Grocers' Company, 1829; 
Herbert's Livery Companies; Riley's Memorials 
of London ; Hasted's History of Kent, 8th ed. 
1797 ; Sir Harris Nicolas's TestamentaVetusta.] 

J. T-T. 

PHILIPOT, JOHN (1589 ?-l 645), So- 
merset herald, son of Henry Philpot and his 
wife, daughter and coheiress of David Leigh, 
servant to the archbishop of Canterbury, 
was born at Folkestone, Kent, between 1587 
and 1592. His father, who possessed con- 
siderable property in Folkestone, and who 
had been mayor of the town, was lessee of 
the rectorial tithes, and was buried in the 
parish church in 1603. From his will, dated 
in 1602, it appears that his son was then a 
boy at school. The family name was Philpot, 
but John insisted upon inserting an ' i ' be- 
tween the two syllables. At the end of 1612 
he married Susan, only daughter and heir of 
William Glover, one of the gentlemen ushers' 
daily waiters in the court of James I. Her 
father's brother was Robert Glover (1544- 
1588) [q. v.], Somerset herald, to whom no 
doubt Philipot owed his introduction to the 
College of Arms. He was appointed a pur- 
suivant-of-arms extraordinary, with the title 
of Blanch Lion, in October 1618, and on 
19 Nov. he was created Rouge Dragon 
pursuivant -in-ordinary. By his office he 
was brought into close connection with Wil- 
liam Camden, for whom he entertained pro- 
found respect. Camden frequently nominated 
him as his deputy, or marshal, in his visita- 
tions; and Sir Richard St. George, when 
Clarenceux, and Sir John Burroughs, when 
Norroy, employed him in the same capacity. 
He visited Kent in 1619, Hampshire in 1622, 
Berkshire and Gloucestershire in 1623, Sus- 
sex in 1633, and Buckinghamshire, Oxford- 
shire, and Rutland in 1634. 

In 1622 Ralph Brooke, York herald, 
brought an action against Philipot in the 
court of common pleas for his share of the 
fees given to the heralds and pursuivants on 




two great occasions of state ceremonial ( Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, p. 399). What 
the result was is not stated. On 10 July 
1623 Philipot was appointed by the king to 
the office of bailiff of Sandwich, and he also 
held the position of lieutenant or chief gun- 
ner in the fort of Tilbury, with the fee of 
one shilling a day. On 8 July 1624 he was 
created Somerset herald at Arundel House 
in the Strand in succession to Robert Ores- 
well, who had been compelled by embarrassed 
circumstances to sell his office (NOBLE, Col- 
lege of Arms, p. 211). On 30 Jan. 1627-8 
John Jacob of Faversham, sergeant of the 
admiralty of the Cinque ports, complained to 
Sir Edward Nicholas [q. v.], secretary of state, 
that ' in the port of Faversham John Philpot, 
a herald, keeps an admiralty court, whereby 
he dispossesses the duke (the lord warden) 
of the wrecked goods which the fishermen 
bring in.' There exist letters and warrants 
addressed in 1630 and 1631 by 'and to 
Philipot as steward of the royal manors of 
Gillingham and Grain. In 1633 he was 
sent abroad to knight William Bosvile, and 
some reminiscences of this, or of a subse- 
quent visit to France, occur at the end of 
his church notes in the British Museum 
(Harleian MS. 3917). Two years later he 
was again despatched to the continent to 
invest with the order of the Garter Charles 
Ludovic, count palatine of the Ehine and 
duke of Bavaria, who was then with the 
army in Brabant. 

He was one of those heralds who, on the 
outbreak of the civil war, adhered to the cause 
of the king, and he accompanied Charles to 
Oxford. There he was created D.C.L. 18 July 
1643 (WooD, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 62). 
Shortly afterwards he attended Charles I at 
the siege of Gloucester, and was the bearer 
of the king's summons to the citizens to 
surrender that city on 10 Aug. 1643 (WASH- 
BOURNE, BibL Glocestrensis, introd.) The scene 
has been admirably painted by R. Dowling. 
After his return to Oxford he took up his 
quarters at Chawley in the parish of Cum- 
nor, some two miles from the city. Being 
captured there by some parliamentary sol- 
diers of the garrison of Abingdon, he was 
sent a prisoner to London in or about 1644, 
but he was soon set at liberty. It was the 
king's intention to reward his loyalty by 
giving him the post of Norroy king-of-arms, 
but he died prematurely, in great obscurity, 
in London, and was buried on 25 Nov. 1645 
within the precincts of the church of St. 
Benet, St. Paul's Wharf. His wife survived 
till 1664, and lies buried, together with her 
eldest daughter Susan, in Eltham church. 

His principal work is: 1. l Villare Can- 

tianum ; or, Kent surveyed and illustrated. 
Being an exact description of all the Parishes, 
Burroughs, Villages, and other respective 
Manners included in the County of Kent/ 
London, 1659 and 1664, fol. ; 2nd edit, cor- 
rected, London, 1776, fol. This work was 
published by and under the name of Thomas 
Philipot [q. v.], the author's son, who thus- 
endeavoured dishonestly to palm it off as his 
own. At the end of the book is ' An His- 
torical Catalogue of the High-Sheriffs of 

Of Philipot's ' Visitations ' there have been 
published that of Kent, taken in 1619, and 
edited by J. J. Howard, London, 1863, 8vo- 
(reprinted from the ' Archaeologia Cantiana/ 
vol. iv.) ; of Gloucestershire (by the Harleian 
Society, 1885) ; and of Oxfordshire, 1634, 
of which a manuscript copy is in the Har- 
leian collection, No. 1480 (Harleian Society, 
1871). There remain in manuscript visita- 
tions of Berkshire, 1623 (Harleian MS. 
1532) ; of Sussex, 1633 (Harleian MSS. 1135 
and 1406), and of Buckinghamshire, 1634 
(Harleian MS. 1193). 

Philipot's other publications were : 1. 'List 
of the Constables of Dover Castle and War- 
dens of the Cinque Ports,' 1627 (dedicated 
to George, duke of Buckingham). 2. 'The 
Catalogue of the Chancellors of England, the 
Lord Keepers of the Great Seale ; and the 
Lord Treasurers of England. With a col- 
lection of divers that have beene Masters of 
the Holies/ 2 pts. London, 1636, 4to, dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Arundel (compiled from 
the manuscripts of Robert Glover, Somerset 
herald). 3. ' A perfect collection, or Cata- 
logue of all Knights Bachelaurs made by 
King James since his comming to the Crown 
of England, faithfully extracted out of the 
Records,' London, 1660, 8vo. 

Among Philipot's unpublished works are : 
'List of the Sheriffs of Lincolnshire,' 1636? 
(Addit. MS. 6118, p. 407) ; 'Collections for 
a History of Kent' (Lansdowne MSS. 267, 
268, 269, 276); /A Collection of Monu- 
ments and Arms in Churches of Kent, with 
a few pedigrees inserted' (Harleian MS. 

Philipot also edited the fifth edition of 
Camden's ' Remaines ' in 1636, and prefixed 
English verses to Augustine Vincent's ' Dis- 
covery of Errors,' 1622. To him is wrongly 
attributed the anonymous book by Edmund 
Bolton [q. v.], entitled 'The Cities Advo- 
cate, in this case or question of Honour and 
Arms, whether Apprenticeship extinguished! 
Gentry/ London, 1629; reprinted with an 
altered title-page in 1674 (cf. BRTDGES, Gen- 
sura Lit. 1805, i. 267 ; Addit. MS. 24488, 
f. 119). 




[Memoir appended to Eev. W. A. Scott Robert- 
son's Mediaeval Folkestone, 1876 ; Addit. MS. 
24490, f. 230 b; Beloe's Anecdotes, vi. 317-23; 
Brydges's Restituta, i. 467 ; Camdeni Epi- 
stolse, p. 352 ; Dallaway's Science of Heraldry ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. early ser. iii. 1160; Gent. 
Mag. 1778, p. 590 ; (rough's British Topography ; 
Hasted's Kent, vol. i. pp. iv, 63, 103, new edit. 
i. 20, 79., 197 w., 198 ., 203 and n., 210, 215, 
257, 283 ; Hearne's Curious Discourses, ii. 446 ; 
Hearne's Remarks and Collections (Doble), ii. 
154; Hist. MSS.Comm. llth Rep. pt. vii.p. 225; 
Kennett's Life of Somner, p. 37 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bonn), p. 1850 ; Moule's Bibl. 
Heraldica, pp. 119, 157, 193; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. viii. 716 ; Noble's College of Arms, 
pp. 212, 218, 220, 245 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. xii. 390, 486, 4th ser. i. 31, 352, 426; Cal. 
State Papers ; Upcott's English Topography, i. 
352, 353.1 T. C. 

PHILIPOT, THOMAS (d. 1682), poet 
and miscellaneous writer, son of John Phili- 
pot [q. v.], Somerset herald, by Susan, his 
wife, only daughter and heir of William 
Glover, was admitted a fellow-commoner 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge, on 10 Feb. 1632- 
1633, and matriculated on 29 March 1633. 
He graduated M.A. regiis literis on 4 Feb. 
1635-6, and was incorporated in that degree 
at Oxford in July 1640. Wood says ' he was, 
by those that well knew him, esteemed a 
tolerable poet when young, and at riper years 
well versed in matters of divinity, history, 
and antiquities' (Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 
518). He was buried at Greenwich on 
30 Sept. 1682 (HASTED, Kent. 1886, i. 118). 

By his will, dated 11 Sept. 1680, after de- 
vising certain premises to Clare Hall, Cam- 
bridge, for establishing two Kentish fellow- 
ships, he left his houses in the town of 
Eltham and a field (sold in 1866 to the 
commissioners of woods and forests for 
650/.) to the Clothworkers' Company to esta- 
blish six almshouses for four people from 
Eltham and two from Chislehurst, allowing 
them 51. each a year. Philipot published as 
his own in 1659 his father's ' Villare Can- 

His genuine works are : 1 . ' Elegies offer'd up 
to the Memory of William Glover, Esquire, 
late of Shalston in Buckinghamshire,' Lon- 
don, 1641, 4to. 2. ' A congratulatory Elegie 
offered up to the Earle of Essex, upon his in- 
vestiture with the dignitie of Lord Chamber- 
lame/ London, 1641, 4to. 3. ' Poems,' Lon- 
don, 1646, 8vo; dedicated to the Earl of 
Westmorland. In one copy the date is cor- 
rected in manuscript to 3Feb.l645(BRYDGES, 
Restituta, i. 232). 4. <An Elegie offer'd 
unto the memory of his Excellencie Robert, 
Earle of Essex .... late Generall of the Par- 
liaments forces ' [London, 1646], small sheet, 

fol. 5. ' England's Sorrow for the losse of 
their late Generall, or an epitaph upon his 
Excellencie Robert, Earle of Essex, &c., who 
died Sept. 15, 1646 ; with a perfect memoriall 
of the particular services and battels that he 
himself was engaged in person,' London, 
1646, small sheet, fol. 6. 'An Historical 
Discourse of the First Invention of Naviga- 
tion, and the Additional Improvements of 
it. With the probable Causes of the Va- 
riation of the Compasse, and the Varia- 
tion of the Variation. Likewise some Re- 
flections upon the Name and Office of Ad- 
mirall. To which is added a Catalogue of 
those Persons that have been from the first 
Institution dignified with that Office,' Lon- 
don, 1661, 4to ; dedicated to Sir Francis 
Prujean, M.D. [q. v.] ; reprinted in the ' Har- 
leian Miscellany,' vol. ii. 8. ' The Cripples 
Complaint,' a sermon, 1662, 4to. 9. ; The Ori- 
ginal and Growth of the Spanish Monarchy 
united with the House of Austria ... to 
which are added several discourses of those 
accessions and improvements in Italy, Africk, 
with the East and West-Indies that are now 
annexed .... to the Diadem of Spain,' Lon- 
don, 1664, 8vo. 10. < The English Life of 
^Esop ' prefixed to Francis Barlow's edition 
of the < Fables,' London, 1666, fol. 11. < An- 
tiquitas Theologica et Gentilis, or two Dis- 
courses ; the first concerning the Original of 
Churches, and their Direct or Collateral 
Endowments. The second touching the 
Religion of the Gentiles, their Temples, 
Priests, Sacrifices, and other Ancient Ri- 
tuals,' London, 1670, 12mo ; dedicated to Sir 
Philip Warwick, knt. 12. < The Descent of 
King Stephen as extracted from that emi- 
nent family of the Earls of Blois and Cham- 
paigne ; ' appended to T. Southouse's ' Mo- 
nasticon Favershamiense,' 1671. 13. 'A brief 
Historical Discourse of the Original and 
Growth of Heraldry, demonstrating upon 
what rational Foundations that Noble and 
Heroick Science is established,' London, 
1672, 8vo; dedicated to John, earl of 
Bridgewater. 14. ' A Phylosophical Essay, 
treating of the most Probable Cause of that 
Grand Mystery of Nature, the Flux and Re- 
flux : or, Flowing and Ebbing of the Sea,' 
London, 1673, 4to ; dedicated to Sir John 
Marsham, bart. 15. ' Self-Homicide- 
Murther ; or some Antidotes and Argu- 
ments gleaned out of the Treasuries of our 
Modern Casuists and Divines, against that 
Horrid and Reigning Sin of Self-Murther, 
London, 1674, 4to ; dedicated to John Up- 
ton, esq., of Newington Hall, Middlesex. 
He contributed English verses to (a) Fisher's 
'Marstoii Moor,' 1650; (b) Cartwright's 
< Comedies,' 1651 ; (c) Benlowe's ' Theophila,' 

M 2 




1652 ; (d) Boys's ' ^Eneas his Descent into 
Hell/ 1661 .;"(c) Southouse's 'Monasticon 
Favershamiense,' 1671. 

[Addit. MSS. 5878 f. 48, 24490 f. 2306; 
Brydges's Censura Lit. 180o, i. 268; Critical 
Keview, 1778, p. 253; Dallaway's Science of 
Heraldry, p. 346 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon., early 
series, iii. 1160; Gent. Mag. 1778, p. 590; 
Gough's British Topography, i. 442 ; Hasted's 
Kent, 1886, i. 197, 199, 283 ; Hearne's Remarks 
and Collections (Doble), ii. 154 ; Moule's Bibl. 
Heraldica, pp. 182, 183 ; Noble's College of 
Arms, p. 246.] T. C. 

queen of Edward III, daughter of William, 
called the Good, Count of Holland and 
Hainault (d. 1337), and his countess Jeanne 
(d. 1342), daughter of Charles of Valois 
(d. 1325), son of Philip III of France, was 
born in or about 1314. When Isabella 
(1292-1358) [q. v.], queen of Edward II, 
was in Hainault with her son Edward in 
1320, she arranged a marriage between him 
and Philippa. W T hile at the count's court at 
Valenciennes Edward was more with Philippa 
than with her sisters, and when he took 
leave of her she burst into tears before the 
court, and innocently declared before the 
assembled company that she was weeping 
because she had to part with him (FROISSAKT, 
i. 235, ed. Luce). The next year, when Ed- 
ward had become king, he sent ambassadors 
to Count William requesting him to send 
him his daughter. The count agreed, pro- 
vided that the pope allowed the marriage ; 
fora dispensation was necessary, as the young 
king and Philippa were cousins, both/being 
great-grandchildren of Philip III of France. 
At Edward's request the dispensation was 
granted by John XXII (Fcedera, ii. 712, 
714), and Philippa was provided by her father 
with all such apparel as became her future 
dignity (JEHAN LE BEL, i. 76). In October 
the king sent Ptoger de Northburgh [q. v.], 
bishop of Lichfield, to Valenciennes to marry 
Philippa to him by proxy and declare her 
dower (Fcedera, ii. 718-19), and on 20 Nov. 
Bartholomew, lord Burghersh (d. 1355) 
[q. v.], and William de Clinton were com- 
missioned to escort her to England (ib. p. 
724). She embarked at Wissant with a 
gallant suite, and landed at Dover on 23 Dec. 
There she was met by her uncle, Sir John of 
Hainault, the king being engaged in the 
north in negotiations with Scotland. After 
stopping at Canterbury to offer at the shrine 
<>f St. Thomas the archbishop, she proceeded 
to London, where she was received with re- 
joicing, and was presented with gifts of the 
value of three hundred marks. Leaving 
London on the 27th, she spent 1 Jan. 1328 

at the abbey of Peterborough, and went on 
to York, where she was married to the king 
on the 30th (Annales Paulini, ap. Chronicles 
Edward II, i. 339). Her Flemish atten- 
dants then for the most part returned home, 
though a young esquire, Walter Manny 
[q. v.], remained with her to wait upon her 
(JEHAN LE BEL, u.s.) On 15 May the king 
pledged himself to assign her the dower in 
lands and rents promised on his behalf by 
the bishop of Lichfield (Fcedera, ii. 743). 

At the time of her marriage Philippa was 
in her fourteenth year (FEOISSAET, i. 285). 
Her marriage was of political importance. 
Queen Isabella had already used Philippa's 
marriage portion in hiring troops that helped 
her to depose her husband and set her son 
on the throne ; Isabella landed in England 
with a large body of Hainaulters under 
Philippa's uncle, Sir John of Hainault. In 
the war with Scotland in 1327 Sir John and 
his Hainaulters took a prominent part. It 
was, however, when Edward was entering 
on his long war with France that his mar- 
riage was specially important to him, for it 
gave him a claim on the alliance of his 
queen's father and brother, her brothers-in- 
law the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria and Wil- 
liam, marquis of Juliers, and other princes 
and lords, and her abiding affection for her 
own people helped forward his plans. With 
Philippa's marriage with Edward must pro- 
bably be connected his efforts to persuade 
Flemish weavers to settle in England and 
pursue and teach their trade there (CUNNING- 
HAM, English Industry and Commerce, i. 9, 
282). Many of these alien workmen appear 
to have settled in Norwich, and it is probable 
that the queen took a personal interest in 
their welfare, for she visited the city several 
times, in 1340, 1342, and 1344 (BLOMEFIELD, 
Norfolk, i. 83-8). 

On Edward's return from France in Jane 
1329 he hastened to rejoin his wife at 
Windsor [see under EDWAED III]. She was 
crowned at Westminster on 1 March 1330,^ 
and on 15 June, at Woodstock, bore her 
first child, Edward [q. v.], called the Black 
Prince. Her nurse was Katherine, daughter 
of Sir Adam Banaster of Shevington, Lan- 
cashire, and wife of Sir John Haryngton of 
Farleton in that county (BELTZ, Order of 
the Garter, p. 244). In* September 1331 she 
had a narrow escape at a tournament in 
Cheapside, for the stand from which she and 
her ladies were watching the proceedings 
broke down, and they were all thrown to the 
ground. Neither she nor her attendants 
were injured, though many others were badly 
hurt. The carpenters would have suffered 
for their negligence had she not interceded 

. For '4 March, 1330', 

read '18 February, 1330 (Annales Paulini, 
p. 349; Historia Roffensis in Anglia Saera, 




for them on her knees with the king and his 
friends. Her pitifulness on this occasion 
excited general love for her (GEOFFREY LE 
BAKER, p. 48 ; Annales Paulini, p. 355 ; 
MURIMTJTH, p. 63). After spending Christ- 
mas 1333 with the king at Wallingford, she 
parted from him when the festival was over, 
and went to Woodstock, where she bore a 
daughter, Isabella. While she was there, in 
February 1334, a letter was addressed to 
her by the chancellor and masters of the 
university of Oxford, praying her to write 
to the pope on their behalf against the at- 
tempt to set up a university at Stamford to 
which many of the Oxford students had 
seceded (Collectanea, i. 8, Oxf. Hist. Soc.) 
She was at Bamborough apparently in the 
winter of 1335, when the king was at war 
with Scotland. The Scots, under the Earl 
of Moray, made an attempt on the town, 
were met and defeated before they reached it, 
and the earl was brought to the queen as a 
prisoner (KNIGHTON, col. 2567). She is said 
to have taken part in a chivalrous ceremony 
called the 'vow of the heron '.in 1338 
(Political Poems, i. 23), and, being about to 
cross over to Flanders with the king, received 
from him 564/. 3s. 4d. for horses, dress, and 
jewels (Fcedera, ii. 1059). 

She landed at Antwerp with Edward in 
July, accompanied him on his journey to 
Coblentz as far as Herenthals, and returned 
to Antwerp, where, on 29 Nov., she bore 
her son Lionel (afterwards Duke of Cla- 
rence) [q. v.] In 1339 the king's need of 
money forced him to pledge her crown, 
which was not redeemed until 1342 (ib. p. 
1210). She stayed at Antwerp, Louvain, 
Brussels, and Ghent, where she was left at 
St. Peter's Abbey by the king in February 
1340, when he proceeded to Antwerp and 
thence to England. During his absence in 
March she bore her son John of Gaunt [q.v.]> 
and was constantly visited by Jacob van 
Artevelde and the ladies of the city. Having 
been rejoined by the king, she accompanied 
him to England in November. In 1342 she 
received a visit from her brother William, 
count of Hainault, and a tournament was 
held in his honour at Eltham, at which he 
was hurt in the arm. She was also present 
at a great tournament held that year at 
Northampton, where many were seriously 
hurt (MuRiMUTH, p. 124 ; NICOLAS, Orders 
of Knighthood, i. Introd. p. Ixxx). On 20 Nov. 
the king gave her the custody of the earldom 
of Richmond granted to her son John of 
Gaunt, together with full powers as guardian 
of him and her other younger children and 
of their lands (Fcedera, ii. 1214-15). She 
was staying in the Tower of London when the 

king returned from Brittany in March 1343, 
and, having been joined by him there, spent 
Easter with him at Havering atte Bower in 
Essex. When Edward held his festival of the 
' Round Table ' at Windsor in January 1344, 
at which there was jousting for three days 
and much magnificence, Philippa took part in 
the rejoicings, splendidly apparelled, and at- 
tended by a large number of ladies (MuRi- 
MUTH, p. 155 ; FROISSART, iii. 41, 258). She 
made some vow of pilgrimages to places over 
sea, and in 1344 appointed a proxy to per- 
form it for her (Fcedera, iii. 18). On the 
j death of her brother Count William in 1345, 
her inheritance in Zealand was claimed by 
I the king on her behalf (ib. pp. 61, 65, 80). 

During Edward's absence on the campaign 
i of Crecy, David, king of Scotland, was de- 
i feated and taken prisoner at the battle of 
Neville's Cross, near Durham, on 17 Oct. 1346. 
Jehan le Bel and Froissart relate that the 
English forces were summoned by Philippa, 
though her son Lionel was the nominal 
1 guardian of the kingdom ; that she met and 
! harangued them at Newcastle before the 
battle ; and Froissart says that after the 
battle she rode from Newcastle to the field, 
and remained there that day with her army 
(JEHAN LE BEL, ii. 109-10 ; FROISSART, iv. 
18-29). As this is not confirmed by any 
known English or Scottish authority, it must 
I be regarded as exceedingly doubtful, espe- 
cially as both the Flemish chroniclers were 
: evidently mistaken as to the situation of the 
I battle (cf. FROISSART, ed. Buchon, i. 253 n. ; 
LONGMAN, Life of Edward III, i. 269). The 
Adctory was won by William de la Zouche, 
archbishop of York, and the lords and forces 
of the north (MuRiMFTH, p. 218 ; AVESBURY, 
p. 376 ; Fcedera, iii. 91). 

Before Christmas Philippa joined the king 
at the siege of Calais. During the siege he is 
said to have been unfaithful to her, as he had 
doubtless been before (Political Poems, i. 159). 
W r hen the town surrendered on 5 Aug. 1347, 
and six of the principal burgesses appeared be- 
fore Edward in their shirts and with halters 
round their necks, putting themselves at his 
mercy, she joined with the lords there pre- 
sent in beseeching the king to pardon them, 
and, being then great with child, knelt before 
him, weeping and praying him that since she 
had crossed the sea in much peril he would 
grant her request ' for the love of our Lady's 
Son.' For her sake the king spared the 
lives of the burgesses, and granted them to 
her, and she provided them with raiment, 
food, and a gift of money (there is not the 
slightest reason for doubting the truth of 
this story : see under EDWARD III). Having 
returned to England with the king in Octo- 




her, she soon after, at Windsor, bore a son, 
who died in infancy. The offer of the im- 
perial crown to her husband in 1348 caused 
her much anxiety and sorrow, but Edward 
declined it (KNIGHTOST, col. 2597). She ap- 
pears to have made a progress in the west in 
1349, and while at Ford Abbey, Dorset, 
made an offering at the tomb of Hugh 
Courtenay, earl of Devon. In August 1350 
she went with the king to Winchelsea, 
Sussex, where the fleet was gathered to in- 
tercept the Spaniards, and she remained in 
a religious house there, or in the immediate 
neighbourhood, while the king and her two 
sons, the Prince of Wales and John of 
Gaunt, sailed forth on the 28th to engage the 
enemy, with whom they fell in on the next 
day. " She passed the day of the battle of 
'Lespagnols sur mer ' in great anxiety, 
doubting of the issue ; for her attendants, 
who could see the battle from the hills, told 
her of the number and size of the enemy's 
ships. In the evening, after the victory was 
won, the king and her sons joined her, and 
the night was spent in revelry (FROISSART, 
iv. 4, 97, 327). Her presence at the festival 
of the Garter on St. George's day, 23 April, 
1351, is expressly noted ; and in March 1355 
she was at a grand tournament held by the 
king at Woodstock to celebrate her recovery 
after the birth of her son Thomas at that 
place. The story related in her ' Life ' 
(STRICKLAND) of her contribution to the 
ransom of Bertrand du Guesclin after the 
battle of Poitiers is worthless so far as she 
is concerned (see Memoires sur Bertrand du 
Guesclin, c. 26). A special grant was made 
by the king for her apparel at the St. George's 
festival of 1358, w T hich was of extraordinary 
splendour. During the summer of that year 
she and the king stayed at Marlboro ugh and 
at Cosham, and while she was hunting there 
she met with an accident in riding, and dis- 
located her shoulder-joint (Eulogium, iii. 
227). She did not accompany the king to 
France in 1359. 

In 1361 Froissart came over to England 
and presented her with a book that he had 
written on the war with France, and spe- 
cially the battle of Poitiers, the germ of his 
future chronicles. Philippa, who loved the 
people of her own land, received him and 
his gift with kindness, made him her clerk 
or secretary, and encouraged him to pursue 
his historical work. He was lodged in the 
palace, entertained her with noble tales arid 
discourses on love, and received from her 
the means of travelling about the country 
to collect materials for his work, being once 
sent by her to Scotland with letters setting 
forth that he was one of her secretaries, and 

there and everywhere he found that for love 
of his sovereign mistress, that ' noble and 
valiant lady/ great lords and knights wel- 
comed him and gave him aid. For five years 
he remained in England in her service, and 
when he left in 1366 travelled as a member 
of her household (DARMESTETER, Froissart, 
pp. 13-28). Her presence at the magnificent 
tournaments held in Smithfield in May 1362 
is expressly noted. After Christmas she 
went with the king from Windsor to Berk- 
hampstead in Hertfordshire, on a visit to 
the Prince of Wales, who resided there, to 
take leave of him before he went to his 
government in Aquitaine. She bore her 
share in the festivities of that year and the 
early months of 1364, when the kings of 
France, Scotland, and Cyprus were all in 
London at the same time, entertained King 
John of France at Eltham, and gave many 
rich feasts to King Peter de Lusignan of 
Cyprus, and made him presents when he left. 
The illness and death of King John caused 
her much grief. Her nephew William, count 
of Holland, second son of the Emperor 
Lewis of Bavaria, had been insane since 
1 357, and his dominions were governed for him 
by his brother Albert of Bavaria as regent. 
Albert desired to be recognised as sovereign, 
but the claims that Edward acquired by 
his marriage with Philippa were unsettled, 
and hindered the accomplishment of his wish. 
To remove this obstacle, he obtained from the 
estates of Holland, assembled at Gertruy- 
denberg on 25 April 1364, a decision that 
the English queen could not inherit any part 
of the dominions of her brother Count Wil- 
liam, his sovereignty being indivisible. Al- 
bert visited the English court in 1365, but 
was unable to obtain the king's assent to his 
wishes respecting Philippa's rights (V Art de 
verifier les Dates, xiv. 448 ; FfKdera, iii. 779, 
789). In 1369 she joined the king in his vain 
endeavours to procure Albert as an ally 
against France, and it was probably in con- 
nection with this attempt that she sent cer- 
tain jewels over to Maud, countess of Hol- 
land, a daughter of Henry of Lancaster, first 
duke of Lancaster [q. v.] (ib. p. 868). In the 
course of that year she was dangerously ill at 
Windsor Castle, and, knowing that she was 
dying, took leave of the king, requesting 
that he would fulfil all her engagements to 
merchants and pay her debts ; that he would 
pay all that she had left or promised to 
churches in England or the continent, wherein 
she had made her prayers ; and would pro- 
vide for all her servants, and that he would 
be buried by her side at Westminster, which 
things the king promised. She was attended 
on her deathbed by William of Wykeham, 




bishop of Winchester (for the scandalous 
tale about her pretended confession to the 
ibishop, see under JOHN OF GAUNT and Chro- 
nicon Anglia, pp. 107, 398). She died on 
15 Aug., and was buried with great pomp on 
the south side of the chapel of the kings, where 
her tomb, built by her husband, stands, with 
her recumbent effigy, evidently a likeness, 
surrounded by the effigies of thirty persons 
of princely rank who were connected with 
her by birth (STANLEY, Memorials of West- 
minster, p. 122). 

A bust by an unknown sculptor, taken 
from this effigy, is in the National Portrait 
Gallery, London. There are also heads, be- 
lieved to be hers, in some of the Bristol 
churches, specially in the crypt of St. Nicho- 
las ; for, like other queens, she had the town 
and castle of Bristol as part of her dower 
(TATLOK, Bristol, Past and Present, i. 75, ii. 
159). A painting of her is said to have 
been found in the cloisters of St. Stephen's, 
Westminster, and a statue of her is over 
the principal entrance of Queen's College, 

In person Philippa was tall and handsome. 
She was prudent, kindly, humble, and de- 
Tout ; very liberal and pitiful, graceful in 
manner, adorned, Froissart says, * with every 
noble virtue, and beloved of God and all 
men.' While she was strongly attached to 
the people of her fatherland, she'greatly loved 
the English, and was extremely popular with 
them. Her death was a terrible inisfortune 
to her husband. She bore him seven sons 
and five daughters. Two mottoes that she 
used were ' Myn Biddenye ' and * Iche wrude 
muche/ and they were worked on two richly 
embroidered corsets that were given to her 
by the king (NICOLAS, Orders of Knighthood, 
ii. 485). She greatly enlarged the hospital 
of St. Katherine, near the Tower, and was a 
benefactress to the canons of St. Stephen's, 
Westminster, and to Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, founded and called after her by her 
chaplain, Robert of Eglesfield [q. v.] Queen- 
borough, in the Isle of Sheppey, Kent, where 
part of her dower lay, was founded and 
called after her by Edward III, who, in 
honour of her, made the place a free borough 
in 1366 (HASTED, History of Kent, ii. 620, 

[Jehan le Bel, ed. Polain ; Froissart s Chro- 
niques, ed. Luce (Societe del'Histoire de France) ; 
Geoffrey le Baker, ed. Thompson; Knighton, ed. 
Twisden ; Murimuth and Robert of Avesbury ; 
"Walsingham; Chron. AnglisejPolit.Poems; Eulo- 
giumHist. (these six in Rolls Ser.); Rymer's Foe- 
dera (Record edit.); Collectanea, vol. i. (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.) ; Beltz's Hist, of the Garter ; Nico 
las's Orders of Knighthood ; L'Art de verifier 

les Dates (Hainault, Holland), vols. xiii. xiv. ; 
Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk ; Hasted's Hist, of 
Kent ; Taylor's Bristol, Past and Present ; Stan- 
ley's Memorials of "Westminster, 5th edit. ; 
Darmesteter's Froissart ( Grands EcrivainsFran- 
9ais) ; Strickland's Queens of England, i. 543- 
590 ; Longman's Life of Edward III.] W. H. 

queen of John I of Portugal, born in 1359, 
was'daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lan- 
caster, and was first brought to Portugal by 
her father on his expedition in aid of Portu- 
guese independence in 1386. While aiding 
his ally against Castille, the Duke of Lan- 
caster settled the terms of a marriage alliance 
by which John I of Portugal, the founder 
of the house of Aviz, who had led the national 
rising against the threatened Castilian suc- 
cession since 1383, was to marry his daugh- 
ter Philippa. After King John had been re- 
leased by Urban VI from the vows of 
celibacy which he had taken in earlier life 
as master of the order of Aviz. the marriage 
took place on 2 Feb. 1387. Philippa was 
twenty-eight years old on her marriage, and 
became the mother of five celebrated sons, 
the 'royal race of famous Infantes,' viz. King 
Edward I, Don Pedro the traveller and the 
great regent, Prince Henry the navigator, 
Ferdinand the saint, and John. Her two 
eldest children, Dona Branca and Don 
Alfonso, died in infancy. During her last 
illness in -1415 she was moved from Lisbon 
to Sacav.em, while her husband and sons 
were on the point of starting for the con- 
quest of Ceuta in Barbary. On her deathbed 
she spoke to her eldest son of a king's true 
vocation, to Pedro of his knightly duties in 
the protection of widows and orphans, to 
Henry of a general's care for his men. A 
story tells how she roused herself before she 
died to ask what wind it was that blew so 
strongly against the house, and being told it 
was the north, exclaimed to those about her 
'It is the wind for your voyage, which must 
be about St. James's day ' (25 July). 

She died on 13 July, and was buried in 
Batalha Abbey church, where her recumbent 
statue rests by the side of King John's. She 
enjoyed the reputation of a perfect wife and 
mother. Her husband survived her till 1433, 
and was succeeded by their eldest son, Ed- 
ward. Philip II of Spain descended from 
her through his mother Isabella, daughter of 
King Emanuel of Portugal, Philippa's great- 
grandson [see under MAKY I OF ENGLAND]. 

[Chevalier's Repertoire ; Notice by Ferd. 
Denis in Nouvelle Biographie Generale; Jose 
Soares de Silva's Memorias para a Historia del 
-Rey dom Joao I ; Barbosa's Catalogo das Rainhas ; 
Schseffer's Historia de Portugal ; Souza's His- 




toria Genealogica; Retraces e Elogios ; Fernan 
Lopez's Chronicle of D. John I ; Oliveiro Martins' 
SODS of D. John I ; Major's Prince Henry the 
Navigator : Ramsay's York and Lancaster.] 

C. R. B. 

PHILIPPART, JOHN (1784 P-1874), 
military writer, born in London about 1784, 
was educated J military academy, and was 
subsequently placed in the office of a Scottish 
solicitor. His inclinations, however, tended 
more to military than to legal studies. In 
1809 he became private secretary to John 
Baker Holroyd, first baron and afterwards first 
earl of Sheffield [q. v.], president of the board 
of agriculture, and two years later he was 
appointed a clerk in the war office. He pro- 
posed, in pamphlets issued in 1812 and 1813, 
the establishment of a benefit fund for officers, 
an idea suggested by Colonel D. Roberts. The 
scheme was supported by persons of influence 
in the profession, but it failed owing to the 
fear on the part of ministers that such a com- 
bination might weaken the discipline of the 
army. Philippart also suggested, in a further 
pamphlet, a means of rendering the militia 
available for foreign service, and part of his 
plan was adopted by Lord Castlereagh. 
Philippart was one of the body of members 
of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, or 
knights-hospitallers, who contributed to the 
revival of the English langue. He was elected 
a knight of St. John of Jerusalem on 11 Nov. 
1830, chevalier of justice in 1831, and bailiff 
ad honores in 1847. He was chancellor of 
the order for forty-three years, and outlived 
all the knights who had revived the English 
langue except the Chevalier Philippe de 
Chastelain. His interest in the duties of a 
knight-hospitaller induced him to aid in 
founding in 1856 the West London Hospital, 
which was originally called the Fulham and 
Hammersmith General Dispensary. He was 
honorary treasurer of the institution from 
1856 to 1861, and an active member of the 
committee from that date until his death. 
He was created a knight of the Swedish orders 
of Gustavus Vasa and of the Polar Star of 
Sweden in 1832. He died at his residence, 
College House, Church Lane, Hammersmith, 
in 1874. 

Philippart was an industrious compiler of 
many books of reference relating to the 
army. From October 181 2 to September 1814 
he owned and edited a journal called ' The 
Military Panorama.' In 1813 he published his 
' Northern Campaigns, from . . . 1812 . . . 
June 4, 1813, with an appendix, containing 
all the Bulletins issued by the French Ruler,' 
2 vols. To the same class belong his l Royal 
Military Calendar, containing the Services 
of every general officer ... in the British 

Army . . . and Accounts of the Operations 
of the Army under Lieut.-Gen. Sir John 
Murray on the Eastern Coast of Spain in 
1812-13,' London, 3 vols. 1815-16, and ' The 
East India Military Calendar,' 1823. 

Among other works by Philippart were : 
1. ' Memoirs of the Prince Royal of Sweden,' 
1813. 2. ' Memoirs of General Moreau,' &c., 
London, 1814. 3. ' General Index to the 
first and second series of Hansard's Parlia- 
mentary Debates,' London, 1834. 4. ' Me- 
moir of ... Prince Edward, Duke of Kent 
and Strathearn ' (vol. ii. of ' Queen Victoria, 
from her Birth to her Bridal'), London, 

[War Office Records ; Biogr. Diet. Living 
Authors, 1816 ; Records of the Order of St. J(,hn 
of Jerusalem.] B. H. S. 


PHILIPPS, BAKER (1718?-1745),lieu- 
tenant in the navy, born about 1718, entered 
the navy in 1733, and having served in the 
Diamond, in the Greenwich, with Captain 
James Cornewall [q. v.], and in the Prince of 
Orange on the home station, with Captain 
William Davies, passed his examination on 

27 Nov. 1740, being then, according to his cer- 
tificate, upwards of twenty-two. On 5 Feb. 
1740-1 he was promoted to be lieutenant of 
the Royal Sovereign ; on 20 April 1744 he was 
appointed second lieutenant of the Anglesea, 
a 44-gun ship stationed on the south coast of 
Ireland to protect the homeward trade. On 

28 March she sailed from Kinsale on a cruise, 
having left her first lieutenant on shore sick. 
The next day she sighted a large ship to wind- 
ward, which the captain, Jacob Elton, and 
the m aster wrongly supposed to be her consort, 
the Augusta of 60 guns. The stranger, with 
a fair wind, came down under a press of sail. 
A master's mate who was on the forecastle 
suddenly noticed that her poop-nettings and 
quarter showed unmistakably French orna- 
mentation, and ran down to tell the captain. 
It was about two o'clock in the afternoon, 
and he was at dinner. Thereupon the stranger, 
which proved to be the French 60-gun ship 
Apollon, in private employ, ran under the 
Anglesea's stern, and poured in a heavy fire 
of great guns and small arms at less than 
a hundred yards' distance. The Anglesea 
replied as she best could ; but her decks were 
not cleared and her fire was very feeble. 
Hoping to fore-reach on the Frenchman, and 
so gain a little time, Elton set the foresail. 
The only effect was to prevent her from firing 
her lower-deck guns. The Apollon's second 
broadside killed both Elton and the master. 
Philipps was left in command, and, seeing no 




possibility of defence, he ordered the colours 
to be struck. 

The court-martial which, on the return of 
the prisoners, examined into the affair rightly 
pronounced that the loss of the ship was due 
to Elton's confidence and neglect ; but it 
further pronounced that after Elton's death 
Philipps had been guilty of neglect of duty, 
and sentenced him to be shot, adding, how- 
ever, a recommendation to mercy. The lords 
justices, to whom it was referred, saw no 
reason for advising his majesty to grant it, 
and the sentence was carried out on the fore- 
castle of the Princess Royal at Spithead, at 
11 A.M. on 19 July 1745. It is difficult now 
to understand the grounds on which Philipps 
was condemned, for the ship was virtually 
lost before he succeeded to the command. 
The probable explanation seems to be that 
the government was thoroughly alarmed, and 
suspected Jacobite agency. But this was not 
mentioned at the court-martial, and there 
is no reason to suppose that Philipps had 
meddled with politics. He was married, but 
left no children. His widow married again, 
and a miniature of Philipps is still preserved 
by her descendants. 

[Commission and Warrant Books, Minutes of 
Court-Martial, vol. xxviii., and other documents 
in the Public Kecord Office ; information from 
the family.] J. K. L. 

economic writer, was the eldest son of Sir 
John Philipps, of Picton Castle, Pembroke- 
shire, by his wife Mary, daughter and heiress 
of Anthony Smith, an East India merchant. 
His cousin, Katharine Shorter, was the first 
wife of Sir Robert Walpole. Matriculating 
at Pembroke College, Oxford, on 4 Aug. 
1720, he left the university in the following 
year without graduating. He was entered 
as a student of Lincoln's Inn on 7 Aug. 1721, 
and succeeded to the baronetcy on the death 
of his father in 1736. He was M.P. for 
Haverfordwest from 8 Feb. 1726 until his 
death. He was accidentally drowned in the 
river Avon, near Bath, on 7 Oct. 1743. He 
was unmarried. 

Philipps published: 1. 'An Appeal to 
Common-sense ; or, some Considerations 
offered to restore Publick Credit,' 2 parts, 
London, 1720-21, 8vo. 2. ' The State of the 
Nation in respect to her Commerce, Debts, 
and Money,' London, 1725, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1726, 8vo ; the same edition, but with new 
title-page, 1731, 8vo. 3. 'The Creditor's 
Advocate and Debtor's Friend. Shewing 
how the Effects of the Debtor are spent in 
Law . . . that may be saved for the credi- 
tor,' &c., London, '1731, 8vo. 4. < Miscella- 

neous works, consisting of Essays Political 
and Moral,' London, 1751, 8vo. Extracts 
from the diary which he kept while a student 
at Oxford (1 Aug. 1720 to 24 Sept. 1721) 
are printed in ' Notes and Queries ' (2nd ser. 
x. 365, 366, 443-5). An epitaph on him by 
Anna Williams is sometimes attributed to 
Dr. Johnson (Notes and Q. ,'ies, 3rd ser. v. 
254, and ANNA WILLIAMS, Miscellanies). 

[Gent. Mag. 1743, p. 554; Nicholas's County 
Families of Wales, pp. 298, 908 ; Lodge's Irish 
Peerage, vii. 100; Burke's Baronetage, p. 1129; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. (1715-1886), p. 1107; 
Eeturn of Members of Parliament,, ii. 59, 70, 82, 
95 ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 60, 
203.] W. A. S. H. 

PHILIPPS, FABIAN (1601-1690), au- 
thor, eon of Andrew Philipps, was born at 
Prestbury, Gloucestershire, on 28 Sept. 1601. 
His father, who belonged to an old Here- 
fordshire family, owned estates at Leominster. 
His mother, whose family, the Bagehots, had 
been settled at Prestbury for four hundred 
years, was heiress of one of her brothers. 
Philipps studied first at one of the inns of 
chancery, but afterwards migrated to the 
Middle Temple. He was also at Oxford for 
some time in 1641, 'for the sake of the 
Bodleian Library.' A zealous advocate of 
the king's prerogative, he spent much money 
in the publication of books in support of the 
royal cause. In 1641 he was appointed filazer 
of London, Middlesex, Cambridgeshire, and 
Huntingdonshire, in the court of common 
pleas. His claim to the emoluments of the 
office was disputed, and fourteen years later 
the case was still unsettled. Two days before 
Charles I's execution, Philipps wrote a ( pro- 
testation,' which he printed, and ' caused to 
be put on all posts and in all commonplaces ' 
(WOOD). It was published with the title 
' King Charles the First no man of Blood ; 
but a Martyr for his People. Or, a sad and 
impart iall Enquiry whether the king or par- 
liament began the Warre,' &c., London, 1649, 
4to. Another edition bore the title ' Veri- 
tas Inconcussa,' London, 1660, 8vo. On the 
suppression of the court of chancery in 1653, 
he published ' Considerations against the 
dissolving and taking away the Court of 
Chancery and the Courts of Justice at West- 
minster,' &c., for which he received the 
thanks of Lenthall. He wrote three works 
against the abolition of tenures by knight 
service, viz., ' Tenenda non Tollenda, or the 
Necessity of preserving Tenures in Capite 
and by Knight Service,' &c., London, 1660, 
4to; 'LigeanciaLugens, or Loyaltie lament- 
ing the many great Mischiefs and Inconve- 
niences which will fatally and inevitably 
follow the taking away of the Royal Pour- 




veyances and Tenures in Capite/c., London, 
1661, 4to ; and ' The Mistaken Recompense 
by the Excise for Pourveyance and Tenures/ 
&c., 1664. 

On 30 Nov. 1661 Philipps and John Moyle 
received a grant, with survivorship, of the 
office of remembrancer of the court of the 
council and marches of Wales. In his 
eightieth year he still retained his ' great me- 
mory.' He died on 17 Nov. 1690, and was 
buried near his wife in the south-west part 
of the church of Twyford, near Acton, Mid- 
dlesex. He wrote his own epitaph some 
years before his death. Philipps ' was emi- 
nent in his time, considering that his parts 
were never advanc'd, when young, by aca- 
demical education '( WOOD) ; he was ' of great 
assiduity and reading, and a great lover of 
antiquities ' (AUBEEY). 

In addition to the works mentioned above, 
Philipps published : 1. ' Restauranda ; or the 
necessity of Publick Repairs, by setting of a 
certain and royal yearly Revenue for the 
king/ &c., London, 1662, 4to. 2. ' The An- 
tiquity, Legality, Reason, Duty, and Neces- 
sity of Prae-emption, and Pourveyance for 
the King/ &c., London, 1663, 4to. 3. < The 
Antiquity, Legality ... of Fines paid in 
Chancery upon the suing out or obtaining 
some sorts of Writs returnable into the Court 
of Common Pleas/ &c., London, 1663, 4to ; 
Somers' * Tracts/ vol. iii. 1750, 4to ; ib. vol. 
viii. 1809, 4to. 4. 'Pretended Perspective 
Glass ; or, some Reasons . . . against the 
proposed registering Reformation/ 1669, 4to. 
5. ' The Reforming Registry ; or, a Repre- 
sentation of the very many Mischiefs and 
Inconveniences ... of Registers/ &c., Lon- 
don, 1671, 4to. 6. ' Regale Necessarium ; 
or the Legality, Reason, and Necessity of 
the Rights and Privileges . . . claimed by 
the King's Servants/ London, 1671, 4to. 
7. ' Some reasons for the Continuance of the 
Processof Arrest/London, 1671, 4to. 8. ' Rea- 
sons against the taking away the Process of 
Arrest, which would be a loss to the King's 
Revenue/ &c., 1675. 9. ' The Ancient, 
Legal, Fundamental, and Necessary Rights 
of Courts of Justice, in their Writs of Capias, 
Arrests, and Process of Outlawry/ &c., Lon- 
don, 1676, 4to. 10. ' Necessary Defence of 
the Presidentship and Council in the Prin- 
cipality and Marches of Wales, in the neces- 
sary Defence of England and Wales protect- 
ing each other.' 11. < Ursa Major and Minor. 
Showing that there is no such Fear as is 
factiously pretended of Popery and arbitrary 
Power/ London, 1681. 12. ' Plea for the 
Pardoning Part of the Sovereignty of the 
Kings of England/ London, 1682. 13. The 
established Government of England vindi- 

cated from all Popular and Republican 
Principles and Mistakes/ &c., London, 1687, 

[Biogr. Brit. ; Watkins's Biogr. Diet. 1821, p. 
846 ; Aubrey's Letters written by Eminent Per- 
sons, ii. 491, 492; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. 
Bliss, iii. 377, 380, 4,51, 997; Fasti, ii. 5; 
Journals of the House of Lords, iv. 144; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Ser. Charles II, xliv. 141, 
cxxxvii. 142; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep, p. 
44, 5th Rep. pp. 75, 97, 119, 578, 6th Rep. pp. 
2, 5, 10, 51, 7th Rep. pp. 180, 232; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. x. 210.] W. A. S. H. 


1755), translator, of Welsh origin, studied 
at the university of Basle, and there pro- 
nounced in 1707 a Latin oration on the 
t Uses of Travel ' which was published in 
London in 1715. He appears to have oc- 
cupied some place about the English court 
as early as 1715, when he wrote in Latin and 
French a ' Discours touchant 1'Origine & le 
Progres de la Religion Chretienne parmi la 
Nation Britannique. Presente au Roi.' The 
Latin version (3rd edit. 1731) was repub- 
lished in the author's ' Dissertationes His- 
toricse Quatuor/ London, 1735. Philipps, 
who was an accomplished linguist, was en- 
gaged as a private tutor between 1717 and 
1720, and expounded his methods in ' A com- 
pendious Way of teaching Ancient and 
Modern Languages/ London, 2nd edit. 1723 ; 
4th, much enlarged, London, 1750. In 1717 
he translated from the German 'An Account 
of the Religions, Manners, and Learning of 
the People of Malabar, in several Letters, 
written by some of the most learned Men of 
that Country to the Danish Missionaries/ 
London, 12mo, which was followed by 
' Thirty-four Conferences between the Danish 
Missionaries and the Malabarian Bramans 
(or Heathen Priests) in the East Indies, 
concerning the Truth of the Christian Re- 
ligion/ London, 1719, 8vo. 

Before 1726 Philipps became tutor to the 
children of George II, including William 
Augustus, duke of Cumberland, for whose use 
he published ' An Essay towards a Universal 
and Rational Grammar ; together with Rules 
in English to learn Latin. Collected from 
the several Grammars of Milton, Shirley, 
Johnson, and others/ London, 1726 (3rd edit. 
1741, 12mo). He also published for the 
duke's use ' Epistolse Laconicae ex operibus 
Ciceronis, Plinii, Erasmi/ 1729 ^editio nova, 
1772) ; ' Epistolae sermone facili conscriptse/ 
1731 and 1770, 8vo; and ' Epistola hortativa 
ad serenissimum Principem Gulielmum/ 
1737, 4to. Philipps was appointed ' histo- 
riographer' to the king, and died on 22 Feb. 




Besides the works noticed, Philipps issued 
in London many Latin dissertations : ' De 
Rebus Santgallensibus in Helvetia/ 2nd edit. 
1715; -De Papatu,' 2nd edit. 1715; 'De 
Sacramento Eucharistise,' from the Greek of 
Hieromonachus Maximus, 1715, 4to; and 
4 De Atheismo,' which were collected in <Dis- 
sertationes Historicse Quatuor,' 1735. He 
translated into English ' The Russian Cate- 
chism ' [by the Archimandrite Resenki] 
[1723], 2nd edit, 1725 ; < Lex Regia, or the 
Law of Denmark,' 1731 ; and ' The History 
of the Two Princes of Saxony, viz. Ernestus 
the Pious, first Duke of Saxe-Gotha, and 
Bernard, the Great Duke of Saxe-Weimar,' 
1740, 8vo, of which a portion appeared in 
' The Life of Ernestus the Pious . . . great- 
grandfather of the present Princess of Wales,' 
1750, 8vo. He printed in 1751, from a manu- 
script in Trinity College, Cambridge, 'An 
Account of the Princes of Wales, from the 
first institution till Prince Henry, eldest son 
to King James I. Wrote by Richard Connak ' 
[6 July 1609] ; and compiled in 1752 ' Funda- 
mental Laws and Constitutions of Denmark, 
Sweden, Germany, Poland, England, Hol- 
land, and Switzerland.' 

[Works above mentioned; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. x. 148 ; Gent. Mag. 1755, pt. i. p. 92 ; 
Watts's Bibliotheca Britannica, ii. 753.1 

C. F. S. 


(d. 1570), catholic divine, a native of Mon- 
mouthshire, entered the university of Oxford 
in or about 1533, and l became so quick and 
understanding a disputant that, when he was 
bachelor of arts, he was commonly called 
Morgan the sophister' (WooD, Athena Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 432). He graduated B.A. on 
18 Feb. 1537-8, and was elected a fellow of 
Oriel College on 17 April ] 538. He com- 
menced M.A. on 27 March 1542, was after- 
wards ordained priest, and proceeded B.D. 
In 1543 he was presented to the rectory of 
Cuddington, Oxfordshire, and on 5 Feb. 
1545-6 he was appointed principal of St. Mary 
Hall, Oxford (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 
585). He was one of the three eminent 
catholics who, in 1549, undertook a public 
disputation with Peter Martyr in the di- 
vinity hall of the university (WooD, Annals 
of Oxford, ed. Gutch, ii. 93). In the same 
year he obtained the vicarage of St. Winnock, 
Pembrokeshire (FosxEE, Alumni Oxon. early 
ser. iii. 1158). In 1550 he resigned the 
office of principal of St. Mary Hall, being 
then B.D., and soon after the accession of 
Queen Mary, in 1553, he became precentor 
of St. David's Cathedral (LE NEVE, i. 316). 
On account of his absence from Oriel Col- 

lege for a longer time than was allowed, his 
fellowship was declared vacant on 20 Dec. 

Declining to accept the religious changes of 
the reign of Elizabeth, he retired to the con- 
tinent and settled at Louvain. Soon after- 
wards he visited Rome with William (after- 
wards Cardinal) Allen and Dr. Vendeville. 
On his return to Flanders he co-operated 
with Allen in establishing an English col- 
lege at Douay, and he advanced the first 
sum of money for that purpose (DoDD, 
Church Hist. ii. 100). The first of the 
Douay ' Diaries,' after enumerating the priests 
who were associated with Allen in the un- 
dertaking, says : ' Huic porro ccetui conti- 
nenter se adjunxit D. Morganus Philippus, 
venerabilis sacerdos, quondam ejusdem Alani 
in Universitate Oxoniensi prseceptor, nunc 
vero ejus in hoc sancto opere, et vivus co- 
adjutor et moriens insignis benefactor.' 
Wood gives 1577 as the date of his death, 
but the records of Douay College inform us 
that he died there on 18 Aug. 1570. By 
his will he left to Allen all his property, 
which was employed in the purchase of a 
house and garden for the enlargement of the 
college (Records of the English Catholics, i. 5). 
On 15 Feb. 1577-8 a commission was granted 
from the prerogative court of Canterbury to 
George Farmour, esq., of Easton Neston, 
Northamptonshire, to administer the goods, 
debts, chattels, &c:, ; of Morgan Philipps, 
clerk, sometime chantor of the cathedral 
church of St. David, who lately died in parts 
beyond the seas.' 

Under his name as author was republished 
in 1571 the 'Treatise concerning' Mary 
Stuart's right to the English throne, which 
was the work of John Leslie (1527-1596) 
[q. v.], bishop of Ross (cf. STKANGUAGE, 
Historic of the Life and Death of Mary 
Stuart, 1624, p. 73 ; CAMDEN, Annales, 
transl. by R. N., 3rd edit, 1625, p. 113). 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 1627, 
1628 ; Doleman's Conference about the next 
Succession to the Crowne of Ingland, 1594, 
pt. ii. p. 3 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Kep. p. 42; 
Eecords of the English Catholics, vol. i. pp. xxx, 
xxxi, et passim, pp. 3, 5 ; Register of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford ; Udall's Life of Mary Queen 
of Scots, p. 145; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), 
i. 105.] T. C. 

PHILIPPS, THOMAS (1774-1841), 
vocalist and composer, connected with a Mon- 
mouthshire family, was born in London in 
1774. He became an actor, and his first 
appearance was on 10 May 1796 at Covent 
Garden Theatre, when he played Philippe in 
the * Castle of Andalusia.' His voice was 
pronounced by critics to be tolerable in point 




of tone, while his manners were * somewhat 
too gentle for the stage.' He obtained instruc- 
tion from Dr. Samuel Arnold [q. v.], and 
improved rapidly. In 1801 he was engaged 
at the Crow Street Theatre in Dublin, where, 
according to the author of the 'Familiar 
Epistles,' he was destined 

To bear our opera's whole weight, 

The Atlas of our vocal state. 

The satirist, while acknowledging Philipps's 
gift of voice, thought it one better adapted to 
a room than to a theatre. Kelly, however, 
proclaimed Philipps in 1826 the best acting 
singer on the English stage. By that time 
he had returned to London, where, on 26 June 
1809, he appeared at the English Opera House 
in ' Up all Night.' He afterwards took part 
in the ' Maniac,' the ' Peasant Boy,' ' Plots,' and 
' M.P.' at the same theatre in 1811. A tour 
in America is said to have enriched him by 
7,000/., but he did not relinquish work, lec- 
turing on vocal art in London and the pro- 
vinces. Philipps retired early from the stage, 
taught singing, and composed ballads. He 
was a professional member of the Catch Club 
in 1828. He died at the age of sixty-seven 
on 27 Oct. 1841, from the result of a railway 

Philipps published ' Elementary Principles 
and Practice of Singing,' Dublin, 1826 ; ' Crows 
in a Cornfield,' for three voices, about 1830 ; 
the ' Mentor's Harp : a Collection of Moral 
Ballads,' and many songs and ballads. 

[True Briton, 12 May 1796 ; Baptie's Musical 
Biography, p. 178 ; Ann. Kegister, 1841, p. 229 ; 
Musical World, 1841, p. 295; Kelly's Kemi- 
niscence?, ii. 149 ; Familiar Epistles to F. E. 
Jones on the Irish Stage, 1806, p. 74; Genest's 
Hist, of the Stage, vol. viii. passim.] L. M. M. 


PHILIPS, AMBROSE (1675 P-1749), 
poet, born about 1675, is said to have de- 
scended from an old Leicestershire family. 
According to the admission-book of St. John's 
College he was son of Ambrose Philips ' pan- 
nicularii,' born in Shropshire, and was in his 
eighteenth year in June 1693 (MAYOR, St. 
John's College). A Sir Ambrose Phillips 
became serjeant-at-law on 23 April 1686 
(LuTTRELL, Brief Relation). He was edu- 
cated at Shrewsbury (' Admission entry ' and 
Swift's letters to him in NICHOLS'S Illustr. 
of Lit. iv. 730-1), and afterwards at St. 
John's College, Cambridge. He entered as 
a sizar on 15 June 1693. He graduated 
B.A. in 1696 and M.A. in 1700, was elected 
a fellow of his college on 28 March 1699, 
and held the fellowship till 24 March 1707-8 

(MAYOR). From other entries he appears to 
have resided at Cambridge till he resigned 
his fellowship, and he is said to have written 
his l Pastorals ' while at college. In 1700 
he published an abridgement of Hacket's 
* Life of Archbishop Williams.' He was at 
Utrecht, whence one of his poems is dated, in 
1703, and in 1709 was employed in some 
mission in the north. He addressed an 
' Epistle to the Earl of Dorset,' dated Copen- 
hagen, 9 March 1709. It was published by 
Steele in the 'Tatler' (No. 12), with high 
praise, as a ' winterpiece ' worthy of the most 
learned painter. His 'Pastorals' appeared 
this year in Tonson's ' Miscellany,' which also 
included Pope's ' Pastorals.' In 1709 he also 
translated the ' Contes Persans ' of Petit De 
| la Croix. He was afterwards reproached by 
| Pope with ' turning a Persian Tale for half* 
a-crown,' which, says Johnson, as the book 
j was divided into many sections, was f very 
, liberal as writers were then paid.' After 
\ another visit to Denmark in the summer of 
S 1710, he returned to England in October, and 
was on friendly terms with Swift, who pro- 
mised in December to solicit Harley for the 
post of queen's secretary at Geneva for ' poor 
pastoral Philips,' and who said afterwards 
(Journal to Stella, 27 Dec. 1712), ' I should 
certainly have provided for him had he not 
run party mad.' He had, in fact, become 
one of the Addison circle. In 1711-12 
he wrote the i Distressed Mother,' a mere 
adaptation of Racine's ' Andromaque.' Its 
appearance was heralded by a very com- 
plimentary notice from Steele in the ' Spec- 
tator ' (No. 290, 1 Feb. 1711-12), and Sir 
Roger de Coverley was taken by Addison to 
see a performance on 25 March following (No. 
335). An epilogue, attributed to Budgell, 
is said to have been the most successful ever 
written. Pope says that the audience was 
packed by Philips's friends (SPENCE, p. 46). 
In the early numbers of the ' Guardian ' 
j (1713) some papers upon pastoral poetry, in 
j which Philips was complimented, excited 
\ Pope's jealousy, and he wrote a paper (No. 
| 40) with an ironical comparison between 
| Philips's ' Pastorals ' and his own. Philips 
! was indignant at this attack, inserted through 
Steele's inadvertence or want of perception, 
' and he hung up a rod at Button's coffee- 
; house, threatening to apply it to Pope [see 
i under POPE, ALEXANDER]. As Philips is 
reported by Johnson to have been f emi- 
nent for bravery and skill in the sword/ and 
j Pope was a deformed dwarf, the anecdote 
1 scarcely illustrates Philips's ' bravery.' Pope's 
revenge was taken by savage passages in 
his satires, which made Philips ridiculous. 
Philips, said Pope (SPENCE, p. 148), was en- 




couraged to go about abusing him, which 
seems to have been needless ; and, in his 
letters, Pope also insinuated, though he 
( Works, vi. 209) could hardly have expected 
to be taken seriously, that Philips had appro-, 
priated subscriptions for the ' Iliad ' from 
members of the ' Hanover Club' (for Philips's 
denial that he had given any cause for Pope's 
personalities, see NICHOLS'S Illustr. of Lit. vii. 
713). Philips was secretary to this club, 
formed at the end of Queen Anne's reign for 
securing the succession. After the accession 
of George I, he was made justice of the peace 
for Westminster, and in 1717 a commissioner 
for the lottery. 

Philips started the ' Freethinker ' in March 
1718. It is one of the numerous imitations 
of the ' Spectator,' and the first number ex- 
plains that the name is not to be taken as 
equivalent to ' atheist,' but in the proper 
sense. His chief colleagues were Hugh 
Boulter [q. v.], Richard West (afterwards 
Irish chancellor), and Gilbert Burnet, son of 
the bishop [see under BURNET, GILBERT]. 
It ran through the next year, and was re- 
published in three volumes (3rd edit. 1739). 
Philips published some i Epistles ' and a 
couple of plays (see below), which, being 
original, had little success. His friend Boul- 
ter was made bishop of Armagh in August 
1724, and in November took Philips with 
him to Ireland as secretary. Swift, in his 
correspondence with Pope, refers contemp- 
tuously to Philips's position as a dependant 
upon Boulter and to his l little flams on Miss 
Carteret' (29 Sept. and 26 Nov. 1725). 
Philips represented the county of Armagh 
in the Irish parliament ; was made secretary 
to the lord chancellor in December 1726, 
and in August 1733 was appointed judge of 
the prerogative court. Boulter died in 1742, 
and in 1748 Philips, who had bought an 
annuity of 400/., returned to London. He 
is said to have collected his poems in a volume 
which was dedicated to the Duke of New- 
castle. He also collected Boulter's corre- 
spondence, which, however, did not appear 
until 1769. Philips died at his house in 
Hanson Street of paralysis on 18 June 1749, 
* in his seventy-eighth year.' A portrait by 
Ashton, engraved by T. Cooke, is mentioned 
by Bromley. 

Mr. Gosse observes that Philips's 'Epistle 
to the Earl of Dorset,' declared by Goldsmith 
to be ' incomparably fine,' strikes us as ' frigid 
and ephemeral ; ' while the odes to chil- 
dren are charming from their simplicity and 
fancy (WARD, English Poets, 1880, iii. 130). 
The ' Epistle,' however, is a very genuine 
description of nature, remarkable for its time. 
The title of ' namby-pamby ' was first used by 

Henry Carey (d. 1743) [q. v.] in a parody 
mentioned by Swift in 1725. Three poems 
to the infant daughters of Lord Carteret, 
lord lieutenant, and of Daniel Pulteney, one 
of which begins ' Dimply damsel, sweetly 
smiling,' provoked this ridicule. Philips 
was apparently rather dandified in appear- 
ance and pompous in conversation. His 
' red stockings ' were ridiculed in Pope's 
1 Macer ' ( Works, iv. 467). Pope also sati- 
rises his slowness in composition. He ap- 
pears, however, to have been an honourable 
man, respected by his friends, and of some real 
poetical sensibility. His works are : 1. 'Life 
of John Williams . . . [abridged from Hacket] 
with appendix giving a just account of his 
benefactions to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge,' 1700. 2. 'Pastorals' in Tonson's 
' Miscellany ' (p. vi), 1709. 3. ' Persian 
Tales,' from the French of P. De la Croix,' 
1709 ; also in 1722, 12mo. 4. < The Dis- 
tressed Mother,' 1712. 5. ' Odes of Sappho ' 
in ' Anacreon ' (translation of 1713 ; see also 
Spectator, Nos." 223, 229). 6. Epistle to 
Charles, lord Halifax, ' On the accession of 
George I,' 1714. 7. 'Epistle to James 
Craggs,' 1717. 8. Papers in the ' Freethinker,' 
1718-19, collected in three vols. 9. ' The 
Briton' (tragedy), 1722. 10. 'Humfrey, 
duke of Gloucester ' (tragedy), 1723. This, 
the ' Briton,' and the ' Distressed Mother ' 
\rere published together as ' Three Tra- 
gedies ' in 1725. Several small poems to 
children, on the death of Lord Halifax, and 
the departure of Lord Carteret from Dublin 
were printed separately in 1725 and 1726. 
He is also said to have been editor of the 
' Collection of Old Ballads, corrected from 
the best and most ancient copies extant, 
with introductions historical and critical,' 
1726-38. His ' Pastorals,' with other poems, 
were published separately in 1710. He 
published his poems, with a dedication to 
the Duke of Newcastle, in 1748. They ap- 
peared again in 1765, and are in various col- 
lections of English poets. 

[Gibber's Lives ; Johnson's Lives of the Poets ; 
Pope's Works (see many references in Ehvin 
and Courthope's edition) ; Minto's Literature 
of the Georgian Era, 1894; Mayor's St. John's 
College ; Spence's Anecdotes.] L. S. 

PHILIPS, CHARLES (1708-1747), 
portrait-painter, son of Richard Philips (1681- 
1741), also a portrait-painter of some repute, 
was born in 1708, and at an early age formed 
a good connection among the nobility. He 
was noted for his small whole-lengths and 
conversation pieces, which are minutely and 
skilfully, if somewhat timidly, painted, and 
valuable on account of the truth and sin- 




cerity with which the costumes and acces- 
sories are treated. His life-sized portraits 
are weaker and less satisfactory. Philips 
was much patronised by Frederick, prince 
of Wales, for whom he painted two pictures, 
now at Windsor, of meetings of convivial 
clubs formed by the prince, and styled 
' Knights of the Round Table ' and ' Harry 
the Fifth, or the Gang Club.' A portrait of 
the prince and three of the princess, painted 
by Philips, have been engraved ; and another 
of the princess dated 1737, in which she 'is 
represented with her first baby, Princess 
Augusta, on her lap, is at Warwick Castle. 
Other known works of Philips are : Lady 
Betty Germain, seated in a panelled room, 
1731 (Knole) ; Charles Spencer, second duke 
of Marlborough, 1731 (Woburn) ; the Duke 
of Cumberland and Lord Cathcart at Cullo- 
den, or, more probably, Fontenoy, and the 
family of Lord Archibald Hamilton, 1731 
(both at Thornton-le-Street) ; Bishop War- 
burton (National Portrait Gallery); Arch- 
bishop Seeker, when bishop of Oxford (Cud- 
desden Palace) ; Thomas Frew en and wife, 
1734 (Brickwell) ; and two groups of mem- 
bers of the Russell, Greenhill, and Revett 
families (Chequers). Several other portraits 
by Philips have been engraved by Faber and 
Burford. He resided in Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, married in 1738, and 
died in 1747. A miniature of Philips, painted 
by himself, was lent to the 1865 miniature 
exhibition at South Kensington by T. Whar- 
ton Jones, F.R.S., the then representative 
of the Philips family. Vertue mentions 
Philips as one of the half-dozen leading 
painters of the day who were all of low 
stature * five-foot men or under.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Chaloner Smith's 
British Mezzotinto Portraits; Cat. of National 
Portrait Exhibition, 1867; Vertue's Collections 
in British Museum (Addit. MS. 23076) ; infor- 
mation from the late Sir George Scharf. K.C.B.] 

F. M. O'D. 


(1599?-! 696), Irish writer and governor of 
Londonderry, born about 1599, was either 
son or grandson of Sir Thomas Philips, who 
took a prominent part in the Ulster settle- 
ment. George inherited Sir Thomas's estate 
at Newtown Limavady, near Londonderry. 
Graham says he was in his ninetieth year in 
December 1688, but this may well be doubted. 
In early life he saw some military service 
abroad. From June 1681 to September 1684 
he was governor of Culmore Fort, and filled 
about the same time a like post at London- 
derry. At the end of 1688, with James II 
as king and Tyrconnel as minister, it was 
. for the protestants of Ulster to believe 

:hat a repetition of the massacre of 1641 was 
ntended. Lord Antrim's regiment of high- 
landers and Irish appeared at Newtown Lima- 
vady on 6 Dec., and Philips at once wrote to 
Alderman Norman to put the people of Lon- 
donderry on their guard. On 19 Jan. 1688-9 
the sheriffs of that city, in the name of the 
townsmen, wrote as follows : ' We received 
the first intelligence of the general insurrec- 
ion of the papists from our much honoured 
friend, George Philips, esq. . . . who did 
not only warn us of our danger and advise us 
to prevent it, but voluntarily and freely put 
himself among us and adventured his life 
and estate in our cause and behalf, animating 
us with his presence, encouraging us with 
an auxiliary aid of six hundred horses of his 
tenants and neighbours, and reducing the 
untrained people of the place into order and 
discipline, whereupon we did commit the 
trust and care of this city solely and abso- 
lutely to his management and conduct, which 
trust he did discharge with all fidelity, dili- 
gence, and prudence ' {Treasury Papers). 

It was owing to the hurried warning of 
Philips that the apprentice boys, * the younger 
and brisk inhabitants,' shut the gates of Lon- 
donderry against Lord Antrim's men. On 
9 Dec. Philips was sent by Lord Antrim to 
the town to negotiate with the citizens. At 
his own suggestion he was made a nominal 
prisoner so that; he could send a message to say 
that he was detained, and that it would not 
be safe for his lordship to attempt an entry. 
Antrim withdrew to Coleraine, and Philips be- 
came governor of Londonderry. On the llth 
David Cairns was sent by Philips's advice to 
represent the case of the citizens in London. 
In the negotiations with Viscount Mount joy, 
Philips tried in vain to stipulate for an exclu- 
sively protestant garrison, permission for the 
citizens to retain their arms, and a general 
pardon under the great seal. Less favourable 
terms were granted ; but Mount] oy's good 
will was thought so important that Philips 
1 did generously resign the command to him, 
postponing his own honour and advantage to 
that opportunity of strengthening the Pro- 
testant interest ' (ib.} On the 21st Robert 
Lundy [q. v.] became governor. On 23 March 
1688-9 Philips, who was 'well acquainted 
with proceedings in England,' was sent 
thither ' with an address to King William, 
and to solicit a speedy supply ' (WALKER). 
Cairnes returned to Londonderry on 10 April 
with a letter from King William, and this 
decided the town against surrender. 

In the course of the next three months 
Philips remained in London and wrote ( The 
Interest of England in the Preservation of Ire- 
land, humbly presented to the Parliament of 




England.' It is a quarto pamphlet of twenty- 
eight pages, licensed in London on 15 July 
1689. Philips says he was l animated and per- 
haps transported by a glowing zeal for -reli- 
gion, an anxious sympathy with his friends, 
and a pungent sense of his own sufferings.' 
He calls upon England to save the protestants 
of Ireland, and dilates upon the danger of j 
letting it fall into French hands. He conjee- j 
tures that there were one million British pro- 
testants in Ireland in 1685, of which one-fifth 
were fit to bear arms. This pamphlet con- 
tains interesting details as to the capacities 
of Ireland, and mentions the vast number of 
salmon on the Ulster coast. In 1690, accord- 
ing to Harris, Philips published in London an 
octavo tract, entitled ' Lex Parliamentaria. 
The Law and Custom of Parliaments of j 
England,' but there is no copy of it in the j 
British Museum or in Trinity College, Dub- ; 
lin. In 1691 he published, in London, in 
quarto, l A Problem concerning the Gout, in | 
a Letter to Sir John Gordon, F.R.S.,' an j 
eminent physician. This short treatise, with \ 
Gordon's very complimentary answer, is re- j 
printed in the eleventh volume of the ' Somers 
Tracts.' Philips's remarks are very sensible, 
not the less so that he disclaims all know- 
ledge of medicine, though in his youth he 
had been ' conversant in the most delightful 
study of anatomy.' He bases his claim to 
be heard on age and experience, and on the 
fact that he had had the gout once or twice 
annually for twenty years. ' In the tenets 
of religion,' he incidentally remarks, ' I de- 
sire to be always orthodox.' 

Philips was ruined by the war, his house 
burned down, and the improvements of more 
than eighty years laid waste. He himself 
was imprisoned for debt. He had farmed 
part of the Irish revenue under Joseph Dean 
and John Stepney in connection with Rane- 
lagh's patent of 1674 [see JONES, RICHAKD, 
third VISCOUNT and first EAKL or RANE- 
LAGH]. Dean and Stepney had a mortgage 
on Philips's estate, but they owed a much 
larger sum to the crown, and had no great 
public service to appeal to. In 1692 Philips 
petitioned that his debt to them should be 
set off against theirs to the crown, and that 
he should be released. The lord lieutenant 
Sidney and the commissioners of revenue in 
Ireland reported in Philips's favour, but Dean 
and Stepney protested against the proposed 
settlement, and Philips remained in debt. 
The seventh of the articles exhibited in the 
House of Commons (30 Sept. 1695) against 
Lord-chancellor Sir Charles Porter [q. v.] 
was that he illegally released Philips when 
in prison as a debtor at the suit of Morris 
Bartley (O'FLANAGAN, i. 453). Harris says 

Philips died in 1696. It appears from in- 
quiries made in Ulster that his family severed 
their connection with Londonderry county 
soon after 1700. George Philips had a son 
William, who is separately noticed. 

[Treasury Papers in the Public Eecord Office, 
vol. xx. No. 11 ; Walker's True Account of the 
Siege of Londonderry, 1689; Berwick's Rawdon 
Papers; Ware's Irish Writers, by Harris; 
Witherow's Derry and Enniskillen ; Graham's 
Siege of Derry ; O'Flanagan's Irish Chancellors, 
vol. i. ; Macaulay's Hist, of England, chap, xii.] 

K. B-L. 

PHILIPS, HUMPHREY (1633-1707), 
nonconformist minister, born in Somerton, 
Somerset, matriculated at Oxford on 14 Nov. 
1650 as ' serviens,' was elected a scholar of 
Wadham College in July 1651, and gra- 
duated B.A. in January 1653-4. He de- 
veloped puritanical opinions, and was chap- 
lain and tutor for a time to the Bampfield 
family at Poltimore, near Exeter. Returning 
to Oxford, he was elected fellow of Magdalen 
College, proceeded M.A. in 1656, was or- 
dained at the age of twenty-four, and fre- 
quently preached in the university and in the 
neighbourhood. Being ejected by the royalist 
visitors from Magdalen College in 1660, he 
retired to Sherborne, Dorset, where he 
preached, but he was ejected thence in 1662. 
He refused to promise' that he would refrain 
from preaching, and was committed to II- 
chester gaol, where he remained for eleven 
months. When discharged he went to Hol- 
land, visited Leyden and other university 
cities, and had an opportunity of discussing* 
theological questions with Dr. Gisbert Voet, 
the last survivor of the synod of Dort which 
met in November 1618. On his return to 
England he preached in many parts of the 
country, but was much persecuted for his 
adherence to presbyterian doctrines. He 
lived mainly on a property he possessed at 
Bickerton, Somerset. He died at Frome on 
27 March 1707. His only published works 
are two funeral sermons. 

[Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Gardiner's Registers of Wadham 
College.] T. B. J. 

PHILIPS, JOHN (1676-1709), poet, was 
born on 30 Dec. 1676 at Bampton, Oxford- 
shire. His grandfather, Stephen Philips, a 
devoted royalist, was canon-residentiary of 
Hereford Cathedral and vicar of Lugwardine, 
where he died in 1667. His father, Stephen 
Philips, D.D. (1638-1684), became in 1669 
archdeacon of Shropshire and vicar of Bamp- 
ton, in succession to Thomas Cook, B.D., 
whose only daughter and heiress, Mary, he 
I had married (Woop, Fasti Oxonienscs, ed. 




Bliss, i. 466, ii. 362-3; HAVERGAL, Fasti 
Herefordenses,^A$ ; GILES, History of B amp- 
ton, 1848, p. 37). 

John Philips, who seems to have been the 
fourth of six sons, was at first taught by his 
father, but he was elected a scholar of Win- 
chester in 1691 (KiRBY, Winchester Scholars, 
pp. 209, 211 ; FOSTER, Alumni Oxonienses). 
At school Philips became a proficient classical 
scholar, and was treated with special indul- 
gence on account of his personal popularity 
and delicate health. He had long hair, and 
he liked, when the others were at play, to 
retire to his room and read Milton while some 
one combed his locks. In 1697 he proceeded 
to Oxford, matriculating at Christ Church on 
16 Aug. There he was under Dean Aldrich, 
and the simplicity of his manners and his 
poetic gifts made him a general favourite. 
It had been intended that he should become 
a physician, and he acquired some knowledge 
of science, but his devotion to literature led 
to the abandonment of the design. Edmund 
Smith [q. v.] was his greatest college friend, 
and William Brome of Withington, whose 
family had intermarried with Philips's, was 
also on intimate terms with him. Philips ap- 
pears to have been in love with Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Meare, D.I)., the principal of Bra- 
senose College, who, as a Herefordshire man, 
had made the young student welcome at his 
house. This lady, who was accomplished 
and beautiful, was also a flirt, and was be- 
lieved to have been married secretly ; in any 
case, Philips seems never to have gone be- 
yond hinting at his passion in his verse. 

Philips was loth to publish his verses. His 
* Splendid Shilling ' was included, without 
his consent, in a ' Collection of Poems ' pub- 
lished by David Brown and Benjamin Tooke in 
1701 ; and on the appearance of another false 
copy early in 1705, Philips printed a correct 
folio edition in February of that year. This 
piece, which Addison (Tatler, No. 249) 
called ' the finest burlesque poem in the 
British language,' was ' an imitation of Mil- 
ton/ and in playful mock-heroic strains de- 
picted perhaps for the benefit of his impe- 
cunious friend Edmund Smith the miseries 
of a debtor, in fear of duns, who no longer 
had a shilling in his purse wherewith to buy 
tobacco, wine, food, or clothes. ' The merit 
of such performances,' says Johnson, ' begins 
and ends with the first author.' The most 
important result of the production of this 
poem was that Philips was introduced to 
Harley and St. John, and was employed to 
write verses upon the battle of Blenheim, 
which were intended as the tory counterpart 
to Addison's ' Campaign.' ' Blenheim, a poem, 
inscribed to the Right Honourable Robert 

Harley, Esq.' (1705), has little interest for the 
reader of to-day ; at the end Philips says that 
it was in the sweet solitude of St. John's ' rural 
seat ' that he ' presumed to sing Britannic 
trophies, inexpert of war, with mean at- 
tempt.' The piece imitates Milton's verse, 
and the warfare resembles that of the Iliad or 
yEneid. In the following year (1706) f Ce- 
realia : an Imitation of Milton/ was pub- 
lished by Thomas Bennet, the bookseller who 
issued ' Blenheim ; ' and though it was not 
included in the early editions of Philips's 
works, there can be no doubt that it is by 

Early in January 1707-8 Fenton published, 
in his * Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany 
Poems/ a short 'BacchanialSong' by Philips. 
On 24 Jan. following Fenton wrote to War- 
ton (WooLL, Memoir* of Thomas Warton, 
p. 203) : < I am glad to hear Mr. Philips 
will publish his " Pomona." Who prints it ? 
I should be mightily obliged to you if you 
could get me a copy of his verses against Black- 
more. . .' . I'll never imitate Milton more 
till the author of " Blenheim " be forgotten.' 
The first book of ' Cyder/ to which Fenton 
alluded, had been written while Philips was 
at Oxford ; and on 27 Nov. 1707 Tonson had 
entered into an agreement with Philips to 
pay forty guineas for it in two books, with 
ten guineas for a second edition. There 
were to be one hundred large-paper copies, 
and two dedication copies bound in leather. 
Philips gave a receipt for the forty guineas 
on 24 Jan. 1707-8 (JOHNSON, Lives of the 
Poets, ed. Cunningham, ii. 22 n.}, and the 
poem was published on the 29th (Daily 
Couranf). It called forth, in May, a folio 
pamphlet, ' Wine/ the first poem published by 
John Gay [q. v.], in which ' Cyder ' is spoken 
of somewhat disparagingly. The poem, which 
is the most important of Philips's productions, 
was written in imitation of Virgil's Georgics, 
and an exact account of the culture of the 
apple-tree and of the manufacture of cider 
is varied by compliments to various friends 
and patrons, and by many local allusions to 
Herefordshire, the county of Philips's ances- 
tors, where Withington was specially famous 
for cider. Philip Miller, the botanist [q. v.], 
told Johnson that l there were many books 
written on the same subject in prose which 
do not contain so much truth as that poem.' 
But Johnson objected, not without reason, 
that the blank verse of Milton, which Philips 
imitated, could not ' be sustained by images 
which at most can rise only to elegance.' 
And Pope said that Philips succeeded ex- 
tremely well in his imitation of ' Paradise 
Lost/ but was quite wrong in endeavouring 
to imitate it on such a subject (SPENCE, 




Anecdotes, 1858, p. 131). In * Cyder/ as in 
nearly everything he wrote, Philips cele- 
brated ' Nature's choice gift/ tobacco, a 
fashion for which had been set at Oxford by 
Aldrich's example. In a coarse attack, 
' Milton's sublimity asserted ... by Philo- 
Milton ' (1709), ' Cyder ' is spoken of as an 
* idolised piece.' 

Of Philips's minor productions, a clever 
Latin ' Ode ad Henricum S. John/ written 
in acknowledgment of a present of wine 
and tobacco, was translated by Thomas New- 
comb [q. v.] Philips also contemplated a 
poem on the ' Last Day/ but his health grew 
worse, and, after a visit to Bath, he died at 
his mother's house, at Hereford, of con- 
sumption and asthma, on 15 Feb. 1708-9 
(UNDERBILL, Poems of John Gay, 1893, i. 

Philips's mother placed a stone over his 
grave in the north transept of Hereford Ca- 
thedral, with an inscription said to be by 
Anthony Alsop of Christ Church (HEARNE, 
Collections, ed. Doble, iii. 370). When the pre- 
sent pavement was laid down, a small brass 
plate in the floor was provided by subscrip- 
tion, a bunch of apples being engraved on it. 
Philips's mother died on 11 Oct. 1715, and 
her son Stephen erected a marble slab to her 
memory (HAVEKGAL, Monumental Inscrip- 
tions in Hereford Cathedral, pp. xx, xxii, 54). 
In February 1710 Edmund Smith printed 
a * Poem to the Memory of Mr. John 
Philips/ which was reprinted in Lintot's 
' Miscellaneous Poems and Translations ' 
(1712). Leonard Welsted, too, published 
in 1710 * A Poem to the Memory of the In- 
comparable Mr. Philips,' with a dedication 
to St. John. Tickell, in his < Oxford ' (1707), 
had already compared Philips with Milton, 
saying he ' equals the poet, and excels the 
man.' Thomson praised him with more dis- 
cretion. A monument in Philips's memory, 
with the motto * Honos erit huic quoque porno/ 
from the title-pa^e of ' Cyder/ was erected 
in Westminster Abbey in 1710, between the 
monuments to Chaucer and Drayton, by 
Simon Harcourt (first viscount Harcourt) 
[q. v.] The long epitaph was commonly 
attributed to Robert Freind [q. v.], though 
Johnson, on hearsay evidence, credited Atter- 
bury with the authorship. Crull said the lines 
were by Smalridge, and there is a well-known 
story that the words ' Uni in hoc laudis 
genere Miltono secundus ' were obliterated 
by order of Sprat, who was then dean, but 
were restored four years later by Atterbury, 
who did not feel the same horror at Milton's 
name appearing in the abbey (STANLEY, 
Westminster Abbey, pp. 261-2). An examina- 
tion of the monument, however, reveals no 


indication that the words were at any time 

Philips, according to the testimony of all 
who knew him, was amiable, patient in ill- 
ness, and vivacious in the society of inti- 
mate friends. His poems, written in revolt 
against the heroic couplet, between the 
death of Dryden and the appearance of Pope, 
occupy an important position in the history 
of English literature. As author of f Cyder/ 
Philips was a forerunner of Thomson in his 
love of nature and country life. 

An edition of Philips's ' Poems/ with a 
1 Life ' by George Sewell, was brought out 
by Curll in 1715 ; each part of the volume 
has a separate register and pagination. There 
was another edition in 1720. In some copies 
' Cyder ' is a reprint, while in others it is 
the 1708 edition bound up with the other 
pieces. ' II Sidro/ translated into Tuscan by 
Count L. Magalotti, appeared in 1749; and 
an edition of ' Cyder,' with very full notes 
by Charles Dunster, illustrative of local 
allusions and of Philips's imitations of earlier 
writers, was published in 1791. Thomas 
Tyrwhitt translated the < Splendid Shilling r 
into Latin. 

A painting of Philips, by Riley, is in the 
library at Nuneham-Courtenay (Description 
of Nuneham-Courtenay, 1806, p. 16) ; and 
there are engravings, after Kneller, by M. 
Vandergucht in Philips's 'Poems'(1715), and 
by T. Cook in Bell's ' Poets ' (1782). There 
is also a folio engraving, by Vandergucht, in 
an oval frame ; and a portrait, from a painting 
in the possession of the Rev. Mr. Lilly, is 
given in Duncumb's ' Hereford ' (vol. ii.) 

[The first life of Philips was that by Sewell, 
published in 1715; it was ehort, and contained 
little positive information. Further details were 
added in the article in the Biographia Britan- 
nica, in Johnson's Lives of the Poets, and in 
Cunningham's notes to that work. Besides the 
books cited, reference may be made to the fol- 
lowing : Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 327, 
3rd ser. i. 452, 497, ii. 12, 4th ser. v. 582, vi. 
37, 5th ser. ix. 258, 397 ; Gent. Mag. 1780, pp. 
280, 365 ; Bromley's Portraits, p. 236 ; Noble's- 
Cont. of Granger; Disraeli's Quarrels of Au- 
thors, p. 255 ; Nichols's Lit. Jllustr. iy. 98, and 
Lit. Anecd. iii. 147, v. 102, viii. 164, ix. 593; 
Duncumb's Collections towards the History of 
the County of Hereford, i. 572-7, ii. 245-9 ; Le 
Neve's Mon. Angl. (1700-15), p. 156; Hacketfs 
Epitaphs, i. 99-103 ; Spence's Anecdotes (1858), 
p. 261.] G. A. A. 

PHILIPS, KATHERINE (1631-1664), 
verse-writer, daughter of John Fowler, a 
merchant of Bucklersbury, in the city of 
London, andKatherine, his wife, third daugh- 
ter of Dr. John Oxenbridge, was born in the 





parish of St. Mary Woolchurch on 1 Jan. 
1631, and was there baptised on 11 Jan. fol- 
lowing. She owed her early education to a 
cousin, a Mrs. Blacket, and at the age of 
eight was sent to a then fashionable board- 
ing school at Hackney, kept by Mrs. Salmon. 
Mrs. Fowler, after the death of her husband, 
married Hector Philips of Forth Eyuon, and 
her daughter became, in 1647, the second 
wife of James Philips of the Priory, Cardi- 
gan, the eldest son of Hector Philips by a 
former marriage. Katherine Philips, after her 
marriage, divided her time between London 
and her husband's house at Cardigan. She 
gathered about her a society of friendship, 
the members of which were distinguished by 
various fanciful names, her husband appear- 
ing as Antenor, Sir Edward Bering as Sil- 
vander, and Jeremy Taylor as Palfemon. She 
herself adopted the pseudonym of Orinda, by 
which, with the addition of the epithet 
' matchless,' she became widely known to 
her contemporaries. From early life of stu- 
dious habits, she devoted herself to the com- 
position of verses. Her earliest verses to 
appear in print were those prefixed to the 
poems of Henry Vaughan, 1651, and to the 
collected edition of Cartwright of the same 
year. Other verses, handed about in manu- 
script, secured her a considerable reputation ; 
and when, in 1662, she journeyed to Dublin 
to prosecute a claim of her husband to cer- 
tain lands in Ireland, she was received with 
great consideration in the family of the 
Countess of Cork. While in Dublin she 
became acquainted with Lord Roscommon 
and the Earl of Orrery, and the approval of 
the latter encouraged her to complete a 
translation of Corneille's l Pompee,' which 
was produced there in the Smock-Alley 
Theatre with great success in February 1662- 
1663. The piece was printed in Dublin in 
1663, and in London, in two different editions, 
in the same year. It was followed by a surrep- 
titious and unauthorised edition, dated 1664, 
of her miscellaneous poems, which caused her 
so much annoyance that Marriott, the pub- 
lisher, was induced to express his regret, and 
his intention to forbear the sale of the book, 
in an advertisement in the London ' Intelli- 
gencer 3 of 18 Jan. 1664. At the height of 
her popularity Mrs. Philips was seized with 
smallpox, and died in Fleet Street on 22 June 
1604. She was buried in the church of St. 
Benet Sherehog. She had two children : a 
son Hector, born in 1647, who lived only 
forty days ; and a daughter Katherine, born 
13 April 1656, who married Lewis Wogan of 
Boulston in Pembrokeshire. 

The verses of ' the matchless Orinda ' were 
collected and published after her death under 

the supervision of Sir Charles Cotterel(1667, 
folio) . ' Pompey ' was included in the volume, 
and also a portion of a translation of Corneille's 
' Horace,' which was begun in 1664. There 
is prefixed a portrait of Mrs. Philips, en- 
graved by Faithorne from a posthumous bust. 
Many details of the life of Orinda are to be 
gathered from the 'Letters of Orinda to 
Poliarchus' (Sir Charles Cotterel), printed 
in 1705, and, with additions, in 1709. The 
later edition contains a portrait engraved by 
Vandergucht, apparently from the same bust 
as that which Faithorne used. 

Orinda's fame as a poet, always consider- 
ably in excess of her merits, did not long- 
survive her, though Keats, writing to J. H. 
Reynolds in 1817, quoted with approval her 
verses to l Mrs. M. A. at parting.' Jeremy 
Taylor addressed to her his ' Letter on the 
Measures and Offices of Friendship.' 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 434, v. 202 ; 
Addit. MS. 24490, f. 426 ; Meyrick's Cardigan- 
shire, p. 101 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
iii. 787; Granger's Biogr. Hist. 1779,iii. 103-4; 
Ballard's Memoirs of British Ladies, p. 201 ; 
Edmund Gosse's Seventeenth Century Studies.! 

Gr. T. D. 

PHILIPS, MILES (fl. 1587), mariner, 
was with Captain John Hawkyns in his 
voyage of 1568, and was one of those who, 
to the number of 114, were put on shore 
near Panuco, after the disaster at San Juan 
de Lua [see HAWKINS or HAWKYNS, SIK 
JOHN]. After losing many of their com- 
panions in skirmishes with the Indians, 
they reached Panuco, where the Spanish go- 
vernor thrust them into a filthy dungeon, 
and threatened to hang them. They were 
afterwards sent to Mexico and allotted as 
servants, each Spaniard who took one being 
bound to produce him when called on. After 
several months in Mexico as a domestic ser- 
vant, Philips was appointed overseer at a 
silver mine, where in the course of three or 
four years he accumulated some four thou- 
sand pieces of eight. But in 1574 the in- 
quisition was established in Mexico, and, by 
way of a beginning, the inquisition seized all 
the English, stripped them of the money they 
had saved, and charged them with being Lu- 
theran heretics. Philips, with others, was re- 
quired to say the paternoster, Ave Maria, and 
the creed in Latin, and was questioned as to 
his belief concerning the bread and wine after 
consecration. Many of them were cruelly 
racked ; and after close and solitary impri- 
sonment for upwards of a year and a half, 
they were brought up for judgment. Three 
of the party were sentenced to be burnt : 
several to be severely flogged and to serve in 
the galleys for six, eight, or ten years. Philips 




was condemned to serve five years in a monas- 
tery, wearing ( a fool's coat or San Benito ' 
of yellow cotton with red crosses on it. 

When the five years came to an end he 
was allowed to go free, but not to quit the 
country. He bound himself for three years 
to a silk-weaver. Afterwards, on news of 
Drake having landed at Acapulco, he was 
sent there as interpreter, with a body of two 
hundred soldiers. After searching along the 
coast to Panama, and learning that Drake 
liad certainly departed, they returned to 
Mexico, and, a month later, Philips succeeded 
In escaping to Vera Cruz, where he hoped to 
get on board a ship. He was, however, appre- 
hended, but managed to escape to the woods, 
where he fell in with some Indians, who guided 
him to Puerto de Cavallos in Honduras, 
whence he obtained a passage to Havana. 
There he entered as a soldier, and was sent 
to Spain. At San Lucar he was denounced as 
an Englishman, but he got away to Seville, 
afterwards entered again as a soldier on board 
a galley bound to Majorca, and there found 
an English ship which carried him to Eng- 
land. He landed at Poole in February 1581- 

Such is the outline of the story told by 
Philips himself to Hakluyt ; but beyond the 
facts that he was put on shore by Hawkyns, 
that the inquisition was established in Mexico 
in 1574, and that he returned to England, it 
is uncorroborated. The outlines of his story 
may however be true. 

Having arrived in England in February 
1581-2, Philips would seem to have sailed 
from Southampton with John Drake in the 
following May. On 29 Jan. 1586-7 he 
was rescued by Captain Lister of the Clifford 
near the Earl of Cumberland's watering-place 
on the River Plate, that is, close to where 
John Drake was wrecked in 1582. He ap- 
pears to have returned to England in the 

[Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, iii. 469 et 
seq., 727, 772.] J. K. L. 


(1795-1831), artist, was the youngest son of 
John Leigh Philips of Mayfield, Manchester, 
where he was born on 9 June 1795. His 
father, besides gaining great popularity as ! 
lieutenant-colonel commandant of the Man- j 
Chester and Salford volunteers, formed a re- j 
markable collection of books, pictures, and j 
other works of art which, on his death in | 
1814, were dispersed at a sale that extended j 
over nineteen days. Philips was educated j 
at the Manchester grammar school, and after- j 
wards entered the university of Edinburgh, 
with the intention of qualifying for the 

medical profession. While pursuing his 
medical studies he made the acquaintance, 
among many brilliant men then resident in 
Edinburgh, of Sir William Allan [q. v.] and 
other distinguished artists of the Scottish 
school. By their advice he ultimately adopted 
art as a profession. 

The possession of a moderate competency 
enabled him to prepare himself thoroughly 
for his new vocation. In 1824 he went to 
Italy for three years, and so greatly was his 
talent appreciated in Rome that, on the 
death of Fuseli, he was, in 1825, elected to 
fill his place as a member of the academy of 
St. Luke. On his return to England he 
settled in Liverpool, where he worked in- 
dustriously. He exhibited landscapes at the 
Liverpool Academy and the Royal Manches- 
ter Institution. The work by which he is 
best remembered is a series of twenty-eight 
engravings on copper, many of them beauti- 
fully executed by himself from his own 
drawings, of old halls in Lancashire and 
Cheshire. These were originally issued in 
1822-4, and there is some doubt if more 
than twenty-five were then printed. All 
were reissued in book form in 1893, ' with 
descriptive letterpress by twenty-four local 
contributors ' and a memoir of the artist. 
Philips, who also practised etching, died un- 
married at his residence, Rodney Street, 
Liverpool, on 1 Aug. 1831. His work is 
remarkable for accuracy, and is bold and 
masterly. A drawing, in sepia, in the pos- 
session of the writer, depicts the Windmills 
at Bootle near Liverpool. 

A portrait of Philips was introduced by 
Sir William Allan, P.R.S.A., in the prin- 
cipal group of his picture ' The Circassian 

[Manchester School Register (Chetham Soc.) ; 
Mem. by W. Morton Philips in new edition of 
N. G-. Philips's ' Views/ 1893.] A. N. 

PHILIPS, PEREGRINE (1623-1691), 
nonconformist preacher, was born at Am- 
roth, Pembrokeshire, of which parish his 
father was vicar, in 1623. He was, educated 
first at the grammar school, Haverlbrdwest, 
afterwards by Sir Edward Harley's private 
chaplain at Brampton-Bryan, Herefordshire, 
and then by Dr. William Thomas (after- 
wards bishop of St. David's). He proceeded 
to Oxford, but the outbreak of the civil war 
soon put an end to his studies. He now 
took orders, acted for some time as curate to 
his uncle, Dr. Collins, at Kidwelly, Carmar- 
thenshire, and then received the rectory of 
Llangwm and Freystrop in his native county. 
His talents as a preacher in Welsh and Eng- 
lish soon attracted the notice of the puritan 




gentlemen of the district, who procured for 
him the livings of Monkton, St. Mary's, Pem- 
broke, and Cosheston. He preached regularly 
every Sunday in his churches, and in 1648, 
at Cromwell's request, discoursed to the 
officers engaged in the siege of Pembroke. 
Throughout the Commonwealth period he 
held an influential position, being a member 
of the county committee which dealt with 
' scandalous ' ministers. He refused to con- 
form in 1662, accordingly lost his livings, and 
settled at Dredgman Hill, a farm near Haver- 
fordwest, let to him by his friend Sir Her- 
bert Perrot of Harroldston, where he spent 
the rest of his life as a nonconformist preacher. 
During the reign of Charles II he was sub- 
ject to much persecution, suffering imprison- 
ment twice; nevertheless he continued to 
preach at every opportunity, and his house 
was recorded as a congregationalist preach- 
ing station under the first Declaration of In- 
dulgence (1672). The church he had formed 
in 1668 is mentioned in the list drawn up by 
Henry Maurice of Abergavenny in 1 675. On 
the issue of the second Declaration of Indul- 
gence (1687) Philips again took out a license 
for his own house and another in Haverford- 
west, and preached in these until his death 
on 17 Sept. 1691. Though fearless and in- 
defatigable in his work, he was reckoned a 
moderate man, and ' took no small pleasure/ 
says Calamy, * in reconciling differences.' 

[Calamy's Nonconformists' Memorial, ed. 
Palmer, 1775, ii. 629-32; Rees's Protestant 
Nonconformity in Wale^, edit. 1883, pp. 178 
192, 225-8.] J. E. L. 

PIETRO (fl. 1580-1 621), musical composer, 
was born in England, but spent his life on 
the continent. He was organist at Bethune 
in Flanders, and later became one of the 
three organists to the Archduke Albert and 
Archduchess Isabella, who were regents of the 
Netherlands from 1596 to 1621. On 9 March 
1610 Philips was appointed canon of St. 
Vincent's, Soignies. In 1621 he was present 
at the funeral of the archduke (FETIS). 
Peacham describes hi mas ' one of the greatest 
masters of music in Europe.' Burney credits 
him with being an early writer of the regular 
fugue on one subject. 

He published many works at Antwerp, 
including: 1. Contributions to 'Melodia 1 
Olympica di diversi eccellentissimi musici a 
4, 5, 6, 8 voci,' 1591, reprinted in 1594 and 
1611. 2. 'II primo libro di Madrigali a 6,' 
1596. 3. ' Madrigali a 8,' dedicated to Sir 
William Stanley, 1598-9. 4. <I1 secondo 
libro di Madrigali a 6,' 1603-4. 5. ' C 

Same a 5,' 1612. 6. 

Cantiones Sacra} a 8,' 

1613. 7. ' Gemmulae Sacrse, a 2 3 voci, cum 
basso continue ad organum/ 1613-14, 1621. 
8. ' DeliciaB Sacrae binis et ternis vocibus/ 
1622. 9. ' Litanife B. V. M. in ecclesia Lore- 
tana cani solitse, a 4, 5, 9,' 1623. 10. ' Para- 
disus Sacris Cantionibus a 2, 3, cum basso/ 

A little devotional book, ' Les Rossignols 
spirituels/ of which the hymns in two and 
i four parts were founded on the harmonies of 
Philips, was published at Valenciennes, 1616 ; 
Philips's ( O Pastor seterne ' is in Jewell's 
Mottett book ; Hawkins reprinted the madri- 
gal ' Voi volete' (Hist. p. 483) ; Simpson has 
some of Philips's pieces in the / Tafelcon- 
; sort/ and ' Amor che vuoi' has been re-edited 
by Mr/Barclay Squire, 1890. 

Manuscript music by Philips is in the Bri- 
tish Museum Addit. MSS. 14938, 17802-5 
(among pieces by old English composers a 
* Pater noster ' and * Sancte Deus ' by ' Master 
Philip van Wilder/ presumably meant for 
Philips), 18938, 29366, 31390 (fifteen pieces). 
Among the virginal music at the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, there is a pavan dated 
1580, said to be ' the first one Philips made/ 
Several of his pieces for the lute are in the 
Royal College of Music (No. 1964 in HUSK'S 

Another musician, ROBERT PHILIPS (fl. 
1543-1559 ?), is said by Foxe to have been a 
gentleman of the King's chapel at Windsor, 
Foxe describes Philips as ' so notable a sing- 
ing man (wherein he gloried) that where- 
soever he came the best and longest song, 
with most counter verses in it, should be sett 
up at his coming.' While at Windsor, Foxe 
continues, ' against his coming to the an- 
them e, a long song was set up called " Laudate 
vivi." In which song there was one counter 
verse toward the end, that began on this 
wise, " Redemptrix, Salvatrix," which 
verse of all other Robert Philips would sing, 
because he knew that [a fellow member of 
the choir named] Test wood could not abide 
that dittie. Now Testwood joyned with him 
at the other part ; and when he heard R. P. 
begin to fetch his flourish with " O Redemp- 
trix et Salvatrix," repeating the same in one 
anothers' necks, Testwood was as quick on 
the other side to answer him again with 
" Non Redemptrix, nee Salvatrix," and so 
striving there with " O " and " Non," who 
should have the masterie, they made an end 
of the verse. . . . Robert Philips, with 
other of Testwood's enemies, were sore of- 
fended ' (FoxE, Acts, v. 469). 

[Burney's Hist. iii. 86 ; Peacham's Compleat 
Gentleman, p. 102 ; Gerber's Musik-lexicon, 
Theil iii. col. 695 ; Fetis's Biographic, torn. vii. 
p. 38 ; Grove's Diet. ii. 705.] L. M. M. 





(1661-1751), governor of Nova Scotia, was 
born in England in 1661, and seems to have 
entered the army as lieutenant in Lord Mor- 
peth's regiment of foot on 23 Feb. 1678. He 
served under William III in the war against 
James, and was present at the Boyne in 1690. 
Later he was commissioned to raise a regiment 
for service in New England, and was made 

of her French priests and attendants in Au- 
gust 1626. He left Rome for England in 
order to take up this position on 29 Aug. 
1628, in company with Father Henry Morley. 
He seems to have possessed influence over 
the queen, and it \vas to him that she appealed 
to intercede with the pope for aid against the 
Long parliament in 1640. Philips represented 
to her, as the pope's nuncio Rossetti had 

its lieutenant-colonel in 1712; this regiment already done, that help could not be given 

was afterwards the 40th foot. In 1717 he unless her husband were a catholic. He 

seems to have administered the province for afterwards informed Rossetti that the queen 

some months, but returned to England before na d promised him that, if the pope would 

1719, when he came out with a commission, 

as * captain-general,' and with instructions 
to form the first separate council of Nova 
-Scotia. He stayed at Boston from September 
1719 till 6 April 1720, and was honourably 
received as the new governor (SEWALL, 

On his arrival at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, 
in April 1720, Philips found some difficulty 
in forming his council. He composed it 
largely of his own officers without reference 
to their military rank ; this led to internal 
dissensions, which hindered Philips from 
dealing effectively with the discontent of 
the French settlers. The latter refused to 
take the oath of allegiance to the governor, 
and thus set on foot what is known in his- 
tory as the Acadian affair. Philips seems 
to have inclined towards coercing the dis- 
affected Frenchmen, but was discouraged 
by the home authorities. In 1722, accord- 
ingly, he went home for further instructions, 
leaving his lieutenant, Paul Mascarene [q. v.], 
to continue the struggle. He had returned 
to Annapolis by 1729, and came to a better 
understanding with the Acadians, making a 
beginning of local government for the French 
inhabitants. Returning again to England 
after 1730, he remained nominally governor, 
but neglected his duties. His deputy, Mas- 
carene, according to his own account, could 
not properly attend to the needs of the troops 
because of ' the parsimony or peculation of 
Philips.' Philips apparently became a gene- 
ral before he resigned the government of Nova 
Scotia in 1749. He died in England in 1751. 

_ [Collections of Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, passim; Nova Scotia Historical Collections, 
vol. ii. 22-4, v. 69-76 ; Haliburton's History of 
Nova Scotia, i. 93 ; Drake's Dictionary of Ameri- 
can Biography ; Winsor's Hist, of America, v. 
122, 409-10.] C. A. H. 

PHILIPS, ROBERT (d. 1650?), con- 
fessor to Queen Henrietta Maria, and an ora- 
torian or father of the Oratory, is described 
as of Scottish origin. He was attached to 
the service of the queen after the expulsion 

send her money, the king on regaining his 
authority would grant liberty of worship in 
all his kingdoms. These negotiations, in which 
the queen was probably the only serious par- 
ticipator, became known by rumour to the 
House of Commons, and were construed 
by them to signify a ' popish plot.' Early in 
1641 a letter from Philips to his friend and 
fellow-oratorian Walter Montagu [q. v.] was 
intercepted, and he was sent for by the house. 
Having managed to evade the first summons, 
a warrant was issued for his arrest. But 
when the sergeant-at-arms arrived at his 
rooms in Whitehall, Philips was not to be 
found. On the following day, however, 
25 June 1641, by the king's direction, he ap- 
peared before the house, and excused his pre- 
vious non-appearance on the ground that the 
warrant was in the name of Francis Phillips 
(the name of another of the queen's priests). 
After some delay he admitted the authen- 
ticity of the letter. Subsequently articles 
of impeachment, containing a number of 
vague charges, such as that he had attempted 
to pervert Prince Charles and was, together 
with Sir Tobie Matthew [q. v.], a secret emis- 
sary and spy of the pope, were exhibited 
against him. Richard Browne, the English 
ambassador at Paris, reported that Richelieu 
was much displeased by the mention made of 
his name in these articles. The articles were 
ultimately allowed to drop, as was also the 
proposal, substituted by Pym, that Philips 
should be banished as ' tending to prejudice 
the state,' together with the queen's 'capu- 
chins. Philips was merely ordered to hold 
limself in readiness to appear again when 
sent for. The lords' committee summoned 
him on 2 Nov. 1641 to be sworn and ex- 
amined ' touching state matters ' by the lords' 
committee. Thinking that some one had be- 
trayed the secret of the queen's negotiations 
with Rome, he raised the preliminary objec- 
tion that the English bible was no true bible, 
and that he could not be sworn on it. The lords 
committed him to the Tower. There it was 
stated that numerous catholics resorted to 
see him. During the month the queen wrot e 




a diplomatic letter to tlie speaker on his be- 
half. In December, upon his own petition, 
he was removed to Somerset House, on con- 
dition of his not going near the court. Sub- 
sequently, in March 1642, he and another 
priest accompanied Henrietta Maria to The 
Hague. Foley states that he died at Paris 
about 1650 at a ripe old age. 

[Nalson's Collection of Affairs of State, li. 3 1 0, 
315, 594,597,605,691; Eushworth's Collections, 
iv. 301 ; Letters of Queen Henrietta Maria, ed. 
Green, D. 50 ; Panzani's Memoirs, p. 90 ; Foley's 
Eecords", v. 1008; Clarendon Kebellion, v. 183- 
184 ; Gardiner's Hist. vols. ix. x. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1641-3.] T. S. 

PHILIPS, ROWLAND (d. 1538?), war- 
den of Merton College, was educated at Oriel 
College, Oxford, and was proctor of the 
university in 1496. He became a ' great 
divine and a renowned clerk,' being especially 
famed as a preacher. He held the rectory 
of St. Margaret Pattens until 1515. On 
14 Aug. 1517 he was appointed rector of 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, and on 28 Nov. fol- 
lowing prebendary of Neasdon in St. Paul's. 
In 1521 he was elected warden of Merton, 
being the first warden who was neither 
scholar nor fellow of the College previously. 
He was admitted D.D. 2 June 1522, and 
became vicar of Croydon in the same year. 

Philips took a prominent part in convoca- 
tion in 1528 in opposing Cardinal Wolsey's 
proposals for a subsidy. He preached at the 
funeral of Thomas Ruthal, bishop of Durham, 
* in St. John Baptist Chapel adjoining the 
Abbey of Westminster,' in 1522. In 1524 
he was made precentor of Hereford Cathedral 
(26 Nov.) At the end of that year he offered 
to resign his wardenship of Merton on con- 
dition that Dr. Moscroffe's name should be 
among the three to be submitted to the 
visitor in, his place, but on the fellows re- 
jecting this compromise he resigned abso- 
lutely in 1525. His religious opinions were 
not those of Cromwell. He resigned the 
rectory of St. Michael's, Cornhill, and the 
vicarage of Croydon in May 1538, receiving 
a pension of 127. in consideration of his ad- 
vanced years. He probably died in the same 
year (NEWCOTTRT, i. 185, 483). 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ; Manuscript, Eecords 
of the Wardens of Merton ; Brodrick's Memorials 
of Merton College, esp. pp. 51, 163 ; Dugdale's 
Monasticon ; Dodd's Church History, i. 209; 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 1522-38, 
passim; Garrow's Croydon, p. 298; Foster's 
Alumni.] C. E. B. 

PHILIPS, WILLIAM (d. 1734), dra- 
matist, was son of George Philips of London- 
derry[q.v.], and at an early age applied himself 

to writing for the stage. A tragedy, entitled 
The Revengeful Queen ' (London, 1698, 8vo), 
acted at Drury Lane in 1698, is the first 
ascribed to him. The subject was taken from 
Machiavelli's ' History of Florence,' and the 
scene was laid in Verona. The piece has 
resemblances to D'Avenant's 'Albovine,King- 
of the Lombards,' of which Philips, in the 
printed edition, says he was ignorant until he 
had completed his own work (GENEST, Hist. 
Account, ii. 142). Philips's next play was ' St. 
Stephen's Green, or the Generous Lovers,' a 
comedy in five acts; it was performed at the 
Theatre Royal, Dublin, and printed in that 
city in 1700. In the last act a musical 
dialogue in verse was introduced ; the scene 
throughout was in Dublin. The author, in 
a dedication to William O'Brien, earl of 
Inchiquin, mentioned that the play had been 
favourably received by the public. Copies of 
this work are rare. A tragedy, by Philips, en- 
titled ' Hibernia Freed,' was produced with 
success, on 13 Feb. 1722, at the Theatre 
Royal, Lincoln's Inn Fields, and published 
in 8vo, London, 1722. The subject was 
the liberation of Ireland and its monarch, 
O'Brien, from the tyranny of ' Turgesius,' a 
Danish invader. The capture and deaths of 
the Dane and his associates were represented 
to have been effected by armed young men, 
attired as maidens. The part of ' Turgesius' 
was acted by Quin, who also spoke the pro- 
logue, and the epilogue was delivered by 
Mrs. Bullock (ib. iii. 79-80). Philips dedi- 
cated this play to Henry O'Brien, earl of 
Thomond. On 14 April 1722 another of 
Philips's tragedies/ Belisarius'(London;1724, 
8vo), was performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
and repeated six times. It contains the 
line, spoken by the hero, 'Who will give an 
obolus to relieve my wants?' which seems to 
have become a slang phrase in the form ' Give 
a penny to Belisarius the general.' Gibbon 
quotes the expression in his account of Beli- 
sarius, and says it is due to an historical 
misconception (ib. iii. 146-7). Another tra- 
gedy, l Alcamenes and Menelippa,' is ascribed 
to Philips in William Mears's ' Catalogue of 
Plays ' (1713'). He died on 12 Dec. 1734 
(Gent. Mag. 1734, p. 703). 

[Ware's Writers of Ireland, 1 746 ; Biographia 
Dramatica, London, 1812; O'Donoghue's Poets 
of Ireland, p. 204 ; Plays by Philips.] J. T. G. 

1884), divine and author, born in London 
on 5 Feb. 1821, was the fifth son of Joseph 
Phillimore [q. v.], regius professor of civil 
law, and brother of Sir Robert Joseph Philli- 
more [q. v.], judge of the admiralty court. 
He was educated successively at Westmin- 




ster School, Charterhouse, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1842, 
and M.A. in 1844. Taking holy orders, he 
was curate successively at Henley-on-Thames 
and at Shiplake. In 1851 he became vicar 
of Down-Ampney, near Cricklade, and in 
1867 he returned as rector to Henley, where 
he remained until, in July 1883, he accepted 
the crown living of Ewelme. There he died 
on 20 Jan. 1884. He married, on 16 April 
1857, Emma Caroline, daughter of Captain 
Ambrose Goddard (1779-1854) of the Lawn, 
Swindon, M.P. for Cricklade from 1837 to 

Phillimore was joint editor, with Hyde 
Wyndham Beadon and James Russell Wood- 
ford (afterwards bishop of Ely), of the * Parish 
Hymn Book/ first issued in 1863, to which 
he contributed, besides translations, eleven 
original hymns, several of which have been 
reprinted in other collections. His l Paro- 
chial Sermons ' were published in 1856 (Lon- 
don, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1885), and he was author 
of ' Uncle Z,' a story of Triberg, in the Black 
Forest (1881), and ' Only a Black Box, or a 
Passage in the Life of a Curate ' (1883). A 
memorial volume, printed at Henley in 1884, 
and edited by his daughter Catherine, con- 
tains his hymns and a few sermons. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Julian's 
Dictionary of Hymnology, p. 803 ; Times, 
22 Jan. 1884 ; Guardian, 30 Jan. 1884 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, p. 773 ; Phillimore's Works in 
British Museum.] T. S. 

PHILLIMORE, SIR JOHN (1781-1840), 
captain in the navy, third son of Joseph 
Phillimore, vicar of Orton-on-the-IIill in 
Leicestershire, and brother of Joseph Philli- 
more [q. v.], was born on 18 Jan. 1781. He 
entered the navy in the spring of 1795, on 
board the Nyrnphe frigate, with Captain 
George Murray (1759-1819) [q.v.], and was 
present in the action off Lorient on 23 June 
1795. In 1796 he followed Murray to the 
Colossus, and was in her in the battle of Cape 
St. Vincent, and when she was wrecked 
among the Scilly Islands in December 1798. 
He was again with Murray in the Edgar in 
the Baltic, but having been sent to the Lon- 
don, Sir Hyde Parker's flagship, to pass his 
examination, was in her when the battle of 
Copenhagen was fought. He was then acting 
as signal-midshipman, and made the cele- 
brated signal to Nelson to discontinue the 
action. The first lieutenant of the Edgar 
having been killed in the battle, Phillimore 
was promoted to the vacancy ; he was after- 
wards in the London, the Spartiate, and the 
Gannet sloop, and was made commander on 
10 May 1804. In October 1805 he was ap- 

pointed to the Cormorant armed ship in the 
North Sea, and in September 1806 was moved 
to the Belette, a fine 18-gunbrig, on the Downs 
station and off' Boulogne under Commodore 
Owen. In the spring of 1807 he convoyed 
three storeships to the Baltic for the relief of 
Colberg, then besieged by the French under 
Augereau. The Belette afterwards joined the 
fleet under Admiral Gambier at Copenhagen, 
and, as a mark of the admiral's approval of 
Phillimore's services, was sent to England 
with the despatches. Accordingly Philli- 
more was advanced to post rank on 13 Oct. 
1 807, but remained in command of the Belette, 
which returned to the Baltic, and in February 
1808 brought Lord Hutchinson to England 
from Gothenburg. For some months in 1809 
Phillimore commanded the Marlborough in 
the Scheldt, and in June 1810 was appointed 
to the Diadem, a 64-gun ship, employed as 
! a trooper with a reduced armament. The 
| navy board therefore gave orders for her to 
j be on the establishment of a 32-gun frigate, 
J with a ludicrously insufficient supply of 
j stores. Phillimore's protests were in vain, 
until, after pointing out that the paint was 
barely half of what was required, he begged 
| to be informed which side they would like 
| to have painted, the starboard or larboard. 
! It was in the course of this correspondence 
| that Phillimore, noticing that the commis- 
sioners signed themselves as used to be the 
custom for a superior office his ' affection- 
i ate friends,' signed himself in his reply as 
their ' affectionate friend,' for which he was 
promptly reprimanded. Phillimore acknow- 
i ledged the letter, and signed himself ' no 
! longer your affectionate friend.' For the 
I next three years the Diadem was . engaged 
in carrying troops or prisoners to or from 
the peninsula, and in May 1813 Phillimore 
was appointed to the Eurotas, a 46-gun 
frigate carrying light 24-pounders on the 
main deck. During the year she was attached 
to the fleet off Brest ; in January 1814 she 
was sent off Lorient to watch three frigates 
reported as ready for sea. On a dark night, 
with a strong easterly wind, they ran out 
and away to the westward. Phillimore had 
anticipated their sailing, and the next morn- 
ing had them still in sight. After chasing 
them for three days he lost them in a fog, 
and, being short of provisions and water, 
returned to England with the news of their 
escape. By the beginning of February the 
Eurotas was again at sea, and on the 25th 
fell in with the French frigate Clorinde of 
nominally equal force. The Clorinde had 
more men, and it was a question whether 
her heavy 18-pounders were not more effi- 
cient than the Eurotas's light 24-pounders. 




The action which followed was one of the 
most equal and stubborn during the war. 
By nightfall the Eurotas was completely 
dismasted ; the Clorinde had part of her fore- 
mast standing and drifted away. She was 
not, however, lost sight of. Phillimore had 
been most dangerously wounded and was 
below, but by the exertions of the first lieu- 
tenant, when morning came the Eurotas was 
jury-rigged and going five knots and a half 
towards the enemy, which was still in the 
same state as on the previous evening. It 
was a remarkable bit of seamanship, and 
must have led to a brilliant success ; but, 
unfortunately for Phillimore, the English 
frigate Dryad and the Achates sloop came 
in sight, and on their closing the Clorinde 
she struck to an evident superiority of force. 
On 4 June 1815 Phillimore was nominated a 
C.B., but his wounds rendered him for some 
years incapable of active service. In April 
1820 he accepted the command of the William 
and Mary yacht, at the disposal of the lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, Earl Talbot, by whom 
he was knighted. In March 1823 he was 
appointed to the Thetis frigate, on a roving 
commission to Mexico and the West Indies, 
coast of Africa, South America, and the 

On one of Phillimore's short visits to 
England during this time his attention was 
called to the account given in James's 
* Naval History ' then newly published of 
the action between the Eurotas and Clorinde, 
which he conceived reflected injuriously on 
the discipline of the Eurotas. The statement 
was, in effect, that the 24-pounders did not 
do as much execution as had been done in 
other actions by 18-pounders, and that the 
ship had been long enough in commission 
for her men ' to have been taught a few 
practical rules of gunnery.' Phillimore got 
forty-eight hours' leave, went up to London, 
and, armed with a stout cane, called on 
James and administered a sound thrashing, 
in compensation for which he afterwards 
paid 100/. [see JAMES, WILLIAM (d. 1827)]. 
A better known incident, still often told, 
occurred on the homeward voyage of the 
Thetis from Cape Coast Castle, where she 
had taken an effective part against the 
Ashantees. In August 1824 she put into 
St. Michael's for supplies for the sick, when 
the English residents requested Phillimore 
to have the English burial-ground conse- 
crated. Phillimore at once consented, and 
sending for the chaplain gave him an order 
to consecrate it the next day at noon. The 
chaplain demurred, and explained that only 
a bishop could consecrate. Thereupon Philli- 
more gave him an acting order as bishop of 

St. Michael's, and the ground was consecrated. 
In the following year the Thetis went up 
the Mediterranean, carrying the English am- 
bassador to Naples, and on the homeward 
voyage put into Gibraltar, just in time to 
establish a claim to the jurisdiction of the 
port, in its widest sense. Seventeen English 
merchant ships, blown from their anchors in 
a violent gale, had been driven on shore at 
the head of the bay, on Spanish territory, 
and were claimed by the Spanish comman- 
dant at Algeziras as coming under his autho- 
rity. This claim Phillimore refused to allow, 
and leading in the Thetis's boats, manned 
and armed, drove off' the Spanish troops who 
had fired on the salving party. For this 
service in salving the cargoes Phillimore re- 
ceived a letter of thanks from the merchants 
of Gibraltar, and afterwards from Lloyd's ; 
but its principal importance is as a prece- 
dent, which has been recorded for the guid- 
ance of the senior officer at Gibraltar. It 
was during this commission of the Thetis 
that Phillimore, with the consent of the ad- 
miralty, tentatively reduced the ration of 
rum from half a pint to one gill, paying the 
men savings-price for the other gill. The 
good effects of this reduction, which was, in 
the first instance, perfectly voluntary on the 
part of the men, were so evident that it was 
permanently adopted by the admiralty in 
July 1824. To Phillimore. were also due 
other changes for the comfort and improve- 
ment of the seamen, among which may be 
counted the payment of a monthly advance, 
actually adopted on board the Thetis. Cap- 
tain Drew, who served with him in every 
ship he commanded, has recorded that ' his 
mind was constantly employed in endea- 
vouring to ameliorate the condition of his 
fellow-creatures, but particularly British 
seamen ; ' that he was ' a kind protector to 
those over whom he was placed in authority 
. . . but less agreeable to those under whom 
he served.' The Thetis was paid off in No- 
vember 1826, and Phillimore had no further 

He settled in a cottage on the Thames 
near Maidenhead. The wound which he had 
received in the action with the Clorinde had 
never ceased to cause him uneasiness, and 
of the effects of it he eventually died on 
21 March 1840. He was buried in Bray 

In 1830 he married Catherine Harriet, 
daughter of Rear-admiral Raigersfeld. She 
survived him a few months, and was buried 
beside him. He left issue, besides four 
daughters, two sons, of whom the younger, 
Henry Bouchier, died an admiral and C.B. 
in 1893. 




[Memoir by Captain Andrew Drew, R.N., in 
the United Service Magazine, June 1850 ; Mar- 
shall's Eoy. Nav. Biogr. v. ( i.) 242; 
Gent. Mag. 1840, i. 652; information from Ad- 
miral Sir Augustus Phillimore, Sir John's 
nephew.] J. K. L. 

1865), jurist, eldest son of Joseph Philli- 
more [q. v.], was born on 5 Jan. 1808. He 
was educated at Westminster School and at 
Oxford. On 28 May 1824 he matriculated 
from Christ Church, of which he was faculty 
student, and graduated B. A. in 1828, having 
taken a second class in the classical schools j 
he proceeded M.A. in 1831. 

From 1827 to 1832 he held a clerkship in 
the board of control for India, and on 23 Nov. 
in the latter year was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, where he was elected a bencher 
in 1851. In 1850 Phillimore was appointed 
reader in civil law and jurisprudence at the 
Middle Temple. In 1851 he took silk, and in 
the following year he was appointed reader 
in constitutional law and legal history to the 
Inns of Court. He represented Leominster 
in the liberal interest in the parliament of 
1852-7, and spoke with ability on free trade, 
law reform, the ballot, and similar topics. 
He died on 27 April 1865 at his residence, 
Shiplake House, Oxfordshire. By his wife 
Rosalind Margaret, younger daughter of Sir 
James Lewis Knight Bruce [q. v.], he had 
issue an only son. 

Phillimore was a learned jurist and a man 
of large culture. His writings, all published 
at London (8vo), are as follows : ' Letter to 
the Lord Chancellor on the Reform of the 
Law,' 1846. 2. * Thoughts on Law Reform,' 
1847. 3. ' Introduction to the Study and 
History of the Roman Law,' 1848. 4. ' An 
Inaugural Lecture on Jurisprudence, and a 
Lecture on Canon Law,' 1851. 5. 'Principles 
and Maxims of Jurisprudence,' 1856. 6. ' In- 
fluence of the Canon Law' (in 'Oxford 
Essays'), 1858. 7. 'Private Law among the 
Romans,' 1863. 8. 'History of England 
during the Reign of George the Third ' (one 
volume only), 1863. 

[Barker a nd Stenni ng's Westminster School Re- 
gister ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. and Baronetage ; Times, 27 April 
1865 ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; 
Members of Parliament (Official Lists); Law 
Times, 6 May 1865; Gent. Mag. 1865, pt. i. p. 
802.] J. M. R. 

PHILLIMORE, JOSEPH (1775-1855), 
civilian, eldest son of Joseph Phillimore, 
vicar of Orton-on-the-IIill, Leicestershire, by 
Mary, daughter of John Machin of Kensing- 
ton, was born on 14 Sept. 1775. He was edu- 
cated at Westminster School and Oxford, 

where he matriculated from Christ Church 
on 30 May 1793, graduated B.A. in 1797, 
B.C.L. in 1800, and proceeded D.C.L. in 1804. 
Besides prizes at Christ Church for Latin 
verse in 1793 and Latin prose in 1798, Philli- 
more gained, in the latter year, the university 
English essay prize by a dissertation on 
' Chivalry,' printed in the ' Oxford English 
Prize Essays,' Oxford, 1836, vol. ii. 

Admitted a member of the College of Ad- 
vocates on 21 Nov. 1804, he practised with 
success in the ecclesiastical and admiralty 
courts, and in 1806-7 was commissioner for 
the disposal of Prussian and Danish ships 
seized by way of reprisals for the violation of 
the neutrality of Hanover by the Prussian 
government, and the submission of Denmark 
to France. In 1809 he succeeded Dr. French 
Laurence [q. v.] as regius professor of civil 
law at Oxford, chancellor of the diocese of 
Oxford, and judge of the court of admiralty 
of the Cinque ports. On 17 March 1817 
he was returned to parliament in the 
Grenville interest for the borough of St. 
Mawes, Cornwall, vacant by the death of 
his friend Francis Horner [q. v.] ; he con- 
tinued to represent it until the dissolution of 
2 June 1826. He was then (9 June) re- 
turned for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, but did 
not seek re-election on the dissolution of 
24 July 1830. 

Phillimore was one of the original mem- 
bers of a short-lived third party formed in 
1818. During his brief parliamentary career 
he distinguished himself by his able advocacy 
of catholic emancipation and his luminous ex- 
positions of international law. He was placed 
on the board of control for India upon its re- 
constitution on 8 Feb. 1822, and held office 
until the fall of Lord Goderich's administra- 
tion in January 1828. On 23 Jan. 1833 he was 
named principal commissioner for the final 
adjudication of the French claims under the 
treaties of 1815 and 1818. He also presided 
over the registration commission appointed 
on 13 Sept. 1836, and drafted the report. 
Phillimore was appointed king's advocate in 
the court of admiralty on 25 Oct. 1834, and 
chancellor of the diocese of Worcester and 
commissary of the deanery of St. Paul's in 
the same year ; chancellor of the diocese of 
Bristol in 1842, and judge of the consistory 
court of Gloucester in 1846. He retained the 
chair of civil law at Oxford until his death, 
which took place at his residence, Shiplake 
House, near Reading, on 24 Jan. 1855. 

Phillimore married, on 19 March 1807, 
Elizabeth (d. 1859), daughter of the Rev. 
Walter Bagot, rector of Blithfield, Stafford- 
shire, younger brother of William, first lord 
Bagot, by whom he had, with other issue, 


1 86 


John George, Greville, and Robert Joseph, 
all of whom are separately noticed. 

As a young man Phillimore appears to 
have had a transient connection with the 
' Edinburgh Review.' He received the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. from the university of 
Cambridge in 1834, was elected F.R.S. on 
13 Feb. 1840, and a trustee of the Busby 
charity on 23 May the same year. At Oxford 
he was long remembered for the golden 
latinity and distinguished manner in which 
he discharged the duty incident to his chair 
of presenting strangers for degrees at com- 

Phillimore edited 'Reports of Cases argued 
and determined in the Ecclesiastical Courts 
at Doctors' Commons and in the High Court 
of Delegates (1809-21),' London, 1818-27. 
3 vols. 8vo ; and l Reports of Cases argued 
and determined in the Arches and Preroga- 
tive Courts of Canterbury,' containing the 
judgments of Sir George Lee[q. v.], London, 
1832-3, 3 vols. 8vo. 

His ' Speeches delivered in the Sheldon 
Theatre, at the Commemoration holden on 
the 10th, llth, and 13th of June 1834, at 
which the Duke of Wellington presided in 
Person,' were printed at Oxford the same 
year, 4to. 

[Barker and Stenning's Westminster School 
Reg. ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. and Baronetage, 'Phillimore;' 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe's Corresp. i. 232 ; Oxford 
Univ. Gal. 1810; Lond. Gazette, 1833, p. 883; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; Mem- 
bers of Parliament (Official Lists); Cox's Recol- 
lections of Oxford, p. 75 ; Lord Colchester's Diary, 
iii. 38, 283 ; Gent. Mag. 1836 pt. ii. 423, 1855 pt. 
i. 319 ; Buckingham's Memoirs of the Court of 
England, 1811-20, ii. 211, and Memoirs of the 
Court of George IV. i. 253, 276, 279, 314, 319, ii. 
304, 367.] J. M. R. 


(1810-1885). baronet, civilian and judge, 
third son of Joseph Phillimore [q. v.], was 
born at Whitehall on 5 Nov. 1810. In 1824 
he was elected a Westminster scholar, went 
to Christ Church, Oxford, with a studentship 
in 1828, won the college prizes for Latin 
verse and Latin prose, and graduated B.A. 
with a second class in classics, 26 Jan. 1832, 
B.C.L. 14 May 1835, and D.C.L. 2 Nov. 
1838. His college friendships were nume- 
rous, lasting, and important. With Mr. 
W. E. Gladstone he was intimate through 
life, and was the first person to propose him 
as candidate for the representation of Oxford. 
Stephen and Henry Glynne, Lord Canning, 
and George Anthony Denison, afterwards 
archdeacon of Taunton and his brother-in- 
law, were also his early friends. 

From 20 Feb. 1832 to 6 April 1835 he 
held the post of a clerk in the office of the 
board of control. On 2 Nov. 1839 he was 
admitted an advocate at Doctors' Commons, 
and on 7 May 1841 was called to the 
bar at the Middle Temple, of which inn he 
ultimately became a bencher and treasurer. 
He at once obtained a considerable practice, 
and also soon received a number of ecclesias- 
tical appointments. He became commissary 
of the deans and chapters of St. Paul's and 
Westminster, official to the archdeaconries 
of Middlesex and London in 1840, and suc- 
cessively chancellor of the dioceses of Chi- 
chester in 1844, Salisbury in 1845, and 
Oxford in 1855. He found some time, too, to 
devote to literature. He brought out seve- 
ral pamphlets ' The Constitution as it is ' in 
1837, a ' Letter to Lord Ashburton ' in 1842, 
the ' Case of the Creole ' in the same year 
and some judgments of the ecclesiastical 
courts of special interest. His intimacy 
with the Grenville family, his father's friends, 
led to his being entrusted with the corre- 
spondence of George, lord Lyttelton, from 
1734 to 1773, preserved at Hagley, which 
he edited with notes and published in 1845. 
His practice meantime was fast increasing ; 
in his own department of the profession he 
appeared in almost every case of importance. 
He became judge of the Cinque ports in 
1855, succeeded his father in the same year 
as admiralty advocate, was appointed a 
queen's counsel in 1858, when the probate 
and divorce court was established, and in 
1862 was appointed queen's advocate and 
knighted. The American war, then raging, 
raised numbers of questions on which he, 
sometimes alone, sometimes with the attor- 
ney-general and the solicitor-general, was 
the responsible adviser of the ministry. Be- 
fore his appointment the Alabama had put 
to sea, but his opinion was constantly taken 
by the foreign secretary on other inter- 
national questions, until after the seizure of 
the confederate commissioners on board the 
British mail-steamer Trent, when he pub- 
lished a pamphlet, ' The Seizure of the 
Southern Envoys.' 

In 1847 he contested Tavi stock and Co- 
ventry both unsuccessfully : but in 1852 he 
was elected for Tavistock as a liberal-conser- 
vative, and in parliament followed his friend 
Mr. Gladstone, and gave a general support 
to the government of Lord Aberdeen. In 
1853, and also in 1854, he introduced bills 
for the amendment of the law relating to 
simony and the sale of next presentations ; 
and in 1854, with the assistance of Lord 
Brougham, he introduced and carried the 
useful act (17 and 18 Viet. c. 47) which for 




the first time, by a practical and beneficial 
revolution of procedure, enabled the ecclesi- 
astical courts to take evidence vipd voce, and 
not as before only by the slow and cumbrous 
methods of written depositions. He was also 
the author of the act of 1856 for the aboli- 
tion of the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical 
courts in suits for defamation (18 and 19 
Viet. c. 41). While in parliament he spoke 
frequently, and with effect, on questions where 
his knowledge of ecclesiastical or interna- 
tional law gave him a special authority ; his 
best speeches were those on church rates in 
May 1853, against the abandonment of the 
belligerent right to seize enemy goods in 
neutral ships in 1854, and on the dispute 
about the lorcha 'Arrow' in 1857, out of 
which the Chinese war arose. He contested 
Coventry at the general election in the 
latter year, but, failing to win the seat, did 
not again seek to enter parliament. 

In 1867 Phillimore succeeded Dr. Stephen 
Lushington [q. v.] as judge of the high 
court of admiralty and as official principal of 
the archbishopric of Canterbury or dean of 
arches, and was sworn of the privy council. 
Dr. Lushington, however, did not resign the 
mastership of faculties, an office held since 
1857 with the office of dean of arches, and 
constituting practically the emoluments of 
that post, but retained it till his death in 1873. 
Thus Phillimore for five years served the 
country as an ecclesiastical judge at a salary 
that did not pay the expenses of his office, 
and at the cost to himself of resigning his 
three chancellorships of Chichester, Oxford, 
and Salisbury. It was at the earnest request 
of Archbishop Longley that he consented to 
take this course, but only in 1873 was he 
appointed to the mastership of faculties with 
its salary of 600/. a year (see preface to his 
edition of his ' Judgments,' 1876). His chief 
ecclesiastical judgments were those in Martin 
v. Maconochie, 1868 (see DALE, Judgments 
of the Privy Council, and Sir R. Phillimore in 
Martin v. Maconochie, 1871), Elphinstone 
v. Purchas, 1870, on eucharistic ritual (see 
Law Reports, 3 Adm. and Eccl. 66 ; and 
Law Reports, 3 Privy Council, pp. 245 and 
605) ; Sheppard v. Bennett, on the doctrine 
of the Real Presence, 1869 and 1870 (Law 
Reports, 2 Adm. and Eccl. 335, and 3rd 
ditto, 167 ; and Law Reports, 2 Privy Coun- 
cil, p. 450) ; and Boyd v. Phillpotts, the 
Exeter reredos case, in 1874 (Law Reports, 
4 Adm. and Eccl. p. 297 ; and Laiu Reports, 
6 Privy Council, p. 435). In 1871 and 1872, 
at the request of the government, he tem- 
porarily held the office of judge-advocate- 
general ; and in 1875, pursuant to section 8 
of the Judicature Act, 1875, he resigned his 

ecclesiastical judgeship. He was created a 
baronet in 1881, and in March 1883 resigned 
his judgeship in the probate division of the 
high court. 

In 1879 he was president of the Associa- 
tion for the Reform and Codification of the 
Law of Nations. He served, too, on nume- 
rous royal commissions, including those on 
neutrality, naturalisation, ritual, and the 
building of the courts of justice, and also on 
the judicature and the ecclesiastical courts 
commissions. His influence upon church 
affairs through the leaders of the high church 
party was very considerable, and, as an old 
boy and a member of the governing board, 
he took a deep and continuous interest in 
the concerns of Westminster school. He 
died on 4 Feb. 1885 at The Coppice, near 
Henley-on-Thames, and was buried in Ship- 
lake churchyard. 

Phillimore belonged to a class of lawyers 
that has now passed away. He was a scholar 
both in the classic and in modern languages, 
and a jurist of wide reading. As an advo- 
cate lie displayed great industry and tact, 
and he had a polished address and a con- 
siderable gift of eloquence ; * very handsome 
and very clever' was Dean Stanley's im- 
pression of him at their first meeting in 1835 
(PKOTHERO, Life of A. P. Stanley, i. 149). 
His best forensic appearances were in his 
defence of his brother-in-law, Archdeacon 
Denison, against the charge of heresy, and 
his conduct of the Smethurst will case (see 
BALLANTINE, Experiences of a Barrister's 
Life, i. 258), of Smith v. Tebbitt (Law Re- 
ports, 1 P. and M. p. 398), the case of the 
Banda and Kirwee booty, and the Knights- 
bridge ritual case. On the bench he was 
dignified, painstaking, and courteous; and 
he delivered a series of important judgments, 
full of historical and legal knowledge, and 
luminously expressed. It is true that some 
of his ecclesiastical judgments were not 
upheld by the privy council upon appeal, 
though in the last ritual case, Read v. 
Bishop of Lincoln, the privy council deci- 
dedly returned on several points to a view 
closely approximating to Phillimore's, whose 
churclirnanship and reading of church law 
and history were of the old high-church 
type. As a judge in admiralty and matri- 
monial causes, and as an occasional mem- 
ber of the judicial committee of the privy 
council prior to 1874, he left his mark 
on the law, and that at a time when new 
practice and an increasing volume of litiga- 
tion were occasioning many new departures. 
The Teutonia (Law Reports, 3 Adm. and 
Eccl. p. 394), and the Charkieh (Law Reports, 
4 Adm. and Eccl. p. 59), in admiralty; Cheese 




v. Lovejoy (Law Reports, 2 P. D. p. 251) in 
probate ; and De Barros v. De Barros (Law 
Reports, 2 P. D. p. 81) in matrimonial case, 
are among his leading decisions. 

He was a prolific author. He published in 
1842 an edition of Dr. Burn's { Ecclesiastical 
Law,' and a subsequent edition in 1873 ; an 
* Essay on the Laws of Divorce,' 1844; a 
treatise on The Law of Domicil,' 1847 ; a 
pamphlet on the legal aspects of Russia's 
claim to intervene on behalf of the Christian 
subjects of Turkey, 1853 ; a letter to the 
archbishop of Canterbury in 1872 on clergy 
discipline. His 'Commentaries on Inter- 
national Law,' 4 vols., 1854-61, he re-edited 
in 1871 ; and three volumes of a third edi- 
tion appeared in his lifetime. A collection of 
his own leading ecclesiastical judgments from 
1867 to 1875 appeared in 1876. During the 
earlier part of his judicial career, being a good 
German scholar, he amused his leisure with 
a translation of Lessing's ' Laocoon,' which 
he published, with learned notes and prefaces, 
in 1874. 

He married, in 1844, Charlotte, third daugh- 
ter of John Denison, M.P., of Ossington Hall, 
Newark, Nottinghamshire, and sister of Vis- 
count Ossington, sometime speaker of the 
House of Commons, who died on 19 Jan. 
1892. He was succeeded in the baronetcy 
by his son, Sir Walter Phillimore, D.C.L., 
chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln. He had 
also three daughters Catherine Mary and 
Lucy, authors of several works, and Alice 
Grenville, a member of the Institute of Sick 
Nursing, 1883. 

[Times, 5 Feb. 1885; Law Journal, 7 Feb. 
1885; Law Times, 14 Feb. 1885, and 27 Oct. 
1894 ; Solicitors' Journal, 7 Feb. 1885; art. by 
H. P. Liddon in Guardian, 11 Feb. 1885 ; 
World, 11 Feb. 1885 ; Eevue du Droit Interna- 
tional, vol. xvii. No. 2, article by Professor 
Holland; Tablettes Biographiques, memoir by 
L. de la Mazure, 1885; Westminster School 
Eegister ; Carmina et Epigrammata recitata in 
aula collegiata apud Westmonasterienses, May 
1885 ; information from Sir Walter Phillimore.] 

J. A. H. 

PHILLIP. [See also PHILIP and PHY- 


PHILLIP, ARTHUR (1738-1814), 
vice-admiral and first governor of New 
South Wales, was born in the parish of All- 
hallows, Bread Street, London, on 11 Oct. 
1738. His father, Jacob Phillip, a native of 
Erankfort, was a teacher of languages ; his 
mother was Elizabeth (nee Breach), the 
widow of Captain Herbert, R.N. The boy, 
being intended for the navy, was educated 
at Greenwich, and in 1755 became a mid- 

shipman in the Buckingham; this vessel 
was on the home station till April 1756, 
and then went as second flagship under Ad- 
miral Byng to the Mediterranean, where 
Philip first saw active service. He followed 
his captain, Everett, to the larger ship, 
Union, and then to the Stirling Castle, which 
went to the West Indies in 1761. He was at 
the siege of Havannah in 1762, and was 
there promoted lieutenant on 7 June 1762. 

In 1763, when peace was declared, Phillip 
married and settled at Lyndhurst, where he 
| passed his time in farming and the ordinary 
magisterial and social occupations of a coun- 
try gentleman. But it would appear that 
I about 1776 he offered his services to the go- 
I vernment of Portugal, and did valuable work 
in that country. On the outbreak of hos- 
tilities between France and Great Britain 
in 1778, he returned to serve under his own 
flag. On 2 Sept. 1779 he obtained the com- 
mand of the Basilisk fireship ; on 80 Nov. 
1781 he was promoted post-captain to the 
Ariadne, and on 23 Dec. transferred to the 
Europe of 64 guns. Throughout 1782 he 
was cruising, and in January 1783 was 
ordered to the East Indies, but arrived home 
in May 1784, without being in action. 

In 1786 Phillip was assigned the duty of 
forming a convict settlement in Australia. 
There seems to have been some reluctance at 
the admiralty as to his undertaking the 
work (RusDEisr). ' I cannot say,' wrote Lord 
Howe to Lord Sydney, 'the little knowledge 
I have of Captain Phillip would have led me 
to select him for service of this complicated 
nature.' But Phillip proved exceptionally 
well suited for the work. From September 
1786 he was engaged in organising the ex- 
pedition, and on 27 April 1787 he received 
his formal commission and instructions. The 
' first fleet,' as it was so long called in Aus- 
tralia, consisted of the frigate Sirius, Cap- 
tain (afterwards admiral) Hunter (1738- 
1821) [q. v.], the tender Supply, three store- 
ships, and six transports with the convicts and 
their guard of marines. On 13 May 1787 it 
set sail, Phillip hoisting his flag on the Sirius. 
Dangers began early, for before they cleared 
the Channel the convicts on the Scarborough 
had formed a plan for seizing the ship. Mak- 
ing slow progress by way of Teneriffe and 
Rio Janeiro, the fleet left the Cape of Good 
Hope, where the last supplies were taken 
in, on 12 Nov. On the 25th Phillip went