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G. A. A. . . G. A. AITKEN. 
J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER. 


W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 


P. H. B. . . P. H. BAGENAL. 








G. C. B. . . G. C. BOASE. 


A. R. B. . . THE REV. A. R. BUCKLAND. 

E. I. C. . . . E. IRVING CARLYLE. 



E. M. C. . . Miss CLERKE. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. CLERKE. 


W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 


J. C. D. . . J. C. DIBDIN. 


G. T. D. . . G. THORN DRURY. 


C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 







J. T. G. . . J. T. GILBERT, LL.D., F.S.A. 


R. E. G. . . R. E. GRAVES. 

J. A. H. . . J. A. HAMILTON. 


P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 
E. G. H. . . E. G. HAWKE. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 
W. A. S. H. W. A. S. HEWINS. 


W. H. H. . THE REV. W. H. BUTTON, B.D. 


R. C. J. . . PROFESSOR R. C. JEBB, M.P. 


List of Writers. 

c. L. K. . 

J. K. . . . 

J. K. L. . 

E. L. . . . 

S. L. . . . 

E. H. L. . 

E. M. L. . 

J. E. L. . 
J. H. L. . 
M. MACD.. 
JE. M. 
P. L. M. . 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

G. P. M-Y.. 
G. LE G. N. 

C. N 

D. J. O'D. . 
F. M. O'D. . 


J. H. 0. . . 
J. F. P.. . . 
C. P. . 














. A. H. MILLAR. 






J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 

D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.R.C.S. 
R. B. P. . . R. B. PROSPER. 
J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 


W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

B. H. S. . . B. H. SOULSBY. 

G. W. S. . . THE REV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 



D. H. T. . . THE LATE D. HACK TUKE, M.D , 


R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E., C.B. 

E. T. W. . . E. T. WEDMORE. 
B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 







POCOCK, SIR GEOEGE (1706-1792), 
admiral, born on 6 March 1706, was son of 
Thomas Pocock, F.R.S., chaplain in the 
navy, by his wife, a daughter of James 
Master of East Langdon in Kent, and sister 
of Margaret, wife of George Byng, viscount 
Torrington [q. v.] In 1718 he entered the 
navy under the charge of his uncle, Streyn- 
sham Master [q. v.], on board the Superbe, in 
which he was present in the battle of Cape 
Passaro. He was afterwards for three years 
in the Looe, with Captain George Prothero, 
for a year in the Prince Frederick, and 
another in the Argyle ; and passed his ex- 
amination on 19 April 1725. From 7 Dec. 
1726 to May 1728 he was lieutenant of the 
Burford, with the Hon. Charles Stewart; 
afterwards in the Romney, with Charles 
Brown [q. v.] ; in the Canterbury, with Ed- 
mund Hook, in the fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean, under Sir Charles Wager [q. v.] ; in 
the Namur, carrying Wager's flag ; and, on 
26 Feb. 1733-4, he was promoted to be com- 
mander of the Bridgwater fireship. On 
1 Aug. 1738 he was posted to the Aldborough 
frigate, attached to the fleet in the Medi- 
terranean under Rear-admiral Nicholas Had- 
dock [q. v.] The Aldborough was paid off 
at Deptford in December 1741, and early in 
the following year Pocock was appointed to 
the Woolwich of 40 guns, which he com- 
manded in the Channel during the year. In 
January 1742-3 he was moved into the 
80-gun ship Shrewsbury, much against his 
will, the smaller ship being, he considered, 
more advantageous in time of war. During 
the few weeks he was in the Shrewsbury he 
occupied himself in pointing out her defects 
in writing to his cousin, Lord Torrington, 
and complained of being moved, against his 


will, into a large ship. His interest pre- 
vailed ; he was appointed to the Sutherland, 
of 50 guns, and sent for a cruise in the Bay 
of Biscay and on the north coast of Spain. 

In 1744 he convoyed the African trade to 
Cape Coast Castle, and brought home the 
East India ships from St. Helena. In 1745 he 
again took out the African trade, and, cross- 
ing over to the West Indies, joined Com- 
modore Fitzroy Henry Lee [q. v.], with whom, 
and afterwards with Commodore Edward 
Legge [q. v.], he continued on the Leeward 
Islands station. On Legge's death, on 
18 Sept. 1747, he succeeded to the chief 
command. Shortly afterwards, a letter from 
Sir Edward (afterwards Lord) Hawke [q. v.] 

E'.ving him the news of the victory over 
'-Etenduere on 14 Oct., warned him to 
look out for the convoy which had escaped 
(BTJEEOWS, Life of Hawke, p. 185). This 
he did with such good effect that about 
thirty of the ships fell into his hands, and 
some ten more were picked up by the priva- 
teers. Early in May 1748 he was relieved 
by Rear-admiral Henry Osborne or Osborn 

tq. v.], and returned to England in the fol- 
owing August. For the next four years he 
resided in St. James's Street, and in July 
1752 was appointed to the Cumberland on 
the home station. In January 1754 he 
commissioned the Eagle, and in March sailed 
for the East Indies, with the squadron under 
the command of Rear-admiral Charles Wat- 
son [q. y.] The squadron put into Kinsale, 
where, in a violent gale, the Eagle parted 
her cables, fell on board the Bristol, and was 
only saved from going on shore by cutting 
away her masts. The two ships were con- 
sequently left behind when the squadron 
sailed, and Pocock was ordered to take them 



to Plymouth to refit. He was not able to 
reach Plymouth till 15 April, and a few days 
later he and his ship's company were turned 
over to the Cumberland, in which he went 
out to the East Indies. 

On 4 Feb. 1755 he was promoted to be 
rear-admiral of the white, and, hoisting his 
flag on board the Cumberland, remained with 
Watson as second in command. On 8 Dec. 
1756 he was advanced to the rank of vice- 
admiral, and, on Watson's death on 16 Aug. 
1757, succeeded to the chief command. At 
Madras, in March 1758, he was joined by 
Commodore Charles Steevens [q. v.], and, 
having moved his flag to the Yarmouth of 
64 guns, he put to sea on 17 April, his 
squadron now consisting of seven small ships 
of the line, ships of 64, 60, or 50 guns. On 
the 29th, off Fort St. David, he fell in with 
the French squadron of about the same 
nominal force, all being French East India 
company's ships, except the one 74-gun ship 
which carried the broad-pennant of Comte 
d'Ach6. Pocock led the attack as prescribed 
by the English ' Fighting Instructions.' An 
indecisive action followed, the French prac- 
tising the familiar manoeuvre of withdrawing 
in succession and reforming their line to lee- 
ward. Battles fought in this manner never 
led to any satisfactory result. It generally 
happened that some of the English ships were 
unable to get into action in time; and on 
this occasion, as on many others, the cap- 
ta,ins of the rearmost ships were accused of 
misconduct. Three were tried by court- 
martial, found guilty of not using all possi- 
ble means to bring their ships into action, and 
severally sentenced to be dismissed from the 
ship, to lose one year's seniority, and to be 
cashiered. The court failed to recognise 
that the manoeuvre required of them was 
practically impossible (Minutes of the Courts- 
inartial, vol. xxxviii.) 

On 1 Aug. the two squadrons were again 
in sight of each other off Tranquebar, the 
French, with two 74-gun ships, having a 
considerable nominal superiority. It was 
not, however, till the 3rd that Pocock suc- 
ceeded in bringing them to action, and then 
in the same manner and with the same 
indecisive result. The French then went 
to Mauritius, and Pocock, having wintered 
at Bombay, returned to the Coromandel 
coast in the following spring. The French 
fleet of eleven ships did not come on the 
coast till the end of August, and on 2 Sept. 
it was sighted by the English. After losing 
it in a fog, and finding it again on the 
8th, off Pondicherry, on the 10th Pocock 
brought it to action, but again in the manner 
prescribed by the ' Fighting Instructions,' 

and with unsatisfactory results. The fight- 
ing was more severe than in the previous 
actions ; on both sides many men were killed 
and wounded, and the ships were much 
shattered, but no advantage was gained by 
either party. That the prize of victory 
finally remained with the English was due 
not to Pocock and the East Indian squadron, 
but to the course of the war in European 
waters. In the following year Pocock re- 
turned to England, arriving in the Downs 
on 22 Sept. On 6 May 1761 he was nomi- 
nated a knight of the Bath, and about the 
same time was promoted to be admiral of 
the blue. 

In February 1762 he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of ' a secret expedition/ 
destined, in fact, for the reduction of Ha- 
vana, which sailed from Spithead on 5 March, 
the land forces being under the command of 
the Earl of Albemarle [see KEPPEL, GEORGE, 
third EAEL OF ALBEMARLE]. On 26 April it 
arrived at Martinique, sailed again on 6 May, 
and, taking the shorter though dangerous 
route on the north side of Cuba, under the 
efficient pilotage of Captain John Elphin- 
ston [q. v.], landed Albemarle and the troops 
six miles to the eastward of Havana on 
7 June, under the immediate conduct of 
Commodore Keppel, Albemarle's brother 
The siege-works were at once commenced. 
A large body of seamen were put on shore, 
and ' were extremely useful in landing the 
cannon and ordnance stores of all kinds, 
manning the batteries, making fascines, and 
in supplying the army with water ' (BEATSON, 
ii. 547). By the 30th the batteries were 
ready, and on 1 July opened a heavy fire, 
supported by three ships of the line, under 
the immediate command of Captain Hervey 
of the Dragon. The Moro was engaged, 
but, after some six hours, the ships were 
obliged to haul out of action, two of them 
the Cambridge and the Dragon having* 
sustained heavy loss and much damage [see 
BRISTOL]. After this the work of the fleet 
was mainly limited to preventing any move- 
ment on the part of the Spanish ships 
which might otherwise have effectually hin- 
dered the English works. The English 
batteries gradually subdued the enemy's fire, 
though the Spaniards were materially assisted 
by the climate, which rendered the exposure 
and fatigue very deadly. By 3 July more 
than half of the army, and some three thou- 
sand seamen, were down with sickness. 
Under all difficulties, however, the siege was 
persevered with. The Moro was taken by 
storm on 30 July, and on 13 Aug. the town, 



with all its dependencies and the naen-of- 
war in the harbour to the number of twelve 
ships of the line, besides smaller vessels 
surrendered by capitulation, The money 
value of the prize was enormous. The share 
of Pocock alone, as naval commander-in- 
chief, was 122,697/. 10*. 6d. ; that of Albe- 
marle was the same. In November Pocock 
delivered over the command to Keppel, who 
had just been promoted to flag rank, and 
sailed for England with five ships of the 
line, several of the prizes, and some fifty of 
the transports. The voyage was an unfor- 
tunate one. Two of the line-of-battle ships, 
worn out and rotten, foundered in the open 
sea, though happily without loss of life. 
Two others had to throw all their guns over- 
board, and with great difficulty reached Kin- 
sale. Twelve of the transports went down 
in a gale ; many were wrecked in the Chan- 
nel, with the loss of most of their crews ; 
and, in those ships which eventually got 
safe in, a large proportion of the men died, 
worn out with fatigue, hunger, thirst, and 
cold. Pocock, in the Namur, arrived at 
Spithead on 13 Jan. 1763. 

He had no further service, and in a letter 
to the admiralty, dated 11 Sept. 1766, stated 
that ' the king had been pleased to grant his 
request of resigning his flag,' and desired 
that ' his name might be struck off the list 
of admirals/ which was accordingly done. 
It was generally believed that this was in 
disgust at the appointment of Sir Charles 
Saunders [q. v.], his junior, to be first lord of 
the admiralty. Although Saunders's patent, 
which was dated 15 Sept., may have been the 
deciding reason, the prospect of continued 
peace, his large fortune, and a wish not to 
stand in the way of his poorer friends doubt- 
less had their weight. He died at his house 
in Curzon Street, Mayfair, on 3 April 1792, 
and was buried at Twickenham. A monu- 
ment to his memory is in Westminster 

Pocock married in November 1763 Sophia 
Pitt, daughter of George Francis Drake, 
granddaughter of Sir Francis Drake of Buck- 
land Monachorum, Devonshire, third baronet, 
and widow of Commodore Digby Dent, and 
by her left issue a daughter and one son, 
George (1765-1840), created a baronet at 
the coronation of George IV. A portrait 
belongs to the family. The face is that of a 
young man, and it would seem probable that 
the ribbon of the Bath was painted in many 
years after the portrait was taken. Two en- 
gravings, one by J. S. Miller, are mentioned 
by Bromley. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iv. 383 ; Naval 
Chronicle (with portrait), viii. 441, xxi. 491; 

Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vol. ii. ; 
Gent. Mag. 1866, ii. 546; Burke's Peerage and 
Baronetage ; Official Letters and other docu- 
ments in the Public Eecord Office ; La Marine 
franchise sous le Eegne de Louis XV, par H. 
Riviere ; Batailles navales de la France, par 0. 
Troude, vol. i.] J. K L. 

POCOCK, ISAAC (1782-1835), painter 
and dramatist, born in Bristol on 2 March 
1782, was eldest son of Nicholas Pocock 
[q. v.], marine painter, by Ann, daughter of 
John Evans of Bristol. William Innes Pocock 
[q. v.] was his brother. Isaac inherited his 
father's artistic talents, and about 1798 be- 
came a pupil of Romney. After Romney's 
death he studied under Sir William Beechey 
[q. v.] He acquired something of the dis- 
tinctive style of each of his masters. William 
Hayley's son, Thomas Alphonso Hay ley, was 
a fellow student under Romney, and in 
February 1799 Pocock accompanied Romney 
on a month's visit to the elder Hayley at 
Eartham. During this visit Romney made 
drawings of his two pupils, and Hayley ad- 
dressed a sonnet to Pocock, beginning ' In- 
genious son of an ingenious sire ' (Life of 
Romney, p. 292). 

Between 1800 and 1805 Pocock exhibited 
subject-pictures and portraits at the Royal 
Academy, and occasionally sent portraits 
during the next fifteen years. In 1807 his 
'Murder of St. Thomas a Becket' was 
awarded the prize of 100/. given by the 
British Institution. In 1812 Pocock be- 
came a member of the Liverpool Academy, 
and sent to their exhibitions paintings in 
both oils and water-colours. His last his- 
torical painting was an altar-piece for the 
new chapel at Maidenhead. The Garrick 
Club has a portrait by him of Bartley as 

In 1818 Pocock inherited from his uncle, 
Sir Isaac Pocock, some property at Maiden- 
head, and thenceforth he mainly devoted 
himself to the drama. For some time he 
lived in London, and served in the Royal 
Westminster Volunteers, in which he was 
raised to the rank of major ' by the suffrage 
of its members.' He afterwards became a 
J.P. and D.L. for Berkshire, and was an 
active magistrate. Pocock died at Ray 
Lodge, Maidenhead, on 23 Aug. 1835, and 
was buried in the family vault at Cookham. 
He married, on 24 Aug. 1812, Louisa, 
daughter of Henry Hime of Liverpool, and 
left three daughters and a son (see below). 

Pocock's first piece was a musical farce in 
two acts, entitled l Yes or No.' It was pro- 
duced at the Haymarket on 31 Aug. 1808, 
and acted ten times. Genest calls it a poor 
piece, but Oulton says it had some effective 

B 2 



broad humour (GENEST, viii. 109-10 ; OUL- 
TON, London Theatres, iii. 77). It was fol- 
lowed by numerous similar productions. 

Of the musical farces, ' Hit or Miss/ 
with music by C. Smith, first given at the 
Lyceum on 26 Feb. 1810, was by far the 
most successful, being acted l at least thirty- 
three times ' (GENEST, viii. 166-7). A fourth 
edition of the printed work appeared in 1811. 
It is printed in Dibdin's ' London Theatre/ 
vol.xxiv.,as well as in Cumberland's 'British 
Theatre/ vol. xxxiv. According to the ' Dra- 
matic Censor/ it produced 'on an average 
100 guineas at half-price on every evening 
that it is given.' Its success was chiefly due 
to the playing of Mathews as Dick Cypher 
(cf. OXBERRY, Dramatic Biography, v. 5, 6). 
In 1815 Mathews rendered like service to 
Pocock's ' Mr. Farce- Writer ' at Covent Gar- 
den (GENEST, viii. 540). The piece was not 
printed. ' Twenty Years Ago/ a melodra- 
matic entertainment, was given at the Ly- 
ceum in 1810. 'Anything New/ with over- 
ture and music by C. Smith, given on 1 July 
1811, had some lively dialogue (Dramatic 
Censor ; OULTON, iii. 125) ; but the ' Green- 
eyed Monster/ produced on 14 Oct. with 
Dowton, Oxberry, and Miss Mellon in the 
cast, was denounced by the ' Dramatic Cen- 
sor' ' as a last experiment which should be 
quite final to Mr. Pocock.' It was, however, 
revived at Drury Lane in 1828, when Wil- 
liam Farren [q. v.] and Ellen Tree acted in 
it. The music was composed by T. Welsh. 
A burletta, called ' Harry Le Roy/ by Pocock, 
was also given in 1811. Pocock's 'Miller 
and his Men/ a very popular melodrama, 
with music by Bishop, which attained a 
second edition in 1813, was still played in 
1835f(cf. British Drama, 1864, vol. ii.; 
CUMBERLAND, Collection; DICK, Standard 
Plays, 1883; GENEST, viii. 441, 444, 472). 
' For England Ho ! ' a melodramatic opera, 
produced at Covent Garden on 15 Dec. 
1813, and acted ' about eleven times/ had, 
according to Genest, ' considerable merit ' 
(ib. viii. 420-1). It was published in 1814 ! 
(cf. CUMBERLAND, vol. xxxix.) 'John of 
Paris/ a comic opera adapted from the 
French, was produced at Covent Garden on 
12 Oct. 1814, and acted seventeen times. 
Liston played an innkeeper. When revived 
at the Haymarket in 1826, Madame Vestris 
was in the cast (GEXEST, viii. 475-7). It was 
again played at Covent Garden in 1835 (cf. j 
CUMBERLAND, vol. xxvi.) 'Zembuca, or the 
Net-maker/ first given at Covent Garden, as j 
' a holiday piece/ on 27 March 1815, was 
played twenty-eight times (GENEST, viii. ! 
479). The ' Maid and the Magpie,' a drama 
in three acts, a second edition of which ap- 

'It was early adopted for the 
Juvenile Drama and remained its most 
popular play' (A. E. Wilson, Penny Plain, 
Twopence Coloured (1932), pp. 83-93; C- 

peared in 1816, was adapted from the French 
of L. C. Caigniez and J. M. Baudouin. It 
was first printed in 1814 (cf. LACZ, vol. 
Ixxxvii. ; CUMBERLAND, vol. xxviii.) ' Ro- 
binson Crusoe, or the Bold Buccaneers/ a 
romantic drama in two acts, was produced as 
an Easter piece at Covent Garden in 1817, 
with Farley in the title-role, and J. S. 

revived in 1826. 

Pocock subsequently aimed at a higher 
species of composition, and converted some 
of the Waverley novels into operatic dramas. 
On 12 March 1818 his 'Rob Roy Macgregor, 
or Auld Lang Syne/ an operatic drama in 
three acts, was first played at Covent Garden. 
Macready took the title-role, ' which first 
brought him into play' (OxBEKRY, v. 41); 
Liston played Baillie Nicol Jarvie, and Miss 
Stephens Di Vernon. It was acted thirty- 
four times (GENEST, viii. 657). It was played 
at Bath, for Farren's benefit, on 15 April 
1815, when Warde was very successful as 
Rob Roy (ib. p. 672). In the revival of the 
following year Farren took Listen's place 
as the Baillie (ib. ix. 41). This play and 
Pocock's ' John of Paris ' were given together 
at Bath on the occasion of Warde's fare- 
well to the stage, on 5 June 1820 (ib. ix. 
74). Wallack played in ' Rob Roy ' at Drury 
Lane in January 1826 ; and Madame Vestris 
impersonated Di Vernon at the Haymarket 
in October 1824. The play was published in 
1818, and is in Oxberry's 'New English 
Drama/ vol. x. ; 'The British Drama/ vol. ii.; 
Lacy, vol. iii., and in Dick's 'Standard 
Plays.' ' Montrose, or the Children of the 
Mist/ three acts, produced at Covent Garden 
on 14 Feb. 1822, was not so successful, 
though it was played nineteen or twenty 
times. Liston appeared as Dugald Dalgetty 
(i*. ix. 157, 158, 570). ' Woodstock/ five- 
acts, first acted on 20 May 1826, was a com- 
parative failure, though the cast included 
Charles Kemble and Farren. ' Peveril of the 
Peak/ three acts, produced on 21 Oct. of 
the same year, was acted nine times. ' The 
Antiquary ' was also unsuccessful. ' Home, 
Sweet Home, or the Ranz des Vaches/ a 
musical entertainment, was produced at 
Covent Garden on 19 March 1829, with 
Madame Vestris and Keeley in the cast (ib. 
ix. 481). 

Besides the plays mentioned, Pocock 
wrote ' The Heir of Veroni ' and ' The Liber- 
tine/ operas, 1817 ; ' Husbands and Wives.' 
a farce, 1817; 'The Robber's Wife/ a ro- 
mantic drama in two acts, adapted from the 
German, 1829 (CUMBERLAND, vol. xxviii.; 



LACY, vol. Ixix.), music by F. Hies; "The 
Corporal's Wedding/ a farce, 1830 ; ' The 
Omnibus,' an interlude, 1831 ; ' Country 
Quarters' and 'The Clutterbucks,' farces, 
1832 ; ' Scan Mag,' farce, 1833 ; ' The Ferry 
and the Mill/ melodrama, 1833; 'King 
Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table/ 
a Christmas equestrian spectacle, 1834-5. 
' The Night Patrol/ a farce, and * Cavaliers 
and Roundheads/ an adaptation of 'Old 
Mortality/ were posthumous. 

(1819-1886), born on 28 July 1819, was 
educated at Eton, and Merton College, Ox- 
ford (B.A. in 1842), and was called to the 
bar, 19 Nov. 1847. In 1872 he printed pri- 
vately ' Franklin, and other Poems.' He 
married, on 4 April 1850, Louisa, second 
daughter of Benjamin Currey. He died on 
28 May 1886. 

[Berry's Genealogies of Berkshire, pp. 1 16-22 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1835, ii. 657-8; Eedgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers, 1889; Memoirs of T. A. Hayley, ed. J. 
Johnson, pp. 421, 449-50 ; W. Hayley's Life of 
Rornney, pp. 291-4 ; Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, 
i. 575, 787 ; Genest's Account of the English 
Stage, vol. viii. ix. passim ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Pocock's Christian name is erroneously given as 
James in Diet, of Living Authors, and some 
other places. See also Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
and Men at the Bar.] G. LE G. N. 

POCOCK, LEWIS (1808-1882), art 
amateur, born in South London on 17 Jan. 
1808, was the third and youngest son of 
Thomas Pocock, by his wife Margaret Ken- 
nedy. He was educated partly in England 
and partly at Tours in France. He was 
through life a great lover of art, and in 
1837 took the leading part in founding the 
Art Union of London. He acted as one 
of its honorary secretaries (George Godwin 
[q.v.J being his first colleague) from that 
time till his death, and in the early years of 
the union devoted much time and labour to 
his duties. In 1844 Pocock and Godwin 
brought out, in connection with the Art 
Union, an edition of the 'Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress/ illustrated by H. C. Selous. Pocock 
contributed a bibliographical chapter. 

Pocock was for many years a director of 
the Argus life-assurance office, and in 1842 
published 'A familiar Explanation of the 
Nature of Assurances upon Lives . . .with an 
extensive Bibliographical Catalogue of Works 
on the Subject.' In 1852 he patented a scheme 
for electric lighting. Pocock was an extensive 
collector of Johnsoniana of all descriptions. 
His collection was sold before his death. He 
was for some time treasurer of the Graphic 
Society, and an active member of the Society 

for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. He 
died at 70 Gower Street, London, on 17 Oct. 
1882, and was buried at Highgate. He mar- 
ried, on 6 Sept. 1838, Eliza, daughter of George 
Barrett, esq., and left twelve children. 

[Private information ; Report of the Art 
Union of London for 1883; Times, 21 Oct. 
1882 ; Builder, 28 Oct. 1882; Academy, 28 Oct. ; 
Graphic, 23 Dec. 1882 (with portrait).] 

G. LE G. N. 

POCOCK, NICHOLAS (1741 P-1821), 
marine painter, the eldest son of Nicholas 
Pocock, a Bristol merchant, by Mary, one of 
the daughters and coheiresses of William 
Innes of Leuchars, Fifeshire, was born at 
Bristol about 1741. His mother was left a 
widow with three sons, the support of whom 
devolved on Nicholas. He had little edu- 
cation, and must have gone to sea early. 
Before 1767 he was in the employ of Richard 
Champion, a merchant, who was uncle of 
Richard Champion [q. v.l the ceramist, and 
in 1767 he left Bristol for South Carolina 
in command of the Lloyd, one of Cham- 
pion's ships. He afterwards commanded the 
Minerva, another of Champion's ships. His 
talent for art showed itself in his sea journals, 
which are illustrated by charming drawings 
in Indian ink of the principal incident of each 
day. Six volumes of these journals were in 
the possession of his grandsons, George and 
Alfred Fripp, painters in water-colours. Po- 
cock was on friendly terms with the Cham- 
pions, by whom he was much esteemed. 

In 1780 Pocock sent a sea piece (his first 
attempt in oil painting) to the Royal Aca- 
demy. It arrived too late for exhibition, 
but Sir Joshua Reynolds wrote him an en- 
couraging letter, with advice as to future 
practice, and recommended him to ' unite 
landscape to ship painting.' In 1782 he ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy for the first 
time. His subject was ' A View of Redclift' 
Church from the Sea Banks/ and he con- 
tinued to exhibit (sea and battle pieces 
mainly) at the Royal Academy and the 
British Institution till 1815. In these works 
he turned to account many of his sketches in 
South Carolina and the West Indies. 

In 1789 he left Bristol and settled in Lon- 
don, where he rose to distinction as a painter 
of naval engagements. In 1796 he was living 
at 12 Great George Street, Westminster, 
where his visiting circle included many ad- 
mirals and other officers of the navy, and 
some theatrical celebrities, including the 
Kembles and Mrs. Siddons. 

In 1804 he took part in founding the 
Water-colour Society (now the Royal So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-colours), of which 




he subsequently refused the presidency ; and 
though he withdrew on the temporary dis- 
solution of the society in 1812, he continued 
to contribute to its exhibitions till 1817. 
He exhibited altogether 320 works, 182 at 
the "Water-colour Society, 113 at the Royal 
Academy, and twenty-five at the British 
Institution. In 1817 he left London for 
33 St. James's Parade, Bath, and he died 
at Maidenhead, Berkshire, on 19 March 1821, 
at the age of eighty. 

Pocock married Ann, daughter of John 
Evans of Bristol. His sons Isaac and Wil- 
liam Innes are noticed separately. 

Though Pocock earned his reputation 
mainly by his pictures of naval engagements 
(for which the wars of his time supplied 
ample material) and other sea pieces, he also 
painted landscapes in oil and water-colour. 
As an artist he had taste and skill, but his 
large naval pictures, though accurate and 
careful, are wanting in spirit, and in water- 
colours he did not get much beyond the 
'tinted' drawings of the earlier draughts- 

There are two of his sea-fights at Hamp- 
ton Court, and four pictures by him at 
Greenwich Hospital, including the 'Re- 
pulse of the French under De Grasse by Sir 
Samuel Hood's Fleet at St. Kitts in January 
1782.' The Bristol Society of Merchants 
possess a picture of the defeat of the same 
French admiral in the West Indies, 12 April 
1782. This was engraved in line by Francis 
Chesham, and published 1 March 1784, the 
society subscribing ten guineas towards the 
expense. Many others of his marine subjects 
have been engraved. 

Four of his water-colours, two dated 1790 
and one 1795, are at the South Kensington 
Museum. Three of these are of W T elsh 
scenery. Other drawings by him are in the 
British Museum and the Whitworth Insti- 
tute at Manchester. He illustrated Fal- 
coner's 'Shipwreck,' 1804, and Clarke and 
M< Arthur's ' Life of Napoleon/ 1809. The 
engravings (eight in the former and six in 
the latter) are by James Fittler. 

A portrait of Nicholas Pocock by his eldest 
son Isaac [q. v.] was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1811, and there is a caricature 
of him in A. E. Chalon's drawing of 'Artists 
in the British Institution' (see Portfolio. No- 
vember 1884, p. 219). 

[Redgrave's Diet.; Bryan's Diet. (Graves 
and Armstrong); Owen's Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art at Bristol ; Roget's ' Old ' Water- 
colour Society; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. xi. 
331, and 8th ser. iv. 108, 197, and 291 Leslie 
and Taylor's Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds ] 

C. M. 

, ROBERT (1760-1830), printer 
and antiquary, born at Gravesend, Kent, on 
21 Feb. 1760, was the second son of John 
Pocock (1720-1772), grocer. He was edu- 
cated at the free school, and, after a short 
experience of his father's business, established 
himself as a printer in his native town. He 
married in 1779 his first wife, Ann Stillard 
(d. 1791), by whom he had three children. 
In 1786 he founded the first circulating li- 
brary and printing-office at Gravesend (Po- 
COCK, Chronology, 1790, p. 14). His first 
literary productions were some children's 
books. In 1792 he married his second wife, 
a daughter of John Hinde (d. 1818), who 
bore him seven children. He published an 
excellent history of Gravesend (1797), as 
well as other contributions to the topogra- 
phical and family history of Kent. He also 
wrote a history of Dartford, and some other 
works, which were never printed. 

Pocock was a man of great versatility but, 
imperfect business capacity, and combined 
the occupations of bookseller, printer, pub- 
lisher, naturalist, botanist, and local anti- 
quary. He was proud of his collections 
(see Journals ap. AENOLD), but was obliged 
occasionally to sell specimens. His latter 
years were passed in comparative poverty. 
He died on 26 Oct. 1830, and was buried at 

Pocock's chief publications were : 1. ' Po- 
cock's Child's First Book, or Reading made 
easy,' n.d., and ' Child's Second Book/ n.d. 
(the two were bound up and sold as ' Po- 
cock's Spelling Book).' 2. 'A Chronology 
of the most Remarkable Events that have 
occurred in the Parishes of Gravesend, 
Milton, and Denton, in Kent/ Gravesend, 
1790, 8vo. 3. ' The History of the Incor- 
porated Town and Parishes of Gravesend 
and Milton in Kent/ Gravesend, 1797, 4to, 
plates. 4. ' Kentish Fragments/ Gravesend, 
1802, 8vo. 5. ' Memoirs of the Family of 
Tufton, Earls of Thanet/ Gravesend, 1800, 
8vo. 6. ' Pocock's Gravesend Water Com- 
panion, describing all the Towns, Churches, 
Villages, Parishes, and Gentlemen's Seats, 
as seen from the Thames between London 
Bridge and Gravesend/ Gravesend, 1802, 
sm. 8vo. 7. ' Pocock's Margate Water Com- 
panion/ Gravesend, 1802, sm. 8vo. (No. 6 
continued to Margate). 8. ' Pocock's Ever- 
lasting Songster, containing a Selection of 
the most approved Songs/ Gravesend, 1804, 
sm. 8vo. 9. ' Pocock's Sea Captains' Assis- 
tant, or Fresh Intelligence for Salt-water 
Sailors/ Gravesend, n.d. [1802], sm. 8vo. 
10. ' God's Wonders in the Great Deep/ n.d. 
11. ' The Antiquities of Rochester Cathedral/ 
n.d. 12. ' Memoirs of the Families of Sir 



E. Knatchbull, Bart., and Filmer Honey- 
wood/ Gravesend, 1802, 8vo. 

[G-. M. Arnold's Kobert Pocock, the Gravesend 
Historian, 1883, 8vo, which contains Pocock's 
Journals for 1812, 1822, and 1823.] H. K. T. 

1849), architect, the son of a builder, was born 
in 1779 in the city of London. He was 
apprenticed to his father, and then entered 
the office of C. Beazley. His first essays in 
art were landscape-paintings ; but at the age 
of twenty he had begun to work as an archi- 
tect. From 1799 to 1827 he exhibited de- 
signs of minor works at the Royal Academy, 
the most ambitious of which was a ' Design 
for a Temple of Fame.' In 1820-2 he de- 
signed the hall of the Leathersellers' Com- 
pany in St. Helen's Place, and in 1827 the 
priory at Hornsey. The headquarters of the 
London militia, Bunhill Row, were designed 
by him ; the Wesleyan Centenary Hall in 
Bishopsgate Street Within (1840); Christ 
Church, Virginia Water ; and a great number 
of smaller works. Pocock died on 29 Oct. 
1849 in Trevor Terrace, Knightsbridge, Lon- 

He published : 1. l Architectural Designs 
for Rustic Cottages,' London, 1807, 4to ; of 
which new editions were published in 1819 
and 1823. 2. ' Modern Finishings for Rooms,' 
London, 1811, 4to ; also republished in 1823. 
3. ' Designs for Churches and Chapels,' Lon- 
don, 1819, 4to. 4. ' Observations on Bond 
of Brickwork ' (1839), written for the In- 
stitute of British Architects, of which so- 
ciety he was an early member. 

[Diet, of Architectiire ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Gent. Mag. 1849, ii. 664.] L. B. 

1836), lieutenant in the navy and author, 
second son of Nicholas Pocock [q. v.~], marine 
painter, and younger brother of Isaac Pocock 
[q. v.], artist and dramatist, was born at Bristol 
in June 1783. He entered the navy in 1795, 
served more especially in the East and West 
Indies, and from 1807 to 1810, in the St. 
Albans, made three several voyages to the Cape 
of Good Hope, St. Helena, and China. In the 
last of these the convoy was much shattered 
in a storm off the Cape of Good Hope, and 
was detained at St. Helena to refit. During 
this time Pocock made several sketches of 
the island, which, with some account of its 
history, he published as ' Five Views of the 
Island of St. Helena ' in 1815, when public 
interest was excited in the island as the resi- 
dence allotted to Bonaparte. On 1 Aug. 1811 
Pocock was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
Eagle, with Captain (afterwards Sir Charles) 
Rowley [q.v.], and in her saw much active 

boat-service in the Adriatic. She was paid 
off in 1814, and Pocock had no further em- 
ployment afloat. He appears to have amused 
his leisure with reading, writing, and paint- 
ing ; he is described as a good linguist, and 
is said to have published in 1815 ' Naval 
Records : consisting of a series of Engravings 
from Original Designs by Nicholas Pocock, 
illustrative of the principal Engagements at 
Sea since the Commencement of the War in 
1793, with an Account of each Action' 
(WATT, Bibl. Brit.} There is no copy in the 
British Museum. He is also said to have 
written some pamphlets on naval subjects, 
none of which seem now accessible. He has 
been confused with William Fuller Pocock 
[q.v.], architect and artist. He died at Read- 
ing on 13 March 1836. He was twice mar- 
ried, and left issue. 

[Gent. Mag. 1835 ii. 657, 1836 ii. 324; Navy 
Lists.] J. K. L. 

POCOCKE, EDWARD (1604-1691), 
orientalist, was born in 1604 at Oxford, in a 
house near the Angel Inn (HEARNE, Col- 
lections, ed. Doble, ii. 125 n.}, in the parish of 
St. Peter-in-the-East, and there baptised on 
8 Nov. 1604 (register of baptisms ; WOOD, 
Athence, ed. Bliss, iv. 318 ; FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon. s.v.) His father, Edward Pocock, 
matriculated (as ' pleb. fil.' of Hampshire) at 
Magdalen College in 1585, was demy from 
1585 to 1591, held a fellowship from 1591 
to 1604, proceeded B.A. 1588, M.A. 1592, 
and B.D. 1602 (BLOXAM, Register Magd. 
Coll. iv. 225 ; CLARK, Register Univ. of Ox- 
ford, vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 147), and was ap- 
pointed vicar of Chieveley, Berkshire, in 
1604 (TwELLS,Life prefixed to the Theological 
Works of the Learned Dr. Pocock, 2 vols., 
London, 1740, i. 1). The son was educated 
at the free school at Thame, Oxfordshire, then 
under Richard Butcher, and matriculated at 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 4 June 1619 
(CLARK, Register, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 375). In 
the following year he migrated to Corpus 
Christi College, where he was admitted 
'discipulus' (i.e. scholar) on 11 Dec. 1620, 
and where his tutor was Gamaliel Chase. 
Pococke graduated B.A. on 28 Nov. 1622, 
and M.A. on 28 March 1626 (ib. vol. ii. pt. iii. 
p. 412), and was elected a probationer fellow 
of Corpus on 24 July 1628 (Register C. C. C.) 
He received priest's orders on 20 Dec. 1629 
from Bishop Richard Corbet [q. v.], in ac- 
cordance with the terms of his fellowship 
(T WELLS, I.e. i. 13). He had already begun 
to devote his attention to oriental studies, 
and had profited, first at Oxford, by the lec- 
tures of the German Arabist, Matthias Pasor 
[q. v.], and later, near London, by the in- 




struction of the learned vicar of Tottenham 
High Cross, William Bedwell [q. v.], the 
father of Arabic studies in England. The 
first result of these preparations was an 
edition of those parts of the Syriac version of 
the New Testament which were not included 
in the previous editions of 1555 and 1627. 
Pococke discovered the four missing catholic 
epistles (Pet. ii., John ii., iii., and Jude) in a 
manuscript at the Bodleian Library, and tran- 
scribed them in Syriac and Hebrew charac- 
ters, adding the corresponding Greek text, a 
Latin translation, and notes. Gerard John 
Vossius, professor at Leyden, canon of Can- 
terbury, and ' dictator in the commonwealth 
of learning/ after seeing Pococke's manu- 
script, on a visit to Oxford (MACEAT, Ann. 
Bodl. p. 74), warmly encouraged him to 
publish it, and, by the influence of Vossius 
and under the supervision of Ludovicus de 
Dieu, the work appeared at Leyden in 1630, 
with the title of ' Versio et notse ad quatuor 
epistolas Syriace.' 

In the same year the chaplaincy to the 
English 'Turkey Merchants' at Aleppo 
became vacant by the retirement of Charles 
Robson [q. v.] of Queen's College. Pococke 
was appointed to the vacancy in 1629, and 
in October 1630 arrived at Aleppo, where he 
resided for over five years. During this time 
he made himself master of Arabic, which he 
not only read but spoke fluently, studied 
Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, and Ethiopic, 
and associated on friendly terms with learned 
Muslims and Jews, who helped him in col- 
lecting manuscripts, which was one of the 
chief ends he had in view when accepting 
the post, and in which he was extraordinarily 
successful. Pusey remarked that of all the 
numerous collectors of manuscripts whose 
treasures have enriched the Bodleian Library, 
Pococke alone escaped being deceived and 
cheated in his purchases (PusEY, Cat. MSS. 
Bodl. ii. prsef. iv.) Besides acquiring a large 
number of Arabic, Hebrew, Ethiopic, and Ar- 
menian manuscripts, arid a Samaritan penta- 
teuch (BEBNAED, Cat. Libr. MSS. pp. 274-8), 
he brought back a copy of Mey dani's collection 
of 6,013 Arabic proverbs, which he translated 
in 1635 (Bodl. MS. Poc. 392), but never 
published, though a specimen was printed 
by Schultens in 1773 and another part in 
1775. For travel and exploration he con- 
fessed he had no taste (TWELLS, i. 4), but his 
observation of eastern manners and natural 
history served him in good stead as a com- 
mentator on the Old Testament (cf. his 
famous correction of ' wailing like the dra- 
gons ' in Micah i. 8, into 'howling like the 
jackals'). As a pastor he was devoted and 
indefatigable (TWELLS, i. 4) j and when the 

plague raged at Aleppo in 1634, and many 
of the merchants fled to the mountains, 
Pococke remained at his post. Though per- 
sonally a stranger to him, he had attracted 
the notice of Laud, then bishop of London, 
who wrote to him several times with com- 
missions for the purchase of ancient Greek 
coins and oriental manuscripts (ib. i. 6) ; and,, 
after becoming archbishop of Canterbury and 
chancellor of the university, Laud offered 
to appoint him the first professor of the 
Arabic ' lecture ' which he was about to found 
at Oxford. Accordingly, Pococke returned 
to England, probably early in 1636, and on 
8 July of that year he was admitted, after 
the necessary exercises, to the degree of B.D. 
(CLABK, Meg. Univ. Oxford, ii. pt. iii. p. 412 f 
cf. WOOD, Annals, ed. Gutch, i. 342). The 
professorship was worth 401. a year (Wool),. 
Athence, ed. Bliss, iv. 318), and Pococke was 
to lecture on Arabic literature and grammar 
for one hour at eight A.M. every Wednesday 
in Lent and during the vacations (i.e. when 
the arts course did not fully occupy the time 
of the students, who in those days commonly 
resided during vacation as well as in term 
time), under penalty of a fine, and all bachelors 
were required to attend the lecture (GEIF- 
FITHS, Laud? s Statutes 0/1636, pp. 317, 318, 
ed. 1888). On 10 Aug. the new professor 
' opened his lecture ' with a Latin disserta- 
tion on the nature and importance of the. 
Arabic language and literature (a small part 
of which was published as an appendix to- 
his Lamiato 'lAjam, 1661), and then began 
a course of lectures on the sayings of the. 
caliph 'All (TWELLS, i. 9, 10). 

In 1637, at Laud's instance (Woov,Athena % 
ed. Bliss, iv. 318), Pococke again set sail for 
the east, for the purpose of further study 
under native teachers, and to collect more 
manuscripts. This time he travelled with 
his ' dear friend ' John Greaves [q. v.] Po- 
cocke, besides his fellowship, now possessed 
private means by the recent death of his 
father, and probably received some further 
assistance from Laud, or, through Greaves, 
from Lord Arundel. Thomas Greaves [q. v.], 
' lector humanitatis ' (Latin reader) at 
Corpus, was appointed his deputy in the 
Arabic lecture during his absence. From 
December 1637 to August 1640 Pococke re- 
sided at Constantinople, chiefly at the British 
embassy, where he acted as temporary chap- 
lain to Sir Peter Wyche and Sir Sackville 
Crow. He enjoyed the friendship, and doubt- 
less used the fine library, of the learned 
patriarch, Cyril Lucaris, until his assassina- 
tion in 1638 ; he studied with Jacob Romano, 
1 Judaeorum, quos mihi nosse contigit, nemini 
vel doctrina vel ingenuitate secundus' (Po- 



COCKE, Porta Mosis, not. misc., 90), and was 
assisted in his researches, among others, by 
Georgio Cerigo and by Nathaniel Canopius 
the protosyncellus, who afterwards resided 
in Balliol and Christ Church (Woo~D,Athence, 
ed. Bliss, ii. 657). He left Constantinople in 
August 1640, and after a pause at Paris after 
Christmas, where he met Gabriel Sionita and 
Hugo Grotius, he reached London in the 
spring of 1641. Laud was then in the Tower, 
where Pococke visited him (TWELLS, i. 19). 
He found that the archbishop had placed the 
endowment of the Arabic chair beyond the 
risk of attainder by settling (6 June 1640) 
certain lands in Bray, Berkshire, for its per- 
petual maintenance. In November 1641 
Laud presented a further collection of manu- 
scripts to the university, many of which 
were doubtless the fruits of Pococke's and 
Greaves's travels. 

After a brief residence at Oxford, which 
was now disturbed by the civil war, Pococke 
was presented by his college in 1642 to the 
rectory of Childrey in Berkshire (Living- 
book of Corpus Christi College). He is repre- 
sented as a devout and assiduous parish priest ; 
but his connection with Laud and his royalist 
convictions, coupled with an over-modest 
manner and lack of ' unction,' did not re- 
commend him to his parishioners. They 
cheated him of his tithes and harassed him 
by quartering soldiers at the rectory (T WELLS, 
i. 22, 23). The sequestrators of Laud's es- 
tates, moreover, illegally laid hands on the 
endowment of the Arabic lecture, but were 
compelled to restore it under pressure from 
Dr. Gerard Langbaine [q. v.], provost of 
Queen's, John Greaves, and John Selden 
[q. v.] Selden, as burgess of the university, 
also procured for Pococke a special protection 
under the hand of Fairfax dated 5 Dec. 1647, 
against the exactions of the parliamentary 
troops (ib. i. 24). The committee appointed 
(1 May 1647) for ( the visitation and reforma- 
tion of the university of Oxford and the 
several colleges and halls thereof brought 
fresh troubles. At first it seemed as if 
Pococke was to be taken into favour by the 
visitors ; for they appointed him to the pro- 
fessorship of Hebrew, vacant by the death of 
Dr. John Morris on 21 March 1647-8 (Fos- 
TEB, Alumni Oxon. s.v.), together with the 
canonry of Dr. Payne, whom they had 
ejected. The king, then a prisoner at Caris- 
brooke, had already nominated Pococke for 
the professorship and canonry (WooD, An- 
nals, ed. Gutch,ii. 555; TWELLS, I.e. 27, 28). 
Pococke was one of the twenty delegates 
appointed by the committee of visitation, on 
19 May 1648, to answer ' de omnibus quae ad 
rem Academise publicam pertinent' (Regist. 

Convoc. T., apud BTTRROWS, Register of the 
Visitors to Oxford, p. 102, Camden Soc.), 
but, apparently under the advice of John 
Greaves, he omitted to appear before the visi- 
tors, or to reply to their summons (TWELLS, 
i. 28). When he also failed to take the < en- 
gagement ' of 1649 he was dismissed from his 
canonry (24 Oct. 1650, TWELLS, i. 31 ; 1651 
ace. to WOOD, Annals, ed. Gutch, ii. 629) ; 
Peter French, Cromwell's brother-in-law, 
was appointed in his place. On 30 Nov. 
1650 Pococke wrote to Horn of Gueldres : 
( I have learnt, and made it the unalter- 
able principle of my soul, to keep peace, 
as far as in me lies, with all men ; to pay 
due reverence and obedience to the higher 
powers, and to avoid all things that are 
foreign to my profession or studies ; but to 
do anything that may ever so little molest 
the quiet of my conscience would be more 
grievous than the loss, not only of my for- 
tunes, but even of my life' (TWELLS, i. 32). 
Accordingly he was deprived of the two ' lec- 
tures/ probably in December 1650 ; for in 
that month a petition was addressed to the 
visiting committee on his behalf, signed not 
only by his friends, but by many of the new 
men appointed by the visitors (BURROWS, Re- 
gister of Visitors, p. Ixxxiii n.}, including the 
vice-chancellor, proctors, several heads of 
houses, and numerous fellows, masters of 
arts, and bachelors of law, who begged that 
the ' late vote, as to the Arabic lecture, at 
least,' should be suspended in view of Po- 
cocke's great learning and peaceable conduct. 
Strongly seconded by Selden, this remon- 
strance was successful, and Pococke continued 
to hold both lectures, without the canonry, 
and resided at Balliol when he came to Ox- 
ford in the vacations to deliver his courses 
(WooD, Athena, ed. Bliss, iv. 319). In 1655, 
at the instance of a few fanatical parishioners, 
he was cited before the commissioners at 
Abingdon under the new act for ejecting 
'ignorant, scandalous, insufficient, and negli- 
gent ministers.' The leading Oxford scholars, 
headed by Dr. John Owen (1616-1683) [q.v.], 
warned the commission of the contempt they 
would draw upon themselves if they ejected 
for ' ignorance and insufficiency ' a man whose 
learning was the admiration of Europe ; and, 
after several months of examination and 
hearing witnesses on both sides, the charge 
was finally dismissed (see TWELLS, i. 35-42). 
In spite of such interruptions Pococke con- 
tinued his studies at Childrey. He had 
married about 1646 Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Burdet,esq., of West Worldham, Hampshire, 
by whom he had six sons and three daughters. 
At the end of 1649 (TWELLS, i. 33) he pub- 
lished at Oxford, and dedicated to Selden, his 




1 Specimen historiae Arabum,' in which an 
excerpt from the ' Universal History' (Mukh- 
tasar fi-d-duwaT) of Abu-1-Faraj (Bar He- 
braeus) is used as a peg whereon are hung a 
series of elaborate essays on Arabian history, 
science, literature, and religion, based upon 
prolonged researches in over a hundred Arabic 
manuscripts, and forming an epoch in the 
development of eastern studies. All later 
orientalists, from Reland and Ockley to S. de 
Sacy, have borne their testimony to the im- 
mense erudition and sound scholarship of this 
remarkable work, of which a second edition 
was edited by Joseph White [q. v.] in 1806. 
The 'Specimen 'is interesting also for the 
history of printing, for Twells asserts (i. 44), 
it is believed correctly, that Pococke's l Spe- 
cimen' and John Greaves's 'Bainbrigii Cani- 
cularia,' 1648, were the first two books in 
Arabic type which issued from the Oxford 
University press. (The first title-page of the 
'Specimen' bears the imprint ' Oxonise ex- 
cudebat H. Hall impensis Humph. Robin- 
son in Cemeterio Paulino, ad insigne trium 
Columbarum, 1650; 'but the 'notse' appended 
to it have a distinct title, ' Oxoniae excudebat 
Hen. Hall, 1648,' which is doubtless the date 
at which the whole work was first set up). 
Similarly the 'PortaMosis,' or edition (Arabic 
in Hebrew characters) of the six prefatory 
discourses of Maimonides on the Mishna, 
with Latin translation and notes (especially 
on Septuagint readings), on which Pococke 
had been engaged since 1650, but which was 
not published till 1655, is believed to be the 
first Hebrew text printed at Oxford from 
type specially founded by the university at 
Dr. Langbaine's instance for Pococke's use 
( TWELLS, ib. The title-page of the ' Porta 
Mosis' has the imprint of H. Hall Academige 
Typographus, 1655, but the title-page of the 
Appendix is dated 1654). In 1658 (MiGNE, 
Patrol Curs. iii. 888) another work of Po- 
cocke's appeared, the 'Contextio Gemma- 
rum,' or Latin translation of the 'Annals' 
of Eutychius, which he had begun, somewhat 
reluctantly, in 1652 at the urgent request of 
Selden (who did not, as has been imagined, 
take any share in the labour ; TWELLS, i. 42, 
&c.) The great event for oriental learning 
in 1657 was the publication by Dr. Brian 
Walton [q.v.] of his 'Biblia Sacra Poly- 
glotta,' in which Pococke had taken a constant 
interest for five ^ years, advising, criticising, 
lending manuscripts from his own collection, 
collating the Arabic version of the Penta- 
teuch, and contributing a critical appendix 
to vol. vi. (' De ratione variantium in Pent. 
Arab, lectionum'). He translated and pub- 
lished in 1659 a treatise ' on the nature of 
the drink Kauhi or coffee . . . described by 

an Arabian physician.' This was his last 
work completed at Childrey. The Restora- 
tion brought him into permanent residence at 
Christ Church ; and, though he retained his 
rectory till his death, he appointed a curate 
to perform its duties. His memory is still 
preserved by a magnificent cedar in the rec- 
tory garden, said to have been imported and 
planted by him (information from the Rev. 
T. Fowler, president of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford, and the Rev. C. J. Cornish, rec- 
tor of Childrey). Two cedars at Highclere, 
in Hampshire, are also believed to have been 
raised from cones brought from Syria by 
Pococke (LouDOtf, Arboretum, p. 2426). 

In June 1660 Pococke attended the vice- 
chancellor of Oxford when he waited upon 
Charles II with felicitations on his happy 
restoration; and on the 20th of the same 
month his Hebrew professorship, together 
with the canonry and lodgings at Christ 
Church properly assigned thereto, was for- 
mally granted him by letters patent. He 
was installed on 27 July, and received the 
degree of D.D. by royal letters on 20 Sept. 
(CLARK, Life and Times of A. Wood, i. 333). 
Henceforward he lived in studious ease at 
Christ Church in the lodgings of the Hebrew 
professor, in the garden of which is still seen 
the fig-tree, the famous ' Arbor Pocockiana,' 
imported by the professor from Syria, ' prima 
sui generis,' according to Dr. White's en- 
graving preserved at Christ Church, and cer- 
tainly the only ancient fig-tree on record still 
existing in England (Baxter in Trans. Hortic. 
Soc. iii. 433 ; LOUDON, Arbor, p. 1367). In 
1660 he published (at the cost of the Hon. 
Robert Boyle) an Arabic translation (with 
emendations and a new preface) of Grotius's 
tract, ' De veritate religionis Christianse,' 
undertaken in the hope of converting Mus- 
lims (WooD, Athence, ed. Bliss, iv. 321). 
In 1661 appeared the text and translation 
of the Arabic poem, l Lamiato '1 Ajam, Car- 
men . . . Tograi,' with grammatical and ex- 
planatory notes, produced at the Oxford press 
under the superintendence of Samuel Clarke 
[q. v.], architypographus to the university, 
who appended a treatise of his own on Arabic 
prosody (separate pagination and title 1661) ; 
and in 1663 Pococke brought out the Arabic 
text and Latin translation of the ' Historia 
compendiosa dynastiarum' of Abu-1-Faraj 
(Bar Hebrseus), of which an excerpt had 
formed the text of the 'Specimen' thirteen 
years before. Though dedicated to the king, 
this memorable work attracted little notice 
at the time. A severe illness in 1663 left him 
permanently lame, but did not long arrest his 
energy. He lent Castell Ethiopic manuscripts 
for his great ' Lexicon Heptaglotton/ pub- 



lished in 1669, and translated the cate- 
chism (1671) and the principal parts of the 
liturgy of the church of England into Arabic 
(' Partes praecipuse liturgies Eccl. Angl. ling. 
Arab.' 1674; later editions 1826, 1837) ; but 
his chief work in these later years was his 
elaborate and comprehensive commentary on 
the minor prophets, which issued at intervals 
from the university press : Micah and Malachi 
in 1677, Hosea in 1685, and Joel in 1691. 

Pococke shared in the cathedral and college 
work at Christ Church. He was censor theo- 
logisB in 1662, treasurer in 1665, and several 
times held proxies to act for the dean or other 
authority. He was present at chapters as 
late as July 1688. When James II visited 
Oxford in 1687, Pococke was the senior doctor 
present (CLAEK, Life and Times of Wood, 
iii. 231, 234), and he was long a delegate of 
the university press. John Locke (1632-1704) 
[q. v.], who was long intimate with him at 
Christ Church, wrote of him to Humphrey 
Smith (23 July 1 703) : ' The Christian world is 
a witness of his great learning, that the works 
he published would not sufferto be concealed, 
nor could his devotion and piety be hid, and 
be unobserved in a college, where his constant 
and regular assisting at the cathedral service, 
never interrupted by sharpness of weather, 
and scarce restrained by downright want of 
health, shewed the temper and disposition of 
his mind ; but his other virtues and excellent 
qualities had so strong and close a covering 
of modesty and unaffected humility' that 
they were apt to be overlooked by the un- 
observant. Though 'the readiest to com- 
municate to any one that consulted him/ ' he 
had often the silence of a learner where he 
had the knowledge of a master. . . . Though 
a man of the greatest temperance in himself, 
and the farthest from ostentation and vanity 
in his way of living, yet he was of a liberal 
mind, and given to hospitality. . . . His name, 
which was in great esteem beyond sea, and 
that deservedly, drew on him visits from all 
foreigners of learning who came to Oxford. 
. . . He was always unaffectedly cheerful. . . . 
His life appeared to me one constant calm ' 
(WooD, ed. Bliss, iv. 322). 

Pococke died on 10 Sept. 1691, at one 
o'clock in the morning (CLAEK, Life and 
Times of Wood, iii. 371) ; ' his only distemper 
was great old age' (TwELLS, i. 81). He was 
buried in the north aisle of the cathedral, 
near his son Richard (who had died in 1666), 
but his monument, a bust erected by his 
widow, which was originally on the east of 
the middle window in the north aisle of the 
nave, was removed during the restorations 
about thirty years ago to the south aisle of 
the nave. Two portraits are preserved in the 

Bodleian Library : one, in the gallery, repre- 
sents a man in the prime of life, with light 
hair, moustache, and tuft on chin, dark eyes, 
and mild expression ; the other, on the stair- 
case, belongs to his old age, and shows white 
hair and pointed beard (HEAENE, ed. Doble, 
ii. 56, says ' the Master of University College 
has the picture of Dr. Pococke'). An en- 
graving, after a portrait by W. Green, is pre- 
fixed to the 1740 edition of his works (BEOM- 
LEY). His valuable collection of 420 oriental 
manuscripts was bought by the university in 
1693 for 600/., and is in the Bodleian (cata- 
logued in BEENAED, Cat. Libr. MSS. pp. 274- 
278, and in later special catalogues), and some 
of his printed books were acquired by the 
Bodleian in 1822, by bequest from the Rev. 
C. Francis of Brasenose (MACEAY, Annals of 
the JBodL Libr. p. 161). His own annotated 
copy of the ' Specimen ' is among these. Three 
letters from Pococke are printed in the cor- 
respondence of Gerard J. Vossius (Ep. eel. 
virorum nempe G. J. Voss. Nos. cvii, ccxxxix, 
and cccxxxvi, dated 1630, 1636, 1642, all 
from Oxford), in the second of which he 
refers to his collection of Arabic proverbs 
and to his project of editing Abu-1-Faraj 
(whom he does not name, but clearly indi- 
cates), while in the third he refers to Grotius's 
* De Veritate ' and to his own intention of 
translating the church catechism into Arabic 
for the instruction of his Syrian friends a 

E reject not realised till nearly thirty years 
iter. The same collection contains two 
letters from Vossius to Pococke in 1630 
and 1641 (pp. 159, 383). There are also 
letters of Pococke in the British Museum 
(Harl. 376, fol. 143, Sloane, 4276, Addit. 
22905, the last two to Samuel Clarke, dated 

Of his six sons, the eldest, EDWAED PO- 
COCKE (1648-1727), baptised on 13 Oct. 1648, 
matriculated at Christ Church in 1661, was 
elected student, became chaplain to the Earl 
of Pembroke (CLAEK, Life and Times of Wood, 
iii. 373), canon of Salisbury, 1675, and rector 
of Minall (Mildenhall), Wiltshire, 1692 (Fos- 
TEE, Alumni Oxon.} He followed his father in 
oriental studies, and published in 1671 (with 
a preface by his father) a Latin translation 
of Ibn al Tufail, which Ockley afterwards 
turned into English (1711). He also began 
an edition of the Arabic text, with Latin trans- 
lation, of ' Abdollatiphi Historic ^Egypti 
Compendium,' in collaboration with hi s father, 
who had discovered the manuscript in Syria. 
According to Hearne (ed. Doble, i. 224), 
Pococke the father began this edition and 
translation of the celebrated twelfth-century 
traveller and physician ; but when the work 
had been partly printed the Latin type was 




wanted by Bishop Fell, who at this time 
was omnipotent at the University press, and 
the translation had to be stopped, ' which so 
vexed the good old man, Dr. Pocock, y* he 
could never be prevail'd to go on any farther.' 
This part is doubtless the printed copy which 
stops at p. 96, and has no title or date ; but 
it has generally been ascribed to Pococke 
the son, who appears to have completed a 
rough draft of the translation of the whole 
work (mentioned by Hunt in his ' Proposals/ 
dated 1746. See White's edition, reprinting 
Pococke's to p. 99; and S. DE SACY, Relation 
de l'Effypte,parAbd-allatif, xii). He was ex- 
pected to succeed to his father's Arabic pro- 
fessorship (CLAEK, Life and Times of Wood, 
iii. 373). ' ; Tis said he understands Arabick 
and other oriental Tongues very well, but 
wanted Friends to get him y e Professorships 
of Hebrew and Arabick at Oxford ' (HEAKNE, 
ed. Doble, ii. 63), and Dr. Thomas Hyde 
(1636-1703) [q. v.], Bodley's librarian, was 
appointed. Pococke apparently abandoned 
further oriental researches, and died in 1 727. 
Thomas Pococke, another son, baptised on 
21 April 1652, matriculated at Christ Church 
in 1667, became rector of Morwenstow, and 
afterwards of Peter Tavy, Devonshire, and 
published a translation of Manasseh ben 
Israel's ' De Termino Vitse/ London, 1700. 
Henry was born on 9 May 1654. Richard, 
baptised on 4 Jan. 1655-6, died on 7 Nov. 
1666, and is buried in Christ Church Cathe- 
dral. Robert, baptised on 8 March 1657-8, 
was a Westminster scholar at Christ Church. 
Charles (baptised on 22 Jan. 1660-1), was 
also at Christ Church, and became rector of 
Cheriton Bishop, Devonshire, in 1690(FosTEK, 
Alumni Oxon. ; Childrey baptismal register). 

[The Life of Dr. Pococke was begun by 
Humphrey Smith of Queen's College, Oxford, 
vicar of Townstalland St. Saviour's, Dartmouth, 
assisted by Edward Pococke the younger, and 
Hearne (Collections, ed. Doble, ii. 4) expected 
its completion by midsummer 1707 ; but Smith 
never finished the work. It appears also that Mr. 
Richard Pococke had a manuscript ' Life of Po- 
cock the Orientalist '(HEARNE, I.e. H.10),whileDr. 
Arthur Charlett [q. v.], master of University Col- 
lege, had Pococke's letters, and meant to write his 
life(Id.,ib.iii.77). Smith's materials, including a 
consecutive memoir completed to 1663, together 
with Charlett 's letters, were then entrusted by 
the Rev. John Pococke, grandson of the profes- 
sor, to Leonard T wells, rector of St. Matthews, 
Friday Street, and St. Peter's, Cheap, London, 
and the latter prefixed a full biography to his 
edition of ' The Theological Works of the learned 
Dr. Pocock,' 2 vols. fol. London, 1740, where 
the particulars of his sources are given. This bio- 
graphy was reprinted in The Lives of Dr. Ed- 
ward Pocock ... Dr. Zachary Pearce,' &c., 2 vols. 

1816, and is the chief authority for the pre- 
ceding article, in which the references are to the 
original edition. The spelling of the name Po- 
cocke or Pocock varies not only in the contem- 
porary authorities and in the records of the 
chapter-house at Christ Church (according to the 
taste of the clerks), but also in the baptismal 
registers at Childrey, and on the title-pages and 
prefaces of Pococke's own books. His Micah 
and Malachi of 1677 have no final e to his name, 
but Hosea, 1685, and Joel, 1691, spell the name 
Pococke. His monument in the cathedral has 
no e. It is not unlikely that he spelt it indif- 
ferently both ways, but the only two signatures 
observed in his own handwriting have the final 
e : one is in his manuscript collection of Arabic 
proverbs (Poc. 392, in the Bodleian), and was 
written on 10 April 1637 ; the other is signed in 
the Christ Church chapter-book. 28 June 1686. 
In addition to the other authorities cited above, 
information must be'acknowledged from the Rev. 
T. Fowler, president of Corpus ; the Rev. S. R. 
Driver, canon of Christ Church; the Chapter 
books, Christ Church ; D. S. Margoliouth, Lau- 
dian professor of Arabic ; F. Madan, sub-libra- 
rian of the Bodleian ; W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 
C.M.G. ; Rev. J. GK Cornish, who examined the 
registers at Childrey ; R. L. Poole ; British Mu- 
seum and Bodleian Catalogues, and prefaces, &c. 
of Pococke's works.] S. L.-P. 

POCOCKE, RICHARD (1704-1765), 
traveller, was born at Southampton in 1704. 
He was the son of Richard Pococke, LL.B., 
rector of Colmer, Hampshire, and after- 
wards headmaster of the King Edward VI 
Free Grammar School, and curate, under 
sequestration, of All Saints' Church in 
Southampton ; his mother was Elizabeth, 
only daughter of the Rev. Isaac Milles [q. v.], 
rector of Highclere, Hampshire. He was 
educated by his grandfather Milles, at his 
school at Highclere rectory. He matriculated 
at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 13 July 
1720, and graduated B.A. 1725, B.C.L. 1731, 
D.C.L 1733. In 1725 he was appointed to the 
precentorship of Lismore Cathedral by his 
uncle, Thomas Milles [q. v.], bishop of Water- 
ford and Lismore, of whose dioceses he in 
1734 became vicar-general. From 1733 to 
1736 he made tours in France, Italy, and 
other parts of Europe, with his cousin Jere- 
miah Milles [q. v.], dean of Exeter. Imbued 
with a passion for travel, he planned a visit 
to the East. On 29 Sept. 1737 he reached 
Alexandria, and proceeded to Rosetta, where 
he visited Cosmas, the Greek patriarch. He 
endeavoured to discover the site of Memphis, 
and visited Lake Moeris. In December he 
embarked for Upper Egypt, and on 9 Jan. 
1738 reached Dendereh. He visited Thebes, 
but did not go up the Nile beyond Philae. The 
traveller Frederick Lewis Norden [q. v.] went 



as far as Derr, and the two explorers passed 
one another in the night, Norden going up 
the Nile and Pococke returning. Pococke 
reached Cairo in February 1738. He next 
visited Jerusalem, and bathed in the Dead 
Sea, to test a statement of Pliny's. He 
travelled in northern Palestine, and ex- 
plored Balbec. He also visited Cyprus, 
Candia (where he ascended Mount Ida), 
parts of Asia Minor, and Greece. Leaving 
Cephalonia, he landed at Messina in Novem- 
ber 1740. He visited Naples, and twice as- 
cended Vesuvius. He passed through Ger- 
many, and on 19 June 1741, with an armed 
party, explored the Mer de Glace in the 
valley of Chamounix, where a boulder has 
been in remembrance inscribed by the Swiss 
* Kichard Pococke, 1741.' As the travellers 
stood on the ice, they drank the health of 
Admiral Vernon. An account of the ex- 
pedition appeared in the ' Mercure de 
Suisse ' for 1743, and Pococke came to be, 
regarded as the pioneer of Alpine travel. 
Pococke returned to England in 1742, and 
in 1743 published vol. i. of ' A Description 
of the East,' containing ' Observations on 
Egypt.' Vol. ii. of the { Description,' con- 
sisting of observations on Palestine, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Candia, Asia Minor, 
Gieece, and parts of Europe, was published 
in 1745, and dedicated to the Earl of Ches- 
terfield, lord lieutenant of Ireland, to whom 
Pococke was domestic chaplain. The work 
attained great celebrity, and Gibbon (De- 
cline and Fall, chap. li. note 69) described 
it as of ' superior learning and dignity,' 
though he objected that its author too often 
confounded what he had seen with what he 
had heard. 

In 1744 Pococke was made precentor of 
Waterford, and in 1745 Philip Dormer Stan- 
hope, earl of Chesterfield [q. v.], gave him 
the archdeaconry of Dublin. In 1756 he 
was appointed to the bishopric of Ossory, 
and, on settling in the palace of Kilkenny, 
began the restoration of the cathedral church 
of St. Canice, then in a ruinous state. He 
personally superintended the workmen, 
sometimes from four o'clock in the morning 
(Ledwich in VALLANCEY'S Collectanea, ii. 
460-2). He encouraged Irish manufactures, 
and about 1763 established the Lintown 
factory in the suburbs of Kilkenny for the 
instruction of boys, chiefly foundlings, in the 
art of weaving. Under the name of ' Po- 
cocke College,' the institution is still carried 
on, on a new system, by the Incorporated 
Society for Promoting English Protestant 
Schools in Ireland. In June 1765 Pococke 
was translated from Ossory to Elphin, 
Bishop Gore being then promoted to Meath. 

Gore, however, declined to take out his 
patent, on account of the expense, and Po- 
cocke was in July translated to the bishopric 
of Meath. In the demesne at Ardbraccan he 
planted the seeds of cedars of Lebanon, still 

Pococke, at various periods of his life, 
made several tours in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Of these he wrote, and arranged 
for publication, full descriptive accounts, 
sometimes illustrated by his own drawings. 
These manuscripts have only been printed 
in recent years, or Pococke, rather than 
Thomas Pennant [q. v.], would have been 
reputed the first systematic explorer of com- 
paratively unknown regions of Great Britain. 
His tours in England were made chiefly 
from 1750 to 1757 and in later years, and 
the descriptions are simply written and ex- 
act in detail. He made an Irish tour in 
1752, the account of which is valuable as 
illustrating the social condition of Ireland, 
especially in Connaught. Starting from 
Dublin, he went north to the Giant's Cause- 
way, concerning which he published papers 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1748 
and 1753. He visited Donegal, Erris, Achill, 
and Belmullet, travelling as usual on his 
tours on horseback, with outriders. He 
had previously made an Irish tour in 1749 
through Connaught, Clare, Kerry, and Cork, 
but the manuscript account has never been 
published. Pococke made various observa- 
tions on the natural history of Ireland, and 
a paper by him on 'Irish Antiquities' was 
printed in the ' Archseologia,' vol. ii. He gave 
assistance to Mervyn Archdall [q. v.], his 
chaplain, when bishop of Ossory, in the pre- 
paration of his ' Monasticon Hibernicum.' 

Pococke visited Scotland in 1747 and 
1750, and in April 1760 started for a six 
months' journey, during which he visited 
lona and the Orkneys, Sutherland and Caith- 
ness. He was made burgess of Aberdeen, 
Glasgow, and other Scottish cities, and re- 
turned to London on 29 Oct. 1760. 

Pococke died of apoplexy in September 
1765 at Charleville near Tullamore, Ireland, 
while on a visitation. He was buried in 
Bishop Montgomery's tomb at Ardbraccan, 
and on the south side of the monument is a 
small slab with a memorial inscription. 
There is also a monument to him in the 
cathedral of St. Canice, Kilkenny. A por- 
trait of Pococke in oils hangs in the board- 
room in Harcourt Street, Dublin, of the In- 
corporated Society for Promoting English 
Protestant Schools, and is reproduced in 
Kemp's edition of Pococke's ' Tours in Scot- 
land ' (frontispiece). A full-length portrait 
of him in Turkish dress, by Liotard, was once 



in the possession of Milles, dean of Exeter. 
Pococke is described by Richard Cumber- 
land (Memoirs) as a man of solemn air, ' of 
mild manners, and primitive simplicity.' In 
conversation he was remarkably reticent 
about his travels. Mrs. Delany, whom Po- 
cocke entertained when archdeacon of Dub- 
lin, found her host and his entertainments 
dull. Bishop Forbes, however, speaks of his 
geniality when on one of his Scottish tours. 
Pococke was a member of the Egyptian Club 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. v. 334) and of the 
Spalding Society, and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society on ll Feb. 1741. 

Pococke's collection of Greek, Roman, and 
English coins and medals was sold in London 
at auction by Langford on 27-28 May 1766. 
The 'Sale Catalogue' consists of 117 lots, in- 
cluding some ancient jewellery (priced copy in 
Department of Coins, Brit. Mus.) His col- 
lection of antiquities, and his minerals and 
fossils (partly collected in his Scottish travels), 
were sold by Langford on 5-6 June 1766. 
By his will Pococke left his property (which 
consisted partly of an estate at Newtown, 
Hampshire) in trust <to the Incorporated 
Society for Promoting English Protestant 
Schools in Ireland for the purpose of endow- 
ing the weaving-school at Lintown ' for 
Papist boys who shall be from 12 to 16 years 
old ... said boys to be bred to the Protestant 
Religion, and to be apprenticed to the Society 
for seven years.' His sister, Elizabeth Po- 
cocke, had a life interest in his property. 
Pococke left his manuscripts to the British 
Museum. Some of these were handed over 
on 9 May 1766, but several volumes were 
withheld and remained in private hands. 
The manuscript of the Scotch tours and two 
volumes of travels in England were bought 
by the British Museum at the sale of Dean 
Milles's library at Sotheby's on 15 April 
1843 for 33/. Further volumes of travels 
through England were purchased by the mu- 
seum at the sale of Dawson Turner's library 
in 1859. The original manuscript of the 
' Tour in Ireland in 1752 ' is at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. Among Pococke's manuscripts 
in the British Museum are the minutes 
and registers of the Philosophical Society 
at Dublin from 1683 to 1687 and in later 
years, with copies of the papers read. 
There are also manuscripts relating to his 
travels in Egypt (PKINCE IBKAIIIM-HILMY, 
Lit. of Egypt, ii. pp. 124, 125). 

Pococke's published writings are as fol- 
lows: 1. ' A Description of the East and 
some other Countries,' 2 vols. London, 1743- 
1745 fol., with 178 plates. This is reprinted 
in Pinkerton's ' General Collection of Voy- 
vols. x. and xv. There is a French 

translation, 7 vols. Paris, 1772-3, 12rno ; a 
German translation, Erlangen, 1754-5, 4to ; 
and a Dutch translation, Utrecht, 1776-86. 
2. ' Inscriptionum antiquarum Grsec. et 
Lat. liber. Accedit Numismatum ... in 
vEgypto cusorum . . . Catalogus, &c. By 
J. Milles and R. Pococke,' [London], 1752, 
fol. 3. ' Tours in Scotland, 1747, 1750, 1760/ 
edited with biographical sketch by D. W. 
Kemp, 1887 (Scottish History Society Pub- 
lications, vol. i.) 4. 'The Tour of Dr. R. 
Pococke . . . through Sutherland and Caith- 
ness in 1760,' ed. D. W. Kemp, 1888 (Suther- 
land Association Papers). 5. ' The Travels 
through England of Dr. R. Pococke,' ed. 
J. J. Cartwright, 1888, 4to (Camden Soc. 
new ser. xlii.) 6. f Pococke's Tour in Ireland 
in 1752,' ed. G. T. Stokes, Dublin, 1891, 

[Memoir in Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 157; Geor- 
gian Era, 1854, iii. 16 f. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
graves and Prim's Hist, of St. Canice, 1857, 
passim ; introductions to the editions of Pococke's 
Travels, by D. W. Kemp, J. J. Cartwright, and 
G-. T. Stokes ; Brit. Mus. Cat. and authorities 
cited above.] W. W. 

POE, LEONARD (d. 1631 ?), physician, 
whose family came originally, it is said, from 
the Rhenish Palatinate, was in 1590 in the 
service of the Earl of Essex. Essex, after 
many vain appeals to the College of Phy- 
sicians, secured from that body on 13 July 
1596 a license enabling Poe to practise medi- 
cine (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pt. i. p. 228). 
Although he was thereby permitted to treat 
venereal, cutaneous, and calculous diseases, 
gout and simple tertian ague, in all other 
fevers and in all severe diseases he was re- 
quired to call to his assistance a member of 
the college (MuKK, College of Physicians, i. 
149). On 30 June 1598 he was ordered to be 
imprisoned and deprived of his license, but 
soon made terms with the college. Despite 
the suspicion with which the profession re- 
garded him, his practice was large in fashion- 
able society, and his reputation stood fairly 
high. On 11 Dec. 1606, at the suggestion of 
the Earls of Southampton, Northampton, and 
Salisbury, all restrictions on his license were 
removed. On 12 Jan. 1609 he was made, 
ordinary physician of the king's household 
(State Papers, Dom. index to warrant book, 
p. 77), and on 7 July the persistent influence 
of his aristocratic patrons led to his election 
as fellow of the College of Physicians (Hist. 
MS. Comm. ubi supra). He had a mandate 
on 22 July 1615 to be created M.D., and ap- 
parently obtained the degree at Cambridge. 
In April 1612 he was one of the three 
physicians in attendance on Lord-treasurer 
Salisbury (State Papers, Dom. James I, Ixviii. 

Poer 15 


104), and was present at his death on 24 May 
following (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. 
part iv. p. 16). On 6 June 1625 he attended 
the death of Orlando Gibbons [q. v.], the 
musical composer, and made the post-mortem 
(ib. Car. I, iii. 37). He died on 4 April 1631, 
when Sir Edward Alston [q. v.] was elected 
a fellow in his place. His son Theophilus 
matriculated from Broadgate Hall, Oxford, 
1623-4, 6 Feb., jet. 15. 

[Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Kep. pt. iv. p. 10, 
8th Kep. pt. i. p. 228, 12th Eep. i. 198, 292, 435 ; 
Hunk's" Coll. of Phys. ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

W. A. S. 

POER. [See also POOR and POWER.] 

POER, ROGER LE (d. 1186), one of the 
conquerors of Ireland, belonged to a family 
which is said to have derived its name from 
Poher, one of the ancient divisions of Brit- 
tany ; other accounts make the name the 
equivalent of Puer, or, still less probably, of 
Pauper. In the reign of Henry II, William 
le Poer held lands in Oxfordshire, Hereford- 
shire, and Gloucestershire, and Robert le 
Poer in Oxfordshire (Pipe Rolls, 18 Henry 
II. p. 32; SwEETMAN,i.41,129,132). Roger, 
Robert, William, and Simon le Poer are all 
said to have taken part in the conquest of 
Ireland. Roger Poer is first mentioned as a 
handsome and noble youth who took part in 
the invasion of Ulster under John de Courci 
[q. v.] in 1177, and won distinction at the 
battle of Down. Afterwards he obtained 
lands in Ossory, and was governor of Leighlin 
under Hugh de Lacy, first lord of Meath[q. v.] 
Payment was made for his expenses in going 
to Ireland in 1186 (ib. i. 86). In the same year 
he was killed, with many of his followers, 
while fighting in Ossory (GiR. CAMBR. Ex- 
pugnatio Hibernica, ap. Op. iv. 341, 354, 387 ; 
Book ofHowth, pp. 81-4). He had married 
a niece of Sir Amory de S. Laurence (ib. p. 88). 
There is a charter of his in the ' Chartulary of 
St. Mary, Dublin,' i. 252. 

ROBERT LE POER (fl. 1190) was one of the 
marshals in the court of Henry II. He ac- 
counts for lands in Yorkshire, 1166-7, and 
had charge of the forest of Galtris in that 
county in 1169 and 1172. He is mentioned 
in the royal service in 1171, and apparently 
accompanied Henry on his Irish expedition 
(Pipe Rolls, Henry II. esp. 18, pp. 32, 56). 
In 1174 he was in charge of Brabanon mer- 
cenaries who were being sent home from Eng- 
land (EYTON, Itinerary of Henry II, p. 183). 
In 1176 he was one of four knights sent into 
Ireland by the king, and was made custos of 
Waterford, his territory including all the 
land between Waterford and the water of 
Lismore, and Ossory. G iraldus, who calls him 

a marcher lord, blames him as ( tarn ignobilis, 
tarn strenuitate carens ' (Op. iv. 352-3). He 
was still in charge of Waterford in 1179 (ib. 
iv. 65 ; SWEETMAN, i. 58). In 1188, when 
returning with Ralph Fraser from a pilgri- 
mage to St. James of Compostella, he was 
seized by Count Raymond of Toulouse. 
Richard, the future king, who was then Count 
of Poitou, would pay no ransom for the 
knights, declaring that Raymond's conduct 
in seizing pilgrims was an outrage. Philip 
Augustus ordered Raymond to surrender his 
prisoners, but Raymond refused, and thus the 
incident led to Richard's invasion of Toulouse 
in 1188 (Gesta Henrici, ii. 35). Robert 
occurs as witness to a charter in Ireland be- 
tweenl!86and 1194. He is said to have been 
an ancestor of the Poers, barons of Dunoyle, 
of the Poers, barons le Poer and Coroghmbre, 
and of Eustace le Poer, viscount Baltinglas, 
in the time of Henry VIII. He may be the 
father of that Robert Poer who was one of 
the great Irish nobles in 1221, and died before 
November 1228, having a son and heir, John 
le Poer (SWEETMAN, i. 1001 , 1635, 2646, 3014). 

Of other members of the family, William 
and Simon le Poer were brothers (Chart. St. 
Mary, Dublin, i. 4, 21 ). William was governor 
of Waterford about 1180 (GiR. CAMBR. iv. 
354), and is mentioned as crossing to Ireland 
in 1184-5, and his name occurs as late as 1200 
(SwEETMAX, i. 75, 129, 132; Chart. St. Mary, 
i. 114, 116, 123, 126). Roger, Robert, Wil- 
liam, and Simon may all have been brothers. 
RAISTULF LE POER (d. 1182), who held land in 
Shropshire, and was killed by the Welsh when 
sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1182, may have 
been of an elder generation (Gesta Henrici, i. 
351 ; EYTON,/merary,pp. 186, 193). WALTER 
LE POER (Jl. 1220) was another member of the 
family, who was employed in various missions 
in Warwickshire and Worcestershire in 1215. 
He was sheriff of Devonshire in 1222, and a 
collector of the fifteenth in Worcestershire in 
1226. In the last year he was a justice itine- 
rant in Gloucestershire, and in 1227 held the 
same post for the counties of Oxford, Here- 
ford, Stafford, and Salop (Pat. Rolls, p. 128; 
Close Rolls, i. 226, 449, ii. 145, 151, 205). 

[Griraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio Hibernica 
in vol. iv. of the Kolls edit.; Gesta Henrici, 
ascribed to Benedict Abbas ; Book of Howth in 
Calendar of the Carew MSS. ; Eyton's Court and 
Itinerary of Henry II; Pipe Kolls for Henry II 
(Pipe Kolls Soc.); Sweetman's Calendar of Docu- 
ments relating to Ireland, vol. i. ; Foss's Judges 
of England, ii. 445 ; Q-. E. C.'s Complete Peer- 
age, vi. 259.] C. L. K. 

1891), astronomer, son of George Owen Pog- 
son of Nottingham, was born in that town 




on 23 March 1829. Acting under the advice 
of Mr. J. R. Hind, foreign secretary of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, Pogson, in 1847, 
at the age of eighteen, calculated the orbits 
of two comets. During the three following 
years several other comets and the recently 
discovered minor planet Iris, claimed his atten- 
tion. This led to his appointment as an assis- 
tant at the South Villa Observatory, London. 
After a short stay there he obtained the post 
of assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Ox- 
ford, in 1852, and it was here that he began 
his course of discoveries, which soon made 
him known as a first-class observer. While at 
Oxford, between 1856 and 1857, he discovered 
four minor planets : Amphitrite, 2 March 
1854 ; Isis, 23 May 1856 ; Ariadne, 15 April 
1857 ; Hestia, 16 Aug. 1857. For the dis- 
covery of Isis he was awarded the Lalande 
medal of the French Academy. 

Much of his time at Oxford was devoted 
to variable stars, but the archives of the Rad- 
clifFe Observatory between 1852 and 1858 
show that the more ordinary work was in 
no way neglected. In 1854 he assisted at the 
famous experiments for determining the mean 
density of the earth, conducted by Sir George 
Airy, the astronomer-royal at the Harton 
Colliery. Airy accorded him his hearty 
thanks, and remained his cordial friend 
through life. 

In 1859 Pogson was appointed director of 
the Hartwell Observatory belonging to John 
Lee (1783-1866) [q. v.] There his time was 
spent in the study of variable and double 
stars, the search for asteroids, and the forma- 
tion of star charts. During the two years he 
remained at Hartwell the * Monthly Notices 
of the Royal Astronomical Society ' for 1859- 
1860 contain fourteen papers from his pen 
regarding variable stars and minor planets, 
while he communicated several papers to the 
British Association, and made some valuable 
contributions to the ' Speculum Hartwellia- 
num.' In October 1860 he was appointed by 
Sir Charles Wood, secretary of state for In- 
dia, government astronomer at Madras. Sir 
John Herschel wrote at this time of his ' con- 
spicuous zeal, devotion to and great success 
in the science of astronomy ; ' and C. Piazzi 
Smyth bore testimony to his ' unwearied 
diligence, enthusiastic zeal, and signal suc- 

Pogson reached Madras early in 1861, full 
of high hopes as to the work he would ac- 
complish. He soon discovered another minor 
planet, which he named Asia, as being the 
first discovered by an observer in that con- 
tinent. Between 1861 and 1868 he discovered 
no less than five minor planets, and seven 
variable stars were added to his list of dis- 

coveries between 1862 and 1865, and an 
eighth in 1877. The chief work carried on 
by Pogson at the Madras Observatory was 
twofold : first, the preparation of a star cata- 
logue, for which 51,101 observations were 
made between 1862 and 1887 ; secondly, the 
formation of a variable star atlas, begun at 
Oxford in 1853, and carried on with remark- 
able perseverance. The catalogues, which 
were to accompany the atlas, contained the 
positions of upwards of sixty thousand stars, 
observed entirely by Pogson himself. Un- 
happily they are still unpublished. Pogson 
observed the total eclipse of the sun on 
18 Aug. 1868 at Masulipatam, and was the 
first to observe the bright line spectrum of 
the Corona. 

He remained for thirty years government 
astronomer at Madras and, during the whole 
of that time he took no leave. His devo- 
tion to his science and his anxiety to publish 
his works induced him to remain so long 
that his health at last failed, and he died at 
his post in June 1891 in his sixty-third year. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, and the Indian government nomi- 
nated him a companion of the Indian Empire. 

Pogson's chief interest as an astronomer 
lay in observations with the equatoreal and 
meridian circle, and in the use of these in- 
struments he had few equals. As an observer 
only one or two contemporaries could equal 
him. In all, he discovered nine minor planets 
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and 
twenty-one new variable stars. He had an 
exhaustive knowledge of the literature of 
his subject. 

His first wife, whom he married in 1849 
at the early age of twenty, was Elizabeth 
Ambrose, who died in 1869, leaving a large 
family. On 25 Oct. 1883 he married Edith 
Louisa Stopford, daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Charles W. Sibley of her majesty's 
64th regiment, and by her had three children, 
one of whom died in infancy. 

[Royal Astronomical Society's Transactions, 
1891 ; private information.] H. M. V. 

POINGDESTRE, JEAN (1609-1691), 
writer on the laws and history of Jersey, 
born in the parish of St. Saviour in the island 
of Jersey, and baptised on 16 April 1609, was 
the eldest son of Edward Poingdestre, by his 
second wife, Pauline Ahier. He was among 
the first to obtain one of the scholarships 
founded at Oxford by Charles I on behalf of 
Jersey students, and in 1636 was elected a fel- 
low of Exeter College, Oxford. He was always 
considered an accomplished classical scholar, 
and held the fellowship till 1648, when he 
was ejected by the parliamentary party. 



Meanwhile he received an appointment 
under Lord Digby, and on the outbreak of 
the civil wars returned to Jersey, where he 
took part, under Sir George de Carteret, in 
the defence of Elizabeth Castle against the 
parliamentarians. After the capitulation of 
this fortress in 1651 he went into voluntary 
exile until the Restoration. In January 
1668-9 the bailiff of Jersey nominated him 
his lieutenant, and he also became jurat. 
In 1676, however, he resigned his appoint- 
ment of lieutenant-bailiff in deference to 
complaints which were made of the uncon- 
stitutional way in which he had been ap- 
pointed jurat, but he retained this latter 
post until his death. During the last years 
of his life he occupied himself chiefly in 
preparing various works relating to the 
history and laws of Jersey. He died in 

Poingdestre's history of Jersey (' Caesarea, 
or a Discourse of the Island of Jersey'), 
written in 1682, and presented by the author 
to James II, is one of the most accurate 
works on the island, and forms the basis of 
all that is trustworthy in Falle's ' History of 
Jersey.' But it is as a commentator on the 
laws and customs of Jersey that Poing- 
destre deserves chief commendation ; and his 
works on this subject are superior to those 
of Philip Le Geyt [q. v.] In so far as they 
relate to the law on real property his ' Com- 
mentaires sur 1'Ancienne Coutume de Nor- 
mandie,' and ' Commentaires sur la Coutume 
Reformed de Normandie,' are of the highest 
authority. In 1685 Poingdestre was nomi- 
nated one of the committee commissioned to 
draw up an abstract of the charters granted 
by various monarchs to the inhabitants of 
Jersey, and this work, known as ' Les Pri- 
vileges de File,' is still extant in manu- 

[Ahier's Tableaux Historiques de la Civilisa- 
tion a Jersey, p. 342 ; Le Geyt's Works. Preface 
and vol. iv. p. 65 also MS. ; Falle's Hist, of Jersey 
(Durell's ed.), p. 279; La Croix's Les Etats, p. 
58; Payne's Armorial of Jersey; Commissioners' 
Report, Jersey, 1860; preface to ' Csesarea,' 
Societe Jersiaise, 1889.] P. L. M.. 


POINTER, JOHN (1668-1754), anti- 
quary, born at Alkerton, Oxfordshire, on 
19 May 1668, claimed to be descended from 
Sir William Pointer of Whitchurch, Hamp- 
shire. His father, also called John, was 
rector of Alkerton from 1663 till his death in 
1 710, and his mother was Elizabeth (d. 1709), 
daughter of John Hobel, a London merchant. 
He was educated first at Banbury grammar 
school, and then at Preston school, North- 


amptonshire, and matriculated from Merton 
College, Oxford, on 24 Jan. 1686-7. He 
graduated B.A. 1691, and M.A. 1694. 

Pointer took holy orders, being ordained 
deacon on 24 Dec. 1693, and priest on 23 Sept. 
1694, and from 1693 until he resigned the 
office in 1722 he was chaplain to his college. 
He was instituted in September 1694 to the 
rectory of Slapton, Northamptonshire, which 
he retained for his life. He was lord of the 
manor of Keresley in Warwickshire, and in 
December 1722 he came into other property 
in the parish. He died on 16 Jan. 1754 in 
the house of his niece, Mrs. Bradborne of 
Chesterton in Worfield, Shropshire, and was 
buried in the chancel of Worfield parish 
church on 19 Jan. A tablet, now in the 
north aisle, was erected to his memory. 

Pointer was author of: 1. 'An Account 
of a Roman pavement lately found at Stuns- 
field, Oxfordshire,' 1713; dedicated to Dr. 
Holland, warden of Merton College. When 
it was censured as 'a mean performance,' 
Pointer vindicated it in an advertisement 
containing laudatory references to it from 
Bishop White Kennett, Dr. Musgrave, and 
others. 2. ' Chronological History of Eng- 
land,' 1714, 2 vols. Very complete in de- 
scription of events occurring after 1660. It 
was intended that the narrative should end 
with the peace of Utrecht, and it was all 
printed, but the second volume was not pub- 
lished until after the death of Queen Anne, 
when the history was brought down to her 
death, although the index only ran to the 
earlier date. Six supplements, each con- 
taining the incidents of a year, and the last 
two with the name of ' Mr. Brockwel ' on 
the title-page, carried it on to the close 
of July 1720. For his share in this com- 
pilation Pointer received from Lintot, on 
24 Dec. 1713, the sum of 10/. 15s. (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecdotes, viii. 299). 3. ' Miscellanea 
in usum juventutis Academicse,' 1718. It 
contained the characters, chronology, and a 
catalogue of the classic authors with in- 
structions for reading them, pagan mytho- 
logy, Latin exercises, and the corrections of 
palpable mistakes by English historians. 

4. 'A Rational Account of the Weather,' 
1723 ; 2nd ed. corrected and much enlarged, 
1738. It was pointed out in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' 1748 (pp. 255-6), that this 
volume supplied the groundwork of ' The 
Shepherd of Banbury's Rules to judge of 
the Weather, by John Claridge, shepherd.' 

5. ' Britannia Romana, or Roman antiquities 
in Britain, viz., coins, camps, and public 
roads,' 1724. 6. l Britannia Triumphans, or ah 
Historical Account of some of the most signal 
Naval Victories obtained by the English over 




the Spaniards,' 1743. 7. ' Oxoniensis Aca- 
demia, or the Antiquities and Curiosities of 
the University of Oxford/ 1749 ; the manu- 
script is in Rawlinson MS. B. No. 405, at 
the Bodleian Library. It contains much 
curious detail on the history of the several 
colleges. Two gifts by him to the Bodleian 
Library are set out on page 143 (cf. MACKAY, 
Annals of Bodl Libr. 2nd edit. pp. 222-3) 

[Some manuscripts by Pointer belonged to Mr. 
J. E. T. Loveday, who communicated portions 
from them to Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vii. 
326, 366. An extract from an old manuscript 
history of his family and connections, taken by 
himself from wills and other documents, was 
inserted in that periodical (6th ser. x. 522) by 
Mr. John Hamerton Crump of Malvern "Wells, 
and was subsequently printed in extenso in the 
Genealogist (iii. 101-7, 232-40). Particulars of 
his life were given by Pointer to Dr. Kichard 
Kawlinson, and are now at the Bodleian Library, 
Eawlinson MSS. J. 4to, 1, fol. 274, and J. fol. 4, 
fol. 224. See also Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Baker's 
Northamptonshire, ii. 102; Coxe's Catalogus 
MSS. in Collegiis Oxon. ; information from the 
Kev. E. P. Nicholas of Worfield.] W. P. C. 

POINTER, WILLIAM (ft. 1624), poet. 
[See KIDLEY.] 

POITIERS, PHILIP OF (d. 1208?), 
bishop of Durham. [See PHILIP.] 

1759), inventor of the musical glasses. [See 


POL (d. 573), Saint. [See PAUL.] 

1882), trader, and author of works on New 
Zealand, was born in London of Jewish 
parents on 28 March 1807. In early life he 
appears to have travelled both in Europe 
and America, to have done some work as 
an artist, and to have served under the war 
office in Africa in the commissariat and ord- 
nance departments. In 1831 he emigrated 
to New Zealand, and, after living for a year 
at Hokianga, moved to the Bay of Islands, 
a settlement still in its infancy. There he 
opened a ship-chandler's store in connection 
with a broker's business at Sydney. He paid 
long visits to Sydney, for four or five months 
at a time, and travelled much about New Zea- 
land. He learned the Maori language, gained 
the confidence of the natives, and purchased 
about eleven hundred acres of land. In May 
1837 he returned to London. Next year he 
was a prominent witness before the select 
committee of the House of Lords on New 
Zealand. But his veracity being impugned 
by a writer in the ' Times,' Polack brought 

an action against the ( Times/ and on 
2 July 1839 secured a verdict, with 100/. 

In 1838 Polack published l New Zealand : 
a Narrative of Travels and Adventures.' It 
gained the notice of Robert Montgomery 
Martin [q. v.], editor of the ' Colonial Maga- 
zine,' who in 1838 proposed him as a member 
of the newly formed Colonial Society of Lon- 
don. A second and more ambitious work by 
Polack, * Manners and Customs of the New 
Zealanders/ was published in London in 
1840 (2 vols.) This book furnishes one of 
the earliest accounts of the natives of New 
Zealand, and displays considerable erudition 
and capacity for observation ; the illustra- 
tions were drawn by the author. 

Polack lived for a time with a sister in 
Piccadilly, but eventually went to the United 
States, and settled in San Francisco, where 
he married the widow of William Hart, who 
had also been a settler in New Zealand. 
He died in San Francisco on 17 April 

[Polack's evidence before select committee of 
House of Lords on New Zealand, 1838; prefaces 
of Polack's works; Times, 2 July 1839, report of 
Polack v. Lawson ; information obtained through 
the agent-general for New Zealand.] C. A. H. 

FOLDING, JOHN BEDE (1794-1877), 
first Roman catholic archbishop of Sydney, 
was born in Liverpool on 18 Nov. 1794. Left 
an orphan early, he was adopted by his re- 
lative, Dr. Brewer, president of the English 
Benedictines. He was sent at eleven years old 
to be educated at Acton Burnell, the head- 

?uarters of the Benedictines. On 16 July 
810 he joined the Benedictine order, became 
a priest in March 1819, and was at once ap- 
pointed tutor at St. Gregory's College, Down- 
side, in Ireland. Many of his pupils were 
distinguished in later life. In his devotion 
to the work Folding declined the see of Madras 
in 1833. 

On the decision to erect the vicariate-apo- 
stolic of Australia into a bishopric, Folding 
was selected for the office, and consecrated 
bishop of Hiero-Caesarea on 29 June 1834. 
In September 1835 he arrived in Sydney and 
devoted himself to the organisation of the 
new diocese. In 1841 he revisited England, 
and thence went to Rome, where he was 
employed on a special mission to Malta, made 
a count of the holy Roman empire, and a 
bishop-assistant to the papal throne. He was 
appointed archbishop of Sydney on 10 April 

Folding's return as an archbishop roused 
a storm among members of the church of 
England in Australia, but his calm and con- 



ciliatory demeanour gradually disarmed op- 

In 1846-8, in 1854-6, and again in 1865- 
1866, Folding visited Europe to further the 
interests of his see and bring out new helpers. 
He was constantly traversing the remotest 
parts of his diocese, which included Tas- 
mania, and won the admiration and devotion 
of clergy and laity. In 1871 he left for 
Europe to attend the oecumenical council, 
but his health broke down at Aden, and he 
returned to Sydney. He died on 16 March 
1877 at the Sacred Heart Presbytery, Dar- 
linghurst, Sydney. 

[Melbourne Argus, 17 March 1877 ; Heaton's 
Australian Dictionary of Dates.] 0. A. H. 

POLE, ARTHUR (1531-1570?), con- 
spirator, born in 1531, was the eldest son of 
Sir Geoffrey Pole [q. v.] and his wife Con- 
stance, daughter of Sir John Pakenham. He 
has been commonly confused with his uncle 
Arthur, probably second son of Margaret Pole, 
countess of Salisbury [q. v.], and brother of 
Cardinal Pole. He was educated under the 
care of Gentian Hervet, a friend of Thomas 
Lupset [q. v.], and of Geoffrey and Reginald 
Pole. His father and his uncle the cardinal died 
within a few days of each other in November 
1558, and in December 1559 Arthur wrote, 
apparently to Cecil, complaining that his 
uncle had done nothing for him, and offering 
his services to Queen Elizabeth. This offer 
was not accepted, and Pole was soon en- 
tangled in treasonable proceedings. Before 
the end of the year the attentions paid to 
Pole by the English catholics irritated Eliza- 
beth, and in September 1562 De Quadra 
wrote to Philip that Pole was about to leave 
England on the pretext of religion, ' but the 
truth is that he is going to try his fortune, 
and pretend to the crown.' He was persuaded 
that, as a descendant of Edward I V's brother, 
the I) uke of Clarence, his claim to the English 
throne was as good as that of Mary Queen 
of Scots. Through one Fortescue, who had 
married his sister, he proposed to De Quadra 
to enter the Spanish service, but the Spanish 
ambassador thought little of his capacity or 
his claims, and Pole next applied to the French 
ambassador, De Foix. But France was not 
likely to support a rival to Mary, and Pole 
agreed to forego his claim to the crown on 
condition that he was created Duke of Cla- 
rence. It was wildly suggested that Mary 
might marry his younger brother Edmund 

Arthur and Edmund were encouraged in 
their project by the prediction of one Prestal, 
an astrologer, that Queen Elizabeth would 
die in 1563, and they plotted to raise a force 

in the Welsh marches to support Mary's claim. 
They also applied to the Duke of Guise for aid. 
He apparently held out hopes to them, and 
they were on the point of taking ship for France 
in October 1562 when they were arrested near 
the Tower. They were examined by the 
council, but no further "steps were taken until 
after the meeting of parliament in the follow- 
ing January. On 26 Feb. 1562-3 they were 
found guilty of treason ; but, in consideration 
of their youth and the futility of the plot, 
they were not executed. They were impri- 
soned in the Beauchamp Tower, Edmund in 
the upper, and Arthur in the lower room. 
They both carved inscriptions on the walls, 
which still remain. Edmund's is signed 
l 'Mt. 21 E. Poole, 1562,' and Arthur's < A.D. 
1568, Arthur Poole, M suae 37, A. P.' Both 
died in the Tower, probably in 1570. They 
were alive in January of that year, but 
both are omitted from their mother's will, 
dated 12 Aug. 1570, where Thomas, the second 
son, is described as the eldest. Froude, on 
the authority of one of De Quadra's letters, 
states that Arthur married a daughter of the 
Earl of Northumberland, but no reference 
to this match is to be found in the peer- 

[Cal. of Papers preserved at Simaneas, passim ; 
Cal.State Papers, Dom. 1541-80, p. 145, For. 1562 
No. 970, 1563 No. 44; Harl. MS. 421 ; Strype's 
Annals, i. i. 546, 555; Eccl.Mem.ii.ii.67; Wood's 
Athense Oxon.i. 146; Sandford's G-enealog. Hist, 
p. 445 ; Dugdale's Baronage ; Phillips's Life of 
Cardinal Pole; Bloxam's Keg. Magdalen Coll. 
Oxford, iv. 152; Aikin's Court of Eliz. i. 354; 
HepworthDixon's Her Majesty's Tower, ed. 1869, 
pp. 2, 241-4 ; Pike's Hist, of Crime, ii. 37-9 ; 
Froude andLingard's Histories ; Sussex Archseol. 
Collections, xxi. 86-7 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. viii. 49.] A. F. P. 

1830), admiral of the fleet, born on 18 Jan. 
1757, was second son of Reginald Pole of 
Stoke Damerell in Devonshire, and great- 
grandson of Sir John Pole of Shute, third 
baronet, and of his wife Anne, daughter of 
Sir William Morice [q. v.] In January 1770 
he entered the Royal Academy in Portsmouth 
Dockyard, and two years later was appointed 
to the Thames frigate, with Captain William 
Locker [q. v.] In December 1773 he was 
moved into the Salisbury, of 50 guns, going 
out to the East Indies with the broad pen- 
nant of Commodore Sir Edward Hughes 
[q. v.], by whom he waspromoted on 26 July 
1777 to be lieutenant of the Seahorse. In the 
following year he was moved to the Ripon, 
carrying the broad pennant of Sir Edward 
Vernon [q. v.], and in her took part in the 
rencounter with M. Tronjoly on 9 Aug. He 





afterwards commanded a party of seamen 
landed for the siege of Pondicherry, and on 
the surrender of the place, on 17 Oct. 1778, 
was promoted to the command of the Cor- 
morant Bloop, in which he returned to Eng- 
land with Vernon's despatches. On 22 March 
1779, ten days after his arrival, he was ad- 
vanced to post rank, and appointed to the 
Britannia, with Rear-admiral George Darby 
[q. v.] In July 1780 he was moved into the 
Hussar frigate, which he took out to North 
America, but she was lost, by the fault of 
the pilot, in endeavouring to pass through 
Hell Gate. Pole was fully acquitted by a 
court-martial, and was sent home with des- 
patches. He was then appointed to the 
Success, of 32 guns, and in March 1782 was 
sent out to Gibraltar, in charge of the 
Vernon store-ship. By the way, on the 16th, 
he fell in with the Spanish Santa Catalina, 
of 34 guns, said to have been the largest 
frigate then afloat. As she had also a poop, 
she was at first supposed to be a ship of the 
line ; it was only when Pole, determining at 
all risks to save the Vernon, gallantly closed 
with the Spaniard, that he discovered she 
was only a frigate, though of considerably 
superior force. He, however, engaged and, 
after two hours' close action, captured her. 
He had partly refitted her, in the hope of 
taking her in, when, on the 18th, a squadron 
of ships of war came in sight, and sooner 
than let her fall into the enemy's hands he 
set her on fire. When too late it was found 
that the strange sail were English. During 
the peace Pole commanded the Crown guard- 
ship for three years. In 1788 he was ap- 
pointed groom of the bedchamber to the 
Duke of Clarence. In the Spanish armament 
of 1790 he commanded the Melampus fri- 
gate, stationed off Brest to report anv move- 
ment of the French ships ; in 1791 "he was 
moved to the Illustrious of 74 guns, and 
again, in 1793, to the Colossus, in which he 
went out to the Mediterranean, and was pre- 
sent at the occupation of Toulon, under the 
command of Lord Hood. In 1794 the Co- 
lossus returned to England, and joined the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe. 

On 1 June 1795 Pole was promoted to be 
rear-admiral, and in November, in the Co- 
lossus, sailed for the West Indies as second 
in command, under Sir Hugh Cloberry 
Christian [q. v.], with whom he returned to 
England in October 1796. In March 1797 
he was appointed first captain of the Royal 
George, or, as it would now be called, captain 
of the fleet, with Lord Bridport [see HOOD, 
with his flag in the Royal George, he com- 
manded a squadron detached against some 

Spanish ships in Basque roads, which were 
found to be too far in under the batteries of 
the Isle of Aix to be attacked with advan- 
tage. In the following year he went out to 
Newfoundland as commander-in-chief, re- 
turning on his promotion to the rank of vice- 
admiral, on 1 Jan. 1801. In the following 
June he relieved Lord Nelson in command of 
the fleet in the Baltic. The work had, how- 
ever, been practically finished before his 
arrival, and little remained for him to do 
except to bring the fleet home. On 12 Sept. 
he was created a baronet. He was then sent- 
in command off" Cadiz, where he remained 
till the peace. In 1802 he was returned to 
parliament as member for Newark, and en- 
tered zealously on his duties. He was made 
an admiral in the Trafalgar promotion of 
9 Nov. 1805, but had no further service 
afloat. From 1803 to 1806 he was chairman 
of the commission on naval abuses [see 
and in 1806 became one of the, lords of the 
admiralty. From 1806 to 1818 he wasM.P. 
for Plymouth, taking an active interest in 
all measures connected with naval admini- 
stration, and speaking with the freedom of a 
man independent of party. On 20 Feb. 1818 
he was nominated a G.C.B. On the acces- 
sion of William IV he was appointed master 
of the robes, and was promoted to be ad- 
miral of the fleet on 22 July 1830. He died 
at Denham Abbey, Hertfordshire, on 6 Sept. 

Pole married, in 1792, Henrietta, third 
daughter of John Goddard, a Rotterdam 
merchant, of Woodford Hall, Essex, and 
niece of ' the rich Mr. Hope of Rotterdam ; ' 
but, dying without male issue, the baronetcy 
became extinct. His portrait by Beechey 
has been engraved. 

[Marshall's Royal Naval Biogr. i. 86 ; Naval 
Chronicle (with a portrait after Northcote), xxi. 
265 ; Ralfe's Naval Biogr. ii. 129 ; Pantheon of 
the Age, ii. 158 ; Foster's Baronetage, s.n. Pole of 
Shute. There are many casual notices of him in 
Nicolas's Despatches and Letters of Lord Nelson 
(see index).] J. K. L. 

POLE, DAVID (d. 1568), bishop of Peter- 
borough, appears as a fellow of All Souls" 
College, Oxford, in 1520. He devoted him- 
self to civil law, and graduated B.Can.L. on 
2 July 1526 and D.Can.L. on 17 Feb. 1 527- 
1528. In 1529 he became an advocate in 
Doctors' Commons. He was connected with 
the diocese of Lichfield, where he held many 
preferments, first under Bishop Geoffrey 
Blyth, and then under Bishop Rowland Lee. 
He was made prebendary of Tachbrook in- 
Lichfield Cathedral on 11 April 1531, arch- 
deacon of Salop in April 1536, and arch- 




deacon of Derby on 8 Jan. 1542-3. He had 
previously received the high appointment of 
dean of the arches and vicar-general of the 
archbishop of Canterbury on 14 Nov. 1540. 
A conscientious adherent of the Roman ca- 
tholic faith, he occupied several positions of 
importance during Mary's reign. In her first 
year he acted as vicar-general of the bishop 
of Lichfield (Richard Sampson) and commis- 
sioner for the deprivation of married priests 
(STEYPE, M emorials, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 168), and 
in his capacity of archdeacon he sat 011 the 
commission for the deprivation of Cranmer, 
Ridley, and Latimer, and the restoration of 
Bonner and other deprived bishops (z'6.p. 36). 
He stood high in the favour of Cardinal 
Pole, said to be a relative, who appointed 
him his vicar-general (ib. p. 476). During 
the vacancy of the see of Lichfield on Bishop 
Sampson's death in 1554, he was appointed 
commissary for the diocese. In the early 
part of the same year he took part in the con- 
demnation of Hooper and Taylor (ib. pp. 288, 
290). On 25 April 1556 he was appointed 
on the commission to inquire after heretics, 
and to proceed against them. On the death 
of John Chambers, the first bishop of the 
newly formed diocese of Peterborough, the 
queen sent letters commendatory to Paul IV 
in Pole's favour. He was consecrated at 
Chiswick on 15 Aug. 1557 by Nicholas Heath 
{q. v.], archbishop of York. Hardly a month 
elapsed before he proved his zeal against heresy 
by sanctioning the martyrdom of John Kurde, 
a protestant shoemaker of Syston, who was 
burnt at Northampton on 20 Sept. 1 557 (FoxE, 
Acts and Monuments, iii. 71). The death of 
Mary caused a complete change in his position. 
He was regarded with well-deserved respect 
by Elizabeth, who put him in the first abortive 
commission for the consecration of Parker as 
archbishop, 9 Sept. 1559 (STKYPE, Parker, 
i. 106). In the same year he, with Bonner 
and two other prelates, signed Archbishop 
Heath's letter of remonstrance to Elizabeth, 
begging her to return to the catholic faith 
(STEYPE, Annals, vol. i. pt. i. p. 217). His 
refusal, in common with his brother bishops, 
to take the oath under the act of supremacy 
was followed by his deprivation ; but he was 
treated with great leniency by the queen as 
*an ancient and grave person and very quiet 
subject/ and was allowed to live on parole 
in London or the suburbs, having no * other 
gaoler than his own promise ' (FuLLEE, 
Church Hist. iv. 281). He was ' courteously 
treated by all persons among whom he lived, 
and at last ' died ' on one of his farms in a 
good old age,' in Mayor June 1568 (HEYLYN, 
Hist, of lie formation, anno 1559; STEYPE, 
Annals, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 214, 411). His pro- 

perty he left to his friends, with the excep- 
tion of his books on law and theology, which 
he bequeathed to his college, All Souls'. 

[Wood's Athense, ii. 801, Fasti, i. 74, 77, 78 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Strype, Me- 
morials, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 36, 168,288, 290, 473, 
476-7, pt. ii. p. 26, Annals, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 206, 21 4, 
217, 411, pt. ii. p. 26, Cranmer, i. 459, Parker, i. 
106; Lansdowne MS. 980 f.283; Ghinton's His- 
tory of Peterborough, pp. 69, 70; Coote's Civilians, 
p. 26; Dixon's Church History, iv. 48, 593, 796.] 

E. V. 

FOLK (1472 P-1513), was the second son of 
John de la Pole, second duke of Suffolk [q. v.], 
by his wife Elizabeth, sister of Edward IV. 
About 1481 Edward sent him to Oxford, 
mainly to hear a divinity lecture he had 
lately founded. The university wrote two 
fulsome letters to the king, thanking him for 
the favour he had done them in sending 
thither a lad whose precocity, they declared, 
seemed to have something of inspiration in it. 
The family owed much to Richard III, who 
made Edmund a knight of the Bath at his 
coronation on 4 July 1483 (HOLINSHED, iii. 
733). He, with his father, was also pre- 
sent at the coronation of Elizabeth, queen 
of Henry VII, on 25 Nov. 1487 (LELAND, 
Collectanea, iv. 229, 230, ed. 1770), and was 
frequently at court during the next two 

In 1491 his father died. Edmund, the 
eldest surviving son, had not attained his 
majority, and was the king's ward (Rolls of 
Parl. vi. 477). He ought still to have suc- 
ceeded to his father's title, but, his inheri- 
tance being seriously diminished by the act of 
attainder against his late brother [see POLE, 
he agreed with the king by indenture, dated 
26 Feb. 1493 (presumably the date at which 
he came of age), to forego the title of duke 
and content himself with that of Earl of 
Suffolk on the king restoring to him a por- 
tion of the forfeited property not indeed as 
a gift, but in exchange for a sum of 5,000/. 
to be paid by yearly instalments of 200/. 
during his mother's life and of 400/. after 
her death. This arrangement was ratified in 
the parliament of October 1495 (Rolls of 
Parl. vi. 474-7). Henry's skill at driving a 
hard bargain was never more apparent. But 
in the parliamentary confirmation of the in- 
denture he showed himself gracious enough 
to restore to the impoverished nobleman his 
' chief place ' in the city of London, in the 
parish of St. Laurence Pultney, which by 
the agreement itself the earl had conceded 
to the king (ib. p. 476). 

In October 1492 Suffolk was at the siege 




of Boulogne (Chronicle of Calais, p. 2). On 
9 Nov. 1494 he was the leading challenger 
at Westminster in the tournament at the 
creation of Prince Henry as Duke of York, 
and was presented on the second day with 
' a ring of gold with a diamond ' as a prize. 
In 1495, on Michaelmas day, he received 
the king, who was on his way from Wood- 
stock to Windsor, at his seat at Ewelme 
(Excerpta Historica, p. 105). The par- 
liament which confirmed his agreement with 
the king assembled in the following month, 
and he was one of the lords appointed triers 
of petitions from Gascony and foreign parts 
(Rolls of Parl. vi. 458). It was probably in 
1496 that he was made a knight of the Garter 
in the room of Jasper, duke of Bedford, who 
died in December 1495 (BELTZ, Memorials 
of the Garter, p. clxix). In February 1496 
he took part in a ' disguising ' before the 
king (Excerpta Historica,^. 107). In the same 
month he was one of a number of English 
noblemen who stood sureties to the Arch- 
duke Philip for the observance of the new 
treaties with Burgundy (RYMER, xii. 588, 
1st edit.) On 22 June he led a company 
against the Cornish rebels at Blackheath. 

In Michaelmas term, 1498, he was in- 
dicted in the king's bench for murder. It 
appears that he had killed a man in a pas- 
sion ; and though he received the king's 
pardon, he is said to have resented the fact 
that he, a prince of royal blood, should have 
been arraigned for the crime. In April 1499, 
however, he attended a chapter of the Gar- 
ter at Windsor (AtfSTis, Register, ii. 238). 
But in July, or the very beginning of August, 
he fled the kingdom, first taking refuge at 
Guisnes, near Calais, where Sir James Tyrell, 
captain of the castle, had friendly confer- 
ences with him, and afterwards going on to 
St. Omer. Henry, much alarmed at his de- 
parture, issued on 20 Aug. strict orders 
against persons leaving the kingdom without 
a license (Letters and Papers, ii. 377 ; Paston 
Letters, iii. 173, ed. Gairdner). He also 
instructed Sir Richard Guildford [q. v.] and 
Richard Hatton, the former of whom was 
going on a mission to the archduke, to use 
all possible persuasions to induce Suffolk to 
return. Henry's ambassadors persuaded the 
archduke to order Suffolk out of his domi- 
nions; but the captain of St. Omer, who 
was charged to convey the order, delayed 
the intimation of it, much to his master's 
satisfaction. Guildford had instructions to 
bring Suffolk back by force if persuasion 
failed. Suffolk wisely preferred to return 
voluntarily, and was again taken into favour. 
He was, however, by no means satisfied as to 
the king's intentions; and the judicial murder 

of the Earl of Warwick, which happened 
immediately after, did not reassure him. It 
seemed as if the house of York were to be 
extirpated to secure the Tudor throne. 

On 5 May 1500, however, he witnessed at 
Canterbury the king's confirmation of the 
treaty for the marriage of Prince Arthur 
with Catherine of Arragon (RYMER, xii. 
752, 1st edit.), and six days later he followed 
the king to Calais to the meeting with the 
Archduke Philip. He returned to England, 
but having heard that the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, who had an old grudge against 
Henry VII, would gladly help one of the 
blood of Edward IV to gain the English 
throne, he in August 1501 repaired to Maxi- 
milian in the Tyrol. The emperor at first 
gave him no encouragement. After remain- 
ing six weeks at Imst, Suffolk received a 
message, promising him the aid of three to 
five thousand men for a period of one, two, 
or three months if necessary. Leaving his 
steward Killingworth to arrange details with 
Maximilian, he repaired to Aix-la-Chapelle 
with letters from the emperor in his favour 
to the council of that town. After Suffolk's 
departure Maximilian raised difficulties in 
performing his promise. But Suffolk was at 
length informed that Maximilian had per- 
suaded the Count of Hardeck to lend Suffolk 
twenty thousand gulden. The count was to- 
be repaid double that sum, and his son was 
to go with Suffolk into England. 

On 7 Nov. 1501 Suffolk, Sir Robert Cur- 
zon who seems first to have suggested the 
project to the emperor and five other per- 
sons were publicly * accursed ' at Paul's 
Cross as traitors. Afterwards on the first 
Sunday of Lent (13 Feb.) 1502, Suffolk's 
brother, Lord William de la Pole, with 
Lord William Courtney, Sir James Tyrell, 
and other Yorkist friends, were thrown into 
prison. Of these, Tyrell and Sir John Wynd- 
ham suffered as traitors in May following ; 
but the two Lord Williams, whose Yorkist 
blood and connection were alone suspicious, 
were only kept in confinement till the ac- 
cession of Henry VIII. Suffolk himself was 
outlawed at Ipswich on 26 Dec. 1502. 

He was also disappointed in the hope of 
help from his foreign friends. His remon- 
strances addressed to the emperor from Aix 
were in vain, and on 28 July 1502 Maximilian 
signed a treaty at Augsburg, pledging him- 
self in return for 10,000/. not to succour any 
English rebels, even though they claimed the 
dignity of dukes (for Suffolk had resumed his 
forfeited rank in the peerage) (RYMER, xiii. 
9, 22-7, 1st edit.) Nevertheless, Suffolk 
was suffered to remain at Aix unmolested. 
But on 12 Feb. 1503 Maximilian took, at 


the English king's request, an oath to observe 
the treaties, and gave a reluctant promise to 
expel Suffolk from Aix by proclamation. He 
merely wrote, however, to the burgomaster 
and town council that, as he had sent the un- 
happy nobleman thither, and was forbidden 
by his treaty with England to grant him 
further aid, he had arranged to pay them three 
thousand Rhenish florins, to enable him to 
quit the town free of debt. But it does not 
appear that Maximilian kept his word, for 
Suffolk remained 'at Aix, still in debt, for 
several months after. 

In January 1504 he was attainted by the 
English parliament (Rolls of Parl. vi. 545 
seq.), along with his brothers William and 
Richard [q. v.],and a number of his adherents. 
His situation seemed hopeless. Strangely 
illiterate letters during the next few years 
reflect his wretchedness, and form a most 
astounding commentary on that erudition 
with which he was credited by his univer- 
sity when a boy. Just before Easter 1504 he 
managed to quit Aix by leaving his brother 
Richard behind him as a hostage. He had 
arranged to join George, duke of Saxony, 
governor of Friesland, but on entering Gelder- 
land he was seized and thrown into the castle 
of Hattem, in spite of a safe-conduct the 
Duke of Gueldres had sent him. The duke 
is believed to have obtained money from 
Henry VII to keep the prisoner safe, and 
refused the demand of his overlord, Philip, 
king of Castile, to deliver him. But in July 
1505 Philip's able captain, Paul von Lichten- 
stein, obtained possession of Hattem, with 
the prisoner in it. Much negotiation between 
Philip and the Duke of Gueldres followed, 
and during the course of it Suffolk was tem- 
porarily handed back to the duke ; but in 
October Philip again obtained possession of 
the prisoner, and shut him up in the castle 
of Namur. 

On 24 Jan. 1506 Suffolk gave a curious 
commission to two of his servants to treat 
with Henry VII for an adjustment of the 
differences between them, with a set of spe- 
cific instructions as to the terms. He de- 
manded Henry's aid, if necessary, for his 
delivery out of Philip's hands. In the same 
month Philip visited Henry at Windsor, and 
consented to surrender the unhappy fugitive. 
At the end of March Suffolk was conveyed 
through London (LE GLAY, Negotiations, i. 
114), and committed to the Tower. 

Henry gave Philip a written promise to 
spare his life (Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 
vol. i. No. 456), and the rumour that he 
recommended his son and successor to put 
Suffolk to death is probably a scandal 
(Memoires de Du Bellay, livre i.) But at 


Henry VIII's accession he was excepted from 
the general pardon, and in 1513, when his 
brother Richard had taken up arms in the 
service of France, with whom England was 
then at war, he was sent to the block, ap- 
parently without any further proceedings 

" anish writer 
524) that 

by writing to urge 
his brother to promote a rebellion in England. 
But as a prisoner in the Tower he had little 
opportunity of doing so, unless it were pur- 
posely afforded him (cf. Calendar, Venetian, 
vol. ii. No. 248). 

Pole married Margaret, a daughter of 
Richard, lord Scrope, and by her he had a 
daughter named Anne, who became a nun 
at the Minories without Aldgate. He left 
no male issue. 

[Polydori Vergilii Historia Anglica; Hall's 
Chronicle ; Fabyan's Chronicle ; Dugdale's 
Baronage ; Sandford's Genealogical History ; 
"Wood's Annals of Oxford ; Napier's Swyncombe 
and Ewelme ; Memorials of Henry VII (Eolls 
Ser.) ; Letters and Papers of Eichard III and 
Henry VII (Eolls Ser) ; Ellis's Letters, 3rd ser. 
vol. i. Nos. 48-59 ; Cal. State Papers, Spanish 
vol. i., Venetian vol. i., and Henry VIII vol. i. ; 
Chroniques de Jean Molinet, vol. v. (Buchon's 
Collection des Chroniques Nationales Fran- 
9aises); Le Glay's Negociations ; Busch's Eng- 
land unter den Tudors.] J. Gr. 

POLE, SIR GEOFFREY (1502 P-1558), 
a victim of Henry VIII's tyranny, born be- 
tween 1501 and 1505, was brother of Henry 
Pole, lord Montague [q. v.], and of Reginald 
Pole [q. v.] the cardinal, being the youngest 
son of Sir Richard Pole (d. 1505), by his wife 
Margaret, afterwards Countess of Salisbury 
[see POLE, MARGARET]. He was one of the 
knights made by Henry VIII at York Place 
in 1529 (METCALFE, Book of Knights, p. 61 ; 
Cal. Henry VIII, vol. iv. No. 6384). Soon 
afterwards he married Constance, the elder 
of the two daughters and heirs of Sir John 
Pakenham, by whom he became possessed of 
the manor of Lordington in Sussex. Local 
antiquaries assert that this manor belonged to 
his father ; but this has been fully disproved 
by Father Morris (Month, Ixv. 521-2). From 
1531 his name is met with in commissions of 
various kinds, both for Hampshire and for 

Like the rest of his family, he greatly dis- 
liked Henry VIII's proceedings for a divorce 
from Catherine of Arragon. In 1532, when 
the king went over to Calais with Anne 
Boleyn to meet Francis I, he crossed the sea 
in disguise, and keeping himself unseen in the 
apartments of his brother, Henry Pole, lord 
Montague [q. v.], who had gone over with 


the king, stole out at night to collect news. 
Montague sent him back to England to inform 
Queen Catherine that Henry had not suc- 
ceeded in persuading Francis to countenance 
his proposed marriage with Anne Boleyn. 
Next year, however, his name appears set 
down not with his own good will, we may 
be sure among the knights appointed 'to 
be servitors' at Anne Boleyn's coronation 
(Cal Henry VIII, vi. 246). But a week 
after, on Thursday, 5 June, he dined with 
the Princess Mary (ib. No. 1540, iii.) ; and 
frequently, when Anne Boleyn was queen, 
he visited the imperial ambassador, Chapuys, 
to assure him that the emperor would find the 
hearts of the English people with him if he 
invaded England to redress the wrong done 
to Catherine (ib. vii. 520). He added that he 
himself wished to go to the emperor in Spain, 
which Chapuys wisely dissuaded him from 
doing (ib. vol. viii. No. 750, p. 283). 

In 1536, on the suppression of the smaller 
monasteries, he purchased from the commis- 
sioners such goods as then remained of the 
abbey of Dureford in Sussex, near Lordington 
(Sussex Archceological Collections, vii. 224). 
In the end of that year he is said to have 
commanded a company, under the Duke of 
Norfolk, against the northern rebels at Don- 
caster ; but his sympathies were really with 
the rebels, and he was determined beforehand 
not to act against them (ib. xxi. 77). Norfolk, 
however, was aware that the insurgents were 
too strong to be attacked, and Sir Geoffrey had 
no occasion to desert the royal standard. A 
letter of Lord De la Warr, perhaps misplaced 
in the ' Calendar' in October 1536, speaks of 
his causing a riot by a forcible entry into Slin- 
don Park, which he was afterwards ordered 
in the king's name immediately to quit (Cal. 
Henry VIII, vol. xi. No. 523). In October 
1537 when he came to court the king refused 
to see him (ib. vol. xii. pt. ii. No. 921) ; and 
a letter of his to the lord chancellor, dated at 
Lordington, 5 April, in which he hopes for 
a return of the king's favour, was probably 
written in 1538, though placed among the 
state papers of 1537 (ib. vol. xii. pt. i. No. 
829). On 29 Aug. 1538 he was arrested and 
sent to the Tower (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. p. 91). 

This was a blow aimed at his whole family, 
whom the king had long meant to crush on 
account of the part taken by his brother Regi- 
nald the cardinal. For nearly two months 
Geoffrey lay in prison ; on 26" Oct. a set of 
interrogatories was administered to him, first 
about words dropped by himself in private 
conversation, when he had expressed approval 
of his brother's proceedings, and next as to 
the letters and messages he or his mother, or 
others of his family, had received from the 



cardinal during the last three years. With 
the fear of the rack before him, and knowing 
that he would be compelled to implicate his 
family, he endeavoured to commit suicide, 
and did himself some serious injury (ib. vol. 
xiii. pt. ii. Nos. 703, 875). But it was in vain. 
Seven separate examinations was he obliged 
to undergo, with further and further ques- 
tionings as new information was elicited from 
himself or from those whom his confessions 
implicated, until the whole case was made 
out for the king against not only himself, 
but his brother Lord Montague, Henry Cour- 
tenay, marquis of Exeter [q. v.], Sir Edward 
Neville (d. 1538) [q. v.], and others. His wife, 
who was herself examined by the council, 
privately informed her brother-in-law Lord 
Montague that her husband was driven to 
frenzy, and might make indiscreet revelations. 
Brought to trial with those he had implicated, 
on 4 Dec. at Westminster, he was condemned 
to death on his own plea of guilty, but, while 
his brother and the others met their fate, his 
life was spared. There were new victims still 
to be caught, and even on 30 Dec. Cromwell 
intimated to the French ambassador that they 
hoped to learn something more from him. 
At last, on 4 Jan. 1539, he received his par- 
don, which, it is said, his wife obtained for 
him, representing that he was so ill that he 
was already as good as dead (FoLEY, Records 
of the English Province of the Society of 
Jesus, iii. 790-1). During the Christmas 
week, indeed, he seems to have made another 
attempt upon his own life, trying to suffocate 
himself with a cushion (Cal. Henry VIII, 
vol. xiv. pt. i. p. 19). 

In September 1540 he was committed to 
the Fleet in consequence of ' a certain affray ' 
which he had made in Hampshire on one Mr. 
Gunter, a justice of the peace, who had given, 
the council information against him. A 
fortnight later he received the king's pardon 
on condition of his keeping the peace towards 
Gunter, and not coming again to court until 
the king's pleasure were further declared. 
Early in April next year another complaint 
was made against him to the council for an 
assault on John Michael, the parson of 
Racton, his parish church in Sussex. He 
seems to have previously connived at the 
trumping-up of a charge of treason against 

A few weeks later his mother was put to 
death, and he was afraid of further trouble. 
' He went about,' says a contemporary writer, 
'like one terror-stricken, and, as he lived four 
miles from Chlchester, he saw one day in Chi- 
chester a Flemish ship, into which he resolved 
to get, and with her he passed over to Flanders, 
leaving his wife and children.' It is added 



that he found his way to Rome, and threw 
himself at the feet of his brother the cardinal, 
saying he was unworthy to be called his 
brother for having caused another brother's 
death. The cardinal brought him to the pope 
for absolution, and afterwards sent him into 
Flanders to the bishop of Liege, allowing him 
forty crowns a month to live upon. There 
he chiefly lived till the close of Edward VI's 
reign. His wife and family, however, were 
still at Lordington, and he had a strong desire 
to return to England. In 1550 he visited Sir 
John Mason [q. v.] at Poissy, while on a 
journey to Rouen. He explained that he 
was riding up and down that summer to see 
countries, and vainly begged Mason to procure 
leave for him to return to England. He was 
excepted from the general pardon granted at 
the end of the parliament in 1552 (STRYPE, 
Heel. Mem. vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 67). After Queen 
Mary's accession he returned to England. 
He died in 1558, a few days before his brother 
the cardinal, and was buried at Stoughton 
Church. He was attended in his last illness 
by Father Peter de Soto [q. v.] His widow 
Constance, who made her will on 1.2 Aug. 
1570, desired to be buried beside him. He 
left five sons and six daughters, two of whom 
were married, and one a nun of Sion ; the 
eldest son, Arthur, is separately noticed. 

[Sandford's Genealogical Hist,; Cal. State 
Papers, Henry VIII, Foreign, Edward VI, Vene- 
tian, iii. 1560 ; Privy Council Proceedings, ed. 
Nicolas, vol. vii. ; Sussex Archseological Collec- 
tions, vol. xxi. ; Tytler's England under Ed- 
ward VI and Mary, i. 313; Chronicle of 
Henry VIII of England, translated from the 
Spanish by Martin A. Sharp Hume. The notices 
of Sir Geoffrey Pole in Froude's History are 
altogether erroneous.] J. G. 

MONTACTJTE (1492P-1539), born about 1492, 
was eldest son of Sir Richard Pole (d. 1505), by 
his wife Margaret [see POLE, MARGARET]. ' He 
obtained a special livery of his father's lands, 
viz. the manors of Ellesborough and Med- 
menham in Buckinghamshire, on 5 July 1513. 
On 25 Sept. following he was one of a com- 
pany of forty-nine gentlemen knighted by 
Henry VIII under his banner, after mass, in 
the church at Tournay. This implies that 
he had distinguished himself during the 
French campaign. Along with his mother, 
who was created Countess of Salisbury that 
year, he gave a bond to the king for the re- 
demption of the lands of that ancestral earl- 
dom (Cal. Henry VIII, ii. 1480), and another 
old family title, the barony of Montague or 
Montacute, forfeited by the Nevilles under 
Edward IV, was conferred upon himself. 
There is no record of any formal grant or 

creation, but from 1517, when he is named 
as a witness of Henry VIII's ratification of 
the treaty of London, he is continually called 
Lord Montague, though he was not admitted 
to the House of Lords till 1529. In Sep- 
tember 1518 he was one of the English lords 
appointed to receive the great French em- 
bassy. He was a member of the royal house- 
hold, and had a livery allowed him (Cal. 
Henry VIII, vol. iii. No. 491). He attended 
the king in 1520 to the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold, and also to the meeting with Charles V 
at Gravelines. 

About 1513 he married Jane, daughter of 
George Neville, lord Bergavenny [q. v.] His 
father-in-law insisted upon a jointure to the 
yearly value of 200/., in addition to which he 
was to pay ' at convenient days ' a sum of one 
thousand marks if he should have no male 
issue ; but if a son were born, Lord Ber- 
gavenny was to pay the same amount to the 
Countess of Salisbury (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. 
No. 1016). Lord Bergavenny was himself 
the son-in-law of the unfortunate Duke of 
Buckingham who once, as appears by his 
private accounts, lost 157. at dice to him at 
the house of Lord Montague (ib. iii. 499). 
When Buckingham was arrested in April 
1521, Lords Bergavenny and Montague were 
arrested also (ib. vol. iii. No. 1268), but were 
soon after released. 

In 1522, on Charles V's visit to England, 
Montague was one of those appointed to meet 
him on his way from Dover to Canterbury. 
In 1523 he took part in Suffolk's invasion of 
France (ib. vol. iii. No. 3281, vol. iv. p. 85). 
His fortunes at this time must have been 
depressed, for his income was under 50/. a 
year, and he was exempted from paying sub- 
sidy in 1525 (ib. iv. 1331). Apparently he 
had parted with his paternal estates in Buck- 
inghamshire, as his name does not appear in 
the commissions for that county, although it 
is on those for Hampshire, Sussex, Wiltshire, 
Somerset, and Dorset. On 1 Dec. 1529 he 
took his seat in the House of Lords (DuG- 
DALE, Summons to Parliament, p. 500). Next 
year he signed the address of the peers to 
Clement VII, urging him to comply with the 
king's suit for a divorce. His action did not 
express his real mind. 

In October 1532 he went with the king 
to Calais, to .the meeting with Francis I. 
Next year he was queen's carver at the coro- 
nation banquet of Anne Boleyn, on 1 June. 
That he was made a knight of the Bath at 
this time seems to be an error due to Stow, 
who misread the name Monteagle in Hall's 
' Chronicle ' as Montague. On Thursday fol- 
lowing (5 June) he and his son-in-law, Lord 
Hastings, and his brother, Sir Geoffrey Pole, 


dined with the Princess Mary, and he him- 
self dined with her again on the 24th (Cal. 
Henry VIII, vol. vi. No. 1540, iii.) He re- 
ceived a writ of summons to the prorogued 
parliament in January 1534, and he seems to 
have attended regularly, his presence being 
recorded on 30 March, the seventy-fifth day 
of parliament. In April 1535 he was on the 
special commission before whom the Car- 
thusian martyrs were tried ; but his position 
there, like that of other lords, was merely 
honorary, the practical work being left to the 
judicial members. He was similarly placed 
on the trial of Sir Thomas More on 1 July. Im- 
mediately afterwards he had a serious illness. 
In May 1536 he was one of the peers before 
whom Anne Boleyn was tried. In it he took a 
more practical part than in the two previous 
trials, for each of the peers present severally 
declared her guilty. He may have believed 
in the verdict, for he had never approved of 
the king's marriage to her, or loved the anti- 
papal policy to which that marriage had led 
(cf. ib. vol. xvii. No. 957, x. 243 ; vol. vii. 
No. 1040). 

He sat in the parliament of July 1536 
(ib. vol. x. No. 994, vol. xi. No. 104). He 
and his mother were seriously distressed 
that year about the book which his brother 
Reginald sent to the king, and each wrote 
to him in reproachful terms, but it was appa- 
rently to satisfy the council by whom the 
letters were read and despatched [see POLE, 
MARGARET]. On the outbreak of the Lin- 
colnshire rebellion in the beginning of October 
1536, Montague received orders to be ready 
at a day's warning to serve against the in- 
surgents with two hundred men. But the 
musters were countermanded on the speedy 
suppression of the insurrection, and it is 
doubtful whether he was sent against the 
Yorkshire rebels afterwards. On 15 Oct. 
1537 he took part in the ceremonial at the 
christening of Prince Edward. On 12 Nov. 
following he and Lord Clifford attended the 
Princess Mary, as she rode from Hampton 
Court to Windsor, as chief mourner at the 
funeral of Jane Seymour. 

All this time, although perfectly loyal, he 
was deeply grieved at the overthrow of the 
monasteries and the abrogation of the pope's 
authority. He often said in private he 
wished he was over sea with the bishop 
of Liege, as his brother had been, and that 
knaves ruled about the king. Early in 1538 
his wife died, and his interest in public 
affairs consequently decreased (Cal. vol. xiii. 
pt. ii. No. 695 [2]). But Henry VIII was 
not ignorant of his opinions, and obtained 
positive evidence of them by the examina- 
tion of his brother, Sir Geoffrey Pole [q. v.], 

; Pole 

in the Tower in October and November 1538. 
Montague was accordingly committed to the 
Tower on 4 Nov. along with the Marquis of 
Exeter. They had at times communicated 
on public affairs. The indictments in each 
case were to the same effect. They had both 
expressed approval of Cardinal Pole's pro- 
ceedings, and Montague had said he expected 
civil war one day from the course things 
were taking, especially if the king were to 
die suddenly. The two lords were tried 
before Lord-chancellor Audeley, as lord high 
steward, and a jury of peers, and both were 
found guilty. Montague received judgment 
on 2 Dec., and Exeter on the day following. 
On 9 Dec. both lords were beheaded on 
Tower Hill. A portrait of Montague by an 
unknown hand belonged in 1866 to Mr. 
Reginald Cholmondeley. 

Montague left a son whose existence is not 
mentioned by peerage historians ; he was in- 
cluded with his father in the bill of attainder 
of 1539, and probably died not many years 
after in prison. Besides Catherine, wife of 
Francis, lord Hastings, afterwards earl of 
Huntingdon [q. v.], Montague had a daughter 
Winifred, who married a brother of her 
sister's husband. His two daughters became 
his heirs, and were fully restored in blood 
and honours in the first year of Philip and 

[Sandford's Genealogical Hist., DugdaVs Ba- 
ronage and the Calendar cf Henry VIII, are the 
main sources of information. The Chronicle of 
Henry VIII, translated from the Spanish by 
M. A. S. Hume (1 889), has some details of doubt- 
ful authenticity touching Montague's arrest and 
examination.] J. G-. 

(1464P-1487), born about 1464, was eldest 
son of John de la Pole, second duke of Suffolk 
[q. v.],by Elizabeth, sister to Edward IV. He 
was created Earl of Lincoln on 13 March 
1466-7, and knight of the Bath on 18 April 
1475, and attended Edward IV's funeral in 
April 1483. Richard III seems to have se- 
cured him firmly to his party. lie bore the 
orb at Richard's coronation, 7 July 1483, and 
the same month he was made president of 
the council of the north (cf. Letters and 
Papers of Richard III and Henry VII, ed. 
Gairdner, i. 56). Richard's son Edward died 
on 9 April 1484, and one of his offices, that of 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, was conferred upon 
the Earl of Lincoln on the following 21 Aug. 
He continued to hold this office for the rest 
of the reign, the duties being performed, or 
neglected, by the Earl of Kildare. It now 
became necessary for Richard III to find an 
heir to the throne. Edward, earl of Warwick 
(1475-1499) [q. v.], son of the Duke of Cla- 



rence, had a strong claim, and he was certainly 
allowed to take precedence of the Earl of Lin- 
coln after the death of the Prince of Wales. 
But, on the other hand, Warwick was a mere 
boy, and if he had any claim to be heir, he had 
an equally valid claim to be king. Hence, 
after some deliberation, Lincoln was selected 
as the heir to the throne. Kichard was very 
generous to him. He gave him the reversion 
to the estates of Lady Margaret Beaufort 
[q. v.], subject to the life interest of her third 
husband, Lord Stanley ; and in the meantime 
he was to have a pension of 176/. a year. He 
was with Richard at Bos worth ; but Henry VII 
had no wish to alienate his family, and Lin- 
coln, after Richard's defeat and death, took 
an oath with others in 1485 not to maintain 
felons. On 5 July 1486 he was appointed 
a justice of oyer and terminer. None the 
less he seems to have cherished the am- 
bition to succeed Richard, and he was the 
real centre of the plot of Lambert Simnel. 
Suddenly he fled in the early part of 1487 to 
Brabant, and thence went to Ireland, where 
he joined Simnel's army, and, crossing to 
England, was killed at the battle of Stoke on 
16 June 1487. He was attainted. He had 
married, first, Margaret Fitzalan, daughter 
of Thomas, twelfth earl of Arundel ; and, 
secondly, the daughter and heiress of Sir 
John Golafre, but left no children. His 
brothers Edmund and Richard are noticed 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 379 ; Letters, &c., 
Richard III and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner, i. 6, 
&c. ; Rot. Parl. vi. 288, 436, 474 ; Memorials of 
Henry VII, ed. Gairdner, pp. 50, 52, 139, 314 
(Bernard Andreas in his l Douze Triomphes ' 
probably alludes to him under the name le Comte 
de Licaon) ; Materials for the Hist, of Hen. VII, 
i. 482 ; Gal. of the Patent Rolls of Richard III 
(Rep. Dep.-Keep. Publ. Records, 9th Rep. App. 
ii. ; Busch's England under the Tudors (Engl. 
transl.), i. 32-3 ; Gairdner's Richard III ; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York, ii. 453, 522, 
523, 534, 545 ; Gairdner's Henry VII ; Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Peerage.] W. A. J. A. 

SUFFOLK (1442-1491), born on 27 Sept. 1442, 
was only son of William de la Pole, first duke 
of Suffolk (d. 1450) [q. v.] On 27 Nov. 1445 
he was made joint constable of Wallingford 
and high steward of the honour of St. Valery, 
offices to which he was reappointed in 146.1. 
In 1455 he was restored by Henry VI to the 
dukedom of Suffolk. None the less he joined 
Henry's Yorkist foes, and married Ed- 
wa'rd IV's sister. In February 1461 he was 
with the army which went under Warwick 
against Margaret's northern host, fresh from 
Wakefield, and he fought at the second 

battle of St. Albans on 7 Feb. 1461. On 
28 June following he was steward of Eng- 
land at the coronation of Edward IV, and 
two years later he was re-created Duke of 
Suffolk. In 1463 he was a trier of petitions. 
He bore the queen's sceptre at the coronation 
of Elizabeth Woodville or Wydeville. In his 
own county, according to a letter from Mar- 
garet Paston to her husband, he was far from 
popular (Paston Letters,ii. 83), but it must be 
remembered that he was involved in disputes 
with the Paston family (id. ii. 203). In the 
troubles of 1469 and 1470 he took Edward's 
side, and appears as a joint commissioner of 
array for several counties (cf. ib. ii. 413). 
When Ed ward was restored Suffolk was made 
a knight of the Garter (1472). In 1472 he 
became high steward of Oxford University. 
When Edward went to France in 1475, Suf- 
folk was a captain in his army, and took some 
minor part in the negotiations which led to 
the treaty of Pecquigny. In 1478 he made 
various exchanges of lands with the king, 
which were duly confirmed in parliament. 
From 10 March 1478 to 5 May 1479 he was 
lieutenant of Ireland ; he also held the office 
of joint high steward of the duchy of Lan- 
caster for the parts of England south of the 

Suffolk had enjoyed many favours from 
Edward IV, yet on his death he at once 
offered his support to Richard III. He bore 
the sceptre and the dove at Richard's corona- 
tion on 7 July 1483. When, however, Richard 
was dead, Suffolk swore fealty to Henry VII, 
and was rewarded (19 Sept. 1485) with the 
constableship of Wallingford, a sole grant, 
doubtless, instead of a joint grant, such as he 
had had previously. This, however, he did 
not keep long, for on 21 Feb. 1488-9 the office 
wasregrantedto two more distinguished Lan- 
castrians, Sir William Stonor and Sir Thomas 
Lovell [q. v.] Suffolk seems to have been 
trusted by Henry, for, in spite of the defection 
of his eldest son John, he was a trier of peti- 
tions in 1485 and 1487, and chief commissioner 
of array for Norfolk and Suffolk in 1487. In 
1487 he refused to come to a feast of the order 
of the Garter because Lord Dynham had not 
made proper provision. Others did the same, 
and the feast had to be postponed. On 25 Nov. 
1487 he bore the queen's sceptre at the coro- 
nation of Elizabeth of York, and on 6 March 
of the next year he witnessed a charter to her. 
At the end of 1488 he was commissioned to 
take muster of archers for the relief of Brit- 
tany. In 1489 he had a grant from the king's 
wardrobe. He died in 1491. He had married 
aefore October 1460 (cf. Paston Letters, i. 
521) Elizabeth, second daughter of Richard, 
duke of York, and sister of Edward IV. By 



her he had three sons John, Edmund, and 
Richard all separately noticed. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, lii. 438 ; Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Peerage ; Kamsay 's Lancas- 
ter and York, ii. 245; Eot. Parl. v. 470 n., vi. 
75 n. ; Paston Letters, vols. ii. and iii. passim ; 
Materials for the Hist, of Henry VII, ed. Camp- 
bell (Kolls Ser.), i. 26, ii. 325, &c. ; Grants of 
Edward. V (Camd. Soc.), xxi. ; Warkworth's 
Chron. (Camd. Soc.), p. 11; Gardner's Ri- 
chard III ; Cal. of Patent Rolls Edward V and 
Richard III (Rep. of Dep.-Keeper of Public 
Records).] W. A. J. A. 

SALISBUEY (1473-1541), was daughter of 
George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence [q. v.], 
by his wife Isabel, daughter of Warwick the 
Kingmaker. She was born at Castle Farley, 
near Bath, in August 1473 (Rows Roll, 33,61), 
and was married by Henry VII to Sir Richard 
Pole, son of Sir Geoffrey Pole, whose wife, 
Edith St. John, was half-sister of the king's 
mother, Margaret Beaufort (see Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 163-4). Sir Richard was 
a landed gentleman of Buckinghamshire, 
whom Henry made a squire of his bodyguard 
and knight of the Garter. He also gave him 
various offices in Wales, such as the constable- 
ship of Harlech and Montgomery castles and 
the sheriffwick of the county of Merioneth ; 
he held, too, the controllership of the port 
of Bristol (CAMPBELL, Materials and MS. 
Calendar of Patent Rolls}. His marriage to 
Margaret probably took place about 1491, 
certainly not later than 1494, in which year 
the king made a payment of 20/. ' to my lady 
Pole in crowns' (Excerpta Historica, p. 99). 
Next year Pole seems to have raised men 
against Perkin Warbeck. In 1497 he was re- 
tained to serve against Scotland with five 
demi-lances and 200 archers, and shortly 
afterwards with 600 men-at-arms, 60 demi- 
lances, and 540 bows and bills. Two or three 
years later he was appointed chief gentleman 
of the bedchamber to Prince Arthur, whom 
he attended into Wales after his marriage, 
and the chief government of the marches was 
committed to his charge. He died in 1505 
(Henry VITs Privy Purse Expenses, p. 132), 
leaving his widow with a family of five chil- 
dren. Four were boys, viz. Henry [q. v.] 
(who became Lord Montague), Arthur, Regi- 
nald [q. v.] the cardinal, and Geoffrey [q. v.] 
The only daughter, Ursula, married about 
1516 Henry, lord Stafford, son of the Duke 
of Buckingham. 

Margaret's brother Edward, earl of War- 
wick [q. v.], was judicially murdered by 
Henry VII in 1499. Henry VIII, who de- 
scribed Margaret as the most saintly woman 
in England, was anxious, after his accession, 

to atone to her for this injustice. He there- 
fore granted her an annuity of 100/. on 4 Aug. 
1509 (Cal State Papers, Venetian, v. 247), 
andean 14 Oct. 1513 he created her Countess 
of Salisbury, and gave her the family lands of 
the earldom of Salisbury in fee. Her brother's 
attainder was reversed, and in the parliament 
of 1513-14 full restitution was made to her 
of the rights of her family. She thus became 
possessed of a very magnificent property, lying 
chiefly in Hampshire, Wiltshire, the western 
counties, and Essex. But there is no doubt 
that it was heavily burdened by redemption- 
money claimed by the king. On 25 May 1512 
she had delivered to Wolsey 1,000/. as a first 
payment of a benevolence of five thousand 
marks for the king's wars, and in 1528 she was 
sued for a further instalment of 2,333/. Qs. 8d. 
Of her restored lands the manor of Canford 
and some others were soon reclaimed by the 
crown as part of the earldom of Somerset. 
In 1532 she purchased the manor of Aston 
Clinton in Buckinghamshire from Sir John 

Meanwhile she was made governess to the 
Princess Mary. But in 1521, at the time of 
the Duke of Buckingham's attainder, she and 
her sons seem to have been under a momen- 
tary cloud. She herself was allowed, however, 
to remain at court l propter nobilitatem et 
bonitatem illius' (Cal. Henry VIII, iii. 
Nos. 1204, 1268). In 1525 she went with 
Princess Mary to Wales. In the summer of 
1526, during her absence, the king visited her 
house at Warblington in Hampshire (ib. iv. 
Nos. 2343, 2407). 

In 1533, when the king married Anne 
Boleyn, her loyalty was severely tried. She 
refused to give up Mary's jewels to a lady 
sent from court, and was discharged of her 
position as governess. She declared that she 
would still follow and serve the princess at 
her own expense (ib. iv. Nos. 849, 1009, 1041, 
1528). Her self-sacrificing fidelity to the 
princess was fully recognised by Catherine of 
Arragon (ib. No. 1126). The king, however, 
took good care to separate his daughter from 
one whom she regarded as a second mother 
(ift.viii. 101). 

After Anne Boleyn's fall in 1536 (ib. x. 
No. 1212) the countess returned to court. 
But at that very time her son Reginald 
sent to the king his book, ' De Unitate 
Ecclesiastica/ which gave deep offence, and 
she trembled for the result. Both she and 
her eldest son, Lord Montague, wrote to 
Reginald in strong language of reproof (ib. 
vol. xiii. pt. ii. p. 328). She denounced 
him as a traitor to her own servants, and ex- 
pressed her grief that she had given birth 
to him (ib. xi. Nos. 93, 157). The letters, 



however, were written to be shown to the 
king's council (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. No. 822), 
by whom they were despatched to Reginald 
in Italy. Though the countess's alarm was 
quite genuine, her disapproval of Reginald's 
proceedings was not equally sincere. The king 
knew well that his policy was disliked by the 
whole family, and he privately told the French 
ambassador that he intended to destroy all of 
them (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. No. 753). The blow fell 
in the autumn of 1538, when her sons Geoffrey 
and Lord Montague were arrested. One Ger- 
vase Tyndall, a spy upon the countess's house- 
hold, was called before Cromwell at Lewes, 
and reported a number of circumstances about 
the escape some years before of the countess's 
chaplain, John Helyar, rector of Warbling- 
ton, beyond sea, and about clandestine mes- 
sages sent abroad by one Hugh Holland, pro- 
bably to Cardinal Pole himself. Fitzwilliam, 
earl of Southampton, and Goodrich, bishop 
of Ely, were sent down to Warblington to 
examine the countess. They questioned her 
all day, from the forenoon till almost night, 
but could not wring from her any admission. 
They nevertheless seized her goods and car- 
ried her off to Fitzwilliam's house at Cowdry. 
Her house at Warblington was thoroughly 
searched, and some letters and papal bulls dis- 
covered. Her persecutors renewed the attack 
with a set of written interrogatories, and ob- 
tained her signature to the answers. She re- 
mained in Fitzwilliam's house, long unvisited 
either by him or his countess, until 14 March 
following (1539), when, in answer to her com- 
plaints, he saw her, and addressed her with 
barbarous incivility. Shortly afterwards she 
was removed to the Tower. Tn May a sweep- 
ing act of attainder was passed by the parlia- 
ment against not only Exeter and Montague, 
who had already suffered death, but against 
the countess, who was not even called to an- 
swer the accusations against her, and against 
her son Reginald and many others. At the 
third reading of the bill in the House of Lords 
Cromwell produced, what was taken as evi- 
dence of treason, a tunic of white silk, em- 
broidered with the arms of England, viz. three 
lions surrounded by a wreath of pansies and 
marigolds, which it was said Fitzwilliam had 
found in her house, having on the back the 
badge of the five wounds carried by the in- 
surgents at the time of the northern rebellion. 
The act of parliament was passed on 12 May 
1539, but it was not put into force at once ; 
and in April 1540 it was supposed that the 
countess would be released. She was tor- 
mented in prison by the severity of the wea- 
ther and the insufficiency of her clothing. In 
April 1541 there was another insurrection in 
Yorkshire under Sir John Neville ; and on this 

account, apparently, it was resolved to put 
the countess to death, without any further 
process, under the act of attainder passed 
two years before. Early in the morning of 
27 May she was told that she was to die. She 
replied that no crime had been imputed to her ; 
but she walked boldly from her cell to East 
Smithfield Green, which was within the pre- 
cincts of the Tower. No scaffold was erected, 
but there was only a low block. The lord 
mayor and a select company were present to 
witness the execution. The countess com- 
mended her soul to God, and asked the by- 
standers to pray for the king and queen, 
Prince Edward, and the Princess Mary, her 
god-daughter, to whom she desired to be 
specially commended. She then, as com- 
manded, laid her head upon the block. The exe- 
cutioner was a clumsy novice, who hideously 
hacked her neck and shoulders before the 
decapitation was accomplished. 

[Dugdale's Baronage ; Sandford's Genealogical 
History ; Hall's Chronicle ; Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII; Gal. of State Papers, Spanish; 
Lords' Journals.!. 107; Correspondence Politique 
de MM. de Castillon et de Marillac. The account 
of Margaret's execution given by Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury in Rennet's England (ii. 227) is clearly 
not so trustworthy as that of Chapuys.] J. Gr. 

POLE, MICHAEL DE LA, called in Eng- 
(1330 P-1389), lord chancellor, son of Sir Wil- 
liam de la Pole (d. 1366) [q. v.], by Kathe- 
rine Norwich, was probably born about 1330 
(DOYLE, Official Baronage, iii. 443). In 1339 
he received for himself and his heirs the grant 
of a reversion of an annuity of 70/. from the 
customs of Hull, already bestowed on his 
father and uncle (Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, ii. 
229). In 1354 he had a charter of free warren 
within his demesne lands of Bliburgh, Gres- 
thorpe, and Grafton. He was already a knight, 
when in 1355 he was attached to the retinue 
of Henry, duke of Lancaster [q. v.], in his abor- 
tive expedition to Normandy. Henceforward 
his chief occupation for many years was war 
against the French. In 1359 he accompanied 
Edward the Black Prince in a new expedition 
(Fcedera, iii. 443). He was again fighting in 
France in 1369. He was serving in 1370 under 
the Black Prince in Aquitaine, took part in 
September of that year in the famous siege 
of Limoges (FROISSAKT, ed. Luce, vii. 244), 
and in December 1370 and January 1371 
fought under John of Gaunt at the success- 
ful siege of Montpont (ib. vol. viii. pp. xi- 
xiii, 12). He also accompanied John of Gaunt 
on the abortive expedition of 1372. During 
his French campaigns he was twice taken 
prisoner (Rot. Parl. iii. 217 a). He was also 
at one time captain of Calais (ib.) 



While thus active abroad and at sea, Pol 
was also occupied at home. In 1362 he hac 
livery of the lands of his niece Catherine, who 
died in that year, and was the daughter anc 
heiress of his brother Thomas. In January 
1366 he was first summoned to parliament as 
a baron (G. E. C[okayne], Complete Peerage 
iii. 43). Thus he was already a peer when 
the death of his father, on 21 April 1366 
and the succession to his extensive estates 
gave him a still more commanding position 
On 10 Feb. 1367 he was appointed one of 
the commissioners of array for the Eas1 
Riding of Yorkshire, in which district his 
influence chiefly lay. In domestic politics he 
attached himself to John of Gaunt. In the 
Good parliament of 1376 he stood strongly 
on the side of the crown and the unpopular 
duke (cf. Hot. Parl. ii. 327-329 a). Though 
his relations to 'John of Gaunt cooled, Pole 
never swerved for the rest of his career from 
the policy of supporting the crown. It was 
doubtless as a reward far his loyalty that 
he was on 24 Nov. 1376 appointed admiral 
of the king's fleet north of the Thames ( Fce- 
dera, iii. 1065). 

The accession of Richard II did not affect 
Pole's position. On 14 Aug. 1377 his com- 
mission as admiral of the west was renewed 
(ib. iv. 15). However, on 5 Dec. of the 
same year he and his colleague Robert Hales 
were superseded in favour of the Earls of 
Warwick and Arundel (NICOLAS, Hist, of 
Royal Navy, ii. 530 ; Fcedera, iy. 36). He 
pined in Lancaster's useless maritime opera- 
tions against the French ; was put on the 
council of the little king, and, on 18 March 
1379, headed an embassy to Milan to negotiate 
a marriage bet ween Richard II and Catherine, 
daughter of Bernabo Visconti, lord of Milan 
(ib. iv. 60). Nothing came of the Milanese 
negotiation ; and Pole, after visiting the 
papal curia at Rome, went to Wenceslas, 
king of the Romans and of Bohemia, to 
suggest Richard's marriage with Wenceslas 's 
sister Anne. He was, however, taken prisoner, 
though under an imperial safe-conduct, and 
on 20 Jan. 1380 John Otter and others were 
despatched from England to effect his ransom 
(ib. iv. 75). A mysterious entry on the issue 
roll of 1384 allows Pole his expenses for these 
expeditions, and also for money paid to ransom 
the lady, Anne, who also seems to have been 
taken captive (DEVON, Issues of the Exchequer, 
p. 224 ; Rot. Part. iii. 217 a}. He returned 
to England in 1381, and in November was 
appointed, jointly with Richard Fitzalan, earl 
of Arundel [q. v.], counsellor in constant 
attendance on the king and governor of his 
person (Rot. Parl. iii. 104 b). Richard II 
married Anne of Bohemia in 1382. 

Michael impressed the young king with 
his ideas of policy. The retirement of John 
of Gaunt to Castile removed the only rival 
counsellor of any influence, and he soon be- 
came the most trusted personal adviser of Ri- 
chard. His attachment to the court involved 
him in a growing unpopularity, both with the 
great barons and the people. 

On 13 March 1383 Pole was appointed 
chancellor of England in succession to Ro- 
bert de Braybroke [q. v.], bishop of London 
(Fcedera, iv. 162), and opened the parliament 
of that year with a speech in which he de- 
clared his own unworthiness (Rot. Parl. iii. 
149 a). It was a stormy session. Pole said 
that, besides enemies abroad, the king had to 
deal with enemies at home among his own ser- 
vants and officials. He especially denounced 
the fighting bishop of Norwich, Henry De- 
spenser [q. v.], whom he deprived of his tem- 
poralities (ib. iii. 153-8 ; WALLOIST, Richard II, 
i. 198-214). In the parliament of 1384 Pole 
wisely urged the need of a solid peace with 
France ; but the commons, who were anxious 
enough to end the war, were not prepared to 
purchase a peace at a high price, and Pole's 
proposal was ill received. An accident gave 
his enemies an opportunity. A fishmonger 
named John Cavendish appeared before the 
parliament and complained that the chan- 
cellor had taken a bribe from him. Cavendish 
had an action before the chancellor, and had 
been assured by Pole's clerk, John Otter, that 
if he paid 40/. to the chancellor and 4/. to Otter 
himself he would speedily get judgment in 
his favour. Cavendish had no money, but he 
sent to the chancellor presents of fish which 
profited him nothing. In great disgust he 
brought his grievances before the lords. The 
chancellor had no difficulty in making a 
satisfactory answer. As soon as he heard 
of the presents of fish, he ordered them to 
be paid for, and compelled his clerk to de- 
stroy the unworthy bond he had entered 
into with the fishmonger. Cavendish, in- 
stead of gaining his point, was condemned 
for defamation, and ordered to remain in 
prison until he had paid one thousand marks 
is damage to the chancellor, and such other 
fine as the king might impose (Rot . Parl. iii. 
168-70 ; WALLON, i. 221-4). 

Pole failed to carry out his policy of peace, 
and was forced to face a vigorous prosecu- 
:ion of the war against both Scotland and 
France. It was complained that Ghent fell 
nto French hands owing to his want of 
quickness in sending relief (KNIGHTON apud 
TWYSDEN, Decem Scriptores, c. 2672 ; cf. Rot. 
Parl. iii. 216). In the summer of 1385 he 
accompanied Richard on that king's only 
erious military undertaking, the expedition 


3 1 


against Scotland, in which he commanded a 
band of sixty men-at-arms and eighty archers 
(DOYLE, iii. 433). After the failure of this 
undertaking, Pole was more than ever bent 
on peace. France had threatened invasion. 
He renewed negotiations. On 22 Jan. 1386 
he was appointed, with Bishop Skirlaw of 
Lichfield and others, to treat with the king 
of France and his allies, jointly or separately, 
for truce or for peace (Fcedera, vii. 491-3, 
original edition). 

Pole's wealth was steadily growing, and 
was exciting widespread envy. Besides the 

-Yorkshire property that came from his father, 
and the Lincolnshire estates of his mother, 
he was now in possession of the great Suf- 
folk inheritance of his wife, Catherine, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir John de Wingfield. 
He now busied himself with consolidating 
his power in Suffolk by fortifying his manor- 
houses. He hoped to build up a solid domain 
in north-eastern Suffolk, of which the central 
feature was the new castle, or rather crenel- 
lated manor-house, of Wingfield. His gate- 
house on the south front, its flanking towers, 
and curtain wall still survive, while in the 
beautiful late decorated village church the 
work, it is believed, of his father-in-law the 

- ashes of his son and many later Poles now re- 
pose (MtTKKAT, Eastern Counties, pp. 190-1). 
Moreover, on 6 Aug. 1385 he obtained the 
title of Earl of Suffolk, extinct since the death 
of William Ufford three years before. On 
20 Aug., at Newcastle-on-Tyne, the king 
granted him lands worth 500/. a year, which 
had belonged to William Ufford, and which 
included the castle, town, manor, and honour 
of Eye, with other manors and jurisdictions, 
mainly in Suffolk, which nicely rounded off 
the formerWingfield inheritance. But, as the 
12) ^v? widowed Countess of Suffolk still held part 
of these estates for her life, and other por- 

-tions had been regranted to the queen, 
Blcharcf further granted to the new earl 
200/. a year from the royal revenue and 
300/. a year from other lands, until the 
Ufford estates fell in. The grant of a small 
sum from the county revenue completed the 
formal connection between the new earl and 
his shire (cf. Rolls of Parliament, iii. 206-9 ; 
DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 185 ; Gal. Inq. post 

-mortem, iii. 70, 111, 117, 257). 

At the parliament which met Richard on 
his return from Scotland, Pole was solemnly 
girt, on 12 Nov. 1385, with the sword of the 
shire, and performed homage for his new 
office, before which Walter Skirlaw, keeper 
of the privy seal and bishop of Lichfield, 
delivered an oration to the assembled estates 

on the new earl's merits (Rot . Parl. iii. 209). 
But the murmurs were many and deep. He 

was, says the St. Albans chronicler, a mer- 
chant and the son of a merchant ; he was a 
man more fitted for trade than for chivalry, 
and peacefully had grown old in a banker's 
counting-house, and not among warriors in 
the field (Chron. Anglice, 1328-88, p. 367). 
The saying became a commonplace, and is 
repeated by several chroniclers (WALSING- 
HAM, ii. 141 ; OTTEKBOTJKNE, p. 162 ; MONK 
or EVESHAM, p. 67). Yet nothing could be 
more unjust than such a taunt levelled against 
the old companion in arms of the Black 
Prince and of John of Gaunt. But it faith- 
fully reflected the opinion of the greater 
families, and Pole's former ally, John of 
Gaunt, had turned against him. Thomas 
Arundel, then bishop of Ely, was especially 
hostile. He sought to get the temporalities of 
Norwich restored to Bishop Despenser. The 
chancellor argued in the parliament of 1385 
that to restore the bishop's lands would cost 
the king 1,000/. a year. 'If thou hast so 
much concern for the king's profit/ retorted 
the bishop, ' why hast thou covetously taken 
from him a thousand marks per annum since 
thou wast made an earl?' The chancellor 
had no answer, and Despenser recovered his 

Early in 1386 Suffolk was engaged in 
fruitless negotiations with France. He 
was on the continent between 9 Feb. and 
28 March (Fcedera, vii. 495). The English 
unwillingness to include Spain in the truce 
frustrated the negotiations. England was 
threatened with invasion. The chancellor did 
his best to organise the defence. He acted 
as commissioner to inspect Calais and the 
castles of the marches, and as chief commis- 
sioner of array in Suffolk (DOYLE, iii. 434). 
In April and May he visited Hull, where his 
influence was still paramount (Fcedera, vii. 
510). But whatever he did was adversely 
judged. In June some English ships captured 
and plundered several Genoese merchant 
ships off Dover ; and when the chancellor gave 
the aggrieved Genoese traders compensation, 
he was charged with robbing the king of his 
rights and with showing more sympathy 
with traders than with warriors (Chron. 
Anglia, 1328-88, p. 371; cf. KNIGHTON", 
c. 2678). 

The opposition to Pole was now formally 
organised under the king's uncle, Thomas, 
duke of Gloucester. When parliament met, on 
1 Oct. 1386, Suffolk, as chancellor, urged that 
the time was come for Richard to cross the 
sea and fight the French in person. This was 
a mere pretext for an inordinate demand for 
'money. Four-fifteenths, says Knighton, was 
likely to be the chancellor's request. Afraid 
of the future, Richard retired to Eltham, 



where his imprudence culminated in making 
his favourite, Robert de Vere, duke of Ire- 
land. Lords and commons now united to 
demand the dismissal of the chancellor. 
Richard told the parliament that he would 
not, at their request, dismiss a scullion from 
his kitchen. Gloucester and Bishop Arundel 
visited the king at Eltham, and hinted at 

On 24 Oct. Pole was dismissed from the 
chancellorship, and his old enemy, Bishop 
Arundel, put in his place. The commons 
now drew up formal articles of impeachment 
against the minister: (1) He had received 
grants of great estates from the king, or had 
purchased or exchanged royal lands at prices 
below their value ; (2) he had not carried out 
the ordinances of the nine lords appointed in 
1385 for the reform of the royal household ; 
(3) he had misappropriated the supplies 
granted in the last parliament for the guard of 
the seas ; (4) he had fraudulently appropriated 
to himself a charge on the customs of Hull 
previously granted to one Tydeman, a Lim- 
burg merchant ; (5) he had taken for his own 
uses the revenue of the schismatic master of 
St. Anthony, which ought to have gone 
to the king; (6) he had sealed charters, 
especially a grant of franchises to Dover 
Castle, contrary to the king's interest ; and 
(7) his remissness in conducting the war had 
led to the loss of Ghent and a large sum of 
treasure stored up within its walls (Rot. 
Parl. iii. 216; STTJBBS'S Const. Hist. ii. 474-5, 
cf. WALLOP, Richard II, livre vi.,KsriGHTON, 
cc. 2680-5). Suffolk spoke shortly but with 
dignity in his own defence, but left the burden 
of a detailed answer to his brother-in-law, 
Sir Richard le Scrope, who appealed in- 
dignantly to his thirty years of service in 
the field and in the council chamber, denied 
the ordinary allegations of his mean ori- 
gin and estate, and gave what seem to be 
satisfactory answers to the seven heads of 
accusation (Rot. Parl. iii. 216-18). The 
commons then made a replication, in which, 
while silently dropping the third charge 
of misappropriation of the supplies they 
pressed for a conviction on the other six, 
and brought forward some fresh evidence 
against Suffolk. The earl was committed to 
the custody of the constable, but released on 
bail. The lords soon gave judgment. Suf- 
folk was convicted on three of the charges 
brought against him namely, the first, fifth, 
and sixth. On the other four charges the 
lords declared that he ought not to be im- 
peached alone, since his guilt was shared by 
other members of the council. Sentence was 
pronounced at the same time in the name of 
the king. Suffolk was to forfeit all the lands- 

and grants which he had received contrary to 
his oath, and was committed to prison, to 
remain there until he had paid an adequate 
fine. But it was expressly declared that the 
judgment was not to involve the loss of the 
name and title of earl, nor the 201. a year 
which the king had granted him from the 
issues of Suffolk for the aforesaid name and 
title (ib. iii. 219-20). The fine is estimated in 
the chronicles at various large sums (Chron. 
Anglifs, 1328-88, and OTTERBOTJRNE, p. 166, 
say twenty thousand marks, adding, quite 
incorrectly, that Suffolk was adj udged worthy 
of death). The paltry character of the 
charges, the insignificant offences regarded 
as proved by the hostile lords, show that the 
only real complaint against the fallen mi- 
nister was his attachment to an unpopular 

Parliament ordered Suffolk to be impri- 
soned at Corfe Castle (Cont. Eulogium Hist. 
iii. 360 ; cf. KNIGHTON, c. 2683), but Richard 
sent him to Windsor. As soon as the ' Won- 
derful ' parliament came to an end, Richard 
remitted his fine and ransom, released him 
from custody, and listened to his advice. If 
not the boldest spirit, Suffolk was certainly 
the wisest head of the royalist party now 
formed against the new ministers and council 
set up by parliament. He dwelt in the king's- 
household, and seems to have accompanied 
Richard on his hasty progress through the 
land to win support for the civil war which 
was seen to be imminent. At one time Pole 
was in Wales with Richard and the Duke of 
Ireland (CAPGEAVE, Chron. Engl. pp. 246-8). 
On 25 Aug. 1387 five of the judges declared 
at Nottingham that the existence of the new 
perpetual council contravened the king's pre- 
rogative, and that the sentence on Suffolk 
ought to be reversed. The name of Suffolk 
ippears among the witnesses to this declara- 
tion of war against the parliamentary govern- 
ment. But his enemies were resolute in their 
attack. He was accused of labouring to pre- 
vent a reconciliation between Richard and 
Gloucester when Bishop William Courtenay 
[q. v.] of London went to promote peace be- 
tween them. ' Hold thy peace, Michael,' said 
the bishop to Suffolk, who was denouncing 
Gloucester to the king ; ' it becometh thee right 
evil to say such words, thou that art damned 
for thy falsehood both by the lords and by the 
parliament.' Richard dismissed the bishop in 
anger (Chron. Angl. 1378-88, p. 383 ; CAP- 
GRAVE'S Chron. of England, p. 248), but was 
unprepared to push things to extremities. On 
17 Nov. he was forced to promise the hated 
council that Suffolk and his other bad advisers 
should be compelled to answer for their con- 
duct before the next parliament. Thereupon 




Suffolk hastily fled the realm. On 27 Dec. the 
five baronial leaders solemnly appealed him 
and his associates of treason. On 3 Feb. 1388 
the five lords appellant laid before the newly 
assembled estates a long list of accusations 
against Suffolk and his four chief associates 
{Rot. Parl. iii. 229-38). No special charges 
were brought against Suffolk ; but he was 
associated with the others in such general 
accusations as having withdrawn the king 
from the society of the barons, as having con- 
spired to rule him for their own purposes, in- 
cited civil war, corresponded with the French, 
and attempted to pack parliament. The de- 
claration of the judges that the form of the 
appeal was illegal was brushed aside, on the 
ground that parliament itself was the supreme 
j udge in matters of this sort. On 1 3 Feb. sen- 
tence was passed on the four absent offenders. 
Suffolk was condemned to be hanged. His 
--estates and title were necessarily forfeited.? 

A knight named William atte Hoo helped 
Suffolk to escape over the Channel. He 
disguised himself by shaving his beard and 
head and putting on shabby clothes. In 
this plight he presented himself before Calais 
Castle, dressed like a Flemish poulterer. 
His brother was captain of Calais Castle, 
and acquainted the governor of Calais, Wil- 
liam Beauchamp, with his arrival. The go- 
vernor sent him back to the king, who was 
very angry at his officiousness (KNIGHTON, c. 
2702 ; CAPGKAVE, Chron. of Engl. p. 249 ; 
OTTEKBOTIKNE, p. 170 ; Chron. Angl. 1328- 
1388, p. 386 ; MONK OFEVESHAM, pp. 96-7). 
For a second time Pole made his escape. This 
time he went to Hull, whither, on 20 Dec., 
the king's sergeant-at-arms was despatched 
to arrest him (DEVON, Issues of the Exche- 
quer, p. 234). But Michael escaped a second 
time, sailing, if Froissart can be trusted, over 
the North Sea and along the coasts of Fries- 
land, and ultimately landing at Dordrecht 
(FROISSAKT, xii. 286, ed. Kervyn de Letten- 
hove). Anyhow, he ultimately found his way 
to Paris. In May 1389 Richard suddenly took 
over the government ; but he made no at- 
tempt to help Pole, who died at Paris on 
5 Sept. 1389 (MONK OF EVESHAM, p. 113). 
'The chroniclers exhaust their powers of 
abuse in rejoicing over his death. The popular 
poets were not less vehement in their re- 
proaches (GowER, ' Tripartite Chronicle ' in 
Political Poems, i. 421, Rolls Ser.) 

By his wife, Catherine Wingfield, Suffolk 
left three sons : Michael de la Pole, second 
ijarl of Suffolk [q.v.], Thomas, and Richard 
(Foss, ii. 76). He also left a daughter Anne, 
who married Gerard de 1'Isle (DFGDALE, 
JBaronage, ii. 185). 

Besides his building operations in Suffolk, 


Pole did not neglect his original home. He 
completed his father's foundation at Hull 
[see POLE, WILLIAM DE LA, d. 1366]. In 
1377 he procured royal license to change his 
father's plan and establish a small Carthusian 
monastery, with hospitals for men and women 
attached. The charter of foundation, by ' Mi- 
chael de la Pole, lord of Wingfield,' is dated 
18 Feb. 1379, and printed in the ' Monasticon' 
~(vi. 20-1, cf. vi. 781 for Pole's hospital). 
Pole also built at Hull, for his own use, ( a 
goodly house of brick, like a palace, with fair 
orchards and gardens,' opposite the west end 
of St. Mary's Church. He built three other 
houses in Hull, each with a brick tower, like 
the palace of an Italian civic noble. He also 
built a fine house in London, near theThames. 
[The English chroniclers give a prejudiced 
account of Suffolk. The most important of 
them is Chronicon Anglise, 1328-88, ed. Thomp- 
son, Kolls Ser., which is copied by Walsingham, 
Hist. Anglicana, Rolls Ser., arid the Monk of 
Evesham, ed. Hearne. Otterbourne, ed.Hearne, 
Knighton in Twysden's Decem Scriptores, Con- 
tinuation of the Eulogium Historiarum, Cap- 
grave's Chronicle of England are also useful. 
Less trustworthy areFroissart's scattered notices, 
vols. vii. viii. xi. xii. ed. Kervyn de L>ttenhove, 
vols. vii. and viii. ed. Luce. Rolls of Parliament, 
vol. iii., Rymer's Foedera, vols. iii. and iv. Record 
edit, and vol. vii. orig. edit., contain the chief 
documentary evidence; Doyle's Official Baronage, 
iii. 433-4; Gr. E. C[okayne's] Complete Peerage, 
iii. 43. The best biographies are in Dugdale's 
Baronage, ii . 1 8 1-5, and Foss's Judges of England, 
iv. 70-6. That in Campbell's Lives of the Chan- 
cellors, i. 248-51, is valueless. Stubbs's Const. 
Hist. vol. ii., Wallon's Richard II, and Pauli's 
Geschiehte von England, vol. iv. are the best 
authorities for the period.] T. F. T. 

of SUFFOLK (1361 P-1415), was eldest son of 
Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk [q. v.], 
and was born about 1361. He was knighted 
by Richard II on 15 July 1377 (Foedera, iv. 
79, Kecord edit.) On 30 April 1386 he 
is mentioned as captain of men-at-arms for 
Calais, of which town his uncle, Sir Ed- 
mund de la Pole, was then captain. In 
the following year the Earl of Suffolk was 
disgraced, and, owing to his subsequent 
condemnation, his son did not succeed to 
the earldom at his death in 1389. Before 
September 1385 (cf. Testamenta Vetusta, p. 
119) Pole had married Catherine Stafford, 
daughter of Hugh, earl of Stafford, and in 
1391 obtained for his support a grant of 
50/. a year from the customs of Hull. On 
23 Sept. 1391 he had letters of attorney 
during his intended absence on the crusade 
in Prussia, being then styled Sir Michael de 
la Pole (Foedera, vii. 706, orig. edit.) In 




1397 he was restored to his father's dignities 
as Earl of Suffolk and Baron de la Pole, and 
was summoned to parliament in August 1399. 
But in the first parliament of Henry IV the 
acts of the parliament of 1397 were annulled, 
and those of 1388 confirmed, with the effect 
of reviving the attainder of 1388. However, 
on 15 Nov. 1399, the earldom of Suffolk was 
restored to Pole, but without the barony of 
De la Pole, which had been enjoyed by his 
father (G. E. C[okayne], Complete Peerage, 
iii. 43). At the same time restitution was 
made of his father's lands and castle and 
honour of Eye. The earl was a commis- 
sioner of array for Suffolk on 14 July 1402 
and 3 Sept. 1403. On 27 Aug. 1408 he was 
employed by the king on a mission abroad. 
He attended the council on several occasions 
during the reign of Henry IV, and was pre- 
sent in the council which was held at West- 
minster in April 1415 to discuss the French 
war (NICOLAS, Proc. Privy Council, ii. 156). 
On 21 July he was one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Kichard, earl of Cambridge, 
Richard, lord le Scrope, Sir Thomas Grey, and 
was one of the peers appointed to decide on 
the guilt of Cambridge and Scrope on 5 Aug. 
(Rolls of Parliament, iv. 65-6). He sailed 
with the king on 11 Aug., and, after taking 
part in the siege of Harfleur, died before 
that town of dysentery on 18 Sept. (Gesta 
Henrici Quinti, p. 31, Engl. Hist. Soc.) He 
is described as ' a knight of the most excel- 
lent and kindly reputation' (ib.) His son 
in 1450 said he served l in all the viages by 
See and by Lande ' in the days of Henry IV 
(Eolls of Parliament, v. 176). Suffolk's will, 
dated 1 July 1415, is summarised in ( Testa- 
menta Vetusta,' pp. 1 89-90. In accordance 
with [his directions, he was buried at Wing- 
field,' Suffolk. His own and his wife's 
effigies are engraved in Stothard's 'Monu- 
mental Effigies,' p. 84. He left five sons 
and three daughters. Of his sons, Michael 
succeeded as third earl, and is noticed below. 
William, the fourth earl and first duke of 
Suffolk, is noticed separately. Sir John 
de la Pole was seigneur de Moyon in the 
Cotentin, served with distinction' in the 
French war, was taken prisoner at Jargeau 
on 12 June 1429, and died in captivity ; by 
the French chroniclers he is called the Sire 
de la Poulle. Alexander was slain at Jar- 
geau on 12 June 1429. Thomas was pre- 
bendary in St. Paul's Cathedral, and died in 
1433 while a hostage with the French for 
his brother William. 

SUFFOLK (1394-1415), the eldest son, served 
with his father at Harfleur, and, after taking 
part in the march to Agincourt, was killed in 

! the battle there on 25 Oct. He is described 

\ as ' distinguished among all the courtiers for 

I his bravery, courage, and activity' (Gesta 

Henrici Quinti, pp. 31, 58). Drayton makes 

special mention of him in his ballad of Agin- 

I court ' Suffolk his axe did ply.' His body 

was brought home to England, and buried 

at Ewelme, Oxford. He married Elizabeth, 

| daughter of Thomas Mowbray, first duke of 

Norfolk [q. v.], but left no male issue, and was 

succeeded by his brother William. Of his 

three daughters, Catherine became a nun, and 

Elizabeth and Isabel both died unmarried. 

[Monstrelet's Chroniques, iii. 106, iv. 324 (Soc. 
de 1'Hist. de France) ; Nicolas's Battle of Agin- 
court ; Napier's Historical Notices of Swyncombe 
and Ewelme, pp. 313-17 ; Coll. Top. et Gen. v. 
156; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 185; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, iii. 434-5; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K 

1452), judge, was the eldest of three sons 
I of Peter De la Pole of Radborne, near Derby, 
I and knight of the shire for Derby in 1400. 
Foss was mistaken in making him a younger 
1 son of Thomas Pole or Poole of Poole Hall 
in Wirral or Wirrell, who did not marry 
until 1425. The De la Poles' were a Stafford- 
shire family seated at Newborough, who 
| for three generations had married Derby- 
| shire heiresses. Pole's father acquired the 
Radborne estate, which had belonged to Sir 
John Chandos [q.v.], the companion-in-arms 
of the Black Prince, by his marriage with 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Lawton and 
Alianore, Chandos's sister and ultimate heir. 
Pole became serjeant-at-law in the Michael- 
[ mas term of 1442, and a j ustice of the king's 
bench on 3 July 1452, and occurs in the 
latter capacity until Michaelmas 1459. He 
I was probably the Radulphus de la Pole ap- 
! pointed one of the Derbyshire commissioners 
to raise money for the defence of Calais in 
j May 1455, and he presided with Justice 
I Bingham over the York assizes in 1457,_ 
I when the Nevilles got the Percys mulcted 
I in a huge fine. 

His altar-tomb, on the slab of which are 
engraved the figures of the judge and his 
wife and a fragment of inscription, remains 
in the north aisle of Radborne church. By 
his wife Joan, daughter of Thomas Grosvenor, 
Pole, according to Lysons, had three sons : 
Ralph, who married the heiress of Motton, 
John, and Henry, the latter two founding- 
the younger branches of Wakebridge and 
Heage. Pole's descendants in the direct 
male line held Radborne until the death of 
j German Pole in 1683, when it passed to 
a younger branch, now represented by Mr. 




[Foss's Judges of England ; Proceedings and 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, vi. 
213; Topographer and Genealogist, i. 176; 
Whethamstede's Kegistrum, Eolls Ser. i. 206, 
208, 303 ; Lysons's Magna Britannia, vol. v. pp. 
xciv-v, 91, 232 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, ii. 423, iii. 
351; Newcome's Hist, of St. Albans, p. 361; 
Burke's Landed Gentry ; Official Eeturns of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, 1878.] J. T-T. 

POLE, REGINALD (1500-1558), car- 
dinal and archbishop of Canterbury, was son 
probably the third of Sir Richard Pole 
(d. 1505), by his wife Margaret, who was 
of the blood royal [see POLE, MAKGARET]. 
Born in March 1500 at Stourton Castle in 
Staffordshire, he was carefully brought up 
by his mother, and then spent five years at 
the school of the Charterhouse at Sheen. 
Henry VIII was much interested in his edu- 
cation, and paid 121. for his maintenance at 
school in 1512. Soon afterwards he was 
sent to Oxford, to the house of the Carmelite 
friars. Subsequently he matriculated as a 
nobleman at Magdalen College. On 8 June 
1513 the king ordered the prior of St. Frides- 
wide's to give him a pension, which he was 
bound to give to a clerk of the king's nomina- 
tion, until he could provide him with a com- 
petent benefice (Cal. of Henry VIII, vol. i. 
No. 4190). Pole's studies at Oxford were 
directed by Thomas Linacre [q.v.] and Wil- 
liam Latimer (1460 P-1545) [q. v.], and he is 
said to have attracted much attention in a 
disputation of some days' duration when still 
almost a boy. In June 1515 he graduated 
B.A. (WOOD, Athena, i. 279). While a 
youth, and still a layman, he was presented 
to the collegiate church of Wimborne min- 
ster, the incumbent of which bore the title 
of dean (12 Feb. 1518 ; Cal. of Henry VIII, 
vol. ii. No. 3493), to the prebend of Boscombe 
(19 March 1517-18), and that of Yatminster 
Secunda (10 April 1519), both in Salisbury 
Cathedral. From infancy his mother had 
destined him for the church, and he intended 
taking orders later in life (ib. vol. xi. No. 92). 

In February 1521, at his own wish, he was 
sent by the king to Italy, with 100/. towards 
his expenses for a year (ib. iii. p. 1544). At 
Padua, in May and June, he formed a friend- 
ship with the scholars Longolius, Bembo, 
Nicolas Leonicus, and his own countryman, 
Thomas Lupset [q. v.] His revenues from his 
benefices, together with the king's allowance, 
enabled him to practise much hospitality. 
Yet he preferred a quiet life, and was em- 
barrassed on his arrival by the attentions 
paid to him as the king of England's kinsman 
by the magistrates of Padua. Longolius died 
in his house there, and left him his library (ib. 
iii. 2460, 2465). Pole wrote the anonymous 

life prefixed to Longolius's collected writings 
(Florence, 1524). He sent congratulations 
to Clement VII on his election (] 9 Nov. 
1 523), and received a kindly acknowledgment 
encouraging him in his studies. Erasmus 
opened a correspondence with him in 1525, 
introducing to him the Polish scholar John a 
Lasco [q. v.] (ib. No. 1685), and he himself 
wrote to Cardinal Wolsey that he was every- 
where much sought after though he mo- 
destly believed it was on the king's account 
rather than his own (ib. No. 1529). He was 
urged by his family to return to England 
early in 1525; but he lingered in order to 
visit Rome, where he was received with 
great marks of distinction. He returned to 
England in 1527 after five years' absence. 
He met with a very cordial welcome from the 
king and queen, but continued his studies 
at the Carthusian monastery at Sheen. 

During his absence from England, on 
14 Feb. 1523-4 he was nominated fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, by Richard 
Foxe or Fox [q.v.], bishop of Winchester, the 
founder, but he never seems to have been ad- 
mitted. On 12 Aug. 1527, though he was still 
a layman, he was elected dean of Exeter (Ls 
NEVE). In 1529, anxious to avoid the crisis 
likely to spring from the king's proceedings 
against Queen Catherine, he obtained with 
some difficulty the king's permission to pur- 
sue his studies at Paris. Henry paid him the 
usual 100^. ' for one year's exhibition before- 
hand,' in October 1529 (Cal. vol. iv. No. 6003, 
v. 315). At Paris he soon received a letter 
from the king requiring him to obtain from 
the university there opinions in his favour 
respecting the projected divorce. He sought 
to excuse himself on the ground of inexpe- 
rience, and the king ultimately sent Edward 
Fox [q. v.] to assist him. But the work being 
only to obtain opinions which he could 
collect without compromising himself Pole 
did what he could, and won commendations 
at home for ' acting stoutly in the king's 
behalf (ib. vol.iv. No. 6252). Three hundred 
crowns, apparently in addition to the yearly 
exhibition, were remitted on 29 April 1530 
Ho Mr. Pole, the king's scholar' (ib. v. 749). 
The university of Paris came to the decision 
which Henry desired, owing to the inter- 
ference of Francis I. In July Pole, by the 
king's orders, returned home. 

Although he withdrew to the charterhouse 
at Sheen, he was invited, on Wolsey's death 
in November, to accept either the vacant 
archbishopric of York or the bishopric of 
Winchester. The king's aim was to obtain 
his avowed support for his divorce, and the 
archbishopric was vehemently pressed on him 
by the king's friends. Pole entertained 

D 2 



genuine affection for the king, and hesitated 
to affront him by a refusal; but no bribe 
could induce him to palter with his convic- 
tions. In a moment of weakness he said he 
believed he had found a means of satisfying 
the king without offence to his own con- 
science. The king gave him an interview at 
York Place. At first Pole was tongue-tied. 
At length he exhorted Henry not to ruin 
his fame and destroy his soul by perse- 
verance in wrong. The king in fury put his 
hand to his dagger. Pole left the chamber 
in tears (see the different accounts of the story 
in Epp. Poli, i. 251-62, and Calendar, vol. xii. 
pt. i. No. 444). At the same time Pole, at 
the king's request, wrote a paper, very likely 
just after the interview, giving his opinion 
on the king's scruples and how to deal with 
them. The treatise itself does not seem to be 
extant, but a fall account of its contents is 
given by Cranmer in a letter to Anne Bo- 
leyn's father, written on 13 June 1531, in 
which he says that it was ' much contrary to 
the king's purpose ; ' but the arguments were 
set forth with such wisdom and eloquence 
that if they were published it would be im- 
possible, Cranmer thought, to persuade people 
to the contrary. Pole pointed out the danger 
of reviving controversies as to the succes- 
sion, then he attacked the arguments on the 
king's side, and urged Henry to defer to the 
pope's judgment (SxKYPE, Cranmer, App. 
No. 1). The king took Pole's counsel in good 
part (Cal. Venetian, v. 244), and was almost 
inclined to abandon the divorce. Thomas 
Cromwell [q. v.], however, whom Pole re- 
garded as an emissary of Satan, induced him to 
persevere. With deep dislike Pole saw soon 
afterwards the concession of royal supremacy 
wrung from the clergy. He was present, pro- 
bably with a deputation of the clergy, when 
the king refused a large sum voted to him by 
convocation unless it were granted to him as 
head of the church of England (De Unitate 
JSccl. f. 19). He may also have been present 
in convocation in the same year when the 
title, with the qualification ' as far as the 
law of Christ allows,' was silently conceded, 
after three days' strenuous opposition. His 
statement that he was absent when the royal 
supremacy was enacted (ib. f. 82) clearly 
refers to the parliamentary act of 1534. He 
was then at Padua. Pole, apprehensive of 
the further consequences of Cromwell's pre- 
dominance, petitioned to be allowed to devote 
himself to the study of theology abroad. He 
told Henry that if he remained in England 
and had to attend parliament (as he would 
be expected to do) while the divorce was dis- 
cussed, he must speak according to his con- 
science. In January 1532 Henry thought it 

prudent to let him go (Cal. v. No. 737). He 
and Henry parted good friends, and the king 
continued his pensions. 

Pole settled at Avignon for a few months, 
but soon removed to Padua, where he spent 
some years, paying frequent visits to Venice. 
From Padua he wrote to the king a care- 
fully considered letter, full of powerful argu- 
ments against the divorce, whose wisdom the 
king and Cromwell praised. Meanwhile his 
friends in England caused him to be insti- 
tuted in his absence (20 Dec. 1532) to the 
vicarage of Piddletown in Dorset, a living 
in the patronage of his family. He resigned 
it three years later. In order to hold it he 
was dispensed ' propter defectum susceptionis 
sacrorum ordinum' (HUTCHINS, Dorset, ii. 

At Padua he took into his house the great 
classical professor Lazzaro Buonamici, with 
the view of re-studying Greek and Latin lite- 
rature ; but the thought of what was going 
on in England induced him to devote himself 
more ardently to philosophy and theology. 
At Venice or at Padua Pole made the ac- 
quaintance of two lifelong friends Gaspar 
Contarini, who was created a cardinal a year 
before himself, and Ludovico Priuli, a young 
Venetian nobleman, who became ardently 
attached to him. He came to know, too, Gian 
Pietro Caraffa, afterwards Paul IV, and, 
among other men of worth and genius, Ludo- 
vico Beccatelli, afterwards his secretary and 

On Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn in 
1533, and the disinheriting of Princess Mary, 
Queen Catherine and her nephew, Charles V, 
alike agreed that Pole's services might be em- 
ployed in redressing the wrongs of the divorced 
queen and her daughter (Cal. Henry VIII, 
vol. vii. No. 1040). The princess might, it 
was vaguely suggested, become his wife, and 
Yorkist and Tudor claims to the throne 
might thus be consolidated. It was only in 
June 1535 that Pole was made aware, in a 
letter from the emperor, of the proposal that 
he should interfere. His first feeling was 
alarm at the responsibility. But he agreed 
to make experiment of peaceful mediation 
after a method of his own (Cal. Spanish, 
vol. v. pt. ii. No. 63 ; cf. vol. viii. No. 830). 

Pole was anxious at this time to avoid all 
chance of a civil war in England (ib. No. 
129), and Henry VIII had already offered 
him, he vainly hoped, an opportunity of pro- 
moting peace. In the latter part of 1534 the 
king had, through Thomas Starkey,who seems 
to have been Pole's chaplain at Padua, and 
was on a visit to England, requested Pole's 
opinion on the two points, whether marriage 
with a deceased brother's wife was permissible 




by divine law, and whether papal supremacy 
was of divine institution. If Pole could not 
agree with the royal view, Henry added, he 
must state his own candidly, and then come to 
England, where the king would find honour- 
able employment for him in other matters. 
Starkey's letter reached Pole at Venice in 
April, and Pole asked for further time for 
study before coming home. Starkey mean- 
while deemed it prudent to give the king 
some indication of Pole's general political 
views, and set them forth in the form of an 
imaginary dialogue bet ween Pole and the now 
deceased Thomas Lupset. Pole was repre- 
sented as in theory a reformer, strongly alive 
to the dangers of the prerogative, but entirely 
loyal to a king like Henry VIII, who was in- 
capable of abusing it (ib. No. 217 ; Starkey's 
treatise printed in England in the Reign of 
Henry VIII, by J. M. Cowper, for the Early 
English Text Soc.) Henry was not offended 
at an abstract theory expounded in this way. 

The king caused Cromwell, in December 
1534, to write to Pole with some impatience 
for his answer to the two questions (Cal. 
Henry VIII, vol. ix. No. 988). But his reply 
was taking the form of a long treatise, 'Pro 
Ecclesiasticse Unitatis Defensione,' which he 
did not finish till May 1536. His arguments 
were aimed at peacefully deterring Henry 
from further wrongdoing, and were solely 
intended for the king's eyes. The work 
was a severe criticism of his proceedings, 
written not without pain and tears, for the 
high estimate he had formed of Henry's 
character had been bitterly disappointed. 
The king, dissembling his indignation, re- 
peated his wish that Pole should repair to 
England ; but Pole alleged the severe laws 
the king had himself promulgated as a suffi- 
cient excuse. Letters from his nearest rela- 
tives at home threatened to renounce him if 
he did not return and make his peace with 
the king. His friends in Italy were alarmed 
lest he should, in spite of the manifest danger, 
revisit his country. Paul III was conse- 
quently induced to summon him to Rome 
to a consultation about a proposed general 
council. With some reluctance he obeyed 
the call, and reached Rome in November 
1536. He was lodged by the pope with great 
honour in the Vatican. 

Pole found himself at Rome the youngest 
and most energetic member of a committee 
summoned by Paul III, after consultation 
with Pole's friend Cardinal Contarini, to draw 
up a scheme for reforming the discipline of 
the church. The committee's report was pub- 
lished in 1538 (Consilium delectorum Car- 
dinalium), Pole was still a layman, but it 
was thought well that he should now take 

deacon's orders and be made a cardinal. The 
prospect filled him with dismay, and he en- 
deavoured to convince the pope that it was 
at least untimely. It not only would destroy 
his influence in England, but involve his 
family in some danger. The pope at first 
yielded to these representations ; but others 
were so strongly in favour of his promotion 
that he returned to his original purpose. The 
papal chamberlain was despatched to inform 
Pole of the final resolution, along with a 
barber to shave his crown; and Pole sub- 
mitted. He was made a cardinal on 22 Dec. 
1536, deriving his title from the church of 
St. Mary in Cosmedin. In the following 
February he was nominated papal legate to 

The news of Pole's cardinalate enraged 
Henry VIII, but he forbore to show any 
open sign of anger. Popular disaffection was 
spreading in the north. A conciliatory atti- 
tude was needed to prevent a disastrous de- 
velopment. A letter to Pole was drawn up 
on 18 Jan. in the name of the king's council, 
and was despatched apparently on the 20th, 
after being signed by Norfolk, Cromwell, and 
others, remonstrating with him on the tone 
of his book and of his letters to the king, but 
accepting conditionally a suggestion thrown 
out by himself that he should discuss in 
Flanders, with commissioners sent by the 
king, the matters in dispute ( Cal. Henry VIII, 
vol. xii. pt. i. No. 125). It was insisted that 
he should go thither without commission 
from any one. Otherwise recognition of the 
pope's authority would be assumed. Pole 
replied from Rome on 16 Feb. that he had 
only obeyed the king's request in writing, 
and had done his utmost to keep the con- 
tents of the book secret from all but the king 
himself. He was ready, however, to treat 
with the king's commissioners in France or 
Flanders, but it must be in his capacity of 
legate (ib. No. 444 ; an undated Latin transla- 
tion inPoliEpp. i. 179, is wrongly addressed 
to the parliament of England). 

Pole was straightway despatched by the pope 
to England, and carried with him money with 
which, it was understood, he was to encou- 
rage the northern rebels against Henry VIII. 
On the journey he resolved to appeal to 
Francis I, the ally of Henry, and to per- 
suade the French king to exhort Henry to 
return to the Roman church as his only 
safety. With Giberti, bishop of Verona, a 
known friend of England, to whom Henry, 
if he disliked receivinga cardinal, might give 
a more favourable reception, Pole accordingly 
set out. After five weeks' travelling, they 
reached Lyons on 24 March. Henry VIII 
had crushed the northern rebellion before 


Pole left Rome. But Francis I and the 
emperor were at war, and neither wished to 
offend Henry lest he should take part with 
the other against him. Henry demanded of 
Francis I that Pole should be delivered up to 
him as a traitor. Francis promised not to 
receive Pole as legate. Though the cardinal 
made a public entry into Paris, he was in- 
formed that his presence in France was incon- 
venient, and that he must leave the country. 

Much mortified, he withdrew to Cambray, 
which was neutral territory, and remained 
there more than a month, awaiting a safe- 
conduct from Mary, queen of Hungary, regent 
of the Netherlands, in order to get safely 
away. But the English ambassador at her 
court insisted that if he entered imperial terri- 
tory he should be delivered up to Henry, and 
efforts were made by English agents to as- 
sassinate or kidnap him. Queen Mary excused 
herself from seeing him, and sent an escort in 
May to convey him from Cambray to Liege, 
without stopping any where more than a single 
night. Within the territory of the cardinal 
of Liege he was safe from further demands 
for his extradition. 

The cardinal of Liege (Erard de la Marck) 
lodged Pole in his own palace, and with 
princely liberality pressed upon his accept- 
ance large sums of money for his expenses. 
No stranger could enter or leave Liege un- 
examined while Pole was there. And he 
remained there nearly three months (Epp. 
Poli, ii., Diatriba ad Epistolas, cii-ciii, cix- 
cv). At length the pope ordered him to re- 
turn to Rome, which he reached in October. 
He remained there till the following spring 
(1538), when he accompanied Paul III to 
the meeting at Nice between Francis I and 
Charles V. At the first interview of the em- 
peror and the pope the former desired to be 
made acquainted with Pole, who accordingly 
waited on the emperor at Villafranca, and 
was very cordially received. After the meet- 
ing he spent some time at his friend Priuli's 
country house near Venice, and thence moved 
to Padua. There news reached him of the 
arrest in England of his brother Sir Geoffrey. 
He himself, in Venetian territory, was beset 
by spies and would-be assassins one of them 
the plausible scoundrel Philips who had be- 
trayed the martyr Tindal. In October he 
removed to Rome. Not many weeks later 
he was refused an audience by the pope, be- 
cause he had just received such distressing 
news of Pole's family that he could not bear 
to look him in the face. His eldest brother, 
Lord Montague, had been arrested on a charge 
of treason, and with him his mother and 
some dear and intimate friends. 

Pole felt that his own griefs were those of 

$ Pole 

his country and even of Europe. The only 
cure was to be sought in a restoration of 
papal authority in England by a league of 
Christian princes against Henry. He there- 
fore accepted a mission from the pope to 
visit the emperor in Spain, and afterwards 
Francis I. He left Rome on 27 Dec. 1538, and, 
to avoid Henry's hired assassins, travelled in 
disguise, with few attendants. By the end of 
January 1539 he reached Barcelona, and he 
was with the emperor at Toledo in the middle 
of February. Sir Thomas Wyatt, the English 
ambassador, vainly demanded his extradition 
as a traitor. Charles replied that ' if he were 
his own traitor, coming from the Holy Father 
at Rome, he could not refuse him audience.' 
In other respects he was not more successful 
than before. Charles V replied that he was 
not inclined to take offensive measures against 
England until he was sure of the co-opera- 
tion of France. 

While on his return journey, at Gerona in 
Catalonia (not La Gironde, as in the ' Spanish 
Calendar,' vol. vi. pt. i. p. 145), Pole learned 
that an English exile was seeking to assas- 
sinate him in hope of earning pardon from 
Henry for past misdeeds. This knowledge, 
combined with a fear that an immediate visit 
to France might lead to closer union between 
England and the emperor, led him to return 
for a time to Carpentras, a neutral place in the 
papal territory near Avignon. He, however, 
commissioned Parpaglia, abbot of San Saluto, 
a Piedmontese belonging to his household, 
who had been with him at Toledo, to deliver 
his message to Francis and inquire if he 
should come himself. Parpaglia was received 
politely, but was told that Pole's presence in 
France was not desired. Pole despatched 
Parpaglia to Rome to give a full account of 
the two missions. Pole's expenses had not 
only far exceeded his allowances, but had 
absorbed nearly all his savings. 

The pope was satisfied that the failure of 
the missions was not due to Pole, and on the 
death of Cardinal Campeggio [q. v.], who was 
titular bishop of Salisbury, offered the see to 
Pole. Pole, who was still at Carpentras, de- 
clined it. Meanwhile, in England, parlia- 
ment had passed an act of attainder against 
Pole and all his family, with the exception of 
Sir Geoffrey. When the news of his mother's 
execution reached him, he said, ' I am now the 
son of a martyr. This is the king's reward 
for her care of his daughter's education;' but 
added calmly, ' Let us be of good cheer. We 
have no w one patron more in heaven.' Deeply 
depressed, he found his best comfort in the 
quietude of Carpentras, and with much reluc- 
tance obeyed the pope's summons to Rome in 
1540. The pope assigned him a bodyguard ; 


and, in order to supply him with means suit- 
able to his birth and station, conferred on him 
what was called the legation of the patrimony, 
that is to say, the secular government of that 
portion of the States of the Church called the 
patrimony of St. Peter. Viterbo was the 
capital of the district which lay between the 
Tiber and Tuscany. Pole's government was 
distinguished by a leniency strongly contrast- 
ing with Henry VIII's severity. After the 
arrest of two Englishmen, who, on examina- 
tion, were compelled to confess that they had 
been sent to assassinate him, he remitted the 
capital penalty, and merely sent them for a 
few days to the galleys. 

In 1541, when Contarini was despatched 
by the pope to the diet at Ratisbon, he took 
counsel with Pole, and never was the breach 
between Rome and the protestants more 
nearly healed than by their able and concilia- 
tory policy. Pole appreciated clearly the fact 
that the heart of the controversy lay in the 
doctrine of justification, on which, indeed, his 
own views were not unlike those of Luther, 
and on this subject an understanding was 
almost arrived at. 

In 1542 he was one of the three legates 
appointed by the pope to open the council 
of Trent ; but delays followed, and the council 
only met for despatch of business in Decem- 
ber 1545. He spent some time of the interval 
in writing the treatise l De Concilio.' He 
was with his two colleagues at Trent when a 
solemn commencement was made on 13 Dec., 
after which there was an adjournment over 
Christmas till 7 Jan. 1546. Then matters 
proceeded smoothly till the fifth session in 
June, when a rheumatic attack compelled 
Pole to leave for his friend Priuli's country 
house at Padua, whence he corresponded 
with the council, and gave his opinion on the 
decrees it passed. The subject at that time 
was justification, and ungenerous sneers have 
been pointed at his illness as a diplomatic one, 
because his own view in that matter inclined 
to the protestant side. 

He returned to Rome on 16 Nov. by 
permission of the pope, who found his ser- 
vices of value in his correspondence with 
foreign courts. When news reached Pole of 
the death of Henry VIII (January 1547), he 
was anxious that the pope should use the em- 
peror's aid to reclaim his native country from 
schism. He strongly urged the pope to send 
legates to the emperor and to France ; while 
he wrote to the privy council, representing 
that now it would be necessary to redress 
many wrongs done during the late reign, but 
that he would not press those done to himself 
-and his own family more than was consistent 
with the public peace. He warned the coun- 



cil, however, that no firm foundation could 
belaid for future prosperity without the Holy 
See, and that the English people were fortu- 
nate in having a pope to whom their interests 
were very dear. The privy council declined 
to receive his messenger. 

Pole was not discouraged. Next year he 
sent to England his trusted servant Throg- 
morton to remonstrate on the incivility with 
which he had been treated, and to point out 
the dangers of their situation, especially if the 
emperor broke with England on account of 
changes in religion. Throgmorton failed to 
obtain an audience, but received an indirect 
answer from the Protector Somerset that any 
letters the cardinal might write privately 
would be fully considered, and that any emis- 
sary he might choose to send into France or 
Flanders, to speak for him, would have a 
passport sent him to come to England (State 
Papers, Domestic, Edw. VI, vol. v. No. 9). 
A few months later, on 6 April 1549, Pole 
despatched two special messengers to the pro- 
tector, and a letter to Dudley, earl of War- 
wick, offering, if they declined to allow his 
own return, to repair to some neutral place 
near the English Channel to discuss points 
of difference. Although his messengers this 
time were treated with courtesy, they were 
dismissed with a written answer repudiating 
any wish for conciliation. Pole wrote, the 
letter said, like a foreign prince. They in 
England had no need of the pope. If Pole 
wished to return to his country, the council 
would mediate for his pardon; and to show 
him the true state of matters there with re- 
spect to religion, they sent him a copy of 
the new prayer-book approved by parliament 
(ib. vol. vii. No. 28). 

Pole still persevered, and again sent two 
messengers to England with a long letter 
(7 Sept. 1549) to the protector, in which he 
pointed out that he had done no offence, 
either to Edward or even to his father, for 
which he should require a pardon. As to 
their proceedings in religion, he was not con- 
vinced of their sincerity. While he was con- 
cluding, news reached him of the rebellions 
in Norfolk and the west of England, which 
seemed a sufficient commentary on all that 
he had said. Among the fifteen articles of 
the western rebels, the twelfth was a demand 
that Cardinal Pole should be sent for from 
Rome and admitted to the king's council 
(STRYPE, Cranmer, App. 835, ed. 1812). 

On 10 Nov. 1549 Pole's friend Paul III 
died, one of his last acts being to confer upon 
Pole the abbacy of Gavello or Canalnuovo in 
Polesina. There was much betting at bankers' 
shops in Rome as to his successor, and Pole's 
name soon distanced all competitors. One 



evening two cardinals came to visit Pole in 
his cell, and begged him, as he had already 
two-thirds of the votes of the conclave, to 
come into the chapel, where they would make 
him pope by ' adoration.' Pole, who was as 
much impressed with the responsibilities as 
with the dignity of St. Peter's chair, induced 
them to put the ceremony off till the morning, 
and thus lost his chance. His supporters 
were mainly those cardinals who favoured the 
emperor, and they remained steady to him 
throughout the protracted contest. But to- 
wards its close the French party gained head ; 
a compromise was thought advisable, and 
Pole himself cordially agreed to the election 
of Cardinal de Monte, who then easily car- 
ried the day (8 Feb. 1550), and took the name 
of Julius III. Pole, it is said, in the expecta- 
tion of being elected, composed an oration to 
thank the assembled cardinals (GKATTANUS, 
De Casibus Virorumlllustrium^. 219). He 
undoubtedly prepared a treatise, ' De Summo 
Pontifice,' on the powers and duties of the 
papal office. The new pope, who had not 
favoured Pole's own claim, was greatly 
touched by his disinterestedness. Though in 
June 1550 he conferred on another cardinal 
the legation of the patrimony given to Pole 
by his predecessor, he charged the revenues 
with a pension of one hundred crowns for 
Pole, and appointed him one of three cardi- 
nals to draw up the bull for the resumption 
of the council at Trent. The emperor, too, 
gave Pole a pension of two thousand ducats out 
of the see of Burgos, and another out of that 
of Granada; but these were irregularly paid. 
The council of Trent was abruptly sus- 
pended in April 1552 in consequence of the 
war in Europe, and Pole, anxious to be out of 
the turmoil both of war and politics, retired, 
with the pope's leave, in the spring of 1553 to 
the monastery of Maguzzano on the Lago di 
Garda belonging to the Benedictine order, of 
which he had for some years been cardinal 
protector. Here he acceded to the wish of his 
friends to prepare for publication his treatise 
' Pro Defensione,' which had been set up in 
type with the pope's sanction but without 
Pole's knowledge and in his absence from 
Eome in 1539. The text apparently followed 
a first draft divided into four books : the ma- 
nuscript sent to Henry VIII (which is now in 
the Record Office) was one connected treatise. 
There were also some variations, the most im- 
portant of which were the passages alluding 
to the king's connection with Mary Boleyn, 
which in the manuscript sent to the king he 
suppressed. All that the book needed was 
a preface. This Pole now drew up in the 
form of a letter to Edward VI, in which he 
explained, as delicately as he could, the cir- 

cumstances which had led him to compose 
the work, and vindicated his own loyalty and 
regard for the late king's best interests. But 
before this letter was sent to press Edward VI 
was dead, and the preface remained in manu- 
script till the middle of the last century, when 
it was included by Quirini in the great edi- 
tion of Pole's correspondence. The treatise 
itself appeared, without any preface or date 
of publication, in 1554 (Cal. State Papers f 
Venetian, vol. v. No. 901). Next year a, 
second edition was published by protestant 
hands in Germany, with a number of anti- 
papal tracts appended, and a letter prefixed 
from the pen of Vergerius (once a papal legate, 
but then a protestant), repeating, with strong 
party spirit, an old insinuation that the work 
had been kept back from publication dis- 
honestly. Pole was more troubled by other 
malicious insinuations made in past years 
against his character at Rome. His rivals- 
in the papal election had imputed to him 
heresy in doctrine, overgreat lenity in his go- 
vernment at Viterbo, and personal impurity. 
He was moved to write a defence of himself, 
which Cardinal Caraff'a wisely advised him. 
not to publish. As others, however, took a 
different view, he only refrained in deference 
to the pope himself, to whom he referred the 
matter. The scandal that he had a natural 
child rested on the fact that he had rescued 
a poor English girl, whose mother had died 
at Rome, from the danger of an immoral life 
by placing her in a Roman convent. As 
Cardinal Caraffa, Pole's warm friend hitherto, 
disbelieved these imputations, it is not quite 
clear how they led to a temporary coolness- 
on his part. Such, however, is the fact, and, 
though CarafFa soon confessed his error and 
expressed the highest esteem for Pole, some 
grudge remained, and was revived a few years 
later, when Caraffa became Paul IV. 

The news of Edward VI's death, soon fol- 
lowed by that of Mary's bloodless triumph 
over the factious attempt to prevent her suc- 
cession, reached Pole at La Garda early in 
August. He at once wrote to the pope of 
the hopeful prospect of recovering England 
from disorder and schism. Julius III had 
already taken action, and sent to Pole briefs 
and a commission constituting him legate to- 
Queen Mary as well as to the emperor and to 
Henry II of France, through whose territory 
he might pass on his way to England. On 
this Pole wrote to the queen congratulating- 
her on her accession, and asking directions, 
as to the time and mode in which he might 
best discharge his legation and restore papal 
authority. The queen shared his anxiety, but 
in other quarters the opinion prevailed that 
England was far too unsettled to receive a 



legate yet. The emperor held that Mary 
ought to be married to his son Philip before 
the relations of England to the see of Rome 
could be satisfactorily adjusted, and deemec 
it prudent to keep Pole out of the way til 
that marriage was accomplished. In Englanc 
it was suggested that Pole should come to 
England and marry the queen himself. Pol 
had no such aspirations, and wrote to the 
emperor of the great importance of imme- 
diately reconciling England with Eome. But 
the more worldly-minded pope, Julius III 
perceived that postponement was inevitable 
and, in order to preserve Pole's mission from 
an appearance of undignified inactivity, made 
over to him the unpromising task of endea- 
vouring to make peace between the emperor 
and Henry II. With this further mission 
imposed on him, Pole decided to visit the 
emperor at Brussels, and on his way arrived 
on 1 Oct. at Trent. Thence, in a second 
letter to Mary, he protested against the delay 
of the religious settlement. Passing through 
the Tyrol, he stayed some days with the car- 
dinal-bishop of Augsburg, at Dillingen, on 
the Danube, where he received Mary's reply 
to his first note, stating that she could not 
restore papal authority offhand. The mes- 
senger, Henry Penning, also brought secret 
messages bidding Pole travel slowly towards 
Brussels, where he would receive letters from 
her again. His nephew, Thomas Stafford, 
visited him at Dillingen, and spoke sharply 
against Mary's proposed union with Philip. 
Pole rebuked his presumption. A few days 
later, when three leagues from Dillingen, he 
was met by Don Juan de Mendoza, who told 
him that the emperor thought both his mis- 
sions untimely, and wished him to come no 
further till a more favourable opportunity. 
Pole remonstrated, but returned to Dillingen 
to await the pope's commands. 

That Pole when he went to England would 
at once have the first place in Mary s confidence 
was generally anticipated. Accordingly the 
emperor stopped even his messengers going 
over to her, and the agents of the English go- 
vernment did the same (cf. Neyoc. deNoailles, 
ii. 224; Cal. State Papers, For., Mary, p. 34). 
Mary now wrote to him, in official Latin, that 
his immediate coming would be inexpedient, 
and subsequently that his coming as legate 
would be extremely dangerous. The pope en- 
deavoured to meet the difficulty by granting 
Pole permission, if he found it expedient, to 
go to England as a private person, resuming 
the legatine capacity when he could do so with 
prudence. Pole, however, found a new envoy 
to plead his cause with the emperor in the 
person of Friar Peter Soto, once his majesty's 
confessor, now professor of divinity in the 

university of Dillingen, whom he sent to 
Brussels in November. Soto's persuasions 
seem to have been effective, or Charles him- 
self felt that Pole could no longer do much 
harm at Brussels. On 22 Dec. the emperor 
invited him thither, and in January 1554 he 
gave him a magnificent reception. 

Mary's marriage was practically concluded. 
Pole, who had kept silence on the subject, 
declared, when asked his private opinion by 
Soto, that he thought the queen would do 
well not to marry at all. Wyatt's rebellion in 
January justified at once such an opinion and 
the emperor's argument that England was 
not ' mature ' for a legate. Pole was driven 
to occupy himself with his second mission 
for peace between the emperor and France. 
And as the emperor's ministers affirmed that 
the obstacles to an honourable peace did not 
proceed from him, he in February left 
Brussels for Paris. On his way he drew up a, 
very able address to both princes, full of argu- 
ments, alike from past experience and from 
policy, against the continuance of the war. 
He arrived at St. Denis on 12 March ; the 
French king received him at Fontamebleau 
on the 29th. He remained there till 5 April, 
and made a public entry into Paris on the 8th. 
He met with a very gratifying reception in 
France. Personally he produced a most fa- 
vourable impression on Henry II ; but the 
conferences, though encouraging, held out 
slender hopes of peace. 

On his return to Brussels he was very coolly 
received by the emperor (21 April), owing to 
growing rumours of his dislike of Mary's mar- 
riage. Pole vindicated the reticence he had 
maintained in the first instance, and declared 
that he cordially accepted the queen's deci- 
sion when announced to him, believing that 
it was taken with a view to reform religion, 
and, if possible, secure the succession. Pole 
soon found, however, that the emperor wished 
tiim to be recalled. Pole referred the matter 
to the pope, but in the meantime remained 
at Brussels, while Philip went to England 
and was married. On 11 July Pole sent 
Philip a letter of congratulation. 

Pole had already been consulted by Mary 
n spiritual matters, and had rendered him- 
self indispensable. Neither the church nor 
the realm of England had yet been reconciled 
to Rome. But numerous bishops and married 
clergy had already been deprived, and as their 
)laces could only be filled by recourse either 
;o the papal legate or to the pope, the queen 
lad presented twelve bishops to Pole, of 
whom six were consecrated on 1 April. The 
>osition of affairs rendered Pole's presence in 
England absolutely necessary, and the pope 
irged the emperor not to keep Pole away 



any longer. But Pole's attainder had still to 
be reversed in parliament, and, from what 
was reported of his views on the subject, the 
possessors of church property felt that his 
coming might threaten their titles. The pope 
was willing to remove the latter difficulty, 
and gave the legate large dispensing powers, 
so that holders of church lands might not be 
disturbed. But the emperor, whose interests 
were now the same with those of the king and 
queen, was not satisfied that these powers 
were large enough. The traditional unpopu- 
larity of legatine jurisdiction in England, 
which could only be exercised by royal license, 
made it moreover desirable to carefully weigh 
the terms on which it was conceded before the 
legate arrived. 

Pole was in despair. He wrote a power- 
ful letter of expostulation to Philip, declar- 
ing that he had been a year knocking at the 
palace gates, although he had suffered long 
years of exile only for maintaining Mary's 
rights to the succession. Philip, in reply, sent 
over Renard, the imperial ambassador at the 
English court, to Brussels to confer with him. 
The main difficulty was about the church pro- 
perty in secular hands. Pole refused to re- 
cognise the title of the lay proprietors, or to 
strike a bargain with them on behalf of the 
church. But general and immediate restitu- 
tion was clearly out of the question, and he 
at length consented to leave the matter in 
abeyance, in the hope that the king and queen 
and other holders of church property would 
as a matter of conscience restore what and 
when they could. The divines at Rome took 
the more practical view that the alienation of 
church goods was justifiable, if it proved 
the means of restoring a realm to the faith 
(Upp.iv. 170-2). 

Renard was satisfied with Pole's assurance, 
and Lords Paget and Hastings (the latter a 
nephew of Pole's) were sent to conduct him 
to England (November). The queen prayed 
him to come not as legate, but only as cardinal 
and ambassador. On 12 Nov. parliament re- 
versed his attainder. Travelling by gentle 
stages, on account of his weak health, through 
Ghent and Bruges, he was received at Calais 
on 19 Nov. with many peals of bells and 
salvoes of artillery. Next morning he reached 
Dover in a royal yacht. 

There he was saluted bv Anthonv Browne, 

iirst viscount Montague [q.v.], Thirlby, bishop 
of Ely, and a number of the nobility, who 
brought him a letter from the queen, to 
which Philip had added a few words in his 
own hand, thanking him for coming. Nicholas 
Ilarpsfield [q. v.], archdeacon of Canterbury, 
inquired in behalf of the chapter whether he 
would be received in that city as legate. But 

he declined, as the realm was still schismati- 
cal, and the queen had not desired it. At- 
tended by a large company of noblemen and 
gentlemen, Pole rode on to Canterbury, which 
he entered by torchlight. Harpsfield received 
him with a fine oration, which moved the 
company to tears. But Pole stopped his 
oratory when, towards the close, the speaker 
turned the discourse to eulogy of himself. At 
Rochester a request that he would come to 
her as legate reached Pole from the queen. A 
patent had already been granted him on the 
10th, in advance of his coming, to enable him 
to exercise legatine functions in England 
(WiLKiNS, iv. 109). At Gravesend his ca- 

valcade had increased to five hundred horse. 
There the Earl of Shrewsbury and Tunstall, 
bishop of Durham, presented him with letters 
under the great seal, certifying the repeal of 
all laws passed against him in the two pre- 
ceding reigns (Lords' Journals, i. 469). From 
Gravesend he sailed up the Thames in the 
queen's barge, with his silver cross fixed in 
the prow (24 Nov.) The king and queen 
received him most cordially at Whitehall, 
and in the presence chamber he, under a 
canopy of state, formally presented to them 
the briefs of his legation. H e then was con- 
ducted by Gardiner to Lambeth Palace. 

Three days later (27 Nov.) Secretary Petre 
[see PETKE, SIE, WILLIAM] summoned the 
two houses of parliament to court to hear a 
declaration from the legate. Pole, despite a 
weak voice, delivered a long oration, in which 
he said he was come to restore the lost glory 
of the kingdom. On the feast of St. Andrew 
(30 Nov.) lords and commons presented a joint 
supplication to the king and queen, who there- 
upon publicly interceded with the legate to 
absolve them from their long schism and dis- 
obedience. Pole, who was seated, uttered a 
few words about the special grace shown by 
God to a repentant nation, then he rose and 
pronounced the words of absolution. 

On 2 Dec., the first Sunday in Advent, he 
proceeded in state, at the invitation of the 
corporation, to St. Paul's. High mass was 
celebrated, and Bishop Gardiner preached 
from the text (Rom. xiii. 11), ' It is high time 
to awake out of sleep.' On Thursday follow- 
ing (6 Dec.) the two houses of convocation 
came before Pole at Lambeth, and, kneeling, 
received absolution ' for all their perjuries, 
schisms, and heresies.' The Act 1 & 2 Phil. 
and Mary, c. 8, for restoring the pope's supre- 
macy, was passed in January 1555. 

Julius III published a jubilee to celebrate 
the restoration of his authority in England, 
but he died on 5 March following. Pole was 
spoken of at Rome as his successor, but Mar- 
cellus II was elected on 9 April 1555. He 




survived his elevation o.nly three weeks, dying 
on 30 April, and at the second vacancy both 
Queen Mary and the court of France bestirred 
themselves in Pole's favour. But on 23 May 
Cardinal Caraffa became pope as Paul IV. 
Pole himself, meanwhile, was more concerned 
about the re-establishment of peace in Europe. 
Peace conferences were presently arranged to 
take place at Marck, near Calais, on the borders 
of the two hostile countries of France and 
the empire, and he crossed to Calais in the 
middle of May to act as president. The pro- 
spect, however, did not improve, and within 
a month the conferences were broken off, 
and he returned to England. 

On 10 June Paul IV held his first con- 
sistory at Home, when English ambassadors 
declared their nation's repentance for past 
errors. Paul ratified all that Pole had done, 
and said no honour could be paid to him 
which would not fall short of his merits. 
After a month's stay in Rome the ambassa- 
dors returned to England with various bulls, 
one among them being directed against the 
alienation of church property. The bull 
might perhaps have been construed not to 
apply to the owners of church property in 
England, whose rights had already been re- 
cognised both .by the legate and by the 
holy see. But it was felt at once to be con- 
trary to the spirit of the compromise which 
Pole had accepted. He therefore insisted 
on the necessity of excepting England by 
name from its operation. A new bull to that 
effect was issued without hesitation, and was 
read at Paul's Cross in September (TYTLEE, 
Edward VI and Mary, ii. 483). 

Before Philip left England for Brussels in 
October he placed the queen specially under 
the care of the cardinal, who thereupon took 
up his abode in Greenwich Palace ; and he 
paid a private visit to Pole himself to induce 
him to undertake a supervision of the coun- 
cil's proceedings. Pole acquiesced, appa- 
rently so far as to receive reports of what 
was done in the council, and to be a referee 
when matters of dispute arose ; but otherwise 
he declined to interfere with secular business 
(Cal of State Papers, Venetian, vi. 178-9; 
comp. NOAILLES, v. 126). He seems never to 
have attended the council. 

The church's affairs were all-absorbing. 
Cranmer, the imprisoned archbishop of Can- 
terbury, wished to confer with Pole per- 
sonally. This the legate declined, as incon- 
sistent with his office; but he wrote to Cran- 
mer twice, in ansvr -r to letters to himself 
and to the queen. The proceedings taken in 
England against Cranmer were sent to Rome 
for judgment, where sentence of deprivation 
being pronounced against him, the admini- 

stration of the see of Canterbury was com- 
mitted on 11 Dec. to Pole. At the same 
time Pole was raised from the dignity of 
cardinal-deacon to that of cardinal-priest. 
The queen designed him to succeed Cranmer 
as archbishop. Though he felt it a serious 
additional responsibility, he agreed to accept 
the primacy, on the understanding that he 
should not be compelled again to go to Rome. 
With the bull appointing him to Canterbury, 
Pole received a brief confirming him in his 
old office of legate for the negotiation of 
peace. Immediately afterwards Pole rejoiced 
to find that, without his intervention, a five 
years' truce was arranged between the French 
Jking and Philip, now king of Spain, at Vau- 
celles (5 Feb. 1556). 

On 4 Nov. 1555 Pole, having a warrant 
under the great seal for his protection, had 
caused a synod of both the convocations to 
assemble before him as legate in the chapel 
royal at Westminster. Gardiner's death on 
the 12th deprivedPole of very powerful aid in 
that reform and settlement of the affairs of 
the church which was the great object of this 
synod. It continued sitting till February 
following, when it was prorogued till No- 
vember, the results of its deliberations being 
meanwhile published on 10 Feb. 1556, under 
the title ' Reformatio Angliae ex decretis 
Reginaldi Poli, Cardinalis, Sedis Apostolicse 
Legati.' In the first of these decrees it 
was enjoined that sermons and processions 
through the streets should take place yearly 
on the feast of St. Andrew, to celebrate the 
reconciliation of the realm to Rome. 

On 20 March 1557, at Greenwich, he was 
ordained a priest at the Grey Friars church, 
and there next day, when Cranmer was burnt 
at Oxford, he celebrated mass for the first 
time. On Sunday the 22nd he was conse- 
crated at the same church archbishop of 
Canterbury, by Heath, archbishop of York, 
assisted by Bonner and five other bishops of 
the province of Canterbury (STKYPE, Eccl. 
Mem. iii. 287, 1st ed.) He would have gone to 
Canterbury to be enthroned, but as the queen 
desired his presence in London, he deputed 
one of the canons to act as his proxy there, 
and received the pallium in great state on 
Ladyday at the church of St. Mary-le-Bow. 
On entering the church a paper was handed 
to him by the parishioners, requesting that 
he would favour them with a discourse, which 
he did extempore and with great fluency at 
the close of the proceedings. 

After Gardiner's death Pole was elected 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge. 
He acknowledged the compliment in a grace- 
ful letter, dated from Greenwich 1 April 
1556 (which the editor of his letters, Epp. 




v. 88, has inaccurately headed ' Collegio 
Oxoniensi'). On 26 Oct. following Oxford 
paid him the same honour, on the resignation 
of Sir John Mason [q. v.] 'He had previously 
issued a commission for the visitation of both 
universities, and he soon manifested his ac- 
tivity in revising the statutes at Oxford. 
Ignatius Loyola had invited him to send 
English youths to Rome for their education, 
but Pole, much occupied with the reform of 
the English church and universities, appa- 
rently found no opportunity to accept this 
invitation (Epp. v. 115-20). He was inte- 
rested in Loyola's new Society of Jesus, and 
Loyola on his part followed with admiration 
Pole's work in England. They had corre- 
sponded at times from the days of Pole's 
government of Viterbo. 

Both Mary and Pole had underestimated 
the difficulties of reconciling the realm to 
Rome. With regard to church property, the 
most ample papal indulgence could not allay 
all disquiet when the sovereign herself de- 
clined to take advantage of it, and was sur- 
rendering the religious property in the hands 
of the crown. The abrogated laws against 
heresy had been revived by parliament just 
before Pole's arrival in England, and his con- 
nection with their enforcement was merely 
official. But, like Sir Thomas More and all 
good catholics of the old school, he thought 
the propagation of false opinion an evil for 
which no punishment was too extreme. 
With the actual conduct of prosecutions he 
seems to have had nothing to do (cf. Dixox, 
Hist, of the Church of England, iv. 573). 
Three condemned heretics in Bonner's diocese 
were pardoned on an appeal to him. He 
merely enjoined a penance and gave them 
absolution (ib. p. 582). 

But Pole had to face difficulties in an un- 
expected quarter. Paul IV, a hot-blooded 
Neapolitan, longed to drive the Spaniards 
out of Naples. War broke out between him 
and Philip in Italy, and Pole found that his 
sovereign had become the pope's enemy. He 
strongly urged on Philip the unseemliness of 
making war on Christ's vicar. But the storm 
extended itself ; the pope made alliance with 
France, and the war so recently suspended 
between France and Spain was again re- 
newed. Pole now urged Mary not to declare 
herself against France on account of her 
husband's quarrel. But Philip came back to 
England in March 1557 with the express 
object of implicating her in his struggle with 
France, upon which Pole retired to his cathe- 
dral city, explaining to him privately that 
the pope's legate could not visit the pope's 
enemy. In April, however, Paul IV with- 
drew all his legates from Philip's dominions 

and cancelled the legation of Pole. Sir Ed- 
ward Carne, the English ambassador at 
Rome, remonstrated. England was neutral, 
and the condition of the country specially re- 
quired a legate. The pope recognised his 
error, and lamely directed that the native 
legateship always attached to the see of Can- 
terbury should not be included in the act of 

The clouds did not disperse. England was 
dragged into the war, and Pole was sum- 
moned from Canterbury by the king and 
queen, on pain of their displeasure. Philip 
and Mary wrote joint letters to the pope for 
the full restoration of Pole's legateship. Paul 
said it would be unbecoming his dignity to 
give back to Pole what he had taken from 
him ; besides, he wanted all his cardinals at 
Rome, to consult with him in those difficult 
times. Still, as Mary wished for a legate in 
England, he appointed in Pole's place her 
old confessor, Friar William Peto [q. v.] A 
brief was sent to Pole relieving him of his 
legateship, and requiring his presence at 
Rome. Mary, against Pole's wish, directed 
the papal messenger to be detained at Calais, 
and requested Pole to continue his legatine 
functions. Pole refused, and despatched his 
auditor, Niccolo Ormanetto, to Rome to in- 
form the pope of the state of the case (see ex- 
tracts from his unprinted letter to the pope 
in DIXON'S Hist, of the Church of England, 
iv. 674-5, w.) He objected that the pope had 
not only deprived him of his legation, but in- 
sinuated that he was a heretic ; and that no 
pope had ever called a legate into suspicion 
on such grounds while actually exercising his 
legatine functions, or had replaced him by 
another, without first citing him to plead 
his own cause and justify himself of the 
charge (STRYPE, Eccl. Memorials, iii. 34, 
ed. 1822). Ormanetto was admitted to an 
audience by the pope on 4 Sept., and spoke 
discreetly in Pole's behalf. 

The fortunes of war had just compelled 
Paul to conclude a peace with Philip, and 
he found it expedient to be conciliatory. He 
assured Ormanetto that he considered the 
rumours of Pole's heresy malicious, and said 
that he would send his nephew, Cardinal 
Caraffa, to Flanders to arrange all diffe- 
rences. But to others he maligned Pole as 
a heretic with a malevolence almost sug- 
gesting insanity, and spoke with bitterness 
of all Pole's friends. He had imprisoned 
Pole's disciple, Cardinal Morone, mainly be- 
cause he was a disciple of Pole. When the 
Venetian ambassador at Rome requested the 
pope to give the bishopric of Brescia to Pole's 
ardent admirer and constant companion in 
England and abroad, Priuli, Paul said he 




would never consent to bestow it on one 
who was of the English cardinal's ' accursed 
school and apostate household.' 

Cardinal CarafFa, however, went to the 
Netherlands, and Pole restated his case to 
him in correspondence. He also wrote a 
treatise in his defence, recounting his past 
relations with the pope, but threw it, when 
completed, into the fire, saying, ' Thou 
shalt not uncover thy father's nakedness.' 
Finally he addressed to Paul, on 30 March 
1558, a powerful letter, recommending his 
self-denying friend Priuli for the vacant 
bishopric of Brescia, vindicating himself from 
the vague charges of heresy, and asking for 
some explanation of the pope's recent treat- 
ment of himself. 

In the course of the summer Pole fell 
mortally ill of a double quartan ague at Lam- 
beth Palace. At seven in the morning of 
17 Nov. Mary, who had been long ill, passed 
away ; at seven in the evening of the same 
day Pole, too, died so gently that he seemed 
to have fallen asleep (Cal. Venetian, vol. vi. 
Nos. 1286-7). The cardinal's body lay in 
state at Lambeth till 10 Dec., when it was 
carried with great pomp to Canterbury. There 
it was buried on the 15th, and it still rests 
in St. Thomas's Chapel. The place was only 
marked by the inscription, which has now 
disappeared : ' Depositum Cardinalis Poli.' 

Pole was a man of slender build, of middle 
stature, and of fair complexion, his beard 
and hair in youth being of a light brown 
colour. His eye was bright and cheerful, 
his countenance frank and open. Several 
good portraits of him exist, in all of which he 
appears in the vestments of a cardinal, with 
a biretta on his head. One picture by Sebas- 
tian del Piombo, now at St. Petersburg (once 
absurdly attributed to Raphael), is a full- 
faced portrait, with a large flowing, wavy 
beard. This must have been painted at Rome 
in the time of Paul III, when he was in his 
fullest vigour. A large portrait at Lambeth 
is said to have been copied for Archbishop 
Moore from an original in Italy. This pic- 
ture, with others of the same type, shows him 
seated, with a paper in his hand. Lord Arun- 
del of Wardour has a valuable small panel- 
picture (not by Titian, however, to whom it 
is attributed), showing somewhat careworn 
features and small blue-grey eyes. This 
portrait has been engraved by Lodge. Other 
small panel-portraits of value are preserved 
at Lambeth, at Hardwick Hall (belonging 
to the Duke of Devonshire), and in the 
National Portrait Gallery. Two early en- 
gravings also deserve notice : One, in the 
* Hercoologia ' (1620), gives the best type 
of his appearance; the other, which is earlier, 

in Reusner's ' Icones ' (Basle, 1589), shows 
a more aged face. There is much gentleness 
of expression in all his likenesses. 

Pole's habits were ascetic. He kept a 
sumptuous table, but was himself abstemious 
in diet, taking only two meals a day, pro- 
bably to the detriment of his health. He 
slept little, and commonly rose before day- 
break to study. Though careful not to let 
his expenditure exceed his income, he never 
accumulated wealth, but gave liberally ; and 
his property after his death seems barely to 
have sufficed to cover a few legacies and ex- 

Seldom has any life been animated by a 
more single-minded purpose, but its aim 
was beyond the power of man to achieve. 
The ecclesiastical system which Henry VIII 
had shattered could not be restored in Eng- 
land. Royal supremacy thrust papal supre- 
macy aside, even in France and Belgium ; and 
when in England papal authority was re- 
stored for a time, it was restored by royal 
authority alone, and had to build upon 
foundations laid by royalty. Worst of all, 
the papacy, itself fighting a temporal battle 
with the princes of this world, disowned its 
too intrepid champion at the last. That he 
died on the same day with Mary, whose 
battle he had been fighting all along, was a 
coincidence that might be considered natural. 
Both might well have been heartbroken at 
the discredit thrown upon their zeal, and 
the hopelessness of the political outlook. 

As a writer Pole's style is verbose, but he 
never cared for literary fame. None of his 
writings were penned with a mere literary 
aim, except his early anonymous life of Lon- 
golius. After his death editions of his ' De 
Concilio ' appeared at Venice in 1562, and of 
the ' De Unitate ' at Ingolstadt in 1587, of 
'De Summo Pontifice' (1569). There was 
published at Louvain in 1569 ' A treatie of 
lustification. Founde emong the writinges 
of Cardinal Pole of blessed memorie, remain- 
ing in the custodie of M. Henrie Pyning 
[the Henry Penning above referred to] 
Chamberlaine and General Receiuer to the 
said Cardinal, late deceased in Louaine.' 
The theological views here expounded are 
in practical agreement with the reformers. 
An extract from his ' De Unitate Ecclesias- 
tica ' appeared in an English translation by 
Fabian Withers, under the title of ' The 
Seditious and Blasphemous Oration of Car- 
dinal Pole/ Pole's correspondence, edited 
by Quirini, was issued at Brescia in five 
volumes between 1744 and 1757. 

[The Life of Pole, written in Italian by his 
secretary Beccatelli, commonly read in the Latin 
translation of Andrew Dudith, who was also a 


4 6 


member of the cardinal's household, is the first 
authority for the facts. Both the original and the 
translation of this life will be found in Quirini's 
edition of Pole's Correspondence (Epistolre Regi- 
naldi Poli . . . et aliorum ad se, &c., 5 vols., 
Brescia, 1744-57), which is a most important 
source of information. Other documentary evi- 
dences will be found in the Calendars of State 
Papers, viz. that of Henry VIII, frequently cited 
in the text, and those of the Domestic Series 
(1547-80), the Foreign Series (Edward VI and 
Mary), the Spanish, and, most of all, the Venetian. 
A few notices also will be found in the Cal. of 
Dom. Addenda; Burnet's Hist, of the Reforma- 
tion ; Strype's Eccles. Memorials ; Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments; Dodd's Church Hist. ; the Acts 
of the Privy Council; Vertot's Ambassades de 
Messieurs de Noailles ; Papiers d'Etat du Car- 
dinal de Granvelle, vol. iv. (Documents Inedits) ; 
Sarpi's Hist, of the Council of Trent ; Palla- 
vicino's Hist, of the same; Gratiani Vita J.F. 
Commendoni Cardinalis (Paris, 1669), Machyn's 
Diary, Chronicle of Queen Jane and Queen Mary, 
and Chronicle of the Grey Friars (all three 
Camd. Soc.) ; Hardy's Report on the Archives 
of Venice (in which, however, Bergenroth's com- 
munication, pp. 69-71, must be used with 
caution) ; Lettere del Re d' Inghilterra et del 
Card. Polo . . . sopra la reduttione di quel 
Regno alia . . . Chiesa (without date); Copia 
d' una lettera d' Inghilterra nella quale si narra 
1'entrata del Rev. Cardinale Polo, Legato, Milan, 
1554, reprinted (at Paris, I860?). Of modern 
biographies the most valuable even now, though 
by no means faultless, is the History of the Life 
of Reginald Pole, by Thomas Phillips, first pub- 
lished at Oxford in 1764, and a second edition 
(in which the author's name is suppressed), 
London, 1767 [see for replies art. PHILLIPS, 
THOMAS, 1708-1774]. The biography in Hook's 
Lives of the Archbishops is strangely prejudiced, 
and sometimes quite inaccurate. Even Bergen- 
roth's very erroneous statements in his letter to 
Mr. (afterwards Sir Thomas) Duffus Hardy do 
not justify Dean Hook in his assertion (p. 230) 
that there is a letter at Simancas 'in which Pole 
had proposed himself as a suitor for the hand 
of Mary ' (see Hardy's Rpport above referred to, 
p. 70). The historical sketch entitled ' Reginald 
Pole' (lettered on the back of the volume 'The 
Life of Cardinal Pole'), by F. G. Lee, D.D., is 
not a life at all, but an essay on the beginning 
and end of his career. Of much greater value 
is Kardinal Pole, sein Leben und seine Schriften, 
oin Beitrag zur Kirchengeschichte des 16. Jahr- 
hunderts, by Zimmermann, S. .T., 
Regensburg, 1893. This is not so full a bio- 
graphy as could be desired, but it is the most 
accurate hitherto published.] J. G. 

POLE, RICHARD DE IA (d. 1525), pre- 
tender to the crown, younger brother of 
Edmund Pole [q. v.] and of John Pole [q. v.], 
was fifth son of John, second duke of Suffolk 
[q. v.] Two other brothers, Humphrey and 


Edward, who were older than himself, took 
orders in the church, the latter becoming arch- 
deacon of Richmond. In 1501 Richard escaped 
abroad with his brother Edmund. French 
writers, who apparently have confounded hi 
with Perkin Warbeck, erroneously state th 
he entered the service of Charles VIII of 
France as early as 1492, the year in which 
Henry VII besieged Boulogne ; that Henry, 
on the conclusion of peace, demanded his sur- 
render ; and that, though this was refused, he 
was compelled to quit France (DIJCHESNE, 
Hist. d'Angleterre, p. 975, 2nd edit.) Others 
say, equally falsely, that King Charles gave 
him a pension of seven thousand ecus. In the 
parliament which met in January 1504 he was 
attainted, along with Edmund and another 
brother, William. He is called in the act 
'Richard Pole, late of Wingfieldinthe county 
of Suffolk, squire/ while his brother is desig- 
nated William Pole of Wingfield, knight 
(Rolls of Parl. vi. 545). 

In March 1504 he joined his brother Ed- 
mund at Aix-la-Chapelle, and was left there 
by Edmund as a hostage or security for the 
payment of Edmund's debts in the town. 
The latter's creditors, unable to obtain pay- 
ment, rendered Richard's life unbearable, and 
threatened to deliver him up to Henry VII. 
Richard, however, managed to attract the 
sympathy of the munificent Erard de la 
Marck, bishop of Liege, who contrived to get 
him out of his perilous situation, and he 
arrived somewhat later in the year at Buda 
in Hungary. Henry VII sent ambassadors 
to Ladislaus VI to demand his surrender, 
but that king not only refused to deliver 
him, but gave him a pension (Cal. Venetian , 
vol. i. No. 889, and Cal. Henry VIII, vol. ii. 
No. 1163 n; cf. ELLIS, Letters, 3rd ser. 
i. 141). 

In 1509 Richard, like his two brothers 
Edmund and William, who were then in the 
Tower, was excepted from the general par- 
don granted at the accession of Henry VIII, 
and in*1512, when England and France were 
at war, Louis XII recognised him as king of 
England, giving him a pension of six thousand 
crowns. Towards the close of that year he 
commanded a body of German landsimechts 
in the unsuccessful invasion of Navarre, 
during which his company sustained more 
severe losses than any other. In this cam- 
paign he and the Chevalier Bayard were 
warm friends, and suffered great privations 
together (' Chronique de Bayard,' p. 102, in 
BUCHOST). In the spring of 1513, when his 
brother Edmund was put to death in England, 
he assumed the title of Duke of Suffolk, and 
became an avowed claimant of the crown of 
England. Though his pretensions were not 




formidable, discharged soldiers of the garri- 
son of Tournay (then in English hands) 
threatened to join him (Gal. Henry VIII, 
vol. ii. Nos. 325-6). It was reported, too, 
in SDain that he had been given the command 
of a French fleet. Later in the year lie led a 
company of six thousand men against the 
English at the siege of Therouanne. In 1514 
Louis gave him twelve thousand landsknechts 
' to keep Normandy, and also to enter into 
England and to conquer the same' (HALL, 
Chronicle, p. 568, ed. Ellis). He conducted 
them to St. Malo in Brittany, to embark, it 
was supposed, for Scotland. Their behaviour 
in France had been so riotous that the people 
were glad to get rid of them. But peace was 
concluded with England before their depar- 
ture. Henry VIII had insisted on Richard's 
surrender. To that Louis would not consent, 
but he desired Richard to leave France, and 
gave him letters to the municipal authorities 
of Metz in Lorraine (an imperial city), re- 
questing them to give him a good reception. 
He entered Metz on 2 Sept. 1514, with a 
company of sixty horsemen and a guard of 
honour given him by the Duke of Lorraine. 
The town gave him a present of wine and 
oats for his horses, with a temporary safe- 
conduct renewable at convenience. 

When Louis XII died (1 Jan. 1515), 
Francis I continued Pole's allowance, and he 
remained for some years at Metz. English 
ambassadors organised conspiracies for his 
capture. In February 1516 an Englishman 
who had been arrested confessed that he 
had been sent by Henry VIII to kill him. 
During a visit to Francis I at Lyons in 
March he obtained, it would seem, a distinct 
promise from the French king to support 
his title to the crown of England at a con- 
venient opportunity (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, Nos. 1711, 1973, 2113). In 
the summer he paid a visit to Robert de la 
Marck at Florange. On Christmas day he 
again left Metz secretly, along with the Duke 
of Gueldres, who had come thither in disguise. 
Proceeding to Paris, he visited the French 
king by night. He returned to Metz on 
17 Feb. 1516-17. Spies employed by Eng- 
land tried hard to discover his plans. Be- 
tween June and August, accompanied by 
several young gentlemen of Metz, he paid 
visits to Milan and Venice. 

Early in 1518 there were rumours that 
Francis I was about to send him into Eng- 
land to dispute Henry's title to the throne. 
But between 8 May and 24 Oct. he spent 
most of his time in Lombardy. Although 
peace was made between England and France 
on 2 Oct., it was reported to Wolsey that 
Francis favoured ' White Rose,' as Pole was 

called, more than ever, and had augmented 
his stipend. 

Pole had hitherto resided in Metz in a fine 
pleasure-house named Passe Temps, which a 
chevalier named Claude Baudoiche had lent 
him. In February 1519 the owner desired 
to resume possession. Thereupon the chapter 
of Metz gave him for life a mansion called 
La Haulte-Pierre, near St. Simphorien, at 
a low rent on his undertaking to rebuild it. 
This he did in magnificent style. His tastes 
were luxurious, and he initiated horse-racing 
at Metz; but after losing money in the 
pastime he gave it up. 

After the death of the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, in January 1519, Francis I sent Pole 
to Prague to influence Louis, the young king 
of Bohemia, and his tutor Sigismund, king 
of Portugal, in favour of his candidature 
for the imperial crown (Colbert MS. 385 in 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris). In Septem- 
ber some disturbances caused by an intrigue 
which he had carried on with a citizen's 
wife led him to leave Metz f or Toul, whither 
his paramour escaped after him. There he 
remained during the next three years in the 
house of the cardinal of Lorraine. His com- 
pany of landsknechts was dismissed. 

In 1522, when England and France were 
again at war, Francis contemplated sending 
Pole to invade England. At the close of 
1522 he was in Paris with Francis, and fre- 
quently rode through the streets. The French 
king showed like courtesies to John Stewart, 
duke of Albany [q.v.], the regent of Scotland, 
who was arranging an attack on England from 
the north. In 1523 Pole and Albany went 
to Brittany to make preparations for a joint 
invasion of England. They left the French 
coast together, and Albany reached Scot- 
land at the end of September, when he an- 
nounced that he had parted at sea on Mon- 
day (21 Sept.) with his ( cousin, the Duke of 
Suffolk,' who was about to carry out an in- 
vasion of England. Nothing further is re - 
corded of Pole's movements, and the inva- 
sion did not take place. 

In the spring of 1524 he served in the 
campaign in Picardy, and writing to Louise 
of Savoy, the mother of Francis I, from the 
camp near Therouanne, he declared that all 
he had in the world was owing to her. On 
24 Feb. 152o he was killed, fighting by the 
French king's side, at the battle of Pavia. 
In a picture of the battle, preserved at the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, his lifeless 
body is represented in the thick of the com- 
bat with the inscription *Le Due deSusfoc dit 
Blance Rose.' When the news of his death 
reached Metz, the cathedral chapter ordered 
an anniversary celebration for his soul. 



[Hall's Chronicle ; Pugdale's Baronage ; Sand- 
ford's Genealogical History ; Napier's Swyn- 
combe and Ewelme ; Letters and Papers of 
Kichard III and Henry VII (Kolls Ser.) ; Ellis's 
Letters, 3rd ser. vol. i. ; Calendars, Venetian, 
vols. i. and ii., Henry VIII, vols. i-iv. ; Busch's 
England unter den Tudors, vol. i. ; Journal of 
Philippe de Vigneulles, in Bibliothek des lite- 
rarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, vol. xxiv. A 
pamphlet by F. des Kobert ( Un pensionnaire des 
Kois de France a Metz), published at Nancy in 
1878, is full of inaccuracies, but of some value in 
local matters.] J- & 

POLE, THOMAS (1753-1829), quaker 
and physician, born on 13 Oct. 1753 in Phila- 
delphia, was youngest son of John Pole 
(1705-1755), a native of Wiveliscombe, 
Somerset, who emigrated to New Jersey. 
His mother's maiden name was Rachel 
Smith of Burlington. Thomas was brought 
up as a member of the Society of Friends. 
In 1775 he visited his relatives in England, 
and, with the object of attending Friends' 
meetings, he travelled some 6,650 miles 
through England and Wales, chiefly on horse- 
back, during the next two or three years. In 
1777 he studied medicine with Dr. Joseph 
Rickman at Maidenhead, thence passed to 
Reading, for the same purpose, and in 1780 
removed to Falmouth, on becoming assistant 
to Dr. J. Fox. He settled in London in 1781, 
was admitted a member of the College of 
Surgeons there, and received the degree of 
M.D. from St. Andrews University in 1801. 
In 1789 he was made a member of the 
American Philosophical Society, of which 
Benjamin Franklin was then president. His 
practice was mainly confined to obstetrics 
and to the diseases of women and children. 
He lectured on midwifery, and, being a skilful 
draughtsman, recorded instructive cases in 
sketches, which were engraved. 

In 1790 he published his valuable 'Ana- 
tomical Instructor' (1790), an illustration of 
the modern and most approved methods of 
preparing and preserving the different parts 
of the human body for purposes of study, 
with copperplates drawn by himself. A new 
edition appeared in 1813. Pole removed to 
Bristol in 1802, and soon acquired an exten- 
sive practice. There he continued his medical 
lectures, among his pupils being James Cowles 
Prichard [q. v.], and he also lectured on 
chemistry and other sciences. 

Pole throughout his life devoted much of 
his time to ministerial work in the Society of 
Friends, and took part in many philanthropic 
schemes. He helped William Smith in 1812 
to establish the first adult schools for poor 
persons of neglected education in England, 
and wrote in their support in 1813. In 1814 

he issued an account of their origin and 
progress, for which James Montgomery wrote 
a poem. Bernard Barton, the quaker poet, 
bore testimony in 1826 to Pole's wide sym- 
pathies and tolerant views. Despite the 
strictness then prevalent in the Society of 
Friends, a love of art remained with him to 
the last, and found expression in many water- 
colour drawings of landscape and architec- 
ture, in monotints and silhouettes. He died 
at Bristol on 28 Sept. 1829. In 1784 he had 
married Elizabeth Barrett of Cheltenham ; 
four children survived him. 

Besides the works noticed, Pole published 
'Anatomical Description of a Double Uterus 
and Vagina,' 4to, London, 1792. 

[Pole's manuscript journals, diaries, and corre- 
spondence; private information.] E. T. W. 

English WILLIAM ATTE POOL (d. 1366), baron 
of the exchequer and merchant, was second 
son of Sir William de la Pole, a merchant of 
Ravenser Odd (Ravensrode) and Hull, who 
is described as a knight in 1296 and died 
about 1329, having made his will in Decem- 
ber 1328. The father married Elena, daughter 
of John Rotenheryng, ' merchant of Hull,' 
by whom he had three sons, Richard, William, 
and John. 

The eldest brother, SIR RICHARD DE LA 
POLE (d. 1345), was, in 1319, attorney for the 
king's butler at Hull ( Close Rolls, Edward II, 
p. 67), and a mainpernor for certain mer- 
chants of Liibeck (ib. pp. 170, 180). He was 
collector of the customs at Hull in 1320 
(PALQRAVE, Parl Writs, iv. 1305), and was 
M.P. for that town in the parliaments of 
May 1322 and September 1327 (Return of 
Members of Parliament, pp. 66, 79). Through 
the influence of Roger Mortimer he became 
the king's chief butler in 1327, and, in con- 
junction with his brother William, obtained 
the office of gauger of wines throughout the 
realm for life on 22 May 1329, and a similar 
grant of the customs of Hull on 9 May 1330 
(Patent Rolls, Edward III, 1327-30, pp, 
391, 518, 1330-4, pp. 29-41). The two 
brothers are frequently mentioned as ad- 
vancing money for the king. After the fall 
of Mortimer they lost the post of gauger of 
wines, but Sir Richard continued to be chief 
butler until 1338 (ib. pp. 70, 434, 511). lie 
was a guardian of the peace for Derbyshire, 
and served on a commission of oyer and 
terminer in Leicestershire in 1332 (ib. pp. 
304, 391). About 1333 he seems to have 
moved to London, and in his will and else- 
where is styled a citizen of London. He 
was knighted in 1340, and, dying on 1 Aug. 
1345 at his manor of Milton, Northampton- 




shire, was buried in the Trinity Chapel at 
Hull. His will is printed in * Testamenta 
Eboracensia,' i. 7-9. By his wife Joan he 
had two sons, William and John, and three 
daughters: Joan, wife of Ralph Basset of 
Weldon, Northamptonshire ; Elizabeth, a 
nun ; and Margaret. His son William (1316- 
1366), who is carefully to be distinguished 
from his uncle, married Margaret, daughter 
of Edmund Peverel, and held property at 
Brington and Ashby, Northamptonshire. He 
died on 26 June 1366, leaving a son John, 
who married Joan, daughter of John, lord 
Cobham ; by her he was father of Joan, 
baroness Cobham and wife of Sir John Old- 
castle [q. v.] (NAPIEK, Hist. Notices of 
Swyncombe and Ewelme, pp. 262-70). The 
arms of this branch of the family were 
azure, two bars wavy, or. 

Sir William de la Pole, the baron of the 
exchequer, first learnt the business of a 
merchant at Ravenser Odd, but afterwards 
moved to Hull, and is mentioned as a mer- 
chant of that town in 1319 and 1322 (Cal. 

He was associated with his elder brother as 
gauger of wines in 1327, and in supplying 
money for the royal service. During the 
regency of Mortimer and Isabella they ad- 
vanced large sums to the government : 
4,000/. on 12 July 1327 for the abortive 
Scots campaign, and 2,OOOJ. six weeks later 
as wages for the Netherland mercenaries, 
who had landed to effect Edward II's depo- 
sition. As repayment they received the 
issues of customs in London and other prin- 
cipal ports. They also received a grant of 
-the manor of Miton in Holderness for their 
good services in 1330, and on 2 Aug. were 
appointed joint wardens of Hull. On the fall 
of Mortimer their position was endangered, 
and they lost the office of gangers of wine. 
But they kept aloof from politics, and their 
wealth insured their pardon. On .15 July 
1331 William de la Pole, then described as 
the king's yeoman and butler, was granted 
repayment for his advances to Queen Phi- 
lippa out of the customs of Hull (Cal. 
Patent Rolls, Edward III, p. 107). In 1332 
he entertained the king at Hull, and ob- 
tained from Edward the title of mayor for 
the chief magistrate of the town, being him- 
self the first to fill the office, which he re- 
tained for four years till 1335. Pole repre- 
sented Hull in the parliaments of March 
1332, September 1334, May and September 
1336, and February 1338 (Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament). During 1333 and the 
two following years he was employed on 
various negotiations with Flanders, with 
which, as a wool merchant, he had commer- 


cial relations (Fcedera, ii. 862, 872, 875, 907- 
908 ; Cal Patent Rolls, Edward III, 1330-4, 
p. 479). 

On 29 Sept. 1335 he was appointed custos 
of the tables of exchange, established to 
prevent the export of gold and silver, and 
receiver of the old and new customs of Hull 
and Boston. In consideration of the latter 
appointment he undertook to pay the ex- 
penses of the royal household at IQl. a day 
(Abbrev. Rot. Orig. ii. 97, 100 ; Faedera, ii. 
922). In 1337 he was charged to build a 
galley for the king at Hull, and on 1 Sept. 
of this year was associated with Reginald 
de Conduit in purchasing wool to be sent 
abroad for the king (ib. ii. 958, 988). On 
14 Nov. 1338 Edward gave him an acknow- 
ledgment for 11,000/. advanced, and for 
7,500/. for which he had become bound ; and 
this same year, in consideration of other 
moneys advanced by Pole, granted him va- 
rious manors in Nottinghamshire and York- 
shire, including the lordship of Holderness,^ 
together with the rank of knight-banneret, 
the reversion of one thousand marks in rent 
in France when the king recovered his rights 
there, and the houses in Lombard Street, 
London, which had belonged to the ' Societas 
Bardorum ' (ib. ii. 1065 ; Abbrev. Rot. Oriy. ii. 
123, 128, 142 ; Chron. de Melsa, iii. 48). 

The ' Chronicle of Meaux ' also states that 
Pole's appointment as baron of the exche- 
quer was in reward for the same services. 
The date of his appointment as second baron 
was 26 Sept. 1339, and as one of the judges 
he was present in the parliaments of October 
1339 and April 1340 (Rolls of Parliament, 
ii. 103, 1126). He was a commissioner of 
array for Yorkshire in 1339. During this and 
the following year he was much employed 
by the king in commercial and financial 
business. In 1339 he was a hostage for the 
payment of the king's expenses at Antwerp 
(KNIGHTON, col. 2573). In 1340 he under- 
took to obtain wool for the king's aid, and 
to advance three thousand marks (Rolls of 
Parliament, ii. 110 a, 1186, 1216; Fccdera, 
ii. 1072, 1085). But his conduct of affairs 
did not satisfy the king, and when Edward 
returned in haste to London on 30 Nov. 1340, 
William de la Pole, his brother Richard, 
and Sir John de Pulteney [q. v.] were among 
the merchants who were arrested (MuEi- 
MTJTH, p. 117). Pole's lands were taken into- 
the king's hands and he was for a short 
time imprisoned at Devizes Castle (AuNGiER, 
French Chron. of London, pp. 84-5, Caniden 
Soc. ; Chron. de Melsa, iii. 48). The par- 
ticular charge against Pole arose out of his 
commission with Reginald de Conduit three 
years before; but though judgment was 




given against them in the exchequer, the 
whole process was annulled in the parlia- 
ment of July 1344 (Rolls of Parliament, 
ii. 154 #). Sir William de la Pole survived 
to enjoy the king's favour for more than 
twenty years, but he does not again appear 
in a prominent position. About 1350 he 

-founded a hospital at the Maison Dieu, out- 
side Hull, which he had at first intended to 
be a cell of Meaux, but afterwards converted 
to a college for six priests. In the last year 
of his life he obtained license to change it 
to a house for nuns of the order of St. Clare, 
and eventually, in 1376, his son Michael 

-established it as a Carthusian priory ( Chron. 
de Melsa, i. 170 ; DUGDALE, Monasticon An- 
glicanum, vi. 19-22). Pole died at Hull on 
21 April or 22 June 1366, and was buried, 
like his brother, in the Trinity Chapel (cf. 
NAPIEE, Swyncombe, &c., p. 284). His will is 

-printed in ' Testamenta Eboracensia/ i. 76-7. 
He married Katherine, daughter of Sir 
Walter de Norwich [q. v.], who survived 
him, and, dying in 1381, was buried at the 
Charterhouse, Hull ; her will is printed in 
' Testamenta Eboracensia/ i. 119. Pole had 
four sons : Michael, earl of Suffolk [q. v.] ; 
Walter and Thomas (d. 1361), both of whom 
were knights; and Edmund (1337-1417), 
who was captain of Calais in 1387, when he 
refused admission to his brother Michael lest 
he should be found false to his trust. The 
Edmund who fought at Agincourt was pro- 
bably his grandson (WALSINGHAM, Hist. 
Angl. ii. 169 ; NICOLAS, Agincourt, pp. 128, 
354 ; Archaologia, iii. 18). Pole had also two 
daughters : Blanche, who married Richard, 
first lord le Scrope of Bolton [q. v.] ; and 
Margaret, married Robert Neville of Hornby, 
Lancashire. Sir William de la Pole's arms 
were azure, a fess between three leopards' 
faces or. The < Chronicle of Meaux ' (iii. 48) 
describes him as ' second to no merchant of 
England.' He is memorable in English com- 
mercial history as the first merchant who 
became the founder of a great noble house. 
His own and his wife's effigies, from the 
tomb in the Trinity Chapel, Hull, are en- 
graved in Gough's ' Sepulchral Monuments,' 
i. 122. 

[Information supplied by Professor T. F. 
Tout; Chronicon de Melsa, i. 170, iii. 17, 48 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Rymer's Foedera, Record ed. ; Rolls 
of Parliament; Calendars of Close Rolls, Ed- 
ward II, and Patent Rolls, Edward III ; Testa- 
menta Eboracensia (Surtees Soc.) ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, ii. 182; Frost's Hist, of Hull, pp 31 
85; Tickell's Hist, of Hull, p. 21; Poulson's 
-Holderness, i. 56, 63, 64 ; Foss's Judges of 
England, iii. 478-81 ; Napier's Hist. Notices of 
Swyncombe and Ewelme, passim.] C. L. K. 

and first DUKE OF SUFFOLK (1396-1450), 
second son of Michael de la Pole, second 
earl [q. v.], was born on 16 Oct. 1396 at 
Cotton in Suffolk (NAPIEE, pp. 47, 64-5). 
He served in the French campaign of 1415, 
but was invalided home after the siege of 
Harfleur (ib. p. 48). His father died before 
Harfleur, and his elder brother, the third 
earl, was slain at Agincourt on 25 Oct., and 
thus William de la Pole became Earl of 
Suffolk when only nineteen. Suffolk served 
in the expedition of 1417 with thirty men-at- 
arms and ninety archers ( Gesta, App. p. 267). 
and in the early part of 1418 was employed in 
the reduction of the Cotentin. On 12 March 

1418 he was granted the lordships of Hambye 
andBriquebec (HAEDY, Rot. Norm. p. 318). 
During the summer he served under Hum- 
phrey of Gloucester at the siege of Cherbourg, 
and, when that town fell in October, went 
to join the king before Rouen (Chronique de 
Normandie,^. 183, 191, ap. Gesta Henrici] 
PAGE. Siege of Rouen, p. 11). On 19 May 

1419 he was appointed admiral of Normandy, 
in June captain of Pontorson, and in August 
captain of Mantes and Avranches (Fcedera, 
ix. 753, 772 ; Chron. A, de Richemont, p. 22 ; 
DOYLE). He was a conservator of the truce 
with France on 27 June 1420 (Foedera, ix. 
856), and during the autumn served at the 
siege of Melun ( Gesta, p. 144). When Henry V 
took Catherine to England in February 1421, 
Suffolk was one of the commanders left in 
charge of Normandy, and on 10 Feb. was 
named one of the conservators of the truce 
with Brittany (Fcedera^ x. 61, 91, 152). 
Suffolk was made a knight of the Garter 
on 3 May 1421, in succession to Thomas, 
duke of Clarence (BELTZ, Memorials of the 
Garter, p. clviii). When Henry came back 
to France, Suffolk joined the royal army 
(ELMHAM, Vita Henrici Quinti, p. 312) ; 
on 28 Sept. he was appointed warden of 
the lower marches of Normandy (cf. HALL, 
pp. 108-9). 

After the death of Henry V, John of Bed- 
ford, on 10 Oct. 1422, appointed Suffolk 
guardian of the Cotentin, the castle of St. 
Lo, and town of Coutances (Chron. Mont 
St. Michel, i. 117). After many small en- 
gagements, he laid siege to Ivry-la-Chaussee 
on 15 June 1424, and, on concluding a treaty 
for its surrender if not relieved, joined Bed- 
ford in Normandy. Under Bedford he was 
present at the surrender of Ivry on 15 Aug., 
and, when Bedford fell back on Evreux, was 
despatched with Salisbury to watch the 
French at Breteuil. Next day Suffolk sent 
news that the French were holding their 
ground. Bedford at once advanced, and on 



the 17th won his victory at Verneuil. On 
26 Sept. Suffolk was made governor of the 
district round Chartres, and during October 
captured Senonches, Nogent-le-Rotrou, and 
Rochefort (BEAUCOUET, ii, 20 n. 4). In No- 
vember he was at Paris for the festivities 
held by Philip of Burgundy (FENIN, p. 225). 
From Paris he was sent by Bedford to en- 
deavour to arrange the quarrel between Hum- 
phrey of Gloucester and the Duke of Bra- 
bant. On his way he was nearly killed by 
an accident near Amiens (STEVENSON, ii. 400 ; 
as to his alleged complicity in a plot of 
Gloucester against Burgundy see BEATJ- 
COTJET, ii. 658-60). In 1425 Suffolk was 
employed as lieutenant-general of Caen, the 
Cotentin, and Lower Normandy, and as con- 
stable of the army of the Earl of Salisbury. 
In May he was detached to direct the siege 
of Mont St. Michel by land and sea (Chron. 
Mont St. Michel, \. 201, 213, 244 ; DUPONT, 
Histoire du Cotentin et ses lies, ii. 551-3). 
In the early part of 1426 Suffolk, who was 
about this time created Earl of Dreux, made 
a raid into Brittany as far as Rennes. Shortly 
afterwards his lieutenant, Sir Thomas Remp- 
ston [q. v.J, defeated Arthur de Richemont 
at St. James de Beuvron on 6 March. Suf- 
folk came up a few days later, and, after some 
negotiations, concluded a truce with Brittany 
to last till the end of June. Almost imme- 
diately afterwards he resigned his command 
in Normandy to the Earl of Warwick (MoN- 
STEELET, iv. 284-6). Suffolk took an active 
part in the warfare of the following year. 
On 26 May he laid siege to Vendome, and 
on 1 July joined Warwick before Montargis, 
the siege of which place was raised by 
the French after it had lasted two months. 
In the summer of 1428 Suffolk served under 
Salisbury in the campaign which led up to 
the siege of Orleans. 

After Salisbury's death he was appointed 
to the chief command on 13 Nov. (ib. iv. 360 ; 
RAMSAY, ,i. 384). Under his direction the 
siege prospered so well that in February 1429 
Orleans and the French cause seemed doomed. 
The appearance of Jeanne d'Arc changed the 
aspect of affairs. In May the siege was raised, 
and Suffolk fell back to Jargeau. In that 
town he was besieged by Jeanne and the Duke 
of Alen^on, and was forced to surrender on 
12 June. One story represents Suffolk as 
refusing to yield himself prisoner till he had 
dubbed his would-be captor knight. Ac- 
cording to another, he would yield only to 
Jeanne as the bravest woman on earth 
(Proces de Jeanne d'Arc, vol. iv. ; BEATT- 
COTJET, ii. 220, iv. 148; VALLET DE VIEI- 
VILLE, ii. 83). Suffolk's brother, Sir John 
de la Pole, was taken prisoner with him; 

a third brother, Alexander, was slain. Suf- 
folk was the prisoner of the Comte de Dunois ; 
he obtained his freedom after a short time, 
though he had to sell his lordship of Brique- 
bec to raise the money for his ransom, amount- 
ing to 20,000/., and give his brother Thomas 
as a hostage (Chron. Mont St. Michel, i. 
156 n.; Rolls of Parliament, v. 176: NAEIEE, 
p. 317). On 15 March 1430 Suffolk was re- 
appointed to the command at Caen and in 
the Cotentin (Chron. Mont St. Michel, i. 292). 
In July he besieged and captured the castle 
of Aumale (MONSTEELET, iv. 370) ; and after- 
wards took part in the siege of Compiegne 
(Proces de Jeanne d'Arc, v. 73). With this 
Suffolk's active participation in the war pro- 
bably came to an end ; for, though he re- 
mained captain of Avranches and was cap- 
tain of the islet of Tombelaine from 1432 
to 1437 and of Regneville in 1438, he exer- 
cised his authority by means of lieutenants 
(Chron. Mont St. Michel, i. 307, ii. 28, 44, 
111 ; STEVENSON, ii. 291, 293). It is, how- 
ever, commonly stated that Suffolk took part 
in the war in 1431, and attended Henry's 
coronation at Paris on 17 Dec. But he was 
certainly in England in November of that 
year, and probably some months earlier 
(NAPIEE, p. 51 ; ANSTIS, Register of the Gar- 
ter, i. 108, where it is said that Suffolk could 
not attend on 22 April 1431 through illness). 
Suffolk himself said that he t continually 
abode in the war seventeen year without 
coming home or seeing of this land ' (Rolls 
of Parliament, v. 176). But in this state- 
ment, if correctly reported, he was clearly in 

The remaining years of Suffolk's life were 
occupied with political affairs at home. He 
was present in the royal council on 10 
and on 28 Nov. 1431, and on 30 Nov. was 
formally admitted a member of the council 
and took the oath (NICOLAS, Proc. and Or- 
dinances, iv. 101, 104, 108). His marriage 
about this time to the widowed Countess of 
Salisbury inclined him to connection with 
the Beauforts. His long experience of the 
war in France had possibly convinced him 
of the wisdom of peace. If he had formed 
such a conviction, it was no doubt strength- 
ened by his association with the captive 
Duke of Orleans, who was assigned to his 
custody on 21 July 1432 (ib. iv. 124). Next 
year Suffolk was made steward of the royal 
household, and was working actively for 
peace when Hue de Lannoy came to Eng- 
land as ambassador from Philip of Burgundy. 
Lannoy and his colleagues met Orleans at 
Suffolk's house in London (STEVENSON, ii. 
218-40), and it is clear that Suffolk made 
use of Orleans in forwarding the negotia- 



tions. In 1435 the peace negotiations had 
so far progressed that a general congress was 
arranged for, and Suffolk was appointed one 
of the chief English representatives after 
Cardinal Beaufort (Fcedera, x. 611). Suffolk 
and most of his colleagues came to Arras for 
the congress on 25 July. Beaufort joined 
them a little later. The English were not 
prepared to yield to the French demands, 
and withdrew from the congress on 6 Sept. 
Their withdrawal was almost immediately 
followed by the reconciliation of Burgundy 
to the French king, and by the death of John 
of Bedford. 

The double event changed the whole aspect 
of English politics. For the time it threw 
increased authority into the hands of Hum- 
phrey of Gloucester and the warlike party. 
Thereupon Suffolk came forward as the chief 
opponent of Gloucester, and the remainder 
of Suffolk's life is centred in his rivalry with 
the king's uncle. For the time the war feeling 
was too strong to be resisted, and Suffolk was 
one of the commanders appointed to go over 
to France in December 1435. Richard, duke 
of York, was to have the chief command, but 
it was not until May 1436 that he and Suf- 
folk crossed over to France. With Richard 
Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. v.], they were 
commissioned to treat for peace (Fcedera, x. 
C42). No practical result came from the 
negotiations, and Suffolk served during June 
and July at the defence of Calais. In April 
1437 there was some talk of sending him 
on a fresh embassy to France ( NICOLAS, 
Proc. Privy Council, v. 7, 8). Meanwhile 
he was nominated to many posts of respon- 
sibility at home. On 23 April 1437 he was ap- 
pointed steward of the Duchy of Lancaster 
north of the Trent. On 19 Feb. 1440 he was 
chief justice of North Wales and Chester, 
and of South Wales. On 17 Feb. 1441 he 
was directed to make inquiry into the royal 
lordships in the county of Monmouth, and on 
23 July as to the government of Norwich 
(DOYLE). In this same year also he was one 
of the commissioners to inquire into the 
charges of sorcery against Eleanor Cobham, 
wife of Humphrey of Gloucester (DAVIES, 
English Chronicle, p. 58). In 1442 a marriage 
was projected for the young king with a 
daughter of the Count of Armagnac; but 
Suffolk helped to defeat the project, which 
was favoured by Gloucester. He resolved 
that the king should marry Margaret of 

The match with Margaret was suggested 
by the Duke of Orleans, who had been re- 
leased in 1440. From the same quarter, it 
would seem, came the suggestion that Suf- 
folk should be the chief ambassador in nego- 

2 Pole 

tiating it. But Suffolk, who was evidently 
regarded by the people as the most responsible 
of Henry's advisers after Cardinal Beaufort, 
perceived that his acceptance of the mission 
might be dangerous both to himself and to 
the policy which he had at heart. At a later 
time he was charged with having had a cor- 
rupt interest in the release of Orleans (cf.,. 
however, BEATJCOUET, iv. 100 n.), and it is 
clear that he had already incurred some un- 
popularity. In a council held on 1 Feb. 
1444 (NICOLAS, Proc. Privy Council, vi. 32- 
35, where the date is wrongly given) Suffolk 
himself urged the objections to his appoint- 
ment. These were finally overruled, but 
at his own request a formal indemnity was 
granted on 20 Feb. exonerating him from 
all blame for what he might do in the matter 
of the peace or marriage (Fcedera, xi. 53). 
Suffolk's embassy landed at Harfleur on 
13 March. On 8 April conferences were 
opened at Vendome, and a week later Suffolk 
and his colleagues joined Orleans at Blois. 
Thence they sailed down the Loire to Tours, 
and on 17 April were presented to Charles VII 
at his castle of Montils-les-Tours. It soon 
became clear that terms for a permanent peace 
could not be agreed upon, but a truce was- 
nevertheless arranged to last till 1 April 1446. 
On 24 May Margaret was formally betrothed 
to Suffolk as Henry's proxy, the truce was. 
signed on the 28th, and on the next day Suf- 
folk started home. His progress was one 
continued triumphant procession, and when 
he entered Rouen on 8 June he was hailed 
with rapturous shouts of ' Noel ! Noel ! r 
Suffolk reached London on 27 June, and 
on the same day the truce was ratified 
(STEVENSON, i. 67-79, vol. ii. pt. i. preface- 
pp. xxxvi -xxxviii ; Fcedera, xi. 59-67 ; 
RAMSAY, ii. 58-60). His success was for 
the time complete, and was marked by his 
promotion to a marquisate on 14 Sept. 
(This is the date of his patent, but he is so- 
styled in the Issue Roll on 17 Aug.) On 
28 Oct. he was instructed to bring home the- 
king's bride. His wife went with him as the 
principal lady of Margaret's escort ; and his. 
chief colleague in this, as in his former mission, 
was Adam de Molyneux or Moleyns [q. v.] 
Suffolk and his retinue left London on 5 Nov., 
crossed the Channel on 13 Nov., and joined 
the French court at Nancy. Whether from 
accident or, as some accounts suggest,, 
through design, Margaret was not present. 
The French took advantage to extort further 
concessions, and before he could obtain his ob- 
ject Suffolk had to promise the surrender of 
all that the English held or claimed in Maine- 
and Anjou (GASCOIGNE, Loci e Libro Verita- 
tum, pp. 190, 204-5 ; RAMSAY, ii. 62). This. 




fatal concession, wrung from an unwary 
diplomatist in a moment of weakness, be- 
came at once the turning-point of English 
polities' (ib.) At a later time, Suffolk 
laid the responsibility for the transaction on 
Molyneux (Rot. Parl. v. 182). For the 
moment, however, all went fairly. Under 
Suffolk's escort, Margaret entered Rouen in 
triumph on 22 March 1445, and on 9 April 
landed at Portsmouth (EscouciiY, i. 87-9). 
In the parliament which met in June 
Suffolk made a declaration in defence of his 
conduct. William Burley, the speaker, on 
behalf of the commons, recommended the 
marquis to the king for the ' ryght grete 
and notable werkys whiche he hathe don to 
the pleasir of God' (Rot. Parl. v. 73-4). 
Even Gloucester, who had in the previous 
year endeavoured to thwart Suffolk, found 
it expedient to express his approval. On 
14 July a French embassy reached London. 
The only practical result was a prolonga- 
tion of the truce till 1 Nov. 1446. But the 
record of the transactions shows the thorough- 
ness of Suffolk's political triumph. The French 
ambassadors plainly accepted him as the most 
important person in the state, and Suffolk on 
his part did not hesitate to speak openly of 
his wish for peace, and of his disbelief in 
Gloucester's power to thwart him (STEVEN- 
SON, i. 96-131, esp. p. 123). 

Under Suffolk's influence negotiations for 
peace were continued throughout 1446, with 
no very definite result. The government, 
however, passed entirely into Suffolk's hands. 
The king was altogether alienated from his 
uncle, who made Suffolk the object of open 
and repeated attack (BASIN, i. 187, 190 ; Es- 
COUCHY, i. 115; Croyland Chron. p. 521). To 
Suffolk and the queen, the complete overthrow 
of Humphrey's power appeared a paramount 
necessity. On 14 Dec. a parliament was 
-summoned to meet at Bury St. Edmunds, ' a 
place where Suffolk was strong, and where 
Gloucester would be far a way from his friends, 
the Londoners ' (STUBBS). The parliament 
met on 10 Feb. 1447. Some formal action 
against Gloucester was no doubt intended, 
and one authority says that Suffolk had all 
the roads watched with armed men (DAVIES, 
English Chron. p. 62). Gloucester himself 
reached Bury on 18 Feb., and was at once 
arrested. Five days later he died, no doubt 
from natural causes accelerated by the shock 
of his imprisonment. Popular belief, how- 
ever, laid his death at Suffolk's door, though 
no definite charge was ever formulated (the 
nearest approach is in the petition of the 
commons for Suffolk's attainder in Novem- 
ber 1451, Rolls of Parliament, v. 226). The 
death of Cardinal Beaufort, which took place 

six weeks after that of Gloucester, left Suf- 
folk without a rival. 

But Suffolk's tenure of power was from 
the first troubled. The charges against him 
in reference to Maine and Anjou at once 
took shape. On 25 May he had formally 
to defend his action in the council, and on 
18 June a royal proclamation was issued, 
declaring the king's satisfaction with what 
he had done (Fcedera, xi. 173). Gloucester's 
death had brought Richard of York a step 
nearer the throne, and made him the leader 
of the party opposed to the court. The com- 
mand in France was now taken away from 
Richard, who was sent into practical banish- 
ment as lieutenant of Ireland, and given to 
the incapable Edward Beaufort, duke of 
Somerset. Both appointments were ascribed 
to Suffolk's influence (WATTKIN, i. 300). 
They certainly contributed to diminish his 
popularity, and made Richard his mortal 
enemy (WHETHAMSTEDE, Reg. i.160; GILES, 
Chron. p. 35). Suffolk, however, was so 
strong in the king's favour that he cared 
little for the displeasure of others (ib.} At 
Gloucester's death he had obtained the earl- 
dom of Pembroke, the reversion to which 
had been granted to him four years previously. 
On 24 Feb. 1447 he was made chamberlain, 
constable of Dover, and lord warden of the 
Cinque ports. On 9 Aug. 1447 he was made 
admiral of England, and on 9 March 1448 
governor of Calais. With his promotion to 
a dukedom on 2 July of this year, he reached 
the summit of his power. Maine had been 
formally surrendered in February 1448, and 
a truce concluded for two years. The fact 
of the surrender increased Suffolk's unpopu- 
larity. The truce was ill observed, and 
Suffolk found it impossible to carry out his 
policy of peace in full. On 24 March 1449 
Fougeres in Brittany was treacherously cap- 
tured for the English by Franfois 1'Arra- 
gonais or de Surienne. In this impolitic and 
unjustifiable act Suffolk was probably impli- 
cated. Francois, who had been connected 
with Suffolk as early as 1437 (NICHOLS, Proc. 
Privy Council, v. 29), expressly declared that 
he had acted with the duke's cognisance and 
approval (Pieces, &c., ap. BASIN, iv. 294- 
300, 337; STEVENSON, i. 278-98). The attack 
on Fougeres was followed by open war ; 
one after another the English strongholds 
in Normandy were lost, and Rouen itself 
was taken on 29 Oct. This succession of 
disasters stirred a warlike feeling in Eng- 
land, and finally discredited Suffolk and his 

If the cession of Maine and Anjou had 
been due to Suffolk's policy, the loss of Nor- 
mandy was due to the incapacity of Somer- 




set. But Suffolk, who had long been allied to 
the Beauforts, in politics and by marriage, 
was in the popular estimation, at all events, 
responsible for Somerset's appointment. It 
was upon him that the storm broke. As 
a minister he had been careless about the 
enmities that he excited. He was charged 
with pride and avarice, and with having dis- 
posed of bishoprics and other preferment 
from corrupt motives (Croyland Chron. pp. 
521, 525 ; the charge was perhaps a specious 
one, cf. BECKINGTO^, i. 158, and Political 
Songs, ii. 232-4, though many vacant sees 
had been filled by his supporters). 

The parliament of 1449 met on 6 Nov. 
Molyneux had to resign the privy seal on 
9 Dec. Marmaduke Lumley [q. v.] had re- 
signed the treasurership in the previous 
October. These two had been Suffolk's prin- 
cipal supporters and colleagues. Their re- 
moval marked the decline of his influence. 
In the first weeks of the parliament no pub- 
lic action was taken against Suffolk. But on 
28 Nov., as Ralph, lord Cromwell, who ap- 
pears to have been the duke's chief adversary 
in the council, was entering the Star-cham- 
ber, he was hustled in Westminster Hall 
by William Tailboys, a Lincolnshire squire 
and supporter of Suffolk. Cromwell accused 
Tailboys and Suffolk of intending his death. 
Tailboys, supported by Suffolk, denied the 
charge, but was committed to the Tower. 
There were other charges of violence against 
Tailboys, and in these also it was alleged 
that he had profited by Suffolk's patronage. 
Afterwards Suffolk's connection with Tail- 
boys formed part of the charges brought 
against him (WiLL. WOEC. [766] ; Rolls of 
Parliament, v. 181, 200; Paston Letters, i. 
96, 97, and Introduction, pp. xliii-xliv). At 
Christmas the parliament was prorogued till 
22 Jan. 1450. On 9 Jan. Molyneux was mur- 
dered at Portsmouth. Before his death he 
made some confession injurious to Suffolk. 
When parliament reassembled, the duke, in 
anticipation of attack, at once made an elo- 
quent and impressive speech in his own de- 
fence. Odious and horrible language was 
running through the land to his 'highest 
charge and moost hevyest dtsclaundre.' He 
appealed to his long and faithful service, and 
begged that any accusations against him 
might be preferred openly {Rolls of Parlia- 
ment, v. 176). The commons, inspired by 
Cromwell, at once took up the challenge 
( WILL.WORC. [766]). On 26 Jan. they begged 
that Suffolk might be ' committed to ward.' 
The council refused, in absence of any definite 
charge. On 28 Jan. the commons accused 
Suffolk of having sold the realm to the 
French and treasonably fortified Walling- 

ford Castle. On this Suffolk was committed 
to the Tower {Rolls of Parliament, v. 176- 
177). On 7 Feb. a formal and lengthy in- 
dictment was presented by the commons. 
The chief charges were that Suffolk had 
conspired to secure the throne for his son, 
John de la Pole, afterwards second Duke of 
Suffolk [q. v.] ; that he had advised the re- 
lease of Orleans, promised to surrender Anjou 
and Maine, betrayed the king's counsel to 
the French, failed to reinforce the English 
armies, and estranged Brittany and Aragon 
(ib. v. 177-9). On 12 Feb. the articles were 
brought before the council, and Henry or- 
dered the matter to be respited (ib. v. 179). 
It was reported that the duke was ' in the 
kyng's gode grase' (Paston Letters, i. 115), 
and his pardon was no doubt intended. 
However, on 9 March the commons pre- 
sented eighteen additional articles, charging 
Suffolk with maladministration and malver- 
sation, with the promotion of unworthy per- 
sons, and with the protection of William 
Tailboys (Rolls of Parliament, v. 179-82). 
On the same day Suffolk was brought before 
the king, and received copies of the accusation . 
On 13 March he again appeared before the 
parliament. He denied the charges utterly,, 
and said : < Savyng the kynges high presence, 
they were fals and untrue' (ib. v. 182). 
Four days later he once more appeared and 
repeated his denial. At length on the first 
bill the king held Suffolk ' neither declared 
nor charged ; ' on the second bill ' not by way 
of judgment,' but by force of his submission, 
the king ordered his banishment for five years 
from the first of May (ib. v. 183). The deci- 
sion was a sort of compromise intended to 
save the duke and satisfy the commons. 

On 19 March Suffolk was set free, and at 
once left the capital. The Londoners sought 
to intercept him, and severely handled some 
of his servants (WiLL. WoKC. [767]). The 
remaining six weeks were spent by Suffolk 
on his estate. On 30 April he came to Ips- 
wich, and in the presence of the chief men 
of the county took an oath on the sacrament 
that he was innocent of the charges brought 
against him (ib.) That same evening he 
addressed a touching letter of farewell to his- 
little son (Paston Letters, i. 121-2), and the 
next morning set sail with two ships and a 
pinnace. When off Dover he sent the pin- 
nace towards Calais to learn how he would 
be received. The pinnace was intercepted by 
a ship called Nicholas of the Tower, which 
was lying in wait. The master of the Ni- 
cholas bore down on Suffolk's ships, and bade 
the duke come on board. On his arrival lie 
was greeted with a shout of ' Welcome, 
traitor.' His captors granted him a day and 




a night to shrive him. Then, on 2 May, he 
was drawn out into a little boat, and a knave 
of Ireland, ' one of the lewdest men on board,' 
took a rusty sword and smote off his head 
with half a dozen strokes. Some accounts 
alleged that Suffolk was given a sort of mock 
trial, and it was also stated that he spent his 
last hours in writing to the king (ib. i. 124- 
127; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles,^. 
66; DAVTES, English Chronicle, pp. 68-9). 
His body was taken to land, and thrown 
upon the beach near Dover, whence, by 
Henry's orders, it was removed for burial at 
"Wingfield (GILES, Chron. p. 38). The cir- 
cumstances of Suffolk's murder must re- 
main somewhat of a mystery. But the Ni- 
cholas was a royal ship, and probably the 
crime was instigated by persons of influence, 
possibly by Richard of York, or some of his 
supporters (cf. RAMSAY, ii. 121 ; cf. Paston 
Letters, i. 125 ; GASCOIGNE, p. 7). It is some- 
times said that Suffolk was attainted after 
his death. But the petition of the commons 
to this effect in November 1451 was refused 
by the king (Rolls of Parliament, v. 226). 

The general opinion of the time regarded 
Suffolk's murder as the worthy end of a 
traitor (Croyland Chron. p. 525). Public 
indignation expressed itself in a host of 
satirical verses (Political Poems and Songs, 
ii. 222-34). In these verses all the formal 
charges of the impeachment are repeated, 
and the hatred for Suffolk continued as a 
popular tradition ; it inspired one of William 
Baldwin's contributions to the ' Mirror for 
Magistrates,' and two of Drayton's ' Heroical 
Epistles.' By later writers Suffolk is even 
charged with having been the paramour of 
Queen Margaret (cf. HALL, p. 219 ; HoLiisr- 
SHED, iii. 220 ; DRAYTON, Heroical Epistles}. 
The charge is absurd and baseless, but has 
gained currency from its adoption by Shake- 
speare (Henry VI, pt. ii. act v. sc. 2). But 
the popular verdict on Suffolk's private and 
public character is not to be accepted with- 
out serious qualification. The very indict- 
ment of the commons ' proves that nothing 
tangible could be adduced against him ' 
(RAMSAY, ii. 117). Lingard (Hist. England, 
v. 179) well says of his farewell to his son 
that it is ' difficult to believe that the writer 
could have been either a false subject or 
a bad man' (see also GAIRDNER, Paston 
Letters, vol. i. p. xlvii). The same spirit of 
unaffected piety and simple loyalty which 
inspires this letter appears in Suffolk's speech 
in parliament on 22 Jan. 1450. The two 
documents reveal their author as a man who 
had made it the rule of his life to fear God 
and honour the king. Suffolk may have been 
headstrong and overbearing, but his pa- 

triotism and sincerity appear beyond ques- 
tion. The policy of peace which he adopted 
and endeavoured to carry through was a just 
and sensible one. It was not a policy which 
would have appealed to selfish motives. 
Whatever its ultimate wisdom, it was sure to 
incur immediate odium. Suffolk himself 
foresaw and endeavoured to forestall the 
dangers before he embarked on his embassy 
in February 1444 ; his conduct at that time 
shows that he was * throughout open and 
straightforward in his behaviour ' (STUBBS). 

Suffolk's tomb, with a stone effigy, still 
exists in his collegiate church at Wing- 
field. It is figured in Napier's ' History of 
Swyncombe and Ewelme ' (plates before p. 
81). Walpole gave an engraving of a pic- 
ture in his possession, representing the mar- 
riage of Henry VI, one of the figures in 
which he takes for Suffolk (Anecdotes of 
Painting, i. 34, ed. 1762). Suffolk's will, 
dated 17 Jan. 1448, is given in Kennett's 
' Parochial Antiquities/ ii. 376, and in Na- 
pier's ' History of Swyncombe and Ewelme,' 
p. 82. His seals and autograph are figured 
in the latter work (p. 89), and his badge 
the ape's clog in Doyle's ' Official Baron- 
age.' Suffolk was the founder of a hospital 
at Ewelme, Oxfordshire, in 1437. This 
charity still continues, the mastership having 
been long annexed to the regius professor- 
ship of medicine at Oxford. He also re- 
founded another hospital at Donnington, 
Berkshire, in 1448, and intended to refound 
Snape Priory in Suffolk (NAPiER,pp. 54, 63 ; 
DTJGDALE, Monasticon Anglicanum, iv. 557, 
vi. 715-17 ; Archceologia, xliv. 464). , 

Suffolk's wife was Alice, daughter of 
Thomas Chaucer [q. v.] of Ewelme. She 
was therefore in all likelihood a grand- 
daughter of the poet, and through her grand- 
mother, Philippa Roet, a cousin of the Beau- 
forts. As a child she had married Sir John 
Philip or Phelip (d. 1415), and afterwards 
was second wife of Thomas de Montacute, 
fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.J Her license 
to marry Suffolk was granted on 11 Nov. 
1430 (NAPIER, p. 66). Robes were pro- 
vided for Alice, countess of Suffolk, as a 
lady of the Garter on 21 May 1432 (Nico- 
LAS, Proc. Privy Council, iv. 116). After her 
husband's death she was, during Jack Cade's 
rebellion, indicted for treason at the Guild- 
hall (WORCESTER [768]). The charge was 
more formally repeated in the parliament of 
November 1451 (ib. [770] ; Rolls of Parlia- 
ment, v. 216). Subsequently Alice made her 
peace with the Duke of York and his party, 
her stepdaughter by her second husband 
j being the mother of Warwick ' the king- 
maker.' She was specially excepted from 



the act of attainder in 1461 (ib. v. 470). 
Some fairly numerous references in the ' Pas- 
ton Letters ' (vol. iii.) illustrate her later 
life. Three letters from Alice to her ser- 
vant, William Bylton, are given by Napier 
(p. 99). She died on 20 May 1475 at 
Ewelme, and was buried in the church there 
on 9 June. Her splendid tomb still exists in 
fine preservation (plates in NAPIEK, p. 103, 
and- GOTJGH'S Sepulchral Monuments). Her 
only child was John de la Pole, who suc- 
ceeded his father as second Duke of Suffolk, 
and is separately noticed. 

[Stevenson's Wars of the English in France, 
with William of Worcester's Diary, Walsing- 
ham's Historia Anglicana, ii. 345, Beckington's 
Correspondence, i. 158, 175, ii. 159, 163, 171, 
Amundesham's Annales, ii. 213-20, Whetham- 
stede's Kegistrum, i. 45, 160, Wright's Political 
Poems and Songs, ii. 222-34 (all these are in 
Eolls Ser.); Gesta Henrici Quinti (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.); Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, 
Collections of a London Citizen, Davies's Eng- 
lish Chronicle, 1377-1461 (these three in Camd. 
Soc.) ; Giles's Incerti Scriptoris Chronicon ; 
Chronicle of London, ed. Nicolas, 1827; Con- 
tinuation of the Croyland Chronicle in Fulman's 
Scriptores, vol. i. ; Gascoigne's Loci e Libro 
Veritatum, ed. Kogers ; Paston Letters, ed. 
Gairdner; Chronicles of Hardyng and Hall. 
Among French writers there are Monstrelet, 
Jean le Fevre de S. Eemy, Waurin, Gruel's 
Arthur de Eichemont, T. Basin. Matthieu d'Es- 
couchy (all in Soc. de PHistoire de France ; the 
first four throw light chiefly on Suffolk's military 
career, the last two furnish some information as 
to his fall) ; Proces de Jeanne d'Arc (Soc. de 
1'Hist. France) ; Cousinot's Gestes des Nobles 
and Chron. de la Pucelle, ed. Vallet de Viri- 
ville; Chronique de Mont St. Michel (Societe 
des Anciens Textes Fran^ais) ; ^Eneas Sylvius 
(Opera, pp. 440-2) gives a foreign opinion hostile 
to Suffolk ; Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordi- 
nances of the Privy Council, vols. iv.-vi.; Eolls 
of Parliament; Eynier'sFcDdera, vols. ix.-xi., orig. 
edit. ; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 186-9 ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, iii. 436-8 ; Napier's Historical 
Notices of the Parishes of Swyncombe and 
Ewelme contains a life of Suffolk, together with 
genealogical tables and some documents of im- 
portance. For modern accounts see Gairdner's 
Introduction to Paston Letters, i. pp. xxxii-1 ; 
Stubbs's Constitutional History, iii. 136-54 ; 
Eamsay's Lancaster and York ;' Villet de Viri- 
ville's Hist, de Charles VII ; G. Du Fresne de 
Beaucourt's Histoire de Charles VII ] 

C. L. K. 

POLE, SIR WILLIAM (1561-1635), 
antiquary, baptised on 27 Aug. 1561 at Coly- 
ton, Devonshire, was son of Sir William 
Pole, knt., of Shute in the same county, and 
his wife Catherine, daughter of Chief-justice 
John Popham [q. v.] The family originally 

came from Wirrell in Cheshire, and appa- 
rently had no connection with the dukes of 
Suffolk of that name or with Cardinal Pole's 
family. It was the father, and not the son, 
as Prince states ( Worthies of Devon, p. 504), 
who was educated at Exeter College, Ox- 
ford (cf. BOASE, JReffistrum, ii. 255), was 
autumn reader at the Inner Temple in 1557, 
double reader in 1560, and treasurer in 1565. 
The son entered the Inner Temple in 1578, 
was placed on the commission of the peace 
for Devonshire, served as high sheriff for that 
county in 1602-3, and represented Bossiney, 
Cornwall, in the parliament of 1586 (Official 
Return, i. 417). He was knighted by James I 
at Whitehall on 15 Feb. 1606. He paid 
37 /. 10.5. to the Virginia Company, and was 
an incorporator of the third Virginia charter. 
He died at Colcombe, in the parish of Coly- 
ton, Devonshire, on 9 Feb. 1635, aged 73. 
He was buried in the west side of the chancel 
in Colyton church. He married, first, Mary, 
(d. 1605), daughter and coheir of Sir William 
Peryam [q. v.], by whom he had issue six 
sons and six daughters. Of the sons, the 
eldest, William, died young ; the second, Sir 
John, whose descendants still occupy Shute 
House, was created a baronet on 12 Sept. 
1628, and died on 16 April 1658 ; the third 
was Peryam Pole, whose descendant, William 
Pole, dying in 1778 without issue, bequeathed 
his estates to his kinsman, the Hon. William 
Wellesley, who thereupon assumed the name 
Pole, and subsequently became Earl of Morn- 
ington. Another of Sir William Pole's sons, 
also named William, matriculated from Oriel 
College, Oxford, on 24 March 1609-10, gra- 
duated B.A. on 3 Nov. 1612, entered the 
Inner Temple in 1616, and emigrated to 
America, where he died on 24 Feb. 1674. 
Sir William's daughter Elizabeth (1588- 
1654) also emigrated to America, and took 
a prominent part in the foundation and in- 
corporation of Taunton in 1639-40, where 
she died on 21 May 1654. Pole married, 
secondly, Jane, daughter of William Simmes 
or Symes of Chard, Somerset, and widow of 
Roger How of London. 

Pole was a learned antiquary, and at his 
death left large manuscript collections for 
the history and antiquities of Devonshire. 
Of these the greater part perished during 
the civil war, but there survived: 1. Two 
folio volumes, entitled l The Description of 
Devonshire;' which were printed in 1791 
(4to) under the title ' Collections towards a 
Description of the County of Devon.' 2. A 
folio volume of deeds, charters, and grants 
compiled in 1616 ; a small portion of this 
was privately printed by Sir Thomas Phillipps 
[q. v.] under the title ' Sir William Pole's 




Copies of Extracts from Old Evidences,' 
Mill Hill, 1840? 3. A thin folio volume 
containing coats-of-arms, &c. 4. A volume 
of deeds and grants to Tor Abbey, Devon- 
shire. These collections were largely used 
by (among others) Prince, Risdon, and 
Tuckett, in his edition of the ' Visitation of 
Devonshire in 1620,' published in 1859. 

[Rogers's Memorials of the "West, pp. 350 et 
seq. (with portraits) ; Preface to Pole's Descrip- 
tion of Devonshire, 1791 ; Harl. MS. 1195,f.37 ; 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 504-6 ; Risdon's 
Chorographical Description of the County of 
Devon; Visitation of Devon in 1620 (Harl. 
Soc.); Dugdale's Orig. Juridiciales, p. 165; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. vi. 299 ; Brown's Genesis U. S. A. ii.968 ; 
Burke's Peerage, s.v. 'Pole' and ' Wellington.'] 

A. F. P. 


EARL OF MORNINGTON (1763-1845), master 
of the mint. [See WELLESLEY-POLE.] 


MAN (1824-1857), Indian chaplain, was 
the second son of Edward Polehampton, 
M.A., rector of Great Greenford, Middlesex, 
by his wife, younger daughter of Thomas 
Stedman, vicar of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, 
and was born at his father's rectory on 
1 Feb. 1824. Admitted on the foundation 
of Eton College in 1832, he proceeded thence 
to Oxford, where he matriculated from Pem- 
broke College on 17 Nov. 1842 as a Wight- 
wick scholar, a distinction which he obtained 
as being of the founder's kin. His university 
career was undistinguished ; he became a 
fellow of his college in 1845, and in No- 
vember 1846 was admitted 13. A. without 
taking honours. He proceeded M. A. in 1849. 
Following the family tradition, he was 
ordained deacon on 18 June 1848. At Easter 
1849, after a few months of tutorial work, he 
was appointed assistant curate of St. Chad's, 
Shrewsbury, doing good work among the 
victims of the cholera when it visited that 
town. In 1849 he was presented by his col- 
lege to the rectory of St. Aldate's, Oxford, 
a living which he soon resigned, because it 
was not tenable with his fellowship. Find- 
ing no further chance of preferment, he ac- 
cepted an East Indian chaplaincy in Septem- 
ber 1855. On 10 Oct. he married Emily, 
youngest daughter of C. B. Allnatt, esq., of 
Shrewsbury, barrister, and, with his wife, 
sailed for Calcutta on 4 Jan. 1856. At his own 
desire he was appointed chaplain to the Luck- 
now garrison, and arrived there on 26 March. 
During the summer of 1856 he was instru- 
mental in relieving the sufferers from cholera, 
which had especially attacked the 52nd regi- 

ment. After recovering from a severe illness, 
he made several tours to Sultanpur, Sitapur, 
and the neighbourhood, and returned to 
Lucknow in time to witness the outbreak of 
the mutiny there (3-30 May 1857). He took 
refuge within the Residency, his wife volun- 
teering as nurse, when the siege began, 
30 June. Eight days later he was wounded 
by a stray shot, cholera supervened, and he 
died on 20 July, while the first great attack 
was being made on the Residency. He was 
buried in the Residency garden. A tablet to 
his memory was afterwards set up in St. 
Chad's Church, Shrewsbury. 

The value of his services during his brief 
residence in Lucknow was attested in the 
official despatches of Havelock. He was a 
good athlete. His literary remains comprise 
merely a brief diary of his Indian career, with 
a few letters. 

[Memoir, Letters, and Diary of H. S. P., 
edited by Revs. E. and T. S. Polehampton, 3rd 
edit. 1859, 8vo; Funeral Sermon on his Death, 
preached at St. Chad's by Rev. F. W. Kitter- 
master, 1858, 8vo ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] 

E. G-. II. 

POLENIUS, ROBERT (d. 1150), car- 
dinal. [See PULLEN.] 

POLHILL, EDWARD (1622-1694?), re- 
ligious writer, son of Edward Polhill (d. 
1654), rector of Ellington, Kent, by his 
second wife, Jane, daughter of William New- 
ton of Lewes, was born in 1622. He entered 
Gray's Inn on 16 June 1638-9, and was called 
to the bar (FOSTER, Gray's Inn Register], 
but he chiefly divided his time between the 
care of his family estates in Burwash, Sussex, 
where he was justice of the peace, and the 
compilation of religious tracts, somewhat 
Calvinistic in temper, but supporting the esta- 
blished church. ' It was hard to say which 
excelled, the gentleman or the divine' (Life 
of Phil. Henry, p. 422). Lazarus Seaman 
claimed ' knowledge of him from his child- 
hood,' and ' certified of his domestical piety' 
(Divine Will, preface). Polhill died about 

Polhill wrote: 1. 'The Divine Will con- 
sidered in its Eternal Degrees and holy Exe- 
cution of them,' London, 1673; strongly Cal- 
vinistic in tone, with prefaces by John Owen 
(1616-1683) [q. v.] and Lazarus Seaman; 2nd 
edit., London, 1695 ; partly reprinted at 
Berwick, 1842, as ' An Essay on the Extent 
of the Death of Christ.' 2. 'An Answer 
to the Discourse of William Sherlock touch- 
ing the Knowledge of Christ and our Union 
and Communion with Him,' London, 1675. 
1 When I read Sherlock's book,' says Polhill, 
'I thought myself in a new theological 



world, as if, according to Pelagius, all grace 
were in doctrine only.' 3. ' Precious Faith 
considered in its Nature, Working, and 
Growth' (London, 1675); panegyrised by 
Philip Henry. 4. < Speculum Theologies 
in Christo, or a View of some Divine Truths,' 
London, 1678. 5. 'Christus in corde, or 
the Mystical Union between Christ and Be- 
lievers considered in its Resemblances, Bonds, 
Seals, Privileges, and Marks '(London, 1680); 
reprinted, ' corrected by the Rev. Mr. Priestley 
of Jewin Street,' London, 1788, and again in 
1842 as ' revised and carefully abridged by 
James Michel.' 6. 'Armatura Dei, or a 
Preparation for Suffering in an Evil Day, 
showing how Christians are to bear Suffer- 
ings,' London, 1682 ; reprinted, London, 1824. 
7. ' A Discourse of Schism,' London, 1694 ; 
a catholic-minded treatise, showing that the 
separation of the nonconformists is not 
schism ; reprinted in 1823. Reprints of Nos. 
1, 2, 3, and 6 appear in Ward's ' Library of 
Standard Divinity' (new ser. vol. i.) 

[Berry's County G-en., 'Kent/ p. 334 ; Addit. 
MSS. 5711 f. 133, 6347 f. 10; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 6th Rep., pp. 5la, 53a, 69cr, SO a; Lords' 
Journals, vii. 284, 304, 468, 633; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. iv. 106; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 
460, 563, 3rd ser. v. 419; Calamy's Account, 
ii. 680 ; Orme's Life of Dr. John Owen, pp. 507, 
513 ; Hasted's Kent. i. 316.] W. A. S. 

1821), physician and author, was the son of 
Gaetano Polidori, teacher of Italian in Lon- 
don, who had been Alfieri's secretary, and is 
known as the author of tales and educational 
works and the translator of Milton and 
Lucan into Italian (1840 and 1841). He 
was born in London on 7 Sept. 1795, and at 
the early age of nineteen received the degree 
of M.D. from the university of Edinburgh, 
reading and publishing an able thesis on 
nightmare, 'Disputatio medica inauguralis 
de Oneirodynia,' 1815. Early in the follow- 
ing year he obtained, through the recom- 
mendation of Sir Henry Halford, the post of 
physician and secretary to Lord Byron, then 
departing on his exile from England. They 
travelled together to Geneva, and Polidori 
continued in Byron's suite during the greater 
portion of his sojourn there ; but his whim- 
sical and jealous temper, of which several 
instances are given in Moore's biography of 
Byron, led to a dissolution of the engage- 
ment ere Byron quitted Switzerland. Poli- 
dori, nevertheless, proceeded to Milan, where 
Byron found him 'in very good society;' 
but he was soon expelled the city for quarrel- 
ling with an Austrian officer. From a letter 
of Byron's to Murray, dated 11 April 1817, 
he appears to have returned to England from 

Venice in attendance upon the widow of the 
third Earl of Guilford [see under NORTH, FRE- 
DERICK, second EA.RLJ. As Byron entrusts 
him with commissions and recommends him to 
Murray, their relations cannot have been ab- 
solutely unfriendly. Polidori had designed 
a speculative expedition to Brazil, but settled 
instead as a practising physician in Norwich, 
where he met with little encouragement, and 
eventually returned to London, and began 
to study for the bar. In April 1819 he pub- 
lished in the i New Monthly Magazine,' and 
also in pamphlet form, the celebrated story 
of l The Vampyre,' which he attributed to 
Byron. The ascription was fictitious. Byron 
had, in fact, in June 1816 begun to write at 
Geneva a story with this title, in emulation 
of Mrs. Shelley's ' Frankenstein,' but dropped 
it before reaching the superstition which it 
was to have illustrated. He sent the frag- 
ment to Murray upon the appearance of 
Polidori's fabrication, and it is inserted in his 
works. He further protested in a carelessly 
good-natured disclaimer addressed to ' Gali- 
gnani's Messenger.' His name, nevertheless, 
gave Polidori's production great celebrity 
upon the continent, where the ' Vampyre ' 
was held to be quite the thing which it be- 
hoved Byron to have written. It formed 
the groundwork of Marschner's opera, and 
nearly half a volume of Dumas's i Memoirs ' 
is occupied by an account of the representa- 
tion of a French play founded upon it. 
Polidori made a less successful experiment 
in his own name with ' Ernestus Berchtold, 
or the Modern CEdipus,' another melodra- 
matic story published in the same year, which 
also witnessed the publication of ' Ximenes, 
The Wreath,' and other poems. The Fall 
of the Angels,' a sacred poem, was published 
anonymously in 1821, and reissued with the 
author's name after his death. He also 
wrote an ' Essay on Positive Pleasure,' 1818, 
which was censured for immorality and mis- 
anthropy, and one upon the punishment of 
death (1816), which had the honour of in- 
sertion in the ' Pamphleteer.' In August 
1821 Polidori, pressed by- a gaming debt 
which he was unable to discharge, died at 
his lodgings in London, 'from a subtle poison 
of his own composition,' says Edward Wil- 
liams in his ' Diary.' A verdict of natural 
death was returned, but there is no doubt as 
to the real facts of the case. Polidori's un- 
published diary is stated by Mr. W. M. 
Rossetti to contain some particulars of sub- 
stantial interest. ' Dr. Polidori,' says Med- 
win, ' was a tall, handsome man, with a 
marked Italian cast of countenance, which 
bore the impress of profound melancholy ; a 
good address and manners, more retiring than 




forward in general society.' There is a por- 
trait of him in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London. One of his sisters married Gabriele 
Rossetti [q. v.], and became the mother of 
Dante Gabriel and Christina Rossetti [q. v.] 

[W. M. Rossetti's Memoir of D. G-. Rossetti, 
vol. i. ; Moore's Life of Byron ; Moore's Diary, 
vol. v. ; Medwin's Life of Shelley ; Williams's 
Diary in Shelley's Prose Works, ed. Forman, vol. 
iv. ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vols. vii. ix. x.] 

R. G. 

POLLARD, SIR HUGH (tf.1666), royalist, 
son of Sir Lewis Pollard, bart. (d. 1641), of 
King's Nympton, Devonshire, and his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Berkeley, 
was descended from Sir Lewis Pollard [q. v.] 
His great-grandfather, another Sir Lewis, 
was recorder of Exeter and serjeant-at-law ; 
his father, also Sir Lewis, was created a 
baronet on 31 May 1627. Hugh was a cap- 
tain in the army before 1639, when he was 
engaged in raising troops in Devonshire for 
the expedition against the Scots. In the 
following year he was again serving under 
Conway against the Scots, and was probably 
present at the battle of Newburn on 28 Aug. 
On 19 Nov. he was returned to the Long 
parliament as memberfor Beeralston, Devon- 
shire. In May and June 1641 he was impli- 
cated in the royalists' ' first army plot,' was 
imprisoned in the Gatehouse, and expelled 
from the House of Commons. He was 
bailed before the end of June, and retired to 
Devonshire. Here he was apparently en- 
gaged in further royalist schemes, and on 
26 Sept. was taken prisoner by some par- 
liamentary troopers, and carried to Molton 
(Some late Occurrences in Shropshire and 
Devonshire, 1641, p. 7). During the year 
he succeeded to the baronetcy on his father's 

Early in 1642 he set out for Holland to 
raise levies for the king's service. On the 
voyage he fell in with the Providence, a king's 
ship coming from Holland with arms and 
ammunition, and determined to return with 
it. They were pursued by some parliamentary 
ships, but Pollard escaped, and in August 
accompanied the Marquis of Hertford to the 
west to levy troops ; he was sergeant-major 
in Viscount Kilmorey's regiment (PEACOCK, 
p. 16). During the war he was mainly em- 
ployed with the army in Devonshire and 
Cornwall, and in 1645 was governor of Dart- 
mouth. Fairfax laid siege to the town in 
January 1645-6, and when summoned to 
surrender Pollard returned a defiant answer. 
A detachment of four hundred horse was sent 
under Major Ducroc from the king's army at 
Torrington to defend the town, but Pollard 
quarrelled with Ducroc, and the troops re- 

turned to Exeter. The next night (18 Jan.) 
Fairfax ordered an attack on the town. It 
was stormed, and Pollard was wounded in 
an attempt to escape across the harbour. 
He was taken prisoner, and kept in custody 
until May 1646. An erroneous report of 
his death has been frequently repeated (ib.) 
He then petitioned to compound for his de- 
linquency, and on submitting to his fine was 
released on bail. The sum was ultimately 
fixed at 518/. ; in 1653 it was paid, and the 
sequestration of his estates discharged. 

Pollard, though he stayed in England, 
remained a royalist at heart. It was only 
its rapid suppression that prevented him sup- 
porting Booth's attempt in 1658 by a rising 
in Devonshire. At the Restoration he was 
sworn of the privy council, appointed go- 
vernor of Guernsey and comptroller of the 
king's household. He sat in parliament as 
member for Callington, Cornwall, in 1660, 
and Devonshire in 1661. He received various 
grants from the king, including one of 5,000/. 
in 1665, as a reward for his services, and to 
clear him from pecuniary embarrassment in 
which they had involved him. He died on 
27 Nov. 1666, having married Bridget, daugh- 
ter of Edward de Vere, seventeenth earl of 
Oxford, and widow of Francis Norris, earl of 
Berkshire [q. v.] By her he left an only 
daughter, Margaret ; the baronetcy passed 
to his brother Amias, and on his death with- 
out issue in 1693 became extinct. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. passim ; Cals. of 
Committees for Compounding and Advance of 
Money; Cal. Clarendon State Papers ; Hist.MSS. 
Comm. 4th Rep. p. 304; Rushworth's Collections, 
m.i. 255; Carte's Original Letters,i. 137; Official 
Returns of Members of Parliament ; Journals 
of Lords and Commons ; Clarendon's Rebellion ; 
Sprigge's AngliaRediviva; May's Long Parl. pp. 
96, 98, 99 ; Lloyd's Memoirs, p. 648 ; Pepys's 
Diary, ed. Braybrooke, iii. 348 ; Evelyn's Diary, 
ed. Bray, i. 370, ii. 19, 862, iv. 154; Maseres's 
Tracts, i. 29; Markham's Fairfax, pp. 260-1; 
Aikin's Court of Charles I, ii. 150, 156; Masson's 
Milton, passim; Chester's Westm. Abbey Register; 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 494-5; Moore's 
Devon, p. 86; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Gar- 
diner's Hist, of England.] A. F. P. 

POLLARD, SIR JOHN (d. 1557), speaker 
of the House of Commons, was second son of 
Walter Pollard of Plymouth, by Avice, 
daughter of Richard Pollard of Way, Devon- 
shire. The pedigree of the Pollard family is 
very complicated, as the family was wide- 
spread in the west of England, and other 
branches are found in the fourteenth century 
in Yorkshire, Essex, and other counties ; the 
main branch was seated at Way, and Sir 
Lewis Pollard [q. v.], the judge, was a col- 



lateral relation of Sir John. Jolin Pollard 
may have been the Pollard who, without 
Christian name, is mentioned as entering at 
the Middle Temple on 3 June 1515; but it 
may be that this entry is that of Lewis 
Pollard, son of Sir Hugh Pollard and grand- 
son of Sir Lewis Pollard the j udge. John was 
appointed autumn reader of the Middle Tem- 
ple in 1535, and became serjeant-at-law in 
1547. After 1545 he received, possibly 
through the influence of a relative, Richard 
Pollard, who had taken part in the suppres- 
sion of the monasteries, a grant of the manor 
of Nuneham Courtney, where he afterwards 
lived. He was relieved by patent of 21 Oct. 
1550 from his office of serjeant-at-law, in 
order to become vice-president of the council 
for the Welsh marches. He was elected 
member for Oxfordshire in the parliaments 
of 1553 and 1554, and for Wiltshire in that 
of 1555. He seems to have been knighted 
on 2 Oct. 1553, although he is described as 
merely armiger in the returns of 1554 and 
1555. He was chosen speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1553, and held the office till the 
close of the parliament of 1555. He was de- 
scribed as ' excellent iiithe laws of this realm.' 
He died in August 1557, and was buried on 
25 Aug. He married Mary, daughter of Ri- 
chard Gray of London, but left no issue. His 
estates passed in great part to his brother 
Anthony, after the death of his widow. The 
inquisition post mortem is numbered 4 and 
5 Phil, and Mary, No. 139. His will was 
proved in the probate court of London, P.P.C. 
37, Wrastley, on 13 Oct. 1557. 

[The late Mr. Winslow Jones made extensive 
researches into the history of the Pollard family, 
and placed his materials at the disposal of the 
present writer. See also Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, viii. 87, 149, 312; Manning's 
Speakers of the House of Commons ; Machyn's 
Diary (Camd Soc.),pp. 148, 335; Dixon's Hist, of 
the Church of England, passim.] "W. A. J. A. 

POLLARD, LEONARD (d. 1556), di- 
vine, was a native of Nottinghamshire, and 
graduated B.A. at Cambridge in 1543-4. 
He was admitted a fellow of Peterhouse 
on 2 March 1546, and proceeded M.A. in 
1547. In June 1549 he was an opponent 
in a public disputation on the doctrine that 
the Lord's supper is no oblation or sacrifice, 
but merely a remembrance of Christ's death. 
After he had graduated D.D. he became 
prebendary of Worcester on 11 Sept. 1551. 
On 6 Nov. 1553 he preached at St. Mi- 
chael's, Cambridge, on purgatory. He was 
then in receipt of an annual pension of 30s. 
as incumbent of the dissolved chantry of 
Little St. Mary's, Cambridge. On 23 Dec. 
1553 he became prebendary of Peterborough, 

resigning on 30 June 1555. In 1554 he was 
admitted a fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. He was rector of Ripple, Wor- 
cestershire, and in 1555 became chaplain to 
the bishop of Worcester, Richard Pate or 
Pates [q.v.] Under his direct ion Pollard wrote 
five sermons, beginning t Consydering with 
myself,' which he dedicated to his bishop. 
They were printed in London by Richard 
Jugge and Cawood, as well as by William 
Griffith, in 1556, having been sanctioned by 
Bonner on 1 July 1555. A copy is in the 
British Museum. He died before March 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 127, 546 ; Ames's 
Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, pp. 716, 1798 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ii. 548, iii. 86; Baker's History 
of St. John's College, ed. Mayor, i. 286, ii. 981 ; 
Strype's Memorials, in. i. 81, and Life of 
Cranmer, p. 290 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.] JVI. B. 

POLLARD, SIB LEWIS (1465 P-1540), 
judge, born about 1465, was son of Robert Pol- 
lard of Roborough, near Torrington, Devon, 
and a kinsman of Sir John Pollard [q. v.], 
speaker of the House of Commons. Lewis was 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple, 
where he was reader in 1502; in 1505 he was 
made serjeant-at-law, and on 9 July 1507 
king's serjeant, an appointment which was 
confirmed on the accession of Henry VIII. 
From this time he frequently served on the 
commission for the peace in Cornwall, Devon, 
Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, and Wiltshire, 
was justice of assize for the Oxford circuit in 
1509, and for the western circuit from 1511 to 
1514, when he was appointed justice of com- 
mon pleas and knighted. He retired from the 
bench after February 1526, and died in 1540. 
1 His knowledge in the laws and other com- 
mendable virtues, together with a numerous 
issue, rendered him famous above most of 
his age and rank ' (PRINCE, Worthies of Devon, 
p. 493). He married Agnes, daughter of 
Thomas Hext of Kingston, near Totnes, 
Devon, and had eleven sons and eleven daugh- 
ters. Of the sons no less than four were 
knighted. Sir Hugh, Sir John, Sir Richard, 
and Sir George. Sir Hugh was great-great- 
grandfather of Sir Hugh Pollard [q. v.] ; Sir 
Richard was father of Sir John Pollard (1528- 
1575), who must be distinguished from Sir 
John, speaker of the House of Commons; the 
former was knighted by the Earl of Warwick 
on 10 Nov. 1549, sat in parliament as member 
for Barnstaple, 1553-4, Exeter in 1555, and 
Grampound, 1562, and died in 1575, leaving 
no issue. Sir Lewis's son George owed his 
knighthood to his services in defence of Bou- 
logne in 1548-9. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, passim ; 
Dugdale's Chron. Ser. pp. 77, 79; Foss's Lives 


61 Pollard-Urquhart 

of the Judges, v. 227-8 ; Visitation of Devon 
(Harl.ScxO ; Pr '.nce's Worthies of Devon, pp. 492- 
495; Pole's Description of Devon, and Moore's 
Hist, of Devon, passim ; Burke's Extinct Baro- 
netage; Strype's Works, Index.] A. F. P. 

POLLARD, ROBERT (1755-1838), de- 
signer and engraver, born at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne in 1755, was articled to a silversmith 
there, and subsequently became a pupil of 
Richard Wilson, R.A. For a time he prac- 
tised as a landscape and marine painter, but 
about 1782 he established himself in Spa 
Fields, London, as an engraver and print- 
seller, and during the next ten years pro- 
duced a large number of plates, executed in a 
peculiar mixed style, composed of line, etch- 
ing, and aquatint, some of them from his 
own designs, and others after popular artists 
of his time. To the former category belong 
' Lieutenant Moody rescuing a Prisoner,' 
1785, * Adventure of Lady Harriet Ackland,' 
1784, ' Ed win and Angelina,' 1785, 'The 
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green,' and eight 
plates of shipping. The latter class includes 
' Wreck of the Grosvenor East Indiaman ' 
1784, ' Wreck of the Halsewell East India- 
man,' 1786, ' Margaret Nicholson's attempt to 
murder George III,' 1786, and two plates 
illustrating the restoration of a young man 
to life by Doctors Lettsom and Hawes, 
1787, all after R. Smirke, R.A. ; ' Trial of 
Warren Hastings,' 1789, ' Thanksgiving Day 
in St. Paul's,' 1789, and views of Blooms- 
bury, Hanover, Grosvenor, and Queen 
squares, London, all after E. Dayes; 'Wreck 
of the Centaur ' and ' Preservation of Cap- 
tain Inglefield after the Wreck' (a pair), 
after R. Dodd, 1783 ; < Leonora,' after J. R. 
Smith, 1786 ; and others after Cosway, Gil- 
pin, Stothard, Wheatley, &c. Many of 
these plates were finished in aquatint by 
Francis Jukes [q. v.] In 1788 Pollard was 
elected a fellow, and in the following year a 
director, of the Incorporated Society of Ar- 
tists, which became extinct in 1791 ; in 
October 1836, as the last surviving member, 
he placed the charter, books, and papers of 
that body in the custody of the Royal Aca- 
demy. The latter part of Pollard's life was 
spent in poverty and obscurity, and he died 
on 23 May 1838. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Nagler's Kiinst- 
ler-Lexicon; information from F. A. Eaton, 
esq.] F. M. O'D. 

POLLARD, WILLIAM (1828-1893), 
quaker, born on 10 June 1828, was ninth child 
of James and Susanna Pollard of Horsham, 
Sussex, where the family had been settled 
for several generations. After attending 
the Friends' school, Croydon, Pollard pro- 

ceeded to the Flounders Training College 
at Ack worth, Yorkshire. From 1853 he 
was a teacher at Ackworth school. For 
the use of his pupils he wrote a ' Reading- 
Book,' 1865, a ' Poetical Reader,' 1872, and 
* Choice Readings.' From 1866 to 1872 he 
was in the employ of Francis Frith, the 
well-known photographer at Reigate. 

From 1872 to 1891 he was secretary and 
lecturer to the Manchester Peace and Arbi- 
tration Society, and lived at Sale, Cheshire. 
During this period he wrote articles for the 
' Manchester Examiner.' In the winter of 
1891 he became co-editor with W. E. Turner 
of the ' British Friend,' a monthly periodical 
first published at Glasgow in 1843. 

Pollard was a successful minister among 
the Friends from 1865, and was an able ex- 
ponent of the fundamental principles of 
quakerism in its quietist phase. A ' Reason- 
able Faith, by Three Friends' (W. Pollard, 
Francis Frith, and W. E. Turner), London, 
1884 and 1886, was well received, though it 
met with some opposition from the more 
evangelical section of the society. His other 
works were : * Old-fashioned Quakerism : its 
Origin, Results, and Future. Four Lectures/ 
London, 1887 ; the first lecture, on ' Primitive 
Christianity,' was reissued in ' Religious 
Systems of the World,' London, 1890. His 
4 Primitive Christianity revived ' and ' Con- 
gregational Worship 'were contributed to the 
' Old Banner ' series of quaker tracts, London, 

Pollard died on 26 Sept. 1893, and was 
buried in the Friends' burial-ground at Ash- 
ton-on-Mersey, Manchester. His wife, Lucy 
Binns of Sunderland, whom he married in 
1854, survived him with five sons and three 

[ and Patricroft Journal, September 
1893; Annual Monitor, 1894, and private in- 
formation.] C. F. S. 


(1815-1871), miscellaneous writer, eldest 
child of William Dutton Pollard (1789- 
1839), of Kinturk, Castlepollard, co. West- 
meath, by his second wife, Louisa Anne, 
eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas Pa- 
kenham, was born at Kinturk on 19 June 
1815. He was educated at Harrow and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
as eighteenth wrangler in 1838, and M.A. in 
1843. He kept his terms at the Inner Temple, 
but was never called to the bar. In 1840 
he was gazetted high sheriff of Westmeath, 
and in 1846, on his marriage, took by royal 
license the additional name of Urquhart. He 
sat in parliament for Westmeath as a 1 iberal 
from 1852 to 1857, and from 1859 to his death. 



He died at 19 Brunswick Terrace, Brighton, 
on 1 June 1871. He married, on 20 Aug. 
1846, Mary Isabella, only daughter of Wil- 
liam Urquhart of Craigston Castle, Aber- 
deenshire. The second son, Francis Edward 
Romulus Pollard Urquhart (b. 1848), became 
a major in the royal horse artillery in 1886. 

Pollard-Urquhart was the author of: 
1. 'Agricultural Distress and its Remedies,' 
Aberdeen, 1850. 2. * Essays on Subjects of 
Political Economy,' 1850. 3. < The Substi- 
tution of Direct for Indirect Taxation ne- 
cessary to carry out the Policy of Free Trade/ 
1851. 4. 'Life and Times of Francisco 
Sforza, Duke of Milan,' Edinburgh, 1852, 
2 vols. (adversely criticised by the ' Athe- 
meum'). 5. 'A short Account of the Prussian 
Land Credit Companies, with Suggestions for 
the Formation of a Land Credit Company in 
Ireland,' Dublin, 1853. 6. < The Currency 
Question and the Bank Charter Committees 
of 1857 and 1858 reviewed. By an M.P.,' 
1860. 7. ' Dialogues on Taxation, local and 
imperial,' 1867. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1886, ii. 1879 ; Ann. 
Kegister, 1871, p. 154 ; Illustrated London News, 
1871, Iviii. 579.] G-. C. B. 

1691), judge, born about 1632, was eldest 
son of Andrew Pollexfen, a member of an 
ancient family settled at Sherford in 
Devonshire. He was bred to the law, called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1658, and 
became a bencher of his inn in 1674. His 
practice was soon extensive ; known as a 
prominent whig, he appeared frequently for 
the defence in state trials. During the reigns 
of Charles II and James II he was counsel 
for Lord Arundel of Wardour on the trial of 
the ' Five Popish Lords ' in 1680, for Col- 
ledge in 1681, for Fitzharris in the same 
year, for William Sacheverell in 1684, for 
the corporation of London in defence of its 
charter in 1682 (BiiENET, folio ed. i. 532, 
533, gives Pollexfen's argument in this case 
as communicated by himself), and for Sandys 
when sued for infringing the monopoly of 
the East India Company in 1684. He had 
earned the reputation of being an antagonist 
of the court and crown. Consequently his 
appearance as prosecutor for the crown, on the 
nomination of Chief-justice Jeffreys, against 
Monmouth's followers, and particularly Lady 
Alice Lisle, in 1685 at the assizes in the west, 
caused some surprise and gained him much un- 
popularity. The fact is probably explained by 
his being leader of the circuit, and he merely 
laid the evidence before the court (State 
Trials, xi. 316). In June 1688 he was em- 
ployed in his accustomed kind of practice 

when, with Somers, for whose assistance he 
stipulated, he defended the seven bishops (ib. 
xii. 370). Upon the Revolution he was well 
known to be an adherent of the Prince of 
Orange, and to hold the opinion that the 
throne was left vacant by the late king (see 
Speaker Onslow's note to BUENET, ed. 1823, 
iii. 341 ; and CLAEENDON, Diary, 14 Dec. 1688). 
He was accordingly among those summoned 
by the peers to advise them in the emergency, 
and also sat for Exeter in the Convention 
parliament. In February 1689 he was 
knighted and appointed attorney-general, 
and on 4 May promoted to be chief justice 
of the common pleas. As a judge he does 
not appear to have increased his fame. His 
reports, which begin in 1670 and were pos- 
thumously published, are inferior ; and Bur- 
net (fol. ed. i. 460, 8vo, ii. 209) describes 
him at the bar as ' an honest and learned, 
but perplexed lawyer.' The only public 
event which is connected with his j udgeship 
is his being summoned in June 1689 before 
the House of Lords for expelling the Duke 
of Grafton from the treasury office of the 
common pleas granted to him by the crown. 
On 15 June 1691 he burst a blood-vessel, 
died shortly afterwards at his house in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, and was buried in Wood- 
bury church in Devonshire. Two engraved 
portraits by W. Elder and J. Savage are 
mentioned by Bromley. 

[Foss's Judges of England ; State Trials, vols. 
vii-xii.; North's Lives, p. 214; Luttrell's 
Diary, i. 490-545, ii. 227, 231 ; Clarendon Cor- 
respondence, ii. 247 ; Prince's Worthies, p. 327.1 


POLLEXFEN, JOHN (fi. 1697), mer- 
chant and economic writer, of the parish ot 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London, was born 
about 1638. A member of the committee 
of trade and plantations in 1675, and of the 
board of trade from 1696 to 1705, he exer- 
cised much influence. He took part in the 
agitation for withdrawing the privileges of 
the old East India Company, and establish- 
ing a new company on a national basis. In 
1697 he published ' A Discourse of Trade, 
Coyn, and Paper Credit, and of ways and 
means to gain and retain riches. To which 
is added the Argument of a Learned Counsel 
[Sir Henry Pollexfen] upon an Action of the 
Case brought by the East India Company 
against Mr. Sand[y]s, an Interloper,' London, 
8vo. In this important pamphlet Pollexfen 
treats labour as the sole source of wealth, 
and points out that national wealth depends 
on the proportion between ' those that depend 
to have their riches and necessaries from the 
sweat and labour of others,' and ' those that 
labour to provide those things ' (p. 44). Like 



all free traders of the seventeenth century, 
he was equally opposed to monopoly and to 
' leaving trade to take its own course,' but 
favourable to the state regulation of industry 
and commerce. His main object, however, 
was to attack the East India Company, and 
to urge the claims of the private traders. 
He discusses at length the ' interlopers,' par- 
ticularly Captain Thomas Sandys, to whose 
enterprises he, together with other merchants, 
probably contributed, so that a test case might 
be submitted to the courts. When the 
company employed Charles Davenant to 
write ' An Essay on the East India Trade,' 
Pollexfen replied to him in ' England and 
East India inconsistent in their Manufac- 
tures,' &c., London, 1697, 8vo. A reply to 
this was published, with the title ' Some 
Reflections on a Pamphlet, intituled Eng- 
land and East India,' &c., London, 1696 (sic), 
8vo. Pollexfen married, on 10 May 1670, 
at St. Mary Undershaft, Mary, daughter of 
Sir John Lawrence. 

[HarleianSoc.Publ.xxni. 178; Cal. of Colonial 
State Papers (America and "West Indies), 1675, 
p. 498 ; Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, ii. 
693 ; M'Culloch's Literature of Political Economy, 

LI 82; Koscher's Political Economy, transl. by 
lor, i. 70 ; Cunningham's Growth of English 
Industry and Commerce, ii. 126, 130, 154, 160.] 

W. A. S. H. 

POLLOCK, SIR DAVID (1780-1847), 
judge, eldest son of David Pollock, saddler, of 
Charing Cross, by Sarah Homera, daughter of 
Richard Parsons of London, receiver-general 
of customs, was of Scottish extraction, his 
grandfather, John Pollock, having been a 
native of Tweedmouth. Sir George Pollock 
[q. v.l and Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock 
[q. v.j were his brothers. He was born in 
London on 2 Sept. 1780, and was educated 
at St. Paul's School and the university of 
Edinburgh, but did not graduate. On 28 Jan. 
1803 he was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple. Pollock practised as a special pleader 
on the home circuit, at the Kent sessions, and 
in the insolvent debtors' court. He took silk 
in Hilary vacation 1833, was appointed re- 
corder of Maidstone in 1838, and commissioner 
of the insolvent debtors' court in 1842. 

By patent of 2 Sept. 1846 he was created 
a knight of the United Kingdom on suc- 
ceeding Sir Henry Roper as chief justice 
of the supreme court of Bombay, where he 
was sworn in on 3 Nov. following, and died 
of liver complaint on 22 May 1847. His 
remains were interred in Bombay cathedral. 

Pollock married, on 12 Dec. 1807, Elizabeth 
Gore, daughter of John Atkinson, by whom 
he had issue seven sons and a daughter. 
Lady Pollock died on 16 April 1841. 

[Foster's Baronetage ; Law List ; Times, 
5 Sept. 1846, 22 July 1847; London Gazette, 
4 Sept. 1846; Gent. Mag. 1846 pt. ii. pp. 193, 
417, 1847 pt. ii. p. 432 ; Ann. Reg. 1846 Chron. 
App. p. 322, 1847 Chron. App. p. 223; Bombay 
Times (bi-monthly edit.), November 1846 and 
May 1847.] J. M. R. 

POLLOCK, SIR GEORGE (1786-1872), 
baronet, field-marshal, youngest son of David 
Pollock of Charing Cross, London, saddler to 
George III, was born on 4 June 1786. He 
was educated with his brother, Jonathan 
Frederick [q. v.], afterwards lord chief baron, 
at a school at Vauxhall, and enteredthe Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich, where a few 
candidates of the East India Company artil- 
lery and engineers were received. Pollock 
quitted Woolwich in the summer of 1803. 
Although he had passed for the engineers, he 
elected to serve in the artillery, and sailed for 
India in September on board the Tigris. He 
was commissioned lieutenant fireworker on 
14 Dec. 1803, and after his arrival at Dumdum 
was promoted lieutenant on 19 April 1804. 
In August he moved to Cawnpore, to join the 
army in the field, under Lake, against Holkar. 
From Cawnpore he went to Agra, where the 
remnants of Colonel Morison's brigade were 
straggling in after a disastrous rout. He 
finally joined his company of artillery at Ma- 
thura ; but, as Holkar advanced with ninety 
thousand men, the British forces fell back on 
Agra, and Pollock with them. On 1 Oct. 
Lake marched to meet Holkar, who evaded 
him and moved on Delhi. Pollock joined 
Marmaduke Brown's battery of 6-pounders, 
under General Fraser, who left Delhi, after 
Holkar had been compelled to abandon his 
efforts to besiege it, on 5 Nov. with six thou- 
sand men, to watch the Maratha infantry. 
On 12 Nov. he came up with the enemy near 
the fort of Dig, and the following day the battle 
of Dig was fought, in which the battery to 
which Pollock belonged played an important 
part. The battle was a very severe one, and 
the issue was for some time 'doubtful. Fraser 
was wounded, and Morison assumed com- 
mand. Eventually the Marathas were de- 
feated, and the remnant of Holkar's army took 
refuge in the fort of Dig. On 2 Dec. Lake 
united his forces before Dig, and on the 17th 
fire was opened. Pollock served in the mortar- 
battery, and on the night of 23 Dec. 1804 the 
assault was made and the outworks captured. 
The next morning Pollock was detailed with 
his guns to destroy the gates of the citadel. 
As Pollock, with the brigade major, was re- 
connoitring the same evening, he discovered 
that the enemy had evacuated the place, and 
on Christmas-day Lake occupied Dig. Before 
Bharatpiir, to which Lake laid siege on 4 Jan. 


6 4 


1 805, Pollock was again in the mortar-battery, 
and did good work. After four assaults were 
repulsed, the siege was converted into a 
blockade ; but on 2 April, when Lake com- 
pletely defeated Holkar in the field, the rajah 
of Bharatpur, dreading the renewal of the 
siege, hastened to conclude peace. Pollock 
was promoted captain-lieutenant on 17 Sept. 

Lake moved to Jailor on the Chambal, and 
Pollock went with his battery to Marabad. 
In August Lake gave Pollock the command 
of the artillery of a field force, under Colonel 
Ball, ordered for the pursuit of Holkar. By 
December, Holkar, a helpless fugitive, sued 
for peace, and Pollock was stationed with his 
battery at Mirat, until he was appointed 
quartermaster to a battalion of artillery at 
Dumdum. Later he was made adjutant and 
quartermaster of the field artillery at Cawn- 
pore ; he remained there until his promotion 
to captain on 1 March 1812, when he was 
ordered to Dumdum. He was in command 
of the artillery at Fathgarh in 1813. Shortly 
afterwards the offer of his services to serve 
in Nipal was accepted, and in January 1814 
he joined Major-general John SullivanWood's 
division at Jeitpur, with reinforcements of 
two companies of artillery. Finding himself 
senior officer of artillery, he took command 
of that arm in the division. On the conclu- 
sion of hostilities Pollock returned to Dum- 
dum, and in 1815 was given the appoint- 
ment of brigade-major of the Bengal artil- 
lery. For some years he remained in can- 
tonments. He was promoted brevet-major 
on 12 Aug. 1819, and regimental major on 
4 May 1820. 

In 1820 he was appointed assistant adju- 
tant-general of artillery, a post which he 
held until his promotion to a regimental 
lieutenant-colonelcy on 1 May 1824. In 
1824 the first Burmese war began, and Pol- 
lock, ordered to the front, arrived at the seat 
of war after the capture of Rangoon. He 
did much good work in organising the artil- 
lery and completing the equipment. In 
February 1825 he accompanied the com- 
mander-in-chief in his advance on Prome, 
moving by water up the Irrawaddy, with 
his detachment of artillery and guns. 
Prome was entered on 25 April. He took 
part in the operations near Prome in Novem- 
ber and December, commanding the artillery 
of General Willoughby Cotton's division in 
the march and capture of Mallown. He 
was specially mentioned in despatches 
for the prominent part he had taken in 
the bombardment of Mallown. On 25 Jan. 
1826 the army marched on Ava, and came 
upon the enemy between Yebbay and 

Pagahm on 9 Feb. The Burmese were de- 
feated, and Pagahm Mew, with all its stores, 
ordnance, and ammunition, fell to the British. 
Pollock took his full share in the day's pro- 
ceedings, in which the artillery again took 
the most prominent part. On 16 Feb. 
the march on Ava was resumed, and the 
force arrived at Yandabii, some forty- 
five miles from Ava, on the 22nd. Here 
the treaty of peace was signed. On 
8 March the army left Yandabii. Pollock's 
services in the campaign were specially 
acknowledged by the governor-general in 
council, and he was made a C.B. On his 
return to Calcutta his health was so muck 
shaken by the hardships of the campaign 
that he received sick leave to proceed to 
Europe early in 1827. He was promoted 
brevet-colonel in the company's service on 
1 Dec. 1829. 

He returned to India in 1830, and was 
posted to the command of a battalion of 
artillery at Cawnpore. He was promoted 
regimental colonel and colonel-commandant 
of the Bengal artillery on 3 March 1835. In 
1838 he was appointed brigadier-general with 
a divisional command at Danapur. From 
Danapiir he was transferred to the command 
of the Agra district. On 28 June 1838 he 
was promoted major-general. 

In November 1841 the disastrous rising at 
Kabul took place. It was followed in January 
by the annihilation of the British army in 
the Khyber pass [see BEYDON", WILLIAM ; 
were gradually collected at Peshawar, and 
Pollock was selected in January 1842 to 
command, with political powers, the expe- 
dition for the relief of Sale and his troops 
at Jalalabad. Pollock reached Peshawar on 
5 Feb. For two months he remained there, 
waiting for reinforcements and organising his 
column. Much sickness prevailed among the- 
native troops, and nearly two thousand men 
were in hospital. The native troops were- 
also somewhat demoralised. Urgent as Pol- 
lock understood the case of Jalalabad to be, 
he preferred to face hostile criticism on his 
delay to risking anything at such a crisis. 
On 31 March he advanced with his column 
to Jamriid. He had reduced his army bag- 
gage to a minimum, and was himself content 
to share a tent with two officers of his staff. 
He had conciliated his Sikh allies, and in- 
spired his own native troops with some con- 
fidence. On 5 April he advanced to the 
mouth of the pass, where the enemy had made 
a formidable barrier in the valley, had taken 
up strong positions, and had erected redoubts 
on the high ground to the right and left of 
the pass. Pollock had made all his arrange- 



ments beforehand with care, and had per- 
sonally ascertained that each commander 
was acquainted with the dispositions. He 
directed columns, under Lieutenant-colonel 
Taylor and Major Anderson, to crown the 
heights on the right of the pass, while simi- 
lar columns, under Lieutenant-colonel Mose- 
ley and Major Huish, were to crown the 
hills on the left. Artillery and the infantry 
of the advanced guard were drawn up op- 
posite the pass, and the whole of the 
avalry placed so that any attack from 
the low hills on the right might be frus- 
trated. The heights on each side were 
scaled and crowned, in spite of a deter- 
mined opposition from the hardy moun- 
taineers. On rinding their position turned, 
the barrier at the mouth of the pass was 
.abandoned, as well as the redoubts on the 
heights, and Pollock's main body commenced 
the destruction of the barrier. The flank 
columns now descended, and attacked the 
-enemy, drawn up in dense masses, who, in 
spite of a vigorous defence, were compelled 
to retreat; and Pollock pushed on to AH 
Masjid, some five miles within the pass. 
Ali Masjid had been evacuated, and was 
at once occupied by the British force. 
Detained during 6 April at Ali Masjid by 
finding the Sikhs had not completed the ar- 
rangements for guarding the road to Pesha- 
war, Pollock marched on the 7th to Ghari 
Lala Beg, meeting with trifling opposition 
on the road, and pushed on to Landikhana. 
Thence he advanced to Daka, and emerged 
on the other side of the pass. He formed a 
-camp near Lalpura, where Saadut Khan made 
an effort to oppose him, but was driven off, 
and on the 16th Pollock arrived at Jalala- 
bad, the band of the 13th regiment marching 
out to play the releasing force into the town. 
Sale had sallied out on 7 April, and with 
eighteen hundred men had completely de- 
feated Akbar Khan, whose force was six 
thousand strong, with heavy loss, capturing 
his guns and burning his camp. 

Lord Auckland had been relieved by Lord 
Ellenborough as governor-general at the end 
of February 1842, and on 15 March Ellen- 
borough addressed a spirited letter to the com- 
xnander-in-chief in India, advocating not only 
the relief of the troops at Jalalabad, Ghazni, 
Kalat-i-Ghilzai, and Kandahar, but the ad- 
vantage of striking a decisive blow at the 
Afghans, and possibly reoccupying Kabul, 
and recovering the British captives, before 
withdrawing from the country. Unfortu- 
nately the news of Sale's victory at Jalala- 
bad, and of the forcing of the Khaibar and 
arrival at Jalalabad of Pollock, was more 
than counterbalanced in Lord Ellenborough's 


eyes by the news of the capitulation of 
Ghazni by Colonel Palmer, after holding 
out for four months, and of Brigadier- 
general England's repulse on 28 March at 
Haikalzai, and he induced both Pollock at 
Jalalabad and Nott at Kandahar to make 
arrangements for the withdrawal of all 
British troops from Afghanistan. Fortu- 
nately neither Pollock nor Nott feared re- 
sponsibility, and both were of an opinion 
that an advance on Kabul must be made 
before withdrawing from the country. Pol- 
lock at once communicated with Nott, re- 
questing him on no account to retire until 
he should hear again from him. In the 
meantime Pollock remonstrated strongly 
against the policy of the governor-general, 
and pointed out the necessity of advancing, 
if only to recover the captives, while at 
that season it was highly advantageous for 
the health of the troops to move to a hotter 
climate rather than retire with insufficient 
carriage through the pass to Peshawar. He 
further assumed that the instruction left 
him discretionary powers. Having received 
further orders from the governor-general that, 
on account of the health of the troops, they 
would not be withdrawn from Afghanistan 
until October or November, Pollock re- 
mained at Jalalabad negotiating with Akbar 
Khan for the release of the captives, but 
making preparations for an advance on 
Kabul. On 2 Aug. Captains Troup and 
George Lawrence arrived from Kabul, de- 
puted by Akbar Khan to conclude negotia- 
tions, but they were obliged to return to 
captivity, as Pollock would not agree to re- 
tire. In July Lord Ellenborough decided 
to leave the responsibility of an advance on 
Kabul, or as he put it, a withdrawal by 
way of Kabul, to the discretion of Pollock 
and Nott, directing Pollock to combine his 
movements with those of Nott, should 
he decide to adopt the line of retirement 
by Ghazni and Kabul ; and, in that case, as 
soon as Nott advanced beyond Kabul, 
Pollock was directed to issue such orders 
to Nott as he might deem fit. It now be- 
came a race, in which the two generals were 
each bent on getting to Kabul first. In the 
middle of August Pollock heard from Nott 
that he would withdraw a part of his force by 
way of Kabul and Jalalabad, and on 20 Aug. 
Pollock moved towards Gandamak, leaving 
a detachment to hold Jalalabad. Pollock 
reached Gandamak on the 23rd, and on the 
24th he attacked the enemy and drove them 
out of their positions at Mamii Khel and 
Kuchli Khel, and then out of the village and 
their adjoining camp. Major Broadfoot and 
his sappers greatly distinguished themselves, 




and captured the whole of the enemy's tents, 
cattle, and a good s apply of ammunition. The 
Afghans fled to the hills; the heights were 
attacked, and position after position carried at 
the point of the bayonet. Having dispersed 
the enemy and punished the villagers of Mamu 
Khel, Pollock busied himself in collecting 
supplies at Gandamak, and in making all 
necessary arrangements for the advance on 
Kabul. Letters arrived from Nott on 6 Sept., 
and Pollock, having secured sufficient supplies 
and leaving a strong detachment at Ganda- 
mak, advanced on 7 Sept. in two divisions, 
the first, which he himself accompanied, 
under the immediate command of Sir Robert 
Sale, the second under Major-general McCas- 
kill. Pollock encountered the enemy on the 
8th when advancing on the Jagdalak pass. 
The position occupied by the enemy was one of 
great strength and difficult of approach. The 
hills on each side were studded with ' sun- 
gahs' or breastworks, and formed an amphi- 
theatre inclining towards the left of the 
road. After shelling the ' sungahs ' for some 
time, Sale with much courage dispersed the 
enemy, and Pollock pushed on his troops, 
rejecting the advice of Sale to give the men 
rest after the fatigues of the day and to spare 
the cattle. He wisely deemed it best to give 
the enemy no time to rally, even at the cost of 

some of the baggage animals. Captain Troup, 

l, a captive 

who was at this time at Kabul, a captive 
with Akbar Khan, subsequently told Pollock 
that, had he not pushed on, the sirdar would 
have sallied out of Kabul with twenty thou- 
sand men. Pollock reached Seh Baba on 
the 10th, and Tezin on 11 Sept., and was 
joined on the same day by the second divi- 

Akbar Khan had sent the captives to 
Bamian, and, on learning that Pollock had 
halted at Tezin, at once determined to at- 
tack him there. He opened fire in the after- 
noon of 12 Sept. Pollock immediately at- 
tacked the enemy, some five hundred of whom 
had taken post along the crest and upon the 
summit of a range of steep hills running 
from the northward into the Tezin valley. 
They were taken by surprise, and driven 
headlong down the hills. Hostilities were 
suspended by the approach of night. At 
dawn preparations were made for forcing 
the Tezin pass, a most formidable pass, 
some four miles in length. The Afghans, 
numbering some twenty thousand men, had 
occupied every height and crag not already 
crowned by the British. Sale, with whom 
was Pollock, commanded the advanced guard. 
The^enemy were driven from post to post, con- ! 
testing every step, but overcome by repeated j 
bayonet charges. At length Pollock gained ! 

complete possession of the pass ; but the fight 
was not over. The Afghans retired to the 
Haft Kotal, an almost impregnable position 
on hills seven thousand eight hundred feet 
above the sea, and the last they could hope 
to defend in front of Kabul. But Pollock's 
force had now become accustomed to victory, 
and was burning to wipe out the stain of the 
disasters that had befallen Elphinstone's army 
near the same spot. The Haft Kotal was 
at length surmounted and the enemy driven 
from crag to crag. Pollock, having com- 
pletely dispersed the enemy by these opera- 
tions, on 12 and 13 Sept. pursued his march. 
The passage through the Khurd Kabul pass 
was unmolested, but the scene was a painful 
one, for the skeletons of Elphinstone's force 
lay so thick on the ground that they had to 
be dragged aside to allow the gun-carriages 
to pass. Butkhah was reached on the 14th, 
and on the 15th the force encamped close to 
Kabul. The British flag was hoisted with 
great ceremony in the Bala Hisar on the 
morning of the 16th. Akbar Khan, who had 
commanded the Afghans in person at Tezin, 
fled to the Ghorebund valley. On the follow- 
ing day Nott arrived from Kandahar and en- 
camped at Arghandeh, near Kabul. The 
armies of Nott and Pollock were encamped 
on opposite sides of Kabul (Nott having 
shifted his camp to Kalat-i-Sultan), and 
Pollock assumed command of the whole 
force. Immediately upon his arrival at Kabul 
Pollock despatched Sir Richard Shakespear 
with seven hundred Kazlbash horsemen to 
Bamian to rescue the captives, and on 17 Sept. 
he sent a request to Nott that he would sup- 
port Shakespear by sending a brigade in the 
direction of Bamian. Nott, however, who 
was annoyed by Pollock's victory in the race 
to Kabul, objected, saying his men required 
rest for a day or two, and excused himself 
from visiting Pollock on the plea of ill-health. 
Pollock, whose amiability was never in doubt, 
went on the 17th to see Nott, and, finding that 
he was still indisposed to send a brigade, di- 
rected Sale to take a brigade from his Jalala- 
bad troops and push on to the support of 
Shakespear. The captives had, however, by 
large bribes effected their own deliverance, 
and, starting for Kabul on the 16th, met 
Shakespear on the 17th, and arrived in Pol- 
lock's camp on 22 Sept. 

Pollock ascertained that Amir Ullah Khan, 
one of the fiercest opponents of British au- 
thority in Afghanistan, was collecting the 
scattered remnant of Akbar's forces in the 
kohistan or highlands of Kabul. He therefore 
sent a strong force, taken from both his own 
and Nott's division, under McCaskill, Avhose 
operations were crowned with complete sue- 



cess. The fortified town of Istalif was carried 
by assault, and Amir Ullali forced to fly. Cha- 
rikar and some other fortified places were 
destroyed, and the force returned to Kabul on 
7 Oct. 

On 9 Oct. Pollock instructed his chief 
engineer, Captain (now Major-general Sir 
Frederick) Abbott, to demolish the celebrated 
Char Chutter (or four bazaars), built in the 
reign of Aurungzebe by the celebrated Ali 
Mardan Khan, where the head and muti- 
lated remains of the British envoy, Sir 
William Macnaghten, had been exhibited. 
On 12 Oct. Pollock broke up his camp, and 
started on his return to India. He took with 
him as trophies forty-four pieces of ordnance 
and a large quant ity'of warlike stores, but, for 
want of carriage, was obliged to destroy the 
guns en route. He also removed with him 
two thousand natives, sepoys and camp fol- 
lowers of Elphinstone's army, who had been 
found in Kabul. Pollock, with the advanced 
guard under Sale, reached Gandamak on 
18 Oct., with little opposition; but McCaskill 
had some fighting, and the rear column under 
Nott was engaged in a severe affair in the 
Haft Kotal. On the 22nd the main column 
arrived at Jalalabad, McCaskill arriving on 
the 23rd, and Nott on the 24th. On 27 Oct. 
the army commenced to move from Jalalabad, 
having during the halt there destroyed both 
the fortifications and the town. Pollock 
reached Daka on the 30th, and Ali Masjid 
on the 12th Nov. Having during the whole 
of his march exercised the greatest caution, 
he met with no difficulty in any of the passes. 
McCaskill's division met with much opposi- 
tion in the Khaibar, and suffered severely. 
His third brigade, under Wild, was over- 
taken at night in the defiles leading to Ali 
Masjid, and lost some officers and men. 
Nott arrived at Jamriid with the rear di- 
vision on 6 Nov. The whole army encamped 
some four miles from Peshawar. On 12 Nov. 
it moved from Peshawar, and crossing the 
Punjab arrived, after an uneventful march, on 
the banks of the Satlaj, opposite Firozpur. 
Here they were met by the governor-general 
and the commander-in-chief, who, with the 
army of reserve, welcomed them with every 
circumstance of pomp. On 17 Dec. Sale, at 
the head of the Jalalabad garrison, crossed 
the bridge of boats into Firozpur. On the 
19th Pollock crossed, and was received by 
the governor-general ; and on the 23rd Nott 
arrived- Banquets and fetes were the order 
of the day. Rajah Shen Singh presented to 
Pollock, through the governor-general, a 
sword of honour. Pollock was made a G.C.B. 
and given the command of the Danapiir divi- 
sion. In the session of parliament of 1843 the 

thanks of both houses were voted to Pollock, 
and Sir Robert Peel dwelt eloquently on his 

In December 1843 Nott, who had been 
appointed political resident at Lucknow, re- 
signed on account of ill-health, and Pollock 
was appointed acting resident, an office which 
he held until the latter part of 1844, when 
he was appointed military member of the 
supreme council of India. On his arrival at 
Calcutta he was presented with an address, 
and a medal was instituted in commemora- 
tion of his services, to be presented to the 
most distinguished cadet at the East India 
Company's military college at Addiscombe 
on each examination for commissions. This 
medal, which has the head of Pollock on the 
obverse side, has since the abolition of Ad- 
discombe been transferred to the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich. Pollock 
was compelled to resign his appointment and 
leave India in 1846 in consequence of serious 

On his return to England the directors of 
the East India Company conferred upon 
Pollock a pension of 1,000/. a year; the cor- 
poration of London voted their thanks to 
him and presented him with the freedom of 
the city ; the Merchant Taylors conferred 
on him the freedom of their company. On 
11 Nov. 1851 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. He was appointed colonel-com- 
mandant of the C brigade of the royal horse 
artillery. On the initiation of the volunteer 
movement in 1861 he accepted the honorary 
colonelcy of the 1st Surrey rifles. On the 
institution in 1861 of the order of the Star 
of India, Pollock was made one of the first 
knights grand cross. 

In April 1854 Pollock was appointed by 
Sir Charles Wood the senior of the three 
government directors of the East India Com- 
pany, under the act of parliament passed in 
the previous year. The appointment was for 
two years. Pollock resided at Clapham Com- 
mon, and, after the expiration of his two years 
of office, did not again undertake any public 
post. On 17 May 1859 he was promoted gene- 
ral. On 24 May 1870 he was gazetted field- 
marshal. One of the last occasions on which 
he appeared in public was on 17 Aug. 1871, 
at the unveiling of the memorial of Outram. 
On the death of Sir John Burgoyne in 1871, 
Pollock was appointed to succeed him as con- 
stable of the Tower of London and lieutenant 
and custos rotulorum of the Tower Hamlets. 
In March 1872 the queen created him baronet 
as ' of the Khyber Pass.' He died at Walmer 
on 6 Oct. 1872, and was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. His remains received a public 
funeral. His portrait was painted by Sir 





Francis Grant, afterwards president of the 
Royal Academy, for the East India Com- 
pany, and is now in the India office. Pollock 
also sat for his likeness at the request of the 
committee of the United Service Club ; and a 
marble bust, by Joseph Durham, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. Pollock's 
second wife presented a portrait of her hus- 
band, in the uniform of a field-marshal, to 
the mess of the officers of the royal artillery 
at Woolwich. 

Pollock was twice married first, in 1810, 
to Frances Webbe, daughter of J. Barclay, 
sheriff of Tain. She died in 1848. By her 
he had five children : Annabella Homeria, 
married, first, to J. Harcourt of the Indian 
medical service, who was killed in the retreat 
from Kabul, and, secondly, to John Binney 
Key. Frederick, the eldest son, entered the 
royal engineers, and succeeded to the baro- 
netcy ; he married Laura Caroline, daughter 
of Ilenry Seymour Montagu of Westleton 
Grange, Suffolk, and in 1873 assumed the 
name of Montagu-Pollock ; he died in ] 874, 
and was succeeded by his son, who has no 
male issue. Sir George's second son, George 
David, F.R.C.S., of Early Wood, Surrey, 
surgeon to St. George's Hospital, and surgeon- 
in-ordinary to the Prince of Wales, is heir to 
the baronetcy. Robert, a lieutenant in the 
Bengal horse artillery, died from the effects 
of a wound received at the battle of Mudki 
on 18 Dec. 1845 (he was aide-de-camp to his 
father in Afghanistan) ; and Archibald Reid 
Swiney of the Indian civil service. Pollock 
married, secondly, in 1852, Henrietta, daugh- 
ter of George Hyde Wollaston of Clapham 
Common. She died on 14 Feb. 1872. 

Pollock's fame rests chiefly on his Afghani- 
stan campaign. Although not a brilliant 
commander, he was a very efficient one. He 
took the greatest trouble in looking after his 
men, and made all his arrangements with great 
care and precision. Cautious and prudent, 
he husbanded his resources ; but when he was 
ready to strike he was bold and determined. 
The Afghan campaign was a model of moun- 
tain Avarfare, and is a standing example in all 
textbooks on the subject. 

[Despatches ; Low's Life of Field-marshal Sir 
George Pollock, London, 1873 ; Stocqueler's Me- 
morials of Afghanistan, Calcutta, 1843; Broad- 
foot's Career of Major George 15 roadfoot, London, 
1888; Kaye's Hist, of the War in Afghanistan 
in 1838 to 1842, 3 vols. ; Stocqueler's Memoirs 
and Correspondence of Sir William Nott, 2 vols. 
18-54.] K. H. V. 

DERICK (1783-1870), judge, third son of 
David Pollock, saddler, of Charing Cross, by 
his wife Sarah Homera, daughter of Richard 

Parsons, receiver-general of customs, and 
brother of Sir David Pollock [q. v.], and also 
of Field-marshal Sir George Pollock [q. v.], 
was born in the parish of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields on 23 Sept. 1783. He was edu- 
cated at private schools, at St. Paul's School, 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he obtained a scholarship in 1804, but was 
nevertheless so poor that, but for the help 
afforded him by his tutor, the' unlucky Tavel ' 
of Byron's ' Hints from Horace,' he must have 
left the university without a degree. He 
graduated B.A. in 1806, being senior wran- 
gler and first Smith's prizeman, was elected 
fellow of his college in 1807, proceeded M.A. 
in 1809, and on 27 Nov. of the same year 
was called to the bar at the Middle Temple. 
Uniting a retentive memory, great natural 
acumen, and tact in the management of juries, 
with a profound knowledge theoretical and 
practical of the common law, and a perfect 
mastery of accounts and mercantile usages, 
Pollock rapidly acquired an extensive practice 
both at Westminster and on the northern cir- 
cuit, though among his rivals were Brougham 
and Scarlett. He took silk in Easter vaca- 
tion 1827, and on 2 May 1831 was returned 
to parliament in the tory interest for the 
close borough of Huntingdon, which he con- 
tinued to represent throughout his parlia- 
mentary career. He was knighted, 29 Dec. 
1834, on accepting the office of attorney- 
general in Sir Robert Peel's first admini- 
stration, which terminated on 9 April 1835 ; 
resumed the same office on the formation of 
Peel's second administration, 6 Sept. 1841, 
and held it until he was appointed lord chief 
baron of the exchequer, in succession to Lord 
Abinger [see SCARLETT, SIR JAMES], 15 April 

In the court of exchequer Pollock presided 
with distinction for nearly a quarter of a 
century, during which the practice of the 
courts was materially modified by the Com- 
mon Law Procedure Acts of 1852 and 1854. 
He loyalty accepted these reforms, and carried 
them into practical effect. His learned and 
luminous judgments are contained in the 'Re- 
ports' of Meeson and Welsby( seq.), 
the 'Exchequer Reports,' and the 'Reports of 
Hurlstone and Norman, and Hurlstone and 
Coltman. In the great case of Egerton r. 
Brownlow, in the House of Lords, he was al- 
most alone among the judges in the opinion 
which the lords ultimately adopted. Though 
place cannot be claimed for him among the 
most illustrious of the sages of the law, he 
yields to none in the second rank. On his 
retirement in 1866 he received, on 24 July, 
a baronetcy. In later life Pollock resumed 
the studies of his youth. To the Royal So- 


6 9 


ciety, of which he was elected a fellow in 
1810, he communicated three mathematical 
papers (Philosophical Transactions,\iv. 
No. xiv., vol. cxlix. No. iii., and vol. cli. pt. 
i. No. xxi. He was also F.S.A. and F.G.S. 

Pollock died of old age at his seat, Hatton, 
Middlesex, on 23 Aug. 1870. His remains 
were interred (29 Aug.) in Hanwell ceme- 

Pollock married twice. By his first wife, 
Frances, daughter of Francis Rivers of Lon- 
don (m. 25 May 1813; d. 27 Jan. 1827) he 
had issue six sons and five daughters ; by his 
second wife, Sarah Anne Amowah, second 
daughter of Captain Richard Langslow of 
Ilatton, Middlesex (m. 7 Jan. 1834), he had 
issue two sons and five daughters [cf. MAKTIN, 
SIE SAMUEL, ad fin.] He was succeeded in 
title by his eldest son, Sir William Frede- 
rick Pollock [q. v.] His fourth son, Sir 
Charles Edward Pollock, is a baron of the 

[Cambridge Univ. Cal. 1804-1810; Grad. 
Cant.; Foster's Baronetage; Times, 24 Aug. 
1870 ; Law Journal, 2 Sept. 1870; Law Times, 
27 Aug. 1870; Gent. Mag. 1866, pt. ii. 393; 
Ann. Keg. 1870 (Obituary) ; Gardiner's Register 
of St. Paul's School ; Jerdan's Reminiscences ; 
Pryme's Autobiographic Recollections, pp. 54, 
183, 341, 373; Ballantine's Experiences of a 
Barrister's Life, p. 154; Crabb Robinson's Diary; 
Pollock's Personal Reminiscences, 1887 ; Lord 
Kingsdown's Recollections, pp. 24, 100, 115 ; 
Duke of Buckingham's Cabinets of William IV 
and Victoria, ii. 150, 412 ; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby.l 

J. M. R. 

DERICK (1815-1888), queen's remem- 
brancer and author, eldest son of Sir Jona- 
than Frederick Pollock [q. v.] by his first wife, 
was born on 13 April 1815. He was educated 
under private tutors, at St. Paul's School, and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he ob- 
tained a scholarship in 1835, graduated 
B.A. in 1836, and proceeded M.A. in 1840. 
Although of junior standing to Tennyson, 
he was a member of the little society whose 
debates are celebrated in ( In Memoriam ' 

Pollock was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple on 26 Jan. 1838, and went the north- 
ern circuit, in which he held for some years 
the post of revising barrister. He was ap- 
pointed a master of the court of exchequer 
in 1846, and in 1874 to the ancient office of 
queen's remembrancer. On the fusion of the 
courts of law and equity in the supreme court 
of judicature (1875) the office of queen's 
remembrancer was annexed to the senior 
mastership, and continued to be held by I 

Pollock until September 1886, when he re- 
signed. He died at his residence in Montague 
Square on 24 Dec. 1888. 

Pollock married, on 30 March 1844, Juliet, 
daughter of the Rev. Henry Creed, vicar of 
Corse, Gloucestershire, by whom he had 
issue three sons, of whom the eldest, Sir 
Frederick Pollock, bart., is Corpus professor 
of jurisprudence at Oxford. 

Pollock was a man of liberal culture and 
rare social charm. His entertaining ' Per- 
sonal Remembrances,' which he published 
in 1887, show how various were his accom- 
plishments, and how numerous his friend- 
ships in the world of letters, science, and 
art. He was one of Macready's executors, 
and edited his ' Reminiscences ' (London, 
1876, 2 vols. 8vo). His portrait was painted 
by W. W. Ouless, R.A. 

Pollock was author of ' The Divine Comedy ; 
or the Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise of 
Dante rendered into English ' (in closely 
literal blank verse, with fine plates by Dalziel 
from drawings by George, afterwards Sir 
George, Scharf [q.v.], mostly after Flaxman), 
London, 1854, 8vo. 

[Grad. Cant.; Foster's Baronetage ; Times, 
20 Aug. 1886, 25 Dec. 1888; Law Journal, 
29 Dec. 1888; Personal Remembrances of Sir 
Frederick Pollock, second bart., 1887, 2 vols.] 

J. M. Ii. 

POLLOK, ROBERT (1798-1827), poet, 
son of a small farmer, and seventh of a 
family of eight, was born at North Moor- 
house, in the parish of Eaglesham, Renfrew- 
shire, on 19 Oct. 1798. In 1805 the family 
settled at Mid Moorhouse, about a quarter 
of a mile from their previous residence, and 
this is the Moorhouse of Pollok's letters. 
He received his elementary education at 
South Longlee, a neighbouring farm, and at 
Mearns parish school, Renfrewshire, where, 
by excessive indulgence in athletic exer- 
cise, he permanently weakened his health. 
In the spring of 1815 he tried cabinet- 
making under his brother-in-law, but re- 
linquished the trade after constructing four 
chairs. Pollok worked on his father's farm, 
till the autumn of 1815, when he and his 
elder brother, David, decided to become 
secession ministers, and were prepared for 
the university at the parish school of Fen- 
wick, Ayrshire. Pollok's general reading 
had already embraced the works of various 
standard English poets, and he began poetical 
composition, specially affecting blank verse. 
In 1817 Pollok went to Glasgow Univer- 
sity, where he graduated M.A. in 1822. He 
was a good student, gaining distinction in logic 
and moral philosophy. H e read widely ; com- 
posed many verses ; founded a college literary 



society ; began a commonplace book ; and 
gave evidence of an acute critical gift in a 
letter, entitled ' A Discussion on Composi- 
tional Thinking' (Life, by his brother, p. 

From 1822 to 1827 he studied theology, 
both at the United Secession Hall and at 
Glasgow University. In spite of bad health, 
he devoted his leisure to literature, and began 
in 1825 the work which developed into the 
' Course of Time.' It was prompted by 
Byron's ' Darkness,' which he found in a 
miscellany. John Blackwood, supported by 
the opinion of Professor Wilson and David 
Macbeth Moir [q. v.] (Delta), published the 
poem in the spring of 1827. 

After two years of preparation at Dun- 
fermline, Poilok received his qualification 
as a probationer under the United Associa- 
tion Synod on 2 May 1827. He preached 
once in Edinburgh, and three times at Slate- 
ford, in the neighbourhood, but his health dis- 
allowed any permanent engagement. Dr. Bel- 
frage of Slate ford befriended him, consulted 
Dr. Abercrombie and other eminent physi- 
cians in his interest, and agreed with them 
that he should visit Italy. Among his many 
visitors at Slateford was Henry Mackenzie 
[q. v.], author of the ( Man of Feeling,' then 
eighty-four years of age. At length he made 
with his sister, Mrs. Gilmour, the voyage 
from Leith to London, where the doctors 
pronounced him unfit for further travel. His 
sister settled with him at Shirley Common, 
near Southampton, where he died 18 Sept. 
1827. He was buried in the neighbouring 
churchyard of Millbrook, and a granite obelisk 
over his grave bears the inscription, ' His 
immortal Poem is his monument.' His por- 
trait, painted by Sir Daniel Macnee,P.R.S. A., 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, Edin- 

' The Course of Time,' Edinburgh, 1827, 
8vo, is Pollok's one permanent contribution 
to literature. It is in ten books, the blank 
verse in which it is written recalling Cowper 
and Young, whose harmonies Poilok regarded 
as the language of the gods. Concerned with 
the destiny of man, the poem is conceived on 
a stupendous scale, which battled the writer's 
artistic resources. Never absolutely feeble, 
it tends to prolixity and discursiveness, but 
is relieved by passages of sustained brilliancy. 
It reached its fourth edition in 1828, and its 
twenty-fifth in 1867. An edition, with illus- 
trations by Birket Foster and Mr. John 
Tenniel, appeared in 1857 (London, 8vo), 
and the seventy-eighth thousand appeared at 
Edinburgh in 1868. 

Of Pollok's other experiments in verse, 
published in the ' Life ' by his brother, the 

most remarkable is his contemplative 
' Thoughts on Man,' in chap. vi. The three 
tales, written in 1824-5, 'Helen of the 
Glen,' ' Ralph Gemmell,' and ' The Perse- 
cuted Family,' treating of the covenanters, 
were published anonymously, in a time of 
stress, for what they would bring, and 
Poilok never acknowledged them. After 
his death the publishers issued them with 
his name. To ' The Esk,' an ephemeral 
periodical, Poilok contributed a suggestive 
article on 'Serious Thought ' (ib. p. 329), 
and his wide reading and discrimination are 
displayed in his comprehensive Survey of 
Christian Literature ' (ib. pp. 323, 362). 

[Life of Robert Poilok. by his brother, David 
Poilok; Memoir prefixed to 23rd edit, of the 
Course of Time ; Blackwood's Magazine, July 
1827; Noctes Ambrosianse, vols. ii. iv. ; Eecrea- 
tions of Christopher North, i. 224 ; Moir's Lec- 
tures on Poetical Literature, p. 238; Cham- 
bers's Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen.] T. B. 

POLTON, THOMAS (d. 1433), bishop 
successively of Hereford, Chichester, and 
Worcester, may be the Thomas Polton who 
was temporarily archdeacon of Taunton in 
1395, and again about 1403, and held a pre- 
bend at Hereford between 1410 and 1412 
(LE NEVE, i. 167, 516). From 1408 he was 
prebendary of York, of which cathedral he 
was elected dean on 23 July 1416, being then 
described as bachelor of laws, but of what 
university does not appear (ib. iii. 124, 
190, 215 ; cf. Fcedera, ix. 370). Meanwhile 
he had acted, from 8 June 1414, as the king's 
proctor at the papal court, and simulta- 
neously with his promotion to the deanery of 
York was appointed one of the English 
ambassadors to the council of Constance 
(ib.') As papal prothonotary and head of 
the English ' nation,' he took a very promi- 
nent part in the proceedings of the council 
(Vox DER HARDT, vols. iv-v. ; ST.-DENYS, 
v. 467, 620). After the council broke up, 
Polton continued to reside at Home as papal 
notary and proctor for Henry V, and even 
when Pope Martin provided him by bull, 
dated 15 July 1420, to the bishopric of Here- 
ford, and consecrated him at Florence six 
days later, he did not at once return to 
England (LE NEVE, i. 464). On the death 
of Richard Clifford, bishop of London, in 
August 1421, the chapter, on 22 Dec., elected 
Polton in his place, but the pope had already 
(17 Nov.) translated John Kemp [q.v.] from 
Chichesterto London, and Polton from Here- 
ford to Chichester (ib. i. 245, 294). In 
January 1426, as part of a compromise with 
the pope with regard to the filling up of 
several sees then vacant, the privy council 
agreed that Polton, who was then in Eng- 



land, sliould be translated from Chichester to 
Worcester, and this was done by papal bull 
dated 27 Feb. 1426 (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 
180, 190). 

In November 1432 lie was appointed to 
go to the council of Basle, with license to 
visit the ' limina apostolorum ' for a year 
after the dissolution of the council (Fwdera, 
x. 527-9). He does not seem to have set 
out until the following spring, and shortly 
after his arrival at Basle he died (23 Aug. 
1433), and was buried there. His will, dated 
6 Dec. 1432, was proved on 18 Oct. 1433 
(Ord. Privy Council, iv. 156 ; LE NEVE, iii. 
60). In the Cottonian Collection (Nero 
E. V.) there is a fine manuscript entitled 
* Origo et Processus Gentis Scotorum ac de 
Superioritate Regum Anglise super regnum 
illud' which belonged to Polton, and was 
bought from his executors by Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester. 

[Rymer's Foedera, orig. ed. ; Proceedings and 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas ; 
Von der Hardt's Concilium Constantiense, 1697, 
&c. ; Lenfant's Concilede Basle, 1731 ; Godwin, 
De Prsesulibus Anglise, ed. Eichardson, 1743, 
pp. 466, 491, 509; Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise 
Anglicanse, ed. Hardy; Stubbs's Registrum Sa- 
crum.] J. T-T. 

HENRY FRANCIS, 1800-1867.] 

POLWHELE, RICHARD (1760-1838), 
miscellaneous writer, claimed descent from 
Drogo de Polwhele, chamberlain of the Em- 
press Matilda. Upon Drogo Matilda bestowed 
in 1140 a grant of lands in Cornwall {Gent. 
Mag. 1822 pt. ii. p. 551, 1823, pt. i. pp. 26, 
98). The family long resided at Polwhele, 
in the parish of St. Clement, Cornwall, about 
two miles from Truro, on the road to St. 
Columb, and several of its members were 
among the Cornish representatives in parlia- 
ment. His father, Thomas Polwhele, died 
on 4 Feb. 1777, and was buried in St. 
Clement's churchyard on 8 Feb. ; his mother 
was Mary (d. 1804), daughter of Richard 
Thomas, alderman of Truro (POLWHELE, Corn- 
wall, vii. 43) ; she suggested to Dr. Wolcot 
the subject of his well-known poem, 'The 
Pilgrim and the Peas ' (REDDING, Fifty Years, 
i. 266). 

Richard, the only son, was born at Truro 
on 6 Jan. 1760, and was educated at Truro 
grammar school by Cornelius Cardew, D.D. 
He began to write poetry when about twelve 
years old, and his juvenile productions were 
praised by Wolcot, then resident at Truro, but 
with the judicious qualification that he should 
drop ' his damned epithets/ On his father's 
death in 1777 he accompanied his mother on 

a visit to Bath and Bristol, where he made the 
acquaintance of literary personages, including 
Mrs. Macaulay and Hannah More. He pre- 
sented the first of these ladies with an ode on 
her birthday, which was printed at Bath, with 
five others, in April 1777 ; and he was induced 
by the flattery of his friends to publish in 
the next year a volume of poems called ' The ( 
Fate of Lewellyn.' The title-page concealed ' 
the author's name, stating that it was ' by a 
young gentleman of Truro School,' whereupon 
the critic in the ' Monthly Review ' stated 
that the master of that school should have 
kept it in manuscript, and Cardew retorted 
that he was ignorant of the proposed publica- 
tion. This premature appearance in print 
impaired Polwhele's reputation. From that 
date he was always publishing, but all his 
works were deficient in thoroughness. 

Polwhele matriculated as commoner at 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 3 March 1778, 
and received from it two of Fell's exhibitions. 
He kept his terms until he was admitted a 
student in civil law, but he left the univer- 
sity without taking a degree. In 1782 he 
was ordained by Bishop Ross as curate to 
the Rev. Thomas Bedford, rector of Lamor- 
ran, on the left bank of the Fal, Cornwall, but 
stayed there for a very short time, as in the 
same year he was offered the curacy of Kenton, 
near Powderham Castle, Devonshire, the seat 
of the Courtenays. In this position he re- 
mained until the close of 1793. The parish 
is situate in beautiful scenery; many of the 
resident gentry were imbued with literary 
tastes, and it is but a few miles from Exeter, 
where Polwhele joined a literary society 
which ' met every three weeks at the Globe 
Tavern at one o'clock ; recited literary com- 
positions in prose and verse, and dined at 
three ' (POLWHELE, Cornwall, v. 105). The 
association published in 1792 ' Poems chiefly 
by Gentlemen of Devonshire and Cornwall ' 
(2 vols.), edited by Polwhele, and in 1796 
* Essays by a Society of Gentlemen at Exeter.' 
A quarrel over the second publication gave 
rise to a bitter controversy between Polwhele 
and his colleagues (Gent. Mag. 1796, pt. ii.) 
Meanwhile he projected his ' History of 
Devonshire,' and derived considerable assist- 
ance from the documents at Powderham, 
Mamhead, and Haldon, and from the dio- 
cesan records at Exeter (cf. ib. 1790, pt. ii. 
pp. 1178-80). His list of subscribers was 
soon full, but the work proved unsatis- 

Polwhele had married in 1782 Loveday, 
second daughter of Samuel Warren of Truro, 
by his wife, Blanche Sandys, of an old Cornish 
family. On 1 Feb. 1793 his wife died at 
Kenton, aged 28, leaving one son and two 




daughters (POLWHELE, Devonshire, ii. 167). 
Thereupon he moved, with his children, to 
his mother's house in Cornwall, but after 
a short stay returned again to Kenton, and 
married there, on 29 Nov. 1793, Mary, daugh- 
ter of Richard Tyrrell or Terrell of Star- 
cross. Early in 1794 he was appointed to the 
, curacy of Exmouth, on the opposite side 
of the Exe (WEBB, Memorials of Exmouth, 
p. 30). 

On the nomination of the bishop of Exeter, 
Polwhele was appointed in 1794 to the small 
living of Manaccan, near Helston, Cornwall, 
and he also undertook for a non-resident 
vicar the charge of the still smaller and poorer 
living of St. Anthony in Meneage, to which 
he was appointed in 1809. The parsonage of 
Manaccan was a mere cottage, and Polwhele 
spent a considerable part of his resources 
in repairs and enlargements. To secure the 
requisite education for his children, he ac- 
cepted, about 1806, the curacy of the large 
parish of Kenwyn, within which the borough 
of Truro is partly situated, and obtained from 
the bishop a license of non-residence at 
Manaccan. Croker records in 1820 that 
Polwhele, who appeared ' to have very little 
worldly wisdom,' was in trouble through re- 
storing his church without proper authority, 
and that the parishioners had threatened him 
with law proceedings. He vacated the living 
of Manaccan in 1821 on his appointment to 
the more valuable vicarage of Newlyn East, 
and he resigned St. Anthony in favour of 
his eldest son, William, in 1828. Though 
he retained the benefice of Newlyn until 
his death, the last ten years of his life were 
spent on his estate of Polwhele, where he 
devoted himself to the composition of his 
autobiographical volumes. He died at Truro 
on 12 March 1838, and was buried at St. 
Clement, where a monument preserves his 
memory. By his second wife he had a large 
family ; among the sons were Robert, vicar of 
Avenbury, Herefordshire, and author of some 
small theological works ; Richard Graves, a 
lieutenant-colonel in the Madras artillery; 
and Thomas, a general in the army. 

Polwhele was, by turns, poet, topographer, 
theologian, and literary chronicler, and his 
fame has been marred by a fatal fluency of 
composition. Before he was twenty he wrote, 
besides the works already mentioned, an ode 
called ' The Spirit of Frazer to General Bur- 
goyne ' (1778), poems in the ' Essays and 
Poems of Edmund Rack,' and an ' Ode on the 
Isle of Man to the Memory of Bishop W r il- 
son ' for the 1781 edition of Wilson's works. 
The chief of his subsequent productions in 
poetry were: 1. 'The Art of Eloquence,' a 
didactic poem, bk. i. (anon.), 1785, the later 

editions and following books being known as 
' The English Orator,' which was revised by 
Bishop Ross and others (POLWHELE, Laviny- 
ton 's Enthusiasm of Methodists, App. p. 404). 
2. Poems, 1791. 3. 'Pictures from Nature,' 
1785 and 1786. 4. 'Influence of Locals 
Attachment' (anon.), 1796, 1798, and 1810. 
This poem gave ' indications of a higher ex- 
cellence ' which were not fulfilled (MoiE r 
Sketches of Poetical Lit. p. 37). Long ex- 
tracts from it are given in Drake's ' Winter 
Nights/ i. 224-36, ii. 14-17, 247-63, and it 
w r as compared by some of the critics to the- 
'Pleasures of Memory' by Samuel Rogers. 
Polwhele thereupon attempted to prove t he- 
originality of his own ideas (CLAYDEN, Early 


satirical references to Montauban (i.e. Sir 
John St. Aubyn). 6. ' Sketches in Verse,' 
1796 and 1797. 7. ' The Old English Gen- 
tleman,' 1797. 8. 'The Unsex'd Females/ 
1798 and 1800. 9. ' Grecian Prospects,' 1799. 
10. Poems, 1806, 3 vols. 11. 'The Family 
Picture' (anon.), 1808. 12. Poems, 1810, 
5 vols. 13. ' The Deserted Village School ' 
(anon.), 1812. 14. ' The fair Isabel of Cotehele/ 
1815. 15. ' The Idylls, Epigrams, and Frag- 
ments of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, with 
the Elegies of Tyrtaaus,' 1786; this has been 
often reprinted, the translations of Tyrtaeus 
being included in a polyglot version published 
at Brussels by A. Baron in 1835. The render- 
ing of the idylls of Theocritus has been much 
praised (DRAKE, Lit. Hours, ii. 191). 

The topographical works of Polwhele in- 
cluded histories of Devon and of Cornwall. 
The second volume of 16. ' The History of 
Devonshire,' the first part that was pub- 
lished appeared early in 1793. The third 
volume came next, and, like its predecessor, 
was devoted to a parochial survey of the- 
county. The style of these volumes was- 
attractive, and the descriptions of the places 
which he had himself seen were excellent. 
But the author was wanting in applica- 
tion ; large districts of the county were- 
unknown to him, and the topography was 
not described on an adequate scale. The 
general history of the county was reserved 
for the first volume, the first part of which 
came out in the summer of 1797. This com- 
prised the ' Natural History and the British 
Period ' from the first settlements in Dam- 
nonium to the arrival of Julius Caesar. Then 
came a querulous postscript with complaints 
of the withdrawal of subscribers and of the 
action of some of his friends in publishing 
separate works on portions of the history of 
the county. The first volume was at last 




completed with a very meagre sketch of its 
later history. Much matter was omitted, 
and the whole work was a disappointment 
to both author and public, which was not 
mitigated by the separate publication of 
17. ' Historical Views of Devonshire,' vol. i. 
1793. Four more volumes were announced, but 
only the first volume was published. Further 
information on these works will be found in 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1793 and 
following years, Upcott's ' English Topo- 
graphy,' i. 150-2, and the ' Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association,' xiv. 51-3. Per- 
fect copies of ' The History of Devonshire ' 
are very scarce. A copy with numerous notes 
by George Oliver, D.D. (1781-1861) [q.v.], is 
at the British Museum. The ' History of 
Devonshire ' was reissued in 1806. 

Polwhele's next great labour in topography 
18. ' The History of Cornwall ' also came 
out piecemeal in seven detached volumes 
(1803-1808), and copies, when met with, are 
rarely in perfect agreement either as to leaves 
or plates. A new edition, purporting to be cor- 
rected and enlarged, appeared in 1816, when 
the original titles and the dedication to the 
Prince of Wales were cancelled. The most use- 
ful of the volumes is the fifth, which deals with 
' the language, literature, and literary cha- 
racters.' A dull supplement to the first and 
second books, containing ' Remarks on St. 
Michael's Mount, Penzance, the Land's End, 
and the Sylleh Isles. By the Historian of 
Manchester ' (i.e. John Whitaker [q. v.J), was 
printed at Exeter in 1804. The vocabularies 
and provincial glossary contained in vol. vi. 
were printed off in 1836. The complicated 
bibliography of this work can be studied in 
the 'Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' ii. 510-11, 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1803-4, 
Upcott's 'English Topography,' i. 88-93, 
and ' The Western Antiquary,' vol. ix. Pol- 
whele gave much assistance to John Britton 
in the compilation of the ' Beauties of Corn- 
wall and Devon.' 

The volumes of reminiscences and anecdotes 
by Polwhele comprised : 19. ' Traditions and 
Recollections,' 1826, 2 vols. 20. 'Biogra- 
phical Sketches in Cornwall,' 1831, 3 vols. 
21. ' Reminiscences in Prose and Verse,' 1836, 
3 vols. The earlier part of the first set con- 
tains some civil-war letters, anecdotes of 
Foote and Wolcot, and many of his own 
juvenile poems. His chief correspondents 
were Samuel Badcock, Cobbett, Cowper, 
Darwin, Hay ley, Gibbon, Mrs. Macaulay, 
Sir Walter Scott, Miss Seward, and John 
Whitaker, D.D. A memoir by Polwhele of 
the last of these worthies formed the subject 
of the third volume of the ' Biographical 
Sketches.' Copies of these three works, with 

manuscript additions, cancelled leaves, and 
many names, where blank in print, inserted 
in writing, are in the Dyce Library at the 
South Kensington Museum. Polwhele also 
published, in connection with the Church 
Union Society, two prize essays respectively 
on the scriptural evidence as to the condition 
of the soul after death, and on marriage; 
printed many sermons, and conducted a 
vigorous polemic against the methodists. 
His chief opponent on this topic was Samuel 
Drew [q. v.J, who first confuted Polwhele's 
arguments and afterwards became his firm 
friend (Life of Drew, pp. 129-52). 

Throughout his life Polwhele was a con- 
tributor to the * Gentleman's Magazine,' and 
from 1799 to 1805 he was a frequent con- 
tributor to the ' Anti-Jacobin Review.' He 
also supplied occasional articles to the 
'European Magazine,' the ' Orthodox Church- 
man's Magazine,' and the ' British Critic/ 
Some of his poetry appeared in the ' Forget- 
me-not,' ' Literary Souvenir,' ' The Amulet,* 
the 'Sacred Iris*' and George Henderson's 
'Petrarca' (1803). Several letters to him 
are in Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature,' 
(iii. 841-2, v. 326, vii. 610-80), and some 
letters by him were in Upcott's collection 
(Catalogue, 1836, pp. 41-3). 

Polwhele's portrait, by Opie, ' one of the 
first efforts of his genius,' painted about 1778 ? 
was in the possession of the Rev. Edward 
Polwhele, his son. It was engraved by 
Audinet as frontispiece to his 'Traditions 
and Recollections,' and was also inserted in 
Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature ' (viii. 
646-7). Another engraved portrait from a 
miniature appeared in the ' European Ma- 
gazine ' for November 1795. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1793 pt. 
i. p. 187, pt. ii. p. 1149, 1838 pt. i. pp. 545-9 ; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Corn ub. ii. 506-17, 
iii. 1316; Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 745-7, 
1200 ; Vivian's Visitations of Cornwall, pp. 377- 
378; Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, i. 210-17; 
Literary Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, ii. 
144-6 ; Public Characters, 1802-3, pp. 254-67; 
European Mag. 1795, pt. ii. pp. 329-33; 
Bidding's Personal Keminiscences, i. 176-200; 
Redding's Fifty Years' Recollections, i. 266; 
Croker Papers, i. 165.] W. P. C. 

THEOPHILUS (d. 1689), puritan divine, 
of Cornish extraction, was born in Somerset. 
He was entered at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, as a sizar on 29 March 1644, and 
was under the tutorship of William Sancroft, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. In 
1651 he took the degree of M.A. He was 
preacher at Carlisle until about 1655 (Dedi- 
cation to Treatise on Self-deniall). In 1654 




he was a member of the committee for 
ejecting scandalous ministers in the four 
northern counties of Cumberland, Durham, 
Northumberland, and Westmoreland. From 
that year until 1660, when he was driven 
from the living, he held the rectory of the 
portions of Clare and Tidconibe at Tiverton. 
The statement of the Rev. John Walker, in 
1 The Sufferings of the Clergy,' that he allowed 
the parsonage-house to fall into ruins, is con- 
futed in Calamy's ' Continuation of Baxter's 
Life and Times' (i. 260-1). Polwhele sym- 
pathised with the religious views of the in- 
dependents, and after the Restoration he was 
often in trouble for his religious opinions. 
After the declaration of James II the Steps 
meeting-house was built at Tiverton for the 
members of the independent body ; he was ap- 
pointed its first minister, and, on account of 
his age, Samuel Bartlett was appointed his 
assistant. He was buried in the churchyard 
of St. Peter, Tiverton, on 3 April 1689. His 
wife was a daughter of the Rev. William 
Benn of Dorchester. Their daughter married 
the Rev. Stephen Lobb [q. v.] 

Polwhele was the author of: 1. l Avdevrrjs, 
or a Treatise of Self-deniall,' 1658 ; dedicated 
to the mayor, recorder, and corporation of 
Carlisle. 2. l Original and Evil of Apostasie/ 
1664. 3. 'Of Quencing [sic] the Spirit,' 
1667. 3. ( Choice Directions how to serve 
,God every Working and every Lord's Day/ 
1667 ; published by Thomas Mall as an 
addition to his ' Serious Exhortation to 
Holy Living.' 4. l Of Ejaculatory Prayer/ 
1674 ; dedicated to Thomas Skinner, mer- 
chant in London, who had shown him great 
kindness. A catalogue of the l names of 
the princes with Edward III in his wars 
with France and Normandy/ transcribed by 
him ' att Carlisle the 21st Aug. 1655,' from a 
manuscript at Na worth Castle, is in Raw- 
linson MS. Bodl. Libr. Class B 44, fol. 47. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cormib. ii. 517- 
518, iii. 1316-17; Dunsford's Tiverton, pp. 331, 
371-2; Harding's Tiverton, vol. ii. pt. iv. pp. 
47, 70; Calamy's Abridgment of Baxter's Life 
and Times, ii. 239, and Continuation, i. 260-1 ; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial (1802 ed.), ii. 79- 
80; Greene's Memoir of Theophilus Lobb, p. 5.] 

W. P. C. 

THOMAS WILLIAM, fourth EARL, 1770-1833.] 


POMFRET, JOHN (1667-1702), poet, 
born at Luton, Bedfordshire, in 1667, was 
the son of Thomas Pomfret, vicar of Luton, 
who married, at St. Mary's, Savoy, Middle- 
sex, on 27 Nov. 1661, Catherine, daughter of 

William Dobson of Holborn (Harl. Soc. 
PubL 1887, xxvi. 287). The father gra- 
duated M.A. from Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1661, became chaplain to Robert 
Bruce, second earl of Elgin and first earl 
of Ailesbury [q. v.], and is probably iden- 
tical with the Thomas Pomfret, author of the 
1 Life of Lady Christian, Dowager Countess 
of Devonshire ' (privately printed 1685). 
The poet was educated at Bedford gram- 
mar school and at Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, graduating B.A. in 1684, and M.A. 
in 1688. He took orders upon leaving 
Cambridge, and, having influential connec- 
tions, he was instituted to the rectory of 
Maulden in Bedfordshire on 12 Dec. 1695, 
and to the rectory of Millbrook in the same 
county on 2 June 1702. He dabbled in verse 
at least as early as 1694, when he wrote an 
elegy upon the death of Queen Mary. This 
was published in 1699, with other pieces in 
heroic couplets, remarkable chiefly for their 
correctness, under the title of ( Poems 011 
Several Occasions.' One of the longer poems, 
called ' Cruelty and Lust/ commemorates 
an act of barbarity said to have been 
perpetrated by Colonel Kirke during the 
western rebellion. Pom fret's treatment of 
the situation is prosaically tame. The sale 
of these ( miscellany poems ' was greatly 
stimulated by Pomfr'et's publication in 1700 
of his chief title to remembrance, ' The 
Choice : a Poem written by a Person of 
Quality ' (London, fol.), which won instant 
fame. Four quarto editions appeared during 
1701. In the meantime Pomfret issued ( A 
Prospect of Death : an Ode ' (1700, fol.), and 
' Reason : a Poem ' (1700, fol.) A second 
edition of his poems, including * The Choice/ 
appeared in 1702 as ' Miscellany Poems on 
Several Occasions, by the author of "The 
Choice."' A third edition was issued in 1710; 
the tenth appeared in 1736, 12mo, and the 
last separate edition in 1790, 24mo. When 
the scheme for the ' Lives of the Poets ' was 
submitted by the booksellers to Dr. Johnson, 
the name of Pomfret (together with three 
others) was added by his advice ; Johnson 
remarks that ' perhaps no poem in our lan- 
guage has been so often perused ' as * The 
Choice.' It is an admirable exposition in 
neatly turned verse of the everyday epi- 
cureanism of a cultivated man. Pomfret 
is said to have drawn some hints from 
a study of the character of Sir William 
Temple (cf. Gent. Mag. 1757, p. 489). The 
poet's frankly expressed aspiration to ' have 
no wife ' displeased the bishop of London 
(Compton), to whom he had been recom- 
mended for preferment. Despite the fact 
that Pomfret was married, the bishop's sus- 




picions were not dispelled before the poet's 
death. He was buried at Maulden on 1 Dec. 
1702 (Genealogia Bedfordiensis. ed. Blaydes, 
p. 414). 

Pomfret married at Luton, on 13 Sept. 
1692, Elizabeth Wingate, by whom he had 
one surviving son, John Pomfret, baptised 
at Maulden on 21 Aug. 1702, who became 
rouge croix pursuivant of arms in July 
1725, and, dying on 24 March 1751, was 
buried at Harrowden in Bedfordshire (Hist. 
Megist. 1725 ; NOBLE, Hist, of the College 
of Arms, pp. 362, 394; Gent. Mag. 1751, 
p. 141). 

Pomfret s poems were printed in Johnson's 
'English Poets ' (1779, vol. xxi.), Chalmers's 
'Poets' (1810, vol. viii.), Park's 'British 
Poets ' (1808, supplement, vol. i.), Roach's 
' Beauties of the Poets ' (1794, vol. ii.), and 
Pratt V Cabinet of Poetry '(1808, vol. ii.) The 
exclusion of Pomfret from more recent lite- 
rary manuals and anthologies sufficiently 
indicates that Johnson's strange verdict 
finds few supporters at the present day. At 
the end of the fourth edition of ' The Choice ' 
(1701) is advertised 'A Poem in Answer to 
the Choice that would have no wife.' 

[Cole's Athenae Cantabr. (Addit. MS. 5878, f. 
167); G-raduati Cantabr. ; Gibber's Lives, of the 
Poets, vol. v. ; Johnson's Lives of the Poets, ed. 
Cunningham, ii. 3 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; 
Blaycles's Grenealogia Bedfordiensis, pp. 186, 
409, 414 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ii. 27, viii. 
passim ; Pope's Works, ed. Elwin and Court- 
hope, ii. 239; works in British Museum; 
Bodleian and Huth Library Catalogues.] 

T. S. 

POMFRET, SAMUEL (1650-1722), di- 
vine, born at Coventry in 1650, was edu- 
cated at the grammar school of Coventry, 
and subsequently under Dr. Obadiah Grew 
[q. v.], and under Ralph Button [q. v.] at 
Islington. "When he was about nineteen his 
mother died, and he attained religious con- 
victions. After acting as chaplain to Sir 
William Dyer of Tottenham, and afterwards 
of High Easter, Essex, he served for two 
years in the same capacity on board a Medi- 
terranean trader. Upon his return to Eng- 
land Pomfret preached a weekly lecture in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, until he received a call 
to Sandwich, Kent, where he remained seven 
years. At length he was arrested for non- 
conformity, but escaped his captors on the 
way to Dover Castle. About 1685 he opened 
a service in a room in Winchester Street, 
London, which was so crowded that even- 
tually the floor gave way. A new meeting- 
house, capable of holding fifteen hundred 
people, was then erected for him in Gravel 
Lane. Houndsditch. The church was in- 

variably crowded, and Pomfret administered 
the sacrament to as many as eight hundred 
communicants. The zeal which he displayed 
in itinerant preaching wore out his health, 
but when unable to walk he had himself 
carried to his pulpit in a chair. He died on 
11 Jan. 1722. His assistant from 1719, Wil- 
liam Hocker, predeceased him. by a month, 
on 12 Dec. 1721. Thomas Reynolds (1664- 
1727) [q. v.] preached funeral sermons on 
and issued memoirs of both. Pomfret's wife 
survived him, but all his children died before 
him. Pomfret only published two sermons 
(1697 and 1701). ' A Directory for Youth,' 
with portrait, was issued posthumously, Lon- 
don, 1722. 

[Works and Sermon, with portrait, in Dr. 
Williams's Library; Memoir by Reynolds, pre- 
fixed to Funeral Sermon, 1721-2, 2nd ed. 1722 ; 
another edition, entitled ' Watch and Remember,' 
London, 1721-2, differs slightly ; Wilson's Hist, 
of Diss. Churches, i. 165, 397, 473 ; Bogue and 
Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, ii. 341 ; Granger's 
Hist, of Engl., Continuation by Noble, iii. 158 ; 
Toulmin's Hist, of Prot. Dissenters, pp. 572, 245, 
247 ; Meridew's Warwickshire Portraits, p. 48 ; 
Bromley's Cat. of Portraits, p. 226 ; Chaloner 
Smith's Brit. Mezz. Portraits, iv. 1701.] 

C. F. S. 

PONCE, JOHN (d. 1660?), author, a 
native of Cork, studied at Louvain in the 
college of the Irish Franciscans. He became 
a member of the order of St. Francis, and, 
after further studies at Cologne, he removed 
to the Irish College of St. Isidore at Rome, 
where he was appointed professor of philo- 
sophy and theology. Ponce contributed to 
the Franciscan edition of the works of Duns 
Scotus, issued at Lyons in 1639. He pub- 
lished at Rome in 1642 'Integer Philosophic 
Cursus ad mentein Scoti,' in two volumes 4to, 
containing upwards of fifteen hundred pages 
of small type in double columns. A third 
volume of about nine hundred pages was issued 
at Rome in 1643. Ponce dedicated the work 
to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, from whom 
he had received many favours, and who held 
the office of ' protector of Ireland.' 

Ponce disapproved of the courses pursued 
in Ireland by those who opposed the nuncio 
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini [q. v.] In the 
'Aphorismical Discovery of Treasonable Fac- 
tion ' are preserved two letters written by 
Ponce at Paris in 1648 in relation to transac- 
tions in Ireland. 

In 1652 Ponce published at Paris ' Cursus 
Theologicus,' in a folio volume. His views 
on affairs in Ireland were enunciated in 
' Richardi Bellingi Vindicise Eversse ' (Paris, 
1653), impugning the statements which had 
been promulgated by Richard Sellings [q. v.J 



and others of the Anglo-Irish party. Ponce 
was author also of the following works, pub- 
lished at Paris: ' Philosophise Cursus,' 1656 ; 
4 Judicium Doctrinee Sanctorum August ini et 
Thomas,' 1657 ; ' Scotus Hibernise Restitutus,' 
1660; 'Commentarii Theologici,' 1661. 

Ponce died at Paris about 1660. A portrait 
of him is in St. Isidore's College, Rome. 

[Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, 1650; Gilbert's 
Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1879, 
and History of Irish Confederation and War, 1881 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn.] J. T. G-. 

POND, ARTHUR (1705 ?-l 758), painter 
and engraver, born about 1705, was educated 
in London, and made a short sojourn in 
Rome for purposes of studying art in com- 
pany with the sculptor Roubiliac. He be- 
came a successful portrait-painter. The most 
notable of his numerous original portraits 
are those of Alexander Pope, William, duke 
of Cumberland, and Peg Womngton ; the last 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. Pond 
was also a prolific etcher, and an industrious 
worker in various mixed processes of engrav- 
ing by means of which he imitated or repro- 
duced the works of masters such as Rem- 
brandt, Raphael, Salvator Rosa, Parmigiano, 
Caravaggio, and the Poussins. In 1734-5 
he published a series of his plates under the 
title ' Imitations of the Italian Masters.' 
He also collaborated with George Knapton 
in the publication of the ' Heads of Illus- 
trious Persons, 7 after Houbraken and Vertue, 
with lives by Dr. Birch (London, 1743-52), 
and engraved sixty-eight plates for a collec- 
tion of ninety-five reproductions from draw- 
ings by famous masters, in which Knapton 
was again his colleague. Another of his pro- 
ductions was a series of twenty-five carica- 
tures after the Cavaliere Ghezzi, republished 
in 1823 and 1832 as < Eccentric Characters.' 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1752, and died in Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, 9 Sept. 1758. His col- 
lection of drawings by the old masters was 
sold the following year, and realised over four- 
teen hundred pounds. An anonymous etched 
portrait of Pond is mentioned by Bromley. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Gent. Mag. 1758, 
p. 452; Lowndes's Bibl. JVIan. p. 1911.] W. A. 

POND, EDWARD (fi. 1623), almanac- 
maker, is described on the title-page of his 
almanac of 1601 as ' a practitioner in the 
Mathematicks and Physicke at Bidarcay 
(? Billericay) in Essex.' In this almanac he 
includes a diagram and description of ' Man's 
Anatomy ' and ' Physicke Notes.' From 1604 
he published an almanac each year in London 
under the title ' Enchiridion, or Edward Pond 
his Eutheca.' Subsequently the periodical 

issue was christened ' An Almanac by Ed. 
Pond, student of Physics and Mathematics.' 
In October 1623 the Stationers' Company 
petitioned the privy council against the in- 
fraction of their monopoly by Cantrell Legge, 
printer of Cambridge University, but ap- 
parently without success, for from 1627 the 
almanacs were issued from the University 
press. It is probable that Pond died shortly 
after 1643. The popularity of his publication 
led to its continuance, under a slightly modi- 
fied title, until 1709. The later series was 
prepared at Saffron Walden, doubtless by a 
relative of Pond, and each part was designated 
' Pond, an Almanac.' This was printed at 
Cambridge until the close of the century, and 
in London during the early years of the 
eighteenth century. The rhyme, 

My skill goes beyond 

The depth of a Pond, 

occurs in Martin Parker's ballad ' When, 
the king enjoys his own again' (WiLZiNS, 
Political Ballads, i. 11). 

[Pond's Almanacs; Cal. State Papers. Dom. 
1623-5, p. 98; Arber's Stat. Keg. v. p. xlix ; 
Hazlitt's Collections, i. 336, ii. 483.] E.I. C. 

POND, JOHN (1767-1836), astronomer- 
royal, was born in London in 1767. His 
father soon afterwards withdrew from busi- 
ness, with an ample competence, to live at 
Dulwich. Pond's education, begun at the 
Maidstone grammar school, was continued 
at home under the tuition of William Wales 
[q. v.], from whom he imbibed a taste for 
astronomy. His keenness was shown by the 
detection, when about fifteen, of errors in 
the Greenwich observations. At sixteen he 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he devoted himself to chemistry ; but he was 
obliged by ill-health to leave the university, 
and went abroad, visiting Portugal, Malta, 
Constantinople, and Egypt, making astro- 
nomical observations at his halting-places. 
About 1798 he settled at Westbury in Somer- 
set, and erected there an altazimuth instru- 
ment, by Edward Troughton fq. v.], of two 
and a half feet diameter, which became known 
as the ' W r estbury circle' (see Phil. Trans. xcvl. 
424). His observations with it in 1800-], 
* On the Declinations of some of the Principal 
Fixed Stars,' communicated to the Royal 
Society on 26 June 1806 (ib. p. 420), gave 
decisive proof of deformation through age 
in the Greenwich quadrant (Bird's), and 
rendered inevitable a complete re-equipment 
of the Royal Observatory. 

Pond was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 26 Feb. 1807. He married in the 
same year, and fixed his abode in London, 
occupying himself with practical astronomy. 




Troughton was his intimate friend, and he 
superintended, in his workshop, the con- 
struction of several instruments of unprece- 
dented perfection. Dr. Nevil Maskelyne 
[q. v.], the fifth astronomer-royal, recom- 
mended him as his successor to the council 
of the Royal Society ; and Sir Humphry 
Davy, who had visited him at Westbury in 
1800, brought his merits to the notice of 
the prince-regent. As the result he was 
appointed astronomer-royal in February 1811, 
with an augmented salary of 600/. The six- 
foot mural circle, ordered from Troughton by 
Maskelyne, was mounted in June 1812 ; and 
Pond presented to the Royal Society, on 
8 July 1813, a catalogue of the north polar 
distances of eighty-four stars determined with 
it (ib. ciii. 280), which Eessel pronounced to 
be ' the ne plus ultra of modern astronomy ' 
(Brief wechsel mit Olbers, 30 Dec. 1813). In 
1816 a transit instrument, by Troughton, of 
five inches aperture and ten feet focal length, 
was set up at the Royal Observatory. A 
Ramsden telescope presented by Lord Liver- 
pool in 1811 proved of little use. In a paper 
on the construction of star-catalogues read 
before the Royal Society on 21 May 1818 
Pond described his method of treating ' every 
star in its turn as a point of reference for the 
rest ' (ib. cviii. 405). He substituted in 1821 
a mercury-horizon for the plumb-line and 
spirit-level (ib. cxiii. 35), and introduced in 
1825 the system of observing the same ob- 
jects alternately by direct and reflected vision, 
which, improved by Airy, is still employed 
(Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society, ii. 499). The 
combination for this purpose of two instru- 
ments was suggested to Pond by the posses- 
sion of a circle by Jones, destined for the 
Cape, but sent on trial to Greenwich. Pond 
obtained permission to retain it, and it was 
transferred in 1851 to the observatory of 
Queen's College, Belfast. Among his other 
Inventions for securing accuracy were the 
multiplication, and a peculiar mode of group- 
ing observations. 

He showed in 1817, by means of deter- 
minations executed in 1813-14 with the 
Greenwich circle, the unreality of Brinkley's 
ostensible parallaxes for a Lyrse, a Aquilae, 
and a Cygni (Phil. Trans, cvii. 158). As a 
further test he caused to be erected in 1816 
two fixed telescopes of four inches aperture 
and ten feet focal length, directed respec- 
tively towards a Aquilae and a Cygni, and 
sedulously investigated their differences of 
right ascension from suitable comparison- 
stars. But neither thus nor by the aid of 
transit observations could any effects of pa- 
rallax be detected (ib. cvii. 353, cviii. 477, 
cxiii. 53). Pond's conclusion that they were 

insensible with the instruments then in use 
has since been fully ratified. Dr. C. A. F. 
Peters nevertheless criticised his methods 
severely in 1853 (Memoir -es de Saint-Peters- 
bourg, torn. vii. p. 47). Against attacks made 
in this country upon his general accuracy, and 
even upon his probity as an observer, Bessel 
vigorously defended him (Astr. Nach. No. 
84). From a comparison of his own with 
Bradley's star-places, Pond deduced the in- 
fluence upon them of a southerly drift due 'to 
some variation, either continued or periodical, 
in the sidereal system ' (Phil. Trans, cxiii. 
34, 529). Herschel's discovery of the solar 
advance through space appears to have 
escaped his notice. Airy, however, gave him 
credit for having had the first inkling of dis- 
turbed proper motions (Astr. Nach. No. 590). 
A discussion on the subject with Brinkley 
was carried on with dignity and good temper. 
Pond received in 1817 the Lalande prize 
from the Paris Academy of Sciences, of which 
he was a corresponding member ; and the 
Copley medal in 1823 for his various as- 
tronomical papers. He joined the Astronomi- 
cal Society immediately after its foundation. 
Directed by the House of Commons in 1816 
to determine the length of the seconds pen- 
dulum, he requested and obtained the co- 
operation of a committee of the Royal Society. 
He was a member of the board of longitude, 
and attended diligently at the sittings in 
1829-30 of the Astronomical Society's com- 
mittee on the ' Nautical Almanac,' of which 
publication he superintended the issues for 

1832 and 1833. The new board of visitors, 
appointed in 1830, caused him no small vexa- 
tion. They took exception to his neglect of 
the planets for the stars, and to the rigidity 
of mechanical routine imposed upon his 
assistants. His own mathematical know- 
ledge was very slight. The publication in 

1833 of a catalogue of 1113 stars, determined 
with unexampled accuracy, was his crowning 
achievement. It embodied several smaller 
catalogues, inserted from time to time in the 
' Nautical Almanac ' and the ' Greenwich 
Observations,' of which he printed eight folio 
volumes. In his last communication to the 
Royal Society he described his mode of ob- 
serving with a twenty-five-foot zenith tele- 
scope, mounted by Troughton and Simms in 
1833 (Phil. Trans, cxxiv. 209, cxxv. 145). 
Harassed by many infirmities, he retired from 
the Royal Observatory in the summer of 
1835 with a pension of 600/. a year, and 
died at his residence at Blackheath on 7 Sept. 
1836. He was buried in the tomb of Halley 
in the neighbouring churchyard of Lee. 

Of a mild and unassuming character, Pond 
neither sought nor attained a popular reputa- 



tion. His work was wholly technical, h 
writings dry and condensed ; but his reform 
of the national observatory was fimdamenta 
He not only procured for it an install menta 
outfit of the modern type, but establishe 
the modern system of observation. Th 
number of assistants was increased durin n 
his term of office from one to six, and he sub 
stituted quarterly for annual publication o 
results. He possessed the true instinct of i 
practical astronomer. Troughton used fr 
say that * a new instrument was at all time 
a better cordial for the astroiiomer-roya 
than any which the doctor could supply, 
Arago visited Greenwich to acquire hi 
methods ; Airy regarded him as the princi 
pal improver of modern practical astronomy 
Bessel, many of whose refinements he antici 
pated, was his enthusiastic admirer. Pond's 
double-altitude observations, made with his 
two mural circles in 1825-35, have been re- 
duced by Mr. S. C. Chandler for the purposes 
of his research into the variation of latitude 
(Astr. Journal, Nos. 313, 315). He speaks 
of them as ' a rich mine of stellar measure- 
ments,' and considers that their accuracy 
' has been scarcely surpassed anywhere or at 
any time.' His catalogues are, however, 
somewhat marred by slight periodical errors, 
depending probably upon the system oi 
fundamental stars employed in their con- 
struction (W. A. ROGEES, in Nature, xxviii. 
472). A translation by Pond of Laplace's 
' Systeme du Monde ' was published in 1 809, 
and he contributed many articles to Rees's 
' Encyclopaedia.' 

[Memoirs of the Koyal Astronomical Society, 
x. 357; Proceedings of the Eoyal Society, iii. 
434; Annual Biography and Obituary, 1837, 
vol. xxi.; Gent. Mag. 1836, ii. 546; Eeport of 
the Brit. Association, i. 128, 132, 136 (Airy); 
Grant's Hist, of Astronomy, p. 491 ; Edinburgh 
Eeview, xci. 324 ; Penny Cyclopaedia (De Mor- 
gan) ; Andre 1 et Rayet's L'Astronomie Pratique, 
i. 32 ; Marie's Hist, des Sciences, x. 223 ; 
Miidler's Geschichte der Himmelskunde, vol. ii. 
passim ; Annuaire de 1'Observatoire de Bruxelles, 
1864, p. 331 (Mailly); Bessel's Populare Vorle- 
sungen, p. 543 ; Poggendorff 's Biogr.-lit. Hand- 
worterbuch ; Observatory, xiii. 204 (Lewis on 
Pond's instruments) ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Eoyal 
Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers; Allibone's 
Grit. Diet, of English Literature.] A. M. C. 

PONET or POYNET, JOHN (1514 ?- 
1556), bishop of Winchester, was born in 
Kent about 1514, and educated at Queens' 
College, Cambridge, under Sir Thomas Smith 
(STEYPE, Smith, pp. 20, 159). He was a 
great scholar, skilled especially in Greek, in 
which he adopted Cheke's mode of pronun- 
ciation (STEYPE, Cheke, p. 18). He gra- 

duated, became fellow of the college in 1532, 
bursar there from 1537 to 1539, and dean from 
1540 to 1542. He proceeded D.D. in 1547. 
He was a strong divine of the reforming 
school ; clever, but somewhat unscrupulous. 
Cranmer saw his ability, and made him his 
chaplain, a promotion which must have come 
before 1547, as in that year Ponet delivered 
to the archbishop a letter from his close 
friend Roger Ascham, praying to be relieved 
from eating fish in Lent (STEYPE, Cranmer, 
i. 240, cf. p. 607). Meanwhile other prefer- 
ment had come to him. On 15 Nov. 1543 
he became rector of St. Michael's, Crooked 
Lane, London. On 12 June 1545 he was 
made rector of Lavant, Sussex, and on 
12 Jan. 1545-6 he became canon of Canter- 
bury, resigning Lavant. In 1547 he was 
proctor for the diocese of Canterbury. For 
Henry VIII he made a curious dial of the 
same kind as that erected in 1538 in the first 
court of Queens' College. While with Cran- 
mer he built a summer parlour or ' solar ' at 
Lambeth Palace, which Archbishop Parker 
repaired in after years (STEYPE, Parker, ii. 
26, 79). 

Ponet was a great preacher, and had a wide 
range of acquirements, knowing mathematics, 
astronomy, German, and Italian, besides being 
a good classical scholar and a theologian. In 
Lent 1550 he preached the Friday sermons 
Defore Edward VI, and on 6 June 1550 he 
was appointed bishop of Rochester. He 
was the first bishop consecrated according to 
;he new ordinal (STEYPE, Cranmer, pp. 274, 
363). He was the last bishop who was 
illowed to hold with his see his other pre- 
erments ; and there was some reason for the 
)ermission in his case, in that there was no 
mlace for the bishop when he was conse- 
crated. On 18 Jan. 1550-1 he was appointed 
me of thirty-one commissioners to ' correct 
and punish all anabaptists, and such as did 
ot duly administer the sacraments accord- 
ng to the Book of Common Prayer ' (STBYPE, 
Memorials, n. i. 385). 

Ponet was one of those who consecrated 
looper bishop of Gloucester on 8 March 
550-1. He appears not to have shared in 
looper's objection to the vestments. With 
Cranmer and Ridley, Ponet was consulted in 
larch 1550-1 about the difficult case of the 
'rincess Mary ; and their answer as to her 
learing mass' that to give license to sin was 
in ; nevertheless, they thought the king might 
uffer or wink at it for a time ' (STEYPE, Me- 
lorials, n. i. 451) seems to bear traces of his 
andiwork. On 23 March 1550-1 he was ap- 
ointed bishop of Winchester,Gardiner having 
een deprived, A condition of his appoint- 
ment, which he at once carried out, was that 




he should resign to the king the lands of the 
see, receiving in return a fixed income of two 
thousand marks a year, chiefly derived from 
impropriated rectories. The meaning of the 
transaction was soon made plain in the grants 
made of the surrendered lands to various 
courtiers. But the blame was not solely 
Ponet's ; for the dean and chapter consented, 
and Cranrner must have had a good deal to 
say in the matter. At Winchester he had 
Bale and Goodacre for chaplains, and John 
Philpot (1516-1555) [q.v.] for archdeacon. 
On 6 Oct. 1551 he was one of the commis- 
sioners for the reformation of ecclesiastical 
law, and about the same time he was one of 
the visitors of Oxford University. When 
Mary came to the throne Ponet was deprived, 
and is said to have fled at once to the con- 
tinent. A tradition, however, preserved by 
Stow, asserts that he took an active part in 
Wyatt's rebellion. Eventually he found his 
way to Peter Martyr at Strasburg, where he 
seems to have been cheerful enough, even 
though his house was burnt down. ' What 
is exile ? ' he wrote to Bullinger : ( a thing 
painful only in imagination, provided you 
have wherewith to subsist.' He died at 
Strasburg in August 1556. 

Ponet's ability, both as a thinker and a 
writer of English, can perhaps best be inferred 
from his ( Short Treatise of Politique Power,' 
which is useful as an authority for the history 
of his time. It is also said to be one of the 
earliest expositions of the doctrine of tyran- 
nicide ; but there Ponet was anticipated by 
John of Salisbury. Ponet's matrimonial ex- 
periences were curious. He seems to have 
gone through the form of marriage with the 
wife of a butcher of Nottingham, to whom 
he had to make an annual compensation; 
from her he was divorced ' with shame 
enough' on 27 July 1551 (MACHYN). On 
25 Oct. 1551 he married Maria Haymond at 
Croydon church, Cranmer being present at 
the ceremony. This wife w r ent abroad with 
him, and survived him. An interesting letter 
from her to Peter Martyr, some of whose 
books she had sold with her husband's by 
mistake, has been preserved. 

Ponet's chief works were : 1. ' A Tragoedie 
or Dialoge of the uniuste usurped primacie of 
the Bishop of Rome, . . . ' London, 1549, 8vo. 
This translation from Bernardino Ochino 
[q. v.] brought him to the notice of Somerset, 
who is mentioned in the dedication. 2. { A 
Defence for Marriage of Priestes by Scripture 
and aunciente Wryters,' London, 1549, 8vo 
(possibly an early edition of No. 5). 3. ' Ser- 
mon at Westminster before the King,' Lon- 
don, 1550, 4to. 4. * Catechismus Brevis 
Christianoe Discipline Summam continens, 

omnibus ludimagistris authoritate Regia com- 
mendatus. Huic Catechismo adiuncti sunt 
Articuli/ Zurich, 1553, 8vo. This was pub- 
lished anonymously, in English by Day and in 
Latin by Wolf. It was assigned to both 
Ridley and Nowell. Several editions ap- 
peared in 1553. The English version has been 
printed in * Liturgies ' of Edward VI's reign 
by the Parker Society. 5. l De Ecclesia ad 
regem Edwardum,' Zurich, 1553, 8vo. 6. 'An 
Apologie fully aunsweringe by Scriptures 
and aunceant Doctors a blasphemose Book 
gatherid by D. Steph. Gardiner . . . D. Smyth 
of Oxford, Pighius, and other Papists . . . 
and of late set furth under the name of 
Thomas Martin . . . against the godly mar- 
riadge of priests,' 1555, 12mo ; 1556, 8vo. 
7. 'A Short Treatise of Politique Power, 
I and of the true obedience which subjectes 
owe to kynges and other civile governours, 
with an Exhortacion to all true naturall 
Englishemen/ 1556, 8vo; 1639, 8 vo ; 1642, 
4to. 8. ' Axiomata Eucharistise.' 9. * Dia- 
lecticon de veritate, natura, atque substantia 
Oorporis et Sanguinis Christi in Eucharistia,' 
Strasburg, 1557, 8vo. An English transla- 
tion was published in London, 1688, 4to 


[Cooper's Athens Can tabr. i. 155,547; Dixon's 
Hist. Church of Engl. iii. 151, &c., iv. 74, &c. ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, i. 56, ii. 570; Heylyn's Ecclesia 
Restaurata, i. 208, &c., ii. 91, 121, &c. ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 390, ii. 52 ; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. of Univ. of Oxford, i. 273 ; 
Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.), pp. 8, 320, 323 ; 
Foxe's Actes and Monuments, vii. 203; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 32, 44 ; Mait- 
land's Essays, pp. 97, 124 ; LipscomVs Bucking- 
hamshire, ii. 162, iii. 392, 653 ; Hasted'sKent, iii. 
265 ; Hessel's Eccles. Lond. Batavi8eArchivum,ii. 
15, 16 ; authorities quoted.] W. A. J. A. 

LOTTE MARY (1817-1877),born on!7Feb. 
1817, was the third daughter of John Wil- 
liam Ponsonby, fourth earl of Bessborough 
[q . v.], by his wife, Lady Maria Fane, daughter 
of John Fane, tenth earl of Westmorland 
[q. v.] Frederick George Brabazon Ponsonby, 
sixth earl of Bessborough [q. v.], was her 
brother. From 1848 till 1873 she wrote, a 
number of novels, mostly published anony- 
mously ; they contain some careful and good 
writing. She died, unmarried, on 3 Feb. 1877. 

Her books are : 1. " The Discipline of Life/ 
3 vols., 1848 ; 2nd edit., 1848. 2. < Pride 
and Irresolution,' 3 vols., 1850 (a new series 
of the former book). 3. ' Clare Abbey ; 
or the Trials of Youth,' 1851. 4. 'Mary 
Gray, and other Tales and Verses,' 1852. 

5. ' Edward Willoughby : a Tale,' 1854. 

6. 'The Young Lord/ 1856. 7. 'Sunday 



Readings, consisting of eight Short Sermons, 
addressed to the Young,' 1857. 8. < The two 
Brothers/ 3 vols., 1858. 9. < A Mother's 
Trial,' 1859. 10. * Kathlenne and her Sisters,' 
1861 ; 2nd edit., 1863. 11. ' Mary Lyndsay.' 
3 vols., 1863 ; published in New York, 1863. 
12 ' Violet Osborne,' 3 vols., 1865. 13. ' Sir 
Owen Fairfax,' 3 vols., 1866. 14. ' A Story 
of Two Cousins,' 1868. 15. < Nora,' 3 vols., 
1870. 16. ' Oliver Beaumont and Lord Lati- 
mer,' 3 vols., 1873. 

[Allibone's Diet. English Lit. ii. 1620, Sup- 
plement, ii. 1243 ; O'Donoghue's Poets of Ire- 
land, pt. iii. p. 206.] E. L. 

DISH (1783-1837), major-general, born on 
6 July 1783, was the second son of Frederic 
Ponsonby, third earl of Bessborough, by 
Lady Henrietta Frances Spencer, second 
daughter of the first Earl Spencer. He en- 
tered the army in January 1800 as a cornet 
in the 10th dragoons, and became lieutenant 
on 20 June of that year, and captain on 
20 Aug. 1803. In April 1806 he exchanged 
to the 60th foot, and served on the staff of 
the lord lieutenant in Ireland. He became 
major in the army on 25 June 1807, and on 
6 Aug. he obtained a majority in the 23rd 
light dragoons. He went with his regiment 
to Spain in 1809, and distinguished himself 
at Talavera. The 23rd were ordered, together 
with a regiment of German hussars, to charge 
a column of infantry advancing on the French 
right as they were in the act of deploying. 
They came in mid career on a ravine, which 
stopped the Germans and threw the 23rd 
into confusion. The colonel was wounded, 
but Ponsonby led the men on against the 
infantry, which had by this time formed 
squares. Repulsed by the infantry, the 23rd 
were charged by two regiments of French 
cavalry, and were driven back with a loss of 
more than two hundred officers and men; 
but the delay and disorder prevented the 
French column from taking part in the 
general attack on the British position (see 
NAPIER, iii. 559, 2nd edition, for Ponsonby's 
own account of this affair). 

Ponsonby served on the staff as assistant 
adjutant-general at Busaco and Barosa. Gra- 
ham, in his report of the latter action, said that 
a squadron of the 2nd hussars, King's German 
legion, under Ponsonby's direction, made ' a 
brilliant and most successful charge against 
a .squadron of French dragoons, which were 
entirely routed' (Wellington Despatches, iv. 
697). He had become lieutenant-colonel on 
15 March 1810, and on 11 June 1811 he ob- 
tained the command of the 12th light dragoons, 
and led that regiment for the rest of the war. 

He played a principal part in the cavalry 
action near Llerena on 11 April 1812, being 
at the time in temporary command of Anson's 
brigade, to which his regiment belonged. 
! The French cavalry under Pierre Soult was 
j about two thousand strong. Ponsonby had 
about six hundred, as one regiment of the 
brigade was still in rear, and he was told by 
Sir Stapleton Cotton to detain and amuse 
the French while Le Marchant's brigade 
moved round upon their flank. The French, 
seeinghis inferiority, advanced, and he retired 
slowly before them into a narrow defile 
between some stone walls. They were on 
the point of charging when his missing regi- 
ment came up, and at the same time the head 
of Le Marchant's brigade appeared on the 
right. The French turned, and were pursued 
by the two brigades to Llerena, where they 
found protection from their infantry, having 
lost more than 150 men. Ponsonby was 
praised by Cotton for his gallantry and 

Ponsonby was actively engaged with his 
regiment in covering the movements of the 
army immediately before Salamanca, and in 
the battle itself, 22 July 1812, towards the 
evening, he made some charges and dispersed 
some of the already beaten French infantry, 
his horse receiving several bayonet wounds. 
After the failure of the siege of Burgos he 
helped to cover the retreat of the army, and 
was wounded. At Vittoria his regiment 
j formed part of the force under Graham which 
turned the French right, and barred their re- 
treat by the Bayonne road. It was engaged in 
the action at Tolosa, when Graham overtook 
Foy, and covered the communications of 
Graham's corps during the siege of San Se- 
bastian. It took part in the subsequent 
operations in the Pyrenees and in the south 
of France, and returned to England in July 
1814. On 4 June of that year Ponsonby was 
made a brevet colonel and A.D.C. to the king 
in recognition of his services. 

In the following year the 12th, with Poa- 
sonby still in command of it, formed part 
of Vandeleur's light cavalry brigade. At 
Waterloo this brigade was at first posted on 
the extreme left; but about half-past one, 
when the two heavy brigades charged, it was 
moved towards the centre, and two regiments, 
the 12th and 16th, were ordered to charge, 
to cover the retirement of the men of the 
Union brigade. They were told to descend 
the slope, but not to pass the hollow ground 
in front ; once launched, however, they were 
not easily stopped. Ponsonby himself, after 
receiving several wounds, fell from his horse 
on the crest of the ridge which was occupied 
by the French guns. ' I know,' he says, ' we 




ought not to have been there, and that we 
fell into the same error which we went down 
to correct, but I believe that this is an error 
almost inevitable after a successful charge, 
and it must always depend upon the steadi- 
ness of a good support to prevent serious 
consequences' (Waterloo Letters, p. 112). 
His experiences as he lay on the battle-field 
were taken down from his oral account by 
the poet Rogers, and recorded in a letter to 
his mother which has been frequently quoted 
(e.g. CKEASY, Decisive Battles}. He was on 
the field all night, and had seven wounds ; 
but he was ' saved by excessive bleeding.' 

He left his regiment on 26 Aug. 1820, ex- 
changing to half-pay, and on 20 Jan. 1824 
lie was appointed inspecting field officer in 
the Ionian Islands. He became major-general 
on 27 May 1825, and on 22 Dec. of the fol- 
lowing year he was made governor of Malta, 
where he remained till May 1835. On 4 Dec. 
of the latter year he was given the colonelcy 
of the 86th foot, from which he was trans- 
ferred to the royal dragoons on 31 March 

1836. In 1831 he had been made a K.C.B. 
and a K.C.H. ; he was also a K.C.M.G., a 
knight of the Tower and Sword of Portugal, 
and a knight of Maria Theresa of Austria. 
He kept up his interest in cavalry questions, 
and in the ' Wellington Despatches ' (viii. 
335) there is a letter from the duke, dated 
7 Nov. 1834, in reply to one of his upon 
details of cavalry equipment and formations. 
When in Spain he had made an abridgment 
of some * Instructions for Cavalry on Outpost 
Duty,' drawn up by Lieut.-colonel von Arent- 
schildt, who commanded the hussar regiment 
which was to have charged with the 23rd at 
Talavera, and this abridgment was printed at 
Freneda in 1813. It was reprinted, together 
with the original instructions, London, 1844. 

Ponsonby died near Basingstoke on 11 Jan. 

1837. Hefmarried, 16 March 1825, Lady 
Emily Charlotte Bathurst, second daughter 
of the third Earl Bathurst, and left three sons 
and three daughters. 

The eldest son, SIR HENRY FREDERICK 
PONSONBY (1825-1895), born at Corfu on 
10 Dec. 1825, entered the army on 27 Dec. 
1842 as an ensign in the 49th regiment. 
Transferred to the grenadier guards, he be- 
came lieutenant on 16 Feb. 1844, captain on 
1 8 July 1848, and major on 1 9 Oct. 1849. From 
1847 to 1858 he was aide-de-camp to Lord 
Clarendon and Lord St. Germans, succes- 
sively lord-lieutenants of Ireland. He served 
through the Crimean campaigns of 1855-6, 
becoming lieutenant-colonel on 31 Aug. 1855 ; 
for the action before Sebastopol he received 
a medal with clasp, the Turkish medal, and 
third order of the Mejidie. After the peace 


he was appointed equerry to the prince con- 
sort, who greatly valued his services. On 
2 Aug. 1860 he became colonel, and in 1862, 
after the death of the prince, he was sent to 
Canada in command of a battalion of the 
grenadier guards which was stationed in the 
colony during the American civil war. On 
6 March 1868 he became major-general. 
On 8 April 1870 Ponsonby was appointed 
private secretary to the queen. Energetic 
but unobtrusive, ready but tactful, he com- 
manded the confidence not only of his sove- 
reign, but of all her ministers in turn. In 
October 1878 he added to his duties those of 
keeper of the privy purse. He was made a 
K.C.B. in 1879, a privy councillor in 1880, 
and a G.C.B. in 1887. On 6 Jan. 1895 he 
was attacked by paralysis ; in May he retired 
from his offices, and on 21 Nov. died at East 
Cowes in the Isle of Wight. He was buried at 
Whippingham. He had married, on 30 April 
1861, Mary Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
John Crocker Bulteel, M.P., of Flete or Fleet, 
Devonshire, one of the queen's maids of 
honour. He left three sons and two daugh- 
ters ( Times, 22 Nov. 1895 ; Men of the Time, 
vol. xii. ; BURKE, Peerage, s.v. ' Bessborough ; ' 
Army Lists). 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, pt. i. ; Royal Military Gal. 
iv. 239 ; Eecords of the 12th Light Dragoons ; 
Wellington Despatches ; Combermere's Memoirs; 
Napier's War in the Peninsula; Si home's Wa- 
terloo Letters.] E. M. L. 

(1815-1895), second son of JohnWilliam Pon- 
sonby, fourth earl [q. v.], was born in London 
on 11 Sept. 1815. He was educated at Harrow 
from 1830 to 1833, and, proceeding to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, graduated M.A. in 1837. 
He studied for the law, and was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 16 June 1840. 
He was an enthusiastic cricketer, com- 
mencing his career in the Harrow eleven, 
when on 3 Aug. 1832 he played at Lord's in 
the match with Eton. At Cambridge he 
also played in the university eleven. After- 
wards, when he was at the bar, he appeared 
in such important matches as Kent v. Eng- 
land and Gentlemen v. Players. After 1843, 
owing to an accident to his arm, he gave up 
playing at Lord's. In 1845, with J. L. Bald- 
win, he founded the I Zingari Club, and 
took part in their performances. He was a 
member of the committee of the Marylebone 
Club, and, having a great knowledge of the 
game, managed many of the matches at Lord's. 
He had a free and forward style of hitting, 
and also excelled at long-stop and mid- 
wicket. The Harrow eleven were for many 
years indebted to him for tuition, and many 



of their successes against Eton and Winches- 
ter were due to his instruction. He was 
also a good actor at Cambridge in private thea- 
tricals. With Torn Taylor, William Holland, 
G. Cavendish Bentinck, and others, he origi- 
nated, in 184:2, the Old Stagers at Canterbury 
in connection with the Canterbury cricket 
week, and for many years he took part in 
their entertainments. 

On the death of his brother, John George 
Brabazon, fifth earl of Bessborough, on 28 Jan. 
1880, he succeeded as sixth earl, but sat in 
the House of Lords as Baron Ponsonby and 
Baron D imcannon. In poli tics he was a liberal. 
When Mr. Gladstone's ministry in 1880 ap- 
pointed a commission to inquire into the land 
system in Ireland, Bessborough was nomi- 
nated a member. His colleagues were Baron 
Dowse, The O'Conor Don, Mr. Kavanagh, 
and William Shaw [q.v.] The commission, 
which became known by Lord Bessborough's 
name, reported in 1881 , advising the repeal of 
the Land Act of 1870, and the enactment of 
a simple uniform act on the basis of fixity of 
tenure, fair rents, and free sale. The policy 
of buying out the landlords was deprecated, 
but additional state aid for tenants anxious 
to purchase their holdings was recommended. 
The Bessborough commission marks an im- 
portant stage in the history of Irish land 
legislation, and led to Mr. Gladstone's land 
bill of 1881. Lord Bessborough was himself 
a model landlord. He was unremitting in 
his attention to the interest of his tenants 
in co. Kilkenny, and through the troubled 
times of the land league there was never 
the least interruption of friendly relations 
between him and them. Although for a long 
time a follower of Mr. Gladstone, he did not 
vote in the divisions on the home rule bill in 
the House of Lords in 1893. He died at 
45 Green Street, Grosvenor Square, London, 
on 12 March 1895, and was buried at Bess- 
borough. He was unmarried, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Walter William Bra- 
bazon Ponsonby, who was rector of Canford 
Magna, Dorset, from 1846 to 1869. 

[Thornton's Harrow. 1885, pp. 250, 276; 
Lillywhite's Cricket Scores, 1862, ii. 193; 
Cokayne's Peerage, 1887, i. 353; Times, 15 Jan. 
1881 p. 7, 16 March p. 4, 19 March p. 14, 
30 March p. 4, 13 March 1895, p. 10.] G. C. B. 

PONSONBY, GEORGE (1755-1817), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, third son of John 
Ponsonby (1713-1789) [q. v.~|, was born on 
5 March 1755. William Brabazon Pon- 
sonby, first baron Ponsonby [q. v.], was his 
brother. After an education received partly 
at home and partly at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, he was called to the Irish bar 
in 1780. Though fonder, it is said, of fox- 

hunting than of the drudgery of the law 
courts, he was in 1782, by the influence of 
his father and the patronage of the Duke of 
Portland, admitted to the inner bar, and at 
the same time given the lucrative post, worth 
1,200/. a year, of first counsel to the com- 
missioners of revenue, of which he was sub- 
sequently, in 1789, deprived by the Marquis 
of Buckingham. He entered parliament in 
1776 as member for the borough of Wick- 
low, in the place of Sir William Fownes, 
deceased. In 1783 he Avas returned for 
Inistioge borough, co. Kilkenny, which he 
represented till 1797, and was one of the 
representatives of Galway city when the 
parliament of Ireland ceased its independent 
existence. He held office as chancellor of the 
exchequer in the brief administration of the 
Duke of Portland in 1782, and in February 
supported the motion for the postponement 
of Grattan's address regarding the independ- 
ence of the Irish parliament. The traditions 
of his family, though liberal, naturally 
inclined him to support government ; but 
his interest in politics at this time was not 
intense, and his attendance in the house 
far from frequent. He spoke at some length 
on 29 Nov. 1783 in opposition to Flood's 
Reform Bill ; in March 1786 he opposed a bill 
to limit pensions as an unmerited censure 
on the Duke of Rutland's administration, 
and in the following year he resisted a mo- 
tion by Grattan to inquire into the subject 
of tithes. He took, however, a very deter- 
mined line on the regency question in 1789, 
arguing strongly in favour of the address to 
the Prince of Wales. He was in conse- 
quence deprived of his office of counsel to 
the revenue board, and from that time for- 
ward acted avowedly with the opposition. In 
the following session he inveighed strongly 
against the profuse expenditure of govern- 
ment with a declining exchequer, and the 
enormous increase in the pension list during 
the Marquis of Buckingham's administra- 
tion. ' His excellency,' he said sarcastically, 
reviewing the list of persons promoted to 
office, ' must have been a profound politician 
to discover so much merit where no one else 
suspected it to reside.' 

Meanwhile his reputation as a lawyer had 
been steadily growing. His practice was a 
large and a lucrative one ; and so great, it is 
said, was Fitzgibbon's regard for his profes- 
sional abilities that Fitzgibbon, on his eleva- 
tion at this time to the woolsack, forgot his 
political animosity towards him, and trans- 
ferred to him his brief bag. In 1 790, as counsel 
with Curran, he supported the claims of the 
common council of Dublin against the court 
of aldermen in their contest over the elec- 



tion of a lord mayor, and received their thanks 
for his conduct of their case. In consequence 
of the extraordinary partisanship displayed 
by the chief justice of the king's bench [see 
SCOTT, JOHN", LORD CLONMELL] in the famous 
quarrel between John Magee (d. 1809) [q. v.], 
the proprietor of the ' Dublin Evening Post/ 
and Francis Higgins (1746-1802) [q. v.], the 
proprietor of the ' Freeman's Journal,' Pon- 
sonby brought the matter before parliament 
on 3 March 1790. His speech, which was 
published and had a wide circulation, was 
from a legal standpoint unanswerable ; but 
the motion was adroitly met by the attorney- 
general moving that the chairman should 
leave the chair. ' A similar motion in March 
of the following year, expressly censuring the 
lord chief justice, incurred a similar fate; 
but the fierce criticism to which his conduct 
had exposed him utterly ruined Clonmell's 
judicial character. 

In 1792, during the discussion on the Ro- 
man catholic question, Ponsonby, who at 
this time took a more conservative line than 
Grattan, urged that time should be given for 
recent concessions to produce their natural 
fruits, and a fuller system of united educa- 
tion be adopted before the catholics were 
entrusted with political power. Neverthe- 
less, he voted for the bill of 1793 ; and on 
the ground that government was trying to 
create a separate catholic interest inimical 
to the protestant gentry, he urged parlia- 
ment ' to admit the catholics to a full parti- 
cipation in the rights of the constitution, 
and thus to bind their gratitude and their 
attachments to their protestant fellow-sub- 
jects.' He was designated for the post of 
attorney-general in the administration of 
Earl Fitzwilliam [see FITZWILLIAM, WIL- 
WILLIAM], and corroborated Grattan's ac- 
count of the circumstances that led to that 
nobleman's recall. In a subsequent debate 
on the catholic question in 1796 he again 
urged parliament to admit the catholics to a 
full participation of political power, and thus 
to deprive government of its excuse to keep 
the country weak by keeping it divided. 
Every attempt to settle the question and to 
purify the legislature having failed, Ponsonby, 
in company with Grattan, Curran, and a few 
others, seceded from parliamentary life early 
in 1797. The wisdom of such conduct is open 
to question ; but he at once returned to his 
post when the intention of government to 
effect a legislative union was definitely an- 
nounced. During the reign of terror which 
preceded the union he incurred the suspicion 
of government, and acted as counsel for Henry 
Sheares [q. v.] and Oliver Bond [q. v.] He led 

the opposition to the union in the House of 
Commons, but he spoiled the effect of his 
victory on the address by injudiciously try- 
ing to induce the house to pledge itself 
against any such scheme in the future. 

On 2 March 1801 he took his seat in the 
imperial parliament as member for Wicklow 
county, and speedily won the regard of the 
house by his sincerity, urbanity, and business- 
like capacity. He opposed the motion for 
funeral honours to Pitt, on the ground that 
to do otherwise ' would be virtually a con- 
tradiction of the votes I have given for a 
series of years against all the leading mea- 
sures of that minister.' On the formation of 
the Fox-Grenville ministry in 1806, he re- 
ceived the seals as lord chancellor of Ireland, 
and at the same time obtained for Curran 
the mastership of the rolls ; but in the ar- 
rangements for this latter appointment a 
misunderstanding arose, which led to a per- 
manent estrangement between them. Though 
holding office for barely a year, he retired 
with the usual pension of 4,000/. a year. 
He represented county Cork in 1806-7 ; 
but on 19 Jan. 1808 he succeeded Lord 
Howick called to the upper house as Earl 
Grey in the representation of Tavistock, and 
for the remainder of his life acted as official 
leader of the opposition. He offered a strenu- 
ous resistance to the Irish Arms Bill of 
1807, which he denounced, amid great up- 
roar, as an 'abominable, unconstitutional, 
and tyrannical measure.' In the following 
year he opposed the Orders in Council Bill, 
which, he predicted, would complete the 
mischief to English commerce left undone 
by Bonaparte, and he was very averse to 
the system of subsidising continental powers, 
' the invariable result of which had been to 
promote the aggrandisement of France.' In 
speaking in support of the Roman catholic 
petition on 25 May 1808, he added some 
novelty to the debate by announcing, on the 
authority of Dr. John Milner (1752-1826) 
[q. v.], that the Irish clergy were willing to 
consent to a royal veto on the appointment 
to vacant bishoprics. It soon turned out that 
he was misinformed, and his statement caused 
much mischief in Ireland; but he did not cease 
to advocate the concesion of the catholic 
claims. On 19 Jan. 1809, in a speech of an 
hour and a half, he arraigned the conduct of 
the ministry in mismanaging affairs in Spain, 
and, in consequence, was charged with throw- 
ing cold water on the Spanish cause. In the 
following year he took a prominent part in 
the debates on the Walcheren expedition ; 
and his speech on the privileges of the House 
of Commons as connected with the committal 
of Sir Francis Burdett [q. v.], on 11 May, 



8 4 


was regarded as a valuable contribution to 
the constitutional literature of the subject. 
During the debate on the king's illness on 
10 Dec., he defended the course pursued by 
the Irish parliament in 1789, and moved for 
an address in almost the same words as had 
been adopted by the Irish parliament ; while 
his statement that, if the method by address 
were followed, he should submit another 
motion, seems to show that he intended fol- 
lowing the form, prescribed by Grattan, of 
passing an act reciting the deficiency in the 
personal exercise of the royal power, and of 
his royal highness's acceptance of the regency 
at the instance and desire of the lords and 
commons of the realm. On 7 March 1811 
he animadverted strongly on Wellesley- 
Pole's circular letter, and moved for copies 
of papers connected with it ; but his motion 
was defeated by 133 to 48. He still con- 
tinued to take a lively and active interest in 
the catholic claims, but, like Grattan, he 
had drifted out of touch with Irish national 
feeling on the subject, and to O'Connell his 
exertions, based on securities of one sort and 
another, seemed worse than useless. On 
4 March 1817 he moved for leave to bring 
in a bill to prevent the necessity of renew- 
ing certain civil and military commissions 
on the demise of the crown. The desirability 
of some such measure seems to have been 
generally admitted ; but he did not live to 
fulfil his intention. The severe labours of 
parliamentary life, and the constant strain 
to which his position as leader of the oppo- 
sition subjected him, broke down a constitu- 
tion naturally robust. He was seized with 
paralysis in the house on 30 June, and died 
a few days later, on 8 July 1817, at his house 
in Curzon Street, Mayfair. He was buried 
beside his brother, Lord Imokilly, without 
ostentation or ceremony, at Kensington. 

In moving a new writ for co. Wicklow, 
which he represented at the time of his death, 
the future Lord Melbourne spoke of ' Pon- 
sonby's manly and simple oratory ' as evidence 
of the 'manliness and simplicity of his heart ; ' 
and another contemporary characterised him 
as possessing, in the words of Cicero with re- 
gard to Catulus, 'summa non vitse solum 
atque naturae, sed orationis etiam comitas ' 
(Brutus, 132). 

Ponsonby married about 1780 Mary Butler, 
eldest daughter of Brinsley, second earl of 
Lanesborough. He left no surviving male 
issue. His only daughter, Martha, was 
married to the Hon. Francis Aldborough 
Prittie, second son of Lord Dunally, M.P. 
for co. Tipperary. 

[Ryan's Biogr. Hibernica ; Willis's Irish Na- 
tion ; O'Flanagan's Lives of the Lord Chancel- 

lors ; Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland ; Annual 
Register, 1817, p. 145; Gent. Mag. 1817, pt. ii. 
pp. 83, 165, 261 ; Official List of Mem. of Parl. ; 
Parliamentary Register (Ireland), passim; Grat- 
tan's Life of Henry Grattan ; Hardy's Life of 
Charlemont; Beresford, Auckland, Cornwallis and 
Castlereagh Correspondence ; Lecky's England 
in the Eighteenth Century ; Parl. Debates 1801- 
1817 passim ; Colchester's Diary and Corre- 
spondence ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. pt. i. 
p. 426, pt. iv. p. 27, 13th Rep. App. viii. (Earl 
of Charlemont's MSS. vol. ii.)] R. D. 

PONSONBY, HENRY (d. 1745), of 
Ashgrove, major-general, was the second son 
of Sir William Ponsonby by Mary, sister of 
Brabazon Moore, of the family of Charles, 
second viscount Moore of Drogheda[q.v,] His 
father, third son of Sir John Ponsonby, who 
accompanied Cromwell to Ireland in 1 649 as 
colonel of a regiment of horse, sat in the- 
Irish parliament as member for co. Kilkenny 
in Anne's reign, was called to the privy 
council in 1715, and was raised to the peerage 
of Ireland as Baron Bessborough in 1721. In- 
the preamble of his patent his services as a 
soldier during the siege of Derry are par- 
ticularly mentioned. He was made Viscount 
Duncannon in 1723, and died on 17 Nov. 
1724 at the age of sixty-seven. 

Henry Ponsonby was made a captain of foot 
on 2 Aug. 1705, and became colonel of a regi- 
ment (afterwards the 37th or North Hamp- 
shire) on 13 May 1735. He represented Fet- 
hard in the Irish parliament in November 
1715, and afterwards sat for Clonmeen, Inis- 
tioge, and Newtown. In February 1742, when 
Great Britain was preparing to take part irt 
the war of the Austrian succession, he was 
made brigadier, and in April he embarked for 
Flanders with the force under Lord Stair. He 
was present at Dettingen, and was promoted 
major-general in July 1743. At the battle- 
of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, as one of the 
major-generals of the first line, he was at 
the head of the first battalion of the 1st foot- 
guards, and therefore in the forefront of the* 
famous charge made by the British and Hano- 
verian infantry. He was in the act of hand- 
ing over his ring and watch to his son, 
Chambre-Brabazon, a lieutenant in his own 
regiment, when he was killed by a cannon- 
shot. By his wife, Lady Frances Brabazon r 
youngest daughter of the fifth Earl of Meath, 
he left one son and one daughter. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland ; Gent. Ma?. 
1742-5; Campbell McLachlan's Duke of Cum- 
berland, p. 183.] E. M. L. 

PONSONBY, JOHN (1713-1789), speaker 
of the Irish House of Commons, born on 
29 March 1713, was the second son of Bra- 
bazon Ponsonby, second viscount Duncan- 



non, and first earl of Bessborough, by his first 
wife, Sarah, granddaughter of James Marget- 
son [q. v.J, archbishop of Armagh, and widow 
of Hugh Colvil, esq., of co. Down. William 
Ponsonby, second earl of Bessborough [q. v.], 
was his elder brother. His great-grandfather, 
Sir John Ponsonby, of Hale in Cumberland, 
born in 1608, commanded a troop of horse in 
the service of the Commonwealth, and had 
two grants of land assigned him in Ireland 
under the acts of settlement. He repre- 
sented co. Kilkenny in parliament in 1661, 
and, dying in 1678, was succeeded by his son 
William [see under PONSONBY, HENRY]. 

Ponsonby entered parliament in 1739 as 
member for the borough of Newtown, co. 
Down, vacated by the elevation of Robert 
Jocelyn, first viscount Jocelyn [q. v.], to the 
lord-chancellorship. Shortly afterwards, in 
1742, he was appointed secretary to the 
revenue board, and, on the death of his father 
in 1744, succeeded him as first commissioner. 
He held the post with credit for twenty-seven 
years, and on his dismission in 1771 he received 
the unanimous thanks of the merchants of 
Dublin. On the occasion of the rebellion of 
1745 he raised four independent companies 
of horse, and was specially thanked by Lord 
Chesterfield in the king's name for his loyalty. 
Besides being the first to be raised at that time, 
his troopers were notable for their discipline 
and handsome uniform, which,with the excep- 
tion of the sash, was the same for the men as 
the officers. In 1748 he was sworn a privy 
councillor, and on 26 April 1756 was unani- 
mously elected speaker of the House of Com- 
mons in succession to Henry Boyle, created 
lord Shannon [q. v.] (cf. a curious account 
of his election in Letters from an Arme- 
nian, fyc. p. 45, attributed to Edmond Sexton 
Pery [q.v.]) 

Ponsonby's connection by marriage with 
the Duke of Devonshire and the great parlia- 
mentary influence of his own family rendered 
him an important political factor in a country 
of which the government practically lay in 
the hands of three or four great families. On 
the change of administration which occurred 
shortly after his election to the speakership, 
Ponsonby entered into an alliance with the 
primate, George Stone [q. v.], with the object 
of securing a dominant influence in state 
affairs. In this he was successful. For the 
commons having, in October 1757, passed a 
strong series of resolutions against pensions, 
absentees, and other standing grievances, the 
lord lieutenant, the Duke of Bedford, who 
had formed the design of governing inde- 
pendently of the undertakers, was, much 
against his will, compelled by a threat of 
suspending supplies to transmit them to 

England in the very words in which they 
had been moved. This was regarded as a 
great triumph for the speaker, and on the 
departure of the viceroy in May 1758, he 
had the satisfaction of being included in the 
commission for government along with the 
primate and the Earl of Shannon. Several 
unsuccessful attempts were made to diminish 
his power, especially during the viceroyalty 
of the Earl of Northumberland in 1763-4, 
but nothing occurred to permanently shake 
his authority till the arrival of the Marquis 
of Townshend in 1767. In 1761 he was re- 
turned for Armagh borough and the county 
of Kilkenny, but elected to serve for the 
latter, which he continued to represent till 

The appointment of the Marquis of Town- 
shend as resident viceroy marks the beginning 
of a new epoch in Irish h istory . Hi therto it had 
been the custom of the lord lieutenant for the 
time being to spend only two or three months 
during the year in Dublin for the purpose 
mainly of conducting the business of parlia- 
ment. In consequence of this arrangement 
the government of the country had for many 
years rested in the hands of a few families, 
among whom the Ponsonbys were pre-emi- 
nent; they practically controlled parliament, 
and for their service in managing the king's 
business whence the name i undertakers ' 
were allowed to engross to themselves the chief 
emoluments in the country. So far, indeed, 
as Ireland was concerned, there had hitherto 
been little to complain of in regard to this ar- 
rangement. But in England the growinginde- 
pendenceof the Irish parliament was regarded 
with increasing suspicion. The appointment 
of Townshend was intended as a blow against 
the authority of the ' undertakers,' and all 
the influence of the crown was accordingly 
placed at his disposal. Immediately on his 
arrival he set himself resolutely to form a 
party in parliament wholly dependent on the 
crown. The Octennial Bill was a serious 
blow to the dominion of the undertakers. 
Ponsonby and his friends instantly recognised 
the danger that menaced them, and by their 
united effort succeeded in frustrating the 
viceroy's attempt to force through parliament 
a money bill, which had taken its origin in 
the privy council. For this he was imme- 
diately deprived of his office of commissioner 
of revenue, and the effect of his punishment 
was such that at the close of the session parlia- 
ment passed a vote of thanks to the viceroy. 
Rather, however, than consent to present an 
address so antagonistic to his feelings, Pon- 
sonby preferred to resign the speakership (cf. 
Charlemont MSS. i. 39). He no doubt ex- 
pected to be re-elected, but had the additional 




mortification of seeing it conferred on Ed- 
mond Sexton Pery. A strenuous but unsuc- 
cessful effort was made to recover the chair 
for him in 1776. He still retained his enor- 
mous parliamentary influence, and was till 
his death, on 12 Dec. 1789, a firm supporter 
of the patriotic party ; but after his defeat 
in 1776 he gradually ceased to take an active 
personal part in politics, yielding the post of 
leadership to his son George, subsequently 
chancellor of the exchequer. 

Ponsonby married, on 22 Sept. 1743, Lady 
Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of William, 
third duke of Devonshire, by whom he had, 
with other issue, William Brabazon Ponsonby, 
first baron Ponsonby of Imokilly, who suc- 
ceeded him, and is separately noticed ; John, 
who died young, George, lord chancellor of 
Ireland [q. v.], and two sons, Richard and 
Frederick, who died in infancy, also Cathe- 
rine, who married Richard Boyle, second 
earl of Shannon ; Frances, who married Cor- 
nelius O'Callaghan, first earl of Lismore; 
Charlotte, who married the Right Hon. Denis 
Bowes Daly; and Henrietta. 

His portrait was painted by Gavin, and 
engraved by T. Gainer ; a poor engraving, 
representing him in his robes as speaker, is 
in the ' Hibernian Magazine' for 1777 (cf. 


[Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Hibernian Mag. 
1777; Nicolson and Burn's Hist, of "Westmore- 
land and Cumberland, ii. 30 ; Official List of 
Members of Parliament, Ireland; Wiffen's House 
of Russell ; Froude's English in Ireland ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. ix. (Earl of 
Donoughmore's MSS.), App. x. (Earl of Charle- 
mont's MSS. vol. i.)] R. D. 

SONBY (1770P-1855), diplomatist, eldest son 
of William Brabazon Ponsonby, first baron 
Ponsonby [q. v.], and brother of Sir William 
Ponsonby [q. v.], was born about 1770. He 
was possibly the John Brabazon Ponsonby 
who was successively member for Tallagh, 
co. Waterford, in the Irish parliament of 
1797, for Dungarvan, 1798-1800, and for 
Galway town, in the first parliament of the 
United Kingdom, 1801-2. On the death of 
his father on 5 Nov. 1806 he succeeded him 
as second Baron Ponsonby, and for some time 
held an appointment in the Ionian Islands. 
On 28 Feb. 1826 he went to Buenos Ayres 
as envoy-extraordinary and minister-pleni- 
potentiary, and removed to Rio Janiero in 
the same capacity on 12 Feb. 1828. An ex- 
ceptionally handsome man, he was sent, it 
was reported, to South America by George 
Canning to please George IV, who was envious 
of the attention paid him by Lady Conyng- 
ham. He was entrusted with a special mission 

to Belgium on 1 Dec. 1830, in connection 
with the candidature of Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg to the throne, and remained in 
Brussels until Leopold was elected king of 
the Belgians on 4 June 1831. His dealings 
with this matter were adversely criticised in 
' The Guet-a-Pens Diplomacy, or Lord Pon- 
sonby at Brussels, . . .' London, 1831. But 
Lord Grey eulogised him in the House of 
Lords on 25 June 1831. Ponsonby was 
envoy at Naples from 8 June to 9 Nov. 1832, 
ambassador at Constantinople from 27 Nov. 
1832 to 1 March 1837, and ambassador at 
Vienna from 10 Aug. 1846 to 31 May 1850. 

Through Lord Grey, who had married his 
sister Mary Elizabeth, he had great influence, 
but his conduct as an ambassador sometimes 
occasioned embarrassment to the ministry. 
He was, however, a keen diplomatist of the 
old school, a shrewd observer, and a man of 
large views and strong will (LoFTTJS, Diplo- 
matic Reminiscences, 1892, i. 129-30). He 
was gazetted G.C.B. on 3 March 1834, and 
created Viscount Ponsonby of Imokilly, co. 
Cork, on 20 April 1839. He published ' Pri- 
vate Letters on the Eastern Question, written 
at the date thereon/ Brighton, 1854, and died 
at Brighton on 21 Feb. 1855. The viscounty 
thereupon lapsed, but the barony devolved 
on his nephew William, son of Sir William 
Ponsonby. The viscount married, on 1 3 Jan. 
1803, Elizabeth Frances Villiers, fifth daugh- 
ter of George, fourth earl of Jersey. She died 
at 62 Chester Square, London, on 14 April 
1866, having had no issue. 

RICHAED PONSONBY (1772-1853), bishop 
of Derry, brother of the above, was born at 
Dublin in 1772, and educated at Dublin Uni- 
versity, where he graduated B.A. in 1794, 
and M.A. in 1816. During 1795 he was or- 
dained deacon and priest, and was appointed 
prebendary of Tipper in St. Patrick's Ca- 
thedral. He succeeded by patent to the pre- 
centorship of St. Patrick's on 25 July 1806, 
and became dean on 3 June 1817. In Fe- 
bruary 1828 he was consecrated bishop of 
Killaloe and Kilfenora, was translated to 
Derry on 21 Sept. 1831, and became also 
bishop of Raphoe, in pursuance of the Church 
Temporalities Act, in September 1834. He 
was president of the Church Education So- 
ciety, and died at the palace, Derry, on 27 Oct. 
1853. He married, in 1804, his cousin Fran- 
ces, second daughter of the Right Hon. John 
Staples. She died on 15 Dec. 1858, having 
had issue William Brabazon, fourth and last 
baron Ponsonby, who died on board his yacht, 
the Lufra, off Plymouth, on 10 Sept. 1866 
(Gent. Mag. 1853 ii. 630, 1866 ii. 545; 
COTTON, Fasti Eccl Hib. 1847, i. 409, ii. 107, 
160, iii. 328, 358, Suppl. 1878, p. 109). 



[Lamington's Days of the Dandies, 1890, pp. 
75-9; G rev ille Memoirs, 1874 ii. 155, 172, iii. 
405 ; Malmesbury's Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, 

1885, p. 345; Foreign Office List, 1855, p. 66; 
Gent. Mag. April 1855, p. 414 ; Burke's Peerage, 
1854 p. 806, 1877 p. 1329; Doyle's Baronage, 

1886, iii. 55 ; Sir H? Lytton Bulwer's Historical 
Characters, 1868, ii. 369-70; Morning Post, 
24 Feb. 1855, p. 6; Gent. Mag. April 1855, 
p. 414.] G. C. B. 

EARL OF BESSBOROUGH (1781-1847), eldest 
son of Frederick, the third earl, by his wife, 
Lady Henrietta Frances Spencer, second 
daughter of John, first earl Spencer, and 
grandson of William Ponsonby, second earl 
of Bessborough [q. v.], was born on 31 Aug. 
1781. In early life he bore the courtesy title 
of Lord Duncannon. He matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford on 14 Oct. 1799, and 
was created M. A. on 23 June 1802. In 1805 
he entered parliament in the whig interest for 
Knaresborough, one of the Duke of Devon- 
shire's seats ; he then sat for Higham Ferrers 
in 1806 and 1807, and for Malton from 1812 
to 1826, both the latter boroughs belonging 
to Earl Fitzwilliam. In 1826 he contested 
Kilkenny, and, after a hard struggle with his 
opponent, Colonel Butler, he was returned, 
in. spite of O'Connell's opposition. At the 
election of 1831 he again won the seat by 
the narrow majority of sixty-one, Bishop 
Doyle, by the exercise of his episcopal 
authority, having prevented the Roman 
catholic priests from opposing him. Such a 
victory was equivalent to a defeat, and he 
did not risk another contest. He stood at 
the next election for Nottingham, and was 
returned by a very large majority. A warm 
supporter of catholic emancipation and par- 
liamentary reform, he acted as chief whip of 
the whig party, and shared in its councils by 
virtue of his shrewdness, though he was an 
unready speaker, and held aloof from debate. 
With Lord Durham, Lord John Russell, and 
Sir James Graham, he prepared the first Re- 
form Bill in 1830. In February 1831 he was 
appointed by Lord Grey first commissioner of 
woods and forests, and was sworn of the 
privy council. After a very successful tenure 
of that office he was transferred to the home 
office, when Lord Melbourne, his brother-in- 
law, succeeded Lord Grey as premier in 
August 1834. This appointment was made 
to conciliate O'Connell, now a friend of 
Lord Duncannon (McCuLLAGH TORRENS, 
Life of Lord Melbourne, ii. 17). Duncannon 
had introduced O'Connell on taking his seat 
for co. Clare in 1829, when O'Connell refused 
to take the oath. Duncannon was called up 
to the House of Lords on 18 July 1834 as 

Baron Duncannon of Bessborough, and re- 
tired from office with his colleagues when 
Peel became premier in December 1834. He 
returned to the woods and forests on 18 April 
1835, when Melbourne resumed the premier- 
ship, and held also the office of lord privy 
seal till 1839. As first commissioner, Bess- 
borough was officially responsible for the 
design of the new houses of parliament, and 
took an active part in the improvement of the 
metropolis [see PENNETHORNE, SIE JAMES]. 

He succeeded to the earldom of Bess- 
borough in February 1844, and in July 1846 
was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
the first resident Irish landlord who had 
held that office for a generation. His good 
relations with O'Connell recommended him 
for the post. Though he held it only two 
years, he was active and successful in coping 
with disaffection. He died on 16 May 1847 
at Dublin Castle of hydrothorax, and was 
privately buried in the family vault at Bess- 
borough (Greville Memoirs, 2nd ser. iii. 80). 
He was married in London, on 11 Nov. 1805, 
to Lady Maria Fane, third daughter of John, 
tenth earl of Westmorland, by whom he 
had eight sons and six daughters. His second 
son, Frederick George Brabazon, sixth earl 
of Bessborough, and his daughter, Lady 
Emily Charlotte Mary Ponsonby, are sepa- 
rately noticed. 

Bessborough was held in general esteem 
for his high principle, easy manners, manage- 
ment of men, good sense, accurate informa- 
tion, and industry. In an elaborate estimate 
of his character, his friend Charles Greville 
says of him (Memoirs, 2nd ser. iii. 83) : * He 
had a remarkably calm and unruffled temper, 
and very good sound sense. The consequence 
was that he was consulted by everybody, 
and usually and constantly employed in the 
arrangement of difficulties, the adjustment 
of rival pretensions, and the reconciliation 
of differences. . . . In his administration, 
adverse and unhappy as the times were, he 
displayed great industry, firmness, and know- 
ledge of the character and circumstances of 
the Irish people, and he conciliated the good- 
will of those to whom he had been all his 
life opposed.' 

[Greville Memoirs ; Fitzpatrick's Correspon- 
dence of O'Connell; Gent.Mag. 1847,ii.81; Ann. 
Reg. 1847; Times, 19 May 1847.] J. A. H. 

1831), recluse of Llangollen. [See under 

PONSONBY,WILLIAM (1546 P-1604), 
publisher, was apprenticed for ten vears from 
25 Dec. 1560 to William Norton [q. v.], the 
printer (ARBER, i. 148). He was admitted 




to the Stationers' Company on 11 Jan. 1571, 
and in 1577 began business on his own ac- 
count at the sign of the Bishop's Head in St. 
Paul's Churchyard. He engaged his first ap- 
prentice, Paul Linley, on 25 March 1576, and 
his second. Edward Blount [q. v.J, on 24 June 
1578. His earliest publication, for which 
he secured a license on 17 June 1577, was 
' Praise and Dispraise of Women,' by John 
Alday [q. v.] A few political and religious 
tracts followed in the next five years. In 
1582 Ponsonby issued the first part of Robert 
Greene's romance, ' Mamillia,' and in 1584 
the same author's l Gwydonius.' At the end 
of 1586 he sought permission, through Sir 
Fulke Greville, to publish Sidney's 'Arcadia,' 
which was then being generally circulated 
in manuscript. His proposal was not re- 
ceived with much enthusiasm by Sidney's 
representatives, but Ponsonby secured a 
license for its publication on 23 Aug. 1588, 
and in 1590 he published it. He liberally 
edited and rearranged the text. A new 
issue of 1 593, ' augmented and ended,' intro- 
duced a few changes, but in 1598 Sidney's 
sister, the countess of Pembroke, by arrange- 
ment with Ponsonby, revised the whole and 
added Sidney's ' Apologie for Poetrie' and his 
poetic remains. Ponsonby had in 1595 dis- 
puted the claims of Henry Olney to publish 
the first edition of Sidney's 'Apologie for Poe- 
trie,' but the first edition came from Olney's 
press. With the Countess of Pembroke he 
seems to have been on friendly terms, and in 
1592 published for her, in a single volume, her 
translations of De Mornay's ' Life and Death ' 
and Garnier's 'Antonius.' The first piece 
Ponsonby reissued separately in 1600. 

Ponsonby chiefly owes his fame to his 
association with Spenser. No less than ten 
volumes of Spenser's work appeared under 
his auspices. In 1590 he published the first 
three books of Spenser's ' Faerie Queene,'and 
next year he brought together on his own re- 
sponsibility various unpublished pieces by 
Spenser in a volume to which he gave the 
title of ' Complaints.' He prefixed an ad- 
dress to the reader of his own composition. 
Subsequently he issued in separate volumes 
'The Tears of the Muses' and 'Daphnaida,' 
both in 1591 ; ' Amoretti ' and ' Colin Clout's 
come home again' in 1595; and in 1596 the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth books of the 'Faerie 
Queene,' as well as a collected edition of the 
six books, and two other volumes, respec- 
tively entitled ' Fowre Hymns ' and ' Pro- 

He was admitted to the livery of his 
company on 6 May 1588, and acted as warden 
in 1597-8. His latest appearance in the 
Stationers' ' Registers ' is as one of the pro- 

prietors of a new edition of Sir Thomas 
North's great translation of Plutarch, 5 July 
1602. He died before September 1604, when 
his chief copyrights were transferred to 
Simon Waterson. They included, besides 
the ' Arcadia ' and the ' Faerie Queen,' Cle- 
ment Edmonds's ' Caesar's Commentaries,' 
and the Countess of Pembroke's translation 
of De Mornay's ' Life and Death.' 

[Arber's Registers of the Stationers' Company, 
passim, especially ii. 35, 866, iii. 269; Biblio- 
graphica, i. 475-8; Collier's Bibliographical 
Catalogue, ii. 346 sqq.] S. L. 

OP BESSBOROITGH (1704-1793), born in 1704, 
was eldest son of Brabazon, first earl of Bess- 
borough, by his first wife, Sarah, widow of 
Hugh Colville of Newtown, co. Down, and 
daughter of Major John Margetson (son and 
heir of James Margetson [q.v.], archbishop 
of Armagh). John Ponsonby [q. v.], speaker 
of the Irish House of Commons, was his 
youngest brother. 'William was elected to 
the Irish House of Commons in 1725 for the 
borough of Newtown. At the general elec- 
tion in 1727 he was returned for the county 
of Kilkenny, which he continued to represent 
until his father's death in July 1758. In 1739 
he was appointed secretary to his father- 
in-law, William, third duke of Devonshire, 
then lord lieutenant of Ireland, and in 1741 
was sworn a member of the Irish privy 
council. In March 1742 he was elected to 
the British House of Commons for Derby, 
and continued to represent that town until 
the dissolution in April 1754. He was 
appointed a lord of the admiralty on 24 June 
1746, and at the general election in April 
1754 was elected for Saltash, but vacated 
his seat for that borough in November 1756 
on his promotion from the admiralty to the 
treasury board. He was returned to the 
House of Commons for Harwich at a by- 
election in December 1756, and succeeded 
to the peerage on the death of his father on 
4 July 1758. Bessborough took his seat in 
the English House of Lords as second Baron 
Ponsonby of Sysonby in the county of 
Leicester on 23 Nov. 1758 (Journals of the 
House of Lords, xxix.391). He was appointed 
joint postmaster-general on 2 June 1759, 
'being succeeded at the treasury by Lord 
North (Chatham Correspondence, 1838-40, 
i. 409). On the dismissal of his brother-in- 
law, the Duke of Devonshire, from the post 
of lord chamberlain, in October 1762, Bess- 
borough resigned office. 

He attended the meeting of whig leaders 
held at the Duke of Newcastle's on 30 June 
1765 (LORD ALBEMARLE, Memoirs of the 


8 9 


Marquis of Eockingham, 1852, i. 218-20), 
and on 12 July following kissed hands on 
his reappointment as joint postmaster-general 
(Grenville Papers, 1852-3, iii. 217), being 
at the same time sworn a member of the 
privy council. On 25 Nov. 1766 Bessborough 
offered to resign the post office in favour of 
Lord Edgcumbe, who had been dismissed 
from the treasurership of the household, and 
to accept a place in the bedchamber instead. 
His offer, however, was refused, and Bess- 
borough thereupon resigned (Chatham Cor- 
respondence, iii. 130). In company with the 
Duke of Devonshire, and Lords Bocking- 
ham, Fitzwilliam, and Fitzpatrick, he pro- 
tested strongly against the proposed Irish 
absentee tax in 1773 (FROTJDE, English in 
Ireland, 1872-4, ii. 150, 152). He died on 
11 March 1793, and was buried on the 22nd 
of the same month in the family vault of the 
Dukes of Devonshire in All Saints' Church, 
Derby, where there are monumental busts 
of him and his wife by Nollekens and Rys- 
brach respectively. 

He married, on 5 July 1739, Lady Caroline 
Cavendish, eldest daughter of William, third 
duke of Devonshire, by whom he had five 
sons all of whom died young with the ex- 
ception of Frederic, viscount Duncannon 
(born 24 Jan. 1758), who succeeded as third 
Earl of Bessborough, and died on 3 Feb. 1844, 
and whose son, John William, fourth earl, is 
separately noticed and six daughters, all of 
whom died young with the exception of Cathe- 
rine, who married, on 4 May 1763, the Hon. 
Aubrey Beauclerk (afterwards fifth Duke of 
St. Albans), and died on 4 Sept. 1789, aged 
46; and Charlotte, who married on 11 July 
1770 William, fourth earl Fitzwilliam, 
and died on 13 May 1822, aged 74. Lady 
Bessborough died on 20 Jan. 1760, aged 40, 
and was buried in All Saints', Derby. 

There is no record of any speech delivered 
by Bessborough in either the Irish or British 
parliaments, though he signed a number of 

Protests in the British House of Lords (see 
tOGERS, Complete Collection of the Protests 
of the Lords, 1875, vol. ii.) He was ap- 
pointed a trustee of the British Museum in 
1770. The pictures at his house in Pall Mall, 
and the antiques at Bessborough House, 
Roehampton. which Bessborough and his 
father had collected, were sold at Christie's 
in 1801 . A catalogue (in French) of his gems 
was published by Laurent Natter in 1761 
(London, 4to). A portrait of Bessborough 
was painted by George Knapton for the Dilet- 
tanti Society, and there is a mezzotint en- 
graving by R. Dunkarton after J. S. Copley. 
[Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 
1845, i. 200-1, ii. 22, 194,381-2, 395; Walpole's 

Letters, 1857-9 passim ; Glover's Hist, of Derby- 
shire, 1833, vol. i. p. 491 ; Cox and Hope's 
Chronicles of All Saints', Derby, 1881, pp. 129, 
132,133; Nichols's Leicestershire, 1795-1815, 
vol. ii. pt. i. p. 283; Brayley and Britton's 
Surrey, 1850, iii. 483 ; Ljsons's Environs of 
London, 1792, i. 433-4, Supplement, 1811, 
p. 64; G-. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 351-2 ; 
Edmondson's Baronagium Genealog. v. 448 ; 
Foster's Peerage, 1883, p. 78; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, 1789, ii. 281-2; Collins's Peerage, 
1812, vii. 265-7; Gent. Mag. 1760 p. 46, 1763 
p. 257, 1770 p. 344, 1789 pt. ii. p. 866, 1793 
pt. i. p. 285, 1801 pt. i. pp. 323-4, pt. ii. p. 783, 
1822 pt. i. p. 472, 1844, pt. ii. p. 87; Official 
Return of Membersof Parliament, pt.ii. ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, 1890.] G. F. R. B. 

1815), major-general, born in 1772, was the 
second son of William Brabazon Ponsonby, 
first baron Ponsonby [q. v.], by the Hon. 
Louisa Molesworth, fourth daughter of the 
third Viscount Molesworth. John, first vis- 
count Ponsonby [q. v.], was his eldest 
brother. Sir William was second cousin of 
Sir Frederic Cavendish Ponsonby [q. v.], 
both being great-grandsons of the first Earl 
of Bessborough. After serving for a year and 
a half as ensign and lieutenant in the inde- 
pendent companies of Captain Bulwer and 
Captain Davis, he obtained a company in the 
83rd foot in September 1794, and on 15 Dec. 
of that year became major in the loyal Irish 
fencibles. On 1 March 1798 he was trans- 
ferred to the 5th dragoon guards, and obtained 
the command of that regiment on 24 Feb. 
1803, having become lieutenant-colonel in 
the army on 1 Jan. 1800. He became colonel 
on 25 July 1810. Up to this time he had 
seen no foreign service, but in 1811 he went to 
Spain with his regiment, which formed part 
of Le Marchant's brigade. His was the lead- 
ing regiment of that brigade in the affair at 
Llerena on 11 April 1812 [see PONSONBY, SIR 
FREDERIC CAVENDISH], and he won the com- 
mendation of Sir Stapleton Cotton. At Sala- 
manca he took part at the head of his regi- 
ment in the charge of the brigade which broke 
up the French left and took two thousand 
prisoners, and after the fall of General Le 
Marchant in that charge he succeeded to the 
command of the brigade. He was defini- 
tively appointed to this command three days 
afterwards, 25 July 1812, and he led the 
brigade at Vittoria. He was promoted major- 
general on 4 June 1813, and on 2 Jan. 1815 
he was made K.C.B. 

In the campaign of 1815 he was given 
command of the Union brigade of heavy 
cavalry (Royals, Scots Greys, and Inniskil- 
lings), and led it at Waterloo in the famous 
charge on d'Erlon's shattered corps. Lord 



Anglesey's order was that the Eoyals and 
Inmskillings should charge and the Greys 
should support, but the latter came up into 
front line before the other regiments were 
halfway down the slope. The French columns 
broke up, and two thousand prisoners were 
taken. Sir De Lacy Evans, who was acting 
as extra A.D.C. to Ponsonby, says: 'The 
enemy fled as a flock of sheep across the valley, 
quite at the mercy of the dragoons. In fact 
our men were out of hand. The general of 
the brigade, his staff, and every officer within 
hearing exerted themselves to the utmost to 
re-form the men ; but the helplessness of the 
enemy offered too great a temptation to the 
dragoons, and our efforts were abortive.' 
They mounted the ridge on which the French 
artillery were drawn up, and, meeting two 
batteries which had moved forward, sabred 
the gunners and overturned the guns. The 
household cavalry brigade, which had charged 
at the same time on the right, became to some 
extent intermixed with the Union brigade. 
Napoleon, seeing the situation, sent two regi- 
ments of cuirassiers to fall on the front and 
flank of the disordered cavalry, and they were 
.j oined by a regiment of Polish lancers. ' Every 
one,' says Evans, ' saw what must happen. 
Those whose horses were best, or least blown, 
got away. Some attempted to escape back 
to our position by going round the left of 
the French lancers. Sir William Ponsonby 
was of that number' ( Waterloo Letters,}*. 61). 
He might have escaped if he had been better 
mounted, but the groom with his chestnut 
charger could not be found at the moment 
of the charge, and he was riding a small bay 
hack which soon stuck fast in the heavy 
ground. Seeing he must be overtaken, he 
was handing over his watch and a miniature 
to his brigade-major to deliver to his family, 
when the French lancers came up and killed 
them both on the spot. He was buried at 
Kensington, in the vault of the Molesworth 
family, and a national monument was erected 
to him in St. Paul's. The Duke of Welling- 
ton, in his report of the battle, expressed his 
' grief for the fate of an officer who had 
already rendered very brilliant and important 
services, and was an ornament to his pro- 

Ponsonby married, 20 Jan. 1807, the Hon. 
Georgiana Fitzroy, sixth daughter of the first 
Lord Southampton, and he left one son, Wil- 
liam, who succeeded his uncle John Ponsonby 
as third Baron Ponsonby a title now ex- 
tinct and four daughters. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1815; Burke's Extinct Peerages ; 
Records of the 5th Dragoon Guards ; Siborne's 
Waterloo Letters ; Statement of Service in Public 
Eecord Office.] E. M. L. 


first BARON PONSONBY (1744-1806), born on 
15 Sept. 1744, was the eldest son of the Right 
Hon. John Ponsonby [q. v.], speaker of the 
Irish House of Commons, by his wife, Lady 
Elizabeth Cavendish, second daughter of 
William, third duke of Devonshire. George 
Ponsonby [q. v.], lord chancellor of Ireland, 
was his brother. He was returned in 1764 to 
the Irish House of Commons for Cork city, 
which he continued to represent until the 
dissolution in 1776. He represented Bandon 
Bridge from 1776 to 1783. At the general 
election in 1783 he was returned both for 
Newtown and Kilkenny county, but elected 
to sit for Kilkenny, and continued to repre- 
sent that county until his elevation to the 
peerage. He voted against Flood's Parliamen- 
tary Reform Bill on 29 Nov. 1783 (Life and 
Times of Henry G rattan, iii. 150-4 n.}, and 
in July 1784 was appointed joint postmaster- 
general of Ireland and sworn a member of 
the Irish privy council. Having declared 
his opinion that the house ought ' to invest 
the Prince of Wales as regent with all the 
authority of the crown fully and imlimitedly ' 
(Parl. Register, or History of the Proceedings 
and Debates in the House of Commons of 
Ireland, ix. 22), he was selected as one of 
the bearers of the address to the prince, 
which the lord lieutenant refused to transmit. 
He joined those who opposed the Marquis of 
Buckingham's policy in signing the round- 
robin agreement of 27 Feb. 1789 (BARRING- 
TON", Historic Memoirs of Ireland, 1833, vol. 
ii. opp. p. 377), and was shortly afterwards 
removed from the office of postmaster- 
general. He was elected an original mem- 
ber of the whig club founded in Dublin 
on 26 June 1789. On 4 March 1794 he 
brought forward a parliamentary reform 
bill, which was substantially the same as 
the bill which he had introduced in the 
previous year, its principal features being 
the extension of the right of voting in the 
boroughs, and the addition of a third mem- 
ber to each of the counties and to the cities 
of Dublin and Cork (Parl. Reg. &c., xiv. 
62-8). It was warmly supported by Grattan, 
but was rejected by the house by a majority 
of ninety-eight votes. Ponsonby appears to 
have been recommended by Fitzwilliam for 
the post of principal secretary of state in 
1795 (LECKY, History of England, vii. 57). 
In May 1797 he brought forward a series of 
resolutions in favour of reform, but was de- 
feated by 117 votes to 30 (ib. vii. 324-8). 
He voted against the union in 1799 and in 
1800 (BARRINGTON, Historic Memoirs of Ire- 
land, ii. 374). On 16 March 1801 he took 
part in the debate on the Irish Martial 



Law Bill, and warned the house that ' it 
would be the wisest policy to treat the 

nle of Ireland like the people of Eng- 
' (Parl. Hist. xxxv. 1037-8). He was 
created Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly in the 
county of York on 13 March 1806. He took 
his seat in the House of Lords on 25 April 
(Journals of the House of Lords, xlv. 574), 
but never took any part in the debates. He 
died in Seymour Street, Hyde Park, London, 
on 5 Nov. 1806. 

Ponsonby was a staunch whig and a steady 
adherent of Charles James Fox. He is said 
to have kept * the best hunting establishment 
in Ireland/ at Bishop's Court, co. Kildare, 
where he lived ' in the most hospitable and 
princely style' (Gent. Mag. 1806, pt. ii. p. 
1084). He married, in December 1769, Louisa, 
fourth daughter of Richard, third viscount 
Molesworth,by whom he had five sons viz. : 

(1) John Ponsonby, viscount Ponsonby [q.v.] ; 

(2) Sir William Ponsonby [q.v.]; (3) Richard 
Ponsonby [see under PONSONBY, JOHN, VIS- 
COUNT PONSOKBY] ; (4) George Ponsonby of 
Woolbeding, near Midhurst, Sussex, some- 
time a lord of the treasury, who died on 5 June 
1863 ; and (5) Frederick, who died unmarried 
in 1849 and one daughter, Mary Elizabeth, 
who married, on 17 Nov. 1794, Charles Grey 
(afterwards second Earl Grey), and died on 
26 Nov. 1861, aged 86. Lady Ponsonby mar- 
ried, secondly, on 21 July 1823, William, 
fourth earl Fitzwilliam, and died on 1 Sept. 

[Authorities cited in text ; Hardy's Memoirs 
of the Earl of Charlemont, 1812, ii. 186,214-15; 
Lodge's Irish Peerage, 1789, ii. 279 ; 
Collins's Peerage, 1812, ix. 343-4; Foster's 
Peerage, 1883, pp. 77-8 ; Burke's Extinct Peer- 
age, 1883, p. 617; G-ent. Mag. 1794 pt. ii. 
p. 1054, 1806 pt. ii. pp. 1248-9, 1823 pt. ii. 
p. 368, 1853 pt. ii. pp. 630-1, 1862 pt. i. p. 105 ; 
Official Keturn of Lists of Members of Parlia- 
ment, pt. ii.; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890, 
p. 564.] G. F. E. B. 

ROBERT (1524-1606), Scottish reformer, 
born in 1524 at or near Culross, Perthshire 
(BUCHANAN, De Scriptoribus Scotis Illustri- 
bus), was the son of John Pont of Shyresmill 
and Catherine Murray, said to be a daughter 
of Murray of Tullibardine (Blackadder's ma- 
nuscript memoirs in Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, quoted in App. A to WODEOW'S 
Collections upon the Lives of the Reformers}. 
The statement of Dr. Andrew Crichton (note 
in Life of the Rev. John Blackadder) that the 
father was a Venetian, who, having been 
banished for his adherence to the protestant 
faith, arrived in Scotland in the train of Mary 
of Guise, is essentially improbable, as well as 

inconsistent with well-known facts ; and the 
evidence for the statement has not been ad- 
duced. The son received his early education 
in the school of Culross, and in 1543 was in- 
corporated in the college of St. Leonards in 
the university of St. Andrews. On com- 
pleting the course of philosophy there he is 
supposed to have studied law at one of the 
universities on the continent. Nothing, how- 
ever, is definitely known of his career until 
1559, when he was settled in St. Andrews, 
and acted as an elder of the kirk session 
there. As a commissioner from St. Andrews 
he was present at a meeting of the first gene- 
ral assembly of the reformers at Edinburgh 
on 20 Dec. 1560 (CALDEEWOOD, Hist, of the 
Kirk of Scotland, ii. 44), and he was one of 
twenty within the bounds of St. Andrews 
declared by this assembly to be qualified for 
ministry and teaching (ib. p. 46). The esti- 
mation in which he was held was evidenced 
by his being chosen one of a committee to 
' sight ' or revise the ' Book of Discipline,' 
printed in 1561 (ib. p. 94). At a meeting of 
the general assembly in July 1562 Pont was 
appointed to minister the word and sacra- 
ments at Dunblane, and in December of the 
same year he was appointed minister of Dun- 
keld. He was also the same year nominated, 
along with Alexander Gordon (1516P-1575) 
[q. v.], bishop of Galloway, for the superin- 
tendentship of Galloway ; but the election 
was not proceeded with (KNOX, ii. 375 ; 
CALDEEWOOD, ii. 207). On 26 June 1563 he 
was appointed commissioner of Moray, In- 
verness, and Banff. After visiting these dis- 
tricts he confessed his inability, on account 
of his ignorance of Gaelic, properly to dis- 
charge his duties, and desired another to be 
appointed ; but, on the understanding that 
he was not to be burdened i with kirks speak- 
ing the Irish tongue,' he accepted a renewal 
of the commission (ib. ii. 244-5). To the 
'Forme of Prayers,' &c., authorised by the 
general assembly in 1564, and printed in 
1565, Pont contributed metrical versions of 
six of the Psalms ; and at a meeting of the 
general assembly in December 1566 his 
' Translation and Explanation of the Helve- 
tian Confession' was ordered to be printed 
(ib.\\. 332; Book of the Universal Kir7t,L 90). 
On 13 Jan. 1567 he was presented to the par- 
sonage and vicarage of Birnie,BanfFshire. By 
the assembly which met in December 1567 he 
was commissioned to execute sentence of ex- 
communication against Adam Bothwell, bi- 
shop of Orkney, for performing the marriage 
ceremony between the Earl of Bothwell and 
Queen Mary ; by that which met in July 1568 
he was appointed one of a committee to revise 
the ' Treatise of Excommunication ' originally 



penned by Knox (CALDEEWOOD, ii. 424); 
and by that of 1569 lie was named one of a 
committee to proceed against the Earl of 
Huntly for his adherence to popery. By the 
latter of these assemblies a petition was pre- 
sented to the regent and council that Pont 
might be appointed where his labours might 
* be more fruitful than they can be at present 
in Moray' (ib. ii. 485) ; and in July 1570 he 
also craved the assembly to be disburdened 
of his commission, but was requested to con- 
tinue until the next assembly. At the as- 
sembly of July 1570 he acted as moderator. 
On 27 June 1571 he was appointed provost 
of Trinity College, near Edinburgh. He at- 
tended the convention which met at Leith 
in January 1571-2, and by this convention 
he was permitted to accept the office of lord 
of session bestowed on him by the regent 
Mar on account of his great knowledge of 
the laws. The license was, however, 
granted only on condition that he left ' not 
the office of the ministry,' and it was more- 
over declared that the license was not to be 
regarded as a precedent (ib. iii. 169 ; Book 
of the Universal Kirk, p. 54). When, there- 
fore, in March 1572-3 the regent Morton 
proposed that several other ministers should 
be appointed lords of session, the assembly 
prohibited any minister from accepting such 
an office, Pont alone being excepted from the 
inhibition (ib. p. 56). Pont was, along with 
John Wynram, commissioned by Knox to 
communicate his last wishes to the general 
assembly which met at Perth in 1572 (KNOX, 
Works, vi. 620). 

In 1573 Pont received a pension out of the 
thirds of the diocese of Moray. At the as- 
sembly which met in August of this year he 
was l delated for non-residence in Moray, for 
not visiting kirks for two years except In- 
verness, Elgin, and Forres and for not as- 
signing manses and glebes according to act 
of parliament ; ' and at the assembly held in 
March 1574 he demitted his office ' in re- 
spect that George Douglas, bishop of Moray, 
was admitted to the bishopric' (CALDEE- 
WOOD, iii. 304). The same year he was trans- 
lated to the second charge of St. Cuthbert's 
(or the West Church), Edinburgh ; and in 
1578 to the first charge of the same parish. 
He was chosen moderator of the general as- 
sembly which met in August 1575 ; and from 
this time he occupied a position of great 
prominence in the assembly's deliberations, 
his name appearing as a member of nearly al] 
its principal committees and commissions. 

Pont was one of those who, after the fall 
of Morton in 1578, accompanied the English 
ambassador to Stirling to arrange an agree- 
ment between the faction of Morton and the 

^action of Atlioll and Argyll ; and he was 
also one of those who, nominally at the re- 
quest of the king, ' convened ' in the castle of 
Stirling, on 22 Dec. 1578, for the prepara- 
tion of articles of a ' Book of Policy,' after- 
wards known as the ' Second Book of Disci- 
aline.' He again acted as moderator at the 
assembly of 1581. After October of the same 
year he, on invitation, became minister at 
St. Andrews ; but for want of an adequate 
stipend he was in 1583 relieved of this charge, 
and returned to that of St. Cuthbert's, Edin- 
burgh. He took a prominent part in the pro- 
ceedings in 1582 against Robert Montgomerie 
(d. 1609) [q. v.] in regard to his appointment 
to the bishopric of Glasgow, and at a meet- 
ing of the privy council on 12 April he pro- 
tested in the name of the presbyteries of 
Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dalkeith that, ' the 
cause being ecclesiastical,' it t properly ap- 
pertained to the judgement and jurisdiction 
of the kirk' (Reg. P. C. ScotL iii. 477; CAL- 
DEEWOOD, iii. 596-8). In 1583 he was ap- 
pointed one of a commission for collecting 
the acts of the assembly (ib. p. 712) ; and the 
same year was directed, along with David 
Lindsay and John Davidson, to admonish 
the king to beware of innovations in religion 
(ib. p. 717). At the general assembly held 
at Edinburgh in October of the same year he 
again acted as moderator. When the acts 
of parliament regarding the jurisdiction of 
the kirk were proclaimed at the market cross 
of Edinburgh on 25 May 1584, Pont, along 
with Walter Balcanqual, appeared l at the 
appointment of their brethren,' and ' took pub- 
lic documents in the name of the kirk of 
Scotland that they protested against them ' 
(ib. iv. 65). For this he was on the 27th 
deprived of his seat on the bench, and imme- 
diately thereafter he took refuge in England. 
On 7 Nov. he was summoned by the privy 
council to appear before it on 7 Dec., and 
give reasons for not subscribing the * obliga- 
tion of ecclesiastical conformity ' (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. iii. 703). Shortly before this he had 
returned to Scotland, and had been put in 
ward, but not long afterwards he received his 
liberty. He penned the f Animadversions of 
Offences conceaved upon the Acts of Parlia- 
ment made in the Yeare 1584 in the Moneth 
of May, presented by the Commissioners of 
the Kirk to the King's Majesty at the Parlia- 
ment of Linlithgow in December 1585.' In 
May 1586 he again acted as moderator of the 
general assembly. In 1587 he was appointed 
by the king to the bishopric of Caithness ; 
but, on his referring the matter to the gene- 
ral assembly, it refused to ratify the ap- 
pointment, on the ground that the' office was 
' not agreeable to the word of God.' The 




same year he was appointed by the assembly 
one of a committee for collecting the various 
acts of parliament against papists, with a 
view to their confirmation on the king's 
coming of age (CALDERWOOD, iv. 627) ; and 
in 1588 he was appointed one of a committee 
to confer with six of the king's council regard- 
ing the best methods of suppressing papacy 
and extending the influence of the kirk (ib. 
p. 652) ; and also one of a commission to visit 
the northern parts, from Dee to the diocese of 
Caithness inclusive, with a view to the insti- 
tution of proceedings against the papists, the 
planting of kirks with qualified ministers, and 
the deposition of all ministers who were un- 
qualified, whether in life or doctrine (ib. pp. 
671-2). On 15 Oct. 1589 he was appointed by 
the king one of a commission to try beneficed 
persons (ib. v. 64). He was one of those sent 
by the presbytery of Edinburgh to hold a 
conference with the king at the Tolbooth on 
8 June 1591 regarding the king's objections 
to ' particular reproofs in the pulpit ; ' and 
replied to the king's claim of sovereign judg- 
ment in all things by affirming that there 
was a judgment above his namely, ' God's 
put in the hand of the ministry ' (ib. pp. 130- 
131). On 8 Dec. he was deputed, along with 
other two ministers, to go to Holy rood Palace 
' to visit the king's house/ when after various 
communications they urged the king ' to have 
the Scriptures read at dinner and supper' 
(ib. p. 139). At the meeting of the assembly 
at Edinburgh on 21 May 1592 he was ap- 
pointed one of a committee for putting cer- 
tain articles in reference to popery and the 
authority of the kirk ' in good form ' (ib. p. 
156). When the Act of Abolition granting 
pardon to the Earls of Huntly, Angus, Erroll, 
and other papists on certain conditions was 
on 26 Nov. 1593 intimated by the king to 
the ministers of Edinburgh, Pont proposed 
that it should be disannulled rather than re- 
vised (ib. 289). He again acted as mode- 
rator of the assembly which met in March 
1596. On 16 May 1597 he was appointed 
one of a commission to converse with the 
king ' in all matters concerning the weal of 
the kirk ' (ib. p. 645) ; and he was also a 
member of the renewed commission in the 
following year (ib. p. 692). At the general 
assembly which met in March 1597-8 he was 
one of the chief supporters of the proposal 
of the king that the ministry, as the third 
estate of the realm, should have a vote in 
parliament (ib. pp. 697-700). By the as- 
sembly which met at Burntisland on 12 May 
1601 he was appointed to revise the trans- 
lation of the Psalms in metre. On 15 Nov. 
of the following year he was ' relieved of the 
burden of ordinary teaching.' He died on 

8 May 1606, in his eighty-second year, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Cuth- 
bert's, Edinburgh. He had had a tombstone 
prepared for himself, but this was removed 
and another set up by his widow. There- 
upon the session of St. Cuthbert's, on 14 May 
1607, ordained that the stone she had set up 
' be presentlie taen down.' Against this 
decision she appealed to the presbytery of 
Edinburgh, and from it to the privy council, 
which on 4 June ordained ( the pursuers to 
permit the stone made by her to remain, in- 
stead of that made by her husband ' (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. vii. 381). 

Pont was three times married. By his 
first wife, Catherine, daughter of Masterton 
of Grange, he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters : Timothy [q. v.] ; Zachary, minister of 
Bower in Caithness, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Knox ; Catherine; and 
Helen, married to Adam Blackadder of 
Blairhall, grandfather of Rev. John Black- 
adder [q. v.] By his second wife, Sarah Den- 
holme, he had a daughter Beatrix, married to 
Charles Lumsden, minister of Duddingston. 
By his third wife, Margaret Smith, he had 
three sons : James, Robert, and Jonathan. 

Wodrow states that Pont ' had a discovery 
of Queen Elizabeth's death that same day 
she died.' He came to the king late at 
night, and after, with difficulty, obtaining 
access to him, saluted him ' King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland.' The king 
said ' I still told you you would go distracted 
with your learning, and now I see you are 
so.' 'No, no,' said Pont, 'I am not dis- 
tempered. The thing is certain ; she is dead, I 
assure you ' (Analecta, ii. 341-2). The ' dis- 
covery ' was attributed either to a revelation 
or to his knowledge of the science of the 

Besides several of the metrical Psalms, 
1565, his translation of the Helvetic Con- 
fession, 1566, his contributions to the 'Se- 
cond Book of Discipline,' his calendar and 
preface to Bassandyne's edition of the l Eng- 
lish Bible,' 1579, his recommendatory verses 
to 'Archbishop Adamson's Catechism,' 1581, 
and to the ' Schediasmata ' of Sir Hadrian 
Damman, 1590, and his lines on Robert 
Rollock (Sibbaldi JEloffia, p. 66, in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh), Pont was the 
author of: 1. ' Parvulus Catechismus quo 
examinari possunt juniores qui ad sacram 
coenam admittuntur,' St. Andrews, 1573. 
2. 'Three Sermons against Sacrilege,' 1599- 
(against the spoiling of the patrimony of the 
kirk and undertaken at the request of the 
assembly in 1591). 3. 'A Newe Treatise on 
the Right Reckoning of Yeares and Ages 
of the World, and Mens Lines, and of the 




Estate of the last decaying age thereof, this 
1600 year of Christ (erroneously called a 
Yeare of luhilee), which is from the Creation 
the 5548 yeare ; containing sundrie singu- 
larities worthie of observation, concerning 
courses of times and revolutions of the 
Heaven, and reformation of Kalendars and 
Prognostications, with a Discourse of Pro- 
phecies and Signs, preceding the last daye, 
which by manie arguments appeareth now 
to approach/ Edinburgh, 1599. A more 
ample version in Latin under the title ' De 
Sabbaticorum annorum Periodis Chrono- 
logia,' London, 1619 ; 2nd ed. 1623. 4. ' De 
Unione Britannise, seu de Regnorum Angliae 
et Scotiae omniumque adjacentum insular um 
in unam monarchiam consolidatione, deque 
multiplici ejus unionis utilitate, dialogus,' 
Edinburgh, 1604. David Buchanan (De 
Script. Scot. III.} mentions also his 'Aureum 
Seculum,' his * Translation of Pindar's 
Olympic Odes,' his 'Dissertation on the 
Greek Lyric Metres,' his ' Lexicon of Three 
Languages,' and his ' Collection of Homilies ; ' 
but none of these manuscripts are now 
known to be extant. 

[Histories by Keith, Calderwood, and Spotis- 
wood; Knox's Works; Wodrow's Miscellany, 
vol. i. ; Wodrow's Analecta; Kobert Baillie's 
Letters and Journal (Bannatyne Club); Diary of 
James Melville (Wodrow Soc.) ; Brunton and 
Haig's Senators of the College of Justice ; Hew 
Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. i. 118-19, ii. 388, 715, 
786, iii. 150.] T. F. H. 

PONT, TIMOTHY (1560 P-1630 ?), topo- 
grapher, elder son of Robert Pont [q. v.], 
Scottish reformer, by his first wife, Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Masterton of Grange, was 
born about 1560. He matriculated as student 
of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 
1579-80, and obtained the degree of M.A. 
in 1583-4. In 1601 he was appointed mini- 
ster of D unnet, Caithness-shire, and was con- 
tinued 7 Dec. 1610 ; but he resigned some 
time before 1614, when the name of William 
Smith appears as minister of the parish. On 
25 July 1609 Pont was enrolled for a share 
of two thousand acres in connection with the 
scheme for the plantation of Ulster, the price 
being 400/. (Reg. P. C. Scotl. viii. 330). 

Pont was an accomplished mathematician, 
and the first projector of a Scottish atlas. In 
connection with the project he made a com- 
plete survey of all the counties and islands 
of the kingdom, visiting even the most remote 
and savage districts, and making drawings 
on the spot. He died between 1625 and 
1630, having almost completed his task. The 
originals of his maps, which are preserved 
in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, are 
characterised by great neatness and accuracy. 

1 King James gave instructions that they 
should be purchased from his heirs and pre- 
pared for publication, but on account of 
! the disorders of the time they were nearly 
| forgotten, when Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet 
prevailed on Robert Gordon (1580-1661) 
[q. v.] of Straloch to undertake their revision 
with a view to publication. The task of re- 
vision was completed by Gordon's son, James 
Gordon [q. v.], the parson of Rothiemay, and 
they were published in Bleau's ' Atlas,' vol. 
v. Amsterdam, 1668. The ' Topographical 
Account of the District of Cuniiinghame, 
Ayrshire, compiled about the Year 1600 by 
Mr. Timothy Pont,' was published in 1850 ; 
and was reproduced under the title ' Cunning- 
hame Topographised, by Timothy Pont, A.M., 
1604-1608 ; with Continuation and Illustra- 
tions by the late John Robie of Cumnock, 
F.S.A. Scot., edited by his son, John Skelton 
Robie,' Glasgow, 1876. 

[Chalmers's Caledonia ; Prefaces to the edi- 
tions of his Cunninghame ; Scott's Fasti Eceles. 
Scot. iii. 360.] T. F. H. 

PONTACK, (1638 P-1720 ?), tavern- 
keeper, was the son of Arnaud de Pontac, pre- 
sident of the parliament of Bordeaux from 
1653 to 1673, who died in 1681. Another 
Arnaud de Pontac had been bishop of Bazas 
at the close of the sixteenth century, and 
several members of the family held the office 
of ' greffier en chef du parlement,' and other 
posts in France (L'ABBE O'REILLY, Histoire 
complete de Bordeaux, 1863, pt. i. vol. ii. p. 126, 
vol. iii. p. 42, vol. iv. pp. 274, 550). After the 
destruction of the White Bear tavern at the 
great fire of London, Pontack, whose Chris- 
tian name is unknown, opened a new tavern 
in Abchurch Lane, Lombard Street, and, 
taking his father's portrait as the sign, called 
it the Pontack's Head. His father was owner, 
as Evelyn tells us, of the excellent vineyards 
of Pontaq and Obrien [Plant Brion ?], and 
the choice Bordeaux wines which Pontack 
was able to supply largely contributed to the 
success of his house, which seems to have 
occupied part of the site (16 and 17 Lombard 
Street) where Messrs. Robarts, Lubbock, & 
Co.'s bank now stands (Journal of the In- 
stitute of Bankers, May 1886, vii. 322, < Some 
Account of Lombard Street,' by F. G. H. 
Price). The site cannot have been the same 
as that of Lloyd's coftee-house, for Pontack's 
and Lloyd's flourished at the same period. 

Pontack's became the most fashionable 
eating-house in London, and there the Royal 
Society Club dined annually until 1746. On 
13 July 1683 Evelyn wrote in his 'Diary: ' 
' I had this day much discourse with Mon- 
sieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise 




prime president of Bordeaux. ... I think I 
may truly say of him, what was not so truly 
said of St. Paul, that much learning had 
made him mad. He had studied well in phi- 
losophy, but chiefly the rabbines, and was 
exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, 
an eternal hablador [babbler], and half dis- 
tracted by reading- abundance of the extra- 
vagant Eastern Jews. He spake all lan- 
guages, was very rich, had a handsome per- 
son, and was well bred, about 45 years of age.' 
These accomplishments are not usually ex- 
pected of a successful eating-house proprietor. 

met at dinner Bentley, Sir Christopher Wren, 
and others.' The eating-house and the wine 
named Pontack are mentioned in Montagu 
and Prior's ' The Hind and Panther trans- 
vers'd ' (1687), and in Southerne's ' The Wives' 
Excuse' (1692). In 1697 Misson (Travels, 
p. 146) said : ' Those who would dine at one or 
two guineas per head are handsomely accom- 
modated at our famous Pontack's; rarely and 
difficultly elsewhere.' On 17 Aug. 1695 Nar- 
cissus Luttrell records (Brief Relation of 
State Affairs, iii. 513) that Pontack, l who 
keeps the great eating-house in Abchurch 
Lane/ had been examined before the lord 
mayor for spreading a report that the king 
was missing, and had given bail. 

Tom Brown speaks of ' a guinea's worth 
of entertainment at Pontack's/ and the' mo- 
dish kickshaws' to be found there are men- 
tioned in the prologue to Mrs. Centlivre's 
' Love's Contrivance.' In the same year 
(1703) Steele (Lying Lover, i. 1) makes 
Latine say, ' I defy Pontack to have prepared 
a better [supper] o'the sudden.' In 'Reflec- 
tions ... on the Vice and Follies of the Age/ 
part iii. (1707), there is a description of a 
knighted fop dining at Pontack's, at disastrous 
expense, on French ragouts and unwholesome 
wine. On 16 Aug. 1711 Swift wrote: 'I was 
this day in the city, and dined at Pontack's. 
. . . Pontack told' us, although his wine was 
so good, he sold it cheaper than others he 
took but seven shillings a flask. Are not these 
pretty rates? ' On 25 Jan. 1713 ' the whole 
club of whig lords ' dined at Pontack's, and 
Swift was entertained there by Colonel Cle- 
'land on 30 March of that year. The house 
is mentioned in ' Mist's Journal' for 1 April 
1721, where it is hinted that, through the 
losses arising from the ' South Sea Bubble/ 
the brokers at the Royal Exchange went to 
a chop-house instead of to Pontack's, and that 
the Jews and directors no longer boiled West- 
phalia hams in champagne and burgundy. In 
1722 Macky (Journey through England, i. 175) 

spoke of Pontack's, ' from whose name the best 
French clarets are called so, and where you 
may bespeak a dinner from four or five shil- 
lings a head to a guinea, or what sum you 
please.' Pontack's guinea ordinary, according 
to the ' Metamorphosis of the Town ' (1730), in- 
cluded 'a ragout of fatted snails 'and 'chickens 
not two hours from the shell.' 

It is not known when Pontack died, but 
in 1735 the house was kept by a Mrs. Susan- 
nah Austin, who married William Pepys, a 
banker in Lombard Street. Pontack's head 
is seen in some copies of plate iii. of Hogarth's 
'Rake's Progress' (NICHOLS, Biographical 
Anecdotes of Hogarth, 1785, p. 214). 

[Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present ; Ashton's Social Life in the Eeign of 
Queen Anne, i. 186-7 ; Burn's Descriptive Cata- 
logue of London Traders, Tavern, and Coffee- 
house Tokens, p. 13 ; Timbs's Club Life in Lon- 
don, i. 68, ii. 130-1; Larwood and Hotten's 
History of Signboards, 1867, pp. 93, 94 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 375, 7th ser. ii. 295 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. pt. ii. p. 354; 
Tatler, No. 131.] G. A. A. 

PONTON, MUNGO (1802-1880), pho- 
tographic inventor, only son of John Ponton, 
farmer, was born at Balgreen, near Edin- 
burgh, on 23 Nov. 1802. He was admitted 
writer to the signet on 8 Dec. 1825, and was 
one of the founders of the National Bank of 
Scotland, of which he subsequently became 

Ill-health caused him to relinquish his pro- 
fessional career, and he devoted his attention 
to science. On 29 May 1839 he communi- 
cated to the Society of Arts for Scotland 
' a cheap and simple method of preparing 
paper for photographic drawing in which the 
use of any salt of silver is dispensed with ' 
(Edin. New Phil. Journal, xxvii. 169). In this 
paper he announced the important discovery 
that the action of sunlight renders bichro- 
mate of potassium insoluble, a discovery 
which has had more to do with the produc- 
tion of permanent photographs than any 
other. It forms the basis of nearly all the 
photo-mechanical processes now in use. The 
developments of Ponton's method are stated 
in ' Reports of the Juries of the Exhibition 
of 1862,' class 14, p. 5. In 1849 he com- 
municated to the ' Edinburgh New Philo- 
sophical Journal/ xxxix. 270, an account of 
a method of registering the hourly varia- 
tions of the thermometer by means of photo- 
graphy. A list of his papers, which relate 
principally to optical subjects, is given in the 
' Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers.' 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh in 1834. He died at Clifton 
on 3 Aug. 1880. 


9 6 


[Authorities cited, and Photographic News, 
20 Aug. 1880, pp. 402-3 ; Proceedings of the 
Koyal Society of Edinburgh, xi. 100; List of 
Members of the Society of Writers to the Signet, 
p. 168.] B. B. P. 

1885), missionary bishop, the son of Thomas 
Francis and Jane Poole, was born at Shrews- 
bury on 6 Aug. 1852, and educated at 
Shrewsbury school. At the age of seventeen 
he proceeded to Worcester College, Oxford, at 
Michaelmas 1869, and took a third class in 
classical moderations in 1871, and a third 
class in the final classical school in 1873. He 
graduated B.A. in 1873, M.A. in 1876, and 
D.D. in 1883. On leaving Oxford Poole be- 
came a tutor. Afterwards he thought of 
medicine as a profession ; but in 1876, 
having abandoned a leaning towards the Ply- 
mouth brethren, he was ordained deacon, 
and licensed to the curacy of St. Aldate's, 
Oxford. Early in boyhood Poole had wished 
to be a missionary, and the old desire was 
renewed in March 1876 by an appeal for 
men to aid in educational work at Masuli- 
patam. After some hesitation, Poole offered 
himself to the Church Missionary Society on 
20 June 1876. He was accepted, and sailed 
for India in October 1877. At Masulipatam, 
Poole threw himself into the work of the 
Noble High School, fostered the growth of 
Christian literature in the vernacular, and 
made many friends among the educated 
natives. Early in 1879 signs of consumption 
showed themselves in Poole, and, after twice 
visiting the Neilgherry hills, he was in- 
valided home in June 1880. There was 
little prospect of his being able to return to 
India, and he resigned in October 1882. At 
the anniversary meeting of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society in May 1883 a speech by 
Poole attracted the attention of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who offered him the mis- 
sionary bishopric in Japan which it had just 
been resolved to establish. After much hesi- 
tation and reassuring reports from the medi- 
cal board, Poole accepted the offer, and was 
consecrated at Lambeth on St. Luke's day 
1883. He was warmly received in Japan, 
and at once began to visit the chief mis- 
sionary stations in his diocese. But, his 
health failing, he spent the winter of 1884- 
1885 in California. He did not recover, but 
returned to England, and died at Shrews- 
bury on 14 J uly 1885. Poole married, in 
1877, Sarah Ann Pearson, who survived him, 
and by her he had issue. 

[Record, 17 July 1885; Church Missionary 
Intelligencer, November 1885 ; private informa- 
tion.] A. K. B. 

1883), divine and author, was born in 1809, 
and educated at Cambridge, where he was a 
scholar of Emmanuel College. He graduated 
B.A. in 1831, and proceeded M.A. in 1838 
(Lu'KD,Grad.Cantabr. p. 415). Hetookholy 
orders in 1832, and was curate successively 
of Twickenham, of St. John the Evangelist, 
Edinburgh, and of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury. 
On 16 March 1839 he was appointed per- 
petual curate of St. James's, Leeds (FOSTER, 
Index Eccl. p. 142), and took the high-church 
side in the controversy then raging. In 1843 
he was presented to the vicarage of Welford, 
Northamptonshire, which he held until, in 
1876, he was presented by the bishop of 
Peterborough to the rectory of Winwick, 
near Rugby, in the same county. He acted 
for a few years as rural dean of the district. 
He died at Winwick 25 Sept. 1883. 

He was a strong high churchman ; but the 
work of his life was to promote the revival of 
Gothic architecture, and, next to John Henry 
Parker and M. H. Bloxam, he was the most 
prominent among the literary advocates of 
this movement. He was, besides, a prolific 
writer on other subjects. His works, exclud- 
ing various sermons and tracts, were : 1. ' The 
Exile's Return ; or a Cat's Journey from Glas- 
gow to Edinburgh,' a tale for children, Edin- 
burgh, 1837, 12mo. 2. ' The Testimony of St. 
Cyprian against Rome,' London, 1838, 8vo. 

3. ' The Anglo-Catholic Use of Two Lights 
upon the Altar, for the signification that 
Christ is the very true Light of the World, 
stated and defended,' London, 1840, 8vo. 

4. < The Life and Times of St. Cyprian,' Ox- 
ford, 1840, 8vo. 5. ' On the present State 
of Parties in the Church of England, with 
especial reference to the alleged tendencies 
of the Oxford School to the Doctrines and 
Communion of Rome,' London, 1841, 8vo. 

6. 'The Appropriate Character of Church 
Architecture,' Leeds, 1842, 8vo ; reissued in 
1845 as ' Churches : their Structure, Arrange- 
ment, and Decoration,' London, 12mo. 

7. ' Churches of Yorkshire,' described and 
edited (with others), 1842, 8vo. 8. ' A His- 
tory of the Church in America ' (part of vol. 
ii. of l The Christian's Miscellany '), Leeds, 
1842, 8vo. 9. ' A History of England, from 
the First Invasion by the Romans to the 
Accession of Queen Victoria,' London, 1844- 
1845, 2 vols. 12mo. 10. < The Churches of 
Scarborough, Filey, and the Neighbourhood/ 
London, 1848, 16mo (in collaboration with 
J. W. Hugall). 11. < A History of Ecclesias- 
tical Architecture in England,' London, 1848, 
8vo. 12. ' Sir Raoul de Broc and his Son 
Tristram,' a tale of the twelfth century, 
London, 1849, 16mo. 13. 'An historical 




and descriptive Guide to York Cathedral 
(with Hugall), York, 1850, 8vo. 14. ' Archi- 
tectural, historical, and picturesque Illus- 
trations of the Chapel of St. Augustine 
Skirlaugh, Yorkshire' (edited by Poole), Hull 
1855, 8vo. 15. ' Diocesan History of Peter- 
borough/ London, 1880, 8vo. 

[Times, 28 Sept. 1883; Guardian, 3 Oct. 
1883 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. ; Poole's Works.] E. G. H. 

POOLE, JACOB (1774-1827), antiquary, 
son of Joseph Poole and his wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Jacob Martin of Aghfad, co. Wex- 
ford, was born at Growtown, co. Wexford, 
11 Feb. 1774. His parents were members 
of the Society of Friends, and he was seventh 
in descent from Thomas and Catherine Poole 
of Dortrope, Northamptonshire. Their son, 
Richard Poole, came to Ireland with the 
parliamentary army in 1649, turned quaker, 
was imprisoned for his religion at Wex- 
ford and Waterford, and died in Wexford 
gaol, to which he was committed for refusing 
to pay tithe in 1665. Jacob succeeded to 
the family estate of Growtown, in the parish 
of Taghmon, in 1800, and farmed his own 
land. He studied the customs and language 
of the baronies of Bargy and Forth, on the 
edge of the former of which his estate lay. 
The inhabitants used to speak an old English 
dialect, dating from the earliest invasion of 
the country, and he collected the words and 
phrases of this expiring language from his 
tenants and labourers. This collection was 
edited by the Rev. William Barnes from 
the original manuscript, and published in 
1867 as 'A Glossary, with some pieces of 
verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony 
in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy.' The 
glossary contains about fifteen hundred words, 
noted with great fidelity. The dialect is now 
extinct, and this glossary, with a few words 
in Holinshed and some fragments of verse, 
is its sole authentic memorial. Poole com- 
pleted the glossary and a further vocabulary 
or gazetteer of the local proper names in the 
last five years of his life. He died 20 Nov. 
1827, and was buried in the graveyard of the 
Society of Friends at Forest, co. Wexford. 
He married, 13 May 1813, Mary, daughter of 
Thomas and Deborah Sparrow of Holms- 
town, co. Wexford, and had three sons and 
three daughters. A poem in memory of Poole, 
called ' The Mountain of Forth,' by Richard 
Davis Webb, who had known and admired' 
him, was published in 1867, and it was owing 
to Mr. Webb's exertions that the glossary 
was published. 

[Barnes's edit, of a glossary of the old Dia- 
lect, London, 1867; Mary Leadbeater's Biogra- 

phical Notices of Members of the Soc. of Friends 
who were resident in Ireland, London, 1823 ; in- 
formation from his grandson, Benjamin Poole of 
Ballybeg, co. Wexford.] N. M. 

POOLE, JOHN (1786 P-1872), dramatist 
and miscellaneous writer, was born in 1786, 
or, according to some accounts, in 1787. 
His dedications to his printed works prove 
him to have held some social position, and 
his success as a dramatist was pronounced 
in early life. On 17 June 1813, for the bene- 
fit of Mr. and Mrs. Liston, he produced at 
DruryLane ' Hamlet Travestie/ in two acts, 
in which Mathews was the original Hamlet, 
Mrs. Liston Gertrude, and Liston Ophelia. 
This, written originally in three acts, was 
printed in 1810, and frequently reprinted. 
'Intrigue/ described as an interlude, followed 
at the same house on 26 March 1814, and was 
succeeded by ' Who's Who, or the Double 
Imposture/ on 15 Nov. 1815, a work earlier in 
date of composition. To Drury Lane he gave 
'Simpson & Co.,' a comedy, on 4 Jan. 1823; 
'Deaf as a Post,' a farce, on 15 Feb. 1823; 
'The Wealthy Widow, or They're both to 
blame,' a comedy, on 29 Oct. 1827; 'My 
Wife! What Wife?' a farce, on 2 April 
1829; 'Past and Present,' a farce, and 
'Turning the Tables,' a farce. To Covent 
Garden, ' A Short Reign and a Merry one/ 
a comedy in two acts, from the French, 
on 19 Nov. 1819 ; ' Two Pages of Frede- 
rick the Great,' a comedy in two acts, from 
the French, on 1 Dec. 1821 ; ' The Scape- 
Goat/ a one-act adaptation of ' Le Pr6- 
cepteur dans 1'embarras/ on 25 Nov. 1825 ; 
' Wife's Stratagem/ an adaptation of Shir- 
ley's 'Gamester/ on 13 March 1827; and 
More Frightened than Hurt/ And to the 
Haymarket, 'Match Making/ a farce, on 
25 Aug. 1821 ; ' Married and Single,' a 
comedy from the French, on 16 July 1824 ; 
'Twould puzzle a Conjuror/ a farce, on 
LI Sept. 1824; 'Tribulation, or Unwelcome 
Visitors/ a comedy in two acts, on 3 May 
L825 ; ' Paul Pry,' a comedy in three acts, 
on 13 Sept. 1825 ; ' Twixt the Cup and the 
l.ip/ a farce (Poole's greatest success), on 
12 June 1826; 'Gudgeons and Sharks,' 
omic piece in two acts, on 28 July 1827; 
Lodgings for Single Gentlemen/ a farce, on 
15 June 1829. 

In these pieces Charles Kemble, Liston, 
William Farren, and other actors advanced 
lieir reputation. Most, but not all, of them 
were successful, and were transferred to 
arious theatres. Genest almost invariably, 
while admitting the existence of some merit, 
says they were more successful than they 
deserved. Some of them remain unprinted, 
and others are included in the collections of 


9 8 


Lacy, Duncombe, and Dick. Other pieces 
to be found in the same publications are 
' The Hole in the Wall/ ' A. Soldier's Court- 
ship/ ' Match Making/ ' Past and Present/ 
'Patrician and Parvenu.' Poole also pub- 
lished 'Byzantium, a Dramatic Poem/ 
8vo ; ' Crotchets in the Air, or a Balloon 
Trip/ 8vo; ' Christmas Festivities ;' 'Comic 
Miscellany ; ' ' Little Pedlington/ 2 vols. ; 
' PhineasQuiddy, or Sheer Industry/ 3 vols. ; 
' Sketches and Recollections/ 2 vols. ; ' Village 
School improved, or Parish Education.' 

In 1831 he was living at Windsor. For 
many years, near the middle of the century, 
Poole resided in Paris, and was constantly 
seen at the Comedie FranQaise. He was ap- 
pointed a brother of the Charterhouse, but, 
disliking the confinement, threw up the posi- 
tion. Afterwards, through the influence of 
Charles Dickens, he obtained a pension of 
100/. a year, which he retained until his 
death. For the last twenty years of his 
life he dropped entirely out of recognition. 
He died at his residence in Highgate Road, 
Kentish Town, London, and was buried at 
Highgate cemetery on 10 Feb. 1872. He 
supplied in 1831 to the 'New Monthly Maga- 
zine/ to which he was during many years an 
active contributor, what purported to be 
'Notes for a Memoir.' This, however, is 
deliberately and amusingly illusive. A por- 
trait, prefixed to his 'Sketches and Recol- 
lections ' (1835), shows a handsome, clear- 
cut, intelligent, and very gentlemanly face. 

[Private information ; Forster's Life of 
Dickens; Letters of Dickens ; G-enest's Account 
of the English Stage ; Poole's Sketches and Re- 
collections; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; London Catalogue 
of Books; Allibone's Dictionary of Authors; 
Men of the Reign ; Brewer's Readers' Handbook; 
Scott and Howard's Life of E. L. Blanchard ; 
Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816; 
Daily Telegraph, 10 Feb. 1872; Era, 11 Feb. 
1872; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vi. 372.1 

J. K. 

POOLE, JONAS (d. 1612), mariner, 
made a voyage to Virginia in 1607 in the 
employment of Sir Thomas Smythe [q. v.] 
In 1610 he commanded the Amity, set forth 
by the Muscovy Company ' for a northern 
discovery/ which sailed in company with the 
Lioness, commanded by Thomas Edge, under 
orders for Cherry Island and the whale 
fishery. In May the Amity made Spitz- 
bergen, which Poole named Greenland, and 
continued on the coast during the summer, 
examining the harbours and killing morses, 
with the blubber of which they filled up, 
and so returned to England, carrying also 
the horn of a narwhal, or ' sea-unicorn.' In 
^. again in company with Edge in the 

Mary Margaret, which was to fish ' near 
Greenland/ Poole sailed in the Elizabeth of 
sixty tons burden, with instructions from 
Smythe ' to see if it were possible to pass 
from " Greenland " towards the pole.' Ac- 
cordingly, parting from Edge near Spitz- 
bergen, he stood to the north, but in lat. 80 
he fell in with the impenetrable ice-field, 
which he skirted towards the west, never 
finding an opening, till he estimated that he 
must be near Hudson's Hold with Hope on 
the east coast of Greenland. A westerly 
wind then carried him back to Cherry 
Island, where, through July, they killed 
some two hundred morses, and filled up the 
Elizabeth with ' their fat hides and teeth.' On 
25 July Edge and most of the men of the 
Mary Margaret arrived with the news that 
their ship had been wrecked in Foul Sound, 
now known as Whale's Bay (Nordenskjold, 
1861-4). Edge ordered a great part of the 
Elizabeth's cargo to be landed, and the vessel 
went to Foul Sound to ship as much of the 
Mary Margaret's oil as possible. There the 
ship, owing to her lightness after her cargo 
was removed, filled and went down ; Poole 
escaped with difficulty, with many broken 
bones. They afterwards got a passage to 
England in the Hopewell of Hull, which 
Edge chartered to carry home the oil. In 
1612 Poole again went to Spitzbergen, but 
apparently only for the fishing, and, having 
killed a great many whales, brought home a 
full cargo. Shortly after his return he was 
' miserably and basely murdered betwixt 
Ratcliffe and London.' 

[Brown's Genesis of the United States; Pur- 
chas his Pilgrimes, iii. 464, 711, 713.1 

J. K. L. 

POOLE, JOSHUA (/. 1640), was ad- 
mitted a subsizar at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
on 17 Jan. 1632, and was placed under the 
tuition of Barnabas Oley. He graduated 
M.A., and for some time had charge of a 
private school kept in the house of one 
Francis Atkinson at Hadley, near Barnet in 
' Middlesex/ as he describes it in ' The Eng- 
lish Parnassus.' Poole, who died before 1657, 
published : ' The English Accidence, or a 
Short and Easy Way for the more Speedy 
Attaining to the Latine Tongue/ 4to, 1646; 
reprinted 1655, and, with a slightly different 
title, 1670. ' The English Parnassus, or a 
Helpe to English Poesie/ 8vo, 1657 (reprinted 
1677), though a posthumous publication, has 
a dedication to Francis Atkinson, in whose 
house it was compiled, signed by Poole, 
who has also prefixed ten pages of verse ad- 
dressed to 'the hopeful young gentlemen his 




He also wrote and prepared for publica- 
tion a work on English rhetoric, but it does 
not appear to have been printed. 

[Information kindly supplied by the master 
of Clare College ; the English Parnassus ; Addit. 
MS. 24491, f. 325.] G. T. D. 

POOLE, MARIA (1770P-1833), vocalist. 


1679), biblical commentator, son of Francis 
Pole, was born at York in 1624. His father 
was descended from the Poles or Pools of 
Spinkhill, Derbyshire ; his mother was a 
daughter of Alderman Toppins of York. He 
was admitted at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, on 2 July 1645, his tutor being John 
Worthington, D.D. Having graduated B.A. 
at the beginning of 1649, he succeeded 
Anthony Tuckney, D.D., in the sequestered 
rectory of St. Michael-le-Querne, then in the 
fifth classis of the London province, under 
the parliamentary presbyterianism. This was 
his only preferment. He proceeded M. A. in 
1652. Two years later he published a small 
tract against John Biddle [q. v.] On 14 July 
1657 he was one of eleven Cambridge gra- 
duates incorporated M.A. at Oxford on 
occasion of the visit of Richard Cromwell 
as chancellor. 

In 1658 Poole published a scheme for a 
permanent fund out of which young men of 
promise were to be maintained during their 
university course, with a view to the ministry. 
The plan was approved by Worthington and 
Tuckney, and had the support also of John 
Arrowsmith, D.D. [q.v.], Ralph Cudworth 
[q. v.], William Dillingham, D.D. [q. v.],and 
Benjamin Whichcote. About 900 /.was raised, 
and it appears that William Sherlock, after- 
wards dean of St. Paul's, received assistance 
from this fund during his studies at Peter- 
house, Cambridge, till 1660, when he gra- 
duated B.A. The Restoration brought the 
scheme to an end. 

Poole was a jure'divino presbyterian, and 
an authorised defender of the views on ordi- 
nation of the London provincial assembly 
as formulated by William Blackmore [q. v. 
Subsequently to the Restoration, in a sermon 
(26 Aug. 1660) before the lord mayor (Sir 
Thomas Aleyn) at St. Paul's, he endeavoured 
to make a stand for simplicity of public 
worship, especially deprecating ' curiosity o 
voice and musical sounds in churches.' On 
the passing of the Uniformity Act (1662) he 
resigned his living, and was succeeded b} 
R. Booker on 29 Aug. 1662. His ' Vox Cla 
mantis' gives his view of the ecclesiastica 
situation. Though he occasionally preachec 

,nd printed a few tracts, he made no attempt 
o gather a congregation. He had a patri- 
mony of 100/. a year, on which he lived. 
le was one of those who presented to the 
dng ' a cautious and moderate thanksgiving ' 
or the indulgence of 15 March 1672, and 
aence were offered royal bounty. Burnet 
eports, on Stillingfl eet's authority, that Poole 
eceived for two years a pension of 50/. 
larly in 1675 he entered with Baxter into 
a negotiation for comprehension, promoted 
>y Tillotson, which came to nothing. Ac- 
sording to Henry Sampson, M.D. [q.v.], Poole 
first set on foot ' the provision for a noncon- 
'ormist ministry and day-school at Tunbridge 
ells, Kent. 

On the suggestion of William Lloyd (1627- 
.717) [q. v.l, ultimately bishop of Worcester, 
D oole undertook the great work of his life, 
;he ' Synopsis ' of the critical labours of biblical 
commentators. He began the compilation 
n 1666, and laboured at it for ten years. 
lis plan was to rise at three or four in the 
morning, take a raw egg at eight or nine, and 
another at twelve, and continue at his studies 
till late in the afternoon. The evening he 
pent at some friend's house, very frequently 
that of Henry Ashurst [q. v.], where ' he 
would be exceedingly but innocently merry,' 
although he always ended the day in ' grave 
and serious discourse,' which he ushered in 
with the words, ' Now let us call for a reckon- 
ing.' The prospectus of Poole's work bore 
the names of eight bishops (headed by Morley 
and Hacket) and five continental scholars, 
besides other divines. Simon Patrick (1626- 
1707) [q. v.], Tillotson, and Stillingfleet, with 
four laymen, acted as trustees of the subscrip- 
tion money. A patent for the work was ob- 
tained on 14 Oct. 1667. The first volume was 
ready for the press, when difficulties were 
raised by Cornelius Bee, publisher of the 
Critici Sacri' (1660, fol., nine vols.), who ac- 
cused Poole of invading his patent, both by 
citing authors reprinted in his collection, and 
by injuring his prospective sales. Poole had 
offered Bee a fourth share in the property 
of the ' Synopsis,' but this was declined. 
After pamphlets had been written and legal 
opinions taken, the matter was referred to 
Henry Pierrepont, marquis of Dorchester 
[q. v.], and Arthur Annesley, first earl of 
Anglesey [q. v.], who decided in Poole's 
favour. Bee's name appears (1669) among 
the publishers of the ' Synopsis,' which was 
to have been completed in three folio volumes, 
but ran to five. Four thousand copies were 
printed, and quickly disposed of. The merit 
of Poole's work depends partly on its wide 
range, as a compendium of contributions to 
textual interpretation, partly on the rare skill 




which condenses into brief, crisp notes the 
substance of much laboured comment. Rab- 
binical sources and Roman catholic com- 
mentators are not neglected ; little is taken 
from Calvin, nothing- from Luther. The 
' Synopsis' being in Latin for scholars, Poole 
began a smaller series of annotations in Eng- 
lish, and reached Isaiah Iviii. ; the work was 
completed by others (the correct list is given 
in CALAMY). 

In his depositions relative to the alleged 
'popish plot' (September 1678), Titus Gates 
[q. v.] had represented Poole as marked for 
assassination, in consequence of his tract 
(1666) on the ' Nullity of the Romish Faith.' 
Poole gave no credit to this, till he got a 
scare on returning one evening from Ashurst's 
house in company with Josiah Chorley [q. v.] 
"When they reached the 'passage which goes 
from Clerkenwell to St. John's Court,' two 
men stood at the entrance ; one cried ' Here 
he is,' the other replied ' Let him alone, for 
there is somebody with him.' Poole made 
up his mind that, but for Chorley 's presence, 
he would have been murdered. This, at any 
rate, is Chorley's story. He accordingly left 
England, and settled at Amsterdam. Here 
he died on 12 Oct., new style, 1679. A 
suspicion arose that he had been poisoned, 
but it rests on no better ground than the 
wild terror inspired by Oates's infamous 
fabrications. He was buried in a vault of 
the English presbyterian church at Amster- 
dam. His portrait was engraved by R.White. 
His wife, whose maiden name is not known, 
was buried on 11 Aug. 1668 at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, Stillingfleet preaching the funeral 
sermon. He left a son, who died in 1697. 
The commentator spelled his name Poole, 
and in Latin Polus. 

He published: 1. < The Blasphemer slain 
with the Sword of the Spirit ; or a Plea for 
the Godhead of the Holy Spirit . . . against 
. . . Biddle,' &c., 1654, 12mo. 2. ' Quo War- 
ranto ; or an Enquiry into the . . . Preach- 
ing of ... Unordained Persons,' &c., 1658, 
4to (this was probably written earlier, as it 
was drawn up by the appointment of the 
London provincial assembly, which appears 
to have held no meetings after 1655 : Wood 
mentions an edition, 1659, 4to). 3. < A Model 
for the Maintaining of Students ... at the 
University. . . in order to the Ministry,' &c., 
1658, 4to. 4. 'A Letter from a London 
Minister to the Lord Fleet wood/ 1659, 4to 
(dated 13 Dec.) 5. < Evangelical Worship 
is Spiritual Worship,' &c., 1660, 4to: with 
title ' A Reverse to Mr. Oliver's Sermon of 
Spiritual Worship,' &c., 1698, 4to. 6. < Vox 
Clamantis in Deserto,' &c.,' 1666, 8vo (in 
Latin). 7. 'The Nullity of the Romish 

Faith,' &c., Oxford, 1666, 8vo (Wooo); 
Oxford, 1667, 12mo. 8. 'A Dialogue be- 
tween a Popish Priest and an English Pro- 
testant,' &c., 1667, 8vo, often reprinted ; re- 
cent editions are, 1840, 12mo (edited by Peter 
Hall [q. v.]) ; 1850, 12mo (edited by John 
dimming [q. v.]) 9. ' Synopsis Criticorum 
aliorumque Sacrae Scripturse Interpretum,' 
&c., vol. i., 1669, fol.; vol. ii., 1671, fol.; vol. 
iii., 1673, fol. ; vol. iv., 1674, fol. ; vol. v., 
1676, fol.; 2nd edit., Frankfort, 1678, fol., 5 
vols. ; 3rd edit., Utrecht, 1684-6, fol., 5 vols. 
(edited by John Leusden) ; 4th edit., Frank- 
fort, 1694, 4to, 5 vols. (with life) ; 5th edit., 
Frankfort, 1709-12, fol., 6 vols. (with com- 
ment on the Apocrypha). The ' Synopsis' 
was placed on the Roman Index by decree 
dated 21 April 1693. 10. 'A Seasonable 
Apology for Religion,^ &c., 1673, 4to. Pos- 
thumous were 11. ' His late Sayings a little 
before his Death,' &c. [1679], broadsheet. 
12. ' Annotations upon the Holy Bible,' &c., 
1683-5, fol., 2 vols.; often reprinted; last 
edit. 1840, 8vo, 3 vols. Four of his sermons 
are in the ' Morning Exercises,' 1 660-75, 4to. 
He had a hand in John Toldervy's ' The Foot 
out of the Snare,' 1656, 4to (a tract against 
quakers) ; he subscribed the epistle commen- 
datory prefixed to Christopher Love's pos- 
thumous ' Sinner's Legacy,' 1657, 4to ; he 
wrote a preface and memoir for the posthu- 
mous sermons (1677) of James Nalton [q.v.l; 
also elegiac verses in memory of Jacob Stock, 
Richard Vines, and Jeremy Whitaker. 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 14seq.; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, i. 15 seq. ; Wood's Fasti 
(Bliss), ii. 205 ; Reliquise Baxterianae, 1696, iii. 
157; Burnet's Own Time, 1724, i. 308; Birch's 
Life of Tillotson, 1753, pp. 37 seq.; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of England, 1779, iii. 311 ; Peck's 
Desiderata Curiosa. 1779, ii. 546; Chalmers's 
General Biogr. Diet., 1816, xxv. 154 seq.; 
Glaire's Dictionnaire Universel des Sciences Ec- 
clesiastiques, 1858, ii. 1816 ; extract from Samp- 
son's Day-book, in Christian Reformer, 1862, p. 
247; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1891, iii. 1175.] 

A. G. 

1879), historical painter, fourth son of James 
Paul Poole, a small grocer, was born at 43 Col- 
lege Street, Bristol, on 28 Dec. 1807. An 
elder brother, James Poole, a merchant, was 
mayor of Bristol in 1858-9, and chairman of 
the TafF Vale Railway Company, and of 
the Bristol Docks Committee. He died on 
24 Dec. 1872, aged 75. 

Paul was baptised in St. A ugustine's Church 
in that city on 22 July 1810 by the names of 
Paul 'Fawkner.' He received little general 
education, and as an artist was almost entirely 
self-taught, to which cause must be ascribed 




the imperfect drawing that is observable in 
much of his work. He came to London early, 
and in 1830 exhibited at the Royal Academy 
his first picture, 'The Well, a scene at Naples,' 
but during the next seven years his name does 
not appear in the catalogues. He, however, 
contributed to the exhibitions of the Society 
of British Artists and of the British Institu- 
tion, and from 1833 to 1835 appears to have 
been living at Southampton. In 1837 he sent 
to the Royal Academy * Farewell ! Fare- 
well ! ' and was afterwards an almost constant 
contributor to its exhibitions. ' The Emi- 
grant's Departure ' appeared at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1838, and was followed in 1840 by 
* The Recruit ' and ' Hermann and Dorothea 
at the Fountain,' in 1841 by ' By the Rivers 
of Babylon,' a work of fine poetic feeling, and 
in 1842 by ' Tired Pilgrims ' and l Margaret 
alone at the Spinning-Wheel.' All these 
works were idyllic, but in 1843 he attracted 
much notice by his highly dramatic picture 
of ' Solomon Eagle exhorting the people to 
Repentance during the Plague of the year 
1665,' a subject taken from Defoe's 'History 
of the Plague,' and described by Redgrave 
as representing ' the wild enthusiast, almost 
stark naked, calling down judgment upon the 
stricken city, the pan of burning charcoal 
upon his head throwing a lurid light around.' 
The Heywood gold medal of the Royal Man- 
chester Institution was awarded to him for 
this picture in 1845. He also, in 1843, sent 
to the Westminster Hall competition a 
spirited cartoon, the subject of which was 
' The Death of King Lear.' In 1844 he sent 
to the academy ' The Moors beleaguered by 
the Spaniards in the city of Valencia,' and in 
1846 'The Visitation and Surrender of Syon 
Nunnery.' He was elected an associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1846, and in 1847 gained 
a prize of 300/. in the Westminster Hall com- 
petition for his cartoon of ' Edward's Genero- 
sity to the People of Calais during the Siege 
of 1346.' His subsequent contributions to the 
Royal Academy included, in 1848, ' Robert. 
Duke of Normandy, and Arietta ; ' in 1849, 
a picture in three compartments, containing 
scenes from Shakespeare's ' Tempest ; ' in 
1850, * The Messenger announcing to Job the 
Irruption of the Sabseans and the Slaughter 
of the Servants,' a work which has been de- 
scribed as ' a painted poem not unlike Mr. 
Browning's verse;' and in 1851 'The Goths 
in Italy,' now in the Manchester Art Gallery. 
These were followed by ' The May Queen pre- 
paring for the Dance' and 'Marina singing to 
her father Pericles,' in 1852; 'The Song of 
the Troubadour,' in 1854; 'The Seventh 
Day of the Decameron : Philomena's Song,' 
in 1855 ; ' The Conspirators the Midnight 

Meeting,' in 1856 ; 'A Field Conventicle,' in 
1857 ; 'The Last Scene in King Lear (The 
Death of Cordelia),' in 1858, now in the 
South Kensington Museum ; and ' The Es- 
cape of Glaucus and lone, with the blind girl 
Nydia, from Pompeii,' in 1860. In 1861 
Poole was elected a royal academician, and 
presented as his diploma work ' Remorse.' 
His later works include the ' Trial of a Sor- 
ceressthe Ordeal by Water,' 1862; 'Light- 
ing the Beacon on the coast of Cornwall at the 
appearance of the Spanish Armada,' 1864 ; 
' Before the Cave of Belarius,' 1866 ; ' The 
Spectre Huntsman/ 1870 ; ' Guiderius and 
Arviragus lamenting the supposed death of 
Imogen,' 1871 ; ' The Lion in the Path,' 1873 ; 
' Ezekiel's Vision,' 1875, bequeathed by him 
to the National Gallery, but not a good 
example of his powers ; ' The Meeting of 
Oberon and Titania,' 1876; 'The Dragon's 
Cavern,' 1877 ; ' Solitude,' 1878 ; and ' May 
Day ' and ' Imogen before the Cave of Bela- 
rius,' 1879. These were his last exhibited 
works, and were typical examples of his 
idyllic and dramatic styles. His pictures owe 
much of their effect to his fine feeling for 
colour, the keynote of which was a tawny 
gold. He was elected a member of the Insti- 
tute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1878. 
Two of his drawings are in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. Twenty-six of his works 
were exhibited at the winter exhibition of 
the Royal Academy in 1884, together with a 
portrait- sketch by Frank Holl, R.A. 

Poole, who was a painter of great poetic 
imagination and dramatic power, died at his 
residence, Uplands, Hampstead, on 22 Sept. 
1879, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. 
In manner unassuming, he was, in person, tall 
and spare, with grey eyes and a short beard. 
He married Hannah, widow of Francis Danby 
[q. v.], A.R.A., who also in early life resided 
in Bristol, and whose son, Thomas Danby, 
lived much with him. 

[Athenseum, 1879, ii. 408 ; Art Journal, 1879, 
pp. 263, 278 ; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th 
edit. 1875-89, xix. 461 ; Kedgraves' Century of 
Painters of the English School, 1890, p. 367 ; 
Eoyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1830- 
1879; British institution Exhibition Catalogues 
(Living Artists), 1830-42; Exhibition Catalogues 
of the Society of British Artists, 1830-41 ; 
Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1760-1880; 
information kindly communicated by Mr. H. B. 
Bowles of Clifton, and Mr. W. George of Bristol, 
and by Dr. Richard Garnett, C.B.] R. E. G. 

1895), archaeologist and orientalist, born in 
London on 27 Feb. 1832, was the younger 
son of the Rev. Edward Richard Poole, M.A., 
of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and Sophia Poole 




[q. v.l, sister of Edward William Lane [q. v.] 
From July 1842 to October 1849 he lived with 
his mother and her brother at Cairo, where 
his education was directed by Lane and by 
the Rev. G. S. Cautley. He began very early 
to devote himself to the study of ancient 
Egypt, made minute researches in private 
collections of antiquities at Cairo and Alex- 
andria, and twice ascended the Nile for 
the purpose of studying the monuments. The 
fruit of these labours was seen in a series of 
articles contributed, before he was seventeen, 
to the ' Literary Gazette,' and republished in 
1851 under the title of ' Horse JEgyptiacae, 
or the Chronology of Ancient Egypt/ at the 
instance of Algernon Percy, fourth duke of 
Northumberland [q. v.] By the duke's in- 
fluence he was admitted as an assistant in the 
department of antiquities in the British Mu- 
seum, 26 Feb. 1852. When that department 
was rearranged in its present subdivisions, 
he was assigned to the new department of 
coins and medals, of which he became assis- 
tant keeper in July 1866, and keeper, 29 Oct. 

Poole's work as head of the coin depart- 
ment is specially memorable for the initiation 
and superintendence of a system of scientific 
catalogues. While keeper he edited and 
collated thirty-five volumes, four of which 
and part of a fifth he wrote himself: viz. 
(in the ' Catalogue of Greek Coins),' * Italy,' 
1873 ; part of < Sicily,' 1876 ; ' Ptolemaic Kings 
of Egypt,' 1883 ; and < Alexandria,' 1892; 
and in the oriental series, ' Shahs of Persia,' 
1887. Duringhis administration a new feature 
was introduced in the exhibition of electro- 
types of select Greek coins and English and 
Italian coins and medals in the Museum public 
galleries, for which ' Guides ' were written by 
members of his staff; and a plan was carried 
out of exposing to public view successive 
portions of the original coin collections. By 
these method?, as well as by frequent lec- 
tures and by a vast amount of individual 
instruction freely given to numerous students, 
he did much to encourage the study of numis- 
matics and medallic art, while inspiring his 
assistants with an exalted standard of learned 
work. Outside his official work, he com- 
piled a laborious ' Catalogue of Swiss Coins ' 
in the South Kensington Museum (1878), 
and wrote articles on Greek, Arabic, Persian, 
and other coins in the ' Numismatic Chronicle ' 
and in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Literature,' in some of which he was the 
first to point out the value of Greek coins 
in illustrating classical literature and plastic 
art (FTJRTWAENGLER, Masterpieces of Greek 
Sculpture, ed. Sellers, 1894, p. 106). He also 
contributed an introductory essay to the 

volume on ' Coins and Medals,' edited by 
his nephew, S. Lane-Poole, in 1885. During 
his keepership the department acquired the 
Wigan collection, the South Indian series of 
Sir Walter Elliot, and Sir Alexander Cun- 
ningham's Bactrian cabinet, while it was 
owing to Poole's negotiation that the collec- 
tions of the Bank of England and of the India 
Office were incorporated in the British 

On Egyptology Poole lectured and wrote 
frequently, and some of his essays were col- 
lected in 1882, with the title 'Cities of Egypt.' 
He contributed numerous articles to Smith's 
' Dictionary of the Bible ' (1860 et seq.) ; wrote 
1 Egypt,' ' Hieroglyphics,' ' Numismatics,' 
&c.,for the eighth and ninth editions of the 
1 Encyclopaedia Britannica ; ' read papers on 
Egyptian subjects before the Royal Asiatic 
Society and the Royal Society of Literature ; 
and was an occasional reviewer in the * Aca- 
demy.' In 1869 he was sent by the trustees 
of the British Museum to report on antiquities 
at Cyprus and Alexandria, and the result was 
the acquisition of the Lang and Harris collec- 
tions. In 1883-5 he was appointed to lecture 
on Greek, Egyptian, and medallic art to the 
students of the Royal Academy, and in 1889 
he succeeded Sir Charles Newton as Yates pro- 
fessor of archaeology at University College, 
where he converted what had been a special 
chair of Greek archaeology into a centre for in- 
struction in a wide range of archaeological 
studies. His own stimulating teaching of 
Egyptian, Assyrian, and Arab art and anti- 
quities, and numismatics, was supplemented 
by the co-operation of specialists in other 
branches. In 1882 he joined Miss Amelia B. 
Edwards in founding the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, to which he devoted most of his spare 
time and energy during his last twelve years, 
and of which he was honorary secretary and 
chief supporter until his death. He also 
founded, in conjunction with Mr. Legros, in 
1884, the Society of English Medallists, in 
the hope of developing an improved style of 
medallic art. In 1876 he was elected a cor- 
respondent of the Academie des Inscriptions 
et Belles-Lettres of the French Institute, and 
in 1880 he received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. at Cambridge. In 1893, after forty- 
one years' public service, he retired from the 
keepership of coins, and, having resigned his 
professorship in 1894 in consequence of failing 
health, died on 8 Feb. 1895 at West Kensing- 
ton. He married in 1861 Eliza Christina 
Forlonge, by whom he had four children, of 
whom three survived him. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Poole 

edited a short-lived magazine, the ' Monthly 

, Review,' 1856-7, to which he was an exten- 




sive contributor; and wrote, in collaboration 
with his mother, the descriptive letterpress of 
Frith's ' Views in Egypt, Sinai, and Palestine.' 

[Times, 9 Feb. 1895; Athenaeum, 16 Feb. 
1895 ; Lane-Poole's Life of E. W. Lane, pp. 111- 
121 ; information from F. A. Enton, secretarj' of 
the Koyal Academy; personal knowledge and 
private information.] 

POOLE, ROBERT (1708-1752), medical 
and theological writer, was born in 1708, 
but his parentage cannot be traced. Nearly 
all that can be found out about this singular 
man is derived from his own writings. He 
states that after studying some years in the 
['Congregational Fund'] academy of arts 
and sciences under Professor Eames [see 
EAMES, JOHN], and attending some courses 
of anatomy under Dr. Nichols, professor of 
anatomy at Oxford, and of chemistry under 
Dr. Pemberton, professor of physic at Gresham 
College, he entered (2 March 1738) as a 
physician's pupil at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
where he followed the practice chiefly of 
Dr. Wilmot. His studies continued about 
three years, and in May 1741 he set out on 
a journey to France, his chief object being 
to obtain a degree in medicine from the uni- 
versity of Rheims. On 15 July 1741, after 
one day's examination in Latin, he received 
his diploma, and, having visited the hos- 
pitals in Paris and studied there, returned 
by way of Holland to his home at Isling- 
ton after three months' absence. He would 
seem subsequently to have practised as a 
physician, for on the foundation of the Mid- 
dlesex Infirmary (afterwards the Middle- 
sex Hospital) in 1745 he became physician 
to the institution, but resigned in October 
1746, when the constitution of the infirmary 
was altered (see ERASMUS WILSON, History 
of the Middlesex Hospital, 1845, pp. xiv, 3, 
182). He was appointed in 1746 physician 
to the small-pox hospital, which he had as- 
sisted to found, but resigned this office in 

Poole's medical career was not a long one, 
for in October 1748 he embarked on a voyage 
to Gibraltar and the West Indies, chiefly, it 
would seem, for the sake of his health, and 
visited Barbados, Antigua, and other islands. 
In June 1749 he was attacked with fever. 
His diary, which is minutely kept, ends on 
<5 July. He returned home, however, since 
he was buried at Islington on 3 June 1752 
(LYSONS, Environs of London, 1795, iii. 158). 
The journals of this voyage were published 
after his death, under the title of ' The Bene- 
ficent Bee,' with an anonymous preface which 
ends with these words : ' The present and 
eternal happiness of his fellow-creatures was 
his principal concern, and he spent his for- 

tune, his health, nay, even his life, in order 
to promote it.' These words indicate Poole's 
high character and aims. He was not only 
a physician, but a religious enthusiast, who, 
as a friend and follower of George Whitfield, 
was not ashamed of being called a methodist. 
During his hospital studies and on his travels 
he busied himself in religious exhortation 
and in distributing good books. His profes- 
sional life was too short to be productive. 
He was a most industrious student and an 
indefatigable taker of notes, but evidently 
by his private fortune independent of his pro- 
fession. He appears not to have been married, 
and never belonged to the College of Phy- 
sicians. His portrait, a mezzotint by J. Faber 
after Augustus Armstrong, is prefixed to his 
first volume of travels. It gives his age, in 
1743, as thirty-five. 

Poole's writings form two groups. The 
first group were published with the pseudo- 
nym of Theophilus Philanthropes. They are 
as follows, all being printed at London in 
8vo. The editions mentioned are those in 
the British Museum. 1. 'A Friendly Cau- 
tion, or the first Gift of Theophilus Philan- 
thropes,' 1740. 2. 'The Christian Muse, or 
Second Gift of Theophilus Philanthropes,' 
2nd edit. 1740. This is in verse. 3. l The 
Christian Convert, or the Third Gift of Theo- 
philus Philanthropes,' 1740. 4. ' A Token 
of Christian Love, or the Fourth Gift of 
Theophilus Philanthropes,' 1740. 5. 'A 
Physical Vade-mecum, or Fifth Gift of Theo- 
philus Philanthropes,' 1741. 6. ' Seraphic 
Love tendered to the Immortal Soul, or 
the Sixth Gift of Theophilus Philanthro- 
pes,' 4th edit. 1740. The first four 'Gifts' 
and the sixth are all of the same kind, 
being short books or tracts of an edifying 
and devotional character. They are adorned 
with extraordinary allegorical frontispieces, 
engraved on copper, in some of which the 
author's portrait is introduced. These tracts 
were on sale at 8d. or 1,9. each, but were also 
to be had, if desired, gratis, with a small 
charge for binding, being evidently meant also 
for private distribution. The fifth 'Gift 'is 
entirely different. It contains a full de- 
scription of St. Thomas's Hospital in his time, 
its buildings, arrangements, and staff, with 
a complete copy of the 'Dispensatory' or 
pharmacopoeia of that hospital, as well as of 
those of St. Bartholomew's and Guy's Hos- 
pitals. Drawn up with great care, it is an 
important historical memorial of hospital 
affairs and medical practice in the eighteenth 
century. This also has, in some copies, a 
curious allegorical frontispiece, and in one 
copy we have found the portrait of the 
author. The authorship of these works is 




established not only by the dedications and 
other personal details, but by allusions to 
them in the acknowledged works of the 

The works published in Poole's own name 
are : 1. 'A Journey from London to France 
and Holland, or the Traveller's Useful Vade- 
mecum, by R. Poole, Dr. of Physick,' vol. i. 
2nd edit. London, 1746 ; vol. ii. 1750. This 
work contains a minute journal of the au- 
thor's travels, with interesting remarks on 
the Paris hospitals, freely interspersed with 
religious and moral reflections. The bulk 
is made out with a French grammar, a 
sort of gazetteer of Europe, and other infor- 
mation for travellers. 2. 'The Beneficent 
Bee, or Traveller's Companion : a Voyage 
from London to Gibraltar, Barbados, Anti- 
gua, &c., by R. Poole, M.D.,' London, 1753. 
This is a traveller's journal of the same 
character as the former. All Poole's works 
display minute accuracy, a thirst for in- 
formation of all kinds, and a passion for sta- 
tistics, besides the personal characteristics 
already mentioned. 

[Poole's Works ; cf. a fuller account of some 
of them by Dr. W. S. Church in St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Eeports, xx. 279, and xxi. 232 ; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 77.] J. F. P. 

POOLE, SOPHIA (1804-1891), author 
of the 'Englishwoman in Egypt,' was the 
youngest child of the Rev. Theophilus Lane, 
D.C.L., prebendary of Hereford, where she 
was born on 16 Jan. 1804, and the sister of 
Edward William Lane [q. v.] In 1829 she 
married Edward Richard Poole, M.A. of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, barrister-at-law, 
but recently admitted to holy orders, a 
notable book-collector and bibliographer, an 
intimate of Thomas Frognall Dibdin [q. v.], 
and anonymous author of ' The Classical 
Collector's Vade Mecum' (1822). In 1842 
Mrs. Poole and her two sons accompanied 
her brother to Egypt, and lived in Cairo for 
seven years, where she visited some of the 
harims of Mohammad 'Ali's family, and ob- 
tained a considerable knowledge of domestic 
life in Mohammadan society, as yet but 
slightly modified by western influences. The 
results of her experiences were embodied in a 
series of letters, published, under the title of 
' The Englishwoman in Egypt,' in Knight's 
weekly volumes (2 vols. 1844, and a second 
series forming vol. iii. 1846). The book sup- 
plies a true and simple picture of the life 
of the women of Egypt, together with his- 
torical notices of Cairo these last were { 
drawn from Lane's notes and revised by him. I 
After Mrs. Poole's return to England with ! 
her brotherin 1849, she collaborated with her ! 

younger son, Reginald Stuart Poole [q. v.] r 
in a series of descriptions of Frith's ' Photo- 
graphic Views of Egypt, Sinai, and Pales- 
tine' (1860-1). After the early education of 
her children, her life was mainly devoted to 
her brother, Edward Lane, up to his death 
in 1876; and her last years were spent in her 
younger son's house at the British Museum, 
where she died, 6 May 1891, at the age of 

(1830-1867), was an Arabic scholar, and 
edited the new edition of his uncle Lane's 
' Thousand and One Nights ' (3 vols. 1859), 
and the fifth edition of ' The Modern Egyp- 
tians ' (I860) ; he also wrote many articles 
for Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible,' besides 
contributing to the eighth edition of the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica,' and occasionally to 
periodical literature. He became chief clerk 
of the science and art department, and died 
prematurely on 12 March 1867, leaving two 
sons, Stanley Lane-Poole and Reginald L. 

[Private information.] 

POOLE, THOMAS (1765-1837), friend 
of Coleridge, eldest son of Thomas Poole, 
tanner, of Nether Stowey, Somerset, Avas 
born at Nether Stowey on 14 November 1765. 
The father, a rough tradesman, brought up 
the son to his own business, and thought 
book-learning undesirable. The younger 
Thomas was never sent to a good school, and 
resented his father's system. He managed 
to educate himself, and learnt French and 
Latin with the help, in later years, of a 
French emigrant priest. He stuck to his 
business not the less; and in 1790 was 
elected delegate by a meeting of tanners at 
Bristol, who wished to obtain from Pitt 
some changes in the duties affecting the 
trade. He visited London on this errand in 
1791, and was afterwards engaged in pre- 
paring memorials to Pitt. About 1793 he 
seems to have carried out a plan for improv- 
ing his knowledge of business by working 
as a common tanner in a yard near London. 
A story that while thus working he made 
acquaintance with Coleridge, then in the 
dragoons, seems to be inconsistent with 
dates (SANDPOKD, Thomas Poole and his 
Friends, pp. 54, 70-84). Upon his father's 
death in July 1795, Poole inherited the 
business. He met Coleridge, probably for 
the first time, in 1794, and describes the 
' Pantisocracy ' scheme. Poole was a whig 
rather than a Jacobin, but sympathised with 
the revolution in its earlier phases. Cole- 
ridge and his friends were on the same side 
at this time. An intimacy soon began, and 


I0 5 


in September 1795 Coleridge again visited 
Stowey, when Poole wrote an enthusiastic 
copy of verses about his friend. Poole sup- 
ported the ' Watchman ' in 1796, in which 
Coleridge also published a paper of his 
upon. the slave trade. He got up a small 
subscription of 40/., which was presented 
to Coleridge on the failure of the periodical, 
and which was repeated in 1797. Poole 
found Coleridge a cottage at Nether Stowey 
at the end of 1796. He also became inti- 
mate with Thomas Wedgwood and his 
brothers, to whom he introduced Coleridge. 
A lifelong friendship with Sir Humphry 
Davy was another result of the same con- 
nections. The friendship with Coleridge 
continued after Coleridge's voyage to Ger- 
many, and Mrs. Coleridge wrote annual 
letters to Poole for many years, showing 
her confidence in his continued interest. In 
October 1800 he wrote some letters upon 
Monopolists and Farmers ' which Coleridge 

413-55). In 1801 a slight tiff, arising from 
Poole's unwillingness or inability to lend 
as much as Coleridge had asked, was 
smoothed over by an affectionate letter from 
Coleridge on the death of Poole's mother. 
In 1807 Coleridge again visited Poole at 
Stowey after his return from Malta, when 
De Quincey, then making his first acquain- 
tance with Coleridge, also saw Poole. In 
1809 Poole advanced money for the ' Friend.' 
He corresponded with Coleridge occasionally 
in later years. He contributed to the 
support of Hartley Coleridge at Oxford, 
received him during vacations, and took 
his side in regard to the expulsion from 
Oriel. He saw Coleridge for the last time 
in 1834, and offered help for the intended 

Coleridge's correspondence shows that he 
thoroughly respected the kindness and 
common sense of Poole, who even ventures 
remarks upon philosophical questions. Al- 
though self-taught, Poole had made a good 
collection of books, and he was active in all 
local matters. He kept up a book society ; 
was an active supporter of Sunday-schools, 
and formed a ' Female Friendly Society.' 
He was also much interested in the poor laws, 
and in 1804 was employed by John Rick- 
man [q. v.] in making an abstract of returns 
ordered by the House of Commons from 
parish overseers (printed in May 1805). In 
1805 Poole took into partnership Thomas 
Ward, who had been apprenticed to him in 
1795, and to whom he left the charge of the 
business, occupying himself chiefly in farm- 

ing. Poole was a man of rough exterior, 
with a loud voice injured by excessive snuff; 
abnormally sharp-tempered and overbearing 
in a small society. His apology for call- 
ing a man a ' fool ' ended, * But how could 
you be such a damned fool ? ' He was, how- 
ever, heartily respected by all who really 
knew him ; a staunch friend, and a sturdy 
advocate of liberal principles; straightfor- 
ward and free from vanity. He died ot 
pleurisy on 8 Sept. 1837, having been 
vigorous to the last. He never married, but 
was strongly attached to his niece, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of his brother Richard, a 
doctor, who died in 1798, just at the time 
of her birth. Elizabeth was the * E ' of Mrs. 
Kemble's ' Records of my Childhood,' and 
married Archdeacon Sandford. 

[Thomas Poole and his Friends ; by Mrs. Henry 
Sandford, 2 vols. 8vo, 1888; Life of Coleridge by 
J. Dykes Campbell.] L. S. 


1217), bishop of Salisbury, was son of Ri- 
chard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester [see 
RICHAKD] (MADOX, Formulare Anglicanum, 
pp. 47, 52). Richard Poor [q. v.], who suc- 
ceeded him as bishop of Salisbury, was his 
younger brother. Dr. Stubbs suggests that 
he was connected with Roger Poor [see 
ROGER], and therefore also with Roger of 
Salisbury and Richard FitzNeale. Canon 
Rich Jones conjectured that Poore was in 
this case the equivalent not of 'pauper,' but 
of ' puer ' or the Norman ' poer,' a knight or 
cadet of good family (cf. Anglo-Saxon ' cild '). 
He has also pointed out that near Tarrant in 
Dorset, where Herbert's brother Richard was 
born, there are places called Poorstock and 

Herbert was probably employed under 
his father in the exchequer, but the first 
mention of him is in 1175, when he was one 
of the three archdeacons appointed by Arch- 
bishop Richard of Canterbury ; afterwards, 
in 1180, the archbishop reverted to the 
ancient practice, and made Herbert sole 
archdeacon. On 11 Dec. 1183 Herbert, in 
his capacity of archdeacon, enthroned Walter 
de Coutances [q. v.] as bishop of Lincoln. 
On 25 July 1184 he was one of the com- 
missioners sent by Henry II to the monks 
of Christ Church, Canterbury, to warn them 
to prepare for the election of an archbishop 
(GERVASE, i. 309). From 1185 to 1188 he 
had custody of the see of Salisbury (MADOX, 
Hist, of Exchequer, i. 311, 634). Herbert 
was a canon of Lincoln and of Salisbury. 
In May 1186 the chapter of the former see 
elected him as their bishop, but Henry II 
refused his consent. A little later the 


1 06 


majority of the canons of Salisbury, in their 
turn, chose Herbert for bishop, and on 
14 Sept. 1186 the king gave his assent ; but 
the minority appealed to the pope, on the 
ground that Herbert was the son of a con- 
cubine, and the election came to naught 
(Gesta Henrici, i. 346, 352). On 29 Sept. 
1186 Herbert enthroned his successful rival, 
Hugh, as bishop of Lincoln. In May 1193 
he appealed to the pope against the election of 
Hubert Walter as archbishop, on the ground 
that the king was in captivity and the Eng- 
lish bishops were not present at the election 
(RoG. Hov. iii. 213). In 1194 the canons 
of Salisbury, having no dean, unanimously 
elected Herbert for their bishop. The elec- 
tion was confirmed by Archbishop Hubert on 
29 April. Herbert was at this time only 
in deacon's orders, but on 4 June he was 
ordained priest, and on 5 June was conse- 
crated by Hubert in St, Katharine's Chapel 
at Westminster. He was enthroned at 
Salisbury on 13 June. 

From 1195 to 1198 Herbert was one of 
the justices before whom fines were levied. 
On 16 June 1196 he was at Rouen with 
Walter of Coutances. At the council of 
Oxford in February 1198, when Hubert de- 
manded in the king's name a force of three 
hundred knights to be paid three shillings a 
day each, Herbert, who represented the older 
traditions of the exchequer, supported St. 
Hugh of Lincoln in his successful resistance 
to the demand (Magna Vita S. Hugonis, pp. 
248-9). For his share on this occasion 
Herbert was, by Richard's orders, deprived 
of his possessions in England, and compelled 
to cross over to Normandy ; but he was soon 
reconciled to the king, and returned home on 
8 June. He was present at the coronation 
of John on 27 May 1199. On 19 Sept. 1200 
he was one of the papal delegates who sat 
at Westminster to effect a reconciliation 
between Archbishop Geoffrey and the chapter 
of York, and on 22 Nov. was at Lincoln 
when the king of Scots did homage to John. 
On 14 Dec. 1201 he was summoned to join 
the king in Normandy. His name occurs 
on 2 Jan. 1205 as receiving a present of six 
tuns of wine (Cal. Rot. Glaus. i. 37). In 
1207 Herbert fled to Scotland with Gilbert 
de Glanville [q. v.] to escape the constant 
vexation from the king. However, on 
27 May 1208, he was present at Ramsbury 
(Reg. S. Osmund, i. 190). On 21 Jan. 1209 
Innocent III wrote to Herbert with regard 
to the dower of Berengaria, widow of Ri- 
chard I, and on 14 May directed him, in con- 
j unction with Gilbert de Glanville, to publish 
the interdict (Cal. Papal Registers, i. 33, 
35 ; MIGXE, Patrologia, ccxvi. 268). In 1212 

Herbert and Gilbert de Glanville were en- 
trusted with a mission to release the Scots 
from their allegiance to John. During the 
interdict Herbert had been deprived of the 
lands of his see, but restitution was ordered 
to be made on 18 July 1213 (Cal. Rot. Pat. 
p. 101). After this there is no reference 
of importance to Herbert. He died in 1217, 
according to some statements on 9 May, 
but other authorities give 6 Feb. His obit 
was observed at Salisbury on 7 Jan. He 
was buried at Wilton. Herbert is note- 
worthy in the history of the see of Salisbury 
for having conceived the design of removing 
it from Old Sarum to a more suitable site 
on the plain. He obtained the sanction of 
Richard I through the aid of Hubert Walter, 
and his design, which was delayed by the 
troubles of the next reign, was eventually 
carried out by his brother and successor, 
Richard Poor (Reg. S. Osmund, ii. 3, 4 ; 
PETEE OP BLOIS, Epistola 104). A letter 
from Peter of Blois to Herbert consoling 
him on his afflictions apparently belongs to 
1198 (ib. Epist. 246). 

[Annales Monastici, Roger of Hoveden, Ealph 
de Diceto, G-ervase of Canterbury, Roger of 
Wendover, Gesta Henrici Secundi (attributed to 
Benedict of Peterborough), Register of S. Os- 
mund, Sarum Charters (all in Rolls Ser.) ; Le 
Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. i. 38, ii. 595 ; Stubbs's 
Preface to Hoveden, vol. iv. p. xci ; Cassan's 
Lives of Bishops of Salisbury; Wiltshire Archaeo- 
logical Magazine, xviii. 217-24, art. by W. H. R. 
Jones ; Foss's Judges of England, i. 405-6 ; 
Ey ton's Itinerary of Henry II ; Hoare's History 
of Wiltshire, vi. 37; other authorities quoted.] 

C. L. K. 

RICHARD (d. 1237), bishop of Chichester, 
Salisbury, and Durham, was younger brother 
of Bishop Herbert Poor [q. v.] and son of 
Richard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester 
[see RICHAKD] (MADOX, Form. Angl., noted 
by STUBBS, Introd. to Hoveden, vol. iv. p. 
xci ft.) He was therefore technically ille- 
gitimate, and obtained on that account a dis- 
pensation to hold his benefices in January 
1206 (BLiss, Papal Registers, p. 24). In 
1197 or 1198 he was elected dean of (Old) 
Sarum, where he held the prebend of Char- 
minster (Ann. Mon. ii. 65 ; DICETO, ii. 159). 
A man of ability and learning, he was instru- 
mental in perfecting the cathedral statutes 
by the important ' Nova Constitutio ' of 
1213-14 (printed in Reg. S. Osmund, i. 374- 
379). In 1204 he went to Rome to pro- 
secute his candidature for the bishopric of 
Winchester; but Peter des Roches [q. v.] 
was consecrated. Similarly, about 1213, his 
election by the monks to the see of Dur- 




ham, after being < hidden under a bushel ' for 
five months, was quashed by Innocent III 
(COLDINGHAM, xxi, xxiii, in Hist. Dunelm. 
Script, pp. 29-31). In 1214, on the removal 
of the papal interdict, he was elected to the 
see of Chichester. To his cathedral he gave 
the manor of Amport, Hampshire, and en- 
dowed a prebend with the church of Hove 
(STEPHENS, Chichester, pp. 72-3). In 1216 
he is mentioned as one of the executors of 
King John. 

In 1217 he was translated to Salisbury, 
to the general joy, as he had been ' pugil 
fidelis et eximius ' against the anti-national 
claims of the dauphin Louis (WANDA, pp. 4, 
5). In 1222 he was one of the arbitrators who 
gave the award exempting the abbey of West- 
minster from the jurisdiction of the bishop of 
London (MATT. PAKIS, iii. 75 ; WILKINS, Cone. 
i. 598). In August 1223 he was one of the 
four bishops sent on the death of Philippe Au- 
guste to demand Normandy from Louis VIII 
(MATT. PAKIS, iii. 77 ; Ann. Mon. iii. 81). 

But the most important work of Poore's 
life was the removal of the see of Salisbury 
to New Sarum, and the erection of the pre- 
sent magnificent Early-English cathedral of 
Salisbury. This plan had been long con- 
templated (see letters of PETEE OP BLOIS, 
e.g. No. 104 ; MATT. PAKIS, iii. 391 ; Sarum 
Charters, pp. 267-9 ; Reg. S. Osmund, vol. ii. 
pp. cii-cvi, 1-17, 37 sqq. ; WILKINS, Cone. 
i. 551 sqq. ; DODSWOKTH, Salisbury, pp. 107- 
121). Eventually the bishop, with the chap- 
ter's concurrence, sent special envoys to 
Rome, obtained from Honorius III a bull 
dated 29 March 1219, and chose a site < in 
dominio suo proprio ' named Myrfield or 
Miry field, i.e. Mary field ( WILLIS), Merry- 
field (GODWIN), or Maerfelde -= boundary-field 
(JONES). A wooden chapel and cemetery 
were at once provided, and some of the canons 
sent to collect funds in various dioceses. The 
formal ( transmigrate ' was on 1 Nov., and 
the foundations were laid with great solem- 
nity on 28 April 1220, the bishop laying five 
stones for the pope, Langton, himself, Earl 
William and Countess Ela of Salisbury 
and the work soon received the support of 
the king and many nobles (WANDA, pp. 5-15 ; 
MATT. PAKIS, iii. 391 ; Ann. Mon. i. 66, 
which says that Pandulph laid the five 
stones). A poem on the subject by the 
court poet, Henry d'Avranches (cf. WAK- 
TON, Hist, of Poetry, i. 47), exists in the 
Cambridge University Library, and is quoted 
by Matthew Paris. 

The work went on quietly for five years, 
and the bishop must have full credit for the 
organisation and the provision of funds for 
the work. On 28 Sept. 1225 he consecrated 

a temporary high altar in the lady-chapel, 
and two others at the end of the north and 
south aisles, endowing the ' vicars choral ' 
with the church of Bremhill (Sarum Char- 
ters, pp. 116-19), or possibly that of Laver- 
stock (LELAND, Inscr.^), which is still served 
by them. Next day the public consecra- 
tion of the whole site took place, Langton 
preaching to an enormous audience ; the 
king and the jnsticiar (De Burgh) came on 
2 Oct. and again on 28 Dec. (WANDA, pp. 
38-40). In March 1226 Poore administered 
the last sacrament to William de Longespee 
[q. v.], the first person to be buried in the 
cathedral (ib. p. 48 ; MATT. PAKIS, Hist. Min. 
ii. 280), and on 4 June translated from Old 
Sarum the bodies of Bishops Osmund, Roger, 
and Joscelin. A letter dated 16 July 1228, 
in which he urges the chapter to press Gre- 
gory IX to canonise Osmund, is the latest 
document in which Poore is described as 
bishop of Sarum (WANDA, p. 88). 

Poore also commenced the episcopal palace, 
and built the original ' aula ' and ' camera ' 
(1221-2) with the undercroft. The greater 
part of his work, recently identified, still re- 
mains as the nucleus of the present building 
(Bishop [Wordsworth] of Salisbury's ' Lec- 
ture,' in Wilts Arch. Mag. vol. xxv.) He 
carefully organised the cathedral system by 
important statutes passed by the chapter 
under his influence (Reg. S. Osmund, ii. 18, 37, 
42). His Salisbury constitutions (dated by 
Spelman c. 1217, and by Wilkins c. 1223) 
bear a strong resemblance to those supposed 
by Wilkins to have been promulgated by 
Richard De Marisco [q. v.] at Durham about 
1220 (they are printed in part in Wilkins's 
1 Concilia,' i. 599, in Labbe's l Concilia,' xi. 
245-70, and from a better manuscript in ' Sa- 
rum Charters,' pp. 128-63). Bishop Words- 
worth is of opinion that the Durham con- 
stitutions are of later date, and are simply 
Poore's own revision for use at Durham of 
his Sarum constitutions (see Canon Jones's 
Note in Sarum Charters, p. 128). 

For the city of New Sarum Poore pro- 
cured a charter from Henry III about 1220, 
besides those which he gave himself (HAT- 
CHER and BENSON, Salisbury, pp. 728-31), 
and the systematic arrangement of the town 
in rectangular ' places ' or ' tenements,' still 
known as squares or chequers, is attributed 
to him. Tradition connects his name with 
the foundation of the still existing Hospital 
of St. Nicholas by Harnham Bridge. It is 
clear that he assisted it, and procured the 
donations of Ela of Salisbury (c. 1227) ; but 
the ' ordinatio ' of 1245, providing for the 
master, eight poor men. and four poor women, 
assigns the honours of founder to Bishop 




Bingham (HATCHER and BENSON, pp. 38-49, 
documents 732-5, and in Sarum Charters, 
pp. 295-300 ; TANNER, Not. Mon. ; DIJGDALE, 
Mon. vi. 778). 

In 1228 Poore was translated to the see 
of Durham by a bull dated 14 May (Hist. 
Dunelm. Script, app. Iii. ; cf. GREENWELL, 
Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis, pp. 212- 
217). On 22 July he received the tempo- 
ralities, though the king took the unpre- 
cedented step of retaining the castles of 
Durham andNorham (HUTCHINSON, Durham, 
i. 200). Poore wrote a letter of farewell to 
Sarum on 24 July, and was enthroned at 
Durham on 4 Sept. (GRAYSTANES in Hist. 
Dun. Scr. p. 37, where 1226 is an obvious 
slip). At Durham he maintained good rela- 
tions with the convent, and discharged a 
' debitum inaestimabile ' of more than forty 
thousand marks left on the see. The Early- 
English eastern transept of the ' Nine Altars/ 
commonly assigned to him, may have been 
projected, but was not commenced till 1242 
(GREENWELL, Durham Cathedral, p. 37). In 
1232 the pope ordered him to inquire into 
the outrages against Roman clerics in the 
northern province (MATT. PARIS, iii. 218). 
His latest appearance in public affairs is as 
one of the witnesses to Henry Ill's confirma- 
tion of Magna Charta in 1236 (Ann. Mon. 
i. 103). 

About 1230 he had refounded at Tarrant 
Kainston (which has been claimed as his 
birthplace) a small house for three Cistercian 
nuns and their servants, the site of which is 
now included in Preston or Crawford Tarrant 
(HUTCHINS, Dorset, iii. 118-19). He made 
the control of it over to Henry Ill's sister 
Johanna, queen of Scotland, who was buried 
there in 1238 (MATT. PARIS, Chron. Maj. 
iii. 479) ; it was consequently called ' Locus 
Benedictus Reginse super Tarent.' 

Poore died on 15 April 1237 at Tarrant 
(MATT. PARIS, Chron. Maj. iii. 392, Hist. Maj. 
ii. 396). A blundering inscription, now lost, 
copied by Leland (Itin. iii. 62), in the lady- 
chapel at Salisbury, states that his body was 
buried there and his heart at Tarrant. Ac- 
cording to Tanner (quoting wrongly WHAR- 
TON, Angl. Sacr.}, he was interred in Dur- 
ham chapter-house But Graystanes states 
explicitly (I.e.) that he died and was buried 
at Tarrant, ' sicut vivens prseceperat.' A coffin 
slab, found about 1850 under the ruins of 
the abbey chapel at Tarrant, and now in the 
church of Tarrant Crawford, is not impro- 
bably that which covered the bishop's body 
(cf. Rev. E. HIGHTON, Last Resting-place of 
a Scottish Queen and a Great English Bishop, 
p. 8). An effigy in Purbeck marble in Salis- 
bury Cathedral on the north side of the high 

altar, formerly said to be Poore's, is now 
believed to represent his successor, Bishop 

The { Ancren Riwle,' a treatise in Middle 
English on the duties of monastic life also 
found in a Latin version as ' Regulae Inclu- 
sarum ' is said in an early manuscript to 
have been addressed by Simon of Ghent, 
bishop of Salisbury (1297-1315), to his own 
sisters, who were anchoresses at Tarrant. 
But it is attributed by its editor, the Rev. J. 
Morton (Camden Soc. 1853), to Bishop Poore, 
on the ground that in language it belongs to 
the earlier part of the thirteenth century, 
and is likely to have been written by the 
founder of the religious house at Tarrant. 
The author quotes freely from the Latin 
fathers, Bernard, Anselin, and even Ovid and 
Horace (MORTON, Introd. pp. xv, xvi). It is 
considered ( one of the most perfect models 
of simple natural eloquent prose in our lan- 
guage. ... As a picture of contemporary 
life, manners, and feeling it cannot be over- 
estimated' (SWEET, First Middle English 
Primer, pp. vi, vii). 

Various letters of Poore are printed by Ca- 
non Rich Jones (Reg. S. Osmund, and Sarum 
Charters', see also HATCHER and BENSON, 
WILKINS, and HUTCHINSON). His Salisbury 
seal is in Dodsworth (pi. 3), and in Bishop 
Wordsworth's ' Seals of Bishops of Salisbury ' 
(reprinted from * Archaeological Journal,' vol. 
xlv.), p. 12. The Durham seal in Surtees 
(i. pi. i. 8) is clearly his. The counter-seal, 
representing the Virgin and Child between 
two well-modelled churches with spires, may 
indicate an intention of completing both his 
cathedrals by central spires, such as was 
actually erected at Salisbury. 

The bishop was identified first by Panci- 
roli, and lately by Sir Travers Twiss (Law 
Magazine and Review, No. ccxcii. May 1894), 
with RICARDUS ANGLICUS, the 'pioneer of 
scientific judicial procedure in the twelfth 
century.' Panciroli (d. 1599) states that 
Ricardus Anglicus was surnamed Pauper, 
and that he was so poor that he and two 
chamber-fellows at Bologna possessed be- 
tween them only one academic hood (capi- 
tium), which they wore in turns to enable 
them to attend the public lectures. This 
story is a common fable ; and it is impossible 
to determine whether Panciroli (whose work 
was published in 1637) had any better evi- 
dence for assigning Ricardus the name Pauper 
or Poor. Sarti and Fattorini (De Claris 
Archigymnasii Bononiensis Professoribus, ed. 
C. Albicini, i. ii. 386) and Savigny express 
an unfavourable view of the accuracy of 
Panciroli, and Bethman-Hollweg pronounces 
the whole statement ' durchaus fabelhaft.' 




Bishop Poore is called 'magister' in 'Flores 
Historiarum ' (ii. 156), and ' summe literatus' 
by Wanda ; but there is no allusion to his 
eminence as a jurist or canonist ; nor is there 
any trace of special knowledge in his con- 
stitutions or in the l Ancren Riwle.' More- 
over, Ricardus Anglicus of Bologna may 
probably be identified with the 'Ricardus 
Anglicus, doctor Parisiensis,' of a bull of 
Honorius III, dated 1218 (see RASHDALL, 
Mediaeval Universities, ii. 750). Such an 
identification would positively differentiate 
him from Richard Poore, who had been a 
bishop since 1215, and would certainly be 
described by the name of his see. 

The Bolognese Richard was an Englishman, 
who, according to his imitator Tancred, after- 
wards archdeacon of Bologna and rector of 
the law school there in 1226, held the position 
of * magister decretorum ' at Bologna, and 
was the first to improve on the methods of 
Johannes Bassianus by treating of judicial 
procedure in a more scientific spirit, namely, 

* in the manner of a compilation, in which 
passages from the laws and canons are cited 
in illustration of each paragraph.' This 
statement is repeated by Johannes Andreas 
of Bologna (d. 1348), who, however, was 
not personally acquainted with Richard's 
treatise ; nor is there any authority for the 
statement of Dr. Arthur Duck (De Usu 
Juris CivilisRomanorum^. 142), that Richard 
taught law at Oxford. His treatise entitled 

* Ordo Judiciarius ' was discovered by Pro- 
fessor A. Wunderlich of Gottingen in 1851 
in the public library of Douay. It was 
formerly in the monastery of Anchin, and 
was published at Halle in 1853 by Professor 
Charles Witte. It is unfortunately mis- 
dated 1120 by a blunder in the legal docu- 
ment which is, as usual, inserted to fix the 
date. However, a second manuscript was 
discovered in 1885 by Sir T. Twiss in the 
Royal Library at Brussels ; the manuscript 
(No. 131-4), which bears the stamp of the 
famous Burgundian Library, contains also 
the ' Brocarda ' of Otto of Pavia, and a por- 
tion of the ' Summa ' of Bassianus. This 
text has been transcribed and autotyped ; it 
Is considered more free from clerical errors 
than the Douay manuscript, and the inserted 
document is clearly dated 1196, which shows 
that Richard anticipated the method of treat- 
ment of his elder contemporary Pillius (cf. 
Sir T. Twiss's article; Professor M. von 
BETHMAN-HOLLWEG of Bonn, dvil-Prozess 
des yemeinen Rechts, Bonn, 1874, vol. vi. 
pt. i. 105-9; Professor J. F. VON SCHULTE, 
Geschichte der Quellen des canonischen Rechts, 
Stuttgart, 1875). Von Schulte assigns to 
the ' Ordo Judiciarius ' a later date, on the 

ground that it contains quotations from de- 
cretals recorded in compilations which were 
not in existence before 1201. Sir T. Twiss 
disputes this view. Ricardus Anglicus also 
composed glosses on the papal decretals, 
which were used by Bernard of Parma, and 
' Distinctiones ' on Gratian's ' Decretum/ 
which are supposed by Professor von Schulte 
to be extant in a manuscript at Douay. Both 
he and Poore must be distinguished from a 
contemporary physician also called Ricardus 
Anglicanus [see RICHARD OF WENDOVEE]. 

[Documents and Works cited above, esp. the 
Sarum Charters, ed. Jones and Macray, and 
William de Wanda's narrative in the Register of 
St. Osmund, which, as well as Wendover, Paris, 
and the Monastic Annalists, are quoted from 
the Rolls Series. The statements of Godwin, 
Dugdale, Tanner, and Willis, and even the no- 
tices in Dodsworth's Salisbury, Cassan's Bishops 
of Salisbury, and Hatcher and Benson's Salis- 
bury are inaccurate, and superseded by the 
(practically identical) memoirs by Canon W. H. 
Kich Jones in the Wilts Arch. Mag. 1879, xviii. 
223-4, Fasti Sarisb. 1882, i. 45-50, and In trod, 
to Reg. of S. Osmund, vol. ii. pp. xcviii-cxxxi. 
Leland's inscription is clearly not contemporary. 
Information and suggestions have been kindly 
furnished by the present bishop of Salisbury, 
Dr. John Wordsworth.] H. E. D. B. 

(fl. 1135), judge. [See ROGER.] 

POPE, ALEXANDER (1688-1744), 
poet, son of Alexander Pope, by his wife 
Edith, daughter of William Turner of York, 
was born in Lombard Street, London, on 
21 May 1688. Pope's paternal grandfather is 
supposed to have been Alexander Pope, rector 
of Thruxton, Hampshire (instituted 1 May 
1630-1 ; information from the Winchester 
bishop's register, communicated by Mr. J. C. 
Smith, of Somerset House), who died in 
1645. The poet's father, according to his 
epitaph, was seventy-five at his death, 
23 Oct. 1717, and therefore bom in 1641 or 
1642 (see also P. T.'s letter to Curll in 
POPE'S Works, by Elwin and Courthope, 
vi. 423, where he is said to have been a 
posthumous son). According to Warton, he 
was a merchant at Lisbon, where he was 
converted to Catholicism. He was after- 
wards a linendraper in Broad Street, Lon- 
don. A first wife, Magdalen, was buried 
12 Aug. 1679 (register of St. Benet Fink); 
he had by her a daughter Magdalen, after- 
wards Mrs. Rackett ; and in the Pangbourne 
register, Ambrose Staveley, the rector, re- 
cords the burial of ' Alexander Pope, son of 
my brother-in-law, Alexander Pope, mer- 
chant of London/ on 1 Sept. 1682 (informa- 




tion from Mr. J. C. Smith). Pope's state- 
ment in a note in the Epistle to Arbuth- 
not, that his father belonged to the family 
of the earls of Downe, appears to have been 
a fiction (WARTOX, Essay, ii. 255). The 
poet's maternal grandfather descended from 
a family of small landowners in Yorkshire. 
He had seventeen children, one of whom, 
Edith, the poet's mother, was baptised on 
18 June 1642, though, according to her epi- 
taph, she was ninety-three at her death on 
7 June 1733. Christiana, another daughter, 
married the portrait-painter, Samuel Cooper 
(1609-1672) [q. v.], and at her death in 
1693, left some china, pictures, and medals 
to her nephew. Three of her sons, according 
to Pope's statement (Epistle to Arbuthnot), 
were in the service of Charles I. Alexander 
Pope, the linendraper, after his second mar- 
riage, moved his business to Lombard Street. 
He made some money by his trade, and in 
or before 1700 moved to Binfield in Windsor 
Forest. It appears from his will (CAR- 
KTJTHERS, Pope, 1857, p. 463) that he had 
some landed property, and he also invested 
money in French rentes ( Works, vi. 189, 
201). The story, first told by Ruffhead, that 
he put all his money in a strong-box and 
lived upon the principal, is therefore erro- 
neous. As a catholic, he was exposed to 
various disqualifications ; but he appears to 
have lived comfortably among the country 
gentry. He had many friends among the 
Roman catholics, several of whom lived near 
the forest. He was fond of gardening, and 
had twenty acres of land round his house at 
Binfield. 'One room of the house is said to 
remain, and a row of Scottish firs near it was 
apparently there in Pope's time. 

Pope was precocious, and in his infancy 
healthy. He was called the ' little nightin- 
gale ' from the beauty of his voice, a name 
still applied to him in later years by the 
dramatist Southern (RUFFHEAD, p. 476 ; 
ORRERY, Swift, p. 207). A portrait, painted 
when he was ten years old, showed him 
'plump and pretty, and of a fresh com- 
plexion.' This is said to have been like him 
at the time ; but a severe illness two 
years later, brought on by l perpetual appli- 
cation,' ruined his health and distorted his 
figure (SPEISTCE, Anecdotes, 1820, p. 26). 
Spence's statements, chiefly derived from 
Pope himself and his sister, Mrs. Rackett, 
give all that is known of his childhood. He 
was once nearly killed by a cow. He 
learnt to read l from an old aunt,' and 
to write by imitating printed letters. He 
acquired a clear and good hand. When eight 
years old he began Latin and Greek under 
a priest named Banister (or Taverner). 

Next year he was sent to a Roman catholic 
school at Twyford, near Winchester, and 
afterwards to a school kept by Thomas Deane 
[q. v.], first at Marylebone, and then at 
Hyde Park Corner. He was removed from 
Twyford because he had been whipped for 
satirising the master ; and at the two schools 
he unlearnt what he had learnt from Banis- 
ter. He was then brought back to his 
father's house, and placed for a few months 
under a fourth priest. After this he was 
left to his own devices, and plunged into 
miscellaneous reading, studying, he says, 
French, Italian, Latin, and Greek, as well 
as English poets, ' like a boy gathering flowers ' 
(ib. p. 193). His scholarship naturally was very 
imperfect; but he read poetry voraciously. He 
did nothing else but write and read, says Mrs. 
Rackett (ib. p. 267). He began very early to 
imitate his favourite authors. He readOgilby's 
translation of Homer when he was about 
twelve, and formed from it a * kind of play,' 
which was acted by his schoolfellows. At 
the same age he saw Dryden (who died 1 May 
1700), and ( observed him very particularly ' 
(ib. p. 332). Between the ages of thirteen 
and fifteen he wrote an epic poem called 
'Alexander' (ib. p. 279), which he burnt 
about 1717, with the approval, perhaps at 
the suggestion, of Atterbury ( Works, ix. 
8). He made a translation from Statius 
about 1702 or 1703, according to his own 
account, though it was not published till 1712, 
and then no doubt with many corrections. 
Other translations from the classics and adap- 
tations of Chaucer show his early practice 
in versification. He went to London in his 
fifteenth year to learn French and Italian 
(SPENCE, p. 25), and his energetic studies pro- 
duced another illness. He thought himself 
dying, and sent farewells to his friends. One 
of these, the Abbe" Southcote, hereupon 
applied to Radcliffe for advice. Radcliffe 
sensibly prescribed less study and daily rides 
in the forest. Pope regained health, and 
twenty years later showed his gratitude by 
obtaining for Southcote, through Sir Robert 
Walpole, an appointment to a French abbey 
near Avignon (ib. pp. 7, 8). Pope's pre- 
cocious ambition led him to court the ac- 
quaintance of all the wits whom he could 
meet, and the homage of so promising a lad 
was returned by warm encouragement. One 
of his earliest friends was Sir William Trum- 
bull, who had been secretary df state, and 
was living in retirement at Easthampstead 
Park. Pope rode out with him three or four 
days a week, and was encouraged by him in 
the composition of his ' Pastorals.' The first 
is addressed to Trumbull, and Pope, whose 
statements on such points are always doubt- 

Pope i 

ful, says that they were composed when he 
was sixteen. A letter from George Gran- 
ville (afterwards Lord Lansdowne) shows 
that they were in any case written before he 
was eighteen (LANSDOWNE, Works, ii. 113). 
The same letter mentions Walsh and Wy- 
cherley as patrons of the rising prodigy. 
William Walsh, then a critic and man of 

i fashion, appears to have made his acquain- 
tance in 1705, and gave Pope the well-known 
advice to aim at ' correctness ' a quality 
hitherto attained by none of our great poets. 
Tonson, who had seen a ' pastoral poem ' in 
the hands of Walsh and Congreve, wrote to 
Pope, proposing to publish it, in a letter 
dated 20 April 1706. The manuscript, still 
preserved, was shown about to other eminent 
men, including Garth, Somers, and Halifax ; 
and was published in Tonson's 'Miscellanies' 
in 1709. Pope had meanwhile become inti- 
mate with Wycherley, who first introduced 
him to town life. Pope, as he told Spence, 
followed Wycherley about ' like a dog/ and 
kept up a correspondence with him. Wycher- 

1 ley was the senior by forty-eight years. He 
had long ceased to write plays, and had 
probably been introduced to some of Pope's 
circle by his conversion to Catholicism. He 
was one of Dryden's successors at Will's 
coffee-house. He treated Pope with con- 
descension, and wrote in the elaborate style 
of an elderly wit; but some quarrel arose 
about 1710 which caused a breach of the 
friendship. Pope afterwards manipulated 
the letters so as to give the impression that 
Wycherley, after inviting criticism, took 
offence at the frankness of his young friend ; 
but the genuine documents (first published 
from manuscripts at Longleat in the El win 
and Courthope edition of Pope's ' Works ') 
show this to be an inversion of the truth. 
Another friend of Pope at this time was 
Henry Cromwell, a man about town, about 
thirty-six years Pope's senior. Their corre- 
spondence lasted from July 1707 to Decem- 
ber 1711. Pope affects the tone popular at 
Will's coffee-house, then frequented by his 
correspondent, and does his best to show that 
he has the taste and morals of a wit. He 
afterwards became rather ashamed of the 
terms of equality upon which he corre- 
sponded with a man above whose head he 
had risen. 

The publication of the ' Pastorals ' first 
made Pope generally known; they were 
received with applause, although they were 
examples of a form of composition already 
effete, and can now be regarded only as ex- 
periments in versification. They show that 
Pope had already a remarkable command of 
fluent and melodious language. He had 

i Pope 

not only practised industriously, but, as his 
early letters show, had reflected carefully 
upon the principles of his art. The result 
appeared in the ' Essay on Criticism/ pub- 
lished anonymously on 15 May 1711. The 
poem is an interesting exposition of the 
canons of taste accepted by Pope and by the 
leading writers of the time, and contains 
many of those polished epigrams which, if 
not very profound, have at least become pro- 
verbial. Incidents connected with this pub- 
lication opened the long literary warfare in 
which much of his later career was passed. 
A contemptuous allusion to the sour critic 
John Dennis [q. v.] produced an angry pam- 
phlet, ' Reflections . . . on a late Rhapsody/ 
from his victim. Pope had the sense to cor- 
rect some of the passages attacked, and, for 
the moment, did not retort. Addison soon 
afterwards praised the ' Essay ' very warmly 
in the 'Spectator' (20 Dec. 1711), while 
regretting ' some strokes ' of personality. Pope 
wrote a letter to Steele (first printed in Miss 
Aikin's 'Addison/ where it is erroneously ad- 
dressed to Addison) acknowledging the praise, 
and proposing to suppress the objectionable 
' strokes.' Steele, who was already known to 
him, and had suggested to him the ' Ode to St. 
Cecilia/ promised, in return, an introduc- 
tion to Addison. Pope thus became known 
to the Addison circle. His ' Messiah/ a fine 
piece of declamation, appeared in the ' Spec- 
tator ' of 14 May 1712. He afterwards con- 
tributed some papers to its successor, the 
'Guardian.' The 'Rape of the Lock 'appeared 
in its first form in the' Miscellanies 'published ; 
by Lintot in 1712, which included others of 
Pope's minor poems. LordPetre, a youth of 
twenty, had cut off a lock of hair of Miss 
Arabella Fermor, a beauty of the day, who 
was offended by this practical joke [see under 
They were both members of the catholic 
society known to Pope, and the poem was 
written at the suggestion of a common friend, 
Caryll, in order to appease the quarrel by a 
little pleasantry. The poem was warmly ad- 
mired by Addison, who called it merum sal, 
and advised Pope not to risk spoiling it by 
introducing the new ' machinery ' of the 
sylphs (WARBURTON, Pope, iv. 26). This, 
according to Warburton's story, opened 
Pope's eyes to the jealousy which he sup- 
posed to have dictated a very natural piece 
of advice. Pope altered and greatly enlarged : 
his poem, which appeared separately in 
1714. It shows extraordinary skill in the 
lighter kind of verse, and reflects with singu- 
lar felicity, in some respects a little too faith- 
fully, the tone of the best society of the day. 
.It took at once the place which it has ever 




since occupied as a masterpiece. The chief 
precedent was Boileau's 'Lutrin' (first pub- 
lished in 1674, and completed in 1683). The 
baron in the poem represents Lord Petre ; 
' Sir Plume ' is Sir George Brown, and Thales- 
tris his sister. Sir George Brown, as Pope 
says, ' blustered,' and Miss Fermor was 
offended ( Works, vi. 162). Sir Plume is clearly 
not a flattering portrait. The poem, how- 
ever, went far to establish Pope's reputation 
as one of the first writers of the day. 

Pope's t Windsor Forest ' appeared in March 
1712-13. The first part, modelled upon Den- 
ham's ' Cooper's Hill,' had been written in 
his earlier period. The conclusion, with its 
prophecy of free trade, refers to the peace of 
Utrecht, which, though not finally ratified till 
28 April, had been for some time a certainty. 
Pope's poem was thus on the side of the 
tories, and brought him the friendship of 
Swift, who speaks of it as a 'fine poem 'in 
the 'Journal to Stella' on 9 March 1712- 

Pope still preserved friendly relations with 
/ Addison, whose ' Cato ' was shown to him 
in manuscript. He praises it enthusiasti- 
cally in a letter to Caryll (February 1712- 
1713), though he afterwards told Spence 
that he had recommended Addison not to 
produce it on the stage. He wrote the 
prologue, which was much applauded, and 
the play, produced on 13 April 1713, had an 
immense success, due partly to the political 
interpretation fixed upon it by both parties. 
Pope's friendship with Addison's l little 
senate' was now to be broken up. Accord- 
ing to Dennis {Remarks on the DunciacT), 
whose story is accepted by Pope's best bio- 
grapher, Mr. Courthope, Pope devised a 
singular stratagem. He got Lintot to per- 
suade Dennis to print some shrewd though 
rather brutal remarks upon 'Cato.' Pope 
then took revenge for Dennis's previous pam- 
phlet upon the ' Essay on Criticism' by pub- 
lishing a savage onslaught on the later 
pamphlet, called a ' Narrative ... of the 
strange and deplorable Frenzy of Mr. J[ohn] 
D[ennis].' Had the humour been more suc- 
cessful, the personality would still have been 
discreditable. Dennis was abused nominally 
on behalf of Addison, but his criticisms were 
not answered. Addison was bound as a 
gentleman, though he has been strangely 
blamed for his conduct, to disavow a vulgar 
retort which would be naturally imputed to 
himself. At his desire, Steele let Dennis 
know, through Lintot, that he disapproved of 
such modes of warfare, and had declined to 
see the papers. Pope, if he heard of this at 
the time, would of course be wounded. He 
had meanwhile another ground of quarrel. 

His prologue to ' Cato' had appeared in the 
' Guardian ' of 18 April 1713. Some previous 
papers upon pastoral poetry had appeared 
shortly before, in which high praise was given 
to Ambrose Philips, one of the whig clique 
whose ' Pastorals ' were in the same ' Mis- 
cellany ' with Pope's (1709). Pope now pub- 
lished a paper (27 April 1713) ostensibly in 
praise of Philips as contrasted with himself. 
Steele is said to have been deceived by this 
very transparent irony ; but the paper, when 
published, provoked Philips's wrath. He is 
said to have hung up a rod at Button's, vow- 
ing that he would apply it to Pope's shoulders 
(see Broome to Fenton [1728], Works, viii. 
147. The storyis also told by Ayre and Cibber). 
Pope appears to deny some such story in a 
letter to Caryll of 8 June 1714 (Works, vi. 
208). He says that Philips had never < offered 
him any indecorum,' and that Addison had 
expressed a desire to remain upon friendly 

Pope, in any case, was naturally thrown \ 
more upon the opposite party. Swift became 
a warm friend, and introduced him to Ar- 
buthnot and other distinguished men. The 
' Scriblerus Club,' in which Pope, Gay, and 
Parnell joined Swift, Arbuthnot, Congreve, 
Atterbury, Oxford, and others, was apparently 
a kind of informal association which pro- 
jected a joint-stock satire upon pedantry. It 
was possibly an offshoot from the ' Brothers' 
Club' formed in 1711, of which Swift was 
also a member, and which was now declining. 
Pope at the end of 1713 was taking lessons 
in painting from Charles Jervas [q. v.], but 
he was soon to be absorbed in the most 
laborious task of his life. Among his early 
translations was a fragment from the ' Iliad,' 
and his friend Trumbull upon reading it had 
suggested (9 April 1708) that he should con- 
tinue the work. Idolatry of classical models 
was an essential part of the religion of men 
of letters of the day. Many of them, how- 
ever, could not read Greek, and the old trans- 
lations of Chapman, Ogilby,and Hobbeswere 
old-fashioned or feeble in style. Many trans- 
lations from the classics had been executed 
by Dryden and his school. Dryden had him- 
self translated ' Virgil' and the first book of 
the ' Iliad.' But a Homer in modern English 
was still wanting. Pope's rising fame and 
his familiarity with the literary and social 
leaders made him the man for the oppor- 
tunity. Addison's advice, according to Pope 
(Preface to the Iliad), first determined him 
to the undertaking, although a letter, in which 
Addison says ' I know of none of this age 
that is equal to the task except yourself' 
( Works, vi. 401), is of doubtful authenticity. 
Pope also thanks Swift, Congreve, Garth, 

Pope i 

Howe, and Parnell for encouragement. He 
issued proposals for the translation of the 
'Iliad' in October 1713. Lord Oxford and 
other friends regretted that he should devote 
his powers to anything but original work ; 
but the plan was accepted with general 
enthusiasm. Swift was energetically tout- 
ing for him in November 1713. Supported 
by both the whig and the tory leaders of 
literature, and by all their political and noble 
friends, the subscription soon reached unpre- 
cedented proportions. Dryden had made 
about 1,2001. by his 'Virgil' (1697), when 
the plan of publishing by subscription was 
still a novelty. Lintot agreed to pay Pope 
200/. a volume, and supply him gratuitously 
with all the copies for subscribers and presents. 
The book was published in six volumes, and 
subscribers paid a guinea apiece. There 
were 575 subscribers for 650 copies (list in 
first edition), and the names include 150 
persons of title and all the great men on 
both sides. The total, after deducting some 
payment for literary help, was over 5,000/., 
and Lintot is said to have sold 7,500 copies 
of a cheaper edition. Pope, who had scarcely 
made 150/. by his earlier poems (see list of 
Lintot's payments in D'!SRAELI'S Quarrels 
of Authors, reprinted in COTTRTHOPE'S Life, 
p. 151), thus made himself independent for 
life. The translation must be considered not 
as a publisher's speculation, but as a kind of 
national commission given by the elegant 
society of the time to their representative 

The first volume, including the first four 
books of the ' Iliad,' was issued in June 1715. 
Almost at the same time appeared a trans- 
J Ration of the first book by Thomas Tickell, 
one of Addison's clients. Although Tickell, 
in his preface, expressly disavowed rivalry, 
and said that he was only ' bespeaking public 
favour for a projected translation of the 
" Odyssey,'" Pope's jealousy was aroused. 
His previous quarrels with the Addison circle 
predisposed him to suspicion, and he per- 
suaded himself that Addison was the real 
author of the translation published under 
Tickell's name. In a later quarrel after Addi- 
son's death in 1719, Steele called Tickell ' the 
reputed translator 'of the ' Iliad' (dedication 
of the ' Drummer 'in ADDISON'S Works, 1811, 
vi. 319), a phrase which implies the currency 
of some rumours of this kind. Pope also 
asserted (SPENCE, p. 149) that Addison had 
paid Gildon ten guineas for a pamphlet about 
Wycherley, in which Pope and his relatives 
were abused. No such pamphlet is known, 
and the whole imputation upon Addison is 
completely disproved [see under ADDISON, 
JOSEPH]. The so-called ' quarrel,' which gave 


3 Pope 

rise to much discussion superseded by recent 
revelations, was only a quarrel on Pope's 
side. The famous lines upon Addison, which 
were its main fruit, first appeared in print 
in a collection called ' Cytherei'a,' published 
by Curll in 1723 (in NICHOLS'S Anecdotes, 
iv. 273, it is asserted that some verses by 
Jeremiah Markland, appended to Pope's lines 
given at p. 314, were in print as early as 
1717. No authority is given for the state- 
ment, which must be erroneous). They are 
mentioned in a letter from Atterbury of 26 Feb. 
1721-2, and apparently as a new composition 
much ' sought after.' Pope was accused of 
writing them after Addison's death, 1719. 
B oth Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Lord 
Oxford say that they had been previously 
written, though neither testimony is unequi- 
vocal (Courthope in Works, iii. 233) ; and a 
letter from Pope to Craggs, dated 15 July 
1715, uses some of the phrases of the satire. 
The letter, however, is probably spurious, and 
it forms part of the correspondence concocted 
by Pope in order to give his own account of 
his relations to Addison. He told Spence 
(p. 149) that he had sent a < first sketch' of 
his satire to Addison himself, who had after- 
wards 'used him very civilly.' The same 
story is told by Warburton. It is, however, 
quite incredible in itself, and is part of a 
whole system of 'mystification,' if such a 
word be not too gentle. It is possible, and 
perhaps probable, that Pope wrote the lines 
in his first anger at Tickell's publication, and 
afterwards kept them secret until the period 
fixed by Atterbury's letter. 

The last volume of the ' Iliad,' delayed by 
ill-health, family troubles, and the prepara- 
tion of various indexes, appeared in May 
1720. A dedication was appended to Con- 
greve, who was doubtless selected for the 
honour, as Macaulay observes, as a man of 
letters respected by both parties. Pope had 
not only made a competence, but had be- 
come the acknowledged head of English 
men of letters. The 'Homer' was long re- 
garded as a masterpiece, and for a century 
was the source frorrJ which clever schoolboys 
like Byron learnt that Homer was not a 
mere instrument of torture invented by their 
masters. No translation of profane literature 
has ever occupied such a position, and the 
rise of new poetical ideals was marked by 
Cowper's attempt to supersede it by a version 
of his own. Cowper and the men of genius 
who marked the new era have made the 
obvious criticisms familiar. Pope was no 
scholar; he had to get help from Broome 
and Jortin to translate the notes of Eusta- 
thius, and obtained an introductory essay 
from Parnell. Many errors in translation 





Lave been pointed out by Gilbert Wakefield 
and others, and the conventional style of 
Pope's day often gives an air of artificiality 
to his writing, while he was of course en- 
tirely without the historical sense of more 
recent writers. Bentley remarked that it 
was a ' pretty poem, but not Homer,' nor 
has any critic disputed the statement. It 
must be regarded rather as an equivalent to 
Homer, as reflected in the so-called classi- 
cism of the time, and the genuine rhetorical 
vigour of many passages shows that there 
was some advantage in the freedom of his 
treatment, and may justify the high place 
held by the work until the rise of the revo- 
lutionary school. 

Pope had made not only a literary but a 
social success. At that period the more 
famous authors were more easily admitted 
than at any other to the highest social and 
political circles. Besides meeting Oxford, 
Bolingbroke, Atterbury, Swift, and Congreve 
in society, he was frequently making tours 
about the country, and staying in the country 
houses of Lord Harcourt at whose place, 
Stanton Harcourt, he finished the fifth volume 
of the 'Iliad' in 1718 of Lord Bathurst, 
Lord Digby, and others. Gay's pleasant poem, 
' Mr. Pope's Welcome from Greece,' gives a 
long list of the distinguished friends who 
applauded the successful achievement of the 
task. In April 1716 the Pope family left 
Binfield, and settled at Mawson's Buildings, 
Chiswick, ' under the wing of my Lord Bur- 
lington.' He was now within reach of many 
of the noble families who lived near the 
Thames, and saw much aristocratic society. 
Here his father died on 23 Oct. 1717, an 
event mentioned by the son with great ten- 
derness. In 1718 Pope had felt himself rich 
enough to think of building a house in Lon- 
don, and the plans were prepared for him by 
James Gibbs (1682-1754) [q.v.] Bathurst 
apparently deterred him by hints as to the 
probable cost, and in 1719 he bought the 
lease of a house at Twickenham, with five 
acres of land. Here he lived for the rest of 
his life, and took great delight in laying out 
the grounds, which became famous, and are 
constantly mentioned in his poetry. Pope 
also invested money in the South Sea scheme. 
It appears that at one time he might have 
become a rich man by realising the amount 
invested. He held on, however, until the 
panic had set in ; but he seems finally to 
have left off rather richer than he began (see 
Courthope's account in Works, v. 184-7). 
He corresponded upon the South Sea scheme 
with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and with 
Teresa and Martha Bloiint, who were more 
or less concerned in the speculations of the 


Both women had about this time a great 
influence upon Pope's personal history. The 
only earlier mention of anything like a love 
affair in Pope's life his correspon- 
dence with Cromwell (18 March 1708), where 
he speaks of a certain l Sappho.' She is identi- 
fied with a Mrs. Nelson, who wrote a compli- 
mentary poem prefixed to his ' Pastorals ' in 
the ' Miscellany,' but afterwards suppressed 
in consequence of a quarrel. Pope, however, 
speaks of her with levity, and in a later letter 
(21 Dec. 1711) compares her very unfavour- 
ably with (apparently) the Blounts. In 1717 
an edition of his poems was published, in- 
cluding the ' lines to an unfortunate lady/ 
Ayre, followed by Ruffhead, constructed out 
of the lines themselves a legend of a lady 
beloved by Pope who stabbed herself for 
love of somebody else. Sir John Hawkins 
and Warton found out that she hanged her- 
self for love of Pope. Bowles heard from a 
gentleman of * high birth and character,' who 
heard from Voltaire, who heard from Con- 
dorcet, that the lady was in love with a 
French prince. The fact appears to be that 
a Roman catholic, Mrs. Weston, had quar- 
relled with her husband, and, upon his 
threatening to deprive her of her infant, pro- 
posed to retire into a convent. Pope took 
up her cause, quarrelled with Mr. and Mrs. 
Rackett, who took the other side, and ap- 
pealed to Caryll to interfere. The purely 
imaginary lady was merely the embodiment 
of his feelings about Mrs. Weston, though he 
afterwards indulged in a mystification of his 
readers by a vague prefatory note in later 
editions. Caryll had in vain asked for ex- 
planations. Mrs. Weston died on 18 Oct. 
1724, long after the imaginary suicide. The 
poems of 1717 contained also the ' Eloisa to 
Abelard,' which bore a similar relation to a 
genuine sentiment. When he forwarded the 
volume to Lady Mary, Pope called her atten- 
tion to the closing lines ( Works, ix. 382), and 
during the composition he had mentioned the 
same passage (apparently) in a letter to 
Martha Blount (ib. ix. 264), in each case 
making the application to the lady to whom 
he was writing. Pope's relations to Lady 
Mary have been considered in her life [see 
her before she went to Constantinople in 
1716, and after her return in 1718 she lived 
near him for a time at Twickenham. The 
quarrel took place about 1722, and the extreme 
bitterness with which Pope ever afterwards 
assailed her can be explained most plausibly, 
and least to his discredit, upon the assumption 
that his extravagant expressions of gallantry 


covered some real passion. If so, however, 
it was probably converted into antipathy by 
the contempt with which she received his 
declaration. The relation to Martha Blount 
[q. v.] was more enduring, though the obscure 
allusions in Pope's correspondence are insuffi- 
cient to explain the circumstances. Teresa, 
born 1G88, and Martha, born 15 June 1690, ! 
were daughters of Lister Blount of Maple- , 
durham, who died in 1715. They had been j 
educated abroad, and the date of Pope's I 
acquaintance is uncertain. He had at any | 
fate begun to correspond with them in 1712, 
when he sent the ' Rape of the Lock ' to i 
Martha, and his tone to both sisters is that [ 
of a familiar family friend, with some playful j 
gallantry, and occasionally passages of strange 
indecency. On the marriage of their brother, j 
Michael Blount, in 1715, they left Maple- ' 
durham, and afterwards lived in London, and 
occupied also a small house at Petersham 
in Pope's neighbourhood. In 1717 some diffi- 
culty arose between Pope and Teresa Blount. 
He wrote letters soon after his father's death 
(ix. 279-83), of which it is the most obvious 
interpretation that he had hinted at a marriage 
with Martha ; that Teresa elicited some con- | 
fession of his intentions, and then convinced 
Martha that Pope's offer was ' only an amuse- 
ment, occasioned by [his] loss of another 
lady.' A month later (March 1718) he exe- 
cuted a deed settling upon Teresa an annuity 
of 40. for six years, on condition of her not 
marrying within that time, but no explana- 
tion is given of the circumstances. He after- 
wards for a time kept at a greater distance. 
In later years Pope complained to Caryll 
that Teresa (apparently) had spread reports 
affecting the innocence of his relations to 
Martha (25 Dec. 1725). He indignantly 
denies them, and says that for the last two 
years he has seen less of her than ever. He 
subsequently to Caryll (20 July 1729) accuses 
Teresa of an intrigue with a married man, 
and of scandalous ill-treatment of her mother. 
The mother, however, according to his ac- 
count, was so bewitched as not to resent the 
treatment. His suspicions appear to have 
been based upon mere scandalous gossip. He 
can hardly have been a welcome visitor at the 
house where the mother (until her death on 
31 March 1743) still lived with her two 
daughters. Teresa survived till 7 Oct. 1759. 
Pope continued, however, to preserve affec- 
tionate relations with Martha, which became 
closer in later life. Pope's deformity and 
infirmities would have been obstacles to any 
project of marriage, but his relation to Martha 
was the nearest approach in his life to a 
genuine love affair. 

After the final publication of the ' Iliad,' 

5 Pope 

Pope was engaged for a time on task-work. 
In 1722 he edited the poems of Parnell (who 
died in 1717), and began an edition of Shake- 
speare for Tonson. For this he received 
217/. 12s. It appeared in 1725, and had 
little success. Though he recognised the 
importance of collating the early editions, 
he had neither the knowledge nor the patience 
necessary for a laborious editor. He made 
some happy conjectures, and his preface, 
which was generally admired, is interesting 
as indicating the prevalent opinion about 
Shakespeare. The edition, according to 
Johnson's report, was a commercial failure : 
many copies had to be sold for 16s. 
instead of six guineas. A pamphlet by L. 
Theobald, Shakespeare Restored,' 1726, 
pointed out ' many of Mr. Pope's errors,' and 
left a bitter grudge in the poet's mind. 
Another undertaking was at least more pro- 
fitable. Pope resolved to translate the ' Odys- 
sey; ' and, to save himself labour, took for 
associates William Broome [q. v.], who had 
already helped him in the notes to the 
' Iliad,' and Elijah Fenton [q. v.] (The story 
told by Ruffhead and Spence, that Broome 
and Fenton had started the project, seems to 
be erroneous ; see the correspondence be- 
tween them and Pope, first published in the 
Elwin and Courthope edition, viii. 30-185.) 
Fenton translated the 1st, 4th, 19th, and 
20th books ; Broome the 2nd, 6th, 8th, llth, 
12th, 16th, 18th, and 23rd books, and wrote 
the notes. A Mr. Lang is also reported to 
have translated part of two other books, for 
which Pope gave him a ' twenty-two guineas 
medal ' (SPENCE, p. 330). They had caught 
Pope's style so well that the difference of 
authorship has never been detected from the 
internal evidence. Broome, in a note at 
the conclusion, said that Pope's revision of 
his assistant's work had brought the whole 
up to his own level. Mr. Elwin ( Works, 
viii. 123 n.} states, after examining Fenton's 
manuscripts in the British Museum, that this 
is an ' outrageous exaggeration.' Lintot paid 
600/. for the copyright, half what he had 
paid for the f Iliad ; ' but the result was 
apparently less profitable. The amount re- 
ceived from subscribers made up the total 
received by the translators to 4,500/., out of 
which Pope paid Broome 500/., while Fenton 
probably received 200/. Since Pope originated 
the plan, and the large sale was entirely due 
to his reputation, his assistants had no right 
to complain of being paid at the rate of 
literary journeymen. Many jealousies and 
difficulties, however, arose from the alliance. 
Pope in his proposals, issued 10 Jan. 1724-5, 
stated that he was to be helped by Broome 
and by a friend whose name was to be con- 





cealed. He exhorted Broome to be reticent 
in regard to his share in the work, as the 
public would be attracted by their belief in 
Pope's authorship. Broome, however, was 
vain and talkative, and various rumours 
arose from his indiscretion. Upon the pub- 
lication of the first three volumes, in April 
1725, Lintot threatened Pope with a lawsuit, 
apparently on the question whether free 
copies were to be delivered to Broome's sub- 
scribers as well as to Pope's. Attacks upon 
the ' bad paper, ill types, and journey-work 
poetry' appeared in the papers. To meet 
them, Pope induced Broome to write the 
postscript above mentioned, in which he 
asserts that he had himself translated three 
books and Fenton two (the real numbers 
being eight and four). Though Broome was 
weak enough to consent to this virtual false- 
hood, both he and Fenton resented Pope's 
treatment of them. Pope retaliated by in- 
sulting Broome in the ' Bathos,' published in 
the ' Miscellany ' of 1728. The correspon- 
dence dropped for a time ; but in 1730, when 
the accusations were revived in a satire 
called ' One Epistle,' Pope again applied to 
Broome for a statement in justification. 
Though Broome declined to make more than 
a dry statement, he resumed a friendly cor- 
respondence, and Pope tried to make some 
atonement. He disavowed responsibility for 
the ' Bathos,' altered a couplet in the ' Dun- 
ciad,' and in an appendix to the same poem 
claimed only twelve books of the ' Odyssey.' 
The ' Odyssey ' brought an addition of for- 
' tune, though not much of fame. It also intro- 
duced him to the friendship of Joseph Spence 
[q. v.], who published a discriminative l Essay' 
upon it in 1726 ; second part 1727. Pope had 
the good sense to be pleased with the criti- 
cism and make friends with the author. 

Pope's domestic circle had meanwhile gone 
through various changes. His mother's life 
was in great danger at the end of 1725 ; 
his nurse, Mary Beach, died on 25 Nov. in 
the same year, and is commemorated by an 
epitaph in Twickenham church. Pope was 
much confined by his attendance upon his 
mother, his affection for whom is his least 
disputable virtue. His friend Atterbury 
was exiled in 1723. Pope had to give evi- 
dence upon his trial, and was nervous and 
blundering. He was alarmed, it seems, by 
the prospect of being cross-examined as to 
his religious belief, and consulted Lord Har- 
court as to the proper answer ( Woi'ks, x. 
199). His anxiety was increased by com- 
plaints made against him for editing the 
Duke of Buckingham's works (1723), which 
had been seized on account of Jacobite pas- 
sages. The exile of Atterbury coincided 

with the return of Bolingbroke, to whom 
Pope had been slightly known in the * Scrib- 
lerus Club.' Bolingbroke now renewed the 
acquaintance, and in 1725 settled at Dawley, v 
within easy drive of Twickenham. Pope 
was a frequent visitor, and in September 1726 
was upset in crossing a stream upon his re- 
turn in Bolingbroke's coach. His fingers 
were badly cut by the glass of the window, 
and he nearly lost the use of them. Pope 
had at intervals corresponded with Swift 
after Swift's retirement to Ireland in 1714, 
and he now joined Bolingbroke in writing to- 
their common friend. In 1725 Pope wrote 
to Swift, mentioning a satire which he had 
written, and suggesting a visit to England. 
Bolingbroke, Arbuthnot, Lord Oxford, and 
Pope would welcome him. Swift visited Eng-"^ 
land in the summer of 1726, bringing ' Gul- 
liver's Travels,', for the publication of which 
arrangements were made by Pope [see also 
LEWIS, EKASMTJS]. The little circle also- 
agreed to publish a miscellany. Swift con- 
tributed verses, which he sent to Pope with 
full powers to use as he pleased. Two volumes 
were published in June 1727. Swift had 
again visited England, in April 1727, and 
stayed for some time with Pope ; but his 
infirmities and anxiety about Stella made 
him unfit for company, and he left Pope- 
some time before his return to Ireland in 
September. The 'Dunciad' was by this 
time finished, and Swift, who had at first 
advised Pope not to make the bad poets- 
immortal, was anxious for its appearance. 
Pope had probably withheld it with a view 
to one of his manoeuvres. The third volume 
of the ' Miscellanies/ published in March 
1727-8, contained the ' Bathos,' a very lively 
satire, of which Pope, though he afterwards 
disavowed it, says that he had ( entirely 
methodised and in a manner written it all * 
( Works, vii. 110). It gave sarcastic descrip- 
tions of different classes of bad authors, 
sufficiently indicated by initials. If his 
purpose was, as Mr. Courthope suggests, to 
irritate his victims into retorts, in order to- 
give an excuse for the ' Dunciad,' he suc- 
ceeded. The ' Dunciad ' appeared on 28 May 
1728, and made an unprecedented stir among- 
authors. Pope had made elaborate prepara- 
tions to avoid the danger of prosecution for 
libel. The poem appeared anonymously ; a 
notice from the publisher implied that it 
was written by a friend of Pope, in answer 
to the attacks of the ' last two months ' (i.e. 
since the ' Bathos ') ; the names of the per- 
sons attacked were represented by initials ; 
and the whole professed to be a reprint of a 
Dublin edition. On its success he published 
an enlarged edition, in March 1729, with 




names in full and a letter to the publisher 
in defence, written by himself, but signed by 
his friend William Cleland (1674-1741) 
{q. v.] He assigned the property to Lord 
Bathurst, Lord Oxford, and Lord Burlington, 
from whom alone copies could be procured. 
When the risk of publication appeared to be 
over, they assigned a new edition to Pope's 
publisher, Gilliver (November 1729). Va- 
rious indexes, * testimonies of authors/ and 
so forth, were added. The poem was not ac- 
knowledged till it appeared in Pope's ' Works ' 
in 1735. A ' Collection of Pieces ' relating 
to the poem was published in 1732, with 
a preface in the name of Savage describing 
the first appearance. 

The ' Dunciad,' though written with Pope's 
full power, suffers from the meanness of the 
warfare in which it served. It is rather a 
long lampoon than a satire ; for a satire is 
supposed to strip successful vice or imposture 
of its mask, not merely to vituperate men 
already despised and defenceless. Pope's 
literary force was thrown away in insults 
to the whole series of enemies who had in 
various ways come into collision with him. 
He was stung by their retorts, however 
coarse, and started the ' Grub Street Journal ' 
to carry on the war. The avowed authors 
were John Martyn [q. v.] and Dr. Richard 
Russell. Pope contributed and inspired 
many articles. It lasted from January 1730 
till the end of 1737, and two volumes of 
articles, called l Memoirs of the Society of 
Grub Street,' were republished (see CAR- 
KUTHEKS pp. 270-82, for a good account of 

Theobald was made the hero of the ( Dun- 
ciad,' to punish him for exposing the defects 
of Pope's ' Shakespeare.' Pope attacked Lin- 
tot, with whom he had quarrelled about the 
1 Odyssey,' and Jonathan Smedley [q. v.], dean 
of Clogher, who had written against the ' Mis- 
cellanies.' He attacked Aaron Hill,who forced 
him to equivocate and apologise [see under 
HILL, AARON]. One of his strongest grudges 
was against James Moore Smy the [q. v.], who 
had obtained leave to use some verses by 
Pope in a comedy of his own, and probably 
did not acknowledge them. Pope attacked 
him again in the ' Grub Street Journal ' with 
singular bitterness. A squib called ' A Pop 
upon Pope,' telling a story of a supposed 
whipping by two of the ' Dunciad ' victims, 
was attributed by Pope to Lady M. W. Mon- 
tague. Young, of the ' Night Thoughts,' de- 
fended Pope in ' Two Epistles,' to which 
Welsted and J. Moore Smythe replied in 
* One Epistle.' Pope seems to have felt 
this keenly, and replied vehemently in the 
'Journal.' We can hardly regret that in 

this miserable warfare against unfortunate 
hacks Pope should have had his turn of 
suffering. Happily, Bolingbroke's influence 
directed his genius into more appropriate 
channels. Bolingbroke had amused himself 
in his exile by some study of philosophy, of 
which, however, his writings prove that he 
had not acquired more than a superficial 
knowledge. Pope was at the still lower 
level from which Bolingbroke appeared to 
be a great authority. Bolingbroke's singular 
brilliancy in talking and writing and his 
really fine literary taste were sufficient to 
account for his influence over his friend. 
Pope expressed his feeling to Spence (p. 316) 
by saying that when a comet appeared he 
fancied that it might be a coach to take 
Bolingbroke home. One result of their con- 
versation is said to have been a plan for 
writing a series of poems which would 
amount to a systematic survey of human 
nature (see SPENCE, pp. 16, 48, 137, 315). 
They were to include a book upon the nature 
of man ; one upon ' knowledge and its 
limits ; ' a third upon government, ecclesias- 
tical and civil ; and a fourth upon morality. 
The second included remarks upon ' educa- 
tion,' part of which was afterwards em- 
bodied in the fourth book of the ' Dunciad ; ' 
and the third was to have been wrought into 
an epic poem called l Brutus/ of which an 
elaborate plan is given in Ruffhead (pp. 
410-22). It was begun in blank verse, but 
happily dropped. To the first and the fourth 
part correspond the ' Essay on Man ' and the 
four ' Moral Essays.' The plan thus ex- 
pounded was probably not Pope's original 
scheme so much as an afterthought, sug- 
gested in later years by Warburton (see Mr. 
Courthope in Works, iii. 45-51). ' Moral 
Essays ' was the name suggested by War- 
burton for what Pope had called ' Ethic 
Epistles.' The first of these, written under 
Bolingbroke's eye, was the l Essay on Taste/ 
addressed to Lord Burlington, published 
in 1731. It includes the description of 
Timon's villa, in which many touches were 
taken from Canons, the house of James 
Brydges, duke of Chandos [q. v.] Pope 
was accused of having accepted 500. from 
the duke, which was no doubt false ; but 
chose also to deny what was clearly true, 
that Canons had been in his mind. Pope 
was much vexed by the attacks thus pro- 
voked, and, besides writing to the duke, got 
' his man/ Cleland, to write an exculpatory 
letter, published in the papers. He also de- 
layed the publication of his next * Moral Es- 
say ' ' On Riches ' for a year (i.e. till Janu- 
ary 1733), from fear of the abuse. This, 
however, which dealt with fraudulent specu- 




lators, met the public taste. That upon the 
1 Characters of Men ' appeared on 6 Feb. 
1733, when the last, upon the ' Characters of 
Women,' was already written (Works, vii. 
298), though it was not published till 1735. 
The ' Essay on Man,' the first book of which 
appeared in February 1733 the remainder 
following in the course of a year seems also to 
have excited the author's apprehensions. It 
was anonymous, and he wrote to his friends 
about it without avowing himself. The main 
cause was no doubt his fear of charges 
against his orthodoxy. In fact, the poem 
is simply a brilliant versification of the doc- 
trine which, when openly expressed, was 
called deism, and, when more or less dis- 
guised, was taught as orthodox by the latitu- 
dinarian divines of the day. Pope was pro- 
bably intending only to represent the most 
cultivated thought of the time, and accepted 
Bolingbroke as its representative. Bathurst, 
indeed, said (BoswELL, Johnson, ed. Hill, iii. 
402-3) that Pope did no more than put 
Bolingbroke's prose into verse. Johnson's 
criticism upon this, namely, that Pope may 
have had the ' philosophic stamina of the 
essay from Bolingbroke' but added the 
poetical imagery, probably hits the mark. 
Comparison between Bolingbroke's fragment 
and Pope's essays shows coincidences so 
close as to leave no doubt of the relation- 
ship. Bolingbroke probably did not reveal 
his sceptical conclusions to Pope ; and Pope 
was too little familiar with the subject to 
perceive the real tendency of the theories 
which he was adopting. It would be idle to 
apply any logical test to a series of superfi- 
cial and generally commonplace remarks. 
The skill with which Pope gives point and 
colouring to his unsatisfactory framework of 
argument is the more remarkable. The many 
translations indicate that it was the best 
known of Pope's writings upon the conti- 
nent. Voltaire and Wieland imitated it; 
Lessing ridiculed its philosophy in 'Pope 
ein Metaphysiker ' (1755, LESSING, Werke, 
1854, vol. v.) ; but it was greatly admired 
by Dugald Stewart ( Works, vii. 133), and 
was long a stock source for ornaments to 
philosophical lectures. Though its rather 
tiresome didacticism has made it less popular 
than Pope's satires, many isolated passages 
are still familiar from the vivacity of the 
style. The < Universal Prayer ' was first 
added in 1738. 

Bolingbroke, happening one day to visit 
Pope, took up a Horace, and suggested to his 
friend the suitability to his case of the first 
satire of the second book. Pope thereupon 
translated it l in a morning or two,' and sent 
it to the press (SPE^CE, p. 297). It appeared 

in February 1733, and was the first of a 
series of his most felicitous writings. A 
couplet containing a gross insult to Lady 
M. W. Montagu, and another alluding to 
Lord Hervey, led to a bitter warfare. They 
retorted in ' Verses addressed to the Imitator 
of Horace' (ascribed to Lady Mary, Lord 
Hervey, and Mr. Windham, tutor to the 
Duke of Cambridge) and in <A Letter 
from a Nobleman at Hampton Court to a 
Doctor of Divinity' (by Lord Hervey). 
Pope replied by some squibs in the { Grub 
Street Journal ' and by ' A Letter to a Noble 
Lord,' dated 30 Nov. 1733. The latter, 
though printed, and, according to War- 
burton, submitted to the queen, was sup- 
pressed during Pope's life. Johnson says 
that it exhibits ' nothing but tedious ma- 
lignity,' and it is certainly laborious and 
lengthy. A far more remarkable result of 
this collision, however, was the * Epistle to 
Arbuthnot,' published in January 1734-5. 
It is written for the most part in answer to 
Hervey and Lady Mary, though various 
fragments, such as the lines upon Addison, 
are worked in. This poem is Pope's master- 
piece, and shows his command of language 
and metre in their highest development. It 
is also of the first importance as an auto- 
biographical document, and shows curiously 
what was Pope's view of his own character 
and career. 

Pope's autobiography was continued by 
the publication of his correspondence soon 
afterwards as the result of a series of ela- 
borate manosuvres scarcely to be paralleled 
in literary history. A full account of them, 
and of the means by which they were de- 
tected, is given by Mr. Elwin in the first 
volume of Pope's ' Works ' (pp. xvii-cxlvii), 
and the story is summarised by Mr. Court- 
hope in the < Life ' ( Works,v. 279-300). The 
main facts are as follows : In 1726 Curll 
published Pope's correspondence with Crom- 
well, having obtained them from Cromwell's 
mistress. The correspondence excited some 
interest, and Pope soon afterwards began to 
apply to his friends to return Ms letters. 
Caryll, one of his most regular correspon- 
dents, returned the letters in 1729, but had 
them previously copied without Pope's know- 
ledge. In the same year Pope obtained 
Lord Oxford's leave to deposit the originals 
of his correspondence in Oxford's library, 
on the ground that the publication by 
Theobald in 1728 of the posthumous works 
of Wycherley might be injurious both to 
W'ycherley's reputation and his own. His 
intention seems to have been to induce Ox- 
ford to become responsible for the publica- 
tion (see Elwin in Works, vol. i. p. xxvii). 




He then published some of Wycherley's 
remains, including their correspondence, as a 
supplement to Theobald's volume. The book, 
however, failed. No copy is known to exist, 
and the sheets were used by Pope in his next 
performance. The Hervey and Lady Mary 
quarrel apparently stimulated his desire to 
set forth his own virtues, and it now occurred 
to him to make a tool of his old enemy 
Curll. He had in 1716 administered an 
emetic to Curll on behalf of Lady Mary [see 
CURLL, EDMUND], and, besides publishing 
the Cromwell letters, Curll had advertised a 
life of Pope. Pope's object was to secure 
the publication of his letters and, at the 
same time, to make it appear that they were 
published in spite of his opposition. In order 
to accomplish this, he employed an agent, 
supposed (see WAKTON'S Essay, ii. 339, and 
JOHNSON) to have been a painter and low 
actor, named James Worsdale. Worsdale, 
calling himself R, Smythe, told Curll that a 
certain P. T., a secret enemy of Pope, had a 
quantity of Pope's correspondence, and was 
willing to dispose of the printed sheets to 
Curll. Curll, after some negotiations, agreed 
to publish them. Pope arranged that the 
book, as soon as published, should be seized 
by a warrant from the Plouse of Lords, on 
the ground that it was described in an ad- 
vertisement (dictated by Worsdale) as con- 
taining letters from peers. Pope had, however, 
contrived that no such letters should be in 
the sheets delivered to Curll. The books 
were therefore restored to Curll, and Pope 
had the appearance of objecting to the pub- 
lication while, at the same time, he had 
secretly provided for the failure of his ob- 
jection. Curll became unmanageable, told 
his story plainly, and advertised the publica- 
tion of the ' initial correspondence ' i.e. the 
correspondence with ' R. Smythe ' and ' P.T.,' 
which accordingly came out in July. Pope, 
however, anticipated this by publishing in 
June, through a bookseller named Cooper, a 
1 Narrative of the Method by which Mr. 
Pope's Private Letters were procured by 
Edmund Curll.' This did not correspond to 
its title. No light was thrown upon the 
really critical question how Curll could have 
obtained letters which could only be in Lord 
Oxford's library or in the possession of Pope 
himself. The publication, however, seems to 
have thrown the public off the scent ; and, 
though Curll's pamphlet gave sufficient indi- 
cations of the truth and suspicions of Pope's 
complicity were current, his manoeuvres were 
not generally penetrated, and their nature 
not established till long afterwards. 

Curll, however, issued a new edition of 
the ' P. T.' letters, and advertised a second 

volume. This appeared in July 1735, but 
contained only three letters from Atterbury 
to Pope, two of which had been already 
printed. Pope took advantage of this to 
advertise that he was under a necessity of 
printing a genuine edition. He proposed in 
1736 to publish this by subscription, at a 
guinea for the volume. The scheme would 
have fallen through but for Ralph Allen 
[q. v.], who was so much impressed by the 
benevolence exhibited in the published let- 
ters that he offered to bear the expense of 
printing. The book finally appeared 18 May 
1737, and the copyright was bought by 
Dodsley. Pope's preface pointed out how he 
had unconsciously drawn his own portrait 
in letters written ' without the least thought 
that ever the world should be a witness to 
them.' Pope had, in fact, not only carefully 
revised them, but materially altered them. 
His friend Caryll died 6 April 1736, and 
Pope treated the letters really addressed to 
him as raw materials for an imaginary cor- 
respondence with Addison, Steele, and Con- 
greve, which, for a long period, perverted 
the whole history of their relations. The 
discovery by Charles Wentworth Dilke [q. v.] 
of Caryll's letter-book, in the middle of this 
century, led to the final unravelling of these 
tortuous manoeuvres. 

Pope afterwards carried on a similar in- 
trigue of still more discreditable character. 
He seems to have considered Curll as out- 
side of all morality. But he next made 
a victim of his old friend Swift. He had 
obtained his own letters from Swift in 1737, 
who sent them through Orrery, after long 
resisting the proposal. Pope had the letters 
printed and sent the volume to Swift, with an 
anonymous letter, suggesting their publica- 
tion, and saying that if they fell into the 
hands of Pope or Bolingbroke they would be 
suppressed. Swift, whose mind was failing, 
gave the volume to his bookseller, Faulkner. 
Pope ventured to protest, and Faulkner there- 
upon offered to suppress the letters. Orrery, 
to whom Pope applied, also provokingly re- 
commended their suppression as ' unworthy 
to be published.' Pope now had to affect 
to be certain that the letters would come 
out in any case, and they finally appeared in 
London in 1741, with a statement that they 
were a reprint from a Dublin edition. The 
great difficulty was to explain how the letters 
from Swift to Pope, which had never been 
out of Pope's hands, could be obtained. 
Pope endeavoured to pervert ambiguous 
statements due to Swift's failing powers into 
an admission that the letters on both sides 
were in Swift's hands. He tried to throw 
the blame upon Swift's kind , friend, Mrs. 




Whiteway, and in his letters moralised over 
the melancholy fact that Swift's vanity had 
survived his intellect. The full proofs of 
this transaction were only given in the last 
edition of Pope's 'Works/ even Mr. Car- 
ruthers still supposing (in 1857) that Pope 
was really pained by Swift's treachery, and 
not knowing that he had contrived the whole 
affair himself. The only apology for a dis- 
gusting transaction is that Pope did not 
know at starting how many and what dis- 
graceful lies he would have to tell. 

Pope's reputation as moralist and poet was 
meanwhile growing. He had lost some of 
his best friends. Gay died 4 Dec. 1732 ; his 
mother on 7 July 1733 ; and Arbuthnot on 
27 Feb. 1734-5. Bolingbroke retired to 
France in the following winter. As a friend 
of Bolingbroke, Pope had naturally been 
drawn into intimacy with the opposition 
which was now gathering against Walpole. 
He received a visit from Frederick, prince of 
Wales, in October 1735 (Letter to Bathurst, 
8 Oct. 1735) ; Wyndham, Marchmont, and 
other leaders met and talked politics at his 
grotto; and Pope was on intimate terms 
with Lyttelton and other of the young 
patriots whom he compliments in his poems. 
His sentiments appear in the ' Epistle to 
Augustus,' the most brilliant of his imita- 
tions of Horace (first epistle of second book), 
which was published in March 1737. Others 
of the series which appeared in the same 
year are of more general application. The 
two dialogues, called ' 1738,' and afterwards 
known as * Epilogue to the Satires,' were 
mainly prompted by the attack upon the 
government as the source of corruption, and 
again show Pope at his best. They are in- 
comparably felicitous, and incisive and dex- 
terous in their management of language. 

Pope, always under the influence of some 
friend of stronger fibre than his own, was 
now to be conquered by William Warbur- 
ton. Warburton, turbulent and ambitious, 
had forced himself into notice by writings 
showing wide reading and a singular turn 
for paradoxes. He had ridiculed Pope in 
earlier years, but he now undertook to de- 
fend the ' Essay on Man ' against the criti- 
cisms of Jean Pierre de Crousaz, who had 
published his ' Examen de 1'Essay de M. 
Pope sur 1'homme' in 1737. Warburton's 
reply, which appeared as a series of letters 
in a periodical called 'The Works of the 
Learned/ excited Pope's eager gratitude. He 
wrote to Warburton in the warmest terms. 
* You/ he said, ' understand my work better 
than I do myself.' He met his commentator 
in the garden of Lord Radnor at Twicken- 
ham in April 1740. He astonished his pub- 

lisher Dodsley, who was present, by the 
compliments which he paid to his new ac- 
quaintance. Warburton succeeded to Boling- 
broke's authority. Pope confided to him his 
literary projects. They visited Oxford toge- 
ther in 1741 ; and the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. was offered by the vice-chancellor to 
Pope. An offer of a D.D. degree was made 
at the same time to Warburton ; but, as this 
was afterwards opposed by some of the clergy, 
Pope refused to be ' doctored' without his 
friend. Pope undertook, at Warburton's in- 
stigation, to complete the 'Dunciad' by a 
fourth book. It was published in March 
1742. A reference in it to Colley Gibber 
produced Pope's last literary quarrel. Pope 
and Arbuthnot were supposed to have had 
a share in the farce called 'Three Hours 
after Marriage/ of which Gay was the chief 
author. It was damned on its appearance in 
1717, and Gibber soon afterwards introduced 
an allusion to it in the ' Rehearsal.' Pope 
came behind the scenes and abused Gibber 
for his impertinence, to which Gibber replied 
that he should repeat the words as long as 
the play was acted. Pope had made several 
contemptuous references to him ; and upon 
the appearance of the new ' Dunciad ' Gibber 
took his revenge in ' A Letter from Gibber 
to Pope.' Gibber was a very lively writer, 
and treated Pope to some home truths with- 
out losing his temper. He added an un- 
savoury anecdote about a youthful scrape 
into which Pope had fallen. ' These things/ 
said Pope of one of Gibber's pamphlets, ' are 
my diversion ; ' and the younger Richardson, 
who heard him and told Johnson, observed 
that his features were l writhing with an- 
guish.' Pope in his irritation resolved to 
make Gibber the hero of the ' Dunciad ' in 
place of Theobald. Warburton, who had 
now undertaken to annotate Pope's whole 
works, was to be responsible for ttie notes 
written by Pope on the ' Dunciad/ and added 
' Ricardus Aristarchus on the Hero of the 
Poem.' The fourth book contains some of 
Pope's finest verses. The book in the final 
form appeared in October 1742. The meta- 
physical parts were probably inspired by 
Warburton. The attack upon Bentley ex- 
pressed probably antipathies of both the as- 
sailants. Bentley was sinking at the time 
of the first publication, and died on 14 July 
1742. As the old opponent of Atterbury 
and all Pope's friends, as well as for his 
criticism of Milton and his remarks upon 
Pope's ' Homer/ he was naturally regarded 
by Pope as the ideal pedant. He had spoken 
of Warburton as a man of monstrous appe- 
tite and bad digestion ; and neither of them 
could appreciate his scholarship, thoughWar- 




burton seems to have fully repented (see 
MONK, Life of Bentley, ii. 375, 378,404-11). 
Pope was staying with Allen at Prior 
Park in November 1741, and invited War- 
burton to join him there. Warburton ac- 
cepted, and to his marriage to Allen's niece 
in 1745 owed much of his fortune. Pope's 
health was declining, although he was still 
able to travel to his friends' country houses. 
Martha Blount was still intimate with him ; 
she seems to have spent some time with him 
daily, although living with her mother and 
sister, whom he had endeavoured to persuade 
her to leave. She frequently accompanied 
him to the houses of his friends, and is men- 
tioned in his letters as almost an inmate of 
his household. In the following summer 
Pope visited Bath, and afterwards went to 
Prior Park, where Miss Blount met him. 
For some unexplained reason a quarrel took 
place with the Aliens. Miss Blount (as 
appears from her correspondence with Pope) 
resented some behaviour of the Aliens to 
Pope, and begged him to leave the house. 
She was compelled to stay behind, and, as 
she says, was treated with great incivility 
both by the Aliens and Warburton. Pope 
expresses great indignation at the time. He 
must, however, as his letters imply, have 
been soon reconciled to Warburton. Allen 
called upon him for the last time in March 
1744, when Pope still showed some coldness. 
By this time Pope was sinking. He still 
occupied himself with a final revision of his 
works, and saw his friends. He was visited 
by Bolingbroke, who had returned to Eng- 
land in October 1743, and by Marchmont, 
and attended by Spence, who has recorded 
some of the last incidents. Pope's behaviour 
was affecting and simple. Warburton, a 
hostile witness, accuses Miss Blount of neg- 
lecting Pope in his last illness ; and John- 
son gives (without stating his authority) a 
confirmatory story. Spence, however, re- 
marked that whenever she entered, his spirits 
rose. At the suggestion of Hooke he sent 
for a priest on the day before his death, and 
received absolution. He died quietly on 
30 May 1744. He was buried on 5 June in 
Twickenham Church, by the side of his 
parents, and directed that the words ' et sibi ' 
should be added to the inscription which he 
placed upon their monument on the east wall. 
In 1761 Warburton erected a monument to 
Pope upon the north wall, with an inscrip- 
tion ' to one who would not be buried in 
Westminster Abbey,' and a petulant verse. 

By his will (dated 12 Dec-. 1743) Pope left 
to Martha Blount 1,000/., with his house- 
hold effects. She was also to have the in- 
come arising from his property for life, after 

which it was to go to the Kacketts. He left 
150/. to Allen, in repayment of sums ad- 
vanced ' partly for my own and partly for 
charitable uses/ Books and other memorials 
were left to Bolingbroke, Marchmont, Ba- 
thurst, Lyttelton, and other friends. An 
absolute power over his unpublished manu- 
scripts was left to Bolingbroke, and the copy- 
right of his published books to Warburton. 
Pope had contemplated two odes, upon the 
'Mischiefs of Arbitrary Power' and the 
' Folly of Ambition,' which were never exe- 
cuted, and had made a plan for a history of 
English poetry, afterwards contemplated by 
Gray (RUFFHE.U), pp. 423-5). 

Mrs. Rackett threatened to attack the 
will, but withdrew her opposition. Allen 
gave his legacy to the Bath Hospital, and 
observed that Pope was always a bad ac- 
countant, and had probably forgotten to add 
a cipher. He took Pope's old servant, John 
Searle, into his service. Disputes soon arose, 
which led to one of the worst imputations 
upon Pope's character. In 1732-3 Pope ap- 
pears to have written the lines upon the 
Duchess of Marlborough which, with later 
modifications, became the character of Atossa 
in the second ' Moral Essay.' The duchess 
was then specially detested by the opposition 
generally ; but Pope's prudence induced him 
temporarily to suppress this and some other 
lines. In later years, however, the duchess 
became vehemently opposed to Walpole. She 
was very anxious* to obtain favourable ac- 
counts of her own and her husband's career. 
She gave Hooke 5,000/. to compile the pam- 
phlet upon her ' Conduct.' Pope took some 
part in negotiating with Hooke, and the 
duchess, he says in his last letter to Swift 
(28 April 1739), was ' making great court to 
him.' A very polite correspondence took 
place (published in Pope's ' Works,' v. 406- 
422, from ' Historical Manuscripts Commis- 
sion,' 8th Rep.) From this it appears that 
after some protests he accepted a favour from 
her, and from later evidence this was in all 
probability a sum of 1,000/. Pope appears 
( Works, iii. 87) to have suppressed some 
lines which he had intended to add to a cha- 
racter of the Duke of Marlborough. Sup- 
pression, however, of polished verses was sore 
pain to him, and he resolved to use the 
' Atossa ' lines in a different way. He intro- 
duced changes which made them applicable 
to the Duchess of Buckinghamshire (daugh- 
ter of James II, and widow of John Shef- 
field, first duke). She had edited her hus- 
band's works, and bought an annuity from 
the guardians of the young duke. The 
duchess showed him a character of herself, 
and, upon his finding some faults in it, picked 




a quarrel with him for five or six years before 
her death (Works, x. 217). According to 
several independent reports, varying in de- 
tails (collected in Works, iii. 77, c.), Pope 
read the Atossa to the Duchess of Marl- 
borough, saying that it was meant for the 
Duchess of Buckinghamshire, and she is said 
to have seen through the pretence. Mean- 
while the character was inserted by Pope in 
the edition of the ' Moral Essays ' which was 
just printing off at the time of his death, and 
which he must therefore have expected to be 
seen by the Duchess of Marlborough. Upon 
his death she inquired of Bolingbroke 
whether Pope's manuscripts contained any- 
thing affecting her or her husband. He 
found the ' Atossa ' lines in the ' Moral 
Essays,' and communicated with March- 
mont, observing that there was ' no excuse 
for them after the favour you and I know/ 
A note in the ' Marchmont Papers ' (ii. 334) 
by Marchmont's executor states this to have 
been the 1,000/. The whole edition was 
suppressed, and Warburton, as proprietor of 
the published works, must have consented. 
The only copy preserved is now in the British 
Museum. Bolingbroke soon afterwards found 
that fifteen hundred copies of some of his own 
essays had been secretly printed by Pope. 
Though Pope's motive was no doubt admi- 
ration of his friend's work, Bolingbroke, who 
had been greatly affected at Pope's death, 
was furious either at the want of confidence 
or some alterations which had been made. 
He burnt the edition, but retained a copy, 
and had another edition published by Mallet, 
with a preface complaining of the" conduct 
of l the man ' who had been guilty of the 
' breach of trust.' He also printed a sheet 
in 1746 containing the * Atossa ' lines, with a 
note stating that the duchess had paid 1,000/. 
for their suppression. Warburton, having 
consented to the suppression of the edition, 
was disqualified for directly denying the ap- 
plication of the lines, although he tried else- 
where to insinuate that they were meant for 
the other duchess ( Works, v. 443, 446). The 
story was afterwards told by Warton (Mr. 
Courthope's discussion in Works, iii. 75-92, 
andv. 346-51 is exhaustive). The supposed 
bargain is disproved. What remains is a 
characteristic example of Pope's equivoca- 
tions. Had the epistles appeared in his life, 
he would no doubt have declared that they 
applied to the Duchess of Buckinghamshire. 
Pope, as described by Reynolds, who once 
saw him (PRIOR, Malone, p. 429), was four 
feet six inches in height, and much deformed. 
He had a very fine eye and a well-formed 
nose. His face was drawn, and the muscles 
strongly marked ; it showed traces of the 

headaches from which he constantly suffered. 
Johnson reports some details given by a ser- 
vant of Lord Oxford. He was so weak in 
middle life that he had to wear ' a bodice of 
stiff canvas ; ' he could not dress without 
help, and he wore three pairs of stockings to 
cover his thin legs. He was a troublesome 
inmate, often wanting coffee in the night, 
but liberal to the servants whose rest he dis- 
turbed. Johnson mentions that Pope called 
the servant up four times in one night in 
1 the dreadful winter of 1740 ' that he might 
write down thoughts which had struck him. 
His old servant, John Searle, lived with him 
many years, and received a legacy of 100/. 
under his will. He was abstemious in drink, 
and would set a single pint before two guests, 
and, having taken two small glasses, would 
retire, saying, l Gentlemen, I leave you to 
your wine.' He is said to /have injured him- 
self by a love of ' highly seasoned dishes ' and 
' potted lampreys ; ' but, in spite of a fragile 
constitution, he lived to the age of fifty-six. 
Pope's character is too marked in its 
main features to be misunderstood, though 
angry controversies have arisen upon the 
subject. Literary admirers have resolved 
to find in him a moral pattern, while dissen- 
tients have had no difficulty in discovering 
topics of reproach. There is, in fact, no 
more difficult subject for biography, especi- 
ally in a compressed form. His better quali- 
ties, as displayed in the domestic circle, give 
no materials for narrative, while it is neces- 
sary to give the details of the wretched series 
of complex quarrels, manoeuvres, and falsi- 
fications in which he was plunged from his 
youth. Pope's physical infirmities, his in- 
tense sensibility, and the circumstances of 
his life, produced a morbid development of 
all the weaknesses characteristic of the lite- 
rary temperament. Excluded by his creed 
from all public careers, educated among a 
class which was forced to meet persecution 
by intrigue, feeling the slightest touch like 
the stroke of a bludgeon, forced into an 
arena of personality where rough practical 
joking and coarse abuse were recognised 
modes of warfare, he had recourse to weapons 
of attack and defence which were altogether 
inexcusable. The truest statement seems 
to be that he was at bottom, as he represents 
himself in the epistle to Arbuthnot, a man 
of really fine nature, affectionate, generous, 
and independent ; unfortunately, the better 
nature was perverted by the morbid vanity 
and excessive irritability which led him into 
his multitudinous subterfuges. His passion 
for literary fame, and the keenness of his 
suffering under attacks, led to all his quarrels. 
The preceding narrative has shown sum- 




ciently how lie thus was led into his worst of- 
fences. Beginning with a simple desire to give 
literary polish to his essays, he was gradually 
led to calumniate Addison. He thought 
himself justified in making use of the common 
enemy, Curll, to obtain the publication of 
his letters, and was gradually led on to the 
gross treachery to Swift. When accused of 
unfair satire, he was afraid to defend him- 
self by the plain truth, and fell into unmanly 
equivocations. He was a politician, as John- 
son reports Lady Bolingbroke to have said, 
* about cabbages and turnips,' and could 
' hardly drink tea without a stratagem.' But 
even his malignity to Lady Mary and Lord 
Hervey probably appeared to him as a case 
of the ' strong antipathy of good to bad.' 

His really fine qualities, however, re- 
mained, and animated his best poetry. All 
judicious critics have noticed the singular 
beauty of his personal compliments. They 
were the natural expression of * really affec- 
tionate nature.' His tenderness to his parents, 
his real affection for such friends as Arbuth- 
not, Gay, and Swift, his almost extravagant 
admiration of Bolingbroke and Warburton, 
are characteristic. He always leaned upon 
some stronger nature, and craved for sym- 
pathy. His success gave him ahigh social posi- 
tion, and he appears to have maintained his 
independence in his intercourse with great 
men. He declined a pension of 300/. out of 
the secret-service money offered by his friend 
Craggs (SPENCE, pp. 307-8), and lived upon 
the proceeds of ' Homer.' He seems to have 
been careful in money matters, but was 
liberal in disposing of his income. He could 
be actively benevolent when he thought that 
an injustice was being done. He subscribed 
generously to the support of a Mrs. Cope 
who had been deserted by her husband, and 
several other instances are given to the same 
effect. He helped to start Dodsley as a pub- 
lisher, and contributed 201. a year to Savage, 
until Savage's conduct made help impossible. 
It must be admitted, however, that Savage's 
services to Pope in the war with the dunces 
were discreditable to both. This substratum of 
real kindness, and even a certain magnanimity, 
requires to be distinctly recognised, as show- 
ing that Pope's weaknesses imply, not ma- 
lignity, but the action of unfortunate con- 
ditions upon a sensitive nature. Probably 
the nearest parallel to the combination is to 
be found in his contemporary, Voltaire. His 
abnormal sensibility fitted Pope to give the 
most perfect expression of the spirit of his 
age. His anxiety to be on the side of en- 
lightenment is shown by his religious and 
intellectual position. Though brought up in 
a strictly Koman catholic circle, he adopted 

without hesitation the rationalism of Boling- 
broke, and supposed himself to be a disciple 
of Locke. Atterbury and Dr. Clarke, fellow 
of All Souls' (not Samuel Clarke, as has been 
erroneously said), tried to convert him. His 
letter to Atterbury ( Works, ix. 10-12) gives 
most clearly the opinions which he always 
expressed. A change of religion might be 
profitable, as it would qualify him for pen- 
sions ; but it would vex his mother, and do 
no good to anybody else. Meanwhile, he held 
that men of all sects might be saved (see also 
letter to Swift, 28 Nov. 1729, Works, vii. 
175). The 'Universal Prayer' shows the 
same sentiment. Pope, taking the advice 
attributed to Addison, professed to stand 
aside from political party. His connections 
naturally inclined him to the tory side, but 
he was not a Jacobite, and his sympathies 
were with the opposition to Walpole. He 
took for granted the sincerity of their zeal 
in denouncing the corruption of the period, 
and gave the keenest utterance to their 
commonplaces. His devotion to literature 
was unremitting, and his fortunate attain- 
ment of a competence enabled him to asso- 
ciate independently with the social leaders. 
If, as Johnson says, he boasts a little too 
much of their familiarity, and, as Johnson 
also remarked with more feeling, regarded 
poverty as a crime, he cannot be fairly ac- 
cused of servility. He held his own with 
great men, though he shared their prejudices. 
The wits and nobles who formed a little 
circle and caressed each other were, in their 
way, genuine believers in enlightenment. 
They had finally escaped from the prison of 
scholasticism ; they preferred wit and com- 
mon sense to the ' pedantry of courts and 
schools ; ' they suspected sentimentalism when 
not strictly within the conventional bounds ; 
they looked down with aristocratic contempt 
upon the Grub Street authors, for whom 
they had as little sympathy as cockfighters 
for their victims ; and took the tone towards 
women natural in clubs of bachelors. Satire 
and didactic poetry corresponded to the 
taste of such an epoch. Pope's writings accu- 
rately reflect these tendencies ; and his scho- 
larly sense of niceties of language led him 
to polish all his work with unwearied care. 
Almost every fragment of his verse has gone 
through a series of elaborate and generally 
successful remodellings. Whether Pope is 
to be called a poet a problem raised in fol- 
lowing generations is partly a question of 
words ; but no one can doubt that he had 
qualities which would have enabled him to 
ive an adequate embodiment in verse of the 
spirit of any generation into which he had 
Deen born, He might have rivalled Chaucer 




in one century, and Wordsworth in another. 
As it was, his poetry is the essence of the 
first half of the eighteenth century. The 
later history of Pope's fame is the history of 
the process by which the canons of taste 
ceased to correspond to the strongest intel- 
lectual and social impulses of a new period. 
What was spontaneous in him became con- 
ventional and artificial in his successors. 
War ton first proposed to place Pope in the 
second, instead of the first, class of poets. 
Cowper's 'Homer' was another indication 
of the change ; and, in the next century, the 
discussions in which Bowles, Roscoe, Camp- 
bell, and Byron took part, and the declara- 
tions of poetic faith by Wordsworth and Cole- 
ridge, corresponded to a revolution of taste, 
and showed, at any rate, how completely 
Pope's poetry represented the typical charac- 
teristics of the earlier school. 

Pope enlarged his villa, and he spent much 
time and money on improving his garden, 
with the help not only of the professional 
gardeners, Kent and Bridgeman, but of his 
friends, Lords Peterborough andBathurst. A 
plan, with a short description, published by 
his gardener, Searle, in 1745, is reproduced 
in Carruthers's ' Life ' (pp. 445-9). The best 
description is in Walpole's ' Letters ' (to Sir 
Horace Mann, 20 June 1760). His grotto was 
a tunnel, which still remains, under the Ted- 
dington road. He describes it in a letter to 
Edward Blount (2 June 1725). He orna- 
mented it by spars and marbles, many of them 
sent by William Borlase [q. v.] from Corn- 
wall. The garden included an obelisk to 
his mother, and the second weeping willow 
planted in England. The willow died in 
1801, and was made into relics. After his 
death the house was sold to SirWilliam Stan- 
hope, Lord Chesterfield's brother. In 1807 
it came into the possession of the Baroness 
Howe, daughter of the admiral. She de- 
stroyed the house and stubbed up the trees. 
Thomas Young, a later proprietor, built a new 
house, with a ' Chinese-Gothic tower,' which 
still stands near the site of the old villa 
(THOENE, Environs of London, pp. 634-7 ; 
COBBETT, Memorials of Twickenham (1873), 
pp. 263-91). In 1888 the bicentenary of 
Pope's birth was celebrated by an exhibition 
at Twickenham of many interesting portraits 
and relics. 

Pope was painted by Kneller in 1712, 1716, 
and 1721 ; by Jervas (an engraving from a 
portrait at Caen Wood, prefixed to vol. vi. 
of ' Works/ and a portrait exhibited by Mr. 
A. Morrison at Twickenham) ; by W.Hoare 
(exhibited by Messrs. Colnaghi at Twicken- 
ham) ; by Jonathan Richardson (engraving 
from portrait at Hagley, prefixed to vol. i. of 

' Works '), who also made various drawings 
(three made for Horace Walpole were exhi- 
bited by the queen at Twickenham, and fifteen 
drawings of Pope were included in a volume 
containing thirty-eight of Richardson's draw- 
ings) ; by Van Loo in 1742 ; and by Arthur 
Pond. Most of these have been engraved. 
The National Portrait Gallery has a por- 
trait by Jervas with a lady (perhaps Martha 
Blount), one by W. Hoare (crayons) of 1734, 
and one by Richardson, 1738. Mrs. Darell 
Blount also exhibited at Twickenham a por- 
trait by an unknown painter, and portraits 
of Pope and Teresa and Martha Blount by 
Jervas. A ' Sketch from Life,' by G. Vertue, 
was exhibited at Twickenham by Sir Charles 
Dilke. A bust by Roubiliac, ' the original 
clay converted into terra-cotta,' was exhi- 
bited at Twickenham by John Murray (1808- 
1892) [q. v.] the publisher, and an engraving 
is prefixed to vol. v. of the ( Works.' A 
marble bust by Rysbrach was presented to 
the Athenaeum Club in 1861 by Edward 
Lowth Badeley [q. v.] An engraving from a 
drawing of Pope's mother by Richardson is 
prefixed to vol. viii. of the ' Works.' 

Pope's works are: 1. 'January and May,' 
the ' Episode of Sarpedon ' from the ' Iliad,' 
and the ' Pastorals ' in Tonson's * Poetical 
Miscellanies,' pt. vi., 1709. 2. 'Essay on 
Criticism,' 1711 [anon.] ; 2nd edit, 'by Mr. 
Pope,' 1713. 3. ' The First Book of Statius's 
Thebais,' ' Vertumnus and Pomona from the 
Fourth Book of Ovid's " Metamorphoses," ' 
' To a Young Lady with the Works of Voi- 
ture,' 'To the Author of a Poem entitled 
" Successio," ' and the ' Rape of the Lock ' 
(first draft, without author s name), in Lin- 
tot's 'Miscellany,' 1712. 3. 'Sappho to 
Phaon ' and ' Fable of Dryope ' in Tonson's 
' Ovid,' 1712. 4. ' The Messiah ' in ' Spec- 
tator,' 30 Nov. 1712. 5. ' Windsor Forest,' 

1713. 6. ' Prologue to Cato,' with play, and 
in ' Guardian,' No. 33. Nos. 4, 11, 40, 61, 
78, 91, 92, 173 of the ' Guardian ' are also by 
Pope, 1713. 7. 'Narrative of Dr. Robert 
Norris concerning the deplorable frenzy of 
J[ohn] Denn . . .,' 1713. 8. ' Rape of "the 
Lock,' with additions, 2 March 1714. The 
first complete edition. 9. ' Wife of Bath,' 
from Chaucer, the ' Arrival of Ulysses at 
Ithaca,' and the ' Gardens of Alcinous,' from 
the thirteenth and seventh books of the 
' Odyssey,' in Steele's ' Poetical Miscellanies,' 

1714. lO. 'The Temple of Fame '(imitated 
from Chaucer), 1715. 11. 'A Key to the 
Lock : or a Treatise proving beyond all Con- 
tradiction the Dangerous Tendency of a late 
Poem intituled the " Rape of the' Lock," to 
Government Religion. By Esdras Barni- 
velt, Apoth./ 1715. 12. 'Iliad of Homer j 




translated by Mr. Pope/ first four books, 

1715. The next three volumes appeared in 

1716, 1717, and 1718, and the last two to- 
gether in 1720, each containing four books. 

13. ' A full and true Account of a horrid 
and barbarous Revenge by Poison on the 
Body of Mr. Edmund Curll, Bookseller, with 
a faithful copy of his last Will and Testa- 
ment. Publish'd by an eye-witness/ 1716. 

14. 'The Worms: a Satyr by Mr. Pope/ 
1716. 15. ' A Roman Catholic Version of 
the First Psalm, for the use of a young Lady. 
By Mr. Pope/ 1716. (This and the preced- 
ing, attributed to Pope by Curll and others, 
were not acknowledged nor disavowed by 
him ; see CARRTJTHERS,PP. 153-4, and Works, 
vi. 438). 16. 'Epistle to Jervas/ prefixed 
to an edition of Fresnoy's t Art of Painting/ 
1716. 17. Pope's works in 1717 included 
for the first time the ' Elegy to the Memory 
of an Unfortunate Lady/ and the ' Eloisa to 
Abelard/ which were published separately 
in 1720, with poems by other authors, as 
* Eloisa to Abelard, second edition.' The 
works also included the ' Ode on St. Cecilia's 
Day/ republished, with changes, as ' Ode for 
the Public Commencement at Cambridge on 
July 6, 1730/ with music by Maurice Green, 
1730. 18. ' To Mr. Addison : occasioned by 
his Dialogues on Medals/ in Tickell's edition 
of ' Addison's Works/ 1721. 19. 'Poems 
on Several Occasions ... by Dr. Thomas 
Parnell . . . published by Mr. Pope/ with 
'Epistle to the Earl of Oxford/ 1722. 20. 'The 
Dramatic Works of Shakspear . . . collated 
and corrected by the former editions/ 6 vols. 
4to, ed. Pope, 1725. 21. 'The Odyssey of 
Homer/ vols. i., ii., and iii. 1725, iv. and v. 
1726. 22. 'Miscellanea/ including ' Fami- 
liar Letters written to Henry Cromwell, Esq., 
by Mr. Pope/ was published by Curll in 
1720, dated ] 727. 23. ' Miscellanies/ with 
preface signed by Swift and Pope; vols. i. 
and ii. in 1727; vol. iii., called 'the last 
volume/ in March 1727-8 ; a fourth volume 
was added in 1732. 24. ' The Dunciad : an 
heroic poem, in three books, Dublin printed ; 
London reprinted for A. Dodd/ 1728, 12mo. 
Three more editions, with an owl on the 
frontispiece, were printed in London in 1728, 
and one with no frontispiece and with Pope's 
name at Dublin. ' The Dunciad Variorum, 
with the prolegomena of Scriblerus, London, 
printed for A. Dod, 1729,' 4to, was the first 
complete edition. It has a vignette of an 
ass and an owl. Four other octavo editions 
are dated London, 1729, with varying fron- 
tispieces of the owl and the ass. There is 
another edition without date (which cannot 
have appeared till 1733), and another dated 
1736, with the ass frontispiece. In 1736 

appeared also a different edition as vol. iv. 
of Pope's ' Works.' The ass and owl hate 
now disappeared. ' The New Dunciad : as 
it was found in the year MDCXLI, with the 
Illustrations of Scriblerus and Notes Vari- 
orum/ 4to (i.e. the fourth book of ' The Dun- 
ciad '), appeared in 1742 ; another edition, 
with the same title, in the same year. ' The 
Works of Alexander Pope/ vol. iii. pt. i., 
contains the first three books, and vol. iii. 
pt. ii. the fourth book. The ' Dunciad in 
Four Books, printed according to the com- 
plete copy found in the year 1742 ... to 
which are added several Notes now first 
published, the Hypercritics of Aristarchus, 
and his Dissertation on the Hero of the 
Poem/ 1743, is the poem in its final form 
with an ' advertisement ' signed W. W[ar- 
burton]. An edition, ' with several additions 
now first printed/ appeared in 1749. A full 
account of these editions was given by Mr. 
Thorns in ' Notes and Queries/ Nos. 268-70, 
and is reprinted by Mr. Courthope in 
' Works/ iv. 299-309. Mr. Courthope adds 
an account of four other editions printed at 
Dublin (1728, two in 1729, and one without 
a date). 25. Wycherley's ' Works/ vol. ii., 
with Pope's ' Letters/ 1729, has disappeared 
(see above). 27. ' Of Taste: an Epistle to 
the Rt. Honble. Richard, Earl of Burlington, 
occasioned by his publishing " Palladio's 
Designs," etc./ 1731 ; afterwards called ' Of 
False Taste/ and finally 'Of the Use of 
Riches ' (fourth moral essay). 27. ' Of the 
Use of Riches : an Epistle to the Rt. Honble. 
Allen, Lord Bathurst/ 1732 (third moral 
essay). 28. ' An Essay on Man addressed 
to a Friend/ 1733, fol., no date. Quarto and 
octavo editions were also printed. The second 
and third epistles appeared in 1733, and the 
fourth in January 1734, in the same forms. 
They were all anonymous. The ' Universal 
Prayer ' was added, and also published sepa- 
rately, in 1738. An edition, with an excel- 
lent commentary by Mark Pattison, was 
published at the Clarendon Press in 1866. 
The ' Satires and Epistles ' were edited by 
Pattison in the same year. 29. 'Of the 
Knowledge and Characters of Men : an 
Epistle addressed to the Rt. Honble. Lord 
Viscount Cobham/ 1733 (first moral essay). 
30. ' The First Satire of the Second Book of 
Horace, imitated in a Dialogue between 
Alexander Pope . . . and his learned coun- 
sel/ 1733. 31. 'The Second Satire of the 
Second Book of Horace/ 1734. 32. ' Epistle 
from Mr. Pope to Dr. Arbuthnot/ 1735. 
33. ' Sober Advice from Horace to the 
Young Gentlemen about Town : as delivered 
in his second sermon ; imitated in the man- 
ner of A. Pope' (n.d.), 1734; (included also 




in 1738 edition of ' Works/ but afterwards 
withdrawn). 34. 'On the Characters of 
Women : an Epistle to a Lady,' 1735 (second 
moral essay). 35. Second volume of Pope's 
* Works/ adding those published since 1717 
and including for the first time the ' Satires 
of Dr. Donne versified by the same hand," 
1735. 36. ' Letters of Mr. Pope and several 
Eminent Persons/ 2 vols. 8vo (always put 
up together). This is the original ' P. T. 
edition (see above), and occurs in several 
forms, due to Pope's manipulations of the 
printing, and his use of the Wycherley 
volume (see No. 25). It was also printed in 
12mo, with the ' Narrative of the Method by 
which Mr. Pope's Letters were procured. 
Cur 11 reprinted this as ' Mr. Pope's Literary 
Correspondence for Thirty Years/ 1735 ; there 
are two octavo editions and a 12mo edition. 
C urll published four more volumes called ' Mr. 
Pope's Literary Correspondence/ which really 
contained no letters of Pope's, but gave op- 
portunities for annoying him. See * Works/ 
vol. vi. pp. xlix-lviii for a full account. Two 
other editions are mentioned by Pope in his 
' Catalogue of Surreptitious Editions' in 1737. 
Cooper published another in June 1735, with 
Pope's connivance, which is not mentioned in 
the ' Catalogue.' The first avowed edition ap- 
peared on 18 May 1737 in folio and quarto, 
and afterwards octavo ; and the fifth and 
sixth volumes of the octavo edition of Pope's 
'Works/ containing the 'Correspondence/ 
was printed at the same time. 37. ' The 
First Epistle of the First Book of Horace, 
imitated by Mr. Pope/ the sixth epistle of 
the first book, the first epistle of the second 
book, the second epistle of the second book, 
and the ode to Venus, appeared separately 
in 1737. 38. 'The Sixth Satire of the Second 
Book of Horace, the first part ... by Dr. 
Swift. The latter part . . . now added [by 
Pope]/ 1738, fol. 39. ' One Thousand Seven 
Hundred and Thirty-Eight ; a dialogue some- 
thing like Horace/ and ' One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Thirty-Eight, Dialogue 
II,' 1738 ; afterwards called ' Epilogue to 
the Satires.' 40. ' Selecta Poemata Italorum 
qui Latine scripserunt, cura cujusdam ano- 
nymi anno 1684 congesta, iterum in lucem 
data, una cum aliorum Italorum operibus, 
accurante A. Pope/ 2 vols. 1740. 41. 'Works 
in Prose/ vol. ii., containing the Swift cor- 
respondence (with the 'Memoirs of Scri- 
blerus'), 1741. 

A ' Supplement ' to Pope's ' Works ' was 
published in 1757, and ' Additions ' in 1776. 
These include the ' Three Hours after Mar- 
riage/ attributed to Pope, Gay, and Arbuth- 
not, and the poems suppressed on account of 
indecency. A ' Supplemental Volume/ pub- 

lished in 1825, is chiefly composed of trifling 
letters from the Homer MSS. in the British 
j Museum. The first collective edition of 
Pope's ' Works/ ' with his last corrections, 
additions, and improvements, as they were 
delivered to the editor a little before his 
death ; together with the commentaries and 
notes of Mr. Warburton/ appeared in nine 
vols. 8vo, in 1751. It was several times re- 
printed, and in 1769 published in five vols. 
4to, with a life by Owen Ruff head. In 1794 
appeared the first volume (all published) of 
an edition by Gilbert Wakefield. The edi- 
tion (9 vols.8vo) by Joseph Warton appeared 
in 1797 (republished in 1822); that by 
William Lisle Bowles (10 vols. 8vo) in 
1806 ; that by William Roscoe, said to be 
'the worst' by Croker and Mr. El win ( Works, 
I. xxiv) (10 vols. 8vo), in 1824. The stand- 
ard edition is the edition, in 10 vols. 8vo, 
published by Mr. Murray (1871-89); the 
first four volumes contain the poetry, except 
the translation of the ' Iliad ' and ' Odyssey/ 
the fifth the life, and the last five the cor- 
respondence and prose works. The first two 
volumes of poetry and the first three of 
correspondence were edited by the Rev. 
Whitwell Elwin, the remainder by Mr. W. J. 
Courthope, who also wrote the life. 

A ' Concordance ' to the works of Pope by 
Edwin Abbott [q.v.], with an introduction by 
the Rev. E. A. Abbott, D.D., appeared in 1875. 
[Some catchpenny anonymous lives of Pope 
appeared directly upon his death. That by 
William Ayre (2 vols. 8vo, 1745) is also worth- 
less. The life by Owen Kuffhead, published in 
1769, with help from Warburton, is of very little 
value, except as incorporating a few scraps of 
Warburton's information. Johnson's Life (1781) 
is admirable, but requires to be modified by the 
later investigations. Johnson saw Spence's 
Anecdotes in manuscript. The Anecdotes, first 
published by Singer in 1820, give Pope's own 
account of vari/ous transactions, and are of great 
importance. John Warton's Essay on Pope, of 
which the first volume was published in 1752, 
and the second in 1782, gives various anecdotes, 
also contained in the notes to his edition of the 
Works. Some points were discussed in the con- 
troversy raised by Bowles's Life prefixed to his 
edition. An attack by Campbell in his Speci- 
mens of British Poets (1819) led to a contro- 
versy in which Hazlitt, Byron, and Bowles him- 
self took part. A very good life is that by 
Robert Carruthers [q.v.], prefixed to an edition 
of the Works in 1853 (again in 1858), and pub- 
ished separately in 1857. It contains an inte- 
resting account of the Mapleclurham MSS. and 
a statement of the earlier results of Di Ike's in- 
quiries. Pope's life, however, has been in great 
)art reconstructed by more recent researches. 
VTr. Croker had made large collections, which 
were after his death placed in the hands of Mr. 




El win. The researches of Mr. CharlesWentworth 
Dilke [q. v.] were first started by the discovery of 
the Caryll Papers in 1853. These papers have 
since been presented to the British Museum by the 
present Sir Charles W. Dilke, Mr. Dilke's grand- 
son. Mr. Dilke published his results in the Athe- 
naeum and Notes and Queries ; and they are re- 
printed in the first volume of his Papers of aCritic 
(1875). Mr. Dilke also gave great help to Mr. 
Elwin (see' Works,' vol. i. p. cxlvi) in collecting 
letters and explaining difficulties. The results of 
the labours of Croker, Dilke, Mr. Elwin, and Mr. 
Courthope are given in the notes, introductions, 
and essays in the edition above noticed. The 
papers formerly in Lord Oxford's library are 
now at Longleat. and were placed at Mr. Elwin's 
disposal by the Marquis of Bath. The corre- 
spondence of Lord Orrery with Pope, communi- 
cated to Mr. Elwin by the Earl of Cork, and 
first published in the eighth volume of the 
Works, also throws much light upon Pope's trans- 
actions. The British Museum has a collection of 
the original manuscripts of Pope's translations of 
Homer, presented by David Mallet [q. v.] Much 
of it is written upon the backs of letters, most 
of which have been printed in the ' Supplemental 
Volume ' of 1726, and in later editions of the cor- 
respondence.] L. S. 


1782), minister of the church of Scotland, 
was the son of Hector Paip of Loth, Suther- 
landshire. He was educated at the univer- 
sity and King's College, Aberdeen, where he 
graduated MA. 15 April 1725.. A contribu- 
tion was recommended to be made for him by 
the synod in 1720, to enable him to prosecute 
his studies with, the purpose of entering the 
ministry of the national church. On 28 July 
1730 he was elected session clerk and precen- 
tor of Dornoch, where probably he was also a 
schoolmaster. He is said to have in the sum- 
mer of 1732 ridden on his pony from Caithness 
to Twickenham to visit his namesake the 
poet Pope, who presented him with a copy 
of the subscribers' edition of his ' Odyssey/ 
in five volumes, and a handsome snuff-box. 
If the date of a letter of the poet's to him, 
28 April 1728 (POPE, Works, ed. Elwin and 
Courthope), be correct, the visit took place 
some time before 1728, but not improbably 
the date should be 1738. In it the poet refers 
to the ' accidental advantage which you say 
my name lias brought you,' which, would seem 
to indicate that there was no blood relation- 
ship between them. 

Pope was licensed as a preacher of the kirk 
of Scotland by the presbytery of Dornoch, 
19 Feb. 1734, and having been unanimously 
called to the church of Reay, Caithness-shire, 
was ordained there on 5 Sept. He was re- 
markably successful in reforming the habits 
of the semi-barbarous population of the parish, 

his great bodily strength being an impor- 
tant factor in enabling him to win their re- 
spect and deference. He is said to have 
enlisted some of the worst characters as 
elders, in order that they might be the better 
induced to curb their vicious tendencies; 
and he was accustomed to drive to church 
with a stick those of his parishioners whom 
he found playing at games on Sundays. 
He died on 2 March 1782. By his first wife, 
Mary Sutherland, he had three sons ; and 
by his second wife he had also three sons, the 
youngest of whom, James, became his as- 
sistant. He translated a large part of the 
1 Orcades ' of Torfseus, extracts from which 
are. published in Cordiner's ' Antiquities.' 
He also wrote- the account of Strathnaver 
and Sutherland in Pennant's < Tour,' and a 
description of the Dune of Donadilla in 
vol. v. of 'Archaeologia.' 

[New Statistical Account of Scotland; Hew 
Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. iii. 367; Pope's Works.] 

T. R H. 

POPE, ALEXANDER (1763-1835), 
actor and painter, was born in Cork in 1763. 
His father and his elder brother, Somerville 
Stevens Pope, were miniature-painters, and 
Alexander was trained as an artist under 
Francis Robert West in the Dublin Art 
Schools. He practised for a time at Cork, 
taking portraits in crayons at a guinea apiece ; 
but, after appearing at a fancy ball in the 
character of Norval, and subsequently taking 
part with much applause at private thea- 
tricals, he adopted the stage as a profession. 
He appeared at Cork as Oroonoko with a 
success which led to his engagement at 
Covent Garden, where he appeared in the 
same character on 8 Jan. 1785. On the 
19th he played Jaffier in ' Venice Preserved,' 
on 4 Feb. Castalio in the ' Orphan,' on the 
28th Phocyas in the ' Siege of Damascus,' 
on 7 March Edwin in l Matilda,' on 12 April 
Horatio in the ' Fair Penitent,' and on the 
23rd Othello for his benefit. He made an 
eminently favourable impression, and during 
fifteen consecutive years played the principal 
tragic parts at the same house. From 1801 
to 1803, in which year he returned to Covent 
Garden, he was at Drury Lane, where he 
reappeared in 181 2, remaining there until his 
retirement from the stage. He was in 1824 
at the Haymarket, and made occasional ap- 
pearances in the country, especially in Edin- 
burgh, where he was a favourite. During 
these years he was seen at one or other 
house in an entire round of parts, chiefly 
tragic. In Shakespeare alone he played An- 
tonio, Banquo, King Henry in ' Richard the 
Third/ Bassanio, lachimo, Leontes, Romeo, 




Hotspur, Wolsey, Richmond, Macduff, Lear, 
Hamlet, Ford, Posthumus, Tullus Aufidius, 
Ghost in ' Hamlet,' Henry VIII, Polixenes, 
Macbeth, Proteus, Antipholus of Syracuse, 
Antonio, lago, John of Gaunt, King 
Henry VI, Hubert, Friar Lawrence, Kent, 
Banished Duke in ' As you like it,' and 
King of France in ' King John.' A list of 
all the pieces in which he was seen would 
be a simple nomenclature of the plays then 
in fashion. The principal actors of the Gar- 
rick period had with one or two exceptions 
disappeared, and, except for the Kembles, 
Pope had at the outset little formidable 
rivalry to encounter. He married in Dublin, 
in August 1785, Elizabeth Younge [see POPE, 
ELIZABETH], a lady much his senior. 

The first original character assigned Pope 
at Covent Garden seems to have been St. 
Preux in Reynolds's unprinted tragedy of 
1 Eloisa,' 23 Dec. 1786 ; the second was lias- 
well in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Such Things are/ 
10 Feb. 1787. At this period Pope w r as 
assigned a wider range of parts than was 
afterwards allotted him, and played Be- 
verley in the 'Gamester,' Lord Morelove 
in the l Careless Husband,' Lord Hardy in 
the ' Funeral,' Lord Townly in the ' Pro- 
voked Husband,' Young Belmont in the 
' Foundling,' Young Bevil in the ' Conscious 
Lovers,' and Young Mirabel in the ' Incon- 
stant.' On the first production at Covent 
Garden of ' A King and no King,' on 
14 Jan. 1788, he played a part, presumably 
Arbaces. On 8 April he was the original 
Lord Ormond in ' Ton, or the Follies of 
Fashion,' by Lady Wallace, and on 8 May 
1789 Frederic Wayward in Cumberland's 
' School for Widows.' Pope's salary at the 
outset had risen from 8/. to 10/. a week, his 
wife's being twenty. At the end of 1789, 
on a question of terms, he left Covent Gar- 
den, to which he returned after an absence 
of three years. He played for the first time 
in Edinburgh on 15 June 1786, as Othello 
to the Desdemona of his wife. During 
Pope's absence Mrs. Pope remained at Covent 
Garden. Pope reappeared as Lord Townly 
on 21 Sept. 1792 ; on 1 Dec. he was the first 
Columbus in Morton's ' Columbus, or a 
World Discovered;' on 29 Jan. 1793 the 
original Irwin in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Every one 
has his Fault ; ' and on 18 April Warford 
in Reynolds's ' How to grow Rich.' For his 
benefit, on 2 May, he made the singular selec- 
tion of Falkland in the ' Rivals.' In 1793-4 
Pope confined himself principally to serious 
parts, making his first essay in ' Hamlet ' 
and * Lear,' and playing the original Sir 
Alexander Seaton in Jerningham's dull tra- 
gedy, the 'Siege of Berwick,' 13 Nov. 1793; 

Lamotte in Boaden's ' Fontainville Forest J 
on 25 March 1794, and St. Pol in Pye's 
'Siege of Meaux' on 19 May. In the 
' Mysteries of the Castle ' of Miles Peter 
Andrews, 31 Jan. 1795, he was Carlos ; 
in George Watson's 'England Preserved/ 
21 Feb., the Earl of Pembroke ; in Pearce's 
'Windsor Castle,' 6 April, the Prince of 
Wales ; and in Holcroft's ' Deserted Daugh- 
ter,' 2 May, Mordant. In the last-named 
piece Pope incurred some obloquy for break- 
ing through tradition, and playing a part 
with four days' study instead of the four 
weeks then customary at the house. In Lent 
Pope, with John Fawcett (1768-1837) [q.v.], 
Charles Incledon [q. v.], and Joseph George 
Holman [q. v.], gave readings, accompanied 
with music, at the Freemasons' Hall. In 
Cumberland's ' Days of Yore,' 13 Jan. 1796, 
he created the part of Voltimar, and ten 
days later gave that of Captain Faulkner in 
Morton's 'Way to get Married.' For his- 
benefit he played Sir Giles Overreach. On 
10 Jan. 1797 he was the first Charles in 
Morton's 'Cure for the Heart Ache,' and 
4 March Sir George Evelyn in Mrs. Inch- 
bald's ' Wives as they were and Maids as 
they are.' 

In March 1797 died Pope's first wife, Eliza- 
beth, and on 24 Jan. 1798 he married his 
second wife, Maria Ann [q. v.], at St. George's, 
Hanover Square. In the meantime, continu- 
ing at Covent Garden, he was, on 1 1 Jan. 1798, 
the first Greville in Morton's ' Secrets worth 
Knowing ; ' in ' He's much to blame,' variously 
assigned to Fenwick and Holcroft, he was, 
13 Feb., Delaval. He acted Joseph Surface, 
and on 30 May 1798 was cast for Hortensio 
in ' Disinterested Love,' altered by Hull from 
Massinger's ' Bashful Lover.' Owing to Pope's 
illness, his part was read by Henry Erskine 
Johnston [q. v.] On 11 Oct. 1798 Pope was 
the first Frederick in 'Lovers' Vows,' adapted 
by Mrs. Inchbald ; on 12 Jan. 1799 Leonard in 
Hoi man's ' Votary of Wealth,' on 16 March 
Frederick in T. Dibdin's ' Five Thousand a 
Year,' and, 12 April, for his benefit, Henry 
in the ' Count of Burgundy,' translated from 
Kotzebue by Miss Plumptre, and adapted for 
the English stage by Pope himself. In Cum- 
berland's adaptation from Kotzebue, ' A Ro- 
mance of the Fourteenth Century,' 16 Jan. 
1800, Pope was Albert, and in Morton's- 
' Speed the Plough,' 8 Feb., Sir Philip Bland- 
ford. During this season Pope was one of 
the eight actors who published the statement 
of their case against the management [see- 
HOLMAN, JOSEPH GEOKGE]. Pope continued 
at Covent Garden during the following season, 
in which he played for the first time Has- 
tings in ' Jane Shore,' and one or two other 




parts, but was little seen ; and the following 
season transferred his services to Drury 
Lane, appearing on 25 Jan. 1802 as Othello. 
He was, 2 March, the first Major Man- 
ford in Cumberland's ' Lovers' Resolutions.' 
In Dimond's ' Hero of the North,' 19 Feb. 
1803, he was the original Gustavus Vasa, 
and in Allingham's ' Marriage Promise ' 
George Howard. He also played the Stran- 
ger for the first time. In Allingham's 
' Hearts of Oak,' 19 Nov. 1803, he was the first 
Borland ; in Cherry's ' Soldier's Daughter,' 
7 Feb. 1804, Malfort, jun. ; in Cumberland's 
' Sailor's Daughter,' 7 April, Captain Senta- 
mour. On 18 June 1803 the second Mrs. Pope 
had died ; in 1804 his son, a midshipman, also 
died. At the close of the season Pope was 
dismissed by the Drury Lane management, 
which had secured Master Betty [see BETTY, 
WILLIAM HENRY WEST]. He had played 
very little of late, and expressed his inten- 
tion of retiring and devoting himself to 
painting. On 3 Feb. 1806, however, he re- 
appeared at Co vent Garden as Othello; in 
Cumberland's ' Hint to Husbands,' 8 March 
1806, he was the original Heartright ; and 
in Manners's * Edgar, or Caledonian Feuds,' 
9 May, the Barno of Glendore. In Cherry's 
' Peter the Great,' 8 May 1807, he was Count 

Pope married, on 25 June 1807, his third 
wife, the widow of Francis Wheatley, R.A. 
[q. v.] [see POPE, CLARA MARIA]. After 
visiting Ireland, being robbed in Cork, and 
narrowly escaping shipwreck, he was, at 
Covent Garden, the original Count Valde- 
stein in C. Kemble's 'Wanderer,' 12 Jan. 
1808. After the burning of Covent Garden 
he played, at the Haymarket Opera House, 
the original Count Ulric in Reynolds's 
' Exile/ 1 Nov. 1808. At the smaller house 
in the Haymarket, to which the company 
migrated, he played Pierre in * Venice Pre- 
served.' Dismissed from Covent Garden, he 
was for three years unheard of in London, 
but played at times in Edinburgh. He re- 
turned to the new house at Drury Lane, 
28 Nov. 1812, as Lord Townly; and was, 
23 Jan. 1813, the original Marquis Valdez 
in Coleridge's l Remorse.' On 11 April 1811 
he had had, at the Opera House, a benefit, 
which produced him over 700/., Mrs. Siddons 
playing for the first time Margaret of Anjou 
in the ' Earl of Warwick.' On 6 Jan. 1814 
he was Colonel Samoyloii in Brown's ( Na- 
rensky.' In Henry Siddons's * Policy ' he was, 
15 Oct., Sir Harry Dorville ; in Mrs. Wil- 
mot's ' Ina/ 22 April 1815, he was Cenulph, 
Kean being Egbert ; and in T. Dibdin's 
' Charles the Bold,' 15 June, he was the 
Governor of Nantz; on 12 Sept. he was 


Evrard (an old man) in T. Dibdin's ' Mag- 
pie,' and on 9 May 1816 St. Aldobrand in 
Maturin's * Bertram.' In 'Richard, Duke 
of York,' compiled from the three parts of 
'King Henry VI,' he was, 22 Dec. 1817, 
Cardinal Beaufort. In the ' Bride of Aby- 
dos,' taken by Dimond from Byron, he 
played, 5 Feb. 1818, Mirza ; and in an altera- 
tion of Marlowe's ' Jew of Malta,' 24 April, 
was Farneze. The following season his 
name does not appear. On 11 Oct. 1819, 
as Strictland in the ' Suspicious Husband,' 
he made what was called his ' first appear- 
ance for two years.' He was Prior Aymer, 
2 March 1820, in Soanes's ' Hebrew/ a ver- 
sion of ' Ivanhoe.' During the season he 
played Minutius to Kean's Virginius in an 
unprinted drama entitled ' Virginius.' His 
popularity and his powers had diminished ; 
and he was now assigned subordinate parts, 
such as Zapazaw, an Indian, in ' Pocahontas/ 
15 Dec. 1820. On 18 Nov. 1823 he was Drusus 
to Macready's Caius Gracchus in Sheridan 
Knowles's ' Caius Gracchus/ and on 5 Jan. 
1824 Lord Burleigh in ' Kenilworth.' At the 
Haymarket, 16 July, he was the first Bicker- 
ton in Poole's adaptation,' Married or Single/ 
on 24 Aug. 1825 Ralph Appleton in Lunn's 
1 Roses and Thorns/ and 13 Sept. Witherton 
in 'Paul Pry.' At Drury Lane, 28 Jan. 
1826, he was the first Toscar in Macfarren's 
' Malvina.' On 21 May 1827 he was the 
original Clotaire in Grattan's ' Ben Nazir 
the Saracen.' This is the last time his name 
is traced. He was not engaged after the 
season. In 1828 he applied for a pension 
from the Covent Garden Fund, to which he 
had contributed forty-four years. He ob- 
tained a grant of 80/. a year, afterwards 
raised to 100/. On Thursday, 22 March 1835, 
he died at his house in Store Street, Bed- 
ford Square. He was during very many 
years a mainstay of one or other of the 
patent theatres, and was in his best days 
credited with more pathos than any Eng- 
lish actor of his time. His Othello and 
Henry VIII were held in his day unrivalled. 
His person Avas strong and well formed, and 
he had much harmony of feature, but was, 
in spite of his pathos, deficient in expres- 
sion. Leigh Hunt says that he had not one 
requisite of an actor except a good voice. 
He possessed a mellow voice and a grace- 
ful and easy deportment. Towards the close 
of his career he had sensibly declined in 

Throughout his life Pope practised minia- 
ture painting, and between 1787 and 1821 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy fifty-nine 
miniatures. A portrait by him of Michael 
Bryan [q. v.], the author of th? ' Dictionary 




of Painters and Engravers/ was engraved as 
a frontispiece to the original quarto edition 
of that work, and many other portraits Iry 
him have been engraved, including those o: 
Henry Grattan, John Boydell, Henry Tres- 
ham, Lewis the actor, and Mrs. Crouch. He 
engraved a mezzotint plate from a picture by 
himself, entitled ' Look before you leap/ 

Pope was a confirmed gourmand, and spent 
in good living, and, it is said, in bribing his 
critics, the handsome property he obtained 
with his wives. So early as 1811 he had 
fallen into straits, from which, in spite of 
the assistance of his brother actors notably 
Edmund Kean he never recovered. Kean, 
asking Pope to join him in Dublin, and 
promising him a great benefit, received the 
answer, ' I must be at Plymouth at the time ; 
it is exactly the season for mullet.' He offended 
people of distinction and influence by his pre- 
tensions, refusing to sit with Catalani because 
she cut a fricandeau with a knife ; and order- 
ing expensive luxuries, for which he did not 
pay, to be sent in to houses to which he was 
bidden. Many of these stories are probably 
coloured, if not apocryphal ; but there is 
abundant proof of his gluttonish propensities. 
Portraits of Pope by Sharpe as Henry VIII, 
by Dupont as Hamlet, and by Stewart, are 
in the Mathews collection of pictures in the 
Garrick Club. Another, engraved by Clamp, 
after Kichardson, is given in Harding's 
' Shakespeare/ 1793. 

[Manager's Notebook ; Genest's Account of 
the English Stage; Biographia Dramatica; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; Clark Eussell's 
Representative Actors; Dramatic Essays by 
Leigh Hunt, ed. Archer and Lowe ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Pasquin's Artists of Ireland, 

L30; Gent, Mag. 1835, i. 666; Registers of 
rriages, St. George's, Hanover Square, ii. 
176, 369; and information kindly supplied by 
F. M. O'Donoghue, esq.] J. K. 

POPE, CLARA MARIA (d. 1838), 

painter, and third wife of the actor, Alexan- 
der Pope [q. v.], was a daughter of Jared 
Leigh [q. v.], an amateur artist, and married 
at an early age Francis Wheatley [q. v.], the 
painter, whom she served as model for all 
his prettiest fancy figures. In 1801 she was 
left a widow with a family of daughters ; and 
on 25 June 1807 married, as his third wife, 
Alexander Pope [q.v.], the actor and artist. 
In 1796, while Mrs. Wheatley, she com- 
menced exhibiting at the Royal Academy, 
her first contributions being miniatures; 
later she sent rustic subjects with figures of 
children, such as * Little Red Riding-hood/ 
' Goody Two-shoes/ and ' Children going to 
Market.' In 1812 Mrs. Pope exhibited a 
whole-length drawing of Madame Catalani, 

of which she published an excellent en- 
graving by A. Cardon. During the latter 
part of her life she enjoyed a great reputation 
for her groups of flowers, of which she was 
an annual exhibitor from 1816 until her 
death. She died at her residence, 29 Store 
Street, London, on 24 Dec. 1838. Two por- 
traits of Mrs. Pope, painted by her first 
husband, were engraved by Stanier and 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1880; Dramatic Mag. January 
1830 ; Royal Academy Catalogues ; Gent. Mag. 
1839, pt. i. p. 217.] ' F. M. O'D. 

POPE, MRS. ELIZABETH (1744P-1797), 
actress, and first wife of Alexander Pope 
[q. v.] the actor, was born about 1744 near 
Old Gravel Lane, Southwark. Her parents 
are said to have been named Younge. In 
girlhood she was apprenticed to a milliner. 
Furnished with a letter of introduction, 
she went to Garrick, who, pleased with her 
abilities, put her forward. As ' Miss Younge 
she made accordingly, at Drury Lane on 
22 Oct. 1768, her first appearance upon any 
stage, in the part of Imogen. She won im- 
mediate recognition, and, the death of Mrs. 
Hannah Pritchard [q.v.] furnishing an open- 
ing for her, was assigned many leading cha- 
racters. In her first season she played Jane 
Shore and Perdita, and was, on 17 Dec., the 
original Ovisa, the heroine of Dow's tragedy 
of ' Zingis.' The following season Garrick 
kept her closely occupied, exhibiting her as 
Juliet, Margaret (presumably) in ' A New 
Way to Pay Old Debts/ Almeria in the 
' Mourning Bride/ Selima in ' Tamerlane/ 
Maria 1 in the 'London Merchant/ Lady 
Anne in ' Richard HI/ Alcmena in ' Am- 
phitryon/ Angelica in ' Love for Love/ Lady 
Dainty in the ' Double Gallant/ Lady Easy 
in the ' Careless Husband/ Mrs. Clerimont 
in the ' Tender Husband/ Leonora in the 
Double Falsehood/ Lady Chariot in the 
Funeral/ Calista in the 'Fair Penitent/ 
Miranda in the ' Tempest/ Mrs. Kiteley in 
' Every Man in his Humour/ and Lady 
Fanciful in the ' Provoked Wife.' She was 
also, on 3 March 1770, the original Miss 
Dormer in Kelly's ' Word to the Wise.' 
Slot a few of these parts were in high comedy. 
She also recited ' Bucks, have at you all/ 
altered for her by the author. In the sum- 
mer of 1769 she played under Love at Rich- 
mond. On a question of terms, Garrick 
>arted with her. Engaged by Dawson for 
;he Crow Street Theatre, then rechristened 
he Capel Street Theatre, she went to Dublin, 
where she made her appearance as Jane 
Shore early in 1771. She played with con- 



spicuous success many characters in tragedy 
and comedy, added to her repertory Char- 
lotte Rusport in the ' West Indian ' and 
Fatima in ' Cymon,' and was the original 
Lady Rodolpha in Macklin's ' True-born 
Scotchman/ subsequently converted into the 

I Man of the World.' Returning to Garrick, 
one of whose chief supports and torments 
she was destined to become, she reappeared 
at Drury Lane as Imogen on 26 Sept. 1771. 
Here, with occasional trips to the country, 
she remained eight years, playing an almost 
exhaustive round of parts. She did not leave 
Drury Lane until after Garrick's retirement. 
In a list of her characters appear Monimia in 
the ' Orphan,' Zara in the * Mourning Bride,' 
Aspasia, Rosalind, Desdemona, Cleopatra in 
' All for Love,' Merope, Lady Macbeth, Cor- 
delia, Portia, Fidelia in the ' Plain Dealer,' 
Roxana, Lady Brute, Lady Plyant, Mrs. Sul- 
len, Bellario in ' Philaster,' Hermione in the 
* Distressed Mother,' Mrs. Oakley, Lydia Lan- 
guish, and innumerable others. Her original 
characters during this period include Lady 
Margaret Sinclair in O'Brien's comedy ' The 
Duel,' 8 Dec. 1772 ; Emily (the Maid of Kent) 
in Waldron's ' Maid of Kent,' 17 May 1773 ; 
Mrs. Belville in Kelly's ' School for Wives,' 

II Dec. 1773; Matilda in Dr. Franklin's 
' Matilda,' 21 Jan. 1775 ; Bella in Mrs. Cow- 
ley's ' Runaway,' 15 Feb. 1776 ; Margaret in 
Jerningham's ' Margaret of Anjou,' 11 March 
1777 ; Matilda in Cumberland's ' Battle of 
Hastings,' 24 Jan. 1778; Miss Boncour in 
Fielding's ' Fathers, or the Good-natured 
Man,' 30 Nov. 1778 ; the Princess in Jeph- 
son's 'Law of Lombardy,' 8 Feb. 1779. 
On 16 Oct. 1778 she played at Covent Gar- 
den, as Miss Younge from Drury Lane, 
Queen Katharine in ' King Henry VIII,' 
and on 6 May 1779, at the same house, was 
the original Emmelina in Hannah More's 
' Fatal Falsehood.' At Covent Garden she 
remained during the rest of her stage career. 

The entire range of tragedy and comedy 
remained open to her, and very numerous 
were the leading parts she sustained. In 
an alteration of Massinger's ( Duke of Milan,' 
attributed to Cumberland, she was, on 10 Nov. 
1779, the first Marcelia, and on 22 Feb. 1780 
the original Lsetitia Hardy in Mrs. Cowley's 
( Belle's Stratagem,' to the conspicuous suc- 
cess of which she largely contributed. When 
the censor at last permitted the representation 
of Macklin's ' Man of the World,' she was, on 
14 April 1781, Lady Rudolpha Lumbercourt. 
Clara in Holcroft's ' Duplicity,' the Countess 
in Jephson's ' Countess of Narbonne/ Lady 
Bell Bloomer in Mrs. Cowley's ' Which is 
the Man? ' were the original parts of 1781-2 ; 
Euphemia (presumably) in Bentley's ' Philo- 

damus' and Lady Davenant in Cumberland's 
( Mysterious Husband,' those of the follow- 
ing season; and Sophia in the ' Magic Pic- 
ture,' altered from Massinger by the Rev. H. 
Bates, and Miss Archer in Mrs. Cowley's 
'More Ways than One,' those of 1783-4. 
On 14 Dec. 1784 she was the first Susan in 
' Follies of a Day,' Holcroft's translation of 
' Le Mariage de Figaro ' of Beaumarchais. A 
long succession of original characters of little 
interest follows. On 5 May 1786, as Mrs. Pope, 
late Miss Younge, she played for her hus- 
band's benefit Zenobia. Her marriage with a 
man so much her junior as Alexander Pope 
[q.v.] caused much comment, and did not 
contribute to her happiness (cf. Theatrical 
Manager's Notebook). Zenobia was a solitary 
appearance during the season in which, pre- 
sumably on account of her marriage, she 
was not engaged. On 25 Sept. 1786 she re- 
appeared as Mrs. Beverley in the ' Gamester,' 
and on 25 Oct. played for the first time Lady 
Fanciful in the 'Provoked Wife/ and on 
15 Nov. Angelica (with a song) in ' Love 
for Love.' She was, on 18 Nov., the original 
Charlotte in Pilon's ' He would be a Sol- 
dier.' On 10 Feb. 1787 she was the first 
Female Prisoner in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Such 
Things are.' On 21 May she played Her- 
mione to her husband's Leontes. The fol- 
lowing season she was principally seen in 
tragedy, adding to her repertory Lady Ran- 
dolph in ' Douglas ' and the Lady in ' Co- 
mus.' On 3 Dec. 1791 she was the original 
Alexina in Mrs. Cowley's 'A Day in Turkey/ 
In the season she played for the first time 
Medea. In the following season she was the 
original Cora in Morton's ' Columbus/ Lady 
Eleanor Irwin in Mrs. Inchbald's 'Everyone 
has his Fault/ and Lady Henrietta in Rey- 
nolds's'How to grow Rich/ and on 13 Nov. 
1793 was the first Ethelbertain Jerningham's 
tragedy, ' The Siege of Berwick.' It had long 
been the custom to assign her the parts of 
ladies of title or fashion. She was accordingly 
assigned Lady Fancourt in Holcroft's ' Love's 
Frailties/ Lady Horatia Horton (a sculptor) 
in Mrs. Cowley's ' Town before You/ Lady 
Torrendel in O'Keeffe's ' Life's Vagaries/ and 
Lady Ann in Holcroft's ' Deserted Daughter.' 
She also played Adeline in Boaden's ' Fon- 
tainville Forest/ 25 March 1794 ; Matilda in 
Pye's ' Siege of Meaux/ 19 May 1794; Mrs. 
Darnley in Reynolds's ' Rage/ 23 Oct. 1794 ; 
Adela in Cumberland's 'Days of Yore/ 
18 Jan. 1796; and Ellen Vortex in Morton's 
'Cure for the Heartache/ 10 Jan. 1797. 
This was her last original part. Her name 
appeared to this character on 26 Jan., being 
her last appearance in the bills. On the 31st 
Ellen Vortex was played by Miss Mansel. 

K 2 




Mrs. Pope died on 15 March following 1 , in Half 
Moon Street, Piccadilly, and was buried on 
the west side of the cloisters of "Westmin- 
ster Abbey, near Spranger Barry [q. v.] and 
'Kitty' Olive. She had twenty guineas a 
week from Covent Garden, and left behind 
her to her husband twenty-two years her 
junior over 7,000/. and her house in Half 
'Moon Street. 

Mrs. Pope was not only one of the bril- 
liant stars in the constellation of which 
Garrick was the centre she was one of the 
foremost of English actresses. She had to 
encounter the formidable competition of 
Mrs. Siddons [q.v.] in tragedy, and Miss 
Farren in comedy. Her Lady Macbeth, 
Euphrasia, Calista, and Jane Shore were in- 
ferior to those of Mrs. Siddons, who sur- 
passed her in power, energy, conception, 
majesty, and expressiveness, and in all tragic 
and most pathetic gifts ; and her Estifania, 
Mrs. Sullen, and Clorinda were inferior to 
those of Miss Farren. Her range was, how- 
ever, wider than that of either. She was 
invariably excellent in a remarkable variety 
of characters, and] was held on account of 
these things not only the most useful but 
the principal all-round actress of her day. 
In comedy she was different from, but not 
in the main inferior to, Miss Farren. In 
tragedy she was at times declamatory, though 
her delivery was always audible and gene- 
rally judicious. In addition to ease, spirit, 
and vivacity, she displayed in comic charac- 
ters close observation of nature ; her delivery 
imparted life to indifferent dialogue, and de- 
prived the dialogue of the Restoration dra- 
matists of much of its obscenity. Her Portia 
was greatly praised, and in the portrayal of 
distressed wives and mothers, as Lady Anne 
Mordant, Mrs. Euston, Lady Eleanor Irwin, 
&c., she distanced all competitors. Laetitia 
Hardy was perhaps her most bewitching per- 

George III is said to have detected in the 
actress a close resemblance to the goddess of 
his early idolatry, Lady Sarah Lennox [see 
under LENNOX, CHARLES, second DUKE OF 
RICHMOND]. Her features were soft, her eyes 
blue, and her complexion delicate. She was 
commanding in stature, but pliant. Her 
voice was powerful. She was never accused 
of imitation, and of all Garrick's pupils is 
said to have most nearly approached her 
master. Her private life was irreproach- 
able, and her manners pleasing. Garrick 
treated her with respect, but without much 
affection. Playing Lear to her Cordelia on 
8 June 1776, his last appearance but one on 
the stage, Garrick said with a sigh, after the 
performance, * Ah, Bess ! this is the last time 

of my being your father ; you must now look 
out for some one else to adopt you.' ' Then, 
sir,' she said, falling on her knees, ' give me 
a father's blessing.' Greatly moved, Garrick 
raised her up and said, ' God bless you ! ' 

A portrait by Dupont, as Monimia in 
the ' Orphan/ is in the Garrick Club. A 
print of her, by Robert Laurie, as Miss 
Young [sic], was published on 1 March 1780. 
A portrait as Viola with Dodd as Sir Andrew,. 
Love (Dance) as Sir Toby, and Waldron as 
Fabian, was painted by Francis Wheatley, 
and engraved by J. R. Smith. Others are 
mentioned by Bromley. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; 
Monthly Mirror, vol. iii. ; Theatrical Manager's 
Notebook ; Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; Thespian Dic- 
tionary; Wheatley and Cunningham's London 
Past and Present ; Jesse's London ; Knight's 
Garrick; the Garrick Correspondence ; Chester's 
Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 458; Smith's 
Mezzotinto Portraits ; Dibdin's Hist, of the Stage ; 
Doran's Annals (ed. Lowe).] J. K. 

POPE, Miss JANE (1742-1818), actress, 
born in 1742, was the daughter of William 
Pope, who kept a hairdresser's shop in Little 
Russell Street, Covent Garden, adjoining the 
Ben Jonson's Head, and was barber in ordi- 
nary and wig-maker to the actors at Drury 
Lane. Garrick on 3 Dec. 1756 brought out 
at Drury Lane his one-act entertainment 
* Lilliput,' acted, as regarded all characters 
except Gulliver, by children. In this Miss- 
Pope, then fourteen years of age, played 
Lalcon, Gulliver's housekeeper. Vanbrugh's- 
' Confederacy ' was acted at the same house 
27 Oct. 1759, when as Corinna Miss Pope, as- 
'a young gentlewoman,' made her first defi- 
nite appearance. On 31 Dec. she was the 
original Dolly Snip in Garrick's ' Harlequin's; 
Invasion.' She played admirably a part in 
which she was succeeded sixty years later 
by Madame Vestris (Mrs. Lucia Elizabeth 
Mathews [q. v.]) She took during the season 
Miss Biddy in ' Miss in her Teens,' Miss Prue 
in 'Love for Love,' Miss Notable in the 
' Lady's Last Stake,' and Miss Jenny in the 
' Provoked Husband.' Cherry in the ' Beaux r 
Stratagem ' was allotted her next season, 
and she gained great applause as the original 
Polly Honeycombe in Colman's piece so- 
named. Besides playing in 1 761-2 Phsedra 
in l Amphitryon,' Sophy (an original part) 
in Colman's l Musical Lady,' and Charlotte 
in the ' Apprentice,' she appeared, for her 
benefit, as Beatrice to the Benedick of 
Garrick in ' Much Ado about Nothing.' A 
full list of the very numerous characters in 
which she was seen is given by Genest. 
These are all comic, and were all given at 




Drury Lane, to the management of which 
Tiouse during her long stage life she re- 
mained faithful. A selection from these 
characters will suffice. Lucetta in the ' Two 
Gentlemen of Verona/ Widow Belmour in 
the ' Way to keep him/ Elvira in the 
' Spanish Fryar/ Violante in the ' Wonder/ 
Phillis in the ' Conscious Lovers/ Olivia in 
the ' Plain Dealer/ Mrs. Oakly in the ' Jealous 
Wife/ Patch in the 'Busy body/ Lady Brump- 
ton in the ' Funeral/ Lucy in the ' Guar- 
dian/ Margery in ' Love in a Village/ Catha- 
rine in ' Catharine and Petruchio/ Laetitia 
in the ' Old Bachelor/ Mrs. Page, Mrs. 
JFrail in ' Love for Love/ Lucy Locket in 
the ' Beggars' Opera/ and Abigail in the 
'Drummer/ are a few only of the parts 
in which, under Garrick's management or 
supervision, she kept up the traditions of 
the stage. Principal among her original 
parts were Lady Flutter in Mrs. Sheridan's 
* Discovery/ 3 Feb. 1763; Emily in Column's 
1 Deuce is in Him/ 4 Nov. 1763 ; Miss Ster- 
ling in the 'Clandestine Marriage' of Col- 
man and Garrick/ 20 Feb. 1766; Lucy in 
the ' Country Girl/ altered by Garrick from 
the ' Country Wife/ 25 Oct. 1766 ; Molly in 
Colman's ' English Merchant/ 21 Feb. 1767. 
In the ' Jubilee ' of Garrick, 14 Oct. 1769, 
she danced in the pageant as Beatrice (she 
was an excellent dancer) : Patty in Wal- 
dron's 'Maid of Kent/ 17 May 1773; Dorcas 
JZeal, the heroine in a revived version of 
the 'Fair Quaker/ 9 Nov. 1773; Lucy in 
Oumberland's ' Choleric Man/ 19 Dec. 1774 ; 
and Lady Minikin in Garrick's ' Bon Ton/ 
18 March 1775. 

In the season of 1775-6 she was, for pecu- 
niary reasons, not engaged, this being the 
only season in which, between her first regular 
engagement and her retirement, she was 
absent from the boards. She went to Ire- 
land, made persistent advances to Garrick, 
and, at the intercession of Kitty Clive, was 
reinstated. She reappeared, 3 Oct. 1776, as 
Miss Sterling in the 'Fair Penitent/ and, 
after playing Mrs. Frail in ' Love for Love ' 
and Muslin in the ' Way to keep him/ was, 
8 May 1777, Mrs. Candour in the immortal 
first performance of the ' School for Scandal.' 
She had by this time grown stout, and was 
accordingly the subject of some banter. Her 
success was, however, unquestioned, and for 
some years subsequently the name of Mrs. 
Candour clung to her. She lived, it may here 
be recorded, to play the part for her benefit, 
22 May 1805, when she was the only one 
of the original cast still left on the stage. 
Many important parts were now assigned her: 
Ruth in the ' Committee/ Lady Fanciful in 
the ' Provoked Wife/ and Lady Lurewell in 

the ' Constant Couple/ and, on 29 Oct. 1779, 
she created a second of Sheridan's popular 
characters, being the original Tilburina in the 
' Critic.' If the original parts subsequently 
assigned her were of little interest, the 
fault was not hers. The best among them, 
if there is any best in the matter, are Phil] is 
in the ' Generous Impostor/ 22 Nov. 1780, 
by Thomas Lewis O'Beirne [q. v.], subse- 
quently bishop of Meath ; Lady Betty Worm- 
wood in 'Reparation/ 14 Feb. 1784; Phoebe 
Latimer in Cumberland's ' Natural Son/ 
22 Dec. ; Miss Alscrip in Burgoyne's ' Heiress/ 
14 Jan. 1786 ; Mrs. Modely in Holcroft's ' Se- 
duction/ 12 March 1787 ; Diary in ' Better 
late than never/ by Reynolds and Andrews , 
17 Nov. 1790 ; while, with the Drury Lane 
company at the Haymarket, she was the origi- 
nal Mrs. Larron in Richardson's ' Fugitive/ 
20 April 1792. Returning to Drury Lane, 
she made her first reappearance in her great 
part of Audrey. She was the first Lady Plin- 
limmon in Jerningham's ' Welch Heiress/ 
17 April 1795 ; Lady Taunton in Holcroft's 
' Man of Ten Thousand/ 23 Jan. 1796. Next 
season she was successful in Mrs. Malaprop, 
of which she was not the original exponent. 
In 1801-2 she played for the first time the 
Duenna, and essayed, at the command of 
George III, what was perhaps her greatest 
role, Mrs. Heidelberg in the ' Clandestine 
Marriage.' The king having expressed a 
wish to see it the previous season, she had 
studied the part in the summer. A very 
great number of important characters belong 
to her entire career, the most remarkable 
performance of her closing years being Lady 
Lambert in the ' Hypocrite.' Her last 
original part was Dowager Lady Morelove 
in Miss Lee's ' Assignation/ 28 Jan. 1807. 
Upon her retirement she chose for her benefit 
and last appearance, 26 May 1808, Deborah 
Dowlas, in the ' Heir-at-Law/ a choice 
that incurred some condemnation. She spoke, 
in the character of Audrey, a farewell ad- 
dress which was not regarded as very happy. 
After her retirement she quitted the house 
in Great Queen Street where she had long 
resided, two doors from the Freemasons' 
Tavern, and went to Newman Street. She 
then removed to 25, and afterwards to 17, St. 
Michael's Place, Brompton, and died there 
30 July 1818. 

Miss Pope's forte was in soubrettes, prin- 
cipally of the pert order, her greatest parts 
being Corinna, Dolly Scrap, Polly Honey- 
combe, Olivia in the ' Plain Dealer/ Phillis, 
Patch, Mrs. Doggerell, Foible, Flippanta, 
Lappet, Kitty in ' High Life below Stairs/ 
Mrs. Frail, Muslin, Mrs. Candour, Tilburina, 
Audrey, Lady Dove, and Mrs. Heidelberg. 




Many of these parts she played at sixty with 
the sprightliness of sixteen. Churchill praised 
her warmly in the ' Rosciad : ' 

With all the merry vigour of sixteen, 
Among the merry troop conspicuous seen, 
See lively Pope advance in jig and trip, 
Corinna, Cherry, Honeycomb, and Snip. 
Not without art, and yet to nature true, 
She charms the town with humour ever new. 
Cheer'd by her presence, we the less deplore 
The fatal time when Clive shall be no more. 
Charles Lamb describes her as 'a gentle- 
woman ever, with Churchill's compliment 
still burnishing upon her gay honeycomb 
lips/ and also as ' the perfect gentlewoman 
as distinguished from the fine lady of co- 
medy.' Hazlitt calls her the very picture 
of a duenna, a maiden lady, or antiquated 
dowager,' and Leigh Hunt ' an actress of the 
highest order for dry humour.' Oulton de- 
clared her without a rival in duennas, and 
the author of the * Green Room,' in 1790, 
declares that the question for criticism is 
not where she is deficient, but where she 
most excels ; and while hesitating as to her 
general equality with Mrs. Clive, and dis- 
puting her value in farce, the same writer 
attributes her excellence to natural genius, 
and holds her up as an example ' how infi- 
nitely a comedian can please without the 
least tincture of grimace or buffoonery, or 
the slightest opposition to nature.' Her fea- 
tures were naturally, he says, neither good 
nor flexible. 

A careful and worthy woman, Miss Pope 
lived and died respected, and the stage pre- 
sents few characters so attractive. Besides 
keeping her father, whom she induced to 
retire from his occupation, she put by money 
enough to enable her to retire as soon as 
she perceived a failure of memory. She con- 
ceived a romantic attachment to Charles 
Holland (1768-1849 ?) [q. v.] the comedian, 
with whom she had a misunderstanding. She 
was also engaged to John Pearce (1727- 
1797), a stockbroker, but broke off the en- 
gagement when Pearce made her retirement 
from the stage a condition of marriage. 
She always entertained a kindly feeling for 
Pearce, who died unmarried in 1797 (SiK 
R. E. PEARCE, Family Records, pp. 22, 63). 
She made at her first appearance, and retained 
to the end, the friendship of ' Kitty ' Clive, to 
whom she erected a monument in Twicken- 
ham churchyard. With the single excep- 
tion of ' Gentleman ' Smith, she was the last 
survivor of Garrick's company. The stage 
presents few characters so attractive as this 
estimable woman and excellent actress. 

Her picture, by Roberts, as Mrs. Ford in 
the 'Merry Wives of Windsor/ is in the 

Mathews collection in the Garrick Club, 
which includes a second picture by the same 
artist. A half-length engraving, by Robert 
Laurie [q. v.], is mentioned in Smith's * Cata- 
logue.' Miss Pope extracted out of Mrs. 
Sheridan's ' Discovery ' a farce called ' The 
Young Couple/ in which, for her benefit, 
she appeared on 21 April 1767, presumably 
as Lady Flutter. It was not printed. 

[G-enest's Account of the English Stage ; 
Biographia Dramatica ; Manager's Notebook ; 
Dibdin's History of the Stage; Grarrick Cor- 
respondence ; Memoirs of James Smith by Horace 
Smith ; Clarke Russell's Representative Actors ; 
Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present.] J. K. 

POPE, MRS. MARIA ANN (1775-1803), 
actress, and second wife of the actor, Alex- 
ander Pope (1763-1835) [q.v.],born in 1775 
in Waterford, was the daughter of ' a mer- 
chant' named Campion, a member of an old 
Cork family. After her father's death she 
was educated by a relative, and, having a, 
strong disposition for the stage, was engaged 
by Hitchcock for Daley, manager of the 
Crow Street Theatre, Dublin. Here as Moni- 
mia in the ' Orphan/ having only, it is said, 
seen two theatrical representations in her 
life, she made in 1792 a ' first appearance 
on any stage.' So timid was she that she 
had to be thrust on the boards, and im- 
mediately fainted. Recovering herself, she 
played with success, and was rapidly pro- 
moted to be the heroine of the Irish stage. 
Frederick Edward Jones [q. v.] then engaged 
her for his private theatre in Fishamble Street. 
In York she played under the name of Mrs. 
Spenser, and she afterwards started on a 
journey for America, which she abandoned, 
returning once more to Dublin. Here at the 
Theatre Royal she met William Thomas 
Lewis [q. v.], who, pleased with her abilities, 
procured her an engagement at Covent Gar^ 
den, where, as Mrs. Spenser from Dublin, she 
made her first appearance 13 Oct. 1797, play- 
ing Monimia in the ' Orphan.' On 2 Nov. she 
played Juliet to the Romeo of Henry Erskine 
Johnston [q. v.] and the Mercutio of Lewis, 
on the 18th Indiana in the 'Conscious Lovers/ 
on the 20th Cordelia to the Lear of Charles 
Murray [q.v.] On 26 Jan. 1798, in 'Secrets 
worth knowing/ she was announced as Mrs. 
Pope, late Mrs. Spenser. Her marriage to 
Pope, to whom she brought an income of 200/. 
a year, took place two days earlier at St. 
George's, Hanover Square. On 13 Feb. she 
was the original Maria in 'He's much to 
blame/ attributed to Holcroft, and also to 
John Fen wick. Jane Shore, Lady Amaranth 
in ' Wild Oats/ Yarico in ' Inkle and Yarico/ 
Lady Eleanor Irwin in ' Every one has his 




Fault/ Indamora in the ' Widow of Malabar,' 
Arabella in ' Such Things are/ and Julia in 
the ' Rivals/ were played during the season, in 
which she had original parts in * Curiosity' 
by ' the late king of Sweden ' (GustavusIII), 
and Cumberland's ' Eccentric Lover/ and 
was the first Princess of Mantua in ' Dis- 
interested Love/ taken by Hull from Mas- 
singer. On 15 Oct. 1798 she was Desdemona, 
and 12 Jan. 1799 the original Julia in Hoi- 
man's ' Votary of Wealth.' On 16 March she 
was the first Lady Julia in T. Dibdin's i Five 
Thousand a Year/ and, 8 April, Emma in 
' Birthday/ by the same author. She probably 
played Elizabeth in the ' Count of Burgundy/ 
from Kotzebue, and was Mrs. Dervilla in 
' What is she ? ' by a lady. For her benefit 
she played the Queen in 'King Henry VIII.' 
Next season saw her in Cordelia, 29 Oct. 1799. 
Two days later she was Juliana in Reynolds's 
' Management.' On 16 Jan. 1800 she was 
the first Joanna of Montfaucon in ' Joanna, a 
.Romance of the Fourteenth Century/ adapted 
by Cumberland from Kotzebue. One or two 
unimportant characters followed, and on 
13 May 1800 she was Imogen and Amanthis 
in the ' Child of Nature. 7 In 1801 she accom- 
panied her husband to Drury Lane, where, as 
J uliet, she made her first appearance on 1 Feb. 
On 2 March she was Lady Caroline Malcolm in 
the first production of Cumberland's ' Serious 
Resolution.' She also played Mrs. Lovemore 
in the < Way to keep him.' On 14 Oct. 1802 
she played Mrs. Beverley, on 9 Dec. Belvi- 
dera in ' Venice Preserved/ on 29 Jan. 1803 
she was the first Caroline in Holcroft's l Hear 
both Sides/ and on 4 May she was Mrs. Haller 
in the 'Stranger.' On 10 June, play ing Desde- 
mona, she was taken ill in the third act, and 
her place was taken by Mrs. Ansell, the 
Emilia. She was thought to be recovering, 
but on the 18th she had a fit of apoplexy, 
and expired in Half Moon Street, Piccadilly. 
She was buried on the 25th, in the same grave 
with her husband's first wife, Elizabeth Pope 
[q. v.], inWestminster Abbey. She was slender 
in figure and finely proportioned, had a sweet 
face and expression, a retentive memory, and 
a clear voice. She was credited in private 
with a good heart and engaging manners. 
She was an acceptable actress, but inferior 
in all respects to the first Mrs. Pope. The 
chief characteristics of her acting were ten- 
derness and pathos. A portrait by Sir 
Martin Archer Shee is in the Garrick Club. 
A three-quarter-length portrait by Shee, en- 
graved by William Ward, was dated 1 April 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Man- 
ager's Notebook ; Monthly Mirror, vol. xvi. ; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; Thespian Diet. ; 

Smith's Cat, ; Chester's Westminster Abbey 
Eegisters, p. 469 ; Marriage Eegisters of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, ii. 76.] J. K. 

POPE, SIR THOMAS (1507 P-1559), 
founder of Trinity College, Oxford, was elder 
son of William Pope, a small landowner at 
Deddington, near Banbury, by his second wife, 
Margaret (d. 1557), daughter of Edmund Yate 
of Standlake. The Pope family, originally 
of Kent, had been settled in North Oxford- 
shire from about 1400 (E. MARSHALL, North 
Oxf. Arch. Soc. 1878, pp. 14-17). Thomas 
was about sixteen at the time of his father's 
death on 16 March 1523 (see Will and 
Inquis. post mortem 15 Sept. 1523, in WAR- 
TON, App. i. and ii.*) His mother afterwards 
married John Bustard of Adderbury (d. 1534). 
Thomas was educated at Banbury school 
and at Eton College (see Statutes of Trin. 
Co/Z.c.vii.), was subsequently articled to Mr. 
Croke (? Richard, comptroller of the hanaper), 
and by 1532 was one of the lower officials in 
the court of chancery. He seems to have 
risen by favour of Lord-chancellor Thomas 
Audley [q. v.], in whose house he was domi- 
ciled in 1535, and is described as his 'servant' 
in a letter of 28 March 1536 (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, x. 223). He and Sir 
Edward North were Audley's executors and 
residuary legatees. Pope was also on terms 
of intimacy with Sir Thomas More, to whom, 
on 5' July 1535, he brought the news that he 
was to be beheaded on the following day (see 
WARTON, pp. 33-4). 

On 5 Oct. 1532 Pope received a grant of 
the office of clerk of briefs in the Star-cham- 
ber, and on 15 Oct. 1532 he was granted the 
reversion of the valuable clerkship of the 
crown in chancery (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, v. 642, xin. ii. 115). He be- 
came warden of the mint, &c,, in the Tower 
of London on 13 Nov. 1534, and held the 
post till 9 Nov. 1536 (ib. vii. 558, xi. 564). 
At the same time he came to know and to 
correspond with Cromwell, who in 1536 pro- 
cured him a nomination to be burgess of 
Buckingham (ib. x. 384, xin. i. 545-6, 550, 
572, ii. 10, 38). Extensive landed property 
was reconfirmed to him by act of parliament 
on 4 Feb. 1536 (ib. x. 87). On 26 June 1535 
he obtained a grant of arms (WARTON, App. 
ii.), and he was knighted on 18 Oct. 1537. 

Meanwhile, on 24 April 1536, on the 
establishment of the court of augmentations 
of the king's revenue to deal with the pro- 
perty of the smaller religious houses then sup- 
pressed, Pope was created second officer and 
treasurer of the court, with a salary of 120/. 
( Cal. State Papers, xin. ii. 372) and large fees. 
About 1541 Pope was superseded by Sir Ed- 
ward (afterwards Lord) North. In January 




1547, on the reconstitution of the court, he 
became the fourth officer, and master of the 
woods of the court this side the Trent. He 
probably retained this office till the court 
was incorporated in the exchequer in 1553 
(WARTON, pp. 15-19). He had been a privy 
councillor before 21 March 1544, and was 
frequently employed by the privy council on 
important business (Acts of P. C. vii. 281, 
viii. 328, ix. Ill, 142). 

Pope was not a regular commissioner for 
the suppression of the monasteries, but he 
received the surrender of St. Albans from 
Richard Stevenache on 5 Dec. 1539, and had 
exceptional facilities for obtaining grants of 
the abbey lands disposed of by his office. Of 
the thirty manors, more or less, which he 
eventually possessed by grant or purchase, 
almost all had been monastic property. There 
were conveyed to Pope,on 11 Feb. 1537, for a 
valuable consideration,the site and demesnes 
of Wroxton Priory, the manor or grange of 
Holcombe (Dorchester Priory), and other 
abbey lands in Oxfordshire. The manors of 
Bermondsey (4 March 1545) and Deptford 
(30 May 1554); the house and manor of 
Tittenhanger (23 July 1547), formerly the 
country seat of the abbots of St. Albans; 
and a town house, formerly the nunnery of 
Clerkenwell, ultimately fell, with much other 
property, into his hands. He thus became one 
of the richest commoners of the time. 

Under Edward VI his want of sympathy 
with the Reformation largely withdrew him 
from public life (but cf.WRiOTHESLEY, Chron. 
ii. 7,27). On the accession of Mary he was 
sworn of the privy council on 4 Aug. 1553. 
He was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 
1552 and 1557, and was associated with 
Bonner, Thirlby, and North in a commission 
for the suppression of heresy on 8 Feb. 1557 
(BTJKNTET, Ref. ii. ii, records, No. 32). Pope 
may perhaps at the beginning of the reign 
have been attached to the Princess Eliza- 
beth's household (WARTON, p. 80). On 8 July 
1556 he was selected to reside as guardian in 
her house (cf. BURNET, 1. c. No. 33), but that 
he long had charge of Elizabeth is improbable. 
He clearly possessed the confidence of both 
the sisters, and was sent by Mary on 26 April 
1558 to broach to Elizabeth an offer of mar- 
riage from Eric of Sweden (Cotton MS. Vi- 
tellius C. xvi. f. 334, in BTJRNET, I.e. No. 37; 
WARTON, pp. 99-103). The commonly ac- 
cepted accounts of the festivities given in 
honour of Elizabeth, mainly ' at the chardges 
of Sir Thomas Pope,' during 1557 and 1558, 
rest on no trustworthy evidence. Warton 
says that he derived them from copies made 
for him by Francis Wise (cf. STRYPE'S tran- 
scripts) of the then unpublished ' Machyn's 

Diary ' in the Cottonian Library. An examina- 
tion of Machyn's manuscript, after all allow- 
ance is made for the injury it sustained in the 
fire of 1731, proves that these passages were 
not derived from the source alleged, and it is 
probable that they were fabricated by Warton 
himself (cf. WARTON, pref. pp. x-xiii, and pp. 
86-91 ; WIESENER, La Jeunesse d 'Elisabeth 
d? Angleterre, 1878, Engl. transl. 1879, vol. ii. 
chap. xi. and xii. ; an account of the forgeries 
in English Historical Revieiv for April 1895). 

Meanwhile, like Lord Rich, Sir William 
Petre, Audley, and others, Pope was prompted 
to devote some part of his vast wealth to a 
semi-religious purpose. On 20 Feb. 1554-5 
he purchased from Dr. George Owen (d. 1558) 
[q. v.] and William Martyn, the grantees, the 
site and buildings at Oxford of Durham Col- 
lege, the Oxford house of the abbey of 
Durham. A royal charter, dated 8 March, 
empowered him to establish and endow a 
college ' of the Holy and Undivided Trinity ' 
within the university, to consist of a pre- 
sident, twelve fellows, and eight scholars, 
and a 'Jesus scolehouse,' at Hooknorton, for 
which four additional scholarships were sub- 
sequently substituted. On 28 March he exe- 
cuted a deed of erection, conveying the site to 
Thomas Slythurst and eight fellows and four 
scholars, who took formal possession the same 
day (WARTON, App. ix.-xii.) The original 
members of the foundation were nearly all 
drawn from other colleges, chiefly Exeter and 

During 1555-6 he was engaged in perfect- 
ing the details of his scheme, repairing the 
buildings, and supplying necessaries for the 
chapel, hall, and library (ib. App. xvi.-xviii.) 
The members were admitted on the eve of 
Trinity Sunday, 30 May 1556, by Robert 
Morwen [q. v.j, president of Corpus. The 
estates selected for the endowment were 
handed over as from Lady-day 1556, and 
comprised lands at Wroxton and Holcombe, 
with about the same amount in tithe, mostly 
in Essex, part of which he specially pur- 
chased from Lord Rich and Sir Edward 
Waldegrave. The statutes, dated 1 May 
1556, which resemble other codes of the 
period, were drawn up by Pope and Sly- 
thurst with the assistance of Arthur Yel- 
dard. Slight alterations were made by an 
' additamentum ' of 10 Sept, 1557. The rec- 
tory of Garsington, granted by the crown 
on 22 June 1557, was added to the en- 
dowment of the presidency on 1 Dec. 1557 
(see Statutes of Trin. Coll. Oxf., printed by 
the University Commissioners, 1855). War- 
ton's quotations from a letter alleging inte- 
rest on the part of Elizabeth (p. 92) and Pole 
(p. 236) are probably fabrications. 




If Pope, as Warton alleges (p. 132), 
founded an obit for himself at Great Walt- 
ham on 24 Dec. 1558, it is probable that he 
was about that time attacked by the epi- 
demic which proved fatal that winter to so 
many of the upper classes. He died at 
Clerkenwell on 29 Jan. 1559 ; and, after 
lying in state at the parish church for a 
week, was buried on 6 Feb. 1559 with great 
pomp (MACHYST, p. 188), according to his 
express directions, in St. Stephen's, Wai- 
brook, where Stow (London, p. 245) saw the 
monument erected to him and his second wife. 
Their remains were removed before 1567 to 
a vault in the old chapel of Trinity College, 
over which his widow (his third wife) placed 
a handsome monument, with alabaster effigies 
of Pope and herself. It is now partly con- 
cealed by a wainscot case, put over it when 
the present chapel was built, but is clearly 
engraved by Skelton (Pietas Oxoniensis and 
Oxonia Antigua Restaurata, vol. ii. ; cf. 
WOOD'S Life, ed. Clark, iii. 364). 

Pope was thrice married, but left no issue. 
From his first wife, Elizabeth Gunston, he 
was divorced, on 11 July 1536, by Dr. 
llichard Gwent, dean of arches (MSS. F. 
Wise in Coll. Trin. Misc. vol. i.) On 17 July 
1 536 he married Margaret (Townsend), widow 
of Sir Ralph Dodmer, knt., mercer, and lord 
mayor of London 1529. She died on 10 Jan. 
1538, leaving a daughter Alice (b. 1537), 
who died young. His third wife, Elizabeth, 
was daughter of Walter Blount of Osbaston, 
Leicestershire, by Mary, daughter of John 
Sutton. She married, first, Anthony Basford 
(or Beresford) of Bentley, Derbyshire, who, 
dying on 1 March 1538, left her with a young 
son, John. On 1 Jan. 1540-1 (according to 
Wise ; but possibly later) she married Pope, 
with whom she is afterwards associated in 
various grants, settlements, &c., as also in 
the rights and duties of foundress of Trinity 
College. She carried out the founder's injunc- 
tions to complete the house at Garsington. 
After Pope's death she married Sir Hugh 
Paulet [q.v,] She was suspected of recusancy 
( Gal. State Papers, Dom. Add. 1566-79 p. 551, 
1581-90 p. 287), and established an almshouse 
at her native town of Burton. She died at 
Tittenhanger on 27 Oct. 1593, and was buried 
at Oxford on 2 Nov., both the university and 
the college celebrating her funeral with some 
pomp (WARTON, pp. 202-4, and App. xxx.) 
A good portrait on panel, which was in the 
college before 1613, is now in the hall. At 
Tittenhanger there is one of a later date, re- 
presenting her in a widow's cap. 

By his will, dated 6 Feb. 1557, with a 
long codicil of 12 Dec. 1558, Pope bequeathed 
numerous legacies to churches, charities, 

prisons, and hospitals ; his wife, her brother, 
William Blount, and (Sir) Nicholas Bacon, 
to whom, as his 'most derely beloved frend, 7 
he leaves his dragon whistle, were executors. 
The will was proved on 6 May 1559. By the 
settlement ot 1 April 1555 nearly the whole 
of his Oxfordshire estates passed to the family 
of John Pope of Wroxton, and some of these 
remain with the latter's representatives, Vis- 
count Dillon and Lord North [see POPE, 
THOMAS, second EAKL OF DOWNE]. The Tit- 
tenhanger, Clerkenwell, and Derbyshire pro- 
perties seem to have been settled on his 
third wife with remainder to her son, who 
died young, and were thus inherited by Sir 
T. Pope Blount (son of Pope's niece, Alice 
Love), whose representative, the Earl of 
Caledon, still owns Tittenhanger. 

Portraits of Pope, differing slightly in de- 
tails, are at Wroxton and Tittenhanger; 
both are plausibly attributed to Holbein. 
Two early copies of the latter are now in the 
president's lodgings at Trinity; they were 
acquired before 1596 and 1634 respectively. 
Later copies are in the hall, common room, 
and Bodleian Gallery. The Wroxton por- 
trait was engraved in line by J. Skelton in 
1821 ; there is a mezzotint, by J. Faber, from 
the copy at Oxford. Of the Tittenhanger 
portrait there is a small scarce mezzotint by 
W. Robins. Both in the portraits and on 
the tomb Pope is represented as a middle- 
aged man, with sensible and not unpleasing, 
but rather characterless, features. For his 
motto he used the phrase ' Quod taciturn velis, 
nemini dixeris.' 

[Authorities cited above, especially the Calen- 
dars of State Papers and other records from 
which it is possible to correct the minor in- 
accuracies of dates, &c., in Warton's Life of Sir 
Thomas Pope (1st edit. 1772; 2nd, 1780), which 
is expanded from an article in the Biogr. 
Brit. 1760. It is a most laborious work, and 
contains a vast amount of information on a 
great variety of cognate subjects derived from 
papers then unprinted. It is, however, full of 
serious, and in some cases intentional, inaccu- 
racies. The remarkable series of fabricated ex- 
tracts from Machyn is mentioned above (see 
Engl. Hist. Eev. April 1896). No fact which 
Warton states on his own authority or on that 
of ' MSS. F. Wise,' or < the late Sir Harry Pope 
Blount,' can be accepted where not verifiable. 
Modern memoirs (Skelton, Clutterbuck, Chal- 
mers, &c.) are derived entirely and uncritically 
from Warton. Mr. F. G-. Kenyon,of the British 
Museum, has kindly examined the manuscripts 
of Machyn for the purposes of this article. All 
registers and original papers in the college ar- 
chives, where fourteen of Pope's letters and others 
of his papers are still extant, have been carefully 
examined.] H. E. D. B. 




DOWNE (1622-1660), baptised at Cogges, near 
Witney, 16 Dec. 1622, was the eldest of the 
three sons of Sir William Pope, knt. (1596- 
1624), by Elizabeth, sole heiress of Sir 
Thomas Watson, knt., of Halstead, Kent. 
His mother married, after his father's death, 
Sir Thomas Peneystone of Cornwall, Ox- 
fordshire. His grandfather, Sir William 
Pope (1573-1631) of Wroxton Abbey, near 
Banbury, was made knight of the Bath in 
1603, and a baronet in 1611; on 16 Oct. 
1628 he was created Baron Belturbet and 
Earl of Downe in the kingdom of Ireland, 
and died on 2 July 1631. Thomas, his grand- 
son, thereupon succeeded to his title, and to 
the large estates in north-west Oxfordshire 
which had been settled on the family in 1555 
by his great-granduncle, Sir Thomas Pope 
[q. v.], founder of Trinity College. Wroxton, 
however, remained in the occupation of his 
father's younger brother, Sir Thomas Pope 
(see below). The young earl was brought 
up in a good ' school of morality,' at the house 
of his guardian, John Dutton of Sherborne 
(BEESLEY, SouFs Conflict, 1656, ded.) On 
26 Nov. 1638 he married his guardian's 
daughter Lucy, and on 21 June 1639 matri- 
culated as a nobleman at Christ Church, 
Oxford; but he offended against academic 
discipline, and before 13 March 1640-1 he 
left the university (LAUD, Chancellorship, 
pp. 190 sqq.) 

When the civil war broke out, Downe 
raised a troop of horse, and was in Oxford 
with the king in 1643. Charles I slept at 
his wife's house at Cubberley, Gloucester- 
shire, on 6 Sept. 1643 and 12 July 1644 
('Iter Carolinum,' in GUTCH, Coll. Cur. ii. 
431, 433). In 1645 (Cal. State Papers, Com. 
Comp. ii. 934-5), his estate being valued at 
2,2021. per annum, he was fined 6,000/. by 
the committee for compounding. He took 
the oath and covenant before 24 Oct. 1645, 
but had great difficulty in raising money for 
his fine, and in 1648 his other debts amounted 
to 11,000/. The sequestration was finally dis- 
charged on 18 April 1651, after he had sold, 
under powers obtained by a private act in 
1650, all his lands, except the manors of 
Cogges and Wilcote, Cubberley, which he 
held in right of his wife, and Enstone, with 
the adjacent townships (Ditchley Papers}. 
The earl, who was steadied by his misfortunes, 
soon left England, and travelled in France 
and Italy. He died at Oxford, at the ' coffee- 
house ' of Arthur Tilliard, a ' great royalist ' 
and apothecary in St. Mary's parish, 28 Dec. 
1660. His body was buried among his ances- 
tors at Wroxton 11 Jan. 1661, and there is a 
floor-slab, with a long inscription to his me- 

mory, in the chancel (WooD, Life, ed. Clark, 
i. 350-1). The countess had died 6 April 
1656, and was buried at Cubberley (BIG- 
LAND, Gloucestershire, i. 407). Just before 
Downe's death his only child, Elizabeth (born 
at Cogges 15 April 1645), married Sir Francis 
Henry Lee, fourth baronet of Ditchley, Ox- 
fordshire [see under LEE, GEOKGE HENKY, 
third EAKL OF LICHFIELD]. Her second 
husband was Robert Bertie, earl of Lindsey ; 
and the Enstone property still remains with 
her representative, Viscount Dillon. 

The peerage passed to his uncle, SIR 
THOMAS POPE of Wroxton, third EAKL OF 
DOWNE (1598-1668), who was knighted at 
Woodstock in 1625, and suftered severely 
from both sides in the civil war. He was 
imprisoned by the king at Oxford for six 
weeks, and was arrested in 1656 on suspicion 
of complicity in the ' cavalier ' plot ( Cal. State 
Papers, Com. for Compounding, ii. 1612; 
cf. BEESLEY, Banbury, 618). He married, in 
1636, Beata, daughter of Sir Henry Poole, of 
Saperton, Gloucestershire, and died 11 Jan. 
1668. His portrait was painted by W. Dob- 
son. His only surviving son, Thomas, died 
18 May 1668, when the titles became extinct. 
The succession to the Wroxton lease and 
estates was contested between the three 
daughters of the third earl and their cousin, 
Lady Elizabeth Lee, who claimed as heir 
general on failure of heirs male, ' furiously 
protesting ' that she would have at least half. 
A compromise was effected by the lawyers, 
one of whom, Francis North, afterwards lord 
Guilford [q. v.], subsequently, in 1671, mar- 
ried Frances Pope, one of the coheiresses, 
bought out the others in 1680-1, and settled 
at Wroxton, where his descendants, the Earls 
of Guilford and Lords North, have since re- 
mained (NOKTH, Life of the Norths, i. 163-4). 

There is a fine head of the second earl at 
the age of about twenty-one, attributed to 
Isaac Oliver, in the possession of Lord North 
at Wroxton, together with portraits of his 
father, mother, grandparents, and other mem- 
bers of the Pope family. Lord Dillon has 
another good head, attributed to Janssen, 
of a much later date, and a companion por- 
trait of his wife. A third portrait which 
bears his name probably represents his father. 

[Authorities cited; Warton's Life of Sir T. 
Pope, App. xxvi (inaccurate in its account of the 
family); Baker's Northamptonshire; Gr. E. C.'s 
Peerage; Jordan's Enstone ; Beesley's Banbury ; 
Croke's Croke Family; personal inspection of 
papers and portraits at Wroxton, Ditchley, and 
Claydon.] H. E. D. B. 

POPE, WALTER (d. 1714), astronomer, 
was a native of Fawsley in Northampton- 
shire. His mother was a daughter of the 


139 Pope-Hennessy 

puritan divine, John Dod [q. v.], and John 
Wilkins (afterwards bishop of Chester) was 
his half-brother. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1645, was appointed scholar 
of Wadham College, Oxford, by the parlia- 
mentary visitors in 1648, and graduated 
thence B.A. on 6 July 1649, M.A. on 10 July 
1651. Admitted to a fellowship on 9 July 
1651, he held various offices in his college, 
was nominated a visitor on 16 Oct. 1654, and, 
as junior proctor of the university, success- 
fully resisted, in 1658, an attempt to abolish 
the wearing of caps and hoods. Later in the 
same year he went abroad, and wrote to 
Robert Boyle from Paris on 10 Sept. 1659, 
that he spent his time reading Corneille's 
plays and romances, ' which we hire like 
horses ' (BOYLE, Works, v. 631, 1744). He 
succeeded Sir Christopher Wren [q. v.] as 
professor of astronomy in Gresham College 
in 1660, was elected dean of Wadham Col- 
lege for 1660-1, and had a degree of M.D. 
conferred upon him at Oxford on 12 Sept. 
1661. He obtained license to travel in 1664, 
and spent two years in Italy, Barrow and 
Hooke taking his lectures. Four letters 
written by him to Wilkins during this tour 
are in the archives of the Royal Society. 
Pope had a reputation for wit as well as for 
learning; he acquired French and Italian 
abroad, and taught them to Wilkins, and was 
besides conversant with Spanish. An original 
member of the Royal Society, he sat on the 
council in 1667 and 1669. Dr. Wilkins made 
him registrar of the diocese on his elevation 
to the see of Chester in 1668, and he held 
the post till his death. 

At Salisbury in 1686 he suffered severely 
from an inflammation of the eyes, but was 
eventually cured by Dr. Daubeney Turber- 
ville [q. v.], whose epitaph he gratefully wrote. 
It was probably this infirmity which induced 
him on 21 Sept. 1687 to resign his professor- 
ship and withdraw to Epsom. On 16 Nov. 
1693 he lost all his books through a fire in 
Lombard Street. He was also annoyed by a 
protracted lawsuit. His later years were 
passed at Bunhill Fields, London, where he 
died, at a very advanced age, on 25 June 1714; 
he was buried in St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 
Wood, who was very bitter against him, ac- 
cused him of having led ' a heathenish and 
epicurean life ; ' but Ward regarded his close 
intimacy with Dr. Seth Ward [q. v.] as alone 
sufficient to refute the charge. Pope lived 
much in Ward's house, had from him a pen- 
sion of 100Z. a year, and in a ' life ' of the 
bishop published by him in 1697 says that 
he ' made it his business to delight him and 
divert his melancholy ' (p. 95). The little book 
was criticised by Thomas Wood, in an ap- ( 

pended ( Letter to the Author,' for its ' comical 
and bantering style, full of dry scraps ol 
Latin, puns, proverbs, senseless digressions.' 

Pope's other compositions were designated 
by Anthony a Wood as 'frivolous things, 
rather fit to be buried in oblivion with the 
author than to be remembered.' Their titles are 
as follows : 1. ' Memoirs of M. Du Vail,' Lon- 
don, 1670 ; reprinted in ' Harleian Miscellany,' 
iii. 308, 1809. 2. < To the Memory of the most 
Renowned Du Vail, a Pindaric Ode,' 1671. 
The person ironically celebrated was Claude 
Duval [q. v.] 3. l Select Novels from Cer- 
vantes and Petrarch,' 1694. 4. The Old 
Man's Wish,' 1697 ; 3rd ed. 1710 ; latinised 
by Vincent Bourne in 1728. This is the 
1 wishing song ' sung by Benjamin Franklin 
(as he told George Whately) ' a thousand 
times when I was young, and now find at 
fourscore that the three contraries have be- 
fallen me.' 5. l Moral and Political Fables,' 
1698; dedicated to Chief-justice Holt. The 
first volume of the l Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' includes (at p. 21) Pope's account of 
the mines of Mercury in Friuli, and his joint 
observations with Hooke and others (p. 295) 
of the partial solar eclipse of 22 June 1666, 
when Boyle's sixty-foot telescope showed 
traces of the corona in the visibility of the 
part of the moon off the sun. 

[Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, i. 
Ill; Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 724, Fasti, ii. 
122 (Bliss); Gardiner's Kegisters of Wadham 
College, p. 177; Burrows' s Register of Visitors 
to the University of Oxford, p. 562; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Allibone's Grit. Diet, 
of English Literature ; Sherburn's Sphere of 
Manilius, p. 113 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

A. M. C. 

1891), colonial governor, the son of John 
Hennessy of Bally hennessy, co. Kerry, and of 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Casey of Cork, 
was born in Cork in 1834 and educated at 
Queen's College, whence he went to the Inner 
Temple. He entered parliament in 1859, two 
years prior to his call to the bar, as member 
for King's County. In his election address he 
expressed confidence in Mr. Disraeli's foreign 
policy, but maintained an independent atti- 
tude on Irish questions. He was the first 
Roman catholic conservative who sat in par- 

In parliament Pope-Hennessy proved zeal- 
ous and hard-working, and made some repu- 
tation. In regard to Ireland he obtained 
the amendment of the poor law (1861-2), 
urged the amendment of the land laws and 
the reclamation of bogs as a means of staying 
the emigration of the Irish population (1862), 
and opposed the government system of educa- 

Pope-Hennessy 140 Pope-Hennessy 

tion on the ground that it was ' anti-national.' 
The select committee which recommended the 
system of open competition for admission to 
the public service was largely due to his exer- 
tions ; for promoting the passage through 
parliament of the Prison Ministers Act (1863), 
he was publicly thanked by the Roman ca- 
tholics of England ; and for amendments in 
the Mines Regulation Acts by the miners of 
Great Britain. 

On 21 Nov. 1867 Pope-Hennessy was ap- 
pointed governor of Labuan. The post was 
of small value, and his administration was 
hardly successful. On 2 Oct. 1871 he re- 
turned to England. From 27 Feb. 1872 to 
16 Feb. 1873 he acted as governor of the Gold 
Coast, in which capacity he took over from 
the Dutch the sovereignty of Fort Elmina, 
receiving from the Dutch governor, in the 
presence of the native chiefs, the ancient gold 
and ivory baton of De Ruy ter ( Colonial Office 
List, 1881). He made an impression on the 
native races, who still keep ' Pope-Hennessy 's 
day ' once a year. On 27 May 1873 he was 
made governor of the Bahamas, came home 
on leave on 22 June 1874, and never returned. 

In 1875 he received the more important 
government of the Windward Islands, the 
seat of which at that time was Barbados. 
In January 1876 he laid before the legisla- 
ture his first proposals for an amended ad- 
ministration, tending in the direction of 
'* federation ' of the Windward Islands. The 
Barbadians, always fearful of any tampering 
with their ancient constitution, formed the 
Barbados Defence Association, and the 
planters were soon avowedly hostile to Pope- 
Hennessy. He was accused of employing 
secret emissaries to influence the negro 
labourers against the planters ; riots were 
common, special constables were sworn in, 
and the military were called out. On 17 May 
a motion was passed to address the queen 
for his recall. Despite this opposition, he 
proceeded steadily with projects of reform. 
He further exasperated the planters by con- 
demning the financial administration of the 
assembly and the severe treatment of native 
labourers. He strove to promote emigration 
of the negroes to other West India islands ; 
he put an end to flogging as a punishment, 
and introduced tickets of leave. Prison re- 
form was a favourite subject with him, but 
he dealt with it somewhat recklessly, re- 
leasing on one occasion as many as thirty- 
nine prisoners in one day. The provision of 
medical aid to the poor and extension of edu- 
cational facilities also occupied his attention. 
His popularity with the negroes was excep- 
tional ; but in November 1876 the home go- 
vernment removed him to Hongkong. 

He visited the United Kingdom in 1877 
on his way to the east, and was presented 
with the freedom of Cork (3 March). He 
arrived at Hongkong on 23 April 1877. 
There his policy resembled that which he had 
adopted in Barbados, and his general ad- 
ministration soon raised feelings of ' the pro- 
foundest dissatisfaction.' He quarrelled with 
the commander-in-chief, embroiled himself 
with the governor of Macao, and was censured 
by the colonial office, while no private persons 
of any standing would go to government 
house. On 7 March 1882 he relinquished 
the government. 

Pope-Hennessy's holidays from Hongkong 
had been spent in Japan, and for most of 
1882 he remained resting in England. In 
September he acted as chairman of the re- 

Sression of crime section at the Social 
faience Congress at Nottingham, and read a 
paper on crime which was based on his ex- 
perience as a colonial governor. On 26 Dec. 
he was gazetted to the government of the 

Arriving in the Mauritius on 1 June 1883, 
Pope-Hennessy, with characteristic vigour, 
espoused the cause of the French Creoles, 
who seemed to him an oppressed nationality. 
The hitherto dominant English party bitterly 
resented his attitude. In 1884 an elective 
element was, owing to his efforts, introduced 
into the constitution. The governor was 
hailed as a benefactor by the Creole popula- 
tion, who raised the cry of ' Mauritius for the 
Mauritians.' Charles Dalton Clifford Lloyd 
[q. v.] arrived in February 1886 as colonial 
secretary and lieutenant-governor, and his 
leanings towards the English party embit- 
tered the situation. In May the governor 
and lieutenant-governor were openly quarrel- 
ling, and four unofficial members of council 
prayed for the appointment of a royal com- 
mission to inquire into Pope-Hennessy's ad- 
ministration ; at the same time an address of 
confidence in the governor was sent to Down- 
ing Street by his friends. In September 1886 
a royal commission was issued to Sir Her- 
cules Robinson, governor of Cape Colony, 
directing him to proceed to Mauritius and 
hold an inquiry into the governor's admini- 
stration. Sir Hercules arrived early in No- 
vember 1886, and on 16 Dec. suspended Pope- 
Hennessy from office. On 1 Jan. 1887 the 
secretary of state (Lord Knutsford) tele- 
graphed to the latter to come to England 
and explain his action. On 12 July 1887, 
after a long inquiry, Lord Knutsford decided 
that sufficient cause had not been shown for 
the removal of Pope-Hennessy, though he 
had been guilty of 'want of temper and judg- 
ment,' of * vexatious and unjustifiable inter- 




ference ' with the magistrates, and undue par- 
tisanship. Accordingly Pope-Hennessy re- 
turned to the colony and served out his time, 
retiring on pension on 16 Dec. 1889. 

On his return home, Pope-Hennessy brought 
a successful action against the ' Times ' for 
libel in connection with his administration 
at Mauritius. During 1890 he bought Ros- 
tellan Castle, the home of Sir Walter Raleigh, 
near Cork, and turned his attention once 
more to Irish politics. In a letter to Lord 
Beauchamp of 12 Jan. 1891, resigning the 
membership of the Carlton Club, he wrote : 
' Though a conservative in principle, I am 
still in favour of the policy of the Irish 
party.' After the split occurred between 
Parnell and the bulk of the home rule party 
Hennessy contested North Kilkenny as an 
anti-Parnellite home ruler in December 1890, 
and, despite Parnell 's personal efforts against 
him, carried the seat by a majority of 1171 
votes after a violent contest. Pope-Hen- 
nessy's health suffered greatly from his elec- 
toral exertions, and he died at Rostellan on 
7 Oct. 1891, within a few hours of Parnell 
himself. He married Catherine, daughter of 
Sir Hugh Low, resident at Perak. 

Pope-Hennessy was ' an able and typical 
Irishman, quick of wit and repartee,' of 
humane and sympathetic but impulsive tem- 
perament. His failure as a colonial governor 
was due to his want of tact and judgment, 
and his faculty of ' irritating where he might 
conciliate.' Unhappily, too, his mind worked 
tortuously, and he never acquired the habit 
of making definite and accurate statements. 

Pope-Hennessy published in 1883 'Raleigh 
in Ireland ; ' he wrote articles at different 
times in magazines, and contributed papers 
to the ' Transactions ' of the British Associa- 
tion, of the mathematical section of which 
he was for a time secretary. 

[Times, 8 Oct. 1891 ; Official Records ; various 
colonial newspapers ; private information.] 

C. A. H. 

POPHAM, ALEXANDER (1729-1810), 
author of the bill for the prevention of the gaol 
distemper in 1774, the son of Alexander Pop- 
ham, rector of West Monckton, Somerset, was 
born in 1729. His family was closely allied to 
the Pophams of Littlecote [see POPHAM, SIB 
JOHN, 1531 P-1607]. He matriculated at Ox- 
ford from Balliol College on 11 Nov. 1746, but 
migrated to All Souls', whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1751, and M.A. in 1755. He was 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple in 
1755, becoming a bencher of his inn in 1785 ; 
he was a master of the court of chancery from 
1786 to 1802, and was made an auditor of the 

duchy of Lancaster in 1802. Popham was 
elected M.P. for Taunton in 1768 ; in 1774 
he was last upon the poll, but was returned 
upon a petition ; he lost his seat in 1780, but 
was returned in 1784, and held the seat 
until 1796. As chairman of quarter sessions, 
Popham acquired an insight into the state of 
the county gaols, and during his first par- 
liament an outbreak of gaol fever killed 
eight out of nineteen prisoners in Taunton 
gaol. In 1774 Popham brought forward a 
bill with a view to mitigating the evil. It was 
framed in accordance with the disclosures and 
recommendations of John Howard (1726 ?- 
1790) [q. v.], who, at Popham's instance, gave 
evidence before a committee of the House of 
Commons on 4 March 1774, and was after- 
wards called to the bar to receive the public 
thanks. Popham's bill was ultimately formed 
into two separate measures. The first of 
these abolished the fees demanded by gaolers 
from acquitted prisoners (14 Geo. Ill c. 20). 
The second provided for a more efficient 
control of the prisons by the magistrates; 
proper ventilation was to be provided; rooms 
were to be allotted for the immediate treat- 
ment and separation of the sick ; arrangements 
were to be made for bathing; finally 'an ex- 
perienced surgeon or apothecary,' at a stated 
salary, was to be appointed to each gaol, and 
to report to the justices at quarter sessions 
(14 Geo. Ill, c. 59). 

The provisions of this last bill were very 
largely evaded, and little real progress was 
made until 1784, when the sale of alcoholic 
drinks in prisons by gaolers was prohibited, 
and gaolers were paid a fixed salary. 

Popham died at his house in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields on 13 Oct. 1810, and was buried in 
the Temple church. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1888; Gent. 
Mag. 1810, ii. 397; Toulmin's History of Taun- 
ton, 1822, pp. 330, 340; Official Eeturns of 
Members of Parliament ; Journals of the House 
of Commons, xxxi v. 534 sq. ; The Gaol Distemper, 
by A. D. Willcocks, esq., an address to the West 
Somerset branch of the Brit. Med. Assoc. in June 
1894.] T. S. 

^-PpPHAM, EDWARD (1610P-1651), 
admiral and general at sea, fifth and youngest 
son of Sir Francis Popham [q. v.], was pro- 
bably born about 1610, his brother Alexander, 
the second son, having beeen born in 1605. 
In 1627 Edward and Alexander Popham 
were outlawed for debt, their property being 
assigned to their creditors ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 23 March, 15 Aug. 1627); but the age 
of even the elder of the brothers suggests that 
the debtors must have been other men of the 
same name, the Edward being possibly the 
man who represented Bridgwater in parlia- 

^ Thi 

article needs revision. See Sir Charles Firt. 
in The Mariner's Mirror, xii. 242-43. 




ment from 1620 to 1620 (Returns of Members 
of Parliament). In 1636 Edward Popham 
was serving as lieutenant of the Henrietta 
Maria in the fleet under the Earl of North- 
umberland (State Papers, Dom. Charles I, 
cccxliii. 72), and in March 1637 was promoted 
to be captain of the Fifth Whelp (ib. cccxlix. 
38, 66, cccl. 49). The Whelps were by this 
time old and barely seaworthy ; most of them 
had already disappeared, and in a fresh breeze 
off the coast of Holland, on 28 June 1637, this 
one, having sprung a leak, went down in the 
open sea, giving Popham with the ship's com- 
pany barely time to save themselves in the 
boat. Seventeen men went down in her. 
After rowing for about fifty miles, they got on 
board an English ship which landed them at 
Rotterdam ; thence they found their way to 
Helvoetsluys, where an English squadron of 
ships of war was lying (ib. Popham to Earl 
of Northumberland, 4 July 1637, ccclxiii. 
29). In 1639 Popham commanded a ship, 
possibly the Rainbow, in the fleet with Sir 
John Penington [q. v.] in the Downs, and 
was one of those who signed the narrative 
of occurrences sent to the Earl of Northum- 
berland (ib. ccccxxx. 74). 

In the civil war he threw in his lot with 
the parliament, of which his father and 
brother Alexander were members. On the 
death of his father he succeeded him as 
member for Minehead. In 1642 Edward and 
his brother Hugh were with Alexander, then 
a deputy-lieutenant of Somerset, raising men 
for the parliament. In May 1643 Colonel 
Popham commanded ' a good strength of horse 
and foot' in Dorset, and relieved Dorchester, 
then threatened by Prince Maurice (Sir Walter 
Erie to Lenthall, 3 June, Hist. MSS. Comm. 
13th Rep. (Welbeck Papers), i. 711). This 
was probably Edward, as Alexander appears 
to have been then in Bristol (PBTNNB and 
WALKER, Trial of Fiennes, App. p. 4). In 
June 1644 both Pophams were, with Ludlow 
and some others, detached by Waller into 
Somersetshire, in order to raise recruits. It 
proved a service of some danger, as, with a 
body of about two hundred horse, they had 
to pass through a country held by the enemy 
(LVDLOW, Memoirs, ed. Firth, i. 91-3). On 
11 June 1645 Edward was desired to repair 
to Romsey, take command of the troops as- 
sembling there for the relief of Taunton, and 
follow the orders of Colonel Massey [see 
MASSEY, SIR EDWARD]; and on 17 June 
Alexander was directed to command a party 
of horse to Romsey, there to receive orders 
from Edward. It would seem that at this 
time Edward was considered the superior 
officer (Cal. State Papers, Dom.) It is 
thus certain that he was not at Naseby, but 

probable that he took part in the western 
; campaign of July, and fought at Ilminster, 
Langport, and Bridgwater. It is, however, 
curious that as a colonel, second in command 
to Massey, his name is not mentioned. On 
17 July 1648 he had instructions to accom- 
pany the lord admiral to sea, the Prince of 
Wales having a squadron on the coast [see 
three days later they were countermanded, 
and Walter Strickland was sent in his stead. 
On 24 Feb. 1648-9 an act of parliament ap- 
pointed Popham, Blake, and Deane commis- 
sioners for the immediate ordering of the 
fleet, and on the 26th their relative prece- 
dence was settled as here given, the seniority 
being assigned to Popham on account, it may 
be presumed, of his rank and experience in 
the navy, independent of the fact that his 
brother Alexander was a member of the 
council of state. Blake, too, had already 
served under one of the Pophams, apparently 
Edward, as lieutenant-colonel of his regi- 
ment, and it would seem not improbable that 
he was now appointed one of the commis- 
sioners for the fleet on Popham's suggestion 

During 1649 Popham commanded in the 
Downs and North Sea, where privateers of 
all nations, with letters of marque from the 
Prince of Wales, were preying on the east- 
coast merchant ships. On 23 Aug. the cor- 
poration of Yarmouth ordered three good 
sheep to be sent on board his ship then in 
the roads as a present from the town in re- 
cognition of his good service in convoying 
Yarmouth ships (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Rep. i. 320 6). Early in 1650 he was under 
orders to join Blake at Lisbon with a strong 
reinforcement. An intercepted royalist letter 
of date 20 Feb. has l Blake has gone to sea 
with fourteen sail. ... A second fleet is 
preparing under Ned Popham. His brother 
Alexander undertakes to raise one regiment 
of horse, one of dragoons, and two of foot in 
the west; but good conditions, authentically 
offered, might persuade them both to do 
righteous things ' (Cal. State Papers, Dom.) 
With eight ships Popham put to sea in the 
last days of April, and having joined Blake, 
the two were together on board the Resolu- 
tion when, on 26 July, Rupert tried to 
escape out of the Tagus. The close watch 
kept by the parliamentary squadron com- 
pelled him to anchor under the guns of the 
castle, where, by reason of a strong easterly 
wind, the others could not come ; and two 
days later, finding the attempt hopeless, he 
went back off Lisbon (Popham and Blake to 
council of state, 15 Aug. ; Welbeck Papers, 
i. 531). 




In November Popliani returned to Eng- 
land (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 14 Nov.), and 
shortly afterwards resumed his station in the 
Downs in command of the ships in the North 
Sea. He died of fever at Dover, and in actual 
command if not on board his ship, on 19 Aug. 
1651. The news reached London on the 22nd, 
and was reported to the house by Whitelocke, 
and at the same time Sir H. Vane was ordered 
'to go to Mrs. Popham from the council and 
condole with her on the loss of her husband, 
and to let her know what a memory they have 
of his services, and that they will upon all 
occasions be ready to show respect to his 
relations \ib. 22 Aug.) A year's salary was 
granted to the widow, Anne, daughter of 
William Carr, groom of the bedchamber. By 
her Popham had two children : a daughter, 
Letitia, and a son, Alexander, whose daughter 
Anne married her second cousin Francis, a 
grandson of Popham's brother Alexander, 
from whom the present Littlecote family is 
descended. Popham was buried at the ex- 
pense of the state in Westminster Abbey in 
Henry VII's chapel, where a monument in 
black and white marble was erected to his 
memory. At the Restoration the body and 
the monument were removed, but, as Alexan- 
der Popham was still living and a member 
of parliament, the body was allowed to be 
taken away privately, and the monument to 
be placed in the chapel of St. John the 
Baptist, the inscription being, however, ef- 
faced, as may still be seen. A portrait by 
Cooper, belonging to Mr. F. Leyborne-Pop- 
ham, was on loan at South Kensington in 

[References in the text ; Chester's Westmin- 
ster Registers; Burke's Landed Gentry. The 
writer has to acknowledge valuable help from 
Mr. C. H. Firth.] J. K. L. 

POPHAM, SIR FRANCIS (1573-1644), 
soldier and politician, born in 1573, only 
son of Sir John Popham (1531 P-1607) [q. v.] 
of Littlecote, matriculated at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 17 May 1588, being then fif- 
teen (FOSTER, Alumni O.ronienses), but does 
not seem to have taken a degree (CLARK, 
Oxford Registers). In 1589 he was entered 
as a student of the Middle Temple. He was 
knighted by the Earl of Essex at Cadiz in 
1596. Between 1597 and his death in 1644 
he successively represented in parliament 
Somerset, Wiltshire, Marlborough, Great 
Bedwin in Wiltshire, Chippenham, and 
Minehead, sitting in every parliament ex- 
cept the Short parliament. He would ap- 
pear to have inherited his father's grasping 
disposition, without his legal ability or train- 
ing, and to have been constantly involved in 
lawsuits, which he was charged with con- 

ducting in a vexatious manner. Like his 
father, he took an active interest in the 
settlement of Virginia and New England, and 
was a member of council of both countries. 
He was buried at Stoke Newington on 
15 Aug. 1644, but in March 1647 was moved 
to Bristol. He married Ann (b. 1575), daugh- 
ter of John Dudley of Stoke Newington, and 
by her had five sons and eight daughters. 

His eldest son, John, married, in 1621, 
Mary, daughter of Sir St. Sebastian Harvey, 
was a member for Bath in the parliament 
of 1627-8, and died (without issue) in or 
about January 1638 at Littlecote, where he 
was buried with much pomp (cf. Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 20 Jan. 1638). 

Popham's second son, Alexander, born in 
1605, matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
on 16 July 1621, being then sixteen (FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon.*) In 1627 an Alexander Pop- 
ham was outlawed as a debtor and his pro- 
perty assigned to his creditors (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 23 March, 15 Aug.), but the 
identification seems doubtful. From 1640 
he sat continuously in parliament as mem- 
ber for Bath. On the death of his father in 
1644 he succeeded to the estates of Little- 
cote. He took an active part on the side of 
the parliament in the civil war; on the 
death of Charles I he was at once appointed 
a member of the council of state, and was 
one of Cromwell's lords in 1657, which did 
not interfere with his sitting in the Cavalier 
parliament of 1661, entertaining Charles II 
at Littlecote on his way to Bath in 1663, 
or, as a deputy-lieutenant of Wiltshire, tak- 
ing energetic measures l to secure dangerous 
persons ' (ib. 2 Sept., 14 Oct. 1663). He died 
in November 1669. Popham's youngest son, 
Edward, is separately noticed. 

[Brown's Genesis of the United States; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

J. K. L. 

1820), rear-admiral, born on 12 Oct. 1762 
at Tetuan, where his father, Stephen Popham, 
was consul, was the twenty-first child of his 
mother, who died in giving him birth. He 
was educated at Westminster, and, for a year, 
at Cambridge. In February 1778 he entered 
the navy on board the Hysena, with Captain 
Edward Thompson [q. v.], attached to the 
Channel fleet in 1779, with Rodney in the 
action off Cape St. Vincent on 16 Jan. 1780, 
and afterwards in the West Indies. In April 
1781 he was tranf erred to the Sheilah-nagig 
(Sile na guig = Irish female sprite). On 
16 June 1783 he was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant, and was employed in the sur- 
vey of the coast of Kaffraria. In March 1787 




he obtained leave from the admiralty, and 
went to Ostend, whence he sailed for India 
in command of a merchant ship under the 
imperial flag. At Calcutta he was favour- 
ably received by Lord Cornwallis, at whose 
request he made a survey of New Harbour 
in the Hooghley, with a view to the esta- 
blishment of a dockyard. Having returned 
to Ostend, he made a second voyage in 1790, 
with a cargo belonging wholly or in great 
part to an English house at Ostend. At 
Calcutta he undertook to carry a cargo of 
rice to the Malabar coast for the use of the 
company's army, but was driven to the east- 
ward by the strength of the monsoon, and 
forced to bear up for Pulo Penang. There, 
while the ship was refitting, he made an exact 
survey of the island, and discovered a new 
channel to the southward, through which, 
in the spring of 1792, he piloted the com- 

ry's fleet to China. For this piece of work 
was presented with a gold cup by the 
governor-general in council, who also wrote 
very strongly in his favour to the court of 
directors, requesting them to represent Pop- 
ham's services to the admiralty ' in the terms 
they merit.' He was at this time on terms 
of intimacy with the deputy-governor and 
several members of the council ; and with 
their knowledge in December 1791 he pur- 
chased and fitted out, at a cost of about 
20,000/., an American ship, the President 
Washington, whose name he changed to 
Etrusco. In her he went to China, took on j 
board a cargo to the value of near 50,000/., 
the joint property of himself and two mer- 
chants, apparently French, the freight of 
which, to the amount of 40, GOO/., was en- 
tirely his own. On arriving at Ostend in 
July 1793 the Etrusco was seized by the 
English frigate Brilliant, brought into the 
Thames, claimed as a prize for having French 
property on board, and condemned as a droit 
of admiralty, apparently for illegal trading 
in contravention of the charter of the English 
East India Company. Popham's contention 
was virtually that he had rendered important 
services to the company, and that his voyage 
was sanctioned by the governor-general in 
council. The case was the subject of pro- 
longed litigation. It was not till 1805 that 
Popham received a grant of 25,000/. as a 
compensation for the loss of about 70,000/., 
the value of his stake in the Etrusco, not 
including the heavy costs of the lawsuit (Part. 
Papers, 1808, vol. x. ; Parl Hist. 11 Feb. 
1808; 2^.CAro.xix.l51,312,406; Edin. 
Rev. May 1820, pp. 482-3). 

Meantime, and immediately on his return 
to England in 1793, Popham, under the im- 
mediate orders of Captain Thompson, was 

: attached to the army in Flanders under the 
Duke of York, who on 27 July 1794 for- 
warded to the admiralty a strong commenda- 
tion of the conduct and services of Popham 
as superintendent of the inland navigation. 
' His unremitting zeal and active talents have 
been successfully exerted in saving much 
public property on the leaving of Tournay, 
Ghent, and Antwerp.' He therefore requested 
that Popham might { be promoted in the line 
of his profession, and still be continued in 
his present employment, where his service 
is essentially necessary' (Nav. Chron. xix. 
407). The recommendation was not attended 
to till after a second letter from his royal 
highness, when the commission as commander 
was dated 26 Nov. 1794. When the cam- 
paign was ended the duke wrote again, on 
19 March 1795, and this time personally to 
the first lord of the admiralty, commending 
Popham's exertions, and concluding with a- 
request that he might ' be promoted to the 
rank of post captain.' This was accordingly 
done on 4 April 1795. 

In the years immediately following Pop- 
ham drew up a plan for the establishment 
and organisation of the sea-fencibles, and in 
1798 he was appointed to command the dis- 
trict from Deal to Beachy Head. In May 
he had command of the naval part of the 
expedition to Ostend to destroy the sluices- 
of the Bruges Canal [see COOTE, Sm EYRE, 
1762-1824?], and in 1799 was sent to Cron- 
stadt in the Nile lugger to make arrange- 
ments for the embarkation of a body of 
Russian troops for service in Holland. The 
emperor, with the empress and court, visited 
him on board the lugger, presented him with 
a gold snuff-box set with diamonds, and con- 
stituted him a knight of Malta, an honour 
which was afterwards sanctioned by his own 
sovereign. The empress, too, gave him a 
diamond ring. After inspecting several of 
the Russian ports and making the necessary 
arrangements, Popham returned to England. 
In the following winter he had command of 
a small squadron of gunboats on the Alkmaar 
Canal, and was able to render efficient sup- 
port to the army in its first encounter with the 
enemy. The expedition, however, ended in 
disaster, and the troops returned ingloriously. 
Popham's services were rewarded with a pen- 
sion of 500/. a year. 

In 1800 he was appointed to the Romney 
of 50 guns, in command of a small squadron 
ordered to convoy troops from the Cape of 
Good Hope and from India up the Red Sea, 
to co-operate with the army in Egypt under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby, and to conclude a 
commercial treaty with the Arabs in the 
neighbourhood of Jeddah. When this had 



been done he went to Calcutta, and, while 
the Romney was refitting, was up country 
in attendance on the governor-general, the 
Marquis Wellesley. He afterwards joined 
the commander-in-chief, Vice-admiral Rai- 
nier, at Penang, was sent to Madras, and 
again into the Red Sea. At Suez he had 
charge of the embarkation of the troops for 
India ; at Jeddah he brought the negotiations 
with the Arabs to a satisfactory end; and 
sailed for England, where he arrived early in 
1803. There had been already some objec- 
tions made to the expenditure on the repairs 
of the Romney at Calcutta ; and though the 
bills drawn by Popham had been paid, the 
amount was charged as an imprest against 
him. A strict investigation was now or- 
dered, and on 20 Feb. 1804 the navy board 
reported, with many details, that the ex- 
penditure had been '"enormous and extraor- 
dinary.' The admiralty handed the papers 
over to the commissioners of naval inquiry, 
saying that they had neither power nor time 
to investigate an expenditure which ' ap- 
peared to have been of the most enormous 
and profligate nature.' 

It was not till 13 Sept. 1804 that Popham 
could obtain a copy of the report, and then 
without the papers on which it was based. 
In the following February they were laid on 
the table of the House of Commons. As 
early as August 1803 Popham had had 

grinted, and circulated privately, ' A Concise 
tatement of Facts relative to the Treat- 
ment experienced by Sir Home Popham since 
Ms return from the Red Sea.' This was now 
published, and appeared to show that further 
investigation was necessary. On 7 May 1805 
the House of Commons appointed a select 
committee to examine into the business ; but 
the navy board had already been desired to 
Teconsider their report, and had been obliged 
to admit that it was inaccurate. Their re- 
vised report, dated 1 April 1805, showed that 
evidence had been taken irregularly and im- 
properly ; the testimony of commissioned 
officers had been refused ; Popham himself 
had not been heard. Sums of money had been 
counted twice over, and the whole expen- 
diture had been exaggerated from a little 
over 7,000/. to something more than ten 
times that amount. The commissioners of 
the navy feebly explained that they had 
placed implicit reliance on the accuracy and 
industry of Benjamin Tucker [q. v.], and 
that their confidence had been misplaced. 
The select committee of the House of Com- 
mons reported in a sense equally conclusive ; 
and Popham's innocence of a charge which 
.should never have been made was established. 
Lord St. Vincent appears to have had a strong 


prejudice against Popham, and it is not im- 
probable that Tucker believed that Popham's 
ruin would not be displeasing to his patron, 
who had no personal knowledge of the 

In the summer of 1804, while the charges 
were still pending, the lords of the admi- 
ralty had appointed Popham to the 50-gun 
ship Antelope, one of the squadron on the 
Downs station, under the command of Lord 
Keith. In December they moved him to 
the Diadem of 64 guns in the Channel, and, 
after the report of the select committee had 
been delivered, directed him to hoist a broad 
pennant as commodore and commander-in- 
chief of an expedition against the Cape of 
Good Hope, in co-operation with a land 
force under Sir David Baird [q. v.] On 
4 Jan. 1806 the squadron, with the transports, 
anchored near Robben Island ; but the land- 
ing was not completed till the morning of 
the 7th, and after a feeble resistance Cape 
Town and the whole colony surrendered on 
the 10th. In April Popham was informed 
by the master of an American merchant- 
ship that the inhabitants of Monte Video 
and Buenos Ayres were groaning under the 
tyranny of their government, and would 
welcome a British force as liberators. In 
consultation with Baird he resolved to take 
advantage of what seemed a favourable op- 
portunity of gaining possession of these 
places, and with some twelve hundred sol- 
diers, under the command of Brigadier- 
general William Carr Beresford (afterwards 
Viscount Beresford) [q. v.], sailed from Table 
Bay a few days afterwards. In the middle 
of June the expedition arrived in the Rio de 
la Plata ; on the 25th the troops, which, in- 
cluding a marine battalion, numbered about 
sixteen hundred men, were landed near 
Buenos Ayres. The resistance of the Spanish 
troops was merely nominal, the governor 
fled to Cordova, and on 2 July the town 
surrendered and was taken possession of by 
Beresford. A few days later, however, the 
inhabitants, who had discovered the small- 
ness of the English force, rose in their thou- 
sands and overwhelmed Beresford, who, with 
the garrison of about thirteen hundred men, 
became prisoners. Popham could do nothing 
beyond blockading the river, till the arrival 
of reinforcements in October permitted him 
to take the offensive and to occupy the har- 
bour of Maldonado. On 5 Jan. 1807 he was 
superseded by Rear-admiral Charles Stirling, 
and ordered to return to England, where, on 
his arrival in the middle of February, he 
was put under arrest preparatory to being 
tried by court-martial on a charge of having 
withdrawn the squadron from the Cape of 




Good Hope without orders, thereby exposing 
the colony to great danger. On this charge 
he was tried at Portsmouth on 6 March anc 
following days. He argued with much ability 
that, the work at Cape Town having been ac- 
complished and the safety of the town assured 
it was his duty to seize any opportunity of 
distressing the enemy. But he was unable 
to convince the court, and was accordingly 
' severely reprimanded.' The judgment was 
strictly in accordance with established usage 
The city of London, on the other hand, 
considering Popham's action as a gallant 
attempt to open out new markets, presented 
him with a sword of honour (Nav. Chron. 
(xix. 33). But even in the navy the reprimand 
had no serious consequences. In the follow- 
ing July, notwithstanding a remonstrance 
from Sir Samuel Hood [q. v.], Sir Richard 
Goodwin Keats [q. v.], and Robert Stopford 
[q. v.] (ib. pp. 68-71), Popham was appointed 
captain of the fleet with Admiral James Gam- 
bier (afterwards Lord Gambier) [q. v.], in the 
expedition against Copenhagen, and in con- 
junction with Sir Arthur Wellesley, after- 
wards duke of Wellington, and Lieutenant- 
colonel George Murray was a commissioner 
for settling the terms of the capitulation by 
which all the Danish ships of war were sur- 
rendered. In 1809 he commanded the 
Venerable of 74 guns in the expedition to 
the Scheldt under Sir Richard John Strachan 
[q. v.], and by his local knowledge rendered 
efficient service in piloting the fleet. Still 
in the Venerable in 1812, he had com- 
mand of a small squadron on the north coast 
of Spain, co-operating with the guerillas. 
On 4 June 1814 he was promoted to the rank 
of rear-admiral, and on the reconstitution 
of the order of the Bath, in 1815, was 
nominated a K.C.B. From 1817 to 1820 he 
was commander-in-chief on the Jamaica 
station, and, returning to England in broken 
health in July, died at Cheltenham on 
10 Sept. 1820. He married, in 1788, Betty, 
daughter of Captain Prince of the East 
India Company's military service, and by her 
had a large family. 

Popham's services were distinguished, but, 
being for the most part ancillary to military 
operations, they did not win for him much 
popular recognition. He was well versed in 
the more scientific branches of his profession, 
and was known as an excellent surveyor and 
astronomical observer. When in the Red Sea, 
in the Romney, he determined many longi- 
tudes by chronometer (Nav. Chron. x. 202), 
a method at that time but rarely employed. 
He was also the inventor, or rather the adapter, 
of a code of signals which was adopted by 
the admiralty in 1803, and continued in use 

for many years. He was elected F.R.S. in 
1799, but contributed nothing to the So- 
ciety's ' Transactions.' 

An anonymous portait, which has been en- 
graved, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 
[Sir Home Popham : a memoir privately 
printed in 1807, ending with the court-martial ; 
in the account of public matters it is very in- 
accurate. The Memoir (with a portrait) in the 
Naval Chronicle, xvi. 265, 353, is based on this, 
adding a few more errors. Gent. Mag. 1820, ii. 
274; Parliamentary Papers, 1805 vols. iv. and 
x., 1816 xviii. 115 ; Minutes of the Court-mar- 
tial (printed 1807, 8vo) ; James's Naval History ; 
Navy Lists ; information from the family. 
Several pamphlets relating to the repairs of the 
Romney were published in 1805, among which, 
in addition to Popham's own 'Concise Statement 
of Facts ' already referred to, may be mentioned 
' Observations on a Pamphlet which has been 
privately circulated, said to be " A Concise 
Statement of Facts . . .," to which is added a 
copy of the Report made by the Navy Board to 
the Admiralty . . .,' anonymous, but admitted 
to be by Benjamin Tucker; 'A few brief re- 
marks on a pamphlet published by some Indi- 
dividuals supposed to be connected with the 
late Board of Admiralty, entitled " Observa- 
tions, &c." (as above), in which the calumnies 
of those writers are examined and exposed,' by 
'^Eschines,' who disclaims any personal acquaint- 
ance with Popham, but is overflowing with venom 
against Tucker and St. Vincent ; and ' Chronologi- 
cal arrangement of the accounts and papers printed 
by Order of the Hoiise of Commons in February, 
March, and April 1805, respecting the repairs of 
the Romney . . . with their material contents 
and some lew cursory remarks in elucidation/ 
The complete vindication of Popham is, however, 
to be sought rather in the Parliamentary Papers 
Iready referred to.] J. K. L. 

POPHAM, SIR JOHN (d. 1463 ?), mili- 
tary commander and speaker-elect of the 
House of Commons, was son of Sir John 
Popham, a younger son of the ancient Hamp- 
shire family of Popham of Popham between 
Basingstoke and Winchester. His mother's 
name seems to have been Mathilda (Ancient 
Deeds, i. 217 ; Cal Rot. Pat. p. 322). His 
uncle, Henry Popham, the head of the family, 
inherited, through an heiress, the estates of 
;he Sainh Martins at Grinstead in Wiltshire, 
Dean in Hampshire, and Alverstone in the 
[sle of Wight ; served as knight of the shire 
for Hampshire in various parliaments, from 
1383 to 1404, and died in 1418 or 1419 (ib. 
pp. 198, 252 ; Cal Inq. post mortem, iv. 36 ; 
;he family tree in BEEEY'S Pedigrees of Hants, 
). 181, cannot be reconciled with the docu- 
mentary evidence). From a collateral branch, 
settled at Huntworth, near Bridgwater, Sir 
Fohn Popham [q. v.], the chief justice, was 




In 1415 Popham was constable of South- 
ampton Castle, and in that capacity had 
the custody of the Earl of Cambridge and 
the others engaged in the conspiracy dis- 
covered there just before the king set sail 
for France (Rot. Parl. iv. 66 ; cf. Ord. Privy 
Council, ii. 33). He took part in that expe- 
dition at the head of thirty men-at-arms and 
ninety archers. Two years later he was one 
of Henry's most prominent followers in the 
conquest of Normandy, became bailli of 
Caen, and received a grant of the seigniory 
of Thorigny sur Vire, forfeited by Herve 
de Mauny. Henry also gave him the con- 
stableship of the castle of Snith for life (ib. 
v. 179). Continuing in the French wars 
under the Duke of Bedford, Popham became 
chancellor of Anjou and Maine, and captain 
of St. Susanne in the latter county. He is 
sometimes described as 'chancellor of the 
regent ' (Paris pendant la Domination An- 
glaise, p. 298). After Bedford's death he was 
appointed to serve on the Duke of York's 
council in Normandy, but showed some re- 
luctance, and stipulated for the payment of 
his arrears, and for his return at the end of 
the year. In 1437 he was appointed trea- 
surer of the household, but before the year 
closed French affairs again demanded his 
presence, and he acted as ambassador in the 
peace negotiations of 1438-9. The Duke of 
York, on being reappointed lieutenant- 
governor of France in 1440, requested his 
assistance as a member of his council (STE- 
VENSON, ii. [586]). In the parliament of No- 
vember 1449, in which he sat for Hampshire, 
his native county, he was chosen speaker. 
He begged the king to excuse him, on the 
ground of the infirmities of an old soldier 
and the burden of advancing age ; his re- 
quest was acceded to, and William Tresham 
accepted in his stead (Rot. Parl. v. 171). 
The Yorkists in 1455 reduced his pension, 
and he seems to have been deprived of his 
post at court (ib. v. 312). He died, apparently, 
in 1463 or 1464 (Cal. Inq. post mortem, iv. 
320, 338, cf. p. 375). There is no satisfactory 
evidence that he married, and his lands ulti- 
mately passed to the four coheiresses of his 
cousin, Sir Stephen Popham (son of Henry 
Popham), who had died in 1445 or 1446 
(Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 322; cf. BEERY, p. 21). 
One of them married Thomas Hampden of 
Buckinghamshire. The male line of the 
Pophams thus died out in its original seat. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Kymer's Fcedera, 
original edition ; Proceedings and Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Harris Nicolas ; Steven- 
son's Wars in France, Kolls Ser. ; Returns of 
Names of Members of Parliament (1878); Cal. 
Inquis. post mortem and Cal. Eot. Pat. publ. by 

Record Commission; Calendar of Ancient Deeds, 
publ. by the Master of the Rolls; Paris pendant 
la Domination Anglaise, ed. Longnon for Soc. de 
1'Histoirede Paris; Warner's Hampshire; Berry's 
Pedigrees of Hants (1833).] J. T-T. 

POPHAM, SIE JOHN (1531 P-1607), 
chief-j ustice of the king's bench, born at Hunt- 
worth in Somerset about 1531, was the second 
son of Alexander Popham by Jane, daughter 
{ of Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat's Castle, 
I Glamorganshire ( Visitation of Somerset, Harl. 
j Soc. xi. 125; CLARK, LimbusPatrum,pA37). 
\ It is stated (CAMPBELL, Lives of the Chief 
Justices, i. 209) that while quite a child he 
was stolen by a band of gipsies; but the 
story is probably no more than a gloss upon 
a statement made by Aubrey (Letters by Emi- 
nent Persons, ii. 492), and repeated in more 
detail by Lloyd (State Worthies}, to the 
effect e that in his youthful days he was a 
stout and skilful man at sword and buckler 
as any in that age, and wild enough in his 
recreations, consorting with profligate com- 
panions, and even at times wont to take a 
purse with them.' It is more certain that 
he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
and subsequently entered the Middle Temple, 
becoming reader in the autumn of 1568, and 
treasurer twelve years later. A certain 
John Popham is mentioned (Official List of 
Members of Parliament) as representing 
Lyme Regis in Queen Mary's last parlia- 
ment, but his identity is uncertain. Pop- 
ham, however, represented Bristol, of which 
city he was recorder, in the third or fourth 
parliament of Queen Elizabeth i.e. in 157] 
and from 1572 to 1583 (BAEKETT, History 
of Bristol, p. 156). He was created a privy 
councillor in 1571, and in the following ses- 
sion (1576) assisted in drafting bills for a 
subsidy, for abolishing promoters and for pre- 
venting idleness by setting the poor to work. 
Meanwhile he had acquired considerable 
reputation as a lawyer, and on 28 Jan. 1578-9 
he was specially called to the degree of the 
coif. In the same year he accepted the post 
of solicitor-general, considering that, though 
inferior in rank to that of a serjeant-at-law, 
it more certainly led to judicial honours 
(DUGDALE, Orig. Jurid. p. 127; Chron. Ser. 
p. 95). The death of Sir Robert Bell [q. v.] in 
1579 having rendered the speakership vacant, 
Popham was elected to the chair on 20 Jan. 
1580. On taking his seat he desired the 
members to ( see their servants, pages, and 
lackies attending on them kept in good 
order' (D'EwES, Journal, p. 282). A few 
days later he was sharply reprimanded by the 
queen for allowing the house to infringe her 
prerogative by appointing a day of public fast 
ing and humiliation. He confessed his fault- 

L 2 




and it is said (BACON, Apophthegms] that on 
being asked by the queen shortly before the 
prorogation of parliament what had passed 
in the house, he wittily replied, ' If it please 
your Majesty, seven weeks.' On 1 June 
1581 he succeeded Sir Gilbert Gerard [q. v.], 
created master of the rolls, as attorney- 
general. He held the post for eleven years, 
and took a prominent part as crown prosecu- 
tor in many state trials (HowELL, State 
Trials, i. 1050-1329). Popham endeavoured 
to discharge his difficult office with humanity. 

In 1586 he was induced to offer himself as 
an undertaker in the plantation of Munster 
in conjunction with his sons-in-law, Edward 
Rogers and Roger Warre, and lands were 
accordingly assigned to him in co. Cork; 
but after he spent 1,200/. in transporting 
labourers thither, the difficulties he encoun- 
tered led him to desist from the enterprise 
( Cat. State Papers, Irel. Eliz. iii. 77, 449, 508). 
He was, however, appointed to assist Chief- 
justice Anderson and Baron Gent in examin- 
ing and compounding all claims to escheated 
lands in Munster in 1588. He landed at 
Waterford on 22 Aug., returning to England, 
apparently, in the autumn of the following 
year. He succeeded Sir Christopher Wray 
[q. v.] as lord chief justice on 2 June 1592, 
and at the same time was knighted. He 
presided over the court of king's bench 
for the remaining fifteen years of his life. 
On the occasion of the Earl of Essex's in- 
surrection, he went, with other high officers 
of state, to Essex House on 8 Feb. 1601 for 
the purpose of remonstrating with him, and 
was, with them, confined in a ' back chamber ' 
in the house for several hours. He refused an 
offer of release for himself alone (DEVERETJX, 
Lives of the Earls of Essex, ii. 143). At the 
trials arising out of the rebellion he com- 
bined somewhat incongruously the characters 
of witness and judge (HowELL, State Trials, 
i. 1429). 

Shortly after the accession of James T, Pop- 
ham presided at the trial of Sir Walter Ralegh, 
ftnd very feebly interposed to mitigate the 
violence of the attorney-general, Sir Edward 
Coke. His decision that the evidence of one 
person, whom it was not necessary to pro- 
duce in open court, was sufficient in cases 
of treason, was not as is sometimes sup- 
posed an attempt to twist the law against 
the prisoner, but the interpretation univer- 
sally placed upon the law of treason, as it 
was supposed to have been modified by the 
statute 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, cap. 10 (cf. 
GARDINER, Hist, of Engl i. 130). Though 
apparently convinced of Ralegh's guilt, he 
sympathised sincerely with him. As a mem- 
b'jr of parliament Popham had sat on several 

committees to devise means for effectually 
punishing rogues and vagabonds by setting 
them to work, and as lord chief justice he had 
assisted in drafting the Act 39 Eliz. cap. 4, 
whereby banishment 'into such parts beyond 
the seas as shall be at any time hereafter for 
that purpose assigned/ was for the first time 
appointed as the punishment for vagrancy. 
Taken in connection with his exertions in 
1606 in procuring patents for the London 
and Plymouth companies for the colonisation 
of Virginia, it is perhaps not difficult to see 
what meaning is to be attached to Aubrey's 
statement that he 'first sett afotte the Plan- 
tations, e.g. Virginia, which he stockt and 
planted out of all the gaoles of England.' 
Whether the Popham colony was really com- 
posed of the offscourings of English gaols is a 
moot-point which has been discussed at con- 
siderable length, and with no little acrimony, 
in America (WINSOR'S Hist, of America, iii. 
175, 209). Popham presided at the trial of 
Guy Fawkes and the other conspirators in the 
* gunpowder plot ' in 1606. He sat on the 
bench till Easter term, 1607. 

He died on 10 June 1607, and was buried 
at Wellington in Somerset in the chapel on 
the south side of the parish church. His 
wife lies beside him, and a noble monument 
was erected over them, with effigies of him 
and his wife. On the outskirts of the town 
stood Popham's house, a large and stately 
mansion, which was destroyed during the 
civil wars. In accordance with his will, 
dated 21 Sept. 1604, a hospital was erected 
at the west end of the town for the main- 
tenance of twelve poor and aged people, 
whereof six were to be men and six women, 
and for two poor men's children. During his 
lifetime he acquired by purchase several con- 
siderable estates in Somerset, Wiltshire, and 
Devonshire. According to an improbable 
story recorded by Aubrey, and alluded to by 
Sir Walter Scott in his notes to ' Rokeby,' 
Littlecote in Wiltshire was the price paid 
to him by Darell, its previous owner, a dis- 
tant kinsman, for corruptly allowing him to 
escape the legal consequences of a most atro- 
cious murder. Popham doubtless acquired 
the property by purchase. Aubrey adds that 
Popham ' first brought in [i.e. revived] brick- 
building in London (sc. after Lincolne's Inn 
and St. James's).' 

Popham was a sound lawyer and a severe 
judge. Shortly after his death Lord Elles- 
mere alluded to him as ' a man of great wis- 
dom and of singular learning and judgement 
in the law ' (HOWELL, State Trials, ii. 669), 
and Coke spoke of him with like admiration 
(6th Rep. p. 75). 

According to Fuller ( Worthies, ii. 284), 




he is said to have advised James to be more 
sparing of his pardons to highwaymen and 
cutpurses. His severity towards thieves was 
proverbial, and it is referred to by Dr. Donne 
in his poetical epistle to Ben Jonson (1603). 
According to Aubrey ' he was a huge, heavie, 
ugly man.' His portrait and a chair belong- 
ing to him are at Littlecote (BKITTON, 
Beauties of Wiltshire, iii. 259). Another, 
by an unknown hand, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London ; and a third (also 
anonymous) belonged in 1866 to the Duke 
of Manchester. 

Popham was the author of ' Reports and 
Cases adjudged in the Time of Queen Eliza- 
beth, written with his own hand in French,' 
translated and published posthumously in 
1656 ; but the book is not regarded as an 
authority. A number of legal opinions ex- 
pressed by him are preserved in the Lans- 
downe collection of manuscripts in the British 
Museum (1. 26-8, 39, 64, 70, Ivii. 50, 72, 
Ixi. 78,lxviii. 18). His opinion on Sir Walter 
Ralegh's case touching the entail of the 
manor of Sherborne is in Additional MS. 
6177, f. 393. 

Popham married Amy, daughter and heiress 
of Robert Games of Castleton in St. Tathan's, 
Glamorganshire (or by other accounts, Ann, 
daughter and heiress of Howel ap Adam of 
Castleton). Her portrait, by an unknown 
hand, belonged in 1866 to Mr. F. L. Pop- 
ham. Sir John was succeeded by his son, 
Sir Francis Popham [q. v.] According to 
Aubrey, Popham ' left a vast estate to his son, 
Sir Francis (I thinke ten thousand pounds 
per annum) ; [the latter] lived like a hog, but 
his son John was a great waster, and dyed 
in his father's time.' 

[Foss's Judges, vi. 179-85; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 20; Collinson's Hist, of Somer- 
set, ii. 483, iii. 71 ; Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Men 
in Letters from the Bodleian Library, ii. 492-5 ; 
Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 218 ; Somerset- 
shire Archseol. Soc. Proceedings, xi. 40-1 ; Man- 
ning's Speakers of the House of Commons. A 
number of letters and documents written by or 
relating to Popham will be found in Harl. MSS 
286, 6995-7; Egerton MSS. 1693 f. 122, 2618 
f. 11, 2644 f. 78, 2651 f. 1, 2714 f. 32 ; Addit. 
MSS. 5485 f. 212, 5753 f. 250, 5756 f. 106, 
6178 ff. 613, 653, 705,803, 15561 f. 99, 19398 f. 97, 
27959 f. 21, 27961 ff. 9, 10, 28223 f. 13, 28607 
f. 33, 32092 f. 145, 33271 f. 186; Lansd. MSS. 
xlv. 34, Ixi. 53, Ixviii. 90, Ixxvii. 50.] K. D. 

POPPLE, WILLIAM (1701-1764), dra- 
matist, born in 1701, was the only son of 
William Popple of St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, who died in 1722, and was buried at 
Hampstead, by his wife Anne. 

His grandfather, also WILLIAM POPPLE (d. 

1708), was son of Edmund Popple, sheriff of 
Hull in 1638, who married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Andrew Marvell, and sister 
of Andrew Marvell [q. v.] the poet ; he was, 
accordingly, the nephew of Marvell, under 
whose guidance he was educated, and with 
whom he corresponded. He became a Lon- 
don merchant, and in 1676 was residing at 
Bordeaux, whence, ten years later, he dated 
a small expository work, entitled 'A Rational 
Catechism ' (London, 1687, 12mo). He was 
appointed secretary to the board of trade in 
1696, and became intimate with John Locke 
(a commissioner of the board from 1696 to 
1700), whose 'Letter on Toleration' he was 
the first to translate from the Latin (London, 
1689,8voandl2mo). Some manuscript trans- 
lations in his hand are in the British Museum 
(Add. MS. 8888). He died in 1708, in the 
parish of St. Clement Danes ; his widow Mary 
was living in Holborn in 1709. 

The dramatist entered the cofferer's office 
about 1730, and in June 1737 was promoted 
solicitor and clerk of the reports to the com- 
missioners of trade and plantations. He was 
appointed governor of the Bermudas in March 
1745, ' in the room of his relative, Alured 
Popple ' (1699-1744), and held that post until 
shortly before his death at Hampstead on 
8 Feb. 1764 (Miscellanea Geneal. et Heraldica, 
new ser. iii. 364). He was buried on 13 Feb. 
in Hampstead churchyard, where there is an 
inscribed stone in his memory. 

Some of Popple's juvenile poems were in- 
cluded in the ' Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems' issued by Richard Savage [q. v.] in 
1726. The encouragement of Aaron Hill 
[q. v.] was largely responsible for his inde- 
pendent production of two comedies, to both 
of which Hill wrote prologues. The first of 
these, ' The Lady's Revenge, or the Rover 
reclaim'd' (London and Dublin, 1734, 8vo), 
was dedicated to the Prince of W T ales, and 
produced on four occasions at Co vent Garden 
in January 1734. ' Dull in parts, but a pretty 
good play,' is Genest's verdict upon it. The 
second, entitled ' The Double Deceit, or a 
Cure for Jealousy' (London, 1736, 8vo), de- 
dicated to Edward Walpole, was produced 
on 25 April 1735, also at Covent Garden. It 
is the better play of the two, and, according 
to Genest, deserved more success than it met 
with. About this same time (1735) Popple 
collaborated with Hill in his 'Prompter,' and 
incurred a share of Pope's resentment, which 
took the usual shape of a line in the l Dun- 
ciad : ' 
Lo P p le's brow tremendous to the town. 

Warburton elucidates by defining Popple as 
' author of some vile plays and pamphlets.' 



The dramatist was not deterred from pub- 
lishing, in 1753, a smooth but diffuse trans- 
lation of the ' Ars Poetica ' of Horace (Lon- 
don, 4to), which he dedicated to the Earl of 

[Baker's Biogr. Dramatica ; Genest's Hist, of 
the Stage, vol. iii. ; Sheehan's Hist, of Hull, 
1864, p. 461 ; Manchester School Reg. (Chetham 
Soc.), i. 131-2; Hewitt's Northern Heights of 
London, 1869, pp. 148, 233 ; Marvell's Works, 
1 776, vols.i. iii. passim; Gent. Mag. 1764, p. 197; 
.Notes and Queries, 4th per. vi. 198, 222, 6th ser. 
iv. 30, 7th ser. ix. 485; Brit. Mus. Cat. (where, 
however, the dramatist is confused with ^his 
grandfather, the nephew of Marvell).] T. S. 

CARNARVON, 1800-1849.] 

PORDAGE, JOHN (1607-1681), astro- 
loger and mystic, eldest son of Samuel Por- 
dage (d. 1626), grocer, by his wife Elizabeth 
(Taylor), was born in the parish of St.Dionis 
Backchurch, London, and baptised on 21 April 
1607. He was curate in charge of St. Law- 
rence's, Reading, in 1644, the vicar being 
Thomas Gilbert (1 613-1694) [q. v.] Pordage 
is later described as vicar, but erroneously. 
By 1647 (after 9 Nov. 1646) he was rector 
of Bradfield, Berkshire, a living in the gift 
of Elias Ashmole [q. v.], who thought highly 
of his astrological knowledge. Baxter, who 
describes him as chief of the ( Behmenists,' 
or English followers of Jacob Boehme, knew 
of him through a young man, probably 
Abiezer Coppe [q. v.], who in 1649 was 
living under Pordage's roof in a ' family 
communion,' the members ' aspiring after 
the highest spiritual state ' through ' visible 
communion with angels.' Baxter thought 
they tried to carry too far 'the perfection of 
a monastical life.' Among themselves this 
family went by scripture names ; Pordage 
was ' Father Abraham,' his wife was ' De- 

He was charged before the committee for 
plundered ministers with heresies comprised 
in nine articles, accusing him of a sort of 
mystical pantheism. But on 27 March 1651 
the committee acquitted him on all counts. 
On 18 Sept. 1654 he was summoned to ap- 
pear on 5 Oct. before the county commis- 
sioners (known as ' expurgators ') at the 
Bear Inn, Speenhamland, Berkshire. The 
nine articles were revived against him at the 
instance of John Tickel [q. v.], a presbyterian 
divine at Abingdon, Berkshire. The inquiry 
was successively adjourned to 19 Oct., 2 Nov., 
22 Nov., and 30 Nov., fresh articles being from 
time to time brought forward against him, 
to the number of fifty-six, in addition to 

the original nine. Most of them dealt with 
unsubstantial matters of personal gossip; 
the accusation of intercourse with spirits 
was pressed (from 19 Oct.) by Christopher 
Fowler [q. v.] It was made a charge against 
him that he had sheltered Robert Everard 
[q. v.] and Thomas Tany [q. v.] One of his 
maid-servants, while attesting some of the 
stories about spirits, bore witness to the 
purity and piety of the family life. By 
30 Nov. Pordage was too ill to appear ; the 
inquiry was adjourned to 7 Dec. at the Bear 
Inn, Reading. On 8 Dec. the commissioners 
ejected him as ' ignorant and very insufficient 
for the work of the ministry.' He was to 
leave the rectory by 2 Feb. and clear out 
his barns by 25 March 1655. 

At the Restoration Pordage was reinstated. 
In 1663 he became acquainted with Jane 
Lead or Leade [q. v.], and assisted her in 
the study of Jacob Boehme. In August 
1673 or 1674 (there is a doubt about the 
year) Pordage and Mrs. Lead ' first agreed 
to wait together in prayer and pure dedica- 
tion.' Francis Lee [q. v.], Jane Lead's son- 
in-law, speaks warmly of Pordage's devout- 
ness and sincerity, maintaining that ' his 
conversation was such as malice itself can 
hardly except against.' He was not, how- 
ever, a man of robust intellect ; his insight 
into Boehme's writings was feeble, and his 
theosophy was of the emotional order. In 
his will he describes himself as ' doctor in 
physick.' It does not appear that he held 
the degree of M.D., though it was assigned 
to him by others, and he was commonly 
called Dr. Pordage. 

He died in 1681, and was buried in St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, on 11 Dec. His will, made 
on 28 Nov. 1681, and proved 17 Jan. 1682, 
was witnessed by Jane Lead. His portrait 
was engraved by Faithorne. His first wife ? 
Mary (Lane), of Tenbury, "Worcestershire, 
was buried at Bradfield on 25 Aug. 1668. 
His second wife was Elizabeth, widow of 
Thomas Faldo of London. His son Samuel 
is separately noticed ; he had other sons : 
John, William, and Benjamin. His daughter 
Elizabeth was buried at Bradfield on 23 Dec. 
1663; other daughters were Mary, Sarah 
(married Stistead), and Abigail. His brother 
Francis, who survived him, was rector of 
Stanford-Dingley, Berkshire. 

He published : 1 . ' Truth appearing 
through the Clouds of undeserved Scandal,' 
&c., 1655, 4to (published 011 22 Dec. 1654. 
according to Thomason's note on the British 
Museum copy). 2. ( Innocency appearing 
through the dark Mists of pretended Guilt,' 
&c., 1655, fol. (15 March). 3. 'A just 
Narrative of the Proceedings of the Com- 



missioners of Berks . . . against John Por 
dage,' &c., 1655, 4to ; reprinted in ' Stat 
Trials ' (Cobbett), 1810, v. 539 sq. 4. ' Th 
Fruitful Wonder ... By J. P., Student in 
Physic,' &c., 1674, 4to (account of fou 
children at a birth, at Kingston-on-Thames 
probably by Pordage). Posthumous were 
5. ' Theologia Mystica, or the Mystic Divi 
nitie of the ^Eternal Indivisible ... By a 
Person of Qualitie, J. P., M.D.' &c., 1683 
8vo (prefaced by Jane Lead, and edited by 
Dr. Edward Hooker; Francis Lee had a 
' much larger ' treatise of similar title ' unde 
the Doctor's own hand ; ' subjoined, with the 
second title-page, is ' A Treatise of Eterna 
Nature '). 6. ' Em griindlich philosophischei 
Sendschreiben,' &c., Amsterdam, 1698, 8vo 
reprinted (1727) in F. Roth-Scholz's ' Deut 
sches Theatrum Chemicum,' 1728, 8vo, vol. i 
7. ' Vier Tractatlein,' &c., Amsterdam, 1704 
8vo. A two-page advertisement in Jane 
Lead's ' Fountain of Gardens,' 1697, 8vo 
gives full titles of the following works o: 
Pordage, unpublished in English : 8. ' Philo- 
sophia Mystica,' &c. 9. ' The Angelical 
World,' &c. 10. 'The Dark Fire W T orld, : 
&c. 11. 'The Incarnation of Jesus Christ, : 
&c. 12. 'The Spirit of Eternity,' &c. 
13. ' Sophia,' &c. 14. ' Experimental Dis- 
coveries,' &c. The ' Vita J. Crellii Franci,' 
by J. P., M.D., prefixed to Crell's ' Ethica 
Aristotelica,' Cosmopoli (Amsterdam), 1681, 
4to, has been assigned to Pordage, but is by 
Joachim Pastorius, M.D., and was originally 
published in Dutch, 1663, 4to (see SAND, 
Bibliotheca Antitrinitariorum, 1684, p. 149). 

[Pordage's Narrative, 1655, and other tracts 
(most of the Narrative is reprinted in Cobbett's 
State Trials, vol. v. and in earlier collections) ; 
Fowler's Dsemonium Meridianum, 1655-6 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1098, iv. 405, 
715 ; Reltquise Baxterianse, 1696, i. 77 sq. ; Poiret's 
Bibliotheca Mysticorum, 1708 ; Calamy's Ac- 
count, 1714, p. 96 ; Granger's Biographical Hist, 
of England, 1779, iii. 55 sq. ; Lysons's Magna 
Britannia (Berkshire), 1813, p. 246; Walton's 

Memorial of William Law, 1854, pp. 148, 192, 

Feb. 1862, p. 
136 ; Chester's Registers of St. Dionis Back- 

203, 240; Notes and Queries, 15 Feb. 1862, 

church (Harleian Soc.), 1878, p. 93 : Foster's 
Marriage- Licenses, 1887, p. 469; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. llth Rep. App. pt. vii. pp. 189, 192; 
Harleian MS. 1530, f. 34 (pedigree) ; Pordage's 
will in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (8 
Cottle) ; information from the rectors of Brad- 
field and St. Andrew's, Holborn.] A. G-. 

PORDAGE, SAMUEL (1633-1691?), 

poei, eldest son of John Pordage [q. v.] by his 
first wife, was baptised at St. Dionis Back- 
church, London, on 29 Dec. 1633 (Register, 
published by Harleian Society, 1878). He 

entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1644, and 
at the trial of his father ten years later he ap- 
pears to have been one of the witnesses. In his 
title-pages he variously described himself as 
' of Lincoln's Inn ' and ( a student of physick/ 
He was at one time chief steward to Philip 
Herbert, fifth earl of Pembroke [see under 
HERBERT, PHILIP, fourth EARL], but he 
chiefly devoted himself to literary work (CoB- 
BETT, State 7W#/s,vol. v.) While residing with 
his father at the parsonage of Bradfield, Berk- 
shire, in 1660 he published a translation from 
Seneca,with notes, called ' Troades Englished.' 
About the same time he published ' Poems 
upon Several Occasions, by S. P., gent.,' a 
little volume which included panegyrics upon 
Charles II and General Monck, but which con- 
sisted for the most part of amatory poems, 
full of conceits, yet containing among them 
a few graceful touches, after the fashion of 

In 1661 a volume appeared called ' Mun- 
dorum Explicatio, or the explanation of an 
Hieroglyphical Figure. . . . Being a Sacred 
Poem, written by S. P., Armig.' This book, 
which was reissued in 1663, is attributed to 
Samuel Pordage by Lowndes and others ; but 
its contents are entirely unlike anything else 
which he wrote. The writer of the unsigned 
preface to this curious work of over three 
hundred pages says that the hieroglyphic 
' came into my hands, another being the 
author ; ' and there is a poetical ' Encomium 
on J. [Behmen] and his interpreter J. Spar- 
row, Esq.' It has been suggested that the 
real author was Pordage's father, a professed 
Behmenist. Mr. Crossley argues that there 
s no proof that the work is by either John 
or Samuel Pordage. Bishop Kennett, how- 
ever, writing in 1728, attributed the work to 
Samuel. Possibly both John and Samuel 
3 ordage had a share in the authorship of this 
sacred poem.' 

In 1661 Samuel Pordage published a folio 
mmphlet, ' Heroick Stanzas on his Maiesties 
Coronation.' In 1673 his ' Herod and Mari- 
mne,' a tragedy, was acted at the Duke's 
theatre, and was published anonymously. 
^Ikanah Settle, who signed the dedication 
o the Duchess of Albemarle, said that the 
lay, which was ( little indebted to poet or 
>ainter,' did not miss honours, in spite of its 
disadvantages, thanks to her grace's patron- 
ge. The principal parts in this rhymed tra- 
edy, the plot of which was borrowed from 
osephus and the romance of ' Cleopatra,' were 
aken by Lee, Smith, and Norris (GENEST, 
Account of the English Stage, i. 171). Lang- 
iaine says that the play had been given by 
'ordage to Settle, to use and form as he 
leased. In 1678 appeared 'The Siege of 



Babylon, by Samuel Pordage of Lincoln's 
Inn, Esq., author of the tragedy of " Herod 
and Mariamne." ' This play had been licensed 
by L'Estrange on 2 Nov. 1677, and acted at 
the Duke's Theatre not long after the pro- 
duction at the Theatre Royal of Nathaniel 
Lee's l Rival Queens ; ' and Statira and 
Roxana, the ' rival queens,' were principal 
characters in Pordage's stupid rhymed tra- 
gedy, in which Betterton, N orris, and Mrs. 
Gwyn appeared. The story is based upon 
' Cassandra ' and other romances of the day 
(ib. i. 213). In the dedication to the Duchess 
of York, Pordage said that ( Herod and 
Mariamne' had hitherto passed under the 
name of another, while he was out of Eng- 
land; but, as her royal highness was so 
pleased with it, Pordage could not forbear 
to own it. 

Pordage brought out in 1679 the sixth 
edition of John Reynolds's ' Triumphs of 
God's Revenge against the sin of Murther ; ' 
he prefixed to it a dedication to Shaftesbury. 
In 1681 he wrote a single folio sheet, ' A new 
Apparition of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey's 

Ghost to the E. of D in the Tower,' and 

the printer was obliged to make a public 
apology for the reflections on Danby which it 
contained (Benskirfs Domestick Intelligence, 
21 July 1681). Between 1681 and 1684 he 
issued ' The Remaining Medical Works of ... 
Dr. Thomas Willis . . . Englished by S. P., 
Esq.' There is a general dedication to Sir 
Theophilus Biddulph, bart., signed by Por- 
dage ; and verses * On the author's Medico- 
philosophical Discourses,' in all probability 
by him, precede the first part. 

Dryden's 'Absalom and Achitophel' ap- 
peared in November 1681, and among the 
answers which it called forth was Pordage's 
'Azaria and Hushai, a Poem,' 1682, pub- 
lished on 17 Jan., according to a contem- 
porary note. In this piece Azaria was the 
Duke of Monmouth, Amazia the king, Hushai 
Shaftesbury, and Shimei Dryden; and the 
poem, so far from being, as it is sometimes 
called, a malignant attack on Dryden, is 
comparatively free from personalities. ' As 
to truth, who hath the better hold let the 
world judge ; and it is no new thing for the 
same persons to be ill or well represented by 
several parties.' Some lines, too, were devoted 
to L'Estrange, who was called Bibbai. On 
15 March 1682 Dryden brought out 'The 
Medal, a Satire against Sedition,' an attack 
on Shaftesbury, and on 31 March Pordage 
published 'The Medal revers'd, a Satyre 
against Persecution/ with an epistle, ad- 
dressed, in imitation of Dryden, to his ene- 
mies, the tories. Pordage said he did not 
believe that the authors of ' Absalom and 

Achitophel ' and ' The Medal ' were the same, 
yet, as they desired to be thought so, each, 
must bear the reproaches of the other. 

L'Estrange attacked Pordage in the ' Ob- 
servator ' for 5 April 1682 on account of ; A 
brief History of all the Papists' bloudy Per- 
secutions/ calling him ' limping Pordage, a 
son of the famous Familist about Reading, 
and the author of several libels,' one against 
L'Estrange. Dryden, in the second part of 
1 Absalom and Achitophel/ published in No- 
vember, described Pordage as 

Lame Mephibosheth, the wizard's son. 

In May John Oldham, in his ' Imitation of 
the Third Satire of Juvenal/ had ridiculed 
Pordage, and in another ' Satire ' mentioned 
Pordage among the authors who had ' grown 
contemptible, and slighted since.' Besides- 
the pieces already mentioned, Pordage is- 
stated to have written a romance called 
' Eliana/ but the date is not given, and no> 
copy seems known. 

Writing in 1691, Langbaine spoke of 
Pordage as lately, if not still, a member of 
Lincoln's Inn. The exact date of his death 
has not been ascertained. A Samuel Pordage, 
a stranger, who, like the poet, was born in the 
parish of St. Dionis Backchurch in 1633, was- 
buried there in 1668. Pordage married about 
1660 Dorcas, youngest daughter of William 
Langhorne, by whom he had a son, Charles, 
born in 1661, and other issue. When his 
father died in 1681 he left silver spoons to 
two of Samuel's children (Harl. MS. 1530, f. 
34 ; will of John Pordage, P.C.C. 8 Cottle). 

[Authorities cited ; Foster's Marriage Licenses ; 
Robinson's Merchant Taylors' Register ; Gent. 
Mag. 1834, ii.495 ; Censura Literaria, by Hasle- 
wood, viii. 247-51 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
vii. 443 ; Biogr. Dramatica ; Scott's Dryden, ix. 
372 ; Professor H. Morley's First Sketch of Eng- 
lish Literature, pp. 716-19; Jacob, i. 204; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 149, 150, iii. 
1098-1100.] G. A. A. 

1825), poetess. [See FKANKLIST.] 

PORDEN, WILLIAM (1755-1822), 
architect, born in 1755 at Hull, was grandson 
of Roger Pourden, an architect of York. His 
early taste for the arts procured him the 
notice of the poet Mason, who introduced 
him to James Wyatt [q. v.] After studying 
architecture in Wyatt's office, he became the 
pupil of Samuel Pepys Cockerell [q. v.] On 
leaving the latter he was made secretary to 
Lord Sheffield, and by him appointed pay- 
master to the 22nd dragoons j but, on the 
reduction of this regiment soon afterwards, 
he resumed his former studies. In 1778 he 



exhibited designs for a Gothic church at the 
Royal Academy, where his work continued 
to be seen at intervals. In 1785-6 Porden 
was chosen to make the necessary fittings in 
"Westminster Abbey for the Handel festival. 
He was also employed by the parish of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, and was surveyor 
of Lord Grosvenor's London estates. From 
1790 onwards he designed a number of 
churches and mansions in various parts of 

In 1804 Porden began his most important 
work, Eaton Hall in Cheshire for Lord 
Grosvenor a palace of celebrated, if some- 
what too florid, magnificence. This work 
occupied him till 1812. He was assisted, 
first by his son-in-law, Joseph Kay, and later, 
by B. Gurnmow, who built the wings in 
1 823-5. Besides the superintendence of the 
works at Eaton, he was busy with several 
other buildings, chiefly at Brighton, where 
he erected, in 1805, stables, riding-house, and 
tennis-court for the Prince of Wales's Pavi- 
lion ; adding, during the two following years, 
the west front and entrance hall. In 1808 he 
designed Broom Hall, Fifeshire, and Eccle- 
ston church, near Chester, in 1809 and 1813. 
He died on 14 Sept. 1822, and was buried in 
St. John's Wood chapel. According to Red- 
grave, his end was hastened by annoyance 
at being superseded two years before in his 
employment as architect to Lord Grosvenor, 
to whom his work did not give entire satis- 
faction. Extensive alterations and additions 
have been made to Eaton Hall since his 

Porden had a numerous family, all of 
whom died young, except two daughters ; the 
elder of these married, in 1807, Joseph Kay 
(1775-1847), the architect of the new post 
office in Edinburgh and surveyor to Green- 
wich Hospital ; the younger, Eleanor Anne 
(1797 P-1825), the first wife of Sir John 
Franklin, is separately noticed. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Hicklin's Guide to Eaton Hall; private 
information.] L. B. 

PORRETT, ROBERT (1783-1868), 
chemist, son of Robert Porrett, was born in 
London on 22 Sept. 1783. When he was 
eleven years of age he ' amused himself by 
drawing up and writing out official papers 
for his father,' who was ordnance storekeeper 
at the Tower of London. These productions 
led the war office officials to offer to keep 
him in the department as an assistant. He 
was appointed in 1795, promoted later to be 
chief of his department, and retired on a pen- 
sion in 1850, when his services received 
official acknowledgment. He died on 25 Nov. 

1868, unmarried. Robert Porrett Collier, 
lord Monkswell [q. v.], was his nephew. 

Porrett was elected fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 9 Jan. 1840 and of the 
Royal Society in 1848. He was an original 
fellow of the Chemical Society, and also a. 
fellow of the Astronomical Society. His 
position and residence in the Tower led him 
to take an interest in antiquities. He was a 
recognised authority on armour, on which 
he contributed several papers to 'Archeeo- 
logia ' and the ' Proceedings ' of the Society 
of Antiquaries. 

Although he was not a professional che- 
mist, Porrett did valuable work in experi- 
mental science. Towards the end of 1808 
he found that by treating prussic acid with 
sulphuretted hydrogen a new acid was formed, 
which he termed prussous acid. For this 
investigation he was awarded a medal by the 
Society of Arts. In 1814 he discovered the 
qualitative composition of the acid, and 
showed that it was formed by the union of 
prussic acid and sulphur, and termed it sul- 
phuretted chyazic acid. Its present name 
of sulpho-cyanic acid was given by Thomas 
Thomson (1773-1852) [q. v.] (THOMSON'S 
Annals of Philosophy, xii. 216), and its 
quantitative composition was determined in 
1820 by Berzelius. In 1814 Porrett also 
made the important discovery of ferrocyanic 
acid, which he termed ferruretted chyazic 
acid. He showed by the electrolysis of the 
salts, then known as triple prussiates, and 
by the isolation of the acid itself, that the 
iron contained in the salts must be regarded 
as forming part of the acid, thus confirming 
a suggestion previously put forward by Ber- 
thollet (KoPP, Geschichte der Chemie, iv. 
377). He examined the properties of the 
acid carefully, and showed that it can easily 
be oxidised by the air, Prussian blue being 
formed at the same time ; this observation 
has been utilised in dyeing (Porrett in Philo- 
sophical Transactions, 1814, p. 530, and 
WATTS, Diet, of Chemistry, ii. 227). Por- 
rett attempted to determine the quantitative 
composition of prussic acid, and showed that 
when it is oxidised the volume of carbonic 
acid formed is exactly twice that of the 
nitrogen. But his other data are erroneous, 
and the problem was completely solved by 
Gay-Lussac shortly after. Porrett in 1813 
made some interesting experiments in con- 
junction with Rupert Kirk and William 
Wilson on the extremely dangerous sub- 
stance, chloride of nitrogen. 

His ' Observations on the Flame of a 
Candle,' a paper written in 1816, contain 
important and hitherto neglected confirma- 
tion of Davy's then just published view of 




the structure of luminous flame, recently 
defended by Smithells (Chem. Soc. Trans. 
1892, p. 217). According to Porrett, the 
light is mainly due to free carbon formed in 
the flame owing to the decomposition by heat 
of gaseous hydrocarbons. His ingenious 
experiments deserve repetition, and the ob- 
servation that the luminous portion of the 
flame is surrounded completely by an almost 
invisible mantle, and that a spirit-lamp flame, 
though more transparent than glass, casts a 
shadow when placed in front of a candle 
flame, are of much importance. His chemi- 
cal investigations on gun-cotton, published 
in 1846, are not of great value. 

Porrett's sole contribution to physics was 
the discovery of electric endosmosis in 1816 
(THOMSON, Annals of Philosophy, viii. 74). 
The phenomenon had, according to Wiede- 
mann (Galvanismus und Elektricitat, Isted. 
i. 376), been observed previously by Reuss, 
but Porrett's discovery was independent, 
and the phenomenon for long went in Ger- 
many by his name. 

Porre'tt's style is clear and unpretentious, 
his exposition methodical and workmanlike. 
Probably owing to lack of time, he did not 
attain the technical skill necessary to com- 
plete the investigations he began so bril- 
liantly. It is unfortunate for science that 
a man of such marked capacity should have 
given to it only his leisure. 

The following is a list of his scientific 
papers : 1. In the l Transactions ' of the So- 
ciety of Arts : ' A Memoir on the Prussic 
Acid ' (1809, xxvii. 89-103). In Nicholson's 
' Journal : ' 2. ' On the Prussic and Prussous 
Acids ' (1810, xxv. 344). 3. ' On the Com- 
bination of Chlorine with Oil of Turpen- 
tine ' (1812, xxxiii. 194). 4. 'On the Explo- 
sive Compound of Chlorine and Azote ' (in 
conjunction with R. Kirk and W. Wilson) 
(1813, xxxiv. 276). In the 'Philosophical 
Transactions : ' 5. ( On the Nature of the 
Salts termed Triple Prussiates, and on Acids 
formed by the Union of certain Bodies with 
the Elements of Prussic Acid' (6 June 1814, 
p. 527). 6. 'Further Analytical Data on 
the Constitution of Ferruretted Chyazic and 
Sulphuretted Chyazic Acids,' &c. (22 Feb. 
1815). In Thomson's ' Annals of Philosophy : ' 
7. 'Curious Galvanic Experiments' (1816, 
viii. 74). 8. ' Observations on the Flame of 
a Candle' (viii. 337). 9. 'On the Triple 
Prussiate of Potash' (1818, xii. 214). 10. ' On 
the Anthrazothion of Von Grotthuss, and 
on Sulphuretted Chyazic Acid ' (1819, xiii. 
356). 11. 'On Ferrochyazate of Potash and 
the Atomic Weight of Iron' (1819, xiv. 
295). In the Chemical Society's ' Memoirs : ' 
12. ' On the Chemical Composition of Gun- 

Cotton' (in conjunction with E. Tesche- 
macher) (1846, iii. 258). 13. 'On the 
Existence of a new Alkali in Gun-Cotton ' 
(iii. 287). 

[Besides the sources mentioned above, 
obituaries in Chem. Soc. Journ. 1869, p. vii ; 
Proc. Eoy. Soc. vol. xviii. p. iv. ; Proc. Soc. of 
Antiquaries, 2nd ser. iv. 305 ; Poggendorff 's 
Biographisch-literarisches Haudworterbuch zur 
Gresch. der exakten Wissenschaften ; Porrett's 
own papers.] P. J. H. 

PORSON, RICHARD (1759-1808), 
Greek scholar, was born on 25 Dec. 1759 
at East Ruston, near North Walsham, Nor- 
folk, where his father, Huggin Person, a 
worsted-weaver by trade, was parish clerk ; 
his mother, Anne, was the daughter of a 
shoemaker named Palmer in the neighbour- 
ing village of Bacton. Richard was the 
eldest of four children, having two brothers 
and a sister. He was sent first to the 
village school of Bacton, and thence, after a 
short stay, to the village school of Happis- 
burgh, where the master, Summers to whom 
Person was always grateful grounded 
him in Latin and mathematics. The boy 
showed an extraordinary memory, and was 
especially remarkable for his rapid pro- 
ficiency in arithmetic. His father meant 
to put him to the loom, and meanwhile 
took a keen interest in his education, making 
him say over every evening the lessons 
learned during the day. When Porson had 
been three years with Summers, and was 
eleven years old, his rare promise attracted 
the notice of the Rev. T. Hewitt (curate of 
the parish which included East Ruston 
and Bacton), who undertook to educate him 
along with his own sons, keeping him at his 
house at Bacton during the week, and send- 
ing him home for Sundays. For nearly two 
years Porson was taught by Hewitt, con- 
tinuing his Latin and mathematical studies, 
and beginning Greek. In 1773, when the 
boy was thirteen, Mr. Norris of Witton 
Park, moved by Hewitt, sent him to be ex- 
amined at Cambridge, with a view to de- 
ciding whether he ought to be prepared for 
the university. The examiners were James 
Lambert [q. v.], the regius professor of Greek ; 
Thomas Postlethwaite [q. v.] and William 
Collier, tutors of Trinity College ; and George 
Atwood [q. v.], the mathematician. Their 
report determined Mr. Norris to send Por- 
son to some great public school. It was 
desired to place him on the foundation of the 
Charterhouse, but the governors, to whom 
application was made, had promised their 
nominations for the next vacancies ; and, 
eventually, in August 1774, he was entered 
on the foundation of Eton College. At 




Eton he stayed about four years. The chief 
source of information concerning his school- 
life there is the evidence given, after his 
death, by one of his former schoolfellows, 
Dr. Joseph Goodall, provost of Eton, who 
was examined before a committee of the 
House of Commons on the state of educa- 
tion in the country, and was asked, among 
other things, why ' the late Professor Por- 
son ' was not elected to a scholarship at 
King's College, Cambridge. The answer to 
that question was, in brief, that he had 
entered the school too late. When he came 
to Eton he knew but little of Latin prosody, 
and had not made much progress in Greek. 
His compositions, though correct, ' fell far 
short of excellence.' ' He always under- 
valued school exercises, and generally wrote 
his exercises fair at once, without study.' 
'Still, we all looked up to him/ says Goodall, 
'in consequence of his great abilities and 
variety of information.' It is said that once 
in school he construed Horace from memory, 
a mischievous boy having thrust some other 
book into his hand. He wrote two plays to 
be acted in the Long Chamber, one of which, 
called 'Out of the Frying-pan into the Fire,' 
exists in manuscript in the library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; it is full of rollicking 
fun, but nowhere rises above schoolboy level. 
While at Eton he had a serious illness, due to 
the formation of an imposthume in the lungs, 
which permanently affected his health, and 
caused him to be frequently troubled by 
asthma. In 1777 his benefactor, Mr. 
Norris, died; This loss threatened to mar 
Person's career ; but Sir George Baker, then 
president of the College of Physicians, 
generously started a fund to provide for his 
maintenance at the university, and, as Dr. 
Goodall tells us, ' contributions were readily 
supplied by Etonians.' 

Person was entered at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, on 28 March 1778, and commenced 
residence there in the following October. 
He was then eighteen. Thus far he had been 
distinguished rather by great natural gifts 
than by special excellence in scholarship. 
While he was at Eton the head-master, Dr. 
Jonathan Davies [q. v.], had given him as a 
prize the edition of Longinus by Jonathan 
Toup [q. v.] This book is said to have been 
the first which excited his interest in critical 
studies. His systematic pursuit of those 
studies began in his undergraduate days at 
Cambridge. He had a distinguished career 
there. In 1780 he was elected a scholar of 
Trinity College. In December 1781 he 
gained the Craven University scholarship. 
A copy of seventeen Greek iambics which 
he wrote on that occasion is extant ; it is 

without accents, and is curious as exhi- 
biting, besides some other defects, three 
breaches of the canon respecting the ' pause ' 
which Person afterwards enunciated. In 1782 
he took his degree of B.A. with mathema- 
tical honours, being third ' senior optime ' 
(i.e. third in the second class of the tripos), 
and shortly afterwards won the first of the 
two chancellor's medals for classics. In 
the same year he was elected a fellow of 
Trinity College, while still a junior bachelor, 
though, under the rule which then existed, 
men of that standing were not ordinarily 
allowed to be candidates. He took the de- 
gree of M.A. in 1785. 

The story of the great scholar's life is 
mainly that of his studies, but clearness will 
be served by postponing a survey of his writ- 
ings to a sketch of the external facts of his 

From 1783 onwards Person contributed 
articles on classical subjects to several 
periodicals, but the work which first made 
his name widely known was the series of 
< Letters to Travis ' (1788-9). These ' Letters ' 
were the outcome of theological studies in 
which he had engaged for the purpose of de- 
termining whether he should take holy orders. 
He decided in the negative, on grounds which 
he thus stated to his intimate friend, Wil- 
liam Maltby [q. v.] : 'I found that I should 
require about fifty years' reading to make 
myself thoroughly acquainted with divinity 
to satisfy my mind on all points.' The 
decision was a momentous one for him. He 
had no regular source of income except his 
fellowship (then about 100/. a year), and, 
under the statutes of Trinity College, a fellow 
was then required to be in priest's orders 
within seven years from his M.A. degree, 
unless he held one of the two fellowships 
reserved for laymen. Person, having be- 
come M.A. in 1785, reached that limit in 
1792. A lay fellowship was then vacant, 
and would, according to custom, have been 
given to Person, the senior lay fellow, but 
the nomination rested with Dr. Postlethwaite, 
the master. Person formally applied for it ; 
but the master, in reply, wrote advising him 
to take orders, and gave the lay fellowship 
to John Heys, a nephew of his own. The 
appointment of Heys is recorded in the ' Con- 
clusion Book ' of Trinity College, under the 
date of 4 July 1792. In the summer of 1792 
Person, who was then living in London, called 
on Dr. Postlethwaite at Westminster, where 
he was staying with the dean (Dr. Vincent), 
for the purpose of examining for the West- 
minster scholarships. The interview was a 
painful one. Porson said that he came to 
announce the approaching vacancy in his 




fellowship, since he could not take orders. 
Dr. Postlethwaite expressed surprise at 
that resolve. Person indignantly rejoined 
that, if he had intended to take orders, he 
would not have applied for a lay fellowship. 
To the end of his days Porson believed 
that in this matter he had suffered a cruel 
wrong ; and the belief was shared by several 
of his friends. Dr. Charles Burney, writing 
in December 1792 to Dr. Samuel Parr, men- 
tions that Porson (referring to his studies) 
had been saying how hard it was, ' when a 
man's spirit had once been broken, to renovate 
it.' Having lost his fellowship, Porson was 
now (to use his own phrase) ' a gentleman 
in London with sixpence in his pocket.' At 
this time, as he afterwards told his nephew, 
Hawes, he was indeed in the greatest straits, 
and was compelled, by stinting himself of 
food, to make a guinea last a month. Mean- 
while some of his friends and admirers 
privately raised a fund for the purpose of 
buying him an annuity. A letter from Dr. 
Matthew Raine (of Charterhouse) to Dr. 
Parr shows the good feeling of the sub- 
scribers. Porson was given to understand 
that ' this was a tribute of literary men to 
literature,' and a protest against such treat- 
ment as he had recently experienced. The 
amount eventually secured to him was 
about 100/. a year. He accepted it on con- 
dition that the principal sum of which he 
was to receive the interest should be vested 
in trustees, and returned, at his death, to 
the donors. After his decease, the donors, 
or their representatives, having declined to 
receive back their gifts, the residue of the 
fund was applied to establishing the Porson 
prize and the Porson scholarship in the 
university of Cambridge. 

Porson had now taken rooms at Essex 
Court in the Temple. His fellowship was 
vacated in July 1792. Shortly afterwards 
William Cooke [see under COOKE, WILLIAM, 
d. 1780], regius professor of Greek at Cam- 
bridge, resigned that post. Dr. Postlethwaite 
(the master of Trinity) wrote to Porson urging 
him to become a candidate. Porson was under 
the impression that he would be required to 
sign the Thirty-nine Articles, and wrote to 
Postlethwaite, 6 Oct. 1792: < The same reason 
which hindered me from keeping my fellow- 
ship by the method you obligingly pointed out 
to me would, I am greatly afraid, prevent me 
from being Greek professor.' On learning, 
however, that no such test was exacted, he 
resolved to stand. He delivered before the 
seven electors a Latin prelection on Euripides 
(which he had written in two days), and, 
having been unanimously elected, was ad- 
mitted professor on 2 Nov. 1792. The only 

stipend then attached to the office was the 
40/. a year with which Henry VIII had en- 
dowed it in 1540. The distinction conferred 
on the chair by its first occupant, Sir John 
Cheke, had been maintained by several of 
his successors, such as James Duport, Isaac 
Barrow, and Walter Taylor. But latterly 
the Greek professors had ceased to lecture. 
Porson, at the time of his election, certainly 
intended to become an active teacher. But 
he never fulfilled his intention. It has been 
said that he could not obtain rooms in his 
college for the purpose. This is improbable, 
though some temporary difficulty on that 
score may have discouraged him. When his 
friend Maltby asked him why he had not 
lectured, he said, l Because I have thought 
better on it ; whatever originality my lectures 
might have had, people would have cried out, 
" We knew all this before." ' Some such 
feeling was, no doubt, one cause ; another, 
probably, was the indolence which grew upon 
him (in regard to everything except private 
study). And in those days there was no 
stimulus at the universities to spur a reluc- 
tant man into lecturing. But if he did 
nothing in that way, at any rate he served 
the true purpose of his chair, as few have 
served it, by writings which advanced the 
knowledge of his subject. 

After his election to the professorship, 
Porson continued to live in London at the 
Temple, making occasional visits to Cam- 
bridge, where it was his duty to take part 
in certain classical examinations. He also 
went sometimes to Eton or to Norfolk ; but 
he disliked travelling. In his chambers at 
the Temple he must have worked very hard, 
though probably by fits and starts rather than 
continuously. ' One morning,' says Maltby, 
' I went to call upon him there, and, having 
inquired at his barber's close by if Mr. Porson 
was at home, was answered, " Yes ; but he has 
seen no one for two days." I, however, pro- 
ceeded to his chamber, and knocked at the door 
more than once. He would not open it, and 
I came downstairs. As I was recrossing the 
court, Porson, who had perceived that I was 
the visitor, opened the window and stopped 
me.' The work in which Porson was then 
absorbed was the collation of the Harleian 
manuscript of the Odyssey for the Grenville 
Homer, published in 1801. His society was 
much sought by men of letters, and somewhat 
by lion-hunters ; but to the latter, however 
distinguished they might be, he had a strong 
aversion. Among his intimate friends was . 
James Perry [q. v.], the editor of the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle.' In November 1796 Porson 
married Perry's sister, Mrs. Lunan ; their 
union seems to have been a happy one, but 


T 57 


it was brief, for Mrs. Porson died of a decline 
on 12 April 1797. [The year of the marriage 
is given as 1795 by some authorities, but 
H. R. LTJARD, Cambridge Essays. 1857, p. 
154, is apparently right in giving 1796.] It 
is not recorded where Porson lived in London 
during the few months of his married life. 
After his wile's death he went back to his 
chambers at the Temple in Essex Court. 
The six years 1797-1802 were busy; they 
saw the publication of the four plays of 
Euripides which he edited. About 1802 a 
London firm of publishers offered him a large 
sum for an edition of Aristophanes. A letter 
preserved among the Porson MSS. in the 
library of Trinity College proves that even 
as late as 1805 such a work was still ex- 
pected from him. Dean Gaisford had found 
in the Bodleian Library ' a very complete 
and full index verborum to Aristophanes,' 
and on 29 Oct. 1805 he writes to Porson 
offering to send him the book, * that if it 
should suit your purpose, it might be sub- 
joined to your edition, which we look for 
with much eagerness and solicitude.' But, 
during the last five or six years of his life, 
Person's health was not such as to admit of 
close or sustained application to study. He 
now suffered severely from his old trouble of 
asthma, and habits had grown upon him 
which were wholly incompatible with steady 
labour. In 1806 the London Institution 
was founded ; it was then in the Old Jewry, 
whence it was afterwards removed to Fins- 
bury Circus. The managers elected Porson 
to the post of principal librarian, with a salary 
of 200/. a year and a set of rooms, an appoint- 
ment which was notified to him on 23 April 
by Richard Sharp (< Conversation Sharp ' ), 
one of the electors. * I am sincerely rejoiced,' 
Sharp writes, ' in the prospect of those 
benefits which the institution is likely to 
derive from your reputation and talents, and 
of the comforts which I hope that you will 
find in your connection with us.' The 
managers afterwards complained (and justly 
in the opinion of some of Person's friends) 
that his attendance was irregular, and that 
he did nothing to enlarge the library ; but in 
one respect, at least, he made a good librarian 
he was always ready to give information to 
the numerous callers at his rooms in the In- 
stitution who came to consult him on matters 
of ancient or modern literature. 

Early in 1808 his wonderful memory began 
to show signs of failure, and later in the year h< 
suffered from intermittent fever. In Septem 
ber he complained of feeling thoroughly ill 
with sensations like those of ague. On Mon 
day morning, 19 Sept., he called at the house 
of his brother-in-law, Perry, in Lancaste: 

^ourt, Strand, and, not finding him at home, 
vent on towards Charing Cross. At the 
;orner of Northumberland Street he was 
eized with apoplexy, and was taken to the 
workhouse in St. Martin's Lane. He could 
ot speak, and the people there had no clue 
o his identity ; they therefore sent an adver- 
isement to the * British Press/ which de- 
scribed him as ' a tall man, apparently about 
forty-five years of age, dressed in a blue coat 
and black breeches, and having in his pocket 
a gold watch, a trifling quantity of silver, 
and a memorandum-book, the leaves of which 
were filled chiefly with Greek lines written 
n pencil, and partly effaced ; two or three 
ines of Latin, and an algebraical calculation ; 
:he Greek extracts being principally from 
ancient medical works.' Next morning 
^20 Sept.) this was seen by James Savage, 
;he under-librarian of the London Institu- 
tion, who went to St. Martin's Lane and 
Drought Porson home. As they drove from 
Charing Cross to the Old Jewry, Porson 
chatted with his usual animation, showing 
much concern about the great fire which had 
destroyed Covent Garden Theatre the day 
before. On reaching the Institution, he 
breakfasted on green tea (his favourite kind) 
and toast, and was well enough to have a 
long talk with Dr. Adam Clarke in the 
library, about a stone with a Greek inscrip- 
tion which had just been found in the 
kitchen of a London house. Later in the 
day he went to Cole's Coffee-house in St. 
Michael's Alley, Cornhill. There he had 
another fit, and was brought back to the Old 
Jewry and put to bed. This was on Tuesday 
afternoon, 20 Sept. His brother-in-law Perry- 
was sent for, and showed him the greatest 
kindness to the end. He sank gradually 
during the week, and died at midnight on 
Sunday, 25 Sept. 1808, in the forty-ninth 
year of his age. On 4 Oct. he was buried in 
the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, the 
funeral service being read by the master, Dr. 
Mansel. Many Trinity men have heard the 
veteran geologist, Professor Adam Sedgwick, 
tell how he chanced to come into Cambridge 
from the country on that day, without know- 
ing that it had been fixed for the funeral, and 
how, anxious to join in honouring the memory 
of the great scholar, he borrowed a black 
coat from a friend, and took his place in the 
long procession which followed the coffin 
from the college hall through the great 
court. Porson's tomb is at the foot of New- 
ton's statue in the ante-chapel, near the 
place where two other scholars who, like 
him, died prematurely Dobree and John 
Wordsworth were after wards laid. Bentley 
rests at the eastern end of the same chapel. 




Celebrity and eccentricity combined to 
make Person the subject of countless stories, 
many of which were exaggerated or apo- 
cryphal ; but there remains enough of trust- 
worthy testimony to supply a tolerably clear 
picture of the man. His personal appearance 
is described in Pryse Lockhart Gordon's 
' Personal Memoirs ' (i. 288). He was tall 
nearly six feet in stature ; the head was 
a very fine one, with an expansive forehead, 
over which ' his shining brown hair ' was 
sometimes combed straight forward ; the 
nose was Roman, and rather long ; the eyes 
'keen and penetrating,' and shaded with long 
lashes. ' His mouth was full of expression ; 
and altogether his countenance indicated 
deep thought.' There are two portraits of 
him at Cambridge ; one by Hoppner (in the 
university library), the original of a well- 
known engraving ; another, by Kirkby, in 
the master's lodge at Trinity College. Two 
busts of him also exist : one by Chantrey, 
which, in the opinion of his nephew, Siday 
Hawes (the writer of the article ' Person ' 
in Knight's ' English Encyclopaedia '), was 
not a good likeness ; and another which 
the same authority commends as excellent 
by Ganganelli, from a cast of the head 
and face taken after death. The engraving 
prefixed to Person's 'Adversaria' (1812) is 
from Ganganelli's bust. His ' gala costume,' 
according to Mr. Gordon, was ' a smart blue 
coat, white vest, black satin nether gar- 
ments and silk stockings, with a shirt 
ruffled at the wrists.' But, according to 
Maltby, ' he was generally ill-dressed and 
dirty.' Dr. Raine, indeed, said that he had 
known Porson to be refused admittance by 
servants at the houses of his friends. Dr. 
Davis, a physician at Bath, once took Porson 
to a ball at the assembly rooms there, and 
introduced him to the Rev. R. Warner, who 
has described the horror felt by the master 
of the ceremonies at the strange figure 'with 
lank, uncombed locks, a loose neckcloth, and 
wrinkled stockings.' It was in vain that 
Warner tried to explain what a great man 
was there (WARNER, Literary Recollections, 
ii. 6). 

As a companion, Porson seems to have been 
delightful when he felt at home and liked the 
people to whom he was talking. 'In company,' 
says Thomas Kidd, ' R. P. was the gentlest 
being I ever met with; his conversation 
was engaging and delightful ; it was at once 
animated by force of reasoning, and adorned 
with all the graces and embellishments of 
wit.' Gilbert Wakefield, on the other hand 
who, at least after 1797, disliked Porson 
assigns three reasons why their intercourse 
had not been more frequent : viz. Person's ' in- 

attention to times and seasons,' which made 
him an inconvenient guest ; his ' immoderate 
drinking ; ' and ' the uninteresting insipidity 
! of his conversation.' The last charge means, 
probably, that Porson stubbornly refused to 
i t>e communicative in Wakefield's company. 
| A less prejudiced witness, William Beloe 
I [q. v.], says of Porson that, f except where 
he was exceedingly intimate, his elocution 
was perplexed and embarrassed.' But Dr. 
I John Johnstone, the biographer of Dr. Parr, 
j has described what Person's talk could be 
like when he felt no such restraint. They 
met at Parr's house in the winter of 1790-1. 
Porson was rather gloomy in the morning, 
more genial after dinner, and ' in his glory ' 
at night. ' The charms of his society were 
then irresistible. Many a midnight hour did 
I spend with him, listening with delight, 
while he poured out torrents of various 
literature, the best sentences of the best 
writers, and sometimes the ludicrous beyond 
the gay ; pages of Barrow, whole letters of 
Richardson, whole scenes of Foote, favourite 
pieces from the periodical press.' His me- 
mory was marvellous, not only for its tena- 
city, but also for its readiness ; whatever it 
contained he could produce at the right mo- 
ment. He was once at a party given by 
Dr. Charles Burney at Hammersmith, when 
the guests were examining some old news- 
papers which gave a detailed account of the 
execution of Charles I. One of the company 
remarked that some of the particulars there 
given had not been mentioned, he thought, 
by Hume or Rapin. Porson forthwith re- 
peated a long passage from Rapin in which 
these circumstances were duly recorded. 
Rogers once took him to an evening party, 
where he was introduced ' to several women 
of fashion,' ' who were very anxious to see 
the great Grecian. How do you suppose he 
entertained them ? Chiefly by reciting an 
immense quantity of old forgotten Vauxhall 
songs.' As a rule, Porson declined invita- 
tions of this nature. ' They invite me merely 
out of curiosity,' he once said, ' and. after 
they have satisfied it, would like to kick me 
downstairs.' One day Sir James Mackin- 
tosh, with whom he was dining, asked him 
to go with him the next day to dinner at 
Holland House, to meet Fox, who wished to 
be introduced to him. Porson seemed to 
assent, but the next morning made some 
excuse for not going. He was a proud man, 
of high spirit, who resented the faintest suspi- 
cion of patronage ; and he also disliked the 
restraints of formal society. With regard to 
bis too frequent intemperance, the facts ap- 
pear to be as follows. It was not believed by 
bis friends that he drank to excess when he was 



alone. He could, and often did (even in his 
later years), observe abstinence for a longer 
or shorter period. But from boyhood he had 
been subject to insomnia; this often drove him 
to seek society at night, and to sit up late ; 
and in those days that easily led to drinking. 
A craving was gradually developed in him, 
which at last became essentially a disease. 
His best friends did their utmost to protect 
him from it, and some of them could suc- 
ceed; but he was not always with them, 
and, in less judicious company, he would 
sometimes prolong his carouse through a 
whole night. Byron's account of him is to 
the effect that his demeanour in public was 
sober and decorous, but that in the evenings, 
in college rooms, it was sometimes the re- 
verse. It should be remembered that these 
recollections refer to the years 1805-8 (in 
which Byron was an undergraduate), when 
Person's health was broken, and when his 
infirmity was seen at its worst (cf. LUABD, 
Correspondence of Porson, p. 133). That 
the baneful habit limited Porson's work and 
shortened his days is unhappily as little 
doubtful as are the splendour of his gifts and 
the rare vigour of constitution with which he 
must have been originally endowed. 

The most salient feature of Porson's cha- 
racter is well marked by Bishop Turton in 
his ' Vindication ' (1815). 'There is one 
quality of mind in which it may be confi- 
dently maintained that Mr. Porson had no 
superior I mean the most pure and in- 
flexible love of truth. Under the influence 
of this principle he was cautious, and patient, 
and persevering in his researches, and scru- 
pulously accurate in stating facts as he found 
them. All who were intimate with him 
bear witness to this noble part of his cha- 
racter, and his works confirm the testimony 
of his friends.' It might be added that the 
irony which pervades so much of Porson's 
writings, and the fierce satire which he could 
occasionally wield, were intimately con- 
nected with this love of accuracy and of 
candour. They were the weapons which he 
employed where he discovered the absence 
of those qualities. He was a man of warm 
and keen feelings, a staunch friend, and also 
a good hater. In the course of life he had 
suffered, or believed himself to have suffered, 
some wrongs and many slights. These, acting 
on his sensitive temperament, tinged it with 
cynicism, or even with bitterness. He once 
described himself (in 1807) as a man who 
had become l a misanthrope from a morbid 
excess of sensibility.' In this, however, he 
was less than just to himself. He was, in- 
deed, easily estranged, even from old ac- 
quaintances, by words or acts which offended 

nim. But his native disposition was most 
aenevolent. To those who consulted him on 
matters of scholarship he was liberal of his 
aid. Stephen Weston says ' he told you all 
you wanted to know in a plain and direct 
manner, without any attempt to display his 
own superiority, but merely to inform you.' 
Nor was his liberality confined to the im- 
parting of his knowledge. Small though 
his means were, the strict economy which he 
practised enabled him to spare something for 
the needs of others : he was l most generous 
(as his nephew, Mr. Hawes, testifies) to the 
three orphan children of his brother Henry/ 
There is a letter of his extant written in 1802 
when his own income was something under 
140Z. to his great friend Dr. Martin Davy 
(master of Caius) asking him to help in a 
subscription on behalf of some one whom 
he calls ; the poor poet.' He was free from 
vanity. ' I have made myself what I am,' he 
once said, 'by intense labour; sometimes, in 
order to impress a thing upon my memory, I 
have read it a dozen times, and transcribed it 
six.' And, though he could be rough at times, 
he was not arrogant ; never sought to impose 
his own authority, but always anticipated 
the demand for proof. His capacity for great 
bursts of industry was combined with chronic 
indolence in certain directions. He had a 
rooted dislike to composition ; and though, 
under pressure, he could write with fair 
rapidity, he seldom wrote with ease unless, 
perhaps, in some of his lighter effusions. 
This reluctance was extended to letter- 
writing ; even his nearest relatives had cause 
to complain of his silence. In the case of 
some distinguished scholars, his failure to 
answer letters was inexcusable. Gail, of the 
College de France, sends him books, with a 
most courteous letter, in 1799, and a year 
later writes again, expressing a fear that the 
parcel must have miscarried, and sending 
other copies. Eichstadt, of Jena, had a pre- 
cisely similar experience in 1801-2, aggra- 
vated by the fact that the book which he 
sent (vol. i. of his ' Diodorus ') was actually 
dedicated to Porson, in conjunction with 
Korae's, Wolff, and Wyttenbach. The same 
kind of indolence unfitted him for routine 
duties of any sort. In his later life he was 
also averse to travelling. ' He hated moving,' 
says Maltby, ' and would not even accom- 
pany me to Paris.' Long years passed with- 
out his once going from London to Norfolk 
to see his relatives ; though he was a good 
son and a good brother, and, when his father 
became seriously ill, hastened down to stay 
with his sister. The sluggish elements which 
were thus mingled with the strenuous in his 
nature indisposed him for any exertion be- 




yond the range of his chosen and favourite 
pursuits. As he cared nothing for money, 
so he cared little for reputation, at least in 
the popular sense ; the only applause which 
he valued was that of scholars who satisfied 
his fastidious judgment. He worked with a 
clear consciousness of the limits within 
which he could work best. Rogers men- 
tions that some one asked Person why he did 
not produce more original work, and he re- 
plied, 'I doubt if I could produce any original 
work which would command the attention 
of posterity. I can be known only by my 
notes ; and I am quite satisfied if, three 
hundred years hence, it shall be said that 
one Person lived towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, who did a good deal for 
the text of Euripides.' 

All Porson's principal writings are com- 
prised in the short period from his twenty- 
fourth to his forty-fourth year (1783-1803). 
The last five years of his life (1804-8), when 
his health was failing, are represented only 
by a very few private letters ; though some 
of the notes in his books may be of that time. 
His earliest work appeared in a publication 
called ' Maty's Review ' [see MATT, PAUL 
HENRY], which existed from 1782 to 1787. 
To this review he contributed, in 1783, a 
short paper on Schutz's ^Eschylus, and a more 
elaborate one on Brunck's Aristophanes ; in 
1784 a notice of the book in which Stephen 
Weston dealt with the fragments of the ele- 
giac poet Hermesianax, and a few pages on 
G. I. Huntingford's defence of his Greek 
verses (' Apology for the Monostrophics '). 
Comparatively slight though these articles 
are, they give glimpses of his critical power; 
one fragment of Hermesianax, in particular, 
(ap. Athen. p. 599A, vv. 90 ff.) is brilliantly 
restored. In 1786, when Hutchinson's edition 
of the ' Anabasis ' was being reprinted, he 
added some notes to it (pp. xli-lix), with a 
short preface. During these early years, Por- 
son's thoughts were turned especially to- 
wards ^Eschylus. It had already been an- 
nounced in * Maty's Review ' (for March and 
October 1783) that ' a scholar of Cambridge 
was preparing a new edition of Stanley's 
yEschylus, to which he proposed to add his 
own notes, and would be glad of any com- 
munications on the subject, either from En- 
glishmen or foreigners.' The syndics of the 
Cambridge University Press were then con- 
templating a new edition of ./Eschylus, and 
offered the editorship to Person ; who, how- 
ever, declined it, on finding that Stanley's 
text was to be followed, and that all Pauw's 
notes were to be included. He was anxious 
to be sent to Florence to collate the Medicean 
(or 'Laurentian') manuscript of ^Eschylus 

the oldest and best and offered to perform the 
mission at small cost ; but the proposal was 
rejected, one of the syndics remarking that 
Porson might ' collect ' his manuscripts 
at home. It was always characteristic of 
Porson to vary his graver studies by occa- 
sional writings of a light or humorous kind. 
One of the earliest examples, and perhaps 
the best, is a series of three letters to the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' (August, Septem- 
ber, October 1787) on the i Life ' of Johnson- 
by Sir John Hawkins an ironical panegyric, 
in which Hawkins's pompous style is parodied. 
The ' Fragment ' in which Sir John is sup- 
posed to relate what passed between him- 
self and Johnson's negro servant about the de- 
ceased Doctor's watch is equal to anything 
in Thackeray. It was in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' too, for 1788 and 1789, that Por- 
son published his first important work, the 
'Letters to Travis.' Archdeacon George Travis, 
in his ' Letters to Gibbon,' had defended the 
genuineness of the text 1 St. John v. 7 (the 
three heavenly witnesses), to which Gibbon 
(ch. 37, note 120) had referred as being an 
interpolation. The best critics, from Erasmus 
to Bentley, had been of Gibbon's opinion. 
Porson, in his ' Letters to Travis,' reviews 
the history of the disputed text in detail, 
and proves its spuriousness with conclusive 
force. His merit here is not originality, but 
critical thoroughness, luminous method, and 
sound reasoning. Travis receives no mercy ; 
but his book deserved none. Porson was an 
admirer of Swift and of ' Junius.' In these 
'Letters 'he occasionally reminds us of both. 
'To peruse such a mass of sophistry, 'he said, 
' without sometimes giving way to laughter, 
and sometimes to indignation, was, to me 
at least, impossible.' The collected ' Letters 
to Travis ' were published in 1790. In the 
preface is Porson's well-known estimate of 
Gibbon, whose style he criticises, while fully 
appreciating the monumental greatness of 
his work. One of the results of Porson's 
labours was that an old lady, who had meant 
to leave him a large sum, on being informed 
that he had ' attacked Christianity,' cut down 
the legacy. In 1789, while the ' Letters to 
Travis 'were in progress, Porson found leisure 
to write an article in the ' Monthly Review,' 
defending the genuineness of the ' Parian 
Chronicle ' against certain objections raised 
by the Rev. J. Robertson. A new edition of 
Toup's 'Emendationesin Suidam' came forth 
from the Oxford Press in 1790, with notes 
and a preface by Porson (which he had 
written in 1787). This was the work which 
first made his powers widely known among 
scholars. The three years 1788-90 may thus 
be said to be those in which his high repu- 




tation to be raised still higher afterwards 
was definitely established. 

In 1793 he wrote for the ' Monthly Review ' 
a notice of an. edition, by Dr. T. Edwards, 
of the Plutarchic tract on education ; and 
in 1794 a notice of an essay on the Greek 
alphabet, by R. Payne Knight. The London 
edition of Heyne's Virgil (4 vols. 1793) ap- 
peared with a short preface by Person, who 
had undertaken to correct the press. He was 
blamed for the numerous misprints ; but a 
writer in the i Museum Oriticum ' (i. 395) 
says, ' he has been heard to declare that the 
booksellers, after they had obtained permis- 
sion to use his name, never paid the slightest 
attention to his corrections.' In 1795 a folio 
^Eschylus was issued from the Foulis Press 
at Glasgow, with some corrections in the 
text. These were Porson's ; but the book 
appeared without his name, and without his 
knowledge. He had sent a text, thus far 
corrected, to Glasgow, in order that an 
edition of ^Eschylus for a London firm 
might be printed from it ; and this edition 
(in 2 vols. 8vo) was actually printed in 1794, 
though published only in 1806, still with- 
out his name. This partly corrected text 
was the first step towards the edition of 
yEschylus which he had meditated, but 
which he never completed. 

In 1796 Samuel Ireland [q. v.] was pub- 
lishing the Shakespearean papers forged by 
his son, W. H. Ireland : Kernble acted for 
Sheridan at Drury Lane in f Vortigern and 
Rowena,' and shortly afterwards Malone ex- 
posed the fraud. Porson wrote a letter to the 

* Morning Chronicle,' signed * S. England,' 
setting forth how a learned friend of his had 
found ' some of the lost tragedies of Sophocles ' 
in an old trunk. As a specimen he gives 
twelve Greek iambic verses (a translation of 

* Three children sliding on the ice '). Among 
his other contributions to the * Morning 
Chronicle' at this period, the best are 'The 
Imitations of Horace '(1797), political satires 
of much caustic humour, on the war with 
France, the panic as to the spread of revo- 
lutionary principles, &c., couched in the form 
of free translations from the Odes, introduced 
by letters in prose. In 1797 his edition of 
the ' Hecuba ' of Euripides was published in 
London, without his name. The preface (of 
sixteen pages) states that the book is meant 
chiefly for young students, and then deals 
with certain points as to the mode of writing 
Greek words, and as to metre. The notes 
are short, and all f critical.' Gilbert Wake- 
field, angry at not finding himself mentioned, 
attacked the book in a feebly furious pam- 
phlet (' Diatribe Extemporalis '). Godfrey 
Hermann was then a young man of twenty- 


five. In 1796 (the year in which he brought 
out the first edition of his treatise on Greek 
metres) he had written to Porson, asking for 
help in obtaining access to the manuscripts 
of Plautus in England : a request which 
Heyne supported by a letter from Gottingen. 
Nothing could be more courteous or appre- 
ciative than the terms in which young Her- 
mann wrote to Porson (the letter is in the 
library of Trinity College) ; but he was now 
nettled by Porson's differences from him on 
some metrical points ; and when, after edit- 
ing the ' Nubes ' in 1799, he brought out a 
' Hecuba ' of his own in 1800, he criticised 
the English edition with a severity and in a 
tone which were quite unwarrantable. There 
are tacit allusions to Hermann (as to some 
other critics) in Porson's subsequent writings, 
and once at least (on ' Medea,' v. 675) he cen- 
sures him by name. As Blonifield observed, 
traces of the variance bet ween these two great 
scholars may be seen in the attitude of Her- 
mann's pupils, such as Seidler and Reisig, 
towards Porson. The * Hecuba ' was followed 
in the next year (1798) by the ' Orestes/ and 
in 1799 by the ' Phoenissse.' Both these plays, 
like the first, were published in London, and 
anonymously. But the fourth and last play 
which Porson edited the ' Medea ' came out 
at the Cambridge Press, and with his name, 
in 1801. The ' Grenville ' Homer, published 
in the same year at the Clarendon Press, had 
appended to it Porson's collation of the Har- 
leian manuscript of the Odyssey (Harl. MS. 
5674 in the British Museum). In 1802 he 
published a second edition of the ' Hecuba,' - 
with many additions to the notes, and with 
the famous ' Supplement ' to the preface, in 
which he states and illustrates certain rules 
of iambic and trochaic verse, including the 
rule respecting the 'pause' ('canon Porso- 
nianus'). This 'Supplement 'may be regarded 
as, on the whole, his finest single piece of 
criticism. Here his published work on Euri- 
pides ended. A transcript by Porson of the 
' Hippolytus,' vv. 176-266, with corrections 
of the text, was in J. H. Monk's hands when 
he edited that play (1811). As appears from 
the notes on Euripides in Porson's ' Adver- 
saria ' (pp. 217 ff.), the ' Supplices ' was an- 
other piece on which he had done a good deal 
of work ; but there is no reason to think that, 
after publishing the four plays, hehad brought 
any fifth near to readiness for the press. 

was unequal to such a task. The ' Monthly 
Review' for October 1802 contained a curious 
letter, so characteristic of Porson as to de- 
serve mention. Having discovered an over- 




sight in one of his own notes (on ' Heci 
782), he wrote to the 'Review/ sigi 

T-i I m o al f i Tnlrn TVir* T)n .WPS ' f\ n c\ 

Hecuba ' 

himself 'John Nic. Dawes,'and instructively 
correcting ' Mr. Person's ' blunder. His choice 
of the pseudonym was suggested by the fact 
that the eminent critic Eichard Dawes had 
once pointed out the similar oversight of 
another scholar (DAWES, Misc. Crit. p. 216). 
On 13 Jan. 1803 Person presented to the 
Society of Antiquaries his restoration of the 
last twenty-six lines of the Greek inscription 
on the Rosetta stone, with a Latin transla- 
tion. It is printed in the transactions of 
the society (Archceologia, vol. 

After Person's death his literary remains 
were published in the following works : 
1. * Ricardi Porsoni Adversaria/ 1812. His 
notes and emendations on Athenseus and 
various Greek poets, edited by Monk and 
Blomfield. 2. His ' Tracts and Miscellaneous 
Criticisms/ 1815, collected by Thomas Kidd. 
3. 'Aristophanica/ 1820. His notes and emen- 
dations on Aristophanes, edited by Peter 
Paul Dobree. 4. His notes on Pausanias, 
printed at the end of Gaisford's ' Lectiones 
Platonic/ 1820. 5. ' The Lexicon of Pho- 
tius/ printed from Person's transcript of a 
manuscript presented to Trinity College by 
Roger Gale (' Codex Galeanus '), edited by 
P. P. Dobree, 1822, 2 vols. 6. Person's 
Notes on Suidas, in the appendix to Gais- 
ford's edition, 1834. 7. 'Person's Corre- 
spondence/ edited for the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, by II. R. Luard, fellow of 
Trinity College and registrary of the univer- 
sity, 1867. A collection of sixty-eight letters 
written or received by Porson (1783-1808), 
including letters from eminent scholars at 
home and abroad. Few men, probably, have 
ever had so distinguished a series of literary 

Person's papers in the library of Trinity 
College were arranged in 1859 by Dr. Luard, 
and are bound in several volumes, to each of 
which a table of contents is prefixed. The 
collection includes : (1) The originals of 
many of the letters printed in the ' Corre- 
spondence.' (2) Person's transcript of the 
Lexicon of Photius, from the Gale MS. This 
was the second copy which he made, the 
first having been destroyed in a fire at Perry's 
house in 1797. It consists of 108 leaves, 
written on one side only, in double columns. 
(3) Person's transcripts of the 'Medea' 
and the ' Phosnissae.' These, with the Pho- 
tius, are truly marvels of calligraphy. The 
so-called ' Porson ' type was cut from this 
manuscript of the ' Medea.' 4. Scattered 
notes on various ancient authors, written in 
copy-books, in a hand so minute that forty 
or fifty notes, on miscellaneous subjects, are 

sometimes crowded into one small page. A 
collation of the Aldine ^Eschylus is especially 
remarkable as an example of his smallest 
writing : it might be compared to diamond 
type. Besides Porson's papers, the college 
library possesses also about 274 of his books, 
almost all of which contain short notes or 
memoranda written by him in the margins 
or on blank leaves. The notes, edited by 
Monk, Blomfield, and Dobree, were taken 
mainly from the papers, but partly also from, 
the books. 

Textual criticism was the work to which 
Porson's genius was mainly devoted. His 
success in it was due primarily to native 
acumen, aided in a degree perhaps un- 
equalled by a marvellous memory, richly 
stored, accurate, and prompt. His emenda- 
tions are found to rest both on a wide and 
exact knowledge of classical Greek, and on a 
wonderful command of passages which illus- 
trate his point. He relied comparatively 
little on mere ' divination/ and usually ab- 
stained from conjecture where he felt that 
the remedy must remain purely conjectural. 
His lifelong love of mathematics has left a 
clear impress on his criticism ; we see it in 
his precision and in his close reasoning. 
Very many of his emendations are such as 
at once appear certain or highly probable. 
Bentley's cogent logic sometimes (as in his 
Horace) renders a textual change plausible, 
while our instinct rebels ; Porson, as a rule, 
merely states his correction, briefly gives 
his proofs, and convinces. His famous note 
on the * Medea/ vv. 139 f., where he dis- 
engages a series of poetical fragments from 
prose texts, is a striking example of his 
method, and has been said also to give some 
idea of the way in which his talk on such 
subjects used to flow. Athenseus, so rich 
in quotations from the poets, afforded a 
field in which Porson did more, perhaps, 
than all former critics put together. He 
definitely advanced Greek scholarship in 
three principal respects : (1) by remarks on 
countless points of Greek idiom and usage ; 
(2) by adding to the knowledge of metre, 
and especially of the iambic trimeter ; (3) by 
emendation of texts. Then, as a master of 
precise and lucid phrase, alike in Latin and 
in English, he supplied models of compact 
and pointed criticism. A racy vigour and 
humour often animate his treatment of 
technical details. He could be trenchantly 
severe, when he saw cause ; but his habitual 
weapon was irony, sometimes veiled, some- 
times frankly keen, always polished, and 
iisually genial. Regarding the correction of 
texts as the most valuable office of the critic, 
he lamented that, in popular estimation, it 




stood below ' literary ' criticism, which he 
very unduly depreciated (KiDD, Tracts, p. 
108). He admitted the utility of explana- 
tory and illustrative comment (Prcef. ad 
Hec.\ but he never wrote it. Textual criti- 
cism can seldom, however, neglect interpre- 
tation without incurring a nemesis. Person 
(speaking of Heyne) once said, ( An eagle 
does not catch flies, and the higher criticism 
is sometimes so intent on subject-matter 
[rebus] that it neglects words' which is 
true ; but there is the converse danger ; and, 
in cases where Person's emendations do not 
command assent, it is sometimes because the 
larger context condemns them. He had 
much humour, but little imagination. In all 
that concerns diction, he was an acute judge 
of style, for prose and verse alike; but it 
may be doubted whether his taste in poetry 
was equally sure ; in his Latin discourse on 
Euripides, he is far less than just to Sopho- 
cles ; and a passage in the ' Tempest ' (' The 
cloud-capped towers,' &c.) was ranked by 
him beneath similar but very inferior lines 
in * Darius,' a tragedy by Sir William Alex- 
ander, lord Stirling [q. v.] His range of read- 
ing was a wide one. Among his favourite 
English authors were Barrow, Swift, Ri- 
chardson, Smollett, and Foote ; Shakespeare, 
whom he knew thoroughly ; Milton, whom 
he wished to vindicate from Johnson's injus- 
tice ; Dryden, and (in a special degree) Pope. 
He had read many French writers, and some 
Italian. From almost every book that he 
loved he could quote pages. 

Person's place in the history of scholarship 
may be concisely indicated. Bentley had 
been a brilliant textual critic, and also (as 
in his ' Phalaris ') a pioneer of the higher 
criticism. The emendation of texts was the 
line in which he was followed by our chief 
classical scholars of the eighteenth century, 
such as John Taylor, Markland, Dawes, 
Toup, Tyrwhitt, Heath, Musgrave. Now, 
Person's' work in this field had a finish, an 
exactness, and a convincing power which 
tended to raise the general estimate of all 
such work as a discipline for the mind. Por- 
son did much to create that ideal of scholar- 
ship which prevailed at Cambridge, and 
widely in England, for more than fifty years 
after his death ; an ideal which owed its in- 
fluence largely to the belief in its educa- 
tional value. On the other hand, he lived 
before the study of manuscripts and of their 
relations to each other had become sys- 
tematic. Hence his work necessarily lacked 
one element of scientific value, viz. a con- 
stant regard to the relative weight of dif- 
ferent witnesses for a text. A time came, 
therefore, when the type of criticism which 

he represents was felt to be, though excel- 
lent in itself, yet, from the scientific point 
of view, incomplete ; while its limitation to 
the linguistic side of scholarship made it ap- 
pear, from the educational point of view, less 
satisfactory than it had once been deemed. 
There was a reaction one-sided at first 
against the Porsonian school; but already 
the forces of a larger and maturer view are 
reacting against the reaction. And no vicis- 
situdes in the tendencies of classical study 
can ever obscure the fame of Porson. He 
brought extraordinary gifts and absolute 
fidelity to his chosen province, leaving work 
most important in its positive and perma- 
nent result, but remarkable above all for its 
quality the quality given to it by his in- 
dividual genius, by that powerful and pene- 
trating mind, at once brilliant and patient, 
serious and sportive by turns, but in every 
mood devoted, with a scrupulous loyalty, to 
the search for truth. 

[Memoirs in the Gent. Mag. for September 
and October, 1808 ; Narrative of the last Illness 
and Death of R. Porson, by Dr. Adam Clarke, 
London, 1808 (there is also an account by James 
Savage, the under-librarian of the London In- 
stitution, to whom Clarke owed several particu- 
lars) ; A Short Account of the late Mr. Porson, 
London, 1808 : reissued in 1814 with a new pre- 
face and a piece entitled Tefi&x^ & c -> or Scraps 
from Porson's Rich Feast, by Stephen Weston (of 
little value) ; Imperfect Outline of the Life of 
R. Porson, by T. Kidd (prefixed to the Tracts, 
&c., London, 1815); The Sexagenarian, by the 
Rev. "W. Beloe, London, 1817, vol. i. (not 
always trustworthy) ; A Vindication of the Lite- 
rary Character of the late Professor Porson, by 
Crito Cantabrigiensis (Dr. T. Turton, bishop of 
Ely), Cambridge, 1829 ; Parriana, by E. H. 
Barker, vol. ii., London, 1829; Porsoniana (by 
Barker), including several articles from periodi- 
cals of Porson's day, with Dr. Young's memoir 
of him (from a former edition of the Encycl. 
Brit."), London, 1852 ; Maltby's Porsoniana in 
Dyce's Recollections of the Table-Talk of Samuel 
Rogers, London, 1856 ; a short article on Porson 
in Knight's English Encyclopaedia (1857) which 
is of interest, especially in regard to matters con- 
cerning his family, as being the work of his 
nephew, Mr. Siday Hawes ; Porson, in Cam- 
bridge Essays, London, 1857, by H. R. Luard 
(excellent) ; Life of Porson, by the Rev. John Selby 
Watson, London, 1861 ; Porson's Correspondence, 
edited for the Cambr. Antiq. Soc. by H. R. Luard, 
Cambridge, 1867; Porson in Encycl. Brit. 9th 
edit., Edinburgh, 1885, by H. R. Luard.] 

R. C. J. 

PORT or PORZ, ADAM DE (d. 1213?), 
baron, eldest son of John de Port and Maud, 
his wife, was grandson of Henry de Port, 
lord of Basing in Hampshire, and a justice 
itinerant in 1130. Henry founded the priory 




of West Sherborne in that county, a cell of 
St. Vigor's Abbey at Cerisy, and took his 
name from the Norman fief of his house in 
the Bessin. Adam reported to the exchequer 
in 1164, his father John being then alive, for 
about twenty-four knights' fees in Hereford- 
shire (Liber Niger de Scaccario, i. 151), said 
to be the fief of Sibilla, daughter and heiress 
of Bernard of NeufmarchS (fl. 1093) [q. v.], 
and widow of Miles, earl of Hereford [see 
Rotuli Scaccarii Normannice, i. Observations 
clxi). During her lifetime he gave a charter 
to the priory of West Sherborne relating 
to an exchange (Monasticon, vi. 1014), and 
also in the reign of Henry II granted Little- 
ton in Hampshire to the abbey of St. Peter, 
Gloucester, the manor being claimed by the 
convent (Historia S. Petri Gloucestrice, ii. 

He was in 1172 accused of treason and of 
plotting the death of the king ; he was sum- 
moned to appear before the king's court, dis- 
obeyed the summons, fled from England, and 
was outlawed (Gesta Henrici II, i. 35). 
During the barons' rebellion in 11 74 he joined 
William, king of Scotland, with a body of 
knights, marched with him against Carlisle, 
shared in his defeat before Alnwick, and fled 
in company with Roger de Mowbray[q. v.], 
probably taking refuge with him in Scotland 
(JORDAN FANTOSME, 11. 1340, 1360, 1846). 
He seems to have been in England in 1176, 
when he was fined three hundred marks for 
trespassing in the royal forests (DUGDALE, 
Baronage}. He made his peace with the 
king in 1180, submitting to a fine of a thou- 
sand marks, and receiving back his paternal 
lands, together with those that he held in 
Normandy in right of his second wife, Ma- 
bil ; the lands that he had held in Here- 
fordshire remained forfeited, and were de- 
scribed as ' feodum Adse de Port fugitivi ; ' 
they appear to have passed to William de 
Braose in right of his mother Bertha, a 
daughter of Sibilla by Miles of Gloucester, 
for in 1194 he paid 22/. 13s. for Adam's fee. 
Of Adam's fine two hundred and fifty-one 
marks remained unpaid at the accession of 
Richard I (Pipe Roll, 1189-90, p. 199). He 
is said to have served the king in Normandy 
in 1194 (DUGDALE, Baronage). 

Dugdale has a story that early in John's 
reign he was accused of causing the death of 
Henry II, and fled the country. This strange 
story, derived by Dugdale from a Cottonian 
manuscript, to which no reference is given, 
seems to have arisen from a misunderstand- 
ing of the passage relating his outlawry in 
1172( < calumniatusdemorte. . . regis ; ' Gesta 
Henrici II which is in two Cottonian manu- 

scripts), and from the description of the lands 
in Herefordshire that he had lost (see above). 
At the time in question, 1201, he still owed 
the same amount in respect of the fine of 1180 
as in 1189, together with 8Z. 10s. in respect 
of the scutage of Wales. In 1202 he fined 
ten marks and a palfrey in respect of a divi- 
sion of land in Hampshire with the abbot of 
Abingdon (Rotuli de Oblatis, p. 183). In 
1203 he was twice employed to convey the 
king's prisoners from Normandy to England 
(STAPLETON u.s. Observations, vol. i. p. clxi, 
vol. ii. p. cxxvi). In 1208 he received from 
the king the custody of Sherborne Priory. 
He acted as a justiciar in 1208-9, fines 
being acknowledged before him at Carlisle. 
He was warden of Southampton Castle in 
1213, and died in or about that year, when 
his eldest son had livery of his lands in 
Hampshire and Berkshire (Rotuli de Oblatis f 
p. 477). He is said to have rebuilt the 
church of Warnford, Hampshire (WiLKs). 
Jordan Fantosme (u.s.) speaks of him as a 
valiant baron, one of the best warriors of 
his time. 

His first wife is said by Stapleton (u.s., 
accepted by Bishop STUBBS in his edi- 
tion of Gesta Henrici II, u.s., and by Foss, 
Judges of England, ii. 108) to have been 
Sibilla, widow of Miles, earl of Hereford , 
and this is borne out by Adam's charter to- 
Sherborne Priory (u.s.), where, among his- 
witnesses, is written * Sibilla comitissa uxore 
mea.' Sibilla was married to Miles in 1121 
(ROUND, Ancient Charters, p. 8), and it is 
extraordinary to find her married again to a 
husband who died 92 years after her first 
marriage, and about 108 after the latest date 
that can well be assigned to her own birth. 
There was an older Adam de Port, the brother 
of Henry de Port, and therefore great-uncle 
of this Adam, whose name occurs in several 
charters of the reign of Henry I (Historia 
S. Petri Gloucestria, i. 93, 236, ii. 220; M. 
PARIS, vi., Additamenta, p. 38 ; Genealogist, 
new ser. iv. 135 ; ROUND, Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville, p. 233); but the husband of Sibilla 
was, he himself states in the Sherborne 
charter, the grandson of Henry. By 11 80 1 
Adam married Mabil, daughter of Reginald 
d'Orval or Aurevalle, and his w T ife Muriel, 
daughter of Roger St. John, to whom Mabil 
appears eventually to have become heiress, 
and in her right he in that year held the 
honour of Lithaire and Orval in the vicomt& 
of Coutances (STAPLETON) ; by her he had 
issue, his son and heir being William, who- 
assumed the name of St. John (Monasticon,, 
u.s.) Later he married a sister of W 7 illiarn 
de Braose (DUGDALE, Baronage, p. 416).. 
Dugdale and Nicolas make two Adams de 




Port, one of Basing and the other of Here- 

[Gresta Hen. II, 5. 35, Jordan Fantosme's 
Chronique ap. Ohron. Stephen to Eic. I, iii. 314, 
517, 356, Hist. S. Petri Glonc. i. 93, 236, ii. 
220, 388 (all Eolls Ser.) ; Stapleton's Magni Rot. 
Scacc. Norm. i. Obs. clxi, ii. Obs. cxxvi (Soc. 
Antiq.); Liber Niger de Scacc. i. 151, ed. 
Hearne ; Madox's Hist, of Excheq. i. 473 (2nd 
edit.); Pipe Roll, 1189-90, p. 199, ed. Hunter, 
Rot. Curise Regis, ii. 177, 225, ed. Palgrave, 
Rot. de Oblatis, pp. 145, 183, 477, ed. Hardy 
(these three Record publ.); Foss's Judges of 
England, ii. 107-9; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 
1014, and Baronage, i. 416, 463-5; Nicolas's 
Hist. Peerage, p. 387, ed. Courthope ; Round's 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp. 233, 428, and Ancient 
Charters, p. 8 (Pipe Roll Soc.); Wilks's Hist, of 
Hampshire, ii. 62, iii. 238 ; Norgate's Angevin 
Kings, ii. 162.] W. H. 

PORT, SIR JOHN (1480 P-1541), judge, 
was born about 1480 at Chester, where his 
ancestors had been merchants for some 
generations : his father, Henry, was mayor 
of Chester in 1486, and his mother was a 
daughter of Robert Barrow, also a mayor of 
Chester. John studied law in the Middle 
Temple, where he was reader in 1509, Lent 
reader and treasurer in 1515, and governor 
in 1520. In 1504 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to raise a subsidy in 
Derbyshire ; on 2 June 1509 he was made 
king's solicitor, and on 26 Nov. signed a pro- 
clamation as member of the privy council 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 1509- 
1514, No. 702); in the same year he was 
^keeper of the king's books' (ib.), and in 1511 
clerk of the wardrobe. Before 1512 he was 
appointed attorney to the earldom of Chester, 
and in that year appears as one of the com- 
missioners selected to inquire into the ex- 
tortions of the masters of the mint. In 1515 
and most succeeding years he served on the 
commission for the peace in Derbyshire. In 
1517 he was ' clerk of exchange in the Tower/ 
and in 1522 was made serjeant-at-law. He 
acquired an extensive practice as an advocate, 
and early in 1525 was raised to a judgeship 
in the king's bench and knighted ; in February 
of that year he was on the commission for 
gaol delivery at York, and in June went on 
the northern circuit as justice of assize ; he 
was also a member of Princess Mary's coun- 
cil. In 1535 he was placed on the commis- 
sion of oyer and terminer for Middlesex to 
try Fisher and More, and in the following 
year was similarly employed with regard to 
Anne Boleyn. He died before November 
1541, having been twice married ; his two 
wives were Margery, daughter of Sir Edward 
Trafford of Trafford, Lancashire, and Joan, 

daughter and coheir of John Fitzherbert, 
uncle of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert [q. v.], and 
widow of John Pole of Radburn. By the 
latter marriage he acquired the manor of 
Etwall, Derbyshire, and had a son, Sir John. 

Port took a prominent part in the trans- 
actions relating to the foundation of Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; he gave to it a garden 
lying on the south side of the college, and 
completed John Williamson's bequest of 
200/. ' to provide stipends for two sufficient 
and able persons to read and teach openly in 
the hall, the one philosophy, the other 'hu- 
manity ; ' the stipend was 4/. a year, but the 
limitation to the descendants of Williamson 
and Port was abolished by the university 
commission of 1854. 

The son, SIR JOHN (d. 1557), with whom 
the father has been confused, was educated 
at Brasenose, where he was the first lecturer 
or scholar on his father's foundation. He was 
knighted at the coronation of Edward VI, sat 
in the first parliament of Mary as knight of 
the shire for Derbyshire, and served as sheriff 
for that county in 1554. He died on 6 June 
1557, having married, first, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Gifford, and secondly, 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir Anthony Fitzher- 
bert. By his first wife he had three daugh- 
ters, who married respectively Sir Thomas 
Gerard of Bryn, Shropshire, ancestor of the 
baronets of that name, George Hastings, 
fourth earl of Huntingdon, and Sir Thomas 
Stanhope, ancestor of the earls of Chester- 
field. By his will he left bequests for the 
foundation of a hospital at Etwall and a 
school at Repton, which has since become 
one of the great public schools of England ; 
he also confirmed and augmented his father's 
grants to Brasenose College, Oxford. 

[Letters and Papers of Hen. VIII, ed. Brewer 
and Gairdner, passim ; Rot. Parl. vi. 539 ; 
Rymer's Fcedera, ed. 1745; Dugdale's Origin. 
Jurid.pp. 163, 170, and Chronica Series, pp. 79, 
81, 82; Foss's Judges of England, v. 228-30; 
Churton's Lives of the Founders of Brasenose, 
pp. 271, 283, 412, 446-50; Notitia Cestriensis, 
ii. 262, 349, and Lane, and Ches. "Wills, i. 28 
(ChethamSoc.); Strype's Works, Index; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, p. 853 ; Sandford's Genealogical 
Hist. p. 442 ; Collins's Peerage, iii. 96, 309 ; 
Bigsby's Repton, pp. xii, 103, 106, 160, where 
the younger Sir John's will is printed in full ; 
Statutes of the Colleges of Oxford, 1853 ; Miscell. 
Genealog. et Herald. 2nd ser. ii. 54 ; Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. xii. 302-3; information kindly 
supplied by the Rev. Albert Watson, formerly 
principal of Brasenose.] A. F. P. 

PORTAL, ABRAHAM (Jt. 1790), dra- 
matist, was the son of a clergyman, who may 
be identified with Andrew Portal, a member 




of an ancient family of Huguenot origin, 
which migrated to England in 1686 (cf. 
FOSTEK, Alumni Oxon. 1715-1888; Gent. 
Mag. 1768, p. 447). Andrew Portal matri- 
culated at Oxford from Exeter College in 
1748, became vicar of St. Helen's, Abingdon, 
in 1759, proceeded M.A. in 1761, and died on 
13 Sept. 1768. The dramatist started in life 
as a goldsmith and jeweller on Ludgate Hill, 
but lost money both in this trade and that 
of bookselling, and finished his career as a 
box-keeper at Drury Lane Theatre. It appears 
from his ' Poems' that Portal was a close 
friend of Dr. John Langhorne [q. v.], the 
translator of Plutarch. Portal's writings 
include : 1. ' Olindo and Sophronia : a Tra- 
gedy,' the story taken from Tasso, two edi- 
tions, 1758, London, 8vo. 2. ' The Indiscreet 
Lover: a Comedy/ performed at the Hay- 
market for the benefit of the British Lying-in 
Hospital in Brownlow Street ; dedicated to 
the Duke of Portland ; two editions, London, 
1768, 8vo. Baker remarks of this piece that 
'charity covereth a multitude of failings.' 
Genest, however, finds two of the characters, 
Old and Young Reynard, ' excellent.' To the 
printed copies is appended a list of ' errata,' 
in which the reader is requested to substitute 
polite periphrases for coarse expressions in 
the text. 3. ' Songs, Duets, and Finale/ from 
Portal's comic opera ' The Cady of Bagdad/ 
London, 1778, 8vo. The opera, which was 
given at Drury Lane on 19 Feb. 1778, was 
not printed. . 4. ' Poems/ 1781, 8vo. The 
volume includes dedicatory verses to R. B. 
Sheridan, and two bombastic poems, ' War : 
an Ode/ and ' Innocence : a Poetical Essay/ 
which had previously been issued separately. 
5. * Vortimer, or the True Patriot : a Tra- 
gedy/ London, 1796, 8vo. Among the dra- 
matis personse are Vortimer's father, Vorti- 
gern,his mother Rowena, Hengist, and Horsa. 
Ireland's ' Vortigern' had appeared in March 
1795. Neither ' Vortimer ' nor * Olindo and 
Sophronia ' was acted. In the spring of 1796 
Portal seems to have been living in Castle 
Street, Holborn, but the date of his death is 
not known. 

[Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, 1812, i. 577 ; 
Genest's Hist, of the Stage, v. 212; Portal's 
Works in Brit. Mus. Library.] T. S. 


(1858-1894), diplomatist, second son of Mel- 
ville Portal of Laverstoke, Hampshire, and 
Lady Charlotte Mary Elliot, daughter of the 
second Earl of Minto, was born at Laverstoke 
on 13 March 1858, and educated at Eton, 
where he played in the school cricket team. 
He entered the diplomatic service on 12 July 
1879, and, after the usual period of proba- 

tion in the foreign office, was sent to Rome 
on 29 June 1880. He became third secre- 
tary of legation on 22 July 1881. 

In June 1882 Portal had the good fortune 
to be temporarily attached to the consulate- 
general at Cairo, at a critical period in the 
history of British relations with Egypt. He 
was present at the bombardment of Alex- 
andria, and for his services on that occasion 
received a medal with clasp and the khedive's 
star. He became a favourite with Sir Eve- 
lyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer), the 
British representative, and in April 1884 was 
confirmed as third secretary at Cairo. On 

1 April 1885 he was promoted second secre- 
tary. For some weeks in the summers of 
1886 and 1887 he took charge of the resi- 
dency during Lord Cromer's absence, and con- 
ducted its affairs with credit. 

On 17 Oct. 1887 Portal was ordered to 
attempt a reconciliation between the king of 
Abyssinia and the Italian government. On 
21 Oct. he left for Massowah. To succeed in 
such a mission was almost impossible, but 
he made every effort, and showed rare judg- 
ment and coolness in travelling through a 
disturbed country. He returned on 31 Dec., 
without effecting his purpose, but with a 
considerably enhanced reputation. He was 
made C.B., and in ' My Mission to Abys- 
sinia' (1888) he gave an account of the 

Returning to his duties at the Cairo agency, 
Portal was charge d'affaires in the autumn 
of 1888. From 30 April to 14 Nov. 1889 he 
acted as consul-general at Zanzibar, and on 

10 March 1891 was permanently appointed 
to the agency there, under the scheme of 
the British protectorate, which was then 
inaugurated. To these duties he added those 
of consul-general for German East Africa on 

2 June 1891, and for the British sphere on 

11 Feb. 1892. He vigorously entered upon 
the duties of his new post, and reformed the 
administration. He was made K.C.M.G. on 
4 Aug. 1892. 

On 10 Dec. 1892 Portal was directed to 
visit Uganda, and to report whether that 
part of Africa should be retained by the 
British or evacuated. The journey was at- 
tended by great difficulty and hardship. In the 
course of it Portal lost, on 27 May 1893, his 
elder brother, Capt. Melville Raymond Portal 
(b. 1856), North Lancashire regiment, who 
was with him as chief military officer. Portal 
arrived at the coast again on 21 Oct. 1893, 
and reached London in November. He had 
sent in his reports on the country, and had 
completed the greater part of a book relating 
his experiences, when he was struck down by 
fever, the result of his hardships, and died 




at 5s Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, Lon- 
don, on 25 Jan. 1894. His book on < The Bri- 
tish Mission to Uganda ' was published a 
few months later. His recommendation that 
Uganda should be retained by the British 
government was ultimately adopted. 

Portal was a man of handsome presence 
and athletic mould, and possessed tact, firm- 
ness, and daring. He married, on 1 Feb. 
] 890, Lady Alice Josephine Bertie, daughter 
of the seventh Earl of Abingdon. 

[Times, 26 Jan. 1894; Foreign Office List, 
1893; Memoir prefixed to British Mission to 
Uganda.] C. A. H. 

PORTEJST, SIK STANIER (d. 1789), go- 
vernment official, was the only son of James 
Porten, merchant of London, of Huguenot 
descent, who lived in an old red-brick house 
adjoining Putney Bridge, which he was 
obliged, through his failure in business, to 
vacate at Christmas 1748. The son entered 
the diplomatic service, and for some years 
before 1760 he was British resident at the 
court of Naples. He was transferred in April 
1760 to the post of consul at Madrid (Gent. 
Mag. 1760, p. 203 ; CLAKK, Letters on Spain, 
pp. 346-54). In July 1766 he was appointed 
secretary to the extraordinary embassy of 
Lord Rochford to the court of France (Home 
Office Papers, 1766-9, p. 435 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep. App. p. 138). Several reports 
were made by Porten in 1766-7 on the terms 
' of liquidating the Canada paper in France ' 
(ib. pp. 136-9 ; Home Office Papers, 1766-9, 
p. 176). Porten was appointed in November 
1768 as under-secretary to Lord Rochford, 
then secretary of state for the northern de- 
partment, and in December 17ZO he followed 
that nobleman to the southern branch (ib. 
1766-69), remaining under-secretary until 
1782. He was knighted on 5 June 1772, 
appointed keeper of the state papers at 
"Whitehall in 1774, and from 1782 until 
November 1786 was a commissioner of the 
customs. He was characterised as the ' man 
of business ' in his department, and as pos- 
sessing a gravity of demeanour which was 
exaggerated by his long official residence at 
Naples and Madrid (HAWKINS, M emoirs, 1824, 
ii. 7-11). After 'long infirmities and gradual 
decay,' he died at Kensington Palace on 
7 June 1789. 

Porten's youngest sister, Judith, married, 
on 3 June 1736, Edward Gibbon of Buriton, 
Hampshire, and was mother of Edward 
Gibbon, the historian, who spent in his 
grandfather's house at Putney the greater 
part of his holidays and the months between 
his mother's death in 1747 and the break-up 
of that establishment. He was tenderly 

cared for by his eldest aunt, Catherine 
Porten, who, after her father's ruin, esta- 
blished a boarding-house for Westminster 
School, in which Gibbon lived, and which 
I proved very successful. She died in April 
1786. The third' sister married Mr. Barrel 
of Richmond in Surrey. 

Gibbon wrote on 24 May 1774 that Porten 
was 'seriously in love' with Miss W., 'an 
agreeable woman,' and that he was ' seriously 
uneasy that his precarious situation precludes 
him from happiness. We shall soon see 
which will get the better, love or reason. I 
bet three to two on love.' Gibbon's prophecy 
proved correct. The lady's name was Miss 
Mary Wibault of Titchfield Street, London, 
and the marriage took place at the close of 
that year (Gent. Mag. 1774, p. 598). They 
had two surviving children : a son, Stanier 
James Porten, B.A., of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, 1801, and rector of Charlwood, 
Surrey, who died in November 1854 ; and a 
daughter Charlotte, who married, on 7 Feb. 
1798, the Rev. Henry Wise, rector of Charl- 
wood. At Porten's death, the widow, a 
very lively woman, who long survived him, 
was left with a moderate pension for her 
subsistence. Gibbon thereupon proposed 
adopting the eldest child, Charlotte, ' a most 
amiable, sensible young creature,' and re- 
warding ' her care and tenderness with a 
decent fortune ; ' but the mother would not, 
at that time, listen to the proposition. By 
his will, dated 1 Oct. 1791, Gibbon left his 
money to these two children, his nearest 
relatives on his mother's side. 

Numerous letters to and from Porten are 
in the Marquis of Abergavenny's manu- 
scripts (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. App. 
pt. vi.), and in the official papers of Lord 
Grantham, Sir Robert Gunning, and others, 
at the British Museum. Archdeacon Coxe, 
in the preface to his * Memoirs of the Kings 
of Spain of the House of Bourbon, 1700- 
1788 ' (1813 ed. pp. xviii-xix), acknow- 
ledges his indebtedness to the papers of 

A picture of the Porten family, painted 
by Hogarth and the property of the Rev. 
Thomas Burningham, was on view at the 
exhibition of the old masters in 1888. Stanier 
Porten was depicted as handing a letter to 
his father (Catalogue, p. 13). 

[Gent. Mag. 1775 p. 550, 1782 p. 207, 1789 
pt. i. p. 577, 1798 pt. i. p. 169; Townsend's 
Knights from 1760, p. 47 ; Chatham Corre- 
spondence, ii. 31-40 ; Miscell. Works of Gibbon 
(1814), i. 24, 33-4, 36-8, 296, 315, 426, ii. 125, 
132, 392-3, 429-30; Old Houses of Putney, 
p. 11 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. i. 152; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon.] W. P. C. 




PORTEOUS. [See also PORTE us.] 

PORTEOUS, JOHN (d. 1736), captain of 
the Edinburgh city guard, was the son of 
Stephen Porteous, a tailor in the Canongate, 
Edinburgh, and was bred to his father's 
business ; but his unsteady habits and vio- 
lent temper led to serious quarrels with 
his parents, and he enlisted in the army. 
After serving for some time in Holland 
he returned home, and ultimately obtained, 
or assumed, the management of his father's 
business, treating his father so badly that 
he was reduced to poverty, and had to become 
an inmate of Trinity Hospital. 

On account of his military experience, 
Porteous in 17 15 was employed to train the city 
guard to assist in the defence of the city in 
view of the expected rising ; and as he had 
married a young woman who had previously 
been housekeeper to the provost of the city, 
he was, through the provost's influence, subse- 
quently promoted to be captain of the force. 
Dr. Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk mentions 
' his skill in manly exercises, particularly the 
golf ' {Autobiography, p. 35) ; and in April 
1721 he played a match at golf for twenty 
guineas with an Edinburgh gentleman on 
Leith links (CHAMBERS, Domestic Annals 
of Scotland, iii. 566). The stories of his 
licentious adventures, his profanity, and his 
inconsiderate severities are probably exag- 
gerated. Dr. Carlyle, however, states that 
his admission (through his skill in athletics) 
to ' the companionship of his superiors ' 
' elated his mind, and added insolence to his 
native roughness, so that he was hated 
and feared by the mob of Edinburgh ' (Auto- 
biography, p. 35). This mutual ill-will no 
doubt in part explains the tragic incidents 
that occurred in connection with the execu- 
tion, 14 April 1736, of Andrew Wilson, an 
Edinburgh merchant, who, in retaliation for 
the severe measures put in force by the 
government against smuggling, had, with 
the assistance of a youth named Robertson, 
robbed the custom-house of Pittenweem. 
The sympathy of the bulk of the Edinburgh 
citizens was with the smugglers ; and the 
remarkable feat of Wilson in accomplishing 
the escape of his companion, by seizing three 
of the keepers as he and his fellow-prisoner 
were leaving the Tolbooth church, excited 
general admiration. A rumour arose that 
an attempt would be made to rescue Wilson 
on the scaffold, and on this account unusual 
precautions were taken. As the corpse of 
Wilson was being cut down, the mob 
1 threw, as usual, some dirt and stones, which 
falling among the city guard, Captain Por- 
teous fired, and ordered his men to fire, 

whereupon 20 persons were wounded, 6 or 7 
killed, one shot through the head at a win- 
dow up two pair of stairs ' (account in 
Gent. Mag. 1736, p. 230). Dr. Alexander 
Carlyle, who was a spectator from an upper 
widow, affirms that ' there was no attempt 
to break through the guard and cut down 
the prisoner,' and that it was ' generally 
said that there was very little, if any, more 
violence than had usually happened on such 
occasions ' (Autobiography, p. 37). 

Porteous was subsequently apprehended 
and brought to trial. In his indictment it 
was charged that he had fired himself, and 
that when, on ordering his men to fire, 
he saw them hold their pieces so as to 
fire over the heads of the multitude, he 
called out to them to ' level their pieces 
and be damned to them/ or words to that 
effect. This accusation was supported by a 
large number of witnesses, and is corrobo- 
rated by Dr. Alexander Carlyle, who states 
that when ' the soldiers [city guard] showed 
reluctance' to fire, he saw Porteous ' turn to 
them with threateninggesture and an inflamed 
countenance ' (z'6.) The defence of Porteous 
was that he did not fire himself, but that 
several of his men, without orders from him, 
' unfortunately fired upon the multitude.' 
On being found guilty and sentenced to 
death, he presented a petition to the govern- 
ment for pardon, in which he repeated the 
plea urged in his defence. When a reprieve 
was sent the indignation of the com- 
munity was roused to a high pitch, and cer- 
tain unknown persons resolved that he should 
not escape the doom passed upon him. About 
ten o'clock on the night of 7 Sept. a body 
of men in djsguise entered the city, seized 
all the firearms, battle-axes, and drums be- 
longing to the city guard, and locked and 
secured all the city gates. They then pro- 
ceeded to the prison, and, after attempting 
in vain to break down the door, set fire to 
it and burnt it out. On entering the prison 
they compelled the under-warden to open 
the double locks of the apartment where 
Porteous was confined, and, hurrying him 
away, proceeded with lighted torches to the 
place where the gallows was usually erected. 
Having procured a rope from a shop which 
they opened, they threw one end of it over 
a signpost about twenty feet high, belonging 
to a dyer. * They then pulled him up in 
the dress in which they found him viz. a 
nightgown and cap. lie having his hands 
loose, fixed them betwixt his neck and the 
rope, whereupon one with a battle-axe struck 
towards the hands. They then let him 
down, and [he] having on two shirts, they 
wrapped one of them about his face, and 




held his arms with his night-gown ; they 
palled him up again, where he hung next 
morning till daylight ' (Method taken by 
the Mob, London, 1736). Notwithstand- 
ing the most rigorous investigation, no clue 
was ever found to the perpetrators of the 
murder. Several persons were seized and im- 
prisoned on suspicion ; but of these only two 
one of them a coachman to the Countess 
of Wemyss, who was in a state of hopeless 
intoxication when he followed the mob 
were brought to trial, and they were found 
not guilty. Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe was 
accustomed to express full belief in state- 
ments made to him by 'very old persons' 
that several of high rank were concerned in 
the affair, many of them disguised as women 
(WILSON, Memorials of Edinburgh, ed. 1891, 
i. 144) ; and Home Tooke, in defending him- 
self before Lord Mansfield in 1777, signifi- 
cantly asserted that ' at this moment there 
are people of reputation, living in credit, 
making fortunes under the crown, who were 
concerned in that very fact ' (ib.) 

The outrage led to the introduction of a 
bill in the House of Lords for the punish- 
ment of the provost of Edinburgh, the exac- 
tion of a fine from the city, the removal of 
the Netherbow Port in token of the level- 
ling of its defences as a rebellious city 
and the abolition of the city guard ; but, as 
modified by the House of Commons, the 
bill merely disqualified the provost from 
holding any other office throughout the em- 
pire, and levied a fine of 2,000/. on the 
city for the widow of Porteous. Another 
act was also passed denouncing the murderers 
of Porteous, offering rewards for their cap- 
ture, and threatening punishment to all 
who aided or harboured them. It was 
further decreed that this proclamation should 
be read from every pulpit in Scotland on the 
first Sunday of each month for a year. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Alexander Carlyle, one half 
of the clergy declined to read the proclama- 
tion (Autobiography, p. 41) ; but the idea of 
inflicting a fine on them for the neglect was 
dropped. Porteous is described as having 
been ' of the middle size, broad-shouldered, 
strong-limbed, short-necked, his face a little 
pitted with the small-pox, and round ; his 
looks mild and gentle, his face having 
nothing of the fierce and brutal ; his eyes 
languid, not quick and sprightly, and his 
complexion upon the brown ' (Life and 
Death of Captain Porteous, p. 7). 

The plot of Sir Walter Scott's ' Heart of 
Midlothian ' turns upon the incidents of the 
Porteous riot, and many interesting particu- 
lars were collected by Scott in his notes to 
that novel. 

[Information for her Majesty's Advocate, &c., 
with a full and particular Account of the 
Method taken by the Mob, &c., London, 1736; 
Account of the Cruel Massacre committed by 
Captain John Porteous, 1736; Genuine Trial of 
Captain John Porteous, London, 1736 ; Life and 
Death of Captain John Porteous, with an Ac- 
count of the two Bills as they were reasoned on 
in both Houses of Parliament, and the Speeches 
of the Great Men on both, London, 1737 ; Copy 
of the Porteous Boll sent to the Ministers of Scot- 
land to be read from the Pulpits of each of 
them, 1738. These and various other pamphlets 
on I he Porteous occurrences are bound together 
in two volumes in the library of the British Mu- 
seum. Gent. Mag. for 1736 and 1737, passim ; 
Mahon's History of England; State Trials, vol. 
xvii.; Criminal Trials illustrative of Scott's 
novel, 'The Heart of Midlothan;' Dr. Alexander 
Carlyie's Autobiography ; Memoirs of Duncan 
Forbes of Culloden ; Wilson's Memorials of 
Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

PORTEOUS, WILLIAM (1735-1812), 
Scottish divine, was the son of James Por- 
teous, minister of Monivaird, Perthshire, by 
his wife, Marjory Faichney. He was born at 
Monivaird in 1735, and educated for the 
ministry. Receiving a license from the pres- 
bytery of Auchterarder on 13 Sept. 1757, he 
was presented by Lady Mary Cunninghame 
to the parish of Whitburn, Linlithgowshire, 
in November 1759. He was transferred on 
27 April 1770 to the ministry of the Wynd 
Church, Glasgow. A man of strong character 
and an able preacher, he filled this important 
post with success. His congregation increased 
so rapidly that he had to abandon the parish 
church, which had been rebuilt in 1764, for 
the new St. George's Church in 1807. Por- 
teous took a leading part for many years in 
the proceedings of the Glasgow presbytery, 
and of the church in the west generally. 
Strongly orthodox in his views, he resisted 
the smallest innovations. He defended his 
position with his pen, and did not spare his 
adversaries. He resolutely opposed the intro- 
duction of organs in 1807-8 (cf. The Organ 
Question: Statements by Dr. Ritchie and Dr. 
Porteous, for and against the use of the Organ 
in Public Worship, in the Proceedings of the 
Presbytery of Glasgow, 1807-8, with an 
introductory notice by Robert S. Candlish, 
Edinburgh, 1856). His attack on the asso- 
ciate synod, in his ( New Light examined,' 
provoked the withering sarcasm of James 
Peddie's ' Defence.' In the general assembly 
he took no prominent position. In Novem- 
ber 1784 he was granted the degree of D.D. 
by Princetown College, New Jersey. He died 
on 12 Jan. 1812. 

He married first, 26 June 17CO, Grizel 
Lindsay (d. 1774), by whom he had two 




sons, James and George, and a daughter 
Elizabeth, afterwards wife of Robert Spears, 
merchant, of Glasgow. On 8 Aug. 1785 
Porteous married Marion, daughter of the 
Kev. Charles Moore of Stirling. She died, 
without issue, on 4 March 1817. 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse ; Cleland's 
Annals of Glasgow, 1817; Story's Church of 
Scotland Past and Present ; Candlish's Preface 
to The Organ Question, &c.] E. G. H. 

PORTER, ANNA MARIA (1780-1832), 
novelist, born at Durham in 1780 after her 
father's death, was the younger sister of 
Jane Porter [q. v.], and of Sir Robert Ker 
Porter [q. v.], in whose memoir an account of 
the family is given. Educated at Edinburgh 
with her sister Jane, she not only shared the 
latter's studious tastes, but was attracted by 
music and art. She resolved, like Jane, to 
devote herself to literature, and at thirteen 
years of age began a series of l Artless Tales,' 
which was completed in two anonymous vo- 
lumes in 1795. Other tales, entitled ' Walsh 
Colville' and 'Octavia' (3 vols.), appeared 
anonymously in 1797 and 1798 respectively. 
After settling with her family in London 
before 1803, she attempted dramatic com- 
position, and in May 1803 the 'Fair Fugi- 
tives,' a musical entertainment, was acted at 
Covent Garden, with music by Dr. Busby. 
It met with no success, and was not printed 
(BAKEE, Biogr. Dramatica, ii. 211 ; GESTEST, 
Hist, of the Stage, vii. 585). 

In 1807, when she was living with her 
mother and sister in a cottage at Esher, Surrey, 
she published her chief work, and the first to 
which she put her name/ The Hungarian Bro- 
thers.' It is a novel in three volumes, dealing 
with the French revolutionary war. She 
feared that her heroes might be viewed as 
women masquerading as men (cf. Addit. MS. 
18204, f. 150), and subsequently excused the 
admiration of ' martial glory,' of which the 
book is full, on the score of her youth (pref. 
1831). But the vivacity and enthusiasm of 
the writer atone for most of the book's de- 
fects. It was popular at home and abroad. 
General Moreau placed it in his travelling 
library, and in 1818 it was translated into 
French. Later English editions are dated 
1808, 1831, 1847, 1856, and 1872. 

In 1809 appeared ' Don Sebastian, or the 
House of Braganza,' a novel in four volumes. 
A second edition, in three volumes, soon fol- 
lowed, and the latest edition came out in 
1855. It lacks the verve of its predecessor. 
Among others of her novels, ' The Knight of 
St. John,' a romance in three volumes, pub- 
lished in 1817, was the last book read aloud 
by Prince Leopold to Princess Charlotte the 

day before her death [see CHARLOTTE ATJ- 


In May 1832 the sisters, who had removed 
from Esher to London on their mother's 
death in 1831, visited their brother, Dr. 
William Ogilvie Porter, at Bristol. Anna 
was seized with typhus fever there, and died 
on 21 Sept. 1832, at the house of Mrs. Colo- 
nel Booth, Montpellier, near Bristol. She 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's 
Church in that city. 

Jane Porter said of Anna that ' the quick- 
ness of her perceptions gave her almost an 
intuitive knowledge of every thing she wished 
to learn.' S. C. Hall described her as a blonde, 
handsome and gay, and dubbed her ' L' Al- 
legro,' in contrast to Jane, a brunette, whom 
he named ' II Penseroso ' (Retrospect of a 
Long Life, ii. 143-5). 

Her portrait was engraved by Woolnoth 
from a drawing by Harlowe, and is repro- 
duced in Jerdan's ' National Portrait Gallery/ 
vol. v. Her brother Robert, when design- 
ing an altar-piece which he presented to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, made a study 
of her for Hope. 

Anna Maria Porter wrote, besides the 
works noticed : 1. 'Tales of Pity.' 2. 'The 
Lake of Killarney,' 3 vols. 1804 ; the last 
edition, 1856, was entitled * Rose de Bla- 
quiere.' 3. ' A Soldier's Friendship.' 4. * A 
Soldier's Love,' 2 vols. 1805. 5. 'Ballads 
and Romances and Other Poems,' 1811. 
6. ' The Recluse of Norway,' 4 vols. 1814 ; 
last edit. 1852. 7. ' The Fast of St. Magda- 
len,' 3 vols. 1818, 1819, 1822. 8. ' The Vil- 
lage of Mariendorpt/ 4 vols. 1821. 9. ' Roche 
Blanche, or the Hunter of the Pyrenees/ 
3 vols. 1822. 10. 'Honor O'Hara,' 3 vols. 
1826. 11. 'Coming Out,' 2 vols. 1828. 
12. 'The Barony,' 3 vols. 1830. She con- 
tributed in 1826 three stories, ' Glenowan/ 
'Lord Howth,' and ' Jeanie Halliday,' to 
' Tales round a Winter's Hearth,' and in 1828 
a poem to S. C. Hall's 'Amulet.' Nearly 
all her books were translated into French, 
and some were published in America. 

[Elwood's Literary Ladies of England, ii. 276- 
303 ; Jerdan's National Portrait Gallery, vol. v. ; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. ii. 1780.] 

E. L. 

Irish lord chancellor, was a son of Edmund 
Porter, prebendary of Norwich. According 
to Roger North, who professed to speak en- 
tirely from his own knowledge or ' from 
Porter's own mouth in very serious conver- 
sation,' he was engaged in the London riots 
in April 1648, being then an apprentice in 
the city. He escaped on board a Yarmouth 



Iboat to Holland, where he trailed a pike as a 
common soldier, and was in several actions. 
He kept an eating-house; but his cavalier 
customers generally forgot to pay, and he 
made his way back to England. l Being a 
genteel youth, he was taken in among the 
chancery clerks.' He was admitted at the 
Middle Temple on 25 Oct. 1656, and called 
to the bar in 1660. Porter was immoderately 
addicted both to wine and women, but was 
nevertheless industrious, quick, and well ac- 
quainted with all the forms of the court, and 
his ' speech was prompt and articulate.' He 
began with drawing pleas, then practised at 
the bar, and soon had a great deal of business. 
Lord-keeper Guilford took notice of him ; but 
his good fortune had a hard struggle with his 
dissipated habits, and he was always in debt. 

On 7 and 30 March 1668-9 Pepys had 
interviews with Porter, who was acting as 
counsel for certain creditors of the navy. 
The ' State Trials ' give full details as to his 
part in the violent contentions between the 
two houses in Shirley v.Fagg and other cases. 
In 1675 he was junior counsel with Peck, 
Pemberton, and Sir John Churchill [q. v.] 
for Sir Nicholas Crispe against Mr. Dal- 
mahoy, M.P., when the case was argued at 
the bar of the lords. The House of Commons 
resented Dalmahoy's trial by the lords as a 
breach of their privileges, and ordered all the 
parties into the custody of the sergeant-at- 
arms, while the House of Lords granted them 
a protection against all arrest. Porter was 
seized in the middle of an argument. He 
managed to read out the lords' protection 
audibly, but was nevertheless lodged in the 
Tower on 4 June ; the imprisonment was put 
an end to by a prorogation five days later. 
So far as Porter was concerned, the chief 
result of the dispute was to bring him into 
prominent notice, and he was knighted soon 

Porter spent money as fast as he made it ; 
and at the accession of James II he was 
known to be a needy man. ' His character,' 
says North, ' for fidelity, loyalty, and face- 
tious conversation were without exception. 
He had the good fortune to be loved by 
everybody.' It was hoped that he would 
prove a useful tool ; and he was appointed 
lord chancellor of Ireland on 22 March 1686, 
displacing the primate Michael Boyle [q. v.] 
The lord-lieutenant Clarendon did not like 
the change. He warned Porter that he would 
make no fortune in Ireland ; for the salary was 
only 1,OOOZ. a year, and it turned out that 
other sources of income scarcely yielded 400/. 
Porter took the oaths on 15 April, dined with 
the lord lieutenant, and was careful to show 
himself in friendly companionship with his 

aged predecessor. He told every one he met 
that the king had resolved not to have the 
acts of settlement shaken, and that he knew 
nothing of any intention to remodel the judi- 
cial bench ; but Clarendon was better in- 
formed. The first patent sealed by Porter 
was one for Colonel William Legge, Lord 
Dartmouth's brother, as governor of Kinsale. 

In May 1686 Porter's salary was increased 
to 1,500/., and that was the last mark of 
favour he received from James II. He ad- 
vocated a commission of grace to confirm de- 
fective titles, and the raising of a revenue in 
this way while adding to the general security. 
Tyrconnel's policy was entirely different ; he 
accused Porter of taking bribes from the 
whigs, and Justin MacCarthy [q. v.] fixed 
the sum at 10,000/. The charge, Clarendon 
wrote on 1 May, was as true as if he had 
been said to have taken the money from the 
Grand Turk. The struggle went on for the 
rest of the year, Porter, Chief-justice Keat- 
ing, and Sir John Temple, the solicitor- 
general, contending for moderate courses, 
while Tyrconnel, Nugent, and Sir Richard 
Nagle [q.v.] combined to secure the supremacy 
of the king's religion. On 4 Jan. 1686-7 Cla- 
rendon dined with Porter, and within a week 
they both received their letters of recall. 
Porter was generally regretted in Ireland, and 
on reaching London he sought an interview 
with James, which was very unwillingly 
granted. He asked what he had done to 
deserve removal, and the king said it was 
his own fault. Further audience was re- 
fused, and no information was ever given of 
the reasons for his dismissal. Porter re- 
turned to his practice at the English bar, 
and on 18 Jan. 1688-9 Clarendon notes that 
he was t at the Temple with Mr. Roger North 
and Sir Charles Porter, who are the only 
two honest lawyers I have met with.' 

Porter was known as an active adherent 
of William as early as December 1688 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. vii.) He re- 
turned to Ireland in December 1690, and 
was sworn in lord chancellor and lord justice, 
with Coningsby as a colleague in the latter 
office. In October 1691 he signed the articles 
of Limerick in the court there, and these 
were enrolled in chancery on 24 Feb. 1691-2. 
Like William, he was in favour of keeping 
faith with the Irish. In 1692 Porter attended 
Sidney, the lord lieutenant, when he went to 
open parliament. At the beginning of the 
session, on 10 Oct., he made a short speech 
in answer to that of Sir Richard Levinge 
[q. v.], the speaker. On 3 Nov. Porter spoke 
again, at Sidney's request, against the claim 
of the Irish House of Commons to originate 
money-bills, contrary to Poynings's act and 




to the practice of two centuries. On Sidney's 
departure, in July 1693, Porter again became 
a lord justice, but for less than a month. 
Having been dismissed by James because he 
was a protestant, he was now threatened with 
vengeance because he was not protestant 
enough. Articles of impeachment were ex- 
hibited against him in the English House of 
Commons by Richard Coote, earl of Bella- 
mont [q. v.], himself an Irish protestant ; but 
the matter soon dropped. Lord Capel also 
urged the king to remove Porter; but Wil- 
liam refused, and Porter continued to lead the 
more tolerant party. 

On 30 Sept. 1695 Colonel Ponsonby pre- 
sented articles to the Irish House of Com- 
mons, in which Porter was accused of favour- 
ing papists and refusing to discharge magi- 
strates ' who have imbrued their hands in 
protestant blood,' of corruption in his office, 
and of various irregularities. On 25 Oct. 
Porter was heard in person, a chair being 
set for him within the bar of the House of 
Commons. The speech is unfortunately lost ; 
but the house voted his explanation satisfac- 
tory by 121 to 77. That night he overtook the 
carriage of his enemy, Speaker Rochfort [see 
ROCHFORT, ROBERT], in a narrow lane. 
Porter's coachman tried to pass the other ; 
but Rochfort lost his temper, produced the 
mace, and declared that he would not be 
driven. Porter complained to the lords that 
his servant had been assaulted and himself 
insulted, and a communication was made to 
the other house. The commons declared that 
the whole thing was pure accident, and the 
matter dropped. There were no street lamps 
in Dublin until after the act 9 Will. Ill, 
cap. 17, was passed. 

Capel died in May 1696, and Porter was 
elected lord j ustice by the council immediately 
afterwards. Lord Dartmouth arrived in Dub- 
lin the night after Capel died, and found the 
whole town ' mad with joy '(note to BURNET, 
ii. 159). Porter remained a lord justice until 
his sudden death, from apoplexy, at his 
own house in Chancery Lane, Dublin, on 
8 Dec. 1692. He died insolvent, or very 
nearly so. 

Whigs and tories formed different esti- 
mates of Porter. Lord Somers, on the part 
of the whigs($.), wrote to Shrewsbury after 
Porter's death that it was ' a great good for- 
tune to the king's affairs in Ireland to be rid 
of a man who had formed so troublesome a 
party in that kingdom.' Dartmouth thought 
him a wise man, not actuated, as Burnet said, 
by l a tory humour,' but bent upon uniting 
all protestants without distinction of party. 
And his friend Roger North says ' he had 
that magnanimity and command of himself 

that no surprise or affliction, by arrest or 
otherwise, could be discerned either in his 
countenance or society, which is very ex- 
emplary ; and in cases of the persecuting 
kind, as injustices and the malice of powers, 
heroical in perfection.' 

[Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesise Anglicanse ; Claren- 
don and Kochester Correspondence, ed. Singer ; 
Howell's State Trials, vol. vi. ; Koger North's 
Life of Guilford ; Pepys's Diary, ed. Mynors 
Bright ; Burnet's Hist, of his Own Time, ed. 
1823; Liber Munerum Publicorum Hibernise; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities ; O'Flanagan's Lives 
of the Irish Chancellors; Oliver Burke's Hist, 
of the Irish Chancellors ; Froude's English in 
Ireland, vol. i. ; Macaulay's Hist, of England.] 

E. B-L. 

PORTER, ENDYMION (1587-1649), 
royalist, descended from William Porter, ser- 
geant-at-arms to Henry VII, was the son of 
Edmund Porter of Aston-sub-Edge, Glouces- 
tershire, by his cousin Angela, daughter of 
Giles Porter of Mickleton in the same county. 
Giles Porter married Juana de Figueroa y 
Mont Salve, said to have been a relative of 
the Count of Feria, who was Spanish am- 
bassador in England at the beginning of 
Elizabeth's reign. On Lord Nottingham's 
mission to Spain in 1605, Giles Porter was 
employed as interpreter (BuRKE, Commoners, 
iii. 577 ; WINWOOD, Memorials, ii. 76). En- 
dymion Porter was brought up in Spain, and 
was sometime a page in the household of 
Olivares (WILSON, Life of James I, p. 225 ; 
CLARENDON, Rebellion, iv. 28). On his re- 
turn to England he entered the service of 
Edward Villiers, and passed thence into that 
of his brother, then Marquis of Buckingham. 
Through Buckingham's influence he obtained 
the post of groom of the bedchamber to Prince 
Charles, which he continued to hold after the 
accession of Charles to the throne (GARDINER, 
Hist, of England, iv. 370). On 20 Nov. 1619 
the manor of Aston-sub-Edge was conveyed 
to Porter by his cousin Richard Catesby (note 
communicated by Mr. S. G. Hamilton). 
About the same time, or in 1620, he married 
Olivia, daughter of John Boteler (afterwards 
Lord Boteler of Bramfield) and of Elizabeth 
Villiers, sister of Buckingham. 

Porter's knowledge of Spain and of the 
Spanish language opened his way to diplo- 
matic employments. Buckingham used him 
to conduct his Spanish correspondence, and 
in October 1622 he was sent to Spain to 
carry the demand for Spanish aid in the 
recovery of the Palatinate, and to prepare 
the way for the intended journey of Prince 
Charles. In December he returned with the 
amended marriage articles, and with a secret 
message accepting the intended visit from 




the prince (GARDINER, Hist, of England, iv. 
370, 374, 383, 398). Porter accompanied 
Prince Charles and Buckingham to Spain in 
1623, and sometimes acted as their inter- 
preter. His letters to his wife contain an 
interesting account of their reception (FoN- 
BLANQUE, Lives of the Lords Strangford, p. 
29 ; NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, iv. 808, 
818, 912). In 1626, when the Earl of Bristol 
attacked Buckingham's conduct of the mar- 
riage negotiations, he involved Porter in his 
charges (GARDINER, vi. 96 ; Hardwicke State 
Papers, i. 501). Porter was again sent to 
Spain in 1628 to propose negotiations for peace 
between that country and England (ib. vi. 
333, 373 ; Report on the MSS. of Mr. Skrine, 
pp. 156-66 ; FONBLANQUE, p. 51). In 1634 
he was employed on a mission to the Cardinal 
Infante Ferdinand of Spain, then governor 
of the Low Countries, which ended in nothing 
but a dispute about questions of etiquette (ib. 
p. 59 ; Cal. State Papers, 1634-5, p. 461). 
Charlea also commissioned him in October 
1639 to warn Cardenas of the danger of the 
Spanish fleet at Dover and the king's in- 
ability to protect it from the Dutch (GARDI- 
NER, ix. 66 ; FONBLANQJTE, p. 67). 

Porter's rewards more than kept pace with 
his services. In May 1625 he was given a 
pension of 500/. a year as groom of the bed- 
chamber, which was converted three years 
later into an annuity of the same amount 
for himself and his wife. On 9 July 1628 
he was granted the office of collector of the 
fines in the Star-chamber, estimated to be 
worth 750/. a year (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1625-6 p. 23, 1628-9 pp. 199, 219). In ad- 
dition to this, he purchased the post of sur- 
veyor of the petty customs in the port of 
London, and had an interest in the soap 
monopoly. He also frequently obtained 
smaller pecuniary favours, such as leases of 
land at low rentals, shares in debts due to 
the king, and he was liberally paid for his 
diplomatic missions (ib. 1635, p. 65 ; FON- 
BLANQUE, p. 65). He was granted one thou- 
sand acres of land in Lincolnshire which he 
undertook to drain (1632), but the specula- 
tion was not very successful. More profit- 
able, probably, were his trading speculations. 
He was one of the association of East Indian 
traders, founded by Sir William Courten, 
which so seriously diminished the profits of 
the old East India Company, and he had 
shares in other maritime ventures (BRUCE, 
Annals of the East India Company, vol. i. ; 
Strafford Letters, ii. 87 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1635, p. 96). The wealth thus ac- 
quired was liberally spent. 

Porter's memory owes its celebrity chiefly 
to his taste for literature and art. lie wrote 

verses himself, and was the friend and patron 
of poets. Some lines, prefixed to Davenant's 
' Madagascar,' and an elegy on Dr. Donne's 
death, afford -specimens of his poetic skill 
which scarcely justify Randolph's unstinted 
praise (' A Pareneticon to the truly noble 
gentleman Master Endymion Porter,' Works, 
ed. Hazlitt, p. 639). Dekker dedicated his 
1 Dream ' to Porter, Gervase Warmstrey his 
' England's Wound and Cure ' (1628), and 
May his ' Antigone ' (1631) ; Edmund Bolton 
addressed to him his * Historical Parallel ' 
(1627), and he was one of the eighty-four 
' Essentials ' in Bolton's intended ' Academy 
Royal.' Porter's influence with Charles I 
saved Davenant's play of * The Wits ' from 
the excessive expurgations of the master of 
the revels. ' Your goodness,' said Davenant's 
dedication, ' first preserved life in the author, 
then rescued his work from a cruel faction ' 
(COLLIER, English Dramatic Poetry, i. 484 ; 
DAVENANT, Works, ed. 1673, ii. 165). Dave- 
nant, who addresses Porter as ' lord of my 
muse and heart,' and frequently refers to gifts 
of wine received from him, was poet in ordi- 
nary to the Porter family. Among his works 
there are poems to Olivia Porter, to her son 
George, copies of verse on Endymion's ill- 
nesses, an * address to all poets ' upon his re- 
covery, and dialogues in verse between Olivia 
and Endymion and Endymion and Arrigo. 
Herrick also was among Porter's friends, and 
appeals to him not to leave the delights of 
the country for the ambition and state of the 
court (' The Country Life : an Eclogue or 
Pastoral between Endymion Porter and Ly- 
cidas,' HERRICZ, Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i. 196, 
246). Elsewhere he declares that poets will 
never be wanting so long as there are patrons 
like Porter, 

who dost give 

Not only subject-matter for our wit, 
But also oil of maintenance to it. 

(ib. p. 40). Porter's generosity also extended 
to Robert Dover [q.v.], whose Olympic games 
upon the Cotswold Hills he encouraged by 
* giving him some of the king's old clothes, 
with a hat and feather and ruff, purposely to 
grace him, and consequently the solemnity ' 
(WOOD, Athence Oxon. iv. 222). 

Porter had also a taste for art ; he bought 
pictures himself, and was one of the agents 
employed by Charles I in forming his great 
collection. He procured for Daniel Mytens 
[q. v.] the office of * one of his Majesty's pic- 
ture-drawers in ordinary ' (WAT-POLE, Anec- 
dotes of Painting in England, ed. Wornum, 
1849, i. 216, 274). Much of the correspon- 
dence with the foreign agents who bought 
pictures and statues for the king in Italy and 




the Levant passed through his hands, and he 
was on friendly terms with Rubens, Gen- 
tileschi, and other painters employed by the 
king. He also helped to procure the Earl of 
Arundel pictures from Spain (SAINSBUKY, 
Original Papers relating to Rubens, 1859, pp. 
146, 203, 293, 324, 353). 

During the two Scottish wars Porter was 
in constant attendance on the king. In the 
Long parliament he represented Droitwich, 
and was one of the fifty -nine members who 
voted against Strafford's attainder, and were 
posted up as ' Straffordians ' and ' traitors ' 
(RUSHWORTH, iv. 248). In August 1641 
he accompanied the king on his visit to 
Scotland. What he witnessed there filled 
him with the gloomiest anticipations, and 
he told Nicholas that he feared this island 
would before long be a theatre of distrac- 
tions (Nicholas Papers, i. 40, 45). When 
Charles left Whitehall, Porter still followed 
his master. ' Wliither we go and what we 
are to do I know not, for I am none of the 
council ; my duty and loyalty have taught 
me to follow my king, and, by the grace of 
God, nothing shall divert me from it' (FoN- 
BLANQUE, p. 75). On 15 Feb. 1642, how- 
ever, the House of Commons voted him ' one 
that is conceived to give dangerous counsel,' 
and on 4 Oct. following included him among 
the eleven great delinquents who were to be 
excepted from pardon. In the subsequent 
treaties of peace he was consistently named 
among the exceptions, and on 10 March 1643 
he was disabled from sitting in parliament 
(Commons' Journals, ii. 433, 997 ; Report on 
the Duke of Portland's MSS. i. 98). The 
reasons for this animosity against a man who 
was not a minister of state or a public offi- 
cial were partly the great confidence which 
Charles reposed in Porter, and partly the 
supposition that he was one of the chief in- 
struments in the ' popish plot ' against the 
liberties and religion of England. He had 
been the favourite and the agent of Bucking- 
ham. His wife Olivia was a declared catho- 
lic, and has been described as ' the soul of 
the proselytising movement ' in the queen's 
court. She had converted her father, Lord 
Boteler, and attempted to convert her kins- 
woman, the Marchioness of Hamilton (GAR- 
DINER, viii. 238). A denunciation of the 
supposed plotters, sent to Laud by Sir Wil- 
liam Boswell, the English ambassador in the 
Netherlands, made the following assertions : 
* Master Porter of the King's Bedchamber, 
most addicted to the Popish religion, is a 
bitter enemy of the King. He reveals all 
his greatest secrets to the Pope's legate ; 
although he very rarely meets with him, yet 
his wife meets him so much the oftener, who, 

being informed by her husband, conveys 
secrets to the legate. In all his actions he 
is nothing inferior to Toby Matthew ; it 
cannot be uttered how diligently he watcheth 
on the business. His sons are secretly in- 
structed in the popish religion ; openly they 
profess the reformed. The eldest is now to 
receive his father's office under the king 
which shall be. A cardinal's hat is pro- 
vided for the other if the design succeed 
well ' (PRYinsrE, Rome's Master-Piece, 1644, 
p. 23). Wild though these accusations were, 
they gained some credence. What helped 
to make them believed was that Porter was 
undoubtedly implicated in the army plot, 
and was suspected of a share in instigating 
the Irish rebellion. On 1 Oct. 1641 the 
great seal of Scotland had been in his cus- 
tody, and it was asserted that he had used 
it to seal the commission produced by Sir 
Phelim O'Neill [q. v.] (The Mystery of Ini- 
quity yet Working, 1643, p. 37; Rome's 
Master-Piece, p. 33; BKODIE, Hist, of the 
British Empire, ii. 378). The charge was 
probably untrue, but it is noteworthy that 
Porter subsequently assisted Glamorgan in 
the illegitimate affixing of the great seal to 
his commission to treat with the Irish (1 April 
1644). He was not a man to stick at legal 
formalities in anything which would serve 
his master (English Historical Review, ii. 531, 

In the list of the king's army in 1642, 
Porter appears as colonel of a regiment of 
foot, but his command was purely nominal, 
and when he made his composition with the 
parliament he could assert that he had never 
borne arms against it (PEACOCK, Army Lists, 
p. 14). Porter followed the king to Oxford 
and sat in the anti-parliament summoned 
there in December 1643 (Old Parliamentary 
History, xiii. 75). He left England about 
the close of 1645, stayed some time in France, 
and then proceeded to Brussels. 1 1 am in 
so much necessity,' he wrote to Nicholas in 
January 1647, ' that were it not for an Irish 
barber, that was once my servant, I might 
have starved for want of bread. He 
hath lent me some monies, which will last 
me a fortnight longer, and then I shall be as 
much subject to misery as I was before. 
Here, in our court, no man looks on me, and 
the Queen thinks I lost my estate rather for 
want of wit than for my loyalty to my 
master ; but, God be thanked, I know my 
own heart and am satisfied in my own con- 
science, and were it to do again I would as 
freely sacrifice all without hopes of reward 
as I have done this ' (Nicholas Papers, i. 70). 
In the Netherlands, thanks doubtless to his 
Spanish friends, Porter found it easier to 




live, and his letters from Brussels are more 
cheerful (FOXBLANQTJE, p. 80 ; Fairfax Cor- 
respondence, iii. 30). On 23 Nov. 1648 he 
was given leave to come over to England to 
compound for his estate, and did so in the 
following spring. His fine was fixed, on 
21 June 1649, at 222/. 10s., the smallness of 
the sum being probably due to the fact that 
his landed property was encumbered, while 
all his movables had long since been con- 
fiscated (Cal. of 'Committee for Compounding, 
p. 1804 ; cf. DRING. Catalogue of 'Compounders, 
p. 87, ed. 1733). He died a few weeks later, 
and was buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 
on 20 Aug. 1649. 

In his will, dated 26 March 1639, Porter 
inserted a tribute to the patron to whom 
he owed his rise to fortune. ' I charge all 
my sons, upon my blessing, that they, leaving 
the like charges to their posterity, do all of 
them observe and respect the children and 
family of my Lord Duke of Buckingham, 
deceased, to whom I owe all the happiness I 
had in the world ' (FONBLA^QJTE, p. 82 ; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 353). 

Olivia Porter survived her husband four- 
teen years ; she died in 1663, and was buried 
at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 13 Dec. 

Porter's eldest son, George (1622P-1683), 
and his fourth son, Thomas, are separately 
noticed. His second son, Charles (b. 1623), 
was killed at the battle of Newburn in 1640 
( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 231 ; RTJSH- 
WORTH, iii. 1238). Philip, the third (b. 1628), 
was imprisoned in 1654 for complicity in a 
plot against the Protector ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1654, p. 274). Otherwise he is only 
heard of as a swashbuckler of the worst 
type (Middlesex Records, iii. 210). 

James Porter, the fifth son (b. 1638), en- 
tered the army after the Restoration, and was 
probably the captain of that name who held 
commissions in Lord Falkland's regiment in 
1661, and in the Duke of Buckingham's in 
1672. He was also captain of a volunteer 
troop of horse, raised at the time of Mon- 
motith's rebellion, and was then described as 
Colonel Porter (CHARLES DALTON, Army 
Lists, i. 20, 120, ii. 16). During the reign 
of Charles II he was occasionally employed 
on complimentary missions to France and 
the Netherlands (Saville Correspondence, p. 
116 ; Secret-service Money of Charles II and 
James II, p. 130). On 8 March 1686-7 he 
was appointed vice-chamberlain of the house- 
hold to James II, having previously held the 
post of groom of the bedchamber (LTTTTRELL, 
Diary, i.395; Saville Correspondence,^. 167). 
He has been identified with the Porter who 
held the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
regiment of Colonel Henry Fit/James in the 

Irish army of James II (JAMES D'A 
King James's Irish Army List, ii. 85). In 
February 1689 James sent Porter as envoy to 
Innocent XI (MACPHERSO^, Original Papers, 
i. 302). On his return he continued to occupy 
the post of chamberlain in the court at St. 
Germains, and furnished materials for a fune- 
ral panegyric on his master ('A Funeral 
Oration on the late King James, composed 
from Memoirs furnished by Mr. Porter, his 
Great Chamberlain ; dedicated to the French 
King/ translated into English, 1702). 

A picture, representing Endymion Porter 
and his family, by Vandyck, was in the pos- 
session of Lord Strangford. Two other por- 
traits of Porter, by the same artist, are in 
the possession of the Earl of Hardwick and 
the Earl of Mexborough. The latter was 
No. 31 in the Vandyck exhibition of 1886. 
Another is in Mr. Fenwick's collection at 
Middlehill. There is in the National Gallery 
a likeness of Porter, by Dobson, which was 
engraved by Faithorne (FAGAN, Catalogue 
of Faithorne's Works, 1888, p. 54). Another 
portrait by Dobson is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. A medal, representing Porter, 
was executed by Warin in 1635, the inscrip- 
tion on which states that he was then ( aet. 

[The best life of Porter is that contained in 
E. B. de Fonblanque's Lives of the Lords Strang- 
ford, 1877. A pedigree of the Porter family is 
given by Waters in The Chesters of Chichele, i. 
144-9. The Domestic State Papers contain a 
large number of letters from Porter to his wife, 
many of which are printed in full by Fonblanque; 
notes and copies of other letters kindly supplied 
by Mrs. K. B. Townshend.] C. H. F. 

PORTER, FRANCIS (d. 1702), Irish 
Franciscan, a native of co. Meath, joined the 
Franciscans, and passed most of his life at 
Rome. He became professor and lecturer, 
and was ultimately president, of the Irish 
College of St. Isidore in that city. He de- 
scribed himself in 1693 as ' divine and his- 
torian to his most Serene Majesty of Great 
Britain,' viz. James II. He died in Rome on 
7 April 1702. 

Porter was author of the following very 
rare Latin works: 1. 'Securis Evangelica 
ad Hteresis radices posita, ad Congregationem 
Propagandas Fidei,' Rome, 1674, ' editio se- 
cunda novis additionibus aucta et recog- 
nita ; ' dedicated to Roger Palmer, lord Cas- 
tlemaine. 2. ' Palinodia religionis prgetensse 
Reformatae,' c., Rome, 1679 ; dedicated to 
Cardinal Cybo. 3. ' Compendium Annalium 
Ecclesiasticorum Regni Hibernise, exhibens 
brevem illius descriptionem et succinctam 
Historian!,' 1690, 4to; dedicated to Alex- 
ander VIII. It contains an epistle to the 




author, by Francis Echinard, a Jesuit, on 
errors in maps of Ireland. Porter has 
drawn largely on Ussher and Ware. The 
last section of the Appendix contains con- 
temporary history down to the end of 1689, 
with an account of the siege of Derry 
(taken from letters written in May, July, 
and September 1639), and of the Jacobite 
parliament at Dublin. Porter concludes 
with an invective against Luther, as the au- 
thor of all the evils of Ireland. 4. ' Systema 
Decretorum Dogmaticorum ... in quo in- 
super recensentur praecipui cujuslibet Saeculi, 
errores, adversi Impugnatores orthodoxi ; 
item Recursus et Appellationes hactenus ad 
sedem Apostolicam habitse, cum notis his- 
toricis et copiosis indicibus,' Avignon, 1693, 
fol. ; dedicated to Cardinal Spada. This 
work is very rare : was unknown to Ware, 
and was wrongly described by Harris in his 
edition of Ware's Irish writers. 5. ' Opus- 
culum contra vulgares quasdam Prophetias 
de Electionum [sic] Summorum Pontificum, 
S. Malachise . . . hactenus falso attributas, 
Gallice primum editum, nunc novis supple- 
mentis auctum et in Latinum idioma trans- 
latum : adjunctis celebrium Authorum [sic] 
reflectionibtis et judiciis de Abbatis Joachimi 
Vaticiniis, e] usque Spiritu Prophetico,' 
Rome, 1698, 8vo. 

[Ware's Works concerning Ireland, ed. Walter 
Harris, 1764, ii. 262; Webb's Compend. Irish 
Biography ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Porter's Works ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Manual ; Hazlitt's Bibliographi- 
cal Collections, 3rd ser. p. 126.] G-. LE G-. N. 

PORTER, GEORGE (1622 P-1683), 
royalist, was the eldest son of Endymion 
Porter [q. v.] On 19 June 1641 Charles I 
recommended him to the Earl of Ormonde to 
be allowed to transport a regiment of a thou- 
sand of the disbanded soldiers of the Irish 
army for the service of Spain (Cox.v,Hibernia 
Anglicana, iii. 71, App. p. 210). At the com- 
mencement of the civil war he appears to 
have served under Prince Rupert, and then 
became commissary-general of horse in the 
army of the Earl of Newcastle ( WARBTJRTOX, 
Prince Rupert, i. 507; Life of the Duke of 
Newcastle, ed. 1886, p. 165). In March 1644 
Porter was engaged in fortifying Lincoln, and 
at the battle of Marston Moor, where he was 
wounded, he held the rank of major-general 
of Newcastle's foot (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Rep. p. 435 ; VICARS, God's Ark, p. 277). 
The parliament sent him to the Tower, but. 
after lengthy negotiations, allowed him to 
ba exchanged (Commons' 1 Journals, iii. 658, 
709, 711 ; Report on the Duke of Portland's 
MSS. i. 192-6). On his release Porter be- 
came lieutenant-general and commander of 
the horse in the army of Lord Goring, in the 

west of England. Over Goring he exercised 
an influence which was very harmful to the 
king's cause ; he ' fed his wild humour and 
debauch, and turned his wantonness into riot.' 
At Ilminster on 9 July 1645 he suffered 
Goring's cavalry to be surprised and routed 
by Massey. Goring indignantly declared that 
he deserved * to be pistolled for his negli- 
gence or cowardice,' and a few weeks later 
told Hyde that he suspected Porter of 
treachery as well as negligence, and was re- 
solved to be quit of him (CARTE, Original Let- 
ters, i. 131 ; BULSTRODE, Memoirs, pp. 135, 
137, 141). His final verdict was that 'his 
brother-in-law was the best company, but 
the worst officer that ever served the king.' 
Though Goring took no steps to deprive 
Porter of his command, the character of the 
latter was utterly discredited by a quarrel 
between him and Colonel Tuke, arising out 
of an intrigue about promotion (ib. pp. 137, 
141-7). In November 1645 Porter obtained 
a pass from Fairfax, abandoned the king's 
cause, and went to London (FOXBLANQUE, 
Lives of the Lords Strangford, p. 77). He 
made his peace by this treacherous desertion 
to the parliamentary cause, for the House of 
Commons at once remitted the fine of 1,000/. 
which the committee for compounding had 
imposed upon him, and passed an ordinance 
for his pardon (Commons' Journals, iv. 486, 
522 ; Calendar of the Committee for Com- 
pounding, p. 1097). 

Porter was extremely quarrelsome, al- 
though his courage was not above suspicion, 
and in 1646 and 1654 his intended duels 
were prevented by official intervention 
(Lords' Journals, vii'i. 318, 338 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 437). In 1659 he was 
engaged in the plots for the restoration of 
Charles II, but was not trusted by the 
royalists (Clarendon State Papers, iii.* 586). 
Nevertheless, after the king's return, he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the office of gentleman 
of the privy chamber to the queen-consort 
(Cal State Papers, Dom. 1664-5, p. 396; 
ADY, Life of Henrietta of Orleans, p. 215). 
He died in 1683. 

Porter married Diana, daughter of George 
Goring, first earl of Norwich, and widow of 
Thomas Covert of Slaugham, Sussex, by 
whom he had three sons and five daughters. 
His daughter Mary married Philip Smyth, 
fourth viscount Strangford. 

[See authorities for PORTER, ENDYMION.] 

C. H. F. 

PORTER, GEORGE (fl. 1695), con- 
spirator, is described in all contemporary 
accounts as a Roman catholic, a man of 
pleasure, and a haunter of Jacobite taverns. 




He may be identical with George, son of 
Thomas Porter [q. v.] On 10 Dec. 1684 a 
true bill of manslaughter was brought in 
against him for causing the death of Sir 
James Halkett during a fracas at a theatre, 
but he escaped punishment (cf. Middlesex 
County Records, iv. 253). In 1688 he was a 
captain in Colonel Slingsby's regiment of 
horse (DALTON, Army Lists, ii. 185). In May 
1692 he was mentioned in the proclamation 
as a dangerous Jacobite, but he soon felt it 
safe to return to his old haunts, and in June 
1695 he was temporarily taken into custody 
for rioting in a Drury Lane tavern and 
drinking King James's health. After the 
death of Queen Mary, Porter associated him- 
self more closely with Sir George Barclay, 
Eobert Charnock, and other Jacobite con- 
spirators ; and in December 1695 the inten- 
tion to secure the person of William III, 
alive or dead, was communicated to him by 
Charnock. Porter brought his servant Keyes 
into the plot, and it was he who, with much 
ingenuity, organised the details of the plan, 
by which William was to be surprised in 
his coach in a miry lane between Chiswick 
and Turnham Green, while his guard was 
straggling after the passage of Queensferry. 
It was arranged that Porter should be one 
of the three leaders of the attack upon the 
guards. On the eve of the intended assassi- 
nation, 21 Feb. 1696, the conspirators as- 
sembled in the lodging that Porter shared 
with Charnock in Norfolk Street, Strand. 
The plot having been revealed, Porter and 
Keyes were pursued by the hue and cry and 
captured at Leatherhead. Fortunately for 
Porter, Sir Thomas Prendergast [q. v.], the in- 
former, who was under great obligation to 
him, stipulated for his friend's life. Porter 
basely turned king's evidence, and thus pro- 
cured his pardon and a grant from the 
exchequer (1 Aug. 1696). His testimony 
greatly facilitated the conviction of Char- 
nock, King, Friend, Parkyns, Rookwood, 
Cranbourne, and Lowicke. More abominable 
was Porter's betrayal of his servant Keyes 
whom he had inveigled into the plot. 

In November 1696 Sir John Fenwick was 
so alarmed at the amount of information 
possessed by Porter as to the ramifications 
of this and previous plots, that he made a 
strenuous effort to get him out of the coun- 
try. On condition that he forthwith trans- 
ported himself to France, he promised Porter 
three hundred guineas down, a handsome 
annuity, and a free pardon from James. The 
negotiations were conducted through a bar- 
ber named Clancy. Porter reported the in- 
trigue to the authorities at Whitehall. On 
the day proposed for his departure to France 


le met Clancy by arrangement at a tavern 
in Covent Garden. At a given signal Clancy 
was arrested, and subsequently convicted and 
Dilloried. Later in the month Porter gave 
evidence against Fenwick (LTJTTRELL, iv. 
140 sq.) He probably retired at the end of 
he year upon substantial earnings. In June 
L697 a woman was suborned to bring a scan- 
dalous charge against him. His successes 
doubtless excited the envy of the confra- 
ternity of professional scoundrels to which 
le belonged. 

[Luttrell's Diary, vols. i. ii. iii. and iv. passim ; 
Vlacaulay's Hist, of England, chap. xxi. ; Boyer's 
William III, pp. 448-56 ; Burnet's Own Time, 
L766, iii. 232-6; Life of James II, ii. 548; 
Ranke's Hist, of England, v. 125; Howell's 
State Trials, xiii. See also arts. BARCLAY, SIB 


'1822-1895), surgeon, born in Kildare Street, 
Dublin, on 24 Nov. 1822, was the only sou 
of WILLIAM HENRY PORTER (1790-1861), 
by his wife Jane (Hornidge) of Blessington, 
co. Wicklow. The father, son of William 
Porter of Rathfarnham, co. Dublin, was pre- 
sident of the Irish College of Surgeons in 
1838, and professor of surgery in the College 
of Surgeons school of medicine in Dublin. 
He was a very popular teacher in the times 
when the old system was in vogue by which 
apprenticeship to a well-known surgeon was 
one of the portals to the profession of sur- 
gery. He was also a good anatomist, and 
made occasional contributions to surgical 
literature, some of which were of distinct 
merit. An operation on the femoral artery 
called Porter's, now, however, rarely prac- 
tised, owes its name to him. A brother, 
Frank Thorpe Porter, stipendiary magistrate 
at Dublin and raconteur, wrote ' Grand Juries 
in Ireland,' Dublin, 1840, and a well-known 
book of anecdotes, ' The Recollections of an 
Irish Police Magistrate ' (2nd edit. 1875). 

George Hornidge Porter studied at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated M.D. 
at the College of Surgeons, Ireland. In 1844 
he became a fellow of the latter body, and in 
1849 was elected surgeon to the Meath Hos- 
pital, Dublin, to which institution his father 
was attached in the same capacity. He early 
attained the reputation of a bold and success- 
ful operator. He contributed to the medical 
papers, chiefly to the Dublin l Journal of 
Medical Science,' many records of surgical 
cases and operations. He was aman of popu- 
lar manner, and ambitious of social distinc- 
tion, and was for many years one of the best 
known men in his native city. He was pre>- 
sident of the College of Surgeons of Ireland 




during 1868-9, and for a long time a mem- 
ber of the council of that college, where he 
exercised great personal influence. In 1869 
he was appointed surgeon-in-ordinary to the 
queen in Ireland. He was knighted in 1883, 
and received a baronetcy in 1889 in recog- 
nition of his distinguished professional posi- 
tion. The university of Dublin conferred 
upon him in 1873 the honorary degree of 
master of surgery, and in 1891 the post of 
regius professor of surgery. The university 
of Glasgow gave him in 1888 the honorary 
degree of LL.D. In his earlier years he fre- 
quently gave expert evidence in the coroner's 
court, and in 1882 he was one of those who 
were called upon to examine the bodies of 
Lord Frederick Cavendish and Thomas Henry 
Burke, who were murdered in the Phoenix 
Park. Sir George Porter was attached to 
many of the Dublin hospitals in an honorary 
or consulting capacity, and was an 'active 
member of numerous charitable and other 
boards. He acquired by purchase landed 
property in co. Wexford, and was proud of 
his position as a country gentleman, and 
especially of being high sheriff of the county. 
He died of heart-disease at his residence, 
Merrion Square, Dublin, on 15 June 1895. 

He married Julia, daughter of Isaac Bond 
of Flimby, Cumberland, by whom he had 
one son. 

[Cameron's Hist, of the College of Surgeons 
in Ireland ; Ormsby's Hist, of the Meath Hos- 
pital ; obituary notices in British Medical Jour- 
nal and Lancet, June 1895.] C. N. 

(1792-1852), statistician, the son of a London 
merchant, was born in London in 1792. Fail- 
ing in business as a sugar-broker, he devoted 
himself to economics and statistics, and in 
1831 contributed an essay on life assurance 
to Charles Knight's ' Companion to the Al- 
manac.' When, in 1832, Knight declined 
Lord Auckland's invitation to digest for the 
board of trade the information contained in 
the parliamentary reports and papers, he 
recommended Porter for the task. Porter 
now had scope for the exercise of his powers 
as a statistician, and in 1834 the statistical 
department of the board of trade was per- 
manently established under his supervision. 
In 1840 he was appointed senior member of 
the railway department of the same board, 
and in 1841 Lord Clarendon obtained for 
him the position of joint secretary of the 
board in succession to John MacGregor [q. v.] 
Porter's remuneration was at first inadequate, 
but he ultimately received 1,000/. a year as 
chief of the statistical department, 1,200/. as 
senior member of the railway department, 
and 1,500/. as joint secretary of the board of 

trade. He was one of the promoters, in 1834, 
of the Statistical Society, of which he be- 
came vice-president and treasurer in 1841 ; 
and he took an active interest in the pro- 
ceedings of section F of the British Asso- 
ciation. He was also an honorary member 
of the Statistical Society of Ulster, corre- 
sponding member of the Institute of France, 
and fellow of the Royal Society. He died 
on 3 Sept. 1852 at tunbridge Wells, and 
was buried there. The immediate cause of 
his death was a gnat's sting on the knee, 
which caused mortification. There is an en- 
graved portrait of him in the rooms of the 
Statistical Society, Adelphi Terrace, Lon- 
don, W.C. 

Porter was a liberal in politics, a zealous 
free-trader, and an able official. His best- 
known work, ' The Progress of the Nation in 
its various Social and Economical Relations, 
from the beginning of the Nineteenth Century 
to the present time' (3 vols. London, 1836-43, 
cr. 8vo ; 1 vol. London, 1838, 8vo ; 1847, 8vo; 

1851, 8vo), is an invaluable record of the first 
half of the nineteenth century. It is remark- 
able for the accuracy and the variety of its 
information, and for the skill with which the 
results of statistical inquiry are presented. 
Besides tracts and papers on statistical sub- 
jects in Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' the 
'Journal of the Statistical Society,' and the 
' Proceedings of the British Association,' 
Porter published: 1. ' The Effect of Restric- 
tions on the Importation of Corn, considered 
with reference to Landowners, Farmers, and 
Labourers,' London, 1839, 8vo. 2. 'The 
Nature and Properties of the Sugar Cane . . .' 
2nd edition, w r ith an additional chapter on 
the manufacture of sugar from beetroot, Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo. 3. 'The Tropical Agricul- 
turist : a Practical Treatise on the Cultiva- 
tion and Management of various Productions 
suited to Tropical Climates.' 4. 'Popular 
Fallacies regarding General Interests :_ being 
a Translation of the " Sophismes !Econo- 
miques"' [of F. Bastiat], &c., 1846, 16mo ; 
1849, 16mo. 5. 'A Manual of Statistics' 
(Section 15 of the ' Admiralty Manual of 
Scientific Inquiry,' edited by Sir John Frede- 
rick William Herschel, 1849, 12mo; 1851, 
8vo) ; another edition, revised by William 
Newmarch, 1859, 8vo. 

POKTEK, SARAH (1791-1862), writer on 
education, wife of the above, was the daugh- 
ter of Abraham Ricardo, and sister of David 
Ricardo [q. v.] She died on 13 Sept. 1862 at 
West Hill, Wandsworth, aged 71. She pub- 
lished: 1. 'Conversations on Arithmetic,' 
London, 1835, 12mo; new edition, with the 
title ' Rational Arithmetic,' &c., London, 

1852, 12mo. 2. ' On Infant Schools for the 




Upper and Middle Classes ' (Central Society 
of Education, second publication, 1838_ 
12mo). 3. ' The Expediency and the Means 
of elevating the Profession of the Educator 
in public estimation/ 1839, 12mo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852 ii. 427-9, 1862 ii. 509 
Annual Register, 1852, p. 305 ; Journal of the 
Statistical Society, 1853, pp. 97, 98 ; Athenseum ; 
Waller's Imperial Dictionary, iii. 594; M'Cul- 
loch's Literature of Political Economy, pp. 80, 
220, 222.] W. A. S. H. 

PORTER, HENRY (fi. 1599), dramatist, 
is frequently referred to in Henslowe's ' Diary ' 
between 16 Dec. 1596 and 26 May 1599. 
On 30 May 1598 Henslowe paid 47. to Thomas 
Dowton and Mr. Porter for the play called 
< Love Prevented.' On 18 Aug. 1598 Hens- 
lowe bought the play called ' Hot Anger soon 
Cold,' by Porter, Chettle, and Jonson. On 
22 Dec. 1598 he bought the second part of 
Porter's ' Two Angry Women of Abington.' 
On 28 Feb. 1599 Porter promised Henslowe 
all his compositions, whether written alone 
or in collaboration, for a loan of 40s., being 
earnest-money for his ' Two Merry Women 
of Abington.' On 4 March 1599 Henslowe 
paid for ; The Spencers ' by Porter and Chettle. 
Many small money advances followed. Fran- 
cis Meres, in his 'Palladia Tamia' (1598), 
mentions Porter as a leading dramatist. One 
of Weaver's epigrams (1598), addressed 'ad 
Henricum Porter,' describes a man of mature 
age, but he is probably addressing another 
Henry Porter who graduated bachelor of 
music from Christ Church, Oxford, in July 
1600, and was father of Walter Porter [q. v.] 

Of the five plays mentioned above, the only 
one extant is ' The Pleasant Historie of the 
two Angrie Women of Abington. With the 
humorous mirth of Dick Coomes and Nicholas 
Proverbes, two Serving men. As it was 
lately playde by the Right Honorable the 
Earle of Nottingham, Lord High Admirall, 
his servants. By Henry Porter, Gent./ Lon- 
don, 1599, 4to. A second edition, in quarto, 
was issued in the same year. The play 
has been edited by Alexander Dyce for the 
Percy Society in 1841, by William Carew 
Hazlitt, in vol. vii. of Dodsley's < Old Plays ' 
(4th edit. 1874), and by Mr. Havelock Ellis 
in ' Nero and other Plays,' Mermaid Series, 
1888. Charles Lamb gave extracts from it 
among his selecti ons from the 'Garrick Plays' 
(Bonn's edit. 1854, p. 432), and judged it 
' no whit inferior to either the " Comedy of 
Errors" or the " Taming of the Shrew." . . . 
Its night scenes are peculiarly sprightly and 
wakeful, the versification unencumbered, and 
rich with compound epithets/ 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum, ii. 302 (Addit. MS. 
24488) ; Fleay's Biographical Chron. of the Eng- 

lish Drama, 1559-1642, ii. 162; Fleay's Hist, of 
the Stage, p. 107; and editions of Dyce, Hazlitt, 
and Ellis quoted above.] K. B. 

PORTER, SIR JAMES (1710-1786), 
diplomatist, was born in Dublin in 1710. 
His father, whose original name was La 
Roche, was captain of a troop of horse 
under James II. His mother was the eldest 
daughter of Isaye d'Aubus or Daubuz, a 
French protestant refugee, and sister of the 
Rev. Charles Daubuz, vicar of Brotherton 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire. She died 
on 7 Jan. 1753. On the failure of James II's 
campaign in Ireland La Roche assumed the 
name of Porter. After a slight education 
young Porter was placed in a house of busi- 
ness in the city of London. During his leisure 
hours he 'assiduously studied mathematics, 
and to a moderate knowledge of Latin added 
a perfect acquaintance with the French and 
Italian languages ' (Memoir, p. 4). He also 
joined a debating society, called the ' Robin 
Hood,' where he distinguished himself as a 
speaker. Through his friend Richard Adams, 
who afterwards became recorder of the city 
of London and a baron of the exchequer, 
Porter was introduced to Lord Carteret, by 
whom he was employed on several con- 
fidential missions in matters connected with 
continental commerce. While in Germany 
in 1736 Porter paid a visit to Count Zinzen- 
dorfF's Moravian settlement near Leipzig, of 
which he has left an interesting account 
(Turkey, its History and Proffress,\ol. i. App. 
pp. 365-71). In 1741 he was employed at 
the court of Vienna, and assisted Sir Thomas 
Robinson (1693-1770) [q. v.] in the negotia- 
tions between Austria and Prussia. In the fol- 
lowing year he was again sent out to Vienna 
on a special mission to Maria Theresa (ib. 
vol. i. App. pp. 406-97). On 22 Sept. 1746 he 
was appointed ambassador at Constantinople 
(London Gazette, 1746, No. 8573), where he 
remained until May 1762. On 7 May 1763 
he was appointed minister-plenipotentiary 
at the court of Brussels (ib. 1763, No. 10310). 
He was knighted on 21 Sept. following (ib. 
1763, No. 10350), having refused, it is said, 
,he offer of a baronetcy. Finding the ex- 
penses of his position at Brussels beyond his 
means, he resigned his post in 1765 and re- 
turned to England, where he divided his 
time between London and Ham, and devoted 
himself to the cultivation of science and 
literature. Porter, who was a fellow of the 
Royal Society, declined to be nominated 
president in 1768, 'not feeling himself of 
sufficient consequence or rich enough to live 
in such a style as he conceived that the 
president of such a society should maintain ' 
(Memoir, p. 11). In the same year he pub- 


1 80 


listed anonymously 
the Religion, Law, Government,and Manners 
of the Turks/ London, 8vo, 2 vols. (' Second 
Edition ... To which is added the State 
of the Turkish Trade from its Origin to the 
Present Time,' London, 1771, STO). Porter 
died in Great Marlborough Street, London, 
on 9 Dec. 1776, aged 66. 

He married, in 1755, Clarissa Catherine, 
eldest daughter of Elbert, second baron de 
Hochepied (of the kingdom of Hungary), the 
Dutch ambassador at Constantinople, by 
whom he had five children, viz. : (1) John 
Elbert, who died an infant at Pera in 1756. 

(2) Anna Margaretta, born at Pera on 4 April 
1758, who became the second wife of John 
Larpent [q. v.], and died on 4 March 1832. 

(3) George, born at Pera on 23 April 1760, a 
lieutenant-general in the army, who suc- 
ceeded as sixth Baron de Hochepied in 
February 1819, and by royal license dated 
the 6th day of May following assumed the 
surname and arms of De Hochepied in lieu 
of Porter (London Gazette, 1819, pt. i. 
p. 842) ; by a further license, dated 5 Oct. 
1819, he obtained permission for himself and 
his two nephews, John James and George 
Gerard, sons of his sister Anna Margaretta, 
to bear the title in England (ib. 1819, pt. ii. 
p. 1766). He represented Stockbridge in the 
House of Commons from February 1793 to 
February 1820. He married, on 1 Sept. 
1802, Henrietta, widow of Richard, first earl 
Grosvenor, and daughter of Henry Vernon of 
Hilton Park, Staffordshire, and died on 
25 March 1828, without leaving issue. 

(4) Sophia Albertini, who died unmarried. 

(5) Clarissa Catherine, born at Brussels in 
December 1764 ; she married, on 15 Jan. 
1798, the Right Hon. James Trail, secretary 
of state for Ireland, and died at Clifton on 
7 April 1833. 

Sir William Jones speaks of Porter in the 
highest terms, and asserts that during his 
embassy at Constantinople f the interests of 
our mercantile body were never better 
secured, nor the honour of our nation better 
supported' ( Works, 1799, 4to, iv. 5). Three 
of Porter's letter-books are in the possession 
of Mr. George A. Aitken (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
12th Rep. App. pt. ix. pp. 334-42), and a 
number of his despatches are preserved in the 
Record Office (State Papers, Turkey, Bundles 
35 to 43). He is said to have written a pam- 
phlet against the partition of Poland, which 
was suppressed at the request of the govern- 
ment (Memoir, p. 11). He was the author 
of the following three papers, which were 
printed in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
of the Royal Society: 1. 'On the several 
Earthquakes felt at Constantinople ' (xlix. 

115). 2. 'New Astronomical and Physical 
Observations made in Asia,' &c. (xlix. 251). 
3. ' Observations on the Transit of Venus 
made at Constantinople' (lii. 226). His 
grandson, Sir George Gerard de Hochepied 
Larpent [q. v.], published in 1854 (2 vols.) 
' Turkey : its History and Progress, from the 
Journals and Correspondence of Sir James 
Porter . . . continued to the present time, with 
a Memoir.' A portrait of Porter forms the 
frontispiece to the first volume. 

[Authorities quoted in the text; Athenaeum, 
21 Oct. 1854, pp. 1259-60; Agnew's Protestant 
Exiles from France, 1886, i. 339-40, 394-5 ; 
Burke's Peerage, &c., 1894, pp. 830, 1558; 
Foster's Baronetage, 1881, p. 374; Gent. Mag. 
1776 p. 579, 1798 pt. i. p. 83, 1802 pt. ii.p. 876, 
1828 pt. i. pp. 188-9, 364, 1832 pt. i. p. 286, 
1833, pt. i. p. 380; Ann. Reg. 1776, p. 230; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 67, 114, vii. 128, 
313, 8th ser. v. 387 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G-. F. K. B. 

PORTER, JAMES (1753-1798), author 
of ' Billy Bluff,' son of Alexander Porter, was 
born in 1753 at Tamna Wood, near Ballin- 
drait, co. Donegal. His father was a farmer 
and owner of a flax-scutching mill. James 
was the eldest of eight children. On his 
father's death (about 1773) he gave up the 
farm and mill to a younger brother, and 
engaged himself as a schoolmaster at Dromore, 
co. Down. In 1780 he married, and removed 
to a school at Drogheda. Designing to enter 
the presbyterian ministry, he went to Glas- 

fow as a divinity student (apparently in 
784) ; and, having finished a two years' 
course, was licensed, in 1786 or 1787, by 
Bangor presbytery. After being an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the presbyterian congre- 
gation of Ballindrait, he received, through 
the good offices of Robert Black, D.D. [q. v.], 
a call to Greyabbey (local pronunciation, 
Gryba), co. Down, where he was ordained by 
Bangor presbytery on 31 July 1787. No sub- 
scription was required of him, and the test 
questions, drawn up by Andrew Craig, were 
Arian in complexion. His professional in- 
come did not exceed 60/. ; hence he supple- 
mented his resources by farming. Having 
mechanical tastes, he fitted up a workshop, 
and constructed models of improved farming 
implements. By this and other means he did 
much to promote the physical wellbeing of 
his flock, to whom he was in all respects an 
assiduous pastor. He is said to have been an 
Arian, but there seems no evidence of his 
attachment to a special school of theology. 
Porter had joined the volunteer movement 
which began in 1778, but took no prominent 
part in connection with it. He was not a 
United Irishman, nor was he publicly known 




as a politician till after the suppression of the 
volunteer movement by the Convention Act 
of 1793. One effect of this arbitrary measure 
was to throw into alliance with the secret 
society of United Irishmen those who, like 
Porter, were in favour of parliamentary re- 
form and catholic emancipation, but were 
now debarred from the holding of open meet- 
ings for the agitation of constitutional re- 
forms. Porter in 1794 became a contributor 
to the ' Northern Star,' founded in 1792 by 
Samuel Neilson [q. v.] For this paper he 
wrote anonymously a number of patriotic 
songs, which were afterwards reprinted in 
' Paddy's Kesource.' In 1796 he contributed 
a famous series of seven letters by ' A Pres- 
byterian.' The first, dated 21 May, was 
published in the number for 27-30 May. 
They were at once reprinted, with the title 
' Billy Bluff and Squire Firebrand,' Belfast, 
1796, 8vo (of numerous later editions the 
best is Belfast, 1816, 12mo, containing also 
the songs). This admirable satire deserves 
the popularity which it still enjoys in Ulster. 
The characters are broadly drawn, with a 
rollicking humour which is exceedingly 
effective without being malicious ; the system 
of feudal tyranny and local espionage is 
drawn from the life. Witherow well says 
that ' in these pages of a small pamphlet there 
is, on the whole, a truer picture of country 
life in Ireland in the last decade of the 
eighteenth century than in many volumes, 
each ten times its size.' The good Witherow 
laments that the exigencies of realism com- 
pelled a divine to represent a County Down 
dialogue (of that date) as ' interlarded with 
oaths,' which fail to please ( a grave and sober 
reader.' The original of ' Billy Bluff' was 
William Lowry, bailiff on the Greyabbey 
estate ; l Lord Mountmumble ' was Robert 
Stewart,then baron Stewart of Mountstewart, 
afterwards first marquis of Londonderry 
[q. v.] ; ' Squire Firebrand ' was Hugh Mont- 
gomery of Rosemount, proprietor of the Grey- 
abbey estate (so, correctly, Classon Porter 
and Killen ; Madden and Witherow erro- 
neously identify 'Squire Firebrand' with 
John Cleland, rector (1789-1809) of New- 
townards, co. Down, and agent of the Mount- 
Stewart estate). 

Later in 1796 Porter, whose name was 
now a household word in Ulster, went through 
the province on a lecturing tour. His subject 
was natural philosophy ; he showed experi- 
ments with an electric battery and model 
balloons. He had previously given similar 
lectures in his own neighbourhood, and there 
is no reason for supposing that he now had 
any object in view apart from the advance- 
ment of popular culture, though the authori- 

ties suspected that his lectures were the 
pretext for a political mission. He had 
written for the 'Northern Star' with the 
signature ' A Man of Ulster,' and he began 
another series of letters on 23 Dec. 1796, 
addressed, with the signature of ' Sydney,' 
to Arthur Hill, second marquis of Down- 
shire. In these he attacked the policy of 
Pitt with extraordinary vehemence, and the 
publication of the paper was for some time 
suspended by the authorities. Meanwhile, 
on Thursday, 16 Feb., the government fast- 
day of thanksgiving for ( the late providential 
storm which dispersed the French fleet off 
Bantry Bay,' Porter preached at Greyabbey 
a sermon, which was published with the title 
'Wind and Weather,' Belfast, 1797, 8vo. 
This, which was perhaps the most remark- 
able discourse ever printed by an Irish 
divine, is a sustained effort of irony, sug- 
gested by the text, 'Ye walked according 
to ... the prince of the power of the air ' 
(Eph. ii. 2). Its literary merit is consider- 

On the outbreak of the rebellion of 1798 
Porter was a marked man ; a large reward 
was offered for his apprehension. There is 
no evidence of any knowledge on his part of 
the plans of the insurgents ; it is certain that 
he committed no overt act of rebellion, and 
all his published counsels were for peaceable 
measures of constitutional redress. He with- 
drew for safety to the house of Johnson of 
Ballydoonan, two miles from Greyabbey, and 
afterwards sought concealment in a cottage 
among the Mourne mountains, on the verge 
of his parish. Here he was arrested in June 
1798, and taken to Belfast, but removed to 
Newtownards for trial by court-martial. Th e 
charge against him was that he had been 
present with a party of insurgents who, be- 
tween 9 and 11 June, having intercepted 
the mail between Belfast and Saintfield, co. 
Down, had read a despatch from the com- 
manding officer at Belfast to a subordinate 
at Portaferry, co. Down. The postboy from 
whom the despatch had been taken could 
not identify him ; but a United Irishman, who 
had turned informer, swore to his guilt. 
Porter's cross-examination of this infamous 
witness was interrupted. He made an im- 
pressive appeal to the court, affirming his 
innocence, and referring to his own character 
as that of a man ' who, in the course of a 
laborious and active life, never concealed his 
sentiments.' He was sentenced to be hanged 
and quartered. His wife was told by the 
military authorities that Londonderry could 
suspend the execution. With her seven chil- 
dren, the youngest eight months old, she 
made her way to Mountstewart. London- 




derry's daughters had attended Porter's scien- 
tific lectures ; and one of them, Lady Eliza- 
beth Mary (d. 1798), an invalid, who was 
expecting her own death, undertook to inter- 
cede with her father. Londonderry could not 
forgive the satire of ' Lord Mountmumble.' 
Tradition has it that Mrs. Porter waylaid his 
lordship's carriage, in a vain hope of prevail- 
ing by personal entreaty, but Londonderry 
bade the coachman * drive on.' The sentence, 
however, was mitigated by remission of the 
order for quartering. ' Then/ said Porter to 
his wife, ' I shall lie at home to-night.' He 
was executed on 2 July 1798, on a green 
knoll, close to the road which led from his 
meeting-house to his dwelling, and in full 
view of both. At the gallows he sang the 
35th Psalm and prayed ; his wife was with 
him to the last. He was buried in the abbey 
churchyard at Greyabbey ; a flat tombstone 
gives his age ' 45 years.' He is described as 
one of the handsomest men of his time. 
Henry Montgomery, LL.D. [q.v.], who as a 
boy had seen him, speaks of him as ' distin- 
guished for an agreeable address.' He was a 
collector of books, and his scientific apparatus 
was unrivalled in the north of Ireland in his 
day. He married, in 1780, Anna Knox of 
Dromore, who died in Belfast on 3 Nov. 1823. 
Her right to an annuity from the widows' 
fund was for some time in doubt ; it was 
paid (with arrears) from 1800. Of his five 
daughters, the eldest, Ellen Anne, married 
John Cochrane Wightman, presbyterian 
minister of Holy wood, co. Down ; the second, 
Matilda, married Andrew Goudy,presbyterian 
minister of Ballywalter, co. Down, and was 
the mother of Alexander Porter Goudy,D.D. 
[q. v.] ; the fourth, Isabella, married James 
Templeton, presbyterian minister of Bally- 
walter ; the fifth, Sophia, married William 
D. Henderson, esq., Belfast. 

Porter's eldest son, Alexander, is stated 
by a questionable local tradition to have 
carried a stand of colours at the battle of 
Ballynahinch (12 June 1798), being then 
fourteen years of age ; and the story runs 
that he fled to Tamna Wood, and was there 
recognised (but not betrayed) by a soldier of 
the Armagh militia. He migrated to Loui- 
siana, of which state he became a senator, 
and he died there on 13 Jan. 1844. Another 
son, James, became attorney-general of Loui- 
siana (see APPLETON", Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.*) 

[The best account of Porter is to be found in 
Classon Porter's Irish Presbyterian Biographical 
Sketches, 1883, pp. 16 et seq. See also Mont- 
gomery's Outlines of the History of Presby- 
terianism in Ireland, in the Irish Unitarian 
Magazine, 1847, pp. 331 et seq.; Madden's 
United Irishmen, 3rd ser. i. 360 et seq., 4th ser. 

1860, p. 20; Keid's Hist. Presb. Church in 
1886, Ireland (Killen), 1867, Hi. 396; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878, p. 443 ; 
Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presby- 
terianism in Ireland, 1880, ii. 293 et seq.; 
Killer's Hist. Congr. Presb. Church in Ireland, 
1886, p. 157; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Ameri- 
can Biography, 1888, v. 71 ; file of the Northern 
Star in Linenhall Library, Belfast ; manuscript 
ordination service for Porter, in Craig's auto- 
graph, in the possession of Miss M'Alester, 
Holywood, co. Down ; information from Miss 
Matilda Goudy, per Henry Herdman, esq.] 

A. G. 

PORTER, JANE (1776-1850), novelist, 
was sister of Anna Maria Porter [q. v.] and 
of Sir Robert Ker Porter [q. v.J Their 
mother, left a widow in 1779, removed with 
her children from Durham to Edinburgh. The 
little girls were sent to a school there kept by 
George Fulton. Their progress was rapid. 
W T alter Scott, then a boy, was a frequent 
visitor at their house, and he and a poor wo- 
man of unusual intelligence, named Luclde 
Forbes, delighted them with fairy tales or 
stories of the borders. Jane's love of study 
often led her to rise at 4 A.M., and, while 
still a girl, she read the * Faerie Queene/ 
Sidney's ' Arcadia,' and many tales of chi- 
valry. Northcote made a sketch of her, her 
sister, and brother Robert, while children, 
reading and drawing in a Gothic chamber 
(cf. Gent. Mag. No. 102, pt. ii. p. 578). In 
1797 she and Anna Maria aided Thomas 
Frognall Dibdin in the conduct of a short- 
lived periodical called ' The Quiz.' 

Before 1803 the family removed to Lon- 
don, where they occupied a house, 16 Great 
Newport Street, once tenanted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. They came to know, through 
their brother Robert, the artists West, Flax- 
man, and Northcote, Hannah More, and Mrs. 
Barbauld, besides many naval and military 
veterans, friends of their father. In London 
Jane wrote her first romance, an exciting but 
carefully written story of a Polish exile, 
'Thaddeus of Warsaw.' Init she incorporated 
some reminiscences of the early struggles of 
John Sell Ootman [q. v.], to whom her bro- 
ther Robert had introduced her (ROGET, 
1 Old Water-colour' Society, i. 101), and free 
use was made of the characters of others of 
their friends. When the manuscript was- 
shown to an old acquaintance, Owen Rees 
(of the firm of Longman & Co.), he at 
once offered to publish it. It appeared in 
four volumes in 1803, with a dedication to 
Sir Sidney Smith, and had a rapid success. 
While it was winning its reputation, Jane 
Porter and her sister were invited to visit 
the eccentric John James Hamilton, first 
marquis of Abercorn ; and, when Jane re- 




plied that she could not afford the expense 
of travelling, a cheque was sent. Although 
Miss Porter was of prepossessing appear- 
ance, Lord Abercorn had anticipated greater 
personal charms in his visitors, and being 
disappointed by a secret view he took of 
them on their arrival, he ungallantly left 
his wife to receive them without his aid 
(TAYLOR, Haydon, iii. 17-18). Maginn con- 
sidered ' Thaddeus ' the best and most endur- 
ing of Miss Porter's works. By 1810 it had 
reached a ninth edition. Translated into 
German, it fell into the hands of Kosciusko, 
the Polish patriot, who sent Miss Porter ex- 
pressions of approval. A relative of Kos- 
ciusko presented her with a gold ring con- 
taining the general's portrait ; and the tenth 
edition, 1819, was inscribed to his memory. 
In recognition of her literary power Miss 
Porter was made a lady of the chapter of St. 
Joachim by the king of Wiirtemberg. Later 
editions appeared in 1831 (with a new and 
valuable preface), 1840, 1860, and 1868. 

Jane Porter's second and most notable 
novel, ( The Scottish Chiefs,' was composed 
within a year, and was published in five 
volumes in 1810. Its subject is the fortunes 
of William Wallace, the Scottish patriot, of 
whom she had heard stories in her childhood 
from Luckie Forbes. In preparing the 
romance she sought information in all direc- 
tions. The old poem on the subject, by 
Henry the Minstrel (Blind Harry), was 
doubtless known to her. Campbell the poet 
sent her a sketch of Wallace's life, and re- 
commended books for her to read. Miss 
Porter dedicated to him the third edition 
(1816). He first met her in 1833, and spoke 
of her as ' a pleasing woman ' (BEATTIE, Life 
of Campbell, iii. 146). The Scottish Chiefs ' 
had an immense success in Scotland. Trans- 
lated into German and Russian, it won Euro- 
pean fame, was proscribed by Napoleon (post- 
script to 3rd edit. 1816), and penetrated to 
India. Maginn considered the hero, Wal- 
lace, ' a sort of sentimental dandy who faints 
upon occasion, and is revived by lavender- 
water, and throughout the book is tenderly 
in love ; ' but Miss Mitford, who commended 
Miss Porter's ' brilliant colouring,' declared 
that she scarcely knew ' one heros de roman 
whom it is possible to admire, except Wal- 
lace' in Miss Porter's story (L'EsTKANGE, 
Life of Miss Mitford, i. 217). Joanna Bail- 
lie acknowledged her indebtedness to Miss 
Porter, ( the able and popular writer,' when 
writing her poem on Wallace in ' Metrical 
Legends ' (1821), and quoted in a note a pas- 
sage of ' terrific sublimity ' from ' The Scot- 
tish Chiefs.' The tradition that Scott ac- 
knowledged in conversation with George IV 

that this book was the begetter of the Waver- 
ley novels must be regarded as apocryphal. 
The book has retained its popularity (it was 
reprinted nine times between 1816 and 
1882), and is one of the few historical novels 
prior to f Waverley ' that have lived. 

In 1815 appeared, in three volumes, ' The 
Pastor's Fireside,' a novel dealing with the 
later Stuarts ; a second edition was published 
in 1817, and later ones in 1832 (2 vols.), 
1856, and 1880. 

Miss Porter now turned to the stage and 
wrote a play, ' Egmont, or the Eve of St. 
Alyne.' It was submitted to Kean, who 
praised it, but his fellow-actors thought less 
well of it ; and it seems never to have been 
either acted or printed. On 5 Feb. 1819 a 
tragedy by her called ' Switzerland ' was acted 
at Drury Lane with Kean in the principal, 
and Henry Kemble in a subordinate, part. It 
was so heartily condemned that the manager 
had to come forward and announce its with- 
drawal (Blackwood 's Mag. iv. 714 ; GENEST/"' 
Hist, of the Stage, viii. 683). 'Miss Porter' 
is sick too,' wrote Miss Mitford on 5 July 
1820, ' of her condemned play. I have not 
much pity for her. Her disease is wounded 
vanity.' Macready mentions a new tragedy 
in which Kean played at Drury Lane on 
28 Jan. 1822, < Owen, Prince of Powys/ 
' written, I believe, by Miss Jane Porter a 
sad failure ' (Reminiscences, i. 233). 

Through Dr. Adam Clarke [q. v.], the 
king's librarian, who was among Miss Por- 
ter's acquaintances, George IV suggested the 
subject of her next work, ' Duke Christian of 
Luneburg, or Traditions of the Harz.' Clarke 
supplied Miss Porter with authorities ; it was 
published in three volumes in 1824, and de- 
dicated to the king, who expressed satis- 
faction with it. 

In 1831 was published, in three volumes, 
'Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative of his 
Shipwreck and consequent Discovery of cer- 
tain Islands in the Caribbean Sea : with a 
detail of many extraordinary and highly 
interesting Events of his Life from 1733 to 
1749 as written in his own Diary, edited by 
Jane Porter.' The book made a great sen- 
sation, but is doubtless largely, if not wholly, 
fictitious. Miss Porter asserted that the diary 
was genuine, and had been placed in her 
hands by the writer's family (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 10, 85). When pressed 
on the matter, she said, ' Sir Walter Scott 
had his great secret : I must be allowed to 
keep my little one.' In the preface to the 
edition of 1841 she refers to a report of the 
Royal Geographical Society to prove that 
the islands were not imaginary. Many ac- 
cepted her statements literally (cf. HALL, Re- 




tr aspect of a Long Life} . But the ' Quarterly ' 
(No. 48, pp. 501 et seq.), while commending 
the literary ability of the work, characterised 
it as unmingled fiction. According to an 
inscription in Bristol Cathedral to the me- 
mory of her eldest brother, Dr. William 
Ogilvie Porter, he was the real author ; but 
the inscription, doubtless written by Jane, is 
not to be wholly trusted (Notes and Queries, 
ib.) The book was reissued in 1832, 1852, 
1856, 1878, 1879, and 1883. 

After the publication of 'Thaddeus' in 
1803, and until her mother's death on 21 June 
1831, Miss Porter resided chiefly at Thames 
Ditton and Esher in Surrey. In May 1812 
Crabb Robinson met her, noted her fine 
figure and interesting face, and was pleased 
by her conversation (Diary, i. 200, 201). In 
March 1832 she and her sister settled in Lon- 
don, frequently visiting Bristol, where their 
eldest brother, William Ogilvie Porter, was 
in medical practice. While living in London, 
Miss Porter went much into society, and met 
or corresponded with most of the literary and 
artistic celebrities of her day. Maginn notes 
her fondness for evening parties, * where she 
generally contrives to be seen patronising 
some sucking lion or lioness.' In 1835 Lady 
Morgan met her at Lady Stepney's, and de- 
scribes her as ' tall, lank, lean, and lackadai- 
sical . . . and an air of a regular Melpomene ' 
(Memoirs, ii. 396). In the same year N. P. 
Willis visited Kenilworth in Miss Porter's 
company, and wrote to Miss Mitford of ' her 
tall and striking figure, her noble face . . . still 
possessing the remains of uncommon beauty' 
(L'EsTRANGE, Friendships of M. R. Mitford, 
i. 295). In 1842 Miss Porter went to St. 
Petersburg to visit her brother Robert, who 
died suddenly very shortly after her arrival. 
She returned to London, and the business of 
her brother's estate, of which she was execu- 
trix, occupied her until 1844. Judging from 
unpublished diaries, she seems to have suf- 
fered great pecuniary difficulty. At the be- 
ginning of 1842, however, she received from 
Mr. Virtue 21 0/. for < The Scottish Chiefs,' and 
in November 1842 50/. was granted to her 
from the Literary Fund. Her books had 
a wide circulation in America. In 1844 a 
number of authors, publishers, and book- 
sellers of the United States sent her a rose- 
wood armchair, as a token of their admira- 
tion (Gent. Mag. 1845, i. 173). 

She retained her intellectual faculties 
and serene disposition, and died on 24 May 
1850 at the house of her eldest brother, Dr. 
Porter, in Portland Square, Bristol. In the 
cathedral is a tablet to her memory, and to 
that of her brothers and sister. 

Jane Porter, like her sister, regarded her 

work very seriously, and believed the exer- 
cise of her literary gifts to be a religious duty. 
She was of somewhat sombre temperament, 
and S. C. Hall called her < II Penseroso.' She 
was generally admitted to be very handsome. 
Miss Mitford considered her the only lite- 
rary lady she had seen who was not fit 
for a scarecrow ' (L'EsTKANGE, Life of Miss 
Mitford, ii. 152). A fine portrait of her as a 
canoness was painted by Harlowe, and was 
engraved by Thomson ; it is reproduced in 
Jerdan's ' National Portrait Gallery ' (vol. v.) 
Another portrait by the same painter and 
the same engraver appears in Burke's ' Por- 
trait Gallery of Distinguished Females ' (ii. 
71). West painted her as Jephthah's daugh- 
ter in a picture that was at Frogmore in 
1834. Maclise drew her in outline for 
' Fraser's Magazine,' and she there appears 
among Regina's maids of honour, stirring a 
cup of coffee (cf. MACLISE, Portrait Gallery, 
p. 355). Dibdin mentions a portrait by Kears- 
ley (Reminiscence*, pt. i. p. 175). In an 
altar-piece presented by R. K. Porter to St. 
John's College, Cambridge, Jane is painted 
as Faith. 

Besides the works noticed, Miss Porter 
published ' Sketch of the Campaign of Count 
A. Suwarrow Ryminski,' 1804, and a pre- 
face to * Young Hearts, by a Recluse,' 
1834. She also took part with her sister 
Anna Maria in * Tales round a Winter 
Hearth,' 2 vols., 1826, and 'The Field of 
Forty Footsteps,' 3 vols., 1828, and contri- 
buted to the * Gentleman's Magazine,' Mr. 
S. C. Hall's * Amulet,' and other periodicals. 
Several unpublished works by both the sis- 
ters were sold in 1852, and cannot now be 

[No satisfactory biography of Jane Porter 
exists. Brief accounts occur in Elwood's Literary 
Ladies of England, vol. ii. ; Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit. ii. 1645; Hall's Book of Memories. 
The Ker Porter Correspondence, sold by Sotheby 
in 1852 (cf. Catalogue in the British Museum), 
contained materials for a biography, and was pur- 
chased by Sir Thomas Phillipps of Middle Hill.] 

E. L. 

PORTER or NELSON, JEROME (d. 1632), 
Benedictine monk, was professed at Paris 
for St. Gregory's, Douay, on 8 Dec. 1622, 
and died at Douay on 17 Nov. 1632 (SNOW, 
Necrology, p. 39). 

He wrote : 1. 'The Flowers of the Lives 
of the most renowned Saincts of the Three 
Kingdoms, England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Written and collected out of the best 
Authours and Manuscripts of our Nation, 
and distributed according to their Feasts in 
the Calendar,' vol. i. containing the calendar 
to the end of June, Douay, 1632, 4to. Dedi- 




cated to Thomas, second and last lord 
Windsor. The second volume, prepared for 
the press by Francis Hull, O.S.B., seems 
never to have been published. 2. ' The Life 
of St. Edward, King and Confessor/ sine 
loco, 1710, 8vo. A new edition, ' revised 
and corrected by a priest ' (i.e. C. J. Bowen), 
appeared at London, 1868, 12mo. 

[Downside Review, iii. 252, vi. 133; Oliver's 
Cornwall, p. 521 ; Weldon's Chronological Notes, 
p. 168.] T. C. 

PORTER, JOHN SCOTT (1801-1880), 
Irish biblical scholar and Unitarian divine, 
eldest son of William Porter (1774-1843), 
by his first wife, Mary, daughter of Charles 
Scott, was born at Newtownlimavady, co. 
Deny, on 31 Dec. 1801. His father, who 
was presbyterian minister of Newtown- 
limavady from 1799 till his death, held the 
clerkship of the general svnod of Ulster from 
6 Nov. 1816 to 29 June 1830 ; he joined the 
remonstrants under Henry Montgomery, 
LL.D. [q. v.], was elected the first moderator 
of the remonstrant svnod of Ulster on 25 May 
1830, and held its clerkship from 6 Sept. 1831 
till his death. Scott Porter, after passing 
through schools at Dirtagh and Londonderry, 
was admitted as a student for the ministry 
under the care of Strabane presbytery. He 
took his arts course at the Belfast ' academical 
institution' in 1817-19 and 1821-3, acting 
in the interim as tutor in a private family 
in co. Kilkenny. He received silver medals 
for mathematics, natural philosophy, and for 
' speaking Greek extempore.' In 1823-5 he 
studied Hebrew and divinity under Thomas 
Dix Hincks, LL.D. [q. v.], and Samuel Hanna, 
D.D. [q. v.] He was licensed in October 
1825 by Bangor presbytery without sub- 
scription. On 1 Jan. 1826 he received a 
unanimous call from the presbyterian con- 
gregation in Carter Lane, Doctors' Commons, 
London, and was ordained there on 2 March, 
in succession to John Hoppus [q. v.] His 
views were Arian, and he became the editor 
(1826-8) of an Arian monthly, the ' Christian 
Moderator ; ' but he was in friendly relations 
with Thomas Belsham [q. v.], the leader of 
the Priestley school of opinion, and acted as 
a pall-bearer at Belsham's funeral in 1829. 
He kept a school at Rosomau House, Isling- 
ton, in conjunction with David Davidson, 
minister at the Old Jewry ; his scholars called 
him ' the lion ; ' among his pupils was Dion 
Boucicault the dramatist (who then spelled 
his name Boursiquot). In January 1829 he 
declined a call to the second presbyterian 
church of Belfast, to which his cousin, John 
Porter (1800-1874), was appointed. He ac- 
cepted a call (11 Sept. 1831) to the first 

presbyterian church of Belfast, and was in- 
stalled on 2 Feb. 1832 by Antrim presbytery 
as successor to William Bruce (1757-1841) 
[q. v.],and colleague to William Bruce (1790- 
1868) [q. v.j His ministry at Belfast was 
one of high reputation and success, both as 
a pastor and a polemic. His pulpit and plat- 
form appeals were marked by a masculine 
eloquence, and, though very uncompromising 
in his opinions, his straightforward advocacy 
of them won the respect and even the friend- 
ship of opponents. He had not been long in 
Belfast when he engaged in a public dis- 
cussion (14-17 April 1834) on the Unitarian 
controversy with Daniel Bagot (d. 9 June 
1 89 1 ) , afterwards dean of Dromore ; the argu- 
ments on both sides were issued in ajoint pub- 
lication ; Porter's friends made him a presen- 
tation of nearly 1,000/. 

From 1832 he had lectured on biblical 
subjects to divinity students, and on 10 July 
1838 he was appointed, in conjunction with 


criticism and dogmatics. The chair was en- 
dowed by government in 1847 with a salary 
of 150Z. On 16 July 1851 he was appointed 
in addition (without increase of salary) pro- 
fessor of Hebrew and cognate languages. 
For many years he taught classics to private 
pupils. In 1848 he published his contribu- 
tion to textual criticism, on the lines of 
Griesbach and Hug; noted by Gregory and 
Abbot (Prolegomena to TISCHENDORF'S Nov. 
Test., 1884, p. 269) as the indication of an 
improved era in British textual studies. A 
useful feature of the work was its series of 
coloured plates, draughted by Porter himself, 
and exhibiting specimens of codices in fac- 
simile. He contributed revised translations 
of Kings, Chronicles, Ezekiel, and Daniel to 
an edition of ' The Holy Scriptures of the 
Old Covenant' issued by Longmans, 1859- 
1862, 8vo. A later fruit of his academic 
work was his defence (1876) of the authen- 
ticity of St. John's Gospel. 

Among public measures he was an early 
and consistent supporter of the Irish system 
of 'national' education, and an organiser of 
the 'Ulster national education association.' 
Though a recipient of ' regium donum,' he 
welcomed the policy of disestablishment. In. 
politics, as such, he took no part, but was 
always to the front in local schemes of phi- 
lanthropy and culture. He had collected an 
enormous library, and was well read in a 
wide range of literature. His linguistic at- 
tainments were both extensive and accurate ; 
he was greatly interested in efforts to pre- 
serve the Irish language. 




Of the liberal theology advocated by Henry 
Montgomery, Scott Porter was the ablest 
exponent. His later theological controversies 
were internal to his own denomination. He 
led a secession from the Antrim presbytery 
(of which he had been clerk from 7 May 
1834), and founded (21 Feb.1862) the northern 
presbytery of Antrim, with the purpose of 
emphasising a recognition of the authority of 
Christ and of divine revelation (the two pres- 
byteries were reunited on 7 Nov. 1894). On 
the same grounds he withdrew, with a large 
majority, from the local ' Unitarian society,' 
and formed (December 1876) the ' Ulster uni- 
tarian Christian association.' Yet in biblical 
science he was by no means conservative ; the 
publications of Colenso he welcomed as sound 
in principle, and followed Priestley in main- 
taining the presence of an unhistorical ele- 
ment in the initial chapters of St. Matthew 
and St. Luke. 

Personally he was a man of broad and 
genial nature, of strong feelings easily roused, 
capable of passion, but incapable of malice ; 
in society a most genial and warm-hearted 
companion, rich in anecdote, fond of music, 
and capable of singing a good song. His 
somewhat gaunt figure was dignified by a 
striking countenance, mellowed in old age, 
and graced with a profusion of snow-white 
hair and beard. He preached for the last 
time (at Larne, co. Antrim) on 18 Aug. 1878, 
and died, after long illness, at his residence, 
Lennox Vale, Belfast, on 5 July 1880 ; he 
was buried on 8 July in the Borough cemetery, 
Belfast, where an Irish cross of black marble 
is erected to his memory. A memorial tablet 
is in his church. His portrait, painted (1873) 
by Ebenezer Crawford, has been engraved 
(1880) ; there are two earlier engraved like- 
nesses of him. He married, on 8 Oct. 1833, 
Margaret (d. 7 April 1879, aged 66), eldest 
daughter of Andrew Marshall, M.D. ; his 
eldest son is the Right Hon. Andrew Marshall 
Porter, master of the rolls in Ireland. 

A list of his thirty-eight publications, in- 
cluding single sermons, is appended to his 
' Memorial.' Of these the most important are : 
1. 'Authentic Report of the Discussion on 
the Unitarian Controversy,' &c., Belfast, 1834, 
8vo ; reached a fourth edition. 2. ' Twelve 
Lectures in Illustration ... of Unitarianism,' 
&c., Belfast, 1841, 8vo ; 2nd edit., London, 
1853, 8vo. 3. ' Principles of Textual Cri- 
ticism, with their application to the Old and 
New Testaments,' &c., 1848, 8 vo. 4. 'Servetus 
and Calvin : Three Lectures,' &c., 1854, 8vo 
(contains the best historical account of Ser- 
vetus, to date). 5. l Bible Revision : Three 
Lectures,' &c., 1857, 8vo. 6. ' Lectures on 
the Doctrine of Atonement,' &c., 1860, 8vo. 

7. ' The National System and the National 
Board,' &c., 1864, 8vo (anon.) 8. < Is the 
"National" or the "Denominational" System 
of Education the best?' &c., 1868, 8vo. 
9. ' The Fourth Gospel is the Gospel accord- 
ing to John,' &c., 1876, 8vo. He contributed 
to the ' Bible Christian' (which for a time he 
edited), ' Irish Unitarian Magazine,' ' Chris- 
tian Reformer,' ' Christian Unitarian,' ' Ulster 
Journal of Archaeology,' and other periodi- 

WILLIAM PORTEK (1805-1880), younger 
brother of the above, was born at Artikelly, 
near Newtownlimavady, on 15 Sept. 1805. 
He served his time with John Classon, iron- 
founder and timber merchant of Dublin, 
brother of his father's second wife, but sub- 
sequently studied law in Dublin and London, 
and was called to the Irish bar at Michael- 
mas 1831. In January 1839 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general at the Cape of Good 
Hope, an office which he filled with great 
distinction till 31 Aug. 1865. On his retire- 
ment full salary for life was voted to him by 
special resolution of the house of assembly ; 
he devoted the larger half of it to the endow- 
ment of the university of the Cape of Good 
Hope, of which he was elected the first chan- 
cellor in 1873. On 30 Nov. 1872 he was 
made companion of the order of St. Michael 
and St. George. He declined a knighthood, 
and refused several judgeships, including a 
chief-justiceship at the Cape; he declined 
also the post of prime minister at the Cape. 
Returning to Ireland in 1873, he lived with 
his elder brother, and died, unmarried, at 
Lennox Vale, Belfast, on 13 July 1880 ; he 
was buried at the Borough cemetery, Belfast, 
on 16 July. Among his literary contributions 
are twelve remarkable articles on ' preachers 
and preaching' in the ' Bible Christian,' 1834- 
1835. His published speeches were often of 
singular beauty : an extract from one of them 
is given in Sir Theodore Martin's 'Life of 
the Prince Consort,' v. 234. 

half-brother of the above, born at Artikelly 
in 1814, was the eldest son of William Porter 
by his second wife, Eliza, daughter of John 
Classon of Dublin. He was educated (1828- 
1834) at Manchester College, York, and or- 
dained (2 July 1834) by Antrim presbytery 
as minister of the first presbyterian church, 
Larne, co. Antrim, a charge which he held 
till his death, though he retired from active 
duty in July 1875. He died at his residence, 
Ballygally Castle, co. Antrim, on 27 May 
1885, and was buried in the parish church- 
yard of Cairncastle, co. Antrim. He left a 
widow and several sons. Latterly he di&used 
his second name. His contributions to Irish 




presbyterian church history and biography 
were numerous and important, but have not 
been collected ; they appeared at intervals 
in the ' Northern Whig/ ' Larne Reporter/ 
1 Christian Unitarian/ and ' Disciple ; ' a few 
were reprinted for private circulation, and a 
Tolume of ' Irish Presbyterian Biographical 
Sketches/ Belfast, 1883, 4to, was reprinted 
from the * Northern Whig.' His younger 
brother, James Nixon Porter, educated (1833- 
1838) at Manchester College, York, was minis- 
ter at Carrickfergus, co. Antrim (1838-62), 
and Warrington, Lancashire (1862-72), and 
died in 1875. He married a sister of the 
Right Hon. Sir James Stansfeld, G.C.B., and 
left issue. His youngest brother, Francis, 
died at Capetown on 28 Feb. 1886. 

[Memorial of Kev. John Scott Porter and the 
Hon. William Porter, 1880; Christian Life, 
30 May and 6 June 1885, pp. 266, 278; His- 
torical Sketch of First Presb.Congr., Larne, 1889, 
pp. 20 seq. ; Nightingale's Lancashire Noncon- 
formity (1892), iv. 225; Eoll of Students, Man- 
chester College, 1868.] A. GK 

1889), traveller and promoter of Irish edu- 
cation, born on 4 Oct. 1823, was youngest 
son of William Porter of Carrowan, parish of 
Burt, co. Donegal, and Margaret, daughter of 
Andrew Leslie of Drumgowan in the same 
parish. The father farmed several hundred 
acres of land. Noted for his great stature 
and immense bodily strength, he raised, during 
the Irish rebellion of 1798, a troop of yeo- 
manry in Burt, and kept a large district in 
order, services for which he received the 
thanks of parliament and an honorary com- 
mission in the army. 

The son, Josias, after being educated pri- 
vately, between 1835 and 1838, by Samuel 
Craig, presbyterian minister of Crossroads, 
co. Derry, and afterwards at a school in 
Londonderry, matriculated in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow in 1839, with a view to 
entering the ministry of the Irish presby- 
terian church. He graduated B.A. in 1841, 
and M.A. in 1842. In November 1842 he 
proceeded to the university of Edinburgh, 
where, and afterwards in the New College, 
he studied theology under Chalmers. He was 
licensed to preach by the presbytery of Derry 
on 20 Nov. 1844. He was ordained on 
25 Feb. 1846, and until 1849 was minister of 
the presbyterian congregation of High Bridge, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was then sent to 
Damascus as a missionary to the Jews by 
the board of missions of the Irish presby- 
terian church. He reached Syria in Decem- 
ber 1849, and remained there for ten years. 
While discharging his duty as a missionary, 

he acquired, by frequent and extensive jour- 
neys through all parts of Syria and Pales- 
tine, an intimate knowledge of the Holy 
Land, which he turned to good literary ac- 
count. In 1855 he published his first book 
on the East, * Five Years in Damascus/ in 
which he tells most graphically the story of 
his life there, and of adventurous journeys 
to Palmyra, the Hauran, Lebanon, and other 
places. The map appended to the work was 
constructed by himself, almost entirely from 
his own observations and surveys, and the 
plans and woodcuts were engraved from his 
drawings. In 1858 he published his ' Hand- 
book for Travellers in Syria and Palestine/ in 
Murray's series. A second edition, largely 
rewritten, appeared in 1875, Porter having 
in the interval revisited the country and 
made an extensive tour on both sides of the 
Jordan and along the borderland between 
Egypt and Sinai. Many of his letters, ad- 
dressed to the Rev. David Hamilton, hono- 
rary secretary of the Irish Presbyterian 
Jewish Mission, were printed in the pages 
of the ' Missionary Herald.' 

In 1859 Porter returned home on furlough, 
and in July 1860 was appointed professor of 
biblical criticism in the presbyterian college, 
Belfast, in succession to Robert Wilson 
[q. v.] In 1864 he received the degrees of 
LL.D. from Glasgow and D.D. from Edin- 
burgh. In 1867, on the death of Professor 
William Gibson (1808-1867) [q. v.], he be- 
came secretary of the college faculty at Bel- 
fast. Through him Mr. Adam Findlater of 
Dublin in 1878 gave 10,000 J. for additions to 
the buildings, and this gift proved the means 
of raising 11,0001. more for the professorial 
endowment fund. Porter, from the time of 
his appointment as professor, took a leading 
part in the work of the church courts, and 
in 1875 was elected moderator of the general 
assembly. During his tenure of this office he 
initiated a fund which provided manses for 
many congregations. 

In 1878 Porter was appointed by govern- 
ment one of the two assistant-commissioners 
of the newly established board of interme- 
diate education for Ireland. He thereupon 
resigned his professorship, and, removing to 
Dublin, helped to organise the new scheme. 
In 1879 he was nominated president of 
Queen's College, Belfast. In virtue of his 
office he became a member of the senate of 
the newly created Royal University of Ire- 
land, which in 1881 conferred on him the 
degree of D. Lit., and he took a leading part 
in formulating its plans. He died at Belfast 
on 16 March 1889, and was buried in Malone 
cemetery, near that city. 

In addition to the works mentioned above, 




Porter wrote : 1. 'The Pentateuch and the 
Gospels/ which appeared in 1864 during the 
Colenso controversy. 2. ' The Giant Cities 
of Bashan and Syria's Holy Places/ 1865, 
which has been several times republished. 
In this work he maintains that the massive 
buildings, the ruins of which are plentifully 
found in Bashan, are the work of the abori- 
ginal inhabitants of the country long before 
its occupation by the Jews. 3. ' The Life 
and Times of Dr. Cooke ' (his father-in-law), 
1871; four editions were published. 4. 'Jeru- 
salem, Bethlehem, and Bethany/ 1887. 
5. ' Galilee and the Jordan/ 1885. 

He also published a ' Pew and Study 
Bible ' in 1876. He contributed extensively 
to the edition of Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia of Bi- 
blical Literature/ which was commenced in 
1862. Nearly all the geographical articles 
on localities in Palestine are from his pen. 
He also wrote for Smith's ' Dictionary of the 
Bible/ the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica/ and 
Kitto's 'Pictorial Bible;' and contributed 
many papers, principally on subjects con- 
nected with the Holy Land, to the 'Biblio- 
theca Sacra ' (New York), when it was edited 
by Dr. Robinson, to Kitto's 'Journal of Sacred 
Literature/ and to other magazines and re- 

Porter married, in 1849, just before going 
to Damascus, Margaret Rainey, youngest 
daughter of the Rev. Dr. Henry Cooke (1788- 
1868) [q. v.] of Belfast, by whom he had 
several children ; two sons and two daugh- 
ters survived him. 

A portrait of Porter, by Hooke, hangs in 
the examination hall of Queen's College, 

[Personal knowledge and manuscripts in the 
possession of the writer; information kindly 
supplied by Mr. "William Haldane Porter, Por- 
ter's youngest son ; Minutes of the General As- 
sembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 
passim ; Calendars and Annual Eeports of Queen's 
College, Belfast; Minutes of Senate of Koyal 
University of Ireland ; obituary notices in the 
Belfast News-letter, Witness, and Northern 
Whig.] T. H. 

POUTER, MARY (d. 1765), actress, 
is said to have been the child of a private 
marriage between Samuel Porter and a daugh- 
ter of Nicholas Kaufmann Mercator. After 
the early death of her father she was brought 
up by her uncle, David Mercator, a clerk in 
the office of ordnance in the Tower. Sent 
by her mother to act at Bartholomew Fair, 
where she played the Fairy Queen, she was 
seen by Mrs. Barry and Mrs. Bracegirdle, 
and recommended by them to Betterton, who 
engaged her and lodged her with Mrs. Smith, 
sister to the treasurer of the theatre. Upon 

Mrs. Barry, whose successor she was after