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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

I 







DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

PUCKLE REIDFURD 



/ 

: ' 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XLVII. 
PUCKLE REIDFURD 




MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 

LONDON : SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1896 



VI 



List of Writers. 



C. L. K. . . C. L. KlNGSFORD. 

J. K JOSEPH KNIGHT, F.S.A. 

J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. 

E. L Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 

S. L SIDNEY LEE. 

E. H. L. . . EOBIN H. LEGGE. 

E. M. L. . . COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, R.E. 

J. E. L. . . JOHN EDWARD LLOYD. 

W. B. L. . . THE EEV. W. B. LOWTHER, 

J. H. L. . . THE KEY. J. H. LUPTON, D.D. 

J. E. M. . . J. E. MACDONALD. 

M. M. . . . SHERIFF MACKAY. 

W. D. M.. . THE EEV. W. D. MACRAY, F.S.A. 

J. A. F. M. . J. A. FULLER MAITLAND. 

E. C. M. . . E. C. MARCHANT. 

D. S. M. . . PROFESSOR MARGOLIOUTH. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAR. 

N. M NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 

E. N MRS. NEWMARCH. 

A. N ALBERT NICHOLSON. 

G. LE G. N. . G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 

D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 
J. F. P. . . J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 
A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 

S. L.-P. . . . STANLEY LANE-POOLE. 

E. G. P. . . Miss E. G. POWELL. 
D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 
E. B. P. . . E. B. PROSSER. 



E. L. E. . 
H. E-L. . . 

A. E. E. . 
J. M. E. . 
H. E. . . . 
J. H. E. . 
T. S. . . . 
W. F. S. . 
W. A. S. . 
C. F. S. . 

B. H. S. . 
G. W. S. . 
L. S. . . . 

F. S-R. . . 

G. S-H.. . 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-T. . . 
H. E. T. . 
T. F. T. . 

E. H. V. . 

A. W. W. 
P. W. . . . 
M. G. W. 

F. W-N. . 
W. W. W. 
C. W-H. . 
W. H. W. 
S. W. . . . 

B. B. W. . 
W. W.. 



. MRS. EADFORD. 

. THE EEV. HASTINGS EASHDALL. 

. A. E. PlE.VDE. 
. J. M. ElGG. 

. HERBERT Eix. 

. J. HORACE EOUND. 

. THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

. W. F. SEDGWICK. 

. W. A. SHAW. 

. Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

. B. H. SOULSBY. 

. THE EEV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 

. LESLIE STEPHEN. 

. FRANCIS STORR. 

. GEORGE STRONACII. 

. C. W. SUTTON. 

. JAMES TAIT. 

. H. E. TEDDER, F.S.A. 

. PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

. COLONEL E. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 

. PRINCIPAL A. W. WARD, LL.D. 

. PAUL WATERHOUSE. 

. THE EEV. M. G. WATKINS. 

. FOSTER WATSON. 

. SURGEON-CAPTAIN W. W. WEBB. 

. CHARLES WELCH, F.S.A. 

. W. H. WESLEY. 

. STEPHEN WHEELER. 

. B. B. WOODWARD. 

. WARWICK WROTH, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OP 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Puckle 



Puckle 



PUCKLE, JAMES (1667 P-1724), author 
of ' The Club/ born about 1667, was son of 
James Puckle (1633-1690), who was himself 
third son of Samuel Puckle (1588-1661), a 
prominent citizen of Norwich, and mayor of 
that town in 1656. James the younger took 
out on 16 June 1690 letters for the adminis- 
tration of the estate of his father, who had 
died a widower beyond sea. Adopting the 
profession of a notary public, he soon entered 
into partnership with one Jenkins in Pope's 
Head Alley, Cornhill. He seems to have aided 
professionally in the promotion of a company 
which sought to encourage the fishing industry 
of England, and was known as ' The Royal 
Fishery of England.' In order to recommend 
it to public notice, Puckle issued a pamphlet 
entitled ' England's Interests, or a Brief Dis- 
course of the Royal Fishery in a Letter to a 
Friend.' This appeared late in 1696, and 
reached a second edition in the same year. 
It was reissued in a somewhat altered form 
in 1697 as ' A New Dialogue between a 
Burgermaster and an English Gentleman,' 
with a dedication addressed to the governor 
and officers of the ' Royal Fishery.' In 1697 
Puckle subjected the work to further changes, 
and issued it as ' England's Way to Wealth 
and Honour, in a Dialogue between an Eng- 
lishman and Dutchman,' with a dedication 
to the Duke of Leeds, governor of the ' Royal 
Fishery.' A later version bore the title ' Eng- 
land's Path to Wealth' (1700), of which ' a 
second edition with additions ' was dated 
1718, and was included among the ' Somers 
Tracts,' vol. ii. A Swedish translation was 
issued at Stockholm in 1723. 

Puckle was also interested in mechanical 
inventions, and on 15 May 1718 took out a 
patent for a revolver, mitrailleuse, or Gatling 
gun of his own construction. He described 

VOL. XLVJI. 



it in a published broadside (1720?) as ' a port- 
able gun or machine called a defence that 
discharges soe often and soe many bullets, 
and can be so quickly loaden as renders it 
next to impossible to carry any ship by 
boarding.' The broadside supplies an en- 
graving of the machine. The breech of the 
gun, which was movable, had six chambers, 
which were discharged in turn through one 
long barrel. Puckle endeavoured to form a 
company to develop his invention during 
the bubble period of 1720, and incurred 
much unfavourable notice from catchpenny 
satirists, one of whom stated that the machine 
was only capable of wounding shareholders 
( Cat. of Satirical Prints in Brit. Mus. Nos. 
1620, 1625 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. viii. 
365). 

Puckle's surest title to fame is as the 
author of ' The Club, or a Dialogue between 
Father and Son, in vino veritas,' London, 
printed for the author in 1711 (Gent. Mag. 
1822, pt. i. p. 204). The volume is dedicated 
to two merchants, Micajah and Richard 
Perry, and to the memory of a third, Thomas 
Lane, who married Mary Puckle, a cousin 
of the writer. Puckle's book belongs to the 
class of collected character-sketches which 
Sir Thomas Overbury began and Earle 
brought to perfection in his ' Micro-Cosmo- 
graphie.' A young man is represented by the 
author as having met one night at a friend's 
club, assembled at ' The Noah's Ark,' twenty- 
five typical personages, including an anti- 
quary, buffoon, critic, quack, rake, and 
usurer, and he gives next morning a sprightly 
description of each of his companions to his 
father. At the close of each of the son's 
sketches the father interposes much senten- 
tious moralising on the habits of life of the 
person described. The work exhibits shrewd 






Puckle 

observation, but the moral reflections are 
tedious, and the book's long lease of popularity 
seems to exceed its literary merits. Two new 
editions appeared in 1713, with a portrait of 
Puckle, engraved by Vertue, after a painting 
by Clostermann. A reprint ' from the third 
edition of the London Copy ' was issued at 
Cork in 1721. In 1723 a revised version, 
entitled ' The Club, or a Grey Cap for a 
Greenhead, in a Dialogue between Father 
and Son,' was described as ' the fourth edition 
with additions.' The portrait was here en- 
graved by Cole. The title-page supplied the 
warning, ' These characters being mearely in- 
tended to expose vice and folly, let none pre- 
tend to a key nor seek for another's picture, 
least he find his own.' There is a new dedi- 
cation, addressed to the memory of the for- 
mer patrons, who were now dead. The 
additional matter mainly consisted of an 
appendix of moral ' maxims, advice, and cau- 
tions,' with reflections on ' company, friends, 
and death.' Reprints of this edition ap- 
peared in London ('the fifth') in 1733 and 
at Dublin in 1743. The new sub-title seems 
to plagiarise Caleb Trenchfield's ' Cap of 
Grey Hairs for a Greenhead, the Father's 
Councel to his Son, an Apprentice,' 1710 
(5th edit.) 

Puckle, who resided in early life in the 
parish of St. Margaret, Lothbury, and after- 
wards in that of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, 
was buried in St. Stephen's Church, Cole- 
man Street, London, on 26 July 1724. He 
married twice. By his first wife, Mary, 
whom he married before 1690, he had four 
daughters and three sons, of whom Burton 
alone seems to have reached manhood. On 
21 Feb. 1714-15 he married at New Brent- 
ford a second wife, Elizabeth Fownes, a 
widow of Brentford. 

The 1723 edition of Puckle's ' Club ' was re- 
issued in 1817, with many charming illustra- 
tions by John Thurston [q. v.], and a title- 
page and a few headpieces by John Thomp- 
son [q. v.l Thus embellished, the work 
reappeared in 1834 at the Chiswick Press, 
with a preface by Samuel Weller Singer 
[q. v.] The latter stated that Charles Whit- 
tingham, the printer and publisher, owned 
a manuscript by Puckle containing many 
moral dialogues between father and son, 
mother and daughter, and the like; but 
the bulk of this material had been utilised by 
Puckle in the appendices to the 1723 edition. 
The latest reprint, with Thurston's illustra- 
tions, was published at Glasgow in 1890. 
[The author of The Club Identified, by George 



Pugh 



Continuation of Granger, iii. 363 ; Addit. MS. 
28875, f. 17 (letter from Puckle to John Ellis, 
1676).] S. L. 

PUDSEY, HUGH DE (1125P-1195), 

bishop of Durham and earl of Northumber- 
land. [See PUISET.] 

PTJGH, ELLIS (1656-1718), Welsh 
quaker, was born in the parish of Dolgelly in 
June 1656. In 1686 he and his family sailed 
for the quaker settlement in Pennsylvania. 
They had a stormy passage, and were detained 
for six months at Barbados. Pugh paid a visit 
in 1706 to Wales, returning in 1708 to Phila- 
delphia, where he died on 3 Oct. 1718. In 1721 
there was published at Philadelphia a tract 
by him entitled ' Annerch i'r Cymry ' (' Ad- 
dress to the Welsh People '), which was 
probably the first Welsh book printed in 
America. He speaks in particular to the 
' craftsmen, labourers, and shepherds, men of 
low degree, of my own quality,' and bids 
them be 'wiser than their teachers.' The 
tract was reprinted in this country in 1782 
and 1801 (London) ; an English translation 
by Rowland Ellis and David Lloyd appeared 
at Philadelphia in 1727, and was reprinted 
at London in 1739. 

[Rowlands's Cambrian Bibliography ; Hanes 
Llenyddiaeth Gymreig, byC. Ashton, pp. 158-9.] 

J. E. L. 

PUGH, HERBERT (fl. 1758-1788), 
landscape-painter, was a native of Ireland, 
and came to London about 1758. He was 
a contributor to the first exhibition of the 
Society of Artists in 1760, sending a ' Land- 
scape with Cattle.' In 1765 he gained a 
premium at the Society of Arts, and in 1766 
was a member of the newly incorporated 
Society of Artists. He continued exhibit- 
ing with them up to 1776. He tried his hand 
at some pictures in the manner of Hogarth, 
but without success, although some of these 
pictures were engraved. Pugh lived in the 
Piazza, Covent Garden. His death, which 
took place soon after 1788, was hastened by 
intemperate habits. There is a large land- 
scape by Pugh in the Lock Hospital, and two 
views of London Bridge by him were contri- 
buted to the Century of British Art exhibition 
at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888, when it was 
recognised that his work had been unduly 
neglected. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Bryan's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and Arm- 
strong; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1893.] 

L. C. 

PUGH, PHILIP (1679-1760), dissenting 
minister, was born at Hendref, Blaenpenal, 
Cardiganshire, in 1679, and inherited a good 



Pugh 



estate. He was trained for the independent 
ministry at the nonconformist college at 
Brynllwarch, near Bridgend, Glamorgan- 
shire. This college, the earliest institution 
of the kind in Wales, and the parent of the 
existing presbyterian college at Carmarthen, 
was founded by Samuel Jones after he was 
ejected from the living of Llangynwyd in 
1662, and on Jones's death in 1697 was trans- 
ferred to Abergavenny, whither Pugh accom- 
panied it. He was received as church mem- 
ber at Cilgwyn in 1704, and in October 1709 
was ordained co-pastor with David Edwards 
and Jenkin Jones. His social position as a 
landed proprietor in the county was improved 
by his marriage with an heiress of the neigh- 
bourhood, while his power as a preacher and 
his piety gave him widespread influence. He 
and his colleagues were in charge of six or 
eight churches, with a united membership of 
about one thousand. Between 1709 and 1760 
he baptised 680 children. 

Pugh avoided controversy, but he regarded 
with abhorrence the Arminian doctrines in- 
troduced by Jenkin Jones [q. v.] and the 
Arian doctrines propagated by David Lloyd 
(1725-1779). He sympathised, however, 
with the calvinistic methodist movement 
under Daniel Rowlands [q.v.] (1713-1790), 
and induced Rowlands to modify the ferocity 
of his early manner of preaching. Of the 
churches with which Pugh was more or less 
connected, three continue to be congrega- 
tionalist, three have gone over to the metho- 
dists, and three are Unitarian. 

Pugh died on 12 July 1760, aged 81, and 
was buried in the parish churchyard of 
Llanddewi Brevi, where the effigy of one 
Philip Pugh, probably an ancestor, once 
figured in the chancel (MEYRICK, Cardigan- 
shire, p. 270). His unpublished diary and 
the Cilgwyn church-book contain much in- 
formation about the Welsh nonconformity of 
the period, and have been utilised by Dr. 
Thomas Rees and other Welsh historians. 

[Enwogion Ceredigion, Do. Sir Aberteifi ; 
Kees's History of Protestant Nonconformity in 
Wales, pp. 309, 310, 340; Williams's Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodism, xvii. 29, 31,32 ; Jeremy's 
Hist, of the Presbyterian Fund.] R. J. .1. 

PUGH, ROBERT (1609-1679), Roman 
catholic controversialist, born in 1609 atPen- 
rhyn in the parish of Eglwys-Ross, Carnarvon- 
shire, was probably a son of Philip Pugh and 
his wife, Gaynor or Gwynn. Foley says that 
the family was of better lineage than fortune. 
He was educated at the Jesuits' College at 
St. Omer, under the name of Robert Phillips 
(FOLEY), and this alias renders him very liable 
to be confused with Robert Philips [q. v.] the 



\ Pugh 

oratorian, who was confessor to Queen Hen- 
rietta Maria. After his return to England 
he is said to have served in Charles I's army 
with the rank of captain, and to have been 
ejected by the Jesuits in 1645 for not having 
obtained permission beforehand. He after- 
wards studied civil and canon law (probably 
at Paris), and became doctor in both facul- 
ties. He was well known to Walter Montagu 
[q. v.] the abbot. With Montagu's aid, in 
a pamphlet entitled <De retinenda cleri 
Anglican! in sedem Apostolicamobservantia,' 
Paris, 1659, he attacked the philosophical 
views of Thomas White (alias Blackloe) 
[q. v.], and claimed, in opposition to White, 
that the regular clergy should be exempt 
from the jurisdiction of the catholic chapter 
in England. W hite replied in ' Monumentum 
Excantatus,' &c. (Rome, 1660), to which 
Pugh retorted in ' Amuletum Excantationis ' 
(1670). Subsequently Pugh returned to the 
conflict in ' Blacklo's Cabal discovered ' (2nd 
edit. 1680. 4to). It contains letters, supplied 
by Montagu, of White, and of White's 
friends Sir Kenelm Digby, Henry Holden, 
and others, the originals of which Pugh had 
deposited in the English Jesuits' College at 
Ghent. His reputation as a theologian grew 
rapidly, and in 1655 he was created by the 
Pope 'protonotarius publicus apostolicus.' 
His Latin style was very good. After the 
Restoration Pugh lived at times in London, 
and at times at Redcastle in Wales, in the 
family of the Marquis of Powis. 

In 1664 appeared, doubtless from his pen, 
though the author merely calls himself ' a 
royal veteran/ 'Elenchus Elenchi; siveAni- 
madversiones in Georgei Batei, Cromwelli 
parricidse aliquando protomedici, Elenchum 
motuum nuperorum in Anglia,' Paris, 8vo 
[see BATE, GEORGE]. With Roger Palmer, 
Earl of Castlemaine, Pugh was also closely 
connected and, with him, seems to have 
written ' The English Papist's Apologie ' 
(1666). The author was diligently inquired 
after by the House of Commons, but not 
found. It was answered by William Lloyd, 
afterwards bishop of Lichtield, and was de- 
fended in ' A Reply to the Answer of the 
" Catholic Apologie,'"' 1668 (cf. BUTLER, Hist. 
Mem. of English Catholics, iv. 457 n.) Pugh's 
' Bathonensium et Aquisgranensium Com- 
paratio, rebus adjunctis illustratis,' 1676, 8vo, 
was written ' by way of epistle to his patron, 
Palmer.' 

During the 'popish plot' panic of 1678 
Pugh was committed to Newgate, ' having 
been betrayed by a treacherous miscreant 
when paying a visit of charity to the catholic 
gentry confined in a London prison.' He died 
' a glorious martyr in chains ' on the night 

a 



Pughe 



Pughe 



of 22 Jan. 1679. He bore no ill-will to the 
Jesuits, and when in articulo mortis ' earnestly 
desired to be readmitted to the society.' Wood 
says he had seen his grave, which was in the 
churchyard belonging to Christ Church, near 
Newgate, ' under the middle part of a brick 
wall on the north side of the said yard.' 
Wood seems to have known Pugh personally, 
and says ' he was a person of a most comely 
port, well favoured and of excellent parts.' 
He was a friend of John Lewgar [q. v.] 

Wood says that Pugh left, in manuscript, 
' in Castlemaine's hands,' a trentise ' Of the 
several States and Commonwealths that have 
been in England since 1642.' He had seen 
also a Latin ode of Pugh's composition' made 
on the immature death of Sidney Montagu,' 
who perished in the sea-fight with the Dutch 
in June 1672. 

[Wood's Atheme Oxon.iii. 697, 828-9, iv. 716; 
Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 288-9; Foley's Records 
of the English Jesuits, vi. 352, vol. vii. pt. i. p. 
635; Pugh's Works; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ii. 782; 
authorities cited.] G. LE G. N. 

PUGHE, WILLIAM OW T EN, known in 
early life as WILLIAM OWEN (1759-1835), 
Welsh antiquary and lexicographer, was 
born at Tynybryn in the parish of Llan- 
fihangel y Pennant, Merionethshire, on 7 Aug. 
1759. His father was a skilled singer to 
the harp, and he thus acquired at an early 
age an interest in Welsh poetry, which was 
deepened by the study of ' Gorchestion 
Beirdd Cymru,' when that collection ap- 
peared in 1773. After some education at 
Altrincham, Cheshire, he sought his fortune 
in May 1776 in London. About 1782 he made 
the acquaintance of Robert Hughes (Robin 
Ddu o Fon) and Owen Jones (Owain Myfyr), 
through whom lie became in 1783 a member 
of the ' Gwyneddigion,' a society of London 
Welshmen founded in 1771. Owen there- 
upon began to collect materials for a Welsh- 
English dictionary. The first section ap- 
peared ten years later, on 27 June 1793. Its 
publication proceeded slowly until 1803, 
when it was completed and issued in two 
volumes, with a grammar prefixed to the 
first. It contained about one hundred thou- 
sand words, with English equivalents, and, 
in a large number of cases, illustrative quo- 
tations from old Welsh writers. No fuller 
complete dictionary of the language at pre- 
sent exists. In definition, too, the work is 
fairly trustworthy ; its system of etymology 
is its chief blemish. This is based on the 
assumption that all Welsh words can be 
resolved into monosyllabic elements of abs- 
tract signification, a notion first put forward 
with regard to English and other languages 



by Rowland Jones [q. v.] in his 'Philosophy of 
Words' (London, 1769). An abridgment of 
Owen's dictionary appeared in 1806, a new 
edition (revised by the author) in 1832 
(Denbigh), and a further edition, with many 
alterations, in 1857 (Denbigh). 

Meanwhile, in 1789, Owen published a 
volume of poems in English, and with Owain 
Myfyr edited the poetry of David (or Dafydd) 
ap Gwilym [q. v.j (London; reprinted at 
Liverpool, 1873), adding in English a ' sketch 
of the life and writings ' of the poet. In 1792 
he published ' The Heroic Elegies and other 
Pieces of Llywarc Hen ' (London), with a 
translation and a prefatory sketch on bardism. 
He had become dissatisfied with the ortho- 
graphy of the Welsh language, and through- 
out this work uses ' c ' for the sound usually 
written ' ch,'and ' v' for Welsh ' f.' In his dic- 
tionary a third innovation appeared the use 
of ' z ' for ' dd.' In 1800 Owen translated 
into Welsh ' A Cardiganshire Landlord's 
Advice to his Tenants,' a treatise on agri- 
culture, by Colonel Johnes of Hafod. The 
next year saw the publication of a far more 
important work, the first volume of the 
' My vyrian Archaiology of Wales,' an enter- 
prise for which Owen, Owain Myfyr, and 
lolo Morgannwg were all nominally re- 
sponsible, though the main literary work 
was probably done by Owen, as the cost 
(above 1,000/. for the three volumes) was 
defrayed by Owain Myfyr. The first volume 
was an attempt to give from the manuscripts 
the text of all Welsh poetry to 1 370 (ex- 
cluding that of Dafydd ap Gwilym, already 
printed). The design of supplementing this 
with a selection of later poetry (general ad- 
vertisement of 1 Jan. 1801) was never car- 
ried out. Vol. ii., which also appeared in 
1 801 , contains the text of the Trioedd, the 
Bruts, and other prose documents of an his- 
torical nature ; vol. iii. (didactic literature, 
laws, and music) followed in 1807. The 
three were reprinted, with some additions, 
in one volume at Denbigh in 1870. Owen 
was the editor of the ' Cambrian Register,' a 
publication devoted to Welsh history and 
literature, of which three volumes appeared, 
in 1796, 1799, and 1818. In June 1805 he 
commenced the ' Greal,' a Welsh quarterly 
of a similar character, which was issued 
under the patronage of the Gwyneddigion 
and Cymreigyddion societies of London. 
Its orthographical peculiarities proved an 
obstacle to its success, and it was discon- 
tinued in June 1807. ' Cadwedigaeth yr 
laith Gymraeg,' a Welsh grammar published 
by Owen in 1808, was printed at London in 
the same orthography, but an edition in 
ordinary spelling also came from a Bala 



Pughe 



Pugin 



press. In 1803 had appeared Owen's con- 
cise ' Cambrian Biography.' 

In 1806 Owen succeeded to a small estate 
at Nantglyn, near Denbigh, whereupon he 
assumed the surname of Pughe. During the 
rest of his life he spent much of his time in 
Wales, and his literary activity diminished. 
On 9 Aug. 1790 he had married Sarah Eliza- 
beth Harper, by whom he had a son, Aneurin 
Owen [q. v.], and two daughters, Isabella 
and Ellen. His wife died on 28 Jan. 1810, 
and it was to divert his mind from the loss 
that he afterwards undertook to translate 
1 Paradise Lost ' into Welsh. ' Coll Gwynfa ' 
appeared in 1819. Though a powerful and 
fairly accurate version, its ponderous and 
artificial diction has always repelled the 
ordinary Welsh reader. Pughe was no 
doubt the anonymous translator of Dodsley's 
' Life of Man * (' Einioes Dyn,' 1821). In 
1822 he essayed original verse, publishing a 
Welsh poem in three cantos on ' IIu Gadarn,' 
while in the same year he issued a volume 
of translations from English, which included 
Gray's ' Bard ' and Heber's ' Palestine.' 
During his later years Pughe was chiefly 
occupied in preparing an edition of the 
' Mabinogion,' or AVelsh romances ; but 
though the Cymrodorion Society in 1831 
voted 501. for the publication of this work 
at Denbigh (Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, 
iii. 117), it never appeared. 

Pughe died of apoplexy on 4 June 1835 in 
a cottage near Dolydd Cau, in the neigh- 
bourhood of his birthplace, whither he had 
gone for the sake of his health, and was 
buried at Nantglyn. He had been elected a 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries about 
1793, and on 19 June 1822 received from 
the University of Oxford the degree of 
D.C.L. (Alumni Oxon.) In erudition no 
student of the Welsh language and lite- 
rature has ever surpassed him, and his en- 
thusiasm for these studies has deepened 
the interest generally felt in Celtic history 
and literature. His influence upon Welsh 
students was very great, nor has his authority 
upon questions of spelling and etymology 
yet ceased to carry weight in Wales. But 
he was entirely without critical power ; his 
opinions were formed early and underwent 
no alteration to the close of his life. The 
eccentricity of his mind may be gauged from 
the fact that he was one of the followers of 
Joanna Southcott [q. v.] 

[Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymreig, Ly C. Ashton, 
pp. 412-21 ; introduction to first edition of the 
Dictionary (1803); preface to Coll Gwynfa; 
Enwogion Cymru, Foulkes, pp. 864-8 ; Leathart's 
Origin and Progress of the Gwyneddigion 
Society, London, 1831.] J. E. L. 



PUGIN, AUGUSTUS CHARLES 
(1762-1832), architect, archaeologist, and 
architectural artist, was born in France in 
1762, and claimed descent from a distin- 
guished French family. Driven from his 
country either by the horrors of the revolu- 
tion or by private reasons connected with a 
duel, he came to London about 1798, and 
soon found employment as a draughtsman 
in the office of John Nash [q. v.] His 
earliest work with Nash consisted in making 
colouredperspectiveviews of certain 'Gothic' 
mansions upon which his master was en- 
gaged, and in the working out of an unac- 
cepted design for the Waterloo monument. 
To increase his powers as an artist, he en- 
tered the schools of the Royal Academy, 
where he made the acquaintance of two 
fellow-students, Martin (afterwards Sir Mar- 
tin) Archer Shee [q. v.] and William Hilton. 
He further revived acquaintance with Meri- 
got, an aquatint engraver, who formerly had 
been a drawing-master to his father's family, 
and studied under him with advantage. 

Nash, who treated his pupils and assist- 
ants with great kindness and hospitality, 
discovered in Pugin a valuable subordinate. 
Gothic art, though ill understood, was warmly 
appreciated by the distinguished clients for 
whom he worked, and Nash set Pugin to 
produce a collection of trustworthy drawings 
from ancient buildings which might form 
the basis of desjgn for himself and other 
architects. The truthfulness of Pugin's 
drawings in form and colour at once at- 
tracted attention. A change was then com- 
ing over water-colour art. The old style 
brown or Indian ink outline with a low-toned 
wash was giving way to the more modern 
practice of representation in full colour, 
and Pugin, though he limited his palette to 
indigo, light red, and yellow ochre, was an 
active supporter of the new movement, and 
to his influence its ultimate predominance 
was largely due. In 1808 Pugin was elected 
an associate of the Old Water-colour Society, 
which had been founded in 1805, and he was 
a frequent exhibitor at the annual exhibi- 
tions held first in Lower Brook Street and 
subsequently in Pall Mall. Through his 
connection with the society he formed friend- 
ships with Antony Vandyke Copley Fielding 
[q. v.] and George Fennel Robson [q. v.l 
About the same time Pugin was employed 
on Ackermann's publications, notably the 
' Microcosm,' for which he supplied the 
architectural portions of the illustrations, 
Rowlandson executing the figures. In 1823 
he published, in conjunction with E. W. 
Brayley, a set of views in Islington and 
Pentonville, for which he had been collecting 



Pugin 



the materials at least eleven years before. 
Islington was, after the French Revolution, 
the headquarters of royalist emigration, and 
there Pugin met his future wife, Catherine, 
daughter of William Welby, barrister, and 
a relative of Sir William Welby. She was 
known as the 'Belle of Islington.' After 
her marriage (2 Feb. 1802) she exercised a 
firm control over Pugin's pupils as well as 
his household. 

Meanwhile Nash and his works were not 
altogether neglected. Pugin in 1824 was 
asked to make the drawings for a volume 
illustrating the Brighton Pavilion, and while 
he was engaged upon the work George IV, 
who came to watch, accidentally upset the 
colour-box, and, mindful perhaps of illus- 
trious parallels in the past, picked it up with 
an apology that greatly gratified the artist. 

In 1821 there appeared the first number of 
' Specimens of Gothic Architecture,' the first- 
fruits of the mission which Nash had laid 
upon Pugin ; and in 1825 he visited Nor- 
mandy with some of his pupils. The draw- 
ings which he and his assistants made in 
France on this and later occasions are among 
the most important of his productions. Pu- 
gin's band of pupils included, besides his 
celebrated son Augustus Welby Northmore 
Pugin [q.v.], W. Lake Price (still living) 
and Joseph Nash [q. v.], who became mem- 
bers of the Old "Water-colour Society ; James 
Pennethorne [q. v.], Talbot Bury, J. D'Eg- 
ville, son of the ballet-master of the Italian 
opera ; B. Ferrey, biographer of the Pugins ; 
Francis T. Dollman, architect and author of 
several architectural works (still living) ; 
and Charles James Mathews [q. v.], the 
comedian. Hints for the character of Mon- 
sieur Mallet, which the elder Mathews fre- 
quently personated at the old Adelphi 
Theatre, were drawn from his knowledge 
of Pugin and of his troubles as a newly 
arrived foreigner in England. 

As an architect on his own account Pugin 
had little or no practice. He was associated 
with Sir Marc Isambard Brunei [q. v.] in the 
designs for the cemetery at Kensal Green, 
and his drawingfor one of the gateways of the 
cemetery was exh ibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1827. He was joint architect with Morgan 
of the diorama near Regent's Park, now a 
chapel, and designed the internal decoration 
of the cosmoramainRegent Street (destroyed 
by fire). He earned his title to fame partly 
as an educator of young architects, notably 
his own son, but chiefly by his work as an 
illustrator of Gothic architecture ; for by his 
careful drawings of old buildings he paved 
the way for the systematic study of detail 
which was the basis of that true revival 



i Pugin 

which followed the hopeless and unlearned 
period of ' Strawberry-Hill ' enthusiasm. 

Pugin's office was first at 34 Store Street, 
Tottenham Court Road, but in his later years 
he resided at 105 (now 106) Great Russell 
Street. There he died, after a long illness, 
on 19 Dec. 1832. Mrs. Pugin survived him 
till 28 April 1833, and both were buried in 
a family vault at the church of St. Mary, 
Islington, where they had been married. 

A lithograph portrait is in B. Ferrey's 
' Recollections of A. N. W. Pugin,' drawn 
from memory by his pupil Joseph Nash, and 
a portrait in oils, by Oliver, is in the posses- 
sion of the family. 

The published works which Pugin pro- 
duced or in which he participated are : 
1. Plates (with Rowlandson) for 'Acker- 
man's Microcosm of London,' 1808. 2. With 
Mackenzie, ' Specimens of Gothic Architec- 
ture from Oxford,' 4to, n.d. 3. With E. W. 
Brayley, ' Views in Islington and Penton- 
ville,' 4to, 1823. 4. ' Specimens of Gothic 
Architecture ' (descriptions by E. J. Will- 
son), 2 vols. 4to, 1821-3. 5. With J. 
Britton, ' Illustrations of the Public Build- 
ings of London,' 8vo, 1825-8. 6. Plates of 
Gothic Furniture for ' Ackermann's Reposi- 
tory of Arts,' 1810-25-26-27 ; republished 
separately about 1835. 7. W T ith Britton and 
Le Keux, ' Specimens of Architectural An- 
tiquities of Normandy,' 4to, 1826-8. 8. 'Ex- 
amples of Gothic Architecture,' 2 vols. 4to, 
1828-31. 9. 'Translation of Normand's 
Parallel of Orders of Architecture,' with two 
extra plates, fol. 1829. 10. With Heath, 
' Views of Paris and Environs,' 4to. 1828- 
1831. 11. ' Gothic Ornaments from Ancient 
Buildings in England and France,' 4to, 
1831. 12. 'Ornamental Gables,' 4to, 1831. 
This and No. 10 with lithographs by J. D. 
Harding. 13. 'Gothic Furniture,' 1835. 
Pugin also contributed plates to other publi- 
cations by Ackermann, such as the volumes 
on Westminster Abbey, 1812, and the public 
schools, 1816. 

[Ferrey's Recollections of A. W. N. Pugin ; 
Life of C. .T. Mathews, edited by C. Dickens ; 
Architectural Publication Society's Dictionary ; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; private information.] 

P. W. 

PUGIN, AUGUSTUS WELBY 
NORTHMORE (1812-1 852), architect.eccle- 
siologist, and writer, born on 1 March 1812 
at 34 Store Street, Bedford Square, was son 
of Augustus Charles Pugin [q. v.], from 
whom he received his training as an archi- 
tect and inherited a remarkable facility in 
draughtsmanship. After being educated at 
Christ's Hospital as a private student, he 
joined his father's pupils, and for two or three 



Pugin 



years assisted his work as an archaeologist, 
architect, and illustrator. In his thirteenth 
year he was sufficiently advanced to accom- 
pany his father on an architectural visit to 
Paris ; and a drawing of Christ Church, 
Hampshire (reproduced in Ferrey's ' Recol- 
lections '), testifies to his precocious powers 
of sketching. 

In 1826 he was engaged in making inves- 
tigations and drawings of Rochester Castle, 
and in the following year was taken ill from 
overwork while sketching in the cathedral 
of Notre-Dame at Paris. After assisting his 
father in preparing a scheme, which resulted 
in the establishment of Kensal Green ceme- 
tery, he engaged in June 1827 in his first 
important independent work, the designing 
of the furniture for Windsor Castle. This 
commission led incidentally to an acquaint- 
ance with George Dayes, son of the artist Ed- 
ward Dayes [q.v.], and it was through him, 
says Pugin in his 'Diary' (26 June 1827), 
* that I first imbibed the taste for stage- 
machinery and scenic representations, to 
which I afterwards applied myself so closely.' 
His enthusiasm for theatrical accessories led 
him to fit up a small model stage at his father's 
house in Great Russell Street (on which was 
presented a moving panorama of ' Old Lon- 
don'), and it culminated in 1831 with the 
execution, by Pugin, of scenery for the new 
ballet of 'Kenilworth,' an adaptation of a 
spectacular piece which had been first pre- 
sented at Drury Lane in January 1824 
(GENEST, Hist. ix. 232). He was subsequently 
employed in the rearrangement of the stage 
machinery at Drury Lane. While still under 
age and in uncertain health, he developed an- 
other taste which exercised a great influence 
on his life : he became passionately fond of 
sailing, purchased a smack, and subsequently 
a lugger, and at one time took to trading by 
sea in a small way. In 1830 he was ship- 
wrecked oft' Leith, and made his way to the 
residence of James Gillespie Graham [q. v.], 
the architect, to whom he was a complete 
stranger. Graham gave him, besides some 
good advice, the compasses Avhich figure in 
Herbert's portrait of him. His passion for 
the sea was never subdued. His ordinary 
costume was that of a pilot, and, but for his 
hatred of beer and tobacco, he might have 
been taken for one. ' There is nothing worth 
living for,' he is reported to have said, ' but 
Christian architecture and a boat.' 

In 1831, at the age of nineteen, he mar- 
ried Ann Garnett (a connection of George 
Dayes), who died in childbirth on 27 May 
1832, and was buried at Christ Church 
Priory. Soon after the marriage Pugin was 
imprisoned for debt, and after his release 



Pugin 

opened in Hart Street, Covent Garden, a sort 
of workshop of architectural details. His 
intention was to supply to architects draw- 
ings and architectural accessories, such as 
carving and metal work, for designing which 
he justly felt he had unequalled capacity. The 
venture was not pecuniarily successful, and 
Pugin was forced to abandon it, though he 
ultimately paid his creditors in full. In 1833 
he married his second wife, Louisa Burton, 
and established himself at Salisbury. In 
1835 he bought an acre of ground at Laver- 
stock, an adjoining hamlet, and built on it a 
house named St. Marie's Grange. In 1841 
he left Salisbury for a temporary sojourn at 
Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. Subsequently he 
settled at Ramsgate, where resided his aunt, 
Miss Selina Welby,who eventually made him 
her heir. At Ramsgate he built for himself 
a house with a church adjoining on the West 
Cliff', and was wont to assert that these were 
the only buildings in which, being his own 
paymaster, his designs wers not hampered by 
financial restrictions. Soon after his second 
marriage he was received into the Roman 
catholic church. He took this step under a 
sense of its spiritual importance, though on 
his own admission he Avas first drawn to Ro- 
man Catholicism by his artistic sympathies. 
He believed the Roman catholic religion and 
Gothic art to be intimately associated, and 
came to regard it as almost a religious obliga- 
tion for catholics to encourage Gothic archi- 
tecture and no other (cf. W. G. Ward and 
the O.rford Movement, pp. 153-5). At Rams- 
gate, profiting by the propinquity of his 
church, he spent much time in the obser- 
vance of religious rites, and practised a rigid 
asceticism. 

Meanwhile Pugin began a regular archi- 
tectural practice. Accident had made him 
acquainted with the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
to whose patronage he owed some of his 
most congenial opportunities of architec- 
tural work. He designed for the earl the 
additions to Alton Towers, the church at 
Cheadle, and the chapel and other buildings 
at St. John's Hospital, Alton, and rebuilt 
the castle on Alton Rock. In 1835 he first 
appeared as an architectural author, pub- 
lishing his ' Gothic Furniture in the Style of 
the Fifteenth Century ' (London, 4to). ' This 
was followed in 1836 by his ' Ancient Tim- 
ber Houses ' (London, 4to), and by a more 
remarkable and very polemical publication, 
the celebrated 'Contrasts' (Salisbury, 4to), 
in which, by means of satirical sketches and 
cutting sarcasm , the so-called ' Pagan ' method 
of architecture is compared to its disad- 
vantage with the ' Christian.' 

In the same year (1836) the report of the 



Pugin 



8 



Pugin 



commissioners on the competing schemes for 
the new houses of parliament was issued. No 
design had been sent in under Pugin's name, 
but it was well known that he had assisted 
one of the competitors, Gillespie Graham. The 
design of Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) 
Barry [q. v.] was chosen, and Barry was ap- 
pointed the architect for the new building. 
Barry employed Pugin in the gigantic task 
of providing the detail drawings during six 
or seven following years. In 1807, after both 
Pugin and Barry were dead, the former's son, 
Edward Welby Pugin [q. v.], claimed that 
his father originated the design which Sir 
Charles Barry submitted in the competition, 
and was the guiding spirit of the design as 
carried out. Edward Pugin declared that 
Barry adopted a scheme of his father's con- 
ception, and sent it in after it had been re- 
drawn in his own office in ordei to conceal 
its likeness in handiwork to the design which 
was nominally Graham's. This claim was 
hardly substantiated; but it is probable that 
while Barry initiated the design and he must 
in any case be allowed the whole credit of the 
arrangement of the plan Pugin was called 
in as a skilled draughtsman to assist in the 
completion of Barry's half-finished drawings. 
In such work a man of his originality could 
hardly have acted as a mere copyist ; and it 
may therefore be concluded that he had at 
least a share at this stage in the elegance and 
artistic merit which won for Barry's design 
the first place in the competition. AVith 
regard to the working drawings prepared 
after the competition, every witness, in- 
cluding Sir Charles Barry, acknowledges 
that the detail drawings all came from 
Pugin's hand ; and when it is considered 
how largely the effect of that building is 
due to its details, no critic will deny to 
Pugin an all-important share in the credit 
of the completed work (cf. EDWARD WELBT 
PUGIX, Woo was the Art Architect of the 
Houses of Parliament? 1867 ; ALFRED BARRY, 
The Architect of the New Palace of West- 
minster, 1867 ; E. W. PUGIX, Notes on Dr. 
Barry s Reply to the ' Infatuated State- 
ments ' made by E. W. P., 1867). 

Pugin's practice rapidly increased. Work- 
ing with little assistance, and largely without 
the usual instruments (he never used a 
T square), he achieved a vast amount of 
work. In 1839, besides Alton Towers, he 
was engaged upon St. Chad's Church at 
Birmingham, Downside Priory near Bath, 
and the churches of St. Mary, Derby, and 
St. Oswald, Liverpool ; while the churches 
of St. Mary, Stockton-on-Tees, St. Wilfrid, 
Hulme, near Manchester, St. Mary, Dudley, 
St. Mary, Uttoxeter, St. Giles, Cheadle, St. 



Anne, Keighley, St. Mary-on-the-Sands, 
Southport, and St. Alban, Macclesfield, be- 
long to about the same period. In 1841 
appeared Pugin's ' True Principles of Pointed 
or Christian Architecture ' (London, 4to), a 
book which shows that the author combined 
with his enthusiasm a remarkable power of 
logical analysis. There followed ' An Apo- 
logy for the Revival of Christian Architecture 
in England ' (London, 4to, 1843), the ' Glos- 
sary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Cos- 
tume ' (London, 4to, 1844), and two articles 
in the ' Dublin Review ' on ' The Present 
State of Ecclesiastical Architecture in Eng- 
land ' (republished separately 1843). These 
articles, which he did not sign, met with 
some severe and not undeserved criticism. 
They largely consist of appreciative accounts, 
with illustrations, of the works of Pugin 
himself. 

Pugin had already made many sketching 
tours in France and the Netherlands, and his 
masterly sketches are not the least of his 
artistic achievements (see ATLING'S repro- 
ductions of the sketches, 2 vols. 8vo, 1865). 
In 1847 he made, for the first time, a tour 
in Italy. He visited Florence, Rome (with 
which he was disappointed), Assisi, Perugia, 
Arezzo, Cortona, and Verona, besides many 
French towns Avignon, Carcassonne, Miil- 
hausen,Besan9on. Although his practice at 
this period was in full vigour, and the pres- 
sure on his time, powers, and eyesight was 
terrific, he published in 1849 a work in 
chromolithograph on ' Floriated Ornament ' 
(London, 8vo), and in 1850 'Remarks on 
Articles in the " Rambler " ' (a pamphlet 
containing some autobiographical notes). In 

1851 he was appointed a commissioner of 
fine arts for the Great Exhibition, but be- 
fore the close of the year his mind, over- 
wrought with excess of occupation, became 
unhinged. Next year found him a patient 
in a private asylum, whence he was sub- 
sequently removed to Bedlam. On 14 Sept. 

1852 he died in his own house at Ramsgate. 
His second wife had died in 1 844, and, after 
paying addresses to two other ladies, for one 
of whom he had designed as a wedding gift 
the jewellery shown by him at the Great Ex- 
hibition, he married, in 1849, a third wife, 
daughter of Thomas Knill. She survived 
him, with eight children. His son, Ed- 
ward Welby Pugin [q. v.], had taken charge 
of his professional work during his last ill- 
ness. 

Pugin was never a candidate for personal 
honour, and when his name was proposed 
for the associateship of the Royal Academy, 
it was without his sanction. The Pugin 
travelling studentship, controlled by the 



Pugin 

Royal Institute of British Architects, was 
established as a memorial after his death. 

An indomitable energy was the basis of 
Pugin's character ; his guiding principle was 
his belief in Gothic architecture, and his 
reputation lies in his chronological position 
as a Gothic artist. It may almost be said 
that he was the first to reduce to axioms 
the fundamental relationship of structure 
and ornament in architecture, and the first 
productive architect of modern times who 
gave a complete, serious, and rational study 
to the details and inner spirit of mediaeval 
architecture. A few contemporaries were 
working on the same conscientious lines, 
but they recognised him as their leader. 
His work is open to adverse modern criticism, 
and shows certain errors in the light of 
later knowledge. Occasionally it exhibits 
a meagreness in the use of materials, which, 
to do Pugin justice, is often attributable to 
false economy on the part of his clients. None 
the less it was in its day the most sincere, 
most faithful, and most Gothic work that had 
been executed in England since the fifteenth 
century. 

In the midst of his pressure of work Pugin : 
formed an extensive library of books bearing ' 
on mediaeval art and worship. A fine col- | 
lection of prints, carvings, enamels, and j 
objects of ancient art also adorned his Rams- 
gate house. As a landscape artist in water- 
colour he displayed appreciable skill. 

Pugin was of moderate stature, rather 
thick set, with a heavy complexion, high 
brow, and keen grey eyes. Quick in move- 
ment, a frank and voluble talker whether at [ 
work or at table, master of a fund of anec- ; 
dote and a dramatic manner of narration, he 
fairly overflowed, when in health, with 
energy and humour. His hands, which I 
worked in drawing with marvellous rapidity, 
were thick and dumpy, with short fingers ! 
tapering off' to small tips; in these a stump of 
pencil, his compasses, and a carpenter's rule, 
sufficed for even the most elaborate work ; 
and he could turn out his exquisite drawings 
under the most untoward circumstances 
even in a Ramsgate steamer rolling off' the 
North Foreland. 

The chief portrait of Pugin is the oil- 
painting by J. R. Herbert, R.A., now in the 
possession of the Pugin family, which is only 
moderately good as a likeness. It was etched 
by the painter, and a lithograph from it by 
J. H. Lynch was published, with a short 
memoir, in the first issue of the ' Metro- 
politan and Provincial Catholic Almanac,' 
1853. A different lithograph portrait of 
Pugin in youth is printed in Ferrey's ' Re- 
miniscences.' 



i Pugin 

Although chiefly employed by Roman 
catholics in his ecclesiastical designs, the 
restorations at St. Mary's, Beverley, and at 
the parish churches of Wymeswold, Leices- 
tershire, and Winwick, Lancashire, are ex- 
amples of his work for the church of Eng- 
land. The following are the principal works 
which have not already been specially men- 
tioned : The cathedrals of Southwark (St. 
George's), Killarney, and Enniscorthy ; 
churches at Liverpool (St. Edward and St. 
Mary); Kenilworth; Cambridge ; Stockton-on- 
Tees; Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Preston; Ushaw; 
Warwick ; Rugby ; Northampton ; Stoke-on- 
Trent ; Woolwich; Hammersmith; Ponte- 
fract ; Fulham; Walham Green ; St. Edmund, 
near Ware (with adjoining buildings); Buck- 
ingham; St. Wilfrid, near Alton ; Notting- 
ham (with a convent and a chapel); Lynn; 
St. John, Salford (design not carried out) ; 
Salisbury ; Kirkham ; Whitwick ; Solihull ; 
Great Marlow ; Blairgowrie ; Guernsey ; be- 
sides various designs for Australia and the 
colonies. Conventual buildings at Birming- 
ham, Nottingham, Liverpool, London, Ber- 
mondsey,Waterford, and Gorey ; St. Bernard's 
Monastery, Leicestershire ; a small chapel at 
Reading, a chapel and convent at Edge Hill ; 
the Jesus Chapel near Pontefract ; colleges at 
Radcliffe, Rugby and St. Mary's Oscott (com- 
pletion) ; Sibthorpe's almshouses, Lincoln ; 
the restoration of Tofts, near Brandon, a 
chapel for Sir William Stuart in Scotland; 
the church, and restoration of Grace Dieu 
Manor for Ambrose Lisle Phillipps, and the 
gateway of Magdalen College, Oxford. He 
made plans (which were never executed) for 
the rebuilding of Hornby Castle for the Duke 
of Leeds ; and his domestic work was further 
represented by k Scarisbrick Hall, Lancashire ; 
Bilton Grange, Warwick ; Lord Dunraven's 
seat at Adare, co. Limerick, in Ireland, and 
the restorations at Chirk Castle, Denbigh- 
shire. A fuller list (not, however, free from 
inaccuracies) will be found in Ferrey's ' Re- 
collections.' 

J. G. Grace, the decorative artist, who was 
engaged in much of the work at the houses 
of parliament, was associated with Pugin in 
the carrying out of many of his designs for 
interiors, such as Eastnor Castle, Leighton 
Hall, near Liverpool, and Abney Hall. He 
also executed from Pugin's cartoons a set of 
stained-glass windows for Bolton Abbey. 
Among builders Pugin preferred and gene- 
rally employed a man named Myers, whose 
enthusiastic and rugged temperament suited 
his own. 

In addition to his more important archi- 
tectural works, mentioned above, Pugin pub- 
lished : 1. 'Designs for Gold- and Silver- 



Pugin 



Smiths,' 4to, London, 1836. 2. ' Designs for | 
Brass and Iron Work,' 4to, London, 1836. j 
3. 'Treatise of Chancel Screens,' &c., 4to, | 
London, 1851. 

Besides various pamphlets of small im- j 
portance setting forth his religious views, his 
desire for the reunion of the churches, and 
similar topics, he issued in tract form in 1850 
'An Earnest Appeal for the Revival of An- 
cient Plain Song.' 

[Ferrey's Eecollections of A. W. N. Pugin ; 
Eedgrave's Dictionary of Artists ; Architectural 
Publication Society's Dictionary ; Eastlake's 
Gothic Revival ; Ward aiid the Catholic Revival ; 
Builder, 1852, 1862, 1896; Ecclesiologist, 1852; 
Royal Inst. Brit. Arch. Journal, 1894, pp. 517, 
519, 598; Mozley's Reminiscences; private in- 
formation.] P. W. 

PUGIN, EDWARD WELBY (1834- 
1875), architect, eldest son of AugustusWelby 
Northmore Pugin [q. v.], by his second wife, 
Louisa Burton, was born on 11 March 1834. 
He received his professional training under 
his father, and, owing to the latter's failing 
health, found himself at the age of seventeen 
in control of a large practice. His father 
dying in 1852, there devolved upon Pugin the 
task of bringing to completion various im- 
portant buildings then unfinished. He was 
thus launched at an early age with a large 
number of architectural engagements, which 
he soon succeeded in augmenting on his own 
account. 

He was on several occasions an exhibitor 
of designs in the Royal Academy (see Cata- 
logues, 1855, 1860-1-3-6-7, 1873-4) ; some 
of these were executed with Ashlin, a former 
pupil, who was his partner for a few years, 
and joined him in several buildings in Ire- 
land, the chief of them being the cathedral 
at Queenstown. James Murray of Coventry, 
who died in 1863, was also his partner for 
a short time. 

During Pugin's fourteen years of practice 
a very large number of works, chiefly Roman 
catholic churches, were entrusted to him. 
His principal undertakings were the fol- 
lowing : The completion of his father's build- 
ings at Scarisbrick Hall, Lancashire, and at 
Chirk Castle ; the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception at Dadizeele, Belgium (1859), 
for which he received the papal order of 
St. Sylvester from Pius IX ; St. Michael's 
Priory, Belinont, Herefordshire ; the Church 
of SS. Peter and Paul, Cork ; the Augus- 
tinian Church at Dublin; the College of 
St. Cuthbert and the Schools of St. Aloy- 
sius, Ushaw ; several churches at Liverpool; 
the chateau of the bishop of Bruges (1861), 
in the style of the fourteenth century ; 
churches at Kensington, Peckham, Stratford, 



> Puiset 

Leeds, Preston, Sheerness, Stourbridge, Gor- 
ton, Kingsdown, and elsewhere ; orphanages 
at Hellingly and Bletchingley ; the restora- 
tion of the palace at Mayfield, Sussex ; Har- 
rington House, Leamington ; Benton Manor ; 
Croston Hall, Meanwood, near Leeds ; Seels 
Buildings, Liverpool ; additions to Garendon 
Hall, Leicester, and Carlton Towers, York- 
shire, for Lord Beaumont. In a design for 
the chateau of Baron von Carloon de Gouray 
at Lophem he was associated with J.Bethune 
of Ghent. He added to St. Augustine's 
Church, Ramsgate, and built the monastic 
buildings opposite the church. 

In spite of his great success as an archi- 
tect, which is said to have secured him 
during five years an average income of 
8,000/. a year, his life was one of disappoint- 
ment, and was marred by an apparently 
irresistible impulse to disputation. The cele- 
brated discussion as to the true authorship 
of the houses of parliament was not a soli- 
tary instance of his aptitude for controversy 
[see under PUGIN, AUGUSTUSWELBY NORTH- 
MORE]. 

In architectural style he adhered to the 
lines in which he had been trained. His 
short career coincided with the high tide of 
the great Gothic revival, of which his father 
had been the leader. Although a facile and 
rapid draughtsman, he did not work with 
the same perception of the spirit of Gothic 
art ; his work was harder and less thoughtful, 
and the uncouth Granville Hotel at the north 
end of the Ramsgate cliffs presents a woful 
contrast in style and other aspects to the 
buildings by his father at the south end of 
the town. This gigantic hotel, designed 
originally as a range of separate houses, was 
as great a blow to Pugin's finances as to his 
artistic fame. He was speculator as well as 
architect, and lost heavily by the venture. 

Though Pugin dates from a Birmingham 
address in 185o, and in 1859 from 5 Gordon 
Square, he seems to have resided and worked 
principally at a house in Victoria Road, 
Westminster, where, on 4 June 1875, he 
died of syncope. 

He is commemorated at Ramsgate by a 
marble bust in the gardens on the cliff. 

[Builder, xxxiii. 523, and the Building News, 
xxviii. 670 (where lists of his works are given); 
Builder and Building News; Architectural Pub- 
lication Society's Dictionary ; private informa- 
tion.] P. W. 

PUISET or PUDSEY, HUGH DE 
(1125 P-1195), bishop of Durham and earl of 
Northumberland, born about 1125, was in all 
probability the son of that Hugh de Puiset, 
viscount of Chartres, who was for many years 



Puiset 

the opponent of Louis VI of France. His 
mother, Agnes, must have been an otherwise 
unknown daughter of Count Stephen of Blois 
and Adela, daughter of William the Con- 
queror ; for King Stephen, in a charter to 
Hugh as bishop, describes him as his nephew. 
Hugh is also called the king's nephew by 
Geoffrey of Coldingham ; other writers speak 
of him as ' cognatus regis ' (Hist. Dunelm. 
Script-ores tres, pp. 5, xxvii, xxxii). Hugh's 
elder brother Ebrard was viscount of Chart res, 
and his great-uncle, Hugh de Puiset, had 
been made first count of Jaffa by his kins- 
man Baldwin I of Jerusalem (cf. a notice of 
the family pedigree ap. STUBBS, Pref. to 
ROG. Hov. vol. iii. p. xxxiiiw.) 

Hugh was probably born in the latter 
part of 1125 (WiLL. NEWS. ii. 436; but 
cf. GEOFFREY OF COLDINGHAM, p. 4). He 
perhaps came to England under the protec- 
tion of his uncle, Henry of Blois [q. v.], bishop 
of Winchester, who made him his archdeacon. 
In September 1143 his cousin William was 
consecrated archbishop of Y'ork, and from him 
Hugh received the treasurership of that 
church, thus commencing his lifelong con- 
nection with the north of England (JoHN OF 
HEXHAM, p. 155). This connection Hugh 
strengthened by an alliance with Adelaide 
de Percy, who was certainly mother of his 
son Henry, and perhaps of his other son Hugh 
also. After Hugh became bishop, Adelaide 
seems to have married a Morevill, and thus 
Hugh was closely connected with two great 
northern families (Stubbs's Pref. to ROG. Hov. 
vol. iii. p. xxxiv n. 3). Hugh, who styled him- 
self ' Dei gratia Ebor. thesaurarius et archi- 
diaconus ' (Monasticon Anylicanum, v. 315), 
supported his cousin William in his con- 
tention for the archbishopric, and in 1147 
was one of those who joined in the election 
of Hilary (d. 1169) [q. v.] in opposition to 
Henry Murdac [q. v.j In 1148 Murdac ex- 
communicated Hugh, who replied by excom- 
municating the archbishop, but soon after 
withdrew to his uncle Henry in the south. 
When, in 1151, Henry of Winchester went 
to Rome, Hugh was left in charge of his 
uncle's possessions, and kept his castles and 
trained his soldiers. Henry of Winchester 
obtained from Pope Eugenius an order for 
his nephew's absolution, and after Hugh had 
been taken into favour at Yarm, the trouble 
in the northern province for a time was 
healed (JoHN OF HEXHAM, pp. 155, 158, 162 ; 
NORGATE, Angei-in Kings, i. 382). It was, 
however, renewed when, on 22 Jan. 1153, 
Hugh was chosen bishop by Prior Lawrence 
(d. 1154) [q. v.] and the monks of Durham. 
Murdac, supported by Bernard of Clairvaux, 
quashed the election on the score of Hugh's 



i Puiset 

uncanonical age, Avorldly character, and lack 
of the requisite learning (GEOFFBEY OF COLD- 
INGHAM, pp. 4, 5). In the consequent quarrel 
between Murdac, the monks of Durham, and 
their supporters, Hugh, who was still in the 
south of England, took no part. But in 
August he made a fruitless visit to York, and 
soon after set out for Rome in the company 
of Lawrence of Durham, and with the ap- 
proval of Theobald of Canterbury. Before 
Hugh and his supporters reached Italy they 
heard that Eugenius, the Cistercian pope, 
was dead ; Anastasius, his successor, approved 
Hugh's election, and on 20 Dec. consecrated 
him bishop (ib. p. 6). 

Hugh returned to England in the spring 
of 1154, and on 2 May was enthroned at 
Durham. Murdac had died in the previous 
October, and William of York had recovered 
his archbishopric, according to Gervase, 
through Hugh's influence with the new 
pope (GERVASE OF CANTERBURY, i. 157). 
William had hardly reached home when he 
died in June 1154, and one of Hugh's first 
acts as bishop was to celebrate the funeral 
of his cousin and metropolitan. During the 
first years of his episcopate Hugh was chiefly 
engaged in securing his position in the 
north, and took little part in general affairs. 
He was, however, present at the coronation 
of Henry II on 19 Dec. 1154, and he seems 
to have attended at the royal court with 
tolerable frequency. Thus he was with the 
j king at York in February 1155, and at 
Windsor in September 1157, and in Nor- 
mandy when Henry made peace with 
Louis VII in May 1160 (EYTON, Itinerary 
of Henry II, i. 5, 30, 49). He was again 
at Rouen in April 1162, and was an assessor 
in the royal curia at Westminster on 8 March 
1163 (DTJGDALE, Mon. Angl. vi. 1275). In 
May 1163 he was one of the English bishops 
who attended the council of Tours (RALPH 
DE DICETO, ii. 310). In 1166, on the occasion 
of the marriage of Matilda, daughter of 
Henry II, he made a return of the military 
tenures and services within his franchise 
(SURTEES, Hist. Durham, vol. i. pp. xxiv, 
cxxvi). He steered comparatively clear of the 
quarrel between the king and Thomas Becket, 
probably sympathising with the archbishop's 
ecclesiastical principles, but not wishing to 
compromise his own political position by de- 
cided action. He was, however, present with 
Roger (d. 1181) [q. v.], archbishop of York, at 
the coronation of the young king on 14 June 
1170, and was in consequence suspended by 
Alexander III ; but he received absolution 
without having to take an oath of submission 
to the pope ( Gesta Henrici, i. 5-6 ; Materials 
for the History of T. Becket, vii. 477-8). 



Puiset 



12 



Puiset 



Three years later, when the king's sons re- 
belled, Hugh, perhaps influenced by his con- 
nsction with the French court, for the first 
time endeavoured to play an important part 
in political affairs. Though he did not ac- 
tually join in the rebellion, he permitted 
William the Lion to enter England un- 
opposed in 1173, and in January 1174 held a 
conference with the Scottish king at llevedale 
and purchased a truce for himself for three 
hundred marks (RALPH DE DICETO, i. 376 ; 
Gesta Henrici,i. 64). He also fortified North- 
allerton Castle, and put it in charge of his 
nephew Hugh, count of Bar, who brought 
over a force of Fleming mercenaries to his 
uncle's aid. When the failure of the re- 
bellion was manifest, Hugh came to the 
king at Northampton on 31 July. But his 
temporising policy had displeased Henry, 
and the bishop had to purchase peace by the 
surrender of his castles of Durham, Xorham, 
and Northallerton ; it was with difficulty that 
he could obtain permission for his nephew 
and his Flemings to go home undisturbed 
(ib. i. 73). 

During 1174 Hugh made an agreement 
with Roger of York as to the rights of Hex- 
ham and the churches belonging to the see 
of Durham in Yorkshire (Roc. Hov. ii. 70-1; 
RAINE, Historians of Church of York, iii. 
79-81). He was with the king at Wood- j 
stock and Nottingham in July- August 1175, ! 
and at Westminster in March 1176(EYTOX, ; 
Itinerary, pp. 192-3, 200). In March 1177 he j 
was again present in the council at Westmiu- j 
ster when the king arbitrated between the 
kings of Castile and Navarre, and in the fol- 
lowing May was allowed to purchase his peace 
for two thousand marks and obtained a grant 
of the manor of Whitton for his sou Henry. 
About this time Northallerton Castle was dis- 
mantled ; nor does the bishop appear to have 
recovered his castles of Norham and Durham 
till somewhat later (Gesta Henrici, i. 160). 
After keeping Christmas 1178 with the king 
at Windsor, Hugh went abroad to attend 
the Lateran council at Rome in March 1179. 
In the following year he was commissioned 
with Roger of York to excommunicate Wil- 
liam the Lion for his action with reference 
to the bishopric of St. Andrews. In 1181 
Hugh and Roger, by the pope's orders, 
threatened the clergy of St. Andrews with 
suspension, and put Scotland under an inter- 
dict. Hugh was afterwards, in 1182, present 
at the meeting of Bishop John of St. An- 
drews with the papal legates (ib. i. 263, 281- 
282). On 26 June 1181 he had been em- 
ployed on another papal commission at Lon- 
don on the matter of the dispute between 
the monks of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, 



and the archbishop (GERVASE OF CANTER- 
BURY, i. 296). Roger of York had died in 
November 1181, and the long vacancy of the 
northern primacy which ensued tended to in- 
crease Hugh's power and importance. After 
Roger's death Hugh refused to account to the 
king for three hundred marks which he had 
received from the archbishop for charity. 
Henry, in \vrath, ordered the castle of Dur- 
ham to be taken into his hands ; but Hugh's 
disgrace was not of long duration. He seems 
to have owed his reconciliation to the king to 
Geoffrey, the future archbishop of York (GlR. 
CAMBR. iv. 367). He was with Henry at 
Windsor for Christmas 1184, and in the fol- 
lowing March was present at the council at 
Clerkenwell, where, like many other mag- 
nates, he took the cross. On 16 April he passed 
over to Normandy with the king, and seems 
to have spent the next twelve months abroad. 
In March 1186 Henry sent him back to Eng- 
land ; Hugh rejoined the king at Carlisle in 
July, and during the autumn was with Henry 
at Marlborough and Winchester (RALPH DE 
DICETO, ii. 33-4 ; EYTON, Itinerary, pp. 263- 
273). He was at Canterbury on 11 Feb. 
1187, when Henry intervened in the dispute 
between Archbishop Baldwin and the monks 
of Christchurch, and was afterwards one of 
the bishops to whom the monks appealed in 
January 1188 (GERV. CANT. i. 353; Epistolce 
Cantuarienses, p. 148). At the council of 
Geddington in February 1188, when the 
news of the fall of Jerusalem was considered, 
Hugh, with many others, renewed his 
crusading vows, and afterwards was sent to 
collect the Saladin tithe from William the 
Lion, whom he met for this purpose at 
Birgham in Lothian. 

During the last years of the reign of Henry II 
Hugh had been taking a more prominent part 
in general English politics. The commence- 
ment of the new reign, and the intention of 
Richard to go on the crusade, opened to him 
the opportunity to turn his position in the 
north and his accumulated wealth to further 
advantage. The appointment of Geoffrey, 
the new king's half-brother, to be archbishop 
of York, threatened to interfere with his 
plans, and Hugh at once joined with Hubert 
Walter in appealing against the election. 
On 3 Sept. he was present at Richard's 
coronation, and walked on the king's right 
hand. In the subsequent general sale of 
offices Hugh's wealth placed him at a great 
advantage ; the manor of Sadberge was pur- 
chased for his see for six hundred marks, and 
for the earldom of Northumberland he paid 
two thousand marks. The latter transaction 
Richard completed with a jest, saying: ' See 
what a fine workman I am, who have made 



Puiset 



Puiset 



an old bishop into a new earl' ( WILL. NEWS. i. 
305 ; ROG. Hov. iii. 13, 15, and Preface, p. 
xxviii; Hist. Dunelm. Scriptores tres, Ap- 
pendix, pp. lix-lxii). At the council of 
Pipewell on 15 Sept. Hugh was also made 
justiciar as the colleague of William de Man- 
deville, third earl of Essex [q. v.], paying 
one thousand marks for the office. Hugh 
had thus expended the money which he had 
accumulated for the crusade, and he now 
procured exemption from his vow, either 
on the plea of age or because his presence 
was needed in England (ib. App. p. Ixiii). 
He had, however, obtained the political posi- 
tion which he aimed at, and endeavoured to 
secure it by preventing Geoffrey's consecra- 
tion. Geoffrey had refused to be ordained 
priest by Hugh in September, and Hugh 
would not recognise his claims as archbishop, 
styling himself not only bishop of Durham 
and earl of Northumberland, but also custos 
of the church of York (GiR. CAMBR. iv. 
375, 377). 

During the latter part of 1189 Hugh was 
chiefly engaged in the south of England ; 
on 1 Dec. he was with Richard at Canter- 
bury when the quarrel between Baldwin and 
his monks was settled. Four days later he 
once more appealed against Geoffrey's elec- 
tion, but under pressure from the king with- 
drew and accepted confirmation of his privi- 
leges from the archbishop-elect. Through the 
death of Mandeville in November, a resettle- 
ment of the justiciarship had become neces- 
sary. Before Richard left England, on 11 Dec., 
William Longchamp, Hugh Bardulf, and 
William Brewer were assigned to Hugh de 
Puiset as his colleagues. Hoveden actually 
makes Longchamp co-justiciar with Hugh; 
but the latter may have been really chief 
justiciar for a short time ; it was probably 
'during the ensuing months that the pleas 
were held in Hugh's name in Northumber- 
land, Yorkshire, and Cumberland {Pipe Roll, 
1 Richard I, pp. 84, 139, 243). The real power 
was, however, in the hands of Longchamp, 
who held the Tower of London, while Hugh 
held Windsor. Longchamp would not admit 
Hugh to the exchequer, nor recognise him 
as in charge of Northumberland, probably 
because the payment for the aounty had not 
actually been made. In March 1190 Hugh 
was summoned to the king in Normandy, 
and the chief-justiciarship was bestowed on 
Longchamp, Hugh's jurisdiction being con- 
fined to the district north of the Humber. 
Longchamp went back to England before 
Hugh, and in May visited York to punish 
those who had been concerned in the perse- 
cution of the Jews. Whether justly or not, 
the punishment fell most heavily on Richard 



Malebysse[q.v.]and the Percys, the allies and 
relatives of Hugh of Durham. Hugh's posi- 
tion was too strong for Longchamp to accept 
it without a struggle, and the chancellor 
may have deliberately intended to assert his 
authority within his rival's jurisdiction. 
Meantime Hugh had come back from Nor- 
mandy, and now met Longchamp at Blythe 
in Nottinghamshire. Hugh displayed his 
commission as justiciar ; but Longchamp 
contrived to postpone a settlement, and when 
the rivals met again a week later, at Tickhill, 
produced a commission to himself of later 
date than the one held by Hugh. Thf bishop 
of Durham, who had been forced to enter 
the castle alone, was then arrested by his 
rival and taken prisoner to Southwell, where 
he was kept in custody till he consented to 
surrender his castles, justiciarship, and earl- 
dom, and to give his son Henry and another 
knight as hostages for his good behaviour 
(DEVIZES, p. 13 ; Gesta Ricardi, ii. 109). As 
Hugh proceeded northwards he was again 
arrested, at Howden, and compelled to give 
security that he would reside there during 
Longchamp's pleasure. Hugh at once sent 
messengers to Richard at Marseilles, and the 
king, perhaps feeling that the bishop had 
been harshly treated, ordered the manor of 
Sadberge and earldom of Northumberland to 
be restored to him (ib ii. 110; ROG. Hov. iii. 
38). 

In the complicated politics of the next few 
years Hugh's first purpose was to avoid mak- 
ing formal submission to Geoffrey of York, 
and in 1190 he accordingly obtained from 
Pope Clement the privilege of exemption 
(GiR. CAMBR. iv. 383, says he did so by 
bribery). This privilege was, however, re- 
versed through the intervention of Queen 
Eleanor in the following year, when Celes- 
tiue III ordered Hugh to attend and make 
his profession of obedience at York (KAIKE, 
Historians of the Church of York, iii. 88; 
ROG. Hov. iii. 78). Nevertheless when the 
outrage on Archbishop Geoffrey furnished 
the pretext for an attack on Longchamp, 
Hugh joined the opposition. He had been 
one of the mediators in the agreement be- 
tween Earl John and Longchamp at Win- 
chester on 30 July 1191 (ib. iii. 134), but his 
own wrongs were now made a ground of 
complaint against the chancellor, and he was 
present at the deposition of Longchamp on 
8 Oct. (ib. iii. 145). No sooner was his more 
formidable rival disposed of than Hugh re- 
sumed his quarrel with Geoffrey. He refused 
to make his profession, declaring that he had 
made it once and for all to Archbishop Roger, 
and appealed to the pope. Geoffrey, after 
three citations, excommunicated Hugh in 



Puiset 



Puiset 



November or December 1191. In spite of 
the sentence, Earl John spent Christmas with 
the bishop of Durham at Howden. On 2 Feb. 
1192 Geoffrey repeated his sentence, and re- 
jected the offer of arbitration which Hugh 
made in the following month. Shortly after- 
wards the excommunication of Hugh was 
annulled by a papal letter, and delegates 
were appointed to deal with the dispute. 
After several adjournments the matter was 
at length decided in October 1192, and Hugh 
was ordered to make his submission (ib. iii. 
171-2; WILL. NEWB. i. 371 ; GERV.CASTT. i. 
513; Hist. Dunelm. Script, tres, App. p. Ixiii). 
In February 1192 Hugh had been sent to 
France by Queen Eleanor to mediate with 
the legates whom the pope had sent to decide 
the dispute between Longchamp and Walter 
de Coutances, but his intervention was 
attended with little success ( Gesta Ricardi, 
ii. 246-50). Hugh was summoned by Walter 
de Coutances to the council held at Oxford 
on 28 Feb. 1193 to consider the measures ren- 
dered necessary by the king's captivity, and 
in April joined Archbishop Geoffrey in be- 
sieging John's castle of Tickhill. It was with 
reluctance that Hugh abandoned the siege on 
the conclusion of a truce, and when the 
war broke out again in February 1194 he col- 
lected a fresh force, and in the following 
month captured the castle (Roe. Hov.iii. 196- 
197, 208, 238). On 27 March he met Richard 
at Nottingham, and was favourably received ; 
three days later he was present at the great 
council. On 11 April Hugh was appointed 
to provide forthe escort of William the Lion 
to the court. Next day he went to his manor 
of Brackley, and there quarrelled with the 
king of Scots, who complained of his conduct 
to Richard. On 17 April Hugh attended the 
coronation at Winchester, and a week later 
was still with Richard at Portsmouth (An- 
cient Charters, p. 102, Pipe Rolls Soc.) Ri- 
chard appears to have rebuked him sharply for 
his conduct at Brackley, and Hugh, observ- 
ing the change in the king's disposition, 
thought fit to surrender his earldom of Nor- 
thumberland, which was promptly bestowed 
on Hugh Bardulf (Roo. Hov.iii. 245-7; Vita 
S.Godrici,Tp.l78; WILL. NEWS. ii. 416). Al- 
most immediately afterwards Bishop Hugh 
offered two thousand marks for a renewal of his 
grant, and refused to give Bardulf possession. 
Richard agreed to Hugh's request if security 
were given for the payment. Bardulf then 
cheated Hugh by a trick, and deceived the 
king, who ordered the bishop to be deprived 
not only of his county and castles, but of the 
two thousand marks and manor of Sadberge as 
well (RoG. Hov. iii. 260-1). On29Sept.Hugh 
came to York under a papal commission, and 



declared Archbishop Geoffrey's sentences 
against his opponents null and void (ib. iii. 
273). He was still endeavouring to recover 
his position, and Geoffrey of Coldingham 
(p. 15) says that the king was appeased and 
Sadberge restored on payment of two thou- 
sand marks. According to William of New- 
burgh, Hugh wished to repurchase the earl- 
dom, and Richard, though he gave an evasive 
reply, offered, if Hugh would bring the money 
to London, to associate him in office with 
Hubert Walter. Hugh accepted gladly, and 
started southwards. On Shrove Tuesday 
(15 Feb.) he was at Craike, and on the fol- 
lowing day came to York. From York he 
rode to Doncaster, where he was taken so 
ill that he had to proceed to Howden by boat. 
He reached Howden on 20 Feb., and, grow- 
ing steadily worse, died there on 3 March. 
His body was taken back to Durham and 
buried in the chapter-house. Both Geoffrey 
of Coldingham and William of Newburgh 
assert that Hugh's death was due to his hav- 
ing partaken too freely of the Shrovetide feast 
at Craike. St. Godric was said to have pro- 
phesied that Hugh would be blind for seven 
years before his death, and the bishop, de- 
ceived by his unimpaired vigour, thought he 
had still long to live. After his death men 
interpreted the prophecy as referring to the 
moral blindness which immersed him forthe 
last years of his life in political affairs (WiLL. 
NEWB. ii. 439-40 ; GEOFFEET OF COLDING- 
HAM, p. 15 ; ROG. Hov. iii. 284-5). 

Hugh de Puiset was in many respects one 
of the most remarkable men of his time. In 
person he was tall and handsome, and pre- 
served his remarkable bodily vigour till the 
end of his life. In public affairs he was keen 
and energetic, eloquent in speech, affable in 
manners, and prudent in action. His secular 
ambition and thirst for riches made him self- 
ish, but he was nevertheless lavish and 
splendid in the use that he made of his 
power and wealth. His position as a bishop 
was unique in England; as earl-palatine of 
Durham he was a secular as well as an ec- 
clesiastical potentate, and his secular autho- 
rity extended over much of the present 
county of Northumberland,the whole of which 
lay within his ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 
Thus the duty of keeping the marchland 
between England and Scotland devolved 
naturally upon him. In Hugh's own case 
the importance of this position was enhanced 
by his long tenure of office, by the vacancy 
of the metropolitan see of York after 1181, 
and by his acquisition for a time of the earl- 
dom of Northumberland. Had he realised his 
ambitions to the full, he would have filled a 
place more exactly resembling that held by the 



Puiset i 

great ecclesiastical princes of Germany than 
anything that has ever existed in England. 
Even as it was, he left a mark upon the north 
which is not yet effaced (STUBBS). At first 
he won golden opinions as bishop by his affable 
and prudent bearing, but as his position be- 
came more secure his attitude changed. He 
governed his bishopric and palatinate with a 
strong hand, and with a not too scrupulous 
regard for their ancient customs ; but though 
he would brook no interference from his 
subjects, he was firm in the maintenance of 
their joint privileges against king and arch- 
bishop. If his government was vigorous, it 
was on the whole beneficent ; and if his 
subjects groaned under his exactions, they 
nevertheless took pride in his magnificence. 
He was a great builder of castles and churches, 
had a royal love for the chase, and lived in 
almost kingly state. Northallerton Castle, 
the keep at Norham, the galilee at Durham 
Cathedral, the church and bishop's mansion 
at Darlington, all owed their existence to 
him ; while at Durham he also repaired the 
castle, built the Elvet bridge, and completed 
the city wall. When he was preparing to 
go on the crusade he had equipped a number 
of fine ships, one of which was sailed by 
Robert de Stockton to London for the king's 
service (MADOX, History of the Exchequer, i. 
493). In the forest of Weardale he had his 
' great chace ' (Boldon Buke, p. liv). Hugh's 
benefactions were not less splendid ; at Sher- 
burn, near Durham, he founded a hospital for 
lepers, which still exists as an almshouse for 
the poor (SURTEES, Hist. Durham, i. 127-37, 
283), and at Norham he established another 
hospital of St. James. At Durham he pro- 
vided a shrine for the relics of Bede, and gave 
a cross and chalice of gold to the cathedral 
(for his buildings and benefactions see SYM. 
DUNELM. i. 168, Rolls Ser. ; GEOFFREY OF 
COLDINGHAM, pp. 11, 12 ; De Cuthberti Vir- 
tutibus, p. 215 ; SURTEES, vol. i. p. xxvi). If 
Hugh was not himself a man of learning, he 
was a patron of learning in others. Reginald 
of Durham dedicated his life of St. Godric to 
him (Vita Godrici,^. 1), and Alan de Insulis 
addressed his ' Historia Bruti ' to him in a pre- 
face in which he compared him to Maecenas 
(LAURENCE OF DURHAM, Poemata, pp. 88- 
89, Surtees Soc.) At his death Hugh left a 
number of books to D urham Cathedral, among 
them a bible in four volumes, which is still 
preserved there, and also, as it would appear, 
a collection of the letters of Peter of Blois, 
who had benefited by Hugh's protection after 
the death of Henry II ( Wills and Inventories, 
i. 4, Surtees Soc. ; PETER OF BLOIS, Epist. 
127). It is not improbable that Roger of 
Hoveden may have lived under Hugh's pro- 



; Puiset 

tection at Howden, and derived some of his 
information from this connection. The bishop 
had a chaplain, William of Howden, who 
was perhaps a brother of the historian 
(Stubbs's Pref. to ROG. Hov. vol. i. pp. xiv, 
Ixviii). A letter from Hugh to Archbishop 
Richard, describing a miracle worked by 
Thomas Becket, is printed in the ' Materials 
for the History of T. Becket,' i. 419. There 
are letters to Hugh from Gilbert Foliot and 
from Roger of York among the ' Epistles ' of 
Foliot (MiGNE, Patroloffia,\o\. cxc. cols. 911, 
1106), and from John of Salisbury, Ep. 25 
(ib. vol. cxcix.) Charters of Bishop Hugh's 
are to be found in the ' Feodarium Prioratus 
Dunelmensis,' ' Finchale Priory,' and ' His- 
torise Dunelmensis Scriptores tres'(all pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society). There is an 
engraving of his seal in SurteesV History of 
Durham,' vol. i. plate 5. 

At the feast of St. Cuthbert in 1183 Bishop 
Hugh ordered a survey to be made of all 
settled rents and customs due to him from 
the bishopric. This survey may be described 
as the ' Domesday Book ' of the Durham Pala- 
tinate, and is popularly known as ' Boldon 
Buke.' The original manuscript has not been 
preserved, although four transcripts have sur- 
vived, the earliest of which dates from about 
1300. ' Boldon Buke ' was printed in the 
appendix to Domesday, and was again edited 
for the Surtees Society by the Rev. W. 
Greenwell in 1862. 

William of Newburgh (ii. 440-1) states 
that Hugh de Puiset, before he became bishop, 
had three bastards by different mothers. 
Henry, the eldest, whom we know to have 
been the son of Adelaide de Percy (cf. a 
charter of Henry de Puiset, ap. ROG. Hov. 
vol. iii. Pref. p. xxxiv), was brought up to a 
military career, and received considerable 
grants of land from his father (cf. Priory of 
Finchale, Surtees Soc.) He was in disgrace 
in 1198 (MADOX, Hist. Exchequer, i. 366). 
In May 1201 he was sent by John on a 
mission to the king of Scots (ROG. Hov. 
iv. 163). That same year he went on the 
crusade (Cal. Rot. Pat. i. 3), but survived 
to come home, and died in 1212. He was 
a great benefactor of Finchale Priory and 
of Sallay Abbey (Roc. Hov. iv. 39, 43 ; 
DUGDALE, Monasticon Anylicanum, v. 310). 
He married Dionysia, daughter of Odo de 
Thilli (MADOX, Hist. i. 513), but, as his 
estates escheated to the crown (Cal. Rot. 
Claus. i. 124), presumably left no issue. 
It does not therefore appear that the later 
family of Pudsey, in Craven, can have traced 
their descent from Bishop Hugh, as is some- 
times supposed (cf.WniTAKER, Hist, of Cra- 
ven, 3rd edit. p. 126). According to William 



Pulcherius 



16 



Puleston 



of Newburgh, the bishop's second son was 
Bouchard, archdeacon of Durham, for whom 
Hugh purchased the treasurership of York 
in 1189; but Bouchard is generally described 
as the bishop's nephew. He died in 1196 
(Roe. Hov. iii. 16-18, 31, iv. 14). The third 
son, Hugh, was chancellor to Louis VII of 
France in 1179, and attests charters of 
Philip Augustus from 1180 to 118o, in which 
latter year he died (ib. ii. 193). The bishop's 
nephew, Hugh, count of Bar, died in 1189, 
and was buried in the galilee at Durham 
(ib. iii. 19). 

[Roger of Hoveden's Chronicle, Gesta Hen- 
rici Seeundi and Gesta Ricardi, ascribed to 
Benedict of Peterborough, William of New- 
burgh ap. Chron. Stephen, Henry II and Ri- 
chard I, Gervase of Canterbury, Epistolae 
Cantuarienses, Materials for the History of 
Thomas Becket, Ralph de Diceto, Raine's His- 
torians of the Church of York and its Arch- 
bishops, Giraldus Cambrensis De Vita Gal- 
fridi ap. Opera, vol. iv. (all in the Rolls Series) ; 
Geoffrey of Coldingham ap. HistoriaeDunelmensis 
Scriptores tres, John of Hexham's Chronicle, Vita 
S. Godrici, and Libellus De Cuthberti Virtutibus 
of Reginald of Durham (these last five in Surtees 
Society) ; ChronicondeMailros(BannatyneClub>; 
Richard of Devizes (Engl. Hist, Soc.). For 
modern authorities, see Surtees's History of Dur- 
ham ; Raine's North Durham ; Foss's Judges of 
England ; Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II ; Nor- 
gate's England under the Angevin Kings ; 
Stubbs's Prefaces to Hoveden, vols. i. and iii.] 

C. L. K. 

PULCHERIUS, SAINT (d. 655). [See 

MOCHAEMOG.] 

PULESTON or PULISTON, HAMLET 
(1632-1662), political writer, born at Old 
Alresford, Hampshire, in 1632, was the son 
of Richard Puleston, and nephew of John 
Puleston [q. v.] Hamlet's father was born 
in 1591 at Burcott in Oxfordshire, but was 
descended from a Flintshire family ; he gra- 
duated from Hart Hall, Oxford, B.A. in 1611, 
M.A. in 1613, B.D. in 1620, and D.D. in 
1627 ; obtained a fellowship at Wadham, 
which he resigned in 1619 ; was prebendary of 
Winchester in 1611-16, rector successively 
of Leckford, Hampshire (1616), Kingworthy 
(1618), and Abbotsworthy ; and was mode- 
rator of philosophy in 1614, and humanity 
lecturer in 1616 at Oxford (see GARDINER, 
Wadham Register, p. 10 ; FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxonienses, and WOOD). Hamlet, admitted 
scholar of Wadham on 20 Aug. 1647, gra- 
duated B.A. on 23 May 1650, and M.A. on 
25 April 1653. He at first declined to sub- 
scribe to the ordinances of the parliamen- 
tary visitors (Woon, Antiquities of Oxford 
University, ed. Gutch, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 703), 



but subsequently became a fellow of Jesus, 
and was nominated moderator dialectic* on 
19 May 1656. Wood says also that he be- 
came ' a preacher in those parts,' presumably 
Oxfordshire. He ultimately settled in Lon- 
don, where he died at the beginning of 1662 
' in a poor condition and in an obscure house.' 
Puleston published in 1660 ' Monarchies Bri- 
tannicse singularis Protectio ; or a brief his- 
torical Essay tending to prove God's especial 
j providence over the British Monarchy.' It 
was reissued as the 'Epitome Monarchies 
Britannicse . . . wherein many remarkable 
observations on the civil wars of England, 
and General Monk's Politique Transactions 
in reducing the Nation to a firm Union, for 
the resettlement of his Majesty, are clearly 
discovered,' 1663, 4to. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxonienses (Bliss), iii. 544, 
iv. 721, and Fasti, ii. 160, 176 ; Burrows's Reg. 
Parl. Visitors, pp. 505, 560 ; Gardiner's Wadham 
Register, pp. 166-7; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] 

G. LE G. N. 

PULESTON, JOHN (d. 1659), judge, a 
member of an old Flintshire family, was 
son of Richard Puleston of Emral, Flint- 
shire, by Alice, his wife, daughter of David 
Lewis of Burcott in Oxfordshire. He was 
a member of the Middle Temple, and reader 
of his inn in 1634, was recommended by 
the commons as a baron of the exchequer 
in February 1643, and, the king not appoint- 
ing him, received by their order the degree 
of serjeant on 12 Oct. 1648. He was ap- 
pointed by parliament a judge of the 
common pleas on 1 June 1649, and with 
Baron Thorpe tried John Morris (1617?- 
1649) [q. v.], governor of Pontefract Castle, 
at York assizes for high treason in August 
of the same year. He was also, with Mr. 
Justice Jermyn, appointed in the same year 
to try Lieutenant-colonel John Lilburne 
(State Papers, Dom. 1649, p. 335), was a 
commissioner in April 1650, under the pro- 
posed act for establishing a high court of 
justice, and was placed in the commission of 
December 1650 for the trial of offenders 
in Norfolk. Apparently Cromwell, on be- 
coming Protector in 1653, did not renew 
his patent. He died 5 Sept. 1659. His wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Woolrych, 
predeceased him in 1658. By her he had 
two sons, to whom Philip Henry [q. v.] 
was appointed tutor on 30 Sept. 1653. 
His nephew, Hamlet Puleston, is separately 
noticed. 

[Foss's Judges of England ; Dugdale's Origines, 
p. 220; Clarendon's Rebellion, bk. vi. par. 231 ; 
Whitelocke's Memorials, pp. 342, 405 ; State 
Trials, iv. 1249 ; Life of Philip Henry, by Mat- 
thew Henry.] J. A. H. 



Pullain 



Pullan 



PULLAIN, PULLAYNE, or PUL- 
LEYNE, JOHN (Iol7-156o), divine and 
poet, a native of Yorkshire, was educated at 
New College, Oxford, of which he was either 
clerk or chaplain, or both successively ( WOOD, 
Athena O.von. i. 345). He graduated B.A.. 
in 1540 (from New College) and M.A. in 
February 1543-4. Tn 1547 he was admitted 
senior student of Christ Church. He made 
some reputation as a writer of Latin and Eng- 
lish poetry, and became a frequent preacher 
and a zealous reformer. On 7 Jan. 1552-3, 
being then B.D., he was admitted to the rec- 
tory of St. Peter's, Cornhill (Sr RYPE, Me- 
morials, ii. ii. 272), but was deprived of it 
on Mary's accession, when, for a time, lie 
preached secretly in the parish (FoxE, Acts 
and Man. viii. 738, where St. Michael, Corn- 
hill, is given for St. Peter). He joined 
friends in Geneva in 1554, and co-operated 
in the Genevan translation of the Bible. In 
1557 he was secretly in England under the 
name of Smith, acted as chaplain to the 
Duchess of Suffolk [see BERTIE, CATHARINE], 
and held services at Colchester as well as in 
Cornhill. Stephen Morris laid an informa- 
tion against him before Bishop Bonner (ib. 
viii. 384 ; STRYPE, Memorials, in. ii. 64). 
He escaped again to Geneva, and was there 
as late as 15 Dec. 1558, when he signed the 
letter of the Genevan exile church to other 
English churches on the continent, recom- 
mending reconciliation (STRYPE, Annals, i. i. 
152 ; Troubles at Frankfort, p. 188). Re- 
turning to England on Elizabeth's accession, 
he was restored to St. Peter's, Cornhill, but 
almost immediately incurred Elizabeth's 
wrath for preaching without licence, con- 
trary to her proclamation (Acts of the Pricy 
Council, 1558; STRYPE, Annals, i. i. 63). 
Pullain's name, however, appears in a list of 
persons suggested for preferment in 1559 (ib. 
I. i. 229). On 13 Dec. in that year he was ad- 
mitted, on the queen's presentation, to the 
archdeaconry of Colchester, and on 8 March 
following (1559-60) to the rectory of Cop- 
ford, Essex. He resigned his Cornhill living 
on 15 Nov. 1560 (NEWCOURT, ii. 192). On 
12 Sept. 1561 he was installed prebendary of 
St. Paul's Cathedral. As a member of the 
lower house in the convocation of 1562 he 
advocated Calvinistic views (STRYPE, Annals, 
I. i. 512). He died in the summer of 1565. 
He had married in Edward VI's reign, but 
some of the relatives sought to deprive his 
children of his property on the ground that 
they were illegitimate. 

Pullain contributed a metrical rendering of 
the 148th and 149th Psalms to the earlier 
editions of Sternhold and Hopkins's version 
(1549 et seq.) The latter psalm is printed 

VOL. XLVII. 



in ' Select Poetry ' published by the Parker 
Society (ii. 495). He is known to have 
written other versa/but none of it has sur- 
vived. Warton quotes as by Pullain a stanza 
from William Baldwin's ' Balades of Salo- 
mon ' (1549). Bale, who seems to have had 
some personal knowledge of Pullain, assigns 
to him a ' Testament of the Twelve Pa- 
triarchs ' [see GOLDING, ARTHUR ; GILBY, 
ANTHOXY], a ' Tract against the Arians,' his- 
tories of Judith, Susannah, and Esther, and a 
translation into English verse of Ecclesiastes, 
none of which are known to survive. 

[Calf hill's Works (Parker Soc.), p. vii ; Le 
Xe re's Fasti; Addit.MS. 24491 ; HazHtfs Hand- 
book ; Wart on 's Engl. Poetry; Wool's Fasti, 
i. Ill, 115, Athense, i. 345 ; Bale's Script. Angl. 
ix. 83; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.; Lansd. MS. 981, 
f. 26 ; Davids's Nonconformity in Essex.] 

W. A. S. 

PULLAN, RICHARD POPPLEWELL 
(1825-1888), architect and archreologist, 
born at Knaresborough in Yorkshire on 
27 March 1825, was son of Samuel Popple- 
well Pullan, solicitor, of that town. He was 
educated at Christ's Hospital, and became a 
Grecian, and was afterwards a pupil of R. 
Lane, architect and surveyor, of Manchester. 
Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A., was a fellow- 
pupil. At Manchester Pullan earnestly 
studied old missals and illuminated manu- 
scripts in the Chatham Library, and became 
an early convert to, medisevalism. He de- 
veloped a passion for heraldry, and amused 
himself with emblazoning pedigrees in colour. 
In 1844, when not more than nineteen, he 
sent in a design for the robing-room of her 
majesty the queen at the House of Lords, 
which attracted notice from its richness of 
colour, but he was considered too young to 
carry it out. Subsequently he made designs 
for stained glass, and never relinquished the 
study and practice of polychromy. 

During 1 a visit to Italy he mainly studied 
church architecture. On his return he as- 
sisted Sir Digby Wyatt in the polychromy 
of the Byzantine and Mediaeval Courts of 
the Crystal Palace, opened by the queen on 
10 June 1854. In October Pullan went to 
Sebastopol during the siege, and made 
sketches and models of the contours of the 
district. On coming home he exhibited a 
model of the country and the fortifications 
about Sebastopol. 

In 1856, in conjunction with Mr. Evans, 
he sent in a competition design for Lille 
Cathedral, and obtained a silver medal. 
Next year he was appointed by the foreign 
office architect to the expedition sent to sur- 
vey the mausoleum at Halicarnassus, which 
Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) Newton 



Pullan 



18 



Pullan 



had excavated in 1856. Pullan arrived at 
Budrum on 25 Aug. 1857. He not only 
measured the architectural remains, but 
attempted a restoration of the mausoleum, 
in accordance with the descriptions of Pliny 
the Elder, Hyginus, and Guichard. He dis- 
played great ingenuity in showing a con- 
struction of the pyramid that admitted of 
the stone trabeation between the peristyle 
and the pteron. Pullan, in conformity with 
Newton's instructions, went to Cnidus, and 
discovered a gigantic figure of a lion, ten 
feet long, six feet high, weighing, with its 
case, eleven tons, which he sent to England. 
It is now in the Elgin Room of the British 
Museum. He made a restoration of the tomb 
which the lion crowned, a survey of the 
principal sites in the island of Cos, and 
drawings of the remains. All these restora- 
tions are depicted in ' A History of Dis- 
coveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, andBran- 
chidse, by C. T. Newton, M.A., assisted by 
R. P. Pullan,' London, 1862-63. Afterwards 
the Society of Dilettanti employed him on 
further investigations of a like kind. In 
April 1862 he began excavations on the site 
of the Temple of Bacchus at Teos. Pullan 
found the temple to be hexastyle, as de- 
scribed by Vitruvius (lib. iii. cap. iii. p. 8), 
and with eleven columns on the flanks, but 
not pseudodipteral, and consequently not 
the one built by Hermogenes. In his opinion 
it was erected in Roman times. In 1862 
Pullan visited the remains of the temple of 
Apollo Smintheus, or the Mouse-queller, 
near Kulakli, in the Troad, which had been 
discovered by Lieutenant Spratt in 1853. 
He returned thither from Smyrna on 5 Aug. 
1866, and completed the excavation and 
drawings on 22 Nov. 1866. There were suf- 
ficient remains found to show that it was an 
octastyle pseudodipteral temple, with only 
fourteen columns on the flank. It is rather 
superior to the temple of Minerva Polias at 
Priene, and probably of about the same date. 
In 1869 Pullan, under an order from the 
society, excavated the site of the temple of 
Minerva Polias at Priene, which had hitherto 
been encumbered with ruins. Accounts of 
Pullan's work on the three temples were pub- 
lished in the fourth part of ' The Antiqui- 
ties of Ionia ' in 1881. At the same time 
Pullan visited most of the Byzantine churches 
in Greece and Asia Minor, and published an 
account of the examples of Byzantine and 
classical work that had been accumulated by 
himself and Charles Texier, in two volumes, 
entitled respectively 'Byzantine Architec- 
ture,' 1864, and 'Principal Ruins of Asia 
Minor,' 1865. By Pullan's advice, too, Lord 
Savile, the British ambassador at Rome, un- 



dertook excavations on his property at Civita 
Lavinia, on the Alban hills (Lanuvium), 
where the ruins of the imperial villa of An- 
toninus Pius were discovered, and magnifi- 
cent fragments of sculpture, as well as some 
archaic terra-cottas. 

Pullan contrived to combine with his 
archaeological exploration a good architec- 
tural practice in London. He competed for 
the memorial churches at St. Petersburg and 
Constantinople, for Truro and Lille cathe- 
drals, the war and foreign offices, the Liver- 
pool Exchange buildings, the Natural History 
Museum (South Kensington), the Glasgow 
municipal buildings, the Dublin Museum, and 
the Hamburg town-hall. 

His principal executed works were churches 
at Pontresina and Baveno, and the conver- 
sion of Castel Aleggio, between Lago 
Maggiore and Lago d'Orta, into an English 
Gothic mansion. The church at Baveno is 
octagonal in plan, and of the Lombard type, 
and was built for Mr. Henfrey in the 
grounds of his villa. The whole of the 
coloured decoration was designed by Pullan, 
and much of it was executed with his own 
hand ; a view of it was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1882. On the death of Pullan's 
brother-in-law, William Burges [q. v.], in 
1881, he completed all Burges's unfinished 
works. 

Pullan, who had long suffered from bron- 
chitis, died at Brighton on 30 April 1888. 
He married, on 24 Feb. 1859, Mary L. Burges, 
sister of William Burges, A.R.A., the archi- 
tect. Mrs. Pullan shared the dangers and 
hardships of a residence in Asia Minor with 
her husband. On Burges's death they re- 
moved to the house Burges built for himself 
in Melbury Road, Kensington. Mrs. Pullan 
survived her husband. There was no issue 
of the marriage. 

Besides the works already noticed, Pullan 
published : 1. ' The Altar, its Baldachin and 
Reredos,' pamphlet, 8vo, London, 1873. 
2. 'Catalogue of Views illustrative of Ex- 
peditions toAsiaMinor/pamphlet, 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1876. 3. ' Remarks on Church Deco- 
ration,' 8vo, London, 1878. 4. 'Eastern Cities 
and Italian Towns,' 8vo, London, 1879. 
5. ' Elementary Lectures on Christian Ar- 
chitecture,' 8vo, London, 1879. 6. ' Studies 
in Architectural Style,' fol., London, 1883. 
7. 'Architectural Designs of W. Burges,' 
fol., London, 1883. 8. ' The House of W. 
Burges, A.R.A., edited by R. P. Pullan,' fol., 
London, 1886. 9. ' Architectural Designs 
of W. Burges,' 2nd ser., fol., London, 1887. 
10. ' Studies in Cathedral Design,' fol., Lon- 
don, 1888. 

Before the Royal Institute of British 



Pullein 



Pullen 



Architects, Pullan read papers on ' Classic 
Art ' on 24 May 1871 ; ' Decoration of 
Basilicas and Byzantine Churches,' 15 Nov. 
1875 ; ' Works of the late W. Barges,' 
17 April 1882 ; ' Decoration of the Dome of 
St. Paul's Cathedral,' 4 Dec. 1882. 

[Personal knowledge ; Pullan's Works.] 

G. A-N. 
PULLEIN. [See PULLED] 

PULLEN, JOSIAH (1631-1714), vice- 
principal of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, born in 
1631, matriculated at Oxford in 1650. He 
graduated B.A. in 1654 and M.A. in 1657, 
and in the same year became vice-principal 
of the hall, which office he retained till his 
death. Among his pupils were Robert Plot 
in 1659, Richard Stafford in 1677, and Thomas 
Yalden the poet. Magdalen Hall under Dr. 
Henry Wilkinson [q. v.] was a stronghold 
of puritanism ; but Pullen appears to have 
stood well with the royalist authorities. In 
September 1661 Clarendon, visiting Oxford 
as chancellor, refused the invitation of Wil- 
kinson, the president, to the hall with the 
remark that he ' entertained factious peo- 
ple, and but one honest man among them,' 
meaning, says Wood, Pullen (Wooo, Life, 
ed. Clark, i. 415). About this time Pullen 
became ' domesticall chaplain ' to Robert 
Sanderson [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, was 
present at his death on 10 Jan. 1663, and 
preached the sermon at his funeral (SANDER- 
SON, Works, ed. Jacobson, vi. 344-9, cf. ii. 
142, and WOOD, Athena O.von. iii. 626, 628). 

In 1675 Pullen became minister of St. 
Peter's-in-the-East at Oxford, and in 1684 
rector of Blunsdon St. Andrew, Wiltshire ; 
he held both livings till his death (FosTEE, 
Alumni Oxon.*) In 1684 he was one of the 
original members of the Oxford Chemical 
Society. He died on 31 Dec. 1714, and was 
buried in the lady-chapel on the north side 
of St. Peter's-in-the-East, where there is a 
slab with a short epitaph by T. Wagstaffe. 

Pullen, who was familiarly known as ' Joe 
Pullen,' was long remembered in the uni- 
versity on account of his eccentricities. The 
many stories which were related of him in 
' common rooms' mainly illustrated his sim- 
plicity and absence of mind. He was a great 
walker. His constant walking companion 
was Alexander Padsey (1636-1721), fellow 
of Magdalen. An elm tree, which he planted 
at the head of the footpath from Oxford to 
Headington, was for a century and a half 
called by his name ( Gent. Mag. 1795, ii. 962). 
It grew to great proportions, but in 1894 was 
cut down to a mere stump. 

There is a half-length portrait of Pullen at 
Hertford College (formerly Magdalen Hall), 



and a shorter copy of the same in the Bod- 
leian picture-gallery ; the latter is attributed 
to one Byng, was engraved in stipple by 
E. Harding, and published on 1 Oct. 1796. 

[Authorities cited above ; Bloxam's Reg. Mag- 
dalen College, i. 109, v. 245, vi. 113; Noble's 
Biogr. Hist. ii. 138; Wood's Life and Hearne's 
Diaries, passim.] H. E. D. B. 

PULLEN, ROBERT (d. 1147?), philo- 
sopher, theologian, and cardinal, whose name 
also appears as Polenius, Pullenus, Pullein, 
Pullan, and Pully, is said to have come from 
Exeter to Oxford, and to have remained at 
Oxford for five years (Annals of Oseney). In 
] 133 'he began to read at Oxford the divine 
scriptures, the study of which had grown 
obsolete in England.' He is thus, with one 
exception (Theobaldus Stampensis), the first 
master known to have taught in the schools 
not yet the university of Oxford. Ac- 
cording to John of Ilexham (Continuation of 
SYM. DUNELM. in RAINE'S Priory of Ilexham, 
SurteesSoc. i. 152), Pullen refused a bishopric 
offered him by Henry I. Subsequently he 
taught logic and theology at Paris. John of 
Salisbury was his pupil there (Metaloyicus, i. 
24) in 1141 or 1142, and describes him as a 
man ' whom his life and learning alike com- 
mended.' In 1134 and 1143 Pullen is men- 
tioned as archdeacon of Rochester (LE XEVE), 
and, probably a little before the latter date, 
St. Bernard (Ep* 205) wrote to apologise to 
Pullen's diocesan, the bishop of Rochester, 
for detaining him at Paris, ' on account of 
the wholesome doctrine that is in him.' St. 
Bernard reproached the bishop, however, for 
' stretching out his hand upon the goods of the 
appellant after his appeal was made,' which 
looks as if the bishop had taken proceedings 
against him for non-residence. 

In the same letter St. Bernard spoke of 
Pullen as ' of no small authority in the court' 
(i.e. probably of Rome). There is no doubt 
that Pullen settled in Rome in his last years, 
but the exact date of his arrival there is 
uncertain. According to Ciaconius, Robert 
Pullen was 'called' to Rome by Innocent II 
(who died in September 1 143), and was created 
a cardinal by Coelestine II, Innocent IPs suc- 
cessor. This is probably correct. The 'Annals 
of Oseney ' state less convincingly that Pul- 
len, after both the Anglican and Gallican 
churches had profited by his doctrine, was 
called to Rome by Lucius II, who became 
pope in 1144 ('Annals of Oseney,' in Annales 
Monastic!, ed. Luard, Rolls Ser. iv. 19, 20 ; 
Bodl. MS. 712, f. 275, quoted in RASHDALL, 
Universities of the Middle Ages, ii. 335). 
All authorities agree that Pope Lucius pro- 
moted Pullen to the chancellorship of the 

o2 



Pullen 



20 



Pullen 



holy Roman church. He was certainly chan- 
cellor in 1145 and 1146 (JAFFE, Reg. Pont. 
Rom. 1851, pp. 609, 616). On the accession to 
the papacy of St. Bernard's friend and pupil, 
Eugenius III, in 1145, St. Bernard wrote (Ep. 
362) to Pullen warmly commending the new 
pontiff to him, and inviting him to become 
Eugenius's ' consoler and counsellor.' In an 
extract, printed by Migne, from a work of St. 
Bernard's biographer, William, abbot of St. 
Theodoric at Reims, against the ' De relatio- 
nibus Divinis' of Gilbert de la Poiree (which 
does not appear in the printed works of the 
abbot), Robertus Pullen, ' chancellor of the 
apostolic see/ is appealed to, with Anselm of 
Laon, Hugh of S. Victor, and others, against 
Gilbert's doctrine, which makes the persons 
of the Trinity into ' proprietates,' and in favour 
of the view that ' whatever is in God ' is God. 

The praise bestowed on Pullen by Bernard 
and by Bernard's biographer, the abbot of St. 
Theodoric, clearly indicates the position of 
Pullen as an upholder of the orthodox con- 
servative cause against the Abelardian influ- 
ence. But the influence of Pullen's ' Senten- 
tiarum Theologicarum Libri VIII,' in which 
he embodied his views, was soon supplanted 
by the treatise of Peter the Lombard, ' the 
Master of the Sentences,' who was a pupil of 
Abelard. Peter's book, representing Abe- 
lard's full-blown scholastic method, and (with 
some modification) Abelard's doctrine of the 
Trinity, gradually triumphed, over its oppo- 
nents. Another cause of the superior popu- 
larity of the Lombard is said to be the fact 
that he suggests more questions, and decides 
them less peremptorily, than his predecessor : 
hence his book lent itself better to the pur- 
poses of a text-book for lecturers and a basis 
for endless disputation. 

Some writers make Pullen die in 1147, and, 
as he does not appear as chancellor of Rome 
after 1146, this date is probably not far wrong. 
His' Sententiarum Theologicarum libri VIII ' 
was published by the Benedictine Hugh Ma- 
thoud at Paris in 1655, and is reprinted by 
Migne in 'Patrologise Cursus, series Latina.' 
Pits (De Anglia Scriptoribus, 1619, p. 211) 
ascribes to him the following works: 'In 
Apocalypsim S. Johannis ; ' ' Super aliquot 
Psalmos;' 'De Contemptu Mundi; ' 'Super 
Doctorum dictis ; ' ' Praelectiones ; ' ' Sermones.' 
Of the last work a manuscript is preserved 
in the Lambeth Library (No. 458). The 
sermons, which breathe a very ascetic spirit, 
were evidently delivered to scholars. 

Pullen is undoubtedly a different person 
from the Robert who became archbishop of 
Rouen in 1208. It is also impossible to 
identify him with a Robert who, according to 
Ciaconius,was made a cardinal by Innocent II 



in 1130, and was afterwards chancellor of the 
holy Roman church. Cardinals were at that 
time usually resident at Rome, and it is 
scarcely possible that Cardinal Robert should, 
as Pullen did, have taught at Oxford and 
Paris after 1130, the year of his elevation to 
the cardinalate. 

[The passage from William, abbot of Theodoric 
and St. Bernard's biographer, coupled with the 
statement of the Oseney chronicler and of John 
of Salisbury (Met. i. 5 ), sufficiently establishes 
the identity of the eminent theologian with the 
archde ( icon of Rochester, St. Bernard's corre- 
spondent, and of the archdeacon with the Roman 
chancellor, a point about which Bishop Stubbs 
(Lectures on Med. and Mod. Hist. p. 133) has- 
raised some ingenious doubts. The fullest ab- 
stract of Pullen's Sentences is given in Ceillier's 
Hist. Gen. des Auteurs Sacres et Eccles. xiv. 
391-9. There are also notices in Brucker's Hist. 
Grit, Phil. (1766-7), iii. 767 ; Dupin's Hist, des 
Controverses Eccles. 1696, pp. 719-23 ; Oudin, 
De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, 1722, ii. 1118-21 ; 
Cave, Be Scriptoribus Eccles. (1745), iii. 223 ; 
Tanner's Bibliotheca Brit.-Hib. 1788; Fabricius's 
Bibl. Med. ^Evi, 1858, iii. 406. The rhetorical and 
no doubt apocryphal details of Pullen's life and 
work at Oxford, which some of the writers men- 
tioned in the article reproduce, seem to have come 
from Boston of Bury.] H. R L. 

PULLEN, PULLEIN, or PULLEYNE, 
SAMUEL (1598-1667), archbishop of Tuam, 
son of William Pullein, rector of Ripley, 
Yorkshire, was born there in 1598. He 
commenced M.A. at Pembroke Hall, Cam- 
bridge, and in 1624 was appointed the first 
master, under the second endowment, of the 
Leeds grammar school, and lecturer in the 
parish church. In both offices he was suc- 
ceeded in 1630 by his brother Joshua Pullen, 
father of Tobias Pullen [q. v.] Joshua con- 
tinued master until 1651. 

Samuel accompanied the Marquis (after- 
wards James, first duke) of Ormonde to Ire- 
land as private chaplain in 1632. He was 
installed a prebendary of the diocese of 
Ossory on 5 June 1634, appointed rector of 
Knockgraffon, Tipperary, and chancellor of 
Cashel in 1636. On 14 Nov. 1638 he was 
created dean of Clonfert in Galway. On the 
outbreak of the catholic rebellion in October 
1641, Pullen, who was then living in Cashel, 
Tipperary, was plundered of all his goods, to 
the value of four or five thousand pounds, 
and, with his wife and children, only escaped 
murder by the protection of a Jesuit father 
named James Saul,who sheltered him for three 
months. On his escape to England, Pullen 
became chaplain to Aubrey deVere, twentieth 
earl of Oxford. Invited by the Countess of 
Oxford to hear a sermon of a popular puritan 
preacher, an alleged shoemaker, Pullen recog- 



Pullen 



21 



Pullen 



nised in the preacher his former benefactor, 
the Jesuit, in disguise. Pullen contrived that 
Saul should quit Oxfordshire without ex- 
posure (NALSON, Foxes and Firebrands, 1682, 
pt. ii. p. 98). 

Pullen was collated on 28 Oct. 1642 to a 
prebend in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 
which he held until the Restoration, when 
he was incorporated D.D. of Dublin, and, 
through the Duke of Ormonde's influence, 
elevated to the see of Tuam, with that of 
Kilfenoragh (19 Jan. 1661). He died on 
24 Jan. 1067, and was buried in the cathe- 
dral at Tuam. 

Pullen married, first, on 8 June 1624, 
Anne (d. 1631), daughter of Robert Cooke, 
B.D., vicar of Leeds, by whom he had three 
sons, Samuel, Alexander, and William. Pul- 
len's second wife was a sister of Archbishop 
John Bramhall [q. v.] 

[Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hib. i. 114, 433, ii. 137, 
316, iv. 15, 178,179 ; Wares Ireland, ed. Harris, 
i. 621, ii. 617, 626; Thoresby's Hist, of Leeds, 
ed. Whitaker, pp. 84, 209, 263 ; Loidis et El- 
mete, pp. 31, 71 ; Carte's Life of Ormonde, fol. 
1736, i. 267; Killen's Eccles. Hist, of Ireland, 
1875, ii. 51 ; Beid's Hist, of Presb. Church in 
Ireland, ii. 450; Mant's Church of Ireland, i. 
609 ; Kennett's Eegister, pp. 366, 440 ; Life of 
Archbishop Bramhall, prefixed to his Works, 
fol. 1677 ; Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools, 
i. 855 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. iv. 863.] 

C. F. S. 

PULLEN or PULLEIN, SAMUEL 
(fl. 1758), writer on the silkworm, probably 
grandson of Tobias Pullen [q. v.], obtained a 
scholarship at Trinity College, Dublin, 1732, 
graduated B.A. 1734, and M.A. of Trinity in 
1738. He translated from the Latin of Marcus 
Hieronymus Vida, bishop of Alba (d. 1566), 
' The Silkworm : a Poem in two Books,' pub- 
lished at Dublin, 1750, 8vo ; and ' Scacchia 
Ludus : a Poem on the Game of Chess,' Dub- 
lin, printed by S. Powell for the author, 1750. 
A relative, William Pullein, was governor 
of Jamaica, and Pullen became greatly inte- 
rested in the introduction of silk cultivation 
into the American colonies. He wrote ' The 
Cultufe of Silk : or an Essay on its rational 
Practice and Improvement,' London, 1758. 
On the same subject he read two papers before 
the Royal Society : ' A New and Improved 
Silk-reel,' illustrated with plans (1 Feb. 
1759), and 'An Account of a Particular 
Species of Cocoon, or Silk-pod, from America,' 
8 March 1759 (Philosoph. Trans. 1759, vol. 
Ii. pt. i. pp. 21, 54). He was also the author 
of ' Observations towards a Method of pre- 
serving the Seeds of Plants in a state fit for 
Vegetation during long Voyages,' London, 
1760, 8vo ; and of a poem ' On the Taking 



of Louisburgh ' (America), published in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine,' 1758, p. 372. 

[Works ; Cat. of Graduates Trin. Coll. Dublin ; 
Cat. of Trin. Coll. Libr. Dublin ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit. ii. 781 ; four letters from Pullein are in 
SloaneMS. 4317.] C. F. S. 

PULLEN, TOBIAS (1648-1713), bishop 
of Cloy ne and of Dromore, born at Middleham , 
Yorkshire, in 1648, was, according to Cotton, 
grandson of Samuel Pullein (1598-1667) 
[q. v.], archbishop of Tuam. He was more 
probably a son of that prelate's brother, 
Joshua Pullen. Tobias entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, on 11 March 1663. In January 
1666, being then in holy orders, although 
aged only eighteen, he became a vicar-choral 
of Tuam, and held the post until 1671. In 
1668, after he had graduated B.A., he was 
elected scholar of Trinity College, and he 
held a fellowship there from 1671 to 1677. 
In 1668 also he graduated B.D. and D.D., 
and was appointed rector of Tullyaughnish, 
Raphoe. He resigned this living in 1682 on 
being made dean of Ferns, rector of Louth and 
Bewley, and vicar of St. Peter's, Drogheda. 

Pullen was attainted of treason by James II 
in 1689, but after the accession of William 
and Mary he was created bishop of Cloyne 
by letters patent dated 13 Nov. 1694. Within 
a few months he was translated to the see 
of Dromore, co. Down (7 May 1695). Soon, 
afterwards he issued an anonymous ' An- 
swer ' to the ' Case of the Protestant Dis- 
senters in Ireland,' by Joseph Boyse [q. v.], a 
presbyterian minister, who advocated tole- 
ration, with immunity from tests, for dis- 
senters in Ireland. Pullen protested that 
toleration would multiply sects, and deprive 
episcopalians of the power to ' show tender- 
ness to their dissenting brethren.' The sacra- 
mental test for civil offices he described as a 
' trivial and inconsiderable mark of com- 
pliance.' When a bill ' for ease to Dissenters ' 
was introduced by the Earl of Drogheda in 
the Irish House of Lords on 24 Sept. 1695, 
Pullen was one of the twenty-one bishops 
(out of forty-three peers) by whose votes the 
measure was defeated. In 1697 Pullen (again 
anonymously) published ' A Defence of ' his 
position, and suggested that presbyterians 
before coming to Ireland should undergo a 
quarantine (in the shape of tests), like persons 
from a country infected with the plague. 

Pullen built an episcopal residence at 
Magherellin. Two-thirds of the sum ex- 
pended was refunded by his successor, pur- 
suant to the statute. He died on 22 Jan. 
1713, and was buried at St. Peter's, Dro- 
gheda. He married, on 16 May 1678, Eliza- 
beth Leigh (d. 4 Oct. 1691), by whom he 



Pullen 



22 



Puller 



had five children. The youngest, Joshua, 
born in 1687, entered Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, on 11 June 1701, graduated M.A., and 
was chancellor of the diocese of Dromore 
from 1727 until his death in 1767 (COTTON, 
v. 252). 

Besides two sermons andfthe pamphlets 
already noticed, Pullen is said to be the au- 
thor of a scarce tract, ' A Vindication of Sir 
Robert King's Designs and Actions in rela- 
tion to the late and present Lord Kingston,' 
1699, no printer's name or place (Trin. Coll. 
Libr., Dublin) [see KING, ROBERT, second 
LORD KINGSTON]. 

[Brady's Clerical and Parochial Records of 
Cork, Clovne, and Ross, 1864, iii. 106 ; Cotton's 
Fasti Eccles. Hib. ii. 350, iii. 42, 282, iv. 48; 
Ware's Ireland, ed. Harris, i. 267, 580, ii. 288, 
361 ; Cat. of Graduates, Dublin, p. 471 ; Reid's 
Hist, of the Presbyt. Ch. in Ireland, ed. Killen, 
ii. 450, 458, 476 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
xii. 456 ; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Mem. of 
Presbyter, in Ireland, 1st ser. 1879, pp. 79, 112; 
Cat. of Trin. Coll. Libr. Dublin.] C. F. S. 

PULLEN, WILLIAM JOHN SAMUEL 
(1813-1887), vice-admiral, born in 1813, after 
serving for some years in the navy, quitted it 
in 1836, and accepted the post of assistant- 
surveyor under the South Australian Com- 
pany. Returning to the navy, he passed his 
examination on 20 July 1844, and was ap- 
pointed to the Columbia, surveying ship on 
the coast of North America, with Captain 
Peter Frederick Shortland [q. v.] He was 
promoted to be lieutenant on 9 Nov. 1846, 
but continued in the Columbia till she was 
paid off in 1848. lie was then appointed 
to the Plover with Captain Thomas Moore 
for a voyage to the Pacific and the Arctic 
through Behring Straits [see HOOPER, WIL- 
LIAM HTJLME]. In the summer of 1849 he 
and Hooper were ordered by Captain (after- 
wards Sir Henry) Kellett [q. v.] of the 
Herald to search the coast from Point 
Barrow to the mouth of the Mackenzie. 
After wintering on the Mackenzie, at Fort 
Simpson, he, with Hooper, in the following 
summer searched the coast as far as Cape 
Bathurst; thence returning together, they 
wintered at Fort Simpson, travelled over- 
land to New York, and arrived in England 
in October 1851. He had, during his absence, 
been promoted to the rank of commander, 
on 24 Jan. 1850 ; and in February 1852 was 
appointed to the North Star for service in the 
Franklin search expedition under the orders 
of Sir Edward Belcher [q. v.] The North 
Star spent the next two winters at Beechey 
Island, and returned to England in October 
1854, bringing back also Kellett and the 
crew of the Resolute. In the following 



January Pullen was appointed to the Falcon, 
attached to the fleet in the Baltic during 
the summer of 1855. On 10 May 1856 he 
was advanced to post rank, and in September 

1857 was appointed to the Cyclops paddle- 
wheel steamer on the East India station. In. 

1858 he conducted the soundings of the Red 
Sea with a view to laying the telegraph 
cable from Suez to Aden, and through 1859 
and 1860 was employed on the survey of the 
south and east coasts of Ceylon. The Cyclops 
returned to England early in 1861, and from 
1863 to 1865 Pullen was stationed at Ber- 
muda, where he carried out a detailed survey 
of the group. From 1867 to 1869 he com- 
manded the Revenge, coastguard ship at 
Pembroke, and on 1 April 1870 was placed 
on the retired list under the provisions of 
Mr. Childers's scheme. He became a rear- 
admiral on 11 June 1874 ; vice-admiral on 
1 Feb. 1879 ; was granted a Greenwich 
Hospital pension on 19 Feb. 1886, and died 
in January 1887. 

[Times, 19 Jan. 1887 ; Hooper's Tents of the 
Tuski ; Belcher's Last of the Arctic Voyages ; 
M'Dougall's Voyage of the Resolute ; Dawson's 
Mem. of Hydrogr. ii. 117 ; Navy Lists.] 

J. K. L. 

PULLER, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1774- 
1824), barrister-at-law, son of Christopher 
Puller, merchant, of London, and director of 
the bank of England, 1786-9, was educated 
at Eton and Oxford, where he matriculated 
from Christ Church on 4 Feb. 1792, gaining 
the Latin-verse prize in 1794, graduating B. A. 
1795, and being elected fellow of Queen's 
College. He was called to the bar in 1800 
at the Inner Temple, but he migrated in 
1812 to Lincoln's Inn, where he was elected 
a bencher in 1822. In early life he was asso- 
ciated as a law reporter with Sir John Ber- 
nard Bosanquet [q. v.] In 1823 he was 
knighted on succeeding Sir R. H. Blossett as 
chief justice of Bengal. He died on 31 May 
1824, five weeks after his arrival in the 
presidency. 

Puller married LouisaKing,niece of Daniel 
Giles of Youngsbury, Hertfordshire. 

[Stapylton's Eton School Lists ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1786 pt. i. p. 349, 
1789 pt. ii. p. 1211, 1825pt. i. p. 273 ; Georgian 
Era ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby.] 

J. M. R. 

PULLER, TIMOTHY (1638?-! 693), 
divine, born about 1638, was son of Isaac 
Puller, who was mayor of Hertford in 1647, 
author of ' A Letter to the Hon. Committee 
at Derby House concerning the capture of 
the Earl of Holland,' 1648, 4to, and M.P. 
for Hertford in 1654, 1656, and 1658-9. 



Pulling 



Pulling 



Timothy graduated B.A. from Jesus College, 
Cambridge, in 1656-7, M.A. 1660, was in- 
corporated in that degree at Oxford on 
9 July 1661, and proceeded B.D. in 1667 
and D.D. in 1673. In 1657 he was elected 
fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, and on 
12 Feb. 1658 was admitted student of Gray's 
Inn. He soon abandoned law for the church, 
and on 11 July 1671 was presented to the 
living of Sacomb, Hertfordshire. On 23 Sept. 
1679 he received in addition the rectory of 
St. Mary-le-Bow, London, where he died 
and was buried in the autumn of 1693, his 
successor being appointed on 21 Nov. On 
23 Dec. 1676 he was licensed to marry Alice 
Codrington, spinster, of Kingston, Surrey. 
His son William graduated B.C.L. from 
Hart Hall, Oxford, on 29 Nov. 1704, aged 18, 
and was presented in 1724 to the rectory of 
Yattendon, Berkshire, which he held till his 
death in 1735 ; fine crayon drawings of him 
and his sister are at Yattendon rectory. 

Puller was author of ' The Moderation of 
the Church of England,' London, 1679, 8vo. 
It advocates the claims of the Anglican 
church as a via media between popery and 
puritanism ; it is ' a calm and argumentative 
statement of the views of the church as con- 
clusively set forth in her liturgy, articles, 
and homilies ' ( Church of England Quarterly 
Rev. January 1844, pp. 222-7). This book 
was reprinted, with introduction, notes, &c., 
by the Rev. Robert Eden, vicar of Wymond- 
ham, Norfolk, 1843, 8vo (another edit, 1870). 
An abridged edition was published in 1818 by 
the Rev. Daniel Campbell, vicar of Buck- 
land, as ' The Church her own Apologist,' and 
chapter xi. (section 4 to the end) was printed 
in ' Tracts of the Anglican Fathers,' 1841-2, 
iii. 301-10. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1 500-1714, and Gray's 
Inn Eeg. p. 285 ; Wood's Fasti, ii. 250 ; New- 
court's Repert. i. 440 ; Chester's Westminster 
Abbey Reg.; Chauncy's Hertfordshire, p. 336; 
Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 147, 149,428; 
Official Returns of Members of Parliament; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit.] A. F. P. 

PULLING, ALEXANDER (1813-1895), 
serjeant-at-law and legal author, was the 
fourth son of George Christopher Pulling, 
who retired from the naval service with the 
rank of post-captain and the reputation of a 
gallant officer. His mother was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Moser of Kendal, West- 
moreland. He was born at the Court House, 
St. Arvans, Monmouthshire, on 1 Dec. 1813, 
and educated at a private school at Llandaif 
and at the Merchant Taylors' School, which he 
entered in April 1829. He was admitted on 
30 Oct. 1838 a member of the Inner Temple, 
where he was called to the bar on 9 June 



1843. He went, first, the western, and 
afterwards the South Wales circuit, where 
he became a leader. While yet in his pupil- 
age he published ' A Practical Treatise on 
the Laws, Customs, and Regulations of the 
City and Port of London ' (London, 1842 ; 
2nd edit. 1849), in which he not only con- 
centrated a vast amount of previously in- 
accessible legal and antiquarian lore, but 
sketched a bold scheme of metropolitan 
municipal reform, which in essential par- 
ticulars anticipated that embodied in the 
Local Government Act of 1888. In Novem- 
ber 1853 he gave evidence before the royal 
commission on the state of the corporation of 
London (Parl. Papers H. C. 1854, vol. xxvi.) ; 
and in 1855 he was appointed senior commis- 
sioner under the Metropolitan Management 
Act of that year. He frequently represented 
the city both in court and before parlia- 
mentary committees. 

Pulling was an energetic member of the 
Society for Promoting the Amendment of 
the Law and of the National Association for 
the Promotion of Social Science, and a prin- 
cipal promoter and original member of the 
Incorporated Council of Law Reporting. 
He advocated the payment of jurors, the re- 
lief of parliament by the transference of 
private-bill business to local authorities (see 
his article on that subject in Edinburgh Re- 
vieiv, January 1855), and the supersession of 
election petitions .by a system of scrutiny as 
of course. In 1857 he was appointed re- 
vising barrister for Glamorgan, and in 1864 
was made a serjeant-at-law. From 1867 
to 1874 he resided at Newark Park, near 
Wootton-under-Edge, was in the commission 
of the peace for Gloucestershire, and took 
an active part in local administration, acting 
frequently as deputy county-court judge and 
commissioner of assize under the Welsh cir- 
cuit commission. He died on 15 Jan. 1895. 

Pulling married, on 30 Aug. 1855, Eliza- 
beth, fourth daughter of Luke Hopkinson, 
esq., of Bedford Row, Middlesex, by whom 
he had issue two sons, who survive. 

Pulling was one of the last surviving mem- 
bers of the Ancient Order of Serjeants-at- 
Law, of which he wrote the history. His work 
' The Order of the Coif (London, 1884, 8vo) 
is a curious and entertaining contribution to 
our legal antiquities. His other writings, all 
of which appeared in London, are as fol- 
lows : 1. 'A Practical Compendium of the 
Law and Usage of Mercantile Accounts,' 
1846, 8vo. 2. ' Observations on the Dis- 
putes at present arising in the Corporation 
of London,' 1847, 8vo. 3. 'A Summary of 
the Law of Attorneys and Solicitors,' 1849, 
8vo ; 3rd edit, 1862. 4. ' The Law of Joint 



Pulman j 

Stock Companies' Accounts,' 1850, 8vo. 
5. ' The City of London Corporation Inquiry,' 
1854, 8vo. 6. 'Private Bill Legislation: 
Can anything now be done to improve it ? ' 
1859, 8vo. 7. ' Proposal for Amendment of 
the Procedure in Private Bill Legislation,' 
1862, 8vo. 8. ' Our Law-reporting System : 
Cannot its Evils be prevented ? ' 1863, 8vo. 
9. ' Crime and Criminals : Is the Gaol the 
only Preventive?' 1863, 8vo. 10. 'Our 
Parliamentary Elections : Can no Laws 
protect the Honest Voter from the Dis- 
honest ? ' 1866, 8vo. 

[Times, January 1895; Foster's Men at the 
Bar ; Law List ; private information ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Daniel's History and Origin of the Law Reports, 
1884.] J. M. R. 

PULMAN, GEORGE PHILIP RIG- 
NEY (1819-1880), antiquary, born at Ax- 
minster, Devonshire, on 21 Feb. 1819, was 
son of Philip Pulman (1791-1871), who mar- 
ried Anne Rigney (1818-1885), both of whom 
were buried in Axminster churchyard (Book 
of the Are, 4th edit. p. 669). Pulman was 
in early life organist at Axminster parish 
church, and wrote for local newspapers. In 
1848 he acquired a printing and bookselling 
business at Crewkerne, and was long settled 
there (cf. Collection of Correspondence relative 
to the Election of an Organist for Axminster 
Church, 1849). For some years he was editor 
of the ' Yeovil Times,' and on 10 March 
1857 he set on foot a paper called ' Pulman's 
Weekly News and Advertiser,' the first 

iper that was established at Crewkerne. 
hrough his energy it soon attained the 
leading circulation in that district of Dorset, 
Devon, and Somerset, and for more than 
twenty years it was both owned and edited 
by him (ib. p. 340). He disposed of his news- 
paper and business in June 1878, and retired 
to The Hermitage at Uplyme, between Ax- 
minster and Lyme Regis. He died there on 
3 Feb. 1880, and was buried at Axminster 
cemetery on 7 Feb. (cf. ROGERS, Memorials 
of the West, p. 32). He married at Cattistock, 
Dorset, on 12 Dec. 1848, Jane, third daughter 
of George Davy Ewens of Axminster. She 
survives, with one son, W. G. B. Pulman, 
solicitor at Lutterworth. 

Pulman was an ardent fisherman. He ob- 
tained, at the exhibition of 1851, a bronze 
medal for artificial flies. His chief work, 
1. ' The Book of the Axe,' published in num- 
bers, was published collectively in 1841 (other 
editions 1844, 1853, and 1875, the last being 
' rewritten and greatly enlarged '). It was a 
piscatorial description of the district through 
which the Axe, a river noted for trout, flows, 



Pulteney 



and it contained histories of the towns and 
houses on its banks. Pulman also published 
2. 'The Vade-mecum of Fly-fishing for Trout,' 
1841 ; 2nd edit. 1846, 3rd edit. 1851. 3. ' Rustic 
Sketches, being Poems on Angling in the Dia- 
lect of East Devon,' Taunton, 1842; reprinted 
in 1853 and 1871. 4. ' Local Nomenclature. A 
Lecture on the Names of Places, chiefly in 
the West of England,' 1857. 5. A version of 
the ' Song of Solomon in the East Devonshire 
Dialect,' 1860, in collaboration with Prince 
L. L. Bonaparte. 6. ' Rambles, Roamings, and 
Recollections, by John Trotandot,' with por- 
trait, Crewkerne, 1870; this chiefly described 
the country around Crewkerne 7. ' Roamings 
abroad by John Trotandot,' 1878. 

Pulman published about 1843forMr.Cony- 
beare 'The Western Agriculturist: a Farmer's 
Magazine for Somerset, Dorset, and Devon,' 
and the 'United Counties Miscellany' from 
1849 to July 1851. He supplied the music for 
songs entitled 'The Battle of Alma' (1854) 
and ' I'll love my love in the winter,' with 
words by VV. D. Glyde, and composed a 
' Masonic Hymn 'and ' Psalms, Hymn-tunes, 
and twelve Chants ' (1855). 

[Works of Pulman, and information from his 
son ; Academy, 14 Feb. 1880, p. 120 ; Pulman's 
Weekly News, 10 Feb. 1880; Davidson's Bibl. 
Devoniensis, p. 14, Supplement, pp. 3, 25.] 

W. P. C. 

PULTENEY, DANIEL (d. 1731), poli- 
tician, was the eldest son of John Pulteney 
(d. 1726),commissioner of customs and M.P. 
for Hastings, who married Lucy Colville of 
Northamptonshire. His grandfather, Sir 
William Pulteney, represented Westminster 
in many parliaments, and is mentioned in 
Marvell's satire, ' Clarendon's House-warm- 
ing ' (Poems, &c., ed. Aitken, passim). Daniel 
was first cousin of AVilliam Pulteney, earl of 
Bath [q. v.] He matriculated from Christ 
Church, Oxford, on 15 July 1699, at the age 
of fifteen, as a fellow-commoner ' superioris 
ordinis,' but left without a degree. He con- 
tributed in 1700 a set of Latin verses to the 
university collection of poems on the death of 
the young Duke of Gloucester. In the reign 
of Queen Anne he was sent as envoy to Den- 
mark, and from 1717 to 1720 he served as a 
commissioner for trade. In March 1720-1 
he was returned for the Cornish borough of 
Tregony, and when he vacated his seat on 
7 Nov. 1721, by his appointment as a lord of 
the admiralty in Walpole's ministry, he was 
returned by William Pulteney for his pocket 
borough of Hedon or Ileydon, near Hull. At 
the general election in March 1721-2 he was 
again elected for Hedon, but he preferred to 
sit for Preston in Lancashire, which had also 
chosen him, and he represented that borough 






Pulteney 



until his death. In May 1726 he was ap- 
pointed clerk of the council in Ireland. 

Married to the sister of Lord Sunderland's 
last wife, Pulteney was deep in Sunderland's 
secrets. He would have been secretary of 
state in Sunderland's projected administra- 
tion had that statesman overthrown Walpole 
and Townshend. While at the admiralty 
Pulteney was a secret opponent of Walpole's 
policy. When he resigned that post he drew 
his cousin William, though they were dis- 
similar in character and not in friendly re- 
lations, into open opposition. His hatred 
of Walpole was implacable. He ' gave up 
pleasures and comforts and every other con- 
sideration to his anger,' and took infinite 
pains in uniting politicians of all shades and 
characters against his enemy. His failure 
preyed upon his spirits ; he lived much with 
Bolingbroke, and this 'threw him into an 
irregularity of drinking that occasioned his 
death.' Otherwise he was ' a very worthy 
man, very knowing and laborious in business, 
especially in foreign affairs, of strong but not 
lively parts, a clear and weighty speaker, 
grave in his deportment, and of great virtue 
and decorum in his private life, generous 
and friendly' (Coxa's Walpole, ii. 558-60). 

Pulteney died at Harefield, Middlesex, on 
7 Sept. 1731, and was buried at St. James's, 
Westminster, on 14 Sept. His remains were 
removed to the east end of the south cloister 
in Westminster Abbey on 17 May 1732, and 
a monument lauding his independence in poli- 
tics was erected to his memory. He married,- 
on 14 Dec. 1717, Margaret Deering, daughter 
and coheiress of Benjamin Tichborne, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Major Edward Gibbs of 
Gloucester city. She died on 22 April 1763, 
aged 64, and was buried in the south cloister 
of Westminster Abbey on 29 April. Three 
sons and three daughters died early in life. 
To two of these, Margaret and Charlotte, 
Ambrose Philips addressed odes. Frances 
Pulteney, their fourth and youngest daugh- 
ter and eventually sole heiress, married Wil- 
liam Johnstone. She succeeded to the great 
Bath estates in 1767, and her husband took 
the name of Pulteney. 

[Chester's Westminister Abbey Rrg. pp. 33.% 
402, 433 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Pink and 
Beavan's Lancnshire Parl. Hep. pp. 162-3; 
Courtney's Parl. Rep. of Cornwall, pp. 174-5; 
Coxe's Sir Robert Walpole, ii. 185-97; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, iv. 319-20.] W. P. C. 

PULTENEY, SIR JAMES MURRAY 

(1751 P-1811), general. [See MURRAY.] 

PULTENEY or POULTNEY, SIR 
JOHN DE (d. 1349), mayor of London, was 
son of Adam Neale de Clipston of Weston, 



Pulteney 

Sussex, and grandson of Hugh de Pulteney, 
of Pulteney, Poutenei, or Pultonheith, in Mis- 
terton, Leicestershire. His father succeeded 
to the estate at Pulteney in 1308, and had 
married Maud de Napton. John de Pulteney 
was mainpernor for certain merchants on 
9 Nov. 1316, and is mentioned as a citizen 
of London on o May 1322 (Close Rolls, 
Edward II, 1313-18, p. 443, and 1318-23, 
p. 322). He was a member of the Drapers' 
Company, and by the beginning of the reign 
of Edward III had acquired a considerable* 
position as a merchant at London. On 23 Jan. 
1329 he was one of twenty-four good men of 
the city who were chosen to wait on the king 
at St. Albans, and were there ordered to 
inquire whether the city would punish those 
who had sided with Henry of Lancaster (Aftn. 
Lond. ap. Chron. Edward I and Edward II, 
i. 241). On 13 Dec. 1330 he had licence to 
alienate to the master and brethren of the 
hospital of St. Bartholomew certain shops, 
&c., in St. Nicholas at Shambles to endow a 
chantry, and on 18 Jan. 1331 had a grant 
of lands in recompense for debts due from 
Edmund, earl of Kent, being on each occa- 
sion described as citizen of London (Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, Edward III, ii. 22, 41). 

He was mayor of London in 1331 and 
1332, and the king's escheator in the city 
(ib. pp. 118, 338 ; Fcedera, ii. 805, 819). On 
27 Jan. 1332 he was on a commission of oyer 
and terminer as to the staple of wools esta- 
blished by certain merchants at Bruges in 
defiance of the statute, and on 10 March was 
guardian of the peace for Middlesex. On 
20 Oct. he was appointed on a commission 
of oyer and terminer in Essex, and on 12 Dec. 
on a similar commission in Middlesex and 
Surrey (ib. ii. 845 ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edw. Ill, 
ii. 283, 288, 386-8). In 1331 he obtained 
a charter of privileges for the citizens of 
Louvain, and on 2 Feb. 1334 was employed 
in negotiations with Flanders. In 1334 he 
was again mayor of London, and on 21 April 
was on a commission of oyer and terminer in 
Middlesex (ib. p. 577). In this same year 
the aldermanry of Farringdon was devised to 
him by Nicholas de Farndon ; but if Pulteney 
held it at all. it can only have been for a short 
time (SHARPE, Cal. Wills, i. 405, ii. 59 n.) 
On 12 Aug. 1335 he was appointed one of 
the leaders of the Londoners in case of an 
invasion, and on 26 Aug. had directions as 
to the arrest of Scottish vessels at London 
(Fcedera, ii. 917, 920). During 1336 he was 
frequently employed on commissions of oyer 
and terminer in Middlesex and Kent (Cal. 
Pat. Rolls, Edw. Ill, iii. 283, 293, 374- 
375, Kc.) 

In 1337 he was for the fourth time mayor 



Pulteney 



Pulteney 



of London, and was knighted in February, 
when Edward, prince of Wales, was made 
Duke of Cornwall (Chron. Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 366). On 19 March he had a 
grant of a hundred marks yearly for his better 
support in the order of knighthood (Cal. 
Pat. Rolls, Edw. Ill, iii. 419). In 1338 
he was employed on an inquisition as to the 
decay of business at Westminster (Feeder a, 
ii. 1059). In March 1340 he was appointed 
with William de la Pole [q. v.] and others to 
discuss the ' chevance de Brussel ' with the 
merchants (Rolls of Parliament,ii.\l3b), and 
on 18 Oct. had permission to send 160 sacks 
of wool free of custom to Bruges as pro- 
vision for the ransom of William de Monta- 
cute, first earl of Salisbury [q. v.] (Fcedera, ii. 
1 1 39). P ulteney's management of commercial 
matters had not satisfied the king, and when 
Edward suddenly returned to England on 
30 Nov., he was one of those who were for a 
time put under arrest, and was imprisoned at 
Somerton Castle (MTJKIMUTH, p. 117; ATJN- 
GIER, p. 85). He died on the Monday after 
Trinity Sunday 1349 : by his will he gave 
directions that he should be buried at St. 
Lawrence, Candlewick Street, and according 
to a statement made by the chapter of St. 
Paul's in 1439 his wish was carried out 
(Soils of Parliament, v. 9) ; but Stow says 
he was buried at St. Paul's (London, i. 260) ; 
and another account implies that he was 
buried at Coventry (Cotton MS. Vesp. D. 
xvii. f. 76). 

Pulteney acquired great wealth, and, like 
other merchants, often advanced money to 
the king (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, ii. 
225, 275, 338, 345, iii. 311, 321-2, 413, 416, 
432). On 15 Sept. 1332 he had a grant of the 
manors of Ditton Camoys, Cambridgeshire, 
and Shenley, Hertfordshire ; he also acquired 
property at Newton-Harcourt, Leicestershire 
(ib. ii. 340, 402, 417, 491, 543, 559, iii. 5, 250, 
252). In 1347 he obtained the manor of 
Poplar and other property, including the 
messuage called Cold Harbour in the parish 
of St. Lawrence. On the site of the latter 
he built a house on a scale of great magnifi- 
cence, which after his death was the residence 
of Edward, prince of Wales, down to 1359 
(BELTZ, Memorials of the Order of the Garter, 
p. 14). Eventually the house became royal 
property, and after belonging to various 
owners was pulled down in 1600. By his 
will Pulteney made numerous charitable be- 
quests. In September 1332 he had obtained 
a letter from the king to the pope for a 
chantry in honour of Corpus Christi, which 
he proposed to found by the church of St. 
Lawrence, Candlewick Street (now Cannon 
Street) ; this was in 1336 enlarged to form 



a college for a master, thirteen priests, and 
four choristers (Fcedera, ii. 845; DUGDALE, 
Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 1458; Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, Edw. Ill, iii. 60, 262, 308, 319, 325 ; 
BLISS, Cal. Papal Registers, ii. 383, 536, 542 ; 
cf. Rolls of Parliament, iv. 370, v. 9). He 
also built the church of Allhallows the Less, 
Thames Street, founded a chantry for three 
priests at St. Paul's Cathedral, and a house 
for the Carmelite friars at Coventry (DuGDALE, 
Hist, of St. Paul's, p. 381 ; Hist, of Warwick- 
shire, p. 117). His wife Margaret, daughter 
of John de St. John of Lageham, whom he 
married before 1330 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Ed- 
ivard III, ii. 22), afterwards married Sir 
Nicholas de Loveyn. His son, William de 
Pulteney, was born in 1341, and died on 
20 Jan. 1367 without, issue. His heir was 
his cousin Robert, son of Ellen, sister of John 
de Pulteney, by William Owen. Robert 
Owen de Pulteney was ancestor of the later 
Pulteneys of Pulteney and of Shenley; Wil- 
liam Pulteney, earl of Bath [q. v.], was de- 
scended from him, as also were the earls 
of Harborough, barons Crewe, and the pre- 
sent Earl of Crewe. Pulteney's arms were 
argent, a fesse dancette gules, in chief three 
leopards, faces sable. The parish of St. Law- 
rence Pountney, anciently known as St. Law- 
rence, Candlewick Street, owes its later name 
to its connection with John de Pulteney. 

[Aungier's French Chron. of London, pp. 64-7, 
85 (Camden Soc.) ; Greyfriars Chron. ap Monu- 
menta Franciscana, ii. 152-3 ; Munimenta Gild- 
hallse, ii. 448-9 ; Fabyan's Chronicle ; Eymer's 
Fcedera, Eecord edit ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Eep. App. i. 2, 6, 7, 14, 47, 52, 55 ; Sharpe's 
Cal. of Wills in the Court of Husting, i. 609-10 ; 
Stow's London, edit. 1720, i. 260-1, ii. 189, 206, 
v. 109; Pennant's London, ii. 209; Wilson's 
Hist, of St. Lawrence Pountney, pp. 25-72 ; 
Nichols's Leicestershire, iv. 319 ; Clutterbuck's 
Hertfordshire, i.474; other authorities quoted.] 

C. L. K. 

PULTENEY, RICHARD (1730-1801), 
botanist, born at Loughborough, Leicester- 
shire, 17 Feb. 1730, was the only one of the 
thirteen children of Samuel Pulteney who 
reached maturity. The father, who, with 
his mother, belonged to the sect known as 
old anabaptists, and attended a meeting- 
house at Sheepshead, near Loughborough, 
was a tailor in easy circumstances, owning 
some land and house property, which Pul- 
teney inherited and held through life. His 
mother, Mary Tomlinson, was a native of the 
neighbouring village of Hathern. Pulteney 
was educated at the Old Free School, 
Loughborough, and was then apprenticed 
for seven years to an apothecary of Lough- 
borough, named Harris, who, during Pul- 



Pulteney 



teney's apprenticeship, 
sorrel. His maternal 



moved to Mount- 
uncle, George Tom- 
linson of Hathern, a life of whom he 
contributed to Nichols's ' History of Leices- 
tershire ' (iii. 846), directed his tastes in 
early boyhood towards natural history, and 
especially to botany. His apprenticeship 
over, Pulteney began to practise as a sur- 
geon and apothecary at Leicester, but met 
with little success, owing to the prejudice 
that his nonconformity excited. 

In 1750 he contributed his first literary 
work to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (vol. 
xx.), and afterwards became a constant con- 
tributor to that periodical. Most of his 
articles were either anonymous or signed 
with the initials R. P. They are mainly on 
botanical topics, such as the works of Lin- 
naeus, fungi, and the sleep of plants. Pulteney 
communicated several botanical and medical 
papers to the Royal Society, through Dr. 
(afterwards Sir William) Watson, and was 
by him introduced, among others, to Lord 
Macclesfield, then president of the societv, 
and to William Hudson (1730?-! 793) [q. v.J, 
the botanist. In 1764 he accompanied his 
friend, Maxwell Garthshore, to Edinburgh to 
obtain a degree. In spite of opposition to him 
as a non-resident, he graduated M.D. in May 
1764, his inaugural dissertation, 'De Cin- 
chona Officinali,' being selected for inclusion 
in the ' Thesaurus Medicus ' (1785, iii. 10). 
Pulteney then came to London, and was 
introduced by Mrs. Montagu to William 
Pulteney, earl of Bath [q. v.l, who acknow- 
ledged him as a kinsman, and appointed 
him his physician, and invited him to ac- 
company him abroad ; but the earl died in 
the same year (1764). Thereupon Pulteney 
secured a practice as physician at Blandford, 
Dorset, where he passed the remainder of 
his life. His circuit included all Dorset and 
parts of Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Somer- 
set, and in time he made a considerable 
fortune. He occupied his leisure chiefly 
with botany and conchology, maintaining a 
regular correspondence with Hudson, John 
Martyn, Withering, Sir James Edward 
Smith, Relhan, and A. B. Lambert, con- 
stantly examining the gardens of Henry 
Seymer of Hanford, the Rev. Thomas 
Rackett of Spettisbury, and other neigh- 
bours, and assisting Seymer and the Dowager 
Duchess of Portland in naming their collec- 
tions of shells. He became a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1762, an extra-licentiate of 
the Royal College of Physicians in 1765, 
and a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1790. 

Pulteney died of pneumonia at Bland- 
ford, 13 Oct. 1801, and was buried in the 
neighbouring churchyard at Langton. In 



r Pulteney 

1779 he had married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John and Elizabeth Gallon of Shapwick, 
Dorset, who died 28 April 1820. There 
were no children of the marriage, but Pul- 
teney adopted a relative of his wife as a 
daughter. His valuable library, many of 
the books in which he had indexed in manu- 
script, was sold by Leigh & Sotheby in 
1802 ; but his museum of shells and minerals 
and his herbarium were bequeathed to the 
Linnean Society, to be either kept as a 
separate collection, or to be sold to provide 
funds for an annual medal. The collec- 
tions were sold in 1863, but the medal was 
not established. The herbarium is now in 
the British Museum. There is an oil paint- 
ing of Pulteney, by Thomas Beach, dated 
1788, in the rooms of the Linnean Society, 
to whom it was presented by his widow. 
It was engraved for Nichols by J. Basire, and 
published in folio in 1804 in the ' History of 
Leicestershire ' (iii. 848), and in octavo in 
1814 in the ' Literary Anecdotes ' (viii. 
196). There is also an engraving by P. 
Roberts, apparently after another portrait 
by Beach, in the second edition of the 
' General View of the Waitings of Linnaeus.' 
Sir James Edward Smith [q. v.] commemo- 
rated Pulteney's name in the Australian genus 
of papilionaceous plants, Pultencea. 

Pulteney's chief works were: 1. 'A General 
View of the Writings of Linnaeus,' 1781, 8vo. 
This work is said by Sir J. E. Smith, in his 
memoir of Pulteney in Rees's ' Cyclopaedia,' 
to have ' contributed more than any work, 
except perhaps the Tracts of Stillingfleet, to 
diffuse a taste for Linnaean knowledge in this 
country.' It was translated into French by 
L. A. Millin de Grandmaison (Paris, 1789, 
2 vols. 8vo), and, all the first English edition 
being sold by 1785, a second much enlarged 
edition, with portraits of Pulteney and Lin- 
naeus, was brought out by Dr. W. G. Maton 
in 1805. 2. 'Historical and Biographical 
Sketches of the Progress of Botany in Eng- 
land,'1790, 2 vols. 8vo, was meant originally 
to be merely prefatory to an abbreviated 
'Flora Anglica,' giving synonyms and names 
of first observers ; the manuscript of Pul- 
teney's ' Flora ' is now in the Botanical Depart- 
ment of the British Museum. The ' Sketches' 
were translated into German by Karl Gott- 
lob Kuehn (Leipzig, 1798, 2 vols. 8vo), and 
into French by M. Boulard (Paris, 1809, 
2 vols. 8vo). In ]790 Pulteney contri- 
buted a ' Catalogue of rare Plants found in 
the Neighbourhood of Leicester, Lough- 
borough, and Charley Forest ' to Nichols's 
' History of Leicestershire,' and in 1799, 
'Catalogues of the Birds, Shells, and rare 
Plants of Dorsetshire ' to the second edition 



Pulteney 



Pulteney 



of Hutchins's ' History of Dorset,' which 
Mat on describes as ' one of the most valuable 
provincial catalogues connected with natural 
history that has hitherto been published in 
England.' Pulteney was revising a plate for 
this catalogue, representing fossils found by 
him at Melbury, when he was seized by his 
last illness. Separate copies of both cata- 
logues were published, and an enlarged edition 
of the latter, with a memoir of the author, was 
published in 1813 ; but in the third edition of 
Hutchins's ' History ' it is replaced by lists by 
Mr. J. C. Mansel Pleydell. Pulteney also con- 
tributed to AikinV England Delineated,' and 
assisted Emanuel Mendes da Costa [q. v.] 
with his ' British Conchology,' and Coxe with 
the literary history of naturalists connected 
with the countries described in his ' Travels.' 
His reasons for approving of vaccination are 
embodied in Pearson's ' Inquiry concerning 
the History of the Cow-pox ' (1798). Be- 
sides some medical papers, he contributed 
seven papers to the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' (vols. xlix-lxviii.), and three to the 
Linnean Society's ' Transactions ' (vols. ii. 
and v.) 

[Nichols's History of Leicestershire, iii. 848 ; 
Memoir by Maton in ' General View of Writings 
of Linnaeus,' 2nd ed. 1805 ; Memoir by Sir J. E. 
Smith in Rees's Cyclopaedia.] G. S. B. 

PULTENEY, , WILLIAM, EAEL OF 
BATH (1684-1764), statesman, was de- 
scended from an old family said to have 
been of Leicestershire origin. From his 
grandfather, Sir William Pulteney, knt. (who 
gave his name to Pulteney Street, Golden 
Square), he is said to have inherited his elo- 
quence ; from his father, another William, a 
love of money (FiTZMAURiCE, Lord Shelburne, 
i. 45) ; and whig politics from both. A 
younger brother of his father, John, sat at the 
board of trade in the earlier years of Queen 
Anne (BoTEE, Annals, w 288", 514, 540, 638), 
and this John's son Daniel Pulteney [q. v.] 
was closely associated with his cousin Wil- 
liam during part of his public career. 

William Pulteney was born in London on 
22 March 1684. He was educated at West- 
minster School and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where, on account of his scholarly attainments, 
he was chosen to deliver the congratulatory 
speech to Queen Anne on her visit in 1702. 
He never lost his love of the classics ; in his 
old age it was said to be a sign that lie had lost 
his appetite when he desisted from Greek and 

Sunning (STANHOPE, ii. 75 ?z.) On quitting 
xford, he made the grand tour, from which 
he is said to have returned with a mind en- 
larged and morals uncontaminated (Life of 
Bishop Pearce, p. 408). Pulteney 's father 



having died before he was of age, he was 
placed under the guardianship of Sir John 
Guise, bart. (Memoirs of Life and Conduct, 
&c., p. 10). He inherited a considerable 
property, and his guardian afterwards left 
him a legacy of 40,000^. and an estate of 
500/. a year. His entrance into parlia- 
ment was therefore a matter of course. 
By his late guardian's interest he was in 
1705 elected for Hedon (or Heydon) in 
Holderness ; and this Yorkshire borough, 
from which he afterwards took one of his 
titles as a peer, he continued to represent 
till 1734. 

Pulteney was at first a silent member of 
the whig majority. His earliest speech was 
in favour of the place bill of 1708 (CoxE, iii. 
25-6). In the debates on the Sacheverell 
sermon towards the close of 1709, he loyally 
anathematised the heresies of passive obe- 
dience and non-resistance. When the tories 
came into power in 1710, his uncle John 
was removed from the board of trade, and 
his enthusiasm for the whigs accordingly 
increased. On the occasion of the charges 
brought against Walpole and others in the 
House of Commons in December 1711, Pul- 
teney upheld him in debate, and, after his 
imprisonment, visited him in the Tower. He 
is also said to have composed the ironical 

' Dedication to the Right Hon. the Lord ' 

(understood to be Oxford) to the ' Short His- 
tory of a Parliament ' published by Walpole 
in 1713. During the peace negotiations he 
was one of the subscribers to a secret fund 
which was raised to enable the emperor to 
maintain his refusal to accept the arrange- 
ment (CoxE, Walpole, iii. 28). 

In 1714 Pulteney's wealth and social 
importance were increased by his marriage 
with Anna Maria, daughter of John Gumley 
of Isleworth, who brought him a large 
portion, and did her utmost through life to 
augment their combined resources. Lord 
Hervey (i. 10) denies her ' any one good, 
agreeable, or amiable quality but beauty ; ' 
Miss Carter (Memoirs, p. 240) states that she 
' checked the tendency of her husband's ' own 
heart in the direction of lavish expenditure;' 
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams made veno- 
mous attacks on Pulteney's ' vixen,' ' Bath's 
ennobled doxy,' ' Mrs. Pony,' &c. ( Works, i. 
134, 177-8, &c.) According to Lord Hervey 
(iii. 132-3), the vacillating part played by 
Pulteney in reference to .the proposal made 
i by Sir J. Barnard in 1737 for the reduction 
of the interest on the national debt was 
mainly due to the fact of his wife's separate 
fortune being invested in the stocks. Bishop 
Newton relates that after their marriage 
Pulteney assigned ten thousand pounds to her 



Pulteney 



as a nest-egg, which her speculations in- 
creased to sixty thousand pounds. He adds 
that she refused to make any will, desiring all 
her wealth to go to her husband (Life, pp. 

In the course of the debates on the civil 
list of George I (before the king's arrival in 
this country), Pulteney supported the pro- 
posal of the elder Walpole that a reward of 
100,000/. should be paid to anybody appre- 
hending the Pretender in case of his at- 
tempting to land (CoxE, Walpole, iii. 28; 
cf. Memoirs of (the elder) Horatio Wal- 
pole, 2nd ed. 1808, i. 16). In the new 
ministry appointed by the king, Pulteney 
was included as secretary at war ; and in 
April 1715 he was chosen by the House of 
Commons one of the committee of secrecy 
to which the papers concerning the late 
peace negotiations were referred. On 
16 July 1716 he was named of the privy 
council (DOYLE). He remained an uncom- 
promising adherent of the whig party so 
long as it continued under the joint guidance 
of Stanhope and Walpole ; indeed, the three 
politicians were spoken of as ' the Three 
Grand Allies.' On 9 Jan. 1710 he moved 
the impeachment of Lord Widdrington, one 
of the rebels of 1715, and soon afterwards he 
opposed the motion for an address to the 
king to pardon those of the Scottish rebels 
who would lay down their arms (CoxE, iii. 29). 
When, in April 1717, the split in the govern- 
ment led to Townshend's dismissal from the 
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland and Walpole's 
resignation, Pulteney and Methuen resigned 
on the following day (11 April) (STANHOPE, 
i. 262-3). His alliance with Walpole con- 
tinued apparently unbroken until 1721, 
when Walpole became first lord of the trea- 
sury. Then, to his profound mortification, 
Pulteney was not offered office. Walpole 
told him that ' a peerage had been obtained 
for him,' but this he brusquely declined. On 
the discovery of the so-called Atterbury 
plot in 1722, he was chosen to move an ad- 
dress of congratulation to the king, and 
acted as chairman of the select committee 
which drew up the report on the inquiry 
(ib. ii. 42-3). On 28 May 1723 he was ap- 
pointed cofferer of the household, the (second) 
Earl of Godolphin being induced to make 
way for him, and for a time he supported the 
administration of which he had thus become 
a subordinate member. But the sop proved 
insufficient. In April 1725 he resisted Wai- 
pole's proposal for discharging the debts of 
the civil list, and then, for the first time, he 
and Walpole indulged in bitter personalities 
at each other's expense. Pulteney finally voted 
for the ministerial proposal. lie explained 



> Pulteney 

afterwards that the king had personally ap- 
pealed to him, and he felt that he had pre- 
vented the transaction from becoming a pre- 
cedent (An Answer, &c.. p. 62). But before 
the month was out, he was dismissed from his 
post as cofferer of the household ; open war 
was thereupon declared between Walpole and 
himself (CoxE, iii. 32-5 ; STANHOPE, iii. 74-5). 
It was a personal quarrel, and did not spring 
from differences as to public policy. 

On 9 Feb. 1726 Pulteney, seconded by 
his cousin Daniel, moved for a committee to 
report on the public debts, but he was de- 
cisively defeated (CoxE, iii. 36-8). The 
floodgates of partisan violence were now 
opened, and Pulteney concluded an unholy 
alliance with Bolingbroke, which found its 
most significant expression in the establish- 
ment of the journal called ' The Craftsman.' 
The first number, published 5 Dec. 1726, 
announced the purpose of the periodical to 
be the revelation of the tricks of Robin, the 
imaginary servant of the imaginary Caleb 
d'Anvers, bencher of Gray's Inn; and the 
design of exposing the wiles of that ' crafts- 
man ' continued to give unity to this 
journalistic effort, till it came to an end, 
17 April 1736. It appeared (after the first) 
as a rule on Saturdays, and was republished, 
with a dedication to the people of England, 
in 1731-7, in 14 vols. 12mo. Its conductor 
was Nicolas Amherst [q.v.]; but Bolingbroke 
and Pulteney were "its mainstays, together 
with Daniel Pulteney and a pseudonymous 
' Walter Raleigh,' whom Pulteney himself 
was never able to identify. Bishop Newton 
(Life, pp. 127-9) is responsible for the in- 
formation that Pulteney's papers were those 
signed ' C.,' or when written conjointly with 
Amherst, 'C. A.'; he may also be suspected 
to have been concerned in some of those 
signed ' C. D.' (cf. HORACE WALPOLE, Letters, 
eft. Cunningham, ii. 329 ; LECKY, History of 
England in the Eighteenth Century, 2nd ed. 
i. 375 n.) Pulteney's contributions exhibited 
a journalistic versatility of no ordinary kind, 
coupled with scholarship and general literary 
ability. Ridicule was his favourite weapon, 
but no form of journalistic composition, from 
the elaborate essay to the brief letter with its 
string of unanswerable queries, came amiss to 
his hand. The bulk of his contributions fell 
between 1727 and 1729, but they extended 
over the whole life of the paper, and never 
lost sight of the paper's special aim of 
hunting down the prime minister. 

In parliament Pulteney joined the Jaco- 
bite Sir William Wyndham [q. v.] in form- 
ing a new party out of malcontent whigs 
and Jacobites. They called themselves the 
' Patriots ; ' and Wyndham and Pulteney 



Pulteney 



3 



Pulteney 



were designated the ' consuls of the Patriots ' 
(cf. HEEVEY, i. 29). In the first instance 
the Patriots attacked the foreign policy of 
the government, which centred in the much- 
misrepresented treaty of Hanover (1725). 
In the commons (16 Feb. 1726) Pulteney's 
proposal to condemn it as solely intended 
to serve Hanoverian interests was outvoted 
by a sweeping majority (CoxE, ii. 237). 
The emperor, Charles VI, indulged the hope 
of overthrowing Walpole's ministry, and 
thus bringing about a change in foreign 
policy by means of the intrigues of his resi- 
dent Palm with both the Hanoverian clique 
and Pulteney and the opposition. But Pul- 
teney supported Walpole in the address of 
13 March 1727, provoked by Palm's indiscre- 
tions. On the outbreak of war with Spain 
the emperor was detached from his ally by 
the pacific efforts of Walpole and Fleury. 
When at this crisis George I died (10 June 
1727), the efforts of all parties were im- 
mediately directed to the supersession of his 
chief minister. Pulteney had been on the 
best of terms with George II when Prince 
of Wales (An Answer, &c., p. 57). He 
now actively intrigued against Walpole. 
Lord Hervey asserts that he tried to secure 
the king's favour by first, proposing a civil 
list of 800,000/. the amount which George 
actually obtained from Walpole with cer- 
tain additional profits (Last Ten Years, i. 42; 
but see Croker's note, ib.) But, perhaps owing 
to his failure to secure Queen Caroline's 
support, Pulteney's advances fell flat with 
George II, and he is said to have been refused 
permission to stand for Westminster in the 
court interest (ib. i. 49). In 1727 Pulteney 
issued a pamphlet ' On the State of the 
National Debt, as it stood December 24th, 
1716,' &c. (cf. Craftsman, No. 90, vol. iii.) He 
argued that between 1716 and 1725 the debt 
had increased by at least nine millions, and 
was likely to rise by five millions more, the 
operation of the sinking fund having been 
rendered nugatory by the South Sea scheme 
and its consequences. In the new parlia- 
ment which assembled 23 Jan. 1728 Wal- 
pole, whose reputation as the saviour of the 
national credit was thus called into question, 
brought (22 Feb.) the whole subject of the 
working of the sinking fund before parlia- 
ment, and Pulteney (29 Feb.) undertook to 
prove, and more than prove, the contentions 
of his pamphlet. But in the debate, granted 
on his demand, the minister's counter-asser- 
tions were approved by a large maioritv 
(8 March) (CoxE, Walpole, ii. 307-11 ; STAN- 
HOPE, ii. 214). 

In 1729 the criticisms of Pulteney and 
his friends on Walpole's foreign relations, 



with Spain in particular, were deprived of 
point by the conclusion of the treaty of 
Seville (9 Nov.), which was highly favour- 
able to British interests. In 1730 Walpole 
openly broke with Townshend, who resigned 
office (16 May). It is said that at this 
crisis Pulteney was offered, through Wal- 
pole's most consistent supporter, Queen 
Caroline, a peerage and one of the secretary- 
ships of state. He abruptly declined both. 
(CoxE, Walpole, iii. 35). A bitter quarrel 
folio wed between Pulteney and Lord Hervey, 
his former friend. The efforts of Pulteney, 
assisted by his steady ally, Hervey's wife, 
to detach Hervey from Walpole had been 
only temporarily successful ( Memoirs of Lord 
Hervey, i. 128-31). In 1731 there was issued 
a pamphlet entitled ' Sedition and Defama- 
tion displayed,' with a caustic ' Dedication 
to the Patrons of the " Craftsman." ' Hervey 
was responsible for the dedication only, but, 
in the belief that he had written the pam- 
phlet as well, Pulteney retorted, under 
the signature of 'The Craftsman,' in 'A 
Proper Reply to a late Scurrilous Libel.' 
The ; Reply ' was most offensive in tone, and 
gave Pope hints for his character of Hervey 
as ' Sporus ' (Epistle to Arbuthnot, pp. 305- 
333 ; cf. POPE, Works, ed. Elwin and Court- 
hope, iii. 266, and note). Demands for 
avowal or disavowal of authorship were 
made on both sides, without much effect. 
A bloodless duel was consequently fought 
between the disputants, 25 Jan. 1731, on 
the site of the present Green Park (see 
Croker's Introduction to HERVEY'S Memoirs 
of George II, i. 34-7 ; SIR C. H. WILLIAMS, 
Works, i. 204 ; Caricature History of the 
Georges, p. 100). This is said to have been 
Pulteney's solitary duel ; but he escaped an- 
other, with his constant adversary, Henry 
Pelham, only by intervention of the speaker 
(CoxE, Memoirs of the Pelham Administra- 
tion, i. 9). 

Of more importance was a controversy 
between Pulteney and Walpole, provoked 
by a letter contributed by Bolingbroke to 
the 'Craftsman,' 22 May 1731 (No. 255, 
vol. vii.), in support of his own and Pul- 
teney's conduct as politicians. A reply, en- 
titled ' Remarks on the Craftsman's Vindi- 
cation of his two Honourable Patrons,' 
loaded Pulteney with personal abuse, and 
he suspected that Walpole had inspired the 
writer. Pulteney's reply, entitled ' An 
Answer to one Part of an Infamous Libel 
entitled Remarks,' &c. (1731), which may 
be called an ' Apologia ' for the whole of 
Pulteney's earlier relations with Walpole, so 
enraged Walpole as to cause him to order 
the arrest of the printer of the ' Answer,' and 



Pulteney 



Pulteney 



to strike Pulteney's name (1 July 1731) off 
the list of privy councillors and the com- 
missions of the peace on which it had been 
placed (DOYLE). 

Walpole's proposal in 1733 to borrow for 
purposes of current expenditure half a 
million from the sinking fund was carried I 
in spite of the vigorous resistance of Pul- 
teney and other members of the opposition. 
Undismayed, Pulteney next energetically 
attacked the ministerial excise scheme. In 
his speech against the alienation of the 
sinking fund he had incidentally denounced 
the ' plan of arbitrary power ' contemplated 
in connection with ' that monster, the Ex- 
cise.' The phrase struck fire (cf. Caricature 
History, p. 103) ; and the ' Craftsman ' 
added fuel to the popular agitation by a 
series of articles said to have been supplied 
by Pulteney's own hand (Craftsman, Nos. 
342, 367, 389, in vol. xi.) The real conflict 
took place in 1733-4. In the debate on 
15 March 1733 on Walpole's test proposal 
of excise duties on tobacco, Sir William 
Wyndham appears to have carried oft' the 
chief honours on the opposition side ; but 
Pulteney made a signal hit by his reference 
to a passage in Ben Jonson's ' Alchemist ' 
as illustrating the gap between ministerial 
promise and performance (CoxE, Walpole, iii. 
208-9), and he had his full share in the 
subsequent overthrow of the whole mini- 
sterial scheme. The attempt made in 1734 
to renew the clamour against the pretended 
designs of the government broke down, and 
other manoeuvres of the opposition met 
with no better success. Among these was 
a proposal for the repeal of the Septennial 
Act, which was supported by Pulteney, 
although he confessed himself to have 
favoured the act at the time of its introduc- 
tion (ib. p. 131). Personal differences among 
the leaders doubtless accounted for the 
opposition's failure. ' Pulteney and Lord 
Bolingbroke,' wrote Lord Hervey, ' hated 
one another ; Lord Carteret and Pulteney 
were jealous of one another; Wyndham and 
Pulteney the same ; whilst Lord Chester- 
field had a little correspondence with all, 
but was confided in by none of them' 
(Memoirs, i. 305). 

At the general election of 1734 Pulteney 
was returned for Middlesex, which he con- 
tinued to represent so long as he held a seat 
in the House of Commons. But the ' Country 
Interest ' (as the ' Patriots ' now called them- 
selves) were again in a minority ; and Boling- 
broke largely, according to one account, 
by Pulteney's advice retired to France 
(MoRLEY, Walpole, p. 83). The opposition 
was in 1735 further weakened by the fall 



from royal favour of Lady Suffolk, who had 
been intimate with Pulteney, and who now 
married his friend, George Berkeley. The 
parliamentary warfare between Walpole and 
Pulteney went on, but after the intrigues of 
the imperial agent, the bishop of Namur 
(Abbe Strickland), with Pulteney and other 
opposition leaders had come to nothing (HER- 
VEY, Memoirs, ii. 58 ; cf. STANHOPE, ii. 182), 
the signing of the Vienna preliminaries (Oc- 
tober 1735) was patriotically approved by 
Pulteney himself (HERVEY, ii. 243). Earlier 
in the year he had interchanged parting 
civilities in the house with Sir Robert, and 
had, ' when rather dead-hearted and sick in 
body,'paid a friendly visit to the elder Horace 
Walpole at The Hague (STANHOPE, ii. 180 n.~) 
In November he wrote to George Berkeley 
from Bath that he must recruit for the winter, 
but that he had for some time been making 
up his mind to give himself less trouble in par- 
liament, in view of the inutility of 'struggling 
against universal corruption '(Suffolk Letters, 
i. 140). 

During the session of 1730 Frederick, 
prince of Wales, became the figure-head of 
the opposition (MOELEY, Walpole, p. 193), 
and the relations between Walpole and 
Pulteney grew more strained. Pulteney 
was at the time on amicable terms with the 
court, and on 29 April he moved the con- 
gratulatory address on the prince's marriage 
(cf. HERVEY, ii. * 193-7, iii. 48-9). He 
seems to have at first offered the prince and 
his political allies counsels of moderation, 
but when the prince was egged on to de- 
cline a conciliatory offer from the king as to 
his income, Pulteney remarked that the 
matter was out of his hands. On 22 Feb. 1 737 
he moved, however, an address requesting the 
king to settle 100,000/. a year on the heir- 
apparent. His speech was deemed languid, 
and the motion was lost (ib. pp. 70-3; COXE, 
Walpole, iii. 343 ; STANHOPE, ii. 203). He 
had no concern in the subsequent rash pro- 
ceedings of the prince, in which he believed 
the latter altogether in the wrong, but he 
thought that his apologies ought to have 
atoned for his misconduct. He was shooting 
in Norfolk when the king's message expelled 
the prince from St. James's, and had to be 
summoned by an express to Kew (HERVEY, 
iii. 195, 208, 245-6). 

During 1737 Pulteney played a subordinate 
part, but in 1738 he found more effective 
means cf attack. The grievances brought 
forward by British merchants against Spain's 
claim to search for and seize contraband 
goods gave him an opportunity, of which he 
made the most (STANHOPE, 'ii. 277). He 
eagerly fanned the agitation occasioned by 



3 2 



Pultenev 



the story of Jenkins's ear. He was implacable 
in his condemnation of the Spanish conven- 
tion of January 1739, and a partner in the 
futile secession of 'which, on the reassembling 
of the house, he delivered an elaborate de- 
fence (SMOLLETT, Hist, of England, ed. 1822, 
iii. 89-90; COXE, u. s. iv. 139-41 ; STANHOPE, 
iii. 3^). In October of the same year the 
agitation excited by the opposition drove the 
government into war with Spain. Pulteney's 
popularity was at its height, but at the 
moment, while stay ing at Ingestre in Stafford- 
shire with his old schoolfellow, Lord Chet- 
wynd, he fell dangerously ill. The general 
alarm was changed into joy by his unexpected 
recovery ; his illness had cost him seven hun- 
dred and fifty guineas in physicians' fees, and 
was cured by a draught of small-beer (Life of 
Bishop Newton, pp. 45-6). 

In 1740 the unpopularity of the ministry 
was increased by the widespread impression 
that the war was slacklv conducted (see Cari- 
cature History, &c., p. 123). On 13 Feb. 1741 
Sandys brought forward his celebrated motion 
asking the king to remove Sir Robert Walpole 
from his councils for ever. Pulteney took a 
prominent part in the debate which tnsued. 
lie denounced Walpole's foreign policy as 
consistently aimed at depressing the house 
of Austria and exalting the house of Bourbon. 
But the ' motion,' and its counterpart in the 
lords, ended in collapse (see Caricature His- 
tory of the Georyes, p. 129, the famous cari- 
cature in which 

Billy, of all Bob's foes 
The wittiest in verse and prose, 

appears wheeling a barrow filled with 
bundles of the 'Craftsman ' and the 'Cham- 
pion,' a periodical, it is said, of coarser grain, 
which had superseded the former). 

Pulteney threw himself ardently into the 
contest of the general election in the summer 
of 1741, subscribing largely towards the ex- 
penses of his party (ib. p. 233). Walpole's 
majority was greatly reduced. In the debate 
on the address (December) Pulteney attacked 
his policy along the whole line (ib. pp. 244-5), 
and obtained a day for considering the state of 
the nation. Before, however, that day arrived 
the government suffered defeat (Suffolk Let- 
ters, ii. 190-2). On 13 Jan. 1742 Pulteney 
moved to refer to a select committee the papers 
connected with the war, and the motion was 
lost in a very full house by a majority of 
three (WALPOLE, Letters to Sir Horace Mann, \ 
i. 120-2). A week later the ministry was 
placed in a minority of one on the Chippen- 
ham election petition. Walpole made up his 
mind to bow to the storm, and George II 
directed Newcastle and the lord chancellor, 



Hardwicke, to invite Pulteney to form a 
government (cf. STANHOPE, iii. 108), on con- 
dition that he screened Walpole from any 
inquiry. Pulteney received the king's mes- 
sengers in his own house, and in the presence 
of Carteret declined their proposal, remarking 
incidentally that ' the heads of parties were 
somewhat like the heads of snakes, who were 
urged on by their tails' alluding, apparently, 
to Pitt and the younger whigs. At the same 
time he offered to go publicly to court to 
receive any communications with which he 
might be honoured by the king (Life of 
Bishop Newton, pp. 48-9; cf. Life of Bishop 
Psarce, p. 393 ; MoRLEY, Walpole, p. 240). 
'A second (or third) message there upon reached 
Pulteney, through Newcastle. The previous 
offer was renewed, without conditions ; the 
king trusted to Pulteney's generosity and 
good nature not to ' inflame ' any proceed- 
ings against Walpole. Pulteney replied that 
he was ' no man of blood,' but refused to 
accept the headship of the government or 
any post in it. He merely stipulated that 
he should be named of the cabinet council 
(Life of Bishop Newton, pp. 49-54 ; cf. Life 
of Bishop Pearce, u. s.) His refusal of office 
was apparently inspired ' by a sense of shame 
that made him hesitate at turning courtier 
after having acted patriot so long and with 
so much applause ' ( MORLET, Walpole, p. 
243). He could afford to resist personal 
temptations, but a certain lack of public 
spirit may have contributed to the result. 

For the position of first lord of the treasury 
he recommended Carteret, for the chancellor- 
ship of the exchequer Sandys, and for other 
posts other members of the party. Soon, how- 
ever, a section which had not been consulted 
in these arrangements, headed by Cobham, 
grew jealous. At a large opposition meeting 
at the Fountain tavern complaints were 
openly made that too many of Walpole's 
followers were to be kept in office, and bitter 
words passed between Argyll and Pulteney 
(CoxE, Walpole, iv. 271-6). At a subse- 
quent meeting the presence of the Prince of 
Wales alone prevented an open rupture. 
Pulteney was, however, persuaded to ac- 
quiesce in the substitution of Sir Spencer 
Compton, earl of Wilmington [q. v.], as first 
lord in place of Carteret (WALPOLE, Last 
Ten Years, i. 155 .), and changes were made 
in some minor nominations that Pulteney had 
proposed. The new ministers accepted their 
seals on 16 Feb. 1742 ; Pulteney entered the 
cabinet without office, and was readmitted to 
the privy council (20 Feb.) 

Early in March Pulteney lost his only 
daughter, ' a sensible and handsome girl ' 
(WALPOLE, Letters, i. 144). During his 



Pulteney 



33 



Pulteney 



temporary absence from the House of Com- 
mons a motion for an inquiry into the ad- 
ministration of the last twenty years was 
defeated by a narrow majority. On his 
return a similar motion, extending over ten 
years only, was brought in, at his instance, 
by Lord Limerick, and carried ; but Pulteney 
excused himself from serving on the com- 
mittee. A few months later he made his last 
speech in the commons in opposition to a 
resolution reflecting on the lords for throw- 
ing out the bill indemnifying witnesses in the 
Oxford inquiry. 

Pulteney had, on the formation of the new 
ministry, resolved to accept the king's offer of a 
peerage, but he delayed his withdrawal to the 
House of Lords in the twofold hope of being 
able to leaven the ministry with a larger pro- 
portion of opposition members, and of push- 
ing through the commons certain measures 
a place bill and some bribery bills with which 
his name had been associated (XEWTOX,Zzy<, 
pp. 53-69). After bringi ug into the government 
a few only of those for whom he wished to find 
places, he, on 13 July 1 742, became Earl of 
Bath. His political prestige was at once 
ruined. Walpole unjustifiably boasted that 
he had 'turned the key' upon Pulteney, who, 
after 'gobbling the honour/perceived his error 
too late, and on the day when he took his 
seat in the lords dashed the patent on the 
floor in a rage (WALPOLE, Letters, ix. 379 ; 
cf. Edinburgh Revieiv, u.s. p. 197). Bath 
afterwards told Shelburne that during the 
political crisis of 1742 he ' lost his head, and 
was obliged to go out of town for three or 
four days to keep his senses ' (FrrzMAURiCE, 
i. 46-7 ; Caricature History, p. 145). Yet, if 
he behaved unwisely, he acted, according to 
Chesterfield, deliberately and disinterestedly 
(STANHOPE, iii. 118). lie had not conciliated 
the king, who 'hated him almost as much for 
what he might have done as for what he had 
done.' Nor had he treated his enemies vin- 
dictively. And Lady Hervey wrote with 
great truth on the eve of his downfall : ' Sure 
the people who adhered to him in particular 
have no reason to find fault with him ; he 
has taken sufficient care to provide for them' 
(Letters of Lady Hervey, p. 5). But the 
public failed to understand his position, and 
assailed him with virulent abuse. To gain a 
title for himself and for the ' wife of Bath,' 
as she was called in a ballad which caused 
him great annoyance, he had sold himself to 
his former adversaries (see also HANBURY 
WILLIAMS, 'A Dialogue between the Earl 
and the Countess of Bath,' Works, i. 174-5 ; 
WALPOLE, Letters, i. 121 ; HANBTTRY WIL- 
LIAMS, Works, iii. 86-9 ; COXE, Walpole, iv. 
295-6, and note). The wittiest verse- writer 

VOL. XLVII. 



of the day (unless Pulteney himself deserve 
that name) and the least scrupulous, Sir 
Charles Hanbury Williams, persecuted him 
in a series of odes which did more execution 
in six months than the 'Craftsman' had done 
in twice the number of years (cf. The Country 
Girl, i. 132-6 ; the Ode to the Earl of Bath, 
i. 146-9; and The Statesman, i. 150-2). In 
another ballad he was compared to Clodius, 
and, with more point, to Curio by Aken- 
side in his famous ' Epistle' (cf. Gent. Mag. 
November 1744; Poetical Works of Aken- 
side, Aldine edit. vol. xxvi.) In 1743 Lord 
Perceval (afterwards Earl of Egmont) ven- 
tured, in a pamphlet called ' Fact ion Detected,' 
attributed to Bath himself by Williams 
( Works, i. 194-7), to defend his conduct ; but, 
according to Horace Walpole (Last Ten 
Years, i. 31), with no other result than that 
of losinghis own popularity. It was answered 
with acrimonious minuteness in ' A Review 
of the whole Political Conduct of a late 
Eminent Patriot and his Friends ' (1743), at 
the close of which (pp. 156-9) the charge of 
personal corruption was brought forward 
against him with renewed vehemence. 

On 2 July 1743 Wilmington died, and it 
then appeared, if the information of Coxe 
(Memoirs of the Pelham Administration, i. 
82-5) is to be trusted, that during the in- 
terval Bath had nursed the ambition of 
recovering the position which he had let 
escape his grasp in 1742. He despatched a 
private messenger to Carteret, who was at 
Hanau with George II, asking for the 
vacant headship of the treasury. But, 
though Carteret supported the application, 
the king decided in favour of the Pelhams 
(CoxE, u. s. 103, 110-13; cf. HAXBURY WIL- 
LIAMS, Works, iii. 108-200 ; and the ballad 
on the ' Triumvirate Carteret, Sandys, and 
Bath,' in Caricature History, p. 150). 

Until 1746 Bath made no outward effort 
to shake Pelham's position. He and Gran- 
ville, however, maintained a personal con- 
nection with George II, through Lady Yar- 
mouth, and tacitly encouraged the king's 
dislike of the ministry (WALPOLE, Last Ten 
Years, i. 149). Early in 1746 the king grew 
desperate when he was requested by Pelham 
to assent to Pitt's admission to the govern- 
ment. At the moment the Dutch were re- 
monstrating against the ineffectiveness of 
British support, and George addressed com- 
plaints to Bath and Granville as to the im- 
potence to which he found himself reduced. 
After some hesitation, Bath agreed to form 
an administration of which he should be 
the head and Granville the right arm, and 
from which Pitt should be excluded. But 
Harrington refused to co-operate, and on 

D 



Pulteney 



34 



Pulteney 



10 Feb. the Pelhams and their following re- 
signed in a body. The king now invited 
Bath to take the treasury and select a second 
secretary of state with Granville ; but it 
speedily became manifest that a majority in 
either house was out of the question, and 
that the government, if formed at all, would 
have to be formed of nonentities. Two days 
afterwards the king sent for Pelham, and 
the status quo ante was restored, except that 
Bath's remaining adherents were dismissed 
from the ministry. The attempt to turn 
him once more out of the privy council was, 
however, frustrated (CoxE, u. s. i. 192-6). 
The air was again thick with pasquinades and 
caricatures (cf. Caricature History, pp. 160- 
161). 

Bath played no other part of consequence 
in public affairs, though he still occasionally 
appeared on the scene in the character de- 
scribed by Sir C. II. Williams (Works, i. 
213) as that of ' an aged raven.' He was in 
Paris in 1750, and on his return he made a 
' miscellaneous ' speech, alternately pathetic 
and facetious, on the Regency Bill (1751); 
and there are notes of further speeches by 
him on Scottish and other business in the 
two following years and in 1756. In 1758 he 
supported the Navy Bill in another miscel- 
laneous speech which ' resembled his old 
orations, except that in it he commended 
Sir Robert Walpole' (AVALPOLE, Last Ten 
Years, i. 100-2, 128, 237, 240, 293, ii. 46. 
290}. 

The accession, in 1760, of George III, to 
whom he had long been a familiar figure, 
gratified him (Life of Bishop Pearce, pp. 402, 
403). He inspired in that year the ' Letter 
to Two Great Men [Pitt and Newcastle] on 
the Prospect of Peace and on the Terms, by 
his chaplain, Dr. Douglas. It exerted no 
influence, though it was much applauded 
(WALPOLE, ii. 412). Among the old watch- 
words of the ' Craftsman ' which reappear 
in it are the necessity of distrusting ' French 
faith ' and the dangers of a standing army. 
It was Bath's last political effort. His re- 
maining years were chiefly given up to social 
and literary dalliance with the amiable co- 
terie of which Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu [q. v.] 
was the most interesting figure. Another 
member of it, Miss Catherine Talbot (see BOS- 
WELL, Life of Johnson, ed. Birkbeck Hill, i. 
232 w.), introduced him to Elizabeth Carter 
[q. v.], who has left an account of his life 
and ways at Tunbridge Wells (Memoirs of 
Mrs. E. Carter, i. 223 seqq.) He shared in 
a ' plot ' to make her publish her poems, and 
aft'ably composed the (laconic) dedication to 
himself prefixed to them. After the peace 
of Paris he and Dr. Douglas joined the Mon- 



tagus and Miss Carter in a trip to Spa, the 
Rhine, and the Low Countries, from June 
to September 1763 (ib. pp. 249-50, 362). In 
1764 a chill, said to have been caught by 
' supping in a garden,' brought on a fever, 
and on 7 July he died, ' not suddenly but 
imexpectedly ' (Memoirs of Mrs. Carter, i. 
386-7 ; Life of Bishop Pearce, pp. 407-9 ; 
Suffolk Letters, i. 201 n.) He was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. 

His great wealth, including that of his late 
wife, who had left everything to him, de- 
scended by his will to his only surviving 
brother, General Pulteney. He left no issue, 
his only son, Viscount Pulteney, having died 
on his way home from Spain, at the age of 
seventeen, on 12 Feb. 1743. He was a youth 
of promise, and had obtained a commission in 
the army after his father had paid his debts 
(Life of Bishop Newton, pp. 122-4 ; Suffolk 
Letters, i. 146-7, 167). 

Bath's character is very differently esti- 
mated by his friends and foes. They agree only 
in censuring his ' too great love of money.' 
He certainly was no stranger to the instinct 
of accumulation which is a besetting temp- 
tation to very rich men. On the other hand, 
he frequently responded with munificence 
both to public and private claims, and as a 
landlord was good to the church (Life of 
Bishop Pearce, pp. 376-9 ; Life of Bishop 
Newton, pp. 138-9). His intellectual gifts 
were unquestionably of a high order, and he 
seems to have preserved to the last that fresh- 
ness of mind which in his younger days he 
combined with great activity of body (Suffolk 
Letters, i. 112). His skill in diversifying his 
recreations is celebrated bv Ambrose Philips 
in an ode dated 1 May 1723. He excelled 
in conversation without ever seeking to ' so- 
liloquise or monopolise.' Of the effective- 
ness of his wit abundant illustrations remain 
(cf. Suffolk Letters}, and he was specially 
happy in quotation from Shakespeare and the 
classics (WALPOLE, Last Ten Years, i. 40 .) 
He was author, among other ' ballads ' and 
cognate productions, of a political song, 'The 
Honest Jury, or Caleb Triumphant ' (written 
on the acquittal of the publisher of the ' Crafts- 
man' from a charge of libel), which has been 
described as ' once among the most popular in 
our language' (LECKY, History of England, i. 
375 n.; WILKINS, Political Ballads, 1870, ii. 
232-6) . The ' Craftsman ' itself is an endur- 
ing monument of his wit and literary ability. 
According to Horace Walpole (note to HAX- 
| BTTEY WILLIAMS'S Works, i. 132), Pulteney 
j also had a hand in ' Mist's ' and ' Fog's ' 
journals. 

It, is, however, as an orator that he is 
chiefly to be remembered. Ample evidence 



Pulteney 



35 



supports Mr. Lecky's conclusion that Pul- 
teney was ' probably the most graceful and 
brilliant speaker in the House of Commons 
in the interval between the withdrawal of 
St. John and the appearance of Pitt' (His- 
tory, &c., i. 374). Lord Shelburne wrote 
that he was ' by all accounts the greatest 
House-of-Commons orator that had ever 
appeared.' Speaker Onslow described him 
as ' having the most popular parts for public 
speaking of any great man lie ever knew.' 
When at his best he went to the point with 
unsurpassed directness. Walpole said that 
he feared Pulteney's tongue more than 
another man's sword. The irresistible power 
of passion possessed Pulteney so notably in 
his younger days that in the ' Characteristic 
List of Pictures ' mentioned by Lady Hervey 
in 1729 (Suffolk Letters, i. 341) he is credited 
with ' A Town on Fire.' Yet his most dis- 
tinctive gift as a parliamentary orator 
must have been his versatility his power 
of ' changing like the wind,' as Chesterfield 
put it, from grave to gay, and alternating 
pathos and wit, which, naturally enough, 
degenerated into that ' miscellaneousness ' of 
style so amusingly illustrated by Horace 
Walpole (CoxB, Walpole, iv. 24-0)! 

As a politician, Pulteney showed to a re- 
markable extent the ' defects of his qualities,' 
which came to overshadow and overwhelm 
these qualities themselves. According to 
Lord Hervey, he was ' naturally lazy,' and 
' resentment and eagerness to annoy first 
taught him application, and application gave 
him knowledge ' (Memoirs, i. 9). There may 
be truth in this, and in the remarks of the 
same biassed critic as to his jealousy when 
in opposition of his associates. Rut the gist 
of the matter is that his career exhibits a 
spirit of faction uncontrolled by patriotic 
sentiment. Pulteney, in the most important 
part of his political career, staked his whole 
reputation on overthrowing AValpole, whose 
steady policy was maturing the nation's 
strength ; in later life he tried hard, though 
with reduced energy, to get rid of Pitt, who 
was to establish her imperial greatness. In 
the protracted course of the former contest, 
on which his reputation depends, he delibe- 
rately narrowed political life to the petty 
conditions of a duel, and at last, for reasons 
which no onlooker could understand, fired 
into the air. Thus he called down upon him- 
self his proper nemesis; he 'left not faction, 
but of it was left.' 

Pulteney was twice painted by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller; the earlier portrait, taken in 1717, 
was engraved by Faber in 1732, the later 
was engraved by I. Simon. There are also 
two portraits of him by Sir Joshua Reynolds 



Pulton 

in the National Portrait Gallery. One of 
these, painted in 1757, has been engraved by 
M'Ardell and by S. W. Reynolds. He was 
likewise painted by Allan Ramsay and en- 
graved by D. Martin in 1763. A miniature 
is the property of Mr. Jeft'ery Whitehead. 

[The .Memoirs of the Life and Conduct of 
William Pulteney, Esq., M.P. (1731), are worth- 
less and dateless ; the other contemporary tracts, 
by or against Pulteney, cited in the text are all 
factious pamphlets. Dr. Douglas (afterwards 
Bishop of Salisbury) is supposed to have been 
prevented from writing a lit' of his patron by 
the destruction of all Lord Bath's papers after 
his death by his brother. There are, however, 
many facts, received at first hand, in the Life of 
Dr. Zachary Pearce, late lord bishop of Roches- 
ter (by himself), and the Life of Dr. Thomas 
Newton, bishop of Bristol (by himself), here 
cited from vols. i. and ii. respectively, of the 
collected Lives of Dr. E. Pocock, &c., 2 vols., 
London, 1816. See also Lord Hervey's Me- 
moirs of the Reign of George II, &c., ed. J. W. 
Croker, 3 vols., 1884; Horace Walpole's (Lord 
Orford) Letters, ed. P. Cunningham, 9 vols., ed. 
1886, and Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of 
the Reign of George II, 2 vols., 1822; Letters 
to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, 
2 vols., 1874 ; Letters of Mary Lepel, Lady 
Hervey, 1821 : Mr. Pennington's Memoirs of 
the Life of Mrs. Elizabeth Carter, with her 
poems, &c., 2 vols., 3rd ed , 1816 : the Works of 
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, K.B., with notes 
by Horace Walpole, '3 vols, 1822; the Crafts- 
man, 14 vols., 1831; Coxe's Memoirs of the 
Life and Administration of Sir Robert Wai pole, 
4 vols., ed. 1816 (still the vade mecum for all 
students of this period, but needing constant 
revision), and Memoirs of the Administration of 
the Right Hon. Henry Pelham, &c., 2 vols.. 1829; 
Lord E Fitzmaur co's Life of William, Earl of 
Shi'llmrne. nt'terwards Marquis of L-insdowno 
(chap. i. 'A Chapter of Autobiography'), 3 vols., 
1875-6; Lord Stanhope's (Lord Mahon) Hist, of 
England, &c., 5th ed., 1858; John Morley's Wai- 
pole (Twelve English Statesmen), 1889 ; Mac- 
knight's Bolingbroke ; Hassall's Bolingbroke 
(Statesmen Ser.) ; Doyle's Official Baronage of 
England, 3 vols., 1886; Wright's Caricature 
History of the Georges, 1867; Edinburgh Re- 
view, vol. Ixxi. 1840, art. 'Walpole and his Con- 
temporaries.'] A. W. W. 

PULTON or POULTON, ANDREW 

(1654-1710), Jesuit, second son of Ferdinando 
Poulton, esq., of Desborough, Northampton- 
shire, and his wife, Mary Giffard of Black- 
ladies, Staffordshire, was born in Northamp- 
tonshire in 1654. Ferdinando Pulton [~q. v.] 
was probably his grand-uncle. He made his 
humanity studies in the college of the Eng- 
lish Jesuits at St. Omer, entered the Society 
of Jesus on 31 Oct. 1674, studied theology at 
Liege, and was professed of the four vows on 

D 2 



Pulton 



Pulton 



2 Feb. 1691-2. He and Father Edward Hall 
were the first two masters appointed to the 
new college which was opened by the Eng- 
lish Jesuits in the Savoy, Strand, London, at 
Whitsuntide 1687. Pulton gained a wide re- 
putation in consequence of his conference on 
points of controversy with Dr. Thomas Teni- 
son, incumbent of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
and afterwardsarchbishop of Canterbury [q.V.j 
It was held in Long Acre on 29 Sept. 1687 
(I)ODD, Church Hist. iii. 493). Upon the de- 
struction of the college in the Savoy at the out- 
break of the revolution, Pulton flew from Lon- 
don with the intention of crossing to France ; 
but he, Obadiah Walker, and other fugitives 
were arrested near Canterbury on 11 Dec. 
1688, and committed prisoners to the gaol 
at Feversham, whence they were afterwards 
removed in custody to London (WooD, 
Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 440). Being 
released, he returned to Liege to complete 
his theological course. Afterwards he joined 
the court of James II at St. Germains. In 
1690 he was socius to Father Warner, con- 
fessor to the king, and subsequently he was 
attached to the royal chapel. He also ac- 
companied James II on his visit to Ireland 
in 1690, and served as an army chaplain or 
missioner there. He died at St. Germains 
on 5 Aug. 1710. 

He was the author of: 1. ' A true and 
full Account of a Conference held about 
Religion, between Dr. Tho. Tenison and A. 
Pulton, one of the Masters in the Savoy ; 
published by authority,' London, 1687, 4to. 
To this work the following singular adver- 
tisement is prefixed: 'A. P., having been 
eighteen years out of his own Country, pre- 
tends not yet to any perfection of the Eng- 
lish Expression or Orthography ; wherefore 
for the future he will crave the favour of 
treating with the Dr. in Latine or Greek, 
since the Dr. finds fault with his English.' 
On this Lord Macaulay remarks : ' His 
orthography is indeed deplorable. In one 
of his letters " wright " is put for " write," 
" wold " for " would." ' In a contemporary 
satire, entitled ' The Advice,' is the follow- 
ing couplet : 

Send Pulton to be lashed at Busby's school, 
That he in print no longer play the fool. 

In the controversy which ensued Edward 
Meredith [q. v.], A. Cressener, a schoolmaster 
in Long Acre, and ' Mr H., a divine of the 
Church of England,' took part. 2. 'Re- 
marks of A. Pulton, Master in the Savoy, 
upon Dr. Tho. Tenison's late Narrative,' Lon- 
don, 1687, 4to. 3. 'A full and clear Exposi- 
tion of the Protestant Rule of Faith, with 
an excellent Dialogue, laying forth the large 



Extent of true, excellent Charity against the 
uncharitable Papists,' 4to, pp. 20, sine loco 
aut anno [1687 ?] (JoifES, Popery Tracts, ii. 
321). 4. ' Reflections upon the Author and 
Licenser of a scandalous Pamphlet, called 
The Missioners Arts discovered ; with the 
Reply of A. Pulton to a Challenge made him 
in a Letter prefix'd to the said Pamphlet,' 
London, 1688, 4to. 

Pulton's account of the conversion in 1682 
to the catholic faith of Charles, son of John 
Manners, first duke of Rutland, remains in 
manuscript in the Public Record Office, 
Brussels (FOLEY, Records, \. 87, 88 n.) 

[De Backer's Bibl. de la Compagnie de Jesus, 
ii. 2134 ; Foley's Records, v. 301 , vii. 618; Jones's 
Popery Tracts, p. 484 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 174 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 
654.] T. C. 

PULTON, FERDINANDO (1536-1618), 
legal author, son of Giles Pulton of Des- 
borough, Northamptonshire, where the family 
had been settled for fourteen generations, 
was born at Desborough in 1536. He was 
scholar, and afterwards fellow, of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, where he matriculated 
on 23 Xov. 1552, and in 1555-6 graduated 
B.A., being, on 28 June the same year, ad- 
mitted a commoner at Brasenose College, 
Oxford. He was admitted on 5 June 1559 
a member of Lincoln's Inn, but, being a 
Roman catholic, was not called to the bar. 
He found his principal occupation in editing 
the statutes, being the first private person to 
undertake such labour. He resided at Des- 
borough, and had also a house at Bourton, 
near Buckingham, where he died on 20 Jan. 
1617-18. His remains were interred in 
Desborough church. Shortly be fore his death 
Pulton presented to Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, a copy of Robert of Gloucester's 
' Chronicle,' ' for the love and affection which 
he did bear to the said college, his nurse 
and schoolmistress, and in token of goodwill 
to the said house.' An elegy upon him is 
among the poems of his friend, Sir John Beau- 
mont. He left a widow, four sons (two of 
whom became Roman catholic priests), and 
two daughters. One of his sons, Thomas 
Pulton, alias Underbill, was among the Jesuits 
discovered in Lord Shrewsbury's house at 
Clerkenwell in March 1627-8. 

Pulton's compilations of statute law, all 
of which were published in London, are en- 
titled as follows : 1. ' An Abstract of all the 
Penal Statutes which be general, wherein is 
contained the effect of all those Statutes 
which do threaten the offenders thereof the 
loss of life, member, lands, goods, or other 
punishment, or forfeiture whatsoever,' 1579 
and 1586, 4to. 2. ' A Kalender, or Table, 






Punshon 



37 



Punshon 



comprehending the effect of all the Statutes 
that have been made and put in print, be- 
ginning with Magna Charta, enacted Anno 9 
H. 3, and proceeding one by one until the 
end of the Session of Parliament 3 R. 
Jacobi. . . . Whereunto is annexed an 
Abridgment of all the Statutes whereof the 
whole or any part is general in force and 
use,' 1606, 1608, 1618, 1632, 1640, fol. 
3. ' Collection of Statutes repealed and not 
repealed,' 1608, fol. 4. 'A Collection of 
sundry Statutes frequent in use, with notes 
in the margent, and references to the Book 
Cases, and Books of Entries and Registers, 
where they be treated of. Together with an 
Abridgment of the residue which be expired,' 
&c., 1618, 1632, 1G36. 5. ' The Statutes at 
large concerning all such Acts which at any 
time heretofore have been extant in print 
from Magna Charta to the 16 of Jac. I, or 
divided into two volumes, with marginal 
notes,' &c., 1618, fol. 

Pulton was also author of ' De Pace Regis 
et Regni viz. A Treatise declaring which 
be the great and general offences of the 
realm, and the chief impediments of the peace 
of the King and the Kingdom,' London, 
1609, 1610, 1615, fol. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 214 ; Lincoln's Inn 
Reg. ; Wood's Athenae Oxoo. ed. Bliss, ii. 214; 
Bridges's Nortlmmptonshire, ii. 27 ; Lipscomb's 
Buckinghamshire, ii. 588; Ayscough's Cat. Sloane 
MSS. p. 261 ; Camden Miscellany (Camden Soc.), 
vol. iv. ; Discovery of a Jesuit College, p. 9; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 344.1 J. M. II. 

PUNSHON, WILLIAM MORLEY 
(1824-1881), Wesleyan preacher and lec- 
turer, born at Doncaster on 29 May 1824, 
was only child of John and Elizabeth Pun- 
shon, who both died before their son reached 
manhood. His father was a member of the 
firm of Wilton & Punshon, mercers, at Don- 
caster. His mother was the eldest daughter of 
William Morley, a freeman of the same town. 
His maternal uncle Isaac received the dignity 
of knighthood in 1841, and twice filled the 
office of mayor. Morley Punshon was taught 
at the grammar school of Doncaster, and 
afterwards at a boarding-school at Tadcaster. 
In 1837 he entered his grandfather Morley's 
counting-house in Hull, and began to learn 
the business of a timber merchant. He em- 
ployed his leisure time in reading, and laid 
up large stores of knowledge. His mother's 
death in 1838, and the influence of the Rev. 
S. R. Hall, led him to consider religious 
questions, and in November 1838 he joined 
the methodist society in Hull. At the age 
of seventeen he began to preach. With others 
like-minded he formed a society for mutual 
improvement, and soon displayed remarkable 



powers of elocution and oratory. Abandoning 
business pursuits, he prepared for the work of 
the Wesleyan methodist ministry under the 
Rev. Benjamin Clough, who had married his 
mother's sister. After spending four months 
at the theological institution at Richmond, he 
was received into the ranks of the ministry at 
the conference of 1845. Two years of proba- 
tion were passed inWhitehavenandtwo more 
in Carlisle. His ordination took place at the 
Manchester conference of 1849. During the 
next nine years he laboured in Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Sheffield, and Leeds. From 1858 to 
1864 he lived in London (Hinde Street and 
Islington circuits); subsequently, until 1867, 
he was in Bristol. 

The following five years Punshon spent in 
Canada, where he presided over the annual 
conferences, and exercised a supreme control 
of methodism throughout the dominion. By 
his powerful influence and unwearied labours 
the methodist churches of British North 
America were greatly strengthened. In June 
1872 the \ 7 ictoria University of Cobourg, 
Canada, conferred on him the degree of 
LL.D. He returned to England in 1873, and 
thenceforward lived in London, for two years 
as superintendent of Kensington circuit, and 
from 1875 as one of the general secretaries 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary So- 
ciety. 

Punshon's rare gifts and eloquence soon 
won for him a high place, not only among his 
own people, but with the general public. 
His public lectures, the first of which, on 
the Prophet of Horeb, he delivered in Exeter 
Hall in January 1854, greatly increased his 
popularity. He also developed great admini- 
strative talent. At the Manchester con- 
ference, July 1859, he was elected into the 
' legal hundred,' a rare distinction for one so 
young. By his own exertions Punshon raised a 
fund of 10,0001. to extend methodism in water- 
ing-places, and grants were made from the 
fund to stimulate local effort. He also raised 
1,000/. to relieve old Spitalfields chapel of 
debt, chiefly by means of his lecture on ' The 
Huguenots,' one of his most brilliant per- 
formances. To the mission cause Punshon de- 
voted equal energy throughout life. His last 
years were spent in presenting and enforcing 
the claims of the work of the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary Society, in superintending the so- 
I ciety's missions, in administering its funds, 
I and in directing its agents. He died at 
Tranby, Brixton Hill, London, on 14 April 
1881. 

Punshon wrote : ' Sabbath Chimes, or Me- 
ditations in Verse,' London, 1867. His ser- 
mons in two volumes and lectures in one 
volume were issued in a uniform edition, 1882 



Purcell 



Purcell 



and 1884. They have been several times re- 
printed. 

An etched portrait of Punshon by Ma- 
nesse forms the frontispiece to Macdonald's 
' Life.' The original is in the possession of 
the publishers, Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton. 

Punshon married, first, Maria Ann 
Vickers, of Gateshead-on-Tyne, by whom he 
had four children ; she died in 1858. His 
second wife was her sister, Fanny Vickers. 
The marriage took place on 15 Aug. 1868 
at Toronto, Canada, where marriage with a 
deceased wife's sister is legal. His second 
wife died in 1870. He married, thirdly, in 
1873, Mary Foster, daughter of William 
Foster of Sheffield. She survived him. 

[Life, by Frederic W. Macdonald, London, 
1887; Memorial Sermon with Personal Recol- 
lections of Punshon, Ly Thomas M'Cullngh, 
London, 1881 ; Minutes of the Methodist Con- 
ference (annual), 1872 to 1881.] W. B. L. 

PURCELL, DANIEL (1660 P-1717), 
musical composer, was the youngest son 
of Henry Purcell the elder, and the brother j 
of the great Henry Purcell [q. v.] He was ! 
organist of Magdalen College, Oxford, from 
1688 to 169o, when he resigned his appoint- 
ment in order to live in London. In 1693 he 
wrote music for Thomas Yalden's 'Ode for St. 
Cecilia's Day.' In 1696 he wrote music for 
Mary Pix's tragedy, ' Ibrahim XIII,' and 
possibly also for her ' Spanish Wives.' as well 
as for an anonymous piece called ' Neglected 
Virtue, or the Unhappy Conqueror.' In 1696, 
too, he composed an opera called ' Brutus of 
Alba, or Augusta's Triumph,' written by 
George Powell [q. v.] and John Verbruggen. 
The published songs bear the imprint 1696, j 
but the piece was not produced till 1697. 
He also contributed songs to Lord Lans- 
downe's ' She Gallants' (1696), and to ' The 
Triumphs of Virtue ' (anon. 1697). To 
D'Urfey's ' Cynthia and Endyrnion ' he con- 
tributed in the latter year instrumental music, 
as well as the music, with Jeremiah Clarke, 
of Settle's opera, ' The World in the Moon.' 
In 1698 he wrote songs for Charles Gildon's 
1 Phaeton, or the Fatal Divorce,' Gibber's 
' Love makes a Man,' and Lacy's curious 
alteration of the ' Taming of a Shrew,' called 
' Sawney the Scot,' besides odes for the Prin- 
cess Anne's birthday (6 Feb. 1097-8) and St. 
Cecilia's day, performed respectively in Lon- 
don and Oxford. Other odes for St. Cecilia's 
day followed in later years. A lamentation for 
the death of his brother Henry was set by him 
to words by NahumTate before 1698. In 1699 
his only theatrical \vork seems to have been 
the music for Motteux's opera, ' The Island 
Princess,' with J. Clarke and Leveridge. In 
1700 he wrote songs for a piece by J. Oldmixon, 



called ' The Grove, or Love's Paradise,' and 
won the third of the four prizes offered by 
' several persons of quality ' (among others the 
Earl of Halifax) for musical settings of Con- 
greve's ' Judgment of Paris ' [see FINGER, 
GODFREY]. The compositions of Eccles, 
winner of the second prize, and Purcell were 
printed. At the same time Purcell wrote 
music for Farquhar's ' Constant Couple/ 
D'Urfey's ' Masaniello,' ' The Pilgrim' (a re- 
vival of Beaumont and Fletcher, with ad- 
ditions by Dryden), Burnaby's ' Reformed 
Wife,' and Gibber's ' Careless Husband.' In 
1701, for a revival of Lee's ' Rival Queens, or 
the Death of Alexander the Great,' Purcell 
provided some of the numbers. Finger had 
previously written part of the music i.e. 
acts ii. and iv., a symphony for four flutes, 
and the finale to act v. Purcell contributed 
songs to Baker's ' Humours of the Age ' and 
Mrs. Trotter's ' Unhappy Penitent' [see COCK- 
BURN, CATHARINE] in the same year. In 1702 
Steele's ' Funeral ' seems to have been the 
only play for which he wrote music. The 
same author's 'Tender Husband' and Far- 
quhar's ' Inconstant ' represent the composer's 
work for 1703 ; in the following year, for 
the opening of the theatre in the Haymarket 
built by Vanbrugh (9 April 170o), he wrote 
an ' opera' on ' Orlando Furioso,' to a libretto 
translated from the Italian (advertisement 
in the Diverting Post, 28 Oct. 1704). In 
March 1706-7 he contributed music to Far- 
quhar's ' Beaux' Stratagem,' and later in the 
same year a St. Cecilia ode by Purcell was 
performed at St. Mary Hall, Oxford. Refer- 
ence is made to a masque by Purcell, called 
' Orpheus and Eurydice,' in the ' Muses Mer- 
cury,' 1707. Music was also written by Pur- 
cell for J. Hughes's ' Amalasont,' D'Urfey's 
' The Bath ' and ' The Campaigners,' Mot- 
teux's ' Younger Brother,' and a revival of 
' Macbeth,' to none of which were dates at- 
tached. 

On 3 April 1712 Purcell gave a concert 
at Stationers' Hall 'of vocal and instru- 
mental musick entirely new, and all parts 
to be perform'd with the greatest excellence ' 
(advertisement in Spectator, No. 340, for 
31 March 1712). Among the instrumental 
compositions performed on that occasion 
may very probably have been some of the 
six sonatas of three parts, or the sonatas for 
flute and bass, both of which were published. 

From 1713 Purcell was organist of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn. The only evidence of his 
death is in an advertisement in the ' Daily 
Courant,' 12 Dec. 1717, inserted by Edward 
Purcell, ' only son to the famous Mr. Henry 
Purcell,' who was a candidate for the post of 
organist, 'in the room of his uncle, Mr. Daniel 



Purcell 



39 



Purcell 



Purcell, deceased.' After his death there 
appeared his ' Six Cantatas for a Voice, 
. . . two of which are accompanied with a 
Violin. Compos'd after the Italian man- 
ner ; and ' the Psalmes set full for the Or- 
gan or Harpsicord, as they are Plaid in 
Churches.' 

Daniel Purcell's music is so deeply tinged 
with the style of his illustrious brother 
that it would be exceedingly difficult to dis- 
tinguish it from his on internal evidence 
alone. It is naturally a mere reflection, with- 
out creative genius ; but it certainly does not 
deserve the sneer with which Hawkins refers 
to it. The historian repeats the tradition that 
Purcell was a famous punster. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, iii, 52 ; Bloxam's 
Reg. of Magdalen College ; Bursar's Accounts 
of the College, examined by the Rev. W. D. 
Macray ; Cummings's Life of (Henry) Purcell 
(Great Musicians Ser.) ; Companion to the Play- 
house ; Catalogue of the Music in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge; Brit. Mus. Cat ; composi- 
tions printed ;md in manuscript in British Mu- 
seum, Royal College of Music, &c.] 

J. A. F. M. 

PURCELL, HENRY (1658P-1695), 
composer, was a younger son of Henry Pur- 
cell, a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and 
' master of the children ' of Westminster 
Abbey, and music copyist there. The father 
was an intimate friend of Matthew Locke 
[q. v.] (cf. PEPTS, Diary, ed. AVheatley, i. 
64) ; h.e was buried at Westminster Abbey 
on 3 Aug. 1664. The name of the composer's 
mother was Elizabeth. His brother Daniel 
is noticed separately. A house in St. Ann's 
Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster, is tradi- 
tionally said to have been the composer's 
birthplace (cf. Musical Times, November 
1895, pp. 734-5). The date of his birth is 
fixed approximately by the inscription below 
his portrait in his ' Sonatas of Three Parts ' 
(1683) 'aetat. suae 24' and by that on his 
monumental tablet in Westminster Abbey, 
which gives his age as thirty-seven at the 
time of his death. The arms on the portrait 
(barry wavy of six argent and gules, on a 
bend sable three boars' heads couped of the 
first) seem to connect the composer with the 
family of Purcell of Onslow, Shropshire 
(cf. Collectanea Top. et Gen.\\\. 244, viii. 17, 
20). The composer's uncle, Thomas Purcell, 
adopted him on his father's death in 1664, and 
seems to have undertaken his musical educa- 
tion. Thomas Purcell wa^s a gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal (appointed probably at the 
Restoration), succeeded Henry Lawes as one 
of the king's musicians in ordinary for the 
lute and voice in 1662, held the post of 
composer in ordinary for the violin conjointly 



with Pelham Humfrey [q. v.], and died in 
1682. 

In 1664, when Henry was six years old, 
he was appointed a chorister of the Chapel 
Royal, under Captain Cooke, the master of 
the children. Pelham Humfrey succeeded 
to Cooke's post in 1672, and from him Pur- 
cell learnt the taste for the new style of 
music which Lully had brought into vogue 
in France. In his twelfth year (1670) he 
composed an ' Address of the Children of the 
Chapel Royal to the King,' which, according 
to Cummings's ' Life,' was formerly in the 
possession of Dr. Rimbault. As it is described 
as being in Pelham Humfrey's writing, it 
would appear that Humfrey had already con- 
ceived a certain admiration for the promise 
shown by Purcell before they entered into 
the relations of master and pupil. Those 
who ascribe to Puree! 1 the composition of the 
famous ' Macbeth music,' commonly known 
as Matthew Locke's, are compelled to assign 
its composition to Purcell's fourteenth year, 
since it was produced in 1672. The main 
argument in Purcell's favour is that the 
music for ' Macbeth,' with which Locke's 
name has been traditionally associated, is 
wholly different from some other extant 
music for ' Macbeth ' which Locke is posi- 
tively known to have composed, and may 
therefore be safely denied to be from Locke's 
hand. When Locke's claim is ignored, Pur- 
cell's title seems plausible. That a score of 
the music in Purcell's handwriting exists is 
in itself, having regard to the frequency 
with which one man would make a copy of 
another's work, no conclusive argument for 
his authorship (Musical Times, May 1876: 
Concordia, 27 Nov. 1875: CUMMINGS, Life 
of Purcell ; GROVE, Diet. ii. 183-5) [cf. arts. 
LOCKE, MATTHEW, and LEVERIDGE, RICH- 
ARD]. It is possible that a song, 'Sweet 
Tyranness,' in Playford's ' Musical Com- 
panion' (1672-3) is by the younger Henry 
Purcell ; it has been ascribed to his father. 

Purcell's first undoubted work for the 
stage was written for Shadwell's ' Libertine' 
(1676) ; the music is considerable in extent, 
and very fine in quality. Dryden's ' Aureng- 
zebe ' and Shadwell's ' Epsom Wells,' played 
in the same year, were also provided with 
music by Purcell. Rimbault assigns to Pur- 
cell the" music in the first act of ' Circe,' by 
Charles Daveuant [q. v.], which was acted 
at the Duke of York's Theatre in 1677, with 
music mainly contributed by John Banister 
[q. v.] (Concordia, 15 April 1870 ; cf. RlJt- 
BATJLT, Ancient Vocal Music of England}. 
The most important of Purcell's early dra- 
matic productions is the masque in Shadwell's 
arrangement of 'Timon of Athens' (1677-8)^ 



Purcell 



Purcell 



which contains some of his best and most ori- 
ginal work. From 1676 to 1678 Purcell was 
copyist at Westminster Abbey, and in 1677 
he wrote an elegy ' on the death of his worthy 
friend Mr. Matthew Locke, musick composer 
in ordinary to his majesty.' A letter (printed 
in Cummings's ' Life ') written by Thomas Pur- 
cell to John Gostling [q. v.], the bass singer, 
minor canon of Canterbury, on 8 Feb. 1678- 
1679, is interpreted to mean that Henry Pur- 
cell was then writing anthems specially in- 
tended to show offGostling's wonderful voice. 
But the most remarkable of Purcell's anthems, 
'They that go down to the sea in ships,' was 
written later. 

The work which in some ways is the 
crowning manifestation of Purcell's genius, 
viz. the opera ' Dido and ^Eneas,' has been 
conclusively proved to date from 1680, not 
earlier, and for a composer of twenty-two 
the feat is sufficiently surprising. At the 
time continuous dramatic music was un- 
known in England, and Purcell wrote his 
opera entirely without spoken dialogue, and 
with a sense of dramatic truth that was not 
surpassed by any succeeding musician for 
many generations. It was prepared for a per- 
formance given at the boarding-school of one 
Josias Priest, a dancing-master who in 1680 
removed from Leicester Fields to Chelsea. 
The libretto was by ^sahum Tate, and an epi- 
logue by Tom D'Urfey was spoken by Lady 
Dorothy Burk. 

In the same year (1680) John Blow [q. v.] 
resigned his appointment as organist of West- 
minster Abbey in Purcell's favour ; and two 
' Welcome Songs,' for the Duke of York and 
the king respectively, seem to have brought 
the composer into notice at court. Composi- 
tions of this ' occasional ' kind were written 
by Purcell almost every year from this time 
until his death. In 1682 he was appointed 
organist of the Chapel Royal, while still re- 
taining his post at the abbey. In 1683 he 
published by subscription his ' Sonnatas of 
III Parts : Two Viollins and Basse : to the 
Organ or Harpsecord.' In the title Purcell 
is styled ' Composer in ordinary to his most 
Sacred Majesty,' an appointment which Rim- 
bault conjectures he received in the same year 
as that to the Chapel Royal (Old Cheque Book 
of the Chapel Royal). The (twelve) sonatas 
were published in four part-books, with an ad- 
mirable portrait of the composer, a dedication 
to the king, and a very interesting preface, in 
which Purcell declares his object to be to give 
a 'just imitation of the most fam'd Italian 
masters ; principally, to bring the seriousness 
and gravity of that sort of Musick into vogue 
and reputation amongour countrymen, whose 
humor, 'tis time now, should begin to loath 



the levity, and balladry of our neighbours.' 
The last words doubtless refer to the super- 
ficial style of the French music of the day, 
which had not been without previous influ- 
ence on the composer. A phrase in the dedi- 
cation implies that it was through the king 
that Purcell became acquainted with the 
Italian composers. The suggestion is corro- 
borated by the fact that a manuscript in the 
Royal College of Music, which contains a 
number of vocal works transcribed from a 
manuscript in Purcell's hand writing, includes 
a duet, ' Crucior in hac flamma,' by Carissimi, 
who was Charles II's favourite composer. The 
special model taken by Purcell appears to 
have been Giovanni Battista Vitali, whose 
sonatas, printed at Bologna in 1677, show a 
striking similarity to those of the English 
master in the structure of the works, as dis- 
tinguished from the loosely grouped ' suites ' 
of dance movements and from the ' fantasies ' 
which had been in vogue in England from the 
time of Orlando Gibbons. Of these ' fantasies ' 
Purcell left in manuscript several specimens, 
mainly three years older than the sonatas. 
The Italian indications of time, &c., employed 
were then so much of a novelty in England 
that it was deemed advisable to explain them 
in the preface to the sonatas. Purcell's ad- 
miration for Vital! is attested by the fact that 
he named his eldest son after him 'John 
Baptista' in 1682. 

Purcell began in 1683 a series of odes for 
the celebration of St. Cecilia's day. It would 
seem that he wrote for that year's festival 
no fewer than three, one to Latin words ; only 
one apparently was performed ; it begins, 
' Welcome to all the pleasures,' and was pub- 
lished in the following year. In 1684 Pur- 
cell took part in an organ competition at 
the Temple Church, playing, with Blow, on 
Father Smith's organ ; the rival instrument, 
by Renatus Harris [q. v.], being played by 
Draghi. At the time of the coronation of 
James II, Purcell was paid 34:1. 12*. out of 
the secret-service money for superintending 
the erection of an organ in Westminster 
Abbey specially designed for the occasion. 
Purcell probably played the organ at the 
opening ceremony. The ' Purcell ' who is 
mentioned among the basses of the choir was 
presumably a relative. The composer's voice 
was a counter-tenor. 

In 1686 he returned to dramatic compo- 
sition with the music to Dryden's ' Tyrannic 
Love,' while a ' quickstep,' apparently written 
about the same time, obtained extraordinary 
popularity as the air of ' Lilliburlero.' The 
year 1687 is marked only by an elegy on John 
Playford [q. v.], the music publisher. In 
January 1687-8 Purcell wrote an anthem, 



Purcell 



Purcell 



* Blessed are they that fear the Lord,' for the 
rejoicings at the queen's pregnancy, and an- 
other anthem, ' The Lord is King,' bears date 

1688. He contributed songs to D'Urfey's 
Tool's Preferment' in the same year, and 
resumed the omce of copyist in the abbey. 

. At the coronation of William and Mary in 

1689, Purcell retained, as an official perqui- 
site, the price paid for seats in the organ-loft ; 
but he was apparently compelled to give it 
back to the chapter on pain of losing his post 
(HAWKINS, edit. 1853, p. 743). One of the 
best of the 'occasional ' compositions of Pur- 
cell was called forth by the accession of the 
new sovereigns, though it was not com- 
manded for any state celebration. It is 
known as ' The Yorkshire Feast Song,' and 
was performed at the meeting of natives of 
Yorkshire in the Merchant Taylors' Hall on 
27 March 1690. There followed some of the 
composer's best theatrical work, including 
' Dioclesian, or the Prophetess ' (adapted from 
Beaumont and Fletcher by Betterton), and 
the 'Tempest' (Dryden's adaptation). The 
former was published in 1691 in score by sub- 
scription, with a dedication to the Duke of 
Somerset ; but, although the piece was a great 
success (DOWNES), the cost of publication was 
hardly defrayed by the subscriptions, and the 
book was a financial failure (pref. to DANIEL 
PTJECET.L'S Judgment of Paris) ; every copy 
contained manuscript corrections by Purcell 
himself. The music to Dryden's 'Amphitryon' 
was issued in 1690, the year of its produc- 
tion. " In the epistle dedicatory Dryden 
wrote, ' We have at length found an Eng- 
lishman equal with the best abroad,' and he 
referred to 'his happy and judicious per- 
formances in the late opera ' (' Dioclesian '). 
Five years earlier, in the preface to ' Albion 
and Albanius,' Dryden had shortsightedly 
spoken of Grabu, the composer of that work, 
as ' raised to a degree above any man who shall 
pretend to be his rival on our stage.' This 
change in the poet's opinion was strengthened 
by Purcell's admirable contributions to his 
opera of 'King Arthur,' which was produced 
in 1691 . The complete score of that workwas 
never published, and it disappeared, probably 
within a very few years of its production, since 
the few songs printed after the composer's 
death, in ' Orpheus Britannicus,' were in a 
more or less fragmentary condition. After 
all the imperfect manuscript scores of the 
work were collated for Professor Taylor's 
edition (Musical Antiquarian Society), there 
remain five songs to which no music can be 
found. Still, the great bulk of the music is 
extant, and from this and the printed play it ' 
is clear that it can only be called an opera in , 
a limited sense, since the singing characters I 



are quite subordinate to the others. The 
abandonment of the old practice of con- 
tinuous music in opera, which ' King Arthur ' 
illustrated, was justified, according to the 
'Gentleman's Journal' for January 1691-2, 
by the fact that ' experience hath taught us 
! that our English genius will not rellish that 
: perpetuall singing.' ' Mr. Purcel,' the same 
critic pointed out, ' joyns to the delicacy and 
beauty of the Italian way the graces and 
gayety of the French composers, as he hath 
done for the " Prophetess" and the last opera 
called " King Arthur,'' which hath been plaid 
several times the last month.' 

Among the plays to which Purcell con- 
tributed incidental music in 1692 and the 
following year were the ' Indian Queen ' 
(adapted from Howard and Dryden) and the 
' Fairy Queen,' an anonymous arrangement 
of ' A Midsummer Night's Dream.' Some 
of the songs from the latter were published 
in 1692 by Purcell himself, but, as in the 
case of ' King Arthur,' the complete music 
was lost (London Gazette, 13 Oct. 1700). 
Three years after the production of the 
'Indian Queen ' a pirated edition was issued 
by the booksellers May & Hudgbutt, who 
addressed the composer in a complacent and 
impudent preface. The queen's birthday ode 
for 1692 contains, as the bass of one of the 
airs, the Scottish tune ' Cold and Raw.' Ac- 
cording to Hawkins, Purcell introduced it 
out of pique because the Queen had ex- 
pressed a preference for the ballad, as sung 
by Arabella Hunt, to some of his music. 
The ode for St. Cecilia,'s day in the same year 
contains evidence of the composer's powers 
as a singer of florid music. The air ' 'Tis 
Nature's voice,' for counter-tenor, which 
abounds in elaborate passages, was printed 
shortly after the festival. The ' Gentleman's 
Journal or Monthly Miscellany' for Novem- 
ber 1692 says ' the second stanza ' was ' sung 
with incredible graces by Mr. Purcell him- 
self.' An ode, said to have been written for 
the centenary commemoration of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and performed at Christ Church, 
Dublin, on 9 Jan. 1693-4, is included by 
Goodison in his incomplete edition of Pur- 
cell's works ; but no direct evidence of its 
performance has been found. 

To 1694 belongs Purcell's only work as a 
theorist. He rewrote almost entirely the 
third part of Playford's ' Introduction to the 
Skill of Musick ' for the twelfth edition of 
that book, published in 1694. The section 
'On the Art of Descant' in its original shape 
was no longer of practical use to composers, 
since the whole aspect of music had changed. 
Certain of the songs in the first and second 
parts of D'Urfey's ' Don Quixote ' (1694) were 



Purcell 



Purcell 



by Purcell, the most famous of them being 
' Let the dreadful engines ; ' and on St. 
Cecilia's day, in the same year, were per- 
formed his famous Te Deum and Jubilate, 
with orchestral accompaniments. For the 
funeral of Queen Mary he wrote a well-known 
burial service, of which one section, the j 
anthem ' Thou knowest, Lord,' has been 
continuously in use until the present day ; it 
was incorporated by Croft in his setting of 
the service. In a volume of thirty-six odes 
and monodies in memory of the queen there 
are three set to music, one by Blow, and 
two, to Latin words, by Purcell. Of the 
music to plays written by Purcell in 1695, the 
last year of his life, the most important com- 
positions are ' Bonduca,' adapted from Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, and the third part of 
' Don Quixote,' which, though it failed on 
the stage, became famous from its containing 
the song ' From rosy bowers.' This is said 
to be ' the last song the author sett, it being 
in his sickness ; ' a similar claim put forth 
for ' Lovely Albina ' may be rejected. 

Purcell died on 21 Nov. 1695, probably at 
his house in Marsham Street, Westminster 
(Prof. J. F. Bridge in Musical Times, No- 
vember 1895). The tradition reported by 
Hawkins, that the composer caught cold 
from being kept waiting for admittance into 
his house, his wife being determined to 
punish him for keeping late hours, is gene- 
rally discredited. A consumptive tendency 
is surmised, and some support is given to the 
supposition by the deaths in infancy of three 
of the composer's children in 1682, 1686. 
and 1687 respectively. He was buried on 
26 Nov. beneath the organ in Westminster 
Abbey. The Latin epitaph on the gravestone 
was renewed in 1876. On a pillar near the 
grave is a tablet, with an inscription, placed 
there by a pupil of Purcell Annabella, wife 
of Sir Robert Howard, the dramatist, who 
probably wrote the inscription. The short 
will, made on the day of the composer's death, 
was proved by the widow, Frances Purcell, 
the sole legatee (cf. Wills from Doctors' Com- 
mons, Camd. Soc. p. 158). 

That Purcell was a most learned musician, 
consummately skilled in the exercise of feats 
of technical ingenuity, and delighting in 
them for their own sake, is amply shown in 
his canons and similar works ; in particular 
he excelled in writing, upon a ground bass, 
music that was not merely ingenious, but in 
the highest degree expressive. The crown- 
ing instance of his powers in this direction 
is the death-song of Dido in his first opera, 
an ' inspiration,' as it may well be called, 
that has never been surpassed for pathos and 
direct emotional appeal. The instructive 



comparison of this number with the ' Cruci- 
fixus' of Bach's Mass in B minor a com- 
position of a design almost precisely similar 
(see preface to the Purcell Society's edition 
of ' Dido and ^Eneas ') shows what a point 
of advance had been reached by the English- 
man five years before the birth of the German 
master. It was this directness of expression 
rather than his erudition that raised Purcell 
to that supreme place among English com- 
posers which has never been disputed. The 
very quality of broad choral eifect which has 
been most admired in Handel's works was 
that in which Purcell most clearly antici- 
pated him ; in actual melodic beauty, Pur- 
cell's airs are at least on a level with Han- 
del's, while the mere exhibitions of vocal skill 
for which Purcell is sometimes reproached 
compare very favourably with the conven- 
tional opera songs of Handel. When it is 
remembered that Purcell lived at a time 
when the new art of monodic writing, as 
opposed to the elaborate involutions of the 
madrigalian period, was only beginning to 
be understood in England, the flowing ease 
of his melodies, and the mastery displayed 
in their treatment, must appear little short 
of marvellous. ' That it is difficult if not im- 
possible to trace any process of development 
between his earlier and later works seems 
strange, until it is pointed out that a space 
of twenty years covered his entire career as 
a composer (or twenty-five years, if we ac- 
cept the theory that the ' Macbeth' music 
is his). 

A very small number of Purcell's com- 
positions were published during his life- 
time. Songs by him appeared in various 
collections published by Heptinstall, Play- 
ford, and others, and occasionally, as in 
the case of ' Theodosius,' ' Amphitryon,' the 
' Fool's Preferment,' the ' Indian Queen,' the 
' Fairy Queen,' and ' Don Quixote,' songs from 
the plays, professedly complete, were printed 
either separately or together with the text of 
the piece. The only works of any magnitude 
printed in the composer's lifetime were the 
three-part sonatas (1683), the St. Cecilia ode 
for that year, published in 1684, and the opera 
' Dioclesian.' To these were added, after his 
death, ' A Choice Collection of Lessons for 
the Harpsichord or Spinett ' (1696), the ' Te 
Deum and Jubilate,' a book of ' Theatre 
Ayres,' the ' Ten Sonatas of Four Parts,' in- 
cluding the famous ' Golden Sonata' (1697) 
and the first book of ' Orpheus Britannicus,' 
a collection of the composer's most famous 
songs. A second book of this collection was 
printed in 1702. The second edition of 
the two books appeared in 1706 and 1711 
respectively, and a third, of both together, 



Purcell 



43 



Purcell 



in 1721. The rarity of this last edition 
would seem to imply that it was not a large 
or successful one, and it is not hard to assign 
the reason. The popularity of Purcell among 
all classes of the community had been greater 
than that enjoyed by any native musician up 
to that time ; but by the second decade of 
the eighteenth century the vogue of Handel, 
who absorbed many of Purcell's charac- 
teristics, was so well established that Pur- 
cell's works were for the time thrown into the 
shade. Yet Purcell was never neglected by 
the higher class of musicians in England, and 
the two-hundredth anniversary of his death 
was worthily celebrated in London in No- 
vember 1895 by a festival occupying three 
days, and including a memorial service in 
Westminster Abbey. From time to time 
efforts have been made to publish his music 
in a way worthy of the greatest composer 
England has produced. Besides the selections 
issued by Goodison, Clarke, Corfe, Arnold, and 
others, the edition of his sacred music in four 
folio volumes, by Vincent Novello, deserves 
first mention. All his anthems (with the 
exception of a few that have come to light 
since), a large number of hymns, canons, &c., 
are included in this publication (1829-3:2). 
Several of the most important dramatic works 
and the St. Cecilia ode of 1692 were issued in 
1840-8 by the Musical Antiquarian Society. 
In 1878 an association called the Purcell 
Society was formed with a view to issuing 
a really complete edition; the work is pro- 
gressing slowly ; five volumes all admirably 
edited have appeared. 

The works of Purcell may be summarised 
as follows : Seventy-nine anthems, hymus, 
and services ; thirty-two odes and welcome 
songs, including those on St. Cecilia's day ; 
fifty-one dramatic works, including operas, 
incidental music, and songs including the 
doubtful ' Macbeth ' and ' Circe ' music ; 
many fantasias in manuscript for strings (see 
Addit. MS. 30930 for twenty complete in- 
strumental compositions) ; twenty-two so- 
natas (trios) published; one violin sonata 
(manuscript) ; two organ toccatas ; many 
harpsichord pieces (thirty-four published in 
' A Choice Collection,' and twelve [with 
Blow] in 'Musick's Handmaid'); numerous 
songs, catches, and canons. 

Purcell's portrait was painted once by 
Kneller and twice by Clostermann, and a bust 
of Purcell was formerly in the Music School, 
Oxford, but has disappeared. Kneller's por- 
trait is now in the possession of Alfred 
Littleton, esq. It is a somewhat idealised 
head of a young man, with prominent eyes 
and full firm mouth ; it was engraved by 
W. Humphreys, from a drawing by Edward 



Novello, for Novello's edition of Purcell's 
' Sacred Music.' A drawing of a head, by 
Kneller doubtless a sketch for the finished 
picture was in the possession of Dr. Burney, 
and is now in the British Museum ; it was 
engraved by J. Holloway in 1798, and again 
by J. Corner. Of Clostermann's two por- 
traits, one a three-quarter-length in the 
possession of the Ven. Archdeacon Burney, 
represents the composer seated at the harpsi- 
chord (a replica is in the possession of Miss 
Done) ; and the other, of which there is a 
mezzotint by Zobel in the collection of the 
Royal Society of Musicians, shows a face 
much thinner and longer than that of the 
other portraits, and represents Purcell in the 
last year or two of his life. A fourth portrait 
of Purcell, by an unknown author, in the 
board-room of Dulwich College, was formerly 
considered to represent Thomas Clark, or- 
ganist of the college. Two other portraits, 
said to have been formerly at Dulwich Col- 
lege, have vanished, one of Purcell as a 
choir-boy (GROVES, Diet. iii. 51), and the 
other of him in later life, from which the 
engraving by W. N. Gardiner, after S. N. 
Harding, in Harding's ' Biographical Mirror/ 
1794, is said to have been made. Other en- 
gravings by R. White are in the sonatas of 
1683, representing Purcell in his twenty-fifth 
year, and (a head after Clostermann) in ' Or- 
pheus Britannicus.' H. Adlard engraved a 
portrait (either after Clostermann or possibly 
from the bust). A head in an oval is in the 
' Universal Magazine ' (December 1777), ' from 
an original painting,' but apparently from 
White's engraving of 1683. 

Purcell married before 1682. A son, John 
Baptista,was baptised in Westminster Abbey 
on 9 Aug. of that year, and was buried in 
the cloisters on 17 Oct. following. Two other 
sons died in infancy, and his youngest 
daughter, Mary Peters (b. 1693), seems to 
have died before 1706. Only two children 
a son and daughter reached maturity. The 
daughter, Frances (1688-1724), who proved 
her mother's will on 4 July 1706, married, 
about 1707, Leonard Welsted [q.v.], the poet ; 
their daughter died in 1726. Purcell's sur- 
viving son, Edward (1689-1740?), competed 
twice, without success, for the post of organist 
at St. Andrew's, Holborn, formerly held by his 
uncle, Daniel Purcell, and in 1726 was made 
organist of St. Margaret's, Westminster. He 
was also organist of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, 
and one of the first members of the Royal 
Society of Musicians ; he is believed to have 
died in 1740. Edward's daughter Frances 
was baptised on4 May 1711 at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster ; his son, Edward Henry Purcell, 
who was one of the children of the Chapel 



Purcell 



44 



Purchas 



Royal in 1737, was organist of St. John's, 
Hackney, from 1753 to 1764. 

[Purcell, in the Great Musicians Series, by 
W. H. Cummings, is the most complete bio- 
graphy that has yet appeared; see also Grove's 
Diet, of Music, ii. 183, iii. 46-62 ; Hawkins's 
Hist. ed. 1853, pp. 7-43-5 ; Old Cheque Book of 
the Chapel Royal, ed. Rimbault ; Chester's 
Westminster Abbey Registers ; Pedigree of Pur- 
cell family in Visitations of Shropshire; Downes's 
Roscius Anglicanus ; Companion to the Play- 
house, vol. ii. ; Advertisements in London Gazette, 
&c. ; Musical Times, November and December 
1895 ; prefaces and compositions in Mus'cal 
Antiq. Soc. and Purcell Soc. editions; printed 
and manuscript compositions in Brit. Mus., Royal 
Coll. of Music, Fitzwilliam Miiseum, Cambridge, 
private collections, &c.; Gentleman's Journal 
and Monthly Miscellany, 1692 ; Cat. of Portraits 
in the Music and Inventions Exhibition, 1885, 
and in the exhibition of Purcell relics, Brit. Mus. 
1895 ; information from Mr. W. Barclay Squire.] 

J. A. F. M. 

PURCELL, JOHN (1674P-1730), phy- 
sician, was born in Shropshire about 1674, 
and in 1696 became a student of medicine in 
the university of Montpellier, where he 
attended the lectures of Pierre Chirac, then 
professor of medicine, for whom he retained 
a great respect through life (Of Vapours, p. 
48). After taking the degrees of bachelor and 
licentiate, he graduated M.D. on 29 May 1699. 
He practised in London, and in 1 702 published 
' A Treatise of Vapours or Hysteric Fits,' of 
which a second edition appeared in 1707. The 
book is dedicated to ' the Honourable Sir John 
Talbott,his near relation, 'and gives a detailed 
clinical account of many of the phenomena 
of hysteria, mixed up with pathology of the 
school of Thomas "Willis [q. v.] His preface 
is the latest example of the type of apology 
for writing on medicine in the English tongue 
so common in books of the sixteenth century. 
He shows much good sense, pointing out that 
there are no grounds for the ancient belief 
that the movement of the uterus is related 
to the symptoms of hysteria, and supports the 
statement of Sydenham that similar symp- 
toms are observable in men. Their greater 
frequency in women he attributes to the 
comparative inactivity of female life. He 
recommends crayfish broth and Tunbridge 
waters, but also seeing plays, merry company, 
and airing in the parks. In 1714 he published, 
at J. Morphew's, ' A Treatise of the Cholick,' 
dedicated to his relative, Charles, duke of 
Shrewsbury, of which a second edition ap- 
peared in 1715. This work shows less 
observation than his former book, but con- 
tains the description of an autopsy which he 
witnessed at Montpellier, giving the earliest 
observation in any English book of the irrita- 



tion produced by the exudation in peritonitis 
on the hands of the morbid anatomist. On 
3 April 1721 he was admitted a licentiate 
of the College of Physicians of London. He 
died on 19 Dec. 1730. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 77; Astrnc's Me- 
moires pour servir a 1'Histoire de JaFaculte de 
Medecine de Montpelier, Paris, 1767 ; Works.] 

N. M. 

PURCELL, RICHARD (^.1750-1766), 
engraver, was born in Dublin, and there 
studied mezzotint engraving under John 
Brooks and Andrew Miller. Between 1748 
and 1755 he executed in Dublin a few plates, 
all now extremely rare, which include por- 
traits of Michael Boyle, archbishop of Ar- 
magh, after Zoest : William King, archbishop 
of Dublin, after Jervas ; Oliver Cromwell, 
after Lely ; Samuel Madden, D.D., after 
Hunter ; and three of William III, after 
Kneller and Wyck. In 1755 or 1756 Purcell 
settled in London. His abilities were suffi- 
cient to have enabled him to take a high 
position in his profession ; but his vicious and 
extravagant habits kept him in poverty, and 
delivered him into the hands of Sayer, the 
printseller, for whom he worked almost ex- 
clusively. Sayer employed him chiefly to 
execute copies of popular prints by McArdell, 
Watson, Houston, Faber, &c., from pictures 
by Reynolds and others, and on many of 
these he used the aliases Charles Corbutt and 
Philip Corbutt. Purcell's original plates com- 
prise portraits of the Rev. Thomas Jones, after 
M. Jenkin; John, earl of Bute, after A. Ram- 
say, 1763 ; and John Wilkes, after R. Pine, 
1764; various subject-pieces after H. Mor- 
land, R. Pyle, G. Dou,G.Metsu, G. Schalken, 
Rembrandt, and others; and some caricatures. 
Purcell also etched a portrait of a man seated 
with a print in his hand, from a picture by 
Rembrandt, 1766 ; this is the latest date on 
any of his works, and is probably the year 
of his death. 

[Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Por- 
traits; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists.] F. M. O'D. 

PURCHAS, JOHN (1823-1872), divine 
and author, eldest son of William Jardine 
Purchas, captain in the navy, was born at 
Cambridge on 14 July 1823, and educated 
at Rugby from 1836. He proceeded to 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. 1844 and M.A. 1847. He was 
curate of Elsworth, Cambridgeshire, from 
1851 to 1853, curate of Orwell in the same 
county from 1856 to 1859, curate of St. 
Paul's, West Street, Brighton, from 1861 to 
1866, and perpetual curate of St. James's 
Chapel, Brighton, in 1866. Into the services 
of St. James's Chapel, Purchas introduced 



Purchas 



45 



Purchas 



practices which were denounced as ritualistic, 
and on 27 Nov. 1869, at the instance of 
Colonel Charles James Elphinstone, he was 
charged before Sir Robert Phillimore [q. v.] in 
the arches court of Canterbury w ith infringing 
the law of the established church by using a 
cope (otherwise than during the communion 
service), chasubles, albs, stole?, tunicles, 
dalmatics, birettas. wafer bread, lighted 
candles on the altar, crucifixes, images, and 
holy water ; by standing with his back to the 
people when consecrating the elements, 
mixing water with the wine, censing the 
minister, leaving the holy table uncovered 
during the service, directing processions 
round the church, and giving notice of un- 
authorised holidays. Purchas did not appear, 
stating that he was too poor to procure legal 
assistance, and too infirm in health to defend 
the case in person. On 3 Feb. 1870 judgment 
was given against him on eight points with 
costs (Law Reports, Admiralty and Ecclesias- 
tical Courts, 1872, iii. 60-1 1 3). This decision 
was not entirely satisfactory to the promoter 
of the suit, and he appealed for a fuller con- 
demnation of Purchas to the queen in council ; 
but he died on 30 March 1870 before the case 
was heard. Henry Hebbert of Brighton, late 
a judge of the high court of judicature at 
Bombay, then applied to the privy council 
to be allowed to revive the appeal, and was 
permitted to take the place of the original 
promoter, 4 June 1870 (Law Reports, Privy 
Council Appeals, 1871, iii. 245-57). Theprivy 
council decided against Purchas on 16 May 
1871, on practically all the points raised (ib. 
iii. 605-702). He, ho wever, made over all his 
property to his wife, and neither paid the 
costs, amounting to 2,096/. 14s. 10<Z., nor dis- 
continued any of the illegal practices. The 
privy council consequently, on 7 Feb. 1872, 
suspended him from the discharge of his cleri- 
cal office for twelve months. 

These decisions gave rise to much diffe- 
rence of opinion and led to a prolonged con- 
troversy, in which, among others, the Rev. 
Gordon Calthrop, the Rev. Robert Gregory, 
afterwards dean of St. Paul's, and Canon 
Liddon took part. A copy of the order 
of suspension was affixed to the door of 
St. James's Chapel on 18 Feb. 1872, but 
Purchas continued his services as usual for 
the remainder of his life. He died at his 
residence, Montpellier Villas, Brighton, on 
18 Oct. 1872, and was buried in the parochial 
cemetery on 23 Oct. He left a widow and 
five sons. 

He edited the ' Directorium Anglicanum : 
being a Manual of Directions for the right 
Celebration of the Holy Communion, for the 
saying of Matins and Evensong, and for the 



performance of the other rites and ceremonies 
of the Church,' 1858. This is a standard work 
on Anglican ritualism. 

His other writings were : 1. 'The Miser's 
Daughter, or the Lover's Curse,' a comedy, 
1839. 2. ' Ode upon the Death of the Mar- 
quis Camden,' 1841. 3. 'The Birth of the 
Prince of Wales,' a poem, 1842. 4. ' Poems 
and Ballads,' 1846. 5. ' The Book of Feasts,' 
1853. 6. ' The Book of Common Prayer 
unabridged: a Letter to the Rev. J. Hild- 
yard on his pamphlet, '' The Morning Service 
of the Church abridged,'" 1856. 7. 'The 
Priest's Dream: an Allegory,' 1856. 8. 'The 
Death of Ezekiel's AVife : Three Sermons,' 
1866. 

[Times, 19 Oct. 1872, p. 5; Annual Eegister, 
1871, pp. 187-210; Sussex Daily News, 19 Oct. 
1872 p. o, 22 Oct. p. 6, 24 Oct. p. 5 ; Men of 
the Time, 1872] G-. C. B. 

PURCHAS, SAMUEL (1575 P-1626), 
author of the ' Pilgrimes,' son of George Pur- 
chas of Thaxted in Essex, was born about 
1575. Having graduated from St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and taken holy orders, 
he was in 1601 curate of Purleigh in Essex. 
From 1604 to 1 613 he was vicar of Eastwood 
in Essex; in 1614 he was appointed chaplain 
to George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, 
and from 1614 to 1626 he was rector of St. 
Martin's, Ludgate. He died in September or 
October 1626, aged" 51. His will was proved 
on 21 Oct. 

He married, in December 1601, Jane, 
daughter of Vincent Lease of Westhall, Suf- 
folk, yeoman. In the marriage license, dated 
2 Dec. 1601, Purchas is said to be twenty- 
seven, and he and his bride are described as 
household servants of Mr. Freake, parson of 
Purleigh. The ages as stated at marriage 
and death are not in exact agreement. 

Purchas was the author of: 1. 'Purchas 
his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World 
and the Religions observed in all Ages and 
Places discovered from the Creation unto this 
present ' (fol. 1613 ; 2nd edit, 1614; 3rd edit. 
1617 ; 4th edit. 1626). 2. ' Purchas his Pil- 
grim. Microcosmus, or the History of Man. 
Relating the Wonders of his Generation, 
Vanities in his Degeneration, Necessity of his 
Regeneration . . .' (sm. 8vo, 1619). 

But the work by which alone Purchas's 
name is now known is 3. ' Hakluytus Pps- 
thumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes, containing 
a History of the World in Sea Voyages and 
Land-Trauells by Englishmen and others 
. . .,' with portrait on the title-page, setat. 48 
(4 vols. 4to, 1625 ; the fourth edition of the 
' Pilgrimage ' [No. 1 above], being exactly 
the same size, is frequently catalogued as the 



Purdon 4 

fifth volume of the ' Pilgrimes ; ' it is really 
a totally different work). This work has 
never been reprinted, and its rarity, still 
more than its interest, has given it an exag- 
gerated value to book collectors. The intrinsic 
value of the book is due rather to its having 
preserved some record of early voyages other- 
wise unknown, than to the literary skill or 
ability of the author. It may fairly be sup- 
posed that the originals of many of the jour- 
nals entrusted to him, of which he published 
an imperfect abstract, were lost through his 
carelessness ; so that the fact that the ' Pil- 
grimes ' contains the only extant account of 
some voyages is by his fault, not by his merit. 
A comparison of what he has printed with 
such originals as remain shows that he was 
very far indeed from a faithful editor or a 
judicious compiler, and that he took little 

Eains to arrive at an accurate knowledge of 
icts. He inherited many of the manuscripts 
of Richard Hakluyt [q. v.], but the use he 
made of them was widely different from 
Hakluyt's. 

[Brown's Genesis of the United States, pp.491, 
974; Christie's Voyages of Fox and James (Hak- 
luyt Society), vol. i. p. x ; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. xi. 57 ; Transactions of the Essex Archseol. 
Society, iv. 164.] J. K. L. 

PURDON, EDWARD (1729-1767), 
bookseller's hack, born in co. Limerick 
about 1729, was son of the Rev. Edward 
Purdon, M.A. In 1744 he entered Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he acquired Gold- 
smith's friendship. After dissipating his in- 
heritance, he enlisted. Subsequently he 
settled in London, and became a ' scribbler 
in the newspapers.' Entering the service 
of Ralph Griffiths [q. v.], he translated for 
him Voltaire's ' ITenriade,' which appeared 
in the ' British Ladies' Magazine.' Probably 
Purdon had a share also in the ' Memoirs of 
M. de Voltaire,' by Goldsmith, which accom- 
panied the poem. In 1759 he was compelled 
to publish an apology in the ' London Chro- 
nicle ' for an abusive pamphlet, in the form 
of a letter to David Garrick, against Mossop 
and other Drury Lane performers (LowE, 
Theat. Lit. pp. 140, 273). He fell dead in 
Smithfield on 27 March 1767. Goldsmith's 
epitaph on him, for the Wednesday Club, has 
preserved his memory. 

[Gent. Mag. 1767, p. 192; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. viii. 453, 558 ; Forster's Life of Gold- 
smith, i. 25, 168, ii. 60 ; O'Donoghue's Poets of 
Ireland, 2li ; London Chronicle, 13, 14, 15 Oct. 
1759; Publ. Advertiser, 7 Feb. 1759.] E. I. C. 

PURDY, JOHN (1773-1843), hydro- 
grapher, the son of a bookseller at Norwich, 
was born in 1773. He early turned his atten- 



Purdy 



tion to the study of naval charts and similar 
subjects. Before 1812 he succeeded De la 
Rochette as hydrographer to Messrs. Laurie 
& Whittle, of 53 Fleet Street, London, and 
in that year published a ' Memoir, descriptive 
and explanatory, to accompany the New 
Chart of the Atlantic Ocean,' 4to. This work 
went through many editions, the fifteenth ap- 
pearing in 1894, edited by Mr. W. R. Kettle, 
F.R.G.S. Purdy does not seem to have taken 
part in hydrographic expeditions himself, and 
his work consisted in writing works and con- 
structing charts based upon the reports of 
others; but eventually he became the foremost 
authority of his time on hydrography. He 
was mainly instrumental in bringing ' Ren- 
nell's Current' before the notice of navigators, 
and in 1832 Rennell's daughter, Lady Rodd, 
entrusted to Purdy the editing of his ' Wind 
and Current Charts ' fsee RENNELL, JAMES].- 
He died on 29 Jan. 1843. 

Alexander George Findlay [q. v.], who 
succeeded to his position as a leading hydro- 
grapher, edited and improved a large number 
of Purdy 's works. The more important of 
Purdy's writings are : 1 . ' Tables of Posi- 
tions, or of the Latitudes and Longitudes 
of Places,' &c., 1816, 4to. 2. ' The Colum- 
bian Navigator,' 1817, 8vo ; other editions 
1823-4, 2 vols., 1839, and 1847-8. 3. 'Me- 
moir to accompany the General Chart of the 
Northern Ocean,' 1820, 8vo. 4. 'The New 
Sailing Directory for the Ethiopic or Southern 
Atlantic Ocean/ 1837, 8vo; 3rd edit. Findlay, 
1844. Similar 'Sailing Directories,' dealing 
with many other regions, were also published 
by Purdy. 5. ' The British American Navi- 
gator,' 2nd edit. 1843, 8vo. 

A fairly complete list of Purdy's maps 
and charts is (riven in the ' Catalogue of the 
Map Room of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety.' The chief are : a chart of the Atlantic 
Ocean (1812) ; a ' map of Cabotia, compre- 
hending the Provinces of Upper and Lower 
Canada,' &c. (1814); a map of the world on 
Mercator's Projection (1825): The Azores 
(1831) ; Jamaica (1834) : the Viceroyalty of 
Canada (1838); Newfoundland (1844). 
Others published by Findlay, after Purdy's 
death, include the Indian and Pacific Oceans 
(1847) ; St. George's Channel (1850) ; the 
coasts of Spain and Portugal (1856). His 
nephew Isaac published a chart of the coasts 
of China in 1865. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Cat. of Library 
and Map Room of Royal Geogr. Soc. ; Review 
of British Geogr. Work, 1789-1889, p. 190; 
Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc. xix. 381 ; Athenaeum, 
1875, i. 657; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.; Allibone's 
Diet, of English Lit. ; information supplied by 
Messrs. R. H. Laurie, Minories.] A. F. P. 



Purefoy 



47 



Purnell 



PUREFOY, WILLIAM (1580P-1659), 
regicide, born at Caldecote, "Warwickshire, 
about 1580, was eldest son of Francis Pure- 
foy (d. 1617), by his wife Eleanor, daughter 
of John Baskerville of Cudworth, Somerset. 
He entered Gray's Inn on 14 Aug. 1599, 
and subsequently travelled on the continent. 
While residing in 1611 at Geneva he medi- 
tated (so he asserted thirty-eight years later) 
the ruin of the monarchy in England. 

In 1627-8 he was elected member of par- 
liament for Coventry. Purefoy was strongly 
puritan, and, as sheriff of Warwickshire in 
1631, dealt severely with disorderly charac- 
ters and alehouses. On 27 Oct. 1640 he 
was elected to the Long parliament for War- 
wick. From the first he took a decided stand 
against the king, and when (17 June 1642) 
Charles directed his commission of array for 
Warwickshire, ' such as Mr. Coombes, Mr. 
Purefoy, and others of that strain ' were ex- 
pressly excepted. Purefoy straightway took 
up arms for the parliament. In August he 
was in command of a body of parliamentary 
troops in Warwick Castle. On 6 March 
1642-3 he received a commission from Essex 
to be colonel of a regiment of horse and 
dragoons raised in Warwick. 

In the same month he was engaged in the 
defence of Coventry, for which he advanced 
money. In answer to a letter from Purefoy 
complaining of the weakness of the forces 
there due to disbaudings, and the lack of a 
' commander of experience,' Essex nominated 
a committee to govern the forces of Coventry 
and Lichfield, consisting of Purefoy, Sir John 
Gill, Sir Arthur Haselrigge, and Sir W. 
Brereton, lint. During 16U Purefoy, at the 
head of his regiment of horse, took part in 
many small operations in Warwickshire, 
Staffordshire, Oxfordshire, and Gloucester- 
shire, and frequent disputes arose between 



from its establishment on 13 Feb. 1648-9 
until its dissolution in 1653, and had lodgings 
at Whitehall. On 7 Sept. 1650 he had leave 
to repair to his own county for settling the 
militia of Warwickshire, and to examine into 
the circumstances of Charles II's declaration 
as king at Coventry. On Charles's defeat at 
Worcester he was appointed a commissioner 
to examine the prisoners. He was returned 
to Cromwell's two parliaments in 1654 for 
Warwickshire and Coventry ; in the second 
parliament of 1654 and in that of 1656 he 
sat for Coventry. In January 1655-6 he was 
added to the committee for collections for 
distressed protestants in England (English 
Hist. Review, October 1894). On the excite- 
ment due to the rising of Sir George Booth 
in August 1659, ' old Colonel Purefoy, who 
had one foot in the grave, was obliged to 
undertake ' the command of the forces in the 
county of Warwick in place of Colonel 
Fotherby, who declined to act. Therein ' he 
used such diligence and succeeded so well 
that he kept the city of Coventry and the 
adjacent country in the obedience of the 
parliament ' (LUDLOW, Memoirs, ed. Firth, ii. 
109). Purefoy died in 1659. Hewasexempted 
from the act of indemnity at the Restoration, 
and his estates were consequently forfeited 
to the crown. 

A reply to Prynne's ' Brief Memento to 
the present unparliamentary junto,' entitled 
' Prynne against Prynne,' 1649, 4to, was at- 
tributed to Purefoy by Prynne. 

Purefoy married Joane, daughter andheiress 
of Aleyn Penkeston of the city of York, 
and left issue. A daughter married George 
Abbot (1603-1648) [q. v.] 

[Cal. State Papers, Bom. 1631-61, passim; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 297, 5th Rep. p. 
74, 6th Rep. pp. 596, 14i, 9th Rep. ii. 391, iv. 
271, 275, 10th Rep. vi. 110; Harl. MS. 1047, f. 



him and the chief commander of the district, , 49 ; Lords' Journals, v 61 6, vii. 372 ; Commons' 

Journals. 1628, &c. ; Official Returns of Mem- 
bers of Parliament; Mer.-urius Rusticus, 1658; 
Dngdalf's Warwickshire, ii 1097, and View of 
Troubles : Warburton's Prince Rupert, i. 324, 
391-2; Nuffent's Hampden, ii. 255; Foster's 
Gray's Inn Registers.] W. A. S. 

PURFOY, ROBERT (d. 1558), bishop of 

Hereford. [See WARTON.] 

PURNELL, ROBERT (d. 1666), baptist 



Basil Feilding, second earl of Denbigh [q. v.] 
Towards the end of 1644 and early in 1645 
he was often in London in attendance on 
the committee of both kingdoms at Derby 
House. In June 1644 Purefoy captured 
Compton House, which was held during the 
rest of the war by his kinsman, Major George 
Purefoy (BEESLEY, Hist, of Banbury, pp. 356, 
391). On 18 July 1645 Purefoy wasnorninated 
by ordinance of both houses to be one of the 
commissioners to reside with the army of 
* our brethren of Scotland now in this king- 
dom ;' the command of his regiment had pre- 
viously (14 May) been bestowed on Captain 
William Culmore. 

Purefoy was a member of the high court 
which tried the king and signed his death- 
warrant. He was one of the council of state 



elder and author, was probably a native of 
Bristol, where he was residing in 1653. He 
was in that year one of the chief founders of 
the first baptist church at Bristol, which 
subsequently became the Broadmead church. 
The pnstor, Thomas Ewins, and Purnell were 
baptised in London by Henry Jessey, and 
Purnell became a ruling elder of the congre- 



Purnell 



4 3 



Pursglove 



gation. He died apparently in November 
1666. A son was a member of the same 
church. 

He wrote : 1. ' Good Tydings for Sinners,' 
London, 1649, 4to. 2. No Power but of 
God,' London, 1652, 2nd edit. 3. ' Englands 
Remonstrance, or a Word in the Ear to the 
scattered discontented Members of the late 
Parliament. . . likewise a Word to the present 
Assembly at Westminster and the Councell 
of State,' 1653. 4. ' The Way to Heaven dis- 
covered,' Bristol, 1653 (in favour of the doc- 
trine of grace and the true love of God). 
5. ' The Church of Christ in Bristol recover- 
ing her Vail out of the Hands of Them that 
have smitten and wounded Her, and taken 
it away,' London, 1657 : the first portion is 
signed by Purnell and five other members of 
the church (p. 24). 6. ' A little Cabinet richly 
stored with all Sorts of Heavenly Varieties,' 
London [19 Aug.], 1657. 7. ' The Way Step 
by Step to sound and saving Conversion,' 
London, 8 Aug. 1659. 

[Broadmead Records, Hanserd Knollys Soc. ; 
Fuller's Rise and Progress of Dissent in Bristol, 
p. 43 ; Hollesier's Skirts of the Whore discovered, 
1656, and The Cry of Blood, 1656; Firmiu's 
Serious Question ] W. A. S. 

PURNELL, THOMAS (1834-1889), 
author, son of Robert Purnell, was born in 
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, in 1834. He matri- 
culated at, Trinity College, Dublin, in 1852 
(JRey.*), but afterwards came to London and 
embarked in journalism. In 1862 he was, on 
the recommendation of Sir Thomas Duffus 
Hardy, appointed assistant-secretary and li- 
brarian of the Archaeological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and he retained the 
post until 1866. In 1870-1 he contributed to 
the Athenaeum, under the signature ' Q.,' a 
series of dramatic criticisms which attracted 
notice by their incisive style and the severity 
of their censures. Charles Reade and Tom 
Taylor published replies. Of genially bohe- 
mian temperament, Purnell was popular in 
literary society, and founded a little club 
known as the ' Decemviri,' of which Messrs. 
A. C. Swinburne, Whistler, R. E. Francillon, 
and Joseph Knight were among the members. 
He came to know Mazzini, to whom he intro- 
duced Swinburne and others. In 1871 he 
edited Lamb's ' Correspondence and Works,' 
and organised the Charles Lamb centenary 
dinner. He died at Lloyd Square, Penton- 
ville, London, where his sister kept house for 
him, on 17 Dec. 1889, after a long illness. 

Purnell was the author of : 1. ' Literature 
and its Professors,' London, 1867, post 8vo. 
2. ' Dramatists of the Present Day ' (re- 
printed from the ' Athenaeum '), by Q., Lon- 



don, 1871, post 8vo. 3. ' To London and 
elsewhere,' London, 1881, 12mo. 4. 'The 
Lady Drusilla : a Psychological Romance,' 
London, 1886, post 8vo. 5. ' Dust and Dia- 
monds : Essays,' London, 1888, post 8vo. 

He also edited Dr. John Herd's ' Historia 
Quatuor Regurn Anglire ' for the Roxburghe 
Club,' 1868, 4to. 

[Archaeological Journal, 1862-6 ; Athenaeum, 
21 Dec. 18S9 ; Globe, 21 Dec. 1889; private in- 
formation.] E. I. C. 

PURSGLOVE, ROBERT, otherwise 
SILVESTER (1500P-1579), bishop suffragan of 
Hull, born about 1500, is said to have been 
the son of Adam Pursglove of Tideswell, 
Derbyshire. His mother was a Bradshawe, 
probably of the family of Bradshawes of the 
Peak, to which the regicide belonged. By a 
maternal uncle, William Bradshawe, the boy 
was sent to St. Paul's School, London : pre- 
sumably that founded by Dean Colet in 1509, 
and not the cathedral or choir school. He 
would thus be one of the earliest pupils of 
William Lily, the first head-master. After 
remaining at St. Paul's for nine years, he 
spent a short time in the neighbouring priory 
of St. Mary Overy, and then entered the 
newly founded college of Corpus Christi at 
Oxford. He resided fourteen years at Ox- 
ford, probably until 1532 or 1533. Joining 
the great Augustinian priory of Guisborough, 
or Gisborne, in Cleveland, Yorkshire, he 
rapidly rose to be its twenty-fourth (and 
last) prior as early, apparently, as 1534. In 
the following year the act, suggested by 
Cranmer, for the appointment of bishops 
suffragan with English titles was passed; 
and in 1538 Richard Langrigge and Purs- 
glove were presented by Archbishop Lee of 
York to Henry VIII, who chose the latter 
to be bishop suffragan of Hull. The patent 
is dated 23 Dec. 1538 (Lansdowne MS. 980, 
f. 127), and Pursglove was consecrated on 
29 Dec. (STTJBBS, Registruni). On 1 Oct. in 
the same year he had been collated to the 
prebend of Langtoft in the cathedral church 
of York. This stall he exchanged forWystowe 
in the same church on 2 May 1541. 

In 1540 Pursglove surrendered to the 
king the great house at Guisborough of 
which he was prior. It was said that he 
had kept great state there, being served only 
by gentlemen born (Cotton MS., quoted in 
GEAINGE, Castles and Abbeys of Yorkshire, 
p. 307). He received as pension 166/. 13s. 4<2., 
a sum representing about 2,000/. of our money. 
He is also said to have persuaded other heads 
of religious houses to surrender. 

In 1544 (26 June) he was made provost 
of Jesus College, founded at Rotherham by 



Pursglove 



49 



Purver 



Archbishop Scott, and held this office till 
the suppression of the college at the be- 
ginning of Edward VI's reign. On 29 Jan. 
1550 he was installed archdeacon of Not- 
tingham, in succession to Dr. Cuthbert 
Marshall. 

His tenure of the bishopric of Hull con- 
tinued under Holgate and Heath, the suc- 
cessors of Archbishop Lee, and the registers 
at York contain entries of numerous ordina- 
tions by him. But he was deprived of the 
office, as well as of his archdeaconry, in 1559 
for refusing to take the oath of supremacy. 
Privy council commissioners under Eliza- 
beth represent him as ' stiff in papistry and 
of estimation in the country.' lie had no 
successor as bishop suffragan of Hull till the 
consecration of Archdeacon Blunt in April 
1891. 

In 15o9, the year of his deprivation, Purs- 
glove obtained letters patent from Elizabeth 
to found a grammar school at Tideswell, 
dedicated, like St. Paul's, to the child Jesus. 
Some of his statutes contain provisions re- 
sembling those of Colet, and a work of 
Erasmus is appointed as one of the text- 
books. In the ' Return of Endowed Grammar 
Schools,' 1865, the income of this school is 
stated to be 206/. On 5 June 1563 he also 
obtained letters patent to found a similar 
school, bearing the same name, and also a 
hospital, or almshouse, at Guisborough. His 
deed of foundation, probably in his own 
hand, is dated 11 Aug. in that year. He 
placed both institutions under the visita- 
torial power of the archbishop of York, 
proof, apparently, that he finally acquiesced 
in the Elizabethan settlement of religion. 

Pursglove resided in his last years partly at 
Tideswell and partly at Dunston in the same 
county, from which are dated a number of 
deeds of gift to his school and hospital at 
Guisborouffh (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 
App. pp. 348-9). He died on 2 May 1579, 
and he was buried in Tideswell church, where 
a fine brass marks his resting-place, and bears 
a long biographical inscription in doggerel 



[Wood's Athense (a confused account) ; Lans- 
downe MS. 980, f. 127 ; Ord's Cleveland, 1846, 
pp. 189 sqq. ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. 
pp. 348-9; Le Neve's Fasti; Tickell's History 
of Hull, p. 157; Pursglove, by R. W. Corlass, 
Hull, 1878; Gent. Mag. 1794, ii. 1101 ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 135, 5th ser. v. 11, 12 ; 
Church Times, 28 July and 4 Aug. 1882 (con- 
taining two valuable letters from J. R. Lunn) ; 
letter in Morning Post, 8 April 1891 ; informa- 
tion from R. C. Seaton, esq., and from the present 
vicar of Tideswell, the Rev. Canon Andrew.] 

J. H. L. 

VOL. XLVII. 



PURTON, WILLIAM (1784-1825), 
stenographer, born in 1784, was the earliest 
known teacher, and in all probability the in- 
ventor, of one of the seven systems of steno- 
graphy now practised by professional short- 
hand writers in the houses of parliament and 
the supreme court of judicature. He kept a 
school at Pleasant Row, Pentonville, and only 
taught shorthand to some favourite pupils. 
The earliest professional exponent of the 
system was Thomas Oxford, who learnt it 
from Purton in 1819, and it was subsequently 
improved by him and Mr. Hodges. Purton 
died in London about Christmas 1825, and 
was buried at Elim (baptist) Chapel, Fetter 
Lane, Holborn. 

Purton did not print his system, but it was 
used by some of the most expert practitioners 
of the stenographic art. It is sometimes called 
Richardson's system ; sometimes Counsell's. 
It was not till 1887, when Mr. Alexander 
Tremaine Wright printed a pamphlet on the 
subject, that the origin of this angular, ' rough- 
hewn, and unfinished ' system was traced to 
Purton. The alphabet, with the ' arbitraries,' 
was not published till the following year, 
when Mr. John George Hodges appended 
it to his work entitled ' Some Irish Notes, 
1843-1848, and other Work with the Purton 
System of Shorthand, as practised since 1825,' 
London, 1888, 8vo. 

[Wright's Purton System of Shorthand, Lon- 
don, 1887; Shorthand and Typewriting, No- 
vember 1895.] T. C. 

PURVER, ANTHONY (1702-1777), 
translator of the bible, born in 1702, was 
son of a farmer at Hurstbourne, near Whit- 
church, Hampshire. He showed much pro- 
mise as a pupil at the village school ; and, 
while serving as apprentice to a shoemaker, 
who was also a farmer, fell to studying He- 
brew, after reading the ' Rusticus ad Aca- 
demicos' of Samuel Fisher [q.v.] At twenty 
years of age he opened a school, but gave it 
up after three or four years to come to Lon- 
don, where he published his ' Youth's De- 
light,' 1727, continued his study of Hebrew, 
and became a quaker. About 1733 he began 
translating the Old Testament, an undertak- 
ing which occupied him at intervals for the 
rest of his life. He preached to quakers' 
meetings in London, Essex, and elsewhere ; 
but about 1739 he married Rachell Cotterel, 
mistress of a girls' boarding-school at Fren- 
chay, Gloucestershire, and, moving thither, 
recommenced teaching. In 1758 he returned 
to Hampshire, and died at Andover in July 
1777, being buried in the Friends' burial- 
ground there. 

About 1742, when Purver had completed 



Purves 



Purves 



his rendering of the book of Esther, the 
Song of Solomon, and some of the minor 
prophets, he induced the Bristol printer, 
Felix Farley, to issue his translation, en- 
titled ' Opus in Sacra Biblia elaboratum,' 
in parts. Dr. John Fothergill [q. v.] recom- 
mended the venture in an advertisement in 
the 'Gentleman's Magazine' for 1746, but 
it met with insufficient support, and only a 
few numbers appeared. In 1763 Purver had 
completed the translation of all the books of 
both the Old and New Testament. Fothergill 
gave him 1,000/. for the copyright, and pub- 
lished at his own expense 'A New and Literal 
Translation of all the Books of the Old and 
New Testament ; with Notes critical and 
explanatory. By Anthony Purver,' in 
2 vols., London, folio, 1764. 

Purver claimed to execute his translation, 
which was known as the ' quakers' bible,' 
under divine instruction. On arriving at a 
difficult passage, he would shut himself up 
for two or three days and nights, waiting for 
inspiration. He accepted the theory of the 
divine inspiration of the scriptures in its most 
literal form. Alexander Geddes [q. v.], the 
rationalist, condemned his work as a ' crude, 
incondite, and unshapely pile, without order, 
symmetry, or taste ; ' but Southey and other 
critics have preferred several of his render- 
ings to those of the authorised version, and 
have commended his chronology, tables, and 
notes. Purver's only other publication, be- 
sides a popular broadside entitled ' Counsel 
to Friends' Children' (6th edit, 1785), was a 
' Poem to the Praise of God,' 1748, large fol. 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. xxv. 385 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 739 ; Friends' Magazine, Fe- 
bruary 1831, ii. 49; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. Hi. 108, 156; Southey's Omniana, p. 57; 
Orme's Bibl. Biblica, p. 364 ; Cotton's Editions 
of the Bible in English, pp. 96, 207, 238, 259, 
273 ; Memoirs of F. J. Post, p. 409 ; Wood- 
ward's Hist, of Hampshire, iii. 285 n. ; Smith's 
Catalogue of Friends' Books, ii. 437 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1817, i. 510; Hartley Coleridge's Biogra- 
phia Borealis, p. 717 art. 'Fothergill;' Crutt- 
well's Preface to Bishop Wilson's Annotated 
Bible, 1785; Friends' Quarterly Examiner, x. 
557.] C. F. S. 

PURVES, JAMES (1784-1795), Scot- 
tish sectary, was born at Blackadder, near 
Edington (he writes it 'Identown'), Ber- 
wickshire, on 23 Sept. 1734. His father, a 
shepherd, died in 1754. On 1 Dec. 1755 he 
was admitted to membership in a religious 
society at Chirnside, Berwickshire. This 
was one of several ' fellowship societies ' 
formed by James Fraser (1639-1699) [q. v.] 
They had joined the ' reformed presbytery ' 
in 1743, but separated from it in 1753, as 



holders of the doctrine that our Lord made 
atonement for all mankind ; and were with- 
out a stated ministry [see MACMILLAN, 
JOHN]. Purves in 1756 bound himself ap- 
prentice to his uncle, a wright in Dunse, 
Berwickshire. He read Isaac Watts's ' Dis- 
sertation on the Logos,' 1726, and adopted 
the doctrine of the pre-existence of the human 
soul of Christ. In 1763 the Berwickshire 
societies sent him as their commissioner to 
Coleraine, co. Derry, to consult with a branch 
j of the Irish secession church holding simi- 
lar doctrines. A minute expressing concur- 
rence of doctrine was signed at Coleraine by 
John Hopkins, Samuel Lind, and Purves. 
In 1769 the Berwickshire societies, who were 
declining in numbers, resolved to qualify 
one of their members as a public preacher. 
Three candidates delivered trial discourses 
on 8 June 1769; one of these withdrew from 
membership : of the remaining two, Purves 
was selected by lot (27 July),' and sent to 
Glasgow College. Here, though his previous 
education had been slight, he managed to 
gain some Latin, and enough Greek and He- 
brew to read the scriptures in the originals, 
a great point with his friends, who looked 
to this as a means of settling their doctrinal 
views. In 1771 a statement of principles 
drawn up by Purves was adopted by the 
societies. Its theology was high Arian, but 
its distinctive position was the duty of free 
inquiry into the scriptures, unbiassed by 
creed. This document led to a controversy 
with ministers of the 'reformed presbytery.' 
In 1776 several members of the Berwick- 
shire societies, headed by Alexander Forton 
or Fortune, migrated to Edinburgh and es- 
tablished a religious society, calling them- 
selves ' successors of the remnant who testi- 
fied against the revolution constitution.' 
Purves joined them on their invitation ; he 
supported himself by teaching a school : on 
15 Nov. 1776 he was elected pastor. The 
site of his school at ' Broughton, near Edin- 
burgh,' where also worship was conducted, 
is now occupied by St. Paul's episcopal 
chapel, York Place, Edinburgh. In 1777 
he removed his residence to Wright's Houses, 
Bruntsfield Links, Edinburgh. He became 
intimate with Thomas Fyshe Palmer [q. v.] 
in 1786, and shared his political aspirations, 
but controverted his theological positions. In 
1792the worship of the society, in the Barbers' 
Hall, Edinburgh, was made public, the name 
' universalist dissenters ' was adopted, and 
a declaration of opinions was issued. From 
1793 the reading of scripture lessons was 
made a part of the public services, a prac- 
tice not then common in Scotland ; members 
were at the same time encouraged to deliver 



Purves i 

public exhortations, preliminary to the 
minister's discourse. Purves was not an at- 
tractive preacher, and his congregations were 
very small ; but he preached thrice every 
Sunday, and advocated his views with con- 
siderable ability through the press. His 
earlier tracts were printed with his own 
hand, and he even cast the Hebrew type for 
them. He advocated in 1790 the doctrine 
of the pre-existence of souls, and was a strong 
believer in the millennium and its near ap- 
proach. His last work, finished just before 
his death, was a criticism of deism, in reply 
to Paine. For many years he suffered 
severely from asthma. Zealous in support 
of his convictions, he won the respect of op- 
ponents ; nothing ruffled the cheerful calm 
of his temper. In the autumn of 1794 he 
ceased to preach. He died on 1 Feb. 1795 
(manuscript records; Holland says 15 Feb.), 
and was buried in the Calton cemetery. 
His grave was in a portion of the cemetery 
removed in the construction of Regent 
Road. He married, first, Isobel Blair, by 
whom he had a daughter Elizabeth (1766- 
1839), married to Hamilton Dunn; secondly, 
Sarah Brown, by whom he had a daughter 
Margaret, married to John Crichton ; and, 
thirdly, Lilias Scott, by whom he had a daugh- 
ter Mary, who married, in 1801, William 
Paul, and settled in Boston, Massachusetts. 
His widow kept a bookseller's shop in St. Pa- 
trick's Square, Edinburgh, and subsequently 
removed to America. His congregation was 
without a minister till the appointment (No- 
vember 1812) of Thomas Southwood Smith, 
M.D. [q. v.]; it now meets in St. Mark's 
Chapel, Castle Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Purves published: 1. 'A Short Abstract of 
the Principles ... of the United Societies 
in Scotland. . . . By the said Societies,' &c., 
no place or printer 1771, 12mo. 2. 'An In- 
quiry into the Institution and End of Civil 
Government,' &c., noplace or printer, 1775, 
12mo. 3. ' Observations on Prophetic Time 
and Similitudes,' &c., Edinburgh, pt. i. 1777, 
16mo ; pt. ii. no place, 1778, 16mo. 4. ' Ob- 
servations on the Conduct of ... the Re- 
formed Presbytery,' &c., Edinburgh, 1778, 
8vo ; this includes ' A Short Letter to Mr. 
Fairly ' (24 April 1772), ' An Extract from 
a Letter to Mr. Thorburn' (July 1777), and 
'A Copy of the Letter sent to Mr. John 
M'Millan' (24 Oct. 1777, by Alexander For- 
ton). 5. ' The Original Text and a Trans- 
lation of the Forty-sixth Psalm, with Anno- 
tations,' &c., Edinburgh, 1779, 16mo. 6. 'A 
Hebrew Grammar without Point s,'&c., Edin- 
burgh, 1779, 16mo (meanly printed, but a 
superior piece of work, and shows teaching 
power). 7. 'An Essay toward a ... Trans- 



i Purvey 

lation of some parts of the Hebrew Scriptures,' 
&c., Edinburgh, 1780, 16mo (anon.; three 
numbers issued). 8. ' An Humble Attempt 
to investigate . . . the Scripture Doctrine con- 
cerning the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Spirit,' &c., 2nd edit. Edinburgh and London, 
1784, 12mo. 9. ' Eight Letters between the 
Buchanites and a Teacher near Edinburgh,' 
&c., Edinburgh, 1785, 8vo. 10. 'A Scheme of 
the Lives of the Patriarchs, 1785 (not seen). 

11. ' Concise Catechism with Scripture An- 
swers,' &c., Edinburgh, 1787, 12mo (anon.) 

12. 'An Humble Enquiry into Faith and 
Regeneration,' &c., Edinburgh, 1788, 12mo. 

13. ' A Dissertat ion on the Seals, the Trum- 
pets, and the Vials ... in the Book of Re- 
velation,' c., Edinburgh, 1788, 16mo. 14.' A 
Letter to Mr. John Dick,' &c., Berwick, 1788, 
16mo (anon. ; criticises a sermon by John 
Dick, D.D. [q. v.], on the case of William 
M'Gill, D.D. [q. v.]) 15. ' Observations on 
the Visions of the Apostle John,' &c., Edin- 
burgh, vol. i. 1789, 16mo (maps) ; vol. ii. 
1793, 16mo (plans). 16. ' Some Observations 
on Socinian Arguments,' &c., Edinburgh, 
1790, 12mo. 17. ' A Treatise on Civil Go- 
vernment,' &c., Edinburgh, 1791, 12mo 
(quite distinct from No. 2, and dealing with 
the politics of the day in a spirit of strong 
sympathy with the French revolution; hence 
the writer's name is given on the title-page in 
the disguised form '.Sevrup Semaj '). 18. 'A 
Declaration of the Religious Opinions of the 
Universalist Dissenters,' Edinburgh, 1792, 
12mo. 19. ' A Short Representation of Re- 
ligious Principles,' &c. [1793 ?], 12mo. Pos- 
thumous were : 20. ' A Review of the Age of 
Reason,' &c., Edinburgh, 1795, 12mo, pt. i. 
(the second part was never written). 21. 'An 
Enquiry concerning . . . Sacrifices . . . added, 
A Letter to T. F. Palmer, B.D., on the State 
of the Dead,' &c., Edinburgh, 1797, 12mo. 
Interspersed among his writings are some 
religious poems and hymns, of no special 
merit. 

[Monthly Repository, 1812, pp. 348 seq. 
(communication byR. W., i.e. Richard Wright); 
Memoir (partly autobiographical) by T. C. H. 
(i.e. Thomas Crompton Holland) in Monthly 
Repository, 1820, pp. 77 seq.; Nonsubscriber, 
February 1862, pp. 17 seq. (article byR. B. D., 
i.e. Robert Blackley Drummond; ; Extracts from 
manuscript records of St. Mark's, Edinburgh, 
per the Rev. R. B. Drummond ; information 
from Hamilton Dunn, esq., Liverpool.] A. G. 

PURVEY, JOHN (1353P-1428?), the 
reviser of the Wiclifite translation of the 
bible, is described in the ' letters demissory ' 
of John Bokyngham [q.v.~j, bishop of Lincoln, 
13 March 1377, as of ' Lathebury.' Lathbury 
is a village about one mile north of Newport 

v. 2 



Purvey 



Purvey 



Pagnell, about five miles south of Olney. His 
name would seem to be of French origin. From 
the date of his ordination we may conclude 
he was born in or a little before 1354, and, 
from his association with Wiclif, that he was 
educated at Oxford. For some time before 
Wiclif 's death, 1384, Purvey was intimately 
associated with him at Lutterworth, and be- 
came one of Wiclif 's most devoted disciples, 
winning the honour of a place beside Nicholas 
of Hereford [q. v.] and John Aston or Ash- 
ton [q. v.] 

It was doubtless during Purvey 's L'lttpr- 
worth residence that what was certainly the 
great work of his life was conceived, and partly 
at least executed,viz. the revision of the trans- 
lation of the bible, which had already been 
completed by his master and by Hereford in 
1380. This 1380 translation is in a language 
hardly to be called English. It is a verbatim 
rendering of the Vulgate, with little or no 
consideration for the idiomatic differences be- 
tween the Latin and the English tongues. 
Wiclif 's own part offends less in this respect 
than Hereford's ; but the work of each needed 
anglicising or englishing; and this was the 
improvement Purvey set himself to carry out, 
probably with Wiclif 's concurrence if not at 
his suggestion, and with the assistance of 
other scholars. In the ' General Prologue,' 
which was certainly composed by Purvey, 
there is an excellent account of his new and 
famous version. It was not merely a revision of 
the older copy, but substantially a new work 
based upon it. ' A simple creature,' Purvey 
writes, 'hath translated the Bible out of Latin 
into English. First, this simple creature had 
much travail, with divers fellows and helpers, 
to gather many old Bibles and other doctors 
and common glosses, and to make one Latin 
Bible some deal true ; and then to study it 
anew, the text with the gloss and other 
doctors as he might get, and specially Lire 
[de Lyra] on the Old Testament, that helped 
full much in this work ; the [third time to 
counsel with old grammarians and old 
divines of hard words and hard sentences, 
how they might be best understood and trans- 
lated ; the fourth time to translate as he 
could to the sentence, and to have many 
good fellows and cunning at the correcting 
of the translation.' 

He was probably in the midst of this noble 
undertaking when Wiclif died in 1 384. From 
Lutterworth Purvey then seems to have gone 
to Bristol, a city well known for its sympa- 
thies with the new religious movement, where 
probably, in 1388, his version of the bible was 
completed. There, too, and in other parts of 
the country, he served as one of that body of 
poor preachers which Wiclif had organised. 



He was soon a marked man. In August 1387 
he was forbidden by the bishop of Worcester 
to ' itinerate ' in his diocese ; and in the 
two following years his books were placed 
among those which the bishops of Worces- 
ter, Salisbury, and Hereford were authorised 
to seize. In 1390 he was himself imprisoned; 
but even in prison he continued his course 
as a faithful Wiclifite, writing a commentary 
on the Apocalypse, founded on notes of cer- 
tain lectures of Wiclif, probably heard in his 
undergraduate days. Besides this and the 
Bible version, other works from his hands 
were : ' Ecclesise Regimen,' an indictment of 
the corruptions of the church, and ' De Com- 
pendiis Scripturarum, Paternarum Doctrina- 
rum et Canonum.' From the former of these 
one Richard Lavenham or Lavyngham [q. v.] 
in 1396 collected ' the heresies and errors of 
the Rev. [Domini] John Purvey, priest.' 

How long Purvey lay in prison we do not 
know ; but in 1400-1 he was brought before 
convocation ; and, unable to face a death by 
burning, such as the brutal bigotry of his 
persecutors had just inflicted on William 
Sawtrey [q. v.], he submitted to the humi- 
liation of ' confessing and revoking ' his aber- 
rations from the regnant orthodoxy (see 
his ' Confessio et Revocatio ' in Fasciculi 
Zizanio)~um). For a time Purvey remained 
at peace with his enemies. They were, no 
doubt, anxious to attach to their side one so 
capable and so energetic. In August 1401 
he was inducted to the vicarage of West 
Hythe, Kent. But, like others of his party 
who had been similarly terrorised, he was ill 
at ease in his new position. In October 1403 
he resigned his living. During the next eigh- 
teen years he doubtless preached where he 
could. According to Walden, he held the 
tenet ' Omnes sacerdotes teneri ad predi- 
candum sub pena peccati.' In 1421 he was 
imprisoned by Archbishop Chicheley. There 
is reason to believe he was living in 1427, or 
later. According to Messrs. Forshall and 
Madden, some handwriting of his appears on 
a manuscript at Trinity College, Dublin, con- 
taining a memorial to Cardinal Beaufort, and 
Henry Beaufort was not raised to the cardi- 
nalate till 1427. 

[The Holy Bible in the Earliest English Ver- 
sions made from the Latin Vulgate by John 
Wycliffe and his Followers, ed. Forshall and 
Madden, 4 vols., 1850 ; Lechler's John Wycliffe 
and his English Precursors, transl. and ed. by 
Professor Lorimer, new ed. 1884; Fasciculi 
Zizaniorum,&c., ed. Shirley (Rolls Ser.), 1858; 
Netterof Walden'sDoctrinaleAntiquitatumFidei 
Ecclesise Catholicae, vols. i. and ii. of the 1757 
Venice edit. ; Knighton's Chronica, bk. v. apud 
Twjsden's Hist. Angl. Scriptores x.] J. W. H. 



Puseley 



53 



Pusey 



PUSELEY, DANIEL (1814-1882), 
author under the pseudonym of Frank Fos- 
ter, son of Henry Puseley, maltster, was 
born at Bideford, Devonshire, on 9 Feb. 
1814, and was educated at the grammar 
school in that town. At an early age he 
obtained a clerkship in a London mercantile 
house, and was afterwards a commercial 
traveller. In 1844 he became a hosier and 
silk merchant in Gutter Lane, city of London. 

He was known as a public speaker on po- 
litical and literary subjects, and as a remark- 
ably good public reader. In 1854 he went 
to Australia for his health, and after his re- 
turn published ' The Rise and Progress of 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. By 
an Englishman,' 1857 ; the fourth edition, in 
1858, bore his own name. He returned to 
Australia in 1857. Settling again in England, 
he devoted himself to literature and to philan- 
thropic undertakings. In 1868 he gave a ban- 
quet, the first of its kind, to six hundred 
ragged-school children, at St. James's Hall, 
London. In later life he was impoverished 
by the loss of his savings in foreign stocks. He 
died at 21 Rochester Road, Camden Town, 
London, on 18 Jan. 1882, and was buried in 
Highgate cemetery. He married, on 27 July 
1844, Mary Anne, daughter of John Darling- 
ton, builder, London, by whom he had four 
sons : Herbert John, who edited a news- 
paper at Melbourne, Australia; Berkeley 
Edward, who was a newspaper correspondent 
in Cyprus, Egypt, and Afghanistan ; Percy 
Daniel ; and Sydney George. 

Pnseley's chief publications, other than 
those noticed, were : 1. ' Harry Mustifer, or 
a few years on the Road : Miscellaneous 
Poems,' anon., 1847. 2. 'The Saturday Early 
Closing Movement. By a Warehouseman/ 
1854. 3. ' The Commercial Companion for 
the United Kingdom : a Record of eminent 
Commercial Houses and Men of the Day,' 
1858; 3rd edit, 1860. 4. 'Five Dramas,' 
1860. 5. ' Dependence or Independence ; or 
Mental Culture on the part of the Poor as 
the means of Social and Moral Elevation,' 

1875. 6. 'New Plays by an Old Author,' 

1876. The preface is signed ' An English- 
man.' 

Under the name of Frank Foster he 
wrote : 7. ' Number One, or the Way of the 
World. A Colonial Directory, including 
Sydney, Melbourne, and New Zealand,' vol. 
i. 1802. No more published in this form ; 
5th edit. 1865, 3 vols. 8. ' The Age we 
Live in, or Doings of the Day,' 1863; with 
a portrait of the author. 9. ' A Journey 
of Life in Long and Short Stages,' I860. 
10. 'An Old Acquaintance,' 1866. 11. 'The 
Belgian Volunteers' Visit to England in 



1807, with a Summary of the Belgian Re- 
ception of EnglishVolunteers,' 1867. 12. 'Our 
Premier, or Love and Duty,' 1867. 13. ' The 
Tourist's Assistant, a Popular Guide to Water- 
ing Places in England and Wales, with a 
Railway Key to the Paris Exhibition,' 1867 ; 
3rd edit. 18(58. 14. ' Who'd be an Author? 
with the Answer,' 1869. 15. ' Faith, Hope, 
and Charity. By an Old Author,' 1 863 ; 2nd 
edit. 1870. 16. 'All Round the World, or 
what's the Object ? ' 1876, 3 vols. 

[Academy, 28 Jan. 1882, p. 63 ; Athenaeum, 
28 Jan. 1882, p. 127; information from Mrs. 
Daniel Puseley.] G. 0. B. 

PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE(1800- 
1882), regius professor of Hebrew at Ox- 
ford and canon of Christ Church, was second 
son of Philip Pusey (youngest son of Jacob 
Bouverie, first viscount Folkestone), who 
adopted the surname of Pusey when he suc- 
ceeded in 1789 to the estates of the old Pusey 
family at Pusey, a small village in Berkshire. 
His elder brother, Philip Pusey, is noticed 
separately. Edward was born at Pusey on 
22 Aug. 1 800. He received his earliest teach- 
ing at a preparatory school at Mitcham in 
Surrey, kept by the Rev. Richard Roberts; 
thence, in 1812, he passed to Eton, and, after 
spending two years under the tuition of Dr. 
Edward Maltby [q. v.] (afterwards bishop 
of Durham), he matriculated at Oxford as a 
member of Christ Church in 1819. His name 
appears in the first class of the classical 
honours list in 1822, and in the following 
year he gained, after open competition, a 
fellowship at Oriel College. This was at the 
time one of the most coveted distinctions in 
the university. In 1824 he won the university 
Latin-essay prize with an essay on the ' Com- 
parison between the Colonies of Greece and 
Rome.' 

Pusey graduated B.A. in 1822 and M.A. 
in 1825. The intervening years determined 
the whole drift of his after-life. At Oriel 
he was brought into contact and intimacy 
with his brother-fellows Keble and Newman, 
while Dr. Charles Lloyd (1784-1829) Tq. v.], 
regius professor of divinity, also exerted great 
influence on him. Lloyd was deeply im- 
pressed with the dangers that would beset 
the introduction into England of the bibli- 
cal criticism and exegesis at that time cur- 
rent in Germany ; and he strongly urged 
upon Pusey the advisability of a prolonged 
residence at several of the German univer- 
sities so as to acquire familiarity with the 
language and theological literature of that 
country. Consequently Pusey spent the 
greater part of two years, from 1825 to 
1827,atG6ttingen (where he formed afriend- 



Pusey 



54 



Pusey 



ship with Bunsen), Berlin, and Bonn. He 
studied at first under Eichhorn and Schleier- 
macher, and enjoyed the friendship of Tho- 
luck and Neander. It was not long before 
he fully appreciated the necessity for a careful 
preparation to resist the attack that was 
threatened upon revealed religion. He knew 
enough of the condition of theology in Eng- 
land to see how entirely unprepared English 
churchmen were to handle such questions. 
To complete his equipment as a champion of 
orthodoxy, he turned to the study of oriental 
languages, placing himself under the instruc- 
tion first of Kosegarten, the professor of 
theology at Greifswald, and then of Freytag, 
the professor of oriental languages at Bonn. 
His devotion to Syriac and Arabic studies 
seriously affected his health, but he was able 
to finish his work, and returned to England 
in June 1827. Very soon after his return 
he published his first book, ' An Historical 
Enquiry into the Probable Causes of the Ra- 
tionalist Character lately predominant in the 
Theology of Germany.' It was an answer to 
a course of lectures which had been delivered 
before the university of Cambridge by Hugh 
James Rose [q.v.] on the same subject. Rose j 
had endeavoured to trace German rationalism | 
almost exclusively to the absence of that con- 
trol which is provided in the church of Eng- 
land by formularies of faith and devotion and 
by its episcopal form of government. The 
natural conclusion from Rose's argument was 
that the English church, possessing as it did 
such safeguards, need not fear the rationalism 
into which the German protestant bodies had 
lapsed from want of them. Pusey was con- 
vinced that there was every reason for such 
a fear. He saw in German rationalism the 
outcome of ' dead orthodoxism,' of a merely 
formal correctness of belief without any corre- 
sponding spiritual vitality. The church of 
England seemed to him to betray similar 
symptoms. The aim of his book was to trace 
historically the working of this * orthodoxism ' 
in the decadence of the religious life of Ger- 
man protestants. Many of his expressions, 
and his evident sympathies with the German 
pietists, caused the book to be widely mis- 
understood in England. Its writer was sup- 
posed to have sympathies not merely with 
pietism, but also with rationalism, if not to 
be himself a rationalist. He defended him- 
self from these charges at great length, and in 
guarded language, in a ' Second Part ; ' but, 
although he always maintained that he had 
not at any time, in any sense whatever, held 
rationalistic views, the charges reappeared 
from time to time through his life. In later 
years he was greatly dissatisfied with this 
first book and its sequel. He never reprinted 



them, and in a will which he drew up a few 
years before his death he forbade any one to 
do so. 

On 1 June 1828 he was ordained deacon, and 
in the following November he was appointed 
by the prime minister, theDuke of Wellington, 
to the chair of the regius professor of Hebrew 
in Oxford ; to this office was attached a ca- 
nonry at Christ Church, Oxford, the accept- 
ance of which necessitated Pusey's ordination 
to the priesthood. His position as professor 
was thus at once academical and ecclesias- 
tical; his duties, as he understood them, were 
therefore at least as much theological as lin- 
guistic. But from the first he set himself a 
high standard of duty as regards the teaching 
of Hebrew in the university. The university 
statutes contemplated only one lecture twice 
a week ; but from the first, with the assistance 
of a qualified deputy, Pusey provided three 
sets of lectures, each three times a week. In 
these lectures he treated the study of Hebrew 
as a religious subject, and deemed it unad- 
visable to confuse the minds of his young 
hearers with what he called the dryness of 
the ' lower criticism,' or with the precarious 
assertions of the ' higher.' He aimed at im- 
parting a full idiomatic knowledge of the 
language, so that the student might ' enter 
more fully into the simple meaning of God's 
word.' He sometimes addressed large classes 
on general subjects, like inspiration or pro- 
phecy, but always preferred to give what he 
called 'solid instruction' in the deeper mean- 
ing of scripture to a small class of men of 
fairly equal proficiency. In the early years of 
his professorship the attendance at his lectures 
was large ; it was chiefly made up of graduates 
preparing for ordination. In later years, owing 
to the establishment of theological colleges, 
the opening of fellowships to laymen, and 
other causes, far fewer students prepared in 
Oxford for ordination, and the demand for 
instruction such as Pusey desired to give 
diminished. In 1832, in conjunction with 
his brother Philip and his friend Dr. Eller- 
ton, he founded the three Pusey and Ellerton 
Hebrew scholarships. 

Pusey inherited, as a legacy of duty from 
his predecessor, Dr. Alexander Nicoll [q. v.], 
the laborious task of completing the cata- 
logue of Arabic manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library. To this he devoted nearly six years. 
When completed it proved a monument of 
patient learning. The only lectures that he 
published in direct connection with the He- 
brew chair were on the book of Daniel (Lec- 
tures on Daniel the Prophet, Oxford, 8vo, 
1864). His ' Minor Prophets, with a Com- 
mentary, Explanatory and Practical, and In- 
troduction to the Several Books,' which ap- 



Pusey 



55 



Pusey 



peared in six parts between 1 860 and 1 877, was 
not addressed to Hebrew students. It was 
part of a scheme for a popular commentary 
on the whole Bible, of which Pusey alone 
completed his share. 

Great as was Pusey's oriental learning and 
widely exerted as was his influence in pre- 
venting the adoption in England of immature 
critical theories, the main work of his career 
was in connection with that great revival 
of church life which began between 1830 
and 1840. 

Pusey was in his early years a liberal in 
politics. He advocated Peel's re-election for 
the university in 1829, after his adoption of 
.Roman catholic emancipation, and spoke of 
the Test Acts as ' disgraceful laws.' But the 
overwhelming triumph of political liberalism 
in 1832 seemed to him to threaten the 
church of England with change or mutila- 
tion, and, like others of her firmest adhe- 
rents, he grew alarmed. His first attempt 
to assist in repelling the attacks of liberal- 
ism on the church appeared in the form of 
a reply to some proposals for the reform of 
the English cathedral system, which were 
recommended in 1832 by Lord Henley, the 
son-in-law of Sir Robert Peel. In his ' Re- 
marks on the Prospective and Past Benefits 
of Cathedral Institutions ' (1833). Pusey de- 
fended the existing system as having supplied 
some of the clergy with those opportunities 
for study which had produced, and would 
produce again, the chief works in English 
theology, and the soundest schemes of theo- 
logical teaching. At the same time he sug- 
gested a few changes in the principles on 
which appointments were made to the chap- 
ters. Some of these have since been inde- 
pendently adopted. But Pusey came to see 
that the times called for a more thorough 
defence of the church. To meet the prevail- 
ing ignorance there was need of a full state- 
ment of the points in which the church of 
England radically differed from the various 
nonconformist sects, which, to the popular 
mind, claimed equally to represent primitive 
Christianity. At the same time the advances 
of rationalism could only be stemmed by the 
steady growth among the church's defenders 
of the conviction that she was divinely in- 
stituted. His friend Newman grasped this 
position before Pusey, and soon gave prac- 
tical effect to his view. In September 1833 
Newman commenced the ' Tracts for the 
Times,' with the object of ' contributing 
something towards the practical revival of 
doctrines [such as the apostolic succession 
and the holy catholic church] which, although 
held by the great divines of our church, have 
become practically obsolete with the ma- 



jority of her members' (Tracts for the Times, 
vol. i., advertisement). Keble and others 
joined him at once. At the end of the year 
Pusey began to work with them, but it was 
nearly two years before he had health and 
leisure to throw all his energy into the 
movement. 

Pusey's adhesion to the Oxford movement 
lent it great weight. His learning, academi- 
cal and social position, high character, and 
open-hearted charity had already made him 
well known. ' He was able,' as Newman 
said, ' to give a name, a power, and a per- 
sonality to what was without him a sort 
of mob.' Popular report soon gave him a 
prominence beyond that which was due to 
his actual share in the early stages of the work. 
He was ranked with Newman as the prime 
mover, and the whole revival was called in- 
differently ' Puseyism ' or ' Newmania.' He 
soon altered the character of the ' Tracts ' from 
stirring appeals to solid doctrinal treatises. 
His own most important contributions to 
them were those on baptism and on the holy 
eucharist. The former, entitled ' Scriptural 
Views of Holy Baptism,' was published in 
three parts (Nos. 67, 68, and 69 of the 
' Tracts ') in August-October 1835. In these 
Pusey maintained that regeneration is con- 
nected with baptism both in scripture and in 
the writings of the early church. A second 
edition of the first. of the three tracts ap- 
peared in 1839 ; in it the argument was 
entirely confined to scripture, but was ex- 
panded from forty-nine to four hundred pages. 
Pusey never had leisure to restate the argu- 
ment from the fathers. His ' Tracts ' on the 
holy eucharist appeared in 1836. Their pri- 
mary object was to recall the attention of 
churchmen to the almost forgotten sacrificial 
aspect of the eucharist, as it was held by the 
early church and constantly asserted in the 
writings of the best Anglican divines. At the 
same time he was careful to guard his state- 
ments against any popular confusion with the 
distinctive doctrine of the Roman church. 

But he rendered perhaps greater literary 
service to the work of the Oxford school by 
his scheme for translating the most valuable 
of the writings of the fathers. ' The Oxford 
Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic 
Church, anterior to the Division of East and 
West,' was planned in the summer of 1836. 
It at once enlisted the interest of William 
Howley, archbishop of Canterbury, and of a 
wide circle of readers ; at one time there were 
3,700 subscribers. The first volume appeared 
in 1838. It was a translation of St. Augus- 
tine's ' Confessions,' with a careful preface 
by Pusey on the value and necessity of patris- 
tic study, and on the special interest of St 



Pusey 



Augustine's religious autobiography. There 
were forty-eight volumes, in the whole series, 
the last volumes appearing after Pusey's death . 

Pusey's sermons, however, were even more 
influential than his literary labours. He 
preached wherever he was asked to go in the 
iiniversitypulpit,at Christ Church,in London, 
and at the seaside in summer holidays. He 
had certainly neither the voice, nor the style, 
nor any of the gestures of an orator ; nor had 
he the brilliancy and the lucidity of a popular 
preacher; but the intense reality of his lan- 
guage, his profound earnestness and spiritu- 
ality, and the searchingly practical character 
of his teaching, compelled the respectful at- 
tention even of the unsympathet ic. Sara Cole- 
ridge wrote of his preaching: ' He is certainly, 
to my feelings, more impressive than any one 
else in the pulpit, though he has not one of the 
graces of oratory. His discourse is generally 
a rhapsody, describing with infinite repe- 
tition and accumulativeness the wickedness 
of sin, the worthlessness of earth, and the 
blessedness of heaven. He is as still as a 
statue all the time he is uttering it, looks as 
white as a sheet, and is as monotonous in 
delivery as possible. While listening to him 
you do not seem to see and hear a preacher, 
but to have visible before you a most earnest 
and devout spirit, striving to carry out in 
this world a high religious theory' (Memoir 
of Sara Coleridge, i. 332-3). 

Pusey's position in the church and uni- 
versity compelled him to take a leading 
share in the public defence of the church and 
of the ' Oxford movement ' within it. Thus 
in the early days of 1836 he was one of the 
most prominent opponents of the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Renn Dickson Hampden [q. v.] 
to the chief professorial chair of theology at 
Oxford, and issued two pamphlets controvert- 
ing Hampden's theological views. In April of 
the same year he published the first of many 
defences of tractarianism in an ' Earnest Re- 
monstrance ' against a pamphlet called ' The 
Pope's Pastoral Letter,' which charged the 
tractarians with unfaithfulness to the Eng- 
lish church. Pusey only answered this pam- 
phlet because it was currently, but inaccu- 
rately, supposed to be from the pen of Dr. 
Arnold, whose notorious article on the ' Ox- 
ford Malignants ' appeared almost simul- 
taneously in the ' Edinburgh Review.' Pusey 
argued that if the Oxford tract-writers taught 
doctrines peculiar to the Roman catholic por- 
tion of the Christian church, they did so in 
the company of the best theologians of the 
Anglican church. Similarly, in 1839, Dr. 
Bagot, the bishop of Oxford, was so perplexed 
by the attitude of Pusey that he requested 
him to make some form of declaration which 



would clearly show his loyalty to the Eng- 
lish church. This Pusey did, in the form of a 
long ' Letter to the Bishop of Oxford.' He 
tried to show in the case of each of the 
Thirty-nine Articles, which had been quoted 
against the Oxford writers, that its true mean- 
ing was clearly distinct from the ' Roman ' 
doctrine which he was supposed to hold, 
as well as from that popular ' ultra pro- 
testant ' interpretation which his accusers 
had placed on it. He claimed that such a 
via media was no weak compromise, but 
the ' old faith ' of the primitive church ' after 
whose model our own was reformed.' Again, 
in 1841, he identified himself with Newman 
when the heads of houses condemned the 
interpretation which Newman had put upon 
the Thirty-nine Articles in ' Tract No. XC. J 
Privately he did his utmost to prevent any 
condemnation of his friend by the bishop of 
Oxford, and he also published a long 'Letter 
to Dr. Jelf,' in which he contended that 
j Newman's interpretation of the articles was 
! not ' only an admissible, but the most legiti- 
! mate 'interpretation of them. Again, in!842, 
he addressed a letter to Howley, archbishop 
of Canterbury, in the hope of stopping the 
storm of condemnation which the English 
bishops were directing against the ' Tracts ' 
and their writers. He especially dreaded 1 
the effect that such charges might have 
upon Newman's relation to the English 
church. In this letter he acknowledged that 
a tendency to conversion to Rome was grow- 
ing, but declined to credit the ' Tracts ' with 
that effect ; its real cause (he said) lay in 
the evil condition of the church of England, 
which was far from irremediable. 

In a few years Pusey had become practi- 
cally the leader in the Oxford revival. From 
1841 Newman was much less in Oxford 
than before, and Keble rarely left his country 
parish. Pusey was always in Oxford, and was 
still on good terms with his ecclesiastical su- 
periors. His position was greatly strengthened 
by his condemnation for heresy in June 1843 
by the vice-chancellor. On 14 May he had 
preached a sermon at Christ Church, which 
was afterwards published under the title 
of ' The Holy Eucharist : a Comfort to the 
Penitent.' Its main object was to show 
that one who is truly penitent for his sins 
could find the most solid comfort in the 
holy eucharist, both as a commemorative 
sacrifice wherein he pleads Christ's one 
meritorious sacrifice for all his sins, and also 
as a sacrament wherein he receives spiritual 
food and sustenance. But this simple teach- 
ing was wrapped up in the language of the 
early fathers of the church, to which many of 
his hearers were suspicious strangers. One of 



Pusey 



57 



Pusey 



them delated the sermon to the vice-chan- 
cellor, who, in accordance with the statute 
which regulated the examination of delated 
sermons, appointed six doctors of divinity to 
investigate its teaching. The proceedings 
formed a series of most unfortunate mistakes, 
although in such a complicated matter it is 
impossible to charge any one with intentional 
unfairness ; and in the end Pusey was sus- 
pended for two years from his office as a 
preacher before the university. The only 
charge alleged against him in the formal 
judgment was that he had taught ' qusedam 
doctrinse ecclesise Anglicanae dissona et con- 
traria.' There was a general outcry against 
this severe punishment, inflicted for an un- 
defined offence upon one of the most learned 
and revered members of the university, who 
had not been allowed a hearing in self- 
defence. Among those who signed an address 
to the vice-chancellor regretting Pusey's con- 
demnation was Mr. Gladstone, who also wrote 
to Pusey in the same sense. From this time 
their relations were cordial; they frequently 
corresponded, and Pusey supported Mr. Glad- 
stone's candidature for the university in 1847. 
But he strongly objected to Mr. Gladstone's 
support of the removal of Jewish disabilities, 
to his advocacy of the admission of the laity 
to convocation ; and further divergence of 
opinion manifested itself over the University 
Eeform Act of 1854. 

During the three years following Pusey's 
condemnation events moved rapidly. The 
sentence upon Pusey was one of the many 
causes which, to Pusey's great sorrow, led 
Newman to resign his living in Oxford ; and 
on 9 Oct. 1845 Newman was received into 
the Roman church. Pusey, who never lost 
his deep personal affection for his friend, was 
thenceforward left to guide the revival. His 
nature was less sensitive; he was far less dis- 
turbed by abuse, and. was never haunted by 
theological spectres, as Newman had been 
since 1839. He strenuously maintained that 
Newman's action was not the legitimate goal 
of his earlier belief; and, without Newman, 
he continued his work as before. In the same 
month as Newman seceded, he faced a storm 
of attack at Leeds at the consecration of St. 
Saviour's Church, -of which he was the un- 
known founder. The first idea of the scheme 
occurred to him in 1839 after his wife's 
death ; it was to be an act of penitence, and 
Pusey kept his share in it a complete secret. 
The foundation-stone was laid on 14 Sept. 
1842, and, after many objections raised to 
details in its construction by Dr. Longley, 
bishop of Hipon, the church was finally con- 
secrated in October 1845. The total cost to 
Pusey was some 6,000/., which he saved en- 



tirely out of income. He preached a series 
of sermons at the consecration, which were 
afterwards published in a volume. On 1 Feb. 
1846 he resumed his preaching before the uni- 
versity, and there he reiterated the teaching 
for which he believed that he had been con- 
demned. In this sermon, however, the ob- 
jectionable doctrine was expressed in the 
language of English divines whose orthodoxy 
was unimpeachable. 

During the years that immediately fol- 
lowed, Pusey's work lay less in the university 
than in the church at large. With the gene- 
rous assistance of a large body of laymen, he 
made in 1845 the first attempt for at least 
two hundred years to establish an Anglican 
sisterhood (in London). This was followed 

| in 1849 by the establishment of another in- 
stitution of the same kind in Devonport; 
and it was not long before the example was 
followed at Oxford, Clewer, Wantage, and 
other places. Pusey was the chief pioneer 
throughout. He was confident that such 
machinery was needed for the sake of the 
poor, for the development of spiritual life in 
the church of England, and for the protection 
and support of ladies who wished to devote 
their lives to charitable effort. But ordinary 
Englishmen only knew such institutions as 
part of the system of the Roman church ; and 
the suspicion with which Pusey was regarded 
inprotestantcirclesjncreased. The numerous 
sisterhoods attached to the church of England 
at the present day are the results of his la- 
bour and the proofs of his faithfulness. To 
Pusey also was mainly due the revival of the 
practice of private confession, which he de- 
clared to be authorised by the teaching and 
custom of the Anglican church since the 
reformation. He defended his action in the 
matter in a letter addressed to the Rev. 
W. U. Richards in 1850, called ' The Church 
of England leaves her Children free to whom 
to open their Griefs,' and he contributed an 
elaborate preface to a translation of the 
Abbe GauraS's ' Manual of Confessors.' He 

i encouraged the spread of ritualism, though 
he himself used but little ceremonial; and 
he took a leading part in the defence of those 
who were from time to time charged with 
ritualistic practices. 

Despite the persistent outcry against him, 
Pusey continued to reassert the principles 
on which tractarianism rested, and to strain 
all his energies in dissuading those who held 
those principles from yielding to the tempta- 
tion of joining the church of Rome. His 
position grew increasingly difficult. The 
decision of the privy council in the Gorham 
case in 1850 was followed by the secession 
of many distinguished clergymen, including 



Pusey 



Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) Manning; 
and some of the seceders strove to show that 
Pusey was guilty of cowardice and inconsis- 
tency in not following their example. At 
the same moment, too, the second set of clergy 
whom Pusey had sent to the church he had 
built at Leeds followed in the steps of the 
first vicar, the Rev. Richard Ward, and went 
over to Rome. The so-called ' Papal aggres- 
sion ' of 1850 intensified the hatred felt for 
the party which Pusey represented. This 
year was perhaps the most clouded in the 
whole of his life. Blomfield, bishop of Lon- 
don, openly attacked him in a charge to 
his clergy, and Bishop Wilberforce (of Ox- 
ford) secretly inhibited him from preaching 
in his diocese. He defended himself against 
aspersions on his character in private and 
public letters, especially in his ' Letter to 
the Bishop of London,' written in 1850. 
But while he declined to make any declara- 
tion against the church of Rome, he asserted 
at a public meeting that it was his intention 
to die in the bosom of the church of Eng- 
land. Such an utterance reassured many 
wavering friends, and did not a little to stay 
the steps of intending seceders. In 1856, 
when Archdeacon Denison was charged with 
holding heretical views on the doctrine of the 
holy eucharist, Pusey published, by way of 
supporting him, ' The Doctrine of the Real 
Presence, as contained in the Fathers, from 
the death of St. John the Evangelist to the 
fourth General Council, vindicated in Notes 
on a Sermon, "The Presence of Christ in the 
Holy Eucharist," preached A.D. 1853 before 
the University of Oxford.' This appendix 
to a sermon is a volume of upwards of seven 
hundred pages, containing not only quota- 
tions from the fathers, but also a large mass 
of other information on the doctrine of the 
holy eucharist. A supplement was issued 
in 1857, when the trial had been decided in 
the archdeacon's favour, entitled ' The Real 
Presence of the Body and Blood of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Doctrine of the English 
Church.' 

Pusey's work in the tractarian movement 
had aimed at the strengthening of the church 
of England by the restoration of those portions 
of the teaching of the church which for some 
years had been overlooked. The opposition of 
earnest low churchmen to the ' Oxford move- 
ment ' had, in his opinion, encouraged the 
growth of latitudinarianism,the possibility of 
which he had foreseen since he had studied in 
Germany. He therefore turned in later life 
from the war on behalf of tractarianism to 
engage in conflict with the latitudinarian ten- 
dency. The struggle first, centred round the 
reform of the university. The first royal uni- 



versity commission had recommended many 
changes which were unwelcome to a 1 arge body 
of the resident members of the university. In 
the agitation which followed the publication 
of their report in 1852, Pusey was the selected 
champion of the old order of things. The 
heads of houses issued a report in reply to 
that of the commissioners, and at the head 
of the volume they placed Pusey's evidence 
on the proposed changes. It is a lengthy 
and learned defence of the tutorial system 
of the English universities, and of clerical 
influence in the training of young men, as 
against the scheme for increasing the pro- 
fessoriate and diminishing the number of 
clerical tutorships. He followed up the sub- 
ject in 1854 in a defence of his evidence, 
entitled ' Collegiate and Professorial Teach- 
ing and Discipline,' in which he insisted 
on the training of the moral and religious 
nature as the true object of the uni- 
versities, with and through the discipline 
of the intellect ; and he maintained that it 
would be a perversion of a university to turn 
it into ' a forcing-house for intellect.' When 
the act, based on the recommendation of the 
commission, had passed, Pusey was at once 
elected to the new hebdomadal council 
which, under this act, displaced the old board 
of heads of houses. In this council he retained 
a prominent place until he was compelled to 
resign it by old age. Pusey fought the battle 
of the church in council and convocation ; 
but it was throughout a losing cause. The 
constitution of the university was steadily 
altered according to the will of the liberal 
party ; but Pusey's opposition at least secured 
a breathing-space for the church to prepare for 
the altered conditions of its life in Oxford. 

A more direct conflict with latitudinarian 
teaching followed. Pusey had preached seve- 
ral times in the university pulpit directly in 
defence of the faith, especially two striking 
sermons, in 1855, on the 'Nature of Faith in 
relation to Reason.' The notes to these ser- 
mons made it clear that he regarded the un- 
dogmatic theological teaching of the regius 
professor of Greek, Benjamin Jowett, as a 
serious danger to the youth of Oxford. When, 
therefore, a proposal was brought before the 
university that the very inadequate stipend 
of that professorship should be increased, 
Pusey felt bound to oppose it. He feared 
that acceptance of such a proposal would be 
understood to express approval of the teach- 
ing of the holder of the Greek chair. Eventu- 
ally, to justify this opposition, he endeavoured 
to do for Jowett what he repeatedly desired 
to have done in his own case. He attempted 
to submit the doctrinal question to the de- 
cision of a court of law. Accordingly, in 



Pusey 



59 



Pusey 



1862, he charged Jowett, before the court of 
the chancellor of the university, with teach- 
ing opinions on the atonement, inspiration, 
and creeds which were not in accordance with 
the doctrine of the church of England. In a 
correspondence in the 'Times 'he stated that 
the object of the suit was to ascertain whether 
the university, in its altered condition, was 
willing to allow such teaching. On 27 Feb. 
1863 the court decided not to hear the case, in 
terms which Pusey understood to mean that 
a professor's theological teaching could not 
be impugned, unless it was given, as Jowett's 
was not, in his official lectures. Under these 
circumstances, he himself voted in the follow- 
ing March for the proposal to increase the en- 
dowment of the Greek chair out of the funds 
of the university ; and, when this was rejected, 
he assisted in another arrangement whereby 
the chapter of Christ Church supplied the 
requisite sum of money. This suit, in which 
Pusey's discretion may be blamed, embittered 
controversy in the university for many years. 
Jowett's friends could not forget his action 
any more than those who supported Pusey 
in the prosecution could understand why he 
afterwards abandoned his opposition. 

While this subject was occupying the uni- 
versity, the prosecution for heresy of two of 
the writers in ' Essays and Reviews ' had re- 
sulted in a decision of the privy council in 
favour of their teaching. Such a judgment 
would, Pusey feared, encourage conversions 
to Eome, as in the Gorham case. With a 
view to neutralise the effects of the judgment, 
he published letters, pamphlets, explanations, 
appeals to patience, a valuable paper on 
Genesis (read at the church congress), and 
his lectures on Daniel ; he also began a series 
of appeals by which he hoped to draw the 
members of the Eoman church to desire re- 
union with the church of England in the 
presence of this growing common danger of 
unbelief. Already the members of the high 
and low church within the church of England 
had shown a readiness to unite. But in April 
1865 Manning, who at the end of the month 
was appointed to succeed Wiseman as arch- 
bishop of Westminster, asserted that the 
church of England was the real cause of in- I 
fidelity by its denial of very much of the truth ' 
which the Roman church held; and he further 
twitted Pusey with forsaking his old posi- ', 
tion by allying himself with the evangelicals 
against unbelief. Pusey's first appeal for re- ' 
union was in a letter to Keble, which he called 
' The Church of England a Portion of Christ's 
one holy Catholic Church, and a Means of re- 
storing visible Unity. An Eirenicon ' (1865). 
He maintained that English churchmen were 
prevented from union with Rome not so much 



by the authorised teaching of the Roman 
church as by the unauthorised (although per- 
mitted) practical systems of devotion to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and of the teaching about 
purgatory and indulgences. He appealed to 
the Roman church to disclaim the extreme 
statements which he quoted, and to allow a 
hope of reunion on the basis of an explana- 
tion of the teaching of the council of Trent. 
At the same time he reissued, with an his- 
torical preface, Newman's 'Tract No. XC,' 
which asserted the true meaning of the 
articles. Several Roman catholic writers fa- 
vourably responded to this appeal, and many 
French bishops, with whom Pusey had inter- 
views, gave him great encouragement, espe- 
cially Monsignor Darboy, archbishop of Paris. 
This first ' Eirenicon ' was formally answered 
in 1866 by Newman in ' A Letter to the Rev. 
E.B. Pusey on his recent "Eirenicon."' New- 
man did not attempt to justify much of the 
language which Pusey had quoted with regard 
to the Virgin Mary ; but he maintained that, 
when quoted without the balance of its con- 
text of devotion to Christ, it could not be fairly 
judged. He held out little hope of reunion 
on any principle that Pusey could accept. As 
soon as Newman's reply was issued, Pusey 
set to work on a second ' Eirenicon.' This was 
addressed to Newman himself. He completed 
it before the end of the year (1866) ; but its 
publication was delaved, partly because of the 
hostile attitude of the Roman catholics, and 
yet more because of a vehement outburst of 
hostility to ritualism within the church of 
England. But early in 1869 the approach- 
ing meeting of the Vatican council in 1870 
caused Pusey at last to issue it ; it dealt almost 
throughout, in reply to Newman's letter, with 
the question of the immaculate conception of 
the Virgin Mary, and it was thought possible 
that this subject would occupy the attention 
of the council. The argument of this ' First 
Letter to the Very Rev. J. H. Newman' was 
based on the authorities cited in the elaborate 
but almost unknown work which Cardinal 
de Turrecremata compiled at the mandate 
of the papal legates who presided at the 
council of Basle in 1437, and an analysis of 
that work was appended to the volume. A 
few months later, in July 1869, Pusey pub- 
lished an edition of the Latin original of the 
cardinal's work, the text of which had been 
prepared for him by Dr. Stubbs, then regius 
professor of modern history at Oxford. These 
books he followed up at once by a third 
'Eirenicon,' dated 1 Nov. 1869, under the 
title ' Is Healthful Reunion Impossible ? A 
Second Letter to the Very Rev. J. H. New- 
man.' In this last appeal he discusses all 
the ordinary difficulties in the way of re- 



Pusey 



Pusey 



union between England and Home, laying 
special stress on the question of purgatory, 
of the deutero-canonical books, and of the 
exact meaning of the ' Roman supremacy.' 
He specially emphasised the principles of the 
Gallican church as held by Bossuet, hoping 
to get a hearing on the strength of his au- 
thority. He asked for some clear terms 
of reunion which would save those who ac- 
cepted them from complicity in the many and 
unjustifiable practices and opinions which 
were not authoritatively allowed, and yet not 
forbidden, in the Roman communion. This 
work he sent to many of the Roman catho- 
lic bishops who had gone to Rome to attend 
the Vatican council, and of whose sympathy 
he was assured ; but most of the copies 
came back undelivered, and Anglicanism, as 
Pusey held it, was unable to get a hearing. 
The complete triumph of ultramontanism at 
the council annihilated all his hopes. A 
copy of his third ' Eirenicon ' was found in 
his library after his death, in which he had 
expressed his despair of reunion by altering 
its title to ' Healthful Reunion as considered 
possible, before the Vatican Council.' At 
the same time he endeavoured to discuss 
terms of reunion w r ith the Wesleyans at 
home, and with the Eastern church through 
the Eastern Church Association. Both these 
efforts also failed ; but the failure of the 
latter at the reunion conferences between 
members of the Eastern and Anglican 
churches, which were held at Bonn in 1874 
and 1875, called forth from Pusey in 1876 a 
valuable treatise on the chief difficulty be- 
tween the two churches the double pro- 
cession of the Holy Ghost. This book was 
in the form of a letter to Dr. Liddon, and en- 
titled ' On the Clause " and the Son " in re- 
gard to the Eastern Church and the Bonn 
Conference.' At the end of the book he 
speaks of it in renewed hopefulness as his 
' last contribution to a future which I shall 
not see.' 

Through all this time he was engaged in 
constant controversy at home. The attempt 
to remove the Athanasian Creed from its 
position in the services of the English church 
occupied a large share of his correspondence 
between 1870 and 1873. At last Pusey gave 
notice in writing to Dr. Tait, the archbishop 
of Canterbury, that, if the creed were either 
mutilated by alteration or removed from its 
place in the public services, he should feel 
bound to retire from his position as a teacher 
in the church of England. His continued 
resistance to the attack on the creed was one 
of the main causes of its retention in the 
public services, though an explanatory rubric 
was adopted by convocation in 1873. The 



same controversy reappeared in another form 
at the close of his life, when his views on 
everlasting punishment were attacked by 
Archdeacon (now Dean) Farrar in a series 
of sermons preached in Westminster Abbey 
in November and December 1877, and pub- 
lished the following year under the title 
' Eternal Hope.' The attack gave him the 
opportunity of writing a book which has 
perhaps had as much influence as anything 
that he wrote : ' What is of Faith as to 
Everlasting Punishment?' (Oxford, 1880). 
There he insisted on the obvious meaning of 
the scriptural and patristic statements of the 
everlasting character of the punishment of 
those who finally reject God. In 1878 he 
prepared two university sermons. The first 
sermon was on the supposed contradiction 
between the facts of scientific discovery and 
the facts of revelation, under the title of 
'Un-science, not Science, adverse to Faith ;' 
and the second insisted on the reality of the 
predictive element of the Old Testament, and 
especially on Messianic prophecy. The latter 
was printed with the strangely worded title 
' Prophecy of Jesus the Certain Prediction of 
the (to Man) Impossible.' These were the 
last university sermons that he wrote. His 
increasing weakness prevented him from de- 
livering them himself. He died on 14 Sept. 
1882 at Ascot Priory in Berkshire, and was 
buried in the cathedral at Oxford. The last 
work on which he was engaged was the pre- 
paration for his next term's lectures. 

In his family life he had very great sorrows. 
He married in a rather romantic manner, on 
12 June 1828, Maria Catherine, daughter of 
Raymond Barker of Fairford Park, Glouces- 
tershire. She died of consumption on 26 May 
1839, to the lifelong sorrow of her husband. 
Of his four children, only one, his youngest 
daughter, survived him. His eldest daughter 
died of rapid consumption at the age of four- 
teen. His only son, Philip Edward (1830- 
1880), graduated B.A. 1854 and M. A. 1857 of 
Christ Church. In spite of physical infirmities, 
he was an indefatigable student, and a very 
great help to his father. He died suddenly 
on 15 Jan. 1880. 

Pusey published several volumes of ser- 
mons. His university sermons were in many 
cases printed soon after delivery, and were 
collected into three large volumes (1872). 
They all show signs not only of his wide 
reading and deep earnestness, but also of the 
extreme care which he bestowed on their 
preparation. They were nearly all in some 
special manner addressed to the needs of the 
time. The statement of sacramental truth ; 
the controversy with evangelicals on justifi- 
cation ; the many questions raised by the 



Pusey 



61 



Pusey 



* Essays and Reviews ; ' the later contro- 
versy about Darwinism and Old Testament 
criticism, are all represented in these vo- 
lumes, besides several interesting sermons 
on the Jewish interpretation of prophecy. 
Other collected series of sermons were : ' Ser- 
mons during the Seasons from Advent to 
Whitsuntide,' 2 vols. 1848-53; 'Parochial 
Sermons ' (vol. i. 1848, 5th edit. 1854 ; vol. 
ii. 1853, new edit. 1868; vol. iii. 1869); 
Lenten sermons (1874) ; and 'Parochial and 
Cathedral Sermons ' (1883). The last con- 
tains perhaps the most tender, searching, and 
spiritual of all his discourses. In the preface 
he pleads characteristically that he may be 
allowed to leave as a last bequest to the 
rising generation of clergy the exhortation 
that they will ' study the fathers, especially 
St. Augustine.' Various selections from his 
sermons were published in 1883 and 1884. 

There is complete unity in Pusey's eccle- 
siastical work. He believed that the true 
doctrines of the church of England were 
enshrined in the writings of the fathers and 
Anglican divines of the seventeenth century, 
but that the malign influences of whig in- 
differentism, deism, and ultra-protestantism, 
had obscured their significance. To spread 
among churchmen the conviction that on the 
doctrines of the fathers and early Anglican 
divines alone could religion be based was 
Pusey's main purpose. With this aim he set 
out in company with Newman and Keble. 
At its inception the movement occasioned 
secessions to Rome which seriously weakened 
the English church, and seemed to justify the 
storm of adverse criticism which the Oxford 
reformers encountered. Unmoved by obloquy, 
Pusey, although after the secession of New- 
man he stood almost alone, never swerved from 
his original purpose. He possessed no supreme 
gifts of rhetoric, of literary persuasiveness, or 
of social strategy. Yet the movement which 
he in middle life championed almost single- 
handed proceeded on its original lines with 
such energy and success as entirely to change 
the aspect of the Anglican church. This fact 
constitutes Pusey's claim to commemoration. 
Of himself he wrote with characteristic self- 
effacement when reviewing his life : ' My 
life has been spent in a succession of insu- 
lated efforts, bearing indeed upon one great 
end the growth of catholic truth and piety 
among us.' 

A portrait by George Richmond, R.A., is 
at Christ Church. His library was purchased 
for the ' Pusey House,' an institution in Oxford 
which was founded in his memory to carry on 
his work. 

[A Life of Pusey, prepared jby Canon Liddon, 
was completed after Liddon's death by the 



| Rev. J. 0. Johnston and the Rev. R. J. Wilson. 

! Vols. i. and ii. appeared in 1893, vol. iii. in 
1894. See also Newman's Apologia pro Vita 
sua; T. Mozley's Reminiscences of Oriel; J. B. 
Mozley's Letters, ed. Anne Mozley ; Newman's 
Letters, ed. Anne Mozley; Church's Oxford 
Movement ; Oakeley's Historical Notes on the 

1 Tractarian Movement; Palmer's Narrative of 
Events ; Browne's Hist, of the Tractarian Move- 
ment; Isaac Williams's Autobiography; W. G. 
Ward and the Catholic Revival ; Mark Pattison's 
Memoirs; Prothero's Life of Dean Stanley; Pur- 
cell's Life of Cardinal Manning.] J. (). J. 

PUSEY, PHILIP (1799-1855), agricul- 
turist, born at Pusey, Berkshire, on 2i> June 
1799, was the eldest son of Philip Pusey 
(1748-1828), by his wife Lucy (1772-1858), 
daughter of Robert Sherard, fourth earl of 
Harborough, and widow.of Sir Thomas Cave. 
The father was the youngest son of Jacob 
Bouverie, first viscount Folkestone, whose 
sister married the last male representative 
of the Pusey family. The latter s sisters be- 
queathed the Pusey estates to their brother's 
nephew by marriage, Philip Bouverie, the 
agriculturist's father, on condition of his as- 
suming the name of Pusey. This he did on 

3 April 1 784, and took possession of the estates 
in 1789. Philip's next brother was Edward 
Bouverie Pusey [q. v.] A sister Charlotte 
married Richard Lynch Cotton [q. v.], provost 
of Worcester College, Oxford. 

After education at Eton, Philip entered 
Christ Church, Oxford, at Michaelmas 1817, 
but left without taking a degree. At Oxford, 
as at Eton, his greatest friend was Henry John 
George Herbert, lord Porchester, afterwards 
third earl of Carnarvon [q. v.], and in 1818 he 
became engaged to his friend's sister, Lady 
Emily Herbert, a lady unusually accom- 
j plished, sympathetic, and earnest-minded. 
Presumably on account of his father's objec- 
tion to his marrying, Pusey joined Porchester 
in a foreign tour. Near Montserrat, in Cata- 
lonia, the travellers fell into the hands of the 
insurgent guerillas, and were in imminent 
danger of being shot as constitutionalists, or 
of the army of the Cortes (CARNARVON, Portu- 
gal and Galicia, 1836). Pusey returned home 
at the end of June 1822, and was married on 

4 Oct. 1822. He settled with his wife at the 
I Palazzo Aldobrandini, Rome, where they 

made the acquaintance of the Chevalier Bun- 
sen. As a memorial of his Roman sojourn, 
, Pusey presented a pedestal for the font in 
the German chapel at Rome, with groups in 
relief by Thorwaldsen (BuNSEN, Memoirs, 
i. 373-4). On his father's death, 14 April 
1828, he came into possession of the family 
estate. 

In 1828 Pusey published pamphlets on 



Pusey 



Pusey 



' The Sinking Fund ' and on ' Sir Robert 
Peel's Financial Statement of 15 Feb. 1828,' 
and on 1 March 1830 he was elected M.P. for 
Rye in the conservative interest. He was, 
however, unseated on petition. In the first 
parliament of William IV (1830), he was 
chosen one of the two members for Chippen- 
ham, and during the reform agitation wrote 
' The New Constitution,' a pamphlet which 
was described by the ' Quarterly Review ' 
(xlv. 289) as ' one of the best both for 
reasoning and language that have appeared 
at this crisis.' At the general election in 
April 1831 Pusey lost his seat for Chippen- 
ham, but returned to the house next July 
as member for Cashel. In the first reformed 
parliament he failed to secure the third seat 
given to the county of Berks, but was elected 
for that constituency in 1835, and retained 
his position through four parliaments until 
July 1852. In parliament Pusey won a posi- 
tion of influence. Sir Robert Peel and Mr. 
Gladstone were among his close friends. In 
1843 he paid a visit to Scotland to study the 
Scottish poor-law system, and gained some 
credit by a pamphlet on the ' Management of 
the Poor in Scotland,' 1844. He appears to 
have thought that a similar inquiry as to the 
condition of the Irish people would be useful ; 
and in 1845 he projected, with Mr. Gladstone, 
a riding tour through Ireland. Owing to 
family matters, Mr. Gladstone had to break 
off the engagement, thereby, as he said in 
a letter, dated 6 Dec. 1894, to Pusey's son 
Sidney, ' postponing for a long time my ac- 
quiring a real knowledge of Ireland.' 

Pusey took no prominent part in the dis- 
cussions in parliament on the corn laws, and 
was absent from the two critical divisions 
on the second and third readings of Sir Ro- 
bert Peel's bill of 1846. But he followed 
Peel in his change of opinion, and, though 
re-elected for Berkshire without opposition 
at the general election of 1847 as a liberal- 
conservative, he had to face a growing dis- 
content among his constituents. In 1847 
he tried to interest the House of Commons 
in tenant right, and during four sessions re- 
solutely championed that cause. In 1843, 
1844, and 1845 Lord Portman had intro- 
duced into the House of Lords bills to secure 
for an agricultural tenant compensation for 
unexhausted improvements ; but they did 
not meet with much sympathy from the 
upper house. Pusey in 1847 submitted to 
the House of Commons a very modest per- 
missive bill. It was attacked vehemently 
by Colonel Sibthorp and other members of 
his class, and was withdrawn. In 1848, on 
Mr. Newdegate's motion, a select committee 
was appointed to consider the whole sub- 



ject. Pusey became chairman, and pre- 
sented a valuable report. In 1849 and 1850 
Pusey's bill passed the commons, but the 
House of Lords declined to accept it (HAN- 
SARD, cxii. 855). After a lapse of twenty- 
five years the struggle was carried by other 
hands to a successful issue. The Agricul- 
tural Holdings Bill of 1875 embodied many 
of Pusey's views, and Disraeli, in moving 
the second reading, paid a warm tribute to 
Pusey's exertions, observing that ' Mr. Pusey 
was the first person to introduce into this 
house the term " tenant right." ' 

Before the election of 1852 Mr. Vansittart, 
a protectionist and ultra-protestant, came for- 
ward to oppose Pusey's re-election. Pusey's 
j views on the corn laws, his vote in favour 
of the Maynooth College grant, and his rela- 
tionship to the founder of Puseyism, a move- 
ment which was identified with ' Romish 
practices,' exposed him to vehement attack. 
' I hear,' he writes, ' that, among electioneer- 
ing tricks, some call me a Puseyite. I am 
no more than Lord Shaftesbury is ; but I will 
not consent to find fault with my brother in 
public.' On the eve of the election, recog- 
nising the impossibility of success, he with- 
drew his candidature. 

In 1838 Pusey took a prominent part in the 
formation of what became in 1840 the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England [see under 
SPENCER, JOHN CHARLES, LORD ALTHORP]. 
At the preliminary meeting held on 9 May 
1838 he seconded the important resolution, 
moved by Earl Fitzwilliam, determining that 
annual meetings should be held successively 
in different parts of England and Wales. 
Pusey was a member of the original com- 
mittee of management, and was chairman of 
the committee appointed to conduct a journal 
for ' the diffusion of agricultural information/ 
From the first the editorial control was 
placed exclusively in his hands, and to it he 
devoted unstintedly his time and his talents 
during the best years of his life. Pusey was 
already a ' Quarterly Reviewer' (see SMILES, 
Murrays, ii. 378), and the journal was mo- 
delled somewhat on the lines of that review. 
As early as 1844 it had made its mark (cf. 
Quarterly Review, Ixxiii. 481). On 26 March 
1840 the society received a charter of incor- 
poration as the ' Royal Agricultural Society 
of England,' and at the next general meet- 
ing Pusey was nominated president by Earl 
Spencer. He assumed office on 15 July 1840, 
and retired on 21-23 July 1841. In 1853 he 
was again elected president, but was unable 
to attend the meeting at Lincoln in 1854 on 
account of the illness of his wife. 

The six or seven years following 1838 were 
the most prosperous of Pusey's career. He 



Pusey 



was in intimate social relations with the 
leading thinkers and public men of the time. 
He breakfasted with Samuel Rogers and 
Monckton Milnes. He entertained Lord 
Spencer, Sir Robert Peel, Gladstone, Carlyle, 
Whewell, Grote, Galley Knight, Bishop Wil- 
berforce, and Lord Stanhope the historian. 
His friend Bunsen, who came to England 
in 1838, was a frequent guest (cf. BUNSEN, 
Memoirs, i. 504 sq.) He attended the meet- 
ings of learned societies; he became a F.R.S. 
on 27 May 1830 ; was a member of the original 
committee of the London Library in 1840, and 
belonged to the Athenaeum, Travellers', and 
Grillion's clubs. He wrote on philosophy 
for the ' Quarterly Review,' on current topics 
for the ' Morning Chronicle,' and on farming 
for the ' Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society.' He was interested in hymnology, 
and desired to substitute Milman's hymns 
for those of Sternhold and Hopkins in the 
church services, a change to which his bro- 
ther Edward was strongly opposed. He 
wrote several hymns, the best known of 
which is ' Lord of our life and God of our 
salvation ' (LiDDON, i. 299). He was a con- 
noisseur of art, and collected prints and en- 
gravings as well as autographs. 

The whole estate at Pusey is about 5,000 
acres in extent, and on the home farm, which 
consists of between three and four hundred 
acres of large open level fields, Pusey showed 
himself a very practical agriculturist. The 
breeding and feeding of sheep were the points 
upon which everything on the farm was 
made to hinge, and the great feature of the 
management was a system of Avater-mea- 
dows, introduced from Devonshire (Journal 
R.A. S. K 1849, x. 462-79 ; CAIKD, English 
Agriculture in 1850-1, pp. 107 sq.) When 
in the country Pusey was up at six in the 
morning, superintending all the operations 
of the farm. He was an excellent landlord. 
He improved or rebuilt the labourers' cot- 
tages, obtaining the assistance of George Ed- 
mund Street, R.A. [q. v.], in the designs; he 
provided them with allotments, and he orga- 
nised works to keep them in constant employ. 
He tried innumerable agricultural experi- 
ments, and frequently arranged for trials of 
implements on the estate. At a trial held 
at Pusey in August 1851, M'Cormick's reap- 
ing machine was first introduced into this 
country. Pusey was fond of sport, and was 
one of the best whips in England, once driv- 
ing a four-in-hand over the Alps. 

In 1851 Pusey was chairman of the agricul- 
tural implement department of the Great Ex- 
hibition, and, as a royal commissioner, came 
much into contact with Prince Albert. He 
wrote a masterly report on the implement 



Pusey 

section of the exhibition (printed in the re- 
ports of the royal commission, and reproduced 
in the 'Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society,' vol. xii.) On midsummer day 1851 
he brought some five hundred of his labourers 
to London to see the great show. A silver 
snuff-box was presented to Pusey in memory 
of this visit, and there is still in almost every 
cottage in Pusey an engraving with his por- 
trait and autograph, and a representation of 
the snuff-box beneath. In 1853 the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. was conferred on him by 
Oxford University. But from the autumn 
of 1852 the long illness of his wife withdrew 
him from public affairs. On her death, 
13 Nov. 1854, he removed to his brother's 
ho use at Christ-Church, Oxford, where within 
a week a stroke of paralysis disabled him. 
He died after a second stroke, at the age 
of 56, on 9 July 1855. 

According to Disraeli, ' Pusey was, both 
by his lineage, his estate, his rare accom- 
plishments and fine abilities, one of the 
most distinguished country gentlemen who 
ever sat in the House of Commons ' (HAN- 
SARD, ccxxv. 450-7). Bunsen said of him, 
' Pusey is a most unique union of a practi- 
cal Englishman and an intellectual German, 
so that when speaking in one capacity, one 
might think he had lost sight of the other ' 
(Memoirs, i. 522) ; while Sir Thomas Acland, 
one of Pusey's executors, replying on behalf 
of the family to a resolution of sympathy from 
the Royal Agricultural Society, wrote that 
'by a rare union of endowments he did much 
to win for agriculture a worthy place among 
the intellectual pursuits of the present day ' 
(Journal R. A. S. E. xvi. 608). In addition 
to the pamphlets already referred to, with 
one of 1851 entitled ' The Improvement of 
Farming : what ought Landlords and Far- 
mers to do ? ' and unsigned articles in the 
' Quarterly Review ' and ' Morning Chronicle/ 
Pusey contributed forty-seven signed articles 
to the ' Journal of the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety/ Many of these were on minor ques- 
tions, like the application of particular kinds 
of manure, different systems of cultivation 
and drainage, agricultural implements and 
crops, and the breeding and feeding of sheep, 
His more important papers were on ' The 
State of Agriculture in 1839 ' and ' An Ex- 
perimental Inquiry on Draught in Plough- 
ing' (1839, vol. i.); 'Progress of Agricul- 
tural Knowledge during the last Four Years ' 
(1842, vol. iii.) ; 'Agricultural Improvements 
of Lincolnshire' ( 1843, vol. iv.) ; ' Theory and 
Practice of Water Meadows ' (1849, vol. x.) ; 
' Progress of Agricultural Knowledge during 
last Eight Years ' (1850, vol. xi.) ; ' Report 
on the Agricultural Implements at the Great 



Putta 



6 4 



Puttenham 



Exhibition ' (1851, vol. xii.) ; ' Source, Sup- 
ply, and Use of Nitrate of Soda for Corn 
Crops ' (1852, vol. xiii.) ; and ' Nitrate of 
Soda as a Substitute for Guano ' (1853, 
vol. xiv.) 

Pusey left one son, Sidney (born 15 Sept. 
1839), and two daughters, Edith Lucy, and 
Clara, married to Captain Francis Charteris 
Fletcher, whose son, Philip Fletcher, is heir- 
presumptive to the estates. 

A striking miniature of Pusey as a young 
man is in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. 
Fletcher. There is a mediocre portrait of him 
at about the same age at Pusey, where also is 
a large crayon drawing of him in his prime 
by George Richmond, R.A. An etched re- 
production of this on a smaller scale was done 
by F. C. Lewis for Grillion's Club. Pusey 
appears in the engraving of 1842, by the 
younger S. W. Reynolds, of Richard Ans- 
dell's destroyed picture of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society, and Ansdell's original study of 
Pusey is now at 13 Hanover Square. The 
engraving of 1851 was by a local artist, J. 
Fewell Penstone, Stanford, Berkshire. 

[Liddon's Life of E. B. Pusey, vols. i. iii. ; 
Memoirs of Baron Bunsen ; Journal Roy. Agric. 
Soc. of Engl. vols. i.-xvi. (1st ser.), x. (2nd ser.), 
i.-v. (3rd ser.); Minute-books of Royal Agric. 
Soc.; Farmers' Magazine, 1839-44; Caird's Eng- 
lish Agriculture in 1850-1 ; Ward's Reign of 
Queen Victoria; Reading Mercury for 1852; 
Quarterly Review, vols. xlv. Ixxiii. ; Hansard's 
Debates, vols. Iv. xc. xci. xcvi. xcvii. cv. cxi. cxii. 
ccxxv.; Archseologia, vols. iii., xii. ; Lady Emily 
Pusey's Diary (manuscript) ; private informa- 
tion from Mr. S. E. B. Pusey and Mrs. Fletcher.] 

E.G. 

PUTTA (d. 688), first bishop of Hereford, 
was skilled in the Roman system of church 
music, having been instructed in it by the 
disciples of Pope Gregory : he was ordained 
priest of Rochester by Wilfred during the 
vacancy of the see after the death of Bishop 
Damian (d. 664) between the death of arch- 
bishop Deusdedit [q.v.] on 14 July 664 and 
the landing in England of archbishop Theo- 
dore [q. v.] in 669, who on his arrival con- 
secrated him to the see of Rochester (BEDE, 
Historia Ecclesiastica, iv. 2). He attended 
the council of Hertford convened by Theo- 
dore in 673 (ib. c. 5). When Rochester was 
wasted by the Mercian king ^Ethelred during 
his invasion of Kent in 676, Putta was absent 
from the city ; he was sheltered by Sexulf, the 
bishop of the Merc ians,who gave him a church 
and a small estate, where he dwelt until his 
death, making no effort to regain his bishopric, 
to which Theodore consecrated Cuichelm in 
676, and on his resignation Gebmund in 
678. Putta meanwhile performed service in 



his church, and went wheresoever he was 
asked to give instruction in church music (ib. 
c. 12). It is said, though perhaps this is a 
mere inference, that he had often thought of 
resigning his bishopric before he was com- 
pelled to leave it (Gesta Pontificum,y. 135). 
His place of retreat is said to have been in 
the district of the Hecanas or Herefordshire, 
and he there perhaps acted as Sexulf 's de- 
puty, and has therefore been reckoned as the 
first bishop of Hereford (ib. p. 298 ; FLOR. 
WIG. i. 238 ; Ecclesiastical Documents, iii. 
130). His name occurs as a witness to a 
charter of Wulfhere of Mercia to an abbess 
of Bath, marked spurious by Kemble ( Codex 
Diplomaticus, No. 13). In this charter, as 
given in the 'Bath Chartulary ' (C. C. C. 
Cambr. MS. cxi. 59) he is described as ' archie- 
piscopus,' evidently by a mistake of the scribe 
( Two Bath Chartularies, Introd. vol. xxxiii. 
pt. i. pp. 6, 76). He also appears as a witness 
to another charter to the same abbess, marked 
spurious (Codex Dipl. No. 21 ; Two Bath Char- 
tularies, pt. i. pp. 8, 77), and in a spurious 
document relating to the monastery of Peter- 
borough (Ecclesiastical Documents, iii. 136, 
160). He died in 688 (Fi.OR. WIG. i. 41). 
Bede describes him as well-informed as to 
church discipline, content with a simple life, 
and more eager about ecclesiastical than 
worldly matters. 

[Bede's Hist. Eccl. iv. cc. 2, 5, 12, Flor. Wig. 
i. 41, 238 (both Engl. Hist. Soc.); Will, of 
Malmesbury's Gesta Pontiff, pp. 135, 298 (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Eccl. 
Doc. iii. 130, 136, 160; Kemble's Codex Dipl. 
Nos. 6, 21 ; Two Bath Chartularies, pt. i. pp. 
6, 8, 76, 77 (Somerset Record Soc.) ; Diet. Chris- 
tian Biography, art. ' Putta,' by Bishop Stubbs.l 

W. H. 

PUTTENHAM, GEORGE (d. 1590), and 
his brother RICHARD PUTTESTHAM (1520?- 
1601 ?) have each been independently cre- 
dited with the authorship of an elaborate 
treatise entitled ' The Arte of English 
Poesie,' which was issued anonymously in 
1589. The full title ran: ' The Arte of Eng- 
lish Poesie, contrived into three bookes ; the 
first of Poets and Poesie, the second of Pro- 
portion, the third of Ornament,' London, by 
Richard Field, 1589. It was licensed to 
Thomas Orwin on 9 Nov. 1588, and Orwin 
transferred it to Richard Field on 3 Feb. 
1588-9. Field wrote and signed a dedication 
to Lord Burghley, dated 28 May 1589. The 
book, Field said, had come into his hands 
with its bare title and without any indica- 
tion of the author's name. The publisher 
judged that it was devised for the queen's 
recreation and service. The writer shows 
wide knowledge of classical and Italian 



Puttenham 



Puttenham 



literature; in his sections on rhetoric and 
prosody he quotes freely from Quintilian and 
other classical writers, and bestows commen- 
dation on English poets that is often dis- 
criminating. He may fairly be regarded as 
the first English writer who attempted philo- 
sophical criticism of literature or claimed 
for the literary profession a high position in 
social economy. Compared with it, Webbe's 
'Discourse of English Poetry' (1586) and 
Sidney's ' Apologie for English Poesie,' first 
published in 1595, are very slight perform- 
ances. The ' Arte ' at once acquired a repu- 
tation. Sir John Harington, in his preface to 
'Orlando Furioso' (1591), and William Cam- 
den, in his ' Remaines' (1605), referred to it 
familiarly as a work of authority. Ben Jonson 
owned a copy, which is now in the Gren- 
ville Library at the British Museum. In 
1598 Francis Meres borrowed from it the 
greater portion of the well-known ' Compara- 
tive Discourse of our English Poets ' in his 
' Palladis Tamia ; ' while William Vaughan, 
in his ' Golden Grove ' (2nd edit. 1608), and 
Peacham, in his ' Compleat Gentleman ' 
(1622), drew from it their comments on 
English poetry. But the writer's name long 
remained uncertain. Harington spoke of the 
author as 'that unknown godfather,' and 
Camden mentioned him anonymously as ' the 
gentleman which proved that poets were the 
first politicians.' In the second edition of 
Camden's 'Remaines' (1614) was included 
Richard Carew's essay on the ' Excellency 
of the English Tongue.' Carew included 
the name of ' Master Puttenham ' among 
English writers who had successfully imi- 
tated foreign metres in English. Specimens 
of such imitations figure in ' The Arte of 
English Poesie,' but Carew does not men- 
tion that volume. About the same date, 
however, Edmund Bolton [q. v.], in his 
' Hypercritica,' distinctly asserted that ' The 
Arte of English Poesie ' Avas the work, ' as 
the fame is, of one of the queen's gentlemen 
pensioners, Puttenham.' Wood adopted this 
statement, which has been accepted by later 
writers. Of the rare original edition of ' The 
Arte of English Poesie,' two copies are in 
the British Museum. It was reprinted by 
Joseph Haslewood in his ' Ancient Critical 
Essays' (1811-16, 2 vols.), and by Dr. Ed- 
ward Arber in 1869. 

Although no official documents support 
Bolton's conjecture that one of Elizabeth's 
gentlemen pensioners was named Putten- 
ham, internal evidence corroborates his state- 
ment that the author of the ' Arte' was one 
of the two sons of Robert Puttenham and a 
grandson of Sir George Puttenham, who 
owned property at Sherfield, near Basing- 

VOL. XLVII. 



stoke, as well as the manors of Puttenham 
and Long Marston on the borders of Hert- 
fordshire and Buckinghamshire. Robert 
Puttenham married Margery, daughter of Sir 
Richard Elyot [q. v.Jand sister of Sir Thomas 
Elyot [q. v.j, author of the ' Governor.' By 
her Robert Puttenham had two sons 
Richard, born about 1520, and George be- 
sides a daughter Margery, who married Sir 
John Throckmorton of Feckenham, Worces- 
tershire. An epitaph on the latter is given in 
the 'Arte,' and Throckmorton is there de- 
scribed as ' a deere friend ' of the writer, and 
' a man of many commendable virtues.' 
Throckmorton is known to have held his 
brother-in-law George in low esteem (cf. Cal. 
State Papers, 1547-80, p. 607). There is 
great difficulty in determining to which of 
Throckmorton's two brothers-in-law to Ri- 
chard or to George Puttenham this epitaph, 
with the rest of the work, should be assigned. 
Such evidence as is procurable points to the 
elder brother. 

In 1535 Sir Thomas Elyot, in dedicating 
his ' Education or Bringinge up of Children' 
to his sister, Margery Puttenham, urges her 
to train up his nephews in the precepts of 
Plutarch. They appear to have quickly de- 
veloped a marked taste for literature, but in 
adult life betrayed a very defective moral 
training. Both were guilty of gross breaches 
of the law. 

The author of the ' Arte ' claims to have 
been ' a scholler of Oxford,' and to have 
studied poetry ' in his younger years when 
vanity reigned,' but no student of the name 
of Puttenham figures in the Oxford University 
registers. The author further states that he 
was brought up in youth among ' the courtiers 
of foreign countries . . . and very well ob- 
served their manner of life and conversation.' 
' Of mine own country,' he adds, ' I have not 
made so great experience.' He visited (he 
says) the courts of France, Spain, Italy, and 
the empire ' with manv inferior courts,' and 
in Italy he was friendly with one who had 
travelled in the east ' and seen the courts of 
the great princes of China and Tartary.' He 
was present at a banquet given by the 
Duchess of Parma, regent of the Low 
Countries, in honour of the Earl of Arundel, 
which we know from other sources took place 
in 1565 ; and he was at Spa while Francois 
de ScSpeaux, better known as Marshal de 
Vieilleville, was also staying there. The 
latter's visit to Spa has been conclusively 
assigned to 1569 (CROFTS). There is evi- 
dence to prove that Richard Puttenham was 
out of England during these and other years. 
His brother George is not known to have left 
the country. 



Puttenham 



66 



As a boy it is probable that Richard, who 
succeeded as heir to the property of his 
uncle, Sir Thomas Elyot, in 1546, accom- 
panied Elyot on his embassies to Charles V. 
In 1550, when he purchased land about his 
father's estate at Sherfield, he was doubtless 
with his friends in Berkshire. But in April 
1561 he was convicted of rape (Cal. State 
Papers, 1547-80, p. 175), and, although he 
appears to have been pardoned, he retired 
to the continent immediately afterwards for 
an extended period. He was absent, we 
know, from 1563 to 1566, and in all proba- 
bility till 1570, when he received a pardon 
for having prolonged his sojourn abroad with- 
out a royal license. During these years 
George was at home, and a decree of the 
court of requests, dated 7 Feb. 1565-6, di- 
rected him to contribute to the support of his 
brother Richard's wife until Richard's return. 
Richard had married in earlv life Mary, only 
daughter of Sir William Warliam of Mal- 
shanger, near Basingstoke, and he had a 
daughter Ann, who before 1567 married 
Francis Morris of Coxwell, Berkshire. 

In 1579 the author of the ' Arte ' says that 
he presented to the queen, as a new year's 
gift, a series of poems entitled ' Parthe- 
niades.' This collection is extant, without 
any author's name, in Cotton. MS. Vesp. E. 
viii. 169-78, and consists of seventeen attrac- 
tive poems in various metres. The whole is 
printed in Haslewood's edition of the ' Arte ' 
and some fragments in Nichols's ' Progresses 
of Elizabeth ' (iii. 65). It is likely that the 
poems were a peace-offering from Richard, 
who, after his long absence and disgrace, 
was endeavouring to regain his lost reputa- 
tion. If Mr, J. P. Collier's unsupported as- 
sertion that Richard was one of the queen's 
yeomen of the guard be accepted, it is possible 
that he received the appointment at this period. 
But Richard was soon in trouble again. On 
31 Oct. 1588 he was imprisoned for a second 
time, and petitioned the council to appoint 
him counsel to speak for him in forma pau- 
peris. He also contrived to interest in his 
misfortunes the lord mayor of London. The 
latter appealed to Thomas Seckford, the 
master of requests, who seems to have been 
Richard's prosecutor, to treat him mercifully. 
On 9 Nov. 1588 the anonymous ' Arte ' was 
licensed to Thomas Orwin for publication. 
Richard had probably sold the manuscript 
secretly and hastily while awaiting trial, in 
order to meet some pressing necessity. On 
22 April 1597 'Richard Puttenham, esquire, 
now prisoner in Her Majesty's Bench,' made 
his will, leaving all his property to his ' verily 
verily reported and reputed daughter, Kathe- 
rine Puttenham.' Mr. Collier says that he 



was buried at St. Clement Danes on 2 July 
1601. 

Besides the works mentioned above, the 
author of the 'Arte' claims to have composed 
several other pieces, none of which are ex- 
tant. Among his dramatic and poetic essays 
he enumerates ' Ginecocratia,' a comedy, and 
two interludes called respectively ' Lusty 
London ' and ' Woer,' as well as ' Triumphals,' 
in honour of Queen Elizabeth, and ' Minerva,' 
a hymn also addressed to the queen. Among 
his prose treatises were ' Philocalia ' (showing 
the figure of ornament), ' De Decoro ' (on de- 
cency of speech and behaviour), ' lerotechi ' 
(on ancient mythology), and a work tracing 
the pedigree of the English tongue. 

The chief argument against the identifica- 
tion of Richard with the author of the 'Arte ' 
lies in the fact that the latter further claims 
at the age of eighteen to have addressed to 
' King Edward the Sixt, a prince of great 
hope,' an eclogue called ' Elpine,' from which 
he supplies a brief quotation. If the passage 
is to be interpreted to mean literally that 
the poem was written after Edward VI's 
accession to the throne in 1547, it is clear 
that the author, if only eighteen when he 
composed it, was not born before 1529. But 
Richard Puttenham, when he succeeded to 
the property of his uncle, Sir Thomas Elyot, in 
1546, was about twenty-six years old. It is 
possible, however, that ' Elpine 'was written 
some years before Edward ascended the 
throne his precocity evoked much poetic 
eulogy in his infancy and that the descrip- 
tion given of him as king in the title of the 
eclogue is anachronistic. 

George married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Peter Coudray of Herriard, near Basingstoke. 
He was her third husband, she having pre- 
viously married, first, Richard Paulet, and, 
secondly, William, second lord AVindsor (d. 
1558). On 21 Jan. 1568-9 the bishop of 
Winchester expressed alarm lest George was 
to be placed (as rumour reported) on the 
commission of the peace, apparently for 
Hampshire. His evil life, the bishop wrote 
to Cecil, was well known, and he was a ' noto- 
rious enemy of God's truth ' (Cal. Hatfield 
MSS. i. 393). In 1570 George was said to be 
implicated in an alleged plot against Cecil's 
life (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 
363-4), and at the close of 1578 he was in- 
volved in a furious quarrel with his wife's 
family. Summoned before the council, he re- 
plied that he was intimidated from obeying, 
and in December 1578 he was apprehended 
with difficulty by the sheriffs of London and 
imprisoned. He sought distraction from his 
troubles by transcribing passages from the 
life of Tiberius, by way of illustrating the 



Pycroft 



67 



Pycroft 



tyranny inherent in government (ib. p. 607). 
Throckmorton, his brother-in-law, while he 
appealed to Burghley to release him, de- 
nounced him as ' careless of all men, ungrate- 
ful in prosperity, and unthankful in adver- 
sity ' (ib. p. 607 ; cf. Cal. Hatfield MSS. ii. 
226). Richard, on his return to England, 
joined in the attack on his brother, but in the 
summer of 1579 a settlement was arrived at. 
George, however, continued to petition the 
queen to redress the wrongs he suffered from 
bis kinsfolk, and in February 1584-5, having 
convinced the privy council that he had suf- 
fered injustice, he was granted 1,000/. (Cal. 
State Papers, Add. 1580-1625, p. 139; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 143). On 1 Sept. 
1590 George, who was described as of St. 
Bridget's in Fleet Street, made a nuncupative 
will, by which he gave all his property to Mary 
Symes, widow, his servant, ' as well for the 
good service she did him as also for the money 
which she had laid forth for him.' Shortly 
before his death he wrote out with his own 
hand and signed with his name a prose ' Apo- 
logie or True Defens of her Majesties Hono- 
rable and Good Renowne ' against those who 
criticised her treatment of Mary Stuart. A 
copy made from the original manuscript is 
in the British Museum Harleian MS. 831 (cf. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 41 ). 

[Crofts's elaborate Memoir of Sir Thomas Elyot, 
prefixed to the edition of Elyot's Governor 
(1883), vol.i. pp. xxxiv, clxxxi-viii; Introduction 
to Haslewood's and Arber's reprints. Ames, in his 
Typographical Antiquities, describes the author 
of the Arte as Webster Puttenham, an error in 
which he is followed by Ritson in his BibHogra- 
phia Anglo-Poetica.] S. L. 

PYCROFT, JAMES (1813-1895), author, 
second son of Thomas Pycroft of Pickwick, 
"Wiltshire, barrister-at-law, and brother of 
Sir Thomas Pycroft [q. v.J, was born at 
Geyers House, Wiltsuire, in 1813. He 
matriculated from Trinity College, Oxford, 
on 25 May 1831, and graduated B.A. in 
1836. He was an enthusiastic cricketer, and 
claimed to have, jointly with Bishop Ryle, 
instituted the annual Oxford and Cambridge 
cricket match in 1836 (Oxford Memoirs, ii. 
84-210). In the same year he became a 
student of Lincoln's Inn, but in 1840 aban- 
doned the study of the law, and was ordained 
in the church of England. At the same time 
he became second master of the collegiate 
school at Leicester. He was curate of Chard- 
stock, Dorset, in 1845, and from 1845 to 1856 
perpetual curate of St. Mary Magdalen, Barn- 
staple. He declined further clerical duty, 
and took up his residence at Bathwick, Bath. 
Here he devoted his time to literature, and 
his leisure to cricket, becoming a member of 



the Lansdown Club. lie never obtained 
much repute as a player, but he was a great 
authority on the history, rules, and manage- 
ment of the game. He died of influenza at 
Brighton on 1 March 1 895. He had married, 
on 8 July 1843, Ann, widow of F. P. Alleyn. 

In 1859 he published ' Twenty Years in 
the Church : an Autobiography.' This work, 
which ran to a fourth edition in 1861, is a 
religious novel, which was supposed, without 
much reason, to be a narrative of the writer's 
own career; a second part, entitled ' Elkerton 
Rectory,' appeared in I860, and was reprinted 
in 1862. His ' Oxford Memoirs: a Retrospect 
after Fifty Years,' 188G, 2 vols., contains 
graphic descriptions of the state of the uni- 
versity in his time. 

Other books by him are : 1 . ' Principles of 
Scientific Batting,' 1835. 2. 'On School 
Education, designed to assist Parents in 
choosing and co-operating with Instructors 
for their Sons,' Oxford, 1843. 3. 'Greek 
Grammar Practice,' 1844. 4. 'Latin Gram- 
mar Practice,' 1 844. 5. ' A Course of English 
Reading, adapted to every taste and capacity, 
with Anecdotes of Men of Genius,' 1844 ; 
4th edit, 1861. 6. 'The Collegian's Guide, 
or Recollections of College Days. Setting 
forth the Advantages and Temptations of a 
University Education. By the Rev. * * * * 

******, M.A., College, Oxford/ 

1845; 2nd edit. 1858. 7. 'Four Lectures 
on the Advantages of a Classical Education 
as an Auxiliary to a Commercial Education,' 
1847. 8. ' The Cricket Field, or the History 
and the Science of Cricket,' 1851 : 9th edit. 
1887. 9. 'Ways and Words of Men of 
Letters,' 1861. 10. 'Agony Point; or the 
Groans of Gentility,' 1861, 2 vols. 11. 'The 
Cricket Tutor,' 1862; a treatise exclusively 
practical. 12. ' Dragons' Teeth : a Novel,' 
1863, 2 vols. 13. ' Cricketana,' 1865. 

He also edited Valpy's ' Virgil Improved,' 
1846; W. Enfield's 'The Speaker,' 1851; 
and to Beeton's ' Cricket Book,' by F. Wood, 
1866, he contributed ' A Match I was in.' 

[Church of England Photographic Portrait 
Gallery, 1860, pt. xlvii. with portrait; Times, 
13 March 1895, p. 10 ; Wisden's Cricketers' Al- 
manack, 1892, pp. xlix, 1.] G. C. B. 

PYCROFT, SIR THOMAS (1 807-1892), 
Madras civil servant, born in 1807, was eldest 
son of Thomas Pycroft, a barrister, and 
brother of James Pycroft [q. v.] Educated 
first at the Bath grammar school, and then 
under private tutors, he matriculated from 
Trinity College, Oxford, on 13 May 1826. Ho 
held an exhibition there from 1826 to 1828, 
and in 1829 competed successfully for an 
Indian writership presented to the university 
in the previous year by the Right Hon. 

F 2 



Pye 



68 



Pye 



Charles Wynn, then president of the board 
of control. The degree of honorary M. A. was 
then conferred upon him by the university. 
He sailed for Madras in 1829, and served in 
that presidency in various subordinate ap- 
pointments in the revenue and judicial de- 
partments until 1839, when he returned to 
England on furlough. On again settling in 
India in 1843, he served first as sub-secretary 
and afterwards as secretary to the board of 
revenue, whence he was promoted in 1850 to 
be revenue secretarv to government, succeed- 
ing in 1855 to the chief secretaryship. In 
1862 he was appointed a member of the 
council of the governor, and he retired from 
that post in 1867. He was made a K.C.S.I. 
in 1866. On the occasion of his retirement 
a eulogistic notice of his services was pub- 
lished by the government of Madras in the 
' Fort St. George Gazette.' ' His excellency 
the governor in council deems it due to that 
distinguished public officer,' the notice ran, 
' to place on record the high sense which the 
government entertain of his services, and of 
the valuable aid and advice which they have 
invariably received from him at the council 
board.' 

Gifted with an enormous capacity for work, 
extremely shrewd in his judgment both of 
men and of measures, and wonderfully free 
from prejudice, Py croft was an invaluable 
adviser to those with whom he was associated 
in public business. One of his most useful 
qualities was his great accuracy. This was 
noticed by the examiners who awarded to 
him the writership in 1828, and it charac- 
terised his work throughout his public life. 
He may be regarded as the first of the com- 
petition wallahs, for he was the first man 
appointed to the Indian civil service on the 
result of a competitive examination. He 
died at Folkestone on 29 Jan. 1892. He 
married, in 1841, Frances, second daughter 
of Major H. Bates, R.A. 

[Personal knowledge ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886.] A. J. A. 

PYE, HENRY JAMES (1745-1813), 
poetaster and poet laureate, was eldest son 
of Henry Pye (1710-1766) of Faringdon, 
Berkshire. His mother was Mary, daughter 
of David James, rector of Woughton, Buck- 
inghamshire. She died on 13 May 1806, 
aged 88. The father, who was M.P. for Berk- 
shire from 1746 till his death , was great-grand- 
son of Sir Robert Pye [q. v.] Henry, born 
in London on 20 Feb. 1745, was educated 
at home until 1762, when he entered Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, as a gentleman-com- 
moner. He was created M.A. on 3 July 
1766, and D.C.L. at the installation of Lord 



North as chancellor in 1772. On the death 
of his father, on 2 March 1766, Pye inherited 
the estates at Faringdon and debts to the 
amount of 50,000/. His resources long suf- 
fered through his efforts to pay off this large 
sum. His house at Faringdon, too, was 
burned down soon after his succession to 
it, and the expenses of rebuilding increased 
his embarrassments. He married at the age 
of twenty-one, and at first devoted himself 
to the pursuits of a country gentleman. He 
joined the Berkshire militia, and was an 
active county magistrate. In 1784 he was 
elected M.P. for Berkshire. Soon afterwards 
his financial difficulties compelled him to sell 
his ancestral estate, and he retired from par- 
liament at the dissolution of 1790. In 1792 
he was appointed a police magistrate for 
Westminster. One of his most useful pub- 
lications was a ' Summary of the Duties of 
a Justice of the Peace out of Sessions,' 1808 
(4th edit, 1827). 

From an early age Pye cultivated literary 
tastes, and his main object in life was to 
obtain recognition as a poet. He read the 
classics and wrote English verse assiduously r 
but he was destitute alike of poetic feel- 
ing or power of expression. His earliest 
publication was an ' Ode on the Birth of 
the Prince of Wales ' in the Oxford collec- 
tion of 1762, and he has been doubtfully 
credited with ' The Rosciad of Covent Gar- 
den,' 4to, a poem published in London in 
the same year. In 1766 appeared ' Beauty : 
a Poetical Essay,' a didactic lucubration in 
heroic verse, which well exemplifies Pye's 
pedestrian temper. There followed ' Elegies 
on Different Occasions,' 1768; 'The Triumph 
of Fashion : a Vision,' 1771 ; ' Farringdon 
Hill: a Poem in Two Books,' 1774; 'The 
Progress of Refinement,' in three parts, 1783 ; 
' Shooting,' 1784 ; and ' Aeriphorion,' 1784 
(on balloons) : all of which move along a uni- 
formly dead level of dulness. Nevertheless 
Pye collected most of them in two octavo 
volumes, as ' Poems on Various Subjects/ 
1787. Meanwhile, in 1775, he exhibited 
somewhat greater intelligence in a verse 
translation, with notes, of ' Six Olympic Odes 
of Pindar, being those omitted by Mr. West/ 
He pursued the same vein in a translation of 
the ' Poetics of Aristotle ' in 1788, which he 
reissued, with a commentary, in 1792. His 
' Amusement : a Poetical Essay/ appeared 
in 1790. 

In 1790 Pye was appointed poet laureate, 
in succession to Thomas Warton,and he held 
the office for twenty-three years. He doubt- 
less owed his good fortune to the support he 
had given the prime minister, Pitt, while 
he sat in the House of Commons. No selec- 



Pye 



6 9 



Pye 



tion could have more effectually deprived 
the post of reputable literary associations, 
and a satire, ' Epistle to the Poet Laureate,' 
1790, gave voice to the scorn with which, in 
literary circles, the announcement of his ap- 
pointment was received. Pye performed his 
new duties with the utmost regularity, and 
effected a change in the conditions of tenure 
of the office by accepting a fixed salary of 
271. in lieu of the ancient dole of a tierce of 
canary. Every year on the king's birthday 
he produced an ode breathing the most irre- 
proachable patriotic sentiment, expressed in 
language of ludicrous tameness. His earliest 
effort was so crowded with allusions to vocal 
groves and feathered choirs that George Stee- 
vens, on reading it, broke out into the lines: 

And when the pic was opened 
The birds began to sing ; 

And wasn't that a dainty dish 

To set before a king ? 

Occasionally Pye essayed more ambitious 
topics in his ' War Elegies of Tyrtseus imi- 
tated ' (1795) ; 'Naucratia, or Naval Do- 
minion ' (1798), dedicated to King George ; 
and 'Carmen Seculare for the year 1800' 
(1799). What has been described as his 
maynum opus, 'Alfred,' an epic poem in six 
books, appeared in 1801, and was dedicated 
to Addington. Pye was the intimate friend 
of Governor John Penn (17:29-1795) [q. v.], 
and published in 1802 ' Verses on several 
Subjects, written in the vicinity of Stoke 
Park in the Summer and Autumn of 1801.' 
In 1810 appeared his ' Translation of the 
Hymns and Epigrams of Homer.' 

Pye also interested himself in the drama. 
On 19 May 1794 his three-act historical 
tragedy ' The Siege of Meaux ' was acted at | 
Covent Garden, and was repeated four times 
(GENEST, vii. 165). The Ireland forgeries at 
first completely deceived him, and on 25 Feb. 
1795 he signed, with others, a paper testify- 
ing his belief in their authenticity. But 
when he was requested to write a prologue I 
for the production at Drury Lane of Ireland's ; 

Slay of ' Vortigern ' (absurdly ascribed to j 
hakespeare), he expressed himself too cau- 
tiously to satisfy Ireland, who deemed it 
prudent to suppress Pye's effort. On 25 Jan. 
1800 ' Adelaide,' a second tragedy by Pye, 
based on episodes in Lyttelton's ' Henry II,' 
was performed at Drury Lane, with Kemble 
as Prince Richard, and Mrs. Siddons as the 
heroine. The great actor and actress never 
appeared, wrote Genest (vii. 462), to less ad- 
vantage. On 29 Oct. 1805 an inanimate 
comedy, ' A Prior Claim,' in which his son-in- 
law, Samuel James Arnold [q. v.], co-operated, 
was also produced at Drury Lane (GENEST, 
vii. 700). In 1807 Pye published ' Com- 



ments on the Commentators of Shakespeare, 
with Preliminary Observations on his Genius 
and Writings,' which he dedicated to his 
friend Penn. ' The Inquisitor,' a tragedy in 
five acts, altered from the German (' Diego 
und Leonor ') by Pye and James Petit An- 
drews, was published in 1798, but was never 
performed, because its production on the stage 
was anticipated by that of Holcroft's adapta- 
tion of the same German play under the same 
English title at the Haymarket on 25 June 
1798 (ib. x. 209). 

In May 1813 an edition of Pye's select 
writings in six volumes was announced, but 
happily nothing more was heard of it (Gent. 
May. 1813 pt. i. p. 440). He died at Pinner 
on 11 Aug. 1813. He was twice married. His 
first wife, Mary, daughter of Colonel W 7 illiam 
Hook, wrote a farce, ' The Capricious Lady,' 
which was acted at Drury Lane on 10 May 
1771 for the benefit of Mr. Inchbald and 
Mrs. Morland. It was not printed. By 
her, who died in 1796, Pye had two daugh- 
ters Mary Elizabeth (d. 1834), wife of 
Captain Jones of the 35th regiment ; and 
Matilda Catherine, who married in 1802 
Samuel James Arnold, and died in 1851. 
Pye married, in November 1801, a second 
wife, Martha, daughter of W. Corbett, by 
whom he had a son, Henry John (1802- 
1884), and a daughter, Jane Anne, wife of 
Francis Willington of Tamworth, Stafford- 
shire. The son succeeded in 1833, under the 
will of a distant cousin, to the estate of 
Clifton Hall, Staffordshire, where the family 
is still settled. 

' The poetical Pye,' as Sir Walter Scott 
called him, was ' eminently respectable in 
everything but his poetry ; ' in that he was 
contemptible, and incurred deserved ridicule. 
For many years he was linked in a scornful 
catch-phrase, ' Pye et parvus Pybus.' The 
latter was another poetaster, Charles Small 
Pybus, long M.P. for Dover, who published, 
in pretentious shape, a poem called ' The Sove- 
reign,' in 1800, and was castigated by Porson 
in the ' Monthly Review ' for that year. Both 
Pye and Pybus figure in the epigram, attri- 
buted to Porson : 

Poetis nos laetamur tribus, 
Pye, Petro Pindar, Parvo Pybus. 
Si ulterius ire pergis, 
Adde his Sir James Bland Surges. 

(DYCE, Porsoniana, p. 355.) Byron refers 
sarcastically to Pye in ' The Vision of Judg- 
ment,' stanza xcii. : 

The monarch, mute till then, exclaim'd 

'What! what! 
Pye come again ? No more no more of 

that ! ' 



Pye 



Pye 



Mathias, in his ' Pursuits of Literature,' was 
no less inimical. Southey, who succeeded 
Pye as poet laureate, wrote, on 24 Dec. 1814, 
'I have been rhyming as doggedly and dully 
as if my name had been Henry James 
Pye' (Corresp. chap, xix.) 

Besides the works enumerated, Pye issued 
a respectable translation of Biirger's ' Le- 
nore ' (1795), and two works of fiction, ' inter- 
spersed with anecdotes of well-known cha- 
racters,' respectively entitled ' The Democrat ' 
(1795), 2 vols., and ' The Aristocrat ' (1799), 
2 vols. He revised Francis's ' Odes of 
Horace ' in 1812, and a copy of Sir James 
Bland Burges's ' Richard I,' with manuscript 
notes and emendations by Pye, is in the 
British Museum. 

[Lives of the Laureates, by W. S. Austin and 
JohnKalph,1853, pp. 332-45; Walter Hamilton's 
Poets Laureate, pp. 202, &c. ; Chalmers's Dic- 
tionary : Gent. Mug. 1813, ii. 293-4; Burke's 
Landed Gentry.] S. L. 

PYE, JOHN (fl. 1774), engraver, was a 
pupil of Thomas Major [q. v.], and in 1758 
won a Society of Arts premium. He en- 
graved in the line manner some admirable 
landscape plates, which were published by 
Boydell in 1773-5. These include 'Europa 
Point, Gibraltar,' after A. Pj'nacker ; ' Hagar 
directed by the Angel to the Well,' after 
Swanevelt ; ' A Shipwreck,' after J. Vernet ; 
'Tobias and the Angel,' after Dujardin; 'Holy 
Family,' after Poelemburg; 'The Waders,' 
after Claude; and ' The Tempest ' and 'The 
Calm,' after Dietzsch. Pye probably died 
young. 

[.Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Napier's Kiinst- 
ler-Lexikon.] F. M. O'D. 

PYE, JOHN (1782-1874), landscape en- 
graver, second son of Charles Pye of Bir- 
mingham, was born there on 7 Nov. 1782 ; 
his mother was a daughter of John Radclyffe, 
also of Birmingham, and aunt of William 
Radclyffe [q. v.J, the engraver. Charles Pye, 
in the expectation of succeeding to a fortune, 
had indulged a taste for literature and numis- 
matics, and when his prospects were de- 
stroyed as the result of a lawsuit he had 
recourse to his pen to maintain his family. 
He published an account of Birmingham, a 
geographical dictionary, and several series of 
plates of provincial coins and tokens engraved 
by himself, with the assistance of his son 
John. The latter was removed from school 
when still a child, and received his first in- 
struction in engraving from his father ; later 
he was a pupil of Joseph Barber, a well- 
known Birmingham teacher, and was then 
apprenticed to a plate-engraver named Tolley. 
In 1801 he came to London with his cousin, 



William Radclyffe, and became a paid assis- 
tant of James Heath (1757-1834) [q. v.l, to 
whom his elder brother was articled, and by 
whom he was employed on works of natural 
history and in engraving the backgrounds of 
book illustrations. In 1805 Pye was entrusted 
by Heath with the execution of a plate of 
Inverary Castle, from a drawing by J. M. W. 
Turner [q. v.], and thus first came under the 
influence of that painter's genius. In 1810 
John Britton [q. v.], who was then publish- 
ing his work, The Fine Arts of the English 
School.' commissioned Pye to engrave for it 
Turner's picture, ' Pope's Villa at Twicken- 
ham,' and the plate was so warmly approved 
of by the painter that from that time Pye 
became his favourite engraver. Pye's plates 
after Turner include ' High Street, Oxford ' 
(figures by C. Heath), 1812; 'View of Ox- 
ford from the Abiiigdon Road ' (figures by 
C. Heath), 1818 ; ' The Rialto, Venice,' ' La 
Riccia,' and 'Lake of Nemi' (for Hake- 
will's 'Tour in Italy,' 1818) ; 'Junction of 
the Greta and Tees,' ' VVyclifte, near Rokeby/ 
and ' Hardraw Fall ' (for Whitaker's ' Rich- 
mondshire,' 1823) ; ' Temple of Jupiter in the 
Island of ^Egina,' 1827 ; ' Tivoli ' and 
' Psestum ' (for Rogers's 'Italy,' 1830) ; and 
' Ehrenbreitstein,' 1845. These remarkable 
works, in which for the first time the effects 
of light and atmosphere were adequately 
rendered, placed Pye at the head of his pro- 
fession, and entitle him to be regarded as the 
founder of the modern school of landscape 
engraving. Among his other large plates are 
' Cliefden on the Thames,' after J. Glover, 
1816; 'All that remains of the Glory of 
William Smith,' after, E. Landseer, 1836 ; 
' Light Breeze off Dover,' after A. W. Call- 
cott, 1 839 ; and ' Temple of the Sun, Baalbec/ 
after D. Roberts, 1849. 

Throughout his career Pye was largely en- 
gaged upon illustrations to the then popular 
annuals and pocket-books, and of these the 
' Ehrenbreitstein,' after Turner (in the 'Lite- 
rary Souvenir,' 1828), and ' The Sunset,' after 
G. Barret (in the 'Amulet'), are the best 
examples. He engraved the entire series of 
headpieces from drawings by W. Havell, 
S. Prout, G. Cuitt, and others, which appeared 
in the ' Royal Repository, or Picturesque 
Pocket Diary,' 1817-39 ; ''Le Souvenir, or 
Pocket Tablet,' 1822-43; and 'Peacock's Po- 
lite Repository,' 1813-58 ; of these a com- 
plete set of impressions, formed by Pye him- 
self, was presented by his daughter to the 
British Museum in 1882. In 1830, at the 
request of John Sheepshanks [q. v.], Pye 
undertook the publication of a series of fine 
j engravings from pictures in the National Gal- 
1 lery, and in the course of the following ten 



Pye 



Pye 



years twenty-nine were issued, of which 
three, after Claude and Poussin, were by Pye 
himself, but the work was then discontinued. 
Pye finally retired from the exercise of his 
profession in 1858. His complete mastery 
of the principles of chiaroscuro in the trans- 
lation of colour into black and white caused 
his services to be always much in request for 
correcting the plates of other engravers, and, 
after his retirement, he gave such help gra- 
tuitously. 

Pye was the most energetic of the founders 
of the Artists' Annuity Fund, and mainly 
through his exertions and those of his friend 
William Mulready [q. v.] it was subsequently 
placed on a firm footing, and in 1827 received 
a royal charter; in recognition of his services 
he was presented with a silver vase and an ad- 
dress by the members of the fund in May 1830. 

Pye spent much of his time in France, 
where, in 1862, he was elected a corre- 
sponding member of the Academic des Beaux- 
Arts; he had already, in 1846, received a 
gold medal from the French government, and 
he was also an honorary member of the 
Petersburg Academy of Arts. But he never 
sought or received honours from the Royal 
Academy, to which body he was bitterly 
hostile, in consequence of its refusal to recog- 
nise the claims of engravers to equal treat- 
ment with painters and sculptors ; he was 
one of the spokesmen of his profession before 
a select committee of the House of Commons 
appointed to inquire into that subject in 
1836, and also took a leading part in the 
controversy with his pen. In 1845 he pub- 
lished his well-known ' Patronage of British 
Art,' a work full of valuable information, in 
which he formulated with great ability and 
acrimony his charges against the academy 
and his demands for its reformation, and in 
1851 he renewed the attack in a pamphlet 
entitled ' A Glance at the Rise and Consti- 
tution of the Royal Academy of London ; ' 
some of the changes he advocated he lived to 
see carried out. 

Pye formed a very fine collection of im- 
pressions of Turner's ' Liber Studiorum,' 
which is now in the print-room of the British 
Museum ; his notes on the subject, edited by 
Mr. J. L. Roget, were published in 1879. 

Pye married, in 1808, Mary, daughter of 
Samuel Middiman [q. v.], the landscape en- 
graver by whom he was assisted in the pre- 
liminary stages of some of his plates, and 
had an only child Mary, who survives (1896). 
He died at his residence, 17 Gloucester Ter- 
race, Regent's Park, on 6 Feb. 1874. 

CHARLES PYE (1777-1864), elder brother 
of John, was a pupil of James Heath, and 
became a good engraver in the line manner, 



chiefly of small book illustrations. Examples 
of his work are found in Inchbald's ' British 
Theatre ; ' Walker's ' Effigies Poeticte,' 1822 ; 
and ' Physiognomical Portraits,' 1824. His 
larger plates include a view of Brereton 
Hall, after P. de Wint, 1818; a portrait of 
Robert Owen, after M. Heming, 1823 ; and 
a Holy Family, after Michael Angelo, 1825. 
During the latter part of his life he resided 
at Leamington, and he died there on 14 Dec. 
1864. 

[Cat. of Exhibition of Works of Birmingham 
Engravers, 1*77; Men of the Time, 1872; 
Athenaeum, H Feb. 1874; Vapereau's Diet, des 
Contemporains ; Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; 
private information.] F. M. O'D. 

PYE, SIR ROBERT (d. 1701), parlia- 
mentarian, was son of Sir Robert Pye (1585- 
1662). 

The latter's eldest brother, SIR WALTER 
PYE (1571-1635) of Mynde Park, near Kill- 
peck, Herefordshire (cf. Gent. Mag. 1789, ii. 
781), is said to have been educated at St. 
John's College, Oxford. lie became a bar- 
rister at the Middle Temple, and was fa- 
voured by Buckingham. By the latter's in- 
fluence he was made justice in Glamorgan- 
shire, Brecknockshire, and Radnorshire on 
8 Feb. 1617, and attorney of the court of 
wards and liA'eries in 1621. He was knighted 
at Whitehall on 29 June 1630 (METCALFE, 
Knights, p. 191), and, dying on 26 Dec. 1635, 
was buried, on 9 Jan. 1635-6, in the church 
of Much Dewchurch, where there is an ela- 
borate monument in alabaster to his me- 
mory. By his first wife, Joan (d. 1625), 
daughter of William Rudhall of Rudhall, 
Herefordshire, whom he married on 22 July 
1604, he had seven sons and seven daughters. 
The eldest son, Sir Walter (1610-1659), 
was father of Walter Pye, who was created 
Baron Kilpeck by James II after his abdi- 
cation, and, being deprived of his Hereford- 
shire property, died abroad without issue in 
1690 (Herald and Genealogist, v. 32 sq. ; 
SMITH'S, Obit. Camd. Soc. p. 11; WHITE- 
LOCKE, Liber Famelicus, Camd. Soc. pp. 54, 
70, 90; ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 3rd ser. iv. 
170-2; EVELYX, Diary, ii. 658; Cal. State 
Papers, 1611-18, p. 432). 

Sir Robert Pye, the parliamentarian's 
father, and Sir Walter's younger brother, be- 
came, by the favour of Buckingham, remem- 
brancer of the exchequer in July 1618, was 
knighted on 13 July 1621, bought the manor 
of Furringdon, Berkshire, from the Unton 
family, and represented Woodstock in the 
Long parliament (NICHOLS, Progresses of 
James I, iii. 487, 669). He contributed 
1,000/. towards the recovery of Ireland, re- 
mained at Westminster after the breach with 



Pye 



Pye 



the king, and passed for a thoroughgoing 
supporter of the parliament. In early life, 
says Ben Jonson, 'he loved the Muses,' and 
Jonson sent him, through John Burgess 
[q. v.], a rhyming petition for the payment 
of the arrears of his pension ( Underwoods, 
p. Ixxv). He died in 1662, having married 
Mary, daughter of John Croker of Batsford, 
Gloucestershire (BEEKY, Berkshire Genea- 
logies, p. 131). 

Robert, the parliamentarian, their son, 
married Anne, daughter of John Hampden, 
and in 1642 raised a troop of horse for the 
army of the Earl of Essex (PEACOCK, Army 
Lists, p. 55). In January 1643 a letter from 
the elder Pye to Sir Edward Nicholas was 
intercepted and read in the House of Com- 
mons, which proved that he was seeking to 
make his peace with the king, and secretly 
contributing money for his service. The letter 
also stated that his son's conduct in taking 
arms against the king was done without his 
consent or knowledge, neither should he have 
any supplies of money from him. It was only 
through Hampden's influence that the writer 
escaped expulsion from the house (SAHFOBD, 
Studies and Illustrations of the Great Re- 
bellion, pp. 488, 547). 

The younger Pye was colonel of a regi- 
ment of horse under Essex during the Cornish 
campaign of 1644, and in June of that year 
captured Taunton Castle (STMONDS, Diary, 
p. 73 ; DEVEREUX, Lives of the Devereux 
Earls of Essex, ii. 413). He was wounded 
at the taking of Cirencester in September 
1643 (Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, p. 262). 
In April 1645 he was appointed colonel of 
a regiment of horse in the new model. In 
May 1645 he was sent to join Colonel Ver- 
muyden and a body of horse who were to 
assist the Scottish army in the north of Eng- 
land ; but, passing through Leicester on his 
way, he was persuaded to remain there to 
take part in its defence against the king 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644-5, p. 504; 
HOLLINGS, Leicester during the Civil War, 
1840, p. 42). Pye showed much skill and 
courage during the defence, was taken pri- 
soner when Leicester fell, and was exchanged 
for Sir Henry Tillyer a few days later (ib. 
pp. 44, 46 ; Lords' Journals, vii. 421). He 
published an account of the siege, entitled 
' A more exact Relation of the Siege laid to 
the town of Leicester . . . delivered to the 
House of Commons by Sir Robert Pye, go- 
vernor of the said Town, and Major James 
Ennis,' 4to, 1645. The events of the siege 
caused a lively controversy, and a number 
of tracts relating to it are reprinted by 
Nichols (Leicestershire, vol. iii. pt. ii. App.) 

In September 1645 Pye took part in the 



siege of Bristol, and in May 1646 he was 
detached by Fairfax to command the forces 
sent to besiege Farringdon, which surren- 
dered on 24 June 1646 with Oxford (SPEIGGE, 
AngliaRediiiea, ed. 1854, pp. 118,258). He 
was one of the officers who undertook in 
March 1647 to engage their men to serve in 
the expedition to Ireland ; but his regiment 
mutinied, and joined the rest of the army in 
their opposition to disbanding (Lords' Jour- 
nals, ix. 214 ; Clarke Papers, i. 113). Pye 
succeeded in bringing off a certain number of 
troopers. These, who formed part of the force 
collected by the city to resist the army in 
July 1647, were regarded with special ani- 
mosity by their late comrades (RtiSHWORTH, 
vii. 741). He was arrested by a party of 
the army in August 1647, but immediately 
released by Fairfax ("WHITELOCKE, ii. 201). 

Pye eventually became reconciled to the 
government of Cromwell, and sat in the par- 
liaments of 1654 and 1658 as member for 
Berkshire. In January 1660 he again came 
forward as an opponent of military rule, and 
presented a petition for the readmission of 
the secluded members. For this the par- 
liament sent him to the Tower, and, though 
he sued for a writ of habeas corpus at the 
upper bench, it was refused by Judge New- 
digate. He was released on 21 Feb. 1660 
( Commons' Journals, vii. 823, 847; Ludlow 
Memoirs, ii. 233 ; KENNETT, Register Eccle- 
siastical and Civil, p. 33). He represented 
Berkshire in the Convention parliament of 
1660, but took little part in politics after- 
wards, though he lived till 1701. In De- 
cember 1688 he joined the Prince of Orange 
on his way to London (Correspondence of 
Henry Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, ii. 219). 

By his marriage with Anne Hampden, 
Pye had two sons, Hampden (b. 1647) and 
Edmund, M.D. (b. 1656). The last was the 
great-grandfather of the laureate Henry 
James Pye [q. v.] 

[Harl. MS. 2218. f. 23 (pedigree); Burke's 
Commoners, i. 350, Extinct Baronetage, p. 433 ; 
other authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

PYE, THOMAS (1560-1610), divine, the 
son of Richard Pye of Darlaston, Stafford- 
shire, was born there in March 1560. Ma- 
triculating at Balliol College, Oxford, on 
20 Dec. 1577, he became chaplain of Merton 
College in 1581, B.D. on 21 June 1585, and 
D.D. on 4 July 1588. He was appointed 
rector of Earnley-with-Almodington, Sussex, 
and canon of Chichester in 1586, and vicar 
and schoolmaster of Bexhill, Sussex, in 1589. 
In 1606 he rebuilt the tower of Darlaston 
church. He died at Bexhill early in 1610. 
By his will, dated 20 Dec. 1609, and proved 



Pye 



73 



Pye 



on 20 March 1610, he directed that he should 
be buried in the school- house lately repaired 
and paved by him, and bequeathed a sum of 
money to the poor of Brightling, near Battle, 
Sussex. He was ' accounted an eminent lin- 
guist, excellent in sacred chronology, in eccle- 
siastical histories, and polemical divinity ' 
(WOOD). 

Pye published: 1. ' A Computation from 
the Beginning of Time to Christ by Ten 
Articles,' London, 1597, 4to. 2. 'A Con- 
firmation of the same for the times contro- 
verted before Christ ; As also that there 
wanteth a year after Christ in the usual Com- 
putation,' printed with the above, and both 
afterwards issued with the title ' An Hour 
Glass.' 3. ' Epistola ad ornatiss. virum D. 
Johan. Howsonum S.T.U. Acad. Oxon., Pro- 
cancellarium, qua Dogma ejus novum et ad- 
mirabile de Judseorum divortiis refutatur, et 
suus S.S. Scripturae nativus sensus ab ejus 
glossematis vindicatur,' London, 1603, 4to. 
4. ' Usury's Spright conjured : or a Scho- 
lasticall Determination of Usury,' London, 
1604, 4to. 5. ' Answer to a Treatise written 
in Defence of Usury,' London, 1604. Wood 
also mentions a manuscript ' Epistola respon- 
soria ad clariss. virum, D. Alb. Gentilem.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 59; 
Plot's Staffordshire, p. '^97 ; Shaw's Hist, of 
Staffordshire, ii. 92 ; Pitt's Hist, of Staffordshire, 
p. 149; Hackwood's Hist, of Darlaston, pp. 53, 
54, 60, 64, 82, 91, 137; Simms's Bibliotheca 
Staffordiensis, p. 369; Foster's 1 Alumni Oxon. 
(early ser.), iii. 1222; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. s.v. ' Pyus.'] W. A. S. H. 

PYE, SIR THOMAS (1713 P-1785), ad- 
miral, born about 1713, was second son of 
Henry Pye (1683-1749), of Faringdon in 
Berkshire, and of Knotting in Bedfordshire, 
by his second wife, Anne, sister of Allen 
Bathurst, first earl Bathurst [q. v.] Sir 
Robert Pye [q. v.] was his grandfather, and 
Henry James Pye [q. v.], the poetaster, was 
his nephew (BERRY, Berkshire Genealogies, 
p. 133; Gent. Mag. 1800, i. 506). He entered 
the navy in May 1727, as a volunteer ' per 
order,' on board the Lark, and having served 
in her, in the Torrington and in the Rose, ' 
for the most part in the Mediterranean and i 
West Indies, he passed his examination on j 
12 June 1734, being then, according to his j 
certificate, twenty-one years old. On 18 April 
1735 he was promoted to the rank of lieute- 
nant. In 1739 he was lieutenant of the 
Bristol, and in 1740 of the Elizabeth in the 
Channel fleet; on 13 April 1741 he was pro- 
moted to be captain of the Seaford frigate, 
of 20 guns, on the home station. In 1743 
he was officially commended for procuring 
certain intelligence of the state of the French 



fleet at Brest; and in 1744, being then in 
the Mediterranean, was sent by Admiral 
Mathews into the Adriatic, to intercept the 
supplies to the Spanish forces in Italy, and 
to co-operate with the Austrian army. For 
his service on this occasion he received 'a 
special mark of distinction from the court 
of Vienna,' and on his return to England 
was personally commended by the king. In 
August 1744 he was appointed by Mathews 
to be captain of the Norfolk, which he 
brought home from the Mediterranean in 
March 1748. He was then appointed to 
the Greenwich, a 50-gun ship ; was moved 
a few days later to the Norwich, and in 
April 1749 to the Humber; in April 1751 
to the Gosport, and in February 1752 to the 
Advice, with a broad pennant as commander- 
in-chief at the Leeward Islands. 

In October 1755 he was superseded by 
Commodore (afterwards Sir Thomas) Frank- 
land [q. v.], who, after reprimanding him 
for keeping his broad pennant flying in the 
presence of a senior officer, charged him with 
fraud, peculation, and neglect of duty, sus- 
pended him from the command of the Ad- 
vice, and ordered him to return to England 
to answer to the admiralty for his conduct. 
Frankland's action was irregular; it was 
his duty to have brought Pye to a court- 
martial on the station ; and accordingly, 
when Pye arrived in England, the admiralty 
refused to go into the matter, considering 
that by coming home Pye had practically 
acknowledged the truth of the charges ; if he 
wished to be tried, they told him, he could 
go back to the West Indies, or wait till 
Frankland came home. Pye believed that 
Frankland's influence in the West Indies 
would prevent his having a fair trial, so he 
elected to wait. He was eventually tried 
by court-martial on 1, 2, 3, and 4 March 
1758, and acquitted of the more serious 
charges, though reprimanded for carelessness 
in some of the accounts. He was accordingly 
ordered to be paid his half-pay from the day 
of his suspension, 18 Oct. 1755 (Memorial, 
19 May 1758; Admiralty Treasury Letters, 
vol. iv. ; Minutes of Courts-martial, vol. 
xxxviii. ; Admiralty Minute-book, 28 Aug. 
1758); and on 5 July 1758 was promoted to be 
rear-admiral of the blue squadron. In 1762 
he was commander-in-chief at Plymouth. 

On 21 Oct. 1762 he became vice-admiral 
of the blue squadron, but had no active ser- 
vice during the war. From 1766 to 1769 
he was commander-in-chief at the Leeward 
Islands, and from 1770 to 1773 was com- 
mander-in-chief at Portsmouth. In June 
1773 the king visited Portsmouth, and during 
several days reviewed the fleet at Spithead. 



\ 



p ygg 



74 



Pyle 



On the 24th he knighted Pye on the quarter- 
deck of the Barfleur, under the royal standard, 
and at the same time ordered his promotion 
to the rank of admiral of the blue (BEATSON, 
iv. 34-40). 

From 1777 to 1783 he was again com- 
mander-in-chief at Portsmouth, and was 
especially ordered to be president of the 
court-martial on Admiral Keppel, in January 
1779, a duty which he had endeavoured to 
avoid on the plea of ill-health (Admiralty to 
Pye, 24 Dec. 1778, Secretary 's Letters, vol. 
lix.) He seems to have been excused from 
presiding at the court-martial on Palliser, the 
admiralty preferring to appoint a partisan 
of their own. This was the end of Pye's 
service ; he died in London in 1785. His 
wife died in 1762, apparently without issue. 
He is described as a man of very slender 
ability, thrust into high office by the Bathurst 
interest. The peculiarity of his features ob- 
tained for him the distinguishing name of 
' Nosey,' and his figure was ungainly ; but 
' he had the vanity to believe that he was 
irresistible in the eyes of every woman who 
beheld him,' and was notorious for the irregu- 
larities of his private life. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. v. 112; Beatson's 
Naval and Military Memoirs; The Naval Ata- 
lantis (a work mostly scurrilous, but not with- 
out a substratum of truth), p. 17 ; Official 
Correspondence, &c., in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

PYGG, OLIVER (fi. 1580), author. [See 

PlGG.] 

PYKE, JOHX (fl. 1322?), chronicler. 
[See PIKE.] 

PYLE, THOMAS (1674-1756), divine 
and author, was son of John Pyle, rector of 
Stody, Norfolk. After being at school at 
Holt, Norfolk, he was admitted a sizar of 
Caius College, Cambridge, on 17 May 1692, 
and was elected a scholar next MichaeTiTRrs. 
He graduated B.A. in 1695-6 and M.A. 
in 1699. When, in >1697, he was ordained 
by Dr. Moore, bishop of Norwich, William 
Whiston, then chaplain to the bishop, notes 
that Pyle was one of the two best scholars 
whom he ever examined {Memoirs, i. 287). 
He probably acted as curate of St. Mar- 
garet's, King's Lynn, until 1701, when, 
shortly after his marriage to Mary Rolfe of 
that town, he was appointed by the corpora- 
tion minister of St. Nicholas's Chapel, Lynn. 
He also held the neighbouring rectories of 
Outwell from 1709 and of Watlington from 
1710. 

He was an eloquent preacher, and a strong 
whig. Consequently, the accession of the 
house of Hanover, coupled with the fact that 



Walpole represented Lynn in parliament, 
gave him hope of preferment. He was not 
slow to take advantage of the outbreak of 
the Bangorian controversy. ' A Vindication 
of the Bishop of Bangor, in answer to the 
Exceptions of Mr. Law,' and a ' Second Vin- 
dication,' both issued in 1718, proved his 
talent as a disputant, and gained for him the 
friendship of Hoadly. Pyle began to be 
known in London as a preacher, and his 
' Paraphrase of the Acts and Epistles, in the 
manner of Dr. Clarke,' published in 1725, 
obtained some popularity. In 1726 Hoadly, 
now bishop of Salisbury, collated him to the 
prebend of Durnford, in that church (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, ii. 668). Further ' Paraphrases ' 
helped to strengthen his position among the 
numerous low-church divines, such as Clarke, 
Sykes, and Herring, with whom he was in- 
timate. But Pyle never received any addi- 
tional preferment, though his friend Herring 
became primate, and though Hoadly's in- 
fluence was undiminished. ' That very im- 
petuosity of spirit,' writes Herring to Dun- 
combe, 'which, under proper government, 
renders him the agreeable creature he is, 
has, in some circumstances of life, got the 
better of him, and hurt his views' (29 July 
1745, HERRING'S Letters, p. 81; RICHARDS, 
p. 1015). He was, in fact, too heterodox 
even for Queen Caroline, and, as his son 
Edmund relates (Letter of 4 Aug. 1747, 
quoted by Richards, pp. 1015-16), scarcely 
disguised his Unitarian views. In 1732 he 
exchanged his old livings for the vicarage of 
St. Margaret's, Lynn, retaining this charge 
until increasing age forced him to resign in 
1755. He retired to Swatfham, and died 
there on 31 Dec. 1756. He was buried in 
the church of All Saints, Lynn. 

Despairing of promotion for himself, Pyle 
had used his influence with Hoadly and 
others in behalf of his children. By his 
wife (who died on 14 March 1748, aged 66) 
he had three sons and three daughters. Ed- 
mund, the eldest (1702-1776), succeeded his 
father as lecturer at St. Nicholas's, Lynn, 
1832, became archdeacon of York in 1751, 
and acted as chaplain to Hoadly and to 
George II. Thomas, the second son (1713- 
1806), became canon of Salisbury in 1741, 
| and of Winchester in 1760, besides receiving 
good livings from Hoadly. Philip, the third 
son (1724-1789), was appointed rector of 
North Lynn in 1756 (see RICHARDS, pp. 1018- 
1021). 

Pyle published, besides the works already 
named, two answers to tracts by Dr. Henry 
Stebhings on the Bangorian controversy 
(1718-19); 'Paraphrase on the Historical 
Books of the Old Testament,' 171 7-25, 4 vols. 



Pym 



75 



Pym 



8vo ; and ' The Scripture Preservative against 
Popery : being a Paraphrase, with Notes, 
on the Revelation of St. John,' London, 
1735, 8vo. 

After his death his son Philip published 
three collections of his discourses in 1773, 
1777, and 1783 respectively. 

[Richards's Hist. ofLynn, 1813, pp. 1012-23; 
Mackerell's History of Lynn, 1738, p. 89; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 433 ; Masters's Hist, of 
Corpus Christi, Cambridge, p. 38 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.; information kindly 
given by Dr. John Venn of Gains College, Cam- 
bridge.] E. G-. H. 

PYM, JOHN (1584-1643), parliamentary 
statesman, born in 1584, was the eldest son of 
Alexander Pym of Bryrnore, near Bridgwater, 
Somerset, and Philippa Coles. His father 
must have died when he was, at the utmost, 
six years of age, as in the sermon preached at 
his mother's funeral in 1620 probably in 
1620-1 she is said to have lived more than 
thirty years with her second husband, Sir 
Anthony Rous (Death's Sermon, by C. Fitz- 
geffry ; the ' Notebook ' printed as Pym's 
from the Brymore MSS. in Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 10th Rep., is in reality William Aysh- 
combe's, and the interesting details which it 
would have furnished if it had been genuine 
must be unhesitatingly rejected ; see the 
question discussed in the Engl. Hist. Revieiv 
for January 1895, p. 105). Pym matricu- 
lated from Broadgates Hall (now Pembroke 
College) on 18 May 1599 (Register of the 
Unir. of O.rford. Oxford Hist. Soc. II. ii. 
234), and in 1C01 is mentioned in a short 
Latin poem addressed to him by his friend 
Fitzgeffry, in a collection of verses which 
bears the name of 'Aft'anise.' In 1602 he 
became a student of the Middle Temple 
(information communicated by Mr. Joseph 
Foster), though he Avas never called to the 
bar. Mr. Firth, in his preface to Robert 
Browning's ' Prose Life of Strafford ' (p. Ixiv), 
having been misled by the notebook at Bry- 
more, makes Pym enter the Middle Temple 
in 1607, in the same year as Wentworth, and 
naturally supposes that the friendship be- 
tween the two men originated here. As a 
matter of fact, we have no evidence on the 
duration of Pym's stay in London after 1602, 
and we know nothing of his career till he 
entered the House of Commons as member 
for Calne in 1614. As Wentworth also sat 
in the same parliament, it is quite possible 
that Pym's intimacy with him had no earlier 
origin. All that we know of Pym during 
the six years which elapsed before parliament 
again met is that he married Anna Hooker 
or Hooke (she is called by the latter name in 
the pedigree at Brymore), and that his wife 



died in 1620. In the same year, according 
to the old reckoning, probably February or 
March 1620-1 (Fitzgeffry, in his sermon 
already cited, speaks of the impossibility of 
his attending the funeral, which could hardly 
be, unless he was detained by his parlia- 
mentary duties), he lost his mother. 

In the parliament of 1621 Pym again sat 
for Calne. In the earlier part of the session 
his name begins to appear on committees ; 
but it is not till after the summer adjourn- 
ment that he stands forth as one of the 
leading speakers. His first appearance in 
this year was in the committee appointed to 
consider the state of religion and to prepare 
a petition against 'papists.' In his speech on 
this occasion (Proceedings and Debates, ii. 
210) Pym laid stress, in the first place, on 
the Elizabethan doctrine that ' papists ' were 
not coerced because of their religion, but be- 
cause it was right ' to restrain not only the 
fruit, but even the seeds of sedition, though 
buried under the pretences of religion.' 'The 
aim of the laws in the penalties and restraints 
of papists was not to punish them for be- 
lieving and thinking, but that they might be 
disabled to do that which they think and 
believe they ought to do.' In the second 
place, Pym recommended that an oath of 
association should be taken by all loyal sub- 
jects for the defence of the king's person, 
and for the execution of the laws in matter 
of religion. This falling back upon volun- 
tary popular action was no doubt sug- 
gested to Pym by the association in defence 
of Elizabeth against the machinations of 
Mary Queen of Scots and her accomplices, 
but it was none the less characteristic of his 
habits of political thought. Popular opinion, 
he held to the last, must not be allowed to 
remain a vague sentiment. It must be or- 
ganised in support of a government proceed- 
ing on the right lines. It was this practical 
turn which made Pym a power in the land. 
There is no trace in his speeches of that ima- 
ginative oratory which marks those of his 
contemporary Eliot. 

In the struggle over the right of petition 
which marked the close of this parliament 
Pym did not take a prominent part ; but he 
was sufficiently identified with it to be or- 
dered to confine himself to his house in 
London. On 20 April 1622 he was allowed 
to return to Brymore. In the parliament 
of 1624, when he again sat for Calne, though 
he took part in the business of the house, 
he did not often make himself heard in the 
public debates, nor did he at any time speak 
at length. In 1625, in the first parliament 
of Charles, Pym, who now sat for Tavistock, 
once more took up the subject which he had 



Pym 



7 6 



Pym 



made his own the execution of the penal 
laws against the catholics. On 27 June he 
was appointed by the sub-committee on reli- 
gion to draw up, in conjunction with Sandys, 
the articles against papists, which were ulti- 
mately adopted with some modifications 
(Commons' Debates, 1625, p. 18, Camden 
Soc.) On 9 Aug. he appeared as a reporter 
of the lord treasurer's financial statement, 
but he does not appear to have taken part 
in the subsequent attacks on Buckingham 
in the course of the Oxford sittings. In 1626 
Pym, who again represented Tavistock, ap- ! 
peared on 17 April as the reporter of the 
charges against Richard Montagu [q. v.] (id. 
p. 179). The ability and persistency with 
which Pym had carried on the campaign 
against tne catholics commended him to the 
house, and on 18 May he took his place as 
one of the managers of Buckingham's im- 
peachment. The articles entrusted to him 
were the ninth, tenth, and eleventh, deal- 
ing with the sale by the duke of titles of 
honour and places of judicature, and with 
the lavish distribution of honour among his 
own kindred (RusuwoRTH, ed. 1721, ii. 335). 
Pym's handling of the financial questions in- 
volved finally established his reputation as 
a map of business. 

During the interval between the second 
and third parliRnents of Charles I nothing 
is heard of Pym. He seems to have adopted 
Wentworth's principle, that it was not well 
to contend with the king out of parliament. 
At all events, his name does not occur among 
those who suffered for refusing to pay the 
forced loan. In the third parliament of 
Charles I, which met in 1628, Pym again 
sat for Tavistock. At a conference of the 
leading members, held before the opening of 
the session, he seems to have declared against 
revivingJBuckingham's impeachment (FoRS- 
TER, Life of Eliot, ii. 1, from a memorandum 
at Port Eliot). During the earlier part of 
the session, when Wentworth was attempt- 
ing to bring about a compromise between 
the king and the House of Commons, Pym 
was not a frequent speaker (Nicholas's 
' Notes,' State Papers, Dom. vol. xcvii.) On 
6 May, when Wentworth's leadership had 
broken down, Pym was one of those who took 
objection to Charles's offer to renew Magna 
Charta and six other statutes, together with 
a general assurance of good intentions, in the 
place of an act for the redress of grievances. 
* They did not want the king's word,' said 
Pym, ' for it could add nothing to his coro- 
nation oath. What was wanted was a rule 
fey which the king's action should in future 
be guided.' ijater in the session Pym warmly 
supported the petition of right. On 20 May 



he opposed the addition of a clause, sent 
down from the lords, with the object of 
safeguarding the king's sovereign power. His 
interest in the constitutional questions now 
opening out did not lead him to neglect 
those matters of religion in which he had for- 
merly taken go deep an interest. On 9 June 
he carried up to the Lords the articles of im- 
peachment against Roger Manwaring [q. v.], 
who was accused of enforcing in a sermon the 
duty of obeying the king on pain of damna- 
tion. On 14 June Pym, in conducting the 
case against Manwaring, laid down his own 
constitutional principles. History, he argued, 
' was full of the calamities of nations in which 
one party sought to uphold the old form of 
government, and the other part to introduce 
a new.' His own solution of the difficulty was 
that, though from time to time reformation 
was necessary, it could only be safely con- 
ducted according to the original principles 
under which the government of each nation 
had been founded. The remedy for present 
evils, therefore, was the acknowledgment by 
the king of ' ancient and due liberties,' im- 
plying thereby that it was not by the esta- 
blishment of an arbitrary power in the king 
for the redress of grievances. In estimating 
Pym's mental position it is well to compare 
this utterance with that which he gave in 
1 621 on the recusancy laws. In both of them 
appears the philosophising statesman rather 
than the political philosopher. Pym starts 
with a recommendation which he deems prac- 
tically advisable, and strives to reconcile it 
with general considerations. He does not 
seek to defend his view against the objections 
of his antagonists. His eyes were opened to 
the value of a system which enthroned parlia- 
ments in the seat of judgment in ecclesias- 
tical matters. He was not sufficiently in 
advance of his age to deprecate the infliction 
of penalties for such differences of opinion 
as appeared likely to lead to practical evils. 
In the final attack on Buckingham, Pym 
bore his share. He had given his voice in 
the last parliament, he said, on 1 1 June, 'that 
the Duke of Buckingham is the cause of all 
these grievances, and hath seen nothing ever 
since to alter his opinion ' (ib. vol. xci.) In 
the session of 1629 Pym's most notable ap- 
pearance was in opposition to Eliot's pro- 
posal to treat the question of tonnage and 
poundagfTalTa question of privilege, and to 
punish the officers who had exacted the duties 
fromTa member of the house, instead of join- 
ing issue on the main question with the king. 
' The liberties of this House/ he said on 
19 Feb., ' are inferior to the liberties of this 
kingdom. To determine the privilege of this 
House is but a mean matter, a-nd the main 



Pym 



77 



Pym 



end is to establish possession of the subjects, 
and to take off the commission and records 
and orders that are against us. This is the 
main business ; and the way to sweeten the 
business with the king, and to certify our- 
selves, is, first, to settle these things, and 
then we may in good time proceed to vindi- 
cate our privileges' (ib. vol. cxxxv.") That 
Pym took the broader view of the situation 
can hardly be doubted ; but lie found no 
support. In the disturbance which marked 
the end of this session he took no part, and 
his name does not therefore occur among 
those of the men imprisoned by the king. 
Nor did he, at any time during the eleven 
years which elapsed before parliament was 
again summoned, take a public part in resist- 
ance to the arbitrary government of Charles. 

An anecdote told by Dr. Welwood of 
Pym's parting with Wentworth, apparently 
in 1628, is of doubtful authority. Wel- 
wood states that Pym took leave of his friend 
with the words: ' You are going to be un- 
done ; and remember also that, though you 
leave us now, I will never leave you while 
your head is upon your shoulders.' It looks 
like a tale constructed after the event. At 
all events, Pym and Wentworth had not 
been politically in close harmony for some 
time. Pym was at bottom a puritan, Went- 
worth an anti-puritan : and the two had cer- 
tainly not in 1628 'gone hand-in-hand in the 
House of Commons,' as Welwood asserts 
(Memorials, vi. 47). 

Another anecdote tells how Pym, to- 
gether with Hampden and Cromwell, em- 
barked with the intention of emigrating to 
New England, but was stopped by the king's 
orders. Mr. Forster (Life of Pym, p. 81) has 
shown that this cannot have taken place in 
1638, but it is possible that something of the 
kind may have happened at an earlier date. 
Thomas Cave, in a sermon preached in 1642, 
' God waiting to be gracious,' says : ' Prepa- 
rations were made by some very considerable 
personages for a western voyage the vessel 
provided, and the goods ready to be carried 
aboard when an unexpected and almost a 
miraculous providence diverted that design 
in the very nick of time.' At all events, 
there can be no doubt of the interest taken 
by Pym in America. He was one of the 
patentees of Connecticut (PALFREY, i. 108), 
and was not only a patentee for Providence 
(Patent inP.R.O. Colonial Entry Book, iv. 1), 
but was treasurer of the company (ib. iii. 7 ; 
cf. Strafford Letters, ii. 141). 

With the meeting of the Short parliament 
in 1640, Pym begins to play that part of 
unacknowledged leader of the House of Com- j 
mons which was all that the, ideas of that I 



j age permitted. On 17 April he spoke for 
two hours, a length of time to which Par- 
liament was then unaccustomed. He summed 
up the grievances of the nation, both in civil 
and ecclesiastical affairs. He did not, how- 
ever, ask at this time that any of the kind's 
ministers should be held responsible, but 
contented himself with asking the lords to 
join in searching out the causes and remedies 
of the existing evils. Pym's moderation, com- 
bined with his energy, was the secret of his 
strength (there is a report of this speech 
in RUSHWORTH, iii. 113; it was printed at 
length in 1641, with the title of A Speech 
delivered in Parliament by I. P., ESQ., and 
is among the Thomason Tracts. Mr. Forster, 
in his Life of Pym, p. 89, gave long extracts 
from the latter, arguing thatit had been 
corrected by Pym himself). V)n 27 April 
Pym followed up the blow by resisting an im- 
mediate grant of supply. On 1 May he 
carried a motion to send for Dr. Beale for 
asserting that the king had power to make 
laws without consent of parliament (Com- 
mons' Journals, ii. 18; Rossinghams News 
Letter, 4 May ; State Papers, Dom. cccclii. 
20). At a private meeting of the leading 
members, held on the 4th, it was resolved 
that on the following morning Pym should 
bring forward the subject of decoration issued 
by the Scots, and should ask thwcing to come 
to terms with his northern subjects (the evi- 
dence is collected in GARDINER'S Hist, of 
England, ix. 116, n. 1). To avert what he 
regarded as a real catastrophe, Charles dis- 
solved parliament on the oth. 

Pym s study was searched in vain, as well 
as the studies of his associates, to find com- 
promising evidence of a conspiracy with 
the Scots. It is likely that he approved 
and even took part in those invitations to 
the Scots of which even now so li^le is 
accurately known. At all events, on 31 Aug., 
three days after the rout at Newburn, the 
council was alarmed by news that a meet- 
ing of the opposition, at which Pym was 
present, had been held in London, and it is 
probable that this refers to a meeting in 
which twelve peers signed a petition, call- 
ing on the king to redress grievances, and 
asking for the summoning of a fresh par- 
liament. This petition was drawn up by Pym 
and St. John ; and, containing as it does a 
demand that the advisers of the measures 
complained of shall be brought to trial, is 
evidence that Pym thought the time had 
come to go beyond the moderate demands 
made by him in the Short parliament (Pe- 
tition of the Peers, 28 Aug., State Papers, 
Dom. cccclxv. 16 ; cf. Windebanjc to the 
King, 31 Aug., Clarendon State Papers, ii. 



Pym 

94 ; Savile to Lady Temple, November 1642 ; 
Papers relating to the Delinquency of Lord 
Savile, p. 2 in the Camden Society's Miscel- 
lany, vol. viii.) When the Long parliament 
met, on 3 Nx>v- 1640, Pym took his seat once 
more as member for Tavistock. 

By the coincidence of his point of view 
with that of the vast majority of the new 
House of Commons, as well as by his political 
ability, Pym was admirably qualified to take 
the lead in the coming attack on the king's 
government. His belief that the attempt 
of Charles to set up an arbitrary government 
was closely connected with a Roman catholic 
plot to destroy protestantism in England was 
shared by most of his colleagues. He had 
himself seen Vane's notes of the speeches of 
Strafford and others at the meeting of the 
committee held after the dissolution of the I 
Short parliament, and these had confirmed 
his views as to the existence of a deliberate 
design to destroy parliamentary institutions. 
In a speech delivered on 7 Nov. he pointed to 
the necessity of punishingoffenders,a demand 
which he had forborne to make in the Short 
parliament (D' Ewes's ' Diary,' Harl. MS. 
162, fol. 26. The speech printed by Rush- 
worth is that in the Short parliament). After 
again giving a detailed list of grievances, he 
contented himself with asking for a com- 
mittee of inquiry. On the same day, in a 
committee on Irish affairs, a petition from 
Lord Mountnorris against Strafford having 
been read, Pym moved for a sub-committee 
to examine into Stratford's conduct in Ireland. 
Strafford himself was still in the north, and it 
is evident that Pym contemplated a delibe- 
rate inquiry into his misdeeds which might 
serve as the foundation of an impeachment 
at a future time. Strafford's arrival in Lon- 
don on the 9th, together with information 
conveyed to Pym of advice given by the 
hitherto all-powerful minister to accuse the 
parliamentary leaders of treason for bringing 
in the Scots, changed his plans. Onthe llth, 
Pym, having first moved that the doors be 
locked, was empowered to carry up an im- 
mediate impeachment of Strafford. Strafford 
having been placed under arrest, and ulti- 
mately committed to the Tower, Pym and 
his associates co\ild proceed in a leisurely 
way to collect evidence against him. On the 
10th his name is found among those of the 
committee on the state of the kingdom which 
ultimately produced the Grand Remon- 
strance, and on the llth he was placed on 
another committee to prepare charges against 
Strafford. During the following weeks he 
was placed on a considerable number of 
other committees. 
. In the collection of evidence against 



8 Pym 

Strafford, Pym took a leading part. On 
21 Dec., in a discussion on Finch's guilt, he 
emitted the doctrine, from which he never 
swerved, ' that to endeavour the subversion 
of the laws of this kingdom was treason of 
the highest nature ' (D'Ewes's 'Diary,' Harl. 
MS. 162, f. 90). He had already, on the 
16th, moved the impeachment of Laud. On 
the 30th he was placed on the committee on 
the bill for annual parliaments, which ulti- 
mately took the shape of the Triennial Act. 
On 28 Jan. 1641 he brought up from com- 
mittee the detailed charges against Straf- 
ford. 

So strong was Pym's position in parlia- 
ment, and so hopeless did Charles's cause 
appear, that the queen attempted to win him 
over by obtaining his appointment as chan- 
cellor of the exchequer; while his patron, the 
Earl of Bedford, was to become lord trea- 
surer. As far as we can now penetrate into 
the mysteries of this intrigue of the queen, 
it would seem that the plan was wrecked, 
not merely by Bedford's death not long after- 
wards, but by the incompatibility of the 
motives of the parties. Pym would doubtless 
have taken office readily as a pledge of a com- 
plete change of system. What the court 
wanted was to avert such a change by dis- 
tributing offices among those who were sup- 
posed to advocate it for personal ends. 

Up to this point the houses had been 
practically unanimous in demanding political 
reform. The debates on 8 and 9 Feb. on two 
ecclesiastical petitions showed a rift in 
the House of Commons, which afterwards 
widened into the split which brought on the 
civil war. Pym's contribution to the de- 
bate was ' that he thought it was not the 
intention of the house to abolish episcopacy 
or the Book of Common Prayer, but to reform 
both wherein offence was given to the people ' 
(BAGSHAW, A Just Vindication, 1660). It 
can hardly be doubted that, if the times had 
been propitious, the legislation of the Long 
parliament would have followed on these 
lines, and that Pym would have left his 
impress on the church as well as on the 
state of England. 

For such legislation a time of quiet was 
needed, and what followed was a time of 
mutual suspicion. On 23 March Pym opened 
the case against Strafford, reiterating the 
opinion which he had expressed in Finch's 
case, that an attempt to subvert what would 
now be called the constitution was high 
treason. This allegation was bitterly re- 
sented by Charles, and on 1 April, or soon 
afterwards, Pym learnt the existence of a 
project for bringing the northern army up 
to Westminster, and it may be that he be- 



Pym 



79 



Pym 



eved Charles to have shown more sympathy 
ith it than was the case. At all events, 
*ym was more strongly than ever convinced 
f the necessity of depriving the elements of 
esistance of a leader so capable as Stratford ; 
nd, with his usual instinct for gaining the 
opular ear, he pushed forward the charge of 
ttempting to bring the Irish army into Eng- 
md, and supported it by the evidence of the 
otes which had come into Vane's hands. On 
April, the lords having shown their willing- 
ess to treat Strafford with judicial fairness, 
the commons returned to their own house. 
jraking cognisance of Vane's notes, they re- 
teolved to drop the impeachment, and to pro- 
ceed by bill of attainder. Pym, anxious to 
retain judicial forms, would gladly have 
avoided the change. He was indeed forced 
to give way at first, but he soon regained his 
influence ; and, though the bill of attainder 
was formally persisted in, the commons con- 
sented to allow its managers to reply on 
IJhe 13th to Stratford's defence and the legal 
arguments to be urged for and against him, 
just as if the impeachment had not been 
Bopped. Pym's speech on the 13th was 
> principal exposition of the constitutional 
ws which at this time prevailed in the 
juse of Commons. In his anxiety to save 
/trafford, Charles again held out hopes of 
promotion to the parliamentary leaders, and 
before the end of April there was once more 
talk of making Pym chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. Twice in the course of a week he 
was admitted to an interview with the king 
(Tomkins to Lambe, 26 April, State Papers, 
Dom. cccclxxix. 74). 

On both sides there was too much heat to 
allow of such an arrangement. The events of 
Sunday, 2 May, cost Strafford his life. Move- 
ments of armed men were heard of, and an at- 
tempt was made by Charles to gain possession 
of the Tower. On the 3rd there were tumults 
at Westminster. Pym, in the House of Com- 
mons, laid the blame not on the king, but 
on his counsellors, and asserted it to be the 
business of parliament ' to be careful that he 
have good counsellors about him, and to let 
him understand that he is bound to maintain 
the laws, and that we take care for the main- 
taining of the word of God.' This speech 
contained the germ of the Grand Remon- 
strance. Pym proceeded to suggest a decla- 
ration of the intentions of the house ( Verncy 
Notes, p. 66). a suggestion on \vhich was 
based the protestation circulated for sub- 
scription in the kingdom. 

It was dread of armed intervention which 
made Pym deaf to all appeals for mercy to 
Strafford. He had good information on all 
that passed at court, and everything that 



he heard convinced him that some desperate 
measures were projected. That he might 
carry parliament with him, on 5 May he re- 
vealed his knowledge of .a design to bring 
the army up to Westminster. On this the 
lords took alarm, and passed not only the 
attainder bill, but another bill forbidding 
the dissolution of parliament without its 
own consent. On 10 May the royal assent 
was given to both bills, and Strafford was 
executed on the llth. 

As far as law could avail, Pym's policy had 
made parliament master of the situation. 
Charles could not get rid of the houses, and, 
as they took care to grant supplies only for 
a limited period, he would be obliged to con- 
form his actions to their pleasure. Against, 
force no legal defences could make provision, 
and it was against the employment of force 
by the king that Pym's efforts were now 
directed. A series of measures passed by 
parliament for the abolition of special powers 
acquired by the Tudor sovereigns were ac- 
cepted by Charles, and preparations were 
made for disbanding both the English and 
the Scottish armies in the north of England. 
The prospect of the spreading among his ad- 
versaries of dissensions on ecclesiastical affairs 
was a source of encouragement to Charles. 
On 8 June the Bishops' Exclusion Bill had 
been thrown out by the lords, and the Root 
and Branch Bill, for the abolition of episco- 
pacy, though supported by Pym and his 
friends in the house, rous'ed strong opposition 
among those who had joined in the attack on 
the temporal authority of the crown. As far 
as we can enter into Pym's thoughts, his ori- 
ginal view in favour of a modified episcopal 
system now gave way to a policy of total ex- 
tirpation of bishops, because he believed that 
bishops nominated by the crown would always 
be subservient instruments of a hostile court. 
He was, however, as far as Falkland from 
desiring to establish in England a Scottish 
presbytery, and the Root and Branch Bill 
accordingly provided for the exercise of 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction by lay commis- 
sioners. 

By the early part of June a second army 
plot had been concocted, in which Charles 
undoubtedly had a hand, and it may be pre- 
sumed that some knowledge of it reached 
Pym before 22 June, when he carried up to 
the lords the ten propositions, asking them, 
among other things, to join in disbanding 
both the English and the Scottish armies, to 
remove evil counsellors, and to appoint such 
as parliament ' may have cause to confide in ' 
(Lords' Journals, iv. 285). Charles agreed 
to disband the armies, but refused to ac- 
knowledge the supremacy of parliament by 



P 

S 

u 

n 
n 

y 
I 

a 
t 



Pyrn 

changing his counsellors. For a moment, 
indeed, towards the end of July, there were 
rumours that new ministers would be ap- 
pointed, and Pym was again spoken of for 
the chancellorship of the exchequer (Ni- 
cholas to Pennington, 29 July, State Papers, 
Dom. cccclxxxii. 96). The rumour soon died 
away, and when, on 10 Aug., Charles set out 
for Scotland, there can be little doubt that 
Pym was aware of his intention to procure 
armed support to enable him to dictate terms 
to the English parliament. 

To guard against this danger a committee 
of defence, of which Pym was a member, 
was appointed to consider in what hands 
should be placed the command ' of the trained 
bands and ammunition of the kingdom ' 
(Commons 1 Journals, ii. 257). It was the 
first indication of the coming civil war. 

When, on 21 Oct., Parliament reassembled 
after a short holiday, the news of the ' inci- 
dent' caused fresh alarm. Pym, who had 
been chairman of a committee instructed to 
watch events during the recess, was now re- 
garded by the growing royalist party as the 
chief in the fullest sense of those whom they 
were beginning to regard as revolutionists. 
On 25 Oct. some miscreant sent him a 
threatening letter, enclosing a plague rag. 
The policy which he now supported was to 
send up a second Bishops' Exclusion Bill. 
On the 26th he carried a vote asking the 
lords to suspend the bishops from voting in 
their own case. On the- 30th he revealed 
his knowledge of the second army plot, and 
showed reasons for suspecting that other 
plots were under consideration at court. He 
lived in an atmosphere of suspicion, and in 
such a temper it might seem as if attack 
was the most prudent form of defence. On 
1 Nov. the news of the Ulster insurrection 
made an immediate decision necessary. If, 
as all agreed, it was unavoidable that an 
army should be raised for its suppression, 
provision must be made that, after the sup- 
pression of the rebellion, this army should not 
be used by Charles for the suppression of 
parliament. On 5 Nov. Pym moved an 
additional instruction to the parliamentary 
committee with the king in Scotland, to an- 
nounce that unless he changed his ministers 
parliament would not be bound to assist him 
in Ireland. So great, however, was the 
opposition to his proposal to desert the Irish 
protestants if the king proved obdurate, that 
on the 8th he modified it to a declaration 
that in that case ' parliament wouTdprovide 
for Ireland without him.' For the first time 
the suggestion was made that the executive 
government might be transferred to the 
house. Thus modified, the instruction was 



80 



Pym 



carried ; but 110 votes were recorded agaii 
it and 151 in its favour. Parties were nc 
divided on political as well as on ecclesiastic 
grounds. To give emphasis to this develo 
ment of policy, the Grand Remonstrance, 
the promotion of which Pym took a co: 
spicuous part, was pushed on. After detai 
ing at great length the king's misdeeds, 
demanded the appointment, of ministers 
which parliament could confide, and tl 
settlement of church affairs by an assemb 
of divines who were to be named by parli 
ment. On 22 Nov., in his speech on the re 
monstrance, Pym referred to plots which ha 
been ' very near the king, all driven horn 
to the court and popish party.' The re 
monstrance was voted, but Charles wa 
hardly likely to accept it. 

On 25 Nov. Charles was enthusiastically 
received in the city on his return from Scot 
land. His first act on reaching Whitehal 
was to dismiss the guard which had beei 
placed at Westminster for the protection o 
the houses, and to substitute for it a forct 
from the trained bands under the commanc 
of one of his own partisans. Among Pym's 
followers a strong belief was entertained thai 
violence was intended. Pym himself had 
spies at court, notably Lady Carlisle, and as 
early as 30 Nov. he had penetrated Charles's 
design. He told the house that ' he was in- 
formed that there was a conspiracy by some 
member of this house to accuse other mem- 
bers of the same of treason ' (D'Ewes's ' Diary/ 
Harl. MS. 162, fol. 200). The guard ap- 
pointed by the king having been withdrawn, 
Pym carried a motion that the house should 
be protected by a watch set by two of its own 
members in their character of justices of the 
peace in Westminster. 

The mutual suspicion now prevailing be- 
tween the king and the House of Commons 
was not allayed by subsequent events. On 
1 Dec. the remonstrance was laid before 
Charles, who showed no readiness to accept 
it. A collision was probably unavoidable, but 
it was hastened by the necessity of providing 
an armed force for Ireland. On 6 Dec. an 
impressment bill, already passed through the 
commons, was before the lords, who took ob- 
jection to a clause denying to the crown the 
right to impress men to service beyond their 
own county. The obvious intention was to 
prevent Charles from getting together an 
army without the consent of parliament. On 
7 Dec., without taking heed of the lords' 
scruples, Hazlerigg brought in a militia bill, 
placing the militia under the command of a 
lord general, whose name was not as yet 
given. It can hardly be doubted that this 
extreme measure had the support of Pym. 



Pym 



81 



Pym 



On 12 Dec. Charles offered to assent to the 
Impressment Bill if the question of his right 
to levy the militia was left open, but his in- 
terference only served to irritate the lords, 
and his appointment of Sir Thomas Lunsford 
[q. v.] to the lieutenancy of the Tower on 
23 Dec., and his rejection of the remonstrance 
on the same day, threw both houses into 
opposition. So convinced was Pym that a 
catastrophe was impending that on the 28th, 
the day after the bishops had been mobbed in 
Palace Yard, he refused to throw blame on the 
disturbers of the peace. ' God forbid,' he said, 
' the House of Commons should proceed in any 
way to dishearten people to obtain their just 
desires in such a way' (Dover's ' Xotes,' Cla- 
rendon MS. 1, f. 603). Chai'les, on his side, 
surrounded himself with an armed force, and 
on 30 Dec., the day after that on which the 
bishops had protested that in their absence 
all proceedings in the House of Lords would 
be null and void, Pym moved that the city 
trained bands should be summoned to guard 
parliament against an intended act of vio- 
lence. On the same day he moved the im- 
peachment of the bishops who had signed the 
protest. His object was probably to secure 
the absence of the bishops from parliament, 
in order to get rid of their votes in the House 
of Lords. 

So heated was the feeling on both sides 
that the only question was whether the king 
or the majority under Pym's guidance should 
be the first to deliver the attack. Charles, 
as usual, hesitated. On 1 Jan. 1642 he sent 
for Pym, offering him the chancellorship of 
the exchequer. It is unknown whether Pym 
rejected the offer or Charles repented. At 
all events, Culpepper was appointed on the 
same day, with Falkland as secretary of state. 
By neglecting to take the advice of his new 
ministers, Charles justified Pym in his refusal 
to be made a stalking-horse for a policy he 
detested, if, as is likely enough, it was Pym 
who refused office. There is reason to believe 
that Pym and his confidants meditated an im- 
peachment of the queen as a counter-stroke, 
and that it was on this that Charles, urged 
on by his wife, instructed Attorney-general 
Herbert on the 2nd to impeach Pym, Hamp- 
den, Holies, Hesilrige, and Strode in the 
commons, and Mandeville (Lord Kimbolton 
in his own right) in the lords. These six were 
accordingly impeached on the 3rd. They 
were charged with complicity in the Scottish 
invasion, as well as with an attempt to weaken 
the king's government and to substitute an 
arbitrary power in its place. In order to 
procure evidence, Charles directed that the 
studies of Pym and others should be sealed 
up. The lords took offence, and ordered that 

VOL. XLVII. 



the seals should be broken. As no measures 
were taken for placing the accused members 
in confinement, Charles, on 4 Jan., came to 
the House of Commons, followed by a crowd 
of his adherents in arms, to effect their ar- 
rest in person. Warned in time, the mem- 
bers made their escape, and took refuge in 
the city. The city took up their cause, and 
on 11 Jan. escorted them back to Westmin- 
ster, the king having left on the preceding 
evening to avoid witnessing their triumph. 
It was especially Pym's triumph, for it was 
by him that the opposition to Charles had 
been organised. For some time the royalists 
had in mockery styled him King Pym.' 
His power at this time was in reality far 
greater than that of Charles himself. 

After this there was little to be done ex- 
cept to fight out the question of sovereignty 
either by diplomacy or by war. For some time 
the dispute turned on the command of the 
militia. It was the only way in which the 
supremacy of parliament could at that time 
be asserted, and Pym did not doubt that the 
supremacy of parliament meant especially 
the supremacy of the commons. Finding the 
lords lukewarm, Pym told them, on 25 Jan., 
that he would be sorry 'that the story of 
this present parliament should tell posterity 
that in so great a danger and extremity the 
House of Commons should be enforced to 
save the kingdom alone-, and that the house 
of peers should have no part in the honour 
of the preservation of it.' In all the wordy 
war with the king Pym took his full share, 
but he kept his eye on the probability almost 
amounting to certainty that the quarrel 
would not be settled by words alone. On 
4 July he was one of the ten members of the 
House of Commons appointed, together with 
five peers, to form a committee of safety, 
which was a rudimentary government acting 
in the interests of parliament. When, on 
22 Aug., Charles erected his standard at Not- 
tingham, this committee had to stand forward 
as an organiser of military action. 

Determined as Pym was to bring the king 
to submission, he did his best to avoid the 
appearance of angry excitement. On 27 Aug. 
I he successfully resisted an attempt to forbid 
i Culpepper from delivering to the house a 
message which he brought from Charles. He 
was at the same time well aware of the ne- 
cessity of broadening the basis on which the 
action of parliament rested, and on 20 Oct., 
when Charles's advance towards London was 
known, he proposed ' that a committee might 
be appointed to draw a new covenant or 
association which all might enter into, and 
that a new oath might be framed for the ob- 
serving of the said association which all 

G 



Pym 



Pym 



might take, and such as refused it might be 
cast out of the house ' (D'Ewes's ' Diary,' Harl. 
MS. 164, fol. 40). The idea of a voluntary 
association which should strengthen the go- 
vernment of a party had still a firm hold on 
Pym's mind. On 10 Nov., after the battle 
of Edgehill, he appeared at Guildhall to 
rouse the citizens to action, pointing out to 
them the illusory character of Charles's pro- 
mises. 'To have granted liberties/ he said, 
' and not to have liberties in truth and 
realities, is but to mock the kingdom.' The 
demand of the Grand Remonstrance for minis- 
ters in whom parliament could have confi- 
dence had widened into a demand for a king 
in whom parliament could have confidence. 
In placing himself at the head of the war 
party, Pym gave practical expression to his 
disbelief that Charles could be such a king, 
though he did not openly declare that the 
breach was one impossible to be healed. 

Under Pym's leadership the houses grasped 
the power of taxation, and on 25 Nov. Pym 
announced their resolution to the city. He 
was deaf to all doubts as to the extent of the 
legitimate powers of parliament. ' The law 
is clear,' he said, when it was urged that the 
assessors of parliamentary taxation could not 
legally take evidence on oath : ' no man may 
take or give an oath in settled times ; but 
now we may give power to take an oath ' 
(Yonge's ' Diary,' Addit. MS. 18777, fol. 92). 
He had greater difficulty in persuading par- 
liament to widen his proposed association 
into a league with Scotland, and on 3 Jan. 
1643 a suggestion made to that effect was 
rejected. It is not probable that he regarded 
an agreement with Scotland enthusiastically. 
He was zealous in the cause of protestantism 
as interpreted by the opponents of the 
Laudian system, but he was not zealous for 
Scottish presbyterianism, though he accepted 
it, just as he accepted the war itself, as a 
less evil than the restoration of the king's 
authority. If, indeed, it had been possible, 
Pym would gladly have returned to the re- 
gion of parliamentary discussion. On 9 Feb., 
when the negotiations to be opened at Ox- 
ford were under discussion, he supported the 
plan of an immediate disbandment of both 
armies. On 28 March, when it had become 
evident that the negotiations would fail, he 
proposed the imposition of an excise, a 
financial device employed in the Nether- 
lands, but hitherto unknown in England. 
On 1 May, true to his design of widening the 
basis of resistance, he asked that a committee 
might be sent to Holland to acquaint the 
states with the true position of affairs in 
England, and that another committee, with 
the like object, might be sent to Scotland. 



To leave no door for a reasonable accommo- 
dation closed, he entered at the same time 
on a secret negotiation with the queen, in 
the hope that she would influence her hus- 
band to make the concessions which he had 
rejected at Oxford. 

Peace on these terms being beyond his- 
reach, Pym did his best to push on the war 
vigorously. On 6 June he reported on Wal- 
ler's plot. On the 26th, two days after 
Hampden's death, he conveyed to Essex the 
blame of the House of Commons for his dila- 
toriness. On 11 July, after the defeat of the 
two Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, he per- 
suaded the house to reject Essex's request 
that a negotiation should be reopened ; and 
on 2 Aug., after Waller's defeat on Roundway 
Down, he showed himself an able diplo- 
matist in reconciling the claims of Essex 
and Waller, whose rivalries bade fair to ruin 
the parliamentary cause at so critical a 
moment. On the 3rd he induced Essex to 
agree with the House of Commons in re- 
jecting the peace propositions of the lords, 
which would have been equivalent to an 
absolute surrender. Pym's activity in main- 
taining the war brought on him the anger of 
all who were eager for peace at any price ; I 
and on 9 Aug. a mob of women beset the 
House of Commons, crying out for the sur- 
render of Pym and other roundheads, that 
they might throw them into the Thames. 

The defeats of the summer impressed on 
the whole house the necessity of adopting 
Pym's policy in regard to Scotland. Nothing 
short of military necessity could have driven 
even a mutilated parliament to adopt the 
price of Scottish aid, the imposition on Eng- 
land of an alien system of ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline. Pym openly acknowledged as much. 
When others pleaded, on 2 Sept., that modi- 
fied episcopacy was the best medicine for the 
church, Pym replied that the church was like 
a sick man who saw a murderer approaching. 
In such a case the sick man must either ' cast 
away his medicine and betake himself to his 
sword, or take his medicine and suffer him- 
self to be killed.' The former choice, ' to 
prevent and remedy the present danger,' was, 
in Pym's eyes, by far the best (Yonge's 
'Diary,' Addit. MS. 18778, fol. 29). Pym's 
argument was accepted, and on 25 Sept. the 
members, Pym among them, began taking 
the covenant. The alliance with Scotland 
was Pym's last political achievement. On 
8 Nov. he became master of the ordnance. 
He had for some time been suffering from an 
internal abscess, and on 8 Dec. he died (A 
Narrative of the Death and Disease of John 
Pym, by Stephen Marshall). The royalists 
delighted to spread the rumour that he had 



Pym 



been carried off by the foul disease of 
Herod. 

On 15 Dec. Pym was buried, with a pub- 
lic funeral, at Westminster Abbey, whence 
his body was ejected after the Restoration. 
The House of Commons voted 10,000/. to 
pay his debts and to provide for his younger 
children. On 5 Jan. 1646 an ordinance was 
passed (Commons' Journals, vi. 397) setting 
aside as chargeable for this purpose the es- 
tate of a delinquent, Thomas Morgan of Hey- 
ford in Northamptonshire, and, in case of its 
proving insufficient, that of Sir James Pres- 
ton of Furness in Lancashire (Commons' 
Journals, vi. 19, 607 ; Cal. Committee for 
Compounding, pp. 1898-1902). 

By his wife Anna Hooker or Hooke Pym 
had two sons Alexander, who died un- 
married, and Charles, who served in the 
parliamentary army, was created a baronet 
by Richard Cromwell, and was confirmed in 
the honour by Charles II in 1663. The 
latter's only son, Charles Pym, died without 
issue in 1688, when the baronetcy became 
extinct, and the estates passed to his sister 
Mary, wife of Sir Thomas Hales of Bekes- 
bourne. Pym's seat at Brynmore eventually 
parsed to the Earls of Radnor through the 
marriage of AVilliam, first earl, to Anne, | 
dowager lady Feversham, and daughter of j 
Sir Thomas Hales (BURKE, Extinct Baro- 
netage ; BURKE, Peerage, s.v. ' Radnor ; ' 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. viii. 206, 278, 
342). 

Two anonymous portraits of Pym belonged 
in 1866 respectively to Sir Henry Wilmot, 
bart., and the Marquis Townsend ; an en- 
graving by Glover after Bower was prefixed 
to his funeral sermon, 1644 ; other engravings 
are by Hollar and Houbraken. 

[The only full modern biography is Mr. John 
Forster's, in the series of British Statesmen in 
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Cf. Gardiner's 
Hist, of England, 1603-42, and Hist, of the Great 
Civil War, and Eeports of Parliamentary Pro- 
ceedings.] S. R. G. 

PYM, SIR SAMUEL (1778-1855), ad- 
miral, was son of Joseph Pym of Pinley 
in Warwickshire, and was brother of Sir 
William Pym [q. v.] The family doubtfully 
claim descent from John Pym [q. v.] In 
June 1788 Samuel's name was placed on the 
books of the Eurydice frigate as captain's ser- 
vant. He afterwards served on the home 
station, in the Mediterranean and the West 
Indies, and on 7 March 1795 was promoted 
to be lieutenant of the Martin sloop with 
Captain William Grenville Lobb, whom he 
followed to the Babet and the Aimable in 
the West Indies. In November 1798 he 
joined the Ethalion of 36 guns, one of the 



5 Pym 

four frigates which near Cape Finisterre, on 
16-17 Oct. 1799, captured the Spanish trea- 
sure-ships Thetis and Santa-Brigida, with 
specie on boai?d to the value of nearly 700,000/. 
After paying all expenses, each of the four 
captains received upwards of 40,000/., and 
the lieutenants, of whom Pym was one, some- 
thing over 5,000/. (JAMES, ii. 402-3). Two 
months later, on Christmas day, the Ethalion 
was wrecked on the Penmarks, oft' the south- 
west point of Brittany. After some minor 
services he was, in April 1804, appointed to 
the Mars in the Bay of Biscay, and in June 
was moved to the Atlas of 74 guns, one of 
the squadron with Sir John Thomas Duck- 
worth [q. v.] in the battle of St. Domingo 
on 6 Feb. 1806, for which, with the other 
captains, Pym received the gold medal. 

In October 1808 he was appointed to the 
36-gun frigate Sirius, in which, under Com- 
modore (afterwards Sir Josias) Rowley 
[q. v.], he had an important share in the 
reduction of St. Paul's, in the island of Bour- 
bon, in September 1809, and of the island 
itself in July 1810 (JAMES, v. 59-61, 141-5). 
Pym was then sent to Mauritius as senior 
officer of a small squadron, consisting, be- 
sides the Sirius, of the frigates Iphigenia 
[see LAMBERT, HEOT.Y] and the N6reide 
i see WILLOUGHBY, SIR NESBIT JOSIAH], and 
the Staunch brig. On 13 Aug. the boats 
of the squadron seize'd on the little Isle de 
la Passe, commanding the approach to Grand 
Port [see CHADS, SIR HEXRY DUCIE], and 
leaving Willoughby there with the N6reide, 
Pym went himself to enforce the blockade of 
Port Louis. Near the port, on 21 Aug., he re- 
captured the Wyndham, East Indiaman, and 
from the prisoners learned that two heavy 
French frigates, with a couple of smaller 
vessels, had arrived at Grand Port. Followed 
by the Iphigenia and the Magicienne, which 
had just joined him from Bourbon, Pym 
went round to join Willoughby, and on the 
23rd attempted to enter the port with a strong 
sea-breeze which concealed the dangerous 
reefs. The Sirius and Magicienne both took 
the ground, and could not be got off. After 
an obstinate resistance, the Nereide struck 
her colours. On the 25th the Sirius and 
Magicienne were set on fire and abandoned, 
Pym, with the other officers and menjoining 
the little garrison on the Isle de la Passe. 
But on the 27th the Iphigenia was also 
compelled to surrender, the island being in- 
cluded in the capitulation, and Pym, with the 
whole garrison, becoming a prisoner of war 
(JAMES, v. 145-55). He obtained his re- 
lease in the following December, when the 
island was captured by Sir Albemarle Bertie 
[q. v.] ; and a court-martial having acquitted 

a 2 



him of all blame for the disaster, he was 
appointed in February 1812 to the Hanni- 
bal, oft' Cherbourg, and in May to the 
Niemen, which he commanded for the next 
three years on the West Indian station. 

He was nominated a C.B. on 4 June 1815 ; 
in 1830-1 he commanded the Kent in the 
Mediterranean; was promoted to be rear- 
admiral on 10 Jan. 1837, and was made a 
K.C.B. on 25 Oct. 1839. From 1841 to 1846 
he was admiral-superintendent at Devonport, 
and in the autumn of 1845 commanded the 
experimental squadron in the Channel. He 
became a vice-admiral on 13 Feb. 1847, 
admiral on 17 Dec. 1852, and died at the 
Royal Hotel, Southampton, on 2 Oct. 1855. 
He married, in 1802, a daughter of Edward 
Lockyer of Plymouth, and had issue. 

[Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Bio?r. iv. (vol. ii. pt. 
ii.) 715; O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet.; Gent. 
Mag. 1855, ii. 537 ; James's Naval Hist. (cr. 8vo 
edit.) ; Chevalier's Hist, de la Marine franchise 
sous le Consulat et I'Empire, pp. 373-9.] 

J. K. L. 

PYM, SIR WILLIAM (1772-1861), 
military surgeon, son of Joseph Pym of Pin- 
ley, near Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire, 
and elder brother of Sir Samuel Pym [q. v.], 
was born in Edinburgh in 1772, and was 
educated in the university. He entered the 
medical department of the army after a brief 
period of service in the royal navy, and was 
shortly afterwards ordered to the West Indies. 
In 1794 he was appointed to a flank battalion 
commanded by Sir Eyre Coote [q. v.], in the 
expedition under Sir Charles Grey which 
landed at Martinique in the early part of 
that year. He was present at the reduc- 
tion of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guada- 
loupe. The force to which he was attached 
suffered great hardships, but remained 
healthy until the fall of Fort Matilda com- 
pleted the surrender of Guadaloupe, when 
yellow fever broke out in the 35th and 70th 
regiments, then stationed at St. Pierre in 
Martinique. Pym was ordered to take medi- 
cal charge through the outbreak, which 
lasted during 1794, 1795, and 1796, when 
it is estimated that nearly sixteen thousand 
troops died. Pym thus obtained an un- 
paralleled knowledge of yellow fever. 

He served in Sicily on his return from the 
West Indies, and in 1806 he was ship- 
wrecked in the Ath6nienne of 64 guns on 
the Skerri shoals between Sicily and Africa. 
In this wreck 349 persons perished out of a 
crew of 476, and the few survivors owed 
their safety in great measure to the activity 
and resources of Pym. He was transferred 
from Sicily to Malta, and afterwards to 
Gibraltar, where he acted as confidential 



P- Pym 

medical adviser to the governor, the Duke 
of Kent. He was also appointed superin- 
tendent of quarantine. He became deputy 
inspector-general of army hospitals on 20 Dec. 
1810, and in the following year the Earl of 
Liverpool sent him back to Malta as pre- 
sident of the board of health, a position he 
filled with conspicuous success. He returned 
to England in 1812 and lived in London, but 
in 1813 he volunteered to proceed to Malta, 
where the plague was raging. He was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of army hospitals 
on 25 Sept. 1816. 

In 1815 he published an account of yellow 
fever under the title of ' Observations upon 
Bulam Fever,' proving it to be a highly con- 
tagious disease (London, 8vo). This is the 
first clear account of the disease now known 
as yellow fever. In this work Pym main- 
tains (1) that it is a disease sui generis 
known by the name of African, yellow, or 
bulam fever, and is the vomito prieto of the 
Spaniards, being attended with that pecu- 
liar and fatal symptom the ' black vomit ; ' 
(2) that it is highly infectious ; (3) that its 
infectious powers are increased by heat and 
destroyed by cold ; (4) that it attacks natives 
of warm climates in a comparatively mild 
form ; (5) that it has also a singular and 
peculiar character, attacking, as in a case 
of smallpox, the human frame only once. 
The work excited violent opposition at the 
time, but it is now generally conceded that 
Pym's views are substantially correct. In 
' Observations upon Bulam, Vomito-negro, or 
Yellow Fever,' London, 8vo, 1848, which is 
practically a second edition of the previous 
work, Pym contends that the question is no 
longer one of contagion or non-contagion, 
as it was in 1815, but whether there are two 
different and distinct diseases viz. the re- 
mittent and non-contagious, which prevails 
at all times on the coast of Africa ; and the 
other, the bulam orvomito-negro fever, which 
only occasionally makes its appearance, and 
is highly contagious. 

In 1826 Pym was made superintendent- 
general of quarantine, and, in that capacity, 
took every opportunity of relieving the exist- 
ing stringency of the laws of quarantine. 
His services were recognised in a treasury 
minute dated December 1855. He proceeded 
to Gibraltar in 1828 to control and super- 
intend the quarantine arrangements during 
an outbreak of yellow fever, and upon his 
return to England he was invested by Wil- 
liam IV a knight commander of the Hano- 
verian order. Pym was a chairman of the 
central board of health during the epidemic 
of cholera which attacked England in 1832, 
and for his services received a letter of 



Pyncebeck 



Pyne 



thanks from the lords of the council. He 
died on 18 March 1861 at his house in Upper 
Harley Street, London. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Medical and Chirur 
gical Society, 1864, iv. 76.] D'A. P. 

PYNCEBECK, WALTER (fi. 1333) 
monk, was presumably a native of Pinch- 
beck in Lincolnshire. He became a monk oi 
Bury St. Edmunds, and was there at the time 
of the great riot in 1327. It is probable that 
he controlled the monastic vestiary in 1333, 
for the great register which he began in that 
year is called the ' Registrum W. Pyncebek,' 
or the ' Album Registrum Vestiarii.' This 
work is now in the Cambridge University 
Library, Ee. iii. 60. In it Pyncebeck pro- 
posed to record all pleas between the abbot 
and convent on the one side, and the men of 
the town on the other, ' from the beginning 
of the world' till his own time, together with 
all the kings' concordia, and a list of all the 
knights' fees of the abbey, all the abbey's 
collations to churches, the amount of their 
taxation, all the liberties granted by kings 
to St. Edmund, and a register of all lands. 
The book now contains only the first and 
last of these items. 

[Tanner's Bibliotheca and the MS. Register.] 

M. B. 

PYNCHON, WILLIAM (1590-1662), 
colonist and religious writer, whose name 
also appears as Pinchon, Pinchin, or Pin- 
cheon,was born in Springfield, Essex, in 1590. 
He was probably educated at Cambridge. In 
1629 his name appears as one of the grantees 
of the charter of Massachusetts, and in 1630 
he arrived in the colony under Governor Win- 
throp. He was one of the first court of assis- 
tants, and treasurer of the colony from 1632 
to 1634. He aided in founding Roxbury, and 
in organising the church there; but in 1636 
he removed with his family and a small party 
to the junction of the Connecticut and 
Agawan rivers, where he founded the town 
which was afterwards called Springfield, after 
Pynchon's birthplace, and held a commis- 
sion, inconjunct ion with five others, to govern 
it. Here, again, his first care was for the 
church. Between 1638 and 1640 it was 
supposed that the new settlement was in 
Connecticut, and for part of that time 
Pynchon sat in the legislature of that colony. 
Withdrawing through differences with his 
colleagues, he obtained from Massachusetts 
in 1041 a formal assertion of jurisdiction 
and a commission again to ' govern the in- 
habitants.' In his administration he sought 
to conciliate the Indians, and obtained their 
complete confidence. 

In 1650 Pynchon visited England, and j 



published a book entitled, ' The Meritorious 
Price of our Redemption, 'which controverted 
the calvinistic view of the atonement, and 
created great excitement in the colony, as 
containing ' many errors and heresies.' On 
his return he was received with a storm of 
indignation; the general court condemned 
the book, ordered it to be publicly burnt, 
and required the author to appear before 
them in May 1651. This order he answered 
by asserting in a letter that he had been 
completely misunderstood. He was called 
upon to appear in October, and, as he made 
default, again in May 1652. But he declined 
to appear, and abandoned the colony in Sep- 
tember 1652. His children remained. Set- 
tling anew in England, he made his home 
at Wraysbury, near Windsor, where he 
passed the closing years of his life in af- 
fluence, chiefly engaged in the study of theo- 
logy, ' in entire conformity with the Church 
of England.' He died on 29 Oct. 1662. 

His chief works are: 1. 'Meritorious 
Price of our Redemption, or Christ's Satis- 
faction discussed and explained,' 1650; re- 
vised and republished with rejoinder to the 
Rev. J. Norton, 1655. 2. 'Jews' Syna- 
gogue,' 1652. 3. 'How the first Sabbath 
was ordained,' 1654. 4. 'Covenant of 
Nature made with Adam,' 1662. 

[Collections of Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, 5th ser. vol. i. ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of 
American Biography.] C. A. H. 

PYNE, JAMES BAKER (1800-1870), 
landscape-painter, was a native of Bristol, 
where he was educated with a view to his 
aecoming a lawyer, but his love of art early 
declared itself, and, although entirely self- 
aught, he soon gained a considerable local 
reputation. He left Bristol for London in 
1835, and exhibited landscapes at the Royal 
Academy from that year till 1839. After this 
date he contributed almost exclusively to 
the Society of British Artists. He became 
a member in 1842, and was for some years 
vice-president of the society. He visited 
!taly in 1846 and in 1852, and in the former 
year also travelled through Switzerland and 
jermany, collecting material for future pic- 
tures. His art owed much to the influence 
of the later style of Turner. Though scenic 
and conventional in type, it had fine decora- 
tive qualities, while, in his drawings, it was 
marked by technical proficiency and a good 
sense of colour. His oil-pictures are very 
inferior to his water-colours. He was a fre- 
quent contributor to the ' Art Journal,' and 
published various series of his own compo- 
sitions from time to time under the follow- 
ing titles : 1. ' Windsor and its Surrounding 



Pyne 



86 



Pyne 



Scenery/ 1840. 2. ' The English Lake Dis- 
trict,' 1853. 3. ' Lake Scenery of England,' 
1859. William John Miiller [q. v.] was his 
pupil. He died on 29 July 1870. Examples 
of his \vork, both in oil and water-colour, are 
in the South Kensington Museum. A bust 
of Pyne is at the Gallery of the Society of 
British Artists. 

[Registers of Society of British Artists ; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists.] W. A. 

PYNE, VALENTINE (1603-1677), 
master-gunner of England, the second son 
of George Pyne of Curry-Mallet, Somerset, 
was born in 1603. lie served with his father 
as an officer of the ordnance in the expedi- 
tion to Cadiz in 1623, and in 1627 in the 
expedition to the He de R6, after which he 
served in the royal navy till the outbreak of 
the civil war, when he served with Charles I's 
army. After the execution of the king he 
served for fifteen years as a volunteer with 
Prince Rupert both at sea and in the campaigns 
in Germany. On the accession of Charles II 
Pyne became in 1661 lieutenant of the Tower 
garrison, and later commander in the navy, 
and served in the first Dutch war. He suc- 
ceeded Colonel Weymes as master-gunner 
of England in 1666, and died unmarried on 
30 April 1677 ; a mural tablet was erected 
to his memory in the chapel of the Tower of 
London. 

A brother, Richard Pyne, was appointed 
master-gunner of Gravesend on 31 Oct. 1673. 

[Proc. Royal Artillery Institution, xix. 280; 
Army Lists ; Dalton's English Army Lists, pt. i. 
p. 10.] B. H. S. 

PYNE, WILLIAM HENRY, known 
also as EPHKAIM HAKBCASTLE (1769-1843), 
painter and author, born in 1769, was son 
of a leather-seller in Holborn. He showed 
an early love of drawing, and was placed for 
instruction in the drawing-school of Henry 
Pars [q. v.], but refused to enter into appren- 
ticeship with the latter. He obtained, how- 
ever, a great facility in drawing, practising 
almost entirely in watercolours in the early 
tinted style. His work was principally land- 
scape, into which he introduced figures of a 
humorous character. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1790, sending ' Travelling 
Comedians,' and subsequently such works as 
' Bartholomew Fair,' ' A Puppet Show,' ' Corn 
Harvest,' 'Gipsies in a Wood,' 'Anglers/ 
&c. In 1801 he executed two works in con- 
junction with Robert Hills [q.v.],the animal- 
painter. He was one of the original members 
of the 'Old Water-colour ' Society at the time 
of its foundation in 1804, but, after contri- 
buting to its early exhibitions, he resigned 
his membership on 11 Jan. 1809. 



In 1803 Pyne designed the vignettes and 
title-page for Nattes's ' Practical Geometry/ 
published in 1805. He had for some time 
been engaged in the compilation of an impor- 
tant and useful work, entitled ' Microcosm, 
or a Picturesque Delineation of the Arts, 
Agriculture, and Manufactures of Great Bri- 
tain ; in a Series of above a Thousand Groups 
of Small Figures for the embellishment of 
Landscape . . . the whole accurately drawn 
from Nature and etched by W. H. Pyne and 
aquatinted by J. Hill, to which are added Ex- 
planations of the Plates by C. Gray.' This 
work consists of groups of small figures, 
cleverly drawn, and coloured by hand, and 
was published in parts commencing in 1803; 
a second and complete edition appeared in 
1806. Some of Pyne's original drawings for 
this work are in the print-room of the British 
Museum. The book was very successful, and 
found many imitators in England and France. 

Pyne's next publication was ' The Costume 
of Great Britain, designed, engraved, and 
written by W. H. Pyne/ published in 1808. 
This was followed by ' Rudiments of Land- 
scape Drawing in a Series of easy Examples/ 
1812; 'Etchings of Rustic Figures for the 
Embellishment of Landscape/ 1815 ; and 
' On Rustic Figures in Imitation of Chalk/ 
1817. Pyne had exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy for the last time in 1811, and he now 
devoted himself more and more exclusively 
to book production. He became connected 
with Ackermann the publisher, and suggested 
or contributed to several of his publications, 
including 'Picturesque Sketches of Rustic 
Scenery/ and ' Views of Cottages and Farm 
Houses in England and Wales/ in 1815. Pyne 
next embarked on a large and expensive work, 
entitled 'The History of the Royal Residences 
of Windsor Castle, St. James's Palace, Carlton 
House, Kensington Palace, Hampton Court, 
Buckingham House, and Frogrnore . . ./ il- 
lustrated by one hundred coloured engravings, 
and published by Ackermann in 1829. Pyne 
only contributed the literary matter, the 
drawings being supplied by Mackenzie, Nash, 
Pugin, Stephanoff, and others. Though the 
work had some success, it involved Pyne in 
serious financial difficulties, and he was on 
more than one occasion confined for debt in 
the King's Bench prison. In 1831 he contri- 
buted some drawings and letterpress to ' Lan- 
cashire Illustrated/ published by R. Wallis 
the engraver, and drew a few caricatures. 

But Pyne had not sufficient application 
to succeed as an artist, and in later life he 
abandoned art for literature. He turned to 
advantage his love of gossip and gifts of 
narrative in a long and valuable series of 
anecdotes of art and artists, which he sup 



Pynnar 



Pynson 



plied to W. Jerdan's ' Literary Gazette ' under 
the pseudonym of ' Ephraim Hardcastle.' In 
1823 he republished these in two volumes, en- 
titled ' "Wine and Walnuts, or After-dinner 
Chit-chat.' Under the same pseudonym he 
edited, in 1824, ' The Somerset House Ga- 
zette and Literary Museum : a Weekly Mis- 
cellany of Fine Arts, Antiquities, and Lite- 
rary Chit-chat ; ' fifty-two parts were pub- 
lished weekly at sixpence, when it was 
announced that it would be continued 
monthly, but no further part appeared. 
Pynealso contributed to 'Arnold's Magazine 
of Fine Arts,' the ' Library of the Fine Arts,' 
and an article on the ' Greater and Lesser 
Stars of Pall Mall ' to ' Fraser's Magazine.' 
In 1825 he published a work of fiction, 'The 
Twenty-ninth of May, or Rare Doings at the 
Restoration.' Though long popular in lite- 
rary and artistic circles, Pyne fell, in old age, 
into obscurity and neglect, and died on 
29 May 1843, aged 74, in Pickering Place, 
Paddington, after a painful illness. One of 
his sons, George Pyne, married Esther, daugh- 
ter of John Varley [q. v.], and also practised 
as an artist. 

[Eoget's Hist, of the ' Old Watercolour ' 
Society; Gent. Mag. 1843, pt. ii. p. 99; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists; Pyne's own works.] 

L. C. 

PYNNAR, NICHOLAS (fi. 1619), sur- 
veyor, came to Ireland apparently in May 
1600 as a captain of foot in the army sent to 
Lough Foyle under Sir Henry Docwra [q. v.] 
On 31 March 1604 his company was dis- 
banded, and he himself assigned a pension of 
four shillings a day. In 1610 he offered as 
a servitor, not in pay, to take part in the 
plantation of Ulster, and in 1611 lauds to 
the extent of one thousand acres were 
allotted him in co. Cavan. But he did not 
proceed with the enterprise, and on 28 Nov. 
1618 he was appointed a commissioner ' to 
survey and to make a return of the proceed- 
ings and performance of conditions of the 
undertakers, servitors, and natives planted ' 
in the six escheated counties of Armagh, 
Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh, and 
Londonderry. He was engaged on this work 
from 1 Dec. 1018 to 28 March 1619. His re- 
port was first printed by Walter Harris 
(1686-1761) [q. v.] in his ' Hibernica, or some 
Antient Pieces relating to the History of Ire- 
land,' in 1757, from a copy preserved among 
the bishop of Clogher's manuscripts in Trinity 
College, Dublin. It has been frequently re- 
ferred to by subsequent writers, and was again 
printed by the Rev. George Hill in his ' Plan- 
tation of Ulster.' But there seems to be 
no particular reason why it should be called 
specifically ' Pynnar's Survey,' and its impor- 



tance has been probably overestimated, for a 
fresh commission of survey was issued only 
three years later, the return to which, pre- 
served in Sloane MS. 4756, is far more valu- 
able for historical purposes. Pynnar pre- 
pared in 1624 some drawings of rivers, forts, 
and castles in Ireland, preserved in Addit. 
MS. 242CO. 

[Ware's Irish Writers, ed. Harris, p. 333 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Ireland, James I.] R. D. 

PYNSON, RICHARD (d. 1530), printer 
in London,was a Norman by birth, as we learn 
from his patent of naturalisation of 26 July 
1513 (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 
vol. i. No. 4373). He is generally stated 
to have come to England during the life- 
time of Caxton, and to have learnt the art 
of printing from him as one of his appren- 
tices; but, though he speaks of Caxton as 
' my worshipful master,' there is little pro- 
bability that he was ever in his employ- 
ment. From his method of working it is 
clear that he learnt the art in Normandy, 
probably in the office of Guillaume le Talleur; 
and when William de Machlinia [q. v.], the 
principal printer of law books in London, 
gave up business about 1490, Pynson came 
over to succeed him, a position for which he 
was peculiarly fitted from his knowledge of 
Norman French. At first he employed the 
press of Le Talleur to print such books as he 
needed; but some time *betw r eenl490and 1493 
he began to print on his own account, issuing 
a Latin grammar and an illustrated edition 
of Chaucer's ' Canterbury Tales.' In 1493 
he published Parker's ' Dialogue of Dives and 
Pauper,' his first dated book [see PARKER, 
HENRY, d. 1470], and in the colophon states 
that he was living ' at the Temple-bane of 
London,' though he shortly alters this to 
'dwelling without the Temple-barre.' There 
he continued until the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, when he moved to the sign 
of the George in Fleet Street, continuing at 
that address until his death. 

During the fifteenth century, though Pyn- 
son did not. issue so many volumes as his 
rival, Wynkyn de "VVorde, his books are of a 
higher standard and better execution. In 
1496 he issued an edition of ' Terence,' the 
first classic printed in London, and in 1500 
the ' Boke of Cookery' and the 'Morton 
Missal,' the latter being the most beautiful 
volume printed up to that time in England. 
On the accession of Henry VIII to the throne 
Pynson seems to have been appointed printer 
to the king, and from this time onwards 
there are numerous entries in the state papers 
relating to him, which show that he was in 
receipt of an annuity. 



Pyper 



88 



Quaelly 



In 1509 he issued the ' Sermo fratris Hie- 
ronymi de Ferraria'and Barclay's translation 
of the ' Shipof Fools,' both containing Roman 
type, which had not before this time been 
used in England. In the latter book also 
we find the printer's coat-of-arms, probably 
but lately granted. Herbert describes it as 
follows : ' Parted gyronny, of eight points 
three cinquefoils on a fess engrailed, between 
three eagles displayed.' Though the birds 
are said to be eagles, they are more probably 
finches, a punning allusion to the name 
Pynson, the Norman word for a finch. 

During his career he printed over three 
hundred different books, and, as king's printer, 
issued Henry's works against Luther. His 
will is dated 18 Nov. 1529, and was proved 
on 18 Feb. 1530, so that he would seem to 
have died at the beginning of the latter year. 
His daughter Margaret, widow of Stephen 
Ward, is named as the executrix, his son 
Richard having but lately died. At the time 
of his death Pynson was at work on an 
edition of Palsgrave's 'Lesclarcissement de 
la langue francoyse,' which was finished by 
John Hawkins in 1 530 [see PALSGRAVE, JOHN]. 
Pynson was succeeded in business at the sign 
of the George in Fleet Street by Robert Red- 
man [q. v.], who had for some time previously 
been his rather unscrupulous rival. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, i. 238 et 
seq. ; Duff's Early Printed Books, pp. 165 et 
seq. ; Ellis's Orig. Letters, 3rd ser. ii. 210.] 

E. G. D. 



PYPER, WILLIAM (1797-1861), Scots 
professor of humanity, was born of poor 
parents in the parish of Rathen, Aberdeen- 
shire. Matriculating at Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, he completed his course there 
with distinction. From 1815 to 1817 he was 
parochial schoolmaster at Laurence Kirk; he 
afterwards held a similar position at Maybole, 
and was a teacher in the grammar school of 
Glasgow in 1820. Two years later he suc- 
ceeded James Gray in the high school of Edin- 
burgh, and retained that post for twenty- 
two years. On 22 Oct. 1844 he was ap- 
pointed professor of humanity at St. Andrews 
University, in succession to Dr. Gillespie. 
He obtained the degree of LL.D. from 
Aberdeen University. He died on 7 Jan. 
1861, when his assistant, John Shairp (after- 
wards principal of St. Andrews), succeeded 
him in the humanity chair. Pyper was an 
excellent latinist, and a thoiough classical 
scholar of the older type. He proved an ad- 
mirable professor. He helped to organise and 
improve the university library. By a bequest 
of 500/. he founded a bursary at St. Andrews. 
He published : 1 . ' Gradus ad Parnassum,* 
London, 1843, 12mo, a work still in use in 
schools. 2. 'Horace, with Quantities,' Lon- 
don, 1843, 18mo. 

[Works in Brit. Libr. ; Conolly's Eminent Men 
of Fife.] A. H. M. 

PYUS, THOMAS (1560-1610), author. 
[See PYE.] 



Q 



QUJELLY, MALACHIAS (rf. 1645), 
archbishop of Tuam, called by Irish writers 
Maelseachlainn Ua Cadhla, by Colgan Que- 
leus, and erroneously by Carte. O'Kelly,was 
son of Donatus Quselly, and was born in 
Clare. He belonged to a family which ruled 
Connemara till 1238, when they were con- 
quered by the O'Flaherties. He became a 
student at the college of Navarre in Paris, 
and there graduated D.D. He returned to 
Ireland, became vicar-apostolic of Killaloe, 
and on 11 Oct. 1631 was consecrated arch- 
bishop of Tuam, in succession to Florence 
Conroy [q. v.l, at Galway, by Thomas "Walsh, 
archbishop of Cashel, Richard Arthur, bishop 
of Limerick, and Baeghalach Mac A edhagain, j 
bishop of Elphin. In 1632 he presided at a j 
council held at Galway to enforce the decrees 
of the council of Trent in Ireland. He ' 
caused the ancient wooden figure of St. Mac 
Dara in the church of Cruachmic Dara, co. 



Galway, to be buried on the island, probably 
in consequence of some superstitious pro- 
ceedings to which it had given rise. He 
attended the assembly of the confederate 
catholics at Kilkenny in 1645, and Inno- 
cent X recommended him by letter to Ri- 
nuccini as a man to be trusted. He wrote to 
John Colgan [q. v.] an interesting account of 
the Isles of Arran, describing their churches, 
which had not then been desecrated. It is 
printed in Colgan's 'Acta Sanctorum Hi- 
bernise' (p. 714), and is translated in Hardi- 
man's edition of Roderic O'Flaherty's 'De- 
scription of West Connaught.' He raised a 
body of fighting men in Galway and Mayo, 
and joined the forces of Sir James Dillon, near 
Ballysadare, co. Sligo. On Sunday, 26 Oct. 
1645, Viscount Taafe and Dillon dined with 
Quselly, and while they were dining the Irish 
forces were attacked by Sir Charles Coote, 
Sir William Cole, and Sir Francis Hamilton, 



Quain 



8 9 



Quain 



and put to flight. The archbishop's secretary, 
Tadhg O'Connell, was slain in trying to save 
his master, and the archbishop himself was first 
wounded by a pistol-shot, and then cut down, 
being tall, fat, and unwieldy. Glamorgan's 
agreement with the confederate catholics and 
a letter from Charles I were found in his 
pocket (CARTE, bk. iv.) Walter Lynch on the 
Irish side gave 30/. for his body, which was 
carried to Tuam. It was reburied some time 
later by Brigit, lady Athenry, but the tomb 
is no longer known. Dr. Edmund Meara or 
O'Meara [q. v.] wrote an epitaph for him in 
Latin verse, but failed to discover his burial- 
place. 

[Carte's Life of Ormonde, Ik. iv ; Colgan's 
Acta Sanctorum Hibernise ; O'Flaherty's West 
Connaught, ed. Hardiman, Irish Archseo'ogical 
Somty, Dublin, 1846; Gilbert's Cont. Hist, of 
Affairs, i. 93-4, 418 ; Kelly's Cambrensis Ever- 
sus, Celtic Soc. Dublin, 1848, vol. i. ; Meehan's 
Rise and Fall of the Irish Franciscan Monasteries, 
Dublin, 1872.] N. M. 

QUAIN, SIR JOHN RICHARD (1816- 
1870), judge, youngest son of Richard Quain 
of Ratheahy, co. Cork, by his second wife, 
Margaret, daughter of Andrew Mahoney, was 
born at Ratheahy in 1816. Jones Quain 
[q. v.] and Richard Quain [q. v.] \vere his 
half-brothers. He was educated at Gottin- 
gen, and at University College, London, 
where he won many prizes. In 1839 he 
graduated LL.B. at London, and was elected 
to the university law scholarship. He be- 
came a fellow of University College in 1843, 
and was for several years an examiner in 
law to the university of London. After read- 
ing in the chambers of Mr. Thomas Chitty, 
and practising as a special pleader for a time, 
he was called to the bar at the Middle Temple 
on 30 May 1851, and, joining the northern 
circuit, soon obtained a considerable practice. 
In 1866 he became a queen's counsel, and 
in 1867 was made attorney-general for the 
county palatine of Durham and a bencher 
of the Middle Temple. He was appointed a 
judge of the queen's bench in December 1871, 
took his seat at the beginning of Hilary term 
1872, and was knighted. His health failed 
early in 1876, before he had gained much dis- 
tinction as a judge, and, after some months 
of intermittent illness, he died at his house, 
32 Cavendish Square, London, on 12 Sept., 
and was buried at Finchley. He was un- 
married. His law library was presented to 
University College, London, by his brother, 
Professor Richard Quain, M.D., in 1870. 

[Law Time?, 23 Sept. 1876 ; Law Journal, 
16 Sept. 1876 ; Solicitors' Journal, 30 Dec. 1871, 
and 16 Sept. 1876.] J. A. H. 



QUAIN, JONES (1796-1865), anatomist, 
born in November 1796, was eldest son of 
Richard Quain of Ratheahy, co. Cork, by his 
first wife, a Miss Jones. His grandfather was 
David Quain of Carrigoon, co. Cork. He re- 
ceived the name of Jones from his mother's 
family. Richard Quain [q. v.] was his full 
brother, and Sir John Richard Quain [q. v.] 
his half-brother. Sir Richard Quain, bart., 
F.R.S., is his first cousin. He commenced 
his education in Adair's school at Fermoy. 
He subsequently entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, where, in 1814, he obtained a 
scholarship, then the highest classical dis- 
tinction. He graduated in arts, and in 1820 
he took the degree of bachelor of medicine, 
though he did not proceed M.D. until 1833. 
At the close of his college career he visited 
the continental schools and spent some time 
in Paris, translating and editing Martinet's 
' Manual of Pathology.' 

He came to London in 1825 and joined, 
as one of its anatomical teachers, the school 
of medicine founded by Mr. Tyrell in 
Aldersgate Street. The other teacher of ana- 
tomy was (Sir) William Lawrence [q. v.] 
While engaged here he prepared and pub- 
lished that work on the ' Elements of Ana- 
tomy ' which has become the standard text- 
book on the subject in all English-speaking 
countries. An attack of haemoptysis occur- 
ring while he suffered from a dissection 
wound compelled him to take a rest for two 
years. 

He accepted in 1831 the office of professor 
of general anatomy at University College, 
then vacant by the resignation of Granville 
Sharp Pattison [q. v.]; Richard Quain [q.v.], 
his brother, acted as senior demonstrator and 
lecturer on descriptive anatomy, while Eras- 
mus Wilson [q. v.] was his prosector. He was 
also invited to lecture upon physiology. He 
resigned his post at University College in 
183o, and in the same year he was appointed 
a member of the senate of the university of 
London. He lived in retirement during the 
last twenty years of his life, and chiefly in 
Paris, devoting himself to literary and 
scientific pursuits. He died, unmarried, on 
31 Jan. 1865, and was buried in Highgate 
cemetery. Q uain was an elegant and accom- 
plished scholar, and he was deeply interested 
in literature as well as science. 

His medical writings were: 1. ' Elements 
of Descriptive and Practical Anatomy for 
the use of Students,' 8vo, London, 1828 ; 2nd 
edit. 8vo, London, 1832; 3rd edit. 1834; 
4th edit. 1837 ; 5th edit, edited by R. Quain 
and W. Sharpey, 2 vols. 1848; 6th edit, 
edited by W. Sharpey and G. V. Ellis, 3 vols. 
1856 ; 7th edit, edited by W. Sharpey, Allen 



Quain 



9 o 



Quain 



Thomson, and John Cleland, 2 vols. 1864-7 ; 
translated into German, Erlangen, 1870-2 ; 
8th edit, edited bv W. Sharpey, Allen Thom- 
son, and E. A. "Schafer, 2 vols. 1876 ; 9th 
edit, edited by Allen Thomson, E. A. Schafer, 
and G. D. Thane, 2 vols. 1882 ; 10th edit, 
by E. A. Schafer, and G. D. Thane, 3 vols. 
1890, &c. 2. Martinet's ' Manual of Patho- 
logy ' translated, with notes and additions, by 
Jones Quain, London, 18mo, 1826 ; 2nd edit. 
1827; 3rd edit. 1829; 4th edit. 1835. 3. With 
Erasmus Wilson, ' A Series of Anatomical 
Plates in Lithography with References and 
Physiological Comments illustrating the 
Structure of the different Parts of the H uman 
Body,' 2 vols. folio, London, 1836-42. 

[Obituary notice by Richard Partridge, F.R.S. 
[q. v.], Proc. Royal Medical and Chirurg. Soc. 
v. 49; Medical Circular, xxvi. 87; information 
kindly given by Sir Richard Quain, bart., F.R.S.] 

D'A. P. 

QTJAIN, RICHARD (1800-1887), sur- 
geon, born at Fermoy, co. Cork, in July 
1800, was third son of Richard Quain of 
Ratheahy, co. Cork, by his first wife. Jones 
Quain [q. v.] was his full brother, and Sir 
John Richard Quain [q. v.] was his half- 
brother. Richard received his early education 
at Adair's school at Fermoy, and, after serving 
an apprenticeship to a surgeon in Ireland, 
came to London to pursue the more scientific 
part of his professional studies at the Alders- 
gate school of medicine, under the super- 
vision of his brother Jones. He afterwards 
went to Paris, where he attended the lectures 
of Richard Bennett, a private lecturer on 
anatomy and an Irish friend of his father. In 
1828, when Bennett was appointed a demon- 
strator of anatomy in the newly constituted 
school of the university of London (now Uni- 
versity College) Quain assisted his patron in 
the duties of his new office. Bennett died in 
MjOO, and Quain then became oonior demon- 



time 



appointcd professor of descriptive anatomy 
in 1832, Erasmus Wilson [q. v.], Thomas Mor- 
ton [q. v.], Viner Ellis, and John Marshall 
[q. v.] successively acting as his demon- 
strators. He held the office until 1850. 

Quain was admitted a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of England on 
18 Jan. 1828, and in 1834 he was appointed 
the first assistant-surgeon to University Col- 
lege, or the North London, Hospital. He 
succeeded, after a stormy progress, to the 
office of full surgeon and special professor of 
clinical surgery in 1848, resigned in 1866, 
and was then appointed consulting surgeon 



to the hospital and emeritus professor of 
clinical surgery in its medical school. 

When the fellowship of the Royal College 
of Surgeons was established by royal charter 
in 1843, Quain w r as one of those selected for 
the honour. He was admitted on 11 Dec. 
1843, and he was elected a F.R.S. on 
29 Feb. 1844. He became a member of the 
council of the College of Surgeons in 1854, 
was a member of the court of examiners in 
1865, and chairman of the board of examiners 
in midwifery in 1867. He was elected pre- 
sident of the college in 1868, and in the fol- 
lowing year delivered the Ilunterian oration. 
From 1870 to 1876 he represented the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England in the Gene- 
ral Council of Education and Registration, 
and at the time of his death he w r as one of her 
majesty's surgeons-extraordinary. He died 
on 15 Sept. 1887, and is buried at Finchley. 

He married, in 1859, Ellen, viscountess 
Midleton, widow of the fifth viscount, but 
had no children by her. He left the bulk of 
his fortune, amounting to about 75,000/., ' for 
the promotion and encouragement, in connec- 
tion with University College, London, of 
general education in modern languages (espe- 
cially the English language and composition 
in that language) and in natural science.' 
The Quain professorship of English language 
and literature and the Quain studentships 
and prizes were founded in accordance with 
this bequest. 

Quain was a cautious rather than a de- 
monstrative surgeon, yet on all matters of 
clinical detail he was practical, sensible, and 
painstaking. He had the interest of the 
profession strongly at heart, and constantly 
insisted upon the necessity of a preliminary 
liberal education for all its members. His 
character, however, was marred by the vio- 
lence of his party feelings, his jealousy, and 
the readiness with which he imputed im- 
proper motives to all who differed from him. 

Besides editing his brother's 'Elements of 
Anatomy ' in 1848, Quain published : 1. ' The 
Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human 
Body, with its Applications to Pathology 
and Operative Surgery, in Lithographic 
Drawings with Practical Commentaries,' 
folio, London, 1844. ' Explanation of the 
Plates,' 8vo, London. The splendid drawings 
were executed by Joseph Maclise, F.R.C.S., 
brother of Daniel Maclise, R.A. [q. v.] 
The explanation of the plates was arranged 
by Richard Quain, M.B. (afterwards Sir Ri- 
chard Quain, bart., F.R.S.) The recorded 
facts illustrating the history of the arterial 
system were deduced from observations con- 
ducted upon 1040 subjects. 2. 'The Diseases 
of the Rectum,' plates, 8vo, London, 1854 ; 



' Quain 

was appointed demonstrator in August 1831, 
and became. ' Ibid. , f . 317. 



Quare 



2nd edit. 1855. 3. ' Clinical Lectures/ 8vo, 
London, 1884. 

A life-size half-length in oils, painted 
by George Richmond, R.A., is in the secre- 
tary's office at the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in England. A bust, by Thomas 
Woolner, is in the council-room of the Royal 
College of Surgeons ; and a quarto litho- 
graphic plate, by T. Bridgford, A.R.H.A., is 
in the possession of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society. 

[Obituary notices by Mr. Pollock, Proc. Royal 
Medical and Chirurg. Soe., 1888; Lancet, 1887, 
ii. 687 ; British Medical Journal, 1887, ii. 694 ; 
additional facts kindly contributed by Sir 
Kichard Quain, bart., F.R.S.] D'A. P. 

QUARE, DANIEL (1648-1724), clock- 
maker, possibly a native of Somerset, was 
born in 1648. On 3 April 1671 he was ad- 
mitted a brother of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany. One of the early members of the 
Friends' meeting at Devonshire House, he 
married there, on 18 April 1676, Mary, 
daughter of Jeremiah Stevens, maltster, of 
High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. In the 
register-book he is described as 'clockmaker, 
of Martins-le-Grand in the liberty of West- 
minster.' Soon after, Quare removed to the 
parish of St. Anne and St. Agnes within 
Aldersgate, where in 1678, for refusing to 
pay a rate for the maintenance of the clergy 
of the parish, his goods to the value of 5/. 
were seized to defray a fine of 21. 12s. 6d. 
The next year, ' for fines imposed for refus- 
ing to defray the charge of the militia, two 
clocks and two watches were taken from 
him.' A little later he settled in Lombard 
Street, whence he migrated in 1685 to the 
King's Arms in Exchange Alley, long a 
favourite home for watchmakers. In 1683 
Quare and five other Friends had ' their 
goods seized to the value of 1951. 17s. 6rf. for 
attending meeting at White Hart Court.' 
On 4 June 1686 Quare, with about fifty 
other Friends, was summoned to appear be- 
fore the commissioners appointed by James II 
to sit at Clifford's Inn to hear their grie- 
vances. He was fined again in 1689, but he 
was subsequently taken into William Ill's 
favour. OnQuare's petition two Friends im- 
prisoned in Westmoreland were released, 
and on 2 May 1695 he introduced four 
Friends, including George Whitehead and 
Gilbert Latey, to a private interview with 
William III. Quare and nineteen other 
quakers signed a petition to the commons, 
presented by Edmond Waller on 7 Feb. 
169/3-6. 

When Quare began life horology was 
rapidly advancing. The pendulum was a 
novelty ; so were the spiral spring and anchor 



i Quare 

escapement invented by Robert Hooke [q.v.], 
and the fusee chain. To Quare belongs the 
honour of inventing repeating watches, and 
it is also claimed for him that he adapted the 
concentric minute hand. If he was actually 
the inventor of the latter, he must have con- 
structed it early in his career, for two con- 
centric hands are shown in a diagram in 
Christopher Huyghen's ' Horologium Oscilla- 
torium,'Paris,1673, p. 4. Clocks and watches 
made by Quare with only one hand are extant, 
or with two circles and pointers, one for the 
hours and another for the minutes, and the 
concentric invention did not quickly supersede 
this arrangement even in Quare's own work- 
shop. In the ' London Gazette,' 25-29 March 
1686, is an advertisement for a lost ' pendu- 
lum' watch made by Quare, that had but 
one hand, but was curiously arranged to give 
the minutes ; ' it had but 6 hours upon the 
dial plate, with 6 small cipher figures within 
every hour ; the hand going round every 6 
hours, which shows also the minutes between 
every hour.' 

When in 1687 Edward Booth, alias Barlow 
[q. v.], applied for a patent for ' pulling or re- 
peating clocks and watches,' the Clockmakers' 
Company successfully opposed the applica- 
tion on the ground that the alleged inven- 
tion was anticipated by a watch previously 
invented and made by Quare. The latter's 
watch was superior to Barlow's, because it 
repeated both the hour and the quarter with 
one pressure, while Barlow's required two. 

Wood (Curiosities of Clocks and Watches, 
p. 295) gives an account of a watch made by 
Quare for James II, but the references are 
inaccurate. Quare is also said to have made 
a repeating watch for William III. He cer- 
tainly made a very fine clock for the king, 
which went for a year without rewinding. 
Being specially made for a bedroom, it did 
not strike. The clock still stands in its ori- 
ginal place, by the side of the king's bed, in 
Hampton Court Palace, and shows sundial 
time, latitude and longitude, and the course 
of the sun. In 1836 the clock was altered by 
Vulliamy, the equation work being discon- 
nected and partly removed, a new pendulum 
provided, and the clock fitted with a dead- 
beat escapement. The case is surmounted by 
five well-modelled gilt figures, the complete 
height being over ten feet. The going train 
is similar to another year clock made by 
Quare, described in Britten's ' Former Clock 
and Watch Makers,' pp. 96-100. Britten 
says of it : ' It seems almost incredible for 
81 Ib. x 4 ft. 6 in. to drive the clock for more 
than 13months,but every thing was done that 
was possible to economise the force. The very 
small and light swing wheel, the balanced 



Quare 



Quarles 



minute hand, and the small shortened arbors 
with extra fine pivots, all conduce to the end 
in view.' The weight in the Hampton Court 
clock was still less, being only 72 Ib. There 
is also at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, a 
very curious clock by Quare with a double 
pendulum. 

On 2 Aug. 1695, in the face of some opposi- 
tion from the Clockmakers' Company, a patent 
was granted to Quare for a portable barometer. 
The barometer, in the words of the patent, 
' may be removed and carried to any place, 
though turned upside down, without spilling 
one drop of the quicksilver or letting any air 
into the tube, and yet nevertheless the air 
shall have the same liberty to operate upon it 
as on those common ones now in use with 
respect to the weight of the atmosphere.' 
None of these portable barometers are known 
to exist, but of a ' common ' sort made by 
Quare a good example is at Hampton Court. 

Quare was chosen a member of the court 
of assistants in the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1697, warden in 1705 and 1707, and master 
of the company on 29 Sept. 1708. He died 
on 21 March 1723-4, aged 75, at his country 
house at Croydon, and was buried in Chequer 
Alley, Bunhill Fields, on the 27th. The 
' Daily Post ' of Thursday, 26 March, says : 
' Last week dy'd Mr. Daniel Quare, watch- 
maker in Exchange Alley, who was famous 
both here and at foreign courts for the great 
improvements he made in that art, and we 
hear he is succeeded in his shop and trade by 
his partner, Mr. Horseman,' i.e. Stephen 
Horseman, apprenticed to Quare in 1702, 
admitted C.C. 1709 (PAEKER, London News, 
30 March 1724). 

His will, made on 3 May 1723, was proved 
on 26 March 1724 by Jeremiah, his son and 
executor. Among other bequests, Quare left 
to his wife 2,800^., all his household goods, 
both in London and in the country, and ' the 
two gold watches she usually wears, one of 
them being a repeater and the other a plain 
watch.' The widow lived with her son Jere- 
miah until her death on 4 Nov. 1728 (aged 77) 
in the parish of St. Dionis Backchurch, Lime 
Street. 

Of Quare's children who survived infancy 
there were, besides the son Jeremiah, a ' mer- 
chant,' three daughters Anna, married to 
John Falconer ; Sarah, wife of Jacob Wyan ; 
and Elizabeth, who married, on 10 Nov. 
1715, Silvanus Bevan, ' citizen and apo- 
thecary.' At Elizabeth's wedding, Sarah, 
duchess of Marlborough, signed the register 
with seventy-two other witnesses. 

[Registers of the Society of Friends, pre- 
served at Devonshire House and Somerset House ; 
Derham's Artificial Clockmaker, 1734; Chris- 



tiani Hugenii Zulichemii's Horologium Oscillato- 
rium,&c. 1673 ; Wood's Curiosities of Clocks and 
Watches ; Nelthropp's Treatise on Watchwork, 
Past and Present ; Britten's Former Clock and 
Watch Makers ; Christian Progress of that An- 
cient Minister, George Whitehead, 1725; Ken- 
dal's Hist, of Watches ; Atkins and Overall's 
Some Account of the Clockmakers' Company ; 
Overall's Catalogue of Books, MSS., &c., be- 
longing to the Clockmakers' Company; Patent 
Eoll, 7 Will. Ill, pars unica, No. 7 ; Besse's Suf- 
ferings cf the Quakers, 1753, vol. i. ; Cooke and 
Maule's Historical Account of Greenwich Hos- 
pital, 1784.] E. L. R. 

QUARLES, CHARLES (d. 1727), musi- 
cian, graduated Mus. Bac. at Cambridge in 
1698. He was appointed organist of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. On 30 June 
1722 he succeeded William Davies as organist 
of York Minster, and died in 1727. ' A 
Lesson for Harpsichord' by Quarles, printed 
by Goodison about 1788, contains, among 
others of his compositions, an exceedingly 
graceful minuet in F minor. 

[Information from John Naylor, esq., Mus. 
Doc., organist of York Minster ; Grove's Diet, 
of Music and Musicians.] R. N. 

QUARLES, FRANCIS (1592-1644), 
poet, was born at his father's manor-house of 
Stewards at Romford, Essex, and was bap- 
tised at Romford on 8 May 1592. The father, 
James Quarles (d. 1599), who claimed descent 
from a family settled in England before the 
Norman conquest, was successively clerk of 
the royal kitchen, clerk of the Green Cloth, 
and surveyor-general for victuals of the navy 
under Elizabeth (cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th 
Rep. p. 289, 7th Rep. p. 655 a). Norden, in 
his ' Description of Essex ' in 1594, describes 
him as a man of account (p. 41). The 
poet's mother, Joan, was daughter of Edward 
or Eldred Dalton of Mores Place, Hadham, 
Kent. She died in 1606, and was buried 
with her husband at Romford. Francis 
was the third son ; the eldest, Robert (1580- 
1640), on whom the poet wrote an elegy, 
succeeded to the manor of Stewards, was 
knighted by James I at Newmarket on 
5 March 1607-8, and sat in parliament as 
member for Colchester in 1626. Francis, 
with his next eldest brother, James, was edu- 
cated at a country school. To each of them 
their father, who died in their infancy, left 
by will 50/. a year. William Tichbourn, 
'chaplain' of Romford, who in 1605 be- 
queathed them money to buy a book apiece, 
doubtless assisted in their education. When 
their mother died, in 1606, they had just 
settled at Cambridge, and in her will she 
directed the eldest son, Robert, to provide 
for the payment of the annuities due to them 



Quarles 



93 



Quarles 



from their father's estate, but not yet fully 
paid. Francis became a member of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. in 
1608. Subsequently he studied law at Lin- 
coln's Inn, with the object, his wife tells 
us, of fitting himself for composing differ- 
ences between friends and neighbours rather 
than of following the legal profession. At 
the same time he practised music, and on 
one occasion sold his ' Inn-of-court gowne ' 
to pay for a lute-case (Anecdotes and Tradi- 
tions, Camd. Soc. p. 48). But his mind 
' was chiefly set upon devotion and study.' 
Despite an alleged antipathy to court life, he 
accepted the post of cup-bearer to Princess 
Elizabeth on her marriage to the elector 
palatine in 1613. Accompanying his mistress 
to Heidelberg, he met in Germany Robert 
Sidney, earl of Leicester, a patron of his 
father, and other English noblemen, who 
showed him attention. Returning to Lon- 
don before 1620, he published in that year 
his earliest work, which plainly indicated 
the path that he was to tread as a man of 
letters. It was a lugubrious paraphrase from 
the Bible in heroic verse, entitled ' A Feast of 
Wormes set forth in a Poeme of the History 
of Jonah.' It is prefaced by a dedication to 
the Earl of Leicester, and to it are appended 
a ' Hymne to God,' eleven pious meditations 
of some intensity, and a collection of fervid 
poems bearing the general title ' Pentelogia, 
or the Quintessence of Meditation ' (other 
editions 1626 and 1642). Many similar efforts 
quickly followed. ' Hadassa : History of 
Queene Ester,' appeared in 1621, with a dedi- 
cation to James I. In 1624 Quarles published 
' Job Militant, with Meditations Divine and 
Morall,' dedicated to Charles, prince of 
Wales ; ' Sions Elegies wept by Jeremie the 
Prophet,' dedicated to William Herbert, third 
earl of Pembroke (an engraved title-page is 
dated 1625), and 'Sions Sonnets sung by 
Solomon the King,' dedicated to James 
Hamilton, marquis of Hamilton. The last 
scriptural paraphrase which he published in 
his lifetime was the ' Historic of Samson ' 
(1631), dedicated to Sir James Fullerton. 
In 1625 he turned his attention, for the first 
of many times, to elegiac verse, and issued 
an ' Alphabet of Elegies upon the much and 
truly lamented death of Doctor Aylmer.' 
There are twenty-two twelve-line stanzas and 
a verse epitaph, each line of which begins 
with a letter of the alphabet in regular 
order. 

Quarles rapidly extended his acquaintance 
among serious-minded men and women in 
the higher ranks of society, and he made 
some friendships among men of letters. In 
1631 he wrote an epitaph on Michael Dray- 



ton, which was inscribed on the poet's tomb 
in Westminster Abbey. He exchanged 
verses with Edward Benlowes [q. v.], a native 
of Essex like himself, who introduced him 
to Phineas Fletcher [q. v.] To the latter's 
' Purple Island' (1633) Quarles contributed 
two commendatory poems, one of which, be- 
ginning' Mans bodies like a house,' he printed 
in his ' Divine Fancies.' In 1626 he was in 
London, and prosecuted at the Clerkenwell 
sessions-house a woman, Frances Richard- 
son, for picking his pocket in the parish of St. 
Clement Danes (Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
iv. 521). At the time he was seeking, con- 
jointly with Sir William Luckyn and two 
other Essex neighbours, an act of parliament 
to erect works for the manufacture of salt- 
petre by a new process (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
4th Rep. p. 10). 

Before 1629 Quarles's piety and literary 
ability had secured for him the post of pri- 
vate secretary to James Ussher, archbishop 
of Armagh. He lived with his family under 
his master's roof in Dublin, and helped 
Ussher in his historical researches. Writing 
to Vossius, Ussher spoke of him as ' Vir ob 
sacratiorem poesim apud Anglos suos non 
incelebris.' With a view to increasing his 
income, Quarles in 1631 obtained a lease in 
reversion of the impositions on tobacco and 
tobacco-pipes imported into Ireland (ib. 4th 
Rep. p. 369). 

At Dublin, Quarles first attempted secular 
poetry, and in 1629 he published (in London) 
a poetic romance called ' Argalus and Par- 
thenia.' It was dedicated to Henry Rich, earl 
of Holland. An address to the reader is dated 
from Dublin, 4 March 1628. Owing to a mis- 
print of 1621 for the latter year in a new 
edition of 1647, bibliographers have assigned 
the first publication to 1621, but the book was 
not licensed for the press at Stationers' Hall 
till 27 March 1629. The story is drawn from 
Sidney's 'Arcadia.' In 1632 more of his sacred 
verse was collected in ' Divine Fancies di- 
gested into Epigrams, Meditations, and Ob- 
servations ' (in four books). A eulogy on Arch- 
bishop Ussher figures in book iv. (No. 100). 
This volume was dedicated to Prince Charles 
and the prince's governess,the Countess of Dor- 
set, who deeply sympathised with Quarles's 
religious bent. Next year (1633) Quarles's 
growing fame justified the reissue in a single 
volume of all his biblical paraphrases, ' newly 
augmented,' together with his ' Alphabet of 
Elegies.' The volume was entitled ' Divine 
Poems,' and was dedicated to the king. 

Before 1633 Quarles seems to have retired 
from Dublin to Roxwell in his native county 
of Essex, and there he prepared for publica- 
tion in 1635 the work by which his fame was 



Quarles 



94 



Quarles 



assured, his 'Emblems' (London, by G. M., 
and sold at John Marriot's shop), sm. 8vo. The 
volume is lavishly and quaintly illustrated 
mainly by William Marshall, whose work, 
as reproduced in the early issues, is admi- 
rable. Other plates by W. Simpson, Robert 
Vaughan, and I, Payne are of comparatively 
inferior quality. Quarles divided his volume 
into five books, but only the drawings and 
their poetic interpretations in the first two 
seem original; the forty-five prints in the 
last three books are borrowed, with the plates 
reversed, from the Jesuit Hermann Hugo's 
'Pia Desideria Emblematis, Elegiis et Affecti- 
bus SS.Patrum illustrata' (Antwerp, 1624). 
Quarles's verses in the last three books are also 
translated or closely paraphrased from Hugo. 
Quarles dedicated his work to his old friend 
Edward Benlowes, whose long Latin poem, 
' Quarleis,' in praise of the author, was ap- 
pended, with a separate title-page finely en- 
graved by Marshall ; this poem, which is 
translated into English in Dr. Grosart's edi- 
tion of Quarles's works, had been already 
published in 1634 both in Benlowes's ' Lusus 
Poeticus Poetis,' and with a new edition of 
Quarles's ' Divine Poems.' Quarles's ' Em- 
blems ' achieved an immediate and pheno- 
menal popularity, and he followed up his suc- 
cess by a similar venture, ' Hieroglyphikes of 
the Life of Man' (1638), illustrated by Mar- 
shall, and dedicated to his patroness, the 
Countess of Dorset. The licence is dated 
9 Jan. 1637-8. This book was bound up 
with later editions of the ' Emblems.' 

In 1638 Quarles gave to another Essex 
friend, John Josselyn [q. v.], metrical ver- 
sions of six psalms (Nos. 16, 25, 51, 88, 113, 
and 137) to take out to John Winthrop and 
John Cotton in America. They were printed 
at Boston in the ' Whole Booke of Psalms ' 
(1640). Other verse published in Quarles's 
later life consisted of separately issued ele- 
gies. These respectively commemorated Sir 
Julius Caesar (1636, dedicated to the widow ; 
in Huth Libr. ; reprinted in HTTTH'S Fugitive 
Poetical Tracts, 2nd ser. No. xii. 1875) ; 
' Mr. John Wheeler, sonne of Sir Edmund 
Wheeler of Hiding Court, neare Windsor' 
(1637) ; Dr. Wilson, master of the rolls 
(1638) ; Mildred, wife of Sir William Luckyn 
(whose elegy Quarles entitled ' Mildreiados,' 
1638) ; his brother, Sir Robert Quarles 
(1639-40) ; and ' those incomparable sisters, 
the Countesse of Cleaveland, and Mistresse 
CicilyKilligrue, daughters of Sir John Crofts, 
Knt.' (1640). 

On 1 Feb. 1639 Quarles, on the recom- 
mendation of the Earl of Dorset, the husband 
of the lady to whom he had dedicated his 
' Divine Fancies ' and his ' Hieroglyphikes,' 



was appointed chronologer to the city of 
London. This post he filled till his death, 
but undertook no literary work in his official 
capacity. Thenceforth he appears to have 
resided in the parish either of St. Olave 
or St. Leonard, Foster Lane, and to have 
mainly devoted himself to the composition 
of prose manuals of piety. Of these the 
earliest was ' Enchiridion, containing Insti- 
tutions Divine and Moral,' a collection of 
aphorisms on religious and ethical topics. 
The first edition, dated 1640, includes three 
centuries of essays and is dedicated to Ussher's 
daughter Elizabeth. Next year a new edi- 
tion added a fourth century, and the volume 
was dedicated to Prince Charles (afterwards 
Charles II), the old address to Elizabeth 
Ussher serving to introduce the second cen- 
tury. The popularity of this volume almost 
equalled that of the ' Emblems.' Of like 
character were Quarles's ' Observations con- 
cerning Princes and States upon Peace and 
Warre ' (1642), and ' Barnabas and Boa- 
nerges ... or Wine and Oyl for . . . afflicted 
Soules,'London, 12mo, 1644, the first part of a 
curious collection of meditations, soliloquies, 
and prayers, adapted to the besetting sins of 
various worshippers. 

A sturdy royalist, Quarles openly avowed 
his sympathy with the royal cause, and he is 
said to have visited Charles I at Oxford early 
in 1644. On 9 April in the same year, accord- 
ing to Thomason, he published, anonymously 
at Oxford, a defence of the king's political and 
ecclesiastical position in a prose tract entitled 
'The Loyall Convert.' He denounced the 
parliamentarians as a ' viperous generation,' 
called Cromwell a ' profest defacer of churches 
and rifeler of the monuments of the dead,' and 
defended the employment of Roman catholics 
in the royalist army. He pursued the same 
line of argument in two later pamphlets, ' The 
Whipper Whipt ' (1644), a defence of Cor- 
nelius B urges [q. v.], dedicated to the king, 
and ' The New Distemper.' The three tracts 
were reissued in one volume in 1645, with a 
new dedication to Charles I, and with the 
general title ' The Profest Royalist in his 
Quarrel with the Times ' (copy in Trin. 
Coll. Dublin). Quarles's pronounced views 
brought on him the active animosity of the 
parliamentarians. His library was searched 
by parliamentary soldiers and his manuscripts 
destroyed. Moreover, ' a petition was pre- 
ferred against him by eight men.' This 
' struck him so to the heart that he never 
recovered it.' 

He died, according to his wife's account, 
on 8 Sept. 1644, and was buried, according 
to the parish register, in the church of St. 
Olave, Silver Street, three days later. His 






Quarles 



95 



Quarles 



wife states in error that he was buried in St. 
Leonard's Church, Foster Lane. Letters of 
administration, in which he was described 
as ' late of Ridley Hall, Essex,' were granted 
to his widow on 4 Feb. 1644-5. On the mar- 
gin appears the word ' pauper ' ( Wills from 
Doctors' Commons, Camd. Soc. p. 159). 

Pope's contemptuous reference to Quarles 
as a pensioner of Charles I in the lines (Imi- 
tations of Horace, Ep. i. 11. 386-7) : 

The hero William and the martyr Charles, 
One knighted Blackmore, and one pensioned 
Quarles, 

seems based on no authentic testimony. 
Quarles dedicated many of his books to 
Charles I ; and, after his death, a publisher, 
Richard Royston, dedicated to the king a 
second part of his ' Barnabas and Boanerges,' 
which bore the alternative title ' Judgment 
and Mercy for Afflicted Soules' (1646). There 
Royston speaks of Quarles as sacrificing his 
utmost abilities to the king's service ' till 
death darkened that great light in his soul ; ' 
but the implication seems to be that he went 
without reward. 

On 28 May 1618 Quarles married at 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, Ursula (b. 1601), 
daughter of John Woodgate of the parish 
of St. Andrew's. By her he had eighteen 
children. The eldest son, John, is noticed 
separately. The baptisms of four younger 
children are entered in the parish register of 
Roxwell ; but of these Joanna and Philadel- 
phia only survived infancy. 

Great as was Quarles's popularity in his 
lifetime, it was largely increased by his pos- 
thumous publications. The earliest of these 
was ' Solomons Recantation, entituled Eccle- 
siastes paraphrased. With a Soliloquie or 
Meditation upon every Chapter, &c. By 
Francis Quarles. Opus posthunium. Never 
before imprinted. London, printed by M. 
F. for Richard Royston, 1645,' 4to. A por- 
trait, ' aetatis suae 52,' by William Marshall, 
forms the frontispiece ; verses by Alexander 
Ross are subscribed. ' Vrsula Quarles his 
sorrowful widow ' prefixed a sympathetic 
' short relation ' of Quarles's life and death, 
with a postscript by Nehemiah Rogers [q. v.J ; 
and there are elegies by James Duport in 
Latin, and by R. Stable in English. Shortly 
afterwards there appeared another volume 
of verse, ' The Shepheard's Oracles, delivered 
in certain Eglogues,' 1646, 4to. This versifies 
the theological controversies of the times. 
The interlocutors include persons named Or- 
thodoxus, Anarchus, Catholicus, Canonicus, 
and the like ; and the volume concludes 
with a spirited ballad, sung by Anarchus, 
ironically denouncing all existing institu- 



tions in church and state. The address to 
the reader, dated 26 Nov. 164o and signed 
John Marriott, who, with Richard Marriott, 
published the volume, gives a charmingly 
sympathetic picture of Quarles's peaceful pur- 
suits, and describes him as an enthusiastic 
angler, which several passages in the book 
confirm. Internal evidence proves the author 
of the address to have been Izaak Walton, 
who was on friendly terms with the pub- 
lisher Marriott ( Compleat Anc/ler, ed. Nicolas, 
pp. 36, 37). In 1646 Quarles's wife issued at 
Cambridge a second part of the popular 
'Barnabas and Boanerges ' under the title of 
'Judgment and Mercie for Afflicted Soules ; ' 
she complained that two London editions of 
the same tract in the same year were unau- 
thorised and inaccurate. ' A direfull Ana- 
thema against Peace-haters, written by Fran. 
Quarles,' beginning ' Peace, vipers, peace,' 
appeared as a broadside in 1647. Of dif- 
ferent character was a fifth posthumous 
piece : ' The Virgin Widow ' (1649, 4to, and 
1656), an interlude, which was 'acted pri- 
vately at Chelsea, by a company of young 
gentlemen, with good approvement.'* The 
publisher describes it as the author's very first 
essay in that kind, and a proof which few 
modern readers would admit ' that he knew 
as well to be delightfully facetious as divinely 
serious.' Langbaine prudently describes it as 
' an innocent, inoffensive play.' Some of the 
verses in Fuller's 'Abel Redevivus' (1651) 
are by Quarles ; the rest are by his son John. 

Quarles has been wrongly credited with 
' Anniversaries upon his Pnranete continued ' 
(1635), a work by Richard Brathwaite ; ' Mid- 
night Meditations of Death, with pious and 
profitable Observations and Consolations: 
perused by Francis Quarles a little before 
his Death, published by E[dward] B[en- 
lowes],' London, 1646 ; ' Schola Cordis, or 
the Heart of itself gone away from God 
brought back again to Him and instructed 
by Him, in XLVII Emblems,' London, 1647, 
8vo (usually quoted as ' The School of the 
Heart '). The last work was authoritatively 
assigned, in the edition of 1675, to the author 
of the ' Synagogue ' i.e. Christopher Har- 
vey [q. v.] Yet in a reprint edited by De 
Coetlogon in 1777, and many later issues, 
including one published at Bristol in 1808 
by ' Reginald Wolfe, Esq.' (a pseudonym for 
Thomas Frognall Dibdin), it is positively 
assigned to Quarles. This mistaken ascrip- 
tion was adopted by Southey and by Samuel 
Weller Singer [q. v.], who edited it and other 
genuine works of Quarles in 1845. 

Quarles's works were constantly reprinted 
for more than a century after his death. 
His ' Argalus and Parthenia' (1629), which 



Quarles 



9 6 



Quarles 



was adorned with illustrations in the edition 
of 1656, was reissued in 1631, 1647, 1656, 
1677, 1684, 1687, 1708, and 1726. The 
' Divine Poems,' a collection of the para- 
phrases and some minor pieces, reappeared 
in 1664, 1669, 1674 (illustrated), 1706, 1714, 
and 1717 ; and the ' Divine Fancies ' in 1652, 
1657, 1660, 1664, 1671, 1675 (' seventh edi- 
tion '), 1679, and 1687. Of the ' Emblems ' 
the reissues were far more numerous, but the 
plates in the first edition are alone of any 
value : the chief reissues are those of 1643 
(Cambridge), 1660, 1663, 1696 (with the 
' Hieroglyphikes'), 1717, 1736, 1777 (edited 
by De Coetlogon with the ' Hieroglyphikes ' 
and the ' School of the Heart ') ; 1812 (Chis- 
wick Press), 1814 (edited by the Rev. E. 
Wilson), 1839 (with notes by Toplady and 
Ryland), in 1845 (edited by S. W. Singer), 
in 1860 and 1871 (with new illustrations 
based on the old cuts by C. Bennett and W. H. 
Rogers). Of his pious manuals in prose, 
' Barnabas and Boanerges, or Judgment and 
Mercy ' reappeared in 1646, 1651, 1671, 1679, 
1807 (edited by Reginald Wolfe i.e. T. F. 
Dibdin), 1849, 1855 ; and the ' Enchiridion' 
in 1654, 1670, 1681, 1822, 1841, and 1856; 
a Swedish translation of the last appeared 
at Stockholm in 1656. A complete collection 
of Quarles's ' Works,' edited by Dr. A. B. 
Grosart, appeared in 1874 in the ' Chertsey 
Worthies Library ' (3 vols.) 

A painting of Quarles by William Dobson 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 
Besides the engraved portrait by Marshall 
in ' Solomon's Recantation ' (1645), which is 
often introduced into editions of the ' En- 
chiridion ' and ' Boanerges,' there is another 
engraved portrait by Thomas Cross. 

The wretchedness of man's earthly exist- 
ence was the main topic of Quarles's muse, 
and it is exclusively in religious circles that 
the bulk of his work has been welcomed with 
any enthusiasm. In his own day he found 
very few admirers among persons of lite- 
rary cultivation, and critics of a later age 
treated his literary pretensions with con- 
tempt. Anthony a Wood sneered at him as 
' an old puritanicall poet . . . the sometime 
darling of our plebeian judgment.' Phillips, 
in his 'Theatrum Poetarum' (1675), wrote 
that his verses ' have been ever, and still are, 
in wonderful veneration among the vulgar ; ' 
Pope, who criticised his ' Emblems ' in detail 
in a letter to Atterbury, denounces the book 
in the ' Dunciad' (bk. i. 11. 139-40) as one 
Where the pictures for the page atone, 
And Quarles is saved by beauties not his own. 

Horace Walpole wrote that 'Milton was 
forced to wait till the world had done ad- 



miring Quarles.' But Quarles is not quite 
so contemptible as his seventeenth- and eigh- 
teenth-century critics assumed. Most of his 
verse is diffuse and dull ; he abounds in fan- 
tastic, tortuous, and irrational conceits, and 
he often sinks into ludicrous bathos; but there 
is no volume of his verse which is not illu- 
mined by occasional flashes of poetic fire. 
Charles Lamb was undecided whether to pre- 
fer him to Wither, and finally reached the con- 
clusion that Quarles was the wittier writer, 
although Wither ' lays more hold of the heart ' 
(Letters, ed. Ainger, i. 95). Pope deemed 
Wither a better poet but a less honest man. 
Q'tarles's most distinguished admirer of the 
present century was the American writer, 
H. D. Thoreau, who asserted, not unjustly, 
that ' he uses language sometimes as greatly 
as Shakespeare' (Letters, 1865). Quarles's 
'Enchiridion,' his most popular prose work, 
contains many aphorisms forcibly expressed. 

[Ursula Quarlef's Short Relation in Solomon's 
Recantation (1646) is the chief authority, but it 
is rarely possible to corroborate its statements 
from other sources. Dr. Grosart, in his edition 
of 1874, has printed the wills of the poet's 
parents ; see E. J. Sage's articles on the Quarles 
family in the East Anglian ; Collier's Bibliogra- 
phical Catalogue ; Granger's Biogr. Hist. It is 
desirable to distinguish between Francis Quarles 
the poet and another Francis Quarles (1590- 
1658), son of Edmund Quarles, citizen of Nor- 
wich, who entered Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, in 1605, obtained a scholarship there, 
and in 1613 was ' major pensionarius ' and after- 
wards sacellanus. He was subsequently rector 
of Newton, Suffolk. His son Francis (1622- 
1683) was admitted pensioner of Sidney-Sussex 
College in 1639, and succeeded to the rectory of 
Newton (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 117, 
3rd Rep. p. 328 ; and information kindly sent 
by the Rev. A. T. Wren, rector of Newton-by- 
Sudbury).] S. L. 

QUARLES, JOHN (1624-1665), poet, 
one of the eighteen children of Francis 
Quarles [q. v.], is said to have been born in 
Essex in 1624. He was educated under the 
care of Archbishop Ussher, and matriculated 
at Exeter College, Oxford, on 9 Feb. 1643 
(Register-book of the University}, but does 
not seem to have taken a degree. He bore 
arms for the king in the garrison at Oxford, 
and was imprisoned and banished, apparently 
in consequence of his adherence to the royal 
cause. While in banishment in Flanders he 
wrote the poems contained in his 'first pub- 
lished volume, ' Fons Lachrymarum.' He 
was in England in 1648, but his ' occasions 
beyond sea ' compelled him to leave in 
the following year, and the date of his ulti- 
mate return to this country is unknown. 



97 



Quekett 



Towards the end of his life he was reduced 
to great poverty, and lived by his pen. He 
remained in London during the plague, and 
was carried off by it in 1605. 

The published works of Quarles are : 
1. 'Fons Lachrymarum, or a Fountain of 
Tears; from whence flow England's Com- 
plaint, Jeremiahs Lamentations paraphras'd, 
with Divine Meditations. And an Elegy upon 
that Son of Valor, Sir Charles Lucas,' Lon- 
don, 1648, 12mo; reprinted 1649, 1655, 
1677. 2. ' Regale Lectum Miseries, or a 
Kingly Bed of Miserie. In which is con- 
tained a Dreame ; with an Elegy upon the 
Martyrdome of Charles, late King of Eng- 
land. . . . And another upon . . . Lord 
Capel. With a Curse against the Enemies 
of Peace, and the Authors Farewell to Eng- 
land,' London, 1648, 8vo; reprinted 1649, 
1658, 1659, 1660, 1679. 3. 'Gods Love and 
Mans Unworthiness,' London, 1651, 12mo ; 
reprinted, Avith ' Divine Meditations,' 1655. 
4. ' The Tyranny of the Dutch against the 
English. . . . And likewise the Sufferings 
and Losses of Abraham Woofe . . . and 
others in the Island of Banda,' London, 1653, 
8vo (prose) ; reprinted 1660. 5. ' Divine 
Meditations upon several Subjects . . .,' 
London, 1655, 8vo ; reprinted 1663, 1671, 
1679. 6. ' The Banishment of Tarquin, or 
the Reward of Lust,' annexed to Shakespeare's 
' Rape of Lucrece,' London, 1655, 8vo. 
7. ' An Elegie on ... James Usher, L. 
Archbishop of Armagh, . . . ,' London, 
1656, 8vo. 8. ' The History of the most 
vile Dimagoras . . . ,' London, 1658, 8vo. 
9. ' A Continuation of the History [by his 
father] of Argalus and Parthenia,' London, 
1659, 12mo. 10. ' Rebellions Downfall,' Lon- 
don, 1662, fol. broadside. 11. ' Londons 
Disease and Cure. Being a Soveraigne Receipt 
against the Plague, for Prevention sake,' Lon- 
don, 1665, fol. broadside. 12. 'The Citizens 
Flight, with their Recall, to which is added 
Englands Tears and Englands Comforts,' 
London, 1665, 4to. 13. ' Self-Conflict, or 
the powerful Motions between the Flesh and 
Spirit, represented in the Person ... of 
Joseph . . . ,' London, 1680^ 8vo ; reprinted, 
Avith a slightly different title (' Triumphant 
Chastity, or Joseph's Self-Conflict'), 1684. 
There is nothing in the book to show that this 
last item, a translation entirely in the manner 
of Quarles, is a posthumous publication, but 
the date of his death given above is confirmed 
by Winstanley (Lives of the Poets, 1687, p. 
194), who was apparently acquainted with at 
least one member of his family. Quarles 
also wrote a prose preface to John Hall's 
' Emblems,' 1648, and contributed verses to 
Fuller's 'Abel Redevivus ' (1651). 

TOL. XLVII. 



There are three portraits of Quarles one 
by Marshall, with verses underneath it by 
T. M. ; one by Faithorne ; and one anonymous 
(cf. BROMLEY, Catalogue). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 697 ; 
Quarles's Works, passim ; Sage's Notes on the 
Quarles Family, reprinted from the East Anglian.] 

G. T. D. 

QUEENSBERRY, DUKES OF. [See 
DOUGLAS, CHARLES, third DUKE, 1698-1778; 
DOUGLAS, JAMES, second DUKE, 1662-1711 ; 
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, first DUKE, 1637-1695; 
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, fourth DUKE, 1724- 
1810.] 

QUEENSBERRY, CATHERINE, DU- 
CHESS OF (d. 1777). [See under DOUGLAS, 
CHARLES, third DUKE OF QUEENSBERRY, 
1698-1778.] 

QUEENSBERRY, EARLS OF. [See 
DOUGLAS, JAMES, second EARL, d. 1671 ; 
DOUGLAS, SIR WILLIAM, first EARL, d. 1640.] 

QUEKETT, JOHN THOMAS (1815- 

1861), histologist, born at Langport, Somer- 
set, on 11 Aug. 1815, \vas the youngest son 
of William Quekett and Mary, daughter of 
John Bartlett. The father was at Cocker- 
mouth grammar school with AVilliam and 
Christopher Wordsworth, and from 1790 till 
his death in 1842 Avas master of Langport 
grammar school. He educated his sons at 
home, and each of them Avas encouraged to 
collect specimens in some branch of natural 
history. When only sixteen John gave a 
course of lectures on microscopic subjects, il- 
lustrated by original diagrams and by a micro- 
scope Avhich he had himself made out of a roast- 
ing-jack, a parasol, and a few pieces of brass 
purchased at a neighbouring marine-store 
shop. On leaving school he was apprenticed, 
first to a surgeon in Langport, and after- 
Avards to his brother Edwin, entering King's 
College, London, and the London Hospital 
medical school. In 1840 he qualified at Apo- 
thecaries' Hall, and at the Royal College of 
Surgeons Avon the three-years studentship 
in human and comparative anatomy, then 
first instituted. He formed a most exten- 
sive and valuable collection of microscopic 
preparations, injected by himself, illustrat- 
ing the tissues of plants and animals in 
health and in disease, and showing the re- 
sults and uses of microscopic investigation. 
In November 1843 he was appointed by the 
College of Surgeons assistant conservator of 
the Hunterian Museum, under Professor 
(afterwards Sir) Richard Owen [q. v.], and 
in 1844 he was appointed demonstrator of 
minute anatomy. In 1846 his collection of 
two thousand five hundred preparations Avas 
purchased by the college, and he was directed 



Quekett 



9 8 



Quekett 



to prepare a descriptive illustrated catalogue 
of the whole histological collection belonging 
to the college, of which they constituted the 
chief part. In 1852 the title of his demon- 
stratorship was changed to that of professor 
of histology ; and on Owen's obtaining per- 
mission to reside at Richmond, Quekett was 
appointed resident conservator, finally suc- 
ceeding Owen as conservator in 1856. His 
health, however, soon failed, and he died at 
Pangbourne, Berkshire, whither he had gone 
for the benefit of his health, on 20 Aug. 1861. 

In 1841 Quekett succeeded Dr. Arthur 
Farre as secretary of the Microscopical So- 
ciety, a post which he retained until 1860, 
when he was elected president, but was un- 
able to attend any meetings during his year 
of office. He was elected a fellow of the 
Linnean Society in 1857, and of the Royal 
Society in 1860. 

In 1846 Quekett married Isabella Mary 
Anne (d. 1872), daughter of Robert Scott, 
Bengal Civil Service, by whom he had four 
children. There is a lithographic portrait of 
Quekett in Maguire's Ipswich series of 1849, 
and a coloured one by W. Lens Aldous. 

Quekett's work as an histologist was re- 
markable for its originality and for its influ- 
ence upon the anatomical studies of the medi- 
cal profession in this country. His ' Practical 
Treatise on the Use of the Microscope ' (1848, 
8vo) did much also to promote the study 
among medical men and amateurs, and among 
those who came to him for instruction was the 
prince consort. His work in this direction is 
commemorated by the Quekett Microscopical 
Club, which was established in 1865, under the 
presidency of Dr. Edwin Lankester [q. v.] 

Quekett's chief publications were: 1. 'Prac- 
tical Treatise on the Use of the Microscope,' 
1848, 8vo; 2nd edit, 1852; 3rd edit. 1855, 
which was also translated into German. 

2. 'Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of 
the Histological Series ... in the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons,' vol. i. 
' Elementary Tissues of Vegetables and 
Animals,' 1850, 4to; vol. ii. 'Structure of 
the Skeleton of Vertebrate Animals,' 1855. 

3. ' Lectures on Histology,' vol. i. 1852 ; 
vol. ii. 1854, 8vo. 4. ' Catalogue of the 
Fossil Organic Remains of Plants in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons ' 
(in conjunction with John Morris (1810- 
1886) [q. v.]), 1859, 4to. 5. ' Catalogue of 
Plants and Invertebrates . . .' 1860, 4to. 

Twenty-two papers by him are also 
enumerated in the Royal Society's ' Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers ' (v. 53-4), 
mostly contributed to the Microscopical 
Society's ' Transactions,' and dealing with 
animal histology. One of the most impor- 



tant of these is that on the 'Intimate Struc- 
ture of Bones in the four great Classes, 
Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes, with 
Remarks on the Value of the Knowledge in 
determining minute Organic Remains,' Mi- 
croscopical Societv's ' Transactions,' vol. ii. 
1846, pp. 46-58. 

The third brother, EDWIX JOHX QFEKETT 
(1808-1847), microscopist, born at Lang- 
port in 1808, received his medical training at 
University College Hospital, and practised as 
a surgeon in Wellclose Square, Whitechapel. 
In 1835 he became lecturer on botany at the 
London Hospital; he was elected a fellow of 
the Linnean Society in 1836. It was at his 
house in 1839 that the meetings were held 
in which the Royal Microscopical Society 
originated. He died on 28 June 1847 of diph- 
theria, and was buried at Sea Salter, Kent, 
near the grave of a Miss Hyder, to whom he 
had been engaged, but who had died of con- 
sumption. His name was commemorated by 
Lindley in the Brazilian genus of orchids, 
Quekettia, which containsnumerous microsco- 
pic crystals. Fifteen papers stand to Edwin 
Quekett's name in the Royal Society's ' Cata- 
logue of Scientific Papers' (v. 53), mostly 
dealing with vegetable histology, and contri- 
buted to the 'Transactions' of the Linnean 
and Microscopical Societies, the 'Phytolo- 
gist,' the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History ' and the ' London Physiological 
Journal ' between 1838 and the date of his 
death. In 1843-4 he was one of the editors 
of the last-named journal (Proceedings of 
Linnean Society, i. 378). 

WILLIAM QUEKETT (1802-1888), rector of 
Warrington, Lancashire, the eldest brother, 
born at Langport,on 3 Oct. 1802, entered St. 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1822, and, on 
his graduation, in 1825 was ordained as curate 
of South Cadbury, Somerset. In 1830 he 
became curate at St. George's-in-the-East, 
where he remained until 1841. To his efforts 
was due the establishment of the district 
church of Christ Church, Watney Street, of 
which he acted as incumbent from 1841 to 
1854. His philanthropic energy here at- 
tracted the attention of Charles Dickens, 
who based upon it his articles on ' What a 
London Curate can do if he tries ' (House- 
hold Words, 16 Nov. 1850) and ' Emigration ' 
(ib. 24 Jan. 1852). In 1849 Quekett, with 
the co-operation of Sidney Herbert, founded 
the Female Emigration Society, in the work 
of which he took an active part. In 1854 he 
was presented by the crown to the rectory of 
Warrington, where he restored the parish 
church, and died on30 March 1888, soon after 
the publication of a gossiping autobiography, 
' My Sayings and Doings.' 



Quemerford 



99 



Quick 



[Rev. William Quekett's My Sayings and 
Doings, 1888, 8vo; Proceedings of the Linnean 
Society, 1861-2, p. xciii ; and information from 
J. T. Quekett'sdiaries, and papers furnished by his 
son, Arthur E. Quekett, esq., M.A.] G. S. B. 

QUEMERFORD, NICHOLAS (1544?- 

1599), Jesuit. [See COMBERFORD.] 
QUEROUAILLE, LOUISE RENEE 

DE, DUCHESS OP PORTSMOUTH AXD AUBIGNY, 

(1649-1734). [See KEROTJALLE.] 

QUESNE, CHARLES LE (1811-1856), 

writer on Jersey. [See LE QUESNE.] 

QUESNEL or QUESUEL, PETER 
(<Z. 1299?), Franciscan, was warden of the 
Franciscan house at Norwich, and died about 
1299. He enjoyed a high repute as ' theologian 
and doctor of the canon law,' and was author 
of ' Directorium Juris in Foro Conscientise 
et Juridiciali.' This work is divided into 
four books : (1) ' De summa Trinitate et fide 
Catholica, et de septem Sacramentis ; ' 
(2) ' De iisdem Sacramentis ministrandis et 
accipiendis ; ' (3) ' De Criminibus quse a 
Sacramentis impediunt et de poenis iisdem 
injungendis;' (4) 'De iisqiuead jus spectant 
ordinate dirigendis.' There is a manuscript 
at Merton College, Oxford (No. 223), in which, 
however, books ii. and iv. are imperfect. 
The procemium opens with the words, ' Si 
quis ignorat ignorabitur ; ' the treatise itself 
commences ' Dignus es Domine aperire li- 
brum.' Wadding says of this work, ' Volu- 
men ingens et stylus elegans.' There was 
formerly a copy at Norwich, and Wadding 
also mentions that there were manuscripts 
in the Vatican and in the Franciscan library 
at Toledo. There were also copies in the 
library of the Santa Croce at Florence (two 
manuscripts), in the Colbert collection at 
Paris (two copies), and in the libraries at 
Padua, Clairvaux, and St. Martin of Tours 
(MouTFAUCOif, Bibliotheca Bibliothccarum, ii. 
1337). In the library of the Santa Croce there 
is an anonymous epitome. In one edition 
(Padua, 1475) of the 'Commentarii in libros 
Physicorum Aristotelis,' ascribed to John 
Canonicus, the first and second books of the 
' Questiones ' are ascribed to ' Doctor Canonicus 
Magister Petrus Casuelis ordinis minorum ' 
(LITTLE, Greyfriars at Oxford, p. 224 n. 1, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc.) 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. pp. 610-11 ; Wad- 
ding's Script. Ord. Min. p. 195 ; Sbaralea's Suppl. 
Script. Ord. Franc, p. 604 ; Blomefield's Hist, of 
Norfolk, ir. 1 1 1 ; Coxe's Cat. MSS. in Coll. Aulis- 
que Oxon. i. 87.] C. L. K. 

QUICK, HENRY (1792-1857), the Cor- 
nish poet, born on 4 Dec. 1792, of humble 
parentage, at Zennor, where he spent his 
life, wrote from youth upwards rugged 



verses for the countryside. He increased 
a precarious income by the sale of popular 
journals, which he procured each month from 
Penzance. From 1830 until his death he 
commemorated in verse all the local cala- 
mities and crimes, usually closing each poem 
with a religious exhortation. Most of his 
lucubrations he printed as broadsides. In 
1836 he wrote his 'Life and Progress' in 
eighty-nine verses. He also printed ' A new 
Copy, &c., on the Glorious Coronation of 
Queen Victoria ' (1838) ; ' A new Copy of 
Verses on the Scarcity of the Present Sea- 
son and Dreadful Famine in Ireland' (1848) ; 
and similar trifles both in verse and prose. 

An engraving represents Quick in curious 
costume, with a printed sheet in his hand and 
a basket under his arm (MlLLBTT, Penzance 
Past and Present, p. 36). He died at Mill 
Hill Down, Zennor, on 9 Oct. 1857. 

[Cornish Telegraph, 21 Oct. 1857; Boase 
and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. Suppl., where is a 
full list of his works.] G. LE G. N. 

QUICK, JOHN (1636-1706), noncon- 
formist divine, was born at Plymouth in 1636. 
He entered at Exeter College, Oxford, about 
1650, and became servitor in 1653, at the age 
of seventeen. The rector, John Couant [q. v.l, 
had strong puritan leanings, and Quicks 
tutor, John Saunders, was a man of the same 
type. He graduated B. A. in 1657, and after 
preaching some time at Ermington, Devon- 
shire, was ordained presbyter on 2 Feb. 1659 
at Plymouth. His first charge was the 
vicarage of Kingsbridge with Churchstow, 
Devonshire, a sequestered living, from which 
Quick was probably ejected at the Restora- 
tion. At the passing of the uniformity act in 
1662 he held the perpetual curacy of Brixton, 
Devonshire. Quick neither conformed nor 
resigned, and, though excommunicated, he 
continued to officiate till, on Sunday, 13 Dec. 
1663, while preaching his morning sermon,he 
was arrested on the warrant of two justices, 
and committed to Exeter gaol. On 15 Jan. 
1664hewas brought up at the quarter sessions, 
and examined as to his ordination. His coun- 
sel pleaded errors in the indictment, and the 
bench unanimously pronounced his commit- 
ment illegal. But as Quick would enter into 
no sureties for good behaviour, nor promise 
to give up preaching, he was remanded to 
gaol. Eight weeks afterwards he was libe- 
rated at the assizes by Sir Matthew Hale 
[q. v.] Seth Ward, bishop of Exeter, pro- 
secuted him for preaching to his fellow pri- 
soners, but he was acquitted. Quick relates 
that when sent to prison he was consumptive, 
but ' perfectly recovered when he came out.' 
On the indulgence of 1672 he took out a 

n -2 



Quick 



100 



Quick 



licence to preach in Plymouth, but after the 
quashing of the indulgence in 1673, he was 
lodged with other nonconformist preachers 
in the Marshalsea at Plymouth. Obtain- 
ing his release, he removed to London. In 
1679 he became minister to the English 
church at Middleburg, Holland ; but he re- 
turned to London on 22 July 1681. Here 
he gathered a presbyterian congregation in 
a small meeting-house in Middlesex Court, 
Bartholomew Close, Smithfield. This meet- 
ing-house was one of the buildings which at 
that time (and till recently) strangely en- 
croached upon the structure of the church of 
St. Bartholomew the Great. In one corner 
was a statue described as ' a popish priest 
with a child in his arms,' and a window of 
the meeting-house opened into the church, 
facing its pulpit, so that a person sitting in 
the meeting-house gallery could watch the 
conduct of divine service in the church. 
Quick, who was one of those who took ad- 
vantage of James II's declaration for liberty 
of conscience in 1687, was apparently never 
disturbed in his London charge. He was 
noted as ' a serious, good preacher,' and had 
a special gift in prayer. All his life he was 
a hard student, giving his nights to study. 
He did much to promote the succession of a 
learned ministry among nonconformists. His 
interest in the French protestant church was 
probably due in part to the fact that Ply- 
mouth was, from 1681, the seat of an im- 
portant colony of Huguenot refugees. For 
the relief of such refugees he made great 
exertions ; his own ' house and purse were 
almost ever open to them.' Quick died on 
29 April 1706, in his seventieth year. Funeral 
sermons were preached by his successor, 
Thomas Freke(rf. 1716), and by Daniel Wil- 
liams. His wife Elizabeth died in 1708. His 
only daughter married John Evans (1680 ?- 
1730) [q. v.] ; she is said to have been wealthy, 
perhaps through her mother, for Quick him- 
self had no great command of money. His 
portrait, engraved by John Sturt, is prefixed 
to the ' Synodicon.' 

He published funeral sermons for Philip 
Han-is (1682), John Faldo [q. v.] (1690), and 
Mrs. Eothwell (1697) ; this last is valuable 
for a number of biographical notices, in- 
cluding one of his brother, Philip Quick. 
Also, 1. 'Hell opened, or the Infernal Sin 
of Murder punished,' &c., 1076, 8vo (an 
account of a wholesale poisoning case at 
Plymouth). 2. 'The Young Man's Claim 
to ... the Lord's Supper,' &c., 1691, 4to. 
3. ' Synodicon in Gallia Reformata ; or the 
Acts.. . and Canons of . . . National Councils 
of the Reformed Churches in France,' c., 
1692, fol. 2vols. (contains a history of French 



protestantism to 1685). 4. ' A Serious In- 
quiry . . . whether a man may lawfully marry 
his deceased Wife's Sister,' &c., 1703, 4to- 
(against such marriages). An advertisement 
in this last states that 'about three years 
since' Quick had issued proposals for print- 
inghis ' Icones Sacrse ; ' William Russell, first 
duke of Bedford, had offered to make good 
the expense. In the week following his. 
patron's death (7 Sept. 1700) Quick was dis- 
abled, and could not collect subscriptions. 
The manuscript of the 'Icones 'is now in. 
Dr. Williams's Library, Gordon Square, Lon- 
don : it fills three folio volumes, containing 
the lives of fifty French and twenty English 
divines. Calamy acknowledges his debt to> 
it for the lives of seven of the ejected non- 
conformists, including Nathanael Ball [q. v.] r 
George Hughes [q. v.], and William Jenkyn 
[q.v.J 

[Funeral Sermons by Williams and Freke r 
1706; Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 493; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), ii. 198 ; Calamy's Account, 
1713, pp. xxv, 247 seq.; Calamy's Continuation,. 
1727, i. 331 seq.; Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, 1714, ii. 318; Protestant Dissenters' 
Mag. 1799, p. 301 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches 
of London, 1810, iii. 369 seq. ; Worth's Hist, of 
Nonconformity in Plymouth, 1876, pp. 19. 24.} 

A. G-. 

QUICK, JOHN (1748-1831), actor, the- 
son of a brewer, was born in 1748 in White- 
chapel, London. In his fourteenth year he 
left his home and joined a theatrical com- 
pany at Fulham, where he played Altamont 
in the 'Fair Penitent,' receiving from his 
approving manager three shillings as a full 
single share in the profits.* During some- 
years, in Kent and Surrey, he played Romeo r 
George Barnewell, Hamlet, Jaffier, Tancred,. 
and other tragic characters, and in 1767 was 
at the Haymarket under the management of 
Foote, one of the pupils in Foote's ' Orators,' 
his associates includingEd ward Shuter[q.v.1, 
John Bannister [q. v.], and John Palmer 
(1742 P-1798) [q. v.] His performance, for 
Shuter's benefit, of Mordecai in ' Love a la 
Mode ' recommended him to Covent Garden, 
where, on 7 Nov. 1767, he was the original 
Postboy in Colman's ' Oxonian in Town ; ' on 
14 Dec. the First Ferret in the ' Royal Mer- 
chant,' an operatic version of the ' Beggar's 
Bush ; ' and on 29 Jan. 1768 the original 
Postboy in Goldsmith's ' Good-natured Man.' 
At Covent Garden, with occasional visits to- 
Liverpool, Portsmouth, and other towns, and 
to Bristol, where he was for a time manager 
of the King Street Theatre, Quick remained 
during most of his artistic career. 

Quick's performances were at first confined 
as a rule to clowns, rustics, comic servants. 



Quick 



101 



Quick 



and the like. He was seen as Peter in 

* Romeo and Juliet,' Simon Pure in ' A Bold 
Stroke for a Wife,' Third Witch in ' Mac- 
beth,' Gripe in the ' Cheats of Scapin,' the 
First Gravedigger in ' Hamlet,' the Tailor in 
' Katharine and Petruchio,' Puritan in ' Duke 
and No Duke,' Vamp in the ' Author,' Mungo 
in the ' Padlock,' Canton in the ' Clandestine 
Marriage,' Zorobabel in the ' Country Mad- 
cap,' Clown in 'Winter's Tale,' Daniel in 
' Oroonoko,' Scrub in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' 
Pamphlet in the ' Upholsterer,' Kigdum Fun- 
nidos in ' Chrononhotonthologos,' Old Philpot 
in the ' Citizen,' and many similar characters. 
His original parts at this period included 
Ostler in Colman's ' Man and Wife, or the 
Shakespeare Jubilee,' Skiff in Cumberland's 

* Brothers' on 2 Dec. 1769, and clown to 
the harlequin of Charles Lee Lewes [q. v.] 
in the pantomime of ' Mother Shipton ' on 
26 Dec. 1770. A patent for a theatre in 
Liverpool passed the great seal on 4 May 
1771, and on 5 June 1772 Quick was playing 
there Prattle in ' The Deuce is in him.' 
Many other characters, including Lovel in 

* High Life below Stairs,' Polonius, Peachum, 
Jerry Sneak, Shallow, Sir Tunbelly Clumsy 
in the 'Man of Quality,' were here in the 
next few years assigned him. At Covent 
Garden he was, on 8 Dec. 1772, the original 
<Jonsol in O'Brien's ' Cross Purposes,' and on 
6 Feb. 1773 the original Momus in O'Hara's 
4 Golden Pippin.' These performances pre- 
pared the way for his great triumph, on 
14 March, as the original Tony Lumpkin in 

* She stoops to conquer.' The character had 
been refused by Woodward, whose want of 
insight was fortunate for Quick. During 
the season Quick also played Sable in the 
4 Funeral,' Coupler in the ' Man of Quality,' 
Trapland in ' Love for Love,' Gentleman 
Usher in ' King Lear,' Lady Pentweazle (an 
original part) in an unnamed interlude of 
Foote, Old Mask in the ' Musical Lady,' and 
Honeycombe in ' Polly Honeycombs. The 
following season (1773-4) saw him promoted 
to Mawworm in the ' Hypocrite,' Grumio, 
Varland in the ' West Indian,' and Autolycus 
Mufti in 'Don Sebastian.' On 31 Jan. 1774 he 
played Old Rents in the ' Jovial Crew.' Fore- 
sight and Town Clerk in ' Much Ado about 
Nothing,' with other parts, followed ; and on 
17 Jan. 1775 he was the first Bob Acres in 
the ' Rivals.' Among some scores of comic 
characters subsequently assigned him are 
Launcelot Gobbo, Lord Sands, Don Pedro 
In the 'Wonder,' Trinculo, Sir Andrew 
Aguecheek, Touchstone, Pistol, Dromio of 
Ephesus, Roderigo, Launce in ' Two Gentle- 
men of Verona,' Cloten, Silence, Major Old- 
fox in the ' Plain Dealer,' Vellum, Lucullus 



in ' Timon of Athens,' Old Mirabel in the 
' Inconstant,' Fondlewife, Old Woman in 
' Rule a Wife and have a Wife,' Lovegold 
in the ' Miser,' Dr. Caius, Lord Duberly 
in the ' Heir-at-Law,' and Crabtree. From 
the almost interminable list of his original 
parts most of them assigned him after the 
deaths of Shuter in 1776 and Woodward 
in 1777 may be selected Isaac Mendoza in 
Sheridan's ' Duenna,' Druggett in Murphy's 
'Three Weeks after Marriage,' Sancho in 
'Don Quixote in England,' adapted from 
Fielding, Vulcan in Dibdin's ' Poor Vulcan,' 
Sir Wilfrid Wildman in Kenrick's ' Lady of 
the Manor,' Hardy in Mrs. Cowley's ' Belle's 
Stratagem,' King Arthur in ' Tom Thumb,' 
altered by O'Hara from Fielding, Bobby 
Pendragon in Mrs. Cowley's ' Which is the 
Man ? ' Sir Toby Tacit in O'Keeffe's ' Positive 
Man,' Sir Solomon Dangle in Cumberland's 
' Walloons,' Spado in O'Keeffe's ' Castle of 
Andalusia,' Savil in the ' Capricious Lady ' 
(altered by Cumberland from the ' Scorn- 
ful Lady ' of Beaumont and Fletcher), Don 
Caesar in Mrs. Cowley's ' Bold Stroke for a 
Husband,' Hillario in the ' Magic Picture ' 
(altered by the Rev. II. Bate from Massinger), 
Dr. Feelove in Mrs. Cowley's ' More Ways 
than One,' Lapoche in O'Keeffe's 'Fontaine- 
bleau, or Our Way in France,' Don Guzman 
in ' Follies of a Day ' (Holcroft's adaptation 
of Le Mariage de Figaro '), Walmsley in Mrs. 
Inchbald's ' Appearance is against them,' 
Quiz in ' Love in a Camp ' (O'Keeffe's sequel to 
the 'Poor Soldier'), Sir Oliver Oldstock in 
Pilon's ' He would be a Soldier,' and Sir Luke 
Tremor in Mrs. Inchbald's 'Such Things are.' 
On 6 April 1790, for his benefit, Quick ap- 
peared as Richard III. He was always under 
the delusion that he could play tragedy, and 
took the character seriously at the outset, 
until the laughter of the audience proved irre- 
sistible. On 14 March 1 791 Quick created the 
part of Cockletop, an antiquary, in O'Keeffe's 
' Modern Antiques,' and on 16 April that of 
Sir George Thunder in the ' Wild Oats ' of 
the same dramatist. On 18 Feb. 1792 he was 
the first Silky in Holcroft's ' Road to Ruin,' 
on 23 Jan. 1793 the first Solus in Mrs. 
Inchbald's ' Every one has his Fault, 'on 5 Feb. 
1794 the first Sir Gregory Oldwort in Hol- 
croft's ' Love's Frailties, or Precept against 
Practice,' on 23 Oct. the first Sir Paul Per- 
petual in Reynolds's ' Rage,' and 6 Dec. the 
first Sir Robert Flayer in Mrs. Cowley's 
' Town before you.' In Holcroft's ' De- 
serted Daughter,' 2 May 1795, Quick was 
the original Item, and on 23 Jan. 1796 the 
original Toby Allspice in Morton's ' Way to 
get married.' In ' Abroad and at Home,' by 
Holman, he was (19 Nov.) the first Sir 



Quick 



102 



Quick 



Simon Flourish, on 10 Jan. 1797 the first 
Vortex in Morton's ' Cure for the Heart- 
ache/ and on 4 March Lord Priory in Mrs. 
Inchbald's ' Wives as they were and Men as 
they are.' In his last season he was, 23 Nov. 
1797, the first Scud in Cumberland's ' False 
Impressions,' 11 Jan. 1798 the first Nicholas 
in Morton's ' Secrets worth Knowing,' and 
13 Feb. the first Lord Vibrate in Holcroft's 
or Fenwick's ' He's much to blame.' On 
11 April, for his benefit, he gave a descrip- 
tion of the Roman puppet show. On 13 April 
lie played his last original part, probably 
Admiral Delroy, in Cumberland's ' Eccentric 
Lover.' About this time, on the score of 
declining health, he resigned his long en- 
gagement at Covent Garden. His object was 
to obtain the option of playingless frequently, 
but much to his disappointment he was not 
engaged the following season. On 9 May 
1799, for the benefit of Miss Leak, he appeared 
for the first time at Drury Lane, and played 
Hardy in the ' Belle's Stratagem,' and Love- 
gold in the < Miser.' On 12 June 1800, for 
O'Keeffe's benefit, he played at Covent Garden 
Alibi in the ' Lie of the Day,' and Drugget in 
' Three Weeks after Marriage ; ' and for an- 
other benefit appeared next day as Isaac in the 
' Duenna.' For this part he was engaged at 
Drury Lane in 1801-2, but he seems to have 
played no other. In 1809 he took a tour in 
the north, appearing in Edinburgh, 25 Jan., 
as Sir Benjamin Dove in the ' Brothers.' 
In 1809 probably on 5 Sept. still in the 
same character, he made his first appearance 
at the Lyceum. On 24 May 1813 he came 
again from his retirement, taking part at the 
Haymarket Opera House in a benefit to Mrs. 
Mattocks, in which he played Don Felix in 
the ' Wonder.' This seems to have been 
his last appearance. Out of his earnings he 
saved 10,000/., on the interest of which he 
lived, residing during his later years in 
Hornsey Row, subsequently Will's Row, 
Islington. He was in the habit, up to the 
last day of his life, of presiding over a ' social 
gathering ' held at the King's Head tavern, 
Islington. He died on 4 April 1831, and 
was buried beneath the old chapel-of-ease at 
Lower Holloway. In early life he married at 
Bristol the daughter of a clergyman named 
Parker, and had by her a son, William, and 
a daughter,Mrs.MaryAnneDavenport (Gent. 
Mar,. 1831, i. 74). ' 

Quick, 'the retired Dioclesian of Isling- 
ton,' as Mathews called him, ' with his squeak 
like a Bart'lemew fiddle,' was, on the same 
authority, a ' pleasant little fellow,' without 
' an atom of improper consequence in his 
composition.' He was so small in frame 
that Anthony Pasquin calls him ' the smart 



tiny Quick.' He was held an honest man, and 
generous without being extravagant. He was 
the favourite actor of George III, who con- 
tinually insisted upon his appearance, and is 
said to have more than once addressed him, 
and even to have promised, according to a 
very improbable story, to make his daughter 
a maid of honour. Quick was unsurpassed 
in old men. Isaac Mendoza, in the ' Duenna/ 
appears to have been his great part. He was 
also one of the best of First Gravediggers. 
Other parts in which he ranked very high 
were Beau Mordecai, Tony Lumpkin, Poor 
Vulcan, Little French Lawyer, Dromio of 
Ephesus, King Arthur in ' Tom Thumb/ 
Bobby Pendragon, Spado, Launce, and Sir 
John Tremor. Edwin was more popular than 
Quick, but was not, holds Genest, so good 
an actor. Edwin had to be fitted with new 
parts, while on the revival of an old comedy 
Quick was generally included in the cast. 
The author of ' Candid and Impartial Stric- 
tures on the Performers/&c., 1795, says : ' His 
comic talents are purely original, and, though 
not richly fraught with a mellowness of 
humour, still possess a certain quaintness 
and whimsicality that prove such incentives 
to laughter that the most cynical disposition 
cannot withstand their influence' (p. 53). 
Some want of variety is imputed to him. 
Davies classes him with Parsons as ' bom to 
relax the muscles and set mankind a tittering/ 
A portrait of Quick as Alderman Arable 
in ' Speculation/ with Munden as Project and 
Lewis as Tanjore, painted by Zoftany at the 
express desire of George III, is now in the 
Garrick Club. In this the portrait of Quick 
is repeated in a picture behind him. Other 
portraits of him, also in the Garrick Club, 
are by Dewilde, as Old Doiley in ' Who's the 
Dupe ? ' by Dupont as Spado in the ' Castle 
of Andalusia/ and by Dighton as Isaac in 
the ' Duenna.' In 1775 Thomas Parkin- 
son painted a scene from ' She stoops to 
conquer/ in which Quick appears as Tony 
Lumpkin, to the Hardcastle of Shuter and 
the Mrs. Hardcastle of Mrs. Green. This 
was engraved by R. Laurie. Somewhat 
laterWilliam Score painted a portrait, which 
was engraved. An engraving by Chart eris 
of a portrait in the possession of Quick ap- 
pears in Gilliland's ' Dramatic Mirror/ and 
shows a pleasant and somewhat chubby face 
(cf. BROMLEY, Catalogue). 

[Works cited ; Genest's Account of the 
English Stage ; Richard Jenkins's Memoirs of 
the Bristol Stage ; Wheatley and Cunningham's 
London Past and Present ; Smith's Catalogue of 
Portraits ; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters ; 
Davies's Dramatic Miscellanies ; Clark Russell's 
Representative Actors ; Thespian Dictionary ; 



Quick 



103 



Quillinan 



Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; Dibdin's Edin- 
burgh Stage ; Doran's Annals of the Stage, ed. 
Lowe.] J. K. 

QUICK, ROBERT HEBERT (1831- 
1891), schoolmaster and educational writer, 
was born in London on 20 Sept. 1831 , being 
the eldest son of James Carthew Quick, a 
city merchant of some eminence. He was 
sent to school at Harrow, but soon removed 
on account of delicate health, and proceeded 
from a private tutor's to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, graduating in the mathematical 
tripos of 1854. He was ordained in 1855, 
and worked with his lifelong friend, the 
Rev. J. Llewelyn Davies, as an unpaid curate, 
first at St. Mark's, AVhitechapel, and after- 
wards in Marylebone. A residence in Ger- 
many first turned his thoughts to teaching, 
and, on his return to England in 1858, he 
accepted a mastership in Lancaster grammar 
school. Thence he passed in rapid succession 
to Guildford grammar school, Hurstpier- 
point, and Cranley, where, under Dr. Merri- 
man, he gave valuable help in the organi- 
sation of the first successful public school 
for the middle classes. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed by Dr. Butler to an assistant- 
mastership at Harrow, which he held for four 
years. For the next few years he was head 
of a preparatory school, first in London and 
then at Guildford. In 1881 he was ap- 
pointed by the university of Cambridge to 
give the first course of lectures on the history 
of education under the newly formed syndi- 
cate for the training of teachers. In 1883 he 
was presented by the master and fellows of 
Trinity College to the vicarage of Sedbergh, 
Yorkshire, which living he resigned in 1887. 
His remaining years were passed in retire- 
ment at Redhill, though to the last he con- 
tinued to contribute to professional papers, 
to lecture, and to maintain an active corre- 
spondence with the leaders of education on 
the continent and in America. While on a 
visit to Professor (afterwards Sir John Ro- 
bert) Seeley [q. v.] at Cambridge, he was sud- 
denly struck with spinal apoplexy, and died, 
after a few days of painless illness, on 9 March 
1891. In 1876 he married Bertha, daughter 
of General Chase Parr of the Bombay army. 

The work by which Quick will live is his 
'Essays on Educational Reformers' (1st edit. 
1868). He, first of modern English writers, 
succeeded in making a book on education 
readable and at the same time sober and 
rational ; and the secret of his success was 
that he criticised past theories and methods 
by the light of living experience. Several 
pirated editions were published in America, 
but it was not till 1890 that a second 
and enlarged English edition was published, 



the preparation of which was the main work 
of his last years. Besides numerous peda- 
gogical papers and pamphlets, dealing mainly 
with the training of teachers and methods of 
teaching, he edited Locke's ' Thoughts con- 
cerning Education ' (1880), and reprinted 
with introduction Mulcaster's ' Positions ' 
(1888). His article on Froebel in the ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica' (9th edit.) was pub- 
lished separately. 

[Journal of Education, April 1891, with Me- 
moirs, by J. Llewellyn Davies, H. M. Butler, 
Professor Seeley, and others; unpublished 
diaries and notebooks.] F. S-E. 

QUILLINAN, EDWARD (1791-1851), 
poet, born at Oporto on 12 Aug. 1791, was the 
son of Edward Quillinan, an Irishman of a 
good but impoverished family, who had be- 
come a prosperous wine merchant at Oporto. 
His mother, whose maiden name was Ryan, 
died soon after her son had been sent, in 1798, 
to England, to be educated at Roman catholic 
schools. ReturningtoPortugal,he enteredhis 
father's counting-house, but this distasteful 
employment ceased upon the French invasion 
under Junot in 1807, which obliged the family 
to seek refuge in England. After spending 
some time without any occupation, he entered 
the army as a cornet in a cavalry regiment, 
from which, after seeing some service at 
Walcheren. he passed into another regiment, 
stationed at Canterbury. A satirical pam- 
phlet in verse, entitled ' The Ball Room 
Votaries,' involved him in a series of duels, 
and compelled him to exchange into the 
3rd dragoon guards, with which he served 
through the latter portion of the Peninsular 
war. In 1814 he made his first serious essay 
in poetry by publishing ' Dunluce Castle, a 
Poem,' which was printed at the Lee Priory 
Press, 4to ; and it was followed by ' Stanzas 
by the author of Dunluce Castle' (1814, 4to), 
by ' The Sacrifice of Isabel,' a more important 
effort (1816) ; and by ' Elegiac Verses ' ad- 
dressed to Lady Brydges in memory of her 
son, Grey Matthew Brydges(Lee Priory, 1817, 
4to). In 1817 he married Jemima, second 
daughter of Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges [q. v.], 
and subsequently served with his regiment in 
Ireland. In 1819 'Dunluce Castle' attracted 
the notice of Thomas Hamilton (1789-1842) 
[q. v.l the original Morgan O'Doherty of 
'Blackwood's Magazine,' who ridiculed it in a 
review entitled 'Poems by a Heavy Dragoon.' 
Quillinan deferred his rejoinder until 1821, 
when he attacked Wilson and Lockhart,whorn 
he erroneously supposed to be the writers, in 
his ' Retort Courteous,' a satire ^largely con- 
sisting of passages from ' Peter's Letters to 
his Kinsfolk,' done into verse. The mis- 
understanding was dissipated through the 



Quillinan 



104 



Quillinan 



friendly offices of Robert Pearse Gillies [q.v.], 
and all parties became good friends. In the 
same year Quillinan retired from the army, 
and settled at Spring Cottage, between 
Rydal and Ambleside, and thus in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Wordsworth, 
whose poetry he had long devotedly ad- 
mired. Scarcely was he established there 
-when a tragic fate overtook his wife, who 
died from the effects of burns, 25 May 
1822, leaving two daughters. Wordsworth 
was godfather of the younger daughter, and 
he wrote an epitaph on Mrs. Quillinan. 
Distracted with grief, Quillinan fled to the 
continent, and afterwards lived alternately in 
London, Paris, Portugal, and Canterbury, 
until 1841, when he married Wordsworth's 
daughter, Dorothy (see below). The union 
encountered strong opposition on W T ords- 
worth's part, not from dislike of Quillinan, 
but from dread of losing his daughter's 
society. He eventually submitted with a 
good grace, and became fully reconciled to 
Quillinan, who proved an excellent husband 
and son-in-law. In 1841 Quillinan pub- 
lished 'The Conspirators,' a three-volume 
novel, embodying his recollections of mili- 
tary service in Spain and Portugal. In 
1843 he appeared in 'Blackwood' as the 
defender of Wordsworth against Landor, 
Avho had attacked his poetry in an imaginary 
conversation with Person, published in the 
magazine. Quillinan's reply was a cento of 
all the harsh dicta of the erratic critic re- 
specting great poets, and the effect was to 
invalidate in the mass an indictment whose 
counts it might not have been easy to answer 
seriatim. Landor dismissed his remarks as 
' Quill-inanities ; ' Wordsworth himself is 
said to have regarded the defence as indis- 
creet. 

In 1845 the delicate health of his wife in- 
duced Quillinan to travel with her for a year 
in Portugal and Spain, and the excursion 
produced a charming book from her pen (see 
below). In 1846 he contributed an extremely 
valuable article to the ' Quarterly ' on Gil 
Vicente, the Portuguese dramatic poet. In 
1847 his second wife died, and four years 
later (8 July 1851) Quillinan himself died 
(at Loughrig Holme, Ambleside) of inflam- 
mation, occasioned by taking cold upon a 
fishing excursion ; he was buried in Gras- 
mere churchyard. His latter years had been 
chiefly employed in translations of Camoens's 
' Lusiad,' five books of which were completed, 
and of Herculano's ' History of Portugal.' The 
latter, also left imperfect, was never printed ; 
the 'Lusiad' was published in 1853 by 
John Adamson [q. v.J, another translator of 
Camoens. A selection from Quillinan's 



original poems, principally lyrical, with a 
memoir, was published in the same year by 
William Johnston, the editor of Wordsworth. 

Quillinan was a sensitive, irritable, but 
most estimable man. ' All who know him,' 
says Sou they, writing in 1830, ' are very much 
attached to him.' ' Nowhere,' says John- 
ston, speaking of his correspondence during 
his wife's hopeless illness, 'has the writer of 
this memoir ever seen letters more distinctly 
marked by manly sense, combined with 
almost feminine tenderness.' Matthew Ar- 
nold in his ' Stanzas in Memory of Edward 
Quillinan,' speaks of him as ' a man un- 
spoil'd, sweet, generous, and humane.' As an 
original poet his claims are of the slenderest ; 
his poems would hardly have been preserved 
but for the regard due to his personal character 
and his relationship to Wordsworth. His 
version of the ' Lusiad,' nevertheless, though 
wanting his final corrections, has consider- 
able merit, and he might have rendered 
important service to two countries if he had 
devoted his life to the translation and illus- 
tration of Portuguese literature. 

His wife, DOROTHY QUILLINAN (1804- 
1847), the second child of William Words- 
worth, was born on Aug. 1804. She was 
named after Dorothy Wordsworth, her 
father's sister. By way of distinguishing 
her from her aunt, Crabb Robinson used to 
call her ' Dorina.' The same writer calls 
her the 'joy and sunshine ' of the poet, who 
saw in her an harmonious blending of the 
characteristics and lineaments of his wife 
and sister. ' Dora,' he wrote in 1829, ' is 
my housekeeper, and did she not hold the 
pen it would run wild in her praises.' She 
published in 1847 (2 vols. 8vo, Moxon) 'A 
Journal of a Few Months' Residence inPortu- 
gal, and Glimpses of the South of Spain,' 
dedicated to her father and mother. Words- 
worth's later poems contain several allusions 
to Dora, and she is celebrated in particular 
along with Edith Southey and Sara Coleridge 
in ' The Triad.' She died at Rydal Mount 
on 9 Julv 1847, and was buried in Grasmere 
churchyard (Gent. Mag. 1847, ii. 222 ; LEE, 
Dorothy Wordsworth, 1886, p. 144; CRABB 
ROBINSON, Diary, iii. 193, 294-6). 

[Johiiston's Memoir prefixed to Quillinan's 
collected poems; Knight's Life of Wordsworth, 
vol. iii. ; Gillies's Memoirs of a Literary Vete- 
ran, vol. ii. ; Gent. Mag. new ser. vol. xxxvi. ; 
Dorothy Quillinan's Journal of a Few Months' 
Kesidence in Portugal; Clayden's Eogers and his 
Contemporaries, ii. 206 ; Matthew Arnold's 
Poems, Lyric and Elegiac, p. 169; Sir Henry 
Taylor's Autobiography, vol. ii. ; Christian Re- 
former, August 1851; Crabb Robinson's Diary, 
vol. iii. passim.] R. G. 



Quin i 

QUIN, EDWARD (d. 1823), journalist, 
born in Dublin, seems to have spent some 
years in France, where he taught pugilism. 
Ultimately he followed the career of a jour- 
nalist in London. About 1803 he started 
' The Traveller,' a journal intended to re- 
present the commercial travellers ; it was one 
of the earliest of professional papers, but it 
' was much more than a class journal, being 
.... a bold advocate of political reforms. 
" If it has not much wit or brilliancy," said 
a contemporary critic, " it is distinguished 
by sound judgment, careful information, and 
constitutional principles " ' (Fox BOURNE, i. 
288). As editor of the paper, Quin accepted 
some of the esvliest of Leigh Hunt's essays. 
In 1823 ' Tlie Traveller' was merged in the 
' Globe ' under the general title of ' The Globe 
and Traveller.' Quin also owned and edited 
' The Day ' until its amalgamation with the 
* New Times.' He was elected a common 
councilman for the ward of Farringdon 
Without in 1805, and enjoyed in the com- 
mon council a reputation for eloquence. 
He died of apoplexy at Sheerness on 
7 July 1823. He published under his own 
name a ' Speech on Deputy Birch's Motion 
to petition Parliament against the Admis- 
sion of Catholics into the Army,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1807 ; and ' Irish Charitable Society : 
a Letter advocating the Establishment of a 
Charity under the above Designation, with 
other Documents,' 8vo, London, 1812. 

A son, EDWARD QUIN (1794-1828), 
matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
on 26 Nov. 1812 ; graduated B.A. in 1817, 
and M.A. in 1820, and was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1823. He published 
'An Historical Atlas in a Series of Maps of 
the World,' 4to, London, 1840, of which 
several editions were issued ; and ' Universal 
History from the Creation,' reprinted from 
preceding work, 12mo, London, 1838. He 
died at Hare Court, Temple, on 4 May 1828, 
aged 34 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886). 

[Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 285 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1823, pt. ii. p. 280; Globe and 
Traveller, 8 Aug. 1823, and Times of same 
date ; Fox Bourne's English Newspapers, i. 288, 
336, 355, ii. 27; Andrews's History of British 
Journalism, 1859; Annual Biography and Obi- 
tuary, 1824 ; Autobiography of Leigh Hunt, 
revised ed. p. 124.] D. J. O'J). 

QUIN, EDWIN RICHARD WIND- 
HAM WYNDHAM-, third EARL of DUN- 
RAVEN and MOUNT-EARL in the peerage of 
Ireland, and first BARON KENRY of the 
United Kingdom (1812-1871), born 19 May 
1812, in London, was only son of Wind- 
ham Henry, second earl. His grandfather, 
Valentine Richard Quin (1752-1824), as a 



>5 Quin 

staunch supporter of the union, was re- 
commended by Lord Cornwallis for a peer- 
age, with the title of Baron Adare (31 July 
1800) (Cornwallis Correspondence, ed. Ross, 
iii. 25). He was further created Viscount 
Mount-Earl on 6 Feb. 1816, and Earl of Dun- 
raven on 5 Feb. 1822. The third earl's father, 
Windham Henry Quin, second earl of Dun- 
raven (1782-1 850), assumed in 1815 the addi- 
tional name of Wyndham in right of his wife. 
He represented Limerick county in the impe- 
rial parliament from 1806 to 1820, and was a 
representative peer of Ireland from 1839 till 
his death. His wife, Caroline, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Wyndham of Dunraven 
Castle, Glamorganshire, inherited from her 
father property in Gloucestershire, as well 
as the Wyndham estate in Glamorganshire ; 
she survived till 26 May 1870. 

The son, Wyndham-Quin, graduated B.A. 
at Trinity College, Dublin, in the spring of 
1833, and as Viscount Adare represented Gla- 
morganshire in parliament in the conserva- 
tive interest from 1837 to 1851. AVliile 
in the House of Commons he became a con- 
vert to Catholicism, and his political activity 
largely aimed at safeguarding religious 
education in Ireland (HANSARD, 3rd ser. 
Ixxx. 1142-3). He became subsequently 
one of the commissioners of education in 
Ireland. He succeeded his father as third 
earl in the Irish pe'erage in 1850, and re- 
tired from the House of Commons next 
year. On 12 March 1866 he was named a 
knight of St. Patrick, and on 12 June of 
the same year was created a peer of the 
tTnited Kingdom, with the title of Baron 
Kenry of Kenry, co. Limerick. He acted 
as lord lieutenant of co. Limerick from 
1864 till his death. 

Dunraven was deeply interested in in- 
tellectual pursuits. For three years he 
studied astronomy under Sir William Hamil- 
ton in the Dublin observatory, and acquired 
a thorough knowledge both of the practical 
and theoretical sides of the science. He in- 
vestigated the phenomena of spiritualism, 
and convinced himself of their genuineness. 
His son, the present earl, prepared for him 
minute reports of seances which Daniel 
Dunglas Home [q. v.] conducted with his 
aid in 1867-8. The reports were privately 
printed as ' Experiences in Spiritualism with 
Mr. D. D. Home,' with a lucid introduction 
by Dunraven. But Dunraven's chief in- 
terest was in archaeology. He was as- 
sociated with Petrie, Stokes, and other Irish 
archaeologists in the foundation of the Irish 
Archaeological Society in 1840, and of the 
Celtic Society in 1845. In 1849 and 1869 
he presided over the meetings of the Cam- 



Quin 



106 



Quin 



brian Society held at Cardiff and Bridgend, 
and in 1871 was president of a section of 
the Royal Archaeological Institute. In 1862 
he accompanied Montalembert on a tour in 
Scotland, and five years later travelled in 
France and Italy, with the view of making 
a special study of campaniles. But Irish 
archaeology mainly occupied him. He is 
said to have visited every barony in Ireland, 
and nearly every island off the coast. He was 
usually attended by a photographer, and Dr. 
William Stokes [q. v.] and Miss Margaret 
Stokes were often in his company. 

The chief results of his labours, which 
were designed as a continuation of those of 
Petrie, his intimate friend, were embodied 
in ' Notes on Irish Architecture,' two sump- 
tuous folios published after his death, under 
the editorship of Margaret Stokes, with a 
preface by the fourth Earl of Dunraven, and 
notes by Petrie and Reeves. The work was 
illustrated by 161 wood engravings, by Bram- 
ston, D. and J. Jewitt, and others, from 
drawings by G. Petrie, W. F. Wakeman, 
Gordon Hills, Margaret Stokes, Lord Dun- 
raven, and others, besides 125 fine plates. 
The first part dealt with stone buildings with 
and without cement, and the second part 
with belfries and Irish Romanesque. 

In 1865 Dunraven compiled, as an appen- 
dix to his mother's ' Memorials of Adare,' a 
minute and exhaustive treatise on architec- 
tural remains in the neighbourhood of Adare. 
Part of this, treating of the round tower 
and church of Dysart, was reprinted in 
vol. ii. of the ' Notes.' Many of these half- 
ruined buildings were, by Dunraven's muni- 
ficence, made available for religious pur- 
poses. He also contributed some valuable 
papers to the Royal Irish Academy. He 
was elected F.R.A.S. in 1831, F.S.A. in 
1836, F.R.G.S. in 1837, and on 10 April 
1834 became F.R.S. Montalembert dedi- 
cated to him a volume of his ' Monks of the 
West.' Dunraven died at the Imperial Hotel, 
Great Malvern, on 6 Oct. 1871, and was 
buried at Adare on the 14th inst. He was 
a man of quick perceptions and great power 
of application, a zealous Roman catholic, 
and a highly popular landlord. 

He was twice married, first, on 18 Aug. 
1836, to Augusta, third daughter of Tho- 
mas Goold, master in chancery in Ireland ; 
and, secondly, 27 Jan. 1870, to Anne, daugh- 
ter of Henry Lambert, esq., of Carnagh, 
Wexford, who, after his death, married the 
second Lord Hylton. A portrait of his first 
wife, who died 22 Nov. 1866, was painted by 
Hayter, and engraved by Holl. Her son, the 
present earl, was under-secretary for the 
colonies in 1885-6, and again in 1886-7. 



There are at Adare Manor portraits of the 
first Earl of Dunraven by Batoui, and of the 
third earl and countess by T. Philipps, as 
well as busts of the first and second earls. 

[Preface by fourth Earl of Dunraven to 
Notes on Irish Architecture, 1875-7 ; Memorials 
of Adare Manor, by Caroline, wife of the second 
earl, privately printed, 1865 ; G. E. C.'s Peerage ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. and Cat. Dubl. Grad. ; 
Times, 10 Oct. 1871, Illustr. London News 
21 Oct., and Limerick Reporter, 10 Oct. ; Webb's 
Compend. Irish Biogr. ; Boase's Modern Engl. 
Biogr.] G. LE G. N. 

QUIN, FREDERIC HERVEY FOSTER 

(1799-1878), the first homoeopathic physician 
in England, was born in London on 12 Feb. 
1799, and passed his early years at a school 
at Putney, kept by a son of Mrs. Sarah 
Trimmer [q. v.], the authoress. In 1817 he 
was sent to Edinburgh University, where he 
graduated M.D. on 1 Aug. 1820. In December 
1820 he went to Rome as travelling physician 
to Elizabeth, duchess of Devonshire. He 
afterwards attended her in that city during 
her fatal illness in March 1824. On his re- 
turn to London he was appointed physician 
to Napoleon I at St. Helena, but the emperor 
died (on 5 May 1821) before he left Eng- 
land. In July 1821 he commenced practice 
at Naples, and his social gifts made him 
popular with all the English residents there, 
who included Sir William Gell, Sir William 
Drummond, and the Countess of Blessington. 
At Naples, too, Quin met Dr. Neckar, a dis- 
ciple of Hahnemann, the founder of homoeo- 
pathy, and was favourably impressed by what 
he learned of the homoeopathic system of 
medicine. After visiting Leipzig in 1820, in 
order to study its working, Quin returned to 
Naples a convert. On the journey he was in- 
troduced at Rome to Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg, afterwards king of the Belgians, and 
soon left Naples to become his family physician 
in England. Until May 1829 he continued a 
member of the prince's household either at 
Marlborough House, London, or Claremont, 
Surrey, and extended his acquaintance in 
aristocratic circles. From May 1829 to Sep- 
tember 1831 he practised in Paris, chiefly, but 
not entirely, on the principles of Hahnemann. 
In September 1831, after consulting with 
Hahnemann as to the treatment of cholera, 
he proceeded to Tischnowitz in Moravia, 
where the disease was raging. He was him- 
self attacked, but soon recommenced work, 
and remained until the cholera disappeared. 
His treatment consisted in giving camphor in 
the first stage, and ipecacuanha and arsenic 
subsequently. 

At length, in July 1832, he settled in 
London at 19 King Street, St. James's, re- 



Quin 



107 



Quin 



moving in 1833 to 13 Stratford Place, and 
introduced the homoeopathic system into this 
country. The medical journals denounced 
him as a quack, bnt he made numerous con- 
verts, and his practice rapidly grew, owing 
as much to his attractive personality as to 
his medical skill. But the professional op- 
position was obstinately prolonged. In Fe- 
bruary 1838, when Quin was a candidate 
for election at the Athenaeum Club, he was 
blackballed by a clique of physicians, led by 
John Ayrton Paris [q. v.], who privately at- 
tacked Quin with a virulence for which he had 
to apologise. From 26 June 1845 he was me- 
dical attendant to the Duchess of Cambridge. 

In 1839 Quin completed the first volume 
of his translation of llahnemann's ' Materia 
Medica Pura,' but a fire at his printers' de- 
stroyed the whole edition of five hundred 
copies, and failing health prevented him from 
reprinting the work. In 1 843 he established a 
short-lived dispensary, called the St. James's 
HomceopathicDispensary. In 1844 he founded 
the British Homoeopathic Society, of which 
he was elected president. Chiefly through 
his exertions the London Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital was founded in 1850. It became a 
permanent institution, and is now located in 
Great Ormond Street. On 18 Oct. 1859 he 
was appointed to the chair of therapeutics 
and materia medica in the medical school of 
the hospital, and gave a series of lectures. 

Quin was popular in London society. In 
aristocratic, literary, artistic, and dramatic 
circles he was always welcome. He was 
almost the last of the wits of London society, 
and no dinner was considered a success 
without his presence. His friends included 
Dickens, Thackeray, the Bulwers, Macready, 
Landseer, and Charles Mathews. In man- 
ners, dress, and love of high-stepping horses 
he imitated Count D'Orsay. After suffering 
greatly from asthma, he died at the Garden 
Mansions, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, 
on 24 Nov. 1878, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery on 28 Nov. 

He was the author of : 1. ' Du Traitement 
Homceopathique du Cholera avec notes et 
appendice,' Paris, 1832, dedicated to Louis- 
Philippe. 2. ' Pharmacopoeia Homceopathica,' 
1834, dedicated to the king of the Belgians. 
He also wrote a preface to the 'British 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia,' published by 
the British Homoeopathic Society in 1870, 
and was the editor of the second edition 
brought out in 1876. 

[Hamilton's Memoir of F. H. F. Quin, 1879, 
with portrait ; Madden's Literary Life of the 
Countess of Blessington, 1855, i. 191, ii. 26, 27, 
111-14, 448-54, iii. 201 ; Lord Eonald Gower's 
My Heminiscences, 1883, ii, 251-4; Morning 



Post, 29 Nov. 1878, p. 5; Russell's Memoirs of 
Thomas Moore, 1854, vi. 318; Dickens's Life of 
C. J. Mathews, 1879, i. 102.] G. C. B. 

QUIN, JAMES (1693-1766), actor, the 
illegitimate son of James Quin, barrister, and 
the grandson of Mark Quin, mayor of Dublin 
in 1676, was born in King Street, Co vent 
Garden, 24 Feb. 1692-3, and christened at 
the adjacent church of St. Paul. His mother, 
though she called herself a widow, appears 
to have had a husband living in 1093, by 
name Grinsell. Young Quin was taken, in 
1700, to Dublin, and educated in that city 
under the Rev. Dr. Jones, lie was probably 
for a short time at Trinity College, Dublin. 
After the death of his father in 1710 he 
was obliged, for the purpose of obtaining his 
patrimony, to contest against his uterine 
brother, Grinsell, a suit in chancery, which 
want of means compelled him to abandon. 
He then took to the stage in Dublin, and 
made his first appearance at the Smock Alley 
Theatre as Abel in Sir Robert Howard's Com- 
mittee,' playing also Cleon in Shadwell's 
'Timon of Athens, or the Man Hater,' and, 
according to Genest, the Prince of Tanais in 
Howe's ' Tamerlane.' It is not unlikely that 
he appeared at Drury Lane as early as 1714. 
On 4 Feb. 1715 Quin played there Vulture, 
an original part in ' Country Lasses,' an adap- 
tation by Charles Johnson (1679-1748) [q.v.J 
of Middleton's ' A Mad AVorld, my Masters.' 
Quin is not mentioned as from Ireland, nor 
is there any indication that this was a first 
appearance. On the 23rd he was the First 
Steward in Gay's ' What d'ye call it ? ' and 
was on 20 April the First Lieutenant of the 
Tower in Howe's ' Lady Jane Gray.' Tate 
Wilkinson says that the propriety with which 
Quin played this small part, either in this piece 
or in ' King Richard III,' in which he was seen 
the following season, first recommended him 
to public notice. On 28 June Quin undertook 
Winwife in Jonson's ' Bartholomew Fair.' 
On 3 Jan. 1710 his name appears to the King 
in ' Philaster.' DonTedro in the 'Rover,' fol- 
lowed on 6 March ; on 19 July Pedro in the 
' Pilgrim,' and on 9 Aug. the Cardinal in the 
' Duke of Guise.' On 7 Nov. Quin's chance 
arrived. Mills, who played Bajazet in 
' Tamerlane,' Avas taken suddenly ill, and 
Quin read his part in a manner that elicited 
great applause. The next night, having 
learnt the words, he played it in a fashion 
that brought him into lasting favour. Ou 
17 Dec. he was the original Antenor in 
Mrs. Centlivre's Cruel Gift.' On 5 Jan. 
1717 he was Gloster in 'King Lear,' and 
on the 10th second player in the ill-starred 
' Three Weeks after Marriage ' of Gay and 
' two friends.' Voltore in Jonson's ' Volpone r 



Quin 



108 



Quin 



or the Fox,' Cinna in ' Caius Marius,' Flay- 
flint in Lacy's ' Old Troop,' and Aaron in 
' Titus Andronicus ' were given during the 
season. On 18 Nov., still at Drury Lane, he 
played Balance in the 'Recruiting Officer,' 
and on 7 Jan. following made, as Hotspur 
in ' King Henry IV,' pt. i., his first appear- 
ance at Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he re- 
mained for fourteen years. During his first 
season here he was assigned Horatio in the 
' Fair Penitent,' Tamerlane, Morat in ' Au- 
renge-Zebe,' Antony in ' Julius Caesar,' and 
was, 18 Feb. 1718, the original Scipio in 
Beckingham's ' Scipio Africanus.' Leading 
parts in tragedy were now freely assigned him, 
and the following season saw him as Mac- 
beth, Brutus, Coriolanus (? Hotspur), King 
in ' Hamlet,' as well as Raymond in the 
1 Spanish Fryar,' Benducar in ' Don Sebastian,' 
Burleigh in the ' Unhappy Favourite ' of 
Banks, Clytus in the ' Rival Queens,' Syphax 
in ' Cato,' Maskwell in the ' Double Dealer,' 
Bajazet in 'Tamerlane,' Sir John Brute in the 
' Provoked Wife,' and Clause in the ' Royal 
Merchant, or the Beggar's Bush.* 

In a version of Shirley's ' Traytor ' altered 
by Christopher Bullock, he was the first 
Lorenzo (the traitor), and he was, 16 Jan. 
1719, the original Sir Walter Raleigh in 
Sewell's tragedy so named. Between this 
period and his migration to Covent Garden 
in 1732 he became an accepted representa- 
tive of the following Shakespearean parts : 
Othello, Falstaffin ' Merry Wives of Windsor ' 
and 'Henry IV,' pt. i., Hector and Thersites 
in ' Troilus and Cressida,' Duke in ' Measure 
for Measure,' King in ' Henry IV,' pt. i., 
Buckingham in ' Richard III,' the Ghost in 
' Hamlet,' and Lear. Principal among the 
non-Shakespearean parts in which he was 
seen were Aboan in ' Oroonoko,' Sir Edward 
Belfond in Shadwell's ' Squire of Alsatia,' 
Montezuma in ' Indian Emperor,' Roderigo 
in the ' Pilgrim,' Chamont in the ' Orphan,' 
Sullen in the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' Pierre 
in 'Venice Preserved,' Beaugard in the 
'Soldier's Fortune,' Heartwell in the 'Old 
Bachelor,' Dominic in the ' Spanish Fryar,' 
Creon in ' CEdipus,' Bessus in ' A King and 
No King,' Belville in the ' Rover,' Pinch- 
wife in Wycherley's ' Country Wife,' ^Esop, 
Ranger in the ' False Husband,' Volpone, 
Melantius in the ' Maid's Tragedy,' Captain 
Macheath in the ' Beggars' Opera,' Young 
Bevil in the ' Conscious Lovers,' Colonel 
Standard in the ' Constant Couple,' Diocles 
in the 'Prophetess,' Manly in the 'Provoked 
Husband,' Leon in ' Rule a Wife and have a 
Wife,' and Teague in the ' Committee.' His 
principal ' creations ' include, with many 
others, Henry IV of France in Beckingham's 



piece so named, 7 Nov. 1719 ; Genseric in 
Motley's ' Captives,' 29 Feb. 1720 ; Bellmour in 
the ' Fatal Extravagance,' assigned to Joseph 
Mitchell, but included in the works of Aaron 
Hill, 21 April 1721 ; Sohemus in Fenton's 
' Mariamne,' 22 Feb. 1723 ; Colonel Warcourt 
in Southern's 'Money the Mistress,' 19 Feb. 
1726 ; Eurydamas in Frowde's ' Fall of 
Saguntum,' 16 Jan. 1727 ; Themistocles in 
Dr. Madden's 'Themistocles,' 10 Feb. 1729 ; 
Count Waldec in Mrs. Hay wood's ' Frederick, 
Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg,' 4 March; 
Clitus in Frowde's 'Philotas,' 3 Feb. 1731 ; 
Thoas in Theobald's ' Orestes,' 3 April ; and 
Old Bellefleur in Kelly's 'Married Philo- 
sopher,' 25 March 1732. More than once 
Quin distinguished himself by his manliness 
and vigour. In 1721 a drunken nobleman 
forced his way on to the stage, and, in 
answer to Rich's remonstrance, slapped the 
manager's face. The blow was returned with 
interest, and a fracas ensued, in which Rich's 
life was only saA'ed by the promptitude of 
Quin, who came to Rich's rescue with his 
drawn sword in his hand. The occurrence 
was the cause of a guard of soldiers being sent 
by royal order to Lincoln's Inn Fields as well 
as to Drury Lane. 

On the opening night of Covent Garden, 
7 Dec. 1732, Quin appeared as Fainall in 
the ' Man of the World,' playing also, on 
following nights, Manly in the ' Plain 
Dealer,' Caled in the ' Siege of Damascus,' 
and Apemantus in ' Timon of Athens.' He 
was, 10 Feb. 1733, the original Lycomedes 
in Gay's ' Achilles,' and, 4 April, Bosola in 
the ' Fatal Secret,' an adaptation by Theobald 
of Webster's ' Duchess of Main.' At Covent 
Garden he remained the following season, 
playing, 5 March 1734, an original part in 
Gay's ' Distressed Wife,' and appearing for 
the first time as Cato, and as Gonzalez in 
the ' Mourning Bride.' As Othello he reap- 
peared at Drury Lane, 10 Sept. 1734, being 
his first appearance there for sixteen years. 
During the seven years in which he re- 
mained at this house, he added to his 
repertory Richard III, Ventidius in ' Alt 
for Love,' Pyrrhus in the ' Distressed Mother,' 
Pembroke in ' Lady Jane Gray,' Gloster in 
' Jane Shore,' Jaques in 'As you like it,' 
and Antonio in the ' Merchant of Venice.' 
A few of his original parts stand out from 
the rest. Among them are Amurath in 
Lillo's 'Christian Hero,' 13 Jan. 1735; 
Mondish in Fielding's 'Universal Gallant,' 
10 Feb ; Proteus (Benedick) in the ' Uni- 
versal Passion,' Miller's amalgam of ' Much 
Ado about Nothing' and 'La Princesse 
d'Elide,' 28 Feb. 1737 ; Comus, 4 March 
1738; Agamemnon in Thomson's ' Agamem- 



Quiii 



109 



Quin 



non,' 6 April ; Solyman in Mallet's ' Mus- 
tapha,' 13 Feb. 1739, and Elmerick in 
Lillo's posthumous tragedy, ' Elmerick, or 
Justice Triumphant,' 23 Feb. 1740. He was 
also cast for Gustavus in Brooke's ' Gusta- 
vus Vasa,' which was prohibited by the cen- 
sors. Quin's name appears, with those of 
John Mills, Ben Johnson, Theophilus Gibber, 
&c., in the 'London Magazine' for April 
1735, to protest against the passing of a 
bill, then before parliament, for restraining 
the number of playhouses, and preventing any 
person from acting except under the patents. 

In the autumn of 1741, Quin, who was not 
engaged in London, appeared at the Aungier 
Street Theatre, Dublin, in his now favourite 
character of Cato. He also played Lord 
Townly to the Lady To wnly of ' Kitty ' Olive, 
Comus, and other parts. After, as it is sup- 
posed, visiting with the company, Cork and 
Limerick, he reappeared at Aungier Street in 
1742, playing Young Bevil in the ' Conscious 
Lovers ' to the Indiana of Mrs. Cibber. He 
also played Chamont to her Monimia, and 
Horatio to her Calista. 

On 22 Sept. 1742, as Othello, he reappeared 
at Co vent Garden, and he remained there 
until the close of his career. On 12 Nov. 
1744 he was Zanga in the 'Revenge,' and on 
15 Feb. 1745 the original King John in 
Gibber's ' Papal Tyranny in the Reign of King 
John,' and he soon after played Herod in 
'Mariamne.' In 1745-6 he was not engaged. 
He had been in the summer of 1745 with 
Mrs. Cibber, and returned with that artist, 
who shared his exclusion. In 1746 both 
Quin and Garrick were engaged by Rich for 
Covent Garden. On 14 Nov. 1746, in the 
'Fair Penitent,' the two rivals measured 
swords, Quin playing Horatio and Garrick 
Lothario to the Calista of Mrs. Cibber. Great 
interest was evoked, and the cheering was 
so loud that both actors were disconcerted. 
Garrick owned his discomfiture, and said 
'Faith, I believe Quin was as much frightened 
as myself.' Quin, who was too proud to own 
any want of courage, played Horatio with 
the ' emphasis and dignity which his elocu- 
tion gave to moral sentiments,' and Garrick 
acted Lothario with a spirit peculiar to 
himself. Honours were thus divided. It 
was otherwise with Richard III, which Avas 
played by both. The representations of 
Garrick were closely followed, while those 
of Quin were neglected. A revenge was 
taken by Quin in ' King Henry IV,' his Fal- 
staff being warmly welcomed, while Hotspur 
was pronounced unsuited to the figure and 
style of acting of Garrick, who this season 
relinquished the part. In 'Jane Shore,' 
Garrick, as Hastings, won back his supremacy 



over his rival as Gloster, which Quin called 
' one of his strut and whisker parts.' Davies 
tells a story which Genest refuses to accept, 
and in part confutes, that after the astonish- 
ing success of Garrick's ' Miss in her Teens,' 
17 Jan. 1747, Quin refused to act on the nights 
when it was played, swearing that ' he would 
not hold up the tail of a farce.' Garrick ac- 
cordingly said, with some malice, 'Then I 
will give him a month's holiday, and put 
it up every night.' Quin, Davies" says, came 
nightly to the theatre, and, being told that 
the house was crowded, ' gave a significant 
growl and withdrew.' Murphy, on the other 
hand, says that during the entire season 
Quin and Garrick had no kind of difference. 

At the outset of the season of 1747-8 Quin 
was at Bath, whence he wrote to Rich, ' I am 
at Bath yours, James Quin ; ' and received 
the answer 'Stay there, and be damned 
yours, John Rich.' For the relief of sufferers by 
a fire in Cornhill, Quin reappeared as Othello 
6 Aug. 1748. After this he played a few 
familiar parts. At the opening of the follow- 
ing season he was again a regular member of 
the Covent Garden company, playing con- 
stantly leading parts. On 13 Jan. 1749 he 
was the original Coriolanus in Thomson's ' Co- 
riolanus.' The play was posthumous, and Quin 
feelingly referred in the prologue to the fact. 

Garrick was then at the other house. His 
performance of Sir John Brute in the ' Pro- 
voked Wife ' was contrasted with that of 
Quin, as well as with that of Cibber. Quin, 
it was said, forgot that Sir John Brute had 
been a gentleman, while Cibber and Garrick, 
through every scene of riot and debauchery, 
preserved the recollection. In 1749-50 he 
played, for the first time, Gardiner inRowe's 
' Lady Jane Gray,' and King Henry in 
Banks's' Virtue Betrayed.' In 1750-1 Garrick 
sought to detach Quin from Covent Garden. 
Quin, however, though he had something to 
fear from the rivalry of Barry, was still in 
command at Covent Garden, and he skil- 
fully used Garrick's application as a means 
of extorting from Rich 1 ,000/. a year, the 
greatest salary, according to Tate Wilkinson, 
that had then ever been given. On 23 Feb. 
1751 Quin was, for the first time, King John 
in Shakespeare's play ; and on 11 March, for 
the first time, lago. His last performance 
as paid actor was on 15 May 1751, as Horatio 
in the ' Fair Penitent.' 

At the close of the season Quin retired to 
Bath. He came to London, however, to play, 
on 16 March 1752, Falstaff in 'Henry IV,' 
for the benefit of Ryan, and repeated the per- 
formance for the same purpose on 19 March 
1753. The nobility and gentry at Bath gave 
Quin 100/., on the latter occasion, to spend in 



Quin 



no 



Quin 



tickets. He acted with so much applause, and 
the result was financially so successful, that 
Ryan petitioned in 1752 for a renewal of 
the favour for a third time. Quin, according 
to Miss Bellamy, wrote : ' I would play for 
you if I could, but will not whistle Falstaff 
for you. I have willed you 1,OOOZ. ; if you 
want money you may have it, and save my 
executors trouble.' After his retirement, 
Quin, who had previously held aloof from 
Garrick, met him at Chatsworth, at the 
Duke of Devonshire's, and, making overtures 
to him, which were accepted, became a fre- 
quent visitor at Garrick's villa at Hampton. 
While here an eruption of a threatening 
kind appeared on his hand, and caused him 
much alarm. He returned home in a state 
of hypochondria, which brought on fever and 
great thirst. Feeling the end near, he ex- 
pressed a wish that the last tragic scene was 
over, and a hope that he should go through 
it with becoming dignity. He died in his 
house at Bath on Tuesday, 21 Jan. 1766, at 
about four o'clock A.M., and was buried in the 
abbey church on the 24th. Garrick wrote a 
rhymed epitaph which appears over his tomb. 
Among the numerous generous bequests in 
Quin's will is one of 50/. to 'Mr. Thomas 
Gainsborough, limner, now living at Bath.' 
Quin was a man of remarkable qualities 
and gifts, and almost a great actor. He had an 
indifferent education, and was no wise given 
to what is technically named study, ridicul- 
ing those who sought knowledge in books, 
while the world and its inhabitants were 
open to them. Walpole admired Quin's act- 
ing, especially in Falstaff, and estimated him 
before Garrick, whom he always depreciated. 
He also declared Quin superior to Kemble as 
Maskwell. Davies, on the other hand, de- 
clares that Quin was utterly unqualified for 
the striking and vigorous characters of tra- 
gedy, and adds that his Cato and Brutus 
were remembered with pleasure by those 
who wished to forget his Lear and Richard. 
His Othello, Macbeth, Chamont, Young 
Bevil, Lear, and Richard were all bad ; and 
in opposing Garrick in these parts he afforded 
the younger actor an easy triumph. Victor 
praises highly his Comus, Spanish Friar, the 
Duke in ' Measure for Measure,' and ^Esop. 
Tate Wilkinson says that Quin was excellent 
as Henry VIII, Sir John Brute, Falstaff, Old 
Bachelor, Volpone, Apemantus,Brutus, Ven- 
tidius, Bishop Gardiner in ' Lady Jane Gray,' 
Clause, &c. His Ghost in ' Hamlet ' was also 
much admired. Churchill declares Quin in- 
capable of merging in the character he played 
his own individuality, and says : 

Nature, 111 spite of all his skill, crept in 
Horatio, Dorax, Falstaff still 'twas Quin. 



Garrick, in well-known verses, describes 
Quin as 'Pope Quin,' who damns all churches 
but his own, and urges him, 

Thou great infallible, forbear to roar. 

This was penned in answer to Quin's assertion 
that Garrick was ' a new religion,' and that 
people would in the end 'come back.' Quin 
was of generous disposition. His friendship 
to Thomson is described as a 'fond intimacy' 
by Dr. Johnson, who says: 'The commence- 
ment of this benevolence is very honourable 
to Quin, who is reported to have delivered 
Thomson, then known to him only for his 
genius, from an arrest by a very considerable 
present ; and its continuance is honourable to 
both, for friendship is not always the sequel 
of obligation ' (Works,\m. 374). But Quin 
was at the same time vain, obstinate, and 
quarrelsome. Disputes between him and 
actors named respectively Williams, a Welsh- 
man, and Bowen, led to two encounters, in 
which Quin killed each of his opponents. 
Quin, on 10 July 1718, was found guilty of 
manslaughter on account of Bowen's death, 
but escaped with a light penalty. 

Quin was emphatically a wit. Horace 
Walpole, who has incorporated in his cor- 
respondence many of his stories, gives a 
spirited account of a discussion between 
him and Warburton: 'That saucy priest was 
haranguing at Bath in behalf of prerogative, 
when Quin said : " Pray, my lord, spare me ; 
you are not acquainted with my principles. 
I am a republican, and perhaps I even think 
that the execution of Charles I might have 
been justified." "Aye," said Warburton, 
" by what law ? " Quin replied, " By all the 
laws he had left them." The Bishop would 
have got off upon judgments, and bade the 
player remember that all the regicides came 
to violent ends a lie, but no matter. " I 
would not advise your lordship," said Quin, 
" to make use of that inference ; for, if I am 
not mistaken, that was the case of the twelve 
apostles "'(Letters,iv. 339, ed. Cunningham). 
Walpole rhapsodises over the answer, avow- 
ing, ' The more one examines it, the finer it 
proves.' An animated picture of Quin is 
supplied in Smollett's ' Humphrey Clinker.' 
From this it appears that Quin's wit was apt 
to degenerate into extreme coarseness and 
his manner into arrogance. Garrick's verses 
abound with references to Quin's gorman- 
dising propensity. 

Two portraits of Quin, ascribed to Hogarth, 
are in the Garrick Club, where there is also 
a third portrait by an unknown painter. 
A fourth, by Gainsborough, is in Bucking- 
ham Palace. A portrait by Hudson was 
engraved by Faber in 1744. An engraving 



Quin 



Quin 



by McArdell, showing him as FalstafF, is in 
the National Gallery, Dublin. 

An actor named Simeon Quin is mentioned 
under the date 1767 in Jackson's ' Scottish 
Stage.' 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; 
Walpole's Letters, ed. Cunningham ; Doran's 
Annals of the Stage, ed. Lowe ; Chetwood's 
General History of the Stage ; Hitchcock's Irish 
Stage ; Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill ; Gibber's 
Apology, ed Lowe ; Victor's History of the 
Theatre; Life of Garrick, 1894; Garrick Corre- 
spondence ; Davies's Life of Garrick and Dra- 
matic Miscellanies; BiographiaDramatica (under 
Kemble) ; Thespian Dictionary ; Gilliland's 
Dramatic Mirror ; Georgian Era ; Gent. Mag. 
1800 ii. 1132, 1802 ii. 1199, 1819 i. 301; 
Russell's Representative Actors ; Wilkinson's 
Memoirs ; An Apology for the Life of George 
Anne Bellamy, &c. A lying biography of Quin, 
dedicated to Garrick, was published in 1766, and 
some of the scandalous details have been copied 
into the Georgian Era and other collections of 
memoirs.] J. K. 

QUIN, MICHAEL JOSEPH (1796- 
1843), traveller and political writer, born in 
1796, was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. 
He devoted himself to literary pursuits and 
was an extensive contributor to periodical 
publications, at the same time travelling 
much on the continent. Many of his able 
articles on foreign policy appeared in the 
' Morning Chronicle,' and he was also for 
some time a contributor to the ' Morning 
Herald.' He edited the ' Monthly Review ' 
for seven years (1825-32), and was the first 
editor of the ' Dublin Review,' which was 
started in 1836. He died at Boulogne-sur- 
Mer on 19 Feb. 1843. 

His works are : 1. ' A Visit to Spain, de- 
tailing the transactions which occurred 
during a residence in that country in the 
latter part of 1822 and the first four months 
of 1823,' London, 1823, 8vo. 2. 'The Trade 
of Banking in England. . . . Together with 
a summary of the law applicable to the Bank 
of England, to Private Banks of Issue, and 
Joint-Stock Banking Companies,' London, 
1833, 12mo. 3. ' An Examination of the 
Grounds upon which the Ecclesiastical and 
Real Property Commissioners and a Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons have pro- 
posed the abolition of the Local Courts of 
Testamentary Jurisdiction,' 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1834, 8vo. 4. 'A Steam Voyage down 
the Danube. With Sketches of Hungary, 
Wallachia, Servia, and Turkey,' 2vols. Lon- 
don, 1835, 12mo ; 3rd edit, with additions, 
Paris, 1836, 12mo. 5. ' Nourmahal : an 
Oriental romance,' 3 vols. London, 1838, 
12mo. 6. ' Steam Voyages on the Seine, the 
Moselle, and the Rhine ; with railroad visits 



to the principal cities of Belgium,' 2 vols. 
London, 1 843, 8vo. He published transla- 
tions of 'Memoirs of Ferdinand VII of Spain,' 
London, 1824, 8vo, from the Spanish ; of ' A 
Statement of some of the principal events in 
the public life of Agustin de Iturbide, written 
by himself. With a preface by the trans- 
lator,' London, 1824, 8vo ; of Laborde's 
' Petra,' London, 1839, 8vo. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Gent. Mag. 1843, 
i. 438 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 2025.] 

T. C. 

QUIN, WALTER (1575P-1634 ?), poet 
and preceptor of Charles I, born about 1575 
in Dublin, travelled abroad and became a 
cultivated writer in English, French, Italian, 
and Latin. Before 1595 he settled in Edin- 
burgh, in order apparently to pursue his 
studies at the university there. Late in 
1595 he was presented to James VI, who 
was charmed with his learning, courtly 
manner, and foreign experiences. lie further 
recommended himself to the king's favour 
by giving him some poetic anagrams of his 
own composition on James's name in Latin, 
Italian, English, and French, together with 
a poetical composition in French entitled 
' Discours sur le mesme anagramme en forme 
de dialogue entre vn Zelateur du bien public, 
et une Dame laquelle represente ]e royaume 
d'Angleterre ' (Cal. State Papers, Scotland, 
1509-1603, ii. 700). The good impression 
which Quin made was confirmed by his pre- 
senting the king, on New Year's day 1596, 
with an oration about his title to the Eng- 
lish throne (ib. pp. 703-4). The Edinburgh 
printer, Waldegrave, refused, however, to 
print a book on the subject which Quin pre- 
pared in February 1598. He was at the time 
reported to be ' answering Spenser's book, 
whereat the king is offended ' (ib. p. 747). 

Meanwhile Quin had been taken into the 
service of James VI as tutor to his sons, and 
he gave abundant proof of his loyalty by 
publishing, in 1600, ' Sertum Poeticum in 
honorem Jacobi Sexti serenissimi ac poten- 
tissimi Scotorum Regis. A Gualtero Quinno 
Dubliniensi contextum,' Edinburgh (by Ro- 
bert Waldegrave), 1600, 4to (Edinb. Univ. 
Libr.) A copy was sent to Sir Robert Cecil 
by one of his agents in December 1600 (ib. 
p. 791). The volume consists of some of 
Quin's early anagrams on the king's names, 
of Latin odes and epigrams, and English son- 
nets, addressed either to members of the royal 
family or to frequenters of the court who in- 
terested themselves in literature. An ex- 
travagantly eulogistic sonnet on Sir W r illiam 
Alexander (afterwards Earl of Stirling) re- 
appeared in the first edition of the latter's 



Quin 



112 



Quincy 



' Tragedie of Darius ' (1603). Some extracts 
from the rare volume are given in Laing's 
Fugitive Scottish Poetry' (1825). In 1604 
Quin celebrated the marriage of his friend, Sir 
William Alexander, in a poem which remains 
imprinted among the Hawthornden MSS. at 
Edinburgh University (Archceologia Scotica, 
vol. iv.) 

Quin migrated with the Scottish king to 
England in 1603 on his accession to the 
English throne, and was employed in the 
household of Prince Henry at a salary of 
50/. a year (BiRCfr, Life of Prince Henry, 
p. 51). He lamented the prince's death in 
1612 in two sonnets, respectively in English 
and Italian, in Latin verse, and in some 
stanzas in French; these elegies were printed 
in Joshua Sylvester's ' Lachrymse Lachry- 
marum ' (1612), and the two in English and 
Latin were reissued in ' Mausoleum ' (Edin- 
burgh, by Andro Hart, 1613). In 1611 he 
contributed Italian verses 'in lode del autore' 
to Coryat's ' Odcombian Banquet.' 

Quin became, after Prince Henry's death, 
preceptor to his brother Charles. For 
Charles's use he compiled 'Corona Virtutum 
principe dignarum ex varijs Philosophorum, 
Historicorum, Oratorum, et Poetarum flori- 
bus contexta et concinnata,' with accounts of 
the lives and virtues of Antoninus Pius and 
Marcus Aurelius (London, by John Bell, 
1613, 12mo, Bodl. ; another edit., 1617, Brit. 
Mus.) ; this was reissued at Leyden in 1634, 
and in Stephen de Melle's ' Syntagma Philo- 
sophicum ' (Paris, 1670, v. 336-481). Eulo- 
gistic mention was made of Quin in John 
Dunbar's ' Epigrammata ' (1616). A more 
ambitious literary venture followed in ' The 
Memorie of the most worthy and renowned 
Bernard Stuart, Lord D'Aubigni, renewed. 
"Whereunto are added Wishes presented 
to the Prince at his Creation. By Walter 
Quin, servant to his Highnesse,' Lon- 
don, by George Purslow, 1619, 4to ; dedi- 
cated to ' the Prince my most gracious 
master ' (Bodleian). In the preface, Quin 
states that he had collected materials in 
French for a prose life of his hero, Sir Ber- 
nard Stuart, but they proved inadequate for 
his purpose. ' A Short Collection of the 
most Notable Places of Histories ' in prose 
is appended, together with a series of poems, 
entitled ' Wishes,' and addressed to Prince 
Charles. 

On Charles I's marriage in 1625 Quin pub- 
lished a congratulatory poem in four lan- 
guages, Latin, English, French, and Italian. 
It bore the title ' In Nuptiis Principum in- 
comparabilium, Caroli Britannici Imperii 
Monarchfe . . . et Henriettas Marise Gratu- 
latio quadrilinguis,' London, by G. Purslow, 



1625 (Brit, Mus.), 4to. Ten Latin lines 
signed ' Walt. O Quin Armig.' are prefixed 
to Sir Thomas Herbert's ' Travels ' in 1634. 
Quin doubtless died soon afterwards. An 
undated petition, assigned to 1635, from 
Quin's son John describes both Quin and 
his wife as ancient servants of the royal 
family, and prays that the pension of 100/. a 
year granted to Quin may be continued 
during life to the petitioner (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1635-6, p. 2). 

Another son, JAMES QUIN (1621-1659), 
born in Middlesex, obtained a scholarship at 
Westminster, and was elected to Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1639. He graduated B.A. 
in 1642, and M.A. in 1646, and was elected a 
senior student. As an avowed royalist he 
was ejected from his studentship by the 
parliamentary visitors in 1648. Anthony a 
Wood, who was acquainted with him, often 
heard him ' sing with great admiration.' His 
voice was a bass, ' the best in England, and 
he had great command of it ... but he 
wanted skill, and could scarce sing in con- 
sort.' He contrived to obtain an introduc- 
tion to Cromwell, who was so delighted 
with his musical talent that, ' after liquoring 
him with sack,' he restored him to his place at 
Christ Church. But in 1651 he was reported 
to be 'non compos.' He died in October 
1659, in a crazed condition, in his bed- 
maker's house in Penny Farthing Street, and 
was buried in the cathedral of Christ Church. 
He contributed to the Oxford University col- 
lections of Latin verse issued on the return of 
the king from Scotland in 1641, and on the 
peace with Holland in 1654 (WELSH, AJumnt 
Westmonast.p.H4; FOSTER, Alumni; WOOD, 
Life and Times, ed.Clark, i. 287 ; BURROWS, 
Reg. Camden Soc. p. 489). 

[Brydges's Restituta, i. 520, iii. 431 ; Collier's 
Bibliographical Cat. ; Quin's Works.] S. L. 

QUINCEY, THOMAS DE (1785-1859> 
author. [See DE QUINCEY.] 

QUINCY, JOHN, M.D. (d. 1722), medical 
writer, was apprenticed to an apothecary, 
and afterwards practised medicine as an apo- 
thecary in London. He was a dissenter and 
a whig, a friend of Dr. Richard Mead [q. v.], 
and an enemy of Dr. John Woodward [q. v.J 
He published in 1717 a 'Lexicon Phvsico- 
medicum,' dedicated to John, duke of Mon- 
tagu, who had just been admitted a fellow 
of the College of Physicians of London. It 
is based on the admirable medical lexicon of 
Bartholomew Castellus, published at Basle 
in 1628, and went through eleven editions, of 
which the last two appeared respectively in 
1794 and 1811 (greatly revised). His 'Eng- 
lish Dispensatory ' (1721), of which a fourth 



Quincy : i 

edition appeared in 1722 and a twelfth in 1749, 
contains a complete account of the materia 
medica and of therapeutics, and many of the 
prescriptions contained in it were long popu- 
lar, lie studied mathematics and the philo- 
sophy of Sir Isaac Newton, and received the 
degree of M.D. from the university of Edin- 
burgh for his ' Medicina Statica Britannica ' 
(1712), a translation of the 'Aphorisms' of 
Sanctorius, of which a second edition appeared 
in 1720. In 1719 he published a scurrilous 
'Examination' of Woodward's 'State of Phy- 
sick andJDiseases.' A reply, entitled 'An Ac- 
count of Dr. Quincy's Examination, by N. N. 
of the Middle Temple,' speaks of him as a 
bankrupt apothecary, a charge to which he 
makes no reply in the second edition of his 
* Examination' published, with a further ' let- 
ter to Dr. Woodward,' in 1720. In the same 
year he published an edition of the Aot^ioXoyuz 
of Nathaniel Hodges [q. v.], and a collection 
of ' Medico-physical Essays' on ague, fevers, 
gout, leprosy, king's evil, and other diseases, 
which shows that he knew little of clinical 
medicine, and was only skilful in the ar- 
rangement of drugs in prescriptions. He con- 
sidered dried millipedes good for tuberculous 
lymphatic glands, but esteemed the royal 
touch a method 'that can take place only 
on a deluded imagination,' and 'justly 
banished with the superstition and bigotry 
that introduced it.' Joseph Collet, governor 
of Fort St. George, was one of his patrons, and 
O.uincy printed in 1713 a laudatory poem on 
their common friend, the Rev. Joseph Sten- 
nett [q. v.] He died in 1722, and in 1723 his 
^PrselectionesPharmaceuticse/lectures which 
had been delivered at his own house, were 
published with a preface by Dr. Peter Shaw. 
[Works; Dr. Peter Shaw's Preface.] N. M. 

QUINCY, QUENCY, or QUENCI, 
SAER, SAHER, or SEER DE, first EARL OF 
WINCHESTER (d. 1219), is believed to have 
been the son of Robert FitzRichard, by Ora- 
bilis, daughter of Ness, lord of Leuchars. The 
latter is described as Countess of Mar, though 
there seems to be some difficulty in establish- 
ing her right to the title (Ref/istrum Prio- 
ratus S. Andreee, pp. 254-5, 287, 290 ; Genea- 
loi/ixt, new ser. iv. 179; but cf. DUGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 686, Monasticon, vi. 148 ; EYTON 
ap. Addit. MS. 31939, f. 103). An elder Saer 
<le Quincy, a staunch adherent of Henry II, 
who was lord of Buckby in Northampton- 
shire, seems to have been Quincy's uncle. 

Quincy was one of the knights who in 
1173 attended the young king Henry, on his 
withdrawing from his father, Henry II, to 
the court of Louis VII of France, and took 
part in his rebellion, the elder Saer remain- 

VOL. XLVII. 



3 Quincy 

ing faithful to the old king, and being a 
witness to the formal treaty between him 
and his sons at Falaise on 11 Oct. 1173 
(Fcedera, i. 30). Saer the younger was at 
this time called 'juvenis' (Gesta Henrici II, 
i. 46). In 1180-4 he appears to have been 
castellan of Nonancourt on the Aure (STA- 
PLETON, Norman Exchequer Rolls, i. Introd. 
pp. cxiv, cxxxv). He was with King Richard 
at Roche d'Orval in August 1198 (Ancient 
Charters, p. 112), and was present when 
William of Scotland did homage to John at 
Lincoln in November 1200 (Roe. Hov. iv. 
142). In 1202 he witnessed a charter of 
John to the abbey of Bee. At this time 
he seems to have been comparatively poor, 
and received a quittance for 260/. owed to 
the king, and for money owed to the Jews, 
and in 1203 a quittance for three hundred 
marks owed to the Jews of Norwich (Rotuli 
Normannice, i. 61 ; Rotuli de Liberate, p. 38). 
Being in that year joint castellan with Robert 
Fitzwalter of the strong castle of Vaudreuil 
when the army of Philip of France came 
against it, he surrendered the place before an 
assault was made, on the ground of John's 
inaction ; he was imprisoned by the French 
king at Compiegne until he and Robert were 
redeemed by a payment of 5,000/. [see under 
FITZWALTER, ROBERT]. 

Some time between 1168 and 1173 Saer 
seems to have married Margaret, daughter of 
Robert HI, earl of Leicester [see under BEAU- 
MONT, ROBERT DE, d. 1190]. In 1204 his for- 
tunes were suddenly changed by the death 
without issue of his wife's brother, Robert IV, 
earl of Leicester, called FitzParnel ; Leices- 
ter's joint heiresses were his two sisters, the 
elder, Amicia, wife of Simon de Montfort III 
[see under MONTFORT, SIMON OF, EARL OF 
LEICESTER], and the younger, Margaret , Saer's 
wife. An equal division of the earl's lands 
was accordingly made between Saer and his 
wife's nephew, Simon de Montfort IV, whose 
father was then dead. This arrangement was 
sanctioned by the king and his barons in 
1207, and Saer was created earl of Win- 
chester, or of the county of Southampton 
(WALTER OF COVENTRY, ii. 197; DOYLE, Offi- 
cial Baronage, iii. 693; Close Rolls, i. 24, 29). 
From 1205 he seems to have held the office 
of the king's steward, or steward of England, 
in virtue of having the custody of the earldom 
of Leicester; but by the award of 1207 this 
office passed to the new earl of Leicester, 
Simon de Montfort (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th 
Rep. p. 421 b; DUGDALE, Baronaye, i. 687). 
In 1209 Saer was engaged in a quarrel with 
the priory of St. Andrews, Scotland, about 
the right of patronage of the church of Leu- 
chars ; he gained his case before the king's 



Quincy 



114 



Quincy 






court. But the prior complained to Inno- 
cent III, who issued a bull appointing com- 
missioners to investigate the matter (Eegis- 
trum Prioratus S. Andrea, p. 352). Saer ac- 
companied King John to Ireland in the 
summer of 1210 (Historia Anglorum, ii. 243), 
was much with him, and joined the king at 
play (Rotulide Liberate, $0. pp. 152, 162, 183; 
cf. p. 240), From 1211 to 1214 he acted as 
a justiciar, sitting at the exchequer in 1212 
(Foss, Judges, ii. Ill), when he was also 
sent as ambassador to the emperor, Otto IV 
(Fcsdera, i. 104 ; cf. p. 108). 

But Quincy was soon alienated from the 
king, who held him, in common with Robert 
Fitzwalter and the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in special detestation (ib. p. 565). In 
May 1213 he was a witness of John's sur- 
render of his crown to the pope (ib. p. 112), 
and became one of the sureties for the re- 
payment of the sums that the king had seized 
from the revenues of the church (MATT. 
PARIS, ii. 574). In January 1215 he wit- 
nessed the reissue of John's charter of free- 
dom to the church, and on 4 March, in com- 
mon with the king and many others, took 
the cross (GERVASE OF CANTERBURY, ii. 109). 
He attended the meeting of the barons at 
Stamford, entered into their confederation to 
enforce reforms, and was one of the twenty- 
five barons chosen to compel the observance 
of the great charter. When the barons saw 
that John was raising forces against them, 
each of the twenty-five took a special part 
of the kingdom to secure against him, and 
the counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon 
were allotted to the Earl of Winchester. 
They also considered the election of another 
king. In October John declared the earl's 
estates forfeited, and granted them to his 
servants (Close Rolls, i. 230). As one of 
the chiefs of the baronial party the earl, 
with others, was sent to Philip of France to 
offer the crown to Philip's son Louis and 
hasten his coming. With his fellow ambassa- 
dors he took a solemn oath that they would 
never hold their lands of John (WALTER 
OF COVENTRY, ii. 226-7). On 16 Dec. he 
was excommunicated by the pope. He and 
his companions returned to England on 
9 Jan. 1216, bringing with them forty-two 
ships laden with French knights and their 
followers (RALPH OF COGGESHALL, p. 178). 
At the accession of Henry III Saer adhered 
to Louis, and on 21 Dec. persuaded him to 
spare St. Albans Abbey, which Louis threa- 
tened to burn (Gesta Abbatum S. Albani, i. 
259). In the spring of 1217 the garrison of 
Mountsorrell Castle, Leicestershire, which 
was in his keeping, and was besieged by the 
royal army, sent to him for help. He 



hastened to Louis, then in London, and on 
30 April Louis sent an army led by the Count 
of Perche, Saer, and Robert Fitzwalter to the 
relief of the place [see under FITZWALTER, 
ROBERT]. Having joined Fitzwalter in re- 
! connoitring at Lincoln, he advised that their 
army should advance to the attack. In the 
battle that ensued on 20 May he was taken 
prisoner (RoG.WEXD. iv. 20, 23) ; he regained 
his liberty after peace was made in September. 
The war being over, Saer determined to 
fulfil his crusader's vow. In April 1218 he 
caused the consecration of the abbey church 
of Garendon, Leicestershire, of which he was 
patron in right of his wife, and in 1219 sailed 
with Robert Fitzwalter and others for the 
Holy Land, arriving at Damietta during its 
siege by the crusaders. Shortly after his 
arrival he fell sick, and commanded that after 
his death his heart and vitals should be burnt, 
and the ashes carried to England and buried 
at Garendon, which was done. He died on 
3 Nov., and was buried at Acre (Annals of 
Waverley, an. 1219). He is described as an 
accomplished and strenuous warrior (His- 
toria Anglorum, ii. 243). A drawing of his 
arms is given in the works of Matthew Paris 
(vi. Additamenta,477; compare the engraving 
from his seal in DOYLE, Official Baronage). He 
gave many gifts to Garendon Abbey, and was a 
benefactor to the canons of Leicester. He died 
heavily in debt to the king (Rotuli Finium, 
i. 50). His wife Margaret died in 1235. 

He had four sons : Robert, Roger (see 
below), Reginald, and a second Robert. Saer 
; also left a daughter Hawyse, who married 
I Hugh de Vere, earl of Oxford, about 1223, 
and possibly a daughter named Arabella, 
; married to Sir Richard Harcourt (NICHOLS, 
Leicestershire, iii. 66). 

Robert, the eldest son, may perhaps have 
been the crusader of 1191 ( Gesta Henrici II, 
&c. ii. 185, 187), who is found in attendance 
on King Richard in 1194 (Addit. MS. 31939, 
f. 122), though this Robert is generally said 
to have been Saer's elder brother (DUGDALE, 
Baronage, i. 686). He is said to have sur- 
vived his father, and to have been supplanted 
by his younger brother Roger (DuGDALE, Ba- 
ronage, u.s. ; NICHOLS, Leicestershire, iii. 66). 
It is, however, certain that he died in 1217 
(Annals of Waverley, sub an.; GIR. CAMBR. ; 
Speculum Ecclesia ap. Opera, iv. 174-5). 
On his death Henry III ordered that a daily 
payment of 3d. should be made to the hospi- 
tallers in England for the souls of King John, 
his predecessors, and Robert de Quincy until 
such payment should be exchanged for land of 
an equal value (Close Rolls, i. 342). Robert's 
wife Hawyse (1180 P-1243), fourth daughter 
of Hugh, earl of Chester, and sister and 



Quincy 



Quincy 



coheiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of 
Chester, had received from her brother the 
earldom of Lincoln, so far as he could give it 
to her (Addit. MS. 31939, f. 103), whence 
probably it is that Giraldus (u. s.), in his 
account of Robert's death, calls him 'comes.' 
lie left an only daughter, Margaret, who 
married John de Lacy, baron of Pontefract. 
She did not succeed to the earldom of Win- 
chester, but was allowed by the king to carry 
to her husband the earldom of Lincoln [see 
LACY, JOHN DE, first EARL OF LINCOLN]. 
After her husband's death she married 
Walter Marshal, fifth earl of Pembroke [see 
under MARSHAL, WILLIAM, first EARL OF 
PEMBROKE AND STRIGUIL], 

The fourth son, also Robert, married Helen, 
daughter of Llywelyn ab lorwerth [q. v.J, 
prince of Wales, and widow of John, called 
le Scot, earl of Chester (Annals of Dunstable, 
an. 1237). He took the cross in 1250, and 
died in 1257 (MATT. PARIS, v. 99, 689), leaving 
three daughters (see Calendarium Genealogi- 
cum, i. 112 ; Addit. MS. 31939, f. 122). 

ROGER DE QUINCY, second EARL OF WIN- 
CHESTER (1195 P-1265), the second son of 
Saer de Quincy, was, with his father, ex- 
communicated by Innocent III in 1215 (Roo. 
WEND. iii. 355). He probably joined his 
father in his crusade (Annales Monastics, v. 
Index, p. 380), and his eldest brother Robert 
being dead, he did homage, and received 
livery of his father's lands in February 1221 ; 
the time that had elapsed since his father's 
death suggests his absence from England 
(Close Rolls, i. 448-9). He did not, however, 
succeed to the earldom until his mother's 
death (19 Feb. 1235). Meanwhile, in 1222, he 
served in the king's army in Poitou. Having 
married Helen, eldest daughter and coheiress 
of Alan, lord of Galloway, who died in 1234, 
he divided Alan's lands with the husbands 
of his wife's sisters, John de Baliol [see under 
BA.LIOL, JOHN DE, 1249-1315] and William, 
afterwards earl of Albemarle (d. 1260). The 
rights of Alan's daughters were disputed by 
Thomas, Alan's natural son, and the Gall- 
wegians, preferring one lord to three, re- 
quested their king, Alexander II [q.v.], either 
to take the inheritance himself or grant it 
to Thomas. On his refusal they rebelled, and 
were defeated by Alexander, who established 
the three lords in their portions of Alan's 
domains, Roger being constable of Scotland 
in right of his wife (Chronicle of Mailros, 
p. 42; MATT. PARIS, iii. 365; SKENE, Celtic 
Scotland, i. 487). In 1239 he joined other 
nobles in writing a letter of remonstrance 
to Gregory IX, complaining of his infringe- 
ments of the rights of English patrons. He 
served with the king in Guienne in 1242, and 



was one of the nobles who in that year ob- 
tained leave from Henry to return to Eng- 
land, and received permission from the king 
of France to pass through his dominions 
(MATT. PARIS, iv. 228). In 1246 he again 
joined in a letter sent to the pope with re- 
ference to the grievances of England against 
the Roman see (ib. p. 533). On the death of 
his sister-in-law, the Countess of Albemarle, 
without issue in 1246, a further part of 
Galloway fell to him in right of his wife (ib. 
p. 563). He ruled the chiefs with excessive 
strictness ; they rose against him suddenly, 
and in 1247 besieged him in one of his castles 
in their country. Preferring to risk death 
by the sword to the certainty of death by 
famine, he armed himself fully, mounted his 
charger, caused the gates of the castle to be 
thrown open, and attended by a few followers, 
cut his way through the besiegers, and rode 
for his life until he reached the Scottish 
king's court. Alexander took up his cause, 
punished the rebels, and re-established him 
in his domains (ib. p. 653). 

Earl Roger attended the parliament held in 
London on 9 Feb. 1248, at which Henry III 
was reproved for his misgovernment, and also 
the parliament of 1254, at which the prelates 
and magnates expressed their distrust of the 
king. In July 1257 the king appointed him a 
joint commissioner for composing the disputes 
between the young king of Scotland, Alex- 
ander III [q. v.], and certain of his nobles 
(Fcedera, i. 362), or, in other words, between 
Alan Durward [q. v.],.the head of the party 
that upheld the English influence, and the 
Comyns [see under COMYN, WALTER, EARL 
OF MENTEITH]. In the parliament of Oxford 
of 1258 he was one of the twelve elected by 
the ' community ' to attend the three annual 
parliaments and exercise the rights of par- 
liament. He was further elected one of the 
twenty-four commissioners to treat of aid 
to the king (Annals of Burton, i. 449-50), 
and was one of the witnesses to the king's 
confirmation of the acts of the council (ib. 
p. 456). When Richard of Cornwall was re- 
turning from Germany early in 1259, Earl 
Roger, in company with Walter, bishop of 
Worcester, and others, on behalf of the barons 
met him at St. Omer, and forbade him to 
cross over to England until he had sworn to 
observe the provisions of Oxford. After 
eleven days of dispute they obtained a satis- 
factory guarantee (WYKES, iv. 121-2). Roger 
died on 25 April 1264. He had three wives: 
(1) Helen (see above) ; (2) Maud, daughter 
of Humphrey de Bohun V, second earl of 
Hereford [q. v.], and widow of Anseim Mar- 
shal, earl ot Pembroke [see under MARSHAL, 
WILLIAM, first EARL OF PEMBROKE AND STRI- 

i2 



Quinton 



116 



Quinton 



GUIL] ; and (3) Eleanor, seventh daughter by 
his first wife of William Ferrers (d. 1254), 
earl of Derby, whose second wife was one of 
Roger's daughters, and widow of William, 
lord Vaux (d. 1253?). Roger's third wife 
survived him, marrying for her third husband 
Roger de Ley bourne [q. v.] Roger died with- 
out male issue, leaving three daughters by 
his first wife : (1) Helen or Ela, who mar- 
ried Alan, lord Zouche, of Ashby (d. 1269) ; 

(2) Elizabeth or Isabella, plighted on 8 Feb. 
1240 to Hugh de Neville (d. 1269) (Addit. 
MS. 31939, f. 122), but married to Alexander 
Comyn, second earl of Buchan [q. v.] ; and 

(3) Margaret, married to William Ferrers, 
earl of Derby. 

[Gesta Hen. II (Benedict. Abb.), i. 46, ii. 185- 
187; Roger of Hoveden, iv. 142; Walter of 
Coventry, ii. 197; Gervase of Cant. ii. 109; 
Ealph of Coggeshall, p. 178 ; Matt. Paris's Hist. 
Angl. ii. 243, and Chron. Maj. ii. iii. iv. v. 
passim, vi. 477; Gesta Abb. S. Albani, i. 259; 
Annales Monast. Ann. Burt. i. 283, 449-50, 456, 
Ann. Wav. ii. 287, 292, Ann. Dunst. iii. 56, 60, 
143; Wykes, iv. 121-2 (all Rolls Ser.) ; Roger 
of Wendox-er, iii. 355, iv. 20, 23 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.); Regist. Pr. S. Andrese, pp. 225, 256, 287, 
290, 336, 352 ; Chron. de Mailros, p. 42 (both 
Bannatyne Club) ; Eyton's Itin. of Hen. II, 
p. 174; Addit. MS. (Eyton's) 31939, ff. 103; 
Stapleton's Norman Excheq. Rolls, i. Introd. 
cxiv. cxxxv. (Soc. of Antiq.) ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
i. 30, 113, 362 ; Rot. Norman, p. 61, ed. Hardy; 
Rot. de Liberate ac de Misis, &c. pp. 38, 152, 
162, 183, 240, ed. Hardy; Rot. Litt. Claus. i. 
24, 29, 230, 312, 448-9, ed. Hardy; Rot. de Obi. 
et Fin. p. 50, ed. Hardy; Calend. Geneal. i. 111- 
112, 150, ed. Roberts (all Record publ.) ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. p. 421 b, 9th Rep. p. 353 a ; 
Ancient Charters, ed. Round, p. 112 (Pipe Roll 
Soc.) ; Roles Gascons, ed. F. Michel, passim ; Ge- 
nealogist, new ser. iv. 179 ; Collect. Topogr. and 
Geneal. vii. 130; Dugdale's Monast. vi. 147-8, and 
Baronage, i. 686-8 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 
693-5; Foss's Judges, ii. 110-12; Nichols's Lei- 
cestershire, iii. 66.] W. H. 

QUINTON, JAMES WALLACE (1834- 
1891), chief commissioner of Assam, the son of 
awine merchant in Enniskillen, was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated 
B.A. in 1853. Having been appointed to the 
Bengal civil service in 1856, he served in the 
North- West Provinces and Oudh until 1875, 
when he officiated for two years as judicial 
commissioner in Burma. Returning to the 
North- West Provinces in 1877, he was ap- 
pointed magistrate and collector of the Al- 
lahabad district in April 1877, and officiating 
civil and sessions judge in April 1878. He 
Avas on special duty in July 1878 at Naini 
Tal as a member of the North- West Provinces 
famine commission. He afterwards served 



as commissioner in the Jhansi and Lucknow 
divisions, and in February 1883 was ap- 
pointed an additional member of the governor- 
general's council, an office which he held in 
1884, and again in 1886 and 1889. In the 
earlier of those years he was an ardent sup- 
porter of Lord Ripon's policy, which the ma- 
jority of Anglo-Indians strongly disapproved. 
In 1884 he was appointed commissioner of 
the Agra division, and became a member of 
the board of revenue in 1885. He served as 
a member of the public service commission 
in 1886. He was gazetted C.S.I, in 1887, 
and was appointed chief commissioner of 
Assam on 22 Oct. 1889. 

In March 1891, owing to a rebellion having 
broken out in the small native state of Mani- 
pur, led by two of the younger brothers of 
the raja, who abdicated and took refuge at 
Calcutta, Quinton was sent to Manipur with 
an escort of five hundred Ghurkhas, and with 
instructions to recognise as the ruler of the 
state the second brother, who was acting as re- 
gent, and to arrest one of the younger brothers, 
who, as sinapati, or commander of the forces, 
had been the prime mover in the deposition 
of the late raja. Quinton reached Manipur 
on 22 March, and at once summoned a durbar, 
at which he intended to arrest the sinapati. 
The latter, however, did not attend, and upon 
an attempt being made on the following day 
to arrest him in the fort, resistance was made 
by the Manipur troops, and was followed by 
an attack upon the British residency and 
camp, attended by considerable slaughter. 
Quinton thereupon offered to treat with the 
rebels, and was induced to repair to the fort, 
accompanied by Frank St. Clair Grimwood, 
the political agent, by Colonel Skene, the 
officer commanding the Ghurkhas, and by two 
other officers, all without arms. Immediately 
on their arrival they were taken prisoners and 
murdered. Quinton's hand was cut oft', his 
body hacked to pieces, and his dismembered 
limbs thrown outside the city walls to be 
devoured by pariah dogs. Manipur was sub- 
sequently retaken by a British force ; the 
sinapati was hanged, and the regent deposed. 
A young boy belonging to the family was re- 
cognised as raja, and during his minority the 
government of the state was entrusted to a 
British officer as political resident. Pensions 
of 300/. and 100/. a year respectively were 
granted to Quinton's widow and mother. 

[Information kindly gi ven by Sir Alexander Ar- 
buthnot, K.C.S.I. ; Parliamentary papers relating 
to Manipur, 1891; India Office List, 1891 ; Times, 
31 March, April (passim), and 24 June 1891; 
Graphic, 18 April 1891, p. 428, with portrait; Mrs. 
Grimwood's My Three Years in Manipur, 1891.1 

G. C. B. 



Quivil 



117 



Quivil 



QUIVIL or QUIVEL, PETER DE (d. 
1291), bishop of Exeter, a native of Exeter, 
was son of Peter and Helewisia Quivel. 
The surname sometimes appears erroneously 
Wyville or Quiral, but Peter was usually 
styled Peter of Exeter. Before 1258 he was 
instituted vicar of Mullion, Cornwall, but 
resigned before 7 July 1262, when he was 
succeeded by John Quivel, priest, apparently 
a kinsman (HiNGESTON-RANDOLPHj^ptscopa^ 
Registers of Bronescombe, Quivil, fyc. p. 175, cf. 
p. xix). His description as ' master ' suggests 
an academical degree. In 1263 he became 
archdeacon of St. David's. On 9 Dec. 1276 he 
was collated by Bishop Bronescombe to a pre- 
bend at Exeter. On 22 June 1280 Bishop 
Bronescombe died. On 7 Aug. Edward I gave 
the chapter license to elect his successor. The 
canons chose ' Master Peter of Exeter ' (ib. p. 
xix; Ann. Osney, p. 284; Ann. Waverley, p. 
394). On 7 Oct. the royal assent was given. 
On 10 Nov. Richard Gravesend, bishop of 
London, consecrated Peter in Canterbury Ca- 
thedral by mandate of the archbishop. 

Quivil, who took no part in political work, 
seldom left his diocese. In the spring of 1282 
the diocese was visited by Archbishop Peck- 
ham. In 1285 Edward I spent Christmas at 
Exeter (OXENEDES, p. 266), and commemo- 
rated the occasion by grants and licences to 
the bishop and chapter (Cal Patent Rolls, 
1281-92, pp. 215, 217). It is said that the 
king took up his residence at the bishop's 
palace (OLIVER, Hist, of Exeter, p. 63). In 
April 1287 Peter held a diocesan synod 
which drew up a long and important series of 
canons, mostly declaratory of the ordinary law 
of the church (WILKINS, Concilia, ii. 129-68). 

Quivil was a liberal benefactor to the 
cathedral and to its clergy (cf. OLIVER, Mon- 
asticon Dioc. Exon. pp. 48, 230). He en- 
forced residence and removed abuses, though 
in these respects he could not escape the 
criticisms of Archbishop Peckham. His chief 
work was in connection with the cathedral 
fabric. Bishop Bronescombe had begun the 
transformation of the Norman cathedral. 
Quivil first completed a part of the work, 
and seems to have procured plans for the 
whole building; so that, though most of the 
present structure was erected by his suc- 
cessors, his energy and care gave the church 
its unity in designs and details. It is with 
good reason that he was called the founder 
of the new work (' fundator novi operis,' 
FREEMAX, Architectural History,^. 12, from 
the Fabric Roll of 1308). Quivil's most me- 
morable work was the reconstruction of the 
two transept towers of Bishop Warelwast's 
Norman church. He took down part of the 
inner side, enriched and enlarged the great 



Gothic arches that opened out into the nave, 
adorned the severe romanesque interior with 
fluted columns and shafts of Purbeck marble, 
and pierced through the masonry the north 
and south transept windows, whose beautiful 
' wheel tracery ' suggested the type for most 
of the 'decorated' windows of other parts of 
the church. He added to the transept-towers 
the two eastern chapels of St. John the Baptist 
and St. Paul. He completed the lady-chapel ; 
possibly began the choir, and almost certainly 
b uilt the eastern bay of the nave. Quivil's care 
extended to the precinct of the cathedral, the 
defenceless condition of which led to dis- 
orders at Exeter as elsewhere ; and on 1 Jan. 
1286 he obtained from the king licence to 
enclose the churchyard and precinct with a 
stone wall, with sufficient gates and posterns, 
to be closed at night and opened at daybreak 
(Cal Patent Rolls, 1281-92, p. 215). He also 
obtained in 1290 licence to crenellate his 
house at Exeter and strengthen it with a wall 

Sib. p. 393). As the palace adjoined the cathe- 
ral precinct, the effect of these measures 
was to make the whole close defensible. 

Quivil died on 1 Oct. 1291 (HINGESTON- 
RANDOLPH, pp. xxi-ii), and was buried in 
his new lady-chapel before the altar, where 
a marble slab covered the grave. This slab 
was in 1820 restored to its original place, 
and the half-effaced cross and inscription 
recut. This runs : ' Petra tegit Petrum : 
nichil officiat sibi tetrum..' 

Quivil's register the second to survive 
of the Exeter episcopal registers is extant in 
a small vellum book of twenty-four folios. 
Both ends are imperfect, and parts are badly 
damaged. Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph 
published in 1889 an alphabetical digest of 
the whole, and printed in full those parts 
which, owing to the defaced state of the 
manuscript, are rapidly becoming illegible. 

[The Registers of Bronescombe and Peter 
Quivil, &c., by F. C. Hingeston-Eandolph, pp. 
309-95, including, besides the digest of the re- 
gister, an itinerary of the bishop and a valuable 
summary (pp. xix-xxiii) of his acts; P. Free- 
man's Architectural History of Exeter Cathe- 
dral, xx. 11-14, gives details of his building 
operations ; Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of 
Exeter contains a modern biography ; Oliver's 
MonasticonDioc.Exoniensis, pp. 48,230; Oliver's 
Hist, of the City of Exeter (1861), pp. 61-71 ; 
Ann. of Waverley and Osney, Oxenedes and 
Peekham's Letters, the last four in Rolls Ser. ; 
Wilkins's Concilia, ii. 83, 129-68 ; Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1281- 
1292 ; E. A. Freeman's Hist of Exeter, pp. 80-4, 
184 (Historic Towns); Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Angl. i. 308, 370, ed. Hardy ; Godwin, De Prae- 
sulibus, pp. 406-7 (1743) ; Stubbs's Registrum 
Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 47.] T. F. T. 



Raban 



118 



E 



RABAN, EDWARD (d. 1658), printer 
in Aberdeen, was an Englishman by birth, 
and was said to have been a native of 
Worcestershire. For this statement there 
is no direct evidence, though in ' Rabans 
Resolution against Drunkennesse,' printed 
in 1622, he speaks of his ' father's brother, 
Peter Raban, a parson at Meltonmowbre in 
AVooster-shyre.' In 1600 Raban set off, 
along with a number of ' bankrout merchands 
and run-away prentizes,' to serve with the 
army in the Netherlands. He served in the 
wars for some ten years, and after that time 
seems to have travelled over a considerable 
portion of the continent. In 1620 he started 
as a printer in Edinburgh, at the sign of the 
A. B. C., in a house at the Cowgate Port, but 
he printed only one book, so far as has yet been 
discovered, in that town. In the same year he 
appears at St. Andrews, where he opened a 
shop with his old sign of the A. B. C. After 
remaining two years he travelled further 
north, and in 1622 settled in Aberdeen. Here 
he met with considerable encouragement from 
the authorities of the town and the univer- 
sity, and also from Bishop Forbes, who re- 
mained through life his firm friend. The house 
he occupied was on the north side of Castle ! 
Street, with the sign of 'The Townes Armes.' j 
From 1622 to 1645 he printed continuously, 
issuing, besides a number of academic pro- 
ductions, some extremely interestingScottish 
books. In 1G49 his last book appeared, and 
in the following year his successor, James 
Brown, was appointed. Former writers, as a 
rule, have given 1649 as the date of his death, 
but this matter has been definitely settled 
by the discovery of the entry of his burial, 
' 1658, Dec. 6, Edward Rabein, at Wast dyk.' 
Raban was twice married: first, to Janet 
Johnston, who died in 1627 ; and, secondly, 
to Janet Ailhous. 

[Edmond's Aberdeen Printers, 1886 ; Last 
Notes on the Aberdeen Printers, 1888; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 21, 74, 3rd ser. i. 198, 
6th ser. x. 10, 1 97, 7th ser. iii. 476.] E. G. I). 

RABY, BAROX. [See WEKTWORTH, 
THOMAS, third BARON, afterwards EARL OF 
STRAITORD, d. 1739.] 

RACK, EDMUND (1735 P-1787), miscel- 
laneous writer, born at Attleborough , Norfolk, 
about 1735, was son of Edmund and Elizabeth 
Rack. His father was a labouring weaver, 
and both his parents were quakers,the mother 
being a preacher in that sect. He was brought 



up as a quaker, and apprenticed to a general 
shopkeeper at Wymondham. At the end of 
his term he removed to Bardfield in Essex, 
where he became shopman to a Miss Agnes 
Smith, whom he subsequently married. About 
1 775 he settled at Bath, and, having cultivated 
a taste for literature, was patronised by Lady 
Miller of Batheaston, Mrs. Macaulay, and 
Dr. Wilson. When dwelling in his native 
county he had paid great attention to its 
system of farming, and, with a view to the 
improvement of that in use throughout the 
western counties of England, he drew up, in 
the autumn of 1777, a plan for the formation 
of a society for the encouragement of agri- 
culture in the four counties of Somerset, 
Wilts, Dorset, and Gloucester. He was 
appointed its first secretary, and a room was 
appropriated for its members in his house at 
No. 5 St. James's Parade. About 1792 it 
took the name of the Bath and West of 
England Agricultural Society, and it still 
nourishes. 

In 1779 Rack aided in establishing the 
Bath Philosophical Society, and became its 
first secretary. Ill-health had long troubled 
him, and although he gave, in 1777, the no- 
torious James Graham (1745-1794) [q. v.] 
a certificate that he had been cured from ' a 
bad cough and asthmatic complaint,' his state 
soon became worse. His physical condition 
was not improved by the loss of his savings 
about 1780. He died at Bath on 22 Feb. 
1787. An elegy to his memory by Polwhele, 
who had made his acquaintance in that city 
in 1777, appeared in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for 1787 (pt. ii. p. 717), and was re- 
printed in ' Poems by Gentlemen of Devon 
and Cornwall ' (i. 162-4). 

Rack was the author of: 1. ' Reflections 
on the Spirit and Essence of Christianity,' 
signed ' Eusebius,' 1771. 2. ' England's true 
Interest in the choice of a new Parliament 
briefly considered. By a Friend to true 
Liberty,' 1774. 3. ' Poems on Several Sub- 
jects,' 1775. 4. ' Mentor's Letters addressed 
to Youth,' 1777, but written five years pre- 
viously for a few of his young friends ; 2nd 
edit. 1777 ; 3rd edit., revised and corrected, 
1778 (three thousand copies were sold of 
these editions) ; 4th edit., revised and en- 
larged, 1785. 5. ' Essays, Letters, and 
Poems,' 1781. Some of the pieces had ap- 
peared in his previous volume of poems, and 
several of the essays were reprinted from 
magazines. Two of the poems, ' The Castle 



Rackett 



119 



Radcliffe 



of Tintadgel' (pp. 330-7) and 'The Isle o 
Poplars,' were written by Polwhele. 6. ' A 
Respectful Tribute to Thomas Curtis, who 
died at Bath 4 April 1784.' Thirty-six copies 
were struck off for members of the Bath 
Philosophical Society. It was also insertec 
in the ' Transactions ' of the Agricultura' 
Society, vol. iii. pp. xvii-xxiv. 

Three octavo volumes of papers contri- 
buted to the Agricultural Society were pub- 
lished under his editorship, and he wrote a 
few of the articles. His papers ' On the 
Origin and Progress of Agriculture' anc 
'The Natural History of the Cock-chafer 
were reprinted in the ' Georgical Essays ' 01 
Alexander Hunter [q. v.], and that on the 
cockchafer also appeared in the 'Annual 
Register' for 1784-5, pp. 38-9. The second 
edition of ' Caspipina's Letters,' by the Rev. 
Jacob Duche, was edited by him in 1777, 
and he appended to it a brief account oi 
"William Penn. From 1782 to 1786 Rack 
was actively engaged in making a topogra- 
phical survey of Somerset, and the labour 
was all but completed by him before his 
death. The work was published by the Rev. 
John Collinson in 1791 in three volumes. 

Rack contributed to the ' Monthly Ledger ' 
and the 'Monthly Miscellany' under the 
signature of Eusebius, and he also wrote for 
the ' Farmer's Magazine ' and the ' Bath 
Cllronicle.' Philip Thicknesse accused him 
of being the author of ' A Letter addressed 
to Philip Thickskull, esq.,' and retorted in 
'A Letter from Philip Thickskull, Esq., to Ed- 
mund Rack,' 1780 (cf. Edmund an Eclogue, 
1780). He wrote the second of the printed 
odes presented to Mrs. Macaulay on her birth- 
day in 1777, and in the fourth volume of 
'Poetical Amusements,' at Lady Miller's villa, 
there appeared three poems from his pen. 

[Collinson's Somerset, sub 'Bath,' i. 77-82 (by 
Polwhele) ; Polwhele's Traditions and Recollec- 
tions, i. 42-3, 112-36 (with numerous letters by 
him), 164-5, 196 ; Thicknesse's Valetudinarian 
Bath Guide, p. 7 ; Warner's Bath, pp. 312-14 ; 
Smith's Friends' Books, ii. 468-70; Gent. Mag. 
1787, pt. i. p. 276.] W. P. C. 

RACKETT, THOMAS (1757-1841), 
antiquary, born in 1757, was son of Thomas 
Rackett of Wandsworth, Surrey. At the 
age of fourteen he recited to Garrick the 
latter's ode for the Shakespearean jubilee 
so admirably that Garrick presented him 
' with a gilt copy of it.' Next year (1771) 
Garrick gave him a folio copy of Shakespeare 
with a laudatory inscription. Forrest and 
Paul Sandby taught Rackett drawing. John 
Hunter directed his attention as a boy to 
the study of natural history, and gave him, 
what Rackett much valued, a piece of 



caoutchouc, then little known in England. 
He matriculated from University College, 
Oxford, on 16 Nov. 1773, and graduated 
B.A. in 1777 and M.A. in 1780. At the 
same time he became rector of Spetisbury 
with Charlton-Marshall, Dorset, and held the 
living for more than sixty years. 

Rackett, although he devoted himself to 
his parish, was interested in every branch of 
science, and was a good musician. But his 
leisure was mainly occupied in antiquarian 
researches, and he spent much time in scien- 
tific study in London. He came to know 
Gough, King, Sir R. C. Hoare, and Canon 
Bowles. He helped Hutchins in the second 
edition of his 'History of Dorset,' and rambled 
on his pony over the whole of that county 
exploring its antiquities. Late in life he col- 
lected and took casts of ancient seals and coin s. 
In 1794 and 1796 he accompanied Hatchett 
and Dr. Maton in a tour through the wes- 
tern counties and collected minerals. When 
an octogenarian he enthusiastically studied 
conchology, and, in conjunction with Tiberius 
Cavallo [q. v.] (to whom he offered a home 
at Spetisbury), pursued astronomy. He was 
a fellow of the Royal Society, of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and of the Linnean Society. 
He died at SpelKsbury on 29 Nov. 184O. 
Rackett married, in 1781, Dorothea, daugh- 
ter of James Tattersall, rector of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, and of Streatham. All his 
children predeceased him except Dorothea, 
wife of S. Solly of Heathside, near Poole, 
Dorset. 

Rackett wrote: 1. 'A Description of 
Otterden Place and Church and of the 
Archiepiscopal Palace at Charing in the 
ounty of Kent ; accompanied by Genealo- 
gical Memoirs of the Family of AVheler and 
Anecdotes of some of the early Experiments 
in Electricity,' London, 1832. Rackett drew 
:he frontispiece of Otterden Place and also 
the view of the palace. This book, written 
o please Mrs. AVheler, his niece, first ap- 
)eared as an essay in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' 1832. 2. 'An Historical Account 
f Testaceological Writers,' in conjunction 
with W.G. Maton, M.D. (published in 'Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society ') ; a bound 
jopy, now in the British Museum, was pre- 
sented in 1804 to Sir J. Banks ' with the 
espectful compliments of the authors.' 

[Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. v. 853, vi. 237-41 ; 
lent. Mag. 1841,f Z,428.t*3Q M. G. W. 

RADCLIFFE. [See also RADCLYFFE 
and RATCLIFFE.] 

RADCLIFFE, ALEXANDER^. 1680), 

verse-writer, the son and heir of Alexander 

iadcliffe of Hampstead, Middlesex, was ad- 



Radcliffe 



I2O 



Radcliffe 



mitted at Gray's Inn on 12 Nov. 1669 (Fos- 
TER, Gray's Inn Admission Register). He 
was not called to the bar, but seems to 
have deserted the legal profession for the 
army, in which he had attained the rank of 
captain in 1696. He was a disciple of the 
Earl of Rochester in verse, and rivalled his 
master in ribaldry. He published : 1. ' Ovid 
Travestie, a mock Poem on five Epistles of 
Ovid,' 16mo, 1673 (Gaisford Library Sale 
Catalogue). This, the first edition, was ig- 
nored when the book was reprinted, 4to, 
1680, 1681, 1696 (with additions), and 1705. 
2. ' Bacchanalia Ccelestia : a Poem, in praise 
of Punch, compos'd by the Gods and God- 
desses in Cabal,' London, 1 680, fol. broadside. 
Reprinted in the 'Ramble,' &c. 3. 'The 
Ramble: an anti-heroick Poem. Together 
with some Terrestrial Hymns and Carnal 
Ejaculations,' London, 1682, 8vo. Part of 
'The Ramble' had previously appeared in 
the edition of Rochester's Poems which bears 
the imprint Antwerp, 1680. Nos. 1 (3rd 
edit.) and 3 were reissued with a general 
title, ' The Works of Capt. Alexander Rad- 
clift'e,' in 1696, 2 pts. (London, 8vo). 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum, Addit. MS. 24490, 
fol. 247; Nichols's Select Collection of Poems, 
i. 141, iii. 163.] G. T. D. 

RADCLIFFE, AXX (1764-1822), no- 
velist, the only daughter of William and Ann 
Ward, was born in London on 9 July 1764. 
Her father was in trade, but she was con- 
nected on his side with the family of William 
Cheselden [q. v.], the famous surgeon, and 
more remotely with the Dutch family of De 
Witt. Her mother, whose maiden name was 
Gates, was niece of Dr. Samuel Jebb [q. v.], 



and first cousin of Sir Richard Jebb [q. v.J, 
physician to George III. Great part of her 
youth was passed in the society of relatives 
in easy circumstances ; she was particularly 
noticed by Bentley, the partner of Josiah 
Wedgwood [q. v.], and she met at his house, 
among others, Mrs. Piozzi, Mrs. Montagu, 
and 'Athenian Stuart.' At the age of twenty- 
three she married, at Bath, William Rad- 
clifFe, an Oxonian, and a student of law, who 
abandoned his intention of being called to 
the bar, and subsequently became proprietor 
and editor of the ' English Chronicle.' 

Her first novel, ' The Castles of Athlin and 
Dunbayne,' a short story of little merit, ap- 
peared in 1789, and was followed in the 
ensuing year by ' A Sicilian Romance,' which 
Scott considers the first modern English 
example of the poetical novel, and of which 
several Italian versions have appeared. The 
interest, however, depended entirely upon 
incident and description, to which in its suc- 



cessor, ' The Romance of the Forest ' (Lon- 
don, 1791, 12mo), something like a study of 
the effect of circumstance upon character was. 
added. ' The Romance of the Forest ' reached 
a fourth edition by 1795, and was translated 
into French and Italian, while a dramatised 
version, by John Boaden, entitled ' Fountain- 
ville Forest,' appeared in 1794. Its success 
paved the way for' The Mysteries of Udolpho, 
a Romance interspersed with some pieces of 
Poetry' (London, 1794, 4 vols. 12mo), for 
which the publisher offered what was then 
the unprecedented sum of 5001. Conscious 
of her strength, Mrs. RadclifTe had adopted 
a broader and more ambitious style of treat- 
ment. ' The Mysteries of Udolpho ' was 
translated into French by Chastenay, and 
pro ved t he most popular of novels. Its success 
Avas such that she obtained 800/. for her next 
novel, ' The Italian, or the Confessional of 
the Black Penitents ' (London, 1797, 3 vols. 
12mo), a romance of the inquisition, usually 
regarded as her best work. It was received 
with enthusiasm at home. Badly drama- 
tised by John Boaden as the ' Italian Monk,' 
it was produced at the Haymarket on 
15 Aug. 1797 (GENEST, vii. 323) ; it was r 
moreover, immediately translated into French 
by the Abbe Morellet. From this time Mrs. 
RadclifTe wrote no more, except the little- 
known novel of ' Gaston de Blondeville, or 
the Court of Henry III keeping Festival. in 
Ardenne ' (London, 1826, 4 A'ols. 8vo), com- 
posed in 1802, but not published until after 
her death, whence it may perhaps be inferred 
that she considered it unworthy of her powers. 
It was, however, translated into French by 
Defauconpret, the translator of Scott, in 1826, 
and it is interesting because in it the author 
has recourse not to the supernatural naturally 
explained, but to the actual supernatural, 
a method which Scott regretted that she had 
not followed, unaware that she had actually 
attempted it. 

After her retirement from the world of 
letters Mrs. Radcliffe lived almost unknown 
to her literary contemporaries, amusing her- 
self with the occasional composition of 
poetry, and delighting in the long carriage 
excursions she was accustomed to make 
with her husband in the summer months. 
She had already (1795) published an ac- 
count of ' A Journey made in the Summer 
of 1794 through Holland and the Western 
Frontier of Germany,' which is rich in pic- 
torial description, and also in political and eco- 
nomical observations, probably contributed 
by her husband. She also made copious notes 
of her English excursions, specimens of which, 
admirable as pieces of description, were in- 
corporated in the memoir prefixed to ' Gaston 



Radcliffe 



121 



Radcliffe 



de Blonde ville.' With them also appeared 'St. 
Alban's Abbey,' a long metrical romance, the 
date of which is not given, but which must 
have been written after Scott and Southey 
had begun to publish. A little volume of 
poems which appeared under her name in 
1816, and was reissued in 1834 and 1845, is 
merely a collection of the verses inserted in 
her novels, made by an anonymous compiler, 
who seems to have thought that she was 
dead, and who took the liberty to add poems 
of his own. Her retirement from society also 
accredited a report of her insanity, Avhich 
was distinctly asserted in a book entitled 
' A Tour through England,' and was made 
the subject of ' An Ode to Terror,' published 
in 1810. There was not the slightest founda- 
tion for it. Mrs. Radcliffe appears to have 
possessed a cheerful and equable temper, and 
to have manifested no peculiarity except the 
sensitive aversion to notice which she shared 
with many other authoresses. For the last 
twelve years of her life she suffered from 
spasmodic asthma, and succumbed to a 
sudden attack on 7 Feb. 1823. She was in- 
terred at the chapel-of-ease in the Bayswater 
Road (the resting-place of Laurence Sterne 
and of Paul Sandby) belonging to St. George's, 
Hanover Square. Her posthumous works ap- 
peared in 1 826, along with a slight but interest- 
ing memoir, apparently from the pen of her 
husband, whose testimony to her amiable qua- 
lities, personal attractions, and musical accom- 
plishments bears the impress of strict truth. 
The memoir also contains some very dis- 
criminating criticism, which may be read 
with pleasure, even after the accurate but 
cordial estimate of her genius which Sir 
Walter Scott had already given in his pre- 
face to the edition of her novels published 
in 1824. 

Mrs. RadclifFe's novels may not be much 
read, either now or in the future, but she 
will always retain in English literature the 
important position due to the founder of a 
school who was also its most eminent repre- 
sentative. In her peculiar art of exciting 
terror and impatient curiosity by the inven- 
tion of incidents apparently supernatural, 
but eventually receiving a natural explana- 
tion, she has been surpassed by two Ameri- 
cans, Brockden Brown and Poe, but it is 
doubtful whether many English writers have 
rivalled her. The construction of her tales 
is exceedingly ingenious, and great art is 
evinced in the contrivances by which the 
action is from time to time interrupted and 
the reader's suspense prolonged. The spell 
which she exerts, however, arises no less 
from the manifestation of a higher artistic 
faculty, the creation of an environment for 



her personages in which their actions and 
adventures appear not violently improbable, 
and almost natural. No stories are more 
completely imbued with a romantic atmo- 
sphere, or are more evidently the creations of 
a mind instinctively turned to the picturesque 
side of things. To this day she has had few 
superiors in the art of poetical landscape, 
which she may almost be said to have in- 
troduced into the modern novel, and in the 
practice of which, as Scott remarks, she 
showed herself as competent to copy nature 
as to indulge imagination. Except, indeed, 
for the ingenuity of her plots, she is rather 
to be ranked among prose poets than among 
storytellers, and is especially interesting 
as a precursor of that general movement 
towards the delineation and comprehension 
of external nature which was to characterise 
the nineteenth century. Her weak side is 
the want of human interest, to which, how- 
ever, the character of Schedoni, in ' The 
Italian,' is a marked exception. If the general 
conventionality of her personages disentitles 
her to rank among great novelists, she can- 
not be excluded from a place among great 
romancers. Her letters and journals abound 
with beautiful natural descriptions in the 
style of her novels. Her poems, mainly from 
imperfection of expression, are the least 
poetical portion of her writings. In her 
romances, says Leigh Hunt, she was, in the 
words of Mathias, ' the mighty magician of 
Udolpho ; ' ' in her verses she is a tinselled 
nymph in a pantomime, calling up common- 
places with a wand '(Mew, Women, and JSooks, 
1878, p. 278). 

[Memoir prefixed to Gaston de Blondeville, 
1826; Scott's Introduction to Mrs. Eadcliffe's 
novels in Ballantyne's Novelist's Library, 1824; 
Jeaffreson's Novels and Novelists; Allibone'sDict. 
of English Literature; Chambers's Cyclop, of 
English Literature; Lefevre-Deumier in Cele- 
brites Anglaises, 1895. Christina Rossetti wished 
to have written the biography of Mrs. Radcliffe, 
whom she greatly admired, but was obliged to 
relinquish her intention from lack of materials.] 

R. G. 

RADCLIFFE, CHARLES BLAND 

(1822-1889), physician, born at Brigg in the 
north of Lincolnshire on 2 June 1822, be- 
longed to a family long settled in the Isle of 
Man, and was eldest son of Charles Rad- 
cliffe, a Wesleyan minister. John Netten. 
Radcliffe [q. v.] was his younger brother. 
Charles completed his education, begun at 
home, in the grammar school at Batley, near 
Leeds, and was subsequently apprenticed to 
Mr. Hall, a general practitioner, at Wortley. 
He finished his medical training in Leeds, 
Paris, and London. In Paris he studied 



Radcliffe 



122 



Radcliffe 



under Claude Bernard. lie graduated M.B. 
at the London University in 1845, when he 
is said to have been the first student from a 
provincial medical school who succeeded in 
obtaining a gold medal. He graduated 
M.D. in 1851. He became a licentiate of 
the Royal College of Physicians of London 
in 1848, and was elected a fellow in 1858. 
He filled the office of Gulstonian lecturer in 
1860 and of Croonian lecturer in 1873. He 
subsequently became a councillor of the Col- 
lege of Physicians, and in 1875-6 he acted 
as censor. 

He was appointed, on 21 May 1853, assist- 
ant physician to the Westminster Hospital, 
where he succeeded to the office of full phy- 
sician 25 April 1857, and he was elected to 
the consulting staff on 27 May 1873. He 
lectured upon botany and materia medica in 
the medical school attached to the hospital. 
In 1863 he was appointed physician to the 
National Hospital for the Paralysed and 
Epileptic in Queen Square, in succession to 
Dr. Brown-Sequard, and it was in connec- 
tion with this institution, and the diseases of 
the nervous system which it was founded to 
relieve, that Radcliffe's name was best known. 
He died very suddenly on 18 June 1889, and 
was buried in Highgate cemetery. He mar- 
ried in 1851, but left no issue. 

Radcliffe, whose personal appearance was 
extremely striking, was a type of all that is 
best in a physician of the old school, modified 
by a modern scientific training. His rniiidwas 
essentially metaphysical with a strong bias 
towards novel theories. He was one of the 
earliest investigators in this country of the 
electrical physiology of muscle and nerve, 
but he was too much occupied with abstract 
theories to do much by way of experiment. 
He was, as Dr. Burdon-Sanderson points out, 
essentially a vitalist,but with this difference 
that in his doctrine electricity took the place 
of the vital principle. Theological specula- 
tion also interested him, and he read with 
almost equal zest the works of Plato, Aquinas, 
and Maurice. 

An unfinished portrait, by Sir "William 
Boxall, belongs to Mrs. Radcliffe. 

Radcliffe's works are : 1. 'Proteus, or the 
Law of Nature,' 8vo, London, 1850. 2. ' The j 
Philosophy of Vital Motion,' 8vo, 1851. 
3. 'Epilepsy and other Affections of the 
Nervous System marked by Tremor, Con- 
vulsion, or Spasm,' 8vo, 1854 ; 2nd edit. 
1858 ; 3rd edit. 1861. 4. < Lectures on Epi- 
lepsy, Pain, Paralysis, and certain other dis- 
orders of the Nervous System,' 8vo, 1864. 
5. ' Articles in Reynolds's System of Medicine, 
1868 and 1872. 6. ' Dynamics of Nerve and 
Muscle,' 8vo, 1871. 7. ' Vital Motion as a 



Mode of Physical Motion,' 8vo, 1876. 8. ' The 
Connection between Vital and Physical 
Motion : a Conversation,' privately printed, 
1881. 9. ' Behind the Tides,' privately 
printed. 

Radcliffe was joint editor with Dr. W. H. 
Ranking from 18 45 to 1873 of Ranking's' Ab- 
stract of the Medical Sciences.' 

[Personal knowledge ; obituary notices ; 
Westminster Hospital Reports, by G-. Cowell, 
] 889, v. 1 ; Proceedings of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society, 1890, by Sir E. H. Sieve- 
king, M.D. ; additional information kindly given 
to the writer by Mrs. Radcliffe.] D'A. P. 

RADCLIFFE or RADCLYFFE, 
CHARLES EDWARD (1774-1827), lieu- 
tenant-colonel, born in 1774, received his 
first commission as adjutant of the first dra- 
goons (royals) on 11 Oct. 1797, but he had 
previously served under the Duke of York 
in the campaign of 1794. He was made 
cornet on 12 April 1799, lieutenant on 4 May 
1800, and captain on 1 Dec. 1804. He em- 
barked for the Peninsula with the royals in 
September 1809, and in the following June 
he was appointed brigade-major to General 
Slade's brigade, which consisted at that time 
of the royals and the 14th dragoons. He con- 
tinued in this position throughout the war, 
up to the battle of Toulouse in 1814, being 
present at Busaco, Fuentes d'Onoro, Vittoria, 
and various minor actions. In the action at 
Maquilla on 11 June 1812, in which Slade's 
brigade (royals and 3rd dragoon guards) was 
worsted by Lallemand, and driven in con- 
fusion for six miles with a loss of 150 
men, Slade reported that he was particularly 
indebted to Radcliffe for his assistance in 
rallying the men. As a result of his ex- 
perience in the war, Radcliffe submitted a 
strong recommendation that British troopers 
should be taught to use the point instead of 
the edge of their sabres, and published a 
small work on the subject ; it is not in the 
British Museum. 

Radcliffe was employed as assistant ad- 
jutant-general of cavalry during the march 
of the cavalry across France after the war. 
He received a brevet majority on 4 June 1814, 
and on 25 Sept. was made brigade-major to 
the inspector general of cavalry. In the 
following year he went to Belgium with his 
regiment, which formed part of the famous 
Union brigade. His squadron constituted 
the rearguard of the brigade in the retreat 
from Quatre Bras on 17 June, and he was 
thanked for his conduct by Sir William Pon- 
sonby. He was specially praised also by 
Ponsonby's successor, Colonel Clifton, for his 
part in the great cavalry charge at Waterloo 



Radcliffe 



123 



Radcliffe 



on the following day. He was severely 
wounded by a bullet in tlie knee, which could 
not be extracted, and caused him much 
pain for the rest of his life. He was given 
a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy, dating from the 
day of the battle. He was placed on half- 
pay on 20 April 1820, and was appointed 
brigade-major to the inspector-general of 
cavalry. He died in London on 24 Feb. 
1827. ' He was a dexterous swordsman, an 
accomplished officer, and an able tactician 
... a warm and sincere friend, a conscien- 
tious Christian, and a brave man,' writes 
General de Ainslie, the historian of the 
royals. He married Mary, eldest daughter 
of H. Crockett, esq.,who died a week before 
him. His only son, the Rev. Charles Rad- 
clyffe, died in 1862, leaving a son, Charles 
Edward Radclyffe, of Little Park, Hamp- 
shire. 

[Gent. Mag. 1813 ii. 81, 1827 i. 365; His- 
torical Records of the First or Royal Dragoons ; 
Wellington Despatches, Selections, p. 601, and 
Supplementary Series, x. 569 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1894, ii. 1G76.] E. M. L. 

RADCLIFFE, EGREMONT (d. 1578), 
rebel, was son of Henry Radclifi'e, second earl 
of Sussex [see under RADCLIFPE. ROBERT, first 
EARL], by his second wife, Anne, daughter of 
Sir Philip Calthorpe. When quite a young 
man he took part in the rebellion of 15b'9, 
and was so active that special instructions 
were given for his capture on its suppression. 
He managed, however, to escape over the 
border, and was for some time, with other 
rebels, the guest of the Scotts of Buccleugh 
at Branksom. A ship was provided to con- 
vey the party to Flanders, but news of the 
efforts the English government were making 
to intercept them having reached them, they 
seem to have sailed by way of Orkney. Once 
at Antwerp, Radcliffe received a pension 
of eight hundred ducats from the king of 
Spain. In the early part of 1572 he went on 
a mission to Madrid, w r here he was thrown 
into prison for debt at the end of 1573 ; in 
1574, having returned to the Low Countries, 
he went to France, and quitted ' the king 
of Spain's entertainment.' He wrote a good 
many letters to Burghley and others about 
his pardon, and in February 1574-5 Dr. 
Wilson, writing to Burghley, spoke of him 
as 'marvellously repentant;' he offered to 
serve in Ireland, and later in the same year 
he sent a letter to Wilson ' full of submission, 
with great moan of his necessity.' To be 
nearer the gates of mercy he had moved in 
1575 to Calais. He came in November 1575 
to London; but when he showed himself 
at court he was sent to the Tower. There 



he remained for some years. About April 
1577 he made petition to be allowed to take 
exercise in the little garden facing his prison, 
and to have a servant. He was confined in 
the Beauchamp Tower, where his name, with 
the date 1576 and the motto 'pour parvenir' 
may be seen cut in the wall of one of the 
cells. 

On 10 May 1578 he was secretly released 
from prison, and exiled. He went to Flan- 
ders, incurred suspicion of being mixed up in 
a plot to poison Don John of Austria, pre- 
sumably as the agent of the English govern- 
ment, and was consequently in the same year 
(1578) beheaded in the market-place of Na- 
mur (cf. Estate of the English Fugitives). 
De Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador in 
England, describes him as ' a rash and daring 
young man, ready for anything.' He was 
author of ' Politique Discourses translated 
out of French/ London, 1578, 4to, dedicated 
to Sir Francis W r alsingham ; this he under- 
took while in the Beauchamp Tower. 

[Gals, of State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 545 ; 
1566-79, Add., For. 1569-75, Spanish, 1568-79, 
specially note to p. 672 ; Fronde's Hist. ix. 529; 
Sharp's Mem. of the Rebellion of 1669, pp. 71, 
&c.; Hatfield MSS. ii. 100; Sadler Papers, ii. 
217, &c.; Gent. Mag. 1857, i. 199; Burke's Ex- 
tinct and Dormant Peerage.] \V. A. J. A. 

RADCLIFFE, SIR GEORGE (1593- 
1657), politician, baptised 21 April 1593, was 
the son of Nicholas 'Radcliffe (d. 1599) of 
Overthorpe in the parish of Thornhill, York- 
shire, by Margaret, daughter of Robert Marsh 
of Darton, Yorkshire, and widow of John 
Baylie of Honley in the same county. He 
was sent in 1607 to Mr. Hunt's school at 
Oldham, matriculated at University College, 
Oxford, on 3 Nov. 1609, and took the degree 
of B.A. on 24 May 1612. On 5 Feb. 1612 he 
was admitted to Gray's Inn, six years later he 
was called to the bar, and in 1632 he became 
a bencher of that society (FOSTER, Gray's Inn 
Register, p. 129; Alumni Oxonienses, 1st ser. 
iii. 1227). 

Radcliffe soon obtained a respectable 
practice, and his fortunes were further ad- 
vanced by marriage and by the friendship of 
Sir Thomas Went worth, who was a kinsman 
of his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir 
Francis Trappes. From about 1627 Radcliffe 
had the management of Wentworth's affairs 
(id. p. 137 ; Stmfford Letters, ii. 433). In 
1627 he, like Wentworth, refused to contri- 
bute to the forced loan, was for some months 
confined in the Marshalsea by the council 
(RtrsitwoRTH, i. 428), and stood out until the 
general release of all the prisoners took place 
in January 1628 (ib, i. 473). He sat in the 



Radcliffe 



124 



Radcliffe 



parliament of 1628, as his letters prove, but 
his name does not appear in the printed list 
of members (WHITAKER, Life of Radcliffe, 
p. 161). In December 1628 Wentworth be- 
came president of the council of the north, 
and through his influence Radcliffe obtained 
the post of king's attorney in that court (ib. 
p. 173 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, 
p. 236). 

"When Wentworth was made lord deputy 
of Ireland, he resolved to have Radcliffe 
with him, and the latter landed in Ireland in 
January 1633, six months before Wentworth's 
own arrival. Wentworth's first despatch to 
secretary Coke concluded with the request 
that Radcliffe should be made a member of 
the council (Strafford Letters, i. 97-100), 
and the king at once granted the request (ib. 
pp. 115, 134). The lord deputy placed his 
whole confidence in Radcliffe and Sir Chris- 
topher Wandesford. Writing to the lord 
treasurer on 31 Jan. 1634, he said, speaking 
of his financial schemes, ' There is not a 
minister on this side, that knows anything 
I write or intend, excepting the Master 
of the Rolls and Sir George Radcliffe, for 
whose assistance in this government, and 
comfort to myself amidst this generation, I 
am not able sufficiently to pour forth my 
humble acknowledgments to his Majesty. 
Sure I were the most solitary man without 
them that ever served a king in such a 
place ' (ib. i. 194). He praised in a similar 
strain their great services in the parliament 
of 1634 (ib. i. 352). In all legal matters 
Radcliffe was Wentworth's chief adviser, 
and in the management of the farm of the 
customs and other financial measures he 
was his right-hand man (ib. ii. 21 ; RUSH- 
WOKTH, Trial of Strafford, pp. 249, 410; 
LLOYD, Memoirs of Excellent Personages, p. 
149). It was owing to Radcliffe's advice that 
Wentworth decided, when opposed by the 
Earl of Ormonde, to make Ormonde his friend 
rather than to crush him (CARTE, Life of 
Ormonde, i. 131, ed. 1851). In 1639 Rad- 
cliffe joined with Sir Christopher Wandesford 
in promising to the king an annual contribu- 
tion of 5001. towards the expenses of the war 
with the Scots (Strafford Letters, ii. 279). In 
1640 the meeting of the Long parliament 
involved Radcliffe in the ruin of his patron. 
He was regarded as Strafford's accomplice, 
and was committed to the gatehouse on 
the charge of high treason (9 Dec. 1640; 
Commons' Journals, ii. 40, 48). Articles of 
impeachment against him were read in the 
commons on 29 Dec., and presented by Pym to 
the lords on the following day. Pym repre- 
sented Radcliffe as an inferior orb governed 
by a greater planet. ' In the crimes com- 



mitted by the Earl there appears to be more 
haughtiness and fierceness . . . but in those 
of Sir George Radcliffe there seems to be 
more baseness and servility, having resigned 
and subjected himself to be acted by the 
corrupt will of another.' Strafford, having 
less knowledge of the law and stronger 
passions, was easily led into illegality. ' Sir 
George Radcliffe, in his natural temper and 
disposition more moderate, and by his educa- 
tion and profession better acquainted with 
the grounds and directions of law, was 
carried into his offences by an immediate 
concurrence of will, by a more corrupt 
suppression and inthralling of his own 
reason and judgment' (ib. ii. 58; Lords' 
Journals, iv. 120). On 4 March 1641 Cap- 
tain Audley Mervin, on behalf of the Irish 
House of Commons, presented articles of im- 
peachment against Radcliffe and three other 
members of Strafford's council, to the Irish 
House of Lords (NALSON, Collection of 
Affairs of State, &c., ii. 566). The articles 
of impeachment, both English and Irish, 
were of a very general nature, and as Rad- 
cliffe was not brought to trial, no evidence 
was brought to prove them. In the course of 
the proceedings against Strafford, however, 
Radcliffe was shown to have threatened 
members for their votes in parliament, and 
to have been the chief agent in the prosecu- 
tion of Sir Piers Crosby. Crosby and Lord 
Baltinglass both presented petitions against 
him (Lords' Journals, iv. 258, 275 ; RUSH- 
WORTH, Trial of Strafford,^. 110-12). Ac- 
cording to Clarendon, the object of the 
managers of the trial in impeaching Rad- 
cliffe was to prevent him being a witness on 
behalf of Strafford (Rebellion, in. 93). Straf- 
ford was denied the assistance of Radcliffe 
in drawing up his answer to the remonstrance 
of the Irish parliament, but, according to 
Carte, the king forwarded the remonstrance 
to Radcliffe, and the answer was written by 
him and merely approved by Strafford (Life 
of Ormonde, i. 238 ; Lords' Journals, iv. 125, 
127). A formal demand by Strafford that 
Radcliffe should be summoned to explain 
the reasons for the calling in of the Dublin 
charters was likewise refused (RTJSHWORTH, 
Trial of Strafford, p. 163). Yet, in spite of 
all difficulties, he contrived to communicate 
with Strafford by letter, and to advise him 
as to his defence. Even after the earl's 
condemnation the two friends were not 
allowed to meet. On 9 May Radcliffe wrote 
a touching farewell to Strafford. ' I shall 
account no loss,' he concluded, ' if I do now 
shortly attend your blessed soul into the 
state of rest and happiness. But whatsoever 
small remainder of time God shall vouchsafe 



Radcliffe 



125 



Radcliffe 



to me in this world, my purpose is to employ 
it chiefly in the service of your children' 
(Stra/ord Letters, ii. 417 ; WHITAKEE, pp. 
222-6). Radcliffe kept his word, and was the 
faithful counsellor of Straffbrd's son (ib. 
p. 235). Many years later he addressed to 
him 'An Essay towards the Life of my Lord 
Strafford,' which is the basis of all later bio- 
graphies of that statesman, and supplies the 
most vivid picture of his private life (Straf- 
ford Letters, ii. 429-36). 

In June 1642 Radcliffe was still a prisoner, 
but the proceedings against him had been 
tacitly dropped (WHITAKER, p. 239). In 
1643 he joined the king at Oxford, and was 
created a doctor of law by the university on 
31 Oct. of that year (Wooo, Fasti, ii. 63). 
Carte prints a series of letters from Radcliffe 
to Ormonde, written between October 1643 
and June 1644, which show that he was a 
strong supporter of Ormonde's policy, and 
was sometimes consulted on Irish questions 
(Life of Ormonde, v. 516, 536, 539, vi. 13, 
38, 56, 84, 120, 146, 166). Charles granted 
Radcliffe a pardon for the treasons with 
which he was charged, but the parliament 
in the Uxbridge and Newcastle propositions 
named him in the list of those to be alto- 
gether excluded (BLACK, Oxford Docquets, 
pp. 217, 246). 

At one time the king contemplated sending 
the Duke of York to Ireland under the charge 
of Radcliffe. The design was abandoned, but 
Radcliffe remained in attendance upon the 
duke, and on the surrender of Oxford received 
orders from Fairfax to continue with the duke 
till the pleasure of the parliament should be 
known. The queen ordered Radcliffe to carry 
the duke either into Ireland or France, but 
he declined to remove James from England 
without an order from the king, and delivered 
him over to the Earl of Northumberland 
(CLARKE, Life of James II, i. 28 ; CLAREN- 
DON, Life, i. 244, ed. 1857). In April 1647 
Radcliffe was in exile at Caen ( Cal. Claren- 
don Papers, i. 373). In June 1648 he sailed 
from Dieppe with Cottington and Hyde to 
join the fleet under the Prince of Wales. On 
the way they were captured by an Ostend 
corsair, who robbed Radcliffe and his kinsman 
Wandesford of 500/. in money and jewels 
(CLARENDON, Life, i. 214). 

In 1649, before Charles II left France, he 
recommended Radcliffe to the Duke of 
York, and promised him ' some place about 
his brother when his family should be 
settled.' In October 1650 the duke left Paris 
and went first to Brussels, and then to the 
Hague. This was done against the wish of 
the queen, and was generally attributed to 
the advice of Radcliffe. Charles, displeased 



with the attempt of the duke to set up for 
himself, ordered him back to Paris, and 
desired him to be governed by the queen 
in all matters of importance (CLARKE, Life 
of James II, i. 48 ; Nicholas Papers, i. 195- 
212). In his dejection at his disgrace, 
Radcliffe proposed to retire altogether from 
the court, and settle in some obscure Norman 
village. He even thought of endeavouring 
to compound for his estate with the govern- 
ment of the Commonwealth. But the Com- 
monwealth, by an act passed 16 July 1651, 
had ordered the sale of all Radclifte's estates, 
and was not disposed to permit him to make 
terms. His wife, who was in England, found 
the greatest difficulty in obtaining the fifths 
which had been allowed her (WHITAKER, 
p. 256 ; SCOBLE, Collection of Acts, ii. 156 ; 
Cal. of Compounders, p. 1767). Later, 
Radcliffe succeeded to some extent in re- 
gaining the favour of Charles II, and played 
an important part in preventing the at- 
tempted perversion of the Duke of Gloucester 
in ]654 (Nicholas Papers, ii. 109, 131, 151, 
162). He received the king's thanks through 
Secretary Nicholas (ib. ii. 186). With Hyde, 
Radcliffe was never on very good terms, but 
expressed great devotion to Secretary Nicho- 
las and the Marquis of Ormonde (ib. ii. 235; 
THURLOE, v. 22). After Charles went to Co- 
logne. Radcliffe, who stayed behind in Paris, 
became once more one of the chief advisers 
of the Duke of York, and that apparently 
with the king's sanction. He found it a 
thankless business. In August 1656 he 
wrote to his wife, saying, ' I am as weary as 
a dog of mine office, for I labour in vain, 
do no good, but get scorns or ill-will. If it 
were not for the honour I bear to my old 
master, and to comply with his desire, I 
would cast up all and wash my hands ; but 
I must not fail his expectation ' (Nicholas 
Papers, ii. 185, 200; THTJRLOE, v. 293). 
Poverty made his position still more un- 
pleasant. ' I am now labouring,' he wrote in 
March 1656, 'to get credit for a suit of clothes, 
which is more than I have made these five 
years, and now my old frippery grows thin ' 
(ib. iv. 581). In September 1656 the Duke 
of York left France, and Radclifte joined 
the rest of the royalist exiles in the Low 
Countries (ib. v. 402). He died at Flush- 
ing in 1657. ' Sir George Radcliffe,' says a 
news-letter, ' was buried at Flushing upon 
Monday last (25 May); all the cavaliers 
was at his burial, except the chancellor 
and two more that was at Bruges. They 
are generally sorry for him ; for they say 
he was the best counsellor their master 
had ' (ib. vi. 325-326 ; WHITAKER, p. 288). 
Clarendon, who blames severely Radclifte's 



Radcliffe 



126 



Radcliffe 



conduct in 1650, characterises him never- 
theless as ' a man very capable of business : 
and if the prosperity of his former fortune 
had not raised in him some fumes of vanity 
and self-conceitedness, very fit to be ad- 
vised with, being of a nature constant and 
sincere ' (Life, i. 244). 

Radclitfe married, 21 Feb. 1621-2, Anne, 
eldest daughter of Sir Francis Trappes of 
Harrogate and Nidd, Yorkshire. She died on 
13 May 1659, in her fifty-eighth year, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey (CHESTER, 
Westminster Registers, p. 151 ; WHITAKER, 
p. 288). He left a son Thomas, who died 
at Dublin in 1679, leaving no issue (ib. p. 
295). 

[A short life of Radcliffe is given in David 
Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Personages, 1668, 
p. 148; his correspondence was edited in 1810 
by Dr. T. D. Whi taker, "who adds a fuller 
memoir; Letters of Radcliffe are printed in 
Carte's Life of Ormonde, in the same author's 
Collection of Original Letters, 1739, in the 
Nicholas Papers, edited by Mr. G. F. Warner 
(Camden Soc. 1886, 1892), and in the Thurloe 
Papers ; other authorities mentioned in the 
article.] C. H. F. 

RADCLIFFE or RADCLYFFE, 
JAMES, third EARL OF DERWEXTWATER 
(1689-1716), born in Arlington Street, Lon- 
don, on 28 June 1689, was the eldest son of 
Edward Radclyffe, the second earl (d. 1705), 
by Lady Mary Tudor, a natural daughter of 
Charles II, by Mary Davis or Davies [q. v.], the 
actress. Lady Mary was granted precedence of 
a duke's daughter by her father, married Rad- 
clyffe, to whom she was unfaithful, on 18 Aug. 
1687, and died in Paris on 5 Nov. 1726 (Hist. 
Reg. 1726, Chron. Diary, p. 42). The second 
earl was eldest son of Sir Francis Radclyffe 
(d. 1697), who was created Viscount Radclyffe 
and Langley and Earl of Derwentwater on 
7 March 1688, this being one of the few 
peerages created by James II. Sir Francis 
was the grandson of another Sir Francis Rad- 
clyffe, created a baronet by James I in 1619, 
who was a lineal descendant of Sir Nicholas, 
the grandfather of Sir Richard Radcliffe 
[q. v.], the adherent of Richard III. This Sir 
Nicholas acquired the Derwentwater estates 
in 1417, by marriage with the heiress of 
John de Derwentwater (see SURTEES, Hist, 
of Durham, i. 32 ; NICOLSON and BURN, 
Hist, of Westmorland, ii. 78 ; and WHI- 
TAKER, Hist, of Whalley, 3rd edit. pp. 
412-14). 

James was brought up at the exiled court 
of St. Germain, as a companion to the young 
prince, James Edward, remaining there, by 
the special desire of Queen Mary of Modena, 
until his father's death in 1705. After that 



he travelled on the continent, sailed from 
Holland for London in November 1709, and 
thence set out to visit his Cumberland estates 
for the first time early in 1710 (HODGSON, 
Hist, of Northumberland, I. ii. 225). He 
spent the next two years at Dilston Hall, 
the mansion built by his grandfather, and on 
10 July 1712 he married Anna Maria, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Webb, third baronet, of 
Odstock, Wiltshire, by Barbara, daughter 
and coheiress of John Belasyse, first baron 
Belasyse. A generous and impulsive youth, 
a Roman catholic, and a distant kinsman of 
the exiled house of Stuart, he joined the con- 
spiracy of 1715 without much reflection. 
His disloyal sentiments to the house of Bruns- 
wick were suspected by the government, and 
on the eve of the insurrection the secretary 
of state (Stanhope) signed a warrant for his 
arrest, and a messenger was sent to Durham 
to secure him. ButDerwentwater's tenantry 
were devoted to him, and the news of his 
meditated arrest reached him long before 
the messenger's arrival. He consequently 
went into hiding until he heard that Thomas 
Forster (1675P-1738) [q.v.] had raised the 
standard of the Pretender, whereupon he 
joined him at Green-rig, on 6 Oct. 1715, at 
the head of a company of gentlemen and 
armed servants from Dilston Hall. His fol- 
lowing did not exceed seventy persons, the 
troop being under the immediate command 
of his brother, Charles Radcliffe [see below]. 
The subordination of Derwentwater to For- 
ster was apparently due to the Pretender's 
anxiety to conciliate his protestant adhe- 
rents. Neither he nor Forster had any mili- 
tary experience. Their plan was to march 
through Lancashire to Staffordshire, where 
they looked for support, and the conduct 
of the expedition was left mainly in the 
hands of Colonel Henry Oxburgh [q. v.J, 
who had served under Marlborough in 
Flanders. When the rebels occupied Preston, 
Derwentwater showed much activity in en- 
couraging the men to throw up trenches ; 
but he seems to have acquiesced in Forster's 
pusillanimous decision to capitulate to the 
inferior force of General Wills, who, more- 
over, had no cannon. He was escorted with 
the other prisoners to London by General 
Henry Lumley [q. v.], and lodged in the 
Devereux tower of the Tower of London, 
along with Earls Nithsdale and Carnwath, 
and Lords Widdringt on, Kenmure, and Nairn. 
He was examined before the privy council on 
10 Jan. 1716, and impeached with the other 
lords on 19 Jan. Derwentwater pleaded 
guilty, urging in extenuation his inexperience, 
and his advice to those who were about him 
to throw themselves upon the royal clemency 



Radcliffe 



127 



Radcliffe 



He was attainted, and condemned to death. 
The greatest efforts were made to procure his 
pardon. Petitions were brought before both 
houses, and an address was carried from the 
upper house to the throne on 22 Feb., pray- 
ing that his majesty would reprieve ' such 
of the condemned lords as might appear to 
him deserving of clemency.' Upon Wid- 
drington, Carnwath, and Nairn being re- 
prieved, the efforts of Derwentwater's friends 
were redoubled. The countess, accompanied 
by her sister, their maternal aunt, the Duchess 
of Richmond, the Duchess of Cleveland, and 
other ladies, was introduced by the Duke of 
Richmond into the king's bedchamber, where 
the countess, in French, invoked his majesty's 
mercy. The king, however, prompted by 
Walpole (who declared that he had been 
offered 60,000/. to save Derwentwater, but 
that he was determined to make an example), 
was obdurate. Derwentwater was beheaded 
on Tower Hill on 24 Feb. 1716. Upon the 
scaffold he expressed regret at having pleaded 
guilty, and declared his devotion to the 
Roman catholic religion and to James III. 
Lord Kenmure suffered at the same time. 
The Earl of Nithsdale escaped from the 
Tower the day before [see under MAXWELL, 
WILLIAM, fifth EARL OF NITHSDALE]. 

Derwentwater's body was buried by his 
servants in St. Giles-in-the-Fields, and was 
subsequently conveyed to Dilston and buried 
in the Derwentwater vault. The earl left a 
son, John Radclyffe, who, but for the attain- 
der, would have been Earl of Derwentwater, 
and who so designated himself (-he died, at the 
age of nineteen, at Sir John Webb's house in 
Great Marlborough Street, London, on 31 Dec. 
1731), and a daughter Mary, who, with a 
fortune of 30,000/., married, on 2 May 1732, 
Robert James Petre, eighth baron Petre [see 

Under PETRE, WILLIAM, fourth BARON PETRE]. 

The bodies of the first three earls were, on 
9 Oct. 1874, reinterred at Thorndon in Essex, 
in the family vault of Lord Petre as the repre- 
sentative of the Derwentwater family. The 
Countess of Derwentwater died in a convent 
at Brussels in 1723, aged 30, and was buried 
in the church of the English canonesses at 
Louvain. TheextensiveDerwentwaterestates 
in Northumberland and Cumberland were in 
part settled upon Greenwich Hospital ; the 
sale of the remainder gave the trustees an 
opportunity to perpetrate a typical 'job,' at 
which Walpole connived (cf. HERVEY, Me- 
moirs, ii. 66). 

The compassion excited by Derwentwater's 
fate was mainly due to his youthful bearing 
and the simplicity of his motives. Locally 
he was extremely popular. Patten, the rene- 
gade historian of the rebellion, says that he 



was ' a man formed to be generally beloved. 
He spent his estate among his own people, 
and continually did offices of kindness and 
good neighbourhood to everybody, as oppor- 
tunity offered.' The earl's gallantry to the 
fair sex is celebrated in ' O Derwentwater's 
a bonny lord ! ' while his fate forms the sub- 
ject of the plaintive Jacobite melody, ' Lord 
Derwentwater's Good Night,' and of other 
songs still current in the north of England 
(Notes and Quen'es,1.st ser. xii. 492 ; cf. Gent. 
May. 1825, i. 489). The aurora borealis (which 
appeared specially bright on the night of the 
earl's execution) is still known locally as 
'Lord Derwentwater's Lights.' A portrait 
by Kneller was engraved by Cook for Mrs. 
Thomson's ' Memoirs of the Jacobites' (1845). 
Another engraving of the same portrait is 
prefixed to Gibson's ' Dilston Hall ' (1850). 
Four other portraits are preserved at Thorn- 
don Hall in Essex. 

The third earl's brother, CHARLES RAD- 
CLIFFE or RADCLYFFE (1693-1746), third and 
youngest son'of Edward, the second earl, was 
born at Little Parndon, Essex, on 3 Sept. 
1693, and on the death of his nephew, John 
Radclyffe (see above), in 1731, assumed the 
title of Earl of Derwentwater. He joined 
the Jacobite rising, and, in company with 
his brother, surrendered himself prisoner at 
Preston on 13 Nov. 1715. He was found 
guilty of high treason, but his extreme youth 
would probably have procured his pardon (he 
was only twenty-two) had he not broken 
out of Newgate with thirteen fellow-prisoners 
on 11 Dec. 1716. The accounts of his escape, 
which conflict in other respects, agree that 
he escaped through the debtors' prison (cf. 
GRIFFITHS, Chronicles of Newgate, pp. 196- 
197). He joined the Stuart family on the 
continent, and was for a time secretary to 
Prince Charles Edward. He is stated, in the 
'Memoirs' of 1746, to have paid several 
clandestine visits to London during the period 
of his exile. On 24 June 1724 he married, 
at St. Mary's, Brussels, Charlotte Maria 
(granddaughter of Sir James Livingstone of 
Ivinnaird, first earl of Newburgh [q. v.],who 
in 1694 had succeeded her father Charles, 
second earl of Newburgh, as countess suo 
jure ; she was widow of Thomas Clifford 
(d. 1718). Derwentwater is said to have 
urged his suit fifteen times without success, 
and then to have adopted the expedient 
of entering the lady's apartment by way of 
the chimney (the incident is represented 
in a curious picture at Thorndon). Rad- 
cliffe subsequently went to Rome, where 
several of his children were born, and where 
he made many friends. In November 1745 
he was captured off the Dogger Bank by the 



Radcliffe 



128 



Radcliffe 



frigate Sheerness on board a French ship of 
war bound for Montrose from Dunkirk, and 
carrying arms and warlike stores, doubtless 
to join the Chevalier, though of this fact no 
proof was obtained. With several other offi- 
cers he was taken prisoner to the Tower of 
London. His identity having been esta- 
blished, he was condemned to death under 
his former sentence on 21 Nov. 1746. Though 
not legally a peer, owing to the attainder, he 
was accorded the privilege of decapitation, 
and met his fate bravely on Tower Hill on 
8 Dec. 1746, reiterating his adhesion to the 
catholic faith and the Stuart cause ; he was 
buried in St. Giles's-in-the-Fields on 11 Dec, 
Of all the victims of the rebellion his execu- 
tion most affected the Pretender James Ed- 
ward, who had known him at Rome for many 
years, and regarded him as the most zealous 
and loyal of his adherents (State Papers, 
Tuscany, 17 Jan. 1747 ap. EWALD, Life and 
Times of Prince Charles, ii. 68). His widow 
died in London on 4 Aug. 1755, aged 62, and 
was buried with him. There is a mezzotint 
portrait by an unknown artist (SMITH, Mezzo- 
tinto Portraits, pt. iv. 1703). 

Charles Radclyffe's eldest son, James Bar- 
tholomew Radclyffe (1725-1786), became 
third Earl of Newburgh on the death of his 
mother in August 1755. He was baptised at 
Vincennes on 25 Aug. 1725, the Pretender 
James Edward standing as his godfather, and 
he was taken prisoner with his father in 1745, 
but soon afterwards released . In 1 749, by act 
of parliament, a sum of 30,OOOZ. was raised for 
his benefit from the Derwentwater estates ; 
in the same year he married Barbara, heiress 
of Anthony Kemp of Slindon, Sussex, by 
Anne, daughter of Henry Browne, fifth vis- 
count Montagu, and left issue. The only 
son, Anthony James, fourth earl, died with- 
out issue in 1814, and the peerage devolved 
upon the descendants of Charlotte Maria, 
countess of Newburgh, by her first husband, 
Thomas, son of Lord Clifford (cf. STJRTEES, 
Hist of Durham, i. 33 ; Gr. E. C.'s Peerage, 
s.v. 'Newburgh; ' BURKE, Peerage, s.v. 'New- 
burgh ; ' Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii 405, 
7th ser. vols. iv. and v. passim). 

[The romantic fate of the third Earl of Der- 
wentwater and his brother occasioned a small 
literature of dying speeches and chap-book lives. 
Among these may be noted : Genuine and Im- 
partial Memoirs of Charles Radclyffe . . . with 
an Account of his Family, London, 1746. 8vo, 
two editions, and Dublin, 1746, 8vo; A Sketch 
of the Life and Character of Mr. Radcliffe, 1746, 
8vo ; Penrice's Genuine and Impartial Account 
of the Remarkable Life of C. Radcliffe and . . . 
his Brother, 1746, 8vo; History of the Earl of 
Derwentwater : his Life, Adventures, Trial, &c., 



Newcastle, 1840, 12mo (several editions with 
small modifications). See also Gibson's Dilston 
Hall, or Memoirs of James Radcliffe, Earl of 
Derwentwater (a careful piece of family history), 
1850, 8vo ; G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, ii. 78 ; 
Burke's Extinct Baronetage, p. 436; Burke's 
Anecdotes of the Aristocracy, i. 263 ; Stowe MS. 
158, f. 173 (containing particulars of the disposal 
of the Derwentwater estates) .; Miscell. Topogr. et 
Genealog. iii. 154 ; Ellis's Family of Radclyffe, 
1850; Howitt's Visits to Remarkable Places, 
2nd ser. ; Patten's Hist, of the Rebellion, 2nd 
edit. 1717, passim ; Jesse's Pretenders and their 
Adherents, i. 101 ; Hogg's Jacobite Relics, 2nd 
ser. p. 270; Jacobite Minstrelsy, 1829 ; Stan- 
hope's Hist, of England, vol. i. ; Historical Re- 
gister, vols. i. ii. and iii. passim ; Wheatley and 
Cunningham's London, iii. 398-9. See also ar- 
ticles FOESTER, THOMAS (1C75 P-1738), and OX- 
BURGH, HENRY.] T. S: 

RADCLIFFE or RATCLIFFE, JOHN, 

LORD FITZWALTER (1452 P-1496), was son of 
Sir John Radclifl'e of Attleborough in Nor- 
folk, head of a younger branch of the Rad- 
cliffes of RadclifFe Tower, Lancashire. His 
mother was Elizabeth, baroness Fitzwalter 
in her own right, as the only child of Walter 
Fitzwalter (d. 1431), seventh baron Fitz- 
walter of Woodham W T alter and Dunmow 
in Essex. Radcliffe's father, who in right of 
his wife was styled Lord Fitzwalter, died 
a few days after the battle of Towton (6 April 
1461) of wounds received in the preliminary 
skirmish at Ferrybridge, when his son and 
heir was nine years of age. The latter seems 
to have resided fora time at Calais or Guisnes, 
and to have returned to England, where he 
settled at Attleborough, about 1476 (Paston 
Letters, iii. 156, 160). He was a relative of 
the Paston family (ib. iii. 341-3). Until 
1485 he was styled John Radcliffe of Attle- 
borough, esq., or John Radcliffe Fitzwauter, 
but on 15 Sept. in that year he received a 
summons to parliament as Lord Fitzwalter, 
though his mother seems still to have been 
alive ; he continued to be so summoned 
until 14 Oct. 1495 (DUGDALE, i. 515 ; Testa- 
menta Vetusta, p. 496 ; Paston Letters, iii. 
83). Henry VII also made him steward of 
the household in the first year of his reign, 
and two years later (25 Nov. 1487) joint 
high steward of England with Jasper Tudor, 
duke of Bedford, and others at the corona- 
tion of his queen, Elizabeth of York. But 
on taking part in the conspiracy on behalf of 
Perkin War beck, Radcliffe was attainted in 
the parliament of October 1495, and sent 
prisoner to Calais, where, after a futile at- 
tempt to escape by bribing his keepers, he was 
beheaded in November 1496. 

RadclifFe married, first (before 12 March 
1476), Anne, sister of Sir Richard Whet- 



Radcliffe 



129 



Radcliffe 



hill of Calais (Paston Letters, iii. 160) ; his 
second wife is usually supposed to have been 
Anne, daughter of Edward, lord Hastings, 
who in 1507, if not earlier, became the wife 
of Thomas Stanley, second earl of Derby 
(d. 1521), and died in 1550 ; but this sup- 
position is not free from difficulties, and a 
Margaret, lady Fitzwalter, mentioned in 
1518, is sometimes taken to be his widow. 
By his first wife Radcliffe had five daughters 
and one son. The attainder was removed 
in favour of this son Robert, afterwards 
first earl of Sussex [q. v.], by letters patent 
of 25 Jan. 1506, confirmed by an act of par- 
liament in 1509. 

[G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, iii. 371 ; 
Dugdale's Baronage; Bentley's Excerpta His- 
torica, pp.. 101, 111; Rotuli Parliament orum, 
vi. 501; Busch's England under tho Tudors, 
Engl. transl. pp. 95, 340.] J. T-T. 

RADCLIFFE, JOHN (1650-1714), phy- 
sician, was born in a house in the market- 
place at Wakefield in 1650 (LEA.THAJI, Lec- 
tures, p. 142). His father, George Radcliffe, 
of strong republican principles, was governor 
of the Wakefield house of correction from 
1647 to 1661, and increased his moderate 
estate by marrying Sarah, daughter of 
Mr. Louder (LtrpioN, Wakefield Worthies, 
p. 104). There was a large family. John 
was sent to the Wakefield grammar school, 
but is alleged to have received part of his 
education at the Northallerton grammar 
school, under Thomas Smelt (Kennett's notes 
in Lansd. MS. 987, f. 221 ; INGLEDEW, His- 
tory of Northallerton, p. 295). At the age 
of fifteen he was admitted to University 
College, Oxford, matriculating on 23 March 
1665-6. In 1667 he was made senior scholar 
after obtaining much honour in the logic 
school (PiTTis, Memoirs of Dr. Radcliffe). He 
graduated B.A. in October 1669, and became 
fellow of Lincoln College. Thedegree of M.A. 
followed in June 1672. Then, turning to medi- 
cine, he proceeded M.B. in July 1675, M.D. 
and grand compounder in July 1682. In 
his study of medicine, as of other subjects, 
he succeeded more by his ready wit than by 
his learning. His medical library, he said, 
consisted of some phials, a skeleton, and a 
herbal. On settling in practice in Oxford, 
he paid little regard to professional conven- 
tions, and thus incurred the anger of older 
practitioners. But his success in coping 
with an epidemic of smallpox, and his treat- 
ment of Sir Thomas Spencer's wife, assured 
him a prosperous career. In 1677 he re- 
signed his fellowship rather than take orders, 
and having incurred the displeasure of Dr. 
Thomas Marshall [q.v.], rector of Lincoln 
College, he gave up his chambers there. 

VOL. XLVII. 



Radcliffe moved to London in 1684, and 
settled in Bow Street ; and in the following 
year he obtained a large increase of practice 
through the death of Dr. Richard Lower of 
King Street, Covent Garden (Wooo, Athence 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 298). His apothecary, 
Dandridge, who died worth 50,000/., said 
that Radcliffe had not been in town a year 
before he made more than twenty guineas a 
day. Many people, we are told, pretended 
to be ill in order that they might be enter- 
tained by his witty conversation. In 1686 
the Princess Anne of Denmark chose Rad- 
cliffe for her principal physician, but he 
was not made a fellow of the College of 
Physicians until 12 April 1687. In that 
year he gave an east window for the chapel 
at University College, Oxford, and in 1688 
Dr. Obadiah Walker, the head of the college, 
corresponded with him in the hope of bring- 
ing him over to the Roman catholic faith. 
Although Radcliffe declined conversion, he 
felt great respect for Walker, and afterwards 
gave him a handsome competency, and in 
1699 contributed to his funeral expenses 
(ib. iv. 444 ; HEARNE, Collections, i. 85-6). 

The services Radcliffe rendered to the 
Duke of Portland and the Earl of Rochford 
caused William III to give him five hundred 
guineas from the privy purse, and to offer 
him an appointment as one of his physicians, 
with 200/. a year more than any other 
Radcliffe declined the offer, owing to the calls 
of his private practice ; "but for eleven years 
he cleared on the average over six hundred 
guineas a year by his attendance on the king. 
In March 1090' Radcliffe was elected M.P. 
for Bramber, and he sat for that borough 
until the dissolution in 1695. He seems to 
have saved the king's life during a dangerous 
attack of asthma in 1690, and next year he 
attended William, duke of Gloucester, the 
infant son of the Princess Anne, with such 
good result that Queen Mary ordered the 
lord chamberlain to present him with one 
thousand guineas. In 1692 he lost 5,000/. 
owing to the capture by the French of a ship 
in which he had ventured the money at the 
advica of Betterton the actor ; but when 
friends condoled with him he said he had 
only to go up two hundred and fifty pairs of 
stairs to make himself whole again. At the 
suggestion of his friend Dr. Arthur Charlett 
[q. v.], master of University College, Rad- 
clift'e gave large sums to the college in 1692- 
1694, including 1,100^. towards exhibitions. 

Queen Mary was seized with smallpox in 
December 1694, and, after the disease had 
well developed, Radcliffe was sent for by the 
council. As soon as he read the recipes 
given her he said she was a dead woman, as 



Radcliffe 



130 



Radcliffe 



she had received the wrong medicines. She 
died on the 28th. According to another ac- 
count (STRICKLAND, Lives of the Queens of 
England, vii. 435-6), Radclifte mistook the 
smallpox for measles. Burnet is in error in 
suggesting that Radclifte was among those 
first called in ; and he shows his bias by 
calling the doctor ' an impious and vicious 
man, who hated the queen much, but virtue 
and religion more. lie was a professed 
Jacobite, and by many thought a very bad 
physician ; but others cried him up to the 
highest degree imaginable.' It is said that the 
queen fancied when she was dying that Rad- 
cliffe had given her a popish nurse (RALPH, 
ii. 540). 

Radcliffe soon afterwards offended the 
Princess Anne by neglecting to visit her 
when sent for, and saying that her distemper 
was nothing but the vapours ; and Dr. Gib- 
bons became her physician in his place. 
Later in 1695 he attended the Earl of Albe- 
marle, who was suffering from fever in the 
camp in Belgium, and the king paid him 
1,200/. for this service, and offered him a 
baronetcy, which was declined. By 1695 he 
was in friendly intercourse with Arbutlmot, 
and in 1697 Aldrich, the dean of Christ 
Church, was staying at his house (AiTKEX, 
L'fe ofArbuthnot, pp. 13, 15, 17). In 1697 
Radcliffe relieved the king in a serious ill- 
ness, and in 1699 lie was again called in to 
see the young Duke of Gloucester ; but he 
at once said the prince would die next day, 
and expi'essed contempt of the doctors who 
had been in attendance. The king was ill 
again at the end of this year, when Radcliffe, 
after seeing William's swollen ankles, said 
he would not have the king's two legs for 
his three kingdoms. This gave such offence 
that William never saw him again, though 
he used the doctor's diet-drinks. When 
Anne came to the throne Godolphin made 
vain efforts to reinstate the doctor in her 
favour. He was, however, often consulted 
privately by the queen's physicians. 

Radcliffe was mentioned only incidentally, 
but respectfully, in Codrington's verses pre- 
fixed to Garth's ' Dispensary,' 1699. and in 
the ' Dispensary Transversed,' 1701 (cf. 
Addit. MS. 29568, ff. 27-30). In March 
1703 Radclifte was dangerously ill, and made 
a will ; but he unexpectedly recovered, and 
was said to become very devout. In 1704, 
under an assumed name, he settled 50/. 
a year for ever upon the Society for Pro- 
pagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; and 
he gave 500/., with a request that it might 
be kept secret, to Dr. William Lloyd, non- 
juring .bishop of Norwich, for distribution 
among fifty poor clergy. In 1705 he was 



called in to see Pope, then a lad of seven- 
teen, and the adoption of his advice to study 
I less and ride more restored his patient's 
health (SPEXCE, Anecdotes, 1856, p. 6). In 
the same year he bought an estate near 
Buckingham with a view to settling it upon 
University College ; but for various reasons 
the transfer was delayed. According to a 
scurrilous pamphlet, 'A Letter from a Citi- 
zen of Bath to his Excellency Dr. R 
at Tunbridge,' 1705, Radclifte had vilified 
the Bath waters, and was once more patro- 
nising Tunbridge Wells, though he had 
lately taken a freeman's oath to do all the 
good he could for Bath. This fickleness was 
attributed to his base birth and brutish 
temper. In 1706 Radcliffe assisted James 
Drake [q. v.], who was accused of writing 
against the government in his ' Memorial of 
the Church of England,' and he subscribed 
liberally towards improvements at Oxford. 
By 1707 he was worth 80,000/., and, besides 
lending money to Arthur Mainwaring or 
Maynwaring [q. v.], he contributed, though 
not in his own name, to the relief of the 
episcopal clergy in Scotland. He declined to 
become a governor of Bridewell and Bethle- 
hem Hospitals on the ground that his duties 
as a governor of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
occupied all his available time. In 1708 
Radcliffe bought, besides property in North- 
amptonshire and Yorkshire, the perpetual 
advowson of Headbourne- Worthy, Hamp- 
shire, which he bestowed on Dr. Joseph 
Bingham [q. v.], fellow of University Col- 
lege. 

Prince George of Denmark became dan- 
gerously ill in October 1708, and the queen 
sent for Radclifte; but the dropsy had reached 
such a stage that the doctor could hold out 
no hope, and the prince died in six days. In 
1709 Radcliffe, after passing for years as a 
misogynist the result of a disappointment 
in 1693 fell in love with a patient, one Miss 
Tempest. Steele ridiculed him in the ' Tatler ' 
for 21 and 28 July, and 13 Sept., under the 
name of ' yEsculapius,' for setting up a new 
coach and liveries in order to please the lady. 
Some said that Radcliffe was in love with 
the Duchess of Bolton ( Wentworth Papers, 
p. 97) [see under PATJLET or POWLETT, 
CHARLES, second DUKE OF BOLTOX] ; in any 
case he did not marry. In 1710, after a 
serious illness, he thought of retiring, but 
was persuaded to continue his practice by 
Dr. Sharp, archbishop of York, whose life 
he was soon afterwards the means of saving. 
He aided Sacheverell, and was invited to 
be a member of parliament for Buckingham, 
an offer which he declined for the time. In 
1711 he was much depressed by the death of 



Radcliffe 



Radcliffe 



his bottle-companion, Lord Craven, whom 
he had saved from death some months earlier. 
By February 1711 Radclift'e was treating 
Swift for his dizziness ; and on 20 March 
Swift complained that Harley's wound was 
neglected because ' that puppy ' Radclifte 
would admit none but his own surgeon 
{Journal to Stella, 10 April 1711). 

Radclift'e was chosen M.P. for Bucking- 
ham on 25 Aug. 1713 ; two short speeches 
have survived, one in favour of the Malt- 
tax bill, and the other on behalf of the bill 
to prevent the growth of schism. About this 
time he began to recommend Dr. Mead, then 
a rising physician, to many of his patients. 
A kinsman, Richard Fiddes [q. v.], was, at 
Radclift'e's request, given the degree of B.U. 
of Oxford, for the university was look- 
ing forward to a generous benefaction from 
the doctor (Letters written by Eminent Per- 
sons in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
turies, i. 261, Thomas Carte to Dr. Char- 
lett, 8 Oct. 1713). Next year, when the 
Duke of Beaufort died, Radclitte said he 
had lost the only person in whose conversa- 
tion he took pleasure. Arbuthnot, who had 
already introduced Radcliffe into the ' His- 
tory of John Bull,' 1712, proposed now to 
give him a place in the ' Memoirs of Scrible- 
rus.' Radcliffe was to be painted at the 
corner of a map of diseases, ' contending for 
the universal empire of this world, and the 
rest of the physicians opposing his ambitious 
designs with a project of a treaty of partition 
to settle peace ' (Arbuthnot to Swift, 26 June 
1714). 

Queen Anne was attacked by her fatal ill- 
ness in July 1714. Charles Ford told Swift 
on 31 July that at noon on the previous day | 
Radcliffe had been sent for ' by order of ; 
council,' but that he said he had taken > 
physic and could not come. According to i 
a letter in the ' Wentworth Papers,' it was j 
reported that Radclifie's answer was that 
to-morrow (31 July) would be time enough 
to wait on her majesty. According to Pittis, 
he was not sent for by either the queen or i 
the privy council ; but Lady Masham sent 
to him privately two hours before the queen's I 
death, after Radclift'e had learnt from Mead \ 
that the case was hopeless. He was then at 
Carshalton, Surrey, suffering from a severe \ 
attack of gout, and he sent word that, in view : 
of the queen's antipathy to him, he feared his i 
presence would do her harm rather than good, 
and that, as the case was desperate, it would ! 
be best to let her majesty die as easily as ' 
possible. But if a letter given by Pittis is ! 
genuine, he also said he would have come, ' 
ill as he was, had he been sent for by the 
proper authorities. According to another 



letter, his life was afterwards threatened by 
several persons who were angry at his con- 
duct. On 5 Aug. Radclift'e's old friend, Sir 
John Pakington (1671-1727) [q. v.], moved 
that the doctor should be summoned to at- 
tend in his place to be censured for not waiting 
upon the queen when sent for by the Duke of 
Ormondes, but the matter dropped (BoTER, 
Political State, viii. 152). 

Radclifl'e died on 1 Nov. 1714, after a fit 
of apoplexy. On 15 Oct. he wrote to the 
Earl of Denbigh that he should not live a 
fortnight, and that his life had been shortened 
by the attacks made upon him after the 
queen's death. He begged Lord Denbigh to 
avoid intemperance, which he feared he had 
encouraged by his example. His body lay 
in state at Carshalton until the 27th, and 
was then removed to Oxford, where it was 
buried on 3 Dec. in St. Mary's Church. By 
his will, dated 13 Sept. 1714, Radcliffe left 
most of his property to the university, and 
there was an imposing public funeral. The 
handsome annuities to his sisters and other 
relatives show that Peter Wentworth's 
charge 'he had died like an ill-natured brute 
as he has lived ; he left none of his poor rela- 
tions anything' is groundless (Wentivorth 
Papers, p. 434). Property was left to Uni- 
versity College in trust for the foundation of 
two medical travelling fellowships, for the 
purchase of perpetual advowsons for mem- 
bers of the college, for enlargement of the 
college buildings, and for a library. Other 
estates were left to his executors in trust for 
charitable purposes, as they might think best, 
and from these funds the RadcliiFe Infirmary 
and Observatory were built and Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital enlarged ; and since then 
money has been granted towards the build- 
ing of the College of Physicians in London, 
the Oxford Lunatic Asylum, and St. John's 
Church, Wakefield. The Radclift'e Library 
was completed in 1747. Radcliffe's will was 
disputed by his heir-at-law, and the ques- 
tion was long before the court of chancery 
(SissoN, Historic Sketch of the Parish Church, 
Wakefield^ 1824, p. 99). 

It is difficult, as Munk remarks, to form a 
correct estimate of Radclift'e's skill as a phy- 
sician. He was certainly no scholar, but he 
was ' an acute observer of symptoms, and in 
many cases was peculiarly happy in the 
treatment of disease.' He was often at war 
with other doctors and with the authorities 
of the College of Physicians. He was gene- 
rally regarded as a clever empiric who had 
attained some skill by means of his enormous 
practice ; but Mead said ' he was deservedly 
at the head of his profession, on account of 
his great medical penetration and experience.' 

K2 



Radcliffe 



132 



Radcliffe 



Defoe speaks in 'Duncan Campbell' of ' all 
the most eminent physicians of the age, even 
up to the great Dr. Radclift'e himself.' Rough 
in his manners, and fond of flattery, he was 
generous to those in need, a good friend, and 
a magnificent patron of learning. Bernard 
Mandeville attacked him in the 'Essay on 
Charity Schools ' subjoined to his ' Fable of 
the Bees.' 

A portrait of Radcliffe, painted by Kneller 
in 1710. is in the Radcliffe Library, and there 
are statues in the library and in one of the 
courts of University College. Another por- 
trait was at Sir Andrew Fountaine's at Nar- 
ford. An engraving from Kneller's painting, 
by Vertue, was published in 1719, and en- 
gravings by M. Burghers are prefixed to 
' Exequise clarissimo viro Johanni Radclift'e, 
M.D., ab Oxoniensi Academia solutae,' 1715, 
and 'Bibliotheca Radcliffiana, or a Short 
Description of the Radcliffe Library/ by 
James Gibbs, architect, 1747. A portrait 
engraved by M. Vandergucht is given in 
' Dr. Radcliffe's Practical Dispensatory,' by 
Edward Strother, M.D., 1721. A gold- 
headed cane, said to have been Radcliffe's, 
was given by Mrs. Baillie to the College of 
Physicians. 

JOHN RADCLIFFE, M.D. (1690-1729), 
seems to have been no relative of his name- 
sake. He was son of John Radcliffe of Lon- 
don, gentleman, was born on 10 May 1690, 
and was admitted to Merchant Taylors' 
School in 1703. He matriculated at St. 
John's College, Oxford, on 17 Oct. 1707, and 
became B.A. on 2 June 1711, M.A. on 
23 April 1714, and M.D. on 30 June 1721. 
On 25 June 1724 he was chosen a fellow of 
the College of Physicians ; and he was phy- 
sician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. He 
died on 16 Aug. 1729 (MuNK, Coll. of Phys. 
ii. 86 ; FOSTER, Alumni Oxon.) 

[The chief source of information for Rad- 
cliffe's life is Pittis's Memoirs of Dr. Radcliffe 
(with Supplement), published by Curll in 1715. 
A full abstract of this book is given in the long 
article in the Bioraphia Brifannica. "William 
Singleton, Radcliffe's servant, said that the 
letters printed by Pittis were not genuine ; but 
Pittis defended himself. Further particulars are 
given in Munk's Roll of the College of Physi- 
cians; Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss; Strick- 
land's Lives of the Queens of England; Noble's 
Cont. of Granger ; Jenkin Lewis's Memoirs of 
the Duke of Gloucester, ed Loftie, 1881 ; Letters 
written by Eminent Persons in the Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth Centuries ; Nichols's Lit. Anec- 
dotes; Pointer's Oxoniensis Aeademia; MHC- 
michael's Gold-headed Cane ; Pettigrew's Me- 
moirs of J. C. Lettsom, M.D., i. 44, and Medical 
Portrait Gallery, vol. i. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th 



Reports, and Cowper MSS. vols. ii. and iii. ; 
Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble; Wyon's Queen 
Anne; Wentworth Papers; Aitken's Life and 
Works of Arbuthnot; Pope's Works, ed. Court- 
hope ; Swift's Works, ed. Scott ; Lysons's Envi- 
rons of London, i. 135, iv. 583.] G. A. A. 

RADCLIFFE, JOHN NETTEN (1826- 
1884), epidemiologist, son of Charles Rad- 
cliffe, and younger brother of Dr. Charles 
I Bland Radcliffe [q. v.], was born in Yorkshire 
j on 20 April 1826, and received his early 
! medical training at the Leeds school of 
: medicine. Shortly after obtaining his diploma 
j he went to the Crimea as a surgeon attached 
to the headquarters of Omar Pasha, and re- 
mained there till the close of the war. He 
received for his services the order of the 
Medjidie as well as the Turkish and English 
medals, with a clasp for Sebastopol. On 
returning home he became medical superin- 
tendent of the Hospital for the Paralysed 
and Epileptic in Queen Square, London. 

In 1865 he was selected to prepare a special 
report on the appearance of cholera abroad, 
and in 1866 he was busily engaged in inves- 
tigating the outbreak in East London, which 
he traced to the infected supply of the East 
London Water Company. This report ap- 
peared as a blue-book in 1867, and gained 
Radcliffe a wide reputation. He was elected 
a member of the Epidemiological Society in 
1850, was its honorary secretary 1862-71, 
and president 1875-7. In November 1869 
he was appointed to the second of the two 
public health inspectorships then created by 
the privy council, and, on the formation of 
the local government board in 1871, he was 
made assistant medical officer. Owing to 
ill-health he resigned this post in 1883, and 
died on 11 Sept. 1884. 

Not only an expert in the question of the 
distribution of oriental diseases, Radcliffe 
was an authority on all questions pertaining 
to public health. Of remarkably simple and 
straightforward nature, he was a most 
cautious worker, but where rapidity was 
essential he showed himself equal to the 
j situation. Prior to his official appointment 
I he wrote : 1. ' The Pestilence in England,' 
: 8vo, London, 1852. 2. ' Fiends, Ghosts, and 
Sprites, &c.', 8vo, London, 1854. 3. ' The 
Hygiene of the Turkish Army,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1858; reprinted with additions from 
the 'Sanitary Review.' In his official capa- 
city he prepared a long series of reports 
dealing with the spread of epidemics and 
the question of quarantine (see list in index, 
| Cat. Libr. of the Surgeon-General of the 
! U.S. Armif). Among these the more impor- 
! tant, in addition to those already mentioned, 
are : 1. ' On the Means for preventing Excre- 



Radcliffe 



'33 



Radcliffe 



ment Nuisances in Towns and Milages,' 
1869 and 1873. 2. ' On an Outbreak of En- 
teric Fever in Marylebone,' 1873. 3. ' On 
the Diffusion of Cholera in Europe during 
the ten years 1865-74.' 4. ' On the Progress 
of Levantine Plague, 1875-77.' 

[Brit. Med. Journ. 1384, ii. p. , r >88 ; Lancet, 
1884, ii. 502, 524, 562 ; Trans. Epidemiol. Soc. 
Lond., new ser. iv. 121 ; information kindly 
supplied by Dr. R. Thorne Thome, (\B. ; Index 
Cat. Libr. Surg.-Gen. U. S. Army.] B. B. W. 

RADCLIFFE, NICHOLAS (fi. 1382), 
opponent of Wiclif,waa a monk of St. Albans 
who received his education at Oxford, pro- 
bably at Gloucester Hall, the Benedictine 
hostel, and obtained the degree of doctor of 
theology. Appointed prior of Wymondham 
in Norfolk, a cell of St. Albans, on 5 Feb. 
1368, Radcliffe remained there for twelve 
years. But in 1380 the aggressive Bishop Le 
Despencer of Norwich claimed authority over 
the prior, Radcliffe protested, and the abbot 
of St. Albans asserted his exclusive rights 
over the priory by divesting him of his office, 
and making him archdeacon of the parent 
monastery. The bishop denied his power to 
do this, but the king decided against him 
{ Chronicon Anglice, p. 258 ; Gesta Abbatum, 
iii. 123). Two years later Kadcliffe was 
among the doctors of theology who joined 
in the condemnation of "Wiclif s heresies at 
the Blackfriars council (12 June), and as- 
sisted in bringing the lollard Aston to a sense 
of his errors (Fasciculi Zizaniorum, pp. 289, 
332). He was alive in 1396, when he took 
part in the election of a new abbot of St. 
Albans, and preached a sermon in the chap- 
ter-house ( Gesta Abbatum, iii. 425, 480, 486). 

lladcliffe was a prominent literary anta- 
gonist of Wiclif, who stigmatised him and 
the Carmelite Peter Stokes [q. v.], another ad- 
versary, as the black and white dogs. His chief 
work seems to have been a discussion in two 
books of Wiclifa views on the eucharist, in 
the form of a dialogue between himself and 
Stokes, entitled ' Viaticum salubre animfe 
immortalis.' A manuscript of this was for- 
merly in the library of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, where Leland saw it (Collectanea, iii. 
18). Tanner mentions as a separate work a 
dialogue with an almost identical title, ' De 
Viatico Animae,' but in a single book. Its 
opening words differ from those given by 
Leland as commencing the first-mentioned 
treatise. Radcliffe also wrote other dialogues 
between himself and Stokes, with the titles 
' De primo homine,' ' De dominio naturali,' 
' De obedientiali dominio,' ' De dominio regali 
ft judicial!,' ' De potestate Petri apostoli et 
successorum.' Tanner notes the existence of 



a manuscript of these in the royal library at 
Westminster, numbered 6 D. x. Itadcliffe 
wrote also on monastic vows, the worship of 
images, and the papal schism. An ' invectio ' 
against the errors of Wiclif, in Harl. MS. 
635, f. 205, is ascribed to him. 

[Bale's Britanniae Scriptores ; Tanner's Bi- 
bliotheca Brit.-Hibernica ; other authorities in 
the text.] J. T-T. 

RADCLIFFE, RALPH (1519?-! 559), 
schoolmaster and playwright, born in Lan- 
cashire about 1519, was younger son of 
Thomas Radcliffe, who belonged to a younger 
branch of the Radcliffe family of Ordsall, 
Lancashire (see BERRY, County Genealogies, 
' Hertfordshire,' p. 109 ; FOSTER, Lancashire 
Pedigrees). He was one of the earliest under- 
graduates of the newly founded Brasenose 
College, Oxford, but soon migrated to Cam- 
bridge (possibly to Jesus College), where he 
graduated B.A. in 1536-7. He proceeded 
M.A. in 1539, and in the same year made a 
disturbance while John Cheke was delivering 
his elaborate plea for abandoning at Cam- 
bridge the continental mode of pronouncing 
Greek. Radcliffe, who argued that the con- 
tinental mode was correct, was subsequently 
supported by the chancellor, Bishop Gardiner 
(STRYPE, Life of Sir Thomas Smith, p. 22). 
On 22 July 1546 the grantees of the priory 
of White Friars or Carmelites of Hitchin 
conveyed it to Ralph Radcliffe (see CTJSSANS, 
Hertfordshire, ii. 43). * He opened a school 
in the Carmelites' house, and erected in a 
lower room a stage for his scholars, whereon 
to act Latin and English comedies. Bale, 
bishop of Ossory, stayed at Hitchin with 
Radcliffe, and speaks in terms of high praise 
of his ' theatrum longe pulcherrimuni.' Pits 
says he exhibited plays ' populo concurrente 
atque spectante.' He grew rich, and was 
held in much veneration in the neighbour- 
hood (WOOD). He died in 1559, aged 40. 
He was buried in Hitchin church, where 
there is a monumental inscription to him and 
to several of his descendants (CHATJNCY, 
Hist. Antiq. of Hertfordshire, p. 390). 

Radcliffe married Elizabeth Marshall of 
Mitcham, who afterwards became wife to 
Thomas Norton, and was ancestress of the 
Nortons of Iffley. By her he had four 
children : Ralph (1543-1621), a bencher 
of the Inner Temple and double reader of 
that society (cf. ASCHAM, Epistolce, Fami- 
liares, lib. iii. ep. xxvii.) ; Jeremie; Edward 
(1553-1631) (afterwards Sir Edward Rad- 
cliffe), physician to James I ; and a daughter 
Elizabeth. 

In a volume belonging to J. R. Ormesby- 
Gore there are three dialogues dedicated to 



Radcliffe 



134 



Radcliffe 



Henry VIII, and signed ' your grace's humble 
subject, Robert Radclif, professor of artes 
and schoolmaster of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 85). 
The signature is probably a misreading for 
Ralph Radcliffe. Radcliffe's other works are 
not extant. An account of them, collected 
by Bale when on a visit to Radcliffe, appears 
in Bale's ' Scriptores.' They consist of ten 
comedies and tragedies, written in Latin, 
primarily for his pupils. Six of the ten 
subjects are biblical, and their object was to 
present ' pictures of Christian heroism.' 
Among them were : ' De patientia Griselidis ;' 
' De Meliboeo Chauceriano,' ' De Titi et 
Gisippi Amicitia,' ' De Sodomae Incendio,' 
' De Jo. Hussi Damnatione,' ' De Jonoe De- 
fectione,' ' De Lazaro ac Divite,' ' De Jobi 
Amictionibus,' and ' De Susannas Libera- 
tione.' 

Radcliffe also wrote on educational topics. 
Bale mentions works : ' De Xominis et Verbi 
potentissimorum regum in regno grammatico 
exitiali Pugna,' ' De Puerorum Institutione,' 
lib. i. ; ' Epistolse ad Tirones,' lib. i. : 'Loci 
Communes a Philosophis in Studiosoruni 
usum selecti,' lib. i. 

[Authorities quoted; Wood's Athense Oxon. i. 
215; Cooper's Athene Cantabr. i. 203, 552; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 613; Pits, De Illus- 
tribus Anglise Scripforibus, p. 707 ; Bale's Scrip- 
torum Britannise, p. 700 ; Lansd. MS. 979, fol. 
141 ; Dugdale's iMonast. Anl. i. 1041 ; Baker's 
Biogr. Dram. ii. 588; Warton's Hist. Kngl. 
Poetry, iii. 309 ; C. H. Herford's Literary Rela- 
tions of England and Germany in the Sixteenth 
Century, pp. 74, 109-13.J W. A. S. 

RADCLIFFE or RATCLIFFE, SIR 
RICHARD (d. 1485), adviser of Richard III, 
was a younger son of Sir Thomas Radcliffe. 
The latter's father was younger son of the 
Clitheroe branch of the Radcliffes of Rad- 
cliffe Tower, Lancashire, and himself became 
lord of Derwentwater and Keswick, through 
his marriage, about 1417, to the daughter and 
heiress of John de Derwentwater (WHITAKER, 
Hist, of Whfdley.-p.-ilo; NICOLSON and BlJRX, 
ii. 78). Richard's mother was Margaret, 
daughter of Sir William Parr [q. v.] of Ken- 
dal, grandfather of Queen Catherine Parr. 
The family pedigree makes him the second 
son of his parents, and his brother Edward, 
who ultimately succeeded to the Derwent- 
water estates, the third (ib. ; STJRTEES, i. 
32). There must, however, be some mis- 
take here, for Radcliffe's son stated in par- 
liament in 1495 that his father had two elder 
brothers, both of whom were living in that 
year (Rot. Parl. vi. 492). 

Hismaternal grandfather's connection with 
the court as comptroller of the household to 



Edward IV will no doubt explain the origin 
of Radcliffe's intimacy with Richard of 
Gloucester. He and his uncle, John Parr, 
were knighted by the king on the field of 
Tewkesbury, and Gloucester made him a 
knight-banneret during the siege of Berwick 
in August 1482 (Paston Letters, iii.9; DAVIES, 
p. 48). Next year, Gloucester, just before 
he seized the crown, sent Radcliffe to sum- 
mon his Yorkshire friends to his assistance. 
Leaving London shortly after 11 June 1483 r 
he presented the Protector's letters to the 
magistrates of York on the 15th, and by 
the 24th he had reached Poiitefract on his 
way south with a force estimated at five 
thousand men. On that day Earl Rivers, 
Sir Richard Grey, son of the queen-dowager, 
Sir Thomas Vaughan, and Sir Richard Haute 
Avere brought to Pontefract from their dif- 
ferent northern prisons and executed there 
on the 25th by Radcliffe, acting under 
Gloucester's orders. According to the well- 
informed Croyland chronicler (p. 567) they 
were allowed no form of trial, though the 
statement of Rous (p. 213) that the Earl of 
Northumberland was their principal judge 
may imply a formal sentence by a commis- 
sion. Radcliffe did not find Richard un- 
grateful. He was made a knight of the 
Garter, knight of the body to the king 
(10 Aug. 1484), and high sheriff of West- 
moreland for life (DAVIES). Besides the 
lucrative stewardship of Wakefield, estates 
to the annual value of over 650J. were con- 
ferred upon him. These grants were only 
exceeded in amount by those made to the 
Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Northumber- 
land, and Lord Stanley (ib. ; RAMSAY, ii. 
534). Radcliffe and William Catesby [q.v.], 
who did not benefit, however, anything like 
so largely, were reputed Richard's most con- 
fidential counsellors, ' quorum sententiis vix 
unquam rex ipse ausus fuit resistere ; ' and 
this found popular expression in the satirical 
couplet which cost its author, William Col- 
lingbourne, so dear : 

The catte, the ratte, and Lovell our dogge 
Eulyth all Englande under a hogge. 

The 'hogge' was an allusion to Richard' 
cognisance, the white boar (Croyl. Cont. 
572; FABYAN, p. 672). 

The ' catte ' and the ' ratte ' did not hesi- 
tate to tell their master to his face in the 
spring of 1485 that he must publicly dis- 
avow his idea of marrying his niece, Eliza- 
beth of York, or even the Yorkshiremen 
whose loyalty he owed to his late wife, Ann 
Neville, would think that he had removed 
her to make way for an incestuous marriage. 
They produced twelve doctors of theology to 



Radcliffe 



135 



Radcliffe 



testify that the pope had no power of dis- 
pensation where the relationship was so 
close. Their opposition, to which Richard 
yielded, was perhaps a little too ardent to be 
wholly disinterested, and they were generally 
thought to have entertained a fear that if 
Elizabeth became queen she would some day 
take revenge upon them for the death of her 
uncle Rivers and her half-brother, Richard 
Grey. Shortly after this (22 April), as head 
of a commission to treat with Scotland, Rad- 
cliffe received a safe-conduct from King 
James, but may have been prevented from 
going by the news of Richmond's contemplated 
invasion (Fcedera, xii. 266). At any rate, he 
fought at Bosworth Field on 21 Aug., and 
was there slain, some said while attempting 
to escape (Croyl. Cont. p. 574). lie was at- 
tainted in Henry VII's first parliament, but 
the attainder was removed on the petition of 
his son Richard in 1495 (Rot. Purl. vi. 270, 
492). 

Radcliffe is said by Davies (p. 148) to 
have married Agnes Scrope, daughter of 
John, lord Scrope (d. 1498) of Bolton in 
Wensleydale, and widow of Christopher 
Boynton of Sedbury in the parish of Gilling, 
near Richmond (\VHITAKEE, Richmondshire , 
i. 77). The only child given to him in Nicol- 
son and Burn's pedigree is the son mentioned 
above, who appears to have died without 
male issue. But a correspondent of ' Notes 
and Queries' (1st ser. x. 164) asserts, with- 
out quoting his authority, that 'Radcliffe's 
daughter Joan married Henry Grubb of 
North Mimms, Hertfordshire, and was heiress 
to her brother, Sir John (?) Radcliffe.' 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Rymer's Foedera, 
orig. ed. ; Cont. of the Croyland Chronicle, ed. 
Fulman, Oxford, 1 684 ; Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. 
Ellis ; Ileus's Historia Regxim Angliae, ed. 
Hearne, 174-5 ; Polydore A T ergil, ed. for Camden 
Soc. ; More's Richard III, ed. Lumby ; Davies's 
Extracts from the Municipal Records of York ; 
Whitaker's Richmondshire and Whalley, 3rd 
ed. ; Surtees's Hist, of Durham ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. x. 475 ; G-airdner's Richard III ; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York.] J. T-T. 

RADCLIFFE or RATCLIFFE, RO- 
BERT, first EARL OF SUSSEX (1483-1542), 
born in 1483, was only son by his first wife 
of John Radcliffe or Ratcliffe, baron Fitz- 
walter [q.v.] Restored in blood as Baron 
Fitzwalter by letters patent of 25 Jan. 1506, 
he was made a knight of the Bath on 23 June 
1509, and acted as lord sewer at the corona- 
tion of Henry VIII the following day. From 
this time he was a prominent courtier. He 
was appointed joint commissioner of array 
for Essex and joint captain of the forces 
raised there on 28 Jan. 1512-13, and in the 



English expedition of 1513 he commanded 
two ships, the Make Glory and the Ellen of 
Hastings. In 1515 he took part in the cere- 
mony at the reception of Wolsey's cardinal's 
hat. The same year the king restored him 
some of his lands that had been withheld. 
On 28 May 1517 he was made joint com- 
missioner to inquire into demolitions and 
enclosures in Essex. 

Fitzwalter was at the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold in 1520, and admiral of the squadron 
and chief captain of the vanguard in the ex- 
pedition of 1522. On 23 April 1524 he was 
made K.G. On 18 July 152-"> he was raised 
to the dignity of Viscount Fitzwalter. On 
5 Feb. 1525-6 he was made a privy coun- 
cillor, and, taking the king's view of the 
divorce question, he was created Earl of 
Sussex on 8 Dec. 1529. Other honours fol- 
lowed. On 7 May 1531 he became lieutenant 
of the order of the Garter ; on 31 May 1532 
he was appointed chamberlain of the ex- 
chequer ; on 5 June 1532 he appears as one 
of the witnesses when Sir Thomas More re- 
signed the great seal. 

Sussex was long in very confidential rela- 
tions with Henry. It must have been with 
the king's knowledge that he proposed at the 
council on 6 June 1536 that the Duke of 
Richmond should be placed before Mary in 
the succession to the throne. After the pil- 
grimage of grace, he was in 1537 sent on a 
special commission to quiet the men of Lan- 
cashire. In 1540 he was made great chamber- 
lain of England and one of the commissioners 
to inquire into the state of Calais, an in- 
quiry which resulted in the disgrace of Lord 
Lisle [see PLANTAGEJTET, AETHUK]. He re- 
ceived many grants of land after the sup- 
pression of the monasteries, and died on 
26 Nov. 1542. 

Radcliffe married : first, about 1505, Lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Stafford, duke 
of Buckingham, by whom he had Henry, 
second earl, who is noticed below, and Sir 
Humphrey Radcliffe of Elnestow. His se- 
cond wife was Lady Margaret Stanley, 
daughter of the second Earl of Derby. On 
11 May 1532 Gardiner wrote urging Benet 
to press on the dispensation rendered neces- 
sary by the con sanguinity between Sussex and 
Lady Margaret. By her he had a son, Sir 
John Radclifi'e of Cleeve or Clyve in So- 
merset, who died without issue on 9 Nov. 
1568, and a daughter Anne, whose dowry 
when she married Thomas, lord Wharton, 
was raised by selling Radcliffe Tower and 
other Lancashire estates. She died on 3 Feb. 
1583-4. Radcliffe's third wife was Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Arundel of Lanherne, 
Cornwall. 



Radcliffe 



136 



Radcliffe 



HENRY RADCLIFFE, second EARL OF SUSSEX 
(1506 P-1557), born aboutl506, served Wolsey 
on his embassy to France in 1527 as a gentle- 
man attendant. From 1529 till his father's 
death he was known as Viscount Fitzwalter. 
He was made K.B. on 30 May 1533, and on 
31 May 1536 had the valuable grant of the 
joint stewardship of the royal estates in 
Essex. On 26 Nov. 1542 he succeeded as 
second Earl of Sussex, and exercised the 
family office of lord sewer at the coronation 
of Edward VI. He was one of the lords and 
gentlemen who put Somerset in the Tower 
by the order of the council in October 1549. 
He declared for Queen Mary, and was captain- 
general of her forces and privy councillor in 
1553, and lord sower at her coronation. He 
took part in the trials of Lady Jane Grey and 
Lord' Guilford Dudley, and was made knight 
of the Garter on 24 April 1554. In October 
1556 he was engaged in Norfolk in trying to 
force the gospellers to go to mass. Execu- 
tion for debt was stayed against him in the 
Star-chamber the same month by the queen's 
orders. He died on 17 Feb. 1556-7 in Cannon 
Row, London, and was buried at the church 
of St. Lawrence Pountney. His remains were 
sudsequently removed to the church of Bore- 
ham, Essex. His estates passed to Sir Wil- 
liam Radcliffe of Ordsall (cf. Stanley Papers, j 
Chetham Soc., pt. ii. p. 172). He married, 
first, before 21 May 1524, Lady Elizabeth 
Howard, fifth daughter of Thomas, second 
duke of Norfolk, and by her had three sons, 
Thomas [q. v.] and Henry, successively earls 
of Sussex, and Robert who was killed in Scot- 
land in his father's lifetime ; secondly, Anne, 
daughter of Sir Philip Calthorpe, styled in 
his will his ' unkind wife.' By her, whom he 
divorced, he had Egremont Radcliffe [q. v.] ; 
Maud, who died young; and Frances (1552- 
1 602), who married Sir Thomas Mildmay. It 
is to the descendants of Frances that the 
barony of Fitzwalter ultimately descended. 

[Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Add. 1547-65, pp. 443, 44? ; Proc. 
of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, i. 3-35, ii. 344 ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, iii. 480 ; Barnes's Hist, 
of Lancashire, ii. 421, &c. ; Froude'sHist.of Engl. 
vi. 1 8, &c.; Zurich Letters, iii. 179 ; Bale's Selected 
Works, pp. 220, 242 ; Cranmer's Works, ii. 324, 
490 (Parker Soc.); Strype's Memorials of the 
Reformation, i. i.235, 565, 598, n. i. 6, ii. 162, &c. 
in. i. 128 .. ii. 414, and Cranmer, 396, &c.; 
Fronde's Divorce of Catherine of Aragon,p. 176 ; 
Chron. of Calais (Camd. Soc.). pp. 10, 11, 31, 
175, 181-5, 187; Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 25114, 
f. 288.] W. A. J. A. 

RADCLIFFE, THOMAS, third EARL OF 
SUSSEX (152f)?-1583),eldest son of Sir Henry 
Radcliffe, second earl of Sussex [see under 



RADCLIFFE, ROBERT, first EARL OF SUSSEX], 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Howard, second duke of Norfolk, 
was born about 1526 (DUGDALE, Baronage, 
ii. 286). He was educated apparently at 
Cambridge ( COOPER, Athence Cantabr. i. 462), 
and was admitted a member of Gray's Inn on 
22 Jan. 1561 (FOSTER, Admission Register, 
p. 29). Known by the title of Lord Fitz- 
walter from 1542, when his father succeeded 
to the earldom, he took part in the expedi- 
tion against France in the summer of 1544 
(RIMER'S Fcedera, vol. vi. pt. iii. p. 121). He 
was probably knighted by Henry VIII at his 
departure from France on 30 Sept., and was 
one of the six lords who bore the canopy at 
his funeral on 14 Feb. 1547 (STRYPE, Eccl. 
Mem. II. ii. 298). He commanded a number 
of demi-lances at the battle of Pinkie Cleugh 
on 10 Sept., but was unhorsed during the fight, 
and only escaped with difficulty (HOLINSHED, 
Chronicle). He accompanied the Marquis of 
Northampton to France in 1551 to arrange a 
marriage between Edward VI and Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry II (Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. i. 123), and was elected a knight of the 
shire for the county of Norfolk to the parlia- 
ment which assembled on 1 March 1553. His 
name appears among the witnesses to the will 
of Edward VI,whereby the crown was settled 
on Lady Jane Grey ; but he soon gave in his 
adhesion to Queen Mary, and rendered her 
essential service in the suppression of Wyatt's 
rebellion, for which he was apparently re- 
warded by a grant of land worth 50. a year 
(Journal of Queen Jane and Queen Mary, pp. 
99, 187). 

In February 1554 he was sent on a mis- 
sion to Brussels relative to the proposed 
marriage between Mary and Philip (LODGE, 
Illustrations, i. 235), and on his return was 
associated with John, earl of Bedford, in an 
embassy to the court of Spain for the purpose 
of obtaining Philip's ratification of the articles 
of marriage (Instructions in Cott.MS.Vesy.C. 
vii. f. 198). The envoys returned to England 
laden with presents, in time to receive Philip 
on his landing near Southampton on 20 July 
(Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. ii. 74, 77, 106; 
WIFFEN, House of Russell, i. 390). Radcliffe 
was present at the marriage and at the sub- 
sequent festivities at court; and having, 
apparently during his absence, been sum- 
moned to the upper house as Baron Fitz- 
walter, he took his seat in that assembly 
on 22 Nov. He was present, with other 
noblemen, at the consecration of Reginald 
Pole ["q.v.] as archbishop of Canterbury in 
the church of the Grey Friars, Greenwich, 
on 20 March 1557 (STRYPE, Eccl. Mem. in. 
i. 474), and a day or two afterwards was 



Radcliffe 



137 



Radcliffe 



sent on a mission to the emperor Charles V 
at Brussels, for the purpose apparently of 
soliciting Philip to return to England {Cal. 
State Papers, For. Ser. ii. 220, Venetian vol. 
vi. pt. i. p. 399). 

Fitzwalter returned to England early in 
April 1557, and on the 27th he was appointed 
lord deputy of Ireland, in place of Sir An- 
thony St. Leger [q. v.] In the instructions 
given to him (Cal. Carew MSS. i. 252-7) he 
was specially admonished to advance the true 
catholic faith and religion, to punish and re- 
press all heretics and lollards, to have due 
regard to the administration of justice, to 
repress rebels, and not to grant pardons too 
freely, and to make preparations for a par- 
liament ' which is thought right necessary 
to be forthwith called.' To these were 
added certain other instructions (Cott. MS. 
Titus B. xi. ft". 464-7) relative to the pro- 
jected settlement and plantation of Leix 
and Offaly. Accompanied by his wife, Sir 
Henry Sidney [q. v."], Sir William Fitz- 
william (1526-1599) [q. v.], and others, he 
arrived at Dublin on Whit-Sunday, 24 May. 
The next day he visited St. Leger at Kil- 
mainham, where he was hospitably enter- 
tained, and on the day following he received 
the sword of state in Christ Church, Dublin. 
The month of June was passed in arranging 
the necessary details of his administration ; 
but on 1 July he conducted an expedition into 
the north for the purpose of expelling the 
Hebridean Scots from their recently esta- 
blished settlements along the Antrim coast. 
At Coleraine, hearing that a large body of 
redshanks supported by Shane O'Neill [q. v.], 
who had lately ousted his father from the 
chieftaincy of Tyrone, and was endeavour- 
ing to make himself master of Ulster, was 
lurking in the woods of Glenconkein. Fitz- 
walter prepared to attack them. He en- 
countered them on the 18th at a place called 
Knockloughan ( ? Knockclogrim, near Ma- | 
ghera), and, having slain two hundred of 
them, put the rest to flight. Retracing his 
steps to Coleraine, he advanced through the 
Route and the Glynnes to Glenarm. James ! 
MacDonnell, the chief of the Antrim Scots. ! 
and elder brother of Sorley Boy MacDonnell . 
[q. v.], had already escaped to Scotland, but 
his creaghts were captured ; and so, after a 
journey through the country, which at that , 
time was practically a terra incognita to 
Englishmen, he returned to Newry, and, 
after receiving the submission of Shane 
O'Neill, disbanded his army on 5 Aug. 

Returning to Dublin, Fitzwalter prepared \ 
to carry out his instructions in regard to the ' 
plantation of Leix and Offaly. After a fruit- 
less attempt at conciliation, war was pro- 



claimed against the O'Conors of Offaly in 
February 1557, and before long Conel 
O'More's body was dangling from Leighlin 
Bridge, and Donough, second son of Bernard 
or Brian O'Conor Faly [q. v.], grew weaker 
day by day as he was hunted from one 
fastness to another. It was under these 
circumstances that the parliament which 
Fitzwalter had been authorised to summon 
assembled at Dublin on 1 June. He had 
already, in consequence of his father's death 
on 17 Feb., succeeded to the earldom of 
Sussex, and was appointed about the same 
time warden of all the forests south of 
the Trent, and captain of the band of gentle- 
men pensioners (DUGDALE, Baronage). On 
1 June, immediately before the opening of 
parliament, he was invested with the order 
of the Garter, to which he had been elected 
on 23 April, by the Earls of Kildare and 
Ormonde (MACHYX, Diary, p. 133). Before 
parliament was prorogued on 2 July acts had 
been passed declaring the queen to have been 
born in just and lawful wedlock, reviving 
the statutes against heretics, repealing all 
statutes against the see of Rome since 20 
Henry VIII, confirming all spiritual and 
ecclesiastical possessions conveyed to the 
laity, entitling the crown to the countries 
of Leix, Slievemargy, Iregan, Glenmalier, 
and Offaly, erecting the same into shire 
ground by the name of King's and Queen's 
County, and enabling the Earl of Sussex to 
grant estates therein,, and finally rendering 
it penal to bring in or intermarry with the 
Scots. It was, however, easier to dispose of 
Leix and Offaly by act of parliament than to 
take actual possession ; and parliament had 
scarcely risen when Sussex was compelled 
to take the field against Donough O'Conor, 
who had captured the castle of Meelick. 
Meelick was recaptured and garrisoned in 
July, but O'Conor managed to escape, and, 
after proclaiming him and his confederates 
traitors, Sussex returned to Dublin. A few 
weeks later Sussex, who thought it a favour- 
able opportunity to punish Shane O'Neill 
for his underhand dealings with the Scots, 
again marched northward on 22 Oct., and, 
having burned Armagh and ravaged Tyrone 
with fire and sword, forcibly restored the 
aged Earl of Tyrone and his son Matthew, 
baron of Dungannon. He returned to Dublin 
on 30 Nov., and four days later sailed for 
England, entrusting the government during 
his absence to Archbishop Curwen and Sir 
Henry Sidney. He spent Christmas at court. 
Sussex left London on 21 March, but he 
did not arrive at Dublin till 27 April. His 
former services were warmly commended by 
the English government, and he was specially 



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instructed to travel about continually, to 
which end the castles of Roscommon, Ath- 
lone, Monasteroris, Carlow, Ferns, Ennis- 
corthy, and the two forts of Leix and Offaly 
were placed at his disposal ' either for his 
pleasure or recreation, or for defence of the j 
countries, punishment of malefactors, or j 
ministration of justice' (Cal. Carew MSS. i. j 
273). On 14 June he set out towards Lime- 
rick to the assistance of Conor O'Brien, 
third earl of Thomond [q. v.] The latter , 
was waging an unequal conflict with his 
uncle Donnell, who had succeeded in getting 
himself inaugurated O'Brien. He reached , 
Limerick on the 20th, and received the for- ' 
mal surrender of the city. Donnell O'Brien 
alone of the chieftains of Munster and Tho- 
mond failed to pay his respects to the re- 
presentative of the crown. He was there- 
upon proclaimed a traitor, and Sussex re- j 
instated his nephew, Conor O'Brien, in his , 
possessions. On 12 July Sussex set out for 
Galway, and, having confirmed the city 
charters, shortly afterwards marched to 
Dublin by way of Leighlin. 

After a brief sojourn in the metropolis, he ' 
prepared to carry out his instructions for | 
checking the incursions of the Hebridean i 
Scots, and, thinking the best way to attain ' 
his object was to attack them in their own i 
country, he shipped his army on board the 
fleet at Lambay, and sailed from Dublin on 
14 Sept. Five days later he reached Cantire, ; 
' where I londed and burned the hole coun- ! 
trye.' ' From thens I went to Arren and 
did the lyke there, and so to the Isles of 
Cumbras, which I also burned.' His inten- 
tion of landing on Islay was frustrated by a 
storm, which drove him to seek shelter in 
Carrickfergus Haven. Here he landed his 
men, and made a sudden inroad on the Scots 
in the Glynnes and Route, and, having burned 
several villages, returned laden with plunder 
to Carrickfergus, and thence, on 8 Nov., to 
Dublin. His expedition had not proved as j 
successful as he had expected, but he begged 
the queen not to impute his failure to lack 
of zeal. 

On the arrival in Ireland of the news of 
Queen Mary's death, Sussex placed the go- ' 
vernment in the hands of Sir Henry Sidney 
and sailed for England on 13 Dec. By the ' 
late queen's will he had been appointed one 
of her executors with a legacy of five hundred 
marks, but there was considerable doubt in 
the minds of the chiefs of the catholic party 
as to his sympathy with her religious policy 
(cf. Cal. Simancas MSS. Eliz. i. 25). At the 
coronation of Queen Elizabeth on 15 Jan. 
1559 he officiated as chief sewer by hereditary 
right. He was one of the peers who sat in 



judgment on Thomas, lord "Wentworth, for 
the loss of Calais on 22 April, and his name 
appears as a witness to the signatures to the 
treaty of Gateau Cambresis. On 3 July he 
was reappointed lord deputy of Ireland. His 
instructions closely resembled those formerly 
delivered to him, but in consequence of the 
debts incurred by the crown under Mary, he 
was required to be chiefly careful ' to stay 
that our realm in quiet, without innovation 
of anything prejudicial to our estate;' es- 
pecially he was to try and patch up matters 
with Shane O'Neill and Sorley Bov Mac- 
Donnell (Cal. Carew MSS. i. 284-8). He 
landed near Dalkey on Sunday, 27 Aug., 
and three days later he took the oath and re- 
ceived the sword of state in Christ Church. 
The litany and Te Deum were sung in Eng- 
lish, and in this way the protestant ritual 
was quietly reintroduced by him. Parlia- 
ment met on 12 Jan. 1560, and was dissolved 
on 1 Feb., but before it separated acts were 
passed for restoring the spiritual supremacy 
of the crown, for uniformity of common 
prayer and service in the church, for resti- 
tution to the crown of first-fruits and twen- 
tieths, for confirming and consecrating arch- 
bishops and bishops within the realm, for 
repealing the recent laws against heresy, and 
for the recognition of the queen's title to the 
crown of Ireland. 

A fortnight later Sussex repaired to Eng- 
land, leaving the government to Sir William 
Fitzwilliam. He met with a gracious re- 
ception from the queen, and was one of the 
brightest and gayest of the youthful noble- 
men that thronged her court. On 28 April 
he Rousted in company with Lord Robert 
Dudley, the Earl of Northumberland, Lord 
Hunsdon, and others. His commission as 
viceroy of Ireland was renewed on 5 May. 
As a special mark of her esteem the queen 
constituted him lieutenant-general, instead 
of, as formerly, lord deputy, ' being our cousin 
in nearness of blood, and an earl of this our 
land.' His instructions touched, with other 
matters, the speedy plantation of Leix and 
OfFaly, the recognition of Sorley Boy Mac- 
Donnell's claims on condition of his becom- 
ing an ( orderly subject ' and being willing 
to hold his lands from the English crown, 
and the reduction, by fair means or by foul, 
of Shane O'Neill (ib. i. 291-6). The situa- 
tion was critical. The generally disturbed 
state of Ulster, the threatened combination 
between Shane O'Neill and the Scots, the 
escape of Brien O'Conor from Dublin Castle, 
the uncertain attitude of the Earl of Kildare, 
the return of Teige and Donough O'Brien, 
and the defeat recently inflicted by them, 
with the assistance of the Earl of Desmond, 



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on Conor at Spancel Hill, led people to an- 
ticipate a universal insurrection of the Irish. 
Nor did Sussex's detractors spare to insinuate 
that he was a main cause of the general dis- 
satisfaction, charging him with breaking his 
word towards the Irish, and with putting to 
death those who had surrendered under pro- 
tection, insinuations which he thought he 
could trace to Shane O'Neill (State Papers, 
Ireland, Eliz. ii. 21). 

He arrived in Ireland in June, and found 
the country fairly tranquil. Shane O'Neill, 
however, when called upon to acknowledge 
the queen's authority, proved recalcitrant, 
and flatly refused even to meet Sussex unless 
hostages were given for his safety. Even- 
tually he condescended to repair to Dundalk, 
but his terms were considered so prepos- 
terous that on 15 Aug. Elizabeth authorised 
his subjugation by force (cf. Cal. Carcw MSS. 
i. 300-4). Shane, seeing Sussex to be in 
earnest, made a specious offer of submission. 
In January 1561 Sussex was summoned to 
London for consultation. Easter was spent 
at court, and on '1 June he returned to 
Dublin. Meanwhile Shane had practically i 
established himself as master of almost the 
whole of Ulster. On 12 June the lord lieu- ! 
tenant marched to Armagh, which he forti- i 
fied and garrisoned with two hundred men ' 
in the cathedral. But his efforts to bring | 
Shane to a general engagement proved futile, 
and, after laying waste Tyrone, he was com- 
pelled to retire to Newry on 31 July. , 
Exasperated at his ill-success, insulted by 
Shane's demand for an alliance with his | 
sister the Lady Frances, and burning to 
avenge the aspersions cast by him, and re- 
iterated by his enemies at home, on his go- 
vernment, he tried to bribe Shane's secre- 
tary, one Niall Garv or Gray, to assassinate 
his master, while holding out to Shane de- 
lusive proffers of his sister's hand. The 
attempt, if made at all, failed ; but some 
rumour of Sussex's intention apparently 
reached Shane's ears. 

Compelled to resort to more legitimate 
methods of warfare, Sussex, about the middle 
of August, led an unusually large force to 
Armagh. From Armagh he made a rapid 
march across Slieve Gullion to the edge of 
Glenconkein. He met with no opposition, 
and four thousand head of cattle, Avith a 
number of ponies and stud-mares, were 
captured. An attempt to penetrate into 
Tyrconnel was frustrated, owing to the loss 
or delay of victuals which were to have been 
sent round to Lough Foyle ; he retired to 
Newry. Undeterred by his failure, he was 
engaged in preparations for another cam- 
paign when the Earl of Kildare arrived with 



a commission to treat with Shane. Sus- 
sex felt bitterly humiliated at being thus 
superseded (State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. iv. 
62, 68). The upshot was a treaty whereby 
Shane promised to go to England and sub- 
mit his case personally to the queen. Shane 
on his way through Dublin was entertained 
by Sussex, who likewise repaired to Lon- 
don on 16 Jan. 1562. He was no doubt pre- 
sent at Greenwich when Shane submitted 
to Elizabeth. 

Quitting London shortly afterwards, he 
arrived in Dublin on 24 June. Shane's be- 
haviour proved as lawless as before. Con- 
vinced that nothing but forcible measures 
would bring him to reason, Sussex addressed 
a long, important, and luminous memorial 
on the state of Ireland to Elizabeth (Cal. 
Carew MSS. i. 330, 344). The gist of his 
argument was that ' no government was to 
be allowed in Ireland where justice was not 
assisted with force.' The first thing to be 
done was to expel Shane, to divide Tyrone 
into three parts, to build a strong town at 
Armagh, and 'to continue there a martial 
president of English birth, a justice and 
council with one hundred English horsemen, 
three hundred English footmen, two hun- 
dred gallowglasses, and two hundred kerne 
in continual pay.' 

Fitz william was despatched to obtain 
Elizabeth's consent to his proposals, and in 
the meanwhile Sussex acted onthe defensive, 
occupying himself in carrying out his instruc- 
tions for the relief of the Pale and for com- 
pleting the arrangements for the plantation 
of Leix and Offaly. As regards the former, he 
was obliged to confess (20 Aug.) that his 
scheme for the redemption of crown leases 
would not work. The plantation project 
proved more successful. A number of estates 
were made over that year to settlers of Eng- 
lish origin, irrespective of religious creed, 
and, though many years had still to elapse 
and much blood to be shed on both sides 
before they could enjoy them peaceably, the 
credit of permanently extending the influ- 
ence of the crown beyond the narrow limits 
within which it had been restrained for more 
than two centuries undoubtedly belongs to 
Sussex. But dispirited by his failure in 
other respects ; annoyed by the persistent 
attacks of his enemies at court, especially by 
a scurrilous book (State Papers, Irel. Eliz. 
vi. 37) which he attributed to John Parker, 
master of the rolls, Avho had taken a pro- 
minent part in agitating the grievances of 
the Pale ; and sick both in body and mind, he 
wrote, on 21 Sept., desiring to be released 
from his thankless office. Early in February 
1563 Fitzwilliam returned, bearing the wel- 



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come intelligence that Elizabeth was pre- 
pared to proceed energetically against Shane 
O'Neill. A hosting was accordingly pro- 
claimed to start from Dundalk on 3 April, 
and on 6 April the army encamped in the 
neighbourhood of Armagh. On the 8th 
Sussex moved to Newry. Shane declined 
an engagement, and Sussex crossed the 
Blackwater into Henry MacShane's country, 
where two hundred head of cattle were cap- 
tured. Returning once more to Armagh, he 
set his men to intrench and fortify the ca- 
thedral; but his provisions being exhausted, 
he was enforced to return to Dundalk, where 
he disbanded his army on the 25th. Prepara- 
tions Avere immediately begun for a fresh 
expedition, and Sussex a month later again 
took the field. Leaving Armagh on 1 June, 
he marched directly by Dungannon to Tulla- 
ghoge, where Shane was discovered to have 
concentrated his forces in a strong natural 
fastness. He was instantly attacked, and, 
after three or four hours' skirmishing, put 
to flight. Next day a small herd of his 
cattle was captured on the edge of Lough 
Neagh and several of his men killed, after 
which Sussex returned to Armagh. 

But his failure to subdue Shane, coupled 
with his ill-health, at last induced Elizabeth 
to listen to his request to be relieved of his 
office. On 20 Oct. a commission was issued 
to Sir Nicholas Arnold and Sir Thomas Worth 
(Cal. Carew MSS. i. 359-62), with secret in- 
structions to inquire into his administration 
before accepting his resignation. Though 
greatly irritated by the appointment of Arnold 
and Worth, Sussex did not obstruct their in- 
quiries, but he declared that the attempt to 
investigate all the charges and vacancies that 
had occurred in his own company was im- 
possible and monstrous, never having before 
been required of any deputy. Worth, who 
seems to have felt for him, wrote on 16 April 
1564 to Cecil, using the words of entreaty to 
Henry VIII for Latimer on his behalf. ' Con- 
sider, sire,' said he, ' what a singular man he 
is, and cast not that awaie in one owre which 
nature and arte hath been so manye yeres in 
breeding and perfectinge.' In May he re- 
ceived the welcome intelligence that the 
queen had yielded to his entreaties, and on 
the 25th he sailed for England. 

It is easy to disparage Sussex's efforts to 
reduce Ireland. But, considering the inade- 
quate resources at his command, the general 
indifference of those who might have been 
expected to co-operate with him, the in- 
trigues, more or less proven, of his enemies 
at the council table, and the total ignorance 
of Elizabeth and her ministers of the diffi- 
culties to be coped with in dealing with a 



terra incognita such as Ireland then was, 
and with such an enemy as Shane O'Neill, 
it is rather to be wondered that he accom- 
plished anything at all. That his general 
view of the situation and the means to 
be taken to reduce Ireland to the crown 
were in the main sound no reader of his 
despatches can for a moment doubt. De- 
spite his dastardly attempts to assassinate 
Shane, he left behind him a reputation for 
statesmanship which grew rather than di- 
minished with succeeding years. 

Sussex accompanied the queen to Cam- 
i bridge in August, and was created M.A. In 
October he officiated as principal mourner at 
the funeral service at St. Paul's in honour of 
the Emperor Ferdinand. On 5 March 1565 
he took part in an entertainment given bv 
the Earl of Leicester to the queen ; but the 
relations between the two earls had already 
become strained in consequence of certain 
insinuations dropped by the former in regard 
to Sussex's conduct in Ireland. Their re- 
tainers took up the cause of their respective 
' masters, and from words speedily came to 
blows. The queen's injunction to keep the 
peace had little result. At a meeting of the 
council in the summer of 1566 Leicester 
accused Sussex of responsibility for Shane 
O'Neill's rebellion, to which Sussex replied 
; by stating that Leicester had frequently 
written letters of encouragement to Shane 
: with his own hand ( Cal. Venetian MSS. iv. 
, 382). Sussex, who accompanied the queen 
to Oxford in September, resisted with espe- 
cial vehemence the proposal that Leicester 
should become Elizabeth's husband, and 
warmly advocated, on political as well as on 
personal grounds, an alliance with the im- 
perial house in the person of the Archduke 
Charles. Negotiations with the archduke 
had begun in 1565. By the middle of 
November 1566 matters had advanced so far 
that Sussex was ordered to hold himself in 
readiness to proceed to Vienna. During the 
i winter the queen's ardour cooled, but re- 
vived in the spring, and in April 1567 Sussex 
was again ordered to prepare for his journey. 
, But the earl, who had seen enough of Eliza- 
i beth's vacillation to doubt her real intention, 
, insisted first of all on having an explicit 
decision in regard to the religious difficulty 
between Elizabeth and the archduke. After 
successfully claiming that he should exer- 
cise full discretion apparently in reference 
to the religious difficulty, he embarked at 
Gravesend with Roger, lord North [q.v.], on 
26 June, and reached Vienna on 5 Aug. 
Three days later he had an hour's interview 
with the Emperor Maximilian. The arch- 
( duke, though manifesting a natural reluc- 



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tance to visit England otherwise than as an 
accepted suitor, referred himself in all things, 
except his conscience, to the emperor, and 
Sussex, who was royally entertained, wrote 
to Elizabeth in glowing terms of his per- 
sonal appearance. On 27 Oct. Honry Cobham 
was sent to London for further instructions 
(cf. ib. vii. 408). On 31 Dec. Cobham re- 
turned, bringing Elizabeth's answer, practi- 
cally breaking off negotiations, and Sussex, 
having on 4 Jan. delivered his letters, and 
invested the emperor with the order of the 
Garter, prepared to ret urn home. He reached 
England on 14 March 1508. Elizabeth's re- 
fusal of an alliance with the house of Habs- 
burg deeply disappointed him. He believed 
that England was powerless to stand alone in 
the conflict which he foresaw to be imminent, 
and was anxious at almost any cost to secure 
the friendship of the most powerful military 
nation in Europe. 

At home other troubles awaited him. The 
Earl of Leicester had secured the president- 
ship of Wales for Sir Henry Sidney. Sus- 
sex, after bluntly reminding Elizabeth of her 
promise to confer the post on him, begged 
her either to comply with his request, or, if 
not, to give him leave to quit the kingdom for 
Italy or elsewhere. Eventually the death 
of Archbishop Young opened to Sussex an 
avenue to preferment, and in July he was 
created, in succession to the archbishop, lord 
president and lord lieutenant of the north. In 
October he assisted at the negotiations with 
Mary Queen of Scots at York, and shortly 
afterwards, in reference to the same subject, 
at Hampton Court and Westminster. In 
September 1569 he deplored the arrest of his 
friend and relative, the Duke of Norfolk, 
and begged Cecil to use his influence with 
the queen in his behalf. 

When the rumour of an intended insur- 
rection reached him at the beginning of 
October, he treated it with incredulity, for 
which he was sharply reprimanded by Eliza- 
beth, and ordered to send for the Earls of 
Westmorland and Northumberland to re- 
pair to court without delay. The queen's 
action no doubt precipitated matters, and on 
15 Nov., when Sussex announced that the 
two earls refused to obey her commands, a 
warrant, was issued to him as lieutenant- 
general of the forces in the north to pro- 
secute them with fire and sword. On the 
19th he published the proclamation, and 
took instant measures for their prosecution. 
The total force at his disposal amounted to 
only three thousand men, whereof barely 
three hundred were horse, whereas the rebels 
were said to number twelve hundred horse 
and between five and six thousand foot. 



His weakness, especially in the matter of 
horse, compelled him to act on the defensive. 
His avowed preference for lenient proceed- 
ings, coupled with the fact that his half- 
brother, Sir Egremont Radclift'e [q. v.], had 
joined the rebels, caused him to be suspected, 
and Lord Hunsdon and Sir Ralph Sadleir 
were sent down to inquire into the situation. 
But Sadleir and Hunsdon easily convinced 
themselves of his loyalty, and wrote with 
enthusiasm of his devotion and prudence. 

Early in December Sussex was joined by 
reinforcements under Lord Warwick and 
Lord Clinton. Together they marched to 
Northallerton, and between Darlington and 
Durham they heard that the rebels had fled 
across the borders into Liddesdale, but had 
been forced to go into the debateable lands 
between Riddesdale and England. He de- 
precated a continuance of active hostilities, 
unless the queen deemed it necessary owing 
to ' foreign matters ' of which he was igno- 
rant. ' Policy will do more service than 
force this winter' (Cal. State Papers, Eliz. 
Dom. Add. p. 162). Ho cashiered the new 
levies except such horse as he conceived 
necessary to guard the borders. To Cecil's 
remonstrances he replied that he had not 
promised pardon to any one person of quality, 
nor protection to any one that was an offen- 
der. The queen, however, was not well 
pleased, and his enemies insinuated that his 
lenity was due to his sympathy with the 
rebels. 

When he visited the court in January 
1570, his reception by Elizabeth was more 
favourable than her letters had led him to 
expect. The news that Lord Dacre had re- 
cently occupied a castle on the borders, and 
that the Earl of Westmorland, taking advan- 
tage of his absence, had entered England, 
destroyed forty villages, and plundered the 
inhabitants, caused him to return post haste 
to York on the 16th, with instructions to 
punish the raiders and to enter Scotland to 
assist the queen's party there. On 10 April 
Sussex moved with his army to Newcastle, 
and the Scots having refused either to sur- 
render the fugitives or to make restitution 
of the spoil captured by them, he prepared 
to invade Scotland. Accordingly, dividing 
his forces into two detachments, he with the 
one crossed the Teviot on the 19th and burnt 
the castles of Ferniehurst.Hunthill, and Bed- 
rule, while the other did the like to Branx- 
holm, Buccleugh's chief house on the other 
side. A similar course was pursued along the 
Bowbent and Caile. On the 20th Sussex lay 
at Kelso while Hunsdon went to W T ark. For 
the rest, he thought, ' there be very few persons 
in Teviotdale who have received the rebels 



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or invaded England, who at this hour have 
either castle standing for themselves or house 
for any of their people' (Cal. State Papers, 
Foreign, 1570, p. '228). A week later Home 
Castle was stormed and re-garrisoned, and on 
the 29th Sussex fixed his headquarters at Ber- 
wick, with the object of strengthening the 
hands of Morton and Mar. He himself was 
sufferingfrom a serious cold contracted during ! 
the raid, but on 12 May he sent Sir William j 
Drury [q. v.], with a. considerable force, to , 
strengthen the queen's party in Edinburgh, | 
and to persuade Lethington and Grange ' to j 
a surcease of arms ' on Elizabeth's terms. ! 
Failing in his object, Drury harried the 
valley of the Clyde, and razed the castles of i 
the Duke of Chatelherault and his retainers, , 
returning to Berwick on 3 June. Leonard 
Dacre and a number of the rebels were still j 
at large in the western marches, where they | 
were openly maintained by Herries and Max- j 
well, and, though still far from well, Sussex | 
was anxious to obtain the queen's permission 
to adopt forcible measures for their expul- 
sion. His plan was approved, but no money 
was forthcoming, and it was only by pawning 
his own credit that he was able eventually 
to take the field by the middle of August, j 
An outbreak of the plague at Newcastle, ! 
which compelled him to disperse ' his com- 
pany,' added to his embarrassment, and it- 
was not till 18 Aug. that he found himself 
at Carlisle. His demand for the surrender 
of the fugitives not having been complied 
with, he invaded Scotland on the 22nd, 
though in consequence of the extreme foul- , 
ness of the weather, which delayed his march, ! 
the rebels had been able to withdraw with 
their goods into safety. Advancing as far 
as Dumfries, he raided the country for twenty 
miles round about, leaving not a single stone 
house standing ' to an ill neighbour ' within 
that limit, though, in order 'to make the re- j 
venge appear to be for honour only,' he care- j 
fully avoided plundering the inhabitants and [ 
abstained from burning Dumfries. Early in | 
September he returned to Xewcastle, and j 
Chatelherault, Huntly, and Argyll having i 
shortly afterwards submitted to the queen, 
he advised a partial disbandment of the border j 
forces. 

In October Sussex received permission to 
repair to court, of which he availed himself j 
in November, and on 30 Dec. he was sworn a 
member of the privy council. In the summer 
of the following year the queen paid him a 
visit at his house in Bermondsey ; but later 
in the year his familiarity with the Duke of 
Norfolk caused him to be suspected of com- 
plicity in that nobleman's treasonable pro- 
ceedings, and from De Spes it appears that 



there was some danger of his being sent to 
the Tower (Cal. Simancas MSS. ii. 346). He 
was one of the peers who sat in judgment on 
the Duke of Norfolk in January 1572, and 
the duke, in anticipation of his execution, be- 
queathed him his best George and Garter. 
In June he accompanied the queen on a two 
months' progress, and on 13 July he was 
created lord chamberlain of the household, 
being superseded in October as president of 
the council of the north by the earl of Hunt- 
ingdon. On 14 April 1573 his name occurs 
in a commission of gaol delivery for the Mar- 
shalsea, and on the 29th of the same month 
in another relative to the commercial rela- 
tions between England and Portugal. He 
accompanied the queen during a progress in 
Kent in August, and on 23 May following 
received a grant to himself and his heirs of 
New Hall in Essex, to which were added, on 
31 Dec., the manors of Boreham, "Walkfare, 
Oldhall, and their dependencies, commonly 
known as the honour of Beaulieu. He again 
attended the queen on one of her progresses 
in September and October 1574 : but in the 
following spring he was compelled by reason 
of ill-health to retire for a time from court. 
On hearing the news of the ' fury of Ant- 
werp,' he publicly declared that, ' if the 
queen would give him leave, he would go 
over with such a force as to drive the 
Spaniards out of the States.' Nevertheless, 
neither he nor Cecil was regarded as hostile 
to Spain, and De Mendez actually believed it 
possible, by judiciously bribing them ' with 
something more than jewels,' to attach them 
firmly to Spanish interests (ib. ii. 586). 

When an alliance was first mooted be- 
tween Elizabeth and the Due d'Anjou in 
1571, Sussex, for reasons similar to that 
which had influenced him in regard to the 
proposed marriage with the Archduke Charles, 
supported the proposal. The negotiations, 
broken off in consequence of the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, were renewed in 1578, and 
again found a warm advocate in him. It was 
on the occasion of the visit of Anjou's mes- 
senger to England, during one of the queen's 
progresses, that the famous quarrel between 
Sussex and Roger, second lord North, oc- 
curred. According to Mendoza, it originated 
in a remark of Elizabeth's to the effect that 
the sideboard was badly furnished with plate, 
which North confirmed, laying the blame 
on Sussex. The earl thereupon ' went to 
Leicester and complained of the knavish be- 
haviour of North; but Leicester told him 
that the words he used should not be ap-r 
plied to such persons as North. Sussex an- 
swered that whatever he might think of the 
words, North was a great knave ' (ib. p. 606). 



Radcliffe 



143 



Radcliffe 



On 26 Aug. he addressed a long and able 
letter to the queen on the subject of her 
contemplated marriage with Anjou. Never- 
theless it seemed doubtful to Mendoza 
whether he really meant all he said. Men- 
doza told Philip that Sussex assured him he 
would never consent to it ' on condition of de- 
priving your Majesty of the Netherlands . . . 
as his aim was not solely to gratify the Queen, 
but to preserve and strengthen her throne.' 
What either he or Burghley hoped to gain by 
the match the ambassador was at a loss to 
conjecture, unless they thought thereby to 
bring about the fall of Leicester, or perhaps 
in anticipation ' that if Frenchmen should 
come hither the country may rise, in which 
case, it is believed, Sussex would take a 
great position.' In any case, he thought it 
worth while to send them some jewels to 
the value of three thousand crowns or more 
apiece (ib. pp. 635, 662, 669). 

The queen's predilection for Anjou gave 
Sussex (despite his ill-health, which obliged 
him frequently to leave court) an ascen- 
dency over Leicester, who opposed the match 
by every means within his power, and 
would possibly have found himself in the 
Tower had not Sussex generously interposed 
in his favour, saying, according to Lloyd 
{State Worthies), ' You must allow lovers 
their jealousie.' On 6 Nov. 1580 a commis- 
sion was issued to him and others for the in- 
crease and breed of horses, particularly in 
Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Kent, 
and in April following he was appointed to 
treat with the French commissioners for the 
marriage with Anjou. It was probably this 
latter appointment which led in July to a re- 
newal of hostilities between him and Leices- 
ter, and obliged the queen to command them 
both to keep their chambers, and to threaten 
stricter confinement in case of further dis- 
obedience (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz. 
ii. 22). On 1 Jan. 1582 he was one of the 
challengers in the royal combat on foot which 
took place before the queen and the Due 
<!' Anjou. 

His malady rapidly increased during the 
following winter, and, having in vain sought 
relief from the baths at Buxton, he died, 
after a lingering illness, at his house at 
Bermondsey on 9 June 1583. His last hours 
were embittered by the reflection that his 
death would leave Leicester undisputed mas- 
ter of the situation : ' I am now,' he said, 
* passing into another world, and must leave 
you to your fortunes and to the queen's 
graces ; but beware of the gypsie, for he will 
be too hard for you all : you know not the 
beast so well as I do ' (NAUNTOX, Fraf/menta 
Regalia). His bowels were buried in the 



church at Bermondsey, and on 8 July his 
body was taken to Boreham in Essex, where 
he had a magnificent funeral. His body was 
buried in a red brick building adjoining the 
church of Boreham, called the Sussex chancel, 
where also repose the remains of his father, 
mother, grandfather, and grandmother, which 
were removed thither, pursuant to his testa- 
mentary directions, from the place of their 
first sepulture, St. Laurence Pountney in 
London. On a large altar tomb in the Sussex 
chancel are recumbent figures in memory 
of Robert, Henry, and Thomas Radcliffe, suc- 
cessively earls of Sussex, with commemora- 
tive tablets. 

Sussex made it his boast that he never 
faltered in obedience to his sovereign, and 
no doubt of his patriotism is permissible. A 
perfect courtier and diplomatist, he was at 
the same time a scholar saturated in the new 
learning, a patron of the drama in its infancy, 
and of rising literary genius, and was able 
to regard with tolerance those diversities of 
creed which were setting Europe by the ears. 
To men of sterner mould he at times ap- 
peared Machiavellian in the methods by 
which he sought to achieve his ends. His 
portrait was painted by Sir Antonio More and 
Zucchero. A third portrait, by an anonymous 
artist, is in the National Portrait Gallery 
(cf. Cat. Tudor Exhibition, No. 358, 1109; 
I Cat. First Loan Exhibition of Portraits, 1866, 
I Nos. 136, 139, 256). 

Sussex married, first, Elizabeth Wriothes- 
j ley, daughter of Thomas, earl of Southamp- 
j ton, who was buried at Woodham Walter 
j on 16 Jan. 1555 ; and, secondly, on 26 April 
, 1555, Frances, daughter of Sir William Sid- 
i ney (CHESTER, London Marriage Licenses), 
i who died on 9 March 1588-9, leaving by her 
! will 5,000/. for the foundation of a college 
j at Cambridge ' to be called the Lady Frances 
Sidney-Sussex College ' (WILLIS and CLARK, 
Archit. Hist, of Cambridge, pp. Ixxix et seq.) 
The bequest was carried out by her execu- 
tors, and the foundation of the college was 
laid in 1596. It possesses an anonymous 
porti'ait of the foundress. He left no heirs of 
his body, and was succeeded by his brother. 
HENRY RADCLIFFE, fourth EARL OF SUS- 
SEX (1530 P-1593), was knighted by the Earl 
of Arundel on 2 Oct. 1553, and sat in parlia- 
ment as member for Maiden in 1555. Next 
j year he removed to Ireland, to aid his brother, 
in the civil and military organisation of that 
country. He was appointed a privy councillor 
in 1557, and commanded a band of horsemen. 
I In 1558 he became lieutenant of Maryborough 
Fort, and was besieged there by the native 
\ Irish under Donogh O'Conor. He sat in. 
I the Irish parliament as member for Carling- 



Radcliffe 



144 



Radcliffe 



ford in 1559, and two years later was nomi- 
nated to the responsible post of lieutenant 
of Leix and OfFaly. He managed to keep the 
district quiet, but in 1564, when commis- 
sioners were sent from England to report 
on the condition of the Irish government, 
charges of corruption in dealing with funds 
appointed for the payment of the soldiers 
were brought against Radclift'e. He was 
ordered to refund at once 8,000/., and on his 
refusal was committed to prison (January 
1565). His release was ordered by the home 
government, and he left Ireland permanently 
soon afterwards (cf. Cal. State Papers, Ire- 
land, Eliz. i. 136, 253-4). In 1577 he was 
granted some property there, in cos. Kil- 
kenny and Wexford (ib.; MORRIN, Patent 
Rolls, 482, 539). In England he had 
already been appointed constable for life of 
Porchester Castle, and lieutenant of Southbere 
Forest (14 June 1560). In 1571, when he 
was elected M.P. for Hampshire, he received 
the office of warden and captain of the town, 
castle, and isle of Portsmouth, and he was 
actively employed in that capacity until his 
death. He succeeded his brother as fourth 
earl of Sussex on 9 June 1583, and on 5 Nov. 
1589 wrote a piteous letter to the queen, 
stating that, unless she showed him some 
mercy, he was hopelessly bankrupt ; his bro- 
ther's estate brought in 450/., but was bur- 
dened with a debt to the crown which en- 
tailed the payment of 500/. a year (LODGE, 
Illustrations, ii. 319). In August 1586 he 
was tracking out an alleged catholic conspi- 
racy at Portsmouth, and was watching sus- 
picious vessels off the coast. During 1588 
he was busy in furnishing with stores and gun- 
powder the ships commissioned to resist the 
Spanish Armada (LATTGHTOX, Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, Naval Records Soc., pas- 
sim). For such services he was made K.G. 
on 22 April 1589. He died on 14 Dec. 1593, 
and was buried at Boreham, Essex, beside 
his brother and his wife Honora, daughter of 
Anthony Pounde, esq., of Hampshire, whom 
he married before 24 Feb. 1561. His only 
son, 

ROBERT RADCLIFFE, fifth EARL OF SUSSEX 
(1569 P-1629), was known as Viscount Fitz- 
walter from 1583 until he succeeded his 
father as fifth earl on 4 Dec. 1593. In August 
next year he was sent as ambassador-extra- 
ordinary to Scotland to assist at the baptism 
of James's eldest son, Henry, and to ' treat 
respecting the catholic earls, the Earl of 
Bothwell, and other matters ' (Cal. State 
Papers, Scotland, 1509-1603, ii. 657, 659, 
661). In 1596 he served with the army sent 
against Cadiz as colonel of a regiment of foot, 
took a prominent part with Vere in the cap- 



ture of the town, and was knighted there by 
the Earl of Essex on 27 June 1596. On 
28 Nov. 1597 he appealed to Lord Burghley 
for military employment on the continent. 
' He had much rather,' he said, 'make a good 
end in her majesty's service abroad than to 
1 live in a miserable poverty at home ' (ELLIS, 
1 Original Letters, 3rd ser. iv. 149). He acted 
as earl marshal of England during the parlia- 
ments which sat in the autumns of 1597 and 
1601, and was colonel-general of foot in the 
army of London in August 1599, raised in 
anticipation of a Spanish invasion (CHAMBER- 
LAIN, Letters, p. 58). He was one of the peers 
commissioned to try the Earl of Essex in 
1601, and was made lord lieutenant of Essex 
on 26 Aug. 1603. He was also governor of 
Harwich and Landguard Fort. On 20 July 
1603 he petitioned the queen to relieve him 
of some of the pecuniary embarrassments 
due to the debts to the crown contracted by 
the third and fourth earls (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Addenda, 1580-1625, pp. 426-7). In 
July 1622 he sold to the Marquis of Bucking- 
ham his ancestral estate of Newhall for 
22,000/., and resigned to him the lord-lieu- 
tenancy of Essex. He was reappointed joint 
lord lieutenant in 1625. Sussex was fre- 
quently at court. He carried the purple er- 
mined robe at the creation of Prince Charles 
as Prince of Wales, 4 Nov. 1616, and bore 
the orb at the coronation of Charles I on 
2 Feb. 1625-6. He died at his house in 
Clerkenwell on 22 Sept. 1629, and was buried 
with his father and uncle in the church of 
Boreham. 

Sussex was a patron of men of letters. 
In 1592 Robert Greene dedicated to him 
as Lord Fitzwalter ' Euphues Shadow,' by 
Thomas Lodge. Chapman prefixed to his 
translation of Homer's ' Iliad,' 1598, a sonnet 
to him, 'with duty always remembered to 
his honoured countess.' A sonnet was also 
addressed to the earl by Henry Lok, in 
his ' Sundry Christian Passions,' 1597, and 
Emanuel Ford [q. v.J dedicated to him in 
1598 his popular romance 'Parismus'(p. 596). 
Sussex was twice married. His first wife, 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Charles Morison of 
Cassiobury, Hertfordshire, was, according to 
Manningham/a very goodly and comely per- 
sonage, of an excellent presence, and a rare 
wit ' (Diary, pp. 60-1). In her honour Robert 
Greene gave his 'Philomela' the subtitle of 
' The Lady Fitzwa[l]ter's Nightingale,' 1 592, 
4to. To her was also dedicated a popular 
music-book, ' The New Booke of Tabliture,' 
1596. Manningham reports in his ' Diary,' 
12 Oct. 1602, that the earl treated her with 
great cruelty, owing to the demoralising in- 
fluence of his intimate friend Edward White- 



Radcliffe 



Radcliffe 



locke, brother of Sir James, a man of notori- 
ously abandoned life, who died when staying 
with Sussex at Newhall in 1608, and was 
buried in the earl's family tomb at Boreham. 
Before 1602 she, with her children, separated 
from Sussex, who thenceforth allowed her 
1,700/. a year (MANXINGHAM, Diary, pp. 60- 
61). She died in December 1623. She bore 
Sussex four children, who all predeceased 
him : Henry, who married, in February 
1613-14, Jane, daughter of Sir Michael Stan- 
hope ; Thomas ; Elizabeth, who married Sir 
John Ramsay, earl of Holderness [q. v.]; and 
Honora. Sussex's second wife was Frances, 
widow of Francis Shute, daughter of Hercules 
Meautas, of West Ham. She died on 18 Nov. 
1627 (MoRANT, Essex, ii. 568). 

Sussex was succeeded by his cousin Ed- 
ward (1552 P-1641), son of Sir Humphrey 
Radcliffe of Elnestow, Bedfordshire, second 
son of Robert Radcliffe, first earl of Sussex 
{q. v.] He was member of parliament for 
Petersfield in 1586-7,for Portsmouth 1592-3, 
and for Bedfordshire 1598-9, 1601, and 1604- 
1612. The title expired at his death with- 
out issue in 1641. The subsidiary barony of 
Fitzwalter was claimed in 1640 by Sir Henry 
JVIildmay of Moulsham, Essex, whose mother 
Frances was daughter of Henrv, second earl 
of Sussex [see under MILDMAY, SIR WALTER.] 
The barony was granted in 1670 to Sir Henry's 
grandson Benjamin, but it fell into abeyance 
in 1756 (COLLINS, Peerage, ed, Brydges, ix. 
449). 

[There is a useful biography, very complete in 
personal details, in Cooper's Athenas Cantabr. i. 
462-70. The principal authorities are Dugdale's 
Baronage ; Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Lloyd's 
State Worthies ; , Stow's Annals ; Eymer's 
Fcedera ; Holinshed's Chronicle ; Machyn's 
Diary; Tytler's England under the Reigns of 
Edward VI and Mary ; Chronicle of Queen Jane 
(Camden Soc.) ; Strype'sEcclesiasticalMemorials ; 
Morant's Essex ; Wiffen's House of Eussell ; 
Suckling's Essex ;'Blomefield's Norfolk ; Origines 
Parochiales Scotiae (BannatyneClub); Gregory's 
Western Highlands ; Hill's Macdonnells of 
Antrim ; Statutes at Large (Ireland) ; Shirley's 
Letters; Collins's Sidney Papers; Cal. Carew 
MSS. ; Cal. Fiants, Eliz. (Ireland); Bagwell's 
Ireland under the Tudors ; Archseologia, vol. 
xxxv. ; Burgon's Gresham ; Haynes and Mar- 
din's State Papers ; Sadler's State Papers ; 
Wright's Elizabeth ; Sharpe's Memorials of the 
Rebellion of 1569 ; Nicolas's Life of Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton; Ellis's Letters ; Lodge's Illustra- 
tions ; Leycester Corresp. (Camden Soc.) ; Ni- 
chols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth ; Howard's 
Collection of Letters ; Cal. State Papers, Eliz. 
Dom., Foreign, Ireland. Simancas, andVenetian, 
passim. Sussex's handwriting is particularly 
crabbed, and more than once Elizabeth had to 
complain that she could not read it. Besides 

VOL. XLVII. 



those preserved in the Public Record Office, 
there are numerous letters of his relative to 
state affairs in the British Museum, viz. Cotton 
MSS., Caligula B. ix., relating to the rebellion 
of 1569 ; ib. C. i., concerning the Duke of Nor- 
folk's projected marriage with Mary Queen of 
Scots, and affairs in the north; ib. C. ii. iii., re- 
lating to Scottish affairs (mostly all printed in 
Wright's Elizabeth); ib. E. vi. fol. 315, to 
Leicester on French affairs, 7 April 1576 ; ib. 
Vespasian, F. xii., documents relating to his 
Irish government; ib. Titus B. ii., iii., miscel- 
laneous documents; ib. B. vii., documents re- 
lating to the proposed marriage with Alencjon ; 
ib. xi. f.. 442 andxiii., on Irish affairs; ib. Faus- 
tina,^ ii. f. 144, porterage charges of his embassy 
to the Emperor Maximilian ; Lansdowne MSS. 
iv. (50), letters patent for the stewardship of the 
queen's possessions in Essex ; ib. xii. (67), xvii. 
(21), xxxvi. (8), xxxix. (18), his will, with a 
codicil, dated 21 May 1583; ib. (19), inventorv 
of his jewels ; Addit. MSS. 5822 f. ] 15 b, 26047 
ff. 2086, 2076, 27401, miscellaneous, of no im- 
portance ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. passim ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 2nd Rep. p. 124 (articles by, as lieu- 
tenant-general in the north, 1570); ib. iii. 185 
(letters in the collection of the Marquis of Bath) ; 
ib. p. 428 (letters in the collection of the Mar- 
quis of Ormonde)[; ib. iv. 597, MSS. belonging 
to Trinity College, Dublin, containing the expe- 
ditions of Sussex in 1556-63 : ib. vii., miscel- 
laneous letters, chiefly of 1562, belonging to 
W. M. Molyneaux of Loseley Park, Guildford ; 
ib. 530, ix.pt. i. 249.] R. D. 

RADCLIFFE, WILLIAM (1760-1841), 
improver of cotton machinery, was born on 
17 Oct. 1760, at Mellor, Derbyshire. His 
father was a weaver, and he learned carding, 
spinning, and weaving at home. In 1785 he 
married Sarah Jackson of Mellor, and four 
years later began business in his native place 
as a spinner and weaver. His chief trade at 
first was in muslin warps and in the manufac- 
ture of muslins for the market at Manchester, 
where he afterwards opened a warehouse. 
He also bought premises at Stockport for the 
extension of his manufacturing operations, 
and in 1799 took Thomas Ross of Montrose 
as partner. In 1801 he settled at Stockport, 
became captain-commandant of the local 
volunteers, and in 1804 mayor of the town. 
He had previously (in 1794), from a patriotic 
sentiment, declined to sell his cotton yarn to 
foreign merchants who were desirous of buy- 
ing it for exportation to the continent, where 
it was to be made into cloth. This attitude 
he always strenuously maintained, speaking 
in support of it at public meetings, and pub- 
lishing in 1811 a pamphlet entitled 'Ex- 
portation of Cotton Yarns the real Cause of 
the Distress that has fallen upon the Cotton 
Trade for a series of years past,' Stockport, 
8vo. 



Radcliffe 



146 



Radclyffe 



The great invention with which Radcliffe's 
name is associated is the ' dressing machine,' 
which was, however, originated by an in- 
genious operative machinist in his employ- 
ment, named Thomas Johnson, who lived at 
Bredbury, near Stockport. It had previously 
been only possible for a weaver to dress, or 
starch, so much of the warp as lay between 
the healds and yard beam, or about 36 i 
inches, necessitating a frequent stoppage of 
the loom. By this invention the operation I 
of dressing was done before the warp was 
put into the loom, thus effecting a great 
saving of the time and labour of the weaver. 
By the aid of Johnson he also brought out 
three other patents, two of them for an im- 
provement in the loom, namely the taking 
up of the cloth by the motion of the lathe. 
The patents were taken out in Johnson's 
name in 1803-4. Radcliffe did not, however, 
reap any profit by them ; the great expenses 
he incurred in his experiments, and the time 
wasted in his pertinacious opposition to the 
exportation of yarn, bringing him to bank- 
ruptcy in 1807. Soon after that date he 
Avas helped by four friends, who lent him 
oOO/. each, with which he began business 
once more, carrying it on until 1815, when he 
became embarrassed again. The Luddites 
in 1812 broke into his mill and residence, 
and destroyed both his machinery and furni- 
ture. His wife was so alarmed and injured 
by the rioters that she died a few weeks 
later. His life afterwards was a continued 
struggle with adversity. He published in 
1828 an account of his struggles, under the 
title of ' Origin of the New System of Manu- 
facture, commonly called Power-loom Weav- 
ing, and the Purposes for which this System 
was invented and brought into use fully ex- 
plained, &c.,' Stockport, 8vo. 

Radcliffe gave valuable evidence in 1808 
in the inquiry which resulted in a parlia- 
mentary grant of 10,000/. being made to Dr. 
Edmund Cartwright [q. v.] for his inven- 
tions. Efforts were put forth in 1825 and 
1836 to obtain similar public recognition of 
Radcliffe's services, but in vain. In the me- 
morial to the treasury in 1825 it was claimed 
that his invention, ' by removing the im- 
pediments to weaving by power, may be 
considered as the cause of the rapid and in- 
creasing growth of that system of manufac- 
turing cotton goods.' In 1834 an unsuccessful 
appeal was made to the trade to raise a fund 
to aid Radcliffe in his declining years. Se- 
veral firms paid him a royalty for the use of 
his patents. A small grant of 150 was 
eventually mad^ to him by government, but 
the intimation came only three days before 
his death, whicl. took place on 20 May 1841, 



when he was in his eighty-first year. He 
was buried in Mellor churchyard. 

His portrait was engraved by T. Oldham 
Barlow, from a painting by Huquaire, and 
published by Bennet Woodcroft in his col- 
lection of ' Portraits of Inventors,' 1862. 

[Radclifffi's pamphlets ; Blackwood's Mag. 
January and March 1836, pp. 76, 411 ; Baines's 
Hist, of the Cotton Manufacture, p. 231 ; Me- 
moirs of Edmund Cartwright, 1843, pp. 218, 
230 ; Woodcroft's Brief Biographies of Inven- 
tors, 1863 ; Barlow's Hist, of Weaving, 1878, p. 
399 ; Heginbotham's Hist, of Stockport, 1892, p. 
324 ; Marsden's Cotton Weaving, 1895, p. 328.] 

c. w. s. 

RADCLYFFE,WILLIAM (1796-1855), 
line-engraver, was born in Birmingham on 
20 Oct. 179G, and was indebted to his own 
efforts for his education. He was at first 
apprenticed to Mr. Tolley, and under him 
learnt the art of letter-cutting. He soon ob- 
tained some work and credit as an engraver 
of book illustrations. He was a friend and 
relative of John Pye [q. v.] the engraver, 
and they both determined to go and practise 
their art in London. Radclyffe's resources 
were, however, insufficient to take him so 
far, and he returned from Stratford-on-Avon 
to Birmino'ham, while Pye proceeded to Lon- 
don. At Birmingham Radclyffe became very 
intimate with John Vincent Barber [see 
under BARBER, JOSEPH] and Charles Barber 
[q. v.] He showed great promise in an en- 
graving of a portrait of Bishop Milner by 
J. V. Barber, and in 1805 by an engraved 
portrait of Lord Nelson. Some illustrative 
engravings by Radclyffe to Goldsmith's 'Ani- 
mated Nature' attracted the attention of 
Charles Heath [q. v.] the engraver, who gave 
Radclyffe many commissions for engravings in 
the numerous art publications which Heath 
was then issuing. Radclyffe obtained great 
repute for his skill in landscape engraving, 
and was one of the best exponents of the 
highly finished but somewhat mechanical 
style of engraving then in vogue. He formed 
in Birmingham a school of engravers, who 
were for some time the leaders of their pro- 
fession. Radclyffe showed an early apprecia- 
tion of the works of the great water-colour 
artists, J. D. Harding, De Wint, and others, 
and especially of David Cox the elder [q. v.] 
Some of these artists were engaged by Rad- 
clyffe to make the drawings (now in the 
Birmingham Art Gallery) for ' The Graphic 
Illustrations of Warwickshire,' published in 
1829, in which all the plates were engraved 
by Radclyffe's own hand. He also engraved 
many plates after J. M. W. Turner, R.A., 
who had a high esteem for Radclyffe's work. 
A second complete set of landscape engravings 



Radford 



147 



Radford 



after Turner, David Cox, Creswick, and 
others, was executed for Roscoe's " Wander- 
ings in North and South Wales.' Others 
were executed for the ' Oxford Almanack,' the 
' Art Journal,' and similar publications. Rad- 
clvft'e lived in the George Road, Edgbaston, 
and died on 29 Dec. 3855. He aided every 
effort for the promotion of art in Birming- 
ham, and was a member of the Birmingham 
Society of Artists from its foundation until 
his death. 

He left three sons, of whom WILLIAM 
RADCLYFFE (1813-1846), though he learnt 
engraving, became a portrait-painter, prac- 
tising in Birmingham and London with some 
success, but died of paralysis on 11 April 
1846; Charles William RadclyH'e, who be- 
came an artist and a member of the Birming- 
ham Society of Artists, and still survives ; 
and 

EDWARD RADCLYFFE (1809-1863), born in 
1809 in Birmingham, where he was educated 
under his father and J. "V. Barber, and fol- 
lowed his father's profession as an engraver. 
He received medals for engraving at the ages 
of fifteen and seventeen from the Society of 
Arts in London, and in his twenty-first year 
removed to the metropolis. He was largely 
enployed in engraving for the ' annuals,' 
then so popular, and for the ' Art Journal ' 
and other works. He also was employed 
for many years by the admiralty in engraving 
charts. Like his father, he was an intimate 
friend of David Cox the elder, and published 
several etchings and engravings from his 
works. He planned a ' liber studiorum ' in 
imitation of Turner, but had executed only 
three etchings for this at the time of his 
death in November 1863. He married, in 
1838, Maria, daughter of Major Revell of 
Round Oak, Englefield Green, Surrey. 

[Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Catalogue of an 
Exhibition of Engravings by Birmingham Men, 
Birmingham, 1877; private information.] 

L. C. 

RADFORD, JOHN (1561-1630), Jesuit, 
born in Derbyshire in 1561, was educated 
at Douay College while it was temporarily 
located at Rheims. Having completed his 
studies in humanity and theology, he was 
ordained priest in 1587, and returned to 
England on 17 Jan. 1589. There he wrote 
' A Directorie teaching the Way to the Truth 
in a briefe and plaine Discourse against the 
Heresies of this Time. Wherunto is added 
a Short Treatise against Adiaphorists- [i.e. 
Laodiceans], Neuters,' &c. The preface was 
dated 10 April 1594, and the dedication to 
' George Blackwell, archipresbyter,' in 1599, 
but the book was first published, ' probably 



at Douay ' (Brit. Mus. Cat.}, in 1605. The 
book circulated in England, and JohnManby 
(or Manly) of Broughton, Northamptonshire, 
ascribes his conversion in 1607 to 'Father 
Parsons's " Christian Directory," and a con- 
troversial work written by Mr. Radford,' 
adding that he was afterwards received by 
Radford into the catholic church. Radford 
doubtless carried on the perilous work of a 
catholic missionary in the part of England 
most familiar to him. On 30 Oct. 1606 
Father Robert Jones, alias North, wrote to 
Parsons at Venice, recommending that the 
latter shouldcommunicatefurther with Rad- 
ford, who, the writer suggested, ' might be 
admitted at home, and wuld prove a suffi- 
cient jorneyman ' (Stonyhurst MSS. Archives 
*'/- (Anglia), vol. iii. letter 71). Parsons 
accepted the view of his correspondent, and 
Radford accordingly entered the Society of 
Jesus in 1608. On 2 January 1618 he was 
made a spiritual coadjutor. lie remained at 
Northampton until after 1621, when he came 
to London. John Gee [q. v.j, in his ' Foot 
out of the Snare,' London, 1624, mentions 
his name without comment in a ' list of 
Jesuites now [1623] resident about the City 
of London ; ' and when papers and goods 
belonging to Jesuits were seized at, 'a house 
near Clerkenwell, on 19 March 1627-8,' by 
order of the council, Radford's name appears 
among the ' Veterani Missionarii.' He soon 
transferred his missionary work to Devon- 
shire, where he died, at ' the residence of 
the Blessed Stanislaus,' on 9 Jan. 1630, 
aged 69. In the ' Archives Generales ' he is 
eulogised as ' homo devotus et in missione 
multos perpessus labores. Laboravit ante 
ingressum in Societatem jam in missione, 
ita tit simul omnes computando 39 annos 
ibidem expleverit.' 

[Foley's Kecords of the English Province of 
the Society of Jesus, vol. vii. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Charles I, vol. xcix.; Archives Generales de 
la Compignie de Jesus.] E. L. R. 

RADFORD, THOMAS (1793-1881), 
obstetrician, son of John Radford, dyer and 
bleacher, was born at Hulme Fields, Man- 
chester, on 2 Nov. 1793, and educated at a 
private school at Chester. At the age of 
seventeen he was apprenticed to his uncle, 
William Wood, surgeon, of Manchester, 
whose partner and successor he afterwards 
became. After study at Guy's and St. 
Thomas's Hospitals, he was in 1818 elected 
surgeon to the Manchester and Salford Ly ing- 
j in Hospital, and he continued his connection 
| with that charity as well as with St. Mary's 
Hospital, which was associated with it, in 
i various capacities to the end of his life ; his 

L2 



Radford 



148 



Rae 



latest offices were those of honorary consult- 
ing physician and chairman of the board of 
management. The interests of St. Mary's 
Hospital were always his special care. A 
new building for the hospital, opened in 
1856, was erected mainly through the exer- 
tions of Radford and his wife. He gave 
to the institution, in 18-53, his valuable 
library, rich in obstetrical works, and his 
museum of surgical objects, afterwards 
making many important additions to both 
collections. Some years before his death he 
invested the sum of 3,670/. in the hands of 
trustees, "2,6701. of which was to be devoted 
to the benefit of the poor in connection with 
the hospital, and the remaining 1000/. to 
maintain the library. A catalogue of the 
Radford Library, compiled by C. J. Culling- 
worth, was published in 1877. 

Radford was one of the founders of the 
Manchester school of medicine in 1825, and 
was a lecturer on midwifery at the Pine 
Street school of medicine in the same town. 
This was the first complete medical school 
in the provinces. He became a member of 
the Apothecaries' Society in 1817. At the 
same date he was admitted a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, and was elected 
a fellow in 1852. He graduated M.D. at 
Heidelberg in 1839, and later in the same 
year was elected a fellow of the Royal Col- 
lege of Physicians of Edinburgh. 

He delivered the first address on ob- 
stetrics before the Provincial, now British, 
Medical Association at its meeting in 1854, 
and was the author of many papers and 
communications on midwifery, and of 'Ob- 
servations on the Caesarean Section and on 
other Obstetric Operations,' 1865 ; 2nd ed. 
1880, besides several pamphlets. Radford 
was a notable link in the chain of able and 
well-known Manchester gynaecologists, start- 
ing with Charles White [q. v.] and including 
John Roberton [q. v.], James Whitehead 
[q. v.], and others. He was one of the first 
in this country to advise abdominal section, 
and gave much assistance in counsel and 
support to Charles Clay in his early opera- 
tions for the removal of diseased ovaries. 

Radford died at his residence at Higher 
Broughton, Manchester, on 29 May 1881, 
aged 87, and was buried in the neighbouring 
church of St. Paul, Kersal. He married, 
in 1821, Elizabeth Newton, daughter of 
John Newton, incumbent of Didsbury, near 
Manchester. She died in 1874. Their only 
child died young. 

[Manchester newspapers, 30 May 1881 ; Lan- 
cet, 11 Feb. 1882, p. 218; personal knowledge 
and information from Dr. D. Lloyd Koberts.] 

C. W. S. 



RADLEY, WILLIAM DE (d. 1250), 

bishop of Winchester. [See RALEIGH.] 

RADNOR, EARLS OF. [See ROBARTES, 
JOHN, 1606-1685 ; BOUVERIE, WILLIAM 
PLEYDELL-, 1779-1869, third earl.] 

RADSTOCK, BARON. [SeeWALDEGRAVE, 
WILLIAM, 1758-1825.] 

RADULPH. [See RALPH, RANDOLF, and 
RANULF.] 

RAE. [See also RAY.] 

RAE, ALEXANDER (1782-1820), actor, 
was born in London in May 1782. After 
the death of his father in 1787 he was edu- 
cated under the Rev. W. Lloyd, and in his 
sixteenth year entered the office of a Mr. 
Campbell, an army and East India agent in 
the Adelphi. He is said to have been offered 
by his employer an appointment in India, 
which he declined. In 1806 he set out for 
Bath with an introduction from Richard 
Cumberland (1732-1811) [q. v.] to Dimond, 
the manager of the Bath Theatre. Oxberry 
says that he made his first appearance at 
Huntingdon. Upon his appearance at Bath 
as Hamlet on 28 Jan. 1806, it was announced 
as his ' first appearance upon any stage.' 
Hamlet, which remained his favourite part, 
was played twice in Bath and once in Bristol ; 
Rae also appeared in Bath on 4 Feb. as Oc- 
tavian in the ' Mountaineers,' and Wilding in 
the 'Liar,' and on 18 Feb. as Charles Surface. 
His good figure and pleasing style, rather 
than any conspicuous display of talent, recom- 
mended him to Coleman, who engaged him 
for the Haymarket, where he appeared on 
9 June 1806 as Octavian. 

During the season, besides repeating Ham- 
let, he played Gondibert in the ' Battle of 
Hexham,' Count Almaviva, Captain Bel- 
dare in ' Love laughs at Locksmiths/ Frede- 
rick in the ' Poor Gentleman,' Sir Edward 
Mortimer in the ' Iron Chest,' Harry Hare- 
brain in ' The Will for the Deed,' Lovewell 
in the ' Clandestine Marriage ; ' and he was, 
on 9 July, the original Edward in Dibdin's 
' Five Miles off is the Finger Post,' a part 
that is said to have lowered him in public 
estimation. He was credited at this time 
with the possession of a genteel person, an ex- 
pressive countenance, and a bad voice ; he was 
said to have caught something from Kemble 
and more from Elliston, and to have the vice 
of expressing strong passion by hysterical 
' guzzles ' in the throat. At the close of the 
season he went to Liverpool, where he stayed 
four years, declining invitations from the 
Lyceum and from America. In Liverpool, 
where he succeeded Young, he played the 
lead both in tragedy and comedy, except for 



Rae 



149 



Rae 



a. time when he supported John Kemble. 
He fought so fiercely as Macduft' that Kem- 
ble expressed his fear of being slain in 
earnest. Rae won some commendation from 
Mrs. Siddons, with whom he frequently 
acted. In the slack season he was in the 
habit of visiting Dublin and Scotland. On 
14 Nov. 1812, as Rae from Liverpool, he 
made, on the introduction of Mrs. Siddons, 
his first appearance at Drury Lane, playing 
Hamlet. Norval in ' Douglas,' Romeo, 
George Barn well, and Hastings in 'Jane 
Shore' followed, and on 23 Jan. 1813 he 
was the original Don Ordonio in Coleridge's 
' Remorse,' a character that did something 
to augment his reputation. Lovemore in 
' The Way to keep him,' Beverley in the 
' Gamester,' Duke Aranza in the ' Honey- 
moon,' Philotas in the ' Grecian Daughter,' 
are among the characters assumed by him 
during his first London season. In Horace 
Smith's ' First Impressions ' he was the ori- 
ginal Fortescue on 30 Oct. 1813, and he 
played other original parts of little impor- 
tance. He was Bassanio to the Shy lock of 
Edmund Kean, upon the latter's first appear- 
ance at Drury Lane ; and when, on 12 Feb. 
1814, Kean played Richard III for the first 
time, Rae was Richmond. He is said, in a 
tale of dubious authority, to have wounded 
the vanity of Kean by asking him where he 
should hit him in the fight, and consequently 
to have been chased up and down the stage 
by Kean, who was an admirable fencer, before 
he was allowed to inflict the death-wound. 
Rae was, on 12 April 1814, the first Count 
Conenberg in Arnold's ' Woodman's Hut.' 
On 20 Oct. he was Othello to Kean's lago, 
and o Nov. Macduff to Kean's Macbeth. He 
subsequently played Horatio in the 'Fair 
Penitent 'to the Lothario of Elliston and the 
Sciolto of Pope, Orlando in ' As you like it,' 
Norfolk in ' Richard II,' Hotspur, Alonzo in 
the 'Revenge 'to Kean's Zanga, John of Lome 
(an original part) in Joanna Baillie's' Family 
Legend,' Valmont in the ' Foundling of the 
Forest,' Don Felix in the ' Wonder,' Moneses 
in ' Tamerlane,' Hubert (an original part) in 
Kinnaird's ' Merchant of Bruges, or Beggar's 
Bush ' (an adaptation from Beaumont and 
Fletcher), Valentine in ' Love for Love,' 
Plume in the ' Recruiting Officer,' Francesco 
in Massinger's ' Duke of Milan,' Osmond in 
the ' Castle Spectre,' and Ford in the ' Merry 
Wives of Windsor.' He was, on 5 Nov. 1816, 
the original Waverly in Tobin's' Guardians,' 
and played Aboan in ' Oroonoko,' De Zelos 
(an original part) in Maturin's ' Manuel' on 
8 March 1817, and Rashleigh Osbaldistone 
in the first production of ' Rob Roy the 
Greygaract/ Soame's adaptation from Scott, 



on 25 March 1818. On 22 Feb. 1819 he was 
the original Lenoir in R. Phillips's ' Heroine, 
or a Daughter's Courage,' and on 3 April 
took the part of Albanio, refused by Kean, 
in Bucke's ' Italians, or the Fatal Accusa- 
tion.' Subsequently he played the ' Stranger,' 
Edgar in ' Lear,' and he was, on 29 May 1820, 
the original Appius in an anonymous version 
of ' Virginius,' and on 17 June the original 
Ruthven in Hamilton's ' David Rizzio.' He 
is last traced at Drury Lane, 19 June 1820, 
when he played Irwin in ' Every one has his 
Fault.' 

On the death of Raymond some few years 
previously, he was assigned the stage manage- 
ment of Drury Lane, and the promotion is 
said to have led him into a life of dissipation. 
He left his home and family to live with 
an actress who is charged with having, by 
threatening suicide, induced him to make what 
proved a crowning mistake. Quitting Drury 
Lane, he undertook in 1820 the management 
of the Royalty Theatre, Wellclose Square, 
where he opened as Sir Edward Mortimer 
j in the ' Iron Chest,' Kean taking a box for 
i the first night. Here, supported by Miss 
I Pitt (afterwards Mrs. Faucit), Saville,*West, 
| Johnson, Gilbert, and other actors, he played 
the tragic parts of which at Drury Lane Kean 
| had dispossessed him. The experiment was 
a failure, salaries were unpaid, and Rae was 
, ruined. An attack of stone, from which 
disease he suffered, called for an operation, 
from which he never recovered. Attended 
by his wife, he died on 8 Sept. 1820. A per- 
formance for the benefit of his widow and 
three children was given at Drurv Lane on 
31 Oct. 

Rae's most pronounced gift was elegance ; 
he had penetration and judgment, but was 
wanting in intensity and inspiration. Ox- 
berry, who says that Rae was the best Romeo 
he had ever seen, and that as De Zelos in 
' Manuel ' he threw Kean entirely into the 
shade, adds that his Hamlet came second only 
to that of John Philip Kemble, and that it had 
a beautiful settled melancholy which he never 
saw elsewhere. Rae was handsome, about 
five feet seven in height, dark-haired and a 
little bald, a fair singer, a good fencer, and a 
fascinating companion. A portrait of Rae as 
Hamlet by De Wilde is in the Mathews col- 
lection in the Garrick Club, which includes a 
second portrait by De Wilde and oueby Tur- 
meau. Portraits also appear in the ' Monthly 
Mirror' and Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography.' 

[Genpst's Account cf the English Stage ; 
Monthly Mirror, 10 June 1810; Theatrical In- 
quisitor, September 1820; Oxberry's Dram. 
Biogr. vol. iv. ; Stirling's Old Drury Lane ; 
Georgian Era.] J. K. 



Rae 



Rae 



RAE, SIK DAVID, LORD ESKGROVE 
(1724 P-1804), lord justice clerk, son of David 
Rae of St. Andrews, an episcopalian mini- 
ster, by his wife Agnes, daughter of Sir David 
Forbes of Xewhall, was educated at the 
grammar school of Haddington, and at the 
university of Edinburgh, where he attended 
the law lectures of Professor John Erskine 
(1695-1768) [q. v.] Hewasadmitted a mem- 
ber of the Faculty of Advocates on 11 Dec. 
1751, and quickly acquired a considerable 
practice. In 1753 he was retained in an 
appeal to the House of Lords, which brought 
him up to London, where he became ac- 
quainted with Lord Hardwicke and his son 
Charles Yorke. He was appointed one of 
the commissioners for collecting evidence in 
the Douglas case, and in that capacity accom- 
panied James Burnett (afterwards Lord Mon- 
boddo) [q. v.] to France in September 1764. 
He was the leading advocate in the Scottish 
court of exchequer for many years. He suc- 
ceeded Alexander Boswell, lord Auchinleck 
[q. v.], as an ordinary lord of session on 
14 Nov. 1782, and thereupon assumed the 
title of Lord Eskgrove, a name derived from 
a small estate which he possessed near In- 
veresk. On 20 April 1785 he was appointed 
a lord of justiciary, in the room of Robert 
Bruce of Kennet. Rae was one of the 
judges who tried William Brodie (d. 1788) 
[q. v.] for robbing the General Excise Office 
in August 1788, the Rev. Thomas Fyshe 
Palmer [q. v.] for seditious practices in Sep- 
tember 1793, William Skirving and Maurice 
Margarot for sedition in January 1794, Joseph 
Gerrald for sedition in 31 arch 1794, and Robert 
Watt and David Downie for high treason in 
September 1794. He was promoted to the 
post of lord justice clerk on 1 June 1799, in 
the place of Robert Macqueen, lord Brax- 
field [q. v.], and was created a baronet on 
27 June 1804. He died at Eskgrove on 
23 Oct. 1804, in the eightieth year of his 
age, and was buried in Inveresk churchyard. 

Cockburn declares that no more ludicrous 
personage than Rae could exist. Every one, 
he says, used to be telling stories of him, 
' yet never once did he do or say anything 
which had the slightest claim to be remem- | 
bered for any intrinsic merit. The value of 
all his words and actions consisted in their 
absurdity ' (CoCKBURX, Memorials of his 
Time, 1856, pp. 118-19). According to the 
same authority, ' in the trial of Glengarry 
for murder in a duel, a lady of great beauty 
was called as a witness. She came into 
court veiled; but, before administering the 
oath, Eskgrove gave her this exposition of 
her duty : " Young woman ! you will now 
consider yourself as in the presence of Al- 



mighty God and of this High Court. Lift 
up your veil ; throw off all modesty, and 
look me in the face " ' (ib. p. 122). Brougham 
seems to have taken a special delight in tor- 
menting him. But, in spite of his ludicrous 
appearance and his many eccentricities of 
manner, Rae was a man of the greatest in- 
tegrity, and one of the ablest Scottish lawyers 
of the day. AVith Hay, Campbell, and others, 
Rae collected the ' Decisions of the Court of 
Session from the end of the year 1756 to the 
end of the year 1760,' Edinburgh, 1765, fol. 
He married, on 14 Oct. 1761, Margaret 
(d. 1770), youngest daughter of John Stuart 
of Blairhall, Perthshire, by whom he had 
two sons (1) David, who succeeded as the 
second baronet, but died without male issue 
on 22 May 1815; and (2) William (1769-1842) 
[q.v.] and one daughter, Margaret, who mar- 
ried, on 3 Jan. 1804, Captain Thomas Phipps 
Howard of the 23rd light dragoons. Rae's 
portrait, by Raeburn, hangs in Parliament 
House, Edinburgh. An etching of Rae, by 
Kay, will be found in the first volume of 
' Original Portraits ' (Xo. 140). 

[Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College 
of Justice, 1832, pp. 535-6 ; Kay's Original Por- 
traits and Caricature Etchings, 1877, i. 350- 
352, ii. 250 ; Henry Cockburn's Journal, 1874, 
i. 241-2; Georgian Era, 1833, ii. 287-8; 
Douglas's Baronage of Scotland, 1798, p. 244; 
Debrett's Baronetage, 1835, p. 315 ; Scots Mag. 
1761 p. 558, 1765 p. 502, 1767 p. 389, 1769 p. 
223, 1770 p. 343, 1804pp. 78, 887, 1815 p. 559; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vi. 188, 231, 358, ix. 
136-7.] G. F. E. B. 

RAE, JAMES (1716-1791), surgeon, only 
son of John Rae (1677-1754), a barber- 
surgeon and descendant of an old family of 
landed proprietors in Stirlingshire, was born 
in Edinburgh in 1716. He became, 27 Aug. 
1747, a member of the Incorporation of Sur- 
geons erected in 1778 into the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons of Edinburgh, where in 
1764-5 he filled the office of deacon or presi- 
dent. Rae was the first surgeon appointed 
to the Royal Infirmary on 7 July 1766, and 
he at once took advantage of his position to 
give practical discourses on cases of impor- 
tance which there came under his notice. 
These lectures were so highly appreciated by 
his brother practitioners that in October 1776 
they made a determined attempt to found a 
professorship of surgery in the university 
and to appoint Rae the first professor. This 
project was defeated by Alexander Monro 
[q. v.], secundus, who afterwards managed 
to convert his own chair of anatomy into 
one of anatomy and surgery. 

Rae did in the Scottish metropolis what 
Percivall Pott [q. v.] did in London : he 



Rae 



Rae 



established the teaching of clinical surgery 
on a firm and broad platform. He died in 
1791, and was buried, as was also his wife, 
in the tomb of his forefathers in Greyfriars 
Church. 

In Kay's ' Edinburgh Portraits ' Rae is re- 
presented in conversation with Dr. William 
Laing and Dr. James Hay, afterwards Sir 
James Hay of Smithfield. 

Rae married, in 1744, Isobel, daughter of 
Ludovic Cant of Thurstan. By her he had 
two sons and several daughters. The elder 
son AVilliam joined the Incorporation of 
Surgeons on 18 July 1777, settled in London, 
where he married Isabella, sister of the Lord 
chief-justice Dallas, and died young. John, 
the younger brother, was the first fellow of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 
where he was admitted on 14 March 1781. 
He became president in 1804-5, and was well 
known in Edinburgh as a dentist. Among 
Rae's daughters was Mrs. Elizabeth Keith, 
who founded the Incurables Association, and 
Elizabeth, wife of James Fleming of Kirk- 
caldy, whose daughter, Margaret Fleming 
[q. v.], was immortalised by Dr. John Brown 
in ' Pet Margarie.' 

[List of Fellows of the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons of Edinburgh, 1874; Kay's Portraits, i. 
424 ; Brown's Horse Subsecivse, 3rd ser. p. 199 ; 
Scotsman, 4 April 1888, under the heading ' An 
OldGrave ; ' information kindly given to the writer 
by Dr. G. A. Gibson, a great-grandson of John 
Kae; see also Sir Grainger Stewart's Account of 
the History of the Eoyal Infirmary in the Edin- 
burgh Hospital Reports. 1893, vol. i.] D'A. P. 

RAE, JOHN (1813-1893), Arctic ex- 
plorer, son of John Rae of the Hall of Cles- 
train, near Stromness in the Orkney Islands, 
was born there on 30 Sept. 1813. In 1829 
he went to Edinburgh to study medicine, 
and in 1833 qualified as a surgeon. In the 
same year he was appointed surgeon to the 
Hudson's Bay Company's ship which annually 
visited Moose Factory, and two years later 
was appointed the company's resident sur- 
geon at Moose Fort. There he remained till 

1845. Rae spent much of his time in scien- 
tific study. In a letter, dated Hamilton, 
17 April 1837 (SILLIMAN, American Journal 
of Science and Arts, xxxiii. 190), he gives 
an account of his experiments in raising a 
balloon by means of solar heat, an invention 
which he called the ' Sun-flyer.' In June ; 

1846, while still in the service of the Hudson's ' 
Bay Company, he set out on his first journey ' 
of exploration. His aim was to survey the 
coast which separated Ross's explorations in j 
Boothia from those of Parry at Fury and 
Hecla Strait. The party, consisting of ten 
men in two boats, started from York Factory 



with three months' provisions but no fuel, 
and spent the winter at Repulse Bay in lat. 
66 32' N. Early in the following year Rae 
and his companions made a long laud journey, 
in which they surveyed upwards of seven 
hundred miles of new coast, forming the 
shores of Committee Bay. 

On completing this journey Rae returned 
to London, but was almost immediately 
(1847) induced to join the first land expedi- 
tion sent in search of Sir John Franklin [q. v.] 
under the leadership of Sir John Richardson 
[q. v.] In 1848-9 all the coast between the 
Mackenzie and the Coppermine rivers was 
searched in vain. At Great Bear Lake, the 
expedition's winter quarters, very carefully 
registered observations on meteorology, mag- 
netism, c., were carried on throughout the 
winter. After Richardson's return to Eng- 
land, Rae in 1849 descended the Copper- 
mine river with a single boat, but his effort 
to cross Wollaston Land was frustrated by an 
impassable block of ice (see Rae's Letter to 
the Admiralty, date 1 Sept. 1849, printed 
for H.M. Stationery Office). 

Rae went back to the Mackenzie river, 
and was appointed to the charge of that 
large district ; but in June 1850 the govern- 
ment once more requested his services in 
pursuing the search for Franklin. Rae ac- 
cordingly took command of another search 
party, and spent the autumn and winter in 
its organisation. In order to utilise the time 
before navigation opened in the summer, 
Rae made a journey in the spring of 1851 
with two men and two sledges along the 
shore of "Wollaston Land. He left Fort 
Confidence, on Bear Lake, where the party 
built and fitted out two boats, on 25 April, 
and, in order to examine as much of the 
coast as was possible, traversed in sledges a 
distance of about eleven hundred miles at a 
daily average rate of more than 24 miles, the 
fastest on record. A large part of the shore 
of AVollaston Land was thus examined and 
mapped out. On 13 June, three days after the 
return of the sledge expedition, the boat ex- 
pedition started. Rae joined it at the Kendal, 
a tributary of the Coppermine river. After 
descending the Kendal in safety, Rae ex- 
amined to about 101 the whole south and east 
coast of Victoria Land, of which a great part 
had not been previously explored. The west 
side of the passage, through which Franklin's 
ships had been forced by the ice, was traced 
for ninety miles, and named Victoria Channel. 
The boats then returned and ascended Cop- 
permine river, after a voyage of eleven hun- 
dred to twelve hundred miles. At a con- 
venient place one boat was abandoned and 
the other hauled overland for seventy miles 



Rae 



152 



Rae 



to the Great Bear Lake, and so southward by 
the Mackenzie river. At the Athabasca 
river they were frozen in, and had to await 
a fall of snow to enable them to travel on 
snowshoes. In this manner they marched 
about 1,750 miles, by Fort Garry (now Win- 
nipeg), to United States territory. In the 
last 450 miles forty-five miles a day was the 
average rate. In about eight months the 
expedition had travelled 5,380 miles, seven 
hundred miles of which were newly dis- 
covered coast-line. For the geographical re- 
sults of this expedition and for the survey of 
1847 Eae was awarded in 1852 the Founder's 
gold medal of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety. 

Rae then returned to England, and pro- 
posed to the Hudson's Bay Company the des- 
patch of another expedition to complete, if 
possible, the survey of the northern coasts of 
America. The company equipped a boat ex- 
pedition on condition that Rae would lead it 
personally, and early in 1853 he once more left 
England. The expedition wintered (Septem- 
ber 1853) at Repulse Bay. On 31 March 1854 
Rae set out with four of the party to trace the 
west coast of Boothia. He reached Point de la 
Guiche on 6 May, and returned to his winter 
quarters on 26 May. On this journey he 
proved King William's Land to be an island. 
He also obtained news of Franklin's party, 
and purchased relics from the Eskimos. From 
26 May to 4 Aug. he remained at Repulse 
Bay, gathering more particulars of Franklin's 
fate. He would then have proceeded to 
complete his commission, which was to sur- 
vey the whole of the west coast of Boothia, 
but decided that he ought to return and 
prevent fruitless search for Franklin in wrong 
directions. He reached York Factory on 
31 Aug. This expedition connected the sur- 
vey of Ross with that of Uease and Simpson. 

The evidence which Rae collected as to 
the fate of the Erebus and Terror is given 
in a letter addressed by him, under date 
29 July 1854, to the secretary of the admi- 
ralty. He arrived in London on 22 Oct. 
1854, and found that his party was entitled 
to a reward of 10,000/. offered by the go- 
vernment to the first who brought back de- 
cisive information of the fate of Sir John 
Franklin's expedition. On receipt of his 
part of the reward, Rae, being desirous of 
completing the survey of the northern shores 
of America, had a small schooner built in 
Canada at an expense of 2,000/. The vessel 
was not ready in time, and she consequently 
sailed on the lakes in the autumn to earn 
freight, but was lost in a storm. In Novem- 
ber 1858 Rae made a tour through the United 
States with the Hon. Edward Ellice, and the 



following summer was one of a party who 
went across the prairies to Red river. It 
was about this time that Rae walked from 
Hamilton to Toronto, a distance of about 
forty miles in seven hours ; he did it on 
snowshoes, and dined out the same evening, 
showing no signs of fatigue. 

In 1 860 Rae undertook the land part of a 
survey for a contemplated telegraph line 
from England by the Faeroes, Iceland, and 
Greenland to America (Proc. Royal. Geogr. 
Soc. v. 80). In 1864 he conducted a diffi- 
cult telegraph survey from Winnipeg, across 
the Rocky Mountains in lat. 53, to the 
Pacific coast. Subsequently some hundreds 
of miles of the most dangerous parts of 
Fraser river were traversed in small dug- 
out canoes without a guide a most perilous 
undertaking, but successfully accomplished. 

During the latter years of his life, which 
he spent chiefly in London, Rae maintained 
a keen interest in colonial matters. He was 
an active member of the Royal Colonial In- 
stitute, a governor of the Imperial Institute, 
one of the first directors of the Canada 
North-West Land Company, and a director 
of other commercial enterprises in Manitoba 
and British Columbia. He was a regular 
attendant at meetings of the Royal Society, 
of which he was elected a fellow in 1880, of 
the Royal Geographical Society, and the 
British Association. He was also an ardent 
volunteer. He received the honorary degree 
LL.D. from the university of Edinburgh, 
and that of M.D. from McGill College, Mont- 
real. 

He died on 22 July 1893 at his residence, 
4 Addison Gardens, London, of influenza, 
followed by congestion of the lungs, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Magnus 
Cathedral, Kirkwall. 

Rae married, in 1860, Catharine JaneAlicia, 
the third daughter of Major George Ash 
Thompson of Ardkill, co. Londonderry, and 
Glenchiel Munechrane, co. Tyrone. He left 
no children. 

Rae, whose health was exceptionally ro- 
bust, attributed his success in arctic travel 
to his power of living in Eskimo fashion and 
to his skill as a sportsman and boatman. 
He is said to have walked over twenty-three 
thousand miles in the course of his arctic 
journeys. In all his expeditions he made col- 
lections of characteristic plants and animals, 
as well as physical and meteorological obser- 
vations. He was the author of ' Narrative 
of an Expedition to the Shores of the Arctic 
Sea in 1846 and 1847 ' (published 1850). 
He wrote also reports of his journey in the 
' Journal of the Royal Geographical Society r 
(xxii. 73, 82, xxv. 246) ; a paper on ' Forma- 



Rae 



Rae 



tion of Icebergs and Transportation ot .Boul- 
ders by Ice' (Canadian Journal, iv. 180), 
the substance of which is repeated in his 

?aper read before the British Association in 
860 (Rep. Brit. Assoc. xxx. 174). At the 
same meeting he read a paper (unpublished) 
on the ' Aborigines of the Arctic and Sub- 
Arctic Regions of North America.' 

A portrait of him, painted by Mr. Stephen 
Pierce, and afterwards engraved, was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 18.52. A 
later portrait, painted by Mr. Sydney Hodges, 
is in the museum at Stromness ; and there is 
a bust, by George Maccallum, in the Edin- 
burgh University. 

[The Polar Eegions, by Sir John Richardson, 
8vo, 1861 ; obituary notices in Amer. Geogr. 
Soc. Bull. vol. xxv. No. 3, Geogr. Journ. vol. ii. 
No. 3, Nature xlviii. 321, Times 26 July 1893, 
Orkney Herald 2 Aug. 1893 ; and the following 
Parliamentary Returns : Papers and Corre- 
spondence relative to the Arctic Expedition 
under Sir John Franklin, March 1851, pp. 4o, 
61; Arctic Expeditions 20 Dec. 1852, p. 72; 
Further Papers relative to the Recent Arctic 
Expeditions in Search of Sir John Franklin, 
January 1855, p. 831 (reprinted in 8vo form 
under title ' The Melancholy Fate of Sir John 
Franklin and his Party, as described in Dr. 
Rae's Report, together with the Despatches and 
Letters of Capt. McClure ') ; Further Papers, &c,, 
May 1856 (containing correspondence relative to 
the adjudication of the 10,000/. reward).] 

H. R. 

RAE, PETER (1671-1748), mechanic 
and historian, son of a clockmaker, was born 
at Dumfries. In his earlier years he appears 
to have followed his father's trade, for he 
afterwards constructed for the Duke of 
Queensberry at Drumlanrig Castle an astro- 
nomical and musical clock, w r hich became the 
admiration of the neighbourhood. In 1697 
he began to study theology, and in 1699 was 
licensed to preach. In 1703 he was ordained 
minister of Kirkbride. The parish was sup- 
pressed in 1727 by the lords commissioners 
of teinds, and in 1732 he was translated 
to Kirkconnel, where he remained till his 
death on 29 Dec. 1748. ' Mr. Rae,' says a 
successor, ' was distinguished as a philosopher 
as well as a divine, nor was he less known 
as a mechanic, mathematician, and historian' 
(SINCLAIR, Statistical Account, x. 454). On 
19 July 1697 he married Agnes, eldest daugh- 
ter of John Corsane of Meiklenox, bailie of 
Dumfries. By her he had two sons, Robert 
and John, and two daughters, Janet and 
Agnes. 

Rae's chief work was a ' History of the 
Rebellion of 1715,' containing much useful 
local detail and an appendix of original 
documents (Dumfries, 1718, 4to; London, 



174(3, 8vo). It was the subject of an attack 
in doggerel verse by Robert Ker, in 'A Glass 
wherein Nobles, Priests, and People may see 
the Lord's Controversies against Britain.' 
Rae also published a ' Treatise on Lawful 
Oaths and Perjury,' Edinburgh, 1749, and 
compiled a ' History of the Parishes in the 
Presbytery of Penpont.' The latter was 
never printed, and the original manuscript 
has disappeared, but several imperfect copies 
are in private hands (Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. ix. 306). 

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. i. ii. 679, 681 ; 
Scots Mag. xi. 53; Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 44 ; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. x. 94, 187; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Authors, ii. 1273.] E. I. C. 

RAE, SIR WILLIAM (1769^1842), lord 
advocate, younger son of Sir David Rae, 
lord Eskgrove [q. v.l, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of John Stuart of Blairhall, Perth- 
shire, was born in Edinburgh on 14 April 
1769, and educated at the high school and 
university of Edinburgh. He was called to 
the Scottish bar on 25 June 1791, and was 
appointed- sheriff of Midlothian on 27 May 
1809. He succeeded his brother David as 
third baronet on 22 May 1815, and was ap- 
pointed lord advocate in the place of Alex- 
ander Maconochie, afterwards Maconochie- 
Welwood [~q. v.], on 24 June 1819 (London 
Gazette, 1819, pt. i. p. 1111). In the fol- 
lowing month he was returned to parlia- 
ment for the Anstruther burghs, which he 
continued to represent until June 1826. Rae 
appears to have spoken for the first time in 
the House of Commons on 31 Jan. 1821 
(Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. iv. 232-3). On 
15 Feb. 1821 he defended the right of the 
privy council to issue an order to the General 
Assembly of Scotland directing the erasure 
of the queen's name from the liturgy (ib. iv. 
696-704). On 20 Feb. 1822 he opposed Lord 
Archibald Hamilton's motion for a commit- 
tee of the whole house upon the royal burghs 
of Scotland, and declared that he ' could not 
view any alteration in the constitution of 
them in any other light than that of a par- 
liamentary reform of the boroughs of Scot- 
land' (ib. vi. 542-5). A few days afterwards 
he introduced a bill to remedy abuses in the 
expenditure of burgh funds (ib. vi. 800), 
which became law during the session 
(3 George IV, c. 91). 

On 25 June Abercromby moved for the ap- 
pointment of a committee ' for the purpose 
of inquiring into the conduct of the lord ad- 
vocate and the other law officers of the 
crown in Scotland with relation to the pub- 
lic press, and more especially to inquire into 
the prosecution carried on against W. Borth- 



Rae 



154 



Rae 



wick.' The latter was publisher of the tory 
paper, the ' Glasgow Sentinel,' which had 
attacked James Stuart of Dunearn, an ac- 
tive whig, in an article by Sir Alexander 
Boswell [q. v.] In a duel that followed be- 
tween Boswell and Stuart, Boswell Avas mor- 
tally wounded ; Stuart was tried for murder 
at the instance of the lord advocate, and 
Borthwick was arrested on a charge of theft. 
In defending himself, Rae denied all know- 
ledge of the libels which had appeared in the 
' Glasgow Sentinel,' but admitted that he 
had signed a circular recommending that 
paper, and also that he had subscribed 1001. 
to another tory paper, the ' Beacon,' which, 
had also attacked Stuart. "With regard to 
the proceedings against Borthwick, lie main- 
tained that his depute had acted properly 
in all that he had done. Thougli Aber- 
cromby was defeated by 120 votes to 95 
(ib. vii. 1324-73), he again returned to the 
subject on 3 June 1823, when he moved that 
the conduct and proceedings of the lord ad- 
vocate in Borthwick's case 'were unjust and 
oppressive.' In spite of the fact that he had 
himself given an opinion against the prose- 
cution of Borthwick, Rae declared that ' he 
was quite ready to take upon himself the 
responsibility which might be supposed to 
attach ' to his depute. On a division the 
motion was lost by the narrow majority of 
six votes (ib. ix. 664-90). Rae's connection 
with the tory press gave rise to a voluminous 
discussion on the vague and extensive powers 
of the lord advocate, and a series of articles 
on the subject, which aroused great interest 
throughout Scotland, appeared in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' (xxxvi. 174, xxxviii. 226, 
xxxix. 363, xli. 450). 

Notwithstanding previous opposition to a 
like measure, Rae brought in a bill for ap- 
pointing criminal juries in Scotland by ballot, 
which received the royal assent on 20 May 
1825, and is sometimes called Lord Melville's 
Act (6 George IV, c. 22). In the same 
session was passed an ' Act for the better 
regulating of the Forms of Process in the 
Courts of Law in Scotland ' (6 George IV, 
c. 120). In the following session a select 
committee was appointed on Rae's motion 
to inquire into the state of the Scottish pri- 
sons (Par/. Debates, 2nd ser. xv. 45-6). Rae 
was returned for Harwich at a by-election 
in May 1827, and spoke in favour of the 
Roman Catholic Relief Bill on 24 March 
1829 (ib. xx. 1419-21). On 1 April 1830 he 
obtained leave to bring in a Scottish judica- 
ture bill, by which the number of the lords 
ordinary was reduced from fifteen to thirteen, 
and other changes were made in the court 
of session (ib. xxiii. 1138-55, 1176). The 



government subsequently wished to abandon 
the bill, but when Rae threatened to re- 
sign, it was proceeded with, and became law 
on the last day of the session (11 George IV 
and 1 William IV, c. 69). 

Rae was sworn a member of the privy 
council on 19 July 1830. He was elected 
for Buteshire at the general election in 
August 1830, and resigned office on the 
downfall of the Duke of Wellington's ad- 
ministration in November following. He re- 
presented Portarlington in the parliament of 
1831-2. At a by-election in September 
1833 he was returned for Buteshire, and con- 
tinued to represent that county until his 
death. He was reappointed lord advocate 
on the formation of Sir Robert Peel's ad- 
ministration in December 1834, and retired 
from office, with the rest of his colleagues on 
the defeat of the ministry in April 1835. 
On 5 May 1837 Rae unsuccessfully moved a 
series of resolutions affirming the necessity 
for extending ' the means of religious in- 
struction and pastoral superintendence fur- 
nished by the Established Church of Scot- 
land' (Par/. Debates, 3rd ser. xxxviii. 602- 
614). On 23 Aug. 1839 he was appointed 
one of the directors of prisons in Scotland 
(London Gazette, 1839, pt. ii. p. 1701). In 
March 1841 he introduced a bill for the erec- 
tion at Edinburgh of a monument to Sir 
Walter Scott (Part. Debates, 3rd ser. Ivii. 
288). He was reappointed lord advocate 
on 4 Sept. 1841, in Sir Robert Peel's second 
administration. He spoke for the last time 
in the House of Commons on 21 March 1842 
(ib. Ixi. 932-3). He died at St. Catherine's, 
near Edinburgh, on 19 Oct. 1842, aged 73, 
and was buried at Inveresk. 

Rae was the intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott, who apostrophised him as ' Dear loved 
Rae ' in the introduction to the fourth canto 
of 'Marmion.' He is described by Scott 
as 'sensible, cool-headed, and firm, always 
thinking of his dutv, and never of himself 
(LOCKHAET, Life of Sir Walter Scott, 1839, 
vi. 140). Rae never attained any emi- 
nence as a speaker, either at the bar or in 
the house. His practice at the bar was never 
large, and, though he had many opportunities 
of claiming preferment, he always declined 
to go on the bench of the court of session. 
He conducted the prosecution of Andrew 
Hardie and other persons charged with high 
treason before the special commission held 
at Stirling, Glasgow, Dumbarton, Paisley, 
and Ayr in the summer of 1820 (Reports of 
State Trials, new ser. 1888, i. 609-784; 
Trials for High Treason in Scotland, &c., 
taken in shorthand by C. J. Green, 1825), 
and was the leading counsel for the crown 



Rae 



155 



Raeburn 



in the celebrated trial of William Burke and 
Helen McDougal for the murder of Margery 
Campbell or Docherty, before the high court 
of justiciary at Edinburgh in December 1828. 

Rae married, on 9 Sept. 1793, Mary (d. 
1839), daughter of Lieutenant-colonel 
Charles Stuart of the 63rd foot, by whom he 
had no issue. The baronetcy became extinct 
on his death. He was one of the original 
members of 'The Club,' founded in 1788 
(LoCKHART, Life of Sir Walter Scott, i. 
207-8 n.), and was captain of the corps of 
volunteer cavalry which was raised in Edin- 
burgh in 1797 (ib. i. 355-6). Several of Rae's 
despatches while lord advocate are preserved 
in the Record Office. 

[Omond's Lord Advocates of Scotland, 1883, 
ii. 256-98 ; Journal of Sir Walter Scott, 1890, i. 
14, 84, 204, 355, ii. 30, 64, 229, 314, 328 ; An- 
derson's Scottish Nation, 1863, iii. 732-3 ; (lent. 
Mag. 1843, -pt.i. pp. 313-14; Annual Kegister, 
1842, App. to Chron. pp. 295-6; Scots Mag. 
1769 p. 223, 1793 p. 466, 1810 p. 476, 1812 p. 
235; Debrett's Baronetage, 1835, p. 315; Fos- 
ter's Members of Parliament, Scotland, 1882, 
p. 291 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. vi. 188, 231, 
333 ; Official Eeturn of Lists of Members of 
Parliament pt. ii. pp. 281, 295, 303, 324, 339, 
348, 360, 374, 392.] G. F. E, B. 

RAE, SIR WILLIAM (1786-1873), naval 
surgeon, born in 1786, was the son of Matthew 
Rae of Park-end, Dumfries. He was educated 
at Lochmaben and Dumfries, and afterwards 
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh University. In 
1804 he entered the medical service of the 
East India Company, but in the following 
year was transferred as surgeon to the royal 
navy. He served first in the Culloden under 
Sir Edward Pellew (afterwards Lord Ex- 
mouth) [q. v.] In 1807, when in the Fox, he 
took part in the destruction of the Dutch 
ships at Gressic in Java. Subsequently, when 
the squadron was becalmed in the Bay of 
Bengal, he contrived an apparatus for dis- 
tilling water. When attached to the Leyden 
in 1812-13 he was very successful in his 
treatment of the troops suffering from yellow 
fever at Cartagena and Gibraltar, and re- 
ceived the thanks of the commander-in-chief 
and the medical board. 

In 1824 he was appointed to the Bermuda 
station. He became M.R.C.S. in 1811, extra- 
licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians 
in 1839, and F.R.C.S. in 1843. He ulti- 
mately attained the rank of inspector- general 
of hospitals and fleets, and retired on a pen- 
sion to a country practice near Barnstaple. 
He was created C.B. in 1855, and knighted in 
1858. He died at Hornby Lodge, Newton 
Abbot, Devonshire, on 8 April 1873, and was 
buried at Wolborough. Rae married, in 1814, 



Mary, daughter of Robert, Bell ; and secondly, 
in 1831, Maria, daughter of Assistant-com- 
missary-general R. Lee. 

[Medical Eegisters ; Debrett's Baronetage and 
Knightage, 1872 ; Times, lOApril 1873 ; Illustr. 
London .News, 26 April 1873 ; East and South 
Devon Advertiser, 19 April, &c. ; Ward's Men 
of the Eeign.] G. LB G. N. 

RAEBURN, SIR HENRY (1756-1823), 
portrait-painter, was born on 4 March 1756 
at Stockbridge, then a suburb of Edinburgh. 
' The Scottish Reynolds,' as he has been 
called, was the son of Robert Raeburn, 
a successful Edinburgh manufacturer, and 
of his wife, Ann Elder. The Raeburns were 
of border origin. A hill farm in Annan- 
dale, the property of Sir Walter Scott's 
family, still bears their name, and is said to 
have once been the home of the race. The 
painter himself claimed to be ' Raeburn of 
that ilk,' and asserted that his forbears held 
the land before the Scotts. In the peaceful 
times which succeeded the union of the two 
kingdoms, the Raeburns, like other border 
lairds, settled down quietly to a pastoral life 
and agriculture. Some larger ambition, how- 
ever, moved the painter's father to try his 
fortune in trade in the capital. His venture 
proved successful. He became a citizen of 
repute and a millowner, and on his death 
left a considerable business to be carried on 
by the elder of his two children, William. 
The latter was twelve* years older than the 
artist, and when Henry was left an orphan at 
the age of six, his elder brother took the place 
of both parents. He was educated at Heriot's 
Hospital, which he left at the age of fifteen. 
He seems to have given no signs of pre- 
cocity, save in the superiority of his illicit 
caricatures to those of his classmates. Im- 
mediately on leaving the hospital he was 
apprenticed to one Gilliland, a goldsmith 
and jeweller in Edinburgh. An interesting 
relic of this early training still exists in a 
jewel executed for Professor Duncan in me- 
mory of Charles Darwin (uncle of the famous 
Charles Darwin), who died in 1778, aged 20, 
while an Edinburgh student. Before he 
was sixteen Raeburn began to paint water- 
colour miniatures of his friends. It has been 
commonly said that he had never even seen 
a picture when his miniatures first began to 
attract attention. This, however, is hardly 
credible. An intelligent boy of his class 
could not have grown up in Edinburgh with- 
out seeing a certain number of works of art. 
His achievements were in any case remark- 
able enough to excite his master Gilliland's 
warm interest and admiration, and the good- 
natured goldsmith introduced his apprentice 



Raeburn 



Raeburn 



to David Martin [q. v.], then the fashionable 
portrait-painter of the Scottish capital. If 
Raeburn was the Reynolds of Scotland, 
Martin may be called its Hudson. The 
young aspirant no doubt owed much to 
the older and less gifted artist. The pic- 
tures in Martin's studio fired his ambition 
and led him to adopt a broader treatment in 
his miniatures. Martin received him kindly, 
giving him the run of his house and allowing 
him to copy in his studio. But perhaps some 
foreboding of future rivalry prevented Martin 
from offering any direct help or practical en- 
couragement. Finally a coolness sprang up 
between the pair, the master having unjustly 
accused the scholar of selling one of the copies 
he had been allowed to make. Meanwhile the 
success of his miniatures emboldened Rae- 
burn to devote himself entirely to portrait- 
painting. His lack of technical training 
hampered him seriously at the outset. He 
had to find out for himself all the rudi- 
ments of his art how to prepare his colours, 
set his palette, and generally to manage his 
tools. But hard work and earnest study 
from nature proved the best road to effi- 
ciency. His first essays in oil show none of 
the small and over-careful treatment that 
might be expected from a miniaturist. Al- 
most from the first his work in the oil 
medium was vigorous and broad. He passed 
with consummate ease from the conscien- 
tious delicacy of the miniaturist to the bold, 
square execution which marks his life-size 
portraits. 

Among the friends whose advice and en- 
couragement he found most valuable in his 
early struggles was the young advocate John 
Clerk [q. v.], afterwards the well-known j udge 
of the court of session, under the title of Lord 
Eldin. Raeburn has helped to immortalise 
this lifelong friend by two fine portraits. 
Clerk often joined the painter in his sketching 
expeditions. Money was then scarce with 
both, and Cunningham gives an amusing ac- 
count of the shifts to which they were some- 
times reduced. In neither case, happily, did 
the probation last very long. Raeburn soon 
began to make a name for himself in his native 
city ; commissions flowed in. and a marriage, 
at once romantic and provident, set him be- 
yond the reach of poverty at the age of 
twenty-two. In 1778 a lady presented her- 
self at the young painter's studio to sit for 
her portrait, and was at once recognised as 
a fair unknown he had met in some sketch- 
ing excursion and had introduced into a 
drawing. She was Ann, daughter of a small 
laird, Peter Edgar of Bridgelands, and the 
widow of a certain Count Leslie, a French- 
man by nationality. She was some years 



older than Raeburn, and had had three 
children, but sitter and painter were mutu- 
ally attracted, and within a few months be- 
came man and wife. The handsome fortune 
she brought her husband was by no means her 
only recommendation. The marriage was 
thoroughly happy. One of Christopher 
North's daughters, Mrs. Ferrier, describes 
her in her old age as ' a great character,' 
and all we hear of her agrees with what we 
see in Raeburn's fine portrait of the ' dear 
little wife comely and sweet and wise,' in 
suggesting a personality both purposeful and 
charming. Her memory is locally preserved 
in the name of Ann Street, Edinburgh, the 
home of Christopher North, De Quincey. and 
other worthies, which stands on what once 
was her property, to the south of the Water 
of Leith. 

After their marriage the couple lived for 
a time at Deanhaugh House, a legacy to 
Mrs. Raeburn from her first husband. It 
was afterwards taken down to make room 
for the extension of Leslie Place. Raeburn 
spent some years here in the active exer- 
cise of his profession, but, as he became 
more and more alive to defects due to a 
want of early training, he made up his mind 
to seek improvement abroad. An introduc- 
tion to Reynolds confirmed his resolve. Sir 
Joshua generously recognised the Scottish 
painter's talent, and strongly advised him 
to study for a time in Rome, directing his 
attention more particularly to the works of 
Michael Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. In 
after years Raeburn was fond of describing 
how Sir Joshua, taking him aside at their 
parting, said, ' Young man, I know nothing 
of your circumstances ; young painters are 
seldom rich ; but if money be necessary for 
your studies abroad, say so, and you shall 
not want it.' Of money Raeburn was in no 
need, but he gratefully accepted introduc- 
tions from Reynolds to many leading men in 
Rome, among others to Pompeo Battoni. 
His countryman, Gavin Hamilton, also 
proved of service. Raeburn further made 
friends with the connoisseur and collector, 
Mr. Byers, to whose advice that ' he should 
never paint even the most trifling accessory 
in his pictures without having the object 
before him ' he ascribed a conscientious 
treatment of detail by no means universal 
among his contemporaries. After two years 
of steady work in Rome, he returned to Edin- 
burgh in 1787, and set up his easel in a new 
studio in George Street. There he soon found 
himself in the full tide of popularity. David 
Martin, his former patron, was his only 
serious rival, as he was also, perhaps, the only 
person who professed to believe that ' the lad 



Raeburn 



157 



Raeburn 



in George Street painted better before he went 
to Rome.' Martin did riot resign his supre- 
macy without a struggle, but his cold con- j 
ventionalities had little chance against Rae- 
burn's vital and vigorous art, and he bad at 
last to abandon the field to the younger 
man. 

On the death of his brother William in 
1788, Raeburn succeeded to the house and 
property of St. Bernard's at Stockbridge, and 
thither he moved with his family when about 
thirty-two. The planning of the new town 
of Edinburgh suggested the turning to ac- 
count of some fields in the northern part of 
his property for a building speculation. They 
were laid out with houses and gardens, and 
proved a very successful venture, adding 
considerably to his income. His studio in 
George Street was now too small for his in- 
creasing circle of clients, and he built himself 
a large gallery and painting-room in York 
Place. It is still known as Raeburn House. 
In the gallery he hung his pictures as they 
were completed, admitting the public freely 
to see them. 

Raeburn's career of some thirty years as 
a fashionable portrait-painter was one of un- 
broken professional and social success. His 
fine presence, genial manners, shrewd sense, 
and great conversational powers made him 
a welcome guest in the brilliant society of 
his day. A complete collection of his works 
would make a Scottish national portrait gal- 
lery of ideal quality 'a whole army of wise, 
grave, humorous, capable, or beautiful coun- 
tenances, painted simply and strongly by a 
man of genuine instinct.' Robertson, Hume, 
Monboddo, Boswell, Adam Smith, Braxfield, 
Christopher North, Lord Newton, Dugald 
Stewart, John Erskine, Jeffrey, and Walter 
Scott were of the company, to name but the 
more famous. Burns is almost the only 
notable absentee from the roll of his sitters. 

Raeburn was in love with his daily task. 
He used to declare portrait-painting to be the 
most delightful thing in the world, for every 
one, he said, came to him in the happiest of 
moods and with the pleasantest of faces. It 
is significant, too, of the generous temper he 
showed to his brother-artists that he described 
his profession as one that leads neither to dis- 
cords nor disputes. Of his habits Allan Cun- 
ningham gives an interesting account : ' The 
movements of the artist were as regular as 
those of a clock. He rose at seven during 
summer, took breakfast about eight with his 
wife and children, walked into George Street, 
and was ready for a s itter by nine ; and of sitters 
he generally had for many years not fewer 
than three or four a day. To these he gave 
an hour and a half each. He seldom kept a 



sitter more than two hours, unless the per- 
son happened and that was often the case 
to be gifted with more than common talents. 
He then felt himself happy, and never failed 
to detain the one client till the arrival of 
another intimated that he must be gone. 
For a head size he -generally required four 
or five sittings ; and he preferred painting 
the head and hands to any other part of the 
body, assigning as a reason that they required 
least consideration. A fold of drapery or 
the natural ease which the casting of a mantle 
over the shoulder demanded occasioned him 
more perplexing study than a head full of 
thought and imagination. Such was the 
intuition with which he penetrated at once 
to the mind that the first sitting rarely came 
to a close without his having seized strongly 
on the character and disposition of the in- 
dividual. He never drew in his heads, or 
indeed any part of the body, with chalk a 
system pursued successfully by Lawrence 
but began with the brush at once. The fore- 
head, chin, nose, and mouth were his first 
touches. He always painted standing, and 
never used a stick for resting his hand on ; 
for such was his accurateness of eye and 
steadiness of nerve that he could introduce 
the most delicate touches, or the most me- 
chanical regularity of line, without aid or 
other contrivance than fair, off-hand dex- 
terity. He remained in his painting-room 
till a little after five o'.clock, when he walked 
home, and dined at six.' The picture is well 
completed by Scott's description : ' His manly 
stride backwards, as he went to contemplate 
his work at a proper distance, and, when re- 
solved on the necessary point to be touched, 
his step forward, were magnificent. I see him 
in my mind's eye, with his hand under his 
chin, contemplating his picture, which posi- 
tion always brought me in mind of a figure 
of Jupiter which I have somewhere seen.' 
It is the attitude in which the artist has 
painted his own portrait. 

Fully occupied in his native city, Raeburn 
had little time for visits to London. He is 
said to have paid only three short visits to 
the capital. An entry in Wilkie's ' Diary ' 
for 12 May 1810 shows, however, that on 
one of these occasions he came up with an 
idea of settling. Sir Thomas Lawrence 
strongly advised him against such a course, 
and he wisely remained where his position 
was assured. He was very courteously re- 
ceived by his brother-artists in London, and 
Wilkie describes an academy dinner where 
Raeburn ' was asked by Sir William Beechey 
[q. v.] to sit near the president ; his health 
was proposed by Flaxman, and great atten- 
tion was paid him.' 



Raeburn 



158 



Raeburn 






It was not until 1814 that Raeburn sent his 
first contribution to the English academy ; 
he was at once elected an associate, and in 
the following year a full member. These 
honours were gained without any sort of 
canvass. ' They know I am on their list,' he 
says in a letter to a friend ; ' if they choose 
to elect me it will be the more honourable to 
me, and I will think the more of it ; but if 
it can only be obtained by means of solicita- 
tion and canvassing, I must give up all hopes 
of it, for I think it would be unfair to em- 
ploy those means.' In 1822, when George IV 
paid his famous visit to Edinburgh, Raeburn 
was one of the citizens singled out for dis- 
tinction, probably on the initiative of Scott. 
He was knighted at Hopetoun House, ' in 
recognition of his distinguished merit as a 
painter.' The king was so much struck by 
his appearance and manner that he is said to 
have told Scott he would have made him a 
baronet but for the slur on the memory of 
Reynolds. In May of the following year he 
was appointed ' his Majesty's first limner and 
painter in Scotland,' but he did not long en- 
joy these honours. A few weeks later he 
made one of a party to St. Andrews (in the 
annual archaeological excursion instituted by 
the chief commissioner, Adam), among his 
companions being Scott and Miss Edgeworth. 
He returned to Edinburgh apparently in ex- 
cellent health and spirits, and resumed his 
work on his two half-lengths of Scott, one 
of which he was painting for himself, and 
the other for Lord Montague. These, as 
Scott records in his ' Journal ' (16 June 1826 ), 
were the last canvases he touched. AVithin 
a few days he was seized with a mysterious 
atrophy. His doctors were unable to dis- 
cover the cause of it, and, after a week of 
rapid decline, he died on 8 July 1823. He 
was buried in the episcopal church of St. 
John's, at the west end of Prince's Street, 
Edinburgh. His grave is in the ' dormitory ' at 
the east end of the church, within a few 
yards of passers-by in the street. 

At a meeting of the Royal Academy in 
London, held on 14 July, Sir Thomas Law- 
rence paid a generous tribute to the memory 
of the Scottish painter ; a more elaborate 
panegyric was pronounced by Dr. Andrew 
Duncan in his 'Discourse' to the Harveian 
Society of Edinburgh in 1824, in which he 
gave a detailed account of Raeburn's career. 

Of Raeburn's work no very complete chro- 
nological survey is possible, for he kept no 
record of his sitters and no accounts of 
his earnings. The total number of his pic- 
tures has been estimated at about six hundred 
a number small enough when compared 
with the thousands recorded in Sir Joshua's 



pocket-book. But Raeburn's methods did 
not lend themselves to rapid production. 
He employed little or no assistance, send- 
ing out his -pictures with no hand but his 
own upon the canvas. Brilliant and in- 
cisive though his technique was, it involved 
much thought and care in the actual execu- 
tion of a picture. As an executant Raeburn 
deserves the comparison which has been 
made between him and Velazquez. The 
principles common to both were carried 
much further by the great Spaniard, but the 
resemblance between the two is so consider- 
able that a good Raeburn might fairly be 
hung beside the less ambitious and elaborate 
productions of Velazquez. Speaking posi- 
tively, Raeburn's merits consist in a fine eye 
for the character and structure of a head, 
as well as for the essentials of an organic 
work of art. His conceptions are always 
simple and well balanced ; his colour is 
usually agreeable ; his methods and materials 
are nearly always sound ; his handling has 
in perfection the expressive breadth and 
squareness which has since his time been 
erected into something like a fetish. The 
conditions under which the Scotsman prac- 
tised his art were unfavourable to its supreme 
development, especially as, when we read 
between the lines of what his contemporaries 
say of him, we seem to divine a certain in- 
dolence in his disposition. Secure almost 
from the outset in a position that was never 
seriously contested, knowing little of his 
great forerunners for his attention, like that 
of most travellers to Italy in those days, 
seems to have been driven into false grooves 
he lacked those stimulants to ambition with- 
out which a man of his character could never 
bring out all that was in him. Technically 
his chief faults are a want of richness and 
depth in his colour, and an occasional prone- 
ness to over-simplify the planes in his model- 
ling of a head. 

Raeburn's works are to be found chiefly in 
the private houses of Scotland. Within the 
last few years, however, there has been an 
increasing demand for them among collectors, 
and in all important exhibitions of works of 
the British school he has claimed a place 
little, if at all, below the great triad of Eng- 
lish portrait-painters. The two Edinburgh 
galleries own many fine examples, among 
them Lord Newton in the National Gallery, 
and the well-known Niel Gow in the Por- 
trait Gallery. His magnificent full-length 
of Lord Duncan is in the Trinity House, Leith, 
his Dr. Nathanial Spens in the Archer's Hall. 
The pictures which now (1896) represent 
him in the Louvre and the English National 
Gallery are all either doubtful or of second- 



Raeburn 



159 



Raffald 



rate quality. Three hundred and twenty- 
five, including some of the finest and most 
characteristic, were exhibited at the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1876. 

Raeburn's character was expressed in his 
manly, dignified, and searching art. His 
kind and generous disposition made him, we 
are told, ' one of the best-liked men of his 
day,' and he lived in close friendship with all 
that was honourable and distinguished in his 
native country. An industrious worker, he 
yet found time for many pursuits and accom- 
plishments. He was an enthusiastic fisher- 
man, golfer, and archer, made occasional 
essays in architecture, and had a passion for 
miniature shipbuilding and modelling. l His 
conversation,' says Scott, ' was rich, and he 
told his story well.' 

His wife outlived him for some ten years. 
Of their two sons, the elder, Peter, died at 
the age of nineteen, after having shown 
signs of considerable artistic gifts. Henry, 
who inherited the two properties, Dean- 
haugh and St. Bernard's, further became 
possessor of the estate of Howden by his 
marriage with the beautiful Miss White, but 
finally made his home at Charlesfield, near 
Mid-Calder. This was the house Dr. John 
Brown described as ' overrun with the 
choicest Raeburns.' Henry Raeburn the 
younger had seven children, but his sons 
died without issue, and Charlesfield, with its 
treasures, passed to his eldest daughter, who 
married Sir William Andrew, C.I.E. 
Raeburn's best portrait (by himself) is now 
in the possession of Lord Tweedmouth ; it 
was engraved in stipple by Walker. A marble 
bust by Thomas Campbell (1822) is the pro- 
perty of the Misses Raeburn, the painter's 
granddaughters. A medallion, commonly 
ascribed to James Tassie, is partly by Rae- 
burn himself; it is inscribed 'II. Raeburn, 
1792.' 

[Life of Sir Henry Raebnrn, R.A., by his 
great-grandson, William Raeburn Andrew, M.A., 
1894, with appendix of pictures exhibited at the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1876; Allan Cun- 
ningham's Lives of British Painters, ed. Heaton; 
Redgrave's Century of Painters, and Dictionary 
of Artists of the British School ; Bryan's Dic- 
tionary of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves 
and Armstrong ; Dr. John Brown's Introductory 
Essay to Elliot's Works of Sir Henry Raeburn, 
with photographs bv T. Annan ; Allan Cunning- 
ham's Life of Sir "David Wilkie; Sir Walter 
Scott's Journal ; Lockhart's Life of Scott ; Steven- 
son's Virginibus Puerisque: an essay on Some 
Portraits by Raeburn ; Catalogue of the Loan 
Collection of Ilaeburn's Works at the Royal 
Scottish Academy in 1876; Catalogues of Exhi- 
bitions of Works of the Old Masters at Bur- 
lington House ; A Tribute to the Memory of Sir 



Henry Raeburn, by Dr. Andrew Duncan, being 
the doctor's discourse to the Harveian Society of 
Edinburgh for 1 824 ( Historical Tracts); Catalogue 
of the National Gallery of Scotland.] W. A. 

RAFFALD, ELIZABETH (1733-1781), 
cook and author, daughter of Joshua Whi- 
taker, was born at Doncaster, Yorkshire, in 
1733. After receiving a fair education, she 
passed about fifteen years from 1748 to 1763 
in the service of several families as house- 
keeper, her last employer being Lady Eliza- 
beth Warburton, of Arley Hall, Cheshire. 
She married John Raffald, head gardener 
at Arley, on 3 March 1763, at Great Bud- 
worth, Cheshire. The couple settled at 
Manchester, and during the next eighteen 
years Mrs. Raffald had sixteen daughters. 
At first she kept a confectioner's shop ; then 
took the Bull's Head Inn, Market Place, 
and, at a later period, the King's Head, Sal- 
ford. She was a woman of much shrewd- 
ness, tact, and strength of will, and had, 
with other accomplishments, a good know- 
ledge of French. She gave lessons to young 
ladies in cookery and domestic economy, 
opened what was probably the first registry 
office for servants in Manchester, and as- 
sisted in the continuance of ' Harrop's Man- 
chester Mercury,' and in starting ' Prescott's 
Journal,' another local newspaper. In 1769 
she published her ' Experienced English 
Housekeeper, for the Use and Ease of 
Ladies, Housekeepers, Cooks, &c., wrote 
purely from Practice . . . consisting of near 
800 original Receipts ; ' of this work thirteen 
genuine editions (from 1769 to 1806), and at 
least twenty-three pirated or spurious edi- 
tions, appeared. R. Baldwin, the London 
publisher, is reported to have paid Mrs. Raf- 
fald 1,400/. for the copyright in 1773. Her 
portrait, from a painting by P. McMorland, 
first came out in the eighth edition, 1782. 
The portraits in the spurious editions are 
untrustworthy. In 1772 she compiled and 
published the first ' Directory of Manchester 
and Salford.' A second edition followed in 
1773, and a third in 1781. She also wrote 
a book on midwifery, under the guidance of 
Charles White [q. v.], the surgeon, hut she 
did not live to print it. It is believed to 
have been sold in London by her husband, 
but if published it bore some other name. 
She died suddenly on 19 April 1781, and 
was huried at Stockport parish church, 
where many of her husband's ancestors were 
interred. Raffald, who was an able botanist 
and florist, but of improvident and irregular 
hab'ts, died in December 1809, aged 8f>, and 
was buried at Sacred Trinity Chapel, Salford. 

[Harland's Manchester Collectanea, vols. i. ii. 
(diet ham Society) ; Palatine Note-Book, i. 141 ; 



Raffles 



1 60 



Raffles 



reprints of the first two Manchester Direc- 
tories, with prefatory memoirs by the present 
writer, 1889; extracts from Salford and Don- 
caster Registers, furnished by Mr. John Owen 
and Miss M. C. Scott.] C. W. S. 

RAFFLES, THOMAS (1788-1863), 
independent minister, only son of William 
Raffles (d. 9 Nov. 1825), solicitor, was born 
in Princes Street, Spitalfields, London, on 
17 May 1788. He was first cousin of Sir 
Thomas Stamford Raffles [q. v.] His mother 
was a Wesleyan methodist, and he joined 
that body at ten years of age. In 1800 
he was sent to a boarding-school at Peck- 
ham, kept by a baptist minister; among 
his schoolfellows was his lifelong friend, Ri- 
chard Slate [q. v.], the biographer of Oliver 
Heywood. At Peckham he joined the con- 
gregation of William Bengo Collyer [q. v.] 
For some months in 1803 he was employed 
as a clerk in Doctors' Commons, but re- 
turned to Peckham (October 1803) in order 
to prepare for the ministry. He studied at 
Homerton College (1805-9) under John Pye 
Smith [q. v.], gave early tokens of preaching 
power, and after declining a call (20 Jan. 
1809) to Hanover Street Chapel, Long Acre, 
he settled at George Yard Chapel, Hammer- 
smith, where he was ordained on 22 June 
1809. On the sudden death (5 Aug. 1811) of 
Thomas Spencer [q.v.], minister of Newing- 
ton Chapel, Liverpool, Raffles was invited to 
succeed him. He preached at Liverpool in 
November 1811, accepted the call on 11 Jan. 
1812, began his ministry on 19 April, and 
was ' set apart to the pastoral office ' on 
28 May, the congregation having removed 
on 27 May to a new chapel in Great George 
Street. 

His ministry in Liverpool, which lasted 
till 24 Feb. 1862, was one of great eminence. 
No nonconformist minister in Liverpool held 
for so long a period so commanding a posi- 
tion. In politics he took no public part, 
though a liberal in principle. In Septem- 
ber 1833 he declined an invitation to suc- 
ceed Rowland Hill (1744-1833) [q. v.] at 
Surrey Chapel, London. He was chairman 
of the Congregational Union of England 
and Wales in 1839. On 19 Feb. 1840 his 
chapel in Great George Street was destroyed 
by fire. A new chapel on the same site was 
opened on 21 Oct. 

In conjunction with George Hadfield 
(1787-1879) [q. v.], Raffles was one of the 
main founders in 1816 of the Blackburn 
Academy for the education of independent 
ministers, of which Joseph Fletcher, D.D. 
[q. v.], was the first theological tutor. The 
removal of the institution to Manchester, 
as the Lancashire Independent College, was 



largely due to Raffles. From March 1839 
till his death he was chairman of the edu- 
cation committee, and raised a large part of 
the money for the existing college buildings 
at Whalley Range, near Manchester, opened 
on 26 April 1843. The first professor of 
biblical criticism was Dr. Samuel David- 
son, the author of the second volume in 
the tenth edition, 1856, 8vo, of the ' Intro- 
duction to the . . . Scriptures,' by Thomas 
Hartwell Home [q. v.] In the controversy 
raised by this publication, which produced 
Davidson's resignation in 1858, Raffles took 
the conservative side. On 20 June 1861 his 
services to the college were acknowledged 
by the foundation of the Raffles scholarship 
and the Raffles library. He had received 
the degree of LL.D. from Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, on 22 Dec. 1820, when his testi- 
monials were signed by the Dukes of Sussex 
and Somerset ; and in July 1830 the degree 
of D.D. from Union College, Connecticut. 

In the history of nonconformity, especially 
in Lancashire, he was deeply interested, ac- 
cumulating a large collection of original 
documents, of which much use has been 
made by Halley and some by Nightingale. 
These manuscripts are now in the library 
of the Lancashire Independent College. He 
was a great collector of autographs of all 
kinds. He left forty folio volumes of them, 
and as many quartos, besides a collection of 
American autographs in seven volumes. 

Raffles died on 18 Aug. 1863. He was 
buried on 24 Aug. in the Necropolis, Liver- 
pool. In person he was tall and dignified, 
his voice and manner were suasive, and his 
powers of anecdote were famous. In the 
pulpit he wore cassock, gown, and bands. 
He married, on 18 April 1815, Mary Cathe- 
rine (b. 31 July 1796, d. 17 May 1843), only 
daughter of James Hargreaves of Liverpool. 
He had three sons and a daughter ; his eldest 
son, and biographer, being Thomas Stamford 
Raffles, at one time stipendiary magistrate of 
Liverpool. 

He published, besides single sermons : 
1. 'Memoirs ... of Thomas Spencer,' &c., 
Liverpool, 1813, 12mo ; seven editions, be- 
sides several in America. 2. ' Poems by 
Three Friends,' &c., 1813, 8vo (anon.) ; 2nd 
edit. 1815, 8vo, gives the names [see BROWN, 
JAMES BALDWIN the elder]. 3. ' Klopstock's 
"The Messiah" ... the Five last Books 
prepared for the Press,' &c. 1814, 12mo 
(dedicated to Queen Charlotte) : 1815, 12mo, 
3 vols. 4. ' Letters during a Tour through 
. . . France, Savoy,' &c., Liverpool, 1818, 
12mo; five editions, besides American re- 
prints. 5. ' Lectures on ... Practical Re- 
ligion,' &c., Liverpool, 1820, 12mo. 6. ' Lee- 



Raffles 



161 



Raffles 



tiires on ... Doctrines of the Gospel,' &c., 
Liverpool, 1822, 12mo. 7. ' Hear the Church ! 
a, Word for All. By a Doctor of Divinity 
but not of Oxford,' &c., 1839, 8vo (anon.), 
ascribed to Raffles. 8. ' Internal Evidences 
of the . . . Inspiration of Scripture,' &c., 
1849, 16mo ; 1864, 8vo. 9. ' Independency 
at St. Helen's,' &c., Liverpool, 1856, 12mo. 
Posthumous was 10. ' Hymns . . . for the 
New Year's Morning Prayer Meeting,' &c., 
Liverpool, 1868, 4to (edited by James Bald- 
win Brown the younger [q. v.]) Raffles 
edited an enlarged edition, 1815, 4to, 2 vols. 
(reprinted 1825,4to), of the ' Self-interpreting 
Bible,' by John Brown (1722-1787) [q. v.]; 
and was one of the editors of the ' Investi- 
gator,' a London quarterly, started in 1820, 
but of no long existence. He contributed 
eight hymns to his friend Collyer's ' Hymns,' 
1812 ; these, with thirty-eight others, were 
included in his own ' Supplement to Dr. 
Watts,' 1853. Julian annotates sixteen of 
his hymns in common use. They are mostly 
of very small merit. 

[Sketch by Baldwin Brown, 1863; Memoirs 
by his son, 1864 (portrait); Thorn's Liverpool 
Churches and Chapels, 1854, pp. 58 sq. ; Halley's 
Lancashire, 1869, ii. 299 sq. ; Julian's Diet, of 
Hymnology, 1892, pp. 948 sq. ; Nightingale's 
Lancashire Nonconformity [1893], vi. 156 sq. 
(portrait).] A. G. 

RAFFLES, SIB THOMAS STAM- 
FORD (1781-1826), colonial governor, only 
surviving son of Benjamin Raffles, long a 
captain in the English West India trade, was 
born at sea on board the Ann, off Port 
Morant, Jamaica, 5 July 1781. His family, 
originally of Yorkshire, had been settled for 
some generations in London, where his pa- 
ternal grandfather held a post in the pre- 
rogative office in Doctors' Commons. His 
mother's maiden name was Lindeman. He 
was an intelligent child, and went to school 
for about two years at Dr. Anderson's at 
Hammersmith, but, owing to family poverty, 
he was placed at the age of fourteen in 
the East India House as an extra clerk. 
In leisure moments after office hours he 
managed to master French and to study na- 
tural science. His diligence in the office at- 
tracted the attention of Ramsay, secretary 
to the court of directors, on whose recom- 
mendation he was appointed by Sir Hugh 
Inglis assistant secretary to the establish- 
ment sent by the East India Company to 
Penang in 1805. 

He landed at Penang in September. His 
natural faculty for languages enabled him 
to become fluent in Malay in a few months, 
and, on the strength of this and of his indus- 

VOL. XLVII. 



try, the governor and council of the island 
promoted him to be secretary in 1807, and 
registrar of the recorder's court. But the 
combined effects of administrative work, hard 
study, and an unhealthy climate brought on 
an almost fatal illness in 1808. He then 
visited Malacca, where he studied the re- 
sources of the place, and by his representa- 
tions prevented its intended cession. He 
returned to Penang ; but his health broke 
down again in 1809, and in 1810 he proceeded 
to Calcutta, to obtain, if possible, the governor- 
ship of the Moluccas. This he found already 
promised elsewhere. Meanwhile his corre- 
ipondence with Dr. Leyden, the orientalist, 
and various communications to the Asiatic 
Society in Calcutta on the languages and 
manners of the Malay peoples, had brought 
him to the notice of Lord Minto. Relying 
largely upon Raffles's local knowledge, Lord 
Minto undertook the reduction of Java when 
Holland had been annexed by the French. 
Raffles was accordingly sent as the governor- 
general's agent to Malacca, to collect infor- 
mation and supplies in furtherance of the 
enterprise, and Lord Minto joined him in 
Malacca on 9 May 1811. Raffles recom- 
mended the adoption of the route along the 
south-west coast of Borneo from Malacca to 
Java, and after some opposition his advice 
was acted upon, and the entire fleet was 
brought safely to Bata,via by the end of 
July. He took no part in the military opera- 
tions, but Lord Minto's promise of the lieu- 
tenant-governorship of Java, made before the 
expedition started, was fulfilled when the 
island capitulated on 11 Sept. His task was 
a difficult one, for the population numbered 
six millions, many of the independent chiefs 
were fierce and powerful, and the part of 
the island which had been conquered by the 
Dutch was much less than half. The go- 
vernment was none the easier for being made 
subordinate to the governor-general in coun- 
cil in Bengal, and for the fact that it was 
upon Bengal the governor had to draw for 
money, drafts which eventually exhausted 
the patience of the superior administration. 
He set to work with an energy surprising in 
a man of already impaired health. He ap- 
pointed English residents at the different 
native courts, and, ' intrepid innovator as he 
was ' (CKAWFTJKD, Dictionary of the Indian 
Islands, p. 363), took measures to abolish the 
Dutch system of exacting forced labour from 
the natives, regulated the mode of raising the 
revenue, re-established the finances, and re- 
modelled the administration of justice while 
retaining the Dutch colonial law. He visited 
the whole of the island, and with great in- 
dustry collected information about the pro- 



Raffles 



162 



ducts of the soil and the history and lan- 
guages of the people. Early in 1812 he des- 
patched an expedition for the reduction of 
the rich metalliferous island of Banca, and 
by the end of June the whole of Java sub- 
mitted quietly to British rule. 

The system pursued by the Dutch had 
been to farm out the internal administration 
of the island to native chiefs or regents, who 
paid to the government a certain portion of 
the produce of the soil, and furnished it 
with a certain quantity of forced labour, and 
in return were allowed to treat the land 
as their own, and its cultivators almost as 
their slaves. The result was bad alike for 
governors and subjects. Having obtained 
during the first two years of his governor- 
ship ample statistical evidence of the value 
and capabilities of the different districts, 
Raffles, following out Lord Minto's instruc- 
tions, abolished the system of forced labour, 
feudal dues, and direct contributions in kind, 
and substituted leases, originally for very 
short terms, by which the actual cultivator 
became the direct beneficiary of the fruits of 
his labour. The regents were at the same 
time compensated for the loss of their rights. 
The internal police of the island was pro- 
vided for by utilising native institutions, 
which, though hardly known by the Dutch, 
had existed from time immemorial, while at 
the same time its supreme control was in the 
hands of Europeans, and not of native chiefs. 
He introduced trial by jury with the simplest 
possible forms of judicial procedure. In his 
opinion, the Malay races, when treated with 
sympathy, were of all Eastern peoples the 
easiest to'rule ; but if they met with ill-usage 
or bad faith, few were so ferocious or untrust- 
worthy. He accordingly refused to surround 
himself with guards or escorts, made him- 
self at all times accessible to those who had 
business with him, and was rewarded by 
seeing his government increasingly peace- 
ful and prosperous. But, despite the ex- 
traordinary influence which he gained over 
the people of Java, it is doubtful whether 
he was well advised in making his drastic 
change in the system of landholding; it em- 
barrassed his government while it lasted, 
and scarcely iustified itself by its results. 

Early in '1813 Raffles and 'General Gilles- 
pie, the commander of the forces in the 
island, engaged in a dispute which soon 
became acute. Raffles desired to reduce the 
number of European troops in order to save 
expense ; Gillespie insisted that the number 
must be maintained. Raffles was supported 
in his view by Lord Minto, who further 
proved his friendship by appointing him in 
June 1813, before quitting India, to the 



residency of Fort Marlborough at Bencoolen, 
Sumatra, as a provision in case the island 
of Java should not be permanently retained 
as part of the East India Company's terri- 
tories. The last two years of his governor- 
ship were troubled and only partly successful. 
The uncertainty as to whether Java would 
continue a British possession after the con- 
clusion of peace tied his hands. He was ham- 
pered by the extreme scarcity of specie and the 
great depreciation of the paper currency, and 
the execution of the change in the system of 
landholding was a troublesome and laborious 
task. To retire a portion of the paper cur- 
rency he sold, on his own authority, a quan- 
tity of public lands a course approved by 
Lord Minto under the circumstances, but 
undoubtedly a serious and costly alienation 
of public property, which was condemned by 
the court of directors. Shortly after Lord 
Minto had quitted India, Gillespie presented 
to the governor-general in council a general 
and sweeping indictment of nearly the whole 
of Raffles's administration, and his ultimate 
exoneration by the court of directors from 
personal misconduct, t iiough complete, was 
obtained only after rniir-h laborious explana- 
tion and anxious suspense. Meantime the 
restoration of Java to the Dutch had been 
resolved upon, in spite of remonstrances 
which Raffles addressed to the Earl of 
Buckingham in August 1815, both officially 
and privately. The convention was signed 
on 13 Aug. 1814, though it was not until 
August 1816 that the restoration actually 
took place. In 181 o Raffles was somewhat 
summarily recalled. His incessant daily 
activity, stated to have lasted from 4 A.M. 
till 11 P.M., in a trying climate had greatly 
impaired his strength : and, not content with 
the labours of his office, he was constantly 
engaged in acquiring that knowledge which 
made him one of the first authorities on all 
matters scientific, historical, or philological 
connected with the eastern seas. He had 
visited nearly all the remains of sculpture to 
be found in Java (cf. WALLACE, Malay Archi- 
pelar/o, 1890, p. 80). He was indefatigable 
in his journeys about the island, constantly 
and lavishly entertaining the European 
colony, Dutch as well as English. To add 
to his depression, in 1815 he lost his wife, the 
widow of W. Fancourt of Lanark, a resi- 
dent in India, whom he had married in 
1805. His pecuniary circumstances would 
have rendered it very advantageous to him 
to take up his appointment at Bencoolen on 
quitting Java, but he was advised that his 
health made his return to Europe imperative. 
He sailed from Batavia on 25 March 1816. 
His ship called at St. Helena, where he was 



Raffles 



163 



Raffles 



presented to Napoleon, and he reached Lon- 
don on 16 July. 

He at once set to work to clear himself 
from the charges which had been made 
against his administration ; but the court of 
directors declined to go beyond the exonera- 
tion of his personal honour, which they had 
already recorded. He then turned to the 
composition of his 'History of Java,' a some- 
what hasty work, diffuse and bulky, and in- 
accurate in its account of the history and 
religion of the Javanese, but full of interest- 
ing matter with regard to the actual con- 
dition and manners of that people. He 
began to write in October 1816. and pub- 
lished the book in the following May. Its I 
publication excited considerable public in- 
terest. He was presented to the prince re- 
gent and knighted. He visited Holland to 
lay before the Dutch king his views on the 
administration of Java, but found him more 
concerned about revenue than philanthropy. 
He travelled extensively, and formed plans 
for making new scientific collections relating 
to the further Indies. 

In 1817 the court of directors confirmed 
him in the governorship of Bencoolen, and 
he took up his appointment there on 
22 March 1818. He found the adminis- 
tration utterly disorganised. The public 
buildings had been wrecked by earthquakes, 
and the pepper cultivation, for the sake of 
which the settlement existed, was totally 
neglected. The principal item of revenue 
arose from the breeding of gamecocks, and 
there was little security for either life or 
person. He at once set to work to cultivate 
friendly relations with the native chiefs, 
emancipated a number of negro slaves, 
the property of the East India Company, 
established schools, organised the police, and 
checked the attempts of neighbouring Dutch 
officials to extend their territories at the ex- 
pense of the natives. An impression pre- 
vailed that the interior of Sumatra was 
impenetrable. He undertook various excur- 
sions from the sea-coast, and eventually 
crossed the island from one sea to the other, 
travelling constantly on foot, and often 
sleeping in the forests. On one of these 
journeys he discovered the extraordinary 
and enormous flower of the Rafflesia Arnoldi, 
a fungus parasite on the roots of the Cissus 
anyustifolia. It measures a yard across, and 
attains a weight of fifteen pounds. The Ne- 
penthes Rafflesiana, which he subsequently 
discovered at Singapore, was also named after 
him. 

Having received information that the 
Dutch were fitting out expeditions with the 
view of occupying all the most commanding 



situations in the Archipelago, Raffles urged 
upon his superiors the necessity of taking 
counter steps. Proceeding to Calcutta in the 
autumn of 1818 to confer with the govern- 
ment of Bengal, a voyage on which he was 
shipwrecked at the mouth of the Hooghly, he 
obtained authority to assume charge of Bri- 
tish interests to the eastward of the Straits 
of Malacca, as agent to the governor-general, 
and prevailed upon the Marquis of Hastings, 
who had now been brought to express ap- 
proval of his conduct in Java, to allow the 
occupation of Singapore. This almost un- 
inhabited island he had selected even before 
leaving England as highly fitted for pre- 
serving to British trade free access to the 
eastern islands, and preventing the Dutch 
from securing the exclusive command of the 
eastern seas. He had discovered its capa- 
bilities in the course of his Malay studies. 
It was unknown alike to the European and 
to the Indian world, and it had been over- 
looked by the Dutch, who conceived them- 
selves to have occupied every place available 
for securing the only two practicable ap- 
proaches to the Archipelago the Straits, 
namely, of Malacca and Sunda. By Raffles's 
advice the company purchased Singapore from 
the sultan of Johore, and Raffles in person 
hoisted the British flag there on 29 Feb. 
1819, in a spot occupied by the remains of 
the fortifications of the ancient maritime 
capital of the Malays. 4 His services to Bri- 
tish commerce in selecting this site were 
enormous. The acquisition of Singapore 
itself has been justified by its extraordinary 
growth and success as the meeting-point of 
all the routes and all the races of the eastern 
seas, and as the most important commercial 
centre between Calcutta and Hongkong. 
At the same time, Raffles's plan for the ex- 
tension of British power in Sumatra was not 
adopted, and the settlement at Singapore 
marked the back current of British enter- 
prise from the islands to the mainland of 
the Malay peninsula. 

Returning to Bencoolen, he established 
schools and a bible society, and imported 
baptist missionaries from India. He formed 
plans for a native college at Singapore, and 
strongly urged the court of directors to unite 
all their separate stations in the Straits in 
one government. He does not appear to 
have ever been in high favour with the 
directors at home, who probably feared, 
without appreciating, his restless and reform- 
ing energy, and, in spite of a visit to Bengal, 
this cherished plan failed, to his lasting dis- 
appointment. 

In February 1820 he left Calcutta to re- 
turn to Sumatra, but from this time forward 



Raffles 



164 



Raffles 



he devoted himself more particularly to the 
affairs of Bencoolen, where he built himself 
a house twelve miles from the town, and in- 
troduced the cultivation of coffee and sugar. 
His collections, botanical, zoological, and 
anthropological, grew steadily, and portions 
of them were from time to time sent home 
to his friends, Sir Joseph Banks, W. Marsden, 
and others. He corresponded actively with 
various persons in England, and endeavoured 
by their means to persuade the home govern- 
ment and the East India Company to resist 
the Dutch by pushing the interests of English 
commerce, particularly at Singapore. In 1821, 
on his own authority, he brought the island 
of Pulo Nias under British authority in order 
to put an end to a slave trade which had 
flourished there. In September 1822 he was 
ordered to Singapore to place the island under 
a settled system of government. He found 
commerce flourishing and speculation busy, 
and set to work to make Singapore a free and 
safe port. He had the harbour and adjacent 
coasts correctly surveyed from Diamond Point 
to the Carimons ; he allotted lands and laid 
out towns and roads, established a land re- 
gistry and a local magistracy, and raised a 
sufficient revenue without taxing trade. Early 
in 1823 he established an institution for the 
study of Chinese and Malay literature, and 
endeavoured, but without success, to transfer 
to Singapore the Anglo-Chinese college at 
Malacca. A short code of laws was drawn 
up, and he himself sat in court to enforce it, 
and on being relieved of the charge of 
Singapore at the end of March 1823 he 
received the cordial approval of the go- 
vernor-general. He quitted Singapore on 
14 June, leaving it in the charge of his 
successor, Crawfurd, and spent the remain- 
der of the year at Bencoolen. On 2 Feb. 
1824 he at length embarked for home on 
board the Fame, but a few hours after sail- 
ing, the ship caught fire by the gross care- 
lessness of the steward, and, though no 
lives were lost, there was barely time for 
those on board to escape before the ship's 
gunpowder exploded. The ship was de- 
stroyed; the boats were many hours before , 
reaching shore; the fugitives had neither 
food, water, nor clothes. Raffles lost all his 
papers and drawings, two thousand in num- 
ber, his notes and memoirs for a history of 
Sumatra and Borneo, the map of the island, 
which had occupied six months in prepara- 
tion, and his huge collection of birds, beasts, 
fishes, and plants (see Gent. Mag. 1824, 
pt. ii. p. 169). The calamity was irreparable ; 
he was entirely uninsured, and his money 
loss alone was 20,0001. to 30,000/. He sailed 
again on 8 April by the Mariner, a small 



Botany Bay ship, and landed at Plymouth 
in August 1824. 

One of his first tasks was to draw up a 
statement principally from memory of his 
administration during the previous twelve 
years, and in November this appeared under 
the title of ' A Statement of the Services of 
Sir Stamford Raffles.' It did not, however, 
fully justify him in the eyes of the court of 
directors. They censured his emancipation 
of the company's slaves and his annexation 
of Pulo Nias, and, while generally approving 
his motives, plainly disapproved of his zeal. 
Settling at a house at High wood, near Bar- 
net, he occupied himself with the founda- 
tion of the Zoological Society, of which he 
was the first president, and with the pro- 
motion of missionary enterprise in the 
East. At the end of May 1826 he was 
attacked by apoplexy, and on 5 July 1826 
he died suddenly, when only forty-five years 
old. 

By his second wife, Sophia, daughter of J. 
Watson Hull of Baddow, Essex, whom he 
married in 1816, he had five children, of 
whom all but one died in the fatal climate of 
Sumatra. He was a LL.D., a F.R.S., and 
a member of many learned societies. In ad- 
dition to the two above-mentioned works, he 
edited George Finlayson's ' Mission to Siam,' 
which appeared in 1826. 

His statue, by Chantry, is in the north 
aisle of Westminster Abbey, with an epitaph 
testifying to his patriotic services. The 
bust was engraved as the frontispiece to 
his wife's memoir of him. A portrait by 
George Joseph, painted in 1817, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London. 

' His slender frame and weakly constitu- 
tion,' says Crawfurd, one of his subordinates 
in Java and his successor at Singapore, ' con- 
trasted with the energy and activity of his 
mind.' Activity, industry, imperturbable 
good temper, and political courage were the 
most remarkable endowments of his charac- 
ter. In the transaction of public business he 
was ready, rapid, and expert, partly the result 
of early training, but far more of innate energy 
and ability. He was not, perhaps, an original 
thinker, but readily adopted the notions of 
others, not always with adequate discrimina- 
tion. Lord Minto's opinion of him, formed 
before the acquisition of Java, was that he 
was ' a very clever, able, active, and judicious 
man, perfectly versed in the Malay language 
and manners.' His genuine benevolence and 
sincere piety greatly commended him to the 
evangelical party and to the opponents of 
slavery, but his chief title to remembrance is 
that he secured to Great Britain the mari- 
time supremacy of the eastern seas. 



Raftor 



165 



Ra gg 



[Lady Raffles's Memoir of Sir T. S. Baffles, 
1830 ; Crawfurd's Descriptive Dictionary of the 
Indian Islands; Lord Minto in India, 1880; 
Gent. Mag. 1826, ii. 78 ; Ann. Keg. 1826 ; Edinb. 
Kev. xxxi. 413, li. 396; Lord's Lost Possessions 
of England, 1896, pp. 240-68.] J. A. H. 

RAFTOR, CATHERINE (1711-1785), 

actress. [See OLIVE, CATHERINE.] 

RAGG, THOMAS (1808-1881), divine 
and poet, born at Nottingham on 11 Jan. 
1808, was the son of George Ragg and Jane 
(Morrison), whose grandfather was an ad- 
herent of the old Pretender. The elder Ragg, 
born at Nottingham in!782,was great-grand- 
son of Benjamin Ragg, brother-in-law and 
coadjutor of Richard Newsham [q. v.], the in- 
ventor. He removed to Birmingham the year 
after his son's birth, and set up a bookshop 
in Bull Street. He had also a large lace and 
hosiery business, but his devotion to politics 
soon involved him in bankruptcy. A pro- 
minent radical, George Ragg was one of 
the conveners of the meeting held at New 
Hall Hill on 2'2 Jan. 1817 to petition for 
parliamentary reform. In November 1819 he 
was prosecuted for selling the ' Republican ' 
newspaper ; being unable to find bail, he was 
sent to Warwick gaol, and was sentenced in 
1820 to a term of imprisonment, despite the 
efforts of his counsel, Mr. (afterwards Jus- 
tice) Denman. Subsequently he took part 
in the management of the ' Birmingham Ar- 
gus,' founded in 1818 by himself as an organ 
of reform, and of Carlile's ' Republican.' 
On 12 Feb. 1821 he was sentenced to twelve 
months' imprisonment in the House of Cor- 
rection, Coldbath Fields, for publishing a 
'seditious and blasphemous libel' in No. 9 
of the 'Republican.' After his release he was 
present at the dinner given to Henry Hunt 
on 14 July 1823 by the Birmingham Union 
Society of Radical Reformers. The elder 
Ragg died in August 1836. 

Thomas Ragg was taken from school in 
his eleventh year to enter the printing office 
of the ' Birmingham Argus,' which his father 
was then conducting. Four years later he 
was apprenticed at Leicester to his uncle, a 
hosier, who soon removed to the neighbour- 
hood of Nottingham, and set up a lace manu- 
factory. But he resented Ragg's studious 
habits, and in 1834 Ragg left him to become 
assistant to Dearden, a Nottingham book- 
seller. He had already contributed verses 
to the ' Nottingham Review,' and in 1832 
published a poem entitled ' The Incarnation,' 
which reached a second edition next year. It 
was a fragment of a larger work in blank verse 
in twelve books, called ' The Deity,' which 
appeared in 1834, and was designed as a 



testimony from a converted infidel to the 
truth of Christianity. James Montgomery, to 
whom it was dedicated, read it before pub- 
lication, and Isaac Taylor wrote an intro- 
ductory essay. Copious extracts appeared in 
the ' Eclectic Review,' and the ' Times ' of 
11 Aug. 1834 termed it ' a very remarkable 
production.' While with Dearden, Ragg pub- 
lished other volumes of verse and wrote for 
local journals. To ' Dearden's Miscellany,' 
then edited by Alford, he contributed a poetic 
appeal on behalf of the weaver-poet of Not- 
tingham, Robert Millhouse [q. v.J After de- 
clining offers of a university education on 
condition of taking holy orders in the church, 
as well as proposals from three nonconformist 
congregations, he became in 1839 editor of 
the ' Birmingham Advertiser,' of which he 
was for a short time a proprietor. In 1841-2 
he also managed the ' Midland Monitor.' 
When the former paper failed in 1845, Ragg 
set up as a stationer and printer in Birming- 
ham. Meanwhile he continued to publish 
verse, and in 1855 produced ' Creation's Testi- 
mony to its God the Accordance of Science, 
Philosophy, and Revelation,' an evidential 
treatise, dedicated to the Rev. J. B. Owen, 
which obtained wide popularity and reached 
a thirteenth edition in 1877. Ragg corrected 
each reissue, in order to keep it abreast of 
modern scientific progress. It introduced Ragg 
to Dr. George Murray, bishop of Rochester, 
who induced him to accept ordination in 1858. 
He was appointed by the bishop to a curacy, 
the salary of which the bishop paid himself, 
at Southneet in Kent. On the bishop's death 
he became curate of Malin's Lee in Shrop- 
shire, and in 1865 was appointed perpetual 
curate of the newly formed parish of Lawley, 
where he remained till his death on 3 Dec. 
1881. He was buried in Lawley churchyard. 

Ragg was twice married : first, to Mary 
Ann Clark ; and, secondly, to Jane Sarah 
Barker. Two sons of the first, and two 
daughters and six sons of the second mar- 
riage survived him. Most of Ragg's literary 
work was produced while he was ' a self-edu- 
cated mechanic,' and is remarkable, consider- 
ing the circumstances of production. Southey 
thought well of him and gave him advice. 

In addition to the works already named, 
Ragg's chief publications were : 1. ' The 
Martyr of Verulam and other Poems,' 1835. 
2. ' Sketches from Life, Lyrics from the Pen- 
tateuch, and other Poemsj' 1837. 3. 'Heber, 
Records of the Poor, and other Poems,' 1840; 
2nd edit. 1841. 4. ' The Lyre of Zion,' &c., 
1841. 5. ' Thoughts on Salvation,' 1842. 
6. 'Hymns from the Church Services adapted 
to Public, Social, and Domestic Worship,' 
1843. 7. 'Scenes and Sketches from Life 



Raglan 



166 



Rahere 



and Nature, Edgbaston,'&c., 1847. 8. ' Which 
was First? or Science in Sport made Chris- 
tian Evidence in earnest,' 1857. 9. ' Man's 
Dreams and God's Realities, or Science cor- 
recting Scientific Errors,' 1858. 10. ' God's 
Dealings with an Infidel, or Grace trium- 
phant ; being the Autobiography of Thomas 
Eagg/ 1858. 

[For George Eagg see Langford's Century of 
Birmingham Life, vol. ii. chap. iii. &c., and 
Birmingham Weekly Post, 22 and 29 June, 6 and 
13 July 1895, notes by F. W. E. For Thomas 
Eagg, a notice by one of his sons, the Eev. F. W. 
Eagg, in Birmingham Weekly Post, 17 Nov. 
1894; Wylie's Old and New Nottingham, pp. 
177,245-6; Eclectic Eeview, September 1833, 
November 1834, July 1838 ; Eagg's Works ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Men of the Time, 8th edit., in which 
there are some mistakes.] Gr. LE Gr. N. 

RAGLAN, BA.RON. [See SOMERSET, 
FITZROY JAMES HENRY, 1788-1855.") 

RAHERE (d. 1144), founder of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, was born in the reign 
of William the Conqueror. His name, which 
is probably of Frankish origin, occurs as that 
of a witness in several charters of the district 
on the eastern boundary of Brittany, and 
the fact that Rahere was a follower of 
Richard de Belmeis (d. 1128) [q.v.] makes 
it possible that he came from La Perche. 
He first appears as a frequenter of the disso- 
lute court of William Rufus (ORB. VIT. pt. 
iii. bk. xc. p. 2 ; Liber Fundacionis, c. 2), and 
adopted the church as a career. His patron, 
Richard de Belmeis, became bishop of London 
in 1108, and the bishop's nephew, William, 
dean of St. Paul's in 1111, so that the oc- 
currence of his name as a prebendary of St. 
Paul's, in the stall of Chamberleyneswode 
(LE NEVE, ii. 374), shortly after 1115, is 
easily understood. He went a pilgrimage to 
Rome, of which the date is not mentioned, 
but which must have been shortly after 
1120. In Rome he visited the places of 
martyrdom of St. Peter and St. Paul, and 
at the Three Fountains contracted malarial 
fever. In his convalescence he vowed that 
he would make a hospital ' yn recreacion of 
poure men.' It is related that in a subsequent 
vision the apostle Bartholomew appeared to 
him, desired the building of a church as well 
as the hospital, and indicated Smithfield as 
the site. He returned to London a canon 
regular of St. Austin, and explained his pro- 
posed foundation in Smithfield to the citizens 
of London. They pointed out that the site 
was contained within the king's market, and 
he then made application to the king, sup- 
ported by the influence of Richard de Belmeis. 
Henry I gave him authority to execute his 
purpose, and bestowed on him the title of 



the desired possession, and in March 1123 he 
began to build the hospital of St. Bartholo- 
mew on its present site, and soon after a 
priory, of which the church in part remains, 
and is now known as St. Bartholomew the 
Great. The whole of Smithfield was then 
an open space. The whole site of the Charter- 
house was included in the grant, and was 
the property of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
long before the Carthusians settled there. 
In 1133 Rahere obtained from Henry I a 
charter of privileges (Cartse antiquse in Re- 
cord Office), also confirming his original grant, 
and granting protection to all comers to the 
fair already held about the priory on the feast 
of St. Bartholomew. It is witnessed by Henry 
of Blois, bishop of Winchester, Roger, bishop 
of Sarum, by Stephen himself, by Aubrey 
de Vere, and others. Rahere made friends 
with Alfime, the builder of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, and with his aid solicited gifts of food 
for the sick poor in the hospital. The first 
patient whose admission to the hospital is 
recorded in the ' Liber Fundacionis' is one 
Adwyne of ' Dunwych.' The hospital society 
consisted of a master and brethren, and, 
though it owed certain duties to the prior and 
canons, was independent, and always claimed 
to be of the first intention and foundation 
of Rahere. He continued to preside as its 
first master till 1137, in which year he re- 
tired to the priory, and was succeeded at the 
hospital as master by Hagno. A charter of 
1137 is preserved in the hospital in which 
' Raherus sancti Bartholornei qui est in 
Smythfelde prior' grants to Hagno the 
church of St. Sepulchre (original charter), of 
which the modern representative still stands 
opposite the end of New gate Street. Rahere 
died on 20 Sept. 1144, and was buried on 
the north side of the altar of the church of 
the priory (St. Bartholomew the Great). His 
tomb, on which is a very ancient stone recum- 
bent effigy of him, in the habit of an Augus- 
tinian canon, surmounted by a much later 
perpendicular canopy, remains in its original 
position, and has never been desecrated. 

[The chief authority for the life of Eahere is 
the Liber Fundacionis Ecclesie Sancti Bar- 
tholomei Lond., a manuscript entitled Ves- 
pasian B ix. in the Cottonian collection in the 
British Museum. This manuscript was written 
about 1400 ; the English version which it con- 
tains at the end was composed at that period. 
The Latin text, transcribed in 1400, was origi- 
nally composed about 1180. The English text 
has been printed with notes by the present 
writer in the St. Bartholomew's Hospital Eeports, 
vol. xxi. 1885 ; Charter of Henry I, with notes 
and a translation by the present writer, 1891.] 

N. M. 



Raikes 



167 



Raikes 



RAIKES, CHARLES (1812-1885), 
writer on India, son of Job Matthew Raikes, 
was born in 1812, and entered the Bengal 
civil service in 1830. For some time he 
was commissioner of Lahore and judge of 
the Sudder court at Agra. He acted as civil 
commissioner in the field during the Indian 
mutiny in 1857, and retired from the service 
in 1860. He became a magistrate for Wilt- 
shire and Sussex ; was nominated a com- 
panion of the Star of India in 1866 ; and 
died at his residence, Mill Gap, Eastbourne, 
on 16 Sept. 1885. He married, first, in 
1832, Sophia, daughter of Colonel Matthews, 
of the 31st foot ; and, secondly, in 1837, 
Justina Davidson, daughter of William 
Alves of Enham House, Hampshire. She 
died in 1882. 

His works are : 1. ' Notes on the North- 
Western Provinces of India,' London, 1858, 
8vo. 2. ' Notes on the Revolt of the North- 
Western Provinces of India,' London, 1858, 
8vo. 3. 'The Englishman in India,' Lon- 
don, 1867, 8vo. 

[India Office List, 1886, p. 130; Times, 
19 Sept. 1885.] T. C. 

RAIKES, HENRY (1782-1854), divine, 
born in London on 24 Sept. 1782, was second 
son of Thomas Raikes, a merchant, who was 
governor of the bank of England in 1797. 
His mother was Charlotte, daughter of the 
Hon. Henry Finch. Thomas 
was his brother, and Robert 
his uncle. Educated 

St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1799, 
and graduated B.A. in 1804 and M.A. in 
1807. He spent the greater part of 1805 
in foreign travel. After visiting Austria and 
Hungary he passed to Greece, where he 
met George Hamilton Gordon, fourth earl 
of Aberdeen [q. v.J, his fellow-student at 
Cambridge, and spent the winter in ex- 
ploring with him the sites of the temples and 
cities of Boeotia and the interior of the Pelo- 
ponnesus. Next year he accompanied the 
Mediterranean squadron for some months, 
as the guest of Lord Collingwood, on its 
cruise oft' the coasts of Sicily and Africa. 
In 1808 he was ordained deacon to the 
curacy of Betchworth in Surrey. He was 
subsequently curate of Burnham, Bucking- 
hamshire, and of Bognor, Sussex. In 1828 
he became examining chaplain to his early 
friend, Dr. John Bird Sumner, bishop of 
Chester, and in 1830 chancellor of the 
diocese. His influence rapidly grew, and 
Charles Simeon of Cambridge is reported 
to have said, ' The great diocese of Chester 
enjoys a sort of double episcopacy in the 
cordial coadjutorship of the chancellor 



oe, auger o e 

Thomas Raikes [q. v.l 

Robert Raikes [q. v.l 

at Eton, he entered 



with the bishop of the see.' On 8 Aug. 
1844 he was named an honorary canon of 
the cathedral. In Chester he awakened a 
lively interest in its historical remains and 
in the restoration of the cathedral. He was 
the president of the Architectural, Archaeo- 
logical, and Historic Society of Chester, and 
contributed many valuable papers to its 
journal. The earlier records of the diocese 
he placed at the disposal of the Chetham 
Society, and also furnished the council with 
the manuscript of Bishop Gastrell's ' Notitia 
Cestrensis ' for publication. He was a mem- 
ber of the commission for the subdivision of 
parishes in 1849, a measure of church re- 
form which he had long advocated. He died 
at his seat, Dee Side House, Chester, on 
28 Nov. 1854, and was buried in Chester 
cemetery on 5 Dec. His theological library 
was sold in London in February 1855. He 
married, on 16 March 1809, Augusta, eldest 
daughter of Jacob J. Whittington of The- 
berton Hall and Yoxford, Suffolk. She died 
on 24 Oct. 1820. His eldest son, Henry 
Raikes of Llwynegrin, Flint, barrister-at- 
law, was father of Henry Cecil Raikes [q. v.] 
While curate of Bognor, Raikes published 
in 1828 ' A Series of Sermons ' of an original 
type, which had great popularity. A more 
important work was his ' Remarks on Clerical 
Education' (1831), which helped to lead the 
universities to improve the theological ex- 
aminations and the bishops to require a theo- 
logical degree as a prelude to holy orders. In 
1846 he edited on a tedious scale the ' Life ' 
of his old friend Sir Jahleel Brenton [q. v.], 
in which he censured the moral and religious 
state of the navy (Quarterly Review, 1847, 
Ixxix. 273-310). His other works mainly 
consisted of collected sermons and a trans- 
lation (1839) of Cardinal Pole's ' The Reform 
of England,' with an introductory essay. 

[Gent. Mag. February 1855, pp. 198-202 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1886, ii. 1524-6.] 

G. C. B. 

RAIKES, HENRY CECIL (1838- 
1891), politician, born at the Deanery, Ches- 
ter, on 25 Nov. 1838, was son of Henry Raikes 
of Llwynegrin in Flint. His mother, Lucy 
Charlotte, was youngest daughter of Arch- 
deacon Wrangham [q. v.] His grandfather 
was Henry Raikes [q. v.], and his father was 
registrar of the diocese of Chester and author 
of 'A Popular Sketch of the English Con- 
stitution,' 2 vols. 1851-4, 8vo. At the age 
of thirteen Henry Cecil had reached the 
sixth form in Shrewsbury school under Ben- 
jamin Hall Kennedy [q. v.] ; he became head 
of the school and captain of the boats and 
football team. Proceeding to Trinity College, 



Raikes 



168 



Raikes 



Cambridge, in 1857, he was elected a scholar 
in 1859, and graduated B.A. in 1860 with a 
second in classics. He became a student at 
the Middle Temple, and was called in 1863, 
but never really devoted himself to practice, 
which he finally dropped in 1869. 

Raikes had at a very early age shown a 
keen interest in politics. He was president 
of the Cambridge Union, and while still 
an undergraduate, in 1859, unsuccessfully 
contested Derby as a conservative. In 1865 
he stood for Chester, and was defeated by 
William Henry Gladstone ; in 1866 at 
Devonport he Avas beaten by fifty-three votes 
only. In 1868 he won Chester for the con- 
servatives, and during the ensuing six years 
of liberal government made a sufficient mark 
in the House of Commons to be chosen chair- 
man of committees in 1874, when the tories 
came into power. The systematisation of 
obstructive tactics by Charles Stewart Par- 
nell [q. v.] and his allies, in 1877, rendered 
his position one of great difficulty. The de- 
bates in committee on the Prisons Bill (June 
1877), on the South Africa Bill (July 1877), 
and the Army Discipline Bill (in 1879) were 
unprecedentedlylong and arduous. In 1878 
new rules of debate were adopted to meet, 
the evil, and Raikes administered them with 
some success. In 1880 he was sworn of the 
privy council, and in the general election of 
the same year he lost his seat at Chester, but 
in 1882 came into parliament again as mem- 
ber for Preston in succession to Sir John 
Holker [q. v.], and immediately took an ac- 
tive part in the debates on Mr. Gladstone's 
new procedure resolutions. He strongly 
protested against the closure rule in its ori- 
ginal shape, but he admitted the need of some 
reform. Throughout the discussion he took 
an independent line. Later on in the year 
he resigned his seat for Preston, and became 
member foi his old university after a con- 
test with Professor James Stuart. Raikes 
was not included in the brief conservative 
administration of June 1885- January 1886, 
but in August 1886, when the conservatives 
again came into power, Raikes became post- 
master-general, and thenceforth energetically 
devoted himself to the work of his office. 
Though he introduced no great reform, he 
made many improvements, and he has the 
credit of reducing the postage to and from 
India and the colonies to a uniform rate of 
2^d. the half-ounce ; he established tele- 
phonic communication with Paris in 1891, 
tfnd introduced the express messenger service. 
With the permanent staff at the post office 
his relations were not at first wholly amicable, 
for he gave the impression of being autocratic 
and austere in manner. Eventuallv his sense 



of fairness and consideration for others were 
recognised. He dealt with much tact and 
firmness with the strike of the postmen in 
1890. Under his auspices the jubilee of the 
telegraph was celebrated in 1887, and that 
of the penny postage in 1 890. 

Raikes was an ardent churchman. From 
1880 to 1886 he was president of the council 
of diocesan conferences, and in 1890 he be- 
came chancellor of the diocese of St. Asaph, 
within which he lived. One of his latest 
speeches in the house (14 May 1889) was in 
defence of the church establishment in Wales. 

Raikes died rather suddenly on 24 Aug. 
1891 at his residence, Llwnegrin in Den- 
bighshire. The real cause of death was 
over-pressure and worry of official duties. 
He was buried at St. Mary's, Mold, and his 
funeral was attended by the leading officials 
of the post office. In 1888 he was made 
honorary LL.D. of Cambridge. He was also 
from 1864 to his death deputv-lieutenant of 
Flint. 

He married, in 1861, Charlotte Blanche, 
daughter of C. B. Trevor Roper of Plas Teg 
in Flint, and left five sons and four daughters. 

Without being a great speaker, Raikes was 
a clever and ingenious debater, especially 
when on the defensive. He was fond of 
classical studies to the end of his life, and 
also wrote poems of merit, some of which 
were published in 1896. He from time to 
time contributed to periodicals essays on 
various subjects, chiefly connected with the 
church in Wales. 

[Times, 25 Aug. 1892; Hansard, passim; 
Dod's Peerage, &c. ; private information.] 

C. A. H. 

RAIKES, ROBERT (1735-1811), pro- 
moter of Sunday schools, born at Gloucester 
on 14 Sept. 1735, was son of Robert Raikes, 
printer. His mother was daughter of the 
Rev. R. Drew. The elder Raikes had in 1 722 
founded the ' Gloucester Journal,' one of the 
oldest country newspapers, and died on 7 Sept. 
1757. He had prospered in business, and 
his son Thomas, father of Thomas Raikes 
(1777-1848) [q. v.], eventually became a di- 
rector of the Bank of England. The younger 
Robert succeeded to the Gloucester business 
on his father's death, and in 1767 married 
Anne, daughter of Thomas Trigge. He was 
an active and benevolent person, and in 1 768 
inserted in his paper an appeal on behalf of 
the prisoners in Gloucester. The gaols Avere 
marked by the abuses soon afterwards ex- 
posed by Howard. No allowance was made 
for the support of minor offenders, and Raikes 
says that some of them would have been 
starved but for ' the humanity of the felons,' 



Raikes 



169 



Raikes 



who gave up part of their rations. Howard 
visited Gloucester in 1773, and speaks favour- 
ably of Raikes, who entertained him . Raikes 's 
attention was naturally called to the neglect 
of any training for children. Various ac- 
counts are given of the circumstances which 
led to the action which made him famous. 
He mentions an interview (traditionally 
placed in St. Catherine's meadows) with a 
woman who pointed out a crowd of idle raga- 
muffins. He is also said to have taken a hint 
from a dissenter named William King, who 
had set up a Sunday school at Dursley. Cynics 
reported that Raikes made up his news- 
paper on Sundays, and was annoyed by the 
interruption of noisy children outside when 
he was reading his proofs. In any case, he 
spoke to the curate of a neighbouring parish, 
Thomas Stock (1749-1803), who had started 
a Sunday school at Ashbury, Berkshire. 
Raikes and Stock engaged a woman as teacher 
of a school, Raikes paying her a shilling and 
Stock sixpence weekly. Stock drew up the 
rules. Raikes afterwards set up a school in his 
own parish, St. Mary le Crypt, to which he 
then confined his attention. Controversy has 
arisen as to the share of merit due to Raikes 
and Stock. It must no doubt have occurred 
to many people to teach children on Sunday. 
Among Raikes's predecessors are generally 
mentioned Cardinal Borromeo (1538-1584), 
Joseph Alleine [q. v.], Hannah Ball [q. v.], 
and Theophilus Lindsey [q. v.] Raikes's 
suggestion fell in with a growing sense 
of the need for schools, and became the 
starting-point of a very active movement. 
His first school was opened in July 1780. 
In November 1783 he inserted in his paper 
a short notice of its success, without men- 
tioning his own name. Many inquiries were 
consequently addressed to him. An answer 
which he had sent to a Colonel Townley of 
Sheffield was published in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine' in 1784, and a panegyric, giving 
a portrait and an account of his proceedings, 
was in the ' European Magazine' of November 
1788. The plan had been quickly taken up at 
Leeds and else where. Raikes's friend, Samuel 
Glasse [q. v.], preached a sermon in 1786 at 
Painswick, Gloucestershire, on behalf of the 
schools there, and stated in a note that two 
hundred thousand children were already 
being taught in England. The bishops of 
Chester and Salisbury (Porteus and Shute 
Barrington) gave him their approval. Wil- 
liam Fox [q. v.], who had been trying to 
start a larger system, thought Raikes's plan 
more practicable, and, after consulting him, 
set up in August 1785 a London society 
for the establishment of Sunday schools. 
Jonas Hanway and Henry Thornton were 



members of the original committee, and ten 
years later the society had sixty-five thousand 
scholars. Wesley remarks in his journal of 
14 July 1784 that he finds these schools 
springing up wherever he goes. He pub- 
lished a letter upon them next year in the 
' Arminian Magazine,' and did much to en- 
courage them among his followers. They 
were introduced into Wales by Thomas 
Charles [q. v] of Bala, in 1789, and spread 
into Scotland, Ireland, and the United States. 
They had attracted attention outside of the 
churches. Adam Smith, according to one of 
Raikes's letters in 1787 (GREGORY, p. 107), 
declared that no plan so simple and promising 
for the improvement of manners had been 
devised since the days of the apostles. At 
Christmas 1787 Raikes was admitted to an 
interview with Queen Charlotte, who spoke 
favourably of the plan to Mrs. Trimmer [q. v.], 
and Mrs. Trimmer started schools, which were 
graciously visited by George III. Hannah 
More [q. v.] followed Mrs. Trimmer's example 
by starting similar schools in Somerset in 
1789. When, in 1788, the king visited 
Cheltenham, Miss Burney, then a maid of 
honour, went to Gloucester, and had an in- 
terview with Raikes. She regarded him 
with reverence, but thought him rather vain 
and ' voluble.' He was, she says, a ' very 
principal man' in all the benevolent institu- 
tions of the town, including an infirmary 
and a model prison.in course of construction, 
and he heard ' with rapture' that the queen 
would be interested in his work (MADAME 
D'ARBLAY'S Diary, 19 July 1788). A Sunday 
School Union was founded in 1803. The first 
teachers were generally paid, until, difficulties 
having arisen in Gloucester in 1810 about 
their maintenance, some young men resolved 
to carry them on gratuitously. 

Raikes retired from business in 1802, re- 
ceiving a life annuity of 300/. from the 
' Gloucester Journal.' He died at Glouces- 
ter, 5 April 1811, and was buried in the 
church of St. Mary le Crypt, where there are 
monuments to him and his parents. His 
widow died, aged 85, on 9 March 1828. They 
had two sons and six daughters. 

Raikes is accused of excessive vanity ; but 
he seems to have been a thoroughly worthy 
man. His merit in the Sunday-school move- 
ment appears to have been not so much in 
making any very novel suggestion as in 
using his position to spread a knowledge of 
a plan for cheap schools which was adapted 
to the wants of the day. He very soon came 
to be regarded as the ' founder of Sunday 
schools,' but does not appear to have himselt 
ignored the claims of his co-operators. A 
'jubilee' was held in 1831, at the sugges* 



Raikfcs 



170 



Raikes 



tion of James Montgomery, to celebrate the 
fiftieth anniversary of the movement (really 
the fifty-first), when it was said that there 
were 1,250,000 scholars and one hundred 
thousand teachers in Great Britain. A 
centenary celebration was also held in 1880, 
when Lord Shaftesbury unveiled at Glou- 
cester the model of a statue of Raikes, in- 
tended to be placed in the cathedral. It has 
never been executed. Another statue was 
erected upon the Victoria Embankment. ^ 

A portrait, ' from the original in posses- 
sion of Major-general James Raikes,' is 
prefixed to his life by Gregory. 

[Robert Raikes, journalist and philanthropist, 
by Alfred Gregory, 1877, gives the fullest ac- 
count from original sources, the author having 
been employed on the Gloucester Journal, and 
supplied with family information. See also 
Robert Raikes and Northamptonshire Sunday 
Schools (by P. M. Eastman), 1880, published on 
occasion of the erection of a monument inscribed 
to the ' founders of Sunday schools,' at the Essex 
Street Unitarian chapel ; Memoir of R. Raikes 
by G. Webster, 1873 ; and Memoir of William 
Fox by Joseph Ivimey, 1831. For various 
notices, see European Mag. xiv. 315; Gent. 
Mag. 1784 i. 377, 410, 1788 i. 11, 1831 ii. 132, 
294, 391 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 428-31, 
ix. 539. A large collection of notices from news- 
papers has been kiudly communicated to the 
author by Mr. H. Y. J. Taylor of Gloucester.] 

L. S. 

RAIKES, THOMAS (1777-1848), dandy 
and diarist, born on 3 Oct. 1777, was the 
eldest son of Thomas Raikes, elder brother 
of Robert Raikes [q. v.], the promoter of 
Sunday schools. A merchant in London, 
governor of the Bank of England in the crisis 
of 1797, and personal friend of Wilberforce 
and the younger William Pitt, the father 
married at St. George's, Bloomsbury, on 
8 Dec. 1774, Charlotte, daughter of the Hon. 
Henry Finch, younger son of Daniel, earl of 
Winchilsea. His portrait was painted by 
Romney and engraved by Hodges in 1787. 
Henry Raikes [q. v.] was a younger son. 

Thomas, the younger, was educated at Eton, 
where he became a ' fair classical scholar ' and 
made the acquaintance of many youths, in- 
cluding George Brumniell,who were destined 
to be his friends in fashionable life. In his 
nineteenth year he was sent abroad with a 
private tutor to acquire a knowledge of modern 
languages, and visited most of the German 
courts, including Berlin and Dresden. On 
his return to England he was admitted as a 
partner in his father's office, but he was more at 
home in the clubs of the West-end. There he 
spent all his time (when he could escape from 
business) in the company of the ' dandies.' 
He was .n early member of the Carlton 



Club, joined White's Club about 1810, and 
belonged to Watier's. At those places he 
was a butt, ' though he did kick out some- 
times and to some purpose,' and as he was 
' a city merchant as well as a dandy,' his 
nickname was Apollo, ' because he rose in 
the east and set in the west.' His name 
appears with almost unequalled regularity 
in White's betting book. 

Raikes was at the Hague in 1814, spend- 
ing most of his time in the house of Lord Clan- 
carty, the English ambassador; he visited 
Paris in 1814, 1819, and 1820, and he spent 
the winter of 1829-30 in Russia. But he 
still remained in business, and on 13 Nov. 
1832, at a meeting of city merchants at 
the London Tavern, proposed the second 
resolution against the war with Holland. 
Financial troubles, however, forced him to 
leave for France in the summer of 1833, and 
for eight years he remained abroad. In 1838 
he visited Carlsbad and Venice with Lord 
Yarmouth, and next year he was at Naples 
and Rome with Lord Alvanley. In October 
1841, when the tories came into office, Raikes 
returned to England, hoping for a post 
through the influence of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, but his expectations were disap- 
pointed, and he found most of his old friends 
dead or in retirement. The following years 
were spent partly in London and partly in 
Paris, and in July 1845 he paid a long visit 
to Lord Glengall at Cahir in Ireland. His 
health was now beginning to fail, and in May 
1846 he was at Bath for its waters. He then 
took a house at Brighton, and died there on 
3 July 1848. 

Raikes married, on 4 May 1802, Sophia, 
daughter of Nathaniel Bayly, a West Indian 
proprietor. She died in Berkeley Square, 
London, on 5 April 1810, leaving one son, 
Henry Thomas Raikes, afterwards judge of 
the high court at Calcutta, and three daugh- ( 
ters, Harriet being the second. Raikes's sister, 
also named Harriet (d. 1817), married, on 
3 Aug. 1806, Sir Stratford Canning, after- 
wards Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe (see 
BURKE, Peerage, s.v. ' Garvagh'). 

Raikes's best book was his diary, com- 
prising reminiscences of the leading men of 
fashion and politics such as the Duke of 
York, Brummell, Alvanley, Talleyrand, and 
Montrond in London and Paris during the 
earlier part of this century. It was published 
as 1. 'A Portion of the Journal kept by 
Thomas Raikes from 1831 to 1847,' vols. i. 
and ii. being issued in 1856, and vols. iii. and 
iv. in 1857. A new edition appeared in 1858 
in two volumes, and a selection from it was 
edited by Richard Henry Stoddard at New 
York in 1875 in the Bric-a-brac series. His 



Rail ton 



171 



Raimbach 



other works were : 2. 'A Visit to St. Peters- 
burg in tlieWinter of 1829-30,' London, 1 838 ; 
Philadelphia, 1838. 3. Trance since 1830,' 
1841 ; condemned by the 'Athenaeum ' as the 
clippings and cuttings of the daily papers. 
4. ' Private Correspondence with the Duke 
of Wellington and other Distinguished Con- 
temporaries,' 1861, edited by his daughter, 
Harriet Raikes; most of the letters to the duke 
related to French politics from 1840 to 1844. 
Raikes was a tall large man, very much 
marked with the smallpox. His figure and 
attire, ' surtout closed to the extent of three 
buttons, plaid trousers, and black cravat,' 
were caricatured by Dighton as ' one of the 
Rakes of London.' The same portrait is pre- 
fixed to his journal, inserted in Gronow's 
' Reminiscences ' (ed. 1889), ii. 240, and in 
the ' History of White's Club,' ii. 203. 

[Preface to his own journal ; Works of Raikes ; 
Stapylton's Eton Lists, p. 3 ; GronoVs Remi- 
niscences, i. 164, 227, 279; White's Club, ii. 
passim; Gent. Mag. 1810 pt. i. p. 397, 1848 
pt. ii. p. 332.] W. P. C. 

RAILTON, WILLIAM (d. 1877), 
architect, was a pupil of William Inwood 
[q. v.] In 1825 he visited Greece, and on 
his way examined the recently discovered 
temple at Cadachio in Corfu, his description 
of which was published in Stuart and 
Revett's ' Antiquities of Athens,' 1830. He 
obtained a large practice, and exhibited regu- 
larly at the Royal Academy between 1829 
and 1851. From 1838 to 1848 he held the 
appointment of architect to the ecclesiastical 
commissioners. Railton built Randalls, 
near Leatherhead, in 1830 ; Gracedieu, 
Leicestershire, 1834 ; St. Bartholomew's 
Church, Mile End, 1844; St. Leonard's 
Church, Bromley-by-Bow, 1843, and Beau 
Manor, Leicestershire, 1845. He was also 
employed upon restorations at Ripon Cathe- 
dral, adapted and enlarged Riseholme Hall 
as a palace for the bishop of Lincoln, 1846, 
and built the residence of the bishop of 
Ripon, 1849. But his best known work is 
the Nelson memorial in Trafalgar Square, 
London, his design for which was accepted 
after two competitions in 1839, and carried 
out in spite of strong opposition ; the column 
itself was completed in 1843, and the bas- 
reliefs which adorn the four sides of the 
plinth in 1849. Railton died while on a 
visit to Brighton on 13 Oct. 1877. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Civil Engineer, 1839; 
Art Union, 1839 ; Times, 16 Oct. 1877.] 

F. M. O'D. 

RAIMBACH, ABRAHAM (1776- 
1843), line engraver, was born in Cecil 
Court, St. Martin's Lane, London, 16 Feb. 



1776. His father, Peter Raimbach, was a 
native of Switzerland, who came when a 
child to England, and married Martha 
Butler, a daughter of a Warwickshire 
farmer. The son was educated at Arch- 
bishop Tenison's school, and in 1789 was 
articled to John Hall, the engraver ; in the 
following year he executed his first inde- 
pendent work, the key to Bartolozzi's plate 
of the ' Death of Chatham ' after Copley. 
On the expiration of his articles, Raimbach 
entered the schools of the Royal Academy, 
and in 1799 gained a silver medal for a 
drawing from the life. He continued his 
studies at the academy for nine years, 
maintaining himself during that time by 
engraving small plates for Cooke's editions 
of the poets and novelists, from drawings 
by Corbould, Thurston, and others ; he also 
for a time practised miniature-painting, and 
exhibited portraits at the academy from 
1797 to 1805. In 1801 Raimbach executed 
three plates, from designs by Smirke, for 
the Rev. E. Forster's edition of the ' Arabian 
Nights.' With the money thus earned he 
in the following year visited Paris, and 
stayed two months, studying the collection 
of masterpieces of art gathered there by Na- 
poleon. After his return he engraved the 
illustrations designed by Smirke, for an 
edition of Johnson's ' Rasselas,' 1805, and 
did much similar work for Sharpe, Long- 
man, and other publishers; for Forster's 
' British Gallery ' he executed several plates, 
including Reynolds's ' Ugolino and his Sons.' 
In 1805 he married, and went to reside in 
Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, where he 
remained until 1831 ; he then removed to 
Greenwich. 

In 1812 Sir David Wilkie, who had quar- 
relled with his first engraver, John Burnet 
[q.v.], proposed to Raimbach that they should 
together undertake the production and publi- 
cation of a series of large plates to be engraved 
by the latter from pictures by Wilkie, and the 
scheme was arranged on terms very favour- 
able to Raimbach. The first result of this 
'joint-stock adventure' was 'The Village 
Politicians,' published in 1814, a proof of 
which was exhibited at the Paris Salon and 
awarded a gold medal ; this was followed 
by ' The Rent Day,' 1817 ; ' The Cut Finger,' 
1819; 'Blind Man's Buff',' 1822; 'The 
Errand Boy,' 1825, and ' Distraining for Rent,' 
1828. These Wilkie prints, upon which Raim- 
bach's reputation mainly rests, are excellent 
translations of the original pictures, the mode 
of execution, if somewhat coarse and deficient 
in freedom, being well suited to the subjects; 
they are entirely by his own hand, no assis- 
tants having been employed on them. The 



Rainborow 



172 



Rainborow 



first two were the most popular ; the last, 
owing to the painful nature of the subject, 
proved a comparative failure. Raimbach 
subsequently engraved two other plates 
after Wilkie, 'The Parish Beadle,' 1834, 
and ' The Spanish Mother,' 1836. In 1824 
and 1825 he paid further visits to Paris, 
where he was well received by the leading 
French engravers; in 1835 he was elected 
a corresponding member of the Institute of 
France. After Wilkie's death in 1841 the 
six plates which were the joint property of 
himself and Raimbach were sold with the 
stock of prints at Christie's. 

Raimbach died at his house at Greenwich, 
of water on the chest, on 17 Jan. 1843, and 
was buried beside his parents at Hendon, 
Middlesex, where there is a mural tablet 
to his memory in the church. His ' Me- 
moirs and Recollections,' written in 1836, 
were privately printed in 1843 by his son, 
Michael Thomson Scott Raimbach, who at 
his death in 1887 bequeathed to the National 
Portrait Gallery an excellent portrait of 
his father, painted by Wilkie. Another 
son, David Wilkie, a godson of the painter, 
exhibited portraits at the academy from 
1843 to 1855 ; he was for twenty years 
headmaster of the Birmingham school of 
art, and, until within a few weeks of his 
death, an examiner for the science and art 
department. He died '20 Feb. 1895, aged 
74. A daughter exhibited miniatures at the 
academy between 1835 and 1855. 

[Raimbach's Memoirs and Recollections, 
1843; Graves's Diet, of Artists', 1760-1893; 
information from Rev. N. Mant ; Times, 22 Feb. 
1895.] F. M. OT>. 

RAINBOROW, RAINBOROWE, or 
RAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS (d. 1648), 
soldier, was the son of Captain William 
Rainborow [q. v.] One sister, Martha, mar- 
ried Governor John Winthrop [q. v.], and 
Judith, another sister, married Governor 
Winthrop's fourth son, Col. Stephen Win- 
throp. A brother William was major in the 
parliamentary army. Thomas was brought 
up to the sea. At the outbreak of the 
civil war he served in the parliamentary 
fleet, is mentioned as commander of the 
Swallow, a ship of 34 guns, in 1643, and 
captured a ship conveying reinforcements to 
the king (PEJTST, Memorials of Sir William 
Penn, i. 66; Commons' Journals, iii. 137). 
Rainborowe next assisted Lord Fairfax in 
the defence of Hull, and was taken prisoner 
in the sally which forced the Marquis of 
Newcastle to raise the siege. On this occa- 
sion he is described as colonel, and he now 
definitely entered the land service (ib. iii. 



302 ; Report on the Portland MSS. i. 138). 
In December 1644 he recaptured Crowland 
( VICARS, Burning Busk, p. 76). The regi- 
ment which he raised in the Earl of Man- 
chester's army was largely officered by 
returned emigrants from New England 
(WilfTHEOP, History of New England, ii. 
300). At the formation of the new model 
army Rainborowe was given the command 
of a regiment. On 1 June 1645 he captured 
Gaunt House, near Oxford. He fought at 
Naseby and at the sieges of Bridgwater, 
Sherborne, and Bristol; took Nunney Castle 
on 20 Aug. and Berkeley Castle on 25 Sept. 
In December 1645 Rainborowe's regiment 
was sent to blockade Oxford, and on 20 April 
1046 Woodstock surrendered to him(SpRiGG E, 
Anglia Rediviva, ed. 1854, pp. 25, 41, 77, 
100, 116, 130, 174, 253). Charles attempted 
to utilise the negotiations for the surrender 
of Woodstock to treat for his own reception 
by the army, but Rainborowe refused to 
meddle, and simply reported the king's pro- 
posals to the speaker (Archaologia, xlvi. 18). 
After the capitulation of Oxford, Rainborowe 
was charged to besiege Worcester, and was 
recommended by Fairfax to parliament to be 
made governor of that city (SPRIGGE, p. 291 ; 
GARY, Memorials of the Civil War, i. 137). 
In 1646 Rainborowe entered the House 
of Commons as member for Droitwich. In 
May 1647 parliament appointed him to com- 
mand the forces designed for the recovery 
of Jersey, but at the end of the month 
his regiment mutinied and joined the rest 
of the army in the opposition to disband- 
ment (ib. i. 221 ; Commons' Journals, v. 159, 
184, 193 ; Clarke Papers, i. 105). When the 
army marched on London, Rainborowe com- 
manded the forces which occupied South- 
wark (RrsHWORTH. vii. 750, 752). In the 
political discussions held in the council of the 
army he was the leader of the republican 
section among the officers, opposed any 
further negotiations with the king, and ad- 
vocated manhood suffrage. The ' honest men 
of England,' he argued, had fought for their 
liberties, and at any risk it was the army's 
duty to secure them those liberties. ' It is 
a poor service,' he said, ' to God and the 
kingdom to take their pay and decline their 
work ' (ib. vol. i. pp. Ixxiv, 246, 320). At the 
rendezvous at Ware (15 Nov. 1647) Rain- 
borowe was active in promoting the agree- 
ment of the people, and on the complaint of 
Fairfax was summoned by the commons to 
answer for his conduct. Two months earlier 
(27 Sept. 1647) he had been appointed vice- 
admiral, and ordered to take command at 
once of the ships appointed for the winter 
guard ; but his political escapades hindered 



Rainborowe 



173 



Rainborovv 



his employment. On 10 Dec. the House of 
Commons, by 61 to 58 votes, negatived a 
proposal for his despatch to sea. At the end 
of the month a general reconciliation took 
place among the opposing factions in the 
army. Rainborowe expressed penitence, and 
promised, according to report, to be hence- 
forth guided by Cromwell and Ireton. At 
the desire of the council of the army Fairfax 
urged the commons to send him to sea, and 
on 24 Dec. the House, by 88 to 66 votes, 
reversed its former order. The lords still 
resisted, but the commons overrode their 
opposition, and on 1 Jan. 1648 Rainborowe 
proceeded to his command (Commons 1 Jour- 
nals, v. 378, 403 ; RTJSHWORTH, vii. 943 ; 
Thurloe Papers, i. 96). 

Rainborowe's vice-admiralship lasted only 
five months. He was accused of being rough 
and imperious, and he was unpopular as 
having deserted the sea for the land service. 
Of his officers many were hostile to him as 
a nominee of the independents and a reputed 
adherent of the levellers. On 27 May the 
squadron lying in the Downs declared for 
the king, and refused to allow Rainborowe 
to come on board (Memorials of Sir William 
Penn, i. 256 ; GARDINER, Great Civil War, 
iv. 135). Parliament appointed the Earl of 
Warwick lord high admiral, thus practically 
superseding Rainborowe, and the latter re- 
turned again to his employment in the army. 
He took part in the siege of Colchester under 
Lord Fairfax : the contemporary map of the 
siege works shows a fort on the north side 
of the Colne called ' Fort Rainsborough ' (ib. 
iv. 152). He was one of the commissioners 
who negotiated the capitulation on behalf of 
Fairfax (RusHWORTH, vii. 1244). In October 
1648 Fairfax despatched Rainborowe to 
Yorkshire to take command of the siege of 
Pontefract Castle. The officer whom he 
superseded, Sir Henry Cholmley, complained 
bitterly of his supersession, and refused obe- 
dience to Rainborowe, who, retiring to Don- 
caster, left Cholmley to carry on the siege 
till parliament should determine the dis- 
pute. A party of cavaliers from Pontefract 
made their way through the besiegers and 
surprised Rainborowe in his quarters at 
Doncaster. Their object was to carry him 
off in order to exchange him for Sir Mar- 
maduke Langdale, then a prisoner to the 
parliament ; but he was not the man to sur- 
render without a struggle, and was mor- 
tally wounded by his would-be kidnappers 
on 29 Oct. 1648. Captain Thomas Paul- 
den [q. v.], one of the party, published 
many years later an account of the exploit 
(Somers Tracts, ed. Scott, vii. 7) : contem- 
porary accounts are collected in Mr. Pea- 



cock's ' Life of Rainborowe ' (Archceologia. 
xlvi. 48). 

Rainborowe's body was buried at Wap- 
ping, and his funeral was marked by a great 
public demonstration on the part of the 
levellers. Many elegies were printed de- 
manding vengeance on the royalists for his 
death ( The Moderate, 7-14 Nov. 1648 ; A 
New Elegy in Memory of Col. Rainsborough.') 
There is also a ballad entitled ' Col. Rains- 
borowe's Ghost' (Cat. of Prints in Brit. 
Mus., ' Satires,' i. 398). 

Rainborowe's widow, Margaret, was granted 
an annuity of 200/. a year until lands should 
be settled by parliament on herself and her 
son (Commons' Journals, vi. 429 ; Report on 
the Portland MS8. i. 138). A portrait of 
Rainborowe is in the Sutherland collection 
of portraits illustrating Clarendon's ' His- 
tory ' in the Bodleian Library. 

[A careful memoir of Rainborowe, containing 
many of his letters, was contributed to Archseo- 
logia in 1881 by Mr. Edward Peacock (xlvi. 
9-64). His speeches are printed in the Clarke 
Papers (vol. i.), Camden Society, 1891 ; cf. 
Journal of First and Second Sieges of Pontefract 
Castle, 1844-5 (Surtees Society, pp. 93, 108, 
111, 116). A pedigree of the Eainborowe family 
is printed in Archseologia (xlvi. 64). Both Thomas 
Rainborowe and his brother, Major William 
Rainborowe, are frequently mentioned in the 
Winthrop Correspondence.] C. H. F. 

RAINBOROW, WILLIAM (d. 1642), 
naval commander,' second son of Thomas 
Raiuborow, mariner, was in 1626 master 
of the king's ship Sampson. In the follow- 
ing year he was living at Wapping. From 
this time he seems to have been counted as 
one of the most experienced seamen in the 
service of the crown, and to have been fre- 

?uently consulted on practical questions. 
n April 1632 he was associated with Best, 
Mansell, Mervin, Trevor, and other men of 
repute, in a commission on manning the 
king's ships. In December 1635 he was one 
of a commission on the Chest at Chatham, 
and in December 1636 was examined as to 
the defects of the ships and the faulty ad- 
ministration of the navy. In 1635 he was 
captain of the Merhonour in the fleet under 
the Earl of Lindsay, probably also in 1636 
under the Earl of Northumberland. In 
February 1636-7 he was appointed to the 
Leopard and the command of a squadron 
ordered to proceed to Sallee ' for the sup- 
pressing of Turkish pirates and redeeming 
his Majesty's subjects whom they have taken 
and detain captives,' and to capture or sink 
such pirates as he should meet on the way. 
The squadron, consisting of eight ships, an- 
chored off Sallee on 24 March and instituted 



Rain bo we 



174 



Rainbowe 



a rigid blockade, which, without any serious 
fighting, brought the Moors to terms and 
obtained the release of 339 captives men, 
women, and boys. In October he returned 
to England, and in the following January 
sent in a series of proposals for the release 
of the captives in Algiers. To obtain this 
by treaty, he wrote, had been found impos- 
sible ; to redeem them by money was im- 
politic ; but the end might be gained by 
blockading their port with a fleet of sufficient 
strength. If this was continued for three 
or four years, the trade of the Moors would 
be destroyed, their ships would become worm- 
eaten and unserviceable, and the sale in 
Spain or Italy of such prisoners as were 
taken would furnish money for the redemp- 
tion of English captives. At the same time 
the maintenance of the fleet would be much 
to the king's honour. The king's absolute 
want of means and the state of affairs at 
home prevented the suggestion being then 
acted on ; but it appears to be the origin of the 
plan which was effectually carried out some 
forty years later, under Narbrough. Allin, and 
Herbert. In April 1638 Rainborow was one 
of a commission to inquire into frauds in the 
importation of timber. In 1640 he was 
member for Aldborough in the Long parlia- 
ment, but died in February 1641-2. He 
was buried on the 16th, when he was de- 
scribed as ' grand-admiral and general cap- 
tain,' a style which can scarcely have been 
official. He was married, and left issue seve- 
ral daughters and sons, one of whom, Tho- 
mas, is separately noticed. He wrote his 
name with the spelling here given. 

[Archseologia, xlvi. 11 ; John Dunton's Jour- 
nal of the Sally fleet, with the Proceedings of 
the Voyage (4to, 1637) ; Cal. State Papers. Dora.] 

J. K. L. 

RAINBOWE, EDWARD, D.D. (1608- 
1684), bishop of Carlisle, was born on 20 April 
1608 at Ely ton in Lindsey, Lincolnshire, of 
which place his father, Thomas Rainbowe, 
was vicar. His mother, Rebecca, daughter 
of David Allen, rector of the neighbouring 
parish of Ludborough, was skilled in Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew. Edward's godfather, 
Edward Wray of Rycot, was second son of 
Sir Edward Wray of Glentworth in Lin- 
colnshire. As the Wray s possessed much 
influence, the connection proved highly ad- 
vantageous to young Rainbowe. After 
spending a short time at school at Gains- 
borough, he was sent in April 1620 to Peter- 
borough, to be under Dr. John Williams, 
then one of the prebendaries, and an old 
friend of his father. When, in the follow- 
ing year, Williams was preferred to the 



deanery of Westminster and bishopric of 
Lincoln, Rainbowe removed to Westminster 
School. From Westminster he proceeded in 
July 1623 to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
as scholar, but in 1625 he received from 
Frances, dowager countess of Warwick, a 
nomination to one of the scholarships founded 
at Magdalene College, Cambridge, by her 
father, Sir Christopher Wray. He graduated 
B.A. in 1627, M.A. in 1630, B.D. in 1637, 
and D.D. in 1646. While in statu pupillari 
he was suddenly called upon by the vice- 
chancellor to act as terrce filius in place of one 
who was deprived of the office on account of 
his scurrility. Rainbowe was facetious with- 
out coarseness, and acquitted himself to the 
satisfaction of his auditors. In July 1630 
he accepted the mastership of a school at 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, but soon moved with 
some Cambridge contemporaries to London, 
settling first in Fuller's Rents, and after- 
wards at Sion College, so as to make use 
of the library. He took holy orders, and 
preached his first sermon in April 1632. 
After making a vain application for the chap- 
laincy to the society of Lincoln's Inn, he 
was appointed curate at the Savoy. In No- 
vember 1633 he was recalled to Cambridge. 
The master and fellows of his college elected 
him to a by-fellowship on the foundation 
of Dr. Goch, with a promise of the first open 
founder's fellowship that should fall vacant. 
He became a successful tutor, numbering 
among his pupils two sons of the Earl of 
Suffolk, with whom he became intimate, and 
two of Francis Leke, baron Deincourt. The 
noble families of Northumberland, Warwick, 
and Orrery also showed him favour. In 1637 
he accepted the small living of Childerley, 
near Cambridge; in 1637 he became dean of 
Magdalene ; and in 1642 master, by the gift 
of the Earl of Suffolk. From this last office 
he was dismissed, by order of parliament, in 
1650. In 1652 he accepted from the Earl 
of Suffolk the small living of Little Ches- 
terford in Essex. He became rector of Bene- 
field in Northamptonshire in 1658, by the 
presentation of the Earl of Warwick, after 
the Earl of Orrery had procured for him the 
concession of induction without the inter- 
vention of the ' Tryers.' 

On the Restoration in 1660, Rainbowe was 
restored to his mastership at Cambridge, and 
appointed chaplain to the king ; in the fol- 
lowing year he was made dean of Peter- 
borough, and removed to that place, but he 
returned to Cambridge on being appointed 
vice-chancellor in November 1662. In 1664 
he was elected bishop of Carlisle, on the 
translation of Dr. Richard Sterne to the archie- 
piscopal see of York. Rainbowe was conse- 



Rainbowe 



175 



Raine 



crated in July 1664, in London, by Dr. Gilbert 
Sheldon, then archbishop of Canterbury, and 
in September in the same year he arrived 
at his palace of Kose Castle, near Dalston, 
in Cumberland. Thereupon he resigned his 
college mastership and his deanery of Peter- 
borough, though he might have retained one 
or other in commendam with his bishopric. 
While thus giving up an assured income in 
obedience to his principles, he had to borrow 
money to defray the charges of his consecra- 
tion, first-fruits, and his journey and settle- 
ment in his diocese, where the ruined state 
of his palace involved him in a heavy outlay 
on building, and in a protracted litigation 
about dilapidations with his predecessor and 
metropolitan, Sterne. Rainbowe found much 
in his diocese that required reform. Negli- 
gent clergy did not hesitate, when rebuked, 
to publicly affront their bishop, and his out- 
spoken denunciation of immorality appears 
to have offended some great lady about the 
court, once a friend of his, who revenged 
herself by preventing his translation to Lin- 
coln in 1668. Rainbowe'a hospitality and 
liberality were unbounded. In years of 
scarcity, when his own stores were exhausted, 
he bought barley and distributed it to the 
poor, sometimes as many as seven or eight 
score being relieved in one day by the porter 
at Rose. To the poor at Carlisle and Dalston 
he made regular allowances. He paid for the 
education of poor boys at Dalston school, 
and for putting them out as apprentices ; he 
supported poor scholars at the universities ; 
he subscribed largely to the French protes- 
tants and to foreign converts. 

Eainbowe died on 26 March 1684, and 
was buried, by his own request, at Dalston 
(1 April), under a plain stone, with a simple 
inscription. His wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Dr. Henry Smith (his predecessor as master 
of Magdalene), whom he married in 1652, 
survived him. After his death she resided 
chiefly at Dalemain with her sister's son, Sir 
Edward Hasell. She died in 1702, and was 
also buried in Dalston churchyard. 

Small portraits on panel of Bishop Rain- 
bowe and his wife are preserved at Dale- 
main. An oil portrait of Rainbowe is at 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. Another 
portrait of the bishop by Sturt forms the 
frontispiece of Banks's ' Life,' 1688, and 
was reproduced in 1798 by Richardson. A 
framed copy of this reproduction is at Rose 
Castle. 

Rainbowe was famous as a preacher. In 
later life he abandoned the ornate rhetoric 
of his early days for exceptional plainness 
and perspicuity. Three only of his sermons 
were printed ; the first of these, ' Labour for- 



bidden andcommanded ' (London, 1635, 4to), 
was preached at St. Paul's Cross on 23 Sept. 
1634 (cf. Brit. Mus. Cat. s. v. < Rainbow '). 
Rainbowe planned a treatise, to be called 
' Verba Christi,' a collection of Christ's dis- 
burses and sayings, but it was never com- 
pleted. With his life, by Jonathan Banks 
Janon. 1688, 16mo), appear some meditations 
by him, and one or two short poems, as well 
as the sermon preached at his funeral by his 
hancellor, Thomas Tullie. 

[His life, mentioned above ; Wood's Athense 
Oxon. (ed. Bliss), iv. 865 ; Nicolson and Burn's 
Hist, of Cumberland and Westmorland, ii. 290 ; 
Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumberland, iv. 633 ; Arti- 
cles in the Carlisle Patriot, February 1873; 
Jefferson's Carlisle Tracts; Diocesan Histories, 
' Carlisle,' by Chancellor Ferguson ; private in- 
formation.] K. S. F. 

RAINE, JAMES (1791-1858),antiquary 
and topographer, son of James Raine, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of William Moore, was 
born at Ovington in the parish of Wycliffe 
on 23 Jan. 1791. He was educated at Kirby 
Hill school, and subsequently at Richmond 
grammar school. From 1812 to 1827 he was 
second master of Durham school. Raine was 
ordained deacon on 25 Sept. 1814, and priest 
on 20 Sept. 1818. In 1816 he became li- 
brarian to the dean and chapter of Durham, 
and in 1822 he was presented by that body 
to the rectory of Meldon in Northumberland. 
Protracted litigation concerning the tithe 
at Meldon harasse'd Raine for many years ; 
but in 1846 the House of Lords decided the 
dispute in his favour. In 1825 he was in- 
stituted principal surrogate in the consistory 
court, and in 1828 to the living of St. Mary 
in the South Bailey in the city of Durham. 
These several preferments he held until his 
death. The degree of M.A. was conferred 
upon him by the archbishop of Canterbury, 
at the request of Bishop Barrington, in No- 
vember 1 825 . He was i ncorporated ad eundem 
f/radum in the university of Durham, and 
the same body conferred upon him the de- 
gree of D.C.L. in 1857, in recognition of his 
literary eminence and of his long service as 
judge of the ecclesiastical court. 

Raine formed in 1812 an acquaintance 
with Surtees, which was uninterrupted till 
the death of Surtees in 1834. This intimacy, 
and his position as librarian to the dean and 
chapter, served to stimulate Raine's inherent 
enthusiasm as an antiquary and topographer. 
His literary efforts were at first directed to 
the assistance of friends in the composition 
of topographical works. The county his- 
torians, Hodgson, Sharpe, and Surtees, all 
generously recorded their debts to Raine's 
laborious industry and unselfish assistance. 



Raine 



176 



Raine 



Surtees stated that the 'History of Durham' 
would never have been completed in its pre- 
sent form had not its author been able to 
rely on Raine's indefatigable industry (In- 
troduction to History of Durham, vol. i. p. x). 
Raine subsequently became literary executor 
to his friend, and the duty of arranging and 
editing the fourth volume of the 'History of 
Durham ' devolved upon him. This volume 
appeared in 1840. In 1827 he had performed 
a similar service for his friend Hodgson, 
having edited vol. iii. of part 2 of the ' His- 
tory of Northumberland ' during the absence 
of the author abroad. In 1828 Raine pub- 
lished his first independent work of impor- 
tance a monograph dealing with the posi- 
tion of the burial-place of St. Cuthbert. The 
recondite knowledge there displayed at once 
established his position as an antiquary. In 
1830 the first part of his ' History of North 
Durham ' appeared; the second part, complet- 
ing the volume, was not published until 
1852. This important work, undertaken at 
the suggestion of Surtees, and begun shortly 
after the appearance of Surtees's first volume, 
is the complement of the latter's ' History of 
Durham.' It embraces the history of certain ! 
outlying and detached districts, including 
Norhamshire and Holy Island, which, when 
the book was first undertaken, formed a part 
of the county of Durham, but some of which 
were subsequently annexed by statute to the 
county of Northumberland. 

On the death of Surtees in 1834 the idea of 
founding a society to maintain his memory and 
name originated with Raine. The object of j 
the society as originally devised was ' to j 
publish such unedited manuscripts as illus- I 
trate the intellectual, moral, religious, and i 
social conditions of those parts of England | 
which lie between the Humber and the Frith i 
of Forth, and on the west from the Mersey 
to the Clyde, from the earliest period to the 
Restoration.' The Surtees Society was con- 
stituted on 27 May 1834, at a meeting held 
at Durham, and Raine was appointed its 
first secretary. From this time he devoted 
great energy and industry to the interests of 
the society, editing for it seventeen volumes, 
and establishing it on a permanent basis. 
It proved the pioneer of many similar so- 
cieties, which adopted its rules and methods. 

Raine died at Crook Hall, near Durham, 
on 6 Dec. 1858, and was buried in Durham 
Cathedral yard. Raine married, on 28 Jan. 
1828, Margaret, the eldest daughter of the 
Rev. Thomas Peacock and sister of George 
Peacock (1791-1858) [q. v.], dean of Ely, 
and had by her three daughters and one 
son, the Rev. James Raine, chancellor and 
canon-residentiary of York. A portrait of 



Raine, engraved by W. Walker, after a pic- 
ture by Clement Burlison, is prefixed to his 
' History of North Durham.' 

Raine published : 1. ' Proof that the Holy 
Communion in both kinds was administered 
to the Laity within the Parish of Norham 
and Diocese of Durham before the Reforma- 
tion,' Durham, 1825. 2. ' Codicum manu- 
scriptorumEcclesiseCathedralisDunelinensis 
Catalogus,' 1825. 3. ' Saint Cuthbert, with 
an Account of the state in which his Re- 
mains were found upon the opening of his 
Tomb in Durham Cathedral,' Durham, 1828. 
4. ' A brief Account of Durham Cathedral,' 
1833. 5. ' Catterick Church, in the County 
of York; a Copy of the Contract for its 
building, dated in 1412, with Remarks and 
Notes,' London, 1834. 6. ' A brief historical 
Account of the Episcopal Castle or Palace 
of Auckland,' 1852. 7. ' The History and 
Antiquities of North Durham, as subdivided 
into the Shires of Norham Island and Bed- 
lington,' London, 1852. 8. ' A Memoir of 
the Rev. J. Hodgson, 2 vols. 1857. 9. ' Marske, 
a small Contribution towards Yorkshire To- 
pography,' 1860. 

Raine edited for the Surtees Society the 
following volumes : ' Reginaldus Monachus 
Dunelmensis,' 1835. ' Wills and Inventories 
illustrative of the History of the Northern 
Counties of England,' 1835. ' The Towneley 
Mysteries,' 1836. ' Durham Sanctuary ,'1837. 
' Finchall Priory, the Charters of Endow- 
ment of,' 1837. ' Miscellanea Biographica,' 
1838. 'The Priory of Coldingham,' 1841. 
' A Description of Ancient Monuments 
within the Monastical Church of Durham/ 
1842. 'The Correspondence of M. Hutton, 
Arch, of York,' 1843. 'The Durham 
Household Book,' 1844. ' Depositions and 
Ecclesiastical Proceedings from the Courts 
of Durham,' 1845. 'The Injunctions of R. 
Barnes, Bishop of Durham,' 1850. ' A Memoir 
of R. Surtees by G. Taylor, with Additions,' 
1852. ' The Obituary Rolls of W. Ebchester 
and J. Burnby, Priors of Durham,' 1856. 

[Information received from the Rev. Canon 
Raine of York ; Gent. Mag. 1859 ; Memoir of 
Rev. J. Hodgson ; Memoir of Surtees by Taylor ; 
Preface to Raine's North Durham ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.; Surtees Soc., earlier vols. passim.] 

W. C-E. 

RAINE, MATTHEW (1760-1811), 
schoolmaster and divine, was born on 20 May 
1760 at Gilling in the North Riding of York- 
shire. His father, of the same name, was 
for many years vicar of St. John's, Stan- 
wick, and rector of Kirkby Wiske, and also 
master of a school at Hartforth, near Rich- 
mond, in the same county. His mother, 
Esther, was of a Cumberland family. After 



Raine 



177 



Raines 



receiving the elements of education under 
his father, with William Beloe [q. v.] for a 
schoolfellow, he was admitted a scholar of 
the Charterhouse, on the king's nomination 
obtained, it is said (BELOE, Sexagenarian, 
annotated copy, i. 10), through the interest 
of Lord Percy, a patron of his father in 
June 1772. In 1778 he went up as an ex- 
hibitioner to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated as sixteenth wrangler in 
1782 (M.A. 1785, B.D. 1794, D.D. 1799). 
In 1783 and 1784 he gained the members' 
university prize, and in the latter year was 
made fellow of his college. 

After some time spent in tuition, Raine 
was appointed headmaster of Charterhouse 
school on 7 June 1791, in succession to Dr. 
Berdmore. Charles Burney was one of his 
competitors. Here he remained till his death. 
In 1803 he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in 1809 was chosen preacher of 
Gray's Inn. In July 1810 he was presented 
to the rectory of Hallingbury, Essex, in the 
gift of the governors of the Charterhouse, 
and died unmarried on 17 Sept. 1811. 

He was buried in the chapel of the Char- 
terhouse, where there is a gravestone in the 
south aisle inscribed M. R., and a mural 
tablet on the adjoining wall by Flaxman, 
with an epitaph by Samuel Parr. Parr 
and Person were his intimate friends. His 
choice collection of classical books, including 
many Aldines and rare editions, went by 
bequest, after the death of his brother 
Jonathan, to the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge (Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iv. 
323). This brother, a schoolfellow of Per- 
son's at Eton, and afterwards at Trinity 
(B.A. 1787, M.A. 1790), was member of par- 
liament for Newport in Cornwall (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 94 n.~) 

Raine is described as eloquent in the 
pulpit and dignified in manner. The latter 
part of this description is borne out by his 
portrait, reputed to be by Hoppner, in the 
master's lodge at the Charterhouse. The 
Society of 'Schoolmasters owed much to his 
liberality. His only published works are 
two sermons. 

[Parr's Works, 1828, iv. 612 ; references in 
Parriana; Beloe's Septuagenarian, i. 9-12, 245- 
246; Annual Biography, 1819, p. 30; Gent. 
Mag. Ixxxii. pt. i. p. 403, Ixxxi. pt. ii. p. 294 ; 
Blanchard's Charterhouse, 1849, p. 108; Begis- 
ters of Charterhouse Chapel (Harleian Society's 
publications), xviii. 67 ; Haig-Brown's Charter- 
house Past and Present ; Watson's Life of 
Porson, 1861, pp. 20, 313, 337; information 
from Canon Elwyn, master of the Charterhouse, 
Rev. H. V. Le Bas, and Professor John E. B. 
Mayor.] J. H. L. 

VOL. XLYII. 



RAINES, FRANCIS ROBERT (1805- 
1878), antiquary, the descendant of an old 
Yorkshire family, third son of Isaac Raines, 
M.D., of Burton Pidsea in Holderness, by 
Ann, daughter of Joseph Robertson, was 
born at Whitby, Yorkshire, on 22 Feb. 1805. 
He received his early education at Burton 
Pidsea, but when thirteen years old was sent 
to Clitheroe, Lancashire, as apprentice to 
William Coultate, surgeon, who afterwards 
removed to Burnley in the same county. 
Raines during his apprenticeship went to the 
Clitheroe and Burnley grammar schools. 
But finding the medical profession uncon- 
genial, he was released from his engagement, 
and in 1826 was admitted to St. Bees' 
Theological College. He was ordained in 
1828, and became assistant curate of Saddle- 
worth on the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
border. He soon afterwards took a curacy 
at the Rochdale parish church, the rector of 
which appointed him in 1832 perpetual 
curate of the chapelry of St. James, Milnrow, 
near Rochdale, where he remained for the 
rest of his life. He was the means of re- 
building the church there and of providing 
schools and parsonage. The Earl of Dun- 
more appointed him his domestic chaplain 
in 1841. The archbishop of Canterbury be- 
stowed on him the diploma of M.A. in 1845. 
He was rural dean of Rochdale from 1846 to 
1877, and an honorary canon of Manchester 
Cathedral from 1849. On 30 March 1843 
he was elected F.S.A . 

In the same year he was one of the origina- 
tors, with Dr. Edward Holme, James Cross- 
ley, Canon Parkinson, and others, of the 
Chetham Society, serving from the first on the 
council, and succeeding Parkinson as vice- 
president in 1858. He was one of the chief 
authorities in local history especially 
biography and family history and his 
stores of exact and well-ordered information 
were drawn upon by many of the editors 
of the long series of volumes issued by 
the society. He himself contributed some 
of the most valuable of its works, namely : 
1. Bishop Gastrell's 'Notitia Cestriensis, or 
Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester,' 
4vols. 1845-50. 2. ' The Journal of Nicholas 
Assheton' (1617-18), 1848. 3. 'The Stanley 
Papers,' 4 vols. 1853-67. 4. 'The Poems 
and Correspondence of the Rev. Thomas 
Wilson, D.D., of Clitheroe,' 1857. 5. ' The 
History of the Lancashire Chantries,' 2 vols. 
1862. 6. ' Lancashire Funeral Certificates,' 

1869. 7. Flower's ' Visitation of Lancashire,' 

1870. 8. St. George's ' Visitation of Lanca- 
shire,' 1861. 9. Dugdale's 'Visitation of 
Lancashire' (with memoir of Sir W. Dug- 
dale), 3 vols. 1870-3. 10. ' Chetham Mis- 



Rainey 



178 



Rainey 



cellanies,' vols. vi. and vii., 1875-8. Many of 
the interesting notes in the first three volumes 
of the ' Chetham Miscellanies/ in the ' Life 
of Adam Martindalfr ' [q. v.], and in Byrom's 
' Remains ' were from his pen. In 1845 he 
published ' Memorials of Rochdale Grammar 
School,' and in 1873 a ' Sermon in Com- 
memoration of Humphrey Chetham.' He 
left to the Chetham Library, Manchester, 
his important collection of ' Lancashire 
Manuscripts,' compiled by himself in forty- 
four folio volumes. Part of these manu- 
scripts have sines been published by the 
Chetham Society, as 1. ' Lives of the Vicars 
of Rochdale,' edited by Sir H. H. Howorth, 
2 vols. 1883. 2. 'The "Rectors and Wardens 
of Manchester,' edited by J. E. Bailey, 2 I 
vols. 1885. 3. ' The Fellows of the Collegiate j 
Church of Manchester,' edited by Dr. F. 
Renaud, 2 vols. 1891. His unfinished life 
of Humphrey Chetham [q. v.], edited and 
completed by the writer of this notice, is 
being prepared for the press. 

He died after a short illness at Scarborough 
on 17 Oct. 1878, aged 73, and was buried in 
Milnrow churchyard. A memorial was after- 
wards erected to him in the church. His 
library was sold at Manchester in December 
1878. He married, on 21 Nov. 1836, Honora 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Major John 
Beswicke of Pike House, Littleborough, near 
Rochdale, by whom he had three daughters, 
two of whom survived him. 

[Memoir by H. Fishwick in the Reliquary, 
xix. 219, and in Smith's Old Yorkshire, iv. 151 
(portrait); Manchester Guardian, 18 Oct. 1878; 
Manchester Courier, 18 and 22 Oct. 1878 and 
19 March 1879; Parkinson's Old Church Clock, 
ed. Evans, 1880, p. xciv; Foster's Yorkshire 
Pedigrees; Bishop Lee's copy of Notitia Ces- 
triensis, greatly enlarged, by illustrations, was j 
left by him to Owens College. Eaines's letters j 
to James Crossley are in the Manchester Free | 
Library.] C. W. S. 

RAINEY, GEORGE (1801-1884), anato- j 
mist, was born in 1801 at Spilsby, Lin- 
colnshire, and was sent to school at Louth. 
He was apprenticed to a doctor first at 
Horncastle and afterwards at Spilsby, where 
he supplemented his imperfect school train- 
ing by a diligent course of self-education in 
Latin, Greek, and mathematics, as well as 
in professional studies. After serving as 
assistant to a Mr. Barker, a surgeon at Spilsby, 
and adding to his income by private teach- 
ing, he entered, with very inadequate means, 
as a student of St. Thomas's Hospital in 1824, 
still supporting himself chiefly by tuition. 
He obtained the membership of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in 1827. 

For the next ten years Rainey was an 



active and very successful private teacher of 
anatomy, at a time when the imperfection of 
the medical schools made that profession a 
more important one than it is now. In 1837 
his health broke down, and, being threatened 
with consumption, he was sent to the south 
of Europe, where he resided for five years, 
chiefly in Italy. On returning to London 
he decided not to enter on medical practice, 
and was appointed curator of the museum 
and subsequently, in 1846, demonstrator of 
anatomy and of the microscope at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, an appointment which 
he held till his death on 16 Nov. 1884. For 
some years before his death he was in receipt 
of a government pension for his services to 
science. 

Rainey was one of the old school of pure 
anatomists who had no other profession, and 
for many years was recognised as one of the 
ablest anatomical teachers in London. While 
closely occupied in teaching, scientific re- 
search was almost his sole recreation, and he 
made several important investigations in 
various branches of science. One of his 
favourite subjects of inquiry was the pro- 
duction of organic or quasi-organic forms by 
physical processes, and the deposition of 
mineral substances in organised bodies. On 
this he published a book ' On the Mode of 
Formation of Shells, of Bone, and other 
Structures by Molecular Coalescence, de- 
monstrable by certain artificially formed 
products,' London, '1858, 8vo, as well as 
other memoirs. These researches have been 
important, not only as to their immediate 
object, but as tending to explain the forma- 
tion of urinary calculi, and leading to sub- 
sequent researches on this subject, especially 
those of Vandyke Carter and Ord. 

Another of Rainey's early researches was 
' An Experimental Enquiry into the Cause of 
the Ascent and Descent of the Sap, with ob- 
servations on Endosmose and Exosmose,' 
London, 1847, 8vo. To elucidate these and 
similar processes he made experiments ex- 
tending over many years on ' the existence 
of continued currents in fluids, and their 
action in certain natural physical processes,' 
described in four papers in the ' St. Thomas's 
Hospital Reports ' (vols. i. ii. iii. v.) 

He also published several papers on points 
of minute anatomy, normal and pathological, 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' (vol. cxl. 
1850, vol. cxlvii. 1857), ' Proceedings of the 
Royal Society' (vol. v. 1846), the 'Medico- 
Chirurgical Transactions ' (vols. xxviii. xxix. 
xxxi. xxxii.), ' Transactions of the Patho- 
logical Society' (vols. iii. iv. v. vi.), and 
elsewhere. 

Rainey was an indefatigable observer with 



Rainforth 



179 



Rainier 



the microscope, and taught its use to students 
as early as 1846, when the instrument was 
little employed in medicine. He was cele- 
brated for his skill in the use of minute in- 
jections, and published some papers in the 
' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.' 
His name is commemorated in * Rainey's 
Capsules,' a term still often quoted, espe- 
cially in German pathological works, re- 
ferring to minute parasites (now known as 
psorosperms) which he detected in the 
muscles. All his work was characterised 
by the most scrupulous accuracy and con- 
scientiousness. 

A man of simple habits, absorbed in 
scientific pursuits, liainey lived a somewhat 
solitary life, but among his friends were Dr. 
Hodgkin the physician, Mr. Grainger the 
physiologist, and Sir Richard Owen, who 
valued Rainey's work very highly. His own 
immediate pupils, among them Dr. Bristowe 
and Dr. William Ord, have warmly acknow- 
ledged the value of his stimulus and guidance 
in scientific research, and of his powerful 
moral influence, which was dominant over 
many generations of students. 

His portrait, in crayons, by his son, Mr. 
William Rainey, member of the Institute of 
Water-Colour Painters, is at St. Thomas's 
Hospital. 

[Memoir by W. W. Wagstaffe in St. Thomas's 
Hospital JReports, vol. xxii. 1894 (with portrait); 
personal recollections.] J. F. P. 

RAINFORTH, ELIZABETH (1814- 
1877), vocalist, daughter of S. Rainforth, a 
custom-house officer, was a pupil of T. Cooke, 
Crivelli, and George Perry, and subsequently, 
for dramatic action, of Mrs. Davison. She 
first sang in public at the vocal concerts, 
29 Feb. 1836, when she sang an aria from 
< Der Freischiitz ' (cf. Spectator, 1836, p. 
223). Her success was so pronounced as 
to lead to an immediate engagement for the 
succeeding concert in March. On 27 Oct. 
in the same year Miss Rainforth made her 
stage debut as Mandane in Arne's ' Ar- 
taxerxes' at the St. James's Theatre, and 
for many seasons she was a popular dra- 
matic singer at this theatre, the English Opera 
House, Covent Garden, and Drury Lane. At 
the same time her services as a concert-singer 
were in great demand. In 1837 she ap- 
peared in oratorio under the auspices of the 
Sacred Harmonic Society; on 18 March 
1839 she sang at the Philharmonic concerts; 
and in 1840 at the Concerts of Ancient 
Music. In 1836 and 1842 she was a princi- 
pal singer at the Norwich Festival (cf. 
Musical World, 1836, p. 43). In 1843 and 
1845 her success at the Birmingham and 



Worcester festivals was no less emphatic; 
in 1844 she was performing in Dublin. On 
27 Nov. 1843 she created the role of Arline 
in Balfe's ' Bohemian Girl.' From 1852 to 
1856 she lived in Edinburgh, and she prac- 
tically retired from public life in 1859. Until 
1871 she taught singing at Windsor. In 
1871 she withdrew to Chatterton Villa, Red- 
land, near Bristol, where she died 22 Sept. 
1877. 

Miss Rainforth was an admirable singer, 
but lacked sufficient power to place her in 
the foremost rank of great sopranos. 

[Authorities qxioted in the text; Musical 
World, 1877, p. 653 ; Spectator, 1843, p. 1136; 
Athenaeum, 1836, p. 179; Grove's Diet, of Music 
and Musicians; Philharmonic Society's lists.] 

E. H. L. 

RAINIER, PETER (1741P-1808), ad- 
miral, grandson of Daniel Regnier or Rainier, 
of a Poitevin family, who came to England 
on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, was 
son of Peter Rainier of Sandwich, by his wife, 
Sarah Spratt. He entered the navy in 1756 
on board the Oxford, from which, in February 
1758, he was moved to the Yarmouth, and 
on her arrival in the East Indies in March 
1758 to the Tiger, in which he was present 
in the several actions of 29 April and 3 Aug. 
1758 and 10 Sept. 1759 [see POCOCK, SIR 
GEORGE]. In June 1760 he was moved to 
the Norfolk, bearing the flag of Rear-admiral 
Charles Steevens [q.v.] at the siege of Pondi- 
cherry, arid afterwards of Vice-admiral 
Samuel Cornish [q. v.] at the reduction of 
Manila. In 1704 the Norfolk returned to 
England and was paid oft'. During the fol- 
lowing years Rainier was probably employed 
under the East India Company. He passed 
his examination on 2 Feb. 1768, being then, 
according to his certificate, more than twenty- 
six. On 26 May 1768 he was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant, but had no service in 
the navy till January 1774, when he was 
appointe'd to the Maidstone, commanded by 
Captain Alan Gardner (afterwards lord 
Gardner) [q. v.], in the West Indies. On 
3 May 1777 he was promoted by Vice- 
admiral Clark Gayton [q. v.] to the com- 
mand of the Ostrich sloop, and in her on 
8 July 1778 captured a large American 
privateer after a hard-fought action, in which 
he was severely wounded (BEATSOir, Nav. 
and Mil. Mem. iv. 404). In approval of his 
conduct on this occasion the admiralty ad- 
vanced him to post rank on 29 Oct. follow- 
ing, and in January 1779 appointed him to 
the Burford of 64 guns. In her he went out 
to the East Indies in the squadron under Sir 
Edward Hughes [q. v.], and took part in all 
the operations of the war. including the re- 

N2 



Rainolds 



1 80 



Rainolds 



duction of Negapatam and Trincomalee, and 
the five several actions with the Bailli de 
Suffren. After the peace the Burford re- 
turned to England, and Rainier was put on 
half-pay. 

In 1790-1 he commanded the Monarch in 
the Channel, and early in 1793 commissioned 
the Suffolk of 74 guns, in which in the follow- 
ing year he went out to the East Indies as 
commodore and commander-in-chief, taking 
with him a large convoy, which arrived at 
Madras in November, without having touched 
anywhere on the voyage, a circumstance then 
considered extraordinary ( JAMES, i. 336). On 
1 June 1795 he was promoted to the rank of 
rear-admiral, and to that of vice-admiral on 
14 Feb. 1799. lie remained on the East 
India station as commander-in-chief till 1804, 
during which time he assisted at the reduc- 
tion of Trincomalee in August 179-5, and in 
February-March 1796 took possession of 
Amboyna and Banda Neira, with enormous 
booty, the admiral's share of which laid the 
foundation of a princely fortune. His prin- 
cipal duty, however, was to provide for the 
safety of the British settlements and the 
security of the British trade, a task for which 
his long experience of the East Indies pre- 
eminently fitted him. After his return to 
England and his retirement from active ser- 
vice, he continued to be consulted by the 
ministry on questions relating to the station. 

In the Trafalgar promotion of 9 Nov. 1805 
he was advanced to the rank of admiral, was 
returned to parliament in May 1807 as mem- 
ber for Sandwich, and died at his house in 
Great George Street, Westminster, on 7 April 
1808, leaving by his will one-tenth of his pro- 
perty, proved at 250,000 1., towards the reduc- 
tion of the national debt. Rainier was not 
married. Rear-admiral John Spratt Rainier 
(d. 1836) and Captain Peter Rainier, C.B. 
(d. 1836), were his nephews: and others of 
the family, grand-nephews and great-grand- 
nephews, have been or still are in the navy. 
A portrait (1805) by Devis belonged to the 
Rev. W. S. Halliday. It has been engraved. 

[Gent. Mag. 1808, i. 373,457; Official Cor- 
respondence and other documents in the Public 
Eecord Office ; Beatson's Naval and Military 
Memoirs ; James's Naval History.] J. K. L. 

RAINOLDS. [See also REYNOLDS.] 

RAINOLDS or REYNOLDS, JOHN 
(1549-1607), president of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and dean of Lincoln, born 
at Pinhoe, near Exeter, ' about Michaelmas 
Day,' 1549, was fifth son of Richard Rainolds. 
His uncle, Thomas Rainolds, held the benefice 
of Pinhoe from 1530 to 1537, and was sub- 
sequently warden of Merton College, Ox- 



ford, and dean of Exeter. The family seems 
to have been comfortably settled at Pinhoe, 
and several of its members at various times 
held fellowships at Oxford. His brother 
William is noticed separately. John appears 
to have entered originally at Merton, but on 
29 April 1563 he was elected to a scholar- 
ship at Corpus, where two of his brothers, 
Hierome and Edmond, were already fellows. 
He became probationary fellow on 11 Oct. 
Io66, and full fellow two years subsequently. 
1 On 15 Oct. 1568 he graduated B.A., and it 
must have been about this time, though the 
i exact date is uncertain (see FOWLER, Hist, of 
C. C. C. pp. 147, 148), that he was assigned 
; as tutor to Richard Hooker. He was ap- 
pointed to what was at that time the im- 
\ portant college office of Greek reader in 
I 1572-3. According to Wood's account of 
I him (Athence Oxon.\ his 'fame grew' from 
this lecture, as Jewel's had previously done 
from the Latin lecture, and Hooker's sub- 
sequently did from the logic lecture in the 
same college. ' The author that he read/ 
says Wood, ' was Aristotle, whose three in- 
comparable books of rhetoric he illustrated 
with so excellent a commentary, so richly 
fraught with all polite literature, that, as 
well in the commentary as in the text, a man 
may find a golden river of things and words, 
which the prince of orators tells us of.' 
There still exists in the Bodleian Library 
the copy of the rhetoric (Morel, Paris, 
1562) from which Rainolds lectured. It is 
interleaved, and contains an introduction, 
synopsis, index, and copious notes, together 
! with a beautiful prayer following the index 
j (see Hist, of C. C. C. p. 158), all written out 
i in a clear, round, and print-like hand. In. 
' 1578 he resigned the office of Greek reader, 
and was, in consequence, embroiled in a con- 
. troversy regarding the appointment of his 
' successor to that office, who was objected 
; to on the ground of his extreme youth and 
1 insufficient position in the college [see 
SPENCER, JOHN, d. 1614]. This and other 
differences within the college during the 
! stormy presidency of Dr. Cole [see COLE, 
! WILLIAM, d. 1600] probably determined 
j him at length to resign his fellowship in 
1586, and to retire to Queen's College, where 
he lived, and seems to have taken part in 
the tuition, for many years. 

Meanwhile Rainolds had been taking a 
prominent part and acquiring a considerable 
reputation in the wider field of the univer- 
sity. Thus, in 1576, he strongly remonstrated 
against the proposal of Leicester, the chan- 
cellor, that Antonio de Corrano [q. v.], a 
Spanish preacher in London, who was sus- 
pected of popish leanings, should be allowed 



Rainolds 



181 



Rainolds 



to proceed D.I). In 1584, when Leicester 
passed some time in Oxford, a very evenly 
contested theological disputation was en- 
acted before him at St. Mary's, between 
John and his brother Edmond (WoOD, An- 
nals). The latter was a moderate Romanist 
who had been expelled from his fellowship 
at Corpus by Elizabeth's commissioners in 
1568. Fuller describes a disputation at an 
earlier date between John and another bro- 
ther William, and represents Rainolds at the 
time as a zealous papist and William as 
earnest a protestant. ' Providence so ordered 
it,' Fuller proceeds, ' that, by their mutual 
disputation, John Rainolds turned an emi- 
nent Protestant, and William an inveterate 
Papist.' But this story seems apocryphal [see 
RAINOLDS, WILLIAM]. 

In 1586 Rainolds was appointed to a tem- 
porary lectureship, founded by Sir Francis 
Walsingham for the confutation of Romish 
tenets, at a salary of 201. a year. According 
to Wood, ' he read this lecture in the 
Divinity School thrice a week in full term, 
had constantly a great auditory, and was 
held by those of his party to have done great 
good.' In 1592, on the morning of Queen 
Elizabeth's departure from the university, 
she sent for the heads of houses and others, 
and among those present ' she schooled Dr. 
John Rainolds for his obstinate preciseness, 
willing him to follow her laws, and not run 
before them.' 

The fellows of Corpus were desirous that 
Rainolds should replace the unpopular pre- 
sident of the college, William Cole. But 
Cole was unwilling to resign, although it 
was suspected that he would retire if he 
could exchange the presidency for an eccle- [ 
siastical office of importance. In order to 
promote such an arrangement, Rainolds was j 
made dean of Lincoln on 10 Dec. 1593. ' 
In a letter to Barefoot, archdeacon of Lin- j 
coin (29 July 1594), he described the dis- 
sensions of the Lincoln chapter as more 
acute even than those at Corpus. Sunday j 
prayers in Lincoln Cathedral were suspended 
on account of the controversies, and the new j 
dean's position was very difficult. In No- j 
vember or December 1598 Cole, having 
doubtless been assured of his succession to i 
the Lincoln deanery, resigned tha presi- 
dency, to which Rainolds was elected on 
11 Dec. following. The college now had 
rest, and flourished greatly under its new 
president. So contented was Rainolds him- 
self with his position, and so ' temperate,' 
according to Wood, ' were his affections,' 
that he declined a bishopric which was 
offered to him by Queen Elizabeth. 

Rainolds was a skilled disputant and a 



voluminous and much-read author. His 
puritan tendencies were doctrinal rather than 
practical. He was a low-churchman with 
Calvinistic leanings. His most enduring 
titles to fame are the prominent position he 
occupied in the Hampton Court conference 
and his share in the translation of the Bible. 
At the conference, which met on 14 Jan. 
1603-4, the puritan party was represented 
by four persons selected by the king. Of 
the.*e Rainolds was in character, learning, 
and position the most eminent, and he was 
expressly called their ' foreman.' To him 
the king was throughout peculiarly gracious. 
When he took exception to the words in the 
marriage service, ' With my body I thee 
worship,' the king jokingly said to him, 
' Many a man speaks of Robin Hood who 
never shot in his bow : if you had a good 
wife yourself, you would think that all the 
honour and worship you could do to her 
were well bestowed.' 

The Hampton Court conference led to that 
translation of the scriptures which is known 
as the Authorised Version. Rainolds may 
be said to have initiated the project, and he 
occupied a leading position among the trans- 
lators. The company on which he was en- 
gaged was that for translating the Prophets. 
It met in Oxford. Wood (Annals, sub 1604) 
tells us that ' the said Translators had re- 
course, once a week, to Dr. Raynolds his 
lodgings in Corpus CJiristi College, and there, 
as 'tis said, perfected the work, notwithstand- 
ing the said Doctor, who had the chief hand 
in it, was all the while sorely afflicted with 
the gout.' 

Rainolds was dying, not of gout, but of 
consumption. ' His exceeding paines in 
study,' we are told, ' had brought his 
withered body to a very o-KfAeroi'.' He died 
on 21 May 1607, when he was not yet fifty- 
eight. After three orations had been pro- 
nounced over his body, he was buried in the 
college chapel, where a monument was 
erected to his memory by his pupil and suc- 
cessor, John Spenser. From his will it is 
plain that his main property consisted of 
books. These he distributed among various 
colleges and his private friends, leaving the 
residue to be disposed of by his executors 
'among scholars of our University, such as 
for religion, honesty, studiousness, and to- 
wardness in learning (want of means and 
ability to furnish themselves beino- withal 
considered) they shall think meetest. 

Rainolds's abilities, high character, and 
learning were acknowledged by his contem- 
poraries. Crackanthorpe, his pupil, dwells 
admiringly on his prodigious learning, his 
sound judgment, his marvellous memory, 



Rainolds 



182 



Rainolds 



his lofty character, his courtesy, modesty, 
probity, integrity, piety, and, lastly, on his 
kindness and devotion to his numerous 
pupils. Bishop Hall, writing to a friend 
soon after Rainolds's death, says : ' He alone 
was a well-furnished library, full of all 
faculties, of all studies, of all learning ; the 
memory, the reading of that man were near 
to a miracle.' Fuller, speaking of Jewel, 
Rainolds, and Hooker, as all Devonshire and 
all Corpus men, says : ' No one county in 
England bare three such men (contemporary 
at large) in what college soever they were 
bred, no college in England bred such three 
men in what county soever they were born.' 
Even Antony Wood, abominating, as he did, 
Calvinism and puritanism in all their forms, 
breaks out into enthusiastic praises of Rai- 
nolds. 

There are two portraits of Rainolds in the 
president's lodgings at Corpus, but one is a 
copy of the other, or both are copies of the 
same original, which was undoubtedly the 
bust in the chapel. The engravings in Hol- 
land's ' Herwologia ' and in the ' Continuatio 
Secunda ' to Boissard are similar to the paint- 
ings at Corpus. 

Rainolds published: 1. 'Sex Theses de 
Sacra Scriptura et Ecclesia publicis in Acad. 
Ox. disputationibuspropositB,'London,1580; 
republished, with additions and a defence, 
London, 1602. 2. ' The Summe of the Con- 
ference betwene John Rainolds and John 
Hart touching the Head and the Faith of 
the Church. Penned by John Rainolds and 
allowed by John Hart for a faithfull report,' 
&c., London, 1584. 3. ' Orationes duse ex 
iis quas habuit in Coll. C. C., quum Lin- 
guam Groecam profiteretur,' Oxford, 1587. 
4. ' De Romanse Ecclesise Idolatria. Operis 
inchoati Libri Duo,' Oxford, 1596. 5. ' The 
Overthrow of Stage-Players, by the way of 
Controversie between D. Gager and D. Rai- 
noldes, whereunto are added certaine Latin 
letters [between Reynolds and Albericus 
Gentilis, Reader of Civil Law in Oxford] 
concerning the same matter,' no place, 1599 
(in this controversy Rainolds condemns stage- 
plays, even when acted by students). The fol- 
lowing works were published posthumously: 
1. ' A Defence of the Judgment of the Re- 
formed Churches, that a man may lawfullie 
not onlie put awaie his wife for her adul- 
terie, but also marrie another,' no place, 
1609. 2. ' Censura Librorum Apocryphorum 
Veteris Testamenti,' in 250 lectures, 2 vols. 
Oppenheim, 1611. 3. ' The Prophecie of 
Obadiah opened and applied,' &c., Oxford, 
1613. 4. ' A Letter to his Friend, concerning 
his Advise for the Studie of Divinitie,' Lon- 
don, 1613. 5. ' Orationes duodecim cum 



aliis quibusdam opusculis. Adjecta est Oratio 
Funebris habita a M. Isaaco Wake, Oratore 
Publico,' London, 1619. 6. < The Judgment 
of Doctor Reignolds concerning Episcopacy, 
whether it be God's Ordinance, expressed in 
a letter to Sir Francis Knowls, concerning 
Dr. Bancroft's Sermon at St. Paul's Crosse, 
preached Feb. 9, 1588,' London, 1641. 
7. ' Sermons on the Prophecies of Haggai, 
" never before printed, being very usefull for 
these times," ' London, 1648. To these 
works must be added the important part 
which Rainolds took in the translation of 
the Prophets in the ' Authorised Version ' of 
the scriptures. 

[C. C. C. Register of Admissions ; Fulman 
Mt>S. in C. C. C. Library, vol ix. ff. 113-228 ; 
Fowler's Hist, of C. C. C.pp. 124, 127, 135, 137- 
144, 147, 151, 157-69; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
(sub nomine) and Annals, sub 1576, 1584, 1586, 
1592; Fuller's Church History of Britain, sub 
1607; Cardwell's Conferences, 3rd edit. pp. 178, 
140-1, 200, 187-8; Crackanthorpe's Defensio 
Ecclesise Anglicanse, cap. 69 ; Bishop Hall's 
Works, Epistles, Decade I, Ep. 7 (ed. Wynter, 
vi. 149-50).] T. F. 

RAINOLDS, WILLIAM (1544P-1594), 
Roman catholic divine, second son of Richard 
Rainolds, farmer, and elder brother of John 
Rainolds [q. v.], was born at Pinhoe, near 
Exeter, about 1544. His name is variously 
spelt Rainolds, Raynolds, Reynolds, and 
Reginaldus. He was educated at AVinchester 
School and New College, Oxford, of which he 
was elected probationer fellow in 1560, and 
perpetual fellow in 1562. He graduated B. A. 
on 17 June 1563, and proceeded M.A. on 
4 April 1567. Having taken holy orders in 
the church of England, he held for a time the 
rectory of Lavenham, West Sussex. In 1572 
he resigned his fellowship, and went into 
residence as a commoner at Hart Hall. Be- 
coming a convert to Roman Catholicism, 
he migrated to Louvain, thence to Douay, 
and eventually visited Rome, where he was 
received into the Roman catholic church 
in 1575. His change of faith is attributed 
partly to a study of the controversy between 
John Jewel fq- v.] and Thomas Harding 
(1516-1572) fq. v.], and partly to the influ- 
ence of William, afterwards Cardinal Allen. 
Returning to Douay, he matriculated at the 
English College there in 1577. He also en- 
tered the English College at Reims on 
9 April 157 8, but returned to Douay to receive 
priest's orders in 1580, and there lectured on 
| St. Paul's Epistles in April 1581. He after- 
i wards held the chair of divinity and Hebrew 
| in the English College at Reims, where he 
I collaborated with Dr. Gregory Martin [q. v.] 
I in the preparation of his version of the New 



Rainsborough 



183 



Raihsford 



Testament. He spent the last few years of 
his life as priest of the Beguines church at 
Antwerp, where he died on 24 Aug. 1594. 
His remains were interred in the Beguines 
church, on the south side of the chancel. 
His works are as follows : 1. ' A Refuta- 
tion of sundry Reprehensions, Cavils, and 
false Sleightes, by which M. Whitaker la- 
boureth to deface the late English translation, 
and Catholic Annotations of the New Testa- 
ment, and the Book of Discovery of heretical 
corruptions,' Paris, 1583, 8vo. 2. ' De Justa 
Reipublicse Christianse in reges impios et 
haereticos Authoritate' (published as by G. 
Gulielmus Rossseus, but ascribed by Pits to 
Rainolds), Antwerp, 1592, 8vo. 3. ' Treatise 
conteyning the true Catholike and Apostolike 
Faith of the Holy Sacrifice and Sacrament 
ordeyned by Christ as His Last Supper, with 
a Declaration of the Berengarian Heresie 
renewed in our Age,' &c., Antwerp, 1593, 
8vo. 4. ' Calvino-Turcismus, i.e. Calvinis- 
ticse Perfidise cum Mahumetana Collatio, et 
utriusque sectae Confutatio,' Antwerp, 1597, 
and Cologne, 1603, 8vo [see GIFFOKD, WIL- 
LIAM, D.D., 1554-1629]. Some unpublished 
works are also ascribed to Rainolds by Pits. 

[Pits, De Illustr. Angl. Script, an. 1594; 
Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 133; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's Athenae Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, i. 613 ; Magn. Brit, et Hibern. v. 177 ; 
Cotton's Eheems and Doway, p. 13 ; Dodd's 
Church Hist. ii. 67 ; Records of the English 
Catholics, ed. Knox ; Fuller's Church Hist. ed. 
Brewer, v. 201, 537; Bodl. Cat.; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. M. K. 

RAINSBOROUGH. [See RAINBOKOW.] 

RAINSFORD, CHARLES (1728-1809), 
general, born at West Ham on 3 Feb. 1728,was 
the only son of Francis Rainsford (d. 1770), 
by his wife Isabella, daughter of William Bale 
of Foston, Derbyshire. He was educated at 
Great Clacton, Essex, by a clerical friend of 
his father, and in March 1744 was appointed 
second cornet in General Eland's dragoons, 
through the influence of his uncle, Charles 
Rainsford (d. 1778), deputy lieutenant of the 
Tower of London. The regiment was then 
serving in Flanders against the French; 
Rainsford joined it at once, and carried the 
standard at the battle of Fontenoy on 
30 April 1745. On 1 May following he was 
appointed ensign in the Coldstream guards, 
and with them was ordered home on the 
news of the Jacobite rebellion. In 1751 he 
was gazetted lieutenant with the rank of 
captain, and when James O'Hara, second lord 
Tyrawley [q. v.], became colonel of the Cold- 
stream guards, he made Rainsford succes- 
sively adjutant to the battalion, major of 



brigade, and aide-de-camp. In 1758 Rains- 
ford went to Gibraltar as Tyrawley's private 
secretary ; he returned in 1760, and in the 
following year was given a company and 
sent to serve under Prince Ferdinand of 
Brunswick in Germany. 

In 1762, when Spain threatened to invade 
Portugal, Rainsford again accompanied Ty- 
rawley thither as aide-de-camp, and was 
shortly afterwards appointed brigadier-gene- 
ral and chief engineer in Portugal ; in this 
capacity he fortified many strong places in 
the country. He was ordered home in 1763, 
and promoted second major in the Grenadier 
guards. In 1773 he was elected M.P. for 
Maldon, Essex, by Lord Rochford's influence; 
in 1787 he represented Beeralston, Devon- 
shire, and in 1790Newport,Cornwall, through 
the favour of the Duke of Northumberland, 
but he took little part in parliamentary pro- 
ceedings. During 1776 and 1777 he was em- 
ployed in raising troops in Germany for the 
American war, and in the latter year was 
appointed aide-de-camp to George III and 
promoted major-general. During the Gordon 
riots in 1780 he commanded the infantry 
stationed in Hyde Park and then at Black- 
heath ; he was also appointed equerry to the 
Duke of Gloucester, and colonel of the 44th 
regiment. In 1782 he was sent to take com- 
mand of the garrison at Minorca, but before 
his arrival the island capitulated to the 
Spaniards. 

On the outbreak of the revolutionary war 
in 1793, Rainsford was sent as second in 
command to Gibraltar, where he remained 
till March 1795. On his return home he 
was made a general and appointed governor 
of Cliff Fort, Tynemouth ; he saw no further 
active service, and died at his house in Soho 
Square on 24 May 1809. He was buried in 
a vault in the chapel of St. Peter ad Vin- 
cula in the Tower, with his father, his uncle 
Charles, and his first wife. He married, 
first, Elizabeth Miles (1758-1 781), by whom 
he had one son, Colonel William Henry 
Rainsford (d. 1823), and two daughters, 
Julia Anne and Josephina ; the latter, for 
whom Sir Joseph Yorke stood godfather, 
died in infancy. Rainsford married, secondly, 
Ann Cornwallis, daughter of Sir William 
More Molyneux of Loseley Park, Guild- 
ford ; by her, who died in 1798, he had no 
issue. 

Rainsford was a man of varied tastes. He 
was elected F.R.S. in 1779 ; he was also a 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, a mem- 
ber of a society for making discoveries in 
Africa, and various benevolent institutions. 
He dabbled in alchemy, was a Rosicrucian 
and a freemason. He left behind him nearly 



Rainsford 



184 



Rainsford 



forty volumes of manuscript, which were pur- 
chased by the British Museum, and now 
comprise Additional MSS. 23644-80 ; they 
include autobiographical memoranda, papers 
and letters referring to Portugal, 1762-4, 
to Gibraltar, 1793-6, to raising of German 
mercenaries, 1776-8, a narrative of the 
expedition to the Mediterranean, 1781-2, 
correspondence with Lord Amherst, the 
Duke and Duchess of Northumberland and 
others, papers on freemasonry, magnetism, 
and alchemical processes, copies of the cor- 
respondence and papers of Lord Tyrawley, 
and of the journal of the Duke of Gloucester. 
The papers relating to the raising of German 
mercenaries for the American war of inde- 
pendence have been printed in the ' Proceed- 
ings of the New York Historical Society,' 
1879. 

[Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 23644-80, esp. No. 
23667 (see above); Gent. Mag. 1809, i. 486, 
583 ; Official Keturn of Members of ParL ; Mo- 
rant's Essex, i. 464 ; Genealogist, ii. 108-9 ; 
Thomson's Hist. Eoy. Soc.] A. F. P. 

RAINSFORD, MARCUS (f. 1805), 
author, younger son of Edward Rainsford of 
Sallins, co. Kildare, born about 1750, ob- 
tained a commission and saw service in the 
105th regiment, commanded by Francis, lord 
Rawdon (afterwards second Earl of Moira), 
during the American war of independence. 
In 1794 he served under the Duke of York 
in the Netherlands, and was afterwards em- 
ployed in raising black troops in the West 
Indies. In 1799 he visited St. Domingo, and 
had an interview with Toussaint L'Ouver- 
ture. He was subsequently arrested and con- 
demned to death as a spy, but was reprieved 
and eventually set at liberty. Of this ad- 
venture he published an account, entitled 
' A Memoir of Transactions that took place 
in St. Domingo in the Spring of 1799 ' (Lon- 
don, 1802, 8vo; 2nd edit, entitled 'St. Do- 
mingo ; or an Historical, Political, and Mili- 
tary Sketch of the Black Republic,' 1802, 
8vo). He retired from the army with the 
rank of captain about 1803. He also pub- 
lished ' An Historical Account of the Black 
Empire of Hayti,' London, 4to, 1805; and 
a poem in the heroic couplet, entitled ' The 
Revolution ; or Britain Delivered, London, 
1801 (2nd edit, 8vo). The date of Rains- 
ford's death is uncertain. His sister Frances 
(d. 1 809) married, first, in 1 774, Major-general 
Wellbore Ellis Doyle (d. 1 797) ; and, secondly, 
Count Joseph Grimaldi, brother of the Prince 
of Monaco. 

[Memoir above mentioned ; Foster's Baronet- 
age, 'Doyle;' Gent. Mag. 1832, ii. 512; Brit. 
Mus. Cat,] J. M. E. 



RAINSFORD, SIR RICHARD (1605- 
1680), judge, second son of Robert Rainsford 
of Staverton, Northamptonshire, by his first 
wife, Mary, daughter of Thomas Kirton of 
Thorpe-Mandeville in the same county, was 
born in 1605. He matriculated at Oxford 
from Exeter College on 13 Dec. 1622, but 
left the university without a degree. In 
1630 he was elected recorder of Daventry, 
being then a student of Lincoln's Inn, where 
he was called to the bar on 16 Oct. 1632, 
and elected treasurer in 1660. In 1653 he 
was elected recorder of Northampton, which 
borough he represented in the Convention 
parliament of 1660, and also in Charles IPs 
first parliament, until his elevation to the 
bench. As he was designated a member of 
the projected order of Knights of the Royal 
Oak, it is probable that during the interreg- 
num he had shown himself a king's friend. 
On 26 Oct. 1660 he was sworn serjeant-at- 
law, and on 16 Nov. 1663 was raised to the 
exchequer bench, having in the interval re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood. Rainsford 
presided over the commission which sat at 
Dublin during the earlier months of 1663 to 
supervise the execution of the Act of Settle- 
ment, and on his return to England was 
raised to the exchequer bench, 16 Nov. the 
same year. 

He was one of Sir Matthew Hale's col- 
leagues in the commission which sat at Clif- 
ford's Inn, 1667-72, to determine the legal 
questions arising out of the rebuilding of the 
quarters of London destroyed by the great 
fire. In the meantime he was transferred to 
the king's bench, 6 Feb. 1668-9, and on 
12 April 1676 he succeeded Hale as lord 
chief justice. On the return to Lord Shaf- 
tesbury's writ of habeas corpus he decided, 

29 June 1677, an important point of consti- 
tutional law, viz. that the courts of law have 
no jurisdiction, during the parliamentary 
session, to discharge a peer committed by 
order of the House of Lords, even though 
the warrant of commitment be such as would 
be void if issued by an ordinary tribunal [see 
COOPER, ANTHONY ASHLEY, first EARL OF 
SHAFTESBTJRY]. Rainsford was removed to 
make room for Sir William Scroggs in June 
1678. He died at Dallington, Northampton- 
shire, where he had his seat and founded an 
almshouse. His remains were interred in 
Dallington church. 

Rainsford married at Kingsthorpe, on 

30 May 1637, Catherine, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Clerke, D.D., rector of St. Peter's, 
Northampton, who survived him, and died 
on 1 June 1698. By her he had, with five 
daughters, six sons. Most of his children died 
early. His eldest son, Richard, matricu- 



Rainton 



185 



Rainy 



lated at Oxford from Queen's College on 
15 June 1657, represented Northampton in 
the first parliament of James II, 1685-7, and 
died on 17 March 1702-3. 

Rainsford's portrait, by Gerard Soest, is at 
Lincoln's Inn ; another, by Michael Wright, 
is at the Guildhall ; a third, by Claret, was 
engraved by Tompson (BKOMLET). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Lincoln's Inn Reg. ; 
Baker's Northamptonshire, i. 131 ; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, i. 495; Siderfin's Hep. pp. 
153,408 ; Wotton's Baronetage, iv. 371 ;Dugdale's 
Chron. Ser. p. 113 ; Parl. Hist. iv. 5 ; Lists of 
Members of Parl. (official) ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1663-4 p. 341, 1665-6 p. 496, 1670 
Addenda, p. 694 ; Sir Thomas Eaymond's Eep. 
pp. 4, 175, 294; North's Lives, i. 130; Carte's 
Life of Ormonde, ii. 261 ; Howell's State Trials, 
vi. 1296; Hatton Corresp.(Camden Soc.), i. 162, 
164 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Kep. App. p. 493, 
8th Rep. App. pt. i. p. 112, 9th Rep. App. pt. ii. 
pp. 16, 81, 104, llth Rep. App. pt. ii. p. 29; 
Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices; Foss's 
Lives of the Judges.] J. M. R. 

RAINTON, SIR NICHOLAS (1569- 
1646), lord mayor of London, third son of 
Robert Rainton, by his wife Margaret, was 
baptised at Heighington in the parish of 
Washingborough, Lincolnshire, on 10 June 
1569. Having been admitted a freeman of 
the city and a member of the Haberdashers' 
Company, he established himself in business 
as a mercer in Lombard Street. He was 
elected alderman for Aldgate ward on 2 June j 
1621, and moved to Cornhill on 29 April : 
1634. He served the office of sheriff in 1621, j 
and in 1632 became lord mayor. Thomas I 
Hey wood the dramatist composed for the in- 
auguration of his mayoralty a pageant en- 
titled ' London's Fountain of Arts and Sci- ' 
ences.' During his term of office (June 1633) 
he made a state visit to Richmond, accom- 
panied by the aldermen, and presented Queen 
Henrietta Maria with a basin and ewer of 
gold, engraved with her arms, and of the 
value of 800^. (City Records, Repertory 47, 
fols. 2736,287, 3026). 

He became president of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital in 1634, and held that office 
until his death (Remembrancia, p. 479 ft.); 
his portrait is preserved in the hospital. 
In 1640, when Charles I commanded the 
mayor and aldermen to attend the privy 
council and furnish a list of such citizens as 
were in a position to advance money to the 
combined amount of 200,000, Rainton and 
three other aldermen Geere, Atkins, and 
Soames refused to attend. They were 
proceeded against in the Star-chamber, 
and committed to separate prisons, Rainton 
being lodged in the Marshalsea. On 10 May 



the four aldermen were removed to the 
Tower. Popular indignation ran high, and 
in five days they were released; and, though 
they persisted in their refusal to rate citizens 
for the loan, they were dismissed without 
penalty (GARDINEK, History, ix. 130, 135). 

On 12 Aug. 1642, when the royalist lord- 
mayor Gurney was deposed by the House of 
Lords, Rainton was directed to summon a 
common hall for the election of a new mayor 
(House of Lords Journal, v. 284). Rainton 
was assessed on 21 Aug. 1646 by the com- 
mittee for advance of money at 2,000^. (Pro- 
ceedings, 1642-56, ii. 722). He died on 19 Aug. 
1646, aged 78, and was buried on 15 Sept. 
at Enfield. By his will, proved 11 Sept. 1646, 
he gave to the parish of Enfield, where his 
mansion, Forty House, was situate, 1QI. per 
annum for ever to apprentice three poor 
children of the village, and born 'in such 
houses only as had been then built forty 
years.' He also left his dwelling-house in 
Lombard Street, with adjoining tenements, 
to the Haberdashers' Company in trust to 
provide yearly payments to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, and to the parishes of St. Mary 
Woolchurch, St. Edmund the King, Lombard 
Street, and Washingborough, together with 
gifts to poor members of the guild. All these 
legacies were placed under the company's 
management. The rents from his Lombard 
Street property were much reduced, if not en- 
tirely lost, through, the great fire of London. 

A superb monument to his memory stands 
against the north wall of the vestry room of 
Enfield church. His effigy, in armour, wears 
the lord-mayor's robe. 

Rainton married, at St. Christopher-le- 
Stocks, on 16 Nov. 1602, Rebecca, sister of 
Sir Thomas Moulson, lord mayor in 1633-4. 
He had no issue, and his great-nephew 
Nicholas was heir-at-law. His wife pre- 
deceased him in 1640, and was also buried at 
Enfield. 

[Taylor's Some Account of the Taylor Family i 
p. 696 (contains a pedigree of Rainton) ; Nichols's 
Notes on London Pageants, 1824-5 ; Maitland's 
Hist, of London, 1760, i. 321 ; Robinson's Hist, 
of Enfield. ii. 31-5; Stow's Survey of London, 
ed. Strype, 1720, bk. v. pp. 65, 143; Visitation 
of Middlesex in 1663, 1820, p. 12.] C. W-H. 

RAINY, HARRY (1792-1876), physi- 
cian, born at Criech, Sutherland shire, on 
20 Oct. 1792, was youngest son of George 
Rainy (d. 1810), minister of Criech, and 
Anne (d. 1833), daughter of the Rev. Gilbert 
Robertson of Kincardine. He matriculated 
at Glasgow University in 1806, and formed 
a lifelong friendship with a fellow student, 
John Gibson Lockhart [q. v.] He studied! 
medicine from 1808 to 1810, when he mi- 



Raithby 



186 



Ralegh 



grated to Edinburgh and continued the study 
till 1812. Returning to Glasgow, he acted 
as clerk in the Royal Infirmary from 1812 
to 1814. In May 1814 he went to Paris to 
work in the hospitals, and was a spectator of 
the commotion caused by the news of Bona- 
parte's return from Elba. He became ac- 
quainted with Roux, Dupuytren, Orfila, and 
other distinguished members of the French 
medical and surgical schools, which had out- 
run the British in some points of practice. In 
1815 he returned to Glasgow, travelling by 
way of Metz through Germany and Belgium, 
crossing the field of Waterloo some weeks 
before the battle. In Glasgow he soon ac- 
quired a large practice. A.s a lecturer he 
taught the institutes of medicine in Glasgow 
University from 1832 to 1839, and the prac- 
tice of medicine from 1839 to 1841. He had 
graduated M.D. at Glasgow in April 1833, and 
in 1841 was appointed to the chair of forensic 
medicine and medical jurisprudence in the 
university. He thenceforth practised as a 
consulting physician with much success. In 
1862 he resigned his chair, and on 19 Nov. 
1873 the university conferred on him the de- 
gree of LL.D. on the installation of Mr. Dis- 
raeli as rector of the university. While pos- 
sessing extensive knowledge and skill as a 
medical practitioner, Rainy was a keen theo- 
logian, and at the time of the Scottish disrup- 
tion he took a leading part on the side of the 
free church. He died in Glasgow on 6 Aug. 
1876. On 30 Nov. 1818 he married Barbara, 
daughter of Captain Robert Gordon of Inver- 
carron. She died on 8 J uly 1854. His eldest 
son, Robert Rainy, D.D. (b. 1826), princi- 
pal of the New College, Edinburgh, was in 
1887 moderator of the Free Church General 
Assembly. His second son, George (1832- 
1869), M.D. of Glasgow, was surgeon to the 
eye infirmary there, and lecturer in the 
university in 1868. 

[Scott's Fasti, v. 334; Times, 18 Aug. 1876; 
Scotsman, 8 Aug. 1876 ; Irving's Eminent Scots- 
men ; British Medical Journal, August 1876; 
information received from Principal Rainy and 
Miss Christina Rainy.] G. S-H. 

RAITHBY, JOHN (1766-1826), lawyer, 
born in 1766, was eldest son of Edmund 
Raithby of Edenham, Lincolnshire. On 
26 Jan. 1795 he was admitted a member of 
Lincoln's Inn, and was subsequently called 
to the bar. He practised in the court of 
chancery. His legal writings obtained for 
him a commissionership of bankruptcy ; he 
was also nominated a sub-commissioner on 
the public records. Raithby died at the 
Grove, Highgate, on 31 Aug. 1826, leaving 
a widow. 



Raithby published anonymously, in 1798, 
' The Study and Practice of the Law con- 
sidered,' 8vo, an ably written treatise, for 
some time attributed to Sir James Mackin- 
tosh. An American edition appeared at 
Portland, Maine, in 1806, and the second 
English edition was issued at London in 
1816, with the author's name. With Sir 
Thomas Edlyne Tomlins, Raithby issued a 
new edition of the ' Statutes at Large,' from 
Magna Charta to the Union, 41 Geo. Ill, 
10 vols. 4to, 1811 (also in 20 vols. 8vo, 
1811). Tomlins co-operated in the edition 
down to 49 Geo. Ill, when he relinquished 
the task to Raithby and Nicholas Simons. 
Raithby compiled a useful 'Index' to the 
work, ' from Magna Charta to 49 Geo. Ill/ 
which appeared in 1814, in 1 vol. 4to and in 
3 vols. 8vo. He likewise compiled alpha- 
betical and chronological indexes to the 
' Statutes of the Realm,' which were pub- 
lished by the record commissioners in 1824 
and 1828, folio. 

Raithby wrote also: 1. 'The Law and 
Principle of Money considered,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1811. 2. ' Henry Bennet : a Novel/ 
3 vols. 12mo, London. 

[Gent. Mag. 1826, pt. ii. p. 282; Allibone's 
Diet, of Authors, ii. 1726.] G. G. 

RALEGH, SIR WALTER (1552 P-1618), 
military and naval commander and author, 
was born about 1552 at Hayes or Hayes 
Barton, near Budleigh Salterton, South 
Devonshire (for description of birthplace 
see Trans, of Devonshire Association, xxi. 
312-20). His father, Walter Ralegh (1496?- 
1581), a country gentleman, was originally 
settled at Fardell, near Plymouth, where he 
owned property at his death ; he removed 
about 1520 to Hayes, where he leased an 
estate, and spent the last years of his long 
life at Exeter. He narrowly escaped death 
in the western rebellion of 1549, was church- 
warden of East Budleigh in 1561, and is 
perhaps the ' Walter Rawley ' who repre- 
sented Wareham in the parliament of 1558. 
He was buried in the church of St. Mary 
Major, Exeter, on 23 Feb. 1580-1. He 
married thrice : first, about 1518, Joan, 
daughter of John Drake of Exmouth, and 
probably first cousin of Sir Francis Drake ; 
secondly, a daughter of Darrell of London ; 
and, thirdly, after 1548, Katharine, daughter 
of Sir Philip Champernowne of Modbury, 
and widow of Otho Gilbert (d. 18 Feb. 1547) 
of Compton, near Dartmouth. 

By his first wife the elder Ralegh had two 
sons : George, who is said to have furnished 
a ship to meet the Spanish armada in 1588, 
and was buried at Withycombe Ralegh on 



Ralegh 



187 



Ralegh 



12 March 1596-7, leaving issue believed to 
be illegitimate ; and John, who succeeded to 
the family property at Fardel 1, and died at 
a great age in 1629. Mary, the only child 
of the second marriage, was wife of Hugh 
Snedale. By his third wife, Katharine (d. 
1594), whose will, dated 11 May 1594, is in 
the probate registry at Exeter, the elder Ra- 
legh had, together with a daughter Mar- 
garet and Walter, the subject of this notice, 
SIR CAREW RALEGH (1550 P-1625P), Sir 
Walter's elder brother of the whole blood. 
Carew engaged in 1578 in the expedition of 
his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert [q. v.], 
and figured with Sir Walter and his two 
elder half-brothers, George and John, on the 
list of sea-captains drawn up in consequence 
of rumours of a Spanish invasion in January 
1585-6. He sat in parliament as member 
for Wiltshire in 1586, for Ludgershall in 
1589, for Downton both in 1603-4 and in 
1621, and he was knighted by Queen Eliza- 
beth in 1601 at Basing House. For some 
time he was gentleman of the horse to John 
Thynne of Lohgleat, and on Thynne's death 
he married his widow, Dorothy, daughter of 
Sir William Wroughton of Broad Heighten, 
Wiltshire. On his marriage he sold his pro- 
perty in Devonshire, and settled at Downton 
House, near Salisbury. Until 1625 he was 
lieutenant of the Isle of Portland (cf. Cat. 
State Papers, Dom. 1608-25). Aubrey says 
of him that he ' had a delicate clear voice, and 
played skilfully on the olpharion ' (Letters, 
ii. 510). His second son, Walter (1586-1646), 
is separately noticed. 

Through his father and mother, who are 
both credited by tradition with puritan pre- 
dilections, Walter Ralegh was connected 
with many distinguished Devon and Cornish 
families the Courtenays, Grenvilles, St. 
Legers, Russells, Drakes, and Gilberts. Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert was his mother's son by 
her first husband. His early boyhood seems 
to have been spent at Hayes, and he may 
haA r e been sent to school at Budleigh ; Sid- 
mouth and Ottery St. Mary have also been 
suggested as scenes of his education. It was 
doubtless by association with the sailors on 
the beach at Budleigh Salterton that he 
imbibed the almost instinctive understand- 
ing of the sea that characterises .his writings. 
Sir John Millais, in his picture ' The Boy- 
hood of Ralegh/ painted at Budleigh Salter- 
ton in 1870, represents him sitting on the 
seashore at the foot of a sunburnt sailor, 
who is narrating his adventures. He cer- 
tainly learnt to speak with the broadest 
of Devonshire accents, which he retained 
through life. From childhood he was, says 
N aunton, ' an indefatigable reader.' At the 



age of fourteen or fifteen he would seem to 
have gone to Oxford, where he was, accord- 
ing to Wood, in residence for three years as 
a member of Oriel College. His name ap- 
pears in the college books in 1572, but the 
dates and duration of his residence are un- 
certain. 

In 1569 Ralegh sought adventures in 
France as a volunteer in the Huguenot army. 
! With it he was present in the battle of Jar- 
i nac (13 March), and again at Moncontour 
( (Hist, of the World, v. ii. 3, 8). It has been 
conjectured that on 24 Aug. 1572, the day 
of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, he was 
in Paris; it is more probable that he was in 
the south of France, where, according to his 
own testimony, he saw the catholics smoked 
out of the caves in the Languedoc hills (ib. 
iv. ii. 16). It is stated authoritatively that 
he remained in France for upwards of five 
years, but nothing further is known of his 
experiences there (OLDYS, p. 21). In the 
spring of 1576 he was in London, and in a 
copy of congratulatory verses which he pre- 
fixed to the ' Steele Glas ' of George Gas- 
coigne [q. v.], published in April 1576, he is 
described as ' of the Middle Temple.' It may 
be supposed that he was only ' a passing 
' lodger ; ' he has himself stated that he was 
not a law student (Works, i. 669). In De- 
cember 1577 he appears to have had a resi- 
dence at Islington, and been known as a 
hanger-on of the court (GossE, p. 6). It is 
possible that in 1577 or 1578 he was in the 
Low Countries under Sir John Norris or 
Norreys [q. v.], and was present in the bril- 
liant action of Rymenant on 1 Aug. 1578 
(OLDYS, p. 25) ; but the statement is conjec- 
tural. 

In April 1578 he was in England (Trans, 
of the Devonshire Association, xv. 174), and 
in September he was at Dartmouth, where he 
joined his half-brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
in fitting out a fleet of eleven ships for a 
so-called voyage of discovery. After tedious 
delays, only seven, three of which were very 
small, finally sailed on 19 Nov. That the 
' voyage of discovery ' was a mere pretence 
may be judged by the armament of the ships, 
which according to the standard of the age, 
was very heavy. Gilbert commanded the 
Admiral, of 250 tons ; Carew, Ralegh's elder 
brother, commanded the Vice-Admiral ; Ra- 
legh himself the Falcon of 100 tons, with 
the distinguishing motto, ' Nee mortem peto, 
nee fiuem fugio ' (cf. State Papers, Dom. 
Elizabeth, cxxvi. 46, i. 49 ; cf. McDotrcALL, 
Voyage of the Resolute, pp. 520-6). It is 
probable that Gilbert went south to the 
Azores, or even to the West Indies. After 
an indecisive engagement with some 



Ralegh 



188 



Ralegh 



Spaniards, the expedition was back at Dart- 
mouth in the spring of 1579 (HAKLUYT, 
Principal Navigations, iii. 186.) 

A few months later Ralegh was at the 
court, on terms of intimacy at once with the 
Earl of Leicester, and with Leicester's bitter 
enemy and Burghley's disreputable son-in- 
law, the Earl of Oxford. At Oxford's re- 
quest he carried a challenge to Leicester's 
nephew, Sir Philip Sidney, which Sidney 
accepted, but Oxford refused to fight, and, it 
is said, proposed to have Sidney assassi- 
nated. Ralegh's refusal to assist in this 
wicked business bred a coldness between 
him and Oxford, which deepened on the 
latter's part into deadly hatred (Si. JOHN, i. 
48). But Ralegh's temper was hot enough 
to involve him in like broils on his own ac- 
count. In February 1579-80 he was en- 
gaged in a quarrel with Sir Thomas Perrot, 
and on the 7th the two were brought before \ 
the lords of the council ' for a fray made be- j 
twixt them,' and ' committed prisoners to 
the Fleet.' Six days later they were re- j 
leased on finding sureties for their keeping 
the peace (ib. i. 50), but on 17 March Ralegh ', 
and one Wingfield were committed to the j 
Marshalsea for ' a fray beside the tennis-court i 
at AVestniinster ' {Acts of Privy Council, xi. ' 
421). 

Next June Ralegh sailed for Ireland as the 
captain of a company of one hundred soldiers. ; 
The friendship of Leicester, and, through Sid- \ 
ney, of Walsingham, brought him opportu- i 
iiities of personal distinction. In August he 
wasjoined in commission with Sir Warham 
St. Leger for the trial of James Fitzgerald, : 
brother of the Earl of Desmond, who was 
sentenced and put to death as a traitor. ! 
Ralegh expressed the conviction that leniency ' 
to bloody-minded malefactors was cruelty j 
to good and peaceable subjects (ib. i. 38). \ 
When, in November, the lord deputy, Grey, ' 
forced the Spanish and Italian adventurers, 
who had built and garrisoned the Fort del 
Oro at Smerwick, to surrender at discretion, j 
Ralegh had no scruples about carrying out j 
the lord deputy's order to put them to the : 
sword, to the number of six hundred (ib. ' 
i. 40) [see GREY, ARTHUR, fourteenth LORD j 
GREY DE WILTON]. Although the exploit ' 
has the aspect of a cold-blooded butchery, 
it must be remembered that the Spaniards 
were legally pirates, who had without valid 
commissions stirred up the native Irish to 
rebellion, and that English adventurers in 
the same legal position on the Spanish main 
[cf. OXENHAM, JOHN], although they were j 
free from the added imputation of inciting ; 
to rebellion, had been mercilessly slain. The 
only fault found by the queen was that the 



superior officers had been spared ( Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, Ixxix. 13). Edmund Spen- 
ser [q. v.], who was present at Smerwick, 
approved of Grey's order and of Ralegh's 
obedience ( View of the Present State of 
Ireland, Globe edit. p. 656), and Mendoza, 
the Spanish ambassador in London, ventured 
on no remonstrance (FRO TIDE, Hist, of Eng- 
land, Cabinet edit. x. 582-91). 

During the campaign Spenser and Ralegh 
were necessarily brought together, but it 
does not appear that any intimacy then 
sprang up between them, and in January 
Ralegh was sent into garrison at Cork, where, 
except for an occasional journey to Dublin 
to confer with Grey or a dashing skirmish, 
he lay till the end of July. He was then 
appointed one of a temporary commission 
for the government of Munster, which esta- 
blished its headquarters at Lismore, and 
thence kept the whole province in hand. It 
was apparently in November that Ralegh, 
on his way from Lismore to Cork with 
eight horse and eighty foot, was attacked by 
a numerous body of Irish. They could not, 
however, stand before the disciplined strength 
of the English, and fled. Ralegh, hotly pur- 
suing them with his small body of horse, 
got in among a crowd of the fugitives, who 
turned to bay, and fought fiercely, stabbing 
the horses wit li their knives. Ralegh's horse 
was killed, and Ralegh, entangled under the 
falling animal, owed delivery from immi- 
nent danger to the arrival of reinforcements. 
Tliis marked the end, for the time, of Ralegh's 
Irish service. 

In the beginning of December 1581 he 
was sent to England with despatches from 
Colonel Zouch, the new governor of Mun- 
ster, and, comingtothe court, then at Green- 
wich, happened to attract the notice and 
catch the fancy of the queen. There is 
nothing improbable in the story of his 
spreading his new plush cloak over a muddy 
road for the queen to walk on. The evidence 
on which it is based (FULLER, Worthies) is 
shadowy ; but the incident is in keeping with 
Ralegh's quick, decided resolution, and it is 
certain that Ralegh sprang with a sudden 
bound into the royal favour. Fuller's other 
story of his writing on a window of the 
palace, with a diamond, 

Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fall, 

and of Elizabeth's replying to it with 
If thy heart fails thee, climb not at all, 

rests on equally weak testimony, and is in- 
herently improbable. Naunton's story that 
Ralegh first won the queen's favour by the 
ability he showed in pleading his cause 



Ralegh 



189 



Ralegh 



before the council has been satisfactorily 
disproved by Edwards (i. 49). It, in fact, 
appears that a handsome figure and face were 
his real credentials. He was under thirty, 
tall, well-built, of ' a good presence,' with 
thick dark hair, a bright complexion, and 
an expression full of life. His dress, too, 
was at all times magnificent, to the utmost 
limit of his purse ; and, when called on to 
speak, he answered ' with a bold and plausible 
tongue, whereby he could set out his parts 
to the best advantage.' He had, moreover, 
the reputation of a bold and dashing par- 
tisan, ingenious and daring; fearless alike in 
the field and in the council-chamber, a man 
of a stout heart and a sound head. 

For several years Ralegh belonged to the 
court, the recipient of the queen's bounties 
and favour to an extent which gave much 
occasion for scandal. He was indeed con- 
sulted as to the all'airs of Ireland, and Grey's 
rejection of his advice was a chief cause of 
Grey's recall ; but such service, in itself a mark 
of the queen's confidence, does not account 
for the numerous appointments and grants 
which, within a few years, raised him from 
the position of a poor gentleman-adventurer 
to be one of the most wealthy of the courtiers. 
Among other patents and monopolies, he 
was granted, in May 1583, that of wine 
licenses, which brought him in from 800Z. to 
2,000/. a year, though it involved him in a ' 
dispute with the vice-chancellor of Cam- i 
bridge, on whose jurisdiction his lessee had 
encroached. In 1584 he was knighted, and 
in 1585 was appointed warden of the stan- 
naries, that is of the mines of Cornwall and 
Devon, lord lieutenant of Cornwall, and 
vice-admiral of the two counties. Both in 
1585 and 1586 he sat in parliament as mem- 
ber for Devonshire. In 1586, too, he ob- 
tained the grant of a vast tract of land 
some forty thousand acres in Cork, Water- 
ford, and Tipperary. The grant included 
Youghal, with manorial rights and the sal- 
mon fishery of the Blackwater, and Ralegh 
began building houses at both Youghal and 
Lismore. He was also appointed captain of 
the queen's guard, an office requiring imme- 
diate attendance on the queen's person. In 
1587 he was granted estates in Lincolnshire, 
Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire, forfeited 
by Babington and his fellow-conspirators. 

Ralegh, however, was ill-fitted to spend 
his life in luxury and court intrigue, of 
which, as the queen's favourite, he was the ! 
centre. His jurisdiction of the stannaries ] 
marked an era of reform, and the rules which 
he laid down continued long in force. As | 
vice-admiral of the western counties, with | 
his half-brother Sir John Gilbert as his de- 



puty in Devon, he secured a profitable share 
in the privateering against Spain, which was 
conducted under cover of commissions from 
the Prince of Conde or from the Prince of 
Orange. In 1583 he had a large interest in 
the Newfoundland voyage of Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert, fitting out a vessel of two hundred 
tons, called the Bark Ralegh, which he had 
intended to command himself, till positively 
forbidden by his royal mistress. After Gil- 
bert's death he applied for a patent similar 
to that which Gilbert had held to discover 
unknown lands, to take possession of them 
in the queen's name, and to hold them for 
six years. This was granted on 25 March 
1584, and in April he sent out a preliminary 
expedition under Philip Amadas and Arthur 
Barlow, who, taking the southern route by 
the West Indies and the coast of Florida, 
made the land to the southward of Cape 
Hatteras. They then coasted northwards, 
entered the Oregon inlet, and in the queen's 
name took possession of Wokoken, Roanoke, 
and the mainland adjacent. To this region, 
on their return in September, the queen her- 
self gave the name of Virginia, then, and for 
many years afterwards, applied to the whole 
seaboard of the continent, from Florida to 
Newfoundland. 

Ralegh now put forward the idea, possibly 
conceived years before in intercourse with 
Coligny (BESAXT, Gaspard Coligny, chap, 
vii.), of establishing a colony in the newly 
discovered country ; and, as the queen would 
not allow him to go in person, the expedi- 
tion sailed in April 1585, under the command 
of his cousin, Sir Richard Grenville or Greyn- 
vile [q.v.], with Ralph Lane [q.v.] as go- 
vernor of the colony, and Thomas Harriot 
[q.v.], who described himself as Ralegh's 
servant, as surveyor. The rules for its go- 
vernment were drawn up by Ralegh ; but 
quarrels, in the first instance between Lane 
and Grenville and afterwards between the 
English settlers and the natives, rendered the 
scheme abortive, and in June 1586 the settle- 
ment was evacuated, the colonists being 
carried home by the fleet under Sir Francis 
Drake. Ralegh had meantime sent Grenville 
out with reinforcements and supplies ; but, as 
he found the place deserted, he came back, 
leaving fifteen men on Roanoke. In the 
summer of 1587 another and larger expedi- 
tion was sent out under the command of John 
White, who, when supplies ran short, came 
home, leaving eighty-nine men, seventeen 
women, and two children, including his own- 
daughter and her child. Ralegh fitted out two 
ships in the following spring, but the captains- 
converted the expedition into a privateering 
cruise, and, after being roughly handled by 



Ralegh 



190 



Ralegh 



some Rochelle men-of-war, they came back 
to England. When, in 1589, a tardy relief 
was sent, the colonists had disappeared, nor 
was any trace of them ever recovered ; and 
Ralegh, having spent upwards of 40,000^ in 
the attempt to found the colony, was com- 
pelled to abandon the project for the time. 
In after years he sent out other expeditions 
to Virginia, the latest in 1603. On his down- 
fall in that year his patent reverted to the 
crown. 

It is by his long, costly, and persistent 
effort to establish this first of English colo- 
nies that Ralegh's name is most favourably 
known ; and, though the effort ended in 
failure, to Ralegh belongs the credit of 
having, first of Englishmen, pointed out the 
way to the formation of a greater England 
beyond the seas. But he had no personal 
share in the actual expeditions, and he was 
never in his whole life near the coast of 
Virginia. Among the more immediate re- 
sults of his endeavours is popularly reckoned 
the introduction, about 1586, into England of 
potatoes and tobacco. The assertion is in part 
substantiated. His ; servant ' Harriot, whom 
he sent out to America, gives in his ' Brief 
and True Report of Virginia ' (1588) a de- 
tailed account of the potato and tobacco, and 
describes the uses to which the natives put 
them ; he himself made the experiment of 
smoking tobacco. The potato and tobacco 
were in 1596 growing as rare plants in Lord 
Burghley's garden in the Strand (GERARD, 
Catalogus, 1596). In his ' Herbal ' (1597, 
pp. 286-8, 781) Gerard gives an illustration 
and description of each. Although potatoes 
had at a far earlier period been brought to 
Europe by the Spaniards, Harriot's specimens 
were doubtless the earliest to be planted in 
this kingdom. Some of them Ralegh planted 
in his garden at Youghal, and on that ground 
he may be regarded as one of Ireland's chief 
benefactors. This claim is supported by the 
statement made to the Royal Society in 1693 
by Sir Robert Southwell [q. v.j, then pre- 
sident, to the effect that his grandfather first 
cultivated the potato in Ireland from speci- 
mens given him by Ralegh (Q. W. JOHNSON", 
Gardener, 1849, i. 8). The cultivation spread 
rapidly in Ireland, but was uncommon in Eng- 
land until the eighteenth century. The asser- 
tion that Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis 
Drake introduced the potato long before Ra- 
legh initiated colonial enterprise appears to be 
erroneous. It seems that they brought over 
in 1565 some specimens of the sweet potato 
(convolvolus battatd), which only distantly 
resembles the common potato ( ALPHONSE 
DE CANDOLLE, Origin of Cultivated Plants, 
1884 : CLOS, ' Quelques documents sur 1'his- 



toire de la pomme de terre/in Journal Agric. 
du midi de la France, 1874, 8vo). With re- 
gard to tobacco, the plant was cultivated in 
Portugal before 1560, and Lobel, in his 
' Stirpium Adversaria Nova ' (pp. 251-2), de- 
clares that it was known in England before 
1576. Drake and Hawkins seem to have first 
brought the leaf to England from America ; 
but Ralegh (doubtless under the tuition of. 
Harriot) was the first Englishman of rank 
to smoke it ; he soon became confirmed in 
the habit, and taught his fellow-courtiers 
to follow his example, presenting to them 
pipes with bowls of silver. The practice 
spread with amazing rapidity among all 
classes of the nation (CAJIDEX, Annals, s.a. 
1586; TIEDEMANN, Geschichte des Tabaks, 
1854, pp. 148 sq. ; FAIRHOLT, Tobacco, 1859, 
pp. 50-1 ; cf. GERARD, Herbal, 1597, p. 
289). 

In March 1588, when the Spanish inva- 
sion appeared imminent, Ralegh was ap- 
pointed one of a commission under the pre- 
sidency of Sir Francis Knollys, with Lord 
Grey, Sir John Norris, and others all land 
officers, with the exception of Sir Francis 
Drake to draw up a plan for the defence of 
the country ( Western Antiquary, vii. 276). 
The statement that it was by Ralegh's advice 
that the queen determined to fit out the 
fleet is unsupported by evidence (STEBBING, 
p. 65). The report of the commission 
seems to trust the defence of the country 
entirely to the land forces, possibly because 
its instruction referred only to their disposi- 
tion. It nowhere appears that Ralegh had 
any voice as to the naval preparations. As 
the year advanced, he was sent into different 
parts of the country to hurry on the levies 
(GossE, p. 38), especially in the west, where, 
as warden of the stannaries and lord lieu- 
tenant of Cornwall, it was his duty to em- 
body the militia. 

It is stated in every ' Life' of Ralegh that 
when the contending fleets were coming up 
Channel, Ralegh was one of the volunteers 
who joined the lord admiral and took a 
more or less prominent part in the subse- 
quent fighting. Of this there is no mention 
in the English state papers or in the au- 
thentic correspondence of the time. Nor can 
any reliance be placed on the report that 
Ralegh took part in the naval operations 
mentioned in the ' Copie of a Letter sent out 
of England to Don Bernardin Mendoza ' 
(1588, and often reprinted) (cf. A Pack of 
Spanish Lies). This doubtful authority also 
credits Robert Cecil with having joined the 
fleet a manifest misstatement (Defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, i. 342). 

In the early part of September Ralegh 



Ralegh 



191 



Ralegh 



was in Cornwall; afterwards in London, 
and about the 19th he crossed over to Ire- 
land in company with Sir Richard Gren- 
ville (State Papers, Dom. ccxv. 64, ccxvi. 28, 
Ireland, 14 Sept. ; Sir Thomas Heneage 
to Carew, 19 Sept., Carew MSS.) By De- 
cember he was again at court, and came 
into conflict with the queen's new favourite, 
.Essex. The latter strove to drive Ralegh 
from court, and on some unknown pretext 
sent him a challenge, which the lords of the 
council prevented his accepting, wishing the 
whole business ' to be repressed and to be 
buried in silence that it may not be known 
to her Majesty ' (State Papers, Dom. ccxix. 
33) [see DEVEREUX, ROBERT, second EARL OF 
ESSEX]. The statement that in the early 
summer of 1589 Ralegh took part in the 
expedition to Portugal under Drake and 
N orris (OLDTS, p. 119) is virtually contra- 
dicted by the full and authoritative docu- 
ments relating to the expedition (cf. State 
Papers, Dom. ccxxii. 90, 97, 98, ccxxiii. 35, 
55). In May 1589 Ralegh was in Ireland 
(ib. Ireland, cxliv. 27, 28), and possibly con- 
tinued there during the summer ; he was 
certainlv there in August and September 
( Cal. Carew MSS. 5, 24 Aug.) To this period 
may be referred his intimacy with Edmund 
Spenser [q. v.], who bestowed on him in his 
poems the picturesque appellation of ' The 
Shepherd of the Ocean.' Ralegh returned to 
court in October, and, taking Spenser with 
him, secured for the poet a warm welcome 
from the queen. Ralegh's stay at court was 
short. His departure was apparently due to 
some jealousy of Sir William Fitzwilliam, 
lord deputy of Ireland, a friend of Essex, 
with whom he had quarrelled in Ireland. 
On 28 Dec. he wrote to Carew, ' My retreat 
from the court was upon good cause. . . . 
When Sir William Fitzwilliam shall be in 
England, I take myself for his better by the 
honourable offices I hold, as also by that 
nearness to her Majesty which still I enjoy ' 
( Cal. Carew MSS. ; cf. Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. iv. 3). 

Court intrigues, his duties in Cornwall, 
the equipment of the various privateers in 
which he had an interest, seem to have occu- 
pied him through 1590. In the beginning 
of 1591 he was appointed to command in the 
second post, under Lord Thomas Howard, a 
strong squadron of queen's ships and others, 
to look out for the Spanish plate fleet from 
the West Indies. Ultimately, however, the 
queen refused to let him go, and his place 
afloat was taken by his cousin, Sir Richard 
Grenville, whose death he celebrated in ' A 
Report of the Truth of the Fight about 
the Isles of the Acores this last Sommer, be- 



twixt the Revenge, one of her Majesties 
Shippes, and an Armada of the King of 
Spaine.' This, published anonymously in 
the autumn of 1591, was afterwards acknow- 
ledged in Hakluyt's ' Principal Navigations,' 
and forms the basis of a contemporary ballad 
by Gervase Markham [q. v.] and of Tenny- 
son's well-known poem. 

In the following year (1592) a still stronger 
squadron was fitted out, mainly at the cost 
of Ralegh, who ventured all the money he 
could raise, amounting to about 34,000/. ; 
the Earl of Cumberland also contributed 
largely, and the queen supplied two ships, 
the Foresight and Garland. It was intended 
that Ralegh should command it in person, 
though the queen had expressed herself op- 
posed to the plan, and as early as 10 March 
he wrote to Cecil, 'I have promised her 
Majesty that, if I can persuade the companies 
to follow Sir Martin Frobiser, I will without 
fail return, and bring them but into the sea 
some fifty or three-score leagues ; which to 
do, her Majesty many times, with great grace, 
bade me remember ' (EDWARDS, ii. 45). But 
in the early days of May, as the fleet put 
to sea, Ralegh received an order to resign 
the command to Frobiser and return imme- 
diately. He conceived himself warranted in 
going as far as Cape Finisterre. There 
dividing the fleet, he sent one part, under 
Frobiser, to threaten the coast of Portugal 
so as to prevent tlje Spanish fleet putting to 
sea ; the other, under Sir John Burgh, to the 
Azores, where it captured the Madre de Dios, 
the great carrack, homeward bound from the 
East Indies with a cargo of the estimated 
value of upwards of half a million sterling. 
By the beginning of June Ralegh had arrived 
in London, and although on 8 June he was 
staying at his own residence, Durham House 
in the Strand, the ancient London house of 
the bishops of Durham, which he had held 
since 1584 on a grant from the crown (ib. ii. 
252 seq.), he was in July committed to the 
Tower. 

His recall and imprisonment were due to 
the queen's wrath on discovering that the 
man whom she had delighted to honour and 
enrich, who had been professing a lover's 
devotion to her, had been carrying on an in- 
trigue with one of her maids of honour, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton. 
In March there had been circulated a ru- 
mour that Ralegh had married the lady, but 
this, in a letter to Robert Cecil on 10 March 
1592, Ralegh had denounced as a 'malicious 
report.' According to Camden, Ralegh se- 
duced the lady some months before, an asser- 
tion which J. P. Collier needlessly at- 
tempted to corroborate by printing a forged 



Ralegh 



192 



Ralegh 



news-letter on the topic (Archceologia, xxxiv. 
160-70). The queen showed no more mercy 
to Mistress Throgmorton than to her lover, 
and she also was imprisoned in the Tower. 
In a letter addressed to Sir Robert Cecil in 
July Ralegh affected frenzied grief and rage 
at being debarred from the presence of the 
queen, whose personal attractions he eulo- 
gised in language of absurd extravagance 
(EDWARDS, ii. 51-2). In his familiar poem 
' As you came from the Holy Land,' he 
seems to have converted into verse much of 
the nattering description of Elizabeth which 
figured in this letter to Cecil {Poems, ed. 
Hannah, pp. 80-1). But, despite these 
blandishments, he continued a close prisoner 
till the middle of September, when, on the 
arrival of the great carrack, the Madre de 
Dios, at Dartmouth, he was sent thither with 
Cecil and Drake, in the hope that by his 
local influence he might be able to stop the 
irregular pillage of the prize. He arrived in 
charge of a Mr. Blunt (State Papers, Dom. 
ccxliii. 17), perhaps Sir Christopher Blount 
[q. v.], the stepfather and friend of the Earl 
of Essex. On going on board the carrack 
his friends and the mariners congratulated 
him on being at liberty, but he answered 
' No, I am the Queen of England's poor cap- 
tive.' Cecil, his fellow-commissioner, treated 
him respectfully. ' I do grace him,' wrote 
Cecil, ' as much as I may, for I find him 
marvellous greedy to do anything to recover 
the conceit of his brutish offence ' (ib.) By 
27 Sept. the commissioners had reduced the 
affairs of the carrack to something like order 
(EDWAKDS, ii. 73), and eventually the net 
proceeds of the prize amounted to about 
150,000/., of which the queen took the 
greatest part. Ralegh considered himself 
ill-used in receiving 36,000^., being only 
2,000/. more than he had ventured, while the 
Earl of Cumberland, who had ventured only 
19,OOOJ., also received 36,000/. (ib. ii. 76-8). 
But her majesty, gratified, it may be, by her 
share of the booty, so far relented as to re- 
store Ralegh his liberty. 

It is probable that Ralegh and Elizabeth 
Throgmorton were married immediately 
afterwards. Being forbidden to come to 
court, they settled at Sherborne, where in 
January 1591-2 Ralegh had obtained a 
ninety-nine years' lease of the castle and park 
(ib. i. 463). He now busied himself with 
building and planting, ' repairing the castle, 
erecting a magnificent mansion close at hand, 
and laying out the grounds with the greatest 
refinement of taste ' (Si. JOHN, i. 208). 
But he did not wholly withdraw himself from 
public life. Early in 1593 he was elected for 
Michael in Cornwall, and took an active 



part in the proceedings of the house. On 
28 Feb. he spoke in support of open war 
with Spain. On 20 March he strenuously 
i opposed the extensions of the privileges of 
1 aliens, and his speech was answered by Sir 
Robert Cecil. On 4 April he spoke "with 
much ability and tact in favour of the 
Brownists, or rather against religious per- 
secution (D'EwES, Journals, pp. 478, 490, 
493, 508-9, 517; EDWARDS, i. 271). 

New difficulties followed his sojourn in 
London during the session. Passionately 
devoted to literature and science, he asso- 
ciated in London with men of letters of all 
classes and tastes. He was, with Cotton 
and Selden, a member of the Society of 
Antiquaries that had been formed by Arch- 
! bishop Parker and lasted till 1605 (Archao- 
logia, i. xxv), and to him is assigned the first 
suggestion of those meetings at the Mer- 
maid tavern in Bread Street which Shake- 
speare, Ben Jonson, and many lesser writers 
long graced with their presence. He made 
valuable suggestions to Richard Hakluyt, 
; when he was designing his great collection 
! of ' Voyages ' (cf. History of the World, bk. 
ii. cap. iii. sect, viii.) But it was not only 
literary and archaeological topics that Ra- 
legh discussed with his literary or anti- 
quarian friends. Although he did not per- 
sonally adopt the scepticism in matters of 

religion which was avowed by many Elizabe- 
\ than authors, it attracted his speculative cast 

of mind, and he sought among the sceptics 
his closest companions. Thomas Harriot, 
who acknowledged himself to be a deist, he 
took into his house, on his return from Vir- 

finia, in order to study mathematics with 
im. With Christopher Marlowe, whose re- 
ligious views were equally heterodox, he was 

in equally confidential relations. Izaak Wal- 
! ton testifies that he wrote the well-known 
' answer to Marlowe's familiar lyric, ' Come, 
i live with me and be my love.' 

There is little doubt that Ralegh, Har- 
riot, and Marlowe, and some other personal 
friends, including Ralegh's brother Carew, 
were all in 1592 and 1593 members of a select 
coterie which frequently debated religious 
topics with perilous freedom. According 
to a catholic pamphleteer writing in 1592, 
and calling himself Philopatris, the society 
was known as ' Sir Walter Rawley's School 
of Atheisme.' The master was stated to 
be a conjuror (doubtless a reference to 
Harriot), and ' much diligence was said to 
be used to get young gentlemen to this 
school, wherein both Moyses and our Sauior, 
the old and the new Testaments are iested 
at and the schollers taught among other 
things to spell God backwards ' (An Ad- 



Ralegh 



193 



Ralegh 



vertisement written to a Secretarie of my 
L. Treasurers of Ing land by an Inylishe In- 
telligencer, 1592, p. 18). In May 1593 the 
coterie's proceedings were brought to the 
notice of the privy council. A warrant was 
issued for the arrest of Marlowe and another, 
but Marlowe died next month, before it took 
effect. Ralegh had doubtless returned to 
Sherborne after the dissolution of parliament 
on 10 April. But later in the year the lord 
keeper, Puckering, made searching inquiries 
into Ralegh's and his friends' relations with 
the freethinking dramatist. A witness de- 
posed that Marlowe had read an atheistical 
lecture to Ralegh and others. On 21 March 
1593-4 a special commission, headed by 
Thomas Howard, viscount Bindon, was di- 
rected to pursue the investigation at Cerne in 
Dorset, in the neighbourhood of Sherborne, 
and to examine Ralegh, his brother Carew, 
' Mr. Thynne of Wiltshire,' and ' one Heryott 
of Sir Walter Rawleigh's house ' as to their 
alleged heresies. Unfortunately the result 
of the investigation is not accessible (Harl. 
MS. 7042, p. 401) [see KYD, THOMAS ; MAE- 
LOWE, CHRISTOPHER]. In June 1594 Ralegh 
spent a whole night in eagerly discussing 
religious topics with the Jesuit John Corne- 
lius [q. v.], while the latter lay under arrest 
at Wolverton (FOLEY, Jesuits, iii. 461-2). 

But Ralegh was soon seeking with charac- 
teristic versatility somewhat less hazardous 
means of satisfying his speculative instinct. 
He had been fascinated by the Spanish legend 
of the fabulous wealth of the city of Manoa in 
South America, 'which the Spaniards call 
Eldorado,' and he desired to investigate it. 
Early in 1594 his wife, who deprecated the 
project, wrote to Cecil entreating him ' rather 
to stay him than further him ' (EDWARDS, i. 
160). Probably owing to his wife's influence, 
Ralegh delayed going out himself, and in 
the first instance sent his tried servant, Jacob 
Whiddon, with instructions to explore the 
river Orinoco and its tributaries, which inter- 
sect the country now known as Venezuela, but 
long called by the Spanish settlers Guayana 
or Guiana. Whiddon returned towards the 
end of the year without any definite informa- 
tion. Ralegh was undaunted. He had already 
resolved to essay the adventure himself, and 
on 9 Feb. 1594-5 he sailed from Plymouth 
with a fleet of five ships, fitted out prin- 
cipally at his own cost, Cecil and the lord 
admiral being also interested in the voyage, 
and with a commission from the queen to 
wage war against the Spaniard. On 22 March 
he arrived at the island of Trinidad, off the 
Venezuelan coast, where he attacked and 
took the town of San Josef. He seized Ber- 
reo, governor of Trinidad, who, stimulated 

VOL. XLVII. 



by the appearance of Whiddon the year be- 
fore, had written home suggesting the imme- 
diate occupation of the country adjoining the 
Orinoco. In fact an expedition for this pur- 
pose sailed from San Lucar about the same 
time that Ralegh sailed from Plymouth, but 
it did not arrive at Trinidad till April. 

Ralegh's intercourse with his prisoner had 
meantime been most friendly, and Berreo 
showed Ralegh an official copy of a deposi- 
tion made by one Juan Martinez, who, on the 
point of death, declared that, having fallen 
into the hands of the 1 ndians of the Orinoco, he 
had been detained for seven months in Manoa, 
the richness and wonders of which he de- 
scribed at length. Ralegh, like the Spaniards, 
accepted the story, in which there is nothing 
improbable. ' It is not yet proven that there 
was not in the sixteenth century some rich 
and civilised kingdom, like Peru or Mexico, 
in the interior of South America ' (KlNGSLEY, 
Miscellanies, 1859, i. 44). The reports of dog- 
headed men, or of 'men whose heads do grow 
beneath their shoulders,' may have originated 
in the disguises of the Indian medicine-men 
(ib. i. 45). Early in April, leaving his ships 
at Los Gallos, Ralegh started on his adven- 
turous search for the gold-mine of Manoa, 
with a little flotilla of five boats, about one 
hundred men, and provisions for a month. 

The equipment and the means at his dis- 
posal proved inadequate. Entering by the 
Manamo mouth from the Bay of Guanipa, 
and so into the Orinoco itself, near Avhere 
San Rafael now is, the labour of rowing 
against the stream of the river in flood 
was excessive ; and when, after struggling 
upwards for an estimated distance of four 
hundred miles, they turned into the Caroni, 
it was often found impossible to make more 
than ' one stone's cast in an hour.' They 
pushed on for forty miles further, when their 
provisions were nearly exhausted, and they 
were still without any prospect of reaching 
Manoa. Ralegh reluctantly decided to give 
up the attempt for the present, hoping to try 
again at some future time. Leaving a man 
and a boy behind with a tribe of friendly 
Indians, so that on his return he might 
find competent interpreters, or possibly even 
guides to Manoa, he and his companions ra- 
pidly descended the river with the current, 
and rejoined their ships. They carried with 
them sundry pieces of 'white spar 'or quartz, 
'on the outside of which appeared some small 
grains of gold/ and these, being afterwards 
assayed in London, were reported to contain 
pure gold in proportions varying from 12,000 
to 26,900 pounds to the ton, the reference 
being apparently to the ' assay pound ' of 
12 grains (information from Professor Ro- 



Ralegh 



194 



Ralegh 



berts- Austen). They are also said to have 
brought back the earliest specimens of ma- 
hogany known in England. From Trinidad 
Ralegh followed the north coast of South 
America, levied contributions from the Spa- 
niards at Cumana and Rio de Hacha, and 
returned to England in August. But he 
had powerful enemies, some of whom de- 
clared that the whole story of the voyage was 
a fiction. It was to refute this slander that 
he wrote his ' Disco verie of Guiana/ 1596, 
4to. At the same time he drew a map, 
which was not yet finished when the book 
was published. This map, long supposed to 
be lost (SCHOMBTJRGK, p. 26 n.~), has been 
now identified with a map in the British 
Museum (Add. MS. 17940 A), dated 1650 
in the Catalogue, but shown to be Ralegh's 
by a careful comparison with the text of the 
' Discoverie ' and with Ralegh's known hand- 
writing (KoHL, Descriptive Catalogue of 
Maps . . . relating to America ... men- 
tioned in vol. Hi. of Hakluyfs Great Work ; 
information from Mr. C. H. Coote). A fac- 
simile of the map is in vol. ii. of ' Ham- 
burgische Festschrift zur Erinnerung an die 
Entdeckung Amerika's ' (1892). 

Ralegh's accuracy as a topographer and 
cartographer of Guiana or the central district 
of Venezuela has been established by sub- 
sequent explorers, nor is there reason to doubt 
that the gold-mine which he sought really 
existed. The quartz which he brought home 
doubtless came from the neighbourhood of 
the river Yuruari (an affluent of the Caroni), 
where gold was discovered in 1849 by Dr. 
Louis Plassard, and has, since 1857, been 
procured in large quantities. The prosperous 
El Callao mine in this region was probably [ 
the object of Ralegh's search (C. LE XEVE 
FOSTER, ' Caratal Gold Fields of Venezuela,' 
reprinted from Quarterly Jour, of Geolog. 
Soc. August 1869, and the same writer's 
' Ralegh's Gold Mine/ in Brit. Assoc. Rep. 
1869, pp. 162-3). 

On his return in 1595 Ralegh retired to 
Sherborne, and, as lord lieutenant of Corn- 
wall, prepared for the defence of the country 
against a threatened invasion from Spain. 
This prevented his personally undertaking a 
new voyage to Guiana ; but in January 1595- 
1596