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G. A. A. . 
J. G. A. . 
W. A. J. A. 
W. A 

B. B-L. . . . 
J. B. B. 

G. F. E. B. . 

M. B 

T. B 

C. E. B . . . 
H. L. B. . . 
H. E. D. B. 
G. C. B. . . 
T. G. B. . . 

G. S. B. . . 
E. I. C.. . . 
A. M. C-E. . 

T. C 

W. P. C. . . 

L. C 

A. D 

C. D 

J. A. D. . . 

E. D 

F. E 

C. H. F. . . 
W. G. . 

. G. A. AlTKEN. 

. J. G. ALGER. 


, Miss BATESON. 

, G. C. BOASE. 



Miss A. M. COOKE. 

E. G 

G. G. . . . . 
A. G 

E. E. G. . . 
J. C. H. 

J. A. H. . . 
C. A. H. . . 
P. J. H. . . 
T. F. H. . . 
W. A. S. H. 
W. H. 
W. H. H. . 

A. J 

C. K 

C. L. K. 

J. K 

J. K. L. 

F. L 

E. L. . . . . 
S. L 

B. H. L. . . 
E. M. L. . . 
J. E. L. 

J. H. L. . . 
N. MAcC. . . 
J. A. F. M.. 
E. C. M. . 




























List of Writers. 

F. T. M. . . F. T. MARZIALS. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAB. 





D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D. . F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 



A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 


D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 

E. L. R. . . MRS. RADFOHD. 


W. E. R. . . W. E. RHODES. 
J. M. R. . . J. M. RIGG. 


W. F. S. . . W. F. SEDGWICK. 

W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

B. H. S. . . B. H. SOULSBY. 

G. W. S. . . THE REV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 

C. W. S. . . C. W. SOTTON. 

H. R. T. . . H. R. TEDDER, F.S.A. 


R. H. V. . . COLONEL R. H. VETCH, R.E. 



W. R. W. . W. R. WILLIAMS. 

A. N. W. . . A. N. WOLLASTON, C.I.E. 

B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 


* In vol. xlviii. p. 52, col. 2 [art. REYNOLDS, Sm JOHN RUSSELL] for the sentences between the words in tchich DP 
Marshall Hall [</. .] had lived (1. 16) and the words In the same year fie teas appointed assistant physician (1. 26) read : 

' Hall announced to his patients in a printed circular that Reynolds had succeeded him in practice. Such procedure' 
was contrary to a recognised understanding among physicians, and Hall incurred the censure of the College of 
Physicians. Reynolds, who was ignorant of Hall's intention, was in no way responsible for the circular, and was in 
no way involved in the censure. He was duly elected a fellow of the college in 1859.' 






COUNTESS OF PETERBOROUGH (d. 1755), singer, 
was eldest daughter of Thomas Robinson, 
portrait-painter, who was descended from a 
good family in Leicestershire, According to 
Lord Oxford (Harl. MS. 7684, f. 44), her 
mother was a member of the Roman catholic 
family of Lane which sheltered Charles II 
(Boscobel Tracts, ed. J. Hughes, p. 391) ; but, 
according to other accounts, Miss Lane was 
Thomas Robinson's second wife and Ana- 
stasia Robinson's stepmother. 

Thomas Robinson went to Italy to study 
soon after his marriage, and he became pro- 
ficient in both the language and music of 
the country. His eldest daughter, Anastasia, 
who was born in Italy, developed an excellent 
voice and showed a love for music. Herfather 
taught her Italian, and on his return to Eng- 
land sent her to Dr. Croft for lessons in sing- 
ing. When an affection of the eye resulted in 
blindness, Robinson was compelled to utilise 
his daughter's talents, and she forthwith 
adopted singing as a profession. Pursuing 
her studies under the Italian singing-master 
Sandoni and an opera-singer called the Baro- 
ness, Anastasia Robinson first appeared at 
concerts in York Buildings and elsewhere in 
London, accompanying herself on the harpsi- 
chord. Her voice, originally a soprano, sank 
to a contralto after an illness, and its charm, 
together with the singer's good character and 
sweetness of disposition, made her a general 
favourite. Her father took a house in Golden 
Square, and weekly concerts and assemblies 
there attracted fashionable society. 

Miss Robinson soon transferred her atten- 
tions to the stage, where she first appeared, 
27 Jan. 1714, in the opera of 'Creso.' In 
her second performance she took the part of 
Ismina in 'Arminio,' and thenceforth, for 


nearly ten years, she reigned as prima donna, 
with a salary of 1,0001., besides benefits and 
presents worth nearly as much. Burney 
thinks that Handel did not place much trust 
in her voice. But in 1717, at Miss Robin- 
son's benefit, Handel introduced an additional 
scene into ' Amadigi '(Hist, of Music, iv.257 
276, 283). Among her admirers was General 
Hamilton, who was rejected in spite of her 
father's advice. But, after a long period of 
uncertain attentions, Miss Robinson accepted 
the advances of Lord Peterborough [see 
MORDATJNT, CHARLES], then about sixty years 
of age. Peterborough was finally conquered 
by seeing the lady as Griselda in Buonon- 
cini's opera in the spring of 1722. Soon after- 
wards they were secretly married, though, as 
the marriage was not acknowledged for thir- 
teen years, many doubted whether it had been 
celebrated. We are told, however, that Lady 
Oxford was present at the ceremony, and 
that that lady and her daughter, the Duchess 
of Portland, besides many others, visited 
Anastasia. In July 1722 Mrs. Delany wrote 
regretting the absence of ' Mrs. Robinson ' 
from a water-party, which ' otherwise had 
been perfect.' In September 1723 Arbuthnot 
dined and supped with Peterborough and 
' the Mrs. Robinsons ' (Anastasia and her 
sisters). After Thomas Robinson's death 
about 1722, Peterborough took a house for 
the ladies near his own villa at Parson's 
Green. Hawkins and Burney differ as to 
whether Peterborough and Miss Robinson 
lived under the same roof before 1734 ; Bur- 
ney, who is the more trustworthy, says she 
did not. At Parson's Green Miss Robinson 
held a sort of musical academy, where Buonon- 
cini and others often performed. She was 
grateful to Buononcini, who had written 
songs suited to her voice, and she obtained 



for him a pension of oOO/. from the Duchess 
of Marlborough, besides places for his friend 
Maurice Greene [q. v.] 

Lady Peterborough, to call her by the 
name she ultimately bore, continued on the 
stage until June 1724, not before she had 
been supplanted as ' diva ' by Cuzzoni and 
others. Early in this year being insulted by 
Senesino, a singer with whom she acted, she 
appealed to Lord Peterborough, who at once 
caned the Italian, and compelled him, as 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu says, ' to 
confess upon his knees that Anastasia was a 
nonpareil of virtue and beauty.' Lord Stan- 
hope, afterwards Earl of Chesterfield, having 
joked on Senesino's side, was challenged by 
Peterborough, and the town was in great 
excitement over the matter ; but the duel 
was prevented by the authorities. The lady's 
reputation was thus cleared, and at the 
same time it was reported that Peterborough 
allowed her 100Z. a month. ' Could it have 
been believed,' comments Lady M. W. Mon- 
tagu, ' that Mrs. Robinson is at the same time 
a prude and a kept mistress' {Letters, ed. 

Thomas, i. 475-6). An ' Epistle from S o 

to A aR n ' was advertised on 27 Feb. 

1724, and Aaron Hill wrote an ' Answer to 
a scurrilous, obscene Poem, entitled " An 
Epistle from Mrs. Robinson to Senesino." ' 

In 1731 Peterborough alluded, in a letter 
to Pope, to the religious observances of ' the 
farmeress at Bevis,' Peterborough's pleasant 
cottage near Southampton ; and next year 
he was nursed through a serious illness by 
his wife, whom he at last permitted to wear 
a wedding-ring. In 1734 Pope was visiting 
at Bevis Mount, and sent ' my lord's and 
Mrs. Robinson's ' service to Caryll. As early 
as 1731 Pope, writing to Peterborough, called 

Anastasia ' Lady P .' At length, in 1735, 

Peterborough acknowledged his wife, a duty 
which had been urged upon him by Dr. Alured 
Clarke [q. v.] His friends were called to- 
gether in rooms occupied by his niece's hus- 
band, Stephen Poyntz [q. v.], in St. James's 
Palace, and there, without forewarning his 
wife, he described the virtues of a lady who 
had been his companion and comforter in sick- 
ness and health for many years, and to whom 
he was indebted for all the happiness of his life. 
But he owned with grief that through vanity 
he had never acknowledged her as his wife. 
Lady Peterborough was then presented to her 
husband's relatives, and was carried away in 
a fainting condition. The clergyman who had 
performed the original ceremony being dead, 
Peterborough was again married to Anasta- 
sia at Bristol, in order to secure her rights 
beyond question (Pope to Martha Blount, 
25 Aug. 1735). At Bath Peterborough 

made known that Anastasia was his wife by 
calling at an assembly for Lady Peter- 
borough's carriage. 

Peterborough was now suffering from the 
stone, and, though he realised that he was 
dying, he set out with his wife to Portugal. 
After his death at Lisbon in October 1735, 
his body was brought back by his widow, 
who afterwards burned the manuscript me- 
moirs which he had left behind him. Lady 
Peterborough survived her husband nearly 
twenty years, living generally at Bevis 
Mount, which she held in jointure (Harl. 
MS. 7654, f. 44). She visited few persons, 
except the Duchess of Portland at Bui- 
strode. She died in April 1755, and was 
buried at Bath Abbey on 1 May ( Genealogist, 
new ser. vi. 98). By her will, made 4 Jan. 
1755, she left legacies to her sister, Eliza- 
beth Bowles, her niece, Elizabeth Leslie, 
her nephew, Dr. Arbuthnot, and others 
(P. C. C. 174 Glazier). 

The high esteem in which Lady Peter- 
borough was held is shown by the fact that 
Peterborough's grandson and successor in 
the peerage named his daughter after her ; 
and the Duchess of Portland wrote of her as 
' a very dear friend,' and said that she was 
' one of the most virtuous and best of women, 
but never very handsome.' Though naturally 
cheerful, she was of a shy disposition ; yet, 
owing to her good address, she always ap- 
peared to be the equal of persons of the 
highest rank. Mrs. Delany said she was of 
middling height, not handsome, but of a 

iasing, modest countenance, with large 
blue eyes. 

Faber issued a mezzotint engraving, after 
a painting by Bank, in 1727, in which Lady 
Peterborough is shown playing on a harpsi- 
chord. This engraving is reproduced in Colo- 
nel Russell's ' Earl of Peterborough.' An en- 
graving of the head, by C. Grignion, after 
Bank, is in Sir John Hawkins's ' History of 

Lady Peterborough had two younger sis- 
ters. The one, Elizabeth, was designed for 
a miniature-painter, but turned to singing. 
Owing to her bashfulness, however, she never 
performed in public, and she ultimately mar- 
ried a Colonel Bowles. The other, Mar- 
garet, ' a very pretty, accomplished woman/ 
according to Mrs. Delany, was only a half- 
sister. She married, in February 1728 (Gay 
to Swift, 15 Feb.), Dr. Arbuthnot's brother, 
George, of whom Pope spoke highly. She 
died in September 1729, leaving one son, 
John, who was the father of Bishop Alex- 
ander Arbuthnot, Sir Charles Arbuthnot, 
bart., General Sir Robert Arbuthnot, and 
General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, bart. 



[The personal account of Lady Peterborough 
in Burney's History of Music (iv. 245-97) is 
based on recollections of Mrs. Delany ; that in 
Sir John Hawkins's History of Music (1853, ii. 
870-3) on information from the Dowager 
Duchess of Portland. Other sources of informa- 
tion are the Lives of Lord Peterborough by 
Colonel Russell, 1887, ii- 238-48, 311, 327-9, 
and Mr. W. Stabbing, 1890; Pope's Works, ed. 
Elwin and Courthope, vi. 351, Tii. 115, 475, 
485, viii. 3l'2-13, ix. 41, 296, 318, 451, x. 185- 
194; Aitken's Life of Arbuthnot, 1892, pp. 104, 
120, 128, 152-3.] G. A. A. 

ROBINSON, ANTHONY (1762-1827), 
Unitarian, was born in January 1762 at Kirk- 
land, near Wigton in Cumberland, where his 
father possessed some property. He was 
educated at an academy belonging to the 
particular baptists at Bristol Robert Hall 
[q. v.] was a fellow student and subse- 
quently became pastor of a baptist church at 
Fairford in Gloucestershire. Thence he re- 
moved to the general baptists' church in 
AVorship Street, London, but gave up the 
charge about 1790 on succeeding to his 
father's estate, and retired to the country. 
In 1796 he returned to London, and entered 
into business as a sugar-refiner, acquiring a 
considerable fortune. He made the acquain- 
tance of Priestley, and, through Priestley's 
friend Rutt, of Henry Crabb Robinson [q.v.] 
The latter, who was no relative, declared 
Anthony's powers of conversation to be 
greater than those of any others of his ac- 
quaintance. Crabb Robinson introduced him 
to the Lambs and William Hazlitt. He 
died in Hatton Garden on 20 Jan. 1827, aged 
60, and was buried in the Worship Street 
baptist churchyard. His widow then re- 
moved to Enfield, where she lived opposite 
the Lambs. His son Anthony, who disap- 
peared in 1827, was a reputed victim of 
Burke and Hare. 

t Robinson wrote: 1. 'A Short History 
of the Persecution of Christians by Jews, 
Heathens, and Christians/ Carlisle, 1793, 
8vo. 2. ' A View of the Causes and Conse- 
quences of English Wars,' London, 1798, 
8vo, dedicated to William Morgan (1750- 
1833) [q. v.] ; in this work Robinson en- 
deavoured to show that all English wars 
had proved injurious to the people ; he vehe- 
mently attacked Pitt for declaring war with 
France, for which the ' British Critic ' de- 
nounced him as a Jacobin. 3. ' An Examina- 
tion of a Sermon preached at Cambridge by 
Robert Hall on Modern Infidelity,' London, 
1800, 8vo ; a vigorous attack on Hall, which 
the ' British Critic ' termed a ' senseless and 
shameless pamphlet.' Robinson was also a 
frequent contributor to the ' Analytical Re- 

view,' ' Monthly Magazine,' and ' Monthly 
Repository,' to the last of which he sent an 
account of Priestley (xvii. 169 et seq.), which 
was used by Rutt in his ' Life of Priestley.' 
A contemporary, Anthony Robinson, a sur- 
geon of Sunderland, went to Jamaica and 
made manuscript collections on the flora of 
the island, which were used by John Lunan 
in his 'Hortus Jamaicensis,' 1814, 8vo, 2 vols. 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Gent. Mag. 1827 
i. 187 ; Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors. 1816 ; 
Rutt's Life of Priestley, i. 33, ii. 533 ; Monthly 
Review, xi. 145, xxviii. 231, xxxii. 446 ; British 
Critic, xiii. 593, xvi. 213 ; Crabb Robinson's 
Diary, passim; Monthly Repository, 1827, p. 
293.] A. F. P. 

ROBINSON, BENJAMIN (1666-1724), 
presbyterian minister, born at Derby in 1666, 
was a pupil of Samuel Ogden (1626 P-1697) 

6C[. v.], and was educated for the ministry 
y John Woodhouse [q. v.] at Sheriff hales, 
Shropshire. He began life as chaplain and 
tutor in the family of Sir John Gell at Hop- 
ton, Derbyshire, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Richard Baxter. He was sub- 
sequently chaplain at Normanton to Samuel 
Saunders, upon whose death he married and 
settled as presbyterian minister of Findern, 
Derbyshire, being ordained on 10 Oct. 1688. 
In 1693 he opened a school at Findern, and 
for so doing was cited into the bishop's court. 
Knowing William Lloyd (1627-1717) [q.v.], 
then bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, he 
went to remonstrate with him. Lloyd stayed 
the prosecution, and discussed nonconformity 
with Robinson till two o'clpck in the morn- 
ing ; they afterwards corresponded. John 
Howe [q. v.] recommended him to a congrega- 
tion at Hungerford, Berkshire, to which he 
removed from Findern in 1693. Here also, in 
1696, he set up a school which developed into 
an academy for training ministers ; students 
were sent to him by the presbyterian fund. 
Gilbert Burnet [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, 
being at Hungerford on a visitation, sent for 
Robinson, who defended his course and gained 
Burnet's friendship. Subsequently he and 
Edmund Calamy [q. v.] had several interviews 
with Burnet in 1702, when nonconformist 
matters were before parliament. 

In 1700 he succeeded Woodhouse, his 
former tutor, as presbyterian minister at 
Little St. Helen's, Bishopsgate Street. Here 
he enjoyed great popularity as a preacher, 
having much natural eloquence, and a gift 
of rapid composition with a strong pen. In 
1705 he succeeded George Hammond as one 
of the Salters' Hall lecturers, and made this 
his first business when declining health com- 
pelled him to limit his work. He was assisted 

B 2 



at Little St. Helen's by Harman Hood, and, 
from 1721, by Edward Godwin, grandfather 
of William Godwin the elder [q. v.] He 
was an original trustee (1715) of the foun- 
dations of Daniel Williams [q. v.] At the 
Salters' Hall conferences of It 19 [see BRAD- 
BTJBY, THOMAS], Robinson was a prominent 
advocate of subscription, and in the pamphlet 
war which succeeded he was an able exponent 
of the scriptural argument for the doctrine 
of the Trinity. He died on 30 April 1724, 
and was buried in Bunhill Fields. He left a 
widow, Anne, and several children. His poj- 
trait is at Dr. Williams's Library, Gordon 
Square, London; an engraving by Hopwood 
is given in Wilson. 

He published, besides single sermons: 1. 'A 
Plea for ... Mr. Baxter ... in answer to 
Mr. Lobb,' &c., 1697, 8vo (defends Baxter's 
view of the Atonement). 2. 'A Review of the 
Case of Liturgies,' &c., 1710, 8vo. 3. 'A 
Letter ... in defence of the Review,' &c., 
1710, 8vo (both in reply to Thomas Bennet, 
D.D. [q. v.]) 4. ' The Question stated, and 
the Scripture Evidence of the Trinity pro- 
posed,' 1719, 4to, being the second part of 
' The Doctrine of the Ever Blessed Trinity 
stated and defended ... by four subscribing 

[Funeral Sermon by John Gumming of the 
Scots Church, London Wall, 1724; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, i. 373 sq. 
(chiefly from Gumming); Toulmin's Historical 
View, 1814, pp. 251 sq. ; Calamy's Own Life, 
1830, i. 466 sq. ii. 413 sq. 483 ; Jones's Bunhill 
Memorials, 1849, pp. 236 sq. ; Jeremy's Presby- 
terian Fund, 1885, pp. 13, 34, 109.] A. G-. 

ROBINSON, BRYAN (1680-1754), phy- 
sician and writer, born in 1680, graduated 
M.B. in 1709, and M.D. in 1711, at Trinity 
College, Dublin. He was anatomical lecturer 
there in 1716-17, and in 174o was appointed 
professor of physic. On 5 May 1712 he was 
elected fellow of the King and Queen's Col- 
lege of Physicians in Ireland, having been 
' candidate ' on 24 Aug. 1711. He was three 
times president of the college in 1718,1727, 
and 1739. He was also a member of the 
Irish Royal College of Surgeons. He prac- 
tised in Dublin, and probably attended 
Esther Vanhomrigh ('Vanessa'), who be- 
queathed to him lol. sterling 'to buy a ring ' 
(SWIFT, Works, ed. Scott, 2nd edit. xix. 
380). He died at Dublin on 26 Jan. 1754. 

Robinson had a reputation in his day, both 
as a medical and mathematical writer. His 
earliest work was a translation of P. de la. 
Hire's ' New Elements of Conick Sections,' 
1704. In 1725 he published an account of 
the inoculation of five children at Dublin 

'The Case of Miss Rolt communicated by an 
Eye- witness' was added in an edition printed 
in London in the same year. This was fol- 
lowed in 1732-3 by Robinson's chief work, the 
' Treatise on the Animal Economy.' It was 
attacked by Dr. T. Morgan in his ' Mechanical 
Practice,' and defended by the author in a 
' Letter to Dr. Cheyne.' The latter is an- 
nexed to the third edition, which appeared in 
two volumes in 1738, and contained much 
additional matter. Robinson was an ardent 
admirer of Newton, and tried to account for 
animal motions by his principles, and to apply 
them to the rational treatment of diseases. 
He attributed the production of muscular 
power to the vibration of an ethereal fluid 
pervading the animal body, a doctrine essen- 
tially in accord with modern views. His 
chapter on respiration shows him also to have 
had a glimmering of the nature of oxygen, in 
anticipation of the discoveries of Priestley 
and Lavoisier in 1775. Sir Charles Cameron 
characterises the whole 'Treatise on Animal 
Economy' as a remarkable work for its day 
(cf. HALLER, Bibl. Chiruryica, ii. 148). Robin- 
son's next work was a ' Dissertation on the 
Food and Discharges of Human Bodies,' 
1747. It was translated into French, and 
inserted in 'Le Pharmacien Moderne,' 1750. 
It was followed by ' Observations on the 
Virtues and Operations of Medicines '(1752), 
which attracted much attention (cf. BUR- 
ROWS, Commentaries on the Treatment of 
Insanity, p. 640). Robinson also edited Dr. 
R. Helsham's ' Course of Lectures in Natural 
Philosophy,' 1739 (2nd edit. 1743; reissued 
in 1767 and 1777). 

Robinson also wrote a ' Dissertation on the 
./Ether of Sir Isaac Newton' (Dublin, 1743; 
London, 1747) ; and an ' Essay upon Money 
and Coins' (1758), posthumously published 
by his sons, Christopher and Robert. Partii. 
is dedicated to Henry Bilson Legge, chancellor 
of the exchequer, with whom the author was 
acquainted. The work displays knowledge 
of the history of currency ; its main object is 
to advocate the maintenance of the existing 
standard of money. Besides numerous tables, 
it contains Newton's representation to the 
treasury on 21 Sept. 1717 regarding the state 
of the gold and silver coinage. 

Portraits of Robinson are in the possession 
of the Irish College of Physicians, and at the 
house of the provost of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin. Bromley mentions an etching of him, at 
the age of seventy, by B. Wilson. 

[Todd's Cat. of Dublin Graduates ; Register 
of the King and Queen's Coll. of Physicians in 
Ireland ; Cameron's Hist, of the Royal Coll. of 
Surgeons in Ireland, pp. 16-18, 98, 685; Noble's 
Contin. of Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, iii. 



282-3; London Mag. 1754, p. 92; Cat. of Eoyal 
Med. and Chirurg. Soc. Library, vol. ii.; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.; authorities cited.] G. LE G. N. 

ROBINSON, SIB BRYAN (1808-1887), 
colonial judge, was horn on 14 Jan. 1808 at 
Dublin, being youngest son of Christopher 
Robinson, rector of Granard, co. Longford ; 
his mother was Elizabeth, second daughter 
of Sir Hercules Langrishe [q. v.] Hercules 
Robinson [q. v.] was an elder brother. From 
Castlenock school he went in 1824 to Trinity 
College, Dublin, but before graduating, in 
1828, he went out to Newfoundland in the 
staff of Admiral Cochrane. In 1831 Robin- 
son was called to the bar in Nova Scotia, 
and began to practise in Newfoundland. His 
first appearance in a case of more than local 
importance was before the judicial committee 
in Keilley v. Carson, which raised the ques- 
tion of the power of a house of assembly to 
imprison a person of its own motion. Robin- 
son opposed the claim of the Newfoundland 
house of assembly, and the judgment in his 
favour finally settled the law on this point. 

In 1834 Robinson was made a master of 
chancery with the obligation of advising the 
members of the council. In December 1842 
he entered the colonial parliament as member 
for Fortune Bay. In 1843 he became a 
queen's counsel of the local bar, and later a 
member of the executive council. In 1858 he 
was made a puisne judge. He was a warm 
supporter of every project for the good of the 
colony, especially interesting himself in the 
opening up of the interior, direct steam com- 
munication with England, and relief works 
in bad seasons; he was president of the 
Agricultural Society. He was also an active 
supporter of the church of England. He was 
knighted in December 1877 for his distin- 
guished services, and retired from his office 
in Newfoundland in 1878 owing to failing 
health. He settled at Baling, Middlesex, 
where he died on 6 Dec. 1887. 

He married, in 1834, Selina, daughter of 
Arthur Houldsworth Brooking of Brixham, 
Devonshire, who died before him, leaving 
several children. 

There is a vignette of Robinson in Prowse's 
' History of Newfoundland.' 

[Biograph and Review, January 1892 ; pri- 
vate information.] C. A. H. 


(1766-1833), admiralty lawyer, born in 1 766, 
was son of Dr. Christopher Robinson, rector 
of Albury, Oxfordshire, and Wytham, Berk- 
shire, who died at Albury on 24 Jan. 1802. 
The son matriculated from University Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 16 Dec. 1782, but migrated 
in 1783 to Magdalen College, where he was a 

demy from 1783 to 1799. He graduated B. A. 
14 June 1786, M.A. 6 May 1789, and D.C.L. 
4 July 1796. Intended for the church, Ro- 
binson preferred the profession of the law. 
He was one of nine children, and all that his 
father could spare for his start in life was 20/. 
in cash and a good supply of books. Fortu- 
nately he obtained a favourable recommenda- 
tion to Sir William Scott, afterwards Lord 
Stowell. He determined upon studying ma- 
ritime law, and was admitted into the college 
of advocates on 3 Nov. 1796. He gained con- 
spicuous success in this branch of the profes- 
sion, was knighted on 6 Feb. 1809, and was 
appointed, on 1 March 1809, to succeed Sir 
John Nicholl [q. v.] as king's advocate. 
As the holder of this office and the leading 
counsel in the admiralty court, Robinson 
was engaged in nearly all the cases relating 
to prizes captured on the seas. In 1818 he 
was returned in the interest of the tory 
ministry, exerted through the family of 
Kinsman, for the Cornish borough of Cal- 
lington, and on the dissolution in 1820 he 
and his colleague secured at the poll a ma- 
jority of the votes recorded by the returning 
officer, but a petition against their return was 
presented, and ultimately the candidates sup- 
ported by the family of Baring were declared 
elected. These proceedings resulted in his 
being saddled with costs amounting to 5,0001., 
and though the premier had promised to re- 
imburse him the outlay, the money was not 
paid. He was no orator, and did not shine in 
the House of Commons. 

In 1821 Robinson followed Lord Stowell 
in the positions of chancellor of the diocese of 
London and judge of the consistory court, 
and on 22 Feb. 1828 he succeeded Lord 
Stowell as judge of the high court of admi- 
ralty, having tor several years previously 
transcribed and read in court the decisions 
of that judge. He was created a privy coun- 
cillor on 5 March 1828, and presided in the 
admiralty court until a few days before his 
death. He died at Wimpole Street, Caven- 
dish Square, London, on 21 April 1833, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Benet's, 
Doctors' Commons. He married, at Liver- 
pool, on 11 April 1799, Catharine, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Ralph Nicholson, a man 
of considerable property. They had five chil- 
dren three sons and two daughters. Lady 
Robinson died at "Wimpole street on 27 Aug. 
1830, aged 63. 

Robinson was the author of: 1. 'Report 
of the Judgment of the High Court of Ad- 
miralty on the Swedish Convoy,' 1799. 
2. ' Translation of Chapters 273 and 287 of 
the Consolato del Mare, relating to Prize 
Law' [anon.], 1800. 3. 'Collectanea Mari- 



tima, a Collection of Public Instruments on 
Prize Law,' 1801. 4. 'Reports of Cases 
argued and determined in the High Court of 
Admiralty, 1799 to 1808,' 6 vols. 1799-1 808; 
2nd edit. 6 vols. 1801-8 ; they were also re- 
printed at New York in 1800-10, and by 
George Minot at Boston in 1853 in his series 
of English admiralty reports. Robinson's re- 
ports were not remunerative, and in some 
years caused him actual loss. 

Robinson's own judgments were contained 
in volumes ii. and iii. of John Haggard's 'Ad- 
miralty Reports ' (1833 and 1840), and were 
also published at Boston by George Minot 
in 1853. A digested index of the judgments 
of Lord Stowell, as given in the reports 
of Robinson, Edwards, and Dodson, was 
issued by Joshua Greene, barrister-at-law, of 
Antigua, in 1818. 

Robinson's second son, WILLIAM ROBIX- 
SON (d. 1870), matriculated from Balliol 
College, Oxford, on 25 Jan. 1819, and gra- 
duated B.A. on 22 March 1823, M.A. on 
2 July 1829, and D.C.L. on 11 July 1829. 
He was admitted into the college of advo- 
cates on 3 Nov. 1830, and reported in the 
admiralty court. His published volumes of 
reports commenced ' with the judgments of 
the Right Hon. Stephen Lushington,' and 
covered the years from 1838 to 1850. The 
first volume appeared in 1844, and the second 
in 1848. The third, without a title-page, and 
consisting of two parts only, was issued in 
1852. They were also edited by George 
Minot at Boston in 1853. Robinson died 
at Stanhope Villa, Charl wood Road, Putney, 
on 11 July 1870, aged 68. 

[Gent. Mag. 1799 i. 346, 1802 i. 184, 1809 i. 
278, 1830 i. 283, 1833 i. 465; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Courtney's Par!. Rep. Cornwall, p. 278 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Aneccl. ix. 633 ; Law Mag. x. 
485-8, reprinted in Annual Biogr. xviii. 325-31; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 393 ; Canning's 
Official Corresp. (1887), i. 373; Bloxam's Mag- 
dalen College, vii. 83-90.171; [Coote's] English 
Civilians, p. 137; Times, 12 July 1870, p. 1.] 

W. P. C. 

1584), song-writer and editor, prepared in 
1566 'A boke of very pleasaunte sonettes 
and storyes in myter,' for the publication 
of which Richard Jones obtained a license 
in the same year. No copy of this work is 
extant, although a single leaf in the collection 
of ' Bagford Ballads' in the British Museum 
may possibly have belonged to one. The book 
was reprinted in 1584 by the same publisher, 
Richard Jones, under the new title 'A Hande- 
full of pleasant delites, containing sundrie 
new Sonets and delectable Histories in diuers 

kinds of Meeter. Newly diuised to the newest 
tunes that are now in use to be sung; euerie 
Sonet orderly pointed to his proper tune. 
With new additions of certain Songs to verie 
late deuised Notes, not commonly knowen, 
nor vsed heretofore. By Clement Robinson 
and diuers others.' A unique imperfect copy 
of this edition, formerly in the Corser collec- 
tion, is now in the British Museum library. 
All the pieces were written for music ; several 
of them had been entered in the Stationers' 
Register for separate publication between 
1566 and 1582. In the case of eight the 
authors' names are appended. The remaining 
twenty-five, which are anonymous, doubtless 
came for the most part from Robinson's own 
pen. Among these is the opening song, en- 
titled 'A Nosegay.' from which Ophelia seems 
to borrow some of her farewell remarks to 
Laertes in Shakespeare's ' Hamlet,' iv. 5. 
Another song in the collection, ' A Sorrow- 
full Sonet,' ascribed to George Mannington, 
is parodied at length in ' Eastward Ho' 
[1603], by Chapman, Jonson, and Marston. 
The volume also contains ' A new Courtly 
Sonet, of the Lady Greensleeues, to the new 
tune of Greensleeues.' 

Robinson's ' Handefull' has been thrice 
reprinted, viz. in Park's ' Heliconia,' 1815, 
vol. ii. (carelessly edited); by the Spenser 
Society, edited by James Crossley in 1871 
(Manchester, 8vo),and by Mr. Edward Arber 
in 1878, in his 'English Scholar's Library.' 

A unique tract in the Huth Library is also 
assigned to Robinson. The title runs : 'The 
true descripcion of the marueilous straunge 
Fishe whiche was taken on Thursday was 
sennight the xvj day of June this present 
m onth in the y eare of our Lord God MDLXIX . 
Finis quod C. R. London, by Thomas Col- 
well.' This was entered on the ' Stationers' 
Registers' early in 1569 as 'a mounsterus 
fysshe which was taken at Ip[s]wyche ' 
(ARBEE, Transcripts, i. 381). 

[Introductions to the reprints noticed above 
of Robinson's Handefull; Hazlitt's Bibliographi- 
cal Handbook.] y. L. 

1877), colonel royal engineers, director- 
general of telegraphs in India, was born 
8 March 1826, and entered the military 
college of the East India Company at Ad- 
discombe in 1841. He was appointed a 
second lieutenant in the Bengal engineers 
on 9 June 1843, and, after going through 
the usual course of instruction at Chatham, 
embarked for India in 1845. He arrived in 
time to join Sir Hugh Gough's army and 
take part in the Sutlaj campaign. He was 
engaged in the battle of Sobraon, and re- 



ceivecl the war medal. He was promoted 
first lieutenant on 16 June 1847. In 1848 
and 1849 Robinson served in the Panjab 
campaign, and took part in the battles of 
Chillianwallah, 13 Jan. 1849, and Gujerat, 
21 Feb. 1849, again receiving the war medal. 
In 1850 he was appointed to the Indian 
survey, upon which he achieved a great 
reputation for the beauty and exactitude of 
his maps.] His maps of the Rawal Pindi 
and of the Gwalior country may be specially 
mentioned. He received the thanks of the 
government for his book, and the surveyor- 
general of India observed: 'I have no hesita- 
tion in saying that these maps will stand in 
the first rank of topographical achievements 
in India, and I can conceive nothing superior 
to ^ them executed in any country.' On 
21 Nov. 1856 Robinson was promoted cap- 
tain, and on 31 Dec. 1862 lieutenant- 

In 1865 Robinson was appointed director- 
general of Indian telegraphs. He entered 
on his duties at a critical time in the de- 
velopment of telegraphs. During the 
twelve years he was at the head of the de- 
partment, the telegraphs, from a small be- 
ginning, spread over India, and were con- 
nected by overland and submarine lines 
with England. His zeal and activity, 
joined to great capacity for administration 
and organisation, enabled him to place the 
Indian telegraph department on a thoroughly 
eflicient footing, and the lines erected were 
executed in the most solid manner. He 
took a leading part in the deliberations of 
the commission at Berne in 1871, and of the 
international conferences at Rome and St. 
Petersburg, on telegraphic communication. 
He was promoted to be brevet-colonel on 
31 Dec. 1867, and regimental colonel on 
1 April 1874. He died on his way home 
from India on board the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company's steamer Travancore, at 
sea, on 27 July 1877. 

[Royal Engineers' Records; India Office Re- 
cords; Royal Engineers' Journal, vol. vii.; 
Journal Telegraphique, 25 Aug. 1877 (biogra- 
phical notice).] R. H. V. 

VISCOUNT GODERICH, afterwards first EAKL 
OF RIPON (1782-1859), second son of Thomas 
Robinson, second baron Grantham [q. v.], by 
Lady Mary Jemima, younger daughter and co- 
heiress of Philip Yorke, second earl of Hard- 
wicke [q. v.], was born in London on 30 Oct. 
1782. He was educated at Harrow, where 
he was the schoolfellow of Lords Althorp, 
Aberdeen, Cottenham, and Palmerston. From 
Harrow he proceeded to St. John's College, 

Cambridge, where he obtained Sir AVilliam 
Browne's medal for the best Latin ode in 

1801, and graduated M.A. in 1802. He was 
admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn on 7 May 

1802, but left the society on 6 Nov. 1809, 
and was never called to the bar. From 1804 
to 1806 he acted as private secretary to his 
kinsman, Philip, third earl of Hard wicke, then 
lord lieutenant of Ireland. At the general 
election in November 1806 he was returned 
to the House of Commons for the borough 
of Carlow as a moderate tory. He was 
elected for Ripon at the general election in 
May 1807, and continued to represent that 
borough for nearly twenty years. In the 
summer of this year he accompanied the Earl 
of Pembroke on a special mission to Vienna 
as secretary to the embassy. 

Robinson moved the address at the open- 
ing of the session on 19 Jan. 1809, and strongly 
advocated the vigorous prosecution of the 
war in Spain (Parl. Debates, 1st. ser. xii. 
30-5). He was shortly afterwards appointed 
under-secretary for the colonies in the Duke 
of Portland's administration, but retired from 
office with Lord Castlereagh in September 
1809. Though he refused Perceval's offer of 
a seat at the treasury board in the following 
month, he was appointed a lord of the admi- 
ralty on 23 June 1810 (London Gazette, 1810, 
i. 893). He was admitted to the privy 
council on 13 Aug. 1812, and became vice- 
president of the board of trade and foreign 
plantations in Lord Liverpool's administra- 
tion on 29 Sept. following. On 3 Oct. he 
exchanged his seat at the admiralty board 
for one at the treasury (ib. 1812, ii. 1579, 
1983, 1987). In spite of the fact that all 
his early impressions had been against ca- 
tholic emancipation, he supported Grattan's 
motion for a committee on the catholic claims 
in March 1813 (Parl. Debates, 1st ser. xxiv. 
962-5, see ib. 2nd ser. xii. 417). Having 
resigned his seat at the treasury board, he 
was appointed joint paymaster-general of 
the forces on 9 Nov. 1813 (London Gazette, 
ii. 2206). In the winter of this year he ac- 
companied Lord Castlereagh on his mission 
to the continent, and remained with him 
until almost the close of the negotiations 
which ended in the peace of Paris (Memoirs 
and Correspondence of Viscount Castlereagh, 
1848, i. 125-30). On 17 Feb. 1815 Robin- 
son drew the attention of the house to the 
state of the corn laws (Parl. Debates, 1st ser. 
xxix. 796, 798-808, 832, 838, 840), and on 
1 March following he introduced ' with the 
greatest reluctance' a bill prohibiting im- 
portation until the average price in England 
should be eighty shillings per quarter for 
wheat, and proportionately for other grain 




(it. xxix. 1119, see 3rd ser. Ixxxvi. 1086); 
this was passed quickly through both houses, 
and received the royal assent on 23 March 

1815 (55 Geo. Ill, c. 26). During the riots 
in London consequent upon the introduction 
of the bill, the mob attacked his house in Old 
Burlington Street, and destroyed the greater 
part of his furniture, as well as a number of 
valuable pictures (Annual Register, 1815, 
Chron. pp. 19-26; see also WILLIAM HONE'S 
Report at large on the Coroner's Inquest on 
Jane Watson, &c., 1815). He opposed Lord 
Althorp's motion for the appointment of a 
select committee on the public offices on 7 May 

1816 (Part. Debates, 1st ser. xxxiv. 334-8), 
and supported the introduction of the Habeas 
Corpus Suspension Bill on 26 Feb. 1817 (ib. 
xxxv. 722-7). He resigned the post of 
joint paymaster-general in the summer of 
this year, and was appointed president of the 
board of trade on 24 Jan. 1818, and treasurer 
of the navy on 5 Feb. following (London Ga- 
zette, 1818, i. 188, 261), being at the same 
time admitted to the cabinet. In 1819 he 
spoke in favour of the Foreign Enlistment 
Bill, which he held to be ' of the last im- 
portance to our character' (Par/. Debates, 
1st ser. xl. 1088-91), and supported the third 
reading of the Seditious Meetings Prevention 
bill (ib. xli. 1051-4). On 8 May 1820 he 
asserted in the house that he ' had always 
given it as his opinion that the restrictive 
system of commerce in this country was 
founded in error, and calculated to defeat 
the object for which it was adopted' (ib. 2nd 
ser. i. 182-5, see 1st ser. xxxiii. 696). On 
the 30th of the same month he unsuccess- 
fully opposed the appointment of a select 
committee on the agricultural distress (ib. 
2nd ser. i. 641-51), but on the following day 
succeeded in limiting the investigation of 
the committee to ' the mode of ascertaining, 
returning, and calculating the average prices 
of corn,' &c. (ib. i. 714-15, 740). On 1 April 
1822 he brought in two bills for regulating 
the intercourse between the West Indies 
and other parts of the world (ib. vi. 1414-25), 
and in the same month he spoke against 
Lord Joh n Russel 1's mot ion for parliament ary 
reform (ib. vii. 104-6). 

Robinson succeeded Vansittart as chan- 
cellor of the exchequer on 31 Jan. 1823 (Lon- 
don Gazette, 1823, i. 193). The substitution 
at the same time of Peel for Sidmouth and of 
Canning for Castlereagh caused a complete 
change in the domestic policy of the admini- 
stration,while the appointment of Robinson to 
theexchequerandof Huskissonto the board of 
trade led the way to a revolution in finance. 
The prime mover of these fiscal reforms was 
Huskisson, but Robinson assisted him to 

the best of his ability. He brought in his 
first budget on 21 Feb. 1823. He devoted 
5,000,000/. of his estimated surplus of 
7,000,000/. to the reduction of the debt, and 
the rest of it to the remission of taxation. 
Among his proposals which were duly carried 
was the reduction of the window tax by 
one half (Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. viii. 194- 
213). His speech on this occasion is said 
to have been received with ' demonstrations 
of applause more loud and more general than 
perhaps ever before greeted the opening of 
a ministerial statement of finance' (Annual 
Register, 1823, p. 180). On 20 June 1823 
he obtained a grant of 40,000/. towards the 
erection of 'the buildings at the British 
Museum for the reception of the Royal 
Library' (Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. ix. 1112- 
1113). He introduced his second budget 
on 23 Feb. 1824. The revenue had been 
unexpectedly augmented by the payment of 
a portion of the Austrian loan. Owing to 
this windfall he was enabled to propose a 
grant of 500,000/. for the building of new 
churches, of 300,000^. for the restoration of 
Windsor Castle, and of 57,000/. for the pur- 
chase of the Angerstein collection of pictures 
by way ' of laying the foundation of a na- 
tional gallery of works of art.' He also 
proposed and carried the redemption of the 
old four per cent, annuities, then amounting 
to 75,000,000^., the abolition of the bounties 
on the whale and herring fisheries, and on 
the exportation of linen, together with an 
abatement of the duties on rum, coals, foreign 
wool, and raw silk (Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. 
x. 304-37, 341-2, 345-6, 353-4). On 14 Feb. 
1825 he supported the introduction of Goul- 
burn's bill to amend the acts relating to 
unlawful societies in Ireland, and denounced 
the Catholic Association as ' the bane and 
curse of the country' (ib. xii. 412-21). A 
fortnight later he brought in his third budget. 
Having congratulated the house on the pro- 
sperity of the country, and invited the mem- 
bers ' to contemplate with instructive admira- 
tion the harmony of its proportions and the 
solidity of its basis,' he proposed and carried 
reductions of the duties on iron, hemp, coffee, 
sugar, wine, spirits, and cider (ib. xii. 719- 
744, 751). Towards the close of the year a 
great commercial crisis occurred. In order 
to check the excessive circulation of paper 
money in the future, the ministry determined 
to prevent the issue of notes of a smaller 
value than 51. The debate on this proposal 
was opened, on 10 Feb. 1826, by Robinson, 
whose motion was carried, after two nights' 
debate, by 222 votes to 39 (ib. xiv. 168-93, 
194, 354). In consequence of Hudson Gurney's 
persistent opposition, Robinson compromised 



the matter by allowing the Bank of England 
to continue the issue of small notes for some 
months longer. This concession consider- 
ably damaged Robinson's reputation, and 
Greville remarks : ' Everybody knows that 
Huskisson is the real author of the finance 
measure of government, and there can be no 
greater anomaly than that of a chancellor of 
the exchequer who is obliged to propose and 
defend measures of which another minister 
is the real, though not the apparent, author' 
(Greville Memoirs, 1st ser. i. 81). In 
bringing in his fourth and last budget, on 
13 March 1826, Robinson passed under review 
the principal alterations in taxation which 
had been effected since the war. He con- 
tinued to indulge in sanguine views, and 
refused to credit the evidence of the distress 
which was everywhere perceptible (Parl. 
Debates, 2nd ser. xiv. 1305-34, 1340). On 
4 May 1826 he opposed Hume's motion for 
an address to the crown asking for an inquiry 
into the causes of the distress throughout the 
country (ib. xv. 878-89). The motion was 
defeated by a majority of 101 votes, and ' a 
more curious instance can scarcely be found 
than in the addresses of Prosperity Robinson 
and Adversity Hume of the opposite con- 
clusions which may be drawn from a view 
of a statistical subject where the figures were 
indisputable on both sides, as far as they 
went' (MARTINEATT, History of the Thirty 
Years' Peace, 1877, ii. 79). 

In December Robinson expressed a wish 
to be promoted to the House of Lords, and 
to exchange his post at the exchequer for 
some easier office. At Liverpool's request, 
however,he consented to remain in the House 
of Commons, though he desired that 'the 
retention of his present office should be con- 
sidered as only temporary' (YoNGE, Life of 
Lord Liverpool, 1868, iii. 438-42). When 
Liverpool fell ill in February 1827, a plan 
was discussed between Canning and the 
Duke of Wellington, but subsequently aban- 
doned, of raising Robinson to the peerage, 
and of placing him at the head of the treasury. 
On Canning becoming prime minister, Ro- 
binson was created Viscount Goderich of 
IXocton in the county of Lincoln on 28 April. 
He was appointed secretary of state for war 
and the colonies on 30 April, and a com- 
missioner for the affairs of India on 17 May. 
At the same time he undertook the duties 
of leader of the House of Lords, where he 
took his seat for the first time on 2 May 
(Journals of the House of Lords, lix. 256). 
He was, however, quite unable to withstand 
the fierce attacks which were made on the 
new government in the House of Lords by 
an opposition powerful both in ability and 

numbers. On 1 June the Duke of Welling- 
ton's amendment to the corn bill was carried 
against the government by a majority of four 
votes (Parl. Debates, 2nd ser. xvi'i. 1098). 
Goderich vainly endeavoured to procure its 
rejection on the report, but the government 
were again beaten (ib. xvii. 1221-9, 1238), 
and the bill had to be abandoned. 

On Canning's death, in August 1827, Go- 
derich was chosen by the king to form a 
cabinet. The changes in the administration 
were few. Goderich, who became first lord 
of the treasury, was succeeded at the colonial 
office by Huskisson; Lansdowne took the 
home department, and Grant the board of 
trade. The Duke of Portland succeeded 
Lord Harrowby as president of the council, 
Lord Anglesey became master-general of 
the ordnance, the Duke of Wellington com- 
mander-in-chief, while Herries, after pro- 
tracted negotiations, received the seals of 
chancellor of the exchequer on 3 Sept. Gode- 
rich's unfitness for the post of prime mini- 
ster was at once apparent, and his weakness 
in yielding to the king with regard to the 
appointment of Herries disgusted his whig 
colleagues. In December Goderich pressed 
on the king the admission of Lords Holland 
and Wellesley to the cabinet, and declared 
that without such an addition of strength 
he felt unable to carry on the government. 
He also expressed a wish to retire for private 
reasons, but afterwards offered to remain, 
provided a satisfactory arrangement could 
be made with regard to Lords Holland and 
Wellesley ( ASHLEY, Life and Correspondence 
of Lord Palmerston, 1879, i. 119; see also 
Lord Melbourne s Papers, 1890, p. 115). Em- 
barrassed alike by his inability to keep the 
peace between Herries and Huskisson in 
their quarrel over the chairmanship of the 
finance committee, by the disunion between 
his whig and conservative colleagues, and by 
the battle of Navarino, Goderich tendered his 
final resignation on 8 Jan. 1828. Neverthe- 
less, he appears to have expected an offer of 
office from the Duke of Wellington, who suc- 
ceeded him as prime minister (BUCKINGHAM, 
Memoirs of the Court of George IV, 1859, ii. 
359). On 17 April 1828 Goderich spoke in 
favour of the second reading of the Corpora- 
tion and Test Acts Repeal Bill (Parl. Debates, 
2nd ser. xviii. 1505-8), and on 3 April 1829 
he supportedthe second readingof the Roman 
Catholic Relief Bill (ib. xxi. 226-43; ELLEN- 
BOROUGH, Political Diary, 1881, ii. 4). At the 
opening of the session on 4 Feb. 1830 he spoke 
in favour of the address, and announced that 
if ever he had any political hostility to the 
Wellington administration he had 'buried it 
in the grave of the catholic question ' (Parl. 



Debates, 2nd ser. xxii. 18-25). On 6 May he 
brought before the house the subject of the 
national debt ' in a good and useful speech ' 
(ib. xxiv. 428-41 ; ELLENBOKOTIGH, Political 
Diary, ii. 240-1). Later in the session he 
reviewed the state of the finances, and urged 
both a reduction of expenditure and a re- 
vision of the system of taxation (Parl. De- 
bates, 2nd ser. xxv. 1081-8). 

On the formation of Lord Grey's admini- 
stration, Goderichwas appointed secretary of 
state for war and the colonies (22 Nov. 1830). 
In supporting the second reading of the se- 
cond Keform Bill, in October 1831, Goderich 
assured the house that he ' had not adopted 
his present course without having deeply 
considered the grounds on which he acted,' 
and that he ' had made a sacrifice of many 
preconceived opinions, of many predilections, 
and of many long-cherished notions ' (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd. ser. vii. 1368-77). His scheme 
for the abolition of negro slavery did not 
meet with the approval of the cabinet, and, 
after considerable pressure from Lord Grey, 
he resigned the colonial office in favour of 
Stanley, and accepted the post of lord privy 
seal (Greville Memoirs, 1st ser. ii. 365- 
366, 367 ; Journal of Thomas Raikes, 1856, 
i. 175 ; Croker Papers, 1884, i. 208 ; Memoirs 
of Lord Brougham, 1871, iii. 379 ; Times, 
31 Jan. and 2 Feb. 1855). He was sworn into 
his new office on 3 April 1833, and ten days 
later was created earl of Ripon. On 25 June 
he explained Stanley's scheme for the aboli- 
tion of slavery in the colonies. Though he 
broke down several times, he managed to get 
through his speech, and to carry a series of 
resolutions which had beeji previously ap- 
proved by the commons (Parl. Debates, 3rd 
ser. xviii. 1163-80, 1228). 

On 27 May 1834 Ripon (together with 
Stanley, Graham, and the Duke of Richmond) 
resigned office in consequence of the pro- 
posed appointment of the Irish church com- 
mission, believing that ' the effect of the 
commission must be to alter the footing on 
which the established church stood ' (ib. 3rd 
ser. xxiv. 10 n., 260-6, 308). The Melbourne 
ministry consequently broke up, and Sir Ro- 
bert Peel became prime minister. At the 
opening of the new parliament, on 24 Feb. 
1835, Ripon supported the address, but he 
did not feel able to place ' an unqualified 
confidence ' in Sir Robert Peel's administra- 
tion (ib. xxvi. 142-8). When Melbourne 
formed his second administration in April 
1835, Ripon was not included. Though he 
opposed Lord Fitzwilliam's resolution con- 
demning the corn law of 1828, he declared 
that ' there were very few persons who were 
less bigoted to the present system of corn laws 

than he was ' (ib. xlvi. 582-92). He viewed 
the penny-postage scheme as a rash and heed- 
less experiment, and considered ' the bill ob- 
jectionable in the highest degree ' (ib. xlix. 
1222-7). In January, and again in May, 1840 
he called the attention of the house to ' the 
alarming condition in which the finances of 
the country stood ' (ib. Ii. 497-505, liv. 469- 
479). On 24 Aug. 1841 he carried an amend- 
ment to the address, expressing the alarm of 
parliament at the continued excess of expen- 
diture over income, and declaring a want of 
confidence in the Melbourne administration 
(ib. lix. 35-54, 106). On 3 Sept. following he 
was appointed president of the board of trade 
in Sir Robert Peel's second administration 
{London Gazette, 1841, ii. 2221). On 18 April 
1842 he moved the second reading of the Corn 
Importation Bill, by which a new scale of 
duties was fixed (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. Ixii. 
572-89, 627, 635), and on 5 July following he 
explained the provisions of the Customs Bill, 
the first principle of which was the abolition 
of prohibitory duties (ib. Ixiv. 939-54,976-7). 
On 17 May 1843 he was appointed president 
of the board of control for the affairs of India 
in the place of Lord Fitzgerald and Vesey 
(London Gazette, 1843, i. 1654), and was suc- 
ceeded at the board of trade by Mr. Gladstone. 
He moved the secondreadingof thebill forthe 
abolition of the corn" laws on 25 May 1846, 
when he once more assured the house that he 
always had ' a great objection to the princi- 
ple of any corn law whatever,' and that for 
many years he had endeavoured ' to get rid 
as speedily as circumstances Avould permit 
first of prohibition and then of protection' 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. Ixxxvi. 1084-1100). 
Ripon resigned office with the rest of his 
colleagues on the overthrow of Sir Robert 
Peel's administration in June 1846. He spoke 
for the last time in the House of Lords on 
14 May 1847 (ib. xcii. 804-5). He died at 
his residence on Putney Heath on 28 Jan. 
1859, aged 76, and was buried at Nocton in 
Lincolnshire. He was a trustee of the Na- 
tional Gallery on 2 July 1824, and a governor 
of the Charterhouse on 10 Sept, 1827. He 
was elected president of the Royal Society 
of Literature in 1834, and was created D.C.L. 
of Oxford University on 12 June 1839. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 
17 April 1828, and held the post of recorder 
of Lincoln. 

Ripon married, on 1 Sept. 1814, Lady Sarah 
Albinia Louisa, only daughter of Robert 
Hobart, fourth earl of Buckinghamshire ; 
she rebuilt Nocton church, and died on 
9 April 1867, aged 74. By her Ripon had 
two sons and a daughter. The elder son and 
the daughter died young. The only sur- 



viving child, George Frederick Samuel, born 
on 24 Oct. 1827, succeeded his father as 
second Earl of Ripon ; became third Earl de 
Grey (cr. 1816) and fourth Baron Grantham 
on the death of his uncle in November 1859 ; 
was created marquis of Ripon on 23 Jan. 
1871 ; and has held high political office, 
including the governor-generalship of India. 
Ripon was an amiable, upright, irresolute 
man of respectable abilities and businesslike 
habits. The sanguine views in which he 
indulged while chancellor of the exchequer 
led Cobbett to nickname him 'Prosperity 
Robinson,' while for his want of vigour as 
secretary for the colonies he received from 
the same writer the name of ' Goody Gode- 
rich.' Though a diffuse speaker and shallow 
reasoner, ' the art which he certainly possessed 
of enlivening even dry subjects of finance 
with classical allusions and pleasant humour 
made his speeches always acceptable to a 
large majority of his hearers '(Ls MAKCHANT, 
Memoir of Lord Althorp, 1876,p. 44). In the 
House of Commons he attained a certain popu- 
larity, but on his accession to the House of 
Lords his courage and his powers alike deserted 
him. His want of firmness and decision of 
character rendered him quite unfit to be the 
leader of a party in either house. He was 
probably the weakest prime minister who 
ever held office in this country, and was the 
only one who never faced parliament in that 

Ripon is said to have written the greater 
part of 'A Sketch of the Campaign in Portu- 
gal' (London, 1810, 8vo). Several of his 
parliamentary speeches were separately pub- 
lished, as well as an ' Address ' which he de- 
livered at the anniversary meeting of the 
Royal Society of Literature on 30 April 1835. 
His portrait, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, belongs 
to the present marquis. It was engraved by 
C. Turner in 1824. 

[Besides the authorities quoted in the text, 
the following works, among others, have been 
consulted : Walpole's Hist, of Engl. ; Torrens's 
Memoirs of Viscount Melbourne, 1878, vol. i. ; 
Memoir of J. C. Herries by E. Herries, 1880; 
Diary and Corresp. of Lord Colchester, 1861, 
vols. ii. and iii. ; Walpole's Life of Lord John 
Russell, 1889, i. 134-6, 137,200,204; Sir H. L. 
Bulwer's Life of Lord Palmerston, 1871, i. 193- 
214; Sir G. C. Lewis's Essays on the Admini- 
strations of Great Britain, 1864, pp. 417-75; 
Earle's English Premiers, 1871, ii. 206-8 ; S. 
Buxton's Finance and Politics, 1888, i. 15, 17, 
27, 126 ; Dowell's History of Taxes and Taxa- 
tion in England, 1884, ii. 260-272, 279-80, 290, 
303; Georgian Era, 1832 i. 417-18; Ryall's 
Portraits of Eminent Conservative Statesmen, 
2nd ser. ; Jordan's National Portrait Gallery, 
vol. ii. ; Times, 29 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1859 ; Stan- 

dard, 29 Jan. 1859; Allen's Lincolnshire, 1834, 
ii. 262 ; Brayley and Britton's Surrey, 1850, iii. 
481; G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, vi. 368-9; 
Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, iii. 137-8; 
Butler's Harrow School Lists, 1849, p. 54; Grad. 
Cantabr. 1856, p. 235; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886, iii. 1212; Lincoln's Inn Registers; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. viii. 187, 294 ; Offi- 
cial Ret, Memb. Parl. ii. 239, 251, 267, 279, 294, 
309; Haydn's Book of Dignities (1890); Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

PHILIPSE (1763-1852), general, fourth son 
of Colonel Beverley Robinson, by Susannah, 
daughter of Frederick Philipse of New York, 
was born near New York in September 1763. 
His grandfather, John Robinson, nephew of 
Bishop John Robinson (16oO-1723) [q. v.], 
went to America as secretary to the govern- 
ment of Virginia, and became president of 
the council in that colony. 

When the war of independence broke out, 
Frederick's father raised the loyal American 
regiment on behalf of the crown, and Fre- 
derick was appointed ensign in it in Fe- 
bruary 1777. In September 1778 he was 
transferred to the 17thfoot. He commanded a 
company at the battle of Horseneck in March 
1779, took part in the capture of Stony-point 
in the following June, and, being left in gar- 
rison there, was himself wounded and taken 
prisoner when the Americans recovered it 
on 15 July. He was promoted lieutenant 
in the 60th foot on 1 Sept., and transferred 
to the 38th foot on 4 Nov. 1780. He was 
released from his imprisonment and joined 
the latter regiment at Brooklyn at the end 
of that month, and took part in the capture 
of New London in September 1781. When 
the war came to an end the Robinsons were 
among the loyalists who suffered confisca- 
tion, but they received 17,000/. in compen- 
sation from the British government. The 
38th returned to England in 1784. On 
24 Nov. 1793 it embarked for the West 
Indies, as part of Sir Charles Grey's expe- 
dition. Robinson was present at the cap- 
ture of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guade- 
loupe, but was then invalided home. On 
3 July 1794 he became captain, and on 
1 Sept. he obtained a majority in the 127th 
foot, a regiment which was reduced not long 
afterwards. In September 1795 he passed 
to the 32nd foot. In May 1796 he was sent 
to Bedford as inspecting field officer for re- 
cruiting, and in February 1802 he was trans- 
ferred to London in the same capacity. The 
recruiting problem was an urgent and diffi- 
cult one at that time. Several of his pro- 
posals to increase the supply of recruits and 
to lessen desertion are given in the ' Royal 




Military Calendar ' (iii. 212). He took an 
active part in organising the volunteers, and 
received a valuable piece of plate from the 
Bank of England corps in acknowledgment 
of his services. 

He was made brevet lieutenant-colonel on 
1 Jan. 1800, and colonel on 25 July 1810. 
In September 1812, after being more than 
five years on half-pay, he was allowed to go 
to Spain as one of the officers selected to 
command brigades, much to Wellington's 
discontent (see his Letter of 22 Jan. 1813 
to Colonel Torrens). He was given a bri- 
gade of the fifth division, which formed part 
of Graham's corps in the campaign of 1813. 
Napier speaks of him as ' an inexperienced 
man but of a daring spirit,' and the manner 
in which he carried the village of Gamara 
Mayor in the battle of Vittoria, and held it 
against repeated attacks, obtained high praise 
both from Graham and from Wellington. 
Under a very heavy fire of artillery and 
musketry, the brigade advanced upon the 
village in columns of battalions without 
firing a shot. 

He took part in the siege of San Sebastian, 
and was present at the first assault on 
21 July. At the final assault on 31 Aug. 
the storming party consisted of his brigade, 
supplemented by volunteers, sent by Wel- 
lington as ' men who could show other 
troops how to mount a breach.' Robinson 
was severely wounded in the face ; but he 
was nevertheless actively engaged at the 
passage of the Bidassoa on 7 Oct. He served 
under Sir John Hope in the action of 9 Nov. 
on the lower Nivelle, and in the battle of the 
Nive (10 Dec.), where he was again severely 
wounded. In the latter the prompt arrival 
of his brigade to support the troops on 
whom the French attack first fell saved the 
British left from defeat. He took part in 
the blockade of Bayonne and in the repulse 
of the sortie of 14 April 1814, being in com- 
mand of the fifth division after the death of 
General Hay in that engagement. He was 
promoted major-general on 4 June 1814, 
and he received the medal with two clasps 
for Vittoria, San Sebastian, and Nive. 

At the close of the French war, he was 
selected to command one of the brigades 
which were sent from Wellington's army to 
America to serve in the war with the 
United States. His brigade (consisting of 
four infantry regiments, with a strength of 
3,782 men) embarked in June and arrived 
in Canada in August 1814. It formed part 
of the force with which Sir George Pre- 
vost [q. v.l in the following month made his 
unsuccessful attempt on Plattsburg. Robin- 
son's part in this engagement was to force 

the passage of the Saranac and escalade the 
enemy's works upon the heights, and two 
brigades were placed under him. He had 
already done the first part of his task when 
his advance was stopped by Prevost, who, 
seeing that the naval attack had failed, 
thought it necessary to abandon the enter- 
prise altogether, to the dissatisfaction of 
soldiers and sailors alike. 

In March 1816 Robinson left Canada for the 
West Indies, where he commanded the troops 
in the Windward and Leeward Islands till 
24 July 1821, and was for a time governor 
of Tobago. He became lieutenant-general 
on 27 May 1825, and colonel of the 59th 
regiment on 1 Dec. 1827. He had been made 
K.C.B. in January 1815, and in 1838 he re- 
ceived the G.C.B. He was transferred from 
the 59th to the 39th regiment on 15 June 
1840, and became general on 23 Nov. 1841. 
He died at Brighton on 1 Jan. 1852, being at 
that time the soldier of longest service in 
the British army. He was twice married : 
first, to Grace (1770-1806), daughter of 
Thomas Boles of Charleville; secondly, in 
1811, to Ann Fernyhough of Stafford. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 188; Eoyal Military 
Calendar; Wellington Despatches; Annual 
Eegister, 1814 ; Appleton's American Bio- 
graphy ; Ryerson's American Loyalists, ii. 
199.] . M. L. 

ROBINSON, GEORGE (1737-1801), 
bookseller, was born at Dalston in Cumber- 
land in 1737, and came up to London about 
1755. He was for some time in the house 
of John Rivington (1720-1792), publisher 
[q. v.] of St. Paul's Churchyard, from whom 
he went to Mr. Johnstone on Ludgate Hill. 
In 1763-4 he commenced business at Pater- 
noster Row, in partnership with John Ro- 
berts, who died about 1776. Robinson pur- 
chased many copyrights, and before 1780 
carried on a very large wholesale trade. In 
1784 he took into partnership his son George 
(d. 1811) and his brother John (1753-1813), 
who were his successors. They were fined, 
on 26 Nov. 1793, for selling copies of Paine's 
' Rights of Man.' In the opinion of Alder- 
man Cadell, ' of George Robinson's integrity 
too much cannot be said.' William West 
[q. v.], in his ' Recollections,' gives some anec- 
dotes of Robinson ' the king of booksellers ' 
and of his hospitality at his villa at 
Streatham. He died in Paternoster Row on 
6 June 1801. 

[Gent. Mag. 1801, i. 578; West's Recollections 
of an Old Bookseller, p. 92; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 445-9, vi. 282, ix. 542; Nichols's 
Illustr. viii. 469-70; Timperley's Encyclopaedia, 
1842, pp. 781, 808, 843.] H. R. T. 



ROBINSON, HASTINGS (1792-1806), 
divine, eldest son of R. Or. Robinson of Lich- 
field, by his wife Mary, daughter of Robert 
Thorp of Buxton, Derbyshire, was born at 
Lichtield in 1792. He went to Rugby in 
1806, and proceeded to St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. in 1815, 
M.A. in 1818, and D.D. in 1836. He was a 
fellow and assistant-tutor from 1816 to 1827, 
when he was appointed curate to Charles 
Simeon [q. v.] He stood unsuccessfully for 
the regius professorship of Greek at Cam- 
bridge, and was Cambridge examiner at 
Rugby, where he founded a theological prize. 

On 26 Oct. 1827 he was appointed by his 
college to the living of Great Warley, near 
Brentwood, Essex. He was collated to an 
ho.norary canonry in Rochester Cathedral 
11 March 1862. 

Robinson was an earnest evangelical 
churchman (cf. his Church Reform on Chris- 
tian Principles, London, 1833). In 1837 he 
drew up and presented two memorials to the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
(London, 1837, 8vo), protesting against cer- 
tain publications as contrary to the work of 
the Reformation. He died at Great Warley 
on 18 May 1866, and was buried there. He 
married, in 1828, Margaret Ann, daughter 
of Joseph Clay of Burton-on-Trent, who pre- 
deceased him. 

Robinson, who was elected F.S.A. on 
20 May 1824, achieved some excellent lite- 
rary work. He edited, with notes, the ' Elec- 
tra' of Euripides, Cambridge, 1822, 8vo; 
' Acta Apostolorum variorum notis turn dic- 
tionem turn materiam illustrantibus,' Cam- 
bridge, 1824, 8vo (2nd edit. 1839) ; and Arch- 
bishop Ussher's ' Bodv of Divinity,' London, 
1841, 8vo. For the Parker Society he pre- 
pared ' The Zurich Letters, being the Cor- 
respondence of English Bishops and others 
with the Swiss Reformers during the Reign 
of Elizabeth,' translated and edited, 2 vols., 
Cambridge, 1842 and 1845, 8vo, as well as 
' Original Letters relative to the English Re- 
formation, also from the Archives of Zurich,' 
2 vols., Cambridge, 1846 and 1847. 

[Luard's Graduati Cantabr. ; Foster's Index 
Ecclesiasticus, p. 152 ; Note from A. A. Arnold, 
esq., chapter clerk, Kochester; Darling's Cyclo- 
paedia, ii. 2570 ; Martin's Handbook to Contemp. 
Biogr. p. 221 ; Rugby School Register, i. 94 ; 
Chelmsford Chronicle, 25 May 1866; Ipswich 
Journal, 26 May 1866 ; Gent. Mag. July 1866, 
p. 114; Lists of the Society of Antiquaries ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of English Literature; Simms's Bibl. 
Staffordiensis.] C. F. S. 

ROBINSON, HENRY (1553 P-1616), 
bishop of Carlisle, a native of Carlisle, was 
born there probably in 1553 (mon. inscript. in 

The Hist, and Antiquities of Carlisle, p. 180). 
He became a tabarder of Queen's College, 
Oxford, 17 June 1572, and graduated B.A. 

12 July 1572, M.A. 20 June 1575, B.D. 
10 July 1582, and D.D. 6 July 1590. In 
1575 he became fellow of Queen's, and prin- 
cipal of St. Edmund Hall on 9 May 1576 
(GuTCH ; WOOD, Hist, and Antiq. of Oxford, 
p. 664 ; FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. ; CLARK, Ox- 
ford Register}. In 1580 he was rector of 
Fairstead in Essex (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon.) 
On 5 May 1581 he was elected provost of 
Queen's, when he resigned the principalship 
of St. Edmund Hall. He was a self-denying 
and constitutional provost, restoring to the 
college certain sources of revenue which pre- 
vious provosts had converted to their own 
uses, and the appointment of the chaplains, 
which previous provosts had usurped. With 
the assistance of Sir Francis Walsingham, he 
in 1582 obtained a license in mortmain and 
indemnity for the college. He also gave to 
it 300^. for the use of poor young men, besides 
plate and books. In 1585 he, along with the 
fellows, preferred a bill in parliament for con- 
firmation of the college charter (State Papers, 
Dom ., Eliz. clxxvi. 1 7, 28 Jan. 1585). Seven 
years later, in 1592, on the occasion of the 
queen's visit to Oxford, he was one of those 
appointed to see the streets well ordered 
(CLARK, Oxford Register, i. 230). He also 
served as chaplain to Grindal, who left him 
the advowson of a prebend in Lichfield or 
St. Davids (STRYPE, Grindal, p. 426 ; Hist, 
and Antiq. of Carlisle, ubi supra). 

Robinson was elected bishop of Carlisle on 
27 May 1598, confirmed 22 July, and conse- 
crated the next day. In 1599 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical 
causes, and subsequently numerous references 
to him occur in the state papers, as arresting 
or conferring with catholics in the north of 
England (see State Papers, Eliz. cclxxiii. 56, 
26 Dec. 1599). On 1 Nov. 1601 he was 
entered a member of Gray's Inn, and two 
years later took part in the Hampton Court 
conference (FOSTER, Registers of Grays Inn; 
BARLOW, Summe and Substance of the Con- 
ference). In 1607 he appears as one of the 
border commissioners (State Papers, James I, 
xxvi. 18, 20 Jan. 1607). He preached a ser- 
mon on 1 Cor. x. 3 at Greystoke church 

13 Aug. 1609, and from that year till his 
death held the rectory of that parish ' in com- 
mendam ' ( Transactions of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland Antiq. Soc. i. 338, 339). In 
1613 he filed a bill in the exchequer court 
against George Denton of Cardew Hall for 
refusing all suit to his lordship's courts and 
mills. By obtaining a decree in his own 
favour he secured the rights of the see against 



that mesne manor (Hist, and Antiq. of Car- 
lisle, p. 216). Robinson died of the plague at 
Rose Castle, 19 June 1616, and was buried 
the same day in the cathedral. He bequeathed 
plate and linen to Queen's College, and the 
college held a special funeral service for him. 
A brass and inscription were erected by his 
brother in Carlisle Cathedral. A portrait is 
in Queen's College common room. 

[Information kindly given by the Kev. the 
Provost of Queen's College, Oxford; Wood's 
Athene Oxon. ii. 857 ; Hist, and Antiq. of Ox- 
ford, p. 16; Granger's Biogr. Diet.; Strype's 
Whitgift, ii. 115, 405; Grindal, p. 603; Fuller's 
Church Hist. ii. 294, v. 266, 444; Challoner's 
Memoirs of Missionary Priests.] W. A. S. 

ROBINSON, HENRY (1605 P-1664 ?), 
merchant and economic and controversial 
writer, born about 1605, was the eldest son 
of William Robinson of London, mercer, 
and of Katherine, daughter of Giffard Wat- 
kins of Watford, Northampton. He entered 
St. John's College, Oxford, matriculating on 
9 Nov. 1621, being then sixteen years of age 
(Visitation of London, Harl. Soc. ii. 204; 
CLARK, Oxf. Registers, ii. 399; FOSTER, 
Alumni Oxon.*) He does not seem to have 
taken a degree, and was probably taken from 
Oxford and put to business or sent abroad. 
In 1626 he was admitted to the freedom of 
the Mercers' Company by patrimony. In 
his twenty-eighth year he was residing at 
Leghorn, in the duchy of Tuscany (Robin- 
son's tract Libertas, infra, p. 11). In various 
of his publications he styles himself 'gentle- 
man,' but it is certain that he continued in 
business as a merchant in London. In 
1650 he submitted to the council of state 
certain propositions on the subject of the 
exchange which argued business ability and 
knowledge (State Papers, Interregnum, ix. 
64, May 1650, reproduced almost verbatim 
in No. 11 infra). In the following Decem- 
ber, Charles, lord Stanhope, issued to Robin- 
son a letter of attorney, constituting him 
his agent for drawing up a petition to the 
council of state concerning his right to the 
foreign letter office, and promising to Robin- 
son and his heirs the sole use thereof, with 
half the clear profits (ib. xi. 117, 22 Dec. 
1650). Stanhope's title to the post devolved 
from a patent of 15 James I. On this instru- 
ment Robinson himself subsequently laid 
claim to the post office, and there are nume- 
rous references to the claim in the state papers 
of 1652-4. In the end Robinson consented 
to relinquish his claim, and on 29 June 
1653 he tendered 8,041/. per annum to the 
'Posts Committee' for the farm of the post 
office inland and foreign (ib. xxxvii. 152). 

Whether he obtained the farm or not does not 
appear, but subsequently, at the Restoration, 
he claimed to have increased the value of the 
re venue to the crown from the post office from 
3,000/. to 30,000/. per annum (State Papers, 
Dom. cxlii. 191). In 1653 he is noticed as 
of the excise office as comptroller for the 
sale of the king's lands, and as having at- 
tended for three years as a member of the 
committee for taking the accounts of the 
Commonwealth (xxxii. 50, 18 Jan. 1655, and 
xxxiii.ol, lOFeb.1653), forwhich heclaimed 
200/. a year. He survived the Restoration, 
and in 1664-5 he petitioned for a patent for 
quenching fire and preserving ships in war, 
but was apparently dead before 1665, when 
his son petitioned Charles for admission to 
the public service (ib. February 1604-5 and 
cxlii. 191). 

Robinson's literary activity was remark- 
able, both in quality and extent. He was 
perhaps the first Englishman to enunciate 
with clearness the principle of liberty of con- 
science; he propounded elaborate schemes of 
legal reform, and his writings on trade are even 
now deserving of careful attention. Prynne, 
whose religious and political views Robinson 
attacked, described him in his ' Discovery of 
New Lights ' as a merchant by profession who 
' hath maintained a private printing press, and 
sent for printers from Amsterdam, wherewith 
he hath printed most of the late scandalous 
libellous books against the parliament, and 
though he hath been formerly sent for by 
the committee of examinations for this offence, 
which was passed by in silence, yet he hath 
since presumed and proceeded herein in a 
far higher strain than before ' (New Lights, 
pp. 9, 40). 

Robinson is doubtless author of many works 
besides the following, of which the authen- 
ticity is certain : 1. ' England's Safety in 
Trade's Encrease most humbly presented to 
the High Court of Parliament,' London, 1641 ; 
reprinted in W. A. Shaw's ' Select Tracts and 
Documents,' 1896. 2. 'Libertas, or Reliefe 
to the English Captives in Algier, briefly 
discoursing how such as are in Slavery may 
be soonest set at Liberty, others preserved 
therein, and the Great Turke reduc'd to serve 
and keepe the Peace Inviolate to a greater 
Enlargement of Trade and Priviledge than 
ever the English Nation hitherto enjoyed 
in Turkey. Presented ... to Parliament 
by Henry Robinson, gent.,' London, 1642. 
3. 'Liberty of Conscience, or the Sole Means 
to obtaine Peace and Truth, not onely recon- 
ciling his Majesty with his Subjects, but all 
Christian States and Princes to one another, 
with the freeest passage for the Gospel,' Lon- 
don, 1643 (Thomasson's date is 24 March 



1643-4; cf. GARDINER, Civil War, i. 290; 
and art. by Mr. C. H. Firth in the English 
Historical Review, ix. 715). 4. 'An Answer 
to Mr. William Prynne's Twelve Questions 
concerning Church Government ; at the end 
whereof are mentioned severall grosse Ab- 
surdities and dangerous Consequences of 
highest nature which do necessarily follow 
the Tenets of Presbyteriall or any other be- 
sides a perfect Independent Government, to- 
gether with certain Queries,' [1644], no place, 
no date. 5. ' John the Baptist, forerunner 
of Christ Jesus, or a necessity for Liberty of 
Conscience as the only means under Heaven 
to strengthen Children weak in the Faith,' no 
place, no date [? September 1644]. 6. ' Cer- 
taine brief Observations and Anti-queries on 
Master Prin his 12 Questions about Church 
Grovernme nt, wherein is modestly shewed how 
unuseful and frivolous they are. . . . By a 
well-wisher to the Truth and Master Prin,' 
1644. 7. 'An Answer to Mr. John Dury his 
Letter which he writ from The Hague to Mr. 
Thomas Goodwin, Mr. Philip Nye, and Mr. 
Sam. Hartlib, concerning the manner of the 
Reformation of the Church and answering 
other Matters of consequence; and King 
James his Judgment concerning the Book of 
Common Prayer, written by a Gentleman of 
tried Integrity,' London, 1644 (Thomasson's 
date 17 Aug.) 8. 'The Falsehood of William 
Prynne's Truth triumphing in the Antiquity of 
Popish Princes and Parliaments : to which he 
attributes a sole sovereign legislative coercive 
Power in matters of Religion, discovered to 
be full of Absurdities, Contradictions, Sacri- 
lege, and to make more in favour of Rome 
and Antichrist than all the Books and Pam- 
phlets which were published, whether by 
papall or episcopall Prelates or Parasites 
since the Reformation . . .,' London, 1645. 
9. ' Some few Considerations propounded as 
so many Scruples by Mr. Henry Robinson in 
a Letter to Mr. John Dury upon his Epistolary 
Discourse, with Mr. Dury's answer thereto 
... by a well-wilier to the Truth,' 1646 
(Thomasson's date 18 July; pp. 1-10 Henry 
Robinson to John Dury, London, 1644, Nov. 5 ; 
pp. 11-31 John Dury to his loving friend in 
Christ Henry Robinson). 10. 'A Short Dis- 
course between Monarchical and Aristocrati- 
cal Government, or a sober Persuasive of all 
true-hearted Englishmen to a willing con- 
junction with the Parliament of England in 
setting up the Government of a Common- 
wealth. By a true Englishman and a well- 
wisher to the good of his Nation,' London, 
1649. 11. 'Briefe Considerations concern- 
ing the Advancement of Trade and Naviga- 
tion,' 1649 (Thomasson's date 8 Jan. 1649- 
1650). 12. 'The Office of Addresses and 

Encounters where all People of each rancke 
and quality may receive Direction and Ad- 
vice for the most cheap and speedy way of 
attaining whatsoever they can lawfully de- 
sire ; or the only course for poor People to 
get speedy Employment and to keep others 
from approaching Poverty for want of Em- 
ployment ; to the multiplying of Trade, &c. 
By Henry Robinson,' 1650 (Thomasson's date 
29 Sept.) ; a proposition for establishing in 
Threadneedle Street a registry office or ex- 
change mart for almost every business purpose 
conceivable. 13. ' Certain Considerations in 
order to a more speedy, cheap, and equal dis- 
tribution of Justice throughout the Nation, 
most humbly presented to the high Court of 
Parliament of the most hopeful Common- 
wealth of England. By Henry Robinson/ 
London, 1651 ; in answer to this William 
Walwin wrote ' Juries Justified,' 2 Dec. 
1651. 14. 'Certaine Proposals in order to 
the People's Freedome and Accommodation in 
some particulars with the Advancement of 
Trade and Navigation of this Commonwealth 
in general humbly tendred to the view of 
this Parliament. By Henry Robinson,'Lon- 
don, 1652. 15. ' Certaine Proposals in order 
to a new modelling of the Lawes and Law 
Proceedings, for a more speedy, cheap, and 
equall distribution of Justice throughout the 
Commonwealth ... as also certain Con- 
siderations for the Advancement of Trade 
and Navigation humbly propounded to ... 
Parliament by Henry Robinson,' London, 

[Authorities given above ; information kindly 
supplied by C. H. Firth, esq.] W. A. S. 

1867), diarist, youngest son of a tanner who 
died in 1781, was born at Bury St. Ed- 
munds on 13 March 1775. After educa- 
tion at small private schools, he was articled 
in 1790 to Mr. Francis, an attorney at Col- 
chester. He heard Erskine conduct a case at 
the assizes, and fifty-four years afterwards 
he had a perfect recollection of the charm in 
the voice and fascination in the eye of the 
great orator. At Colchester he heard John 
Wesley preach one of his last sermons. In 
1796 he entered the office of a solicitor in 
Chancery Lane, London ; but in 1798 an 
uncle died, leaving Robinson a sum yielding 
a yearly income of 1001. Proud of his inde- 
pendence and eager for travel, he went abroad 
in 1800. He was in Frankfort when it was 
occupied by the French. After acquiring a 
knowledge of German, he set out on a tour 
through Germany and Bohemia, chiefly on 
foot, and in 1801 reached Weimar, where he 
was introduced to Goethe and Schiller. He 




settled at Jena, where he was matriculated 
as a member of the university on 20 Oct. 
1802. The fees did not exceed half a guinea ; 
his lodgings cost him under 71. a year. He 
made the acquaintance of Madame de Stael, 
and imparted to her the information about 
German philosophy which appears in her 
work on Germany, He left Jena in the 
autumn of 1805, returning home by way of 
Hamburg, and crossing the sea in the packet 
which carried the news of the battle of 

Having a thorough knowledge of German, 
he first tried to add to his small income by 
translating German pamphlets. After vainly 
seeking a place in the diplomatic service, and 
offering his services to Fox, who was then 
foreign secretary, he made the acquaintance 
of John Walter, the second of the dynasty, 
from whom he accepted the post of 'Times ' 
correspondent at Altona. His letters ' From 
the Banks of the Elbe,' between March and 
August 1807, gave the English public the 
fullest information then obtainable concern- 
ing affairs on the continent. He was com- 
pelled to return home, when Bonaparte had 
made Denmark his vassal, and then he be- 
came foreign editor of the ' Times,' being 
able, from personal experience, to print in 
that newspaper facts which helped the mi- 
nistry to defend their policy in ordering the 
bombardment of Copenhagen and the cap- 
ture of the Danish fleet. 

When the Spaniards rose against the 
French in 1808, Robinson was intrusted by 
the conductors of the ' Times ' with the duty 
of special correspondent in the Peninsula, 
being the first English journalist who acted in 
that'capacity. He landed at Coruna, whence 
he forwarded a series of letters headed ' Shores 
of the Bay of Biscay ' and ' Coruna,' the first 
letter appearing on 9 Aug. 1808, the last on 
26 Jan. 1809. During his stay Lord and Lady 
Holland arrived, accompanied by Lord John 
Russell, a lad of sixteen, whom Robinson 
styled ' a Lord Something Russell.' Robin- 
son was in the rear of the army under Sir John 
Moore at Coruna. He heard the cannonad- 
ing, saw the wounded and French prisoners 
brought to Coruna, and waited till the enemy 
had been driven back, when he embarked for 
England/reaching Falmouth on the 26th. He 
reoccupied his post in the ' Times ' office till 
29 Sept. 1809. In November he began to 
keep his terms at the Middle Temple. He 
was called to the bar on 8 May 1813, and 
joined the Norfolk circuit, of which he rose 
to be the leader. His first cause a success- 
ful defence of a prisoner tried in August 1813 
at Norwich for murder was humorously 
apostrophised by Robinson's friend, Charges 

Lamb, as ' Thou great first cause, least un- 
derstood.' Robinson made a resolve, which 
he kept, of leaving the bar as soon as his 
net yearly income should amount to 500/. 
In 1828 he retired, and he said that the two 
wisest acts he had performed were joining 
the bar and leaving it. 

Robinson had acquired the friendship of 
the most notable men in this country, France, 
and Germany during the earlier years of this 
century. Lamb, Coleridge, Wordsworth, and 
Southey are a few out of his many intimate 
friends. He accompanied Wordsworth on 
tours in Scotland, Wales, and Switzerland, 
and was with the poet in Italy from March to 
August 1837 ; Words worth dedicated to him 
the ' Memorials ' of this tour, published in 
1842, in verses beginning ' Companion ! by 
whose buoyant spirit cheered.' As the valued 
friend of great men his name will survive. 
From the ample store of his personal experi- 
ence he contributed liberally to Mrs. Austin's 
' Characteristics of Goethe,' to Gilchrist's 
' Memoirs of Blake,' and to similar works. 
Apart from his posthumous 'Diary,' he wrote 
little that is noteworthy ; but he was asso- 
ciated with many notable institutions, being 
a founder of the Athenaeum Club and of Uni- 
versity College, London. The collection of 
Flaxman's drawings and casts at University 
College was enlarged by gifts from him, and 
its maintenance was insured by a legacy. 
He was elected F.S.A. in 1829, and contri- 
buted in 1833 a paper on ' The Etymology of 
the Mass' (connecting it with the English 
suffix ' mas ' in Christmas, Archceoloyia, xxxvi.) 
His bodily health and faculties remained un- 
impaired until his death, at the age of ninety- 
one, at his house, 30 Russell Square, on 5 Feb. 
1867. He was buried at Highgate, where a 
long inscription marks his grave. He was 

As a conversationalist he made his mark, 
and his breakfasts were as famous as those 
of Rogers. He left behind him a ' Diary,' 
' Letters,' and voluminous memoranda, which 
give a truthful and unrivalled picture of social 
and literary life and literary men, both in this 
country and on the continent, during the first 
half of this century. The originals, including 
thirty-five closely written volumes of 'Diary,' 
thirty volumes of 'Journals' of tours, thirty- 
two volumes of ' Letters ' (with index), four 
volumes of ' Reminiscences,' and one of 'Anec- 
dotes,' are preserved at Dr. Williams's Li- 
brary in Gordon Square. Robinson had in- 
tended to sift these himself. A careful but 
too fragmentary selection was made from 
them by Thomas Sadler, and published as 
the ' Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspon- 
dence of H. Crabb Robinson' (London, 1869, 



3 vols. 8vo; 3rd edit. 2 vols. 1872); prefixed 
is a portrait, at the age of eighty-six, engraved 
from a photograph by W. Holl,and appended 
are some vivid recollections of Robinson by 
Augustus de Morgan. There is a portrait 
panel, by Edward Arinitage, at University 
Hall, Gordon Square, where there is also a 
.bust, executed by Ewing in Rome about 1831. 

[Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence of 
Henry Crabb Robinson, by Dr. Thomas Sadler; 
Letters of Charles Lamb, ed. Ainger.] F. R. 

ROBINSON, HERCULES (1789-1864), 
admiral, born on 16 March 1789, was the 
eldest son of Christopher Robinson, rector of 
Granard, co. Longford, by Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Sir Hercules Langrishe, bart., 
of Knocktopher, co. Kilkenny. Sir Bryan 
Robinson [q. v.] was his brother. He entered 
the navy in June 1800, in the Penelope, with 
Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Blackwood 
[q. v.j, with whom he was also in the 
Euryalus at Trafalgar, and in the Ajax, till 
moved, in January 1807, to the Ocean flag- 
ship of Lord Collingwood in the Mediter- 
ranean. Two months later he was appointed 
to the Glory as acting-lieutenant, in which 
rank he was confirmed on 25 April 1807. 
In December he was moved to the Warspite, 
again with Blackwood, and in 1809 to the 
Temeraire in the Baltic, from which, on 
30 Aug., he was promoted to the command 
of the Prometheus in the Baltic during 1810, 
and afterwards in the Atlantic, ranging as 
far as the Canary Islands, and even the 
West Indies. The Prometheus was an ex- 
tremely dull sailer, incapable of improve- 
ment, so that any vessel she chased left her 
hopelessly astern ; and it was owing only 
to the good fortune and judgment of her 
commander that she managed to pick up 
some prizes. On 7 June 1814 Robinson was 
advanced to post rank. From September 
1817 to the end of 1820 he commanded the 
Favourite on the Cape of Good Hope and 
St. Helena station, and afterwards on the 
east coast of South America. In 1820 he 
was at Newfoundland, and was appointed 
by the commander-in-chief to regulate the 
fishery of the coast of Labrador, which he 
did with tact, temper, and judgment. He 
had no further service afloat, and in 1846 
accepted the retirement, becoming in due 
course rear-admiral on 9 Oct. 1849, vice- 
admiral on 21 Oct. 1856, and admiral on 
15 Jan. 1862. In 1842 he was sheriff of 
Westmeath. In 1856 he made a yachting 
voyage to the Salvages, a group of barren 
rocks midway between Madeira and the 
Canaries, on one of which a vast treasure, 
the spoil of a Spanish galleon, was said to be 


buried. When in the Prometheus Robinson 
had been sent to look for this treasure, but 
met with no success. A further search was 
rather the excuse than the reason for revisit- 
ing the islets in the yacht, but the voyage 
gave him an opportunity of writing a small 
volume of reminiscences, which he published 
under the title of ' Sea-drift' (8vo, 1858, with 
portrait). He died at Southsea on 15 May 
1864. He married, in 1822, Frances Eliza- 
beth, only child of Henry Wedman Wood of 
Rosmead, Westmeath, and had issue six sons, 
one of whom, Sir Hercules F. A. Robinson, 
administrator in South Africa, was created 
Lord Rosmead in 1896. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet.; Gent. Mag. 
1864, i. 814 ; Foster's Baronetage, s.n. Langrishe ; 
Navy Lists.] J. K. L. 

ROBINSON, HUGH (1584 P-1655), 
archdeacon of Gloucester, born in Anglesea 
about 1584, was a son of Nicholas Robinson 
(d. 1585) [q. v.], bishop of Bangor (WooD, 
Athena Oxon, ii. 798). He was admitted to 
Winchester School in 1596 (KiRBT, Win- 
chester Scholars, p. 157), and matriculated at 
New College, Oxford, on 16 Dec. 1603 (CLARK, 
Oxford Registers). In 1605 he was elected 
perpetual fellow, and held his fellowship till 
1614. He graduated B.A. on 21 April 1607, 
M.A. 23 Jan. 1610-11, B.D. and D.D. on 
21 June 1627. He was chief master of Win- 
chester School from 1613 to 1627 (KiRur, 
ubi supra, p. 165), and became successively 
rector of Llanbedr, with the vicarage of 
Caerhun in 1613; of Trevriw (Carnarvon) in 
1618 ; of Bighton, Hampshire, in 1622 ; of 
Shabbington, Buckinghamshire; canon of 
Lincoln on 24 Feb. 1624-5 (Ls NBVE,.Farfi); 
archdeacon of Gloucester on 5 June 1634 (t'6.) 
He was rector of Dursley from 1625 to 1647. 
In his archdeaconry he seems to have been 
moderate in his proceedings (Cal. StatePapers, 
Dom. ccclxxviii. No. 14). 

During the civil war he lost his canonry 
and archdeaconry, was seized at his living at 
Dursley and ill-treated ; but he took the cove- 
nant, wrote in defence of it, and accepted the 
living of Hinton, near Winchester, from the 
parliament (WALKER, Sufferings of the Clergy, 

1. 33; Addit. MS. 15671, f. 6). He died on 
30 March 1655, and was buried on the fol- 
lowing 18 April in the chancel of St. Giles- 
in-the-Fields, London. 

He wrote: 1. An 8vo volume, published in 
Oxford in 1616, containing 'Preces' for the 
use of Winchester School, in Latin and Eng- 
lish, ' Grammaticalia Quaedam,' in Latin and 
English ; and ' Antique Historiae Synopsis,' 

2. 'Scholse Wintoniensis Phrases Latinse,' 
London, 1654 ; 2nd edit, by his son Nicholas, 




London, 1658 ; ' corrected and much aug- 
mented with Poeticals added, and these four 
Tracts: (i.)Of Words not to be used by ele- 
gant Latinists; (ii.) The difference of many 
Words like one another in Sound or Signifi- 
cation ; (iii.) Some Words governing a Sub- 
junctive Mood not mentioned in Lillie's 
" Grammar ; " (iv.) Concerning Xpet'a and 
Tt>o>fj.r) for entering Children upon making of 
themes ; dedicated to Sir Robert Wallop, 
Sir Nicholas Love, and Sir Thomas Hussey ; ' 
3rd edit. London, 1661 , 8 vo ; 4th edit. London, 
1664, 12mo; 8th edit. 1673, 8vo; llth edit. 
1685, 12mo. 3. 'Annalium mundi universa- 
lium, &c., tomus unicus,' London, 1677, fol., 
revised before publication by Dr. Thomas 
Pierce q. v.], dean of Salisbury. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 395 ; Robinson's 
Works.] W. A. S. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (d. 1598), president 
of St. John's College, Oxford, was matricu- 
lated as sizar of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 
May 1550, from Richmondshire. He gra- 
duated B.A. in January 1553-4, was elected 
fellow of his hall, 1554, and proceeded M.A. 
1557. He was recommended by the master 
of Trinity, Robert Beaumont (d. 1567) [q. v.], 
to Cecil, with Matthew Hutton, as a fit per- 
son to be made master of Pembroke Hall, 
but Hutton was chosen. On 19 May 1563 
he was incorporated at Oxford. He was no- 
minated by Sir Thomas White, the founder, 
to be president of St. John's College, Oxford, 
on the resignation of William Stocke, and 
was elected by the fellows, 4 Sept. 1564. He 
resigned 10 July 1572. He supplicated for 
the degree of B.D. 22 March 1566-7, and was 
made D.D. at Cambridge, 11 June 1583. 

Robinson was a popular preacher, and held 
many preferments. He was rector of East 
Treswell, Nottinghamshire, 1556 ; of Fulbeck, 
Lincolnshire, 1560 ; of Thornton, Yorkshire, 
1560 ; of Great Easton, Essex, 1566-76 ; of 
Kingston Bagpuze, Berkshire, 1568 ; of Brant 
Broughton, Lincolnshire, 1575 ; of Fishtoft, 
Lincolnshire, 1576 ; of Caistor, Lincolnshire, 
1576; of Gransden, Cambridgeshire, 1587, 
and of Somersham, Huntingdonshire, 1589. 

On 3 Aug. 1572 he was installed precentor 
of Lincoln Cathedral. On 14 July 1573 he 
was collated to the prebend of Welton 
Beckhall, in which he was installed 7 Sept. 
He resigned this prebend on being collated 
to the prebend of Caistor (installed 9 Oct. 
1574); and in 1581 he became prebendary of 
Leicester St. Margaret (collated 29 March, 
installed 9 July). On 31 May 1584 he was 
installed archdeacon of Bedford, and in 
1586 he held the archdeaconry of Lincoln. 
In 1584, during the vacancy of the see of 

Lincoln, he was appointed commissary to 
exercise episcopal jurisdiction in the diocese, 
by Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury. In 
1594 he received a canonry of Gloucester. 
He died in March 1597-8, and was buried at 
Somersham, Huntingdonshire. John Robin- 
son [q. v.], pastor of the pilgrim fathers, has 
been very doubtfully claimed as his son. 

[St. John's College MSS. ; Eawlinson MSS. ; 
Cooper's Alumni Cantabrigipnses,ii. 235 ; Wood's 
Athenas Oxon. and Fasti; Rfgistrum Academ. 
Cantabrig. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Eegister of 
University of Oxford, ed. Boase (Oxford His- 
torical Society) ; Le Neve's Fasti ; Wilson's His- 
tory of Merchant Taylors' School ; Willis's Cathe- 
drals.] W. H. H. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1576 P-1625), pastor 
of the pilgrim fathers, a native of Lincoln- 
shire, according to Bishop Hall (Common 
Apoloffie, 1610, p. 125), was born about 1576. 

His early career is involved in obscurity. 
Wide acceptance has been given to Hunter's 
identification of the pastor with John Robin- 
son who was admitted as a sizar at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, on 9 April 1592 
(his tutor being John Jegon [q. v.]), who gra- 
duated B.A. in February 1596, and was ad- 
mitted a fellow in 1598. The college books 
describe him variously as 'Lincolniensis' and 
' Notingamiensis,' and Hunter conjectures 
that he was born at Gainsborough, Lincoln- 
shire, divided from Nottinghamshire by the 
Trent; a conjecture which the parish register 
in its damaged state leaves undecided. 

Mr. Alexander Brown, in his ' Pilgrim 
Fathers' (1895), conjectures that the pastor 
was born in Lincoln, and was the son of John 
Robinson, D.D. (d/1598) [q. v.], precentor of 
Lincoln from 1572, and prebendary from 1573. 
For this there is no evidence ; baptisms in 
Lincoln Cathedral are entered in the register 
of St. Mary Magdalene, which only begins 
in the seventeenth century. 

Some details in the early career of a third 
contemporary John Robinson suggest a 
likelihood of his identity with the pastor, 
but at a critical point the argument breaks 
down. Robert Robinson (d. September 1617), 
rector of Saxlingham Nethergate and Saxling- 
ham Thorpe, Norfolk, had a son John, who was 
baptised at Saxlingham on 1 April 1576. This 
John Robinson is probably to be identified 
with the John Robinson, admitted as a sizar 
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, on 2 March 
1592-3, who graduated M.A. 1600, B.D. 

The Saxlingham registers further show 
that John Robinson, clerk, was married on 
24 July 1604 to Anne Whitfield. The Nor- 
wich diocesan records state that John Robin- 
son, B.D. (doubtless the Emmanuel graduate), 



was appointed perpetual curate of Great Yar- 
mouth in 1609, was then aged 34, and was a 
native of Saxlingham. A serious obstacle 
to the endeavour to identify this Yarmouth 
curate with the pastor of the pilgrim fathers 
is raised by the appearance of the year 1609 
in this entry. Neale, the New England his- 
torian, asserts, in his ' History of the Puri- 
tans,' that the pastor of the pilgrim fathers 
was ' beneficed about Yarmouth,' and the Yar- 
mouth corporation records of 1608 mention 
* Mr. Robinson the pastor ' (JOHN BROWNE, 
Congregationalism in Norfolk and Suffolk). 
But in 1608 the pastor left England, and he 
is not known to have returned. 

It is very probable that Kobinson the pastor 
studied at Cambridge during the last decade 
of the seventeenth century, and perhaps he 
came under the personal influence of William 
Perkins [q. v.] In early life he held ' cure 
and charge ' of souls in Norwich, and ' cer- 
teyn citizens were excommunicated for re- 
sorting vnto and praying with ' him (AiJfs- 
WORTH, Counter-poyson, 1608 p. 246, 1642 
p. 145). Robinson himself mentions his 
residence at Norwich in his ' People's Plea ' 
(1618), dedicated to his ' Christian friends 
in Norwich and thereabouts.' Hall confi- 
dently asserts ( Common Apologia,^. 145) that 
Robinson's separation from the established 
church was due to his failing to obtain ' the 
mastershippe of the hospital! at Norwich, or 
a lease from that citie' (presumably of a place 
of worship). Later writers speak of him 
as having held a Norfolk benefice perhaps 
the Yarmouth curacy already noticed and 
as having been suspended. About 1607 
Robinson, according to a guess of Hunter, 
seems to have joined the ' gathered church ' 
meeting at Scrooby Manor, Nottinghamshire, 
the residence of William Brewster [q. v.], of 
which Richard Clifton [q. v.] was pastor. 
Clifton himself held a living, but there are 
other instances of beneficed clergy who at 
the same time were members of congrega- 
tional churches. Robinson, as Hall observes, 
had been influenced by John Smyth, to 
whom the Scrooby church owed its origin ; 
but he did not follow Smyth's later views. 
In 1606 Smyth emigrated to Amsterdam, 
where he became an Arminian and a baptist. 
In August 1608 Clifton also emigrated to 
Amsterdam with some of the Scrooby con- 
gregation ; later in the year Robinson fol- 
lowed with others, who had made several 
ineffectual attempts to obtain a passage. 

At Amsterdam the emigrants joined the 
separatist church which had Francis Johnson 
(1562-1618) [q. v.] as its pastor, and Ains- 
worth as its teacher. The prospect of dis- 
sensions on church government which broke 

out in this church in the following year may 
have determined Robinson's contingent not 
to settle at Amsterdam. Many of them were 
weavers, and at Leyden there was employ- 
ment for cloth-weavers. On 12 Feb. 1609 
they obtained permission from the authorities 
at Leyden, and removed thither by 1 May. 
Robinson was publicly ordained as their 
pastor; Brewster was a ruling elder; the 
community numbered about one hundred, 
and increased to three hundred ; their form 
of church government was congregational. 

At Leyden, which had not the trading 
advantages of a port, their life was hard. 
They maintained an excellent character, 
the authorities contrasting their diligence, 
honesty, and peaceableness with the behaviour 
of the Walloons. Bradford says that more 
' public favour' would have been shown them 
but for fear of ' giving offence to the state 
of England.' There is no truth in the state- 
ment, gathered by Prince from old people at 
Leyden in 1714, that one of the city churches 
was granted for their worship. In 1610 
Henry Jacob (1563-1624) [q. v.] went from 
Middelburg to Leyden to consult Robinson 
on matters of church government. In January 
1611 Robinson and three others bought, for 
eight thousand guilders, a house ' by the 
belfry;' the conveyance is dated 5 May 1611, 
possession was obtained on 1 May 1612 (there 
had evidently been difficulty in raising the 
purchase money), and the building was con- 
verted into a dwelling and meeting-house. 
In the rear twenty-one cottages were erected 
for poorer emigrants. 

Some time before 1612 Robinson had cor- 
responded, about terms of communion, with 
William Ames (1570-1633) [q. v.], then at 
The Hague. These ' private letters ' were 
communicated by Ames to 'The Prophane 
Schisme of the Brownists,' 1612, pp. 47 seq., 
a composite work, fathered by Christopher 
Lawne and three others ; Ames and Robert 
Parker ( 1564 P-1614) [q. v.] also contributed 
to it. George Hornius (Hist. Eccles. 1665, 
p. 232) thinks Ames and Parker modified 
Robinson's views : this does not appear to 
have been the case. There may be some 
basis of fact for the story of a three days' 
disputation at Leyden in 1613 between 
Robinson and Episcopius ; but that it was 
undertaken by Robinson, at the request of 
Polyander (Jan Kerckhoven) and the city 
ministers (BRADFORD), or held in the uni- 
versity ( WINSLOW), seems improbable. The 
university records are silent about it, and at 
Leyden the party of Episcopius was in the 
ascendant. On 5 Sept. 1615 Robinson was 
admitted a member of the university, by per- 
mission of the magistrates, as a student of 





theology ; his age is given as 39 ; his Cam- 
bridge standing, if it existed, is ignored. 
This enrolment entitled him to obtain half 
a tun of beer a month, and ten gallons of 
wine a quarter, free of duty. He attended 
lectures by Episcopius and Polyander. 

Robinson's controversial writing began in 
1609 or 1610, with an ' Answer' to a letter, 
addressed to himself and John Smyth, in 
'Epistles,' 1608, ii. 1 et seq. by Joseph Hall 
[q. v.] This 'Answer' is only known as re- 
printed, with a reply, in Hall's ' Common 
Apologie of the Church of England,' 1610. 
It exhibits considerable power of language, 
and is the production of a man of cultivated 
mind as well as of strong conviction. He 
afterwards defended the separatist position 
against Richard Bernard [q. v.], William 
Ames, and John Yates of Norwich. In the 
Amsterdam disputes he sided with Ains- 
worth, writing against the doctrines of Smyth 
and his coadjutor, Thomas Helwys [q. v.], 
and criticising the presbyterian positions of 
Johnson. His 'Apologia,' advocating the 
congregational type of church government, 
and rejecting the nicknames ' Brownist' and 
' Barrowist,' is a very able and comprehen- 
sive statement, written with moderation. 

As early as 1617 a project of emigration 
to America had been matured by the leaders 
of the Leyden community. John Carver, a 
deacon, and Robert Cushman, ' our right hand 
with the adventurers,' were sent to London 
to forward the scheme. They carried a docu- 
ment to be presented to the privy council, 
signed by Robinson and Brewster, and con- 
taining ' seven articles,' acknowledging the 
king's authority in all causes, and that of 
bishops as civilly commissioned by him (Co- 
lonial Papers, i. 43). Cushman negotiated 
a loan with the merchant adventurers of 
London for seven years, on hard terms, the 
risk being great, and the emigrants dependent 
on their own labour. On 12 Nov. 1617 Sir 
Edwin Sandys, subsequently treasurer and 
governor of the Virginia Company, addressed 
a letter to Robinson and Brewster (who had 
been a tenant of the Sandys family), ex- 
pressing satisfaction with the ' seven articles.' 
Robinson and Brewster replied on 15 Dec. 
Their letter explains that the intending 
colonists are industrious, frugal people, who 
may be trusted to stay and work. A similar 
letter was addressed on 27 Jan. 1617-18 to 
Sir John Wolstenholme, giving full par- 
ticulars of their ecclesiastical views, and em- 
phasising their agreement with the French 
reformed churches, except in some details. 
A patent, under the Virginia Company's seal, 
was obtained in September 1619 ; it proved 
useless, as John Wincob, in whose name it 

was made out, did not join the expedition. 
The members of the Leyden community were 
now asked to volunteer for the enterprise. 
It was agreed that if a majority of the church 
volunteered, Robinson their pastor should 
accompany them, otherwise Brewster was to 
be in charge of the expedition. To Robin- 
son's disappointment only a minority volun- 
teered. The Speedwell, a vessel of 60 tons, 
was bought in Holland ; Carver and Cush- 
man went to London, with Thomas Weston, 
an English merchant, to make final arrange- 
ments, and hire another vessel large enough 
to carry the freight. All being ready, a day 
of humiliation and prayer was held at Leyden 
on 21 July 1620, Robinson preaching from 
Ezra viii. 21. On 22 July the Speedwell 
sailed from Delft Haven to Southampton, 
where the Mayflower (180 tons) from London 
awaited her. While at Southampton the 
pilgrims received a letter of advice from 
Robinson, bidding them ' be not shaken with 
unnecessary novelties.' To Carver he wrote 
a further letter (27 July), engaging to em- 
brace ' the first opportunity of hastening to 
them.' The two vessels left Southampton 
on 5 Aug. ; but either the Speedwell proved 
unseawcrthy, or, as the emigrants believed, 
Reynplds, the master, and some of his convoy 
lost courage. They put in to Darmouth, and 
again to Plymouth, for repairs; at length 
the Speedwell was sold, and the Mayflower 
alone, of which Thomas Jones was master, 
the expedition being reduced to 101 pas- 
sengers, set sail from Plymouth on 6 Sept. 
She was bound for the Hudson river, but at 
the outset of the voyage was weather-bound 
for some days at Hull ; ' after long beating at 
sea ' Cape Cod came in view ; further storms 
frustrated the intention of proceeding south- 
ward. Returning to Cape Cod, the pilgrims 
landed at Plymouth Rock on 1 1 Nov. 

Robinson's pastoral care for the colonists 
is shown in his letter (30 June 1621) ' to 
the church of God at Plymouth, New Eng- 
land.' The remainder of the Leyden com- 
munity became more willing to join their 
brethren in New England. Yet Robinson 
writes to Brewster (20 Dec. 1623) that his 
removal was ' desired rather than hoped for.' 
They could not raise money, and the mer- 
chant adventurers would take no further 
risk. Robinson thought influential persons 
wished to prevent his going out. Meantime 
he refused to sanction the administration of 
the sacraments by Brewster, an elder, but 
not an ordained pastor. 

Just as his life was closing, Robinson pub- 
lished a volume of sixty-two essays on ethical 
and spiritual topics. They show reading and 
good sense, and their style is marked by ease 




and simplicity. He left ready for publica- 
tion his last thoughts on the question of sepa- 
ration, but his friends withheld it from the 
press for nine years, on the ground that 
some, though not many' of the Leyden 
church 'were contrary minded to the author's 
judgment.' It was at length printed in order 
to justify the action of some separatists who 
were occasional hearers of the parochial 
clergy. The position taken in this treatise 
is well described by John Shaw (manuscript 
* Advice to his Son,' 1664, quoted in HUNTER, 
1854, p. 185), who says that 'learned and 
pious Mr. Robinson ... so far came back that 
he approved of communion witli the church 
of England, in the hearing of the word and 
prayer (though not in sacraments and dis- 
.cipline), and so occasioned the rise of such 
as are called semists, that is semiseparatists, 
or independants.' He had always been in 
favour of ' private communion' with ' godly' 
members of the church of England, herein 
differing from Ainsworth ; and according to 
John Paget (d. 1640) [q. v.] he had preached 
the lawfulness of attending Anglican services 
as early as July 1617, and had tolerated such 
attendance on Brewster's part much earlier 
(PAGET, Arrow against the Separation, 1618). 
Robert Baillie, D.D. [q. v.], a strong opponent 
of his ecclesiastical principles, characterises 
him as ' the most learned, polished, and 
modest spirit that ever that sect enjoyed.' 

Ilobinson fell ill on Saturday, 22 Feb. 
1625, yet preached twice the next day. The 
plague was then rife at Leyden, but he did 
not take it. He suffered no pain, but was 
weakened by ague. He died on 1 March 
1625 (Dutch I'eckouing, or present style ; in 
the old English reckoning it was 19 Feb. 
1624). No portrait or description of his 
person exists. His autograph signature is on 
the title-page of the British Museum copy 
{C. 45, d. 25) of John Dove's ' Perswasion to 
the English Recusants,' 1603. On 4 March 
he was buried under the pavement in the 
aisle of St. Peter's, Leyden, in a common 
grave, bought for seven years, at a cost of 
nine guilders. There is no truth in Winslow's 
story that his funeral was attended by the uni- 
versity and the city ministers. He married 
Bridget White (his second wife, if he were 
the John Robinson of Emmanuel), who sur- 
vived him, and, with his children, removed 
in March 1629-30 to Plymouth, New Eng- 
land. In October 1622 his children, accord- 
ing to the Leyden census, were Isaac. Mercy, 
Fear, and James. It is doubtful whether he 
had a son William ; Abraham Robinson, who 
settled in New England, was not his son, 
though claimed as such. His descendants, 
as traced by W. Allen, D.D., are given in 

Ashton's 'Life' (compare SAVAGE'S Genea- 
logical Dictionary of the First Settlers of 
New England, 1861, iii. 549 seq.) After his 
death some members of his church returned 
to Amsterdam, and joined John Canne [q. v.], 
others went to New England (thirty-five in 
1629, sixty more in 1630). About 1650 his 
house was taken down, and replaced by a 
row of small buildings ; on one of these, in, 
1865, a marble slab was placed, with the 
inscription, ' On this spot lived, taught, and 
died John Robinson, 1611-1625.' On 24 July 
1891 was publicly dedicated a bronze in- 
scribed tablet, provided by a subscription 
(suggested by Dr. W. M. Dexter, d. November 
1890), executed in New York, and placed on 
the outer wall of St. Peter's, facing the site 
of the dwelling. On 29 June 1896 the 
foundation-stone of a ' John Robinson Me- 
morial Church ' was laid at Gainsborough by 
the Hon. T. F. Bayard, ambassador from 
the United States, on the assumption that 
Gainsborough was Robinson's birthplace, and 
that he was a member of the ' gathered ' 
church at Scrooby Manor, which is in proxi- 
mity to Gainsborough. 

Nothing that Robinson ever wrote reaches 
the level of his alleged address to the depart- 
ing pilgrims ; expressing confidence that ' the 
Lord has more truth yet to break forth out 
of his holy word ; ' bewailing ' the condition 
of the reformed churches, who are come to 
a period in religion,' the Lutherans refusing 
to advance ' beyond what Luther saw, while 
the Calvinists stick fast where they were left 
by that great man of God, who yet saw not 
all things;' and exhorting the pilgrims to 
' study union' with ' the godly people of Eng 
land,' ' rather than, in the least measure, to 
affect a division or separation from them.' 
Neither Bradford nor Morton hints at this 
address. It appears first in the ' Briefe Narra- 
tion ' appended to Edward Winslow's ' Hypo- 
crisie Vnmasked,' 1646, pp. 97 seq. Winslow, 
who is not a first-rate authority, brings it 
forward as a piece of evidence in disproof 
of the intolerance ascribed to the separatists. 
He had been for three years (1617-20) a 
member of Robinson's church, and affirms 
that Robinson ' used these expressions, or to 
the same purpose ;' he gives no date, but it 
was when the pilgrims were 'ere long' to 
depart ; his report is mainly in the third per- 
son. Cotton Mather, writing in 1702, turns 
the whole into the first person, and makes 
it (Magnalia, i. 14) the parting address 
to the pilgrims, changing 'ere long' into 
'quickly.' Neal (Hist, of New England, 
1720) follows Mather, but omits the closing 
exhortation, with its permission to ' take 
another pastor,' and treats the address as the 




peroration of the sermon preached on 21 July 
1620. This last point he drops (Hist, of 
Puritans, 1732), but it is taken up by Brook 
and others. This famous address, recollected 
after twenty-six years or more, owes some- 
thing to the reporter's controversial needs. 

Robinson published : 1 . ' An Answer to a 
Censorious Epistle ' [1610] ; see above. 2. ' A 
Ivstification of Separation from the Church 
of England,' &c. [Leyden], 1610, 4to [Am- 
sterdam], 1639, 4to (in reply to ' The Sepa- 
ratists Schisme,' by Bernard). Robinson's 
defence of this tract, against the criticisms 
of Francis Johnson, is printed in Ainsworth's 
' Animadversion to Mr. Richard Clyfton,' &c., 
Amsterdam, 1613, pp. Ill seq. 3. ' Of Reli- 
gious Commvnion, Private & Publique,' &c. 
[Leyden], 1614, 4to (against Helwys and 
Smyth)/ The British Museum copy (43236) 
has the autograph of Robinson's brother-in- 
law, Randall Thickins, and a few manuscript 
notes. 4. ' A Manvmission to a Manvdvc- 
tion,' &c. [Leyden], 1615, 4to (in reply to 
' A Manvdvctionfor Mr. Robinson,' &c.,Dort, 
1614, by A.mes). 5. ' The People's Plea for 
the Exercise of Prophesie,' &c. [Leyden], 
1618, 16mo ; 2nd edit. 1641, 8vo (in reply to 
Yates). 6. ' Apologia Ivsta et Necessaria 
. . . Quorundam Christianorum . . . dictorum 
Brownistarum, sive Barrowistarum/ &c. 
[Leyden], 1619, 16mo. 7. ' An Appeal on 
Truths Behalfe (concern! nge some differences 
in the Church at Amsterdam),' &c. [Leyden], 
1624, 8vo. 8. ' A Defence of the Doctrine 
propovnded by the Synode of Dort,' &c. 
[Leyden], 1624, 4to. 9. ' A Briefe Cate- 
chisme concerning Church Government,' &c., 
Leyden, 1624? 2nd edit. 1642, 8vo; with 
title, ' An Appendix to Mr. Perkins his Six 
Principles of Christian Religion,' &c., 1656, 
8vo. 10. ' Observations Divine and Morall,' 
&c. [Leyden], 1625, 4to; with new title- 
page, ' New Essay es, or Observations Divine 
and Morall,' &c. 1628, 4to ; 2nd edit. ' Essays, 
or Observations Divine and Morall,' &c. 1638, 
12mo. 11. ' A Ivst and Necessarie Apologie 
for certain Christians . . . called Brownists 
or Barrowists,' &c. [Leyden], 1625, 4to (see 
No. 6); 1644, 24mo, with 'An Appendix 
to Mr. Perkins,' &c. (See No. 9). Posthu- 
mous was : 12. 'A Treatise of the Lawful- 
nes of Hearing of the Ministers in the Church 
of England,' &c. [Amsterdam], 1634, 8vo ; 

Eirtly reprinted, with extracts from Philip 
ye [a. v.], 1683, 4to. His ' Works' were 
edited (1851, 8vo, 3 vols. with 'Life') by 
Robert Ashton (No. 4 is not included, but 
is reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. 
vol. i.) ; lengthy extracts from most of them 
will be found in Hanbury's ' Historical Me- 
morials,' 1839, vol. i. 

[Alter Robinson's own writings, the first 
authority for his Leyden life is William Brad- 
ford, whose History of Plymouth Plantation was 
first fully printed in Collections of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, 4th ser. vol.iii. 18o6 ; 
for the portion to 1620, with Bradford's Diary 
of Occurrences, his Letters, Winslow's Journal, 
and other documents, see Young's Chronicles of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, 2nd edit. 1844. Secondary 
sources are Morton's New England's Memoriall, 
1669, Cotton Mather's Magnalia, 1702, and 
Prince's Chronological Hist, of New England, 
1730 (the edition used above is 1852) ; all cri- 
ticised in George Sumner's Memoirs of the Pil- 
grims at Leyden, Mass. Hist. Soc. 3rd ser. vol. 
ix. 1846, which gives results of research at 
Leyden. Hunter's Collections concerning the 
Founders of New Plymouth, 1849, are corrected 
on some points in Ashton's Life of Robinson, 
1851, and are improved in Hunter's Collections 
concerning the Church at Scrooby, 1854. Most 
of Hunter's conjectures are adopted in Dexter's 
Congregationalism of Three Hundred Years, 
1880, valuable for its bibliography. Baillie's 
Dissuasive from the Errours of the Time, 1646 ; 
Neal's Hist, of New England, 1720, i. 72 seq. ; 
Neal's Hist, of the Puritans (Toulmin), 1822, 
ii. 43, 110; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, 
ii. 334 seq.; Marsden's Hist, of the Early Puri- 
tans, 1860, pp. 296 seq.; Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. 1861, ii. 235; Evans's Early English 
Baptists, 1862, i. 202 seq. ; Barclay's Inner Life 
of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, 
1876, pp. 63 seq.; Browne's Hist, of Congr. in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, 1877, p. 127 ; Proceedings 
at the Unveiling of the Tablet in Leyden, 1891 ; 
Brown's Pilgrim Fathers, 1895, pp. 94 seq. ; 
extracts from register of Emmanuel Coll. Cam- 
bridge, per the master ; extracts from register 
and order-book of Corpus Christi Coll. Cam- 
bridge, per the master ; extractsfromtheNorwich 
diocesan registers, per the Rev. G. S. Barrett, 
D.D. ; extracts from the parish registers of Sax- 
lingham Nethergate and Saxlingham Thorpe, 
per the Rev. R. W. Pitt; information from the 
dean of Lincoln and from the master of Christ's 
Coll. Cambridge.] A. G. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1617-1681), royal- 
ist, son of William Robinson of Gwersyllt, 
Denbighshire, and grandson of Nicholas Ro- 
binson (d. 1585) [q.v.], bishop of Bangor, was 
born in 1617, matriculated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, 26 Sept. 1634, at the age of seventeen 
(FosxEK, Alumni O.ron.), and became a stu- 
dent of Gray's Inn, 23 Dec. 1637 (FOSTER, 
Gray's Inn Register). He appears to have 
resided for some time in Dublin previous to 
the outbreak of the civil war in 1642. He 
exerted himself with great zeal on behalf of 
the royal cause in North Wales and the ad- 
joining counties. Although only twenty-six 
years of age, he held the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and was made governor of Holt Castle 
in Denbighshire in November 1643. In the 



following year he commanded a company at 
the battle of Rowton Heath in Cheshire ; on 
1 Feb. 1646 he was selected by the royalist 
commander, Lord Byron, as one of his com- 
missioners to negotiate the surrender of Ches- 
ter, and acted in a similar capacity when 
Colonel Richard Bulkeley surrendered Beau- 
maris, 14 June following. 

On the triumph of the parliamentary 
cause, Robinson, who was marked out for 
special vengeance, fled from Gwersyllt in 
the disguise of a labourer, first to the Isle 
of Man, and then into France. His estates 
were confiscated. His name appears in the 
bill for the sale of delinquents' estates 
(26 Sept. 1650). At the Restoration in 1660 
he recovered his estates and received other 
marks of royal favour. He was nominated a 
knight of the Royal Oak for Anglesea. He 
was colonel of the company of foot militia or 
trained bands in Denbighshire, when that re- 
giment was called out on the apprehension of 
a rising in July 1666 (Cal. State Papers). 
Having succeeded Sir Heneage Finch as mem- 
ber for Beaumaris at a by-election in July 
1661, he retained his seat until the dissolu- 
tion of the 'pensionary 'parliament in January 
1679 ; he is said to have been in receipt of a 
pension of 400/. a year (' A Seasonable Argu- 
ment for a New Parliament,' 1677, reprinted 
in COBBETT'S Parliamentary History). Robin- 
son succeeded Sir John Owen of Clennennau 
in the post of vice-admiral of North Wales 
in 1666, and held the office till his death in 
March 1681. He was buried in Gresford 
church. He left two sons, John and "William. 
His grandson, AVilliam Robinson, M.P. for 
Denbigh from 1705 to 1708, assumed the sur- 
name of Lytton on inheriting from his cousin j 
in 1710 the estate of Knebworth in Hertford- 
shire, and was ancestor of Earl Lytton. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry; Wood's Athenae, ed. 
Bliss; Phillips's Civil War in Wales and the 
Marches; Parliamentary lleturns; Williams's 
Parliamentary History of Wales.] W. E. W. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1650-1723), bishop 
of London, born at Cleasby,near Darlington, 
Yorkshire, on 7 Nov. 1650, was second sur- 
viving son of John Robinson (d. 1651) of 
Cleasby, by his wife Elizabeth (d. 1688), 
daughter of Christopher Potter of the same 
parish. His father appears to have been in a 
humble station of life ; his great-grandfather 
is described as 'John Robinson esquire of 
Crostwick, Romaldkirk, co. York.' His elder 
brother, Christopher (1645-1693), emigrated 
to Virginia about 1670, settled on the Rapa- 
hannock river, became secretary to the colony 
and one of the trustees of the William and 
Mary College ; he was father of John Robin- 
son {d. 1749), president of Virginia, and 

grandfather of Sir Frederick Philipse Robin- 
son [q. v.] 

The future bishop was, according to 
Hearne (Reliquite, ii. 134), apprenticed to a 
trade, but his master, finding him more ad- 
dicted to book learning than to business, 
found the means of sending him to Oxford ; 
he accordingly matriculated from Brasenose 
College, Oxford, as a pensioner on 24 March 
| 1670, graduated B.A. 1673, and M.A. 1684, 
and was fellow of Oriel College from 1675 
I (elected 18 Dec.) to 1686. The college in 
j 1677 gave him leave to go abroad, which was 
renewed in 1678 and 1680. He received the 
; degree of D.D. from Tenison at Lambeth, 
22 Sept. 1696 (Gent. Mag. 1864, i. 636), and 
j was granted the same degree at Oxford by 
' diploma on 7 Aug. 1710. 

About 1680, possibly through the influence 
! of Sir James Astrey whose servitor he had 
. been at Brasenose, Robinson was sent out as 
; chaplain to the English embassy at the 
court of Sweden. He remained there for 
over a quarter of a century, and was regarded 
by successive governments as an industrious 
and capable political agent. During the 
absence of the envoy, Philip, only son of Sir 
Philip Warwick [q.v.], he filled the posts 
first of resident and then of envoy extra- 
ordinary at the Swedish court (cf. WOOD. 
Life and Times, ii. 462, 469). In October 
1686 he resigned his fellowship at Oriel and 
gave the college a piece of plate, in the in- 
scription upon which he is described as ' Re- 
gise majestatis apud regem Suecise minister 
ordinarius.' In 1692 he confirmed Charles XI 
in the English alliance and helped to defeat 
the French project of a ninth electorate. In 
1697, in token of his approbation,William III 
procured for him the benefice of Lastingham 
in Yorkshire, which he held until 1709, and 
on 26 March in the same year he was collated 
to the third prebend in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral. As was the case with most English 
diplomatists of the period, his salary and 
allowances were habitually in arrears, and 
his memorials to the treasury for payment 
or recall were numerous. In January 1700 
he was instrumental in obtaining the re- 
newal of the treaty of the Hague. Shortly 
afterwards he accompanied Charles XII, 
with whom he was in high favour, on his 
chivalrous journey to Narva ; he also effected 
the j unction of the fleets of England, Holland, 
and Sweden in the Sound, and the conse- 
quent recognition of free navigation in the 
North Sea. By favour of, and as a compli- 
ment to, the Swedish monarch, he assumed 
as his motto the 'Runic' or old Norse, 
' Madr er moldur auki' (paraphrased 'As for 
man, his days are grass '). He commemo- 



rated his connection with Sweden more 
effectually in his ' Account of Sueden : 
together with an extract of the History of 
that Kingdom. By a person of note who re- 
sided many years there ' (London, 1695, a 
shilling book in small octavo ; French trans- 
lation, Amsterdam, 1712 ; 3rd ed. London, 
1717, subsequently bound up with Moles- 
worth's ' Denmark,' 1738). The little work 
was stored with useful information set forth 
in a style not unlike that of a modern con- 
sular report, and its value was recognised in 
diplomatic circles both in England and 
abroad. Marlborough wrote of Robinson's 
excellent influence at the Swedish court in 
1704, and in 1707 thought of employing him 
to appease the Swedish king, who cherished 
grievances against the allies. Ultimately 
(April-May 1707) Marlborough decided to 
conduct the negotiations himself, but Robin- 
son acted throughout as interpreter, and was 
utilised to administer the usual bribes to the 
Swedish minister. ' I am persuaded,' wrote 
Marlborough to Sunderland, ' that these gen- 
tlemen would be very uneasy should it pass 
through any other hands.' In the autumn 
of 1708 he was sent on a special commercial 
mission to Hamburg ; his correspondence on 
the occasion with Lord Raby is preserved in 
the British Museum (Addit, MS. 22198). 

In July 1709 Robinson refused an offer of 
the bishopric of Chichester. A few months 
later he returned to England, and was, on 
21 Nov. 1709, granted the deanery of Wind- 
sor, together with the deanery of Wolver- 
hampton and the registry of the knights of 
the Garter (Harl. MS. 2264, f. 37). He was 
not superseded in his post as Swedish envoy 
until the following summer, when his secre- 
tary, Robert Jackson, was appointed. On 
19 Nov. 1710 Robinson was consecrated 
bishop of Bristol. The queen, as a special 
favour, granted him lodgings in Somerset 
House where, on Easter day, 1711, he recon- 
secrated with Anglican rites, the Roman 
catholic chapel, which had long been an 
offence to the London populace. This cir- 
cumstance rendered him popular ; at the 
same time his pleasing address and wide 
fund of general information rendered him so 
great a favourite with Harley that, if the 
latter's influence had remained supreme, 
there is little doubt that Robinson would 
have succeeded Tenison as primate. In the 
meantime he was appointed governor of the 
Charterhouse, dean of the Chapel Royal, a 
commissioner for the building of fifty new 
churches in London, and later for finishing 
St. Paul's Cathedral ; he was also allowed 
to hold the deanery of Windsor in commen- 
dam with his bishopric. On 29 Aug. 1711 

Swift went to a reception at York Buildings, 
where Harley, with great emphasis, proposed 
the health of the lord privy seal. Prior 
thereupon remarked that the seal was so 
privy that no one knew who he was. On 
the following day the appointment of Robin- 
son was announced. 

The choice was popularly regarded as a con- 
cession to the moderate party in the church 
(BOTER, Queen Anne, 1735, p. 515 ; preamble 
to patent, Brit. Mus. 811 K 54). But it was 
really intended to preface the bishop's nomi- 
nation as the first English plenipotentiary at 
the peace conference to be held in the following 
year at Utrecht. The chief difficulties to the 
peace had already been removed by the secret 
operations conducted by Harley and Mesnager 
through Prior and the Abbe Gaultier. The 
ministers now wanted a dignified exponent of 
English views to represent them at the con- 
gress, and in the absence of any tory peer of 
adequate talent and energy, after the unex- 
pected deaths of Newcastle and Jersey, Harley 
fell back on the bishop, who possessed genuine 
qualifications. The worst that was said of 
the selection was that the appointment of an 
ecclesiastic to high diplomatic office smacked 
of mediaeval practice. Tickell warmly com- 
mended in verse the queen's choice of ' mitred 
Bristol.' Strafford accepted the office of se- 
cond plenipotentiary. The bishop was the 
first to arrive at Utrecht on 15 Jan. 1712 
(fifteen days after the date appointed for the 
commencement of the negotiations), and he 
opened the conference on 29 Jan., appearing 
in a black velvet gown, with gold loops and 
a train borne by two sumptuously dressed 
pages. Despite rumours which were spread in 
London to the contrary, the two English 
diplomatists worked well together. After 
the fiasco of the allies before Denain in May, 
there devolved upon the bishop the awk- 
ward task of explaining why Ormonde had 
been directed to co-operate no longer with 
the allied forces. From this time the Eng- 
lish envoys detached themselves with con- 
siderable adroitness from the impracticable 
demands of the emperor. A suspension of 
arms was proposed by Robinson on 27 June. 
During the absences of Strafford at The 
Hague and in Paris, the Anglo-French 
understanding was furthered by meetings at 
Robinson's house in Utrecht, and on 
11 April 1713 he was the first to sign the 
definitive treaty, by the chief terms of 
which England secured Newfoundland, 
Acadia, Hudson's Bay, Gibraltar, and 
Minorca, together with a guarantee against 
the union of the French and Spanish crowns, 
the recognition of the protestant succession, 
and the Assiento contract (cf. LECKT, Hist. 



of England during the Eighteenth Century, 
vol. i. and art. MOOKE, ARTHUK). 

Shortly after his return (8 Aug. 1713) 
Robinson was nominated to the see of Lon- 
don, in succession to Compton, and his 
election was confirmed on 13 March 1714. 
He gave a strong support to the schism bill ; 
but upon the estrangement of Harley, now 
earl of Oxford, and Bolingbroke, he adhered 
to the former, and evinced his loyalty to the 
protestant succession by voting against the 
court on 13 April 1714 ; he met his reward 
when, in September 1714, he was put upon 
the privy council of George I. He never- 
theless opposed some phrases in the king's 
speech as injurious to the memory of Queen 
Anne, at whose deathbed he was a con- 
spjcuous figure (STRICKLAND, Queens of Eng- 
land). In December 1714 he offered, in his 
capacity as dean of the Chapel Royal, to wait 
upon the princess (afterwards Queen Caro- 
line), in order to satisfy any doubts or 
scruples she might entertain in regard to the 
Anglican mode in religion {Diary of Lady 
Coirper, p. 41) ; the princess was much piqued 
by this officiousness. In the following year, 
when Straffbrd was impeached for his share 
in the treaty of Utrecht, it was said in the 
house that it appeared as if Robinson ' were 
to have benefit of clergy.' The bishop am- 
biguously explained to the upper house that 
he had been kept greatly in the dark as to 
the precise course of the negotiations. He 
had the fortitude to protest against the abuse 
of the whig majority by opposing Harley's 
impeachment and the septennial act of 1716. 
His last appearance in the House of Lords 
was as a supporter of the justly contemned 
'Bill for the suppression of blasphemy and 
profaneness' (2 May 1721). 

Robinson, who is commended by Charles 
"Wheatley for having made ' a j ust and elegant 
translation of the English liturgy into Ger- 
man,' assisted Archbishop Sharp in his efforts 
to restore episcopacy in Prussia, and, on ac- 
count of his strenuous opposition to Whiston 
and Clarke, Waterland spoke warmly of his 
' truly primitive zeal against the adversaries 
of our common faith ; ' but, though good-hu- 
moured, charitable, and conscientious in the 
discharge of episcopal duties, Robinson was 
not conspicuously successful either as a bishop 
or theological controversialist. In 1719 he 
issued an admonitory letter to his clergy on 
the innovations upon the doxology intro- 
duced by Clarke and Whiston. The latter 
rejoined in a scathing 'Letter of Thanks.' 
An ally of Robinson's made an unconvincing 
reply, which Whiston in another letter sub- 
jected to further ridicule. Other whigs and 
dissenters commented no less forcibly upon 

the bishop's shortcomings. Calamy observes 
that his displays of ' ignorance and hebetude 
and incompetency' as bishop of London dis- 
gusted his friends, who 'wished him anywhere 
out of sight' (CALAMY, Own Life, 1829, ii. 
270-1). But Robinson was eminently?liberal 
in his benefactions. He built and endowed 
a free school and rebuilt the church and par- 
j sonage at his native place of Cleasby, where 
he more than once visited his father's cot- 
tage. To Oriel College he gave, in 1719, the 
sum of 7501. for the erection of a block of 
buildings in the college garden, now the 
back quadrangle, on which there is an in- 
scription recording the gift and ascribing it 
to the suggestion of the bishop's first wife, 
Mary ; at the same time he devoted 2,500^. 
to the support of three exhibitioners at Oriel ; 
he presented an advowson to Balliol Col- 
lege, of which society he was visitor ; he also 
greatly improved the property of the see at 

Robinson died at Hampstead on 11 April 
1723 (Hist. Reg. Chron. Diary, p. 18), and 
was privately buried in the churchyard at 
Fulham on 19 April (the long Latin epitaph is 
printed in LYSONS'S Environs and in FAULK- 
NER'S Fulham; cf.LE NEVE, Fasti Eccl.Angl. 
ii. 304-5). He married, first, Mary, daugh- 
ter of "William Langton, a nephew of Abra- 
ham Langton of The How, Lancashire ; and, 
secondly, Emma, widow of Thomas, son of 
Sir Francis Cornwallis of Abermarlais, Wales, 
and daughter of Sir Job Charlton, bart. ; she 
was buried at Fulham on 26 Jan. 1748. The 
bishop, who left no children, bequeathed his 
manor of Hawick-upou Bridge, near Ripon, 
to a son of his brother Christopher in Virginia. 

Besides his ' Account of Sweden,' Robin- 
son only published two sermons and a few 
admonitions and charges to the clergy of 
his diocese. In 1741 Richard Rawlmson 
' rescued from the grocers and chandlers ' a 
parcel of Robinson's letters and papers relat- 
ing to the treaty, which had been in the 
possession of the bishop's private secretary, 
Anthony Gibbon (Letter of 24 June, Ballard 
MS. ii. 59). Portions of his diplomatic cor- 
respondence are preserved among the Straf- 
ford papers at the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 22205-7). In person the bishop was 
described by Mackay as ' a little brown man 
of grave and venerable appearance, in deport- 
ment, and everything else, a Swede, of good 
sense, and very careful in his business.' 

An anonymous portrait, painted while he 
was in Sweden, is preserved at Fulham 
Palace (Cat. of Nat. Portraits at South Ken- 
sington, 1867, No. 1 70). It has been engraved 
by Vertue, Picart, Vandergucht, and others, 
and for the ' Oxford Almanac ' of 1742. A 



copy of the Fulham portrait was presented j 
to the college in 1852 by Provost Edward | 
Hawkins [q. v.] The bishop's widow pre- 
sented to Oriel College a portrait of Queen 
Anne, which the latter had expressly ordered 
to be painted by Dahl in 1713 for presenta- 
tion to Robinson. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-17H ; Foster's 
Peerage, 1882; Burnet's Own Time, 1823, ii. 
535, 580, 607, 608, 630; Boyer's Annals of 
Queen Anne, 1735, pp. 243, 298, 4/6, 515, 523, 
532, 557, 564, 569, 583, 614, 618, 649, 658, 682, 
705, 713; Tindal's Contin. of Eapin, 1745, iv. 
222, 247, 260, 275, 309-10, 407, 429, 580; 
Calendars of Treasury Papers, vols. iii. and iv. 
passim; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 500, iv. 231, v. 
495, viii. 4, ix. 85 ; Noble's Contin. of Granger, 
ii. 79 ; Lysons's Environs of London, ii. 385-6 ; 
Faulkner's Hist. Accountof Fulham, 1813, p. 117; 
Gent. Mag. 1802, i. 129-30; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. ii. 424, 4th ser. i. 436, 5th ser. iii. 187, 
v. 249, 335, 475, vi. 437, 545 ; Kemble's State 
Papers and Correspondence, 1857, pp. 90, 134. 
219, 480; Zouch's Works, ii. 406; Whiston's 
Memoir of Clarke, p. 99 ; Calamy's Account, ii. 
239, 270 ; Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble, iii. 37, 
71, 81, 218, 364, and Reliquiae Hearnianse, ii. 
133-4; Anderson's Colonial Church, iii. 49; 
Lady Cowper's Diary, p. 41 ; Addison's Works 
(Bonn), v. 245, 390 ; Stoughton's English Church 
under Anne, i. 76, 124 ; Milman's Annals of St. 
Paul's, p. 456 ; Abbey's English Bishops in the 
Eighteenth Century; Ma Cray's Annals of the 
Bodleian Library, p. 175; Wentworth Papers, 
passim ; Hyde Corresp. ed. Singer, i. 179 ; Marl- 
borough's Letters and Despatches, ed. Murray, 
vols. i. iii. and iv. passim ; Coxe's Memoirs of 
Marlborough, 1848, pp. 37-58; Swift's Works, 
ed. Scott, passim ; Macknight's Life of Boling- 
broke, passim ; Stanhope's Hist, of England ; 
Wyon's England under Queen Anne ; Journal de 
P. de Courcillon, Marquis de Dangeau, t. xiii. 
andxiv.; Dumont's LettresHistoriques; Casimir 
Freschot's Hist, du Congres etde la Paix d'Utrecht, 
1716; Legrelle's Succession d'Espagne,iv. passim, 
esp. chap. viii. ; Ottokar Weber's Friede von 
Utrecht, Gotha, 1891 ; Geijer und Carlson's Ge- 
schichte Schwedens, iv. 168; Luttrell's Brief 
Eelation, iv. 125, v. 282-3, 321, vi. passim; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Brit.Mus. Cat. ; notes kindly 
supplied by Charles L. Shad well, esq., fellow of 
Oriel, William Shand, esq., of Newcastle, and 
the Rev. Edward Hussey A damson, of Gates- 
head.] T. S. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1715-1745), por- 
trait-painter, was born at Bath in 1715. He 
studied under John Vanderbank [q. v.], and 
attained some success as a portrait-painter. 
Having married a wife with a fortune, he, 
on the death of Charles Jervas [q. v.], pur- 
chased that painter's house in Cleveland 
Court. He thus inherited a fashionable 
practice ; but he had not skill enough to 

keep it up. He dressed many of his sitters 
in the costume of portraits by Vandyck. 
Robinson died in 1745, before completing 
his thirtieth year. A portrait of Lady Char- 
lotte Finch by Robinson was engraved in 
mezzotint by John Faber, jun., and the title 
of the print subsequently altered to 'The 
Amorous Beauty.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Walpole's Anec- 
dotes of Painting; Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits.] L. C. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1682-1762), orga- 
nist, born in 1682, was in 1700 a child of 
the chapel royal under Dr. Blow. In 1710 
he was appointed organist to St. Lawrence 
Jewry; in 1713 to St. Magnus, London Bridge 
(BuMPFs). He enjoyed popularity both as 
a performer on the organ and as professor of 
the harpsichord, while as a composer there is 
extant by him the double chant in E flat at 
the end of vol. i. of Boyce's' Cathedral Music.' 
On 20 Sept. 1727 Robinson succeeded as or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey Dr. William 
Croft [q. v.], whose assistant he had been for 
many years. Benjamin Cooke in 1746 be- 
came Robinson's assistant. Robinson died 
on 30 April 1762, aged 80, and was buried 
on 13 May in the same grave with Croft. A 
portrait by T. Johnson, engraved by Vertue, 
shows Robinson seated at a harpsichord. 

Robinson married, on 6 Sept. 1716, Ann, 
daughter of Dr. William Turner (1651-1740) 

3[. v.] She was a vocalist, and appeared as 
Irs. Turner Robinson in 1720 as Echo in 
Scarlatti's ' Narcissus.' On 5 Jan. 1741 she 
died, and on the 8th was buried in the west 
cloister of Westminster Abbey. Several 
daughters died young : one became a singer, 
often heard in Handel's oratorios. Robinson 
married a second wife, who survived him, and 
had by her a son, John Daniel. 

[Hawkins'sHistoryof Music, p. 827 ; Bumpus's 
Organists; Grove's Diet. iii. 139; Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. x. 181; Boyce's Cathedral 
Harmony, i. 2, iii. 18; Chamberlayne's Anglise 
Notitia ; Chester's Westminster Abbey Reg. 
pp. 43, 308, 313, 357, 400; P. C. C. Admini- 
stration Acts, June 1762.] L. M. M. 

ROBINSON, JOHN (1727-1802), poli- 
tician, born on 15 July 1727, and baptised at 
St. Lawrence, Appleby, Westmoreland, on 
14 Aug. 1727, was the eldest son of Charles 
Robinson, a thriving Appleby tradesman, 
who died on 19 June 1760, in his fifty-eighth 
year (BELLASIS, Church Notes, p. 23), having 
married, at Kirkby Thore on 19 May 1726, 
Hannah, daughter of Richard Deane of Ap- 
pleby. John was educated until the age of 
seventeen at Appleby grammar school, and 
was then articled to his aunt's husband, Ri- 



chard Wordsworth, of Sockbridge in Barton, 
Westmoreland, clerk of the peace for the 
county, and grandfather of the poet Words- 
worth. When he was admitted as attorney 
he practised in his native town, and became 
town clerk on 1 Oct. 1750; he was mayor in 
1760-1. On 2 Feb. 1759 he was entered as 
a student of Gray's Inn (FOSTER, Gray's Inn 
Reg. p. 382). 

In 1759 Robinson married Mary Crowe, said 
to have been daughter of Nathaniel Crowe, a 
wealthy merchant and planter in Barbados, 
obtaining with her an ample fortune. He 
also inherited from his grandfather, John Ro- 
binson, alderman of Appleby 1703-46, much 
property in the county, and eighteen burgage 
tenures, carrying votes for the borough, in 
Appleby. On the accession of Sir James 
Lowther, afterwards Earl of Lonsdale, to the 
vast estates of that family, the abilities of 
Robinson, ' a steady, sober-minded, indus- 
trious, clever man of business/ and a man 
' whose will was in constant subjection to 
his understanding,' soon attracted his notice. 
He became his principal law agent and land 
steward, was created a magistrate and de- 
puty-lieutenant of Westmoreland in 1762, 
and through the influence of Lowther, who | 
is said to have qualified him, as was not un- 
commonly done at that date, for election, was j 
returned as member for the county on 5 Jan. j 
1764, and continued to represent it until the j 
dissolution in September 1774. 

In 1765 Robinson rebuilt the W r hite 
House, Appleby, which was described as ' a 
large oblong-square, whitewashed mansion,' 
and lived there in much splendour. He en- 
tertained in it Lord North, when prime 
minister. Lowther's politics were tory, but 
he differed from North on the American war, j 
and zealously co-operated with the whigs. 
He expected his nominees to follow him on 
all questions, but Robinson, who had been 
created secretary of the treasury by Lord 
North on 6 Feb. 1770, declined, and a fierce 
quarrel ensued. Lowther sent a challenge to 
'a duel, but the hostile meeting was refused. 
Robinson at once resigned the post of law 
agent to the Lowther estates, and was suc- 
ceeded in it by his first cousin, John Words- 
worth, the poet's father. 

Robinson held the secretaryship of the trea- 
sury until 1782. Through his quarrel with 
Lowther it was necessary for him to find 
another seat, and he found refuge in the safe 
government borough of Harwich, which he re- 
presented from October 1774 until his death. 
In 1780 he was also returned for Seaford in 
Sussex, but preferred his old constituency. 
While in office he was the chief ministerial 
agent in carryingontliebusinessof parliament, 

and he was the medium of communication 
between the ministry and its supporters. The 
whig satires of the day, such as the ' Rolliad ' 
and the ' Probationary Odes,' regularly in- 
veighed against him, and Juniusdid not spare 
him. Thosewhom he seduced from the opposi- 
tion were known as ' Robinson's rats,' and 
Sheridan, when attacking bribery and its 
authors, retorted, in reference to shouts of 
'name, name,' by looking fixedly at Robinson 
on the treasury bench, and exclaiming,' Yes, I 
could name him as soon as I could say Jack Ro- 
binson.' He brought, on 3 July 1777 an action 
against Henry Sampson Woodfall, printer of 
the ' Public Advertiser,' for libel, in accusing 
him of sharing in government contracts, and 
obtained a verdict of forty shillings and costs 
{Annual Reg. xx. 191). The means of cor- 
ruption which he was forced to employ were 
distasteful to him, and his own hands were 
clean. He declined acting with North on 
his coalition with Fox. On his retirement 
from the post of secretary of the treasury, he 
came into the enjoyment of a pension of 
l.OOO/. a year (Hansard, xxii. 1346-53). His 
correspondence and official papers, including 
many communications from George III, are 
in the possession of the Marquis of Aberga- 
venny at Fridge Castle. The substance of 
part of them is described in the 10th Report 
of the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
(App. pt. vi.) Excerpts from the whole col- 
lections are being edited by Mr. B. F. Stevens 
for the Royal Historical Society. 

After their quarrel Robinson offered his 
estates in Westmoreland and the burgage 
tenures in Appleby to Lowther, and, on his 
declining to purchase, sold nearly the whole 
property for 29,000/. to Lord Thanet, who 
thus acquired an equal interest in the repre- 
sentation. About 1778 he purchased Wyke 
Manor at Syon Hill, Isle worth, between 
Brentford and Osterley Park, where he 
' modernised and improved ' the house. He 
wascreated aD.C.L. of Oxford on9July!773, 
when Lord North, as chancellor, visited the 
university ; he declined a peerage in 1784, 
but in December 1787 Pitt appointed him 
surveyor-general of woods and forests. He 
planted at Windsor millions of acorns and 
twenty thousand oak trees, and both as poli- 
tician and agriculturist was a great favourite 
of George III. In 1794 he printed a letter to 
Sir John Sinclair, chairman of the board of 
agriculture, on the enclosure of wastes, which 
was circulated by that board (Kenyan MSS. ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 14th Rep. App. pt. iv. 
p. 541). Robinson had a paralytic stroke in 
1782, and he died of apoplexy, the fate he 
always dreaded, at Harwich, on 23 Dec. 1802, 
and was buried at Isleworth on 2 Jan. 1803. 



His wife died at Wyke House on 8 June 1805, 
aged 71, and was buried at Isleworth on 
5 June. Their only child, 'pretty Mary Ro- 
binson,' was baptised at St. Lawrence Church, 
Appleby, on 24 March 1759, and married, 
at Isleworth on 3 Oct. 1781, the Hon. Henry 
Neville, afterwards second Earl of Aberga- 
venny. She died of consumption at Hotwells, 
Bristol, on 26 Oct. 1796, and was buried in 
Isleworth churchyard, where a monument 
was erected to her memory. Her home was 
at Wyke House, and all her children were 
born there. 

By his will Robinson left legacies to 
Captain John Wordsworth and Richard 
Wordsworth of Staple Inn, London. The 
enormous wealth which it was currently re- 
ported that Robinson had amassed had no 
existence in fact. His means were compara- 
tively small. There was no fixed salary in 
the surveyorship, and Robinson was autho- 
rised by Pitt to take what he thought fitting. 
After his death his accounts were called for, 
and it was some time before they were passed, 
and the embargo placed by the crown on the 
transfer of his Isleworth property to Lord 
Jersey removed. Robinson was a liberal bene- 
factor to Isleworth, Appleby, and Harwich, 
leaving books to the grammar schools in the 
last two towns, and building at Appleby ' two 
handsome crosses or obelisks one at each end ' 
of the high street (cf. LINDSEY, Harwich, 
p. 100). 

His portrait (he is described, but not quite 
accurately, as ' a little thickset handsome 
fellow ') was painted by G. F. Joseph, and 
engraved by W. Bond. From it there was 
painted by Jacob Thompson of Hackthorpe 
a picture which is now at Lowther Castle. 

[Atkinson's Westmorland Worthies, ii. 151- 
160 ; Westmorland Gazette, 26 Dec. 1885 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Map. 1802 ii. 
1172, 1805 ii. 680; Burke's Vicissitudes of 
Families (1883 edit.), i. 287-300; Aungier's 
Isleworth, pp. 179, 212; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. ix. 412-13 ; Some account of the Family 
of Eobinson, of the White House, Appleby 
(1874), passim.] W. P. C. 

ROBINSON, JOHN, D.D. (1774-1840), 
scholar, born of humble parentage at Temple 
Sowerby, Westmoreland, on 4 Jan. 1774, 
and educated at the grammar school, Penrith, 
was master of the grammar school, Raven- 
stonedale, Westmoreland, from 1795 to 1818, 
perpetual curate of Ravenstonedale from 
25 June 1813 to 1833, and rector from 
31 July 1818 of Clifton, and from 12 Aug. 
1833 of Cliburn, both in Westmoreland, un- 
til his death on 4 Dec. 1840. He was author 
of several scholastic works, on the title-pages 
of which he is described from 1807 as of 

Christ's College, Cambridge, of which, how- 
ever, he was not a graduate, and from 1815 
as D.D. His works, all of which were pub- 
lished at London, are as follows: 1. 'An 
j Easy Grammar of History, Ancient and 
Modern,' 1806, 12mo ; new edition, enlarged 
by John Tillotson, with the title 'A Gram- 
mar of History, Ancient and Modern/ 1855, 
12mo. 2. ' Modern History, for the use of 
Schools,' 1807, 8vo. 3. ' Archseologia Grseca,' 
1807, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1827. 4. ' A Theo- 
logical, Biblical, Ecclesiastical Dictionary,' 
1815, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1835. 5. 'Ancient 
History: exhibiting a Summary View of the 
Rise, Progress, Revolutions, Decline, and 
Fall of the States and Nations of Antiquity,' 
1831, 8vo (expanded from the 'Easy Gram- 
mar ' ). 6. ' Universal Modern History : ex- 
hibiting the Rise, Progress, and Revolutions 
of various Nations from the Age of Ma- 
homet to the Present Time,' 1839, 8vo (ex- 
panded from the ' Modern History for the 
use of Schools'). 

Robinson also compiled a ' Guide to the 
Lakes in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and 
Lancashire, illustrated with Twenty Views 
of Local Scenery and a Travelling Map of 
the Adjacent Country,' 1819, 8vo ; and con- 
tributed the letterpress to an unfinished 
series of ' Views of the Lakes in the North 
of England, from Original Paintings by the 
most Eminent Artists,' 1833, 4to. His 
'Ancient History ' forms the basis of Francis 
Young's ' Ancient History : a Synopsis of 
the Rise, Progress, Decline, and Fall of the 
States and Nations of Antiquity,' London, 
1873, 4 vols. 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1841, i. 320; Foster's Index 
Eccles. ; Whellan's Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, pp. 766, 790, 791 ; Biographical Diet, of 
Living Authors, (1816); Allibone's Diet, of 
Engl. Lit.] J. M. R. 

(1791-1863), chief justice of Upper Canada, 
the second son of Christopher Robinson and 
his wife Esther, daughter of the Rev. John 
Sayre of New Brunswick, was born at Ber- 
thier in the province of Quebec on 26 July 
1791. His father cousin of Sir Frederick 
Philipse Robinson [q.v.] served during the 
American war of independence as a loyalist 
in the queen's rangers, and was present as an 
ensign in Cornwallis's army at the surrender 
of Yorktown in 1781. He then settled at 
Toronto, where he practised as a barrister. At 
an early age John became a pupil of Dr. 
Strachan (afterwards bishop of Toronto), was 
further educated at Cornwall, Upper Canada, 
and finally entered an attorney's office. In 
1812, when the war with the United States 
broke out, Robinson volunteered for the 

Robinson s 

militia, and received a commission under Sir 
Isaac Brock; he was present at the capture 
of Fort Detroit and at Queenston and several 
other engagements. 

In 1814 Robinson served for one session 
as clerk of the house of assembly for Upper 
Canada ; at the end of the year he qualified 
for the bar, and was at once called upon to 
act for a short time as attorney-general. In 
1815 he became solicitor-general, and in Fe- 
bruary 1818 attorney-general, having rapidly 
acquired one of the best practices at the 
bar, and exerting remarkable influence with 
juries. He entered the assembly, but soon 
migrated to the legislative council on nomina- 
tion, being speaker of that body from 1828 
to 1840. He was the acknowledged leader of 
the tory party both in and out of parliament, 
and one of the clique known as the ' Family 
Compact ' of Canada ; as such he was violently 
attacked by William Lyon Mackenzie [q. v.] 
On 15 July 1829 he became chief justice of 
Upper Canada, remaining in the council till 
the reunion of the two Canadas in 1840. 
That union he stoutly opposed, but on its 
completion he took an active part in adjusting 
the financial arrangements, and received the 
thanks of the Upper Canada assembly. 

From this time Robinson became more and 
more absorbed in the heavy work of the 
courts. He was created C.B. in November 
1850, and a baronet in 1854. He was created 
D.C.L. of Oxford on 20 June 1855. He died 
at Toronto on 31 Jan. 1863. 

Robinson is a prominent figure in the 
history of Upper Canada ; he was the em- 
bodiment of the ' high church and state 
tory,' and was always suspicious of the de- 
mocratic leaders. In his earlier days he was 
impulsive, and as attorney-general prose- 
cuted the editor of the ' Freeman ' for a libel 
on himself. He was a pleasant speaker, with 
an easy, flowing, and equable style. His 
work was marked by indefatigable industry 
and research. 

Robinson married, in London in 1817, 
Emma, daughter of Charles Walker of Harles- 
den, Middlesex, by whom he had four sons 
and four daughters. He was succeeded in 
the baronetcy by his eldest son, James Lukin, 
who died on 21 Aug. 1894. His second son, 
John Beverley, born in 1820, was lieutenant- 
governor of Ontario from 1880 to 1887. 

Robinson left several small works, but 
none of more importance than his pamphlet 
on ' Canada and the Canada Bill,' embody- 
ing his arguments against the union of the 

[Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated Canadians ; 
Barker's Canadian Monthly Magazine, May 1846; 
Lodge's Baronetage, 1863 ; Burke's Peerage, 1895; 

) Robinson 

Foster's Alumni Oxon. and Peerage, 1882; With- 
row's Hist, of Canada ; Morgan's Bibliotheca 
Canadensis; Eyerson's American Loyalists, ii. 
198-9.] C. A. H. 

1871), line engraver, was born at Bolton, 
Lancashire, in 1796, and passed his boyhood 
in Staffordshire. At the age of eighteen he 
became a pupil of James Heath, A.R.A., 
with whom he remained a little more than 
two years. He was still a young man when, 
in 1823, he was commissioned to engrave for 
the Artists' Fund 'The Wolf and the Lamb,' 
the copyright of which had been given to 
that institution by the painter, William Mul- 
ready, R.A., who was one of its founders. 
The plate, for which the engraver received 
eight hundred guineas, proved a success ; one 
thousand impressions were sold, and the 
fund was benefited to the extent of rather 
more than 900/. In 1824 Robinson sent to 
the exhibition of the Society of British Ar- 
tists six engravings ' The Abbey Gate, 
Chester,' a ' Gipsy,' and four portraits, in- 
cluding that of Georgiana, duchess of Bed- 
ford, after Sir George Hayter, but he never 
exhibited again at that gallery. In the next 
few years he engraved many private por- 
traits and illustrations for books, including 
' A Spanish Lady,' after Gilbert Stuart 
Newton, R. A., for the ' Literary Souvenir ' 
of 1827 ; ' The Minstrel of Chamonix,' after 
Henry W. Pickersgill, R.A., for the ' Amu- 
let ' of 1830 ; The Flower Girl,' after P. A. 
Gaugain, for the ' Forget me not ' of 1830 ; 
and three plates, after Stothard, for Rogers's 
' Italy,' 1830. He was one of the nine emi- 
nent engravers who, in 1836, petitioned the 
House of Commons for an- investigation into 
the state of the art of engraving in this 
country, and who, with many other artists, 
in 1837, addressed a petition to the king 
praying for the admission of engravers to the 
highest rank in the Royal Academy an act 
of justice which was not conceded until some 
years later. In 1856, however, Robinson 
was elected an 'associate engraver of the 
new class,' and in the following year lost 
his election as a full member only by the 
casting vote of the president, Sir Charles 
Eastlake, which was given in favour of 
George Thomas Doo ; on the retirement of 
the latter in 1867 he was elected a royal 
academician. Among his more important 
works were ' The Emperor Theodosius refused 
admission into the Church by St. Ambrose ' 
and a portrait of the Countess of Bedford, 
both after the pictures by Vandyck in the 
National Gallery ; ' James Stanley, Earl of 
Derby, and his Family,' also after Vandyck ; 
' The' Spanish Flower Girl,' after Murillo ; 



'Napoleon and Pope Pius VII,' after Sir 
David Wilkie ; ' Sir Walter Scott,' after Sir 
Thomas Lawrence ; ' The Mother and Child,' 
after Charles Robert Leslie, 11. A. ; ' Little 
Red Riding Hood' (Lady Rachel Russell), 
' The Mantilla ' (Hon. Mrs. Lister, afterwards 
Lady Theresa Lewis), ' Twelfth Night' (Mar- 
chioness of Abercorn), and ' Getting a Shot,' 
all after Sir Edwin Landseer ; ' Queen Vic- 
toria,' after John Partridge ; ' The Sisters,' 
after F. P. Stephanoff; 'Bon Jour, Messieurs,' 
after Frank Stone, A.R.A. ; and, lastly, his 
fine plate of Anne, countess of Bedford, after 
the celebrated picture by Vandyck at Pet- 
worth, upon which he worked from time to 
time whenever he felt disposed to use his 
graver. This chef cCceuvre of refined and 
delicate execution he sent to the Royal Aca- 
demy exhibition in 1861, and again in 1864. 

Besides the portraits already mentioned, 
he engraved those of George Bidder, the 
calculating boy, after Miss Barter ; Nicho- 
las I, Emperor of Russia, after George Da we, 
R.A. ; Napoleon Bonaparte, when first con- 
sul, after Isabey ; the Duke of Sussex, after 
Thomas Phillips, R.A. ; Baron Bunsen, after 
George Richmond, R.A. : Lablache, after 
Thomas Carrick, and many others. He re- 
ceived a first-class gold medal at the Paris 
International Exhibition of 1855. 

Robinson died at New Grove, Petworth, 
Sussex, where he had long resided, on '21 Oct. 
1871, aged 75. Somewhat late in life he 
married a lady of property, which rendered 
him independent of his art, and enabled him 
to devote to his plates all the time and 
labour which he thought necessary to make 
them masterpieces of engraving. He was 
a justice of the peace for the county of Sussex 
and an honorary member of the Imperial 
Academy of the Fine Arts at St. Petersburg. 

[Art Journal, 1871, p. 293; Athenaeum, 1871, 
ii. 566 ; Illustrated London News, 3 Aug. 1867, 
with portrait ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886-9. ii. 
392 ; Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878 ; Pye's Patronage of British Art, 
1845.] K. E. G. 

KER (1822-1888), writer on French history 
under her maiden name of FREER, daughter 
of John Booth Freer, M.D., was born at 
Leicester in 1822. Her first book, ' Life of 
Marguerite d'Angouleme, Queen of Navarre, 
Duchesse d'Alencon, and De Berry, Sister 
of Francis I,' appeared in 1854, in two 
volumes. In 1861 she married the Rev. 
John Robinson, rector of Widmerpool, near 
Nottingham, but all her works bear her 
maiden name. She continued publishing 
books dealing with French history until 

1866. She died on 14 July 1888. Her works 
are mere compilations, although she claimed 
to have had access to manuscripts and other 
unpublished material. Although inferior in 
style and arrangement to the books of Julia 
Pardoe [q. v.] on similar subjects, they en- 
joyed for a time a wide popularity. Two 
of them, 'Marguerite d'Angouleme' and 
'Jeanne d'Albret' (1855), passed into a se- 
cond edition. Mrs. Robinson died on 14 July 

Her other works are : 1. ' Elizabeth de 
Valois, Queen of Spain and the Court of 
Philip II,' 2 vols. 1857. 2. ' Henry III, King 
of France and Poland: his Court and Times,' 
3 vols. 1858. 3. ' History of the Reign of 
Henry IV, King of France and Navarre,' part 
i., 2 vols. 1860; part ii. 2 vols. 1861; part iii. 
2 vols. 1863. 4, The Married Life of Anne 
of Austria and Don Sebastian,' 2 vols. 1864. 
5. ' The Regency of Anne of Austria,' 2 vols. 

[Allibone's Dictionary, ii. 1839 ; Athenaeum, 
1888.] E. L. 

ROBINSON, MARY(1758-1800),known 
as ' Perdita,' actress, author, and royal mis- 
tress, of Irish descent, was born on 27 Nov. 
1758 at College Green, Bristol. The original 
name of her father's family, McDermott, had 
been changed by one of her ancestors into 
Darby. Her father, the captain of a Bristol 
whaler, \vas born in America. Through her 
mother, whose name was Seys, she claimed 
descent from Locke. She showed precocious 
ability and was fond of elegiac poetry, re- 
citing at an early age verses from Pope and 
Mason. Her earliest education was received 
at the school in Bristol kept by the sisters 
of Hannah More [q. v.] A scheme of esta- 
blishing a whale fishery on the coast of 
Labrador and employing Esquimaux labour, 
which her father originated, and in which he 
embarked his fortune, led to his temporary 
settlement in America. His desertion of 
her mother brought with it grave financial 
difficulties. Mary was next placed at a school 
in Chelsea under a Mrs. Lorrington, an able 
erratic but drunken woman, from whom 
she claims to have learnt all she ever knew, 
and by whom she was encouraged in writing 
verses. She passed thence to a school kept 
by a Mrs. Leigh in Chelsea, which she was 
compelled to leave in consequence of her 
father's neglect. After receiving, at the early 
age of thirteen, a proposal of marriage from a 
captain in the royal navy, she temporarily 
assisted her mother in keeping a girls' school 
at Chelsea. This establishment was broken 
up by her father, and she was sent to a 
' finishing school ' at Oxford House, Mary- 
lebone, kept by a Mrs. Hervey. Hussey, the 



dancing-master there, was ballet-master at 
Covent Garden Theatre. Through him she 
was introduced to Thomas Hull fq. v.l and 
afterwards to Arthur Murphy [q. v.J and 
David Garrick. 

Struck by her appearance, Garrick offered 
to bring her out as Cordelia to his own Lear. 
He paid her much attention, told her her 
voice recalled that of Mrs. Gibber, and encou- 
raged her to attend the theatre and familiarise 
herself with stage life and proceedings. But 
her appearance on the boards was long de- 
ferred owing to her marriage, on 1:2 April 
1774 at St. Martin's Church, with Thomas 
Robinson, an articled clerk, who was re- 
garded by her mother as a man of means 
and expectations. At his request her nup- 
tials were kept secret, and she lived for a 
while with her mother in a house in Great 
Queen Street, on the site now occupied by 
the Freemasons' Tavern. After a visit to 
Wales to see the father of her husband, 
whose birth was illegitimate, she returned to 
London and lived with Robinson at No. 13 
Hatton Garden. During two years she led 
a fashionable life, neglected by her husband, 
receiving compromising attentions from Lord 
Lyttelton and other rakes, and at the end 
of this period she shared the imprisonment 
of her husband, who was arrested for debt. 

During a confinement in the king's bench 
prison, extending over almost ten months, 
she occupied in writing verses the hours that 
were not spent in menial occupation or attend- 
ing to her child. Her poems, while in manu- 
script, obtained for her the patronage of the 
Duchess of Devonshire ; a first collection was 
published in 1775 (2 vols.) After her release 
from prison, she took refuge in Newman 
Street. There she was seen by Sheridan, to 
whom she recited. At the instance of Wil- 
liam Brereton she now applied once more to 
Garrick, who, though he had retired from 
the stage, still took an active interest in the 
affairs of Drury Lane. In the green-room of 
the theatre she recited the principal scenes 
of Juliet, supported by Brereton as Romeo. 
Juliet was chosen for her d6but by Garrick, 
who superintended the rehearsals, and on 
some occasions went through the various 
scenes with her. A remunerative engage- 
ment was promised her, and on 10 Dec. 
1776 she appeared with marked success 
as Juliet. Garrick occupied a seat in the 
orchestra. On 17 Feb. 1777 she was Statira 
in ' Alexander the Great,' and on 24 Feb. was 
the original Amanda in the ' Trip to Scar- 
borough,' altered by Sheridan from Van- 
brugh's ' Relapse.' In this she had to face 
some hostility directed against the piece by 
a public to which it had been announced as 

a novelty. She also played for her benefit 
Fanny Sterling in the ' Clandestine Mar- 
riage.' On 30 Sept. 1777 she appeared as 
Ophelia, on 7 Oct. as Lady Anne in ' Richard 
the Third,' on 22 Dec. as the Lady in 
' Comus,' on 10 Jan. 1778 as Emily in the 
'Runaway,' on 9 April as Araminta in 
the 'Confederacy,' on 23 April as Octavia 
in ' All for Love.' For her benefit she played 
somewhat rashly on 30 April Lady Macbeth 
in place of Cordelia, for which she was pre- 
viously advertised. On this occasion her 
musical farce of the ' Lucky Escape,' of which 
the songs only are printed,was produced. Her 
name does not appear in the list of charac- 
ters. In the following season she was the 
first Lady Plume in the 'Camp ' on 15 Oct. 
1778, and on 8 Feb. 1779 Alinda in Jephson's 
' Law of Lombardy.' She also played Palmira 
in ' Mahomet,' Miss Richly in the ' Discovery,' 
Jacintha in the ' Suspicious Husband,' Fidelia 
in the ' Plain Dealer,' and, for her benefit, Cor- 
delia. In her fourth and last season (1779- 
1780) she was Viola in the ' Twelfth Night,' 
Perdita in the ' Winter's Tale,' Rosalind, 
Oriana in the ' Inconstant Imogen,' Mrs. 
Brady in the ' Irish Widow,' and on 24 May 
1780 was the original Eliza Campley, a girl 
who masquerades as Sir Harry Revel in the 
'Miniature Picture ' of Lady Craven (after- 
wards the margravine of Anspach). At the 
close of the season she quitted the stage ; her 
last appearance at Drury Lane seems to have 
been on 31 May 1780. 

Her beauty, which at this time was remark- 
able, and her figure, seen to great advantage 
in the masculine dress she was accustomed 
to wear on the stage, had brought her many 
proposals from men of rank and wealth. On 
3 Dec. 1778, when Garrick's adaptation of the 
' Winter's Tale,' first produced on 20 Nov., 
was acted by royal command, ' Gentleman 
Smith' [see SMITH, WILLIAM, d. 1819], the 
Leontes, prophesied that Mrs. Robinson, who 
was looking handsomer than ever as 'Perdita,' 
would captivate the Prince of Wales (subse- 
quently George IV). The prediction was ful- 
filled. She received, through Lord Maiden 
(afterwards Earl of Essex), a letter signed. 
' Florizel,' which was the beginning of a corre- 
spondence. After a due display of coyness on 
the part of the heroine, who invariably signed 
herself ' Perdita,' a meeting was arranged 
at Kew, the prince being accompanied by 
the Duke of York, then bishop of Osnaburgh. 
This proved to be the first of many Romeo 
and Juliet-like encounters. Princes do not 
sigh long, and after a bond for 20,000/., to 
be paid when the prince came of age, had been 
sealed with the royal arms, signed, and given 
her, Mrs. Robinson's position as the royal 



mistress was recognised. After no long 
period the prince, who had transferred his 
1 interest ' to another ' fair one,' wrote her a 
cold note intimating that they must meet 
no more. One further meeting was brought 
about by her pertinacity, but the rupture was 
final. The royal bond was unpaid, and Mrs. 
Robinson, knowing how openly she had been 
compromised, dared not face the public and 
resume the profession she had dropped. Ulti- 
mately, when all her letters had been left un- 
answered and she was heavily burdened with 
debt and unable to pay for her establishment 
in Cork Street, Fox granted her in 1783 a 
pension of 500/. a year, half of which after her 
death was to descend to her daughter. She 
then went to Paris, where she attracted much 
attention, and declined overtures from the 
Duke of Orleans ; she also received a purse 
netted by the hands of Marie- Antoinette, who 
(gratified, no doubt, by the repulse admini- 
stered to Philippe d'Orleans) addressed it to 
' La Belle Anglaise.' In Paris she is said to 
have opened an academy. Returning to Eng- 
land, she settled at Brighton. Report, which 
is sanctioned by Horace Walpole, coupled her 
name with Charles James Fox. She formed a 
close intimacy, extending over many years, 
with Colonel (afterwards Sir Banastre ) Tarle- 
ton, an officer in the English army in America. 
In a journey undertaken in his behalf, when 
he was in a state of pecuniary difficulty, she 
contracted an illness that ended in a species 
of paralysis of her lower limbs. 

From this period she devoted herself to 
literature, for which she had always shown 
some disposition. She had already published, 
besides her poems (1775), ' Captivity,' a poem, 
and 'Celadon and Lvdia.' a tale, both printed 
together in 4to in 1777. Two further volumes 
of poems saw the light in 1791, 8vo; ' Ange- 
lina,' a novel, 3 vols. 12mo, in 1796. ' The 
False Friend,' a domestic story, 4 vols. 12mo, 
in 1799, ' Lyrical Tales' in 1800, and ' Effu- 
sions of Love,' 8vo, n.d., purporting to be her 
correspondence with the Prince of Wales. 
She is also credited with ' Vaucenza, or the 
Dangers of Credulity,' a novel, 1792 ; ' Wal- 
singham, or the Pupil of Nature,' a domestic 
story, 2nd ed. 4 vols. 12mo, 1805, twice trans- 
lated into French; and 'Sappho and Phaon,' 
a series of sonnets, 1796, 16mo. ' Hubert 
de Sevrac,' a ' Monody to the Memory of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds,' and a ' Monody to the Me- 
mory of the late Queen of France,' ' Sight,' 
' The Cavern of Woe,' and' Solitude' were pub- 
lished together in 4to. To these may be added 
' The Natural Daughter,' ' Impartial Reflec- 
tions on the Situation of the Queen of France,' 
and ' Thoughts on the Condition of Women.' 
Ilalkett and Laing attribute to her a ' Letter 

to the Women of England on the Injustice 
of Mental Subordination, with Anecdotes by 
Anne Frances Randall,' London, 1799, 8vo. 
Under the pseudonym of Laura Maria, she 
published ' The Mistletoe,' a Christmas tale, 
in verse, 1800. She is said to have taken 
part under various signatures, in the Delia 
Cruscan literature [see MERRY, ROBEET], 
and is, by a strange error, credited in 
' Literary Memoirs of Living Authors,' 1798 
[by David Rivers, dissenting minister of 
Highgate], with being the Anna Matilda 
of the ' World,' who was of course Hannah 
Cowley [q. v.] Many other poems, tracts, 
and pamphlets of the latter part of the eigh- 
teenth century are ascribed to her, often on 
very doubtful authority. Her latest poetical 
contributions were contributed to the 'Morn- 
ing Post ' under the signature, ' Tabitha 
Bramble.' Mrs. Robinson's poems were col- 
lected by her daughter. What is called the 
best edition, containing many pieces not 
previously published, appeared in 1806, 3 vols. 
8vo. Another edition appeared in 1826. 
Her memoirs, principally autobiographical 
but in part due to her daughter, appeared, 
4 vols. 12mo, 1801; with some posthumous 
pieces in verse, again in 2 vols. 1803; and 
again, with introduction and notes by Mr. 
J. Fitzgerald Molloy, in 1894. 

Mrs. Robinson was also active as a play- 
wright. To Drivry Lane she gave ' Nobody,' 
a farce, never printed, but acted, 29 Nov. 
1794, by Banister, jun., Bensley, Barrymore, 
Mrs. Jordan, Miss Pope, Mrs. Goodall, and 
Miss de Camp. It was a satire on female 
gamblers. It was played three or four times 
amid a scene of great confusion, ladies of 
rank hissing or sending their servants to hiss. 
A principal performer, supposed to be Miss 
Farren, threw up her part, saying that the 
piece was intended to ridicule her particular 
friend. Mrs. Robinson also wrote the ' Sici- 
lian Lover,' a tragedy, 4to, 1796, but could 
not get it acted. 

Mary Robinson died, crippled and im- 
poverished, at Englefield Cottage, Surrey, 
on 26 Dec. 1800, aged 40 (according to the 
tombstone, 43). She was buried in Old 
Windsor churchyard. Poetic epitaphs by 
J. S. Pratt and ' C. H.' are over her grave. 
Her daughter, Maria or Mary Elizabeth, died 
in 1818; the latter published 'The Shrine of 
Bertha,' a novel, 1794, 2 vols. 12mo, and 
'The Wild Wreath,' 1805, 8vo, a poetical 
miscellany, dedicated to the Duchess of York. 

Mrs. Robinson was a woman of singular 
beauty, but vain, ostentatious, fond of ex- 
hibiting herself, and wanting in refinement. 
Her desertion by the prince and her subse- 
quent calamities were responsible for her 




notoriety, find the references to her royal 
lover in her verse contributed greatly to its 
popularity. She was to be seen daily in an 
absurd chariot, with a device of a basket 
likely to be taken for a coronet, driven by 
the favoured of the day, with her husband 
and candidates for her favour as outriders. 
' To-day she was a paysanne, with her straw 
hat tied at the back of her head, looking as 
if too new to what she passed to know 
what she looked at. Yesterday she perhaps 
had been the dressed belle of Hyde Park, 
trimmed, powdered, patched, painted to 
the utmost power of rouge and white lead. 
To-morrow she would be the cravatted 
Amazon of the riding-house ; but be she what 
she might, the hats of the fashionable pro- 
menaders swept the ground as she passed ' 
(' HAWKINS, Memoirs, ii. 24). A companion 
picture shows her at a later date seated, help- 
lessly paralysed, in one of the waiting-rooms 
of the opera-house, ' a woman of fashionable 
appearance, still beautiful, but not in the 
bloom of beauty's pride. In a few minutes 
her liveried servants came to her,' and after 
covering their arms with long white sleeves, 
' lifted her up and conveyed her to her car- 
riage ' (ib. p. 34). As an author she was cre- 
dited in her own day with feeling, taste, and 
elegance, and was called the English Sappho. 
Some of her songs, notably ' Bounding Billow, 
cease thy motion,' ' Lines to him who will 
understand them,' and 'The Haunted Beach,' 
enjoyed much popularity in the drawing- 
room ; but though her verse has a certain 
measure of facility, it appears, to modern 
tastes, jejune, affected, and inept. Wolcott 
(Peter Pindar) and others belauded her in 
verse, celebrating her graces, which were real, 
and her talents, which were imaginary. 

Many portraits of Mary Robinson are in 
existence. Sir Joshua painted her twice, one 
portrait being now in the possession of Lord 
Granville, and another in that of Lady Wal- 
lace. He 'probably used her as model in 
some of his fancy pictures, for she sat to him 
very assiduously throughout the year ' ( 1 782) 
(LESLIE and TAYLOR, Life of Iteynold*, ii. 
343). The Garrick Club collection has a por- 
trait after Sir Joshua Reynolds, and one by 
Zoffany, as Rosalind. A portrait, engraved by 
J. R. Smith, was painted by Romney. An- 
other is in Huish's ' Life of George IV.' A 
full-length portrait of her in undress, sitting 
by a bath, was painted by Stroehling. Two 
portraits were painted by Cosway, and one 
by Dance. A portrait by Hoppner was No. 249 
in the Guelph Exhibition. A half-length 
by Gainsborough was exhibited in the Na- 
tional Portrait Exhibition of 1868. Engraved 
portraits are in the various editions of her 


life. In his ' Book for a Rainy Day,' J. T. 
Smith tells how, when attending on the 
visitors in Sherwin's chambers, he received 
a kiss from her as the reward for fetching a 
drawing of her which Sherwin had made. 

[The chief if not a'ways trustworthy authority 
for the life of Mrs. Robinson is her posthumous 
memoirs published by her daughter. Letters from 
Perdita to a certain Israelite and her Answer 
to them, London, 1781, 8vo, is a coarse satire 
accusing her and her husband of swindling. 
Even coarser is Poetical Epistles from Florizel 

to Perdita , and Perdita's Answer, &c., 

London, 1781, 4to, and Mistress of Royalty, or 
the Loves of Florizel and Perdita, n. d. (Brit. 
Mus. Cat. s. v. 'Perdita'). Other books consulted 
are the Life of Reynolds b; Leslie and Taylor ; Me- 
mo : rs of her by Miss Hawkins ; Genest's Account 
of the Stage ;MonthlyMirror;Walpole Correspon- 
dence, ed. Cunningham ; Doran's Annals of the 
S t;i ge, ed. Lowe ; Allibone's Dictionary; Bryan's 
Dictionary of Painters ; Georgian Era ; Clark 
Russell's Representative Actors ; Biographia 
Dramatica; Thespian Dictionary; John Taylor's 
Records of ray Life ; Gent. Mag. 1804, ii. 1009 ; 
Literary Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798; 
Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 173, 348, iv. 105, 
5th ser. ix. 59, 7th ser. vi. 147.] J. K. 

ROBINSON, MARY (fl. 1802), ' Mary of 
Buttermere.' [See under HATFIELD, JOHN.] 

ROBINSON, MATTHEW (1628-1694), 
divine and physician, baptised at Rokeby, 
Yorkshire, on 14 Dec. 1628, was the third 
son of Thomas Robinson, barrister, of Gray's 
Inn, and Frances, daughter of Leonard 
Smelt, of Kirby Fletham, Yorkshire. When, 
in 1643, his father was killed fighting for the 
parliament in the civil war, Matthew was 
recommended as page to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 
But it was decided that he should continue 
his education ; and in October 1644 he ar- 
rived at Edinburgh. In the spring the plague 
broke out, and he left. In May 1645 he made 
his way to Cambridge, which he reached, after 
some hairbreadth escapes, on 9 June. A few 
days after lie began his studies Cambridge was 
threatened by the royalists. He and a com- 
panion, while trying to escape to Ely, were 
brought back by ' the rude rabble.' Robin- 
son now offered his services to the governor 
of the town, and until the dispersal of the 
king's forces undertook military duty every 

On 4 Nov. he was admitted scholar of St. 
John's College. His tutor, Zachary Cawdry 
[q. v.], became his lifelong friend. Robinson 
excelled in metaphysics, and for recreatim 
translated, but did not publish, the ' Book of 
Canticles ' into Latin verse. He graduated 
B.A. in 1648 and M.A. in 1652. In 1649 he 
was elected a fellow of Christ's College, but 





the election was disallowed by ' mandamus 
from the powers then in being.' A resolve to 
go to Padua was defeated by want of money. 
On 13 April 1650, however, he was elected 
fellow of St. John's. He now resumed his 
studies, and particularly that of physic, which 
he meant to make his profession. He ' showed 
his seniors vividissections of dogs and such- 
like creatures in their chambers.' Sir Thomas 
Browne (' Dr. Brown of Norwich ') sent him 
' epistolary resolutions of many questions.' 
But after studying medicine ' not two full 
years,' he was persuaded by his mother to 
accept presentation to the family living of 
Burneston, Yorkshire. He went into resi- 
dence in August 1651. Meanwhile his me- 
dical advice was in great request, and Sir 
Joseph Cradock, the commissary of the arch- 
deaconry of Richmond, procured him a license 
to practise as a physician. He had much 
success, especially in the treatment of con- 

Both Robinson and Cawdry had scruples 
about the act of uniformity, which their bi- 
shop, Brian Walton [q. v.] of Chester, took 
great pains to satisfy (NEWCOME, Diary, 
8 Aug. 1662). Robinson had much respect 
for nonconformists; and he allowed some 
of them to preach in his parish (NEWCOME, 
Autobiogr. pp. 218, 227, 295, &c. ; CALAMY, 
Account, p. 158). Plurality and non-residence 
he 'utterly detested,' and was ' of my Lord 
Verulam's judgement ' as to the desirability 
of many other church reforms. He wrote 
his ' Cassander Refonnatus ' to ' satisfy the 
dissenters everyway,' but did not publish it. 
In September 1 682 he resigned the living of 
Burneston in favour of his nephew, and re- 
moved to Ripley, where, for two years, he 
managed Lady Ingleby's estates (' Diary of 
George Grey ' in SURTEES'S Durham, ii. 15). 
At Burneston he erected and endowed two 
free schools and a hospital. 

In 1685 or 1686 he began his ' Annota- 
tions on the New Testament,' which he 
finished in December 1690. The occasion of 
this undertaking was his disappointment 
with Poole's ' Synopsis,' in the preparation of 
which he had assisted. The ' Annotations,' 
in two large finely written folios, recently 
passed to the Rev. Dr. Jackson of the Wes- 
leyan College, Richmond. 

Among Robinson's versatile tastes was one 
for horses. He bred the best horses in the 
north of England, and, while staying with 
his brother Leonard in London, was sum- 
moned to Whitehall by Charles II for con- 
sultation respecting a charger which Mon- 
mouth afterwards rode at Bothwell-Brigg. 
He also began a book on horsemanship and 
the treatment of horses, but thought it ' not 

honourable to his cloth to publish.' Some 
of his ' secrets ' were embodied in the ' Gen- 
tleman's Jockey and Approved Farrier' 
(1676, 4th edit.) He died at Ripley on 
27 Nov. 1694, and was buried in Burneston 
church (WHITAKER, Richmondshire, ii. 130). 
He left an estate of 700/. per annum, his skill 
in affairs being ' next to miraculous.' He 
married, on 12 Oct. 1657, Jane, daughter of 
Mark Pickering of Ackworth, a descendant 
of Archbishop Tobie Matthew [q. v.], but had 
no children. Their portraits, formerly at Bur- 
neston, have perished. Thoresby mentions 
that 'A Treatise of Faith by a Dying Divine r 
contains an account of Robinson's character. 
This, with a manuscript introduction in Ro- 
binson's writing, recently belonged to J. R. 
Dalbran, esq., of Fellcroft, Ripon. 

[The Life of Matthew Kobinson was printed 
in 1856 by Professor Mayor in pt. ii. of Cam- 
bridge in the Seventeenth Century, from a 
manuscript in St. John's College Library, with 
numerous notes, appendix, and indices. It pur- 
ports to be, with the exception of the last four 
pages, an autobiography. It was completed 
by Robinson's nephew, George Grey. The 
latter's son, Zachary, supplied chronological 
notes and corrections, See also Baker's Hist, of 
St. John's College (ed. Mayor) ; Thoresby's 
Diary, i. 75, 281-2; and authorities cited.] 

G. LE G. N. 

bishop of Bangor, born at Conway in North 
Wales, was the second son of John Robinson, 
by his wife Ellin, daughter of William 
Brickdale. The families of both parent* 
came originally from Lancashire and Cheshire 
respectively, but appear to have been settled 
at Conway for several generations (DwuN, 
Heraldic Visitations, ii. 113-14; WOOD, 
Athence Oxon. ii. 797-8, footnote; Arch. 
Cambr. 5th ser. xiii. 37). 

Robinson was educated at Queens' Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he proceeded B.A. 
in 1547-8, and within a twelvemonth was 
made a fellow of his college, by the command,, 
it is alleged, of the royal commissioners for 
the visitation of the university. In 1551 he 
commenced M.A., was bursar of his own 
college in 1551-3, and a proctor in the uni- 
versity for 1552, dean of his college 1577-8,. 
and vice-president of his college in 1561. 
Plays written by him were acted at Queens' 
College in 1550, 1552, and 1553, the last- 
mentioned being a comedy entitled ' Strylius.'' 
In 1555 he subscribed the Roman catholic 
articles. He was ordained at Bangor by Dr. 
William Glynn, first as acolyte and sub-dean 
on 12 March 1556-7, then deacon on the 
13th, and priest on the 14th, under a special 
faculty from Cardinal Pole, dated 23 Feb.- 




preceding. Archbishop Parker's statement in 
his ' De Antiquitate Britannica ' (see STRYPE, 
Parker, iii. 291), that Robinson ' suffered ca- 
lamities for the protestant cause in the reign 
of Queen Mary,' is hardly probable. 

On 20 Dec. 1559 Parker licensed him to 
preach throughout his province, and he was 
then, or about that time, appointed one of 
his chaplains (STRYPE, Parker, ii. 457). He 
proceeded at Cambridge B.D. in 1560 and 
D.D. in 1566. A sermon preached by him at 
St. Paul's Cross in December 1561 was de- 
scribed by Grindal as ' very good ' (ib.) ; the 
manuscript is numbered 104 among Arch- 
bishop Parker's manuscripts at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge (STRYPE'S Par- 
ker, i. 464-5 ; and HAWEIS'S Sketches of the 
Reformation, pp. 161-2). After this pre- 
ferment came apace. He was appointed on 
13 Dec. 1561 to the rectory of Shepperton in 
Middlesex (NswcouRT, Repertorium, i. 726); 
on 16 June 1562 to the archdeaconry of 
Merioneth (WALLIS, p. 142) ; and on 26 Aug. 
of the same year to the sinecure rectory of 
Northop in Flintshire. He also became rec- 
tor of Witney in Oxfordshire (see NASMITH, 
Cat. ofC.C.C. MSS. p. 154). In right of 
his archdeaconry he sat in the convocation of 
1562-3, when he subscribed the Thirty-nine 
Articles (STRYPE, Annals, I. i. 490), and 
voted against the proposal which was made, 
but not adopted, to make essential modifica- 
tion in certain rites and ceremonies of the 
church (ib. pp. 502-3). In 1564 he also sub- 
scribed the bishops' propositions concerning 
ecclesiastical habits, and wrote ' Tractatus de 
vestium usu in sacris.' 

He was at Cambridge during Queen Eliza- 
beth's visit in August 1564, and prepared an 
account of it in Latin, an English version of 
which is probably that printed in Nichols's 
'Progresses of Elizabeth' (i. 167-71). A 
similar account was written by him of the 
queen's visit to Oxford in 1566 (ib. i. 229- 
247 ; see also Harl. MS. 7033, f. 131). He 
was one of the Lent preachers before the 
queen in 1565 (STRYPE, Parker, iii. 135). 

Robinson was elected bishop of Bangor, in 
succession to Rowland Meyrick [q. v.], after 
much deliberation on the part of the arch- 
bishop, under a license attested at Cam- 
bridge on 30 July 1566. He also held in 
commendam the archdeaconry of Merioneth, 
and the rectories of Witney, Northop, and 
Shepperton. The archdeaconry he resigned 
in 1573 in favour of his kinsman, Humphrey 
Robinson, but he took instead the archdea- 
conry of Anglesey, which he held until his 
death ( WILLIS, pp. 139, 142). He resigned 
Shepperton about November 1574. 

For the next few years Robinson appears 

to have endeavoured to suppress the non-pro- 
testant customs in his diocese (cf. STRYPE, 
Grindal, p. 315). On 7 Oct. 1567 Robinson 
wrote to Sir William Cecil, giving an account 
of the counties under his j urisdiction, noticing 
the prevalence therein of ' the use of images, 
altars, pilgrimages, and vigils' (Cal. State 
Papers, ed. Lemon, p. 301). On the same 
day he sent to Archbishop Parker a copy of 
part of Eadmer's history, stating also his 
opinion as to the extent and authenticity of 
Welsh manuscripts (C.C.C. Cambridge MS. 
No. 114, f. 503; see NASMITH'S Catalogue, 
p. 155 ; also STRYPE'S Parker, i. 509). On 
23 April 1571 he was acting as one of the 
commissioners for ecclesiastical causes at 
Lambeth (STRYPE, Annals, n. i. 141), and in 
the convocation held that year he subscribed 
the English translation of the Thirty-nine 
Articles and the book of Canons (STRYPE, 
Parker, ii. 54, 60). About 1581 he was sus- 
pected of papistry ; on 28 May 1582 he wrote 
two letters, one to Walsingham and the other 
to the Earl of Leicester, 'justifying himself 
against the reports that he was fallen away 
in religion,' and stating that his ' proceedings 
against the papists and the declaration of 
the archbishop would sufficiently prove his 
adherence to the established church' (Cal. 
State Papers, ii. 56). 

He died on 13 .Feb. 1584-5, and was 
buried on the 17th in Bangor Cathedral on 
the south side of the high altar. His effigy 
and arms were delineated in brass, but the 
figure had been removed at the time of Browne 
Willis's survey in 1720, when only a fragment 
of the inscription remained ; this has since 
disappeared. His will was proved in the pre- 
rogative court of Canterbury on 29 Feb. 1584 
(Arch. Cambr. 5th ser. vi. 130). 

Robinson took considerable interest in 
Welsh history, and is said to have made ' a 
large collection of historical things relating 
to the church and state of the Britons and 
Welsh, in fol. MS.' (WopD, loc. cit.), which 
was formerly preserved in the Hengwrt Li- 
brary. He translated into Latin a life of 
Gruffydd ab Cynan [q. v.] from an old Welsh 
text at Gwydyr, and the translation, appa- 
rently in Robinson's own handwriting, is 
still preserved at Peniarth. Both text and 
translation were edited by the Rev. Robert 
Williams for the ' Archaeologia Cambrensis ' 
for 1866 (3rd ser. xii. 30, 112; see espe- 
cially note onp. 131, and cf. xv. 362). Bishop 
William Morgan (1540?-! 604) [q. v.], in the 
dedication of his Welsh version of the bible 
(published in 1588), acknowledges assistance 
from a bishop of Bangor, presumably Robin- 
son. At any rate, Robinson may be safely 
regarded as one of the chief pioneers of the 




reformation in North Wales, and be appears 
to have honestly attempted to suppress the 
irregularities of the native clergy, though 
perhaps he was himself not quite free from 
the taint of nepotism. 

Robinson married Jane, daughter of Randal 
Brereton, by Mary, daughter of Sir William 
Griffith of Penrhyn, chamberlain of North 
Wales, and by her he had numerous sons, 
including Hugh [q, v.], and William, his 
eldest, whose son was John Robinson (1617- 
1681) [q. v.] the royalist. 

[The chief authorities for Nicholas Robinson's 
life are Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 797-9 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, i. 105, 115-16; Williams's Eminent 
"Welshmen, pp. 459 et seq ; Cooper's Athense 
Cnntabr. i. 603-5 ; Yorke's Eoval Tribes of 
Wales, ed. Williams, pp. 23, 173; Strype's 
various works.] D. LL. T. 


1775), physician, a native of Wales, born 
about 1697, graduated M.D. at Rheims on 
15 Dec. 1718, and, like Richard Mead [q. v.], 
who was his first patron, began practice with- 
out the necessary license of the College of 
Physicians, residing in Wood Street in the 
city of London. In 1721 he published ' A 
Compleat Treatise of the Gravel and Stone,' 
in which he condemns the guarded opinion 
which Charles Bernard [q. v.] had given on 
the subject of cutting into the kidney to re- 
move renal calculus, and declares himself 
strongly in favour of the operation. He de- 
scribes a tincturalithontriptica, pulvislithon- 
tripticus, and elixir lithontripticum devised 
by him as sovereign remedies for the stone 
and the gravel. In 1725 he published ' A New 
Theory of Physick and Diseases founded on 
the Newtonian Philosophy.' The theory is 
indefinite, and seems little more than that 
there is no infallible authority in medicine. 
In 1727 he published 'A New Method of 
treating Consumptions,' and on 27 Man-h 
was admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians. He moved to Warwick C >nrt 
in Warwick Lane, and in 1729 published 
'A New System of the Spleen, Vapours, 
and Hypochondriack Melancholy,' dedicated 
to Sir Hans Sloane [q. v.] He mentions in 
it, from the report of eye-witnesses, the last 
symptoms of Marlborough's illness, which 
are generally known from Johnson's poetical 
allusion to them, and relates as example of the 
occasional danger of the disease then known 
as vapours that a Mrs. Davis died of jov be- 
cause her son returned safely from India; 
while a Mrs. Chiswell died of sorrow been use 
her son went to Turkey. In 1729 he published 
a 'Discourse on the Nnture and Cause of 
Sudden Deaths,' in which he maintains that 

some cases of apoplexy ought not to be treated 
by bleeding, and describes from his own ob- 
servation the cerebral appearances in opium 
poisoning. His ' Treatise of the Venereal 
Disease,' which appeared in 1736, and ' Essay 
on Gout,' published in 1755, are without any 
original observations. He used to give lec- 
tures on medicine at his house, and published 
a syllabus. He also wrote ' The Christian 
Philosopher ' in 1741, and ' A Treatise on the 
Virtues of a Crust of Bread ' in 1756. All 
his writings are diffuse, and contain scarcely 
an observation of permanent value. He died 
on 13 May 1775. 

[Munk's Coll. of Pays. ii. 108 ; Works.] 

N. M. 


(1776-1858), architect, born in 1776, became 
a pupil of Henry Holland (1746 P-1806) [q. v.] 
From 1795 to 1798 he was articled toWilliam 
Porden [q. v.], and he resided in 1801-2 at 
the Pavilion at Brighton, superintending the 
works in Porden's absence. In 1805 he de- 
signed Hans Town Assembly Rooms, Cadogan 
Place; in 1811-12 the Egyptian Hall, Pic- 
cadilly, which William Bullock of Liverpool 
intended for his London museum of natural 
history. The details of the elevation were 
taken from V. Denon's work on the Egyptian 
monuments, and especially from the temple 
at Denderah : but the composition of the 
design is quite at variance with the prin- 
ciples of Egyptian architecture. About this 
period he employed the young James Duf- 
field Harding [q. v.] for perspective draw- 
ing. Harding also contributed illustrations 
to ' Vitruvius Britannicus' and other works 
of Robinson. In 1813 he designed the town- 
hall and market-place at Llanbedr, Car- 
diganshire. In 1810 he travelled on the 
continent, and visited Rome. In 1819 he 
made alterations at Bulstrode for the Duke 
of Somerset; in 1821 he restored Mickle- 
ham church, Surrey : in 1826-8 he made 
alterations at York Castle gaol ; in 1829-32 
he built the Swiss Cottage at the Colosseum, 
Regent's Park; in 1836 he sent in designs 
which were not successful in the competition 
for the new Houses of Parliament. He also 
designed or altered numerous country houses 
for private gentlemen. 

He prqjectftd the continuation of Vitruviua 
Britannicns,' commenced by Colin Campbell 
(d. 1729) Tq. v.1, and continued by George Ri- 
chardson(1736?-1817?)[q.v.],and published 
fi ve parts, viz. : ' Woburn Abbey ,'1827: 'Hat- 
field House,' 1833: ' Hardwicke Hall,' 1835; 
' Castle Ashby.' 1841 : and ' Warwick Castle,' 
18^2. He also published 'Rural Archi- 
tecture: Designs far Ornamental Cottages,' 




1823 ; ' An Attempt to ascertain the Age of 
the Church of Micklaham in Surrey,' 1824 ; 
' Ornamental Villas,' 1825-7 ; ' Village Ar- 
chitecture,' 1830; ' Farm Buildings,' 1830; 
' Gate Cottages, Lodges, and Park Entrances,' 
1833 ; ' Domestic Architecture in the Tudor 
Style,' 1837 ; ' New Series of Ornamental 
Cottages and Villas,' 1838. Robinson be- 
came F.S.A. in 1826, and was (1835-9) one 
of the first vice-presidents of the Institute of 
British Architects. He read papers to the 
institute, 6 July 1835, on 'The newly dis- 
covered Crypt at York Minster,' and, 5 Dec. 
1836, on 'Oblique Arches.' About 1840 
pecuniary difficulties led him to reside at 
Boulogne, where he died on 24 June 1858. 

[Diet, of Architecture; Builder, xvi. 458; Notes 
"and Queries, 5th ser. iii. 284 ; Roget's Hi&tory 
of the ' Old Water Colour ' Society, i. 510 ; Trans. 
Inst. of Brit. Architects, 1835-6.] C. D. 

ROBINSON, RALPH (fi. 1551), trans- 
lator of More's ' Utopia,' born of poor 
parents in Lincolnshire in 1521, was edu- 
cated at Grantham and Stamford grammar 
schools, and had William Cecil (afterwards 
Lord Burghley) as companion at both schools. 
In 1536 he entered Corpus Christ i College, 
Oxford, graduated B.A. in 1540, and was 
elected fellow of his college on 16 June 1542. 
In March 1544 he supplicated for the degree 
of M.A. Coming to London, he obtained the 
livery of the Goldsmiths' Company, and a 
small post as clerk in the service of his early 
friend, Cecil. He was long hampered by the 
poverty of his parents and brothers. Among 
the Lansdowne MSS. (ii. 57-9) are two ap- 
peals in Latin for increase of income addressed 
by him to Cecil, together with a copy of 
Latin verses, entitled ' His New Year's Gift.' 
The first appeal is endorsed May 1551 ; upon 
the second, which was written after July 
1572, appears the comment, ' Rodolphus 
Robynsonus. For some place to relieve his 

In 1551 Robinson completed the first 
rendering into English of Sir Thomas 
More's ' Utopia.' In the dedication to his 
former schoolfellow, Cecil, he expressed re- 
gret for More's obstinate adherence to dis- 
credited religious opinions, modestly apolo- 
gised for the shortcomings of his translation, 
and reminded his patron of their youthful 
intimacy. The book was published by Abra- 
ham Veal, at the sign of the Lamb in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, in 1551 (b. 1. 8vo, Brit. 
Mus.) A second edition appeared in 1556, 
without the dedicatory letter. The third 
edition is dated 1597, and the ' newly cor- 
rected ' fourth (of 1624) is dedicated by the 
publisher, Bernard Alsop, to Cresacre More 

[see under MORE, SIR THOMAS]. The latest 
editions are dated 1869, 1887, and 1893. 

Although somewhat redundant in style, 
Robinson's version of the ' Utopia ' has not 
been displaced in popular esteem by the sub- 
sequent efforts of Gilbert Burnet (1684) and 
of Arthur Cayley (1808). 

[See art. MORE, SIR THOMAS; Lupton's pre- 
face to his edition of the Utopia, 1896 ; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss.] S. L. 

ROBINSON, RALPH (1614-1655), 
puritan divine, born at Heswall, Cheshire, 
in June 1614, was educated at St. Catharine 
Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1638, M.A. 1642. On the strength of his 
preaching he was invited to St. Mary's Wool- 
noth, Lombard Street, and there received 
presbyterian ordination about 1642. He was 
scribe to the first assembly of provincial 
ministers held in London in 1647, and united 
with them in the protest against the king's 
death in 1649. On 11 June 1651 he was ar- 
rested on a charge of being concerned in the 
conspiracy of Christopher Love [q. v.] He 
was next day committed to the Tower, and 
appears to have been detained there at any 
rate until October, when an order for his trial 
was issued. Perhaps he was never brought 
up, but if so it was to be pardoned. He died 
on 15 June 1655, and was buried on the 18th 
in the chancel of St. Mary Woolnoth. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Simeon Ashe 
[q. vj, and published, with memorial verses, 
as ' The Good Man's Death Lamented,' Lon- 
don, 1655. By his wife, Mary, Robinson had 
a daughter Rebecca (1647-1664). 

Besides sermons, Robinson was the author 
of: 1. ' Christ all in all,' London, 1656 ; 2nd 
edit. 1660; 3rd edit. Woolwich, 1828; 4th 
edit. London, 1868, 8 vo. 2. ' navonXia. Uni- 
versa Arma ' (' llieron ; or the Christian com- 
pleatly Armed '), London, 1656. 

[Transcript of the Registers of St. Mary 
Woolnoth, by the rector, 1886, pp. xiv, 48, 228, 
233 ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. 1651, pp. 247, 
249, 251, 252, 457, 465; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, iii. 237 ; information from the registrary 
ofCambr. Univ.] C. F. S. 

ROBINSON, RICHARD (fi. 1576-1600), 
author and compiler, was a freeman of the 
Leathersellers' Company, and in 1576 was 
residing in a chamber at the south side of St. 
Paul's. In the registers of St. Peter's, Corn- 
hill (Harl. Soc.), there are several entries of 
the births and deaths of the children of 
Richard Robinson, skinner. In 1585 he is 
described as of Fryers (ib. p. 136). In 1595 
he presented to Elizabeth the third part of 
his 'Harmony of King David's Harp.' In 
his manuscript ' Eupolemia ' he gives an 



amusing account of the queen's reception of 
the gift. His hope of pecuniary recognition 
was disappointed, and he was obliged to sell 
his books and the lease of his house in Harp 
Alley, Shoe Lane. He was a suitor to the 
queen for one of the twelve alms-rooms in 
Westminster. The poet Thomas Church- 
yard [q. v.], with whom he co-operated in 
the translation from Meteren's ' Historic 
Belgicse ' (1002), prefixed a poem in praise of 
him to Robinson's ' Auncient Order of Prince 
Arthure.' The supposition that he was the 
father of Richard Robinson, an actor in 
Shakespeare's plays, is not supported by any 
evidence (COLLIER, Memoirs of the Principal 
Actors in the Plays of Shakespeare). 

Robinson was the author of: 1. 'Certain 
Selected Histories for Christian Recreations, 
with their several! Moralizations brought 
into English Verse,' 1576, 8vo. "2. 'A Moral 
Methode of Civil Policie ' (a translation of 
F. Patrizi's 'Nine Books of a Common- 
wealth'), 1576, 4to. 3. 'Robinson's Ruby, 
an Historical Fiction, translated out of 
Latin Prose into English Verse, with the 
Prayer of the most Christian Poet Ausonius,' 
1577. 4. ' A Record of Ancyent Historyes, 
entituled in Latin Gesta Romanorum [by 
John Leland ?], Translated, Perused, Cor- 
rected, and Bettered,' 1577, 8vo. 5. ' The 
Dyall of Dayly Contemplacon for Synners, 
Moral and Divine Matter in English Prose 
and Verse, first published in print anno 
1499, corrected and reformed for the time ' 
(dedicated to Dean Nowell), 1578. 6. ' Me- 
lancthon's Prayers Translated . . . into Eng- 
lish' (dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney), 1579. 
7. ' The Vineyard of Virtue, partly trans- 
lated, partly collected out of the Bible and . . . 
other authors,' 1579, 1591. 8. ' Melanchthon 
his Learned Assertion or Apology of the 
Word of God and of His Church,' 1580. 

9. ' Hemming's Exposition upon the 25th 
Psalm, translated into English,' 1580. 

10. ' A Learned and True Assertion of the 
Original Life, Actes, and Death of.. .Arthure,' 
(a translation of John Leland's work), 1582. 

11. 'Part of the Harmony of King David's 
Harp, conteining the first 21 Psalmes . . . 
expounded by Strigelius, translated by [Ro- 
binson],' 1582, 4to 12. ' Urbanus Regius, an 
Homely or Sermon of Good and Evil Angels 
. . . translated into English,' 1583 (dedicated 
to Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster); 
later editions 1590 and 1593. 13. 'A Rare, 
True, and Proper Blazon of Coloures in 
Armoryes and Ensigns (Military),' 1583. 
14. ' The Ancient Order Societie and Unitie 
Laudable of Prince Arthure . . . translated by 
(Robinson),' 1583, 4to. 15. ' The Solace of 
Sion and Joy of Jerusalem . . . being a Godly 

exposition of the 87th Psalme (by Urbanus 
Regius) . . . translated into English,' 1587 ; 
later editions 1590, 1594. 16. ' A Proceed- 
ing in the Harmony of King David's Harp, 
being a 2nd portion of 13 Psalms more,' 1590. 
17. ' A Second Proceeding in the Harmony 
of King David's Harp,' 1592. 18. 'A Third 
Proceeding . . .' 1595 (dedicated to Queen 
Elizabeth). 19. 'A Fourth Proceeding,' 1596. 
20. ' A Fifth Proceeding,' 1598. 

The following works by Robinson in manu- 
script are contained in Royal MS. No. 18 : 
1. 'Two Several Surveys of the . . . Soldiers 
Mustered in London,' 1588 and 1599. 2. 'An 
Account of the Three Expeditions of Sir 
Francis Drake,' Latin. 3. ' An English Quid 
for a Spanish Quo . . . being an Account of 
the 11 Voyages of George, Earl of Cumber- 
land ' (also in Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 
p. 304, 12th Rep. pt. i. p. 16). 4. ' Robinson's 
Eupolemia, Archippus, and Panoplia,' being 
an account of his works, 1576-1602. 

The compiler must be distinguished from 
RICHARD ROBINSON (fl. 1574), poet, who 
describes himself as 'of Alton,' which has 
been understood as Haltou in Cheshire ; it is 
more probably Alton in Staffordshire. Corser 
identified him with the student at Cambridge 
who published ' The Poor Knight his Palace 
of Private Pleasure,' 1579. But the identifi- 
cation is unlikely because the only Richard 
Robinson known at Cambridge in 1579 was 
beadel of the university (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. cxxxii. 19 Oct. 1579). In ' The 
Rewarde of Wickednesse ' Robinson speaks 
of himself as servant in 1574 in the house- 
hold of the Earl of Shrewsbury, ' the simplest 
of a hundred in my lord's house,' and as 
writing the poem ' in such times as my turn 
came to serve in watch of the Scottish Queen. 
I then every night collected some part thereof.' 
In 'A Golden Mirrour' Robinson shows an 
intimate acquaintance with the nobility and 
gentry of Cheshire. It is presumable from 
the concluding lines of this latter poem that 
he was advanced in years at the time of its 
composition, and it may have been published 
posthumously. John Proctor the publisher 
purchased the manuscript of it in 1587, with- 
out knowing the author, but supposing him 
to have been ' of the north country.' 

To Robinson the poet are ascribed : l.'The 
ruefull Tragedie of Hemidos and Thelay,' 
1509 (ARBER, Stationers' lie;/ister, i. 220) ; 
not known to be extant. 2. ' The Rewarde 
of Wickednesse, discoursing the sundrie 
monstrous Abuses of wicked and ungodlye 
Worldelinges in such sort set out as the same 
have been dyversely practised in the Persons 
of Popes, Haiiots, Proude Princes, Tyrantes, 
Romish Byshoppes,' &c., 1573 ; dedicated to 




Gilbert Talbot, second son of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, and dated ' from niy chamber in 
Sheffield Castle,' 19 Aug. 1574 (sic). It in- 
troduces Skelton, Wager, Heywood, Googe, 
Studley, and others, and near the end con- 
tains a furious attack on Bonner as the devil's 
agent on earth. Presumably he had suffered 
at Bonner's hands. 3. ' A Golden Mirrour 
conteininge certaine pithie and figurative 
Visions prognosticating Good Fortune to 
England and all true English Subjects . . . 
whereto be adjoyned certaine pretie Poems, 
written on the Names of sundrie both noble 
and worshipfull,' London, 1589 (reprinted for 
the Chetham Society, with introduction by 
Corser, in 1851.) 

[Authorities given above ; Corser's introduc- 
.tion to the reprint of A Golden Mirrour (Chet- 
ham Soc.); Hazlitt's Handbook, pp. 70, 515, 
and Coll. 1st ser. p. 362 ; Collier's Bibl. Cat. ii. 
271-2 ; Cat, Huth Libr.] W. A. S. 

ROKEBY in the peerage of Ireland (1709- 
1794), archbishop of Armagh, born in 1709, 
was the sixth son of William Robinson 
(1675-1720) of Rokeby, Yorkshire, and 
Merton Abbey, Surrey, by Anne, daughter 
and heiress of Robert Walters of Cundall in 
the North Riding. Sir Thomas Robinson 
(1700P-1777) [q. v.], first baronet, was his 
eldest brother ; his third brother, William 
(<2. 1785), succeeded in 1777 to Sir Thomas's 
baronetcy. The youngest brother was Sep- 
timus (see below). The Robinsons of Rokeby 
were descended from the Robertsons, barons 
of Struan or Strowan, Perthshire. William 
Robinson settled at Kendal in the reign of 
Henry VIII, and his eldest son, Ralph, be- 
came owner of Rokeby in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire by his marriage with the eldest 
daughter and coheiress of James Philips of 
Brignal, near Rokeby. 

Richard Robinson was educated at West- 
minster, where he was contemporary with 
Lord Mansfield, George Stone [q. v.] (whom 
he succeeded as primate of Ireland), and 
Thomas Newton, bishop of Bristol. He matri- 
culated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 13 June 
1726, and graduated B.A. in 1730 and M.A. 
in 1733. In 1748 he proceeded B.D. and 
D.D. by accumulation. On leaving Oxford he 
became chaplain to Blackburne, archbishop 
of York, who, in 1738, presented him to the 
rectory of Elton in the East Riding. On 
4 May of the same year he became prebendary 
of York (LE NEVE, Fasti Eccles. Anglic, iii. 
192), with which he held the vicarage of 
Aldborough. In 1742 he was also presented 
by Lord Rockingham to the rectory of Hut- 
ton, Yorkshire. 

In 1751 Robinson attended the Duke of 

Dorset, lord lieutenant, to Ireland as his 
chaplain. He obtained the see of Killala 
through the influence of Lords Holderness 
and Sandwich, his relatives, and was conse- 
crated on 19 Jan. 1752. He was translated 
to Leighlin and Ferns on 19 April 1759, 
and promoted to Kildare on 13 April 1761. 
Two days later he was admitted dean of 
Christ Church, Dublin. After the arch- 
bishopric of Armagh had been declined by 
Newton, bishop of Bristol, and Edmund 
Keene of Chester, it was offered to Robinson 
by the influence of the Duke of Northumber- 
land (then lord lieutenant) contrary to the 
wishes of the premier, George Grenville, who 
brought forward three nominees of his own 
( WALPOLE, Memoirs of George III). Robin- 
son became primate of Ireland on 19 Jan. 

Robinson did much both for the Irish 
church and for the see of Armagh. To his 
influence were largely due the acts for the 
erection of chapels of ease in large parishes, 
and their formation into perpetual cures; the 
encouragement of the residence of the clergy 
in their benefices ; and the prohibition of 
burials in churches as injurious to health 
(11 & 12 George III, ch. xvi., xvii., and xxii.) 
He repaired and beautified Armagh Cathe- 
dral, presented it with a new organ, and 
built houses for the vicars choral. The city 
of Armagh itself he is said to have changed 
from a collection of mud cabins to a hand- 
some town. In 1771 he built and endowed 
at his own cost a public library, and two 
years later laid the foundations of a new 
classical school. Barracks, a county gaol, 
and a public infirmary were erected under 
his auspices, while in 1793 he founded the 
Armagh Observatory, which was endowed 
with lands specially purchased, and the rec- 
torial tithes of Carlingford [cf. art. ROBINSON, 
THOMAS ROMNEY]. The historian of Armagh 
estimates thearchbishop'sexpenditure in pub- 
lic works at 35,000/., independent of legacies. 
He also built a new marble archiepiscopal 
palace, to which he added a chapel. In 
1783 he erected on Knox's Hill, to the south 
of Armagh, a marble obelisk, 114 feet high, 
to commemorate his friendship with the 
Duke of Northumberland. At the same 
time he built for himself a mansion at 
Marlay in Louth, which he called Rokeby 
Hall: his family inhabited it till it was 
abandoned after the rebellion of '98. John 
Wesley, who visited Armagh in 1787, entered 
in his ' Journal ' some severe reflections on 
the archbishop's persistent indulgence in his 
taste for building in his old age, citing the 
familiar Horatian lines, 'Tu secanda mar- 
mora,' &c. (Journal, xxi. 60). 



Robinson's sermons are said to have been 
' excellent in style and doctrine,' though his 
voice was low (cf. BOSAVELL, Johnson, ed. 
Croker, p. 220). Cumberland, who knew him 
well, said Robinson was 'publickly ambitious 
of great deeds and privately capable of good 
ones,' and that he ' supported the first station 
in the Iri^h hierarchy with all the magnifi- 
cence of a prince palatine.' His private for- 
tune was not large, but his business capacity 
was excellent. Churchill condemned Robin- 
son's manners in his ' Letter to Hogarth : ' 

In lawn sleeves whisper to a sleeping crowd, 
As dull as R n, and half as proud. 

Horace Walpole thought ' the primate a 
proud, but superficial man,' without talents 
for political intrigue. 

Robinson was named vice-chancellor of 
Dublin University by the Duke of Cumber- 
land, and enthroned by the Dukes of Bed- 
ford and Gloucester. He left a bequest of 
5,000/. for the establishment of a university 
in Ulster, but the condition that it should 
be carried out within five years of his death 
was not fulfilled. 

On 26 Feb. 1777 he was created Baron 
Ilokeby of Armagh in the peerage of Ire- 
land, with remainder to his cousin, Matthew 
Robinson-Morris, second baron Rokeby [q.v.J, 
of West Lay ton, Yorkshire. On the creation 
of the order of St. Patrick, he became its 
first prelate. In 1785 he succeeded to the 
English baronetcy on the death of his bro- 
ther William. In 1787 he was appointed 
one of the lords justices for Ireland. His 
later years were spent chiefly at Bath and 
London, where he kept a hospitable table. He 
died at Clifton on. 10 Oct. 1794, aged 86, and 
was buried in a vault under Armagh Cathe- 
dral. He was the last male survivor in direct 
line of the family of Robinson of Rokeby. By 
his will he left 12,0007. to charitable insti- 
tutions. The Canterbury Gate, Christ 
Church, Oxford, is one monument of his 
munificence. A bust of him is in the col- 
lege library, and a portrait of him by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, as bishop of Kildare, is in 
the hall. A duplicate is in the archiepisco- 
pal palace, Armagh. It was engraved by 
Houston. A bust, said to be 'altogether un- 
worthy of him,' was placed in the north aisle 
of Armagh Cathedral by Archdeacon Robin- 
son, who inherited his Irish estate. A later 
portrait of the primate, engraved by J. R. 
Smith, was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
In the'AnthologiaHibernica ' (vol. i.) there 
is an engraving of a medal struck by Mossop 
of Dublin. The obverse bears Rokeby's head, 
and the reverse shows the south front of 
Armagh Observatory. 

Rokeby's youngest brother, SIR SEPTIMUS 
ROBINSON (1710-1705), born on 30 Jan. 
1710, was educated at Westminster, whence 
he was elected to Cambridge in 172(i. He, 
however, preferred Oxford, and matriculated 
at Christ Church on 14 May 1730. In his 
twenty-first year he entered the French 
army, and served under Galleronde in Flan- 
ders. He afterwards joined the English 
army, and served under Wade in the '45, 
and subsequently in two campaigns in Flan- 
ders under Wade and Ligonier. He left the 
army in 1754 with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel of the guards. From 1751 to 1760 
he was governor of the Dukes of Gloucester 
and Cumberland, brothers of George III. 
On the accession of the latter he was knighted 
and named gentleman usher of the black 
rod. He died at Brough, Westmoreland, on 
6 Sept. 1765, and was buried in the family 
vault at Rokeby. On the north side of the 
altar in the church is a monument, with a 
medallion of his profile by Nollekens, bear- 
ing a Latin inscription from the pen of his 
brother, the archbishop. 

[Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, 
vol. vii. ; Biogr. Peerage of Ire'and, 1817; 
Welch's Alumni Westmon. ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Whitaker's Eichmondshire, i. 154-5, 
184 ; Cotton's Fasti, Eccles. Hibern. ii. 47, 235-, 
341, iii. 26, iv. 76 ; Stuart's Hist. Memoirs of 
Armagh, pp. 445-57 ; Mant's Hist, of the Irish 
Church, ii. 606, 611, 631-3, 651, "27-32; Gent. 
Mag. 1765 p. 443, 1785 ii. 751, 772, 1794 ii. 
965; Walpole's Memoirs of George III, ed. 
Barker, ii. 30-1 ; E. Cumberland's Memoirs, 
1806, Suppl. pp. 37-9; Bishop Newton's Life by 
himself, 1782, pp. 15, 85-6, 87; Webb's 
Compend. Irish .Biogr. ; Evans's Cat. Engr. 
Portraits.] G. LE G. N. 

ROBINSON, ROBERT (1735-1790), 
baptist minister and hymn-writer, youngest 
child of Michael Robinson (d. 1747 ?), was 
born at SwafFham, Norfolk, on 27 Sept. 
1735 (his own repeated statement ; the date, 
8 Oct., given by Rees and Flower, is a re- 
duction to new style). His father, horn in 
Scotland, was an exciseman of indifferent 
character. His mother was Mary (d. 
September 1790, aged 93), daughter of 
Robert Wilkin (d. 1746) of Mildenhall, 
Suffolk, who would not countenance the 
marriage. He was educated at the grammar 
school of Swaffham ; afterwards at that, of 
Seaming, under Joseph Brett, the tutor of 
John Norris (1734-1777) [q. v.] and Lord- 
chancellor Thurlow. Straitened means in- 
terfered with his projected education for the 
Anglican ministry; on 7 March 1749 he was 
apprenticed to Joseph Anderson, a hah> 
dresser in Crutched Friars, London. The 



preaching of Whitefield drew him to the 
Calvinistic methodists ; he dates his dedica- 
tion to a religious life from 24 May 1752, 
his complete conversion from 10 Dec. 17o5. 
Shortly before he came of age Anderson re- 
nounced his indentures, giving him a high 
character, but adding that he was ' more em- 
ployed in reading than working, in follow- 
ing preachers than in attending customers.' 

Robinson began preaching at Mildenhall 
(1758), and was soon invited to assist W. 
Cudworth at the Norwich Tabernacle. 
Shortly afterwards he seceded, with thirteen 
others, to form an independent church in St. 
Paul's parish, Norwich. Early in 1759 he 
received adult baptism from Dunkhorn, 
baptist minister at Great Ellingham, Norfolk. 
On 8 July 1759 he preached for the first 
time at Stone Yard Baptist Chapel, Cam- 
bridge ; after being on trial for nearly two 
years, he made open communion a condition 
of his acceptance (28 May 1761) of a call, and 
was ordained pastor (11 June). The congre- 
gation was small, the meeting-house, origi- 
nally a barn, was ruinous, and Robinson's sti- 
pend for the first half-year was SI. 12s. 5d. 
His preaching became popular; a new meet- 
ing-house was opened on 12 Aug. 1764, and 
Robinson's evening sermons, delivered with- 
out notes, drew crowded audiences. He had 
trouble with lively gownsmen (who on one 
occasion broke up the service) ; this he effec- 
tively met by his caustic discourse (10 Jan. 
1773) ' on a becoming behaviour in religious 

He lived first at Fulbourn, some four 
miles from Cambridge, then in a cottage 
at Hauxton, about the same distance off, 
removing in June 1773 to Chesterton, above 
a mile from his meeting-house. Here he 
farmed a piece of land, bought (1775) and 
rebuilt a house, and did business as a corn 
merchant and coal merchant. In 1782 he 
bought two other farms, comprising 171 
acres. His mercantile engagements drew 
the censure of 'godly boobies,' but, while 
securing his independence, he neglected 
neither his vocation nor his studies. On 
Sundays he preached twice or thrice at 
Cambridge ; on weekdays he evangelised 
neighbouring villages, having a list of fifteen 
stations where he preached, usually in the 
evening, sometimes at five o'clock in the 
morning. His volume of village sermons 
exhibits his powers of plain speech, homely 
and local illustration, wit and pathos. The 
sermons, however, were not actually delivered 
as printed, for he invariably preached extem- 

In politics a strong liberal, and an early 
advocate for the emancipation of the slave, 

Robinson showed his theological liberalism 
by the part he took, in 1772, in promoting 
the relaxation of the statutory subscription 
exacted from tolerated dissenters. At Cam- 
bridge he was in contact with a class of men, 
several of whom were on the point of se- 
cession from the church as Unitarians. In 
opposition to their doctrinal conclusions he 
published, in 1776, his ' Plea for the Divinity 
of our Lord.' which at once attracted notice 
by resting the case on the broad and obvious 
tenour of scripture. He was offered induce- 
ments to conform. 'Do the dissenters know 
! the worth of the man?' asked Samuel Ogden 
(1716-1778) [q. v.] ; to which Robinson re- 
; joined, 'The man knows the worth of the dis- 
senters.' He had sent copies to Theophilus 
Lindsey [q. v.] and John Jebb, M.D. [q. v.], 
with both of whom he was on friendly terms. 
Francis Blackburne (1705-1787) [q. v.], who 
thought it unanswerable, twitted the Unita- 
rian Lindsey with the silenceof his party. Not 
till 1785 did Lindsey publish his (anonymous) 
' Examination ' in reply. By this time Robin- 
son had begun to recede from the position 
taken inhis' Plea,' which was infactSabellian, 
' that the living and true God united himself 
to the man Jesus'(P/ea,p.68). Hischangeof 
view was due to his researches for a history 
of the baptist body, and to the writings of 
Priestley, to which he subsequently referred 
as having arrested his progress ' from en- 
thusiasm to deism.' In a letter (7 May 1788) 
to John Marsom (1740-1833) he scouts the 
doctrines of the Trinity and of the personality 
of the Spirit. But in his own pulpit he did 
not introduce controversial topics. 

In 1780 Robinson visited Edinburgh, where 
the diploma of D.D. was offered to him, but 
declined. His history of the baptists was 
projected at a meeting (6 Nov. 1781) of his 
London friends, headed by Andrew Gifford 
[q. v.] Robinson was to come up to London 
once a month to collect material, Gifford of- 
fering him facilities at the British Museum, 
and expenses were to be met by his preaching 
and lecturing in London. The plan did not 
work, and Robinson's services in London, 
popular at first, soon offended his orthodox 
friends. After 1783 he took his own course. 
; Through Christopher Anstey [q. v.] he had 
enjoyed, from 1776, the use of a library at 
Brinkley, two miles from Cambridge. Of this 
he had availed himself in compiling the notes 
to his translation of Claude's ' Essay,' a pub- 
! lication undertaken as a relief under disable- 
ment from a sprained ankle in May 1776. He 
now obtained the privilege of borrowing books 
from Cambridge University Library. In 1785 
he transferred his farming and mercantile 
engagements to Curtis, his son-in-law, and 



devoted all his leisure to literary work. With 
his spirit of independence went a considerable 
thirst for popularity, and he was mortified, 
and to some extent soured, by the loss of con- 
fidence which followed the later development 
of his opinions. Nor was he free from pecu- 
niary anxiety. 

By the middle of 1789 his health had begun 
to fail, and his powers gradually declined. 
On 2 June 1790 he left Chesterton to preach 
charity sermons at Birmingham. lie preached 
twice on o June, but on 9 June was found 
dead in his bed at the house of William 
Eussell (1740-1818) [q. v.] at Showell Green, 

for a Man to marry the Sister of his deceased 
Wife?'" &c., 1775, 8vo (maintains the affir- 
mative). 3. ' A Plea for the Divinity of our 
Lord Jesus Christ,' &c., 1776, 8vo ; often re- 
printed. 4. ' The History and the Mystery 
of Good Friday,' &c., 1777, 8vo. 5. ' A Plan 
of Lectures on the Principles of Non-confor- 
mity,' &c. ; 8th edit., Harlow, 1778, 8vo. 
6. ' The General Doctrine of Toleration ap- 

plied to 

Free Communion,' &c., 1781, 

8vo. 7. ' A Political Catechism,' &c., 1782, 
8vo ; often reprinted. 8. ' Sixteen Discourses 
. . . preached at the Villages about Cam- 
bridge,' &c., 1786, 8vo; often reprinted ; en- 

near Birmingham. He was buried in the Old larged to ' Seventeen Discourses ' 1805, 8vo. 
Meeting graveyard at Birmingham. A tablet j 9. ' A Discourse on Sacramental Tests,' c., 

was placed in the Old Meeting by his Cam- 
bridge flock (inscription by Robert Hall ; re- 
moved in 1886 to the Old Meeting Church, 
Bristol Road). Funeral sermons were preached 
at Birmingham by Priestley, at Cambridge by 
Abraham Rees, D.D. [q. v.], and at Taunton 

Cambridge, 1788, 8vo. 10. ' An Essay on the 
Slave Trade,' 1789, 8vo. 

Posthumous were : 11 . ' PosthumousWorks, 
1792, 8vo. 12. ' Two Original Letters,' 
1802, 8vo. 13. ' Sermons . . . with three 
Original Discourses,' &c., 1804, 8vo. 14. ' A 

by Joshua Toulmin, D.D. [q. v.] He married ! brief Dissertation ... of Public Preaching,' 

at Norwich, in 1759, Ellen Payne (d. 23 May 
1808, aged 75), and had twelve children. The 
death of his daughter Julia (d. 9 Oct. 1787, 
aged 17) was a severe blow to him. 

In person Robinson was rather under 
middle height ; his voice was musical, and 
his manner self-possessed. His native parts 
and his powers of acquirement were alike 
remarkable. His plans of study were me- 

&c., Harlow, 1811, 8vo. His ' Miscellaneous 
Works,' Harlow, 1807, 8vo, 4 vols., were 
edited by Benjamin Flower [q.v.] He trans- 
lated from the French the ' Sermons ' of 
Jacques Saurin (1677-1730), 1770, 8vo 
(two sermons), and 1784, 8vo, 5 vols. ; and 
the ' Essay on the Composition of a Sermon,' 
by Jean Claude (1619-1687), Cambridge, 
1778-9, 8vo, 2 vols., with memoir, disserta- 

thodical and thorough ; to gain access to : tion, and voluminous notes, containing more 
original sources he taught himself four or five matter than the original ' Essay ; ' reissued, 
languages. His want of theological training ; without the notes, 1796, 8vo, by Charles 
led him into mistakes, but ' his massive com- | Simeon [q. v.] ; also some other pieces from 
mon sense was so quickened by lively fancy the French. He contributed to the ' Theo- 
as to become genius ' (W. ROBINSON). j logical Magazine ' and other periodicals. He 

His 'History of Baptism,' partly printed supplied Samuel Palmer (1741-1813) [q. v.] 
before his death, was edited in 1790, 4to, by with addenda and corrections for the ' Non- 
George Dyer [q. v.], who edited also his un- conformist's Memorial,'] 775-8, andfurnished 
finished ' Ecclesiastical Researches,' Cam- ' materials for the life of Thomas Baker 
bridge, 1792, 4to, being studies in the church [ (1656-1740 [q. v.] in Kippis's 'Biographia 
history of various countries, with special re- ! Britannica,' 1778. In the ' Monthly Repo- 
ference to the rise of heretical and indepen- I sitory,' 1810, pp. 621 sq., is an account of 
dent types of Christian opinion. Both works Cambridgeshire dissent, drawn up by Robin- 
are strongly written, full of minute learning, son and continued by Josiah Thompson [q. v.] 
discursive in character, racy with a rustic Early inlife Robinson wrote elevenhymns, 
mirth, and disfigured by unsparing attacks ' of no merit, issued by Whitefield on 1 Feb. 
upon the champions of orthodoxy in all ages. 1757 as 'Hymns for the Fast-Day,' from 
Robinson has much of the animus with little ' an unknown hand,' and ' for the use of the 
of the delicacy of Jortin. His ' idol ' was Tabernacle congregation.' In 1758 James 
Andrew Dudith (1533-1589), an Hungarian Wheatley, of the Norwich Tabernacle, printed 
reformer, of sarcastic spirit and great liberty Robinson's hymn 'Come Thou Fount of every 
of utterance. blessing,' which was claimed by Daniel Sedg- 

His other publications, besides single ser- wick [q. v.] in 1858 on 'worthless evidence' 
mons and small pamphlets (1772-1788), are: \ (JULIAN) for Selina Hastings, countess of 
1. 'Arcana, or the First Principles of the j Huntingdon [q.v.] In 1774 Robinson's hymn 
late Petitioners . . . for Relief in matter of ' Mighty God, while angels bless Thee,' was 

Subscription,' &c., 1774, 8vo. 2. ' A Dis- 
cussion of the Question " Is it lawful . . . 

issued in copperplate as ' A Christmas Hymn, 
set to Music by Dr. Randall.' These two 




hymns (1758 and 1774), of great beauty and 
power, are still extensively used. In 1768 
Robinson printed an edition (revised partly 
by himself) of the metrical version of the 
Psalms by AVilliam Barton [q. v.] for the 
use of Cambridgeshire baptists ; this seems 
the latest edition of Barton. 

[Funeral sermons by Priestley, Eees, and 
Toulmin, 1790; Memoirs by Dyer, 1796 (trans- 
lated into German, with title ' Der Prediger wie 
er seyn sollte,' Leipzig, 1800); Brief Memoirs 
by Flower, 1804, prefixed to Miscellaneous 
Works, 1807 ; Memoir by W. Robinson (no re- 
lative) prefixed to Select Works, 1861 ; Protes- 
tant Dissenters' Magazine, 1797 p. 70, 1799 pp. 
134 sq. ; Evangelical Magazine, December 1803; 
Monthly Repository, 1806 p. 508, 1808 p. 343, 
1810 pp.629 sq., 1812 p. 678, 1813 pp. 261, 704, 
1817 pp. 9 sq., 645, 1818 pp. 350 sq. ; Belsham's 
Memoirs of Li ndsey, 1812, pp. 179 sq. ; Baptist 
Magazine, 1831 pp. 321 sq., 1832 pp. 336 sq. ; 
Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, ii. 67 sq.; 
Christian Reformer, 1844, pp. 815 sq. ; Miller's 
Our Hymns, 1866, pp. 214 sq. ; Browne's Hist. 
Congr. Norfolk and Suffolk, 1877, pp. 189, 563 ; 
Scale's Memorials of the Old Meeting, Birming- 
ham, 1882 ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, 
pp. 252, 480, 1579.] A. G. 

ROBINSON, ROBERT, D.D. (1727 ?- 
1791), eccentric divine, was born about 
1727. He was educated for the dissenting 
ministry at Plaisterers' Hall, London, under 
Zephaniah Marry at (d. 1754), and John 
Walker. As a student he abandoned Cal- 
vinism, but remained otherwise orthodox. 
His first settlement was at Congleton, 
Cheshire, in 1748. He removed to the Old 
Chapel, Dukinfield, Cheshire, where his 
ministry began on 12 Nov. 1752, and ended 
on 26 Nov. 1755. He appears to have been 
subject to outbreaks of temper ; his ministry 
at Dukinfield terminated in consequence of 
his having set the constable to whip a begging 
tramp. At the end of 1755 he became mini- 
ster at Dob Lane chapel, near Manchester. 
Two sermons which in 1757-8 he preached 
(and afterwards printed) on the artificial 
rise in the price of corn gained him the ill- 
will of interested speculators. His arianis- 
ing flock found fault with his theology, as 
well as with his political economy. His 
congregation fell away ; he lived in Man- 
chester, and did editorial work for R. Whit- 
worth, a local bookseller. Whitworth pro- 
jected an edition of the Bible, to be sold in 
parts, and thought Robinson's name on the 
title-page would look better with a degree. 
Accordingly, on application to Edinburgh 
University, he was made D.D. on 7 Jan. 
1774. It is said that the authorities mistook 
him for Robert Robinson (1735-1790) [q. v.l 
of Cambridge. On 14 Dec. 1774 he received 

from the Dob Lane people what he calls a 
' causeless dismissal,'signed by ' 18 subscribers 
and 18 ciphers.' He wrote back that he had 
been in possession twenty years, and intended 
to remain ' to August 1st, 1782, and as much 
longer as I then see cause.' Fruitless efforts 
were made, first to eject, and then to buy 
him out. He held the trust-deeds, locked 
the doors of the chapel and graveyard (hence 
interments were made in private grounds), 
and for three years seems to have preached 
but once, a fast-day sermon against the 
politics of dissent. Resigning some time in 
1777, he applied in vain for episcopal ordi- 
nation. He bought the estate of Barrack 
Hill House at Bredbury, near Stockport, 
and spent his time there in literary leisure. 

He died at his son's house in Manchester 
on 7 Dec. 1791, and, by his own directions, 
was buried, on 15 Dec. at 7 A.M., in a square 
brick building erected on his property. A 
movable glass pane was inserted in his coffin, 
and the mausoleum had a door for purposes 
of inspection by a watchman, who was to 
see if he breathed on the glass. His widow 
died at Barrack Hill House on 21 May 1797, 
aged 76. 

He published, among other discourses, ' The 
Doctrine of Absolute Submission . . . the 
Natural Right claimed by some Dissenters to 
dismiss their Ministers at pleasure exposed,' 
&c. 1775, 8vo (dealing with his Dob Lane 
troubles), and in the same year he advertised 
as ready for the press ' A Discourse in Vin- 
dication of the true and proper Divinity of 
our Lord,' &c., with appendices. In the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1789, ii. 843) is a 
Latin poem, ' The Rev. Dr. Robinson's Ad- 
vice to a Student on Admission into the 
University; ' in the same magazine (1790, i. 
12, 165, and 1791, ii. 451) are translations by 
him from Latin poetry. 

[Gent. Mag. 1791 ii. 755, 1165, 1232, 1797 
i. 447 ; Monthly Repository, 1823, p. 683 (paper 
by William Hampton, incorrect) ; Cat. Edin- 
burgh Graduates, 1858, p. 244; Urwick's Non- 
conformity in Cheshire, 1864, pp. 329 sq. (follows 
Hampton) ; Manchester City Notes and Queries, 
19 and 26 Jan., 9 and 16 Feb. 1884; Head's 
Congleton, 1887, p. 254 ; Nightingale's Lanca- 
shire Nonconformity, 1893, v. 44 sq. ; Gordon's 
Historical Account of Dukinfield Chapel, 1896, 
pp. 50 sq. ; Dukinfield Chapel treasurer's ac- 
counts (manuscript).] A. G. 

(1809-1889), admiral, born on 6 Jan. 1809, 
was the third son of Sir John Robinson, bart., 
archdeacon of Armagh, by Mary Anne, second 
daughter of James Spencer of Rathangan, Kil- 
dare,and grandson of William Freind (1715- 
1766) [q.v. n , dean of Canterbury. He entered 




the navy in 1821 ; in 1826 was a midshipman 
of the Sybille in the Mediterranean, with 
Sir Samuel John Brooke Pechell [q. v.], and 
passed his examination in 1828. lie was pro- 
moted commander on 28 June 1838, in July 
1839 he was appointed to the Phoenix steamer, 
and in March 1840 to the Hydra, in the Me- 
diterranean, where he took part in the opera- 
tions on the coast of Syria [see STOPPORD, 
SIR ROBERT], and was advanced to post 
rank on 5 Nov. 1840. For the next nine 
years he remained on half-pay. From 1850 
to 1852 he commanded the Arrogant in the 
Channel fleet, and in June 1854 he com- 
missioned the Colossus, which formed part 
of the fleet in the Baltic and off Cronstadt 
in 1855. In January 1856 he was moved 
into the Royal George, which was paid off 
in the following August. In 1858-9 he com- 
manded the Exmouth at Devonport, and on 
9 June 1860 was promoted to be rear-ad- 
miral. He was then appointed one of a 
commission to inquire into the management 
of the dockyards, and in the following year 
became controller of the navy, which office 
he held for ten. years. During the last two 
December 1868 to February 1871 he was 
also a lord of the admiralty under Hugh 
Childers. He became vice-admiral on 2 April 
1866, was made a civil K.C.B. on 7 Dec. 
1868, and an admiral on 14 June 1871. 
During his later years he was well known 
as a writer to the ' Times ' on subjects con- 
nected with the navy, and as author of some 
pamphlets, among which may be named ' Re- 
sults of Admiralty Organisation as esta- 
blished by Sir James Graham and Mr. Chil- 
ders' (1871), and 'Remarks on H.M.S. De- 
vastation' (1873). He died in London on 
27 July 1889. He married, in 1841, Clemen- 
tina, daughter of Admiral Sir John Louis, 

[O'Byrne's Nar. Biogr. Diet.; Times, 31 July 
1 889 ; Foster's Baronetage ; Navy Lists.] 

J. K. L. 

ROBINSON, SAMUEL (1794-1884), 
Persian scholar, was born at Manchester on 
23 March 1794, educated at Manchester New 
College (then situated at York), and entered 
business as a cotton manufacturer, first at 
Manchester, and, after his marriage to Miss 
Kennedy, at Dukinfield; he retired in 1860. 
His father, a well-known cotton ' dealer,' was 
a man of cultivated tastes, and from an early 
age the son showed a strong interest in poetry, 
especially German and Persian. In 1819, in- 
spired by the writings of Sir William Jones 
(1746-1794) [q. v.], he read a critical sketch 
of the ' Life and Writings of Ferdusi,' or Fir- 
dausi, before the Literary and Philosophical 

Society of Manchester, which was included 
in the 'Transactions,' and printed separately 
for the author in 1823. For fifty years he 
published nothing more onPersian literature, 
but he had not abandoned the study (Preface 
to Persian Poetry for English Readers, 1883, 
p. v). When he was nearly eighty years old 
he printed selections ' from five or six of 
the most celebrated Persian poets, with short 
accounts of the authors and of the subjects 
and character of their works.' They appeared 
in five little duodecimo paper-covered books, 
uniform but independent, anonymous save 
for the initials S. R. subscribed to the pre- 
faces, and published both in Manchester and 
London, in the following order : 1 . ' Analysis 
and Specimens of the Joseph and Zulaikha, 
a historical-romantic Poem, by the Persian 
Poet Jami,' 1873. 2. ' Memoir of the Life and 
Writings of the Persian Poet Nizami, and 
Analvsis of the Second Part of his Alexander 
Book/ 1873. 3. ' A Century of Ghazels, or 
a Hundred Odes, selected and translated 
from the Diwan of Hafiz,' 1875. 4. ' Flowers 
culled from the Gulistan . . . and from the 
Bostan ... of Sadi,' with an ' Appendix, 
being an Extract from the Mesnavi of Jelal- 
ud-din Rumi,' 1876. 5. A reprint of the 
early ' Sketch of the Life and Writings of 
Ferdusi,' 1876. The greater part of the Sa'di 
selection had previously appeared in a volume 
(by other writers) of translations from 
Persian authors, entitled ' Flowers culled 
from Persian Gardens ' (Manchester, 12mo, 
1870). The volume on Ni/ami was avowedly 
a translation from the German of W. Bacher, 
and the ' Joseph and Zulaikha ' owed much 
to Rosenzweig's text and version. Indeed, 
Robinson, who was unduly modest about his 
knowledge of Persian, and expressly dis- 
claimed the title of 'scholar' (Preface to 
Persian Poetry, p. vii), relied considerably 
on other versions to correct and improve his 
own, though always collating with the Per- 
sian originals before him. The result was a 
series of extremely conscientious prose ver- 
sions, showing much poetic feeling and in- 
sight into oriental modes of thought and 
expression the work of a true student in 
love with his subject. The five little volumes 
becoming scarce, they were reprinted in a 
single volume, for private circulation, with 
some slight additions and revision, at the 
instance and with the literary aid of Mr. 
W. A. Clouston, under the title of ' Persian 
Poetry for English Readers,' 1883, which 
may justly claim to be the best popular work 
on the subject. 

Besides his Persian selections, Robinson 
published translations of Schiller's ' Wilhelm 
Tell ' (1825, reissued 1834), Schiller's ' Minor 




Poems ' (1867), ' Specimens of the German 
Lyric Poets' (1878), and ' Translations from 
various German Authors ' (1879). Apart 
from special studies, he took a keen interest 
in all intellectual and social movements, 
especially in his own locality, and among 
his own workpeople, whose educational and 
sanitary welfare he had greatly at heart. He 
was one of the founders of the British School 
and the Dukintield village library, where, in 
spite of his abhorrence of publicity, he often 
lectured, especially on educational subjects, 
and he was among the original organisers 
of the Manchester Statistical Society. A 
' Friendly Letter on the recent Strikes from 
a Manufacturer to his own Workpeople,' 
1854, was one of a series in -which he gave 
Sound advice to his employees. From 1867 
to 1871 he was president of Manchester New 
College. He died at Blackbrook Cottage, 
Wilmslow, where he had lived many years, 
on 9 Dec. 1884, in his ninety-first year, be- 
queathing his library to the Owens College. 
He married, about 1825, Mary, daughter of 
Jonn Kennedy of Knocknalling, Kirkcud- 
brightshire ; she died at Pallanza, on Lago 
Maggiore, on 26 Aug. 1858, leaving no issue. 

[Academy, 27 Dec. 1884; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1894, p. 1103; Manchester Guardian, 
11 Dec. 1884 ; prefaces to his works; Brit. Mus. 
C-it. ; information from the principal and the 
librarian of Owens College ] S. L.-P. 

physician and naturalist, was born in York- 
shire, apparently between 1655 and 1660. 
He was the second son of Thomas Robinson 
(d. 1676), a Turkey merchant, and his wife 
Elizabeth (d. 1664), daughter of Charles 
Tancred of Arden, but he often spelt his own 
name Tankred. He was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, graduating M.B. in 1679. 
He then travelled for some years abroad, and, 
with Hans Sloane, attended the lectures of 
Tournefort and Duverney at Paris. The first 
of the seventeen letters by him to John Ray 
printed in the 'Philosophical Letters '(1718) 
is dated from Paris in 1683. In September 
of the same year he wrote from Montpellier, 
where he visited Magnol ; and, after staying 
at Bologna, where he met Malpighi, and in 
Rome and Naples, he proceeded, in 1684, to 
Geneva and Leyden. On his way home he 
was robbed of objects he had collected. In 
August 1684 he was in London, and invited 
Ray to lodge in his'quiett chamber near the 
Temple; ' Ray at a later period speaks of him 
as ' amicorum alphn.' From Montpellier he 
had written to Martin Lister the letteron the 
Poiitde Saint-Esprit on the Rhine, which was 
printed as one of his first contributions to the 

' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal So- 
ciety 'in June 1684, and in the same year he 
was elected a fellow of the society. He became 
M.D. of Cambridge in 1685, and fellow of the 
Royal College of Physicians in 1687, serving 
as censor in 1693 and 1717. He was ap- 
pointed physician in ordinary to George I, 
and was knighted by him. Robinson died at 
an advanced age on 29 March 1748. He 
married Alethea, daughter of George Morley, 
and left a son William. 

Though his letters and papers deal with 
natural history generally, he paid particular 
attention to plants, and was styled by Pluke- 
net in 1696 (Almaffestum, p. 1 1 ) ' vir de re her- 
baria optime meritus.' There is evidence that 
he assisted both James Petiver and Samuel 
Dale in the latinity of their scientific works, 
while Ray repeatedly acknowledges his assist- 
ance, especially in his ' Historia Plantarum ' 
(1686) and ' Synopsis Stirpium '(1690). Robin- 
son was mainly instrumental in securing the 
publication of Ray's 'Wisdom of God in 
Creation,' and suggested the 'Synopsis Ani- 
malium' and the 'Sylloge Stirpium Euro- 
paearum.' His own contributions to the 
'Philosophical Transactions 'include: 1. 'An 
Account of the four first volumes of the 
"Hortus Malabaricus,'" in Nos. 145-214. 
2. 'Description, with a Figure, of the Bridge 
of St. Esprit,' vol. xiv. No. 160, p. 584 
(1684). 3. 'The Natural Sublimation of 
Sulphur from the Pyrites and Limestone, 
at ^Etna, Vesuvius, and Solfatara,' vol. xv. 
No. 169, p. 924 (1685). 4. ' Observations on 
BoilingFountainsand Subterraneous Steams,' 
vol.xv. Nos.l69and 172,pp.922,1038(1685). 
5. 'Lake Avernus,' ib. No. 172. 6. 'The 
Scotch Barnacle and French Macreuse,' ib. 
p. 1036. 7. ' Tubera Terra) or Truffles,' vol. 
xvii. No. 204, p. 935 (1693). 8. 'Account of 
Henry Jenkins, who lived 169 years,' vol. xix. 
No. 221, p. 267 (1696). 9.'' Observations 
made in 1683 and 1684 about Rome and 
Naples,' vol. xxix. No. 349, p. 473. 10. ' On 
the Northern Auroras, as observed over Vesu- 
vius and the Strombolo Islands,' ib. p. 483. 

Robinson has been credited with 'Two 
Essays by L.P., M.A., from Oxford, concern- 
ing some errors about the Creation, General 
Flood, and Peopling of the World, and . . . 
the rise of Fables . . .' London, 8vo, 1695. 
But in a printed letter, in answer to remarks 
by John Harris (1667?-! 719) [q. v.], ad- 
dressed by Robinson to William Wotton, 
B.D., a college friend, Robinson solemnly 
denied the authorship of the ' Two Essays,' 
at the same time owning to having assisted 
the author, and to having written the intro- 
duction to Sir John Narborough's ' Account 
of several late Voyages' (London, 8vo, 1694), 


4 6 


and the epistle dedicatory to the English 
translation of Father Louis Le Comte's ' Me- 
moirs and Observations made in . . . China' 
(London, 8vo, 1697). Harris printed a re- 
joinder to Robinson. 

[Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees ; Pulteney's 
Sketches of the Progress of Botany (1790), ii. 
118-20; Life of Kay in Select Remains (1760); 
Philosophical Letters (1718) ; Munk's Coll. of 
Phys. (1878), vol. i.] G. S. B. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (fl. 1520-1561), 
dean of Durham. [See ROBERTSON.] 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (ft. 1588-1603), 
lutenist and composer, born in England, 
seems at an early age to have practised his 
profession at the court of Denmark. He ' was 
thought, in Denmark at Elsinore,' he says, 
' the fittest to instruct ' the Princess Anne, 
the king of Denmark's daughter, afterwards 
queen of England (Dedication to James I of 
Schoole ofMusicke). Although the frequent 
visits of English musicians to the court of 
Christian IV were recorded at the time, and 
the records have been published by Dr. 
Hammerich, no notice of Robinson's sojourn 
in Denmark has been discovered. 

In 1603 Robinson published ' The Schoole 
of Musicke, wherein is taught the perfect 
method of true fingering of the Lute, Pan- 
dora, Orpharion, and Viol de Gamba ' (printed 
by Thomas Este, London). The preface has 
an allusion to a former work by Robinson, 
which is not known to be extant. Robinson 
describes the lute as the ' best-beloved instru- 
ment,' and readers are encouraged to teach 
themselves to play at sight any lesson ' if it 
be not too trickined.' The instructions are 
written in the form of a dialogue. Hawkins 
observed that this book, in which the method 
of Adrian le Roy was generally followed, 
' tended to explain a practice which the 
masters of the lute have ever shown an un- 
willingness to divulge ' (History, 2nd ed. 
p. 567). Rules for singing are not forgotten, 
and lessons for viol da gamba as well as 
lute are set down in tablature. Some of 
the music was old, but other specimens, 
including almains, galliards, gigues, toys, 
and Robinson's Riddle, were ' new out of 
the fat.' 

Another THOMAS ROBINSON (ft. 1622), 
pamphleteer, seems to have been a native of 
King's Lynn, and to have been sent to Cam- 
bridge at the expense of Thomas Gurlin, a 
well-to-do citizen of Lynn ; but an academic 
career proved distasteful, and he took to the 
sea. Landing at Lisbon on one of his voy- 
ages, he fell in with Father Seth alias Joseph 
Foster, who was in charge of the English 
nunnery there. The nunnery was descended 

from the Brigittine convent, which was lo- 
cated at the time of the English Reformation 
at Sion House, Isleworth. All the inmates 
at Lisbon were Englishwomen. According 
to his own account, Robinson was persuaded 
by Father Seth to enter the convent in the 
capacity of secretary and mass priest. He 
spent two years there. Returning to London, 
he recorded the immoral practices which he 
affirms he had witnessed in ' The Anatomy of 
the English Nunnery at Lisbon in Portugall 
described and laid open by one that was some 
time a yonger brother of the covent,' London 
(by George Purslowe), 1622. The dedication 
was addressed to Thomas Gurlin, then mayor 
of King's Lynn. A new edition, dated 1623, 
has an engraved title-page ; one of the com- 
partments supplies in miniature a full-length 
portrait of Robinson. The writer exhibits 
a strong protestant bias, and his evidence 
cannot be accepted quite literally. But his 
pamphlet was well received by English pro- 
testants. Robinson's version of some of his 
worst charges against the nuns was intro- 
duced in 1625 by the dramatist Thomas 
Middleton into his 'Game at Chess' (MiD- 
DLETON, Works, ed. Bullen, vii. 101, 130). 

[Authorities cited.] L. M. M. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (d. 1719), writer 
on natural history, was appointed to the 
rectory of Ousby, Cumberland, in 1672. After 
service on Sundays he presided at a kind of 
club at the village alehouse, where each 
member spent a sum not exceeding one 
penny ; he was also a warm encourager of 
village sports, especially football. His lei- 
sure he devoted to collecting facts about the 
mining, minerals, and natural history of the 
counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
which he put before the world in a quaint 
' Anatomy of the Earth,' London, 1694, 4to. 
This was followed by ' An Essay towards a 
Natural History of Westmoreland and Cum- 
berland, to which is annexed a Vindication of 
the Philosophical and Theological Paraphrase 
of the Mosaick System of the Creation,' 2 pts. 
London, 1709, 8vo ; and ' New Observations 
on the Natural History of this World, of 
Matter, and this World of Life, . . . To which 
is added Some Thoughts concerning Paradise, 
the Conflagration of the World, and a trea- 
tise of Meteorology,' London, 1698, 8vo (the 
same, with a different title-page, London, 
1699, 8vo). Robinson died rector of Ousby 
in 1719. He was married, and had eight 

[Hutchinson's Hist, of Cumberland, i. 224-5 ; 
Nicolson and Burn's Hist, of Westmoreland and 
Cumberland ; Jefferson's Hist, of Leath Ward, 
p. 257 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.l A. N. 




ROBINSON, THOMAS (d. 1747), legal 
author, son of Mathew Robinson of Edgley, 
Yorkshire, was admitted on 14 April 1730 of 
Lincoln's Inn, but was never called to the 
bar. He died on 29 Dec. 1747. 

Robinson was author of ' The Common 
Law of Kent, or the Customs of Gavelkind ; 
with an appendix concerning Borough Eng- 
lish,' London, 1741, 8vo a work which con- 
centrates much antiquarian learning in very 
small compass, and may almost rank as 
authoritative. A third edition, by John 
Wilson of Lincoln's Inn, appeared at Lon- 
don in 1822, 8vo ; and a new edition, by 
J. D. Norwood, solicitor, at Ashford in 1858, 

[Lincoln's Inn Reg. ; Gent. Mag. 1747, p. 592 ; 
Ebndon Mag. 1747, p. 616; Athenaeum, 1859, 
i. 710.] J. M. K. 

GRANTHAM (1695-1770), diplomatist, born in 
1695, was fourth son of Sir William Robin- 
son, bart., of Newby, Yorkshire, and Mary, 
eldest daughter of George Aislabie of Stud- 
ley Royal in the same county. The family 
was descended from William Robinson (1522- 
1616), an ' eminent Hamburg merchant,' 
who was mayor of York and its representa- 
tive in parliament in the reign of Elizabeth. 
The mayor's grandson, of the same name, was 
knighted in 1633, became high sheriff of 
Yorkshire in 1638, and died in 1658. The 
latter's son by his second wife, Metcalfe Ro- 
binson (d. 1689), was created a baronet on 
30 July 1660. Sir Metcalfe's nephew, Wil- 
liam Robinson (1655-1736), succeeded to 
his estates. He sat for Northallerton in the 
Convention parliament, and from 1697 to 
1722 represented York. In 1689 he was high 
sheriff of Yorkshire, and in 1700 lord mayor 
of York. The baronetcy, which had lapsed 
at his uncle's death, was revived in him. 
He died at Newby, Yorkshire, on 22 Dec. 
1736, and was buried at Topcliffe. He had 
five sons and a daughter. The second son, 
Sir Tancred (d. 1754), third baronet, became 
rear-admiral of the white, and was lord 
mayor of York in 1718 and 1738. 

Thomas, the youngest son, was educated 
at Westminster, and was admitted on 12 Jan. 
1711-12 at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he was elected scholar in April 1714, and 
minor fellow on 10 July 1719. Entering the 
diplomatic service, he became in 1723 secre- 
tary to the English embassy at Paris. During 
the absence of the ambassador, Horace Wai- 
pole the elder, in 1724 and 1727, he acted as 
charge d'affaires, and acquired the confidence 
both of his chief and of Fleury. the French 
minister (CoxE, Memoirs of Sir JR. Walpolc, 

ii. 544). Robinson was always attached to 
the Walpoles, and on 9 March 1742, after Sir 
Robert's fall, he sent Horace ' the warmest 
professions of friendship, service, and devo- 
tion,' adding that his letters to him were to be 
looked upon as letters to Sir Robert (ib. iii. 

In 1728-9 Robinson was one of the three 
English representatives at the congress of 
Soissons. On 17 June 1730 he arrived at 
Vienna in order to act for the ambassador, 
Lord Waldegrave, while on leave. But 
Waldegrave did not return, and Robinson 
remained as English ambassador at Vienna 
for eighteen years. The object of English 
policy at the time was to re-establish friendly 
relations with the emperor without disturbing 
the existing arrangements with France and 
the Dutch. Robinson's task was complicated 
by his having to take into account the inte- 
rests of George II as elector of Hanover. On 
8 Feb. 1731 he was privately instructed to 
sign the treaty of Vienna, and to leave the 
German points for future consideration. The 
' thrice salutary ' treaty was accordingly com- 
pleted on 16 March 1731 (ib. iii. 97 ; cf. CAR- 
LYLB, Frederick, iii. 36-7, 168 ; Marchmont 
Papers, i. 62). The imperialists complained 
that he had ' sucked them to the very blood/ 
His exertions threw him into a fever (CoxE, 
Walpole,ni.m, 100). On 10 April Harrington 
forwarded to him 1,OOOA from George II, ac- 
companied with emphatically expressed ap- 
proval of his conduct. He was to have his 
choice of staying at Vienna with increased 
emoluments, or of taking any other post that 
should be more agreeable to him (ib. iii. 101). 
Robinson petitioned for recall. Neverthe- 
less he was kept at Vienna, ' for the most 
part without instructions ' (to H. Pelham, 
1 29 July and 30 Sept. 1733). In the matter 
of the projected match between Don Carlos 
and the second daughter of the Emperor 
Charles VI, Robinson, acting on George II's 
private instructions, resisted the union. Ac- 
cording to Sir Robert Walpole, he was the 
great obstacle to the match, and ' deserved 
hanging for his conduct in that affair ' (LoRD 
HERVEY, Memoirs, ii. 104-6). 

The accessions of Maria Theresa and Fre- 
derick the Great in 1740 completed the change 
in the European system which the conclusion 
of the family compact had begun. Robinson 
had now to remind Maria Theresa of the ser- 
vices received by her father from England 
in the Spanish succession war, with a view 
to an alliance against France, while he 
had also the unpleasant task of urging upon 
her the necessity of making concessions to 
Prussia (cf. COXE, House of Austria, ii. 238- 
240). Under stress of the recently formed 



coalition of France and Bavaria with Prussia, 
Robinson at length induced Maria Theresa 
to consent to an accommodation with Frede- 
rick, who had invaded Silesia. On 7 Aug. 
1741 he had an interview with Frederick at 
Strehlen. Frederick, according to Carlyle, 
complained that Robinson ' negotiated in a 
wordy, high droning way, as if he were 
speaking in parliament .' Frederick demanded 
the cession of Breslau and Lower Silesia, 
and the negotiation was consequently futile. 
Robinson left Strehlen on the 9th. Carlyle, 
who founds his account of the negotiation on 
Robinson's despatch to Harrington of 9 Aug., 
dubs the document the ' Robinsoniad ' (see 
Frederick the Great, v. 42-8). 

On 29 Aug. Robinson reappeared at Breslau 
with new concessions wrung from the re- 
luctant Maria Theresa ; but Frederick refused 
to negotiate. When, a week later, Lower 
Silesia was offered, Frederick found the new 
propositions of ' 1'infatigable Robinson' as 
chimerical as the old (CARLYLE, v. 70). Sub- 
sequently Robinson urgently appealed to 
Maria Theresa, whom, according to Sir Luke 
Schaub, he sometimes moved to tears, to give 
Frederick better terms. Although he pro- 
mised her subsidies, he informed her on 
2 Aug. 1745, ' in a copious, sonorous speech,' 
that in view of the ineffective assistance she 
had rendered to England against France, the 
former power must make peace with Prussia 
(ib. vi. 112-14; cf. Marchmont Papers, i. 
217). On 18 July 1748 Robinson received a 
peremptory despatch from Newcastle, now 
secretary of state, demanding the concur- 
rence of Maria Theresa in a general pasifica- 
tion. In case of refusal or delay, Robinson 
was to leave Vienna within forty-eight hours. 
Robinson believed Maria Theresa ready to 
negotiate in due course, but she made no 
sign within the stipulated period, and on 
26 July Robinson left Vienna for Hanover. 
He was now appointed joint plenipotentiary 
of England with Sandwich in the peace nego- 
tiations of Aix-la-Chapelle (CoxE, Pelham 
Administration, i. 451-2). He left Hanover 
for the scene of negotiations on 13 Aug., 
being secretly entrusted by both the king and 
Newcastle with the principal direction of 
affairs (ib. i. 4G5, 466, ii. 7, 8). Sandwich 
had tried to conclude the negotiations before 
Robinson's arrival (Newcastle to H. Pelham, 
25 Aug. ; COXE, ii. 1 0) ; but the two plenipo- 
tentiaries subsequently worked in harmony 
(Bedford Cjrresp. i. 502). Kaunitz, the Aus- 
trian representative, at first ' went with them 
in nothing ;' but the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 
was finally signed on 18 Oct. 1748. 

Soon after Robinson's return to England 
he was made one of the lords commissioners 

of trade 'a scurvy reward after making 
the peace,' wrote Walpole to Mann on 26 Dec. 
1748. Robinson, who had held a seat in par- 
liament for Thirsk from 1727 to 1734, was 
on 30 Dec. 1748 elected for Christchurch. 
He continued to represent that borough till 
1761. In 1749 he was appointed master of 
the great wardrobe, and was next year sworn 
of the privy council. On the death of Henry 
Pelham in 1754, Newcastle, at the king's 
suggestion, appointed Robinson, who was a 
favourite at court, secretary of state for the 
southern department, with the leadership of 
the House of Commons (cf. BTJBB DODING- 
TOX, Diary, 2 Sept. 1755). He accepted the 
seals with great reluctance, and stipulated 
for a brief tenure of them (Chesterfield 
Corresp. ed. Mahon, iv. 119). Newcastle 
tried to persuade Pitt, then a member of the 
ministry as paymaster-general, that the ap- 
pointment was favourable to his interests, 
for Robinson had no parliamentary talents 
which could give rise to jealousy (Chatham 
Corresp. i. 96). Pitt's own view of Robin- 
son's qualifications was expressed in his re- 
mark to Fox, ' The duke might as well have 
sent us his jackboot to lead us' (STANHOPE, 
Hist, of England, 1846, iv. 60, from LORD 
ORFORD'S Memoirs, ii. 101). To Temple, 
however, he [described Robinson as ' a very 
worthy gentleman ' (Grenville. Papers, i. 120). 
Robinson's colleagues combined against him, 
and rendered his position impossible; Pitt 
openly attacked him, and the war secre- 
tary (Henry Fox) ironically defended him. 
On 1 Dec. Walpole wrote that ' Pitt and 
Fox have already mumbled Sir T. Robinson 
cruelly.' Murray, the attorney-general, was 
Robinson's only faithful ally in the House 
of Commons. The government majority 
was, says Waldegrave, largely composed of 
' laughers.' While in office Robinson, ac- 
cording to Bancroft, told the American agents 
' they must fight for their own altars and 
firesides '(Hist. United States,\\i. 117). From 
April to September 1755 he acted as a lord 
justice during George II's absence from Eng- 
land. In November 1755 Robinson 'cheer- 
fully gave up the seals' to Fox, and was 
reappointed master of the wardrobe. That 
office he reformed and retained during the 
rest of the reign. He also received a pension 
on the Irish establishment. The king would 
have preferred to retain Robinson as secretary 
of state; for besides sympathising with the 
king's German interests, his experience gave 
him a wide knowledge of foreign affairs, and 
he was a capable man of business. Robinson, 
however, well knew his own deficiencies ; 
and when in the spring of 1757 George II, 
through Waldegrave, again offered him the 




secretaryship of state, he ' with a most sub- 
missive preamble sent an absolute refusal' 
(DoDiNGTON, Diary, 23 March 1757). 

On the accession of George III, Walpole 
relates that ' What is Sir Thomas Robinson 
to have ? ' was a question in every mouth. 
On 7 April 1761 he received a peerage, with 
the title of Baron Grantham. In 1764 he 
signed a protest in the House of Lords against 
the resolution that privilege of parliament 
does not cover the publication of seditious 
libels (Ann. Reg. 1704, p. 178). In July 1765 
he was named joint postmaster-general, and 
held the office till December 1766. 

Grantham died at Whitehall on 30 Sept. 
i770, and was buried at Chiswick on 6 Oct. 
Walpole declares that at his death he was a 
'miserable object,' owing to scurvy. He 
was a fairly able diplomatist, painstaking, 
and not without persuasive power. Horace 
Walpole the younger, who always refers to 
him as ' Vienna Robinson,' exaggerated his 
German proclivities (see COXE, Sir R. Wal- 
pole, in. 114). The best estimate of him is 
probably that given by Lord Waldegrave. 
who says that Robinson was a good secretary 
of atate, as far as business capacity went, but 
was quite ignorant of the ways of the House 
of Commons. When he played the orator 
(which was too often) even his friends could 
hardly keep their countenances. It is signi- 
ficant that no speech by Robinson appears 
in the ' Parliamentary History.' Carlyle 
found his despatches rather heavy, ' but full 
of inextinguishable zeal withal.' His descrip- 
tions of the imperial ministers, and especially 
his appreciation of Prince Eugene, show 
insight into character. 

Robinson married, on 1 3 July 1737, Frances, 
third daughter by his first wife of Thomas 
Worsley, esq. of Hovingham, Yorkshire. She 
died in 1750, leaving issue two sons and 
six daughters, and was buried at Chiswick 
on 6 Nov. of that year. The elder son, 
Thomas, second baron Grantham, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[The Robinson Papers, or Grantham MSS. 
(Add. MSS. 23780-877, and 22529) were largely 
utilised by Coxe in the various works quoted 
above, and by Carlyle in his History of Frede- 
rick the Great. See also Coxe's Life of Horatio, 
Lord Walpole, i. 198, 199, 208-10, 276 et seq. 
310, 311, ii. 254; Walpole's Letters, ii. 140, 
218, 232, 284, 376, 408, 484, iii. 78, 80, 362, iv. 
384, v. 260, and Memoirs of George II, i. 388, 
ii. 44-5, 93-4 ; Lord Waldegrave's Memoirs, 
pp. 19, 31-2, 46, 52, 81, 108; Bedford Corresp. 
i. 450-1, 476-9, 480-1, 502; Bubb Dodington's 
Diary, passim ; Ret. Memb. Parl. ; Thackeray's 
Life of Chatham, i. 208-9, 225; Gent. Mag. 
1770, p. 487 ; Lord Stanhope's Hist, of England, 
1846, chap, xxxii. ; Collins's Peerage, 5th edit. 


vol. viii. ; G. E. C.'s Peerage ; Foster's Yorkshire 
Pedigrees, vol. i. ; admission book of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; authorities cited.] 

G. LE G. N. 

1777), 'long Sir Thomas,' governor of Barba- 
dos and amateur architect, born about 1700, 
was eldest son and heir of William Robinson 
(bapt. Rokeby, Yorkshire, 23 Sept. 1675, d. 
24 Feb. 1720), who married, in 1699, Anne, 
daughter and heiress of Robert Walters of 
Cundall in Yorkshire ; she died on 26 July 
1730, aged 53, and was buried in the centre 
of the south aisle of Merton church, Surrey, 
where a marble monument was placed to her 
memory. Sir Thomas, her son, also erected 
in the old Roman highway, near Rokeby, an 
obelisk in her honour. Another son, Richard 
Robinson, first baron Rokeby [q. v.], was 
primate of Ireland. 

After finishing his education, Thomas 
travelled over a great part of Europe, giving 
special attention to the ancient architecture 
of Greece and Italy and the school of Pal- 
ladio. He thus cultivated a taste which 
dominated the rest of his life. On return- 
ing to England he purchased a commission 
in the army, but soon resigned it in favour 
of his brother Septimus, and at the general 
election in 1727 was returned to parlia- 
ment, through the influence of the family of 
Howard, for the borough of Morpeth in 
Northumberland. On 25 Oct. 1728 he mar- 
ried, at Belfrey's, York, Elizabeth, the eldest 
daughter of Charles Howard, third earl of 
Carlisle, and widow of Nicholas, lord Lech- 
mere. While in parliament he made several 
long speeches, including one very fine speech 
which, according to Horace Walpole, he was 
supposed to have found among the papers 
of his wife's first husband. About this 
time he designed for his wife's brother the 
west wing of Castle Howard, which, though 
pronounced to be not devoid of merit, is out 
of harmony Avith the other parts. Later 
in life he and Welbore Ellis persuaded 
Sir William Stanhope to ' improve ' Pope's 
garden, and in the process the place was 

Robinson was created a baronet on 1 March 
1730-1, with remainder to his brothers and 
to Matthew Robinson of Edgley in York- 
shire, and from November 1735 to February 
1742 he was a commissioner of excise. His 
expenditure was very extravagant both in 
London and on his own estate. He rebuilt 
the mansion at Rokeby, enclosed the park 
with a stone wall (1725-30), and planted 
many forest trees (1730). These acts were 
recorded in 1737, in two Latin inscriptions 
on two marble tables, fixed in the two stone 




piers at the entrance to the park from Greta 
Bridge. He practically made the Rokeby 
of which Sir Walter Scott \vrote and which 
the tourist visits (cf. WHITAKEK, Hist, of 
Richmondshire, i. 184). He built the great 
bridge which spans the Tees at Rokeby. 
Among other works which he designed are 
parts of Ember Court, Surrey, then the resi- 
dence of the Onslows, and the Gothic gate- 
way at Bishop Auckland in Durham. In 
London he ' gave balls to all the men and 
women in power and in fashion, and ruined 
himself.' Horace Walpole gives an account 
of his ball 'to a little girl of the Duke of 
Richmond ' in October 1741. There were 
two hundred guests invited, ' from Miss 
in bib and apron to my lord chancellor 
[Hardwicke] in bib and mace ' (Miss BERRY, 
Journals, ii. 26-7). A second ball was given 
by him on 2 Dec. 1741, when six hundred 
persons were invited and two hundred at- 
tended (WALPOLE, Corresp. i. 95). 

The state of Robinson's finances brought 
about his expatriation. Lord Lincoln coveted 
his house at Whitehall, and, to obtain it, 
secured for him in January 1742 the post of 
governor of Barbados. Arriving in Barbados 
on 8 Aug. 1742, he was at once in trouble 
with his assembly, who raised difficulties 
about voting his salary. His love of building 
led to further dispute, for, Avithout consult- 
ing the house, he ordered expensive changes 
in his residence at Pilgrim, and he under- 
took the construction of an armoury and 
arsenal, which were acknowledged to have 
been much wanted. In the result he had to 
pay most of the charges out of his own pocket. 
Another quarrel, in which he had more right 
on his side, was as to the command of the 
forces in the island. Eventually a petition 
was sent home which resulted in his recall 
on 14 April 1747. His first wife had died at 
Bath on 10 April 1739, and was buried in the 
family vault under the new church of Rokeby. 
He married at Barbados a second wife, 
whose maiden name was Booth ; she was the 
widow of Samuel Salmon, a rich ironmonger. 
She is said to have paid 10,000^ for the honour 
of being a lady, but she declined to follow 
Robinson to England. On his return to his 
own country the old habits seized him. He 
again gave balls and breakfasts, and among 
the breakfasts was one to the Princess of 
Wales (ib. ii. 395). In a note to Mason's 
'Epistle to Shebbeare' he is dubbed 'the 
Petronius of the present age.' 

Robinson acquired a considerable number 
of shares in Ranelagh Gardens, and became 
the director of the entertainments, when his 
knowledge of the fashionable world proved 
of use. He built for himself a house 

called Prospect Place, adjoining the gardens 
(BEAVER, Old Chelsea, p. 297), and gave mag- 
nificent feasts (LADY MARY COKE, Journal, 
ii. 318, 378, iii. 433). At the coronation of 
George III, on 22 Sept. 1761, the last occa- 
sion on which the dukes of Normandy and 
Aquitaine were represented by deputy as 
doing homage to the king of England, Ro- 
binson acted as the first of these dukes, 
walking ' in proper mantle ' next the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Gent. Mar/. 1761, p. 
419).' Churchill, in his poem of ' The Ghost,' 
erroneously assigns to him the part of Aqui- 
taine. Mrs. Bray speaks of his fondness for 
'books, the fine arts, music, and refined 
society,' and mentions that he had long 
suffered from weakness in the eyes. At 
last he became blind, and her father used 
often to read to him (Autobiography, pp. 

Robinson was forced in 1769 to dispose 
of Rokeby, which had been in the posses- 
sion of his family since 1610, to John Sawrey 
Morritt, the father of J. B. S. Morritt [q. v.] 
He died at his house at Chelsea on 3 March 
1777, aged 76, without leaving legitimate 
issue, and was buried in the south-east corner 
of the chancel of Merton church, a monu- 
ment being placed there to his memory 
(MANTLING and BRAY, Surrey, i. 260-1). A 
second monument was erecied for him in 
Westminster Abbey, and by his will a monu- 
ment was also placed there to the memory 
of 'the accomplished woman, agreeable com- 
panion, and sincere friend,' his first wife 
(STANLEY, Westminster Abbey, 5th edit. pp. 
233-4; FAULKNER, Chelsea, ii. 315). He was 
succeeded in the baronetcy by his next sur- 
viving brother, William. 

Robinson was tall and thin, while his con- 
temporary of the same name was short and 
fat. ' I can't imagine,' said the witty Lady 
Townshend, ' why one is preferred to the 
other. The one is as broad as the other is 
long.' The nose and chin on the head of the 
cudgel of Joseph Andrews, ' which was copied 
from the face of a certain long English baronet 
of infinite wit, humour, and gravity,' is sup- 
posed to be a satiric touch by Fielding at his 
expense, and he is identified with the figure 
standing in a side box in Hogarth's picture 
of the 'Beggar's Opera.' His appearance was 
'often rendered still more remarkable by his 
hunting dress, a postilion's cap, a light green 
jacket, and buckskin breeches.' In one of 
the sudden whims which seized him he set 
off in this attire to visit a married sister who 
was settled in Paris. He arrived when the 
company was at dinner, and a French abb6, 
who was one of the guests, at last gasped 
out, ' Excuse me, sir ! Are you the famous 



Robinson Crusoe so remarkable in history ? ' 
(cf. PICHOT, Talleyrand Souvenirs, pp. 146- 

Robinson was a 'specious, empty man,' 
with a talent for flattery, remarkable even 
in that age for his ' profusion of words and 
bows and compliments.' He and Lord Ches- 
terfield maintained a correspondence for fifty 
years, and Sir Thomas kept all the letters 
which he received and copies of the answers 
which he sent. At his death he left them ' to 
an apothecary who had married his natural 
daughter, with injunctions to publish all/but 
Robinson's brother Richard stopped the pub- 
lication. Chesterfield, in his last illness, 
remarked to Robinson such is probably the 
correct version of the story 'Ah! Sir Thomas. J 
*It will be sooner over with me than it would 
be with you, for I am dying by inches;' and 
the same peer referred to him in theepigram 

Unlike my subject will I fr.imp my song, 
It shall be witty and it shan't be long. 

Sir John Hawkins records (Life of Johnson, 
p. 191) that when Chesterfield desired to 
appease Dr. Johnson, he employed Robinson 
as his mediator. Sir Thomas, with much 
flattery, vowed that if his circumstances per- 
mitted it, he himself would settle 500/. a 
year on Johnson. ' Who, then, are you ? ' was 
the inquiry, and the answer was ' Sir Thomas 
Robinson, a Yorkshire baronet.' ' Sir,' re- 
plied Johnson, ' if the first peer of the realm 
were to make me such an offer, I would show 
him the way down stairs.' Boswell, on a 
later occasion, found Robinson sitting with 
Johnson (Life, ed. Hill, i. 434), and Dr. Max- 
well records that Johnson once reproved Sir 
Thomas with the remark, ' You talk the lan- 
guage of a savage.' 

[Foster's Yorkshire Families (Howard pedi- 
gree) ; Plantagenet-Harrison's Yorkshire, pp. 
414-15; Wotton's Baronetage, iv. 22-5-8; Arch- 
dall's Irish Peerage, vii. 171-2; Walpole and 
Mason (ed. Mitford), i. 278-9, 440: Walpole's 
Notes to Chesterfield's Memoirs (Philobiblon 
Soc. xi. 70-2); Walpole's Letters, i. 95, 122, ii. 
284, 395, iii. 4, v. 403, vi. 427, viii. 71 ; Wal- 
poliana, ii. 130-1 ; Lady Hervey's Letters, 
1821, pp. 164-5 ; Nichols's Hogarth Anecd. 1785, 
p. 22; Churchill's Poems, 1804 ed. ii. 183-4; 
Saturday Keview, 5 Nov. 1887, pp. 624-5 ; 
Dictionary of Architecture ; Schomburgk's His- 
tory of Barbados, pp. 326-7 ; Foyer's History 
of Barbados.] W. P. C. 

GRANTHAM (1738-1786), born at Vienna on 
30 Nov. 1738, was the elder son of Thomas, first 
baron Grantham [q. v.], by his wife Frances, 
third daughter of Thomas AVorsley of Hov- 

ingham in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 
He was educated at Westminster School and 
Christ's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated M.A. in 1757. At the general elec- 
tion in March 1761 he Avas returned to the 
House of Commons for Christchurch in 
Hampshire, and continued to represent that 
borough for nine years. He was appointed 
secretary of the British embassy to the in- 
tended congress at Augsburg in April 1761, 
and on 11 Oct. 1766 he became one of the 
commissioners of trade and plantations. On 
13 Feb. 1770 he was promoted to the post of 
vice-chamberlain of the household, and was 
sworn a member of the privy council on the 
26th of the same month. He succeeded his 
father as second Baron Grantham on 30 Sept. 
1770, and took his seat in the House of Lords 
at the opening of parliament on 13 Nov. fol- 
lowing (Journals of the House of Lords, xxxiii. 
4). He kissed hands on his appointment as 
ambassador at Madrid on 25 Jan. 1771, and 
held that post until the outbreak of hostili- 
ties in 1779. According to Horace Walpole, 
Grantham was ' under a cloud ' in 1775. 'A 
person unknown had gone on a holiday to 
the East India House and secretary's office, 
and, being admitted, had examined all the 
papers, retired, and could not be discovered. 
Lord Grantham was suspected, and none of 
the grandees would converse with him ' 
(Journal of the Reign of King George III, 
1859, i. 486-7). Deceived by Florida Blanca, 
Grantham confided in the neutrality of the 
Spanish court to the last, and wrote home 
in January 1779, 'I really believe this court 
is sincere in wishing to bring about a pacifi- 
cation ' (BANCROFT, History of the United 
States, 1876, vi. 180). He seconded thp ad- 
dress at the opening of the session on 25 Nov. 
1779, and declared that ' Spain had acted a 
most ungenerous and unprovoked part ' 
against Great Britain (Parl. Hist. xx. 1025-7). 
He was appointed first commissioner of the 
board of trade and foreign plantations on 
9 Dec. 1780, a post which he held until the 
abolition of the board in June 1782. Grant- 
ham joined Lord Shelburne's administration 
as secretary of state for the foreign depart- 
ment in July 1782, and he assisted Shelburne 
in the conduct of the negotiations with 
France, Spain, and America. He defended 
the preliminary articles of peace in the House 
of Lords on 17 Feb. 1783, and pleaded that 
the peace was ' as good a one as, considering 
our situation, we could possibly have had 
(Parl. Hist, xxiii. 4024). He resigned 
office on the formation of the coalition go- 
vernment in April 1783. Grantham, who 
had declined, upon the declaration of war 
with Spain, any longer to accept his salary 




as ambassador, was granted a pension of 
2,000/. a year on retiring from the foreign 
office ( WALPOLE, Journal of the Reign of King 
George III, ii. 595 ; Parl. Hist, xxiii. 549). It 
appears that he already enjoyed another pen- 
sion of 3,000/. a year,which had been granted 
to his father for two lives, and secured on the 
Irish establishment. He was appointed a 
member of the committee of the privy 
council for the consideration of all matters 
relating to trade and foreign plantations on 
5 March 1784. He died at Grantham House, 
Putney Heath, Surrey, on 20 July 1780, 

his Contemporaries, 1843-4, iii. 15-17, 33-6 ; 
W hi taker's History of Richmondshire, 1823, ii. 
122-3; Lysons's Environs of London, 1792- 

1811, ii. 217-18 ; Collins's Peerage of England, 

1812, vii. 292; Burke's Peerage, &c., 1894, pp. 
674, 1189; G-. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, iv. 
80; Grad. Cantabr. 1823, p. 401; Alumni 
Westmon. 1852, p. 546 ; Gent. Mag. 1786 ii. 622, 
1830 i. 90; Official Return of Members of Par- 
liament, ii. 130, 142; Foster's Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees.] G. F. R. B. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (1749-1813), 
divine, was born at Wakefield, Yorkshire, on 

and was buried on the 27th at Chiswick in j 10 Sept. 1749, in the house adjoining that in 
Middlesex. He married, on 17 Aug. 1780, j which Archbishop Potter was born. His 

father, James Robinson, was a hosier there. 

Lady Mary Jemima Grey Yorke, younger 
daughter and coheiress of Philip, second earl 
of Hardwicke ; she died at Whitehall on 
7 Jan. 1830, aged 72. By her he left two 
sons : Thomas Philip, who succeeded his 
father in the barony of Grantham and his 
maternal aunt in the earldom of De Grey 
GREY] ; and Frederick John (afterwards first 
Earl of Ripon) [q. v.] 

Grantham was ' a very agreeable, pleasing 
man ' (WALPOLE, Letters, viii. 258), and 
' possessed solid though not eminent parts, 
together with a knowledge of foreign affairs 
and of Europe ' (WRAXALL, Hist, and Pos- 
thumous Memoirs, 1884, ii. 357). A folio 
volume of about one hundred pages, contain- 
ing notes by Grantham while in office (1766- 
1769), is preserved at Wrest Park (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 1st Rep. App. p. 8). Portions of his 
correspondence have been preserved in the 
manuscript collections of the Duke of Man- 
chester (ib. p. 13), the Countess Cowper (ib. 
ii. App. p. 9), the Earl of Cathcart (ib. ii. App. 
p. 26), the Earl of Bradford (ib. ii. App. p. 30), 
Sir Henry Gunning (ib. iii. App. p. 250), and 
the Marquis of Lansdowne (ib. iii. App. p. 146, 
v. App. pp. 241, 253, 254, vi. App. p. 238). 
Other portions will be found among the 
Egerton and the Additional MSS. in the 
British Museum (see Indices for 1846--7, 
1854-75, 1882-7, and 1888-93). A mezzo- 
tint engraving of Grantham by William 
Dickinson after Romney was published in 

[Walpole's Letters, 1857-9, iii. 476, vii. 236, 
406, 465-6, viii. 249, 415, 419, ix. 62 ; Walpole's 
Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 1894, i. 
42-3, iv. 176 ; Political Memoranda of Francis, 
fifth Duke of Leeds (Camden Soc. publ.), 1884, 
pp. 19, 73,76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82; Lord Edmond 
Fitzmaurice's Life of William, Earl of Shelburne, 
1875-6, iii. 222-389; Diaries and Correspon- 
dence of James Harris, first Earl of Malmes- 
bury, 1844, i. 524-5, 526-7, 528-39, 541-2, ii. 
1, 7-26, 28-38, 41 ; Jesse's George Selwyn and 

He was sent at an early age to the grammar 
school of his native town, whence he entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar in 1768. 
In April 1771 he was elected a scholar of his 
college, in 1772 he graduated as seventh 
wrangler (M. A. 1775), in October of the same 
year he was made a fellow of his college, 
and in 1773 he gained one of the members' 
prizes for a Latin essay. In or about 1 772 
he was ordained to the joint curacies of 
Witcham and Wichford in the Isle of Ely, 
but from 1773 to 1778 he was afternoon lec- 
turer at All Saints', Leicester, and chaplain 
to the infirmary. In 1778 he was appointed 
to a lectureship newly founded in St. Mary's 
Church, Leicester. Later on in the same year 
he was made vicar of St. Mary's. The state 
of Leicester at the time, and the improvement 
wrought in it by Robinson, are forcibly de- 
scribed by Robert Hall in a eulogium delivered 
before the Auxiliary Bible Society at Lei- 
cester, shortly after Robinson's death, and 
subsequently printed. At St. Mary's in 1784 
Robinson commenced the series of discourses 
on sacred biography by which he i s best known . 
The earliest appeared in the ' Theological Mis- 
cellany ' of 1784, and the whole series was even- 
tually printed under the title of ' Scripture 
Characters' (1793, 4 vols. 12mo; 10th edit, 
1815; abridgment, 181 6). He wrote also 'The 
Christian System Unfolded, or Essays on the 
Doctrines and Duties of Christianity ' (1805, 
3 vols. 8vo), and some shorter pieces. A 
collective edition of his 'Works' was pub- 
lished in 8 vols. London, 1814. Robinson 
died at Leicester on 24 March 1813, and was 
buried on the 29th in the chancel of St. 
Mary's, his funeral sermon being preached 
by Edward Thomas Vaughan [q. v.], who 
published a memoir of Robinson, with a 
selection of his letters, in 1815. He was 
twice married. By his first wife, who died 
in 1791, he had a son Thomas (1790-1873) 
[q. v.], master of the Temple. His second 
wife, whom he married in 1797, wasthe widow 




of Dr. Gerard, formerly warden of \Vadham 
College, Oxford. 

[Vaughan's Account ; Memoir prefixed to the 
first volume of Scripture Characters, 1815; Pea- 
cock's Wakefield Grammar School, 1892, p. 190 ; 
Lupton's Wakufield Worthies, 1864, pp. 197- 
206.] J. H. L. 

ROBINSON, THOMAS (1790-1873), 
master of the Temple, born in 1790, was the 
youngest son of Thomas Robinson (1749- 
1813) [q. v.] He was educated at Rugby 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, whence he 
matriculated as a scholar in 1809. In 1810 
he gained the first Bell scholarship, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1813 as thirteenth wrangler 
and second classical medallist. He pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1810, was admitted ad 
eundem at Oxford in 1839, and graduated 
D.D. in 1844. He was ordained deacon in 
1815 and priest in 1816, going out at once 
as a missionary to India. He was appointed 
chaplain on the Bombay establishment, and 
was stationed first at Seroor and then at 
Poonah, where he was engaged in translating 
the Old Testament into Persian. The first 
part, entitled ' The History of Joseph from 
the Pentateuch,' appeared in 1825, and two 
others, ' Isaiah to Alalachi' and 'Chronicles 
to Canticles,' in 1837 and 1838. He at- 
tracted the favourable notice of Thomas Fan- 
shaw Middleton [q. v.], bishop of Calcutta, 
to whom in 1819 he dedicated his ; Discourses 
on the Evidences of Christianity,' published 
at Calcutta. In 1825 he was appointed 
chaplain to Middleton's successor, Reginald 
Heber [q. v.], whose constant companion he 
was during the bishop's episcopal visitations. 
He was present at Trichinopoly on 2 April 
1826, when Heber was drowned, and preached 
and published a funeral sermon. He also 
wrote an elaborate account of ' The Last 
Days of Bishop Heber,' Madras, 1829, 8vo. 
Before the end of 1826 he was made arch- 
deacon of Madras. 

In 1837 Robinson was appointed lord al- 
moner's professor of Arabic in the university 
of Cambridge. He delivered his inaugural 
fecture on 22 May 1838, and published it 
the same year, under the title of ' On the 
Study of Oriental Literature.' In 1845 he 
was elected master of the Temple, and in 
1853 was presented to the rectory of Ther- 
field, Hampshire. In the following year he 
was made canon of Rochester, resigning his 
professorship at Cambridge. He gave up his 
rectory in 1860, and the mastership of the 
Temple in 1869, being succeeded by Charles 
John Vaughan, dean of Llandaff. He died 
at the Precincts, Rochester, on 13 May 

Besides the works already mentioned and 
many single sermons, Robinson published : 
1. 'the Character of St. Paul the Model of 
the Christian Ministry,' Cambridge, 1840, 
8vo. 2. ' The Twin Fallacies of Rome, Su- 
premacy and Infallibility,' London, 1851, 

[Worls in Brit.Mus. Library; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. ; Grad. Cantabr. ; Cambridge Cal. ; Crock- 
ford's Clerical Directory, 1873; Times, 14 May 
1873; Men of the Reign ; Darling's Cycl.; Le 
Bas's Life of Bishop Middleton, 1831, ii. 427; 
Norton's Life of Heber, 1870, pp. 120, 126, 131 ; 
Life of Heber by his Widow ; Heber's Journals, 
passim.] A. F. P. 


(1792-1882), astronomer and mathematical 
physicist, born in the parish of St. Anne's, 
Dublin, on 23 April 1792, was eldest son of 
Thomas Robinson (d.1810), a portrait-painter, 
by his wife Ruth Buck (d. 1826). The father, 
who left Cumberland to settle in the north of 
Ireland, named his son after his master, George 
Romney. The boy displayed exceptional pre- 
cocity, composing short pieces of poetry at the 
age of five. At the age of fourteen he pub- 
lished a small octavo volume of his' Juvenile 
Poems '(1806). The volume includes a short 
account of the author, a portrait, and a list of 
nearly fifteen hundred subscribers. Another 
poem, an elegy on Romney, written at the age 
of ten, was printed in "NV. Hayley's life of the 
artist (1809), with a portrait of the youthful 
bard. While his family was living at Dro- 
more, Dr. Percy, the bishop, showed much 
interest in him. At Lisburn, whither his 
father subsequently removed, he was taught 
classics by Dr. Ctipples. At the end of 1801 
his father removed to Belfast, and Robinson 
was placed under Dr. Bruce, at whose academy 
of some two hundred boys he carried off all 
the prizes. Here he first developed a predi- 
lection for experimental natural philosophy, 
and interested himself in shipbuilding. In 
January 1 806 he became a pensioner of Trinity 
College, Dublin. He obtained a scholarship 
in 1808, graduated B.A. in 1810, and was 
elected to a fellowship in 1814. He was 
elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy 
on 14 Feb. 1816. For some years he lectured 
at Trinity College as deputy professor of 
natural philosophy, and in l8-;0 provided 
his students with a useful text-book in his 
'System of Mechanics.' In 1821 he relin- 
quished his fellowship on obtaining the col- 
lege living of Enniskillen. In 1823 he. was 
appointed astronomer in charge of Armagh 
Observatory, and next year he exchanged 
the benefice of Enniskillen for the rectory 
of Carrickmacross, which lay nearer Armagh. 




Both these posts he retained till his death ; 
but he always resided at Armagh. In 1872 
he was nominated prebendary of St. Patrick's, 

The work which gives Robinson his title 
to fame was done at Armagh Observatory, 
founded by Richard Robinson, first baron 
Rokeby [q. v.], in 1793. Little work had 
been done there before his appointment in 
1823, but between 1827 and 1835 additional 
instruments were supplied by Lord John 
George Beresford, and the new astronomer's 
energy bore early fruit in the publication of 
'Armagh Observations, 1828-30' (vol. i. pts. 
i., ii., iii., 1829-32). In 1859 he published his 
great book, 'Places of 5,345 Stars [principally 
Bradley 's stars] observed at Armagh from 
1828 to 1854.' For a great part of this period 
there are few other contemporary observa- 
tions. Robinson's results have been used by 
the Prussian astronomer Argelander in de- 
termining proper motions, and also for the 
' Nautical Almanac.' Robinson himself made 
many of the observations, besides writing an 
introduction on the instruments used. It was 
chiefly for this work that he obtained a royal 
medal from the Royal Society in December 
1862 (Royal Society s Proceedings, 1862-3, 
pp. 295-7). The observatory instruments 
having been again improved, one thousand 
of Lalande's stars were observed between 
1868 and 1876, and the results published in 
' Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society,' 
1879. The observations made from 1859 
to 1883, nearly all under Robinson's direc- 
tion, were published by his successor, J. L. E. 
Dreyer, in the 'Second Armagh Catalogue of 
3,300 Stars,' 1886. Robinson also made a 
determination of the constant of nutation 
which deserves mention, but has not come 
into general use. In 1830 he was one of forty 
members of the nautical almanac committee 
De Morgan, p. 333). 

Robinson is also well known as the inven- 
tor of the cup-anemometer, of which he de- 
vised the essential parts in 1843. He com- 
pleted it in 1846, and in the same year 
described it before the British Association. 
At various subsequent times he made expe- 
riments and wrote papers on the theory of 
the instrument. "While at Armagh he made 
many researches in physics. He published a 
great many papers on astronomy, as well as 
others dealing with such diverse subjects as 
electricity and magnetism, heat, the cup- 
anemometer, sun-dials, turbines, air-pumps, 
gasometers, fog-signals, and captive balloons. 
They are to be found in the ' Royal Irish 
Academy Transactions,' 1818-59 ; ' Royal 
Irish Academy Proceedings,' 1836-77 ; ' Me- 

moirs of the Royal Astronomical Society,' 
1831-52 ; ' Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astronomical Society,' 1873-82 ; ' British 
Association Report,' 1834-69 ; ' Philoso- 
phical Magazine,' 1836-67; 'Royal Society 
Philosophical Transactions,' 1862-81 ; ' Royal 
Society Proceedings,' 1868, 1869; and 'Jour- 
nal of Microscopic Science,' 1855. 

Robinson was intimately associated with 
William Parsons, third earl of Rosse [q. v.], 
in the experiments culminating in the erec- 
tion of Rosse's great reflector at Parsons- 
town, and lived on terms of intimacy with 
Sir William Fairbairn, Whewell, Sir Samuel 
Ferguson, and other men of learning. He 
was elected F.R.A.S. on 14 May 1830, and 
F.R.S. on 5 June 1856. He was president 
of the Royal Irish Academy, 1851-6, and 
president of the British Association at Bir- 
mingham in 1849. The degrees of D.D., 
LL.D. (Dublin and Cambridge), D.C.L. (Ox- 
ford), honorary and corresponding member- 
ship of various foreign societies, were also 
conferred on him. 

He died suddenly on 28 Feb. 1882 at the 
observatory, Armagh. Robinson married, 
first, in Dublin, in 1821, Eliza Isabelle Ram- 
baut (d. 1839), daughter of John Rambaut 
and Mary Hautenville, both of good Hugue- 
not families. By her he had three children, 
one of whom, Mary Susanna, married in 1857 
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, first baronet. In 
1843 he married a second wife, Lucy Jane 
Edgeworth, youngest daughter of Richard 
Lovell Edgeworth, and half-sister to Maria 
Edgeworth (see FERGUSON, op. cit. infra). 
A portrait, painted by Miss Maude Hum- 
phrey from a photograph, is at the Royal 
Irish Academy. Sir George and Lady 
Stokes (his daughter) possess two portraits- 
of him by his father, and a good medallion by 
Mr. Bruce Joy. 

It is seldom that ' the early promise of 
boyhood has been succeeded by a more bril- 
liant manhood ' than in Robinson's career. 
' Eminent in every department of science, 
there was no realm of divinity, history, lite- 
rature, or poetry that Robinson had not made 
his own.' Gifted with brilliant conversa- 
tional powers and eloquence, and with a mar- 
vellous memory, he was of powerful physique, 
and showed exceptional coolness in the pre- 
sence of danger. 

Besides the works noticed, and some ser- 
mons and speeches, Robinson published : 
1. 'Report made at the Annual Visitation 
of Armagh Observatory,' 1842. 2. ' British 
Association Catalogue of Stars ' (completed 
by Robinson, Challis, and Stratford), 1845. 
3. ' Letter on the Lighthouses of Ireland,' 




[Roy. Irish Acad. Proc. (Min. of Proc., second 
ser. vol. iii.), 1883, p. 198 ; Monthly Notices of 
Hoy. Astron. Soc. 1882-3, p. 181 (by Sir Robert 
Ball) ; Encycl. Brit, (by J. L. E. Dreyer) ; Sir 
Samuel Ferguson in the Ireland of his Day, by 
Lady Ferguson, 1896 (gives a vivid idea of 
Robinson's personality); Gent. Mag. 1801 ii. 
1124, 1802 i. 61, 252, 1803 i. 454, 1805 i. 63, 
359, 653 ; information kindly supplied by Lady 
Stokes and J. L. E. Dreyer ; see also O'Donoghue's 
Irish Poets.] W. F. S. 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM (1720P-1775), 
architect, eldest son of William Robinson of 
St. Giles's, Durham, was born about 17:20 at 
Kepyer, near Durham, came to London, and 
was on 30 June 1746 appointed clerk of the 
works to Greenwich Hospital, where he 
superintended in 1763 the building of the 
infirmary, designed by James Stuart (1713- 
1788) [q.v.] Between 1750 and 1775 he 
assisted Walpole in executing the latter's 
plans for Strawberry Hill. Simultaneously 
he was clerk of the works at St. James's, 
Whitehall, and Westminster, and surveyor 
to the London board of customs, for whom 
he designed, between 1770 and 1775, the 
excise office in Old Broad Street. In 1776 
he was secretary to the board of works, an 
office which he retained until his death. He 
made a design for rebuilding the Savoy, but 
this was superseded, on his death, by Sir Wil- 
liam Chambers's plan for Somerset House. 
He died of gout at his residence in Scotland 
Yard on 10 Oct. 1775, and was buried in the 
chapel at Greenwich Hospital. His brother 
Thomas (1727-1810) was master gardener to 
George III at Kensington, while another 
brother Robert was an architect in Edinburgh . 

A contemporary WILLIAM ROBINSON (d. 
1768), architect and surveyor of Hackney, 
was author of two small technical treatises : 
' Proportional Architecture, or the Five 
Orders regulated by Equal Parts, after so 
concise a method that renders it useful to all 
Artists, and Easy to every Capacity' (with 
plates, London, 1733, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1736) ; 
and ' The Gentleman and Builder's Director' 
(London [1775], 8vo), including directions 
for fireproof buildings and non-smoking 
chimneys. The writer is probably to be 
identified with the W. Robinson, surveyor 
to the trustees of the Gresham estate com- 
mittee (appointed in August 1767 to super- 
intend the expenditure of 10,OOOJ. voted by 
the House of Commons for repairing the 
Royal Exchange). His death was reported 
to the committee on 13 Jan. 1768. 

[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 326, ix. 272 ; 
Papworth's Diet, of Architecture ; Chambers's 
Civil Architecture, ed.Gwilt,vol.xlv.; Faulkner's 
Kensington, 1820, p. 214; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM (1726 P-1803), 
friend of Thomas Gray, was the fifth son of 
Matthew Robinson (1694-1778) of West 
Layton, Yorkshire, by Elizabeth (d. 1746), 
daughter of Robert Drake of Cambridgeshire, 
and heiress of the family of Morris. Sarah, 
wife of George Lewis Scott, and Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Montagu [q. v.] were his sisters. He 
was born in Cambridgeshire about 1726, and 
proceeded from Westminster School to St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1750, and M.A. in 1754. On 
1(5 March 1752 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship of his college, and held it until his 
marriage. He had a great love of literature, 
probably implanted in him by his relative, 
Conyers Middleton, and was an excellent 
scholar. He married in July 1760, when 
curate of Kensington, Mary, only surviving 
daughter of Adam Richardson, a lady, wrote 
Gray, ' of his own age and not handsome, 
with 10,000/. in her pocket.' Gray, on further 
acquaintance, called her ' a very good- 
humoured, cheerful woman.' Immediately 
after the marriage they settled, with an in- 
valid brother of the bride, in Italy, and stayed 
there over two years, during which time 
Robinson became a good judge of pictures. 
On returning to England they dwelt at 
Denton Court, near Canterbury, and from 
23 Nov. 1764 to 1785 Robinson held the 
rectory of the parish. His father had pur- 
chased for him the next presentation to the 
richer rectory of Burghfield in Berkshire, 
which he retained from 1768 to 1798. He 
died there on 8 Dec. 1803, leaving a son and 
two daughters, with ample fortunes, having 
inherited largely from his elder brother, 
Matthew Robinson-Morris, lord Rokeby 
[q. v.], who died on 30 Nov. 1800. Mary, 
the younger daughter, became the second 
wife of Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, who 
wrote a cenotaph for the church of Monk's 
Horton in memory of his father-in-law 
(Anti-Ciitic, pp. 199-200). 

Gray spent the months of May and June 
1766 with the ' Reverend Billy' at Denton. 
At a second visit, in June 1768, Gray was 
' very deep in the study of natural history ' 
(Letters of Elizabeth Carter to Mrs. Montagu, 
i. 384). A letter to Robinson is included in 
the works of Gray, but he did not think 
Mason equal to the task of writing Gray's 
life, and he would not communicate any 
information. Long letters from Mrs. Mon- 
tagu to Mrs. Robinson are in the 'Cen- 
sura Literaria' (i. 90-4, iii. 136-49), and 
the correspondence of Mrs. Montagu with 
her forms the chief part of Dr. Doran's 
' Lady of the Last Century.' From a pas- 
sage in that work (p. 241) it appears that 



Ilobinson published in 1778 a political pam- 

[Gent. Mag. 1803, ii. 1 192-3 ; Brydges's Auto- 
biography, i. 11, 112, ii. 9-11 ; Hasted's Kent, 
iii. 318, 761 ; Gray's Works (ed. Mitford), vol. i. 
pp. Ixxxiii-iv ; Corresp. of Gray and Mason (ed. 
Mitford), pp. 193, 425, and Addit. Notes, pp. 506- 
508; Gray's Works (ed. Gosse), i. 135, iii. 57, 
63, 161-2, 239-43, 265.] W. P. C. 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM (1799-1839), 
portrait-painter, was a native of Leeds, 
where he was born in 1799. He was at first 
apprenticed to a clock-dial enameller, but 
came to London in 1820, and was entered as 
a student at the Royal Academy. Robinson 
was also admitted to work in the studio of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. About 1823 he re- 
turned to Leeds, and obtained a very con- 
siderable practice there and in the neigh- 
bourhood. He was commissioned to paint 
some large full-length portraits for the United 
Service Club in London, including one of 
the Duke of Wellington. He likewise drew 
small portraits, the heads being carefully 
finished, and the remainder lightly touched 
after the manner of Henry Edridge [q. v.] 
He died at Leeds, August 1839, in his fortieth 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1893 ; Catalogues of the Koyal 
Academy, Amateur Art Exhibition (1896), and 
other exhibitions.] L. C. 

ROBINSON, WILLIAM (1777-1848), 
topographer and legal writer, born in 1777, 
practised for many years as a solicitor in 
Bartlett's Buildings, Holborn, London, but 
was called to the bar by the Middle Temple 
on 25 May 1827. He was elected fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries on 25 March 
1819, and received the degree of LL.D. from 
the university of Aberdeen on 3 May 1822. 
He died at Tottenham, Middlesex, on 1 June 
1848. By his marriage, on 28 Jan. 1803, to 
Mary, second daughter of William Ridge of 
Chichester, he had a large family. One of 
his daughters became the second wife of Sir 
Frederic Madden [q. v.] 

Robinson was interested in the local his- 
tory of Tottenham, the parish in which he 
owned property, and its vicinity, and he com- 
piled several excellent volumes on the sub- 
ject. Their titles are: 1. ' History and An- 
tiquities of ... Tottenham,' 8vo, Tottenham, 
1818 ; 2nd edit. 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1840. 
2. ' History and Antiquities of ... Ed- 
monton,' 8vo, London, 1819 ; another edit. 
1839. 3. ' History and Antiquities of Stoke 
Newington,' 8vo, London, 1820; 2nd edit. 
1 842. 4. ' History and Antiquities of En- 
field,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1823. 5. 'His- 

tory and Antiquities of ... Hackney,' 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1842-3. The value of these 
volumes is diminished by the want of proper 

Robinson's legal writings include : 1. ' The 
Magistrates' Pocket Book,' 12mo, London, 
1825; 4th edit, by J. F. Archbold, 1842. 
2. 'Lex Parochialis, or a Compendium of 
the Laws relating to the Poor,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1827. 3. ' Formularies, or the Magi- 
strate's Assistant,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1827. 

4. ' Analysis of and Digested Index to the 
Criminal Statutes,' 12mo, London, 1829. 

5. ' Introduction of a Justice of the Peace 
to the Court of Quarter Sessions,' 12mo, 
London, 1836. 6. 'Breviary of the Poor 
Laws,' 12mo, London, 1837. 

A portrait of Robinson, drawn by F. 
Simonau, was engraved by J. Mills in 1822. 

[Gent. Mag. 1803 i. 191, 1819 ii. 432, 1820 i. 
44, 1828 i. 277, 1848 ii. 211 ; Robinson's Hist, 
of Tottenham, 2nd edit. ii. 66 ; Cat. of Lincoln's 
Inn Library; Sweet's Cat. of Law books, 1846.] 

G. G. 

second BARON ROKEBT in the peerage of Ire- 
land (1713-1800), baptised at York on 12 April 
1713, was the eldest son of Matthew Robin- 
son (1694-1778) of Edgely and West Lay- 
ton, Yorkshire, who inherited property in the 
neighbourhood of Rokeby from his great- 
uncle Matthew Robinson [q. v.], rector of 
Burneston. His mother, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Robert Drake of Cambridge, inherited 
estates at Horton, near Hythe in Kent, from 
her brother, Morris Drake Morris [q. v.], who 
assumed the surname of Morris. One of 
Matthew's sisters was Mrs. Elizabeth Mont- 
agu [q. v.] Of his six brothers, Thomas, the 
second, and William, the fifth, are separately 
noticed. The third, Morris (d. 1777), a soli- 
citor in chancery in Ireland, was father of 
Henry, third baron Rokeby [see below], 
John, the fourth, was a fellow of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge. The youngest, Charles (1733- 
1807), was made recorder of Canterbury in 
1763, and was M.P. for the city from 1780 
to 1790 (HASTED, Canterbury, i. 58, ii. 242 n.; 
Gent. Mag. 1807, i. 386). 

Matthew Robinson the younger graduated 
LL.B. from Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 1734, 
and became a fellow (LuARD, Grad. Cant.) 
He was elected M.P. for Canterbury on 1 July 
1747, and re-elected in 1754. Between these 
dates he assumed the additional name of 
Morris on inheriting, through his mother, 
the Morris property at Monk's Horton, near 
Hythe, where he subsequently spent much 
of his time in retirement. He withdrew from 
parliament on account of his health, but 
throughout his life took a strong interest in 

Robinson-Morris 57 


politics, and exercised influence in Kent. 
His principles were those of ' an old and true 
whig.' As such he published between 1774 
and 1777 four able pamphlets against the 
American policy of Lord North, and in 1797 
an ' Address to the County of Kent,' advo- 
cating the dismissal of Pitt. On the death 
of his cousin Richard Robinson, first baron 
Rokeby [q. v.], in 1794, he succeeded to the 
Irish title. He died at his seat of Mount- 
morris on 30 Nov. 1800, and was buried at 
Monk's Horton on 8 Dec. 

Rokeby's relative, Sir Egerton Brydges, 
calls him a scholar and a travelled gentle- 
man. In person he was tall and ungraceful. 
He is said to have been ' the only peer, and 
perhaps the only gentleman, of Great Britain 
and Ireland ' of his day who wore a beard (Pub- 
lic Characters). He had many peculiarities. 
He lived chiefly on beef-tea, and was an en- 
thusiastic water-drinker. He abhorred fires, 
and had a bath so constructed as to be warmed 
only by the rays of the sun, and passed much 
of his time in it. He refused medical advice, 
and is said to have threatened to disinherit 
his nephew if he called in a doctor during 
one of his fits. He understood grazing both 
in theory and practice, and had most of his 
land laid down in grass with a view to keep- 
ing live stock on it. He was an excellent 
landlord, ' generous but whimsical.' He took 
long walks, ' such as would tire a quadru- 
ped.' A portrait and also a miniature of 
Rokeby were engraved by Heath. 

Matthew's nephew, MORRIS ROBINSON- 
MORRIS (d. 1829), son of his brother Morris, 
succeeded to the Irish peerage as third baron 
Rokeby. He published in 1811, under the 
pseudonym of 'A Briton ' (CusniNG, Initials 
and Pseudonyms), an animated 'Essay on 
BankTokens, Bullion,'&c., attacking the pre- 
dominant financial policy. To him also, in 
view of the poetical tastes attributed to him, is 
probably to be assigned the tragedy of ' The 
Fall of Mortimer ' (1806), which is said in the 
' Biographia Dramatica ' to be the posthumous 
work of his uncle, the second lord Rokeby. 
Morris died unmarried on 19 April 1829, and 
was succeeded by his brother Matthew Ro- 
binson, fourth lord (1762-1831), who was 
adopted by his aunt, Mrs. Montagu, and took 
her name [see under MONTAGU, ELIZABETH]. 

Montagu's third son, HENRY ROBINSON- 
MONTAGU, sixth BARON ROKEBY ( 1798-1 883), 
was born in London on 2 Feb. 1798, and 
entered the army in 1814. He served with 
the 3rd lifeguards at Quatre Bras and 
Waterloo, attained the rank of colonel in 
1846, major-general in 1854, lieutenant-gene- 
ral and colonel of the 77th foot in 1861, and 
general in 1869, having succeeded to the 

peerage on 7 April 1847. In 1875 he was 
named honorary colonel of the Scots fusilier 
guards, and retired from the service in 1877. 
He commanded a division in the Crimea, was 
created K.C.B. in 1856 and G.C.B. in 1875, 
as well as a commander of the legion of 
honour of France and knight of the Medjidieh. 
He died on 25 May 1883, and, his only son 
having predeceased him, the title became ex- 
tinct. He married, on 18 Dec. 1826, Magdalen 
(d. 1868), eldest daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Thomas Huxley, and widow of Frede- 
rick Croft, and left four daughters. 

[Biogr. Peerage of Ireland (1817); Gent. Mag. 
1800 ii. 1219-20, 1847 i. 110; Hasted's Kent, 
2nd ed. viii. 34, 00-8; Brief Character of Mat- 
thew, Lord Rokeby, by Sir S. Egerton Brydges, 
privately printed (181 7) ; Public Characters, 3rd 
ed. vol. i. (art. signed S. [Alex. Stephens ?] 
describing a visit to Monk's Horton in 1796); 
Rich's Bibliotheca Americana Nova, i. 203, 237, 
259; Allibone'sDict. Engl. Lit. ii. 1139 ; Evans's 
Cat. Engr. Portraits. See also Biogr. Dramatica 
(1812),i. 604,ii. 216-17; Burke's Peerage (1894); 
Times, 26 May, 21 June 1883; 111. Lond. News, 
2 June ] 883, with portrait of the sixth Lord 
Eokeby.] G. LE G. N. 

ROBISON, JOHN (1739-1805), scientific 
writer (described by Sir James Mackintosh 
as ' one of the greatest mathematical phi- 
losophers of his age'), son of John Robison, 
merchant in Glasgow, was born at Boghall, 
Baldernock, Stirlingshire, in 1739. He was 
educated at the Glasgow grammar school 
and at the university, where he graduated in 
arts in 1756. In 1758 he went to London, 
with a recommendation to Dr. Blair, pre- 
bendary of Westminster, and in 1759 became 
tutor to the son of Admiral Knowles, who, 
as midshipman, was about to accompany 
General Wolfe to Quebec. In Canada Robi- 
son saw much active service, and was em- 
ployed in making surveys of the St. Lawrence 
and adjacent country. He was with Wolfe 
the night before his death, when he visited 
the posts on the river. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1762, Robison was appointed by the 
board of longitude to proceed to Jamaica on 
a trial voyage, to take charge of the chrono- 
meter completed by John Harrison the horo- 
logist (1693-1776) [q. v.] On his return he 
proceeded to Glasgow, where he confirmed 
an early acquaintance as a student with 
James Watt, the engineer, then mathema- 
tical-instrument maker to the university. 
Watt afterwards wrote that his attention 
was first directed by Robison to the subject 
of steam-engines while both were students 
at Glasgow. Robison threw out an idea of 
applying the power of the steam-engine to 
the moving of wheel carriages and to other 




purposes, but the scheme was not matured, 
and was soon abandoned on his going abroad 
(ROBISON, Mechanical Philosophy, ii.) But 
Watt kept Robison informed 'of all his later 
inventions, and Robison's evidence proved 
afterwards of great service in defendingWat t's 
patent against infringement before a court of 
law in 1796. Robison described that trial as 
being ' not more the cause of Watt versus 
Ilornblower than of- science against igno- 

Meanwhile, on the recommendation of Dr. 
Black, Robison was elected in 1766 to succeed 
him as lecturer on chemistry in Glasgow 
University. In 1769 Robison anticipated 
Mayer in the important electrical discovery 
that the law of force is very nearly or ex- 
actly in inverse square (WHEWELL, In- 
ductive Sciences, iii. 30). In 1770, on Ad- 
miral Knowles being appointed president of 
the Russian board of admiralty, Robison 
went with him to St. Petersburg as private 
secretary. In 1772 he accepted the mathe- 
matical chair attached to the imperial sea- 
cadet corps of nobles at St. Petersburg, with 
the rank of colonel ; he acted also for some 
time as inspector-general of the corps. In 
1773 he became professor of natural philo- 
sophy in Edinburgh University. ' The sciences 
of mechanics,' wrote Professor Playfair, his 
successor, 'hydrodynamics, astronomy, and 
optics, together with electricity and mag- 
netism, were the subjects which his lectures 
embraced. These were given with great 
fluency and precision of language.' In 1783, 
when the Royal Society of Edinburgh was 
founded and incorporated by royal charter, 
he was elected the general secretary, and 
he discharged the duties till within a few 
years of his death. He also contributed to 
its ' Transactions.' 

In 1787, when the northern lighthouse 
board resolved to substitute reflectors for the 
open coal fires then in use, the plans of the 
apparatus were submitted to Robison (Black- 
wood's May, xxxiv. 366). In 1798 he re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from the uni- 
versity of New Jersey, and in 1799 the 
university of Glasgow conferred on him a 
similar honour. In 1799 he prepared for the 
press and published the lectures of Dr. Black, 
the great chemical discoverer. Robison also 
contributed articles on seamanship, the tele- 
scope, optics, waterworks, resistance of fluids, 
electricity, magnetism, music, and other sub- 
jects to the third edition of the ' Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica.' He died on 30 Jan. 1805, 
after two days' illness. He was survived by 
his wife, Rachel Wright (1759-1852 ?), whom 
he had married in 1777, and by four children : 
John (see below) ; Euphemia, who married 

Lord Kinnedder, Sir Walter Scott's friend, 
and died in September 1819 ; Hugh (d. 1849) 
captain in the nizam's service ; and Charles 
(d. 1846). There are two portraits of Robi- 
son by Sir Henry Raeburn one the property 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the other 
in the university of Edinburgh. An engraving 
of one of these appears in Smiles's ' Lives of 
Boulton and Watt.' 

On Robison's death Watt wrote of him : 
' He was a man of the clearest head and the 
most science of anybody I have ever known/ 
In addition to great scientific abilities, Robi-. 
son possessed no little skill and taste in 
music. He was a performer on several in- 
struments. But his musical lucubrations in 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica 'proved as use- 
less to the musician as they were valuable to 
the natural philosopher (ib. xxvii.472). He 
was also an excellent draughtsman and a facile 
versifier. Hallam, in his ' Literary History of 
Europe,' says that ' Robison was one of those 
who led the way in turning the blind venera- 
tion of Bacon into a rational worship' (iii. 
227). Lord Cockburn gives an amusing de- 
scription of Robison's personal appearance 
in his ' Memorials.' Although he was a free- 
mason, Robison published in 1797 a curious 
work 'a lasting monument of fatuous cre- 
dulity ' to prove that the fraternity of ' Illu- 
minati'was concerned in a plot to overthrow 
religion and government throughout the 
world. The title ran : ' Proofs of a Con- 
spiracy against all the Religions and Govern- 
ments of Europe, carried on in the secret 
Meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and 
Reading Societies,' 1797, Edinburgh, 8vo 
(2nd edit, with postscript, Edinburgh, 1797 ; 
3rd edit. Dublin, 1798 ; 4th edit. London, 
1798, and New York, 1798). 

Robison's scientific publications were : 

1. ' Outlines of a Course of Lectures on Me- 
chanical Philosophy,' 1797, Edinburgh, 8vo. 

2. ' Elements of Mechanical Philosophy . . . 
vol. i.' (all published), 1804, Edinburgh, 8vo. 
3. ' A System of Mechanical Philosophy, with 
Xotes by David Brewster, LL.D.,' 4 vols. 
1822, Edinburgh, 8vo. These volumes com- 
prised reprints of his ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica' and papers read before the Royal 
Society. Robison's article on the steam- 
engine in vol. ii. was revised and augmented 
by Watt. 

SIR JOHN ROBISON (1778-1843), son of 
Professor Robison, was born in Edinburgh 
on 11 June 1778. He was educated at the 
high school of Edinburgh and the university 
there. On leaving college he went to Mr. 
Houston of Johnston, near Paisley, who was 
erecting cotton-spinning mills with Ark- 
wright's machinery. Shortly afterwards he 




removed to Manchester, whence he paid a 
visit to his father's old friend, James Watt, 
at Soho, near Birmingham, and made the 
acquaintance of young Watt, who became 
his lifelong friend. In 1802 he obtained a 
mercantile situation in Madras, and subse- 
quently entered the service of the nizam of 
Hyderabad as contractor for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of the artillery service, 
including the furnishing of guns and am- 
munition. He was also appointed command- 
ing officer of the corps. For the nizam he 
laid out grounds on the English model. 
Having acquired a considerable fortune, he j 
left India in 1815, and settled in the west j 
of Scotland, at the Grove, near Hamilton, j 
After some years he removed to Edinburgh. 
On 22 Jan. 1816 he was elected a fellow of j 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh : in 1823 ' 
secretary of the physical class of the society; 
and in 1828, in succession to Sir David Brew- j 
ster, general secretary to the society. The j 
last office, which his father had previously 
held, he filled till 1840 with great ability. On 
resigning the post the society voted the sum 
of 300/. to Robison ' in acknowledgment of 
his long services.' In 1831 he contributed 
to the ' Transactions' of the society a ' Notice ' 
regarding a Timekeeper in the Hall of the I 
Royal Society of Edinburgh,' the pendulum j 
of which had been constructed by Robison 
of marble, as being less subject to variations 
in temperature than metal. This clock, 
the work of Whitelaw, still keeps accurate 
time in the lecture-hall of the society. Robi- 
son also contributed the article on ' Turning' 
to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and pub- 
lished a description in English and French 
(which he wrote and spoke fluently) of a 
large pumping steam-engine, and an account 
of the failure of a suspension bridge at Paris. 
In 1821 he was one of the founders of the 
Scottish Society of Arts, of which he was 
secretary from 1822 to 1824, twice vice-pre- 
sident, and finally president, 1841-2, the first 
year of its incorporation. Upwards of sixty 
articles from his pen were communicated to 
this society. He received its Keith prize for 
his improvements in the art of cutting accu- 
rate metal screws, a silver medal for his de- 
scription and drawing of a cheap and easily 
used camera lucida, and a medal for a notice j 
of experiments on the Forth and Clyde Canal ' 
on the resistance to vessels moving with dif- 
ferent velocities. Robison was for many 
years a member of the Highland Society, and 
chairman of its committee on agricultural 
implements and machinery. He acted as 
local secretary to the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1834. when 
M. Arago was his guest. He was also a 

commissioner of police. In 1837 he received 
the Guelphic order from William IV, and 
was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1838. 
His inventions were numerous and ingenious. 
He made a particular study of the applica- 
tion of hot air to warming houses, and of 
gas to the purposes of illumination and heat- 
ing. In his own kitchen the chief combus- 
tible was gas. ' From boring a cannon,' wrote 
Professor Forbes, ' to drilling a needle's eye, 
nothing was strange to him. Masonry, car- 
pentry, and manufactures in metals were 
almost equally familiar to him. His house 
in Randolph Crescent was built entirely from 
his own plans, and nothing, from the cellar 
to the roof, in construction or in furniture, 
but bore testimony to his minute and elabo- 
rate invention.' He evinced great energy in 
making known merit among talented arti- 
ficers. His house was always open to dis- 
tinguished foreigners. He died on 7 March 
1843. He married first, in 1816, Jean Gra- 
hame (d. 1824) of Whitehall, near Glasgow ; 
and, secondly, Miss Benson (d. 1837). He 
left two daughters by his first wife. The 
elder daughter, Euphemia Erskine, born in 
1818, married in 1839 Archibald Gerard of 
Rochsoles, Airdrie, and died at Salzburg in 
1870, leaving three sons and four daughters, 
two of whom (Emily, wife of General de 
Laszowski, and Dorothea, wife of Major 
Longard) are the well-known novelists E. 
and D. Gerard. 

[For the elder Robison see Ogilvie's Imp. Diet, 
of Biogr. ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Allibone's 
Diet. ; Chambers's and Thomson's Eminent Scots- 
men ; Anderson's Scottish Nation ; Brewster's 
Preface to Robison's System ; John Playfair's 
obit, notice in Trans. Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, 
vol. vii. (reprinted in Playfair's Works, vol. iv.) ; 
Dr. Thomas Young's Works, vol. ii. ; Phil. Mag. 
1802; Cockburn's Memorials, chap. i. ; Smiles's 
Lives of Boulton and Watt. For the younger 
Robison see Edinburgh Courant, 9 March 1843 ; 
Ann. Register, 1843; Trans, of the Royal Soc. 
of Edinburgh, xv. 680-1 ; Obit, notice by Prof. 
Forbes in Proc. of same society, ii. 68-78 ; Trans, 
of Royal Scottish Soc. of Arts, 1843, pp. 43-4; 
information supplied by Miss Guthrie Wright, 
Edinburgh, grand-niece of Prof. Robison's -wife]. 

G. S-H. 

ROBOTHOM, JOHN (fl. 1654), divine, 
possibly descended from the Robothoms of St. 
Albans, Hertfordshire (see UEWICK, Nonconf. 
in Hertfordshire, pp. 149, 180 ; Hurl. Soc. 
xvii. 208, xxii.87), may have been of Trinity 
College, Oxford. In 1647 he applied for ordi- 
nation to the ministers of the fourth presby- 
terian classis in London. There were several 
exceptions against him, and the ministers, 
not having leisure to examine them, turned 
him over to the next classis meeting for 



ordination. He must almost immediately 
have proceeded to Sussex in some minis- 
terial capacity (see dedication to No. 2, 
infra). In 1648 lie was minister of Rum- 
bold's Wyke, Sussex, and received an order 
from the committee for compounding for 207. 
a year out of the composition of John Ash- 
burnham of Ashburnham (Calendar of the 
Committee for Compounding, p. 1863, 29 May 
1648). He continued in Sussex till 1651. 
In 1654 he was preacher of the gospel in 
Dover. He subsequently became minister of 
Upminster in Essex, but was dispossessed in 
1660 (DAVID, Nonconformity in Essex,}*. 502 ; 
CALAMY, Account, p. 313, and Continuation, 
p. 490). 

He published: 1. 'The Preciousnesse of 
Christ unto Believers/ London, 1647 
(7 Sept.) and 1669 : the first edition is 
dedicated to Colonel Stapely and William 
Cawley, deputy -lieutenant of Sussex, 
' benefactores mei.' 2, ' Little Benjamin, or 
Truth discovering Error : being a Clear and 
Full Answer unto the Letter subscribed by 
forty-seven Ministers of the Province of 
London, and presented to his Excellency, 
Jan. 18, 1648,' London, 1648, 4to. 3. 'An 
Exposition on the whole Book of Solomon's 
Song, commonly called the Canticles,' Lon- 
don, 18 Aug. 1651 ; dedicated to Colonel 
Downes, M.P., deputy-lieutenant of Sussex. 
4. ' The Mystery of the Two Witnesses un- 
vailed . . . together with the Seaventh Trum- 
pet and the Kingdom of Christ explained,' 
London, 3 May 1654 ; dedicated to Cromwell. 

Robothom saw through the press Walter 
Cradock's 'Gospel Holinesse,' London, 1751 ; 
and he is doubtfully credited with 'Janua 
linguarum reserata sive omnium scientiarum 
et linguarum seminarium. The Gate of 
Language unlocked . . . formerly translated 
by Tho. Horn, and afterwards much corrected 
and amended by John Robotham, now 
carefully reviewed,' &c., 6th ed. 1643 (see 
WOOD, Athena Oxon. iii. 366), and 'Dis- 
quisitio in Hypothesim Baxterianam de 
Foedere Gratiaj ab initio et deinceps semper 
et ubique omnibus induto,' London, 1694, 
1689 (WATT). 

[Authorities ;is in text; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Watt's Bill. Brit. ; manuscript minutes of the 
Fourth London Classis, in the writer's posses- 
sion ; information kindly sent by the Eev. D. 
Sinker, Trinity College, Cambridge.] W. A. S. 

ROBSART, AMY (d. 1560). [See under 

ROBSON, CHARLES (1598-1 638), first 
chaplain at Aleppo, of Cumberland parentage, 
was the son of Thomas Robson, master of 
the Free School of Carlisle (Wooo, Athence 

Oxon. iii. 427). Born in 1598, having en- 
tered Queen's College, Oxford, as batler at 
Easter 1613, he matriculated thence on 5 May 

1615, aged 17. He graduated B.A. 24 Oct. 

1616, M.A. 21 June 1619, and B.D. 10 July 
1629 (CLARK, O.rf. Reg. ; FOSTER, Alumni 
Oxon.} He was elected fellow of Queen's, 
26 Oct. 1620 (College Regist.'), but his habits 
were lax, and in February 1623 the college 
gladly gave him three years' leave of absence 
that he might become chaplain at Aleppo. 
He went out thither in 1624 upon the advice 
of one Fetiplace, a member of the Levant 
Company, who with some difficulty secured 
his formal appointment as preacher to the 
colony of English merchants at a salary of 
50/. per annum. His leave was extended for 

i another three years in October 1627, and 

j Robson returned in 1630, Edward Pocock 

being appointed to succeed him in March. 

i In the following year Robson was deprived 

! of his fellowship at Queen's on account of 

his dissolute haunting of taverns and ' in- 

honesta loca,' and his neglect of study and 

divine worship. He was appointed by the 

i university of Oxford in 1632 to the vicarage 

j of Holme-Cultram, Cumberland, where he 

died in 1638. 

Robson wrote : ' Newes from Aleppo, a 

Letter written to T. V[icars], B.D., Vicar of 

I Cokfield in Southsex (Cuckfieid, Sussex) . . . 

containing many remarkeable Occurrences' 

observed by Robson in his journey, London, 

j 1628, 4to. Vicars was Robson's brother-fellow 

i at Queen's. Upon his return to Oxford 

Robson presented some Oriental manuscripts 

i to the Bodleian. 

Wood is probably wrong when he identi- 
fies the chaplain of Aleppo with Charles 
Robson, prebendary of Stratford in Salisbury 
Cathedral in 1634. The latter was apparently 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, and in- 
j cumbent successively of Weare, Somerset 
| (1617), Buckland Newton, Dorset (1624), 
| and Bagendon, Gloucestershire (1644). He 
j was living at Salisbury in 1652, when his 
resistance to the order for the suppression of 
the prayer-book caused him to be stigmatised 
by the puritans as a ' canonical creature,' in- 
famous ' for his zeale to corrupt.' He may 
have died in 1660, when the Stratford stall 
was filled by another (cf. GREY, Examination 
of Neal, iv. App. p. 24 ; State Papers, Dom. 
Charles I, ccccvi. 97 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
13th Rep. app. i. 669). 

[J. B. Pearson's Chaplains to the Levant 
Company, Cambridge, 1883, pp. 19, 26-7, 54; 
Nicolson and Burn's Westmoreland and Cumber- 
land, ii. 180 ; Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 452 ; notes 
supplied by W. A. Shaw, esq., and (from the 
college archives) by the Provost of Queen's.] 




1833), watercolour painter, the eldest son of 
Robert and Margaret Robson of Warrington i 
in Lancashire, was born at Durham in 1788. [ 
His father, a wine merchant, was of an old ; 
family of Etterby, near Carlisle, and his mother 
was descended from Irish protestants who 
fled from Kilkenny at the time of the ' Irish 
massacre ' in 1641. His father encouraged his 
inclination for art, which was early shown by 
his copying the cuts in Bewick's ' Quadru- 
peds,' and he received his first instruction 
in drawing from a Mr. Harle of Durham. In 
1806 he went to London with 51. in his pocket, 
and succeeded so well that he returned the 
money to his father in less than a year. 

He began to exhibit at the Royal Academy 
in 1807, and published in 1808 a print of 
Durham, the profits of which enabled him 
to visit Scotland, where he wandered over 
the mountains, dressed as a shepherd, with 
Scott's ' Lay of the Last Minstrel ' in his 
pocket. In 1810 he began to exhibit land- 
scapes in the Bond Street gallery of the 
Associated Painters, of which short-lived 
society he was a member. The fruits of his 
journey north, which inspired him with the 
beauty of mountain scenery, were first shown 
at the exhibition of 1811, to which, and to 
that of the following year, he sent drawings 
of the Trossachs and Loch Katrine. In 

1813 he began to exhibit with the Society of 
Painters in Oil and Watercolours, and in 

1814 published ' Scenery of the Grampians,' 
which contained forty outlines of mountain 
landscape, etched on soft ground by Henry 
Morton after his drawings. The volume 
was published by himself at 13 Caroline 
Street, Bedford Square, and was dedicated 
to the Duke of Atholl (a coloured reprint 
was published in 1819). From 1813 to 1820 
he contributed, on the average, twenty draw- 
ings annually to the Oil and Watercolour 
Society's exhibition, mostly of the Perth- 
shire highlands, but comprising scenes from 
Durham, the Isle of Wight, and Wales. At 
the anniversary meeting on 30 Nov. 1819 
he was elected president of the society for 
the ensuing year. 

When the society (now the Royal Society 
of Painters in Watercolours) in 1821 again 
excluded oil-paintings, he was one of the 
members by whose extraordinary efforts the 
exhibitions were maintained, and contributed 
twenty-six drawings to the exhibition of that 
year. His devot ion to the society did not cease 
till his death. Between 1821 and 1833 he ex- 
hibited 484 works, or more than thirty-seven 
on the average annually. His drawings, be- 
sides those of the Scottish highlands and of 
English cities, included views of the English 

lakes and Lake Killarney, Hastings, the Isle of 
Wight, and other places, principally in Berk- 
shire and Somerset. Of the 'Picturesque 
Views of the Cities of England,' published by 
John Britton [q. v.] in 1828, thirty-two are by 
Robson. In this year he bought a drawing, 
by Joshua Cristall [q. v.], from ' A Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream,' cut out the groups, laid 
them down on separate sheets of paper, and 
got other artists, including George Barret the 
younger [q. v.], to paint backgrounds to them. 
He exhibited two of these ' compositions ' as 
the joint work of Cristall and Barret, which 
naturally offended Cristall and caused a tem- 
porary estrangement between him and Rob- 
son. From 1829 to 1833 he worked with Hills, 
the animal painter, occasionally giving a re- 
ference from Shakespeare in the catalogue, 
but he had no dramatic power. His special 
gift lay in the poetical treatment of moun- 
tain (especially Scottish) scenery under broad 
effects of light and shade. Into these he 
infused a romantic spirit akin to that of Sir 
Walter Scott. Among his most successful 
drawings were ' Solitude, on the Banks of 
Loch Avon ' (1823), and a ' Twilight View 
of the Thames from Westminster Bridge' 
(1832). The chief defect of his work is 
monotony of texture. A drawing by him 
of ' Durham, Evening,' sold at the Allnutt 
sale in 1886 for 283/. 10*. 

Robson was an honorary member of the 
Sketching Society, but a weakness of sight 
prevented him from drawing at their evening 
meetings. A meeting of the society to say 
farewell to Charles Robert Leslie [q. v.] on his 
departure for America was held at his house, 
17 Golden Square, on Thursday, 22 Aug. 1833. 
On the following Wednesday he embarked on 
the s.s. James Watt, to visit his friends in the 
north, and was at Stockton-on-Tees on the 
31st, suffering from inflammation, caused, it 
is supposed, by the food on board. He died 
at his home in London on 8 Sept., and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Mary-le- 
Bow in his native city of Durham. 

A portrait of Robson, after a drawing by 
J. T. Smith, will be found in Arnold's 
' Magazine of the Fine Arts ' (iii. 194). 
There are several of his drawings at the 
South Kensington Museum. 

[Roget's ' Old ' Watercolour Society, which con- 
tains list of engravings after Robson's drawing ; 
Memoirs of Uwins ; Mag. of Fine Arts, iii. 194, 
366 ; Bryan's Diet. (Graves and Armstrong) ; 
Graves's (Algernon) Diet. ; Redgrave's Diet. ; 
Redgrave's Cat. of Watercolour Paintings in the 
National Gallery.] 0. M. 

ROBSON, JAMES (1733-1806), book- 
seller, the son of a yeoman, was born at 
Sebergham, Cumberland, in 1733. He came 



to London at the age of sixteen, and entered 
the shop of his relative, J. Briudley, of New 
Bond Street, known as the publisher of a 
series of editions of the Latin classics. Rob- 
son succeeded Brindley in 1759, and carried 
on the business for nearly forty years with 
credit and success. Between 1765 and 1791 
he issued many catalogues, some of auction 
sales, including the libraries of Dr. Mead, 
Martin Folkes, Edward Spelman, Prebendary 
Bland, Joseph Smith, consul at Venice, and 
others. He collected the papers contributed by 
George Edwards [q.v.], the naturalist, to the 
4 Philosophical Transactions,' and published 
them with the Linnean ' Index ' and a life of 
the author in 1776. In 1788 he accompanied 
James Edwards [q. v.] and Peter Molini to 
Venice in order to examine the Pinelli library, 
which Robson and Edwards purchased for 
about 7,000/., and sold by auction in 1789 and 
1790 for 9,356^. After the death of his eldest 
son Robson gradually withdrew from business. 
About 1797 he was appointed high bailiff of 
Westminster. He rebuilt, and was the sole 
proprietor of, Trinity Chapel in Conduit 
Street, a chapel of ease to St. Martin's, first 
erected by Archbishop Tenison. 

Robson was an enthusiastic angler, and 
was nearly the last survivor of the monthly 
dining club at the Shakspeare tavern, among 
whose members were Cadell, Dodsley, Long- 
man, Lockyer Davis, Tom Paine, Thomas 
Evans, and other well-known booksellers. 
It was under their auspices that Thomas 
Davies brought out his ' Dramatic Miscel- 
lanies' and ' Life of Garrick,' and among 
them was first started the proposal which 
led to Johnson's ' Lives of the Poets.' Rob- 
son died at his house in Conduit Street on 
25 Aug. 1806, aged 73 years. His wife was 
a Miss Perrot, by whom he had James (1766- 
1785) and George (who took orders, and 
became in 1803 a prebendary of St. Asaph), 
other sons, and five daughters. 

[Gent, Mag. 1806, ii. 783, 871 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. iii. 634, 661-3, v. 322-6, vi. 434-43; 
Nichols's Illustrations, iv. 881, vi. 678 ; Clarke's 
Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1819, p. 499 ; 
Timperley's Encyclopaedia, 1842, p. 825.] 

H. E. T. 

ROBSON, STEPHEN (1741-1779), 
botanist, second son of Thomas Robson, linen 
manufacturer, of Darlington, Durham, and 
Mary Hedley, his third wife, was born at 
Darlington on 24 June 1741. He succeeded 
to his father's business on the death of the 
latter in 1771, together with the freehold of 
the house and shop in Xorthgate, Darlington, 
where he also carried on a grocery. Though 
entirely self-taught, he became a good Latin, 
Greek, and French scholar, and was espe- 

cially interested in botany, astronomy, and 
heraldry. Among his intimate friends was 
Robert Harrison (1715-1802) [q. v.], of Dur- 
ham, the orientalist, and he corresponded 
with William Curtis (1746-1799) [q. v.], 
the botanist. He printed privately ' Plantse 
rariores agro Dunelmensi indigenee ' (DAWSON 
TURNER and L. W. DILLWYX, The Botanist's 
Guide, 1805, i. 247), which is now very scarce, 
and he wrote some poems, all of which he 
burnt. His chief book was ' The British Flora 
... to which are prefixed the Principles of 
Botany' (York, 1777, 8vo, with three indexes 
and five plates illustrating structure). This 
work, which is in English and evinces a 
thorough knowledge of botanical literature, 
coming as it does between the two editions 
of the ' Flora Anglica ' of William Hudson 
(1730P-1793) [q.v.], and arranged upon the 
Linnsean system, is of great merit and con- 
siderable historical interest. The original 
manuscript, together with the author's ' Hor- 
tus Siccus,' in three folio volumes, is still 
preserved by his descendants. He died at 
Darlington on 16 May 1779 of pulmonary 
consumption, induced by his sedentary life. 
Robson married, on 16 May 1771, Ann, 
daughter of William Awmack, who survived 
him, dying on 20 July 1792 ; by her he had 
one son, Thomas, and two daughters, Hannah 
and Mary. 

EDWARD ROBSON (1763-1813), eldest son 
of Stephen Robson's elder brother Thomas, 
and his wife Margaret Pease, was born at 
Darlington on 17 Oct. 1763. He is described 
as ' an accomplished botanist and draughts- 
man ' (HYLTON LONGSTAFFE, History of Dar- 
lington, p. 369) ; he was a correspondent of 
William Withering and of Sir James Edward 
Smith ; contributed various descriptions to 
the latter's ' English Botany,' the lists of 
plants in Brewster's ' Stockton ' and Hutchin- 
son's ' Durham,' the description and figure of 
an earth-star ( Geaster) in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine ' for February 1792, and the descrip- 
tion of Ribes spicatum in the ' Transactions 
of the Linnean Society ' (iii. 240). He was 
elected one of the first associates of that 
society in 1789. He died at Tottenham, 
Middlesex, on 21 May 1813, and was buried 
at Bunhill Fields. He married, on 4 July 
1788, Elizabeth Dearman (d. 8 Jan. 1852), by 
whom he had two sons and a daughter. 

[Information furnished by the great-grand- 
daughters of Stephen Robson ; Backhouse'sFamily 
Memoirs, privately printed ; Smith's Annals of 
Smith of Cruitly, privately printed ; Green's 
Cyclostyle Pedigrees, 1891 ; Longstaffe's History 
of Darlington; Britten and Boulger's Biogra- 
phical Index of British Botanists.] G. S. B. 



(1822 P-1864), actor, whose real name was 
Thomas Robson Brownbill, was born at Mar- 
gate, according to his own assertion, on 22 Feb. 
1822. Apprenticed in 1836 to a Mr. Smellie, 
a copperplate engraver in Bedfordbury,Covent 
Garden, he amused his fellow-Avorkmen by 
imitations and histrionic displays, and, find- 
ing his occupation distasteful and, as he com- 
plained, hurtful to his sight, he turned his 
attention to the amateur stage. After the 
failure of his master, who removed to Scot- 
land, Brownbill carried on business as a 
master engraver in Brydges Street, Covent 
Garden. At the end of twelve months he gave 
up business and accepted a theatrical engage- 
ment. When and where he made his first 
-effort as an amateur cannot be traced. His 
first recorded appearance as such was in a once 
well-known little theatre in Catherine Street, 
Strand, where he played Simon Mealbag in 
a play called ' Grace Huntley.' Other parts 
were taken, and he obtained reputation with 
the limited public that follows such enter- 
tainments by his singing of the well-known 
song 'Lord Lovel.' His first professional 
engagement was as ' second utility man ' in 
a small theatre on the first floor of a private 
house in Whitstable. After acting in the 
country at Uxbridge, Northampton, Notting- 
ham, Whitehaven, Chester, and elsewhere, 
he came to London, and played a three 
months' unprosperous engagement at the 
Standard. This was followed by an engage- 
ment under Rouse at the Grecian Saloon, 
where his reputation was to some extent 
made. There he stayed five years. He is 
said by Mr. Hollingshead (My Lifetime, i. 
27) to have made his first appearance there 
as John Lump in the ' Wags of Windsor/ 
This was probably about 1845 certainly not 
in 1839, as Mr. Hollingshead states. At the 
Grecian, besides appearing in accepted cha- 
racters in comedy, such as Mawworm, Zekiel 
Homespun, Justice Shallow, and Frank Oat- 
land, he was first heard in many comic parts, 
and sang songs, by which his fame was sub- 
sequently established at the west end. In 
1850 he was engaged for the Queen's theatre, 
Dublin, to play leading comic business. 
Here or at the Theatre Royal he remained 
three years. On 8 Nov. 1851, at the Theatre 
Royal in Dublin, he was Bottom in a revival 
of the ' Midsummer Night's Dream.' Engaged 
by W. Farren to replace, at the Olympic in 
London, Henry Compton (1805-1877) [q. v.] 
he appeared for the first time at that house on 
28 March 1853 as Tom Twig in the farce of 
' Catching an Heiress.' In Frank Talfourd's 
travesty of ' Macbeth,' produced on 25 April 
he displayed for the first time his marvellous 

Tifts in burlesque. These he revealed to even 
greater advantage in the ' Shy lock ' of the same 
author in the following July. During the 
same season he showed his power in serious 
mrts, as the original Desmarets in Tom Tay- 
or's ' Plot and Passion.' He played also 
n the ' Camp' of Planch 6 at the Olympic, and 
jarried away the town by his performance of 
Jem Bags in Henry Mayhew's ' Wandering 
Minstrel,' in which character he sang ' Villi- 
kins and his Dinah,' by E. L. Blanchard. 

At the close of 1853 the Olympic, which 
had passed under the management of Alfred 
Wigan, was at the height of its popularity, 
Robson was regularly engaged there, and was 
recognised as the greatest comic actor of 
his day. In June 1854 in 'Hush Money,' a 
revived farce by Dance, he played Jaspar 
Touchwood ; and in Palgrave Simpson's 
Heads or Tails ' he was the first Quaile. On 
17 Oct. he was the first Job Wort in Tom 
Taylor's ' Blighted Being,' and at Christmas 
obtained one of his most conspicuous successes 
in Planche's ' Yellow Dwarf.' In January 
1 855 he was Sowerby in ' Tit for Tat,' an adap- 
tation by F. Talfourd of ' Les maris me font 
rire.' Among other performances may be 
mentioned the ' Discreet Princess,' April 
1856, in which Robson's Prince Richcraft was 
painful in intensity, and Gustavus Adolphus 
Fitzmortimer, in ' A Fascinating Individual,' 
11 June. In Brough's ' Medea,' 14 July, Rob- 
son's Medea was one of his finest burlesque 
creations. His Jones, in Talfourd's 'Jones 
the Avenger '('Le Massacre d'un Innocent'), 
was seen on 24 Nov. Zephyr, in ' Young and 
Handsome,' followed in January 1857. His 
Daddy Hardacre, in an adaptation so named 
of 'La Fille de l'Avare,'26 March 1857, was 
one of his earliest essays in domestic drama. 
On 2 July he was Massahiello in Brough's 
burlesque of that name. 

In August 1857, in partnership with Em- 
den, he undertook the management of the 
Olympic, speaking, on the opening night, 
an address written by Robert Brough, and 
appearing both as Aaron Gurnock in Wilkie 
Collins's ' Lighthouse,' and as Massaniello. 
On the first production of the ' Lighthouse ' 
by amateurs, at Tavistock House, Robson's 
part had been played by Charles Dickens. 
' The Subterfuge,' an adaptation of ' Livre 
troisieme chapitre premier,' was also given. 
After playing a country engagement he re- 
appeared at the Olympic in the ' Lighthouse,' 
and was seen in Brough's ' Doge of Duralto, 
or the Enchanted Isle.' In June 1858 he was 
the first Peter Potts in Tom Taylor's ' Going 
to the Bad,' and on 13 Oct. the first Hans 
Grimm in Wilkie Collins's ' Red Vial.' On 
2 Oct. he created one of his greatest characters 


6 4 


as Sampson Burr in the ' Porter's Knot.' This 
piece by Oxenford was founded to some extent 
on 'Les Crochets da pere Martin' of Carmon 
and GrangS. At Christmas he played Mazeppa 
in an extravaganza so named. Pawkins,in Ox- 
enford's 'Retained for the Defence ' (L'avocat 
d'un Grec), was seen on 25 May 1859, and 
Reuben Goldsched in Tom Taylor's ' Payable 
on Demand' on 11 July. Zachary Clench in 
Oxenford's ' Uncle Zachary ' (L'Oncle Bap- 
tiste) was given on 8 March 1860, and Hugh 
de Brass in Morton's 'Regular Fix 'on 11 Oct. 
On 21 Feb. 1861 there was produced H. T. 
Craven's ' Chimney Corner,' in which Rob- 
son's Peter Probity was another triumph in 
domestic drama. Dogbriar in Watts Phillips's 
' Camilla's Husband ' was given on 14 Nov. 
1862. This was the last play in which Rob- 
son appeared. 

In addition to the parts named the follow- 
ing deserve mention : Boots in ' Boots at the 
Swan,' Poor Pillicoddy, Mr. Griggs in Mor- 
ton's 'Ticklish Times,' Alfred the Great in 
Robert Brough's burlesque so named, B. B. 
in a farce so called, Timour the Tartar in a 
burlesque by Oxenford and Shirley Brooks, 
Wormwood in the ' Lottery Ticket,' and 
Christopher Croke in ' Sporting Events.' At 
the close of 1862 Robson's health failed, in 
part owing to irregular living. Although 
ceasing to act, he remained a lessee of the 
Olympic until his death, which took place 
unexpectedly on 12 Aug. 1864. He was 
married, and two sons became actors. 

During his short career Robson held a 
position almost if not quite unique. With 
so much passion and intensity did he 
charge burlesque that the conviction was 
widespread that he would prove a tragedian 
of highest mark. A report prevails that he 
once, in the country, played Shylock in the 
' Merchant of Venice ' without success, but 
this wants confirmation. A statement made 
in print that he played it in London is inac- 
curate. It is none the less true that he con- 
veyed in burlesque the best idea of the elec- 
trical flashes of Kean in tragedy, and that 
there were moments in his Macbeth and his 
Shylock when the absolute sense of terror 
the feeling of blood-curdling seemed at 
hand, if not present. He may almost have 
been said to have brought pathos and drollery 
into association closer than had ever been 
witnessed on the stage. Nor in parts such 
as Peter Probity, Sampson Burr, and the like 
belonging to domestic drama, has he known 
an equal. In farce, too, he was unsurpass- 
able. It is impossible to imagine anything 
more risible than was, for instance, his Slush 
in Oxenford's ' A Legal Impediment.' In 
this he played a lawyer's bemused outdoor 

clerk, who, visiting a gentleman, is mistaken 
for an unknown son-in-law-elect expected to 
arrive in disguise ; and the manner in which 
he 'introduced into the drawing-room of his 
astonished host all the amenities, refinements, 
and social customs of the private parlour of 
the Swan with Two Necks ' will not be for- 
gotten by those fortunate enough to have seen 
it. In his later days, however, in farce and 
burlesque, he took, under various influences, 
serious liberties with his audience and his 
fellow-actors. So great a favourite was he with 
the public that proceedings were condoned 
which in the case of any other actor would 
have incurred severe and well-merited con- 
demnation. Robson was small in figure, al- 
most to insignificance, and was, it is said, of 
a singularly retiring disposition. In vol. v. 
of the ' Extravaganzas of J. R. Planche ' are 
two lithographed portraits of Robson, one 
after a photograph by W. Keith, and the 
other after a grotesque statuette of Robson 
as the Yellow Dwarf. The cover of Sala's 
scarce memoir (1864) had a design of Rob- 
son as Jem Bags in the ' Wandering Minstrel' 
of Henry Mayhew. 

[Personal recollections; Kobson, a Sketch by 
Gr. A. Sala, 1864, reprinted from the Atlantic 
Monthly, with an unsigned preface by the pub- 
lisher, John Camden Hotten ; Sunday Times, 
21 Aug. 1864 and various years; Era Newspaper 
and Almanac, various years ; Theatrical Times, 
iii. 365; Hollingshead's My Lifetime ; Scott and 
Howard's E. L. Blanchard ; History of the Theatre 
Royal, Dublin, 1870; Morley's Journal of a Lon- 
don Playgoer ; Clark Russell's Representative 
Actors; Daily News, 26 Dec. 1892.] J. K. 

ROBSON, WILLIAM (1785-1863), 
author and translator, was born in 1785. In 
early life he was a schoolmaster, but, when 
he was over fifty years of age, he devoted 
himself to literature. His earliest work, 
' The Walk, or the Pleasures of Literary 
Associations,' London, 12mo, appeared in 
1837, and was followed in 1846 by ' The Old 
Playgoer,' London, 12mo. This volume con- 
sists of a series of letters describing the Bri- 
tish stage at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. His criticisms are scholarly and his 
recollections are always interesting. His 
later works are of little value. Besides 
writing original books, Robson also trans- 
lated, without much skill, many French 
works, including Michaud's ' History of the 
Crusades,' 1852, 8vo ; Dumas's ' Three Mus- 
keteers,' 1853, 8vo ; and Balzac's ' Balthazar/ 
1859, 8vo. In later life Robson fell into 
poverty. Routledge the publisher raised, by 
public subscription, a fund to purchase an 
annuity for him, but before Robson could reap 
the benefit he died on 17 Nov. 1863. 


He was the author of: 1. ' John Railton, 
or Read and Think,' London, 1854, 16mo. 
2. ' The Life of Cardinal Richelieu,' London, 
1854, 8vo. 3. ' The Great Sieges of History,' 
London, 1855, 8vo. 

[The Reader, 1863, ii. 633.] E. I. C. 

ROBY, JOHN (1793-1850), author of 
' The Traditions of Lancashire,' son of Xehe- 
miah Roby and Mary Aspull, his wife, was 
born at Wigan, Lancashire, on 5 Jan. 1793. 
His father was for many years master of the 
grammar school at Haigh, near Wigan, and 
his eldest brother, twenty-seven years his 
senior, was William Roby [q. v.] John was 
educated chiefly at home, and in a desultory 
way. His natural tastes were for music, 
painting, poetry, and the drama. While yet 
a child he played the organ at the Countess 
of Huntingdon's chapel at Wigan, and after- 
wards for fifteen years acted as organist at 
the independent chapel at Rochdale. Jerdan, 
who with other literary men found in him a 
generous benefactor, states that he had the 
best ear for music that he ever met. 

In 1819 he joined at Rochdale as managing 
partner the banking firm of Fenton, Eccles, 
Cunliffe, & Roby. For this position he 
had, among other qualifications, that of a 
remarkably clear head for arithmetical cal- 
culations. He retired in 1847, through fail- 
ing health, and removed to Malvern. Roby 
was drowned in the wreck of the Orion, near 
Portpatrick, W T igtonshire, on 18 June 1850, 
while on his way from Liverpool to Glasgow, 
and was buried at Providence Chapel, High 
Street, Rochdale. He married, in 1816, the 
youngest daughter of James Bealey of Der- 
rickens, near Blackburn, by whom he had 
nine children. She died on'3 Jan. 1848, and 
in the following year he married Elizabeth 

Boggart.' The tales are rather inflated and 
overwrought, but are valuable for the local 
traditions which they embody, though some 
of the narratives are mainly drawn from the 
author's fancy. Sir W. Scott had a good 
opinion of them. Roby also wrote : 1. 'Lo- 
renzo, or a Tale of Redemption,' Rochdale, 
1820 ; of this volume of heavy verse three edi- 
tions came out in the same year. 2. ' The 
Duke of Mantua, a Tragedy,' 1823. 3. ' Seven 
Weeks in Belgium, Switzerland, Piedmont, 
Lombardy,' &c., 1838, 2 vols. 4. 'Legendary 
and Poetical Remains,' including some of hi's 
contributions to ' Blackwood ' and ' Fraser,' 
posthumously published in 1854, with a me- 
moir by his widow. 

[Memoir in Legendary and Poetical Remains ; 
Robertson's Old and New Rochdale, p. 218; 
Jordan's Autobiogr. 1853, ii. 24; Fishwick's Lan- 
cashire Library. 1875, p. 271; Allibone's Diet, 
of Authors ; Lancashire Funeral Certificates 
(Chetham Soc.), p. 95, being correction of an 
error in the legend of Father Arrowsmith; 
letters of Mrs. Trestrail (Roby's widow) in 
Athenaeum, 14 Oct. 1882, and Manchester City 
News, 1 April 1893.] C. W. S. 

ROBY, WILLIAM (1766-1830), con- 
gregational divine, born at Haigh, near 
Wigan, on 23 March 1766, was eldest bro- 
ther of John Roby [q. v.] His parents be- 
longed to the established church. He was 
educated at the Wigan grammar school, of 
which his father was master; he himself be- 
came classical master at the grammar school 
of Bretherton, Lancashire. He owed his 
change of religious conviction to the preach- 
ing of John Johnson (d. 1 804) [q. v.] Having 
begun to preach in villages round Bretherton, 
Rohv r 'sismed his mastership to enter as a 
student in Lady Huntingdon's college at Tre- 
There he only re- 

vecca, Brecknockshire. 

Ryland Dent, wlio survives. There is a por- mained six weeks. After preaching at Wor- 
trait of Roby in the Rochdale Free Library; cester, Reading, and Ashby-de-la-Zouch, he 
another is engraved in the third edition of became Johnson's assistant at St. Paul's 

Chapel, Wigan, and on Johnson's removal 
(1789) he became sole pastor, being ordained 
in London on 20 Sept. 1789. In 1795 he 
undertook the charge of the congregational 
church in Cannon Street, Manchester. lie 
began with an attendance of one hundred and 
fifty, but raised a large congregation, and made 
his influence felt throughout the county. 'To 
no man,' says Halley, 'more than to Mr. Roby 
was nonconformity indebted for itsrevival and 
rapid growth in Lancashire.' In Nightin- 
gale's volumes his name constantly appears as 

the ' Traditions,' and a third in the ' Remains.' 
Roby's first acknowledged publication was 
' Sir Bertram, a Poem in Six Cantos,' Black- 
burn, 1815, but two anonymous parodies on 
Scott, ' Jokeby, a Burlesque on " Rokeby," ' 
1812, and 'The Lay of the Last Fiddler, a 
Parody on " The Lay of the Last Minstrel," ' 
1814, are ascribed to him (Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. vi. 257). The work by which he is 
best known, ' Traditions of Lancashire,' was 
issued at London in 1829,2 vols. A second 
series followed in 1831,2 vols. Later editions 

were issued in 1840, 1843, 1867, and subse- a planter of new churches. On 27 June 1797 
quently. The early editions were beautifully he went to Scotland to conduct a mission in 
illustrated by E. Finden, after drawings by conjunction with James Alexander Haldane 
George Pickering [q. v.] Croft on Croker con- [q. v.] On 3 Dec. 1807 a new chapel was 
tributed one of the pieces, the ' Bargaist or opened for him in Grosvenor Street. Man- 




Chester, where he laboured till his death. 
He trained some fifteen students for the 
ministry at the cost of his friend Robert 
Spear ; this effort led the way to the pre- 
sent Lancashire Independent College [see 
RAFFLES, THOMAS]. Roby was a man of 
simple and informalmanners, of great earnest- 
ness, but without polemical tone ; his preach- 
ing was valued by evangelical churchmen, as 
well as by dissenters. He died on 11 Jan. 
1830, and was buried in his chapel-yard. 
His widow, Sarah Roby, died in 1835. The 
Roby schools at Manchester were erected in 
1 844 as a memorial of him. He published a 
number of sermons (from 1798) and pamph- 
lets, including : 1. 'The Tendency of Soci- 
( nianism,' Wigan, 1791, 8vo. 2. 'A Defence 

/of Calvinism,' &c., 1810, 12mo. 3. < Lectures 
on ... Revealed Religion,' &c., 1818, 8vo. 

4. 'Anti-Swedenborgianism,' &c., Manchester, 
1819, 8vo (letters to John Clowes [q. v.]) 

5. ' Protestantism,' &c., Manchester, 1821-2, 
8vo, two parts. 6. ' Missionary Portraits,' 
Manchester, 1826, 12mo. 7. A selection of 
Hvmns (2nd edit,, Wigan, 1799, 12mo). 

[Funeral Sermons by Ely and Clunie, 1830; 
Memoir and Funeral Sermon by McCall, 1838; 
Halley's Lancashire, 1869, ii. 450 sq. ; Nightin- 
gale's Nonconformity in Lancashire, 1892 iv. 
76 sq., 1893 v. 121 sq. 133 sq.] A. G. 

1872), miniature - painter, son of Rene" 
Rochard, by his wife, Marie Madeleine Talon, 
was born in Paris on 28 Dec. 1788, He 
showed precocious talent, and, when his 
mother was left a widow with twelve 
children, became her chief support by draw- 
ing portraits in crayons at five francs each. 
Rochard studied under Aubry and at the 
Ecole des Beaux- Arts, having received his 
first lessons in miniature - painting from 
Mademoiselle Bounieu. At the age of 
twenty he painted a portrait of the Empress 
Josephine for the emperor. Being included 
in the military levy ordered by Napoleon on 
his return from Elba, he accompanied his re- 
giment to Belgium, but on crossing the fron- 
tier escaped to Brussels. There he was intro- 
duced at court, and, after painting portraits 
of Baron Falk and others, was commissioned 
by the Spanish minister, a few days before the 
battle of Waterloo, to execute a miniature 
of the Duke of Wellington for the king of 
Spain. Being unable to obtain a regular 
sitting, he made a watercolour sketch of the 
duke while he was engaged with his aides- 
de-camp, and this was the prototype of the 
many miniatures of Wellington that he after- 
wards painted. Rochard was also largely 
employed by the English officers and other 
members of the cosmopolitan society then 

gathered at Brussels, and in November 1815 
was summoned to Spa to paint a portrait of 
the Prince of Orange for his bride. Soon after 
he came to London, and at once commenced 
a highly lucrative practice among the aristo- 
cracy. Princess Charlotte, the Duchess of 
York, the Duke of Cambridge, and the Duke 
of Devonshire sat to him ; and for many years 
he was a favourite court painter. He ex- 
hibited largely at the Royal Academy from 
1816 to 1845. In 1834 he twice painted the 
Queen of Portugal, and in 1839, when the 
czar of Russia visited England, he painted six 
miniatures of the czarevitch for snuff-boxes 
to be presented to the English noblemen 
attached to the czar's person. Though French 
by birth and training, Rochard was thoroughly 
English in his art, being mainly influenced by 
the works of Reynolds and Lawrence ; in 
breadth of treatment and beauty of colour 
his miniatures are equal to those of the 
best of his contemporaries, though his repu- 
tation has declined. In 1846 he retired to 
Brussels, and in 1847 printed a catalogue of 
the collection of pictures by the old masters 
which he had formed in England. In 1852 
he exhibited three miniatures at the Paris 
salon. He died at Brussels on 10 June 1872, 
his end being hastened by the failure of a 
business house to which he had entrusted the 
bulk of his savings. By his first marriage, 
which was not a happy one, Rochard had one 
daughter, who married an English officer ; at 
the age of eighty he took a second wife, 
Henriette Pilton, by whom he had one son. 

younger brother of Simon Jacques, after 
working for a time in Paris, followed his 
brother to London, where he became a 
fashionable portrait-painter, practising both 
in miniature and watercolours. In the latter 
medium he also painted many fancy figures 
and subjects from the poets, and in 1835 was 
elected a member of the New Watercolour 
Society. Rochard exhibited regularly at the 
Royal Academy from 1820 to 1855, and also 
with the Society of British Artists. He died 
at Netting Hill, London, in 1858. A few of 
his works have been engraved as book illus- 

[Gazette des Beaux- Arts, December 1891 and 
January 1892; Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists; Ot- 
tley's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 
17.60-1893 ; Chavignerie's Diet, des Artistes de 
1'Eeole Franchise ; Year's Art, 1886; Royal Aca- 
demy Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

RpCHE, SIR BOYLE (1743-1 807), Irish 
politician, the scion of an ancient and re- 
spectable family, said to be a junior branch 
of the ancient baronial house of Roche, 
viscount Fermoy [see under ROCHE, DAVID], 



was born in 1743. Entering the military pro- ' Derry, and his associates were bent on ex- 
fession at an early age, he served in the j tending the legislative privilege, ' I thought 
American war, distinguishing himself at the a crisis was arrived in which Lord Kenmare 
capture of the Moro fort at Havannah. Re- and the heads of that body should step forth 
tiring from the army, he obtained an office in to disavow those wild projects, and to profess 
the Irish revenue department about 1775, and their attachment to the lawful powers. Un- 
subsequently entered the Irish parliament as | fortunately his lordship was at a great dis- 
member for Tralee, in the place of James Agar, tance, and most of my other noble friends 
created Lord Clifden. He represented Gow- ; were out of the way. I therefore resolved 
ran from 1777 to 1783, Portarlington from ! on a bold stroke, and authorised only by a 
1783 to 1790, Tralee (a second time) from knowledge of the sentiments of the persons 
1790 to 1797, and Old Leighlin from 1798 to in question,' he took action. He naively 
the union with England. From the beginning : added that while he regretted that his mes- 
of his parliamentary career he ranged himself j sage had been disowned by Lord Kenmare, 
on the side of government, and for his services that was of less consequence, since his ma- 
was granted a pension, appointed cjiamberlain i nceuvre had succeeded to admiration. Speak- 
to the viceregal court, and on 30 Nov. 1782 j ing against Flood's Reform Bill, he quoted 
was created a baronet. For his office of cham- I Junius as 'a certain anonymous author called 
berlain he was, says Wills (Irish Nation, \ Junius,' and declared that it was wrong to do 
iii. 200), who collected much curious in- away with boroughs. ' For, sir,' said he, ' if 
formation about him, 'eminently qualified i boroughs had been abolished, we never should 
by his handsome figure, graceful address, have heard of the great Lord Chatham ' (Parl. 
and ready wit, qualities which were set off Register, iii. 54). He spoke strongly in opposi- 
by a frank, open, and manly disposition . . . j tion to the catholic petition in February 
but it is not generally known that it was 1792, and amused the house by his witty if 

usual for members of the cabinet to write 
speeches for him, which he committed to 
memory, and, while mastering the substance, 
generally contrived to travesty into language 
and ornament with peculiar graces of his 
own.' He gained his lasting reputation as 
an inveterate perpetrator of ' bulls.' 

The chief service he rendered government 
was in connection with the volunteer con- 
vention of 1783. The question of admitting 
the Roman catholics to the franchise was at 
the time being agitated, and found many 

somewhat scurrilous comments on the signa- 
tures to it (ib. xii. 185-6). He fought hard 
for the union. ' Gentlemen,' he said, ' may 
tither, and tither, and tither, and may think 
it a bad measure ; but their heads at present 
are hot, and will so remain till they grow 
cool again, and so they can't decide right 
now, but when the day of judgment comes 
then honourable gentlemen will be satisfied 
with this most excellent union ' (B ARRIXGTOST, 
Personal Sketches, i. 117). For himself, he 
declared that his love for England and Ire- 

warm supporters in the convention. The pro- i land was so great, ' he would have the two 

posal was extremely obnoxious to the Irish 
government, and on the second day of the 
meeting (11 Nov.)Mr. Ogle, secretaryof state, 
announced that the Roman catholics, in the 
person of Lord Kenmare, had relinquished 
the idea of making any claim further than 
the religious liberty they then enjoyed, and 
gave as his authority for this extraordinary 
statement Sir Boyle Roche, by whom it was 
confirmed. Ten days later Lord Kenmare, 
who happened not to be in Dublin at the time, 
wrote, denying that he had given the least 
authority to any person to make any such 
statement in his name ; but the disavowal 
came too late, for in the meanwhile the anti- 
catholic party in the convention had found 
time to organise themselves, and when the in- 
tended Reform Bill took shape, it was known 
that the admission of the Roman catholics to 
the franchise was not to form part of the 
scheme. On 14 Feb. 1784 Sir Boyle Roche 
explained in a public letter that, hearing that 
Frederick Augustus Hervey [q. v.], bishop of 

sisters embrace like one brother' (cf. Parl. 
Register, xi. 294). Many other good stories 
are related of him ; but it may be doubted 
whether he was really the author of all the 
extraordinary ' bulls ' attributed to him. The 
above, however, rest on good authority. Sir 
Boyle Roche died at his house in Eccle 
Street, Dublin, on 5 June 1807. He married 
Mary, eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland of Great Thirkleby Hall, York- 
shire, by whom he had no issue, and with 
whom he lived a life of uninterrupted hap- 
piness. In his public capacity, as master ot 
the ceremonies at the Irish viceregal court, 
he was beloved and admired for his polite- 
ness and urbanity, and in private life there 
was no more honourable gentleman. 

[Gent. Mag. 1807, i. 596; Hist, of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Volunteer Delegates, pp. 42 
seq. ; Grattan's Life of Henry Grattan, iii. 116 
seq. ; Plowden's Hist. Review, ii. 834 ; Wills's 
Irish Nation, iii. 200; M'Dougall's Sketches of 
Irish Political Character, London, 1799, pp. 174- 





175; Irish Parliamentary Register, passim; Fer- 
rar's Hist, of Limerick, pp. 133, 352; Barring- 
ton's Personal Sketches, i. 115-18; Barbehaill's 
Members of Parl. for Kilkenny ; Cal. Charle- 
mont MSS. ii. 265; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. 
ix. x. passim, xi. 203 ; Fitzpatrick's Secret Ser- 
vice, 233 seq. ; Froude's English in Ireland, ed. 
1881, ii. 332, 418, 434, iii. 60 ; Lecky's Hist, of 
England, vi. 367 ; Addit. MSS. (B. M.) 33090 if. 
253, 259, 264, 33107 ff. 161, 246.] R. D. 

(1573P-1635), born about 1573, was the 
son and heir of Maurice, viscount Fermoy, 
described by Carew (MAcCARTHY, Life of 
Florence MacCarthy, p. 357) as 'a brain 
sick foole,' but by the 'Four Masters' 
(s. a. 1600) as 'a mild and comely man, 
learned in the Latin, Irish, and English 
languages.' David succeeded to the title on 
his father's death in June 1600. His mother 
was Eleanor, daughter of Maurice Fitzjohn 
Fitzgerald, brother of James, fourteenth earl 
of Desmond, and sister of James Fitzmaurice 
Fitzgerald [q.v.], 'the arch traitor.' During 
the rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, second earl of 
Tyrone [q. v.], Roche signalised himself by j 
his loyalty, and in consequence his property ; 
of Castletown Roche suffered greatly from i 
the rebels. "When the mayor of Cork refused 
to proclaim James I, Roche, though a zealous j 
Roman catholic, took that duty on himself. 
His services did not pass unrewarded. 
On 20 Dec. 1605 he petitioned the privy 
council, in consequence of his losses during 
the rebellion, to accept a surrender of his 
lands, and to make him a regrant of the 
same at the former rents and services (Cal. 
State Papers, Ireland, James I, i. 375). Sub- 
sequently he went to England, and return- 
ing to Ireland in the summer of 1608, the 
lord deputy was authorised ' for his encou- 
ragement and comfort' to assign him ' a band 
of 150 foot soldiers under his command/ ' and 
because he is one who has reason to doubt 
that for doing the king service he has raised 
to himself many adversaries, to give him 
effectual aid and encouragement on all occa- 
sions ' (ib. ii. 553). He was accepted as one 
of Florence MacCarthy's sureties, and sat 
in the parliament which assembled at Dublin 
in May 1613. He supported the action of 
the recusant lords, and signed the petition 
protesting against the new boroughs recently 
created, the course pursued by the sheriffs 
at the elections, and the place of holding 
parliament (ib. iv. 343). His behaviour on 
this occasion was condoned, and on 8 July 
16 14 Chichester was authorised to grant him 
lands to the annual value of 50/. (ib. iv. 487). 
He died in the odour of loyalty at Castle- 
town Roche on 22 March 1035, and was 

buried on 12 April at the Abbey, Bridgetown. 
Roche married Joan, daughter of James 
FitzRichard Barry, viscount Buttevant, and 
was succeeded by his son 

(1595P-1660?), at that time about forty 
years of age. Already during his father's 
lifetime Maurice had incurred the suspicion 
of government as ' a popular man among the 
papists of Munster, and one of whom some 
doubts were conceived of his aptness to be 
incited into any tumultuous action' (ib. v. 
534), and had in consequence been for some 
time in 1624 incarcerated in Dublin Castle. 
He took his seat by proxy in the House of 
Lords on 26 Oct. 1640, but was an active 
insurgent in the rebellion, for which he was 
outlawed on 23 Oct. 1643. He was excepted 
from pardon by act of parliament on 12 Aug. 
1652, and his vast estates in co. Cork seques- 
trated. Eventually he succeeded in obtain- 
ing an order from the commissioners at 
Loughrea for 2,500 acres of miserable land 
in the Owles in Connaught, formerly be- 
longing to the O'Malleys, but of these he 
seems never to have got possession. He died 
about 1660. A certain 'Lord Roche,' who 
had a pension from government of 100/. 
a year in 1687, and who is said to have been 
killed fighting for James II, at the battle of 
Aughrim, on 12 July 1691, was probably 
a younger brother or a nephew. Maurice 
Roche married, about 1625, Catherine [or 
Ellen], daughter of John Power; she, after 
gallantly defending Castletown Roche in 
1649 against the forces of the parliament, 
was condemned, on the evidence of a strumpet 
(PRENDERGAST, Cromioellian Settlement, p. 
184), for shooting a man unknown with a 
pistol, and subsequently hange'l. She left 
four daughters utterly unprovided for. The 
manor of Castletown Roche and lands at- 
tached passed into the possession of Roger 
Boyle, first earl Orrery [q. v.] The title is pre- 
sumed to have become extinct in 1733, though 
it is said (BARRINGTON, Personal Sketches, i. 
115) that Sir Boyle Roche [q. v.] possessed a 
claim to it, which, however, he never pursued. 

[Complete Peerage of England, &c. by G. E. C. 
(Fermoy) ; Burka's Extinct Peerage ; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, James I ; Prendergast's Crom- 
wellian Settlement, pp. 183-4 ; and authorities 
quoted.] R. D. 

ROCHE, EUGENIUS (1786-1829), 
journalist, was born on 23 Feb. 1786 in 
Paris. His father, a distant relative of Ed- 
mund Burke Roche, first baron Fermoy,^ was 
professor of modern languages in L'Ecole 
Militaire, Paris, and survived his son. Euge- 
nius was educated by his father in Paris, and 
at the age of eighteen came to London, where 


6 9 


he commenced writ ing for the press. In 1807 
he started a periodical called ' Literary Re- 
creations,' which was not financially success- 
ful. But in it Byron, Allan Cunningham, 
and other poets of note made their first ap- 
pearance in print. In 1808 Roche began the 
publication of 'The Dramatic Appellant/ a 
quarterly journal, whose object was to print 
in each number three of the rejected plays 
of the period. In it will be found two of 
Roche's own contributions to the drama, 
'William Tell' and 'The Invasion.' The 
former was being rehearsed when Drury Lane 
Theatre was destroyed by fire on 24 Feb. 
1809. The ' Dramatic Appellant ' was not 
a conspicuous success, and in 1809 Roche 
became parliamentary reporter of the ' Day,' 
an advanced liberal newspaper, of which he 
was appointed editor about 1810. Its name 
was afterwards changed to the ' New Times ' 
and then to the ' Morning Journal.' While 
editing it he was imprisoned for a year for an 
attack on the government in reference to the 
case of Sir Francis Burdett [q. v.] On his 
release he became editor of the ' National 
Register,' a weekly paper. In August 1813 
he accepted an engagement on the ' Morning 
Post,' becoming one of its editors shortly 
afterwards. He was also associated with the 
' Courier,' for a time an influential organ of 
liberal opinion. He was recognised as one 
of the ablest journalists of his day. He died 
on 9 Nov. 1829 in Hart Street, Bloomsbury. 
A large sum was subscribed for his second 
wife and family, and his poems were collected 
and published, with a memoir and portrait, 
for their benefit, with a very distinguished 
list of subscribers, under the title of ' London 
in a Thousand Years,' in 1830. 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, ii. 640; Memoir prefixed 
to London in a Thousand Years ; Byron's Life 
and Correspondence, ed. Moore ; Fox-Bourne's 
History of English Journalism; Grant's News- 
paper Press.] D. J. O'D. 

ROCHE, JAMES (1770-1853), styled by 
Father Prout 'the Roscoe of Cork,' was 
the son of Stephen Roche, and a descen- 
dant of John Roche of Castle Roche, a 
delegate at the federation of Kilkenny in 
1641. His mother, Sarah, was daughter of 
John O'Brien of Moyvanine and Clounties, 
Limerick. Born at Cork, 30 Dec. 1770, 
he was sent at fifteen years of age to the 
college of Saintes, near Angouleme, where 
he spent two years. After a short visit 
home he returned to France and became 
partner with his brother George, a wine 
merchant at Bordeaux. There he made 
the acquaintance of Vergniaud and Guillo- 
tin. He shared in the enthusiasm for the 
revolution, and paid frequent visits to Paris, 

associating with the leading Girondins. 
While in Paris in 1793 he was arrested under 
the decree for the detention of British sub- 
jects, and spent six months in prison. He 
believed himself to have been in imminent 
danger of inclusion in the monster Luxem- 
bourg batch of victims, and attributed his 
escape to Brune, afterwards one of Napo- 
leon's marshals. On his release he returned 
to the south of France, endeavouring to 
recover his confiscated property. In 1797 
he quitted France, living alternately at Lon- 
don and Cork. In 1800, with his brother 
Stephen, he established a bank at Cork, 
which flourished until the monetary crisis 
of 1819, when it suspended payment. Roche's 
valuable library was sold in London, the 
creditors having invited him to select and 
retain the books that he most prized. He 
spent the next seven years in London as com- 
mercial and parliamentary agent for the 
counties of Cork, Youghal, and Limerick. 
Retiring from business with a competency, 
he resided from 1829 to 1832 in Paris. The 
remainder of his life was passed at Cork as 
local director of the National Bank of Ire- 
land, a post which allowed him leisure for 
the indulgence of his literary tastes. He 
was well read in the ancient and the prin- 
cipal modern languages, and his historical 
knowledge enabled him to assist inquirers on 
obscure and debatable points, and to detect 
and expose errors. He contributed largely, 
mostly under his initials, to the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' ' Notes and Queries,' the 'Dublin 
Review,' and the ' Cork Magazine.' In 1851, 
under the title of ' Critical and Miscellaneous 
Essays, by an Octogenarian,' he reprinted 
for private circulation about forty of these 
articles. He also took an active part in lite- 
rary, philanthropic, and mercantile move- 
ments in Cork. He died there, 1 April 1853, 
leaving two daughters by his wife Anne, 
daughter of John Moylan of Cork. 

[Gent. Mag. June and July 1853 ; Athenaeum, 
5 April 1853; Notes and Queries, 16 April 
1853; Dublin Review, September 1851 and 
April 1890.] J. G. A. 

1 731 ), French protestaut refugee and author, 
was threatened while young with perse- 
cution in France probably on the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes. He was in 
' continual fear,' for a whole year, of being 
imprisoned, and forced ' to abjure the Pro- 
testant religion.' He escaped to England 
with great difficulty. Unlike the great ma- 
jority of his fellow refugees,he became almost 
immediately a member of the church of 



De la Roche had been a student of literature 
from youth, and when he settled in London 
obtained employment from the booksellers, 
mainly devoting himself to literary criticism. 
Imitating some similar ventures that had 
been made in Holland, lie commenced in 
1710 to issue in folio a periodical which he 
entitled ' Memoirs of Literature.' After- 
wards, ' for the convenience of readers,' he 
continued it in quarto, but it was brought 
to an end in September 1714, when, he says, 
' Mr. Roberts, his printer,' advised him ' to 
leave off writing these papers two months 
earlier than he designed.' The 'Memoirs'were 
begun again in January 1717, and continued 
till at least April 1717. De la Roche, accord- 
ing to his own account, was a friend of Bayle, 
and doubtless paid frequent visits to Holland. 
Early in 1717 he arranged to edit a new 
periodical, ' Bibliotheque Angloise, ou His- 
toire litteraire de la Grande Bretagne,' which 
was written in French and published at 
Amsterdam. De la Roche apologised for the 
inelegancies of his French style. He was 
still living for the most part in London. The 
fifth A'olume of the ' Bibliotheque Angloise,' 
dated 1719, was the last edited by De la 
Roche. The publisher transferred the editor- 
ship in that year to De la Chapelle, giving as 
a pretext that De la Roche's foreign readers 
accused him of anti-Calvinism, hostility to 
the Reformation, and a too great partiality 
to Anglicanism (see Avertissement , dated 
January 1720, to vol. i. of Memoires Litte- 
raires). Shortly afterwards De la Roche 
began to edit yet another periodical, the 
' Memoires Litt6raires,' which was published 
at The Hague at intervals till 1724. In 1725 
he started ' New Memoirs of Literature,' 
which ran till December 1727, and finally, 
in 1730, ' A Literary Journal, or a continua- 
tion of the Memoirs of Literature,' which 
came to an end in 1731. 

These various publications appeared at 
monthly or quarterly intervals. The prices 
for those published in England varied from 
Is. to 6d. for each part, but they apparently 
brought little profit to the editor. They 
were the prototypes of literary magazines and 

[See Avertissement to Memoires Litteraires, 
and vol. iii. of a Literary Journal, dated 1731 ; 
Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, ii. 150- 
154, andiii. 166; Smiles's Huguenots ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. iii. 507, iv. 94, ix. 385.] F. T. M. 

ROCHE, PHILIP (d. 1798), Irish rebel, 
a Roman catholic priest attached to the 
parish of Poulpearsay, co. Wexford, and 
formerly of Gorey, appears to have joined 
the rebels encamped at the foot of Corrigrua 
Hill, under the command of Father John 

Murphy (1753 P-1798) [q. v.], shortly before 
the battle of Tubberneering, on 4 June 1798 
(TAYLOK, Hist.ofthellcbellion,-p.73 ; BYRNE, 
Memoirs, i. 86). It was mainly in conse- 
quence of information furnished to him that 
the rebels were enabled to anticipate and so 
to frustrate the attack of Major-general 
Loft us and Colonel AValpole. His priestly 
character and personal bravery at Tubber- 
neering won him great reputation with the 
insurgents, and when Beauchamp Bagenal 
Harvey [q. v.] was three or four days later 
deposed from his command, in consequence 
of his repugnance at such atrocities as the 
massacre at Scullabogue. Roche was elected 
commander of the rebels encamped at 
Slyeeve-Keelter, near New Ross. After 
several unsuccessful attempts to intercept 
i the navigation of the river, Roche moved 
his camp to Lacken Hill, where he remained 
i for some days unmolested and almost in- 
| active ; but it was noted to his credit that 
j during that time no such atrocities as were 
I only too common among the rebels at Vine- 
I gar Hill were permitted by him (GORDON, 
I Rebellion, App. p. 85). On 19 June he was 
; surprised, and compelled to retreat from 
Lacken Hill to Three Rocks, near Wex- 
ford (cf. CLONEY, Narrative, pp. 54-60). On 
the following day he intercepted a detach- 
ment under Sir John Moore, who was moving 
up to join in the attack on Vinegar Hill, at 
a place called Goffsbridge, or Foulkes Mill, 
near the church of Horetown. He is said to 
have displayed great military skill in the 
disposition of his forces, but after a fierce 
engagement, which lasted four hours, was 
compelled to fall back on Three Rocks, effect- 
ing the retreat in good order (BYRNE, Me- 
moirs, i. 167-8). After the battle of Vinegar 
Hill and the surrender of Wexford, Roche, 
seeing that further resistance was hopeless, 
determined to capitulate, and with this ob- 
ject went alone and unarmed to Wexford. 
On entering the town he was seized, dragged 
from his horse, and so kicked and buffeted 
that he is said to have been scarcely recog- 
nisable (ib. i. 204-5; HAT, Insurrection, p. 
245). He was tried by court-martial, and 
hanged off Wexford bridge on 25 June 1798, 
along with Matthew Keugh[q.v.] and seven 
others, and his body thrown into the river 
(TAYLOR, Hist. p. 131). According to Gordon, 
who knew him personally, he was ' a man of 
large stature and boisterous manners, not ill 
adapted to direct by influence the disorderly 
bands among whom he acted . . . but for a 
charge of cruelty against him I can find no 
foundation. On the contrary, I have heard, 
from indubitable authority, many instances 
of his active humanitv . . his behaviour in 



the rebellion has convinced me that he pos- 
sessed a humane and generous heart, with 
an uncommon share of personal courage' 
(Rebellion, pp. 148, 399). He displayed con- 
siderable military ability, and was probably 
the most formidable of all the rebel leaders. 

[James Gordon's Hist, of the Rebellion in Ire- 
land, pp. 137, H8, 166-9, 17.3, 188, 219, 399; 
Miles Byrne's Memoirs, i. 86, 167, 204-5 ; Ed. 
Hay's Insurrection of Wexford.pp. 185, 201, 205, 
245, 251 ; Musgrave's Rebellions in Ireland, i. 
464, 533, 536, ii. 43 ; Cloney's Personal Narra- 
tive, pp. 54-6, 81 ; Taylor's Hist, of the Re- 
bellion in Wexford, pp. 73, 131 ; Narrative of 
the Sufferings and Escape of Charles Jackson, 
pp. 69, 70; Plowden's Hist. Review, ii. 735, 
762, 767; Lecky's Hist, of England, viii. 136, 
158, 164 ; Froude's English in Ireland.] 

R. D. 

1845), novelist, born about 1764 in the south 
of Ireland, was daughter of parents named 
Dalton. In 1793 appeared her first novel, 
1 The Vicar of Lansdowne,' by Regina Maria 
Dalton, and it was at once followed by ' The 
Maid of the Hamlet,' in 2 vols. She soon 
afterwards married a gentleman named 
Roche. In 1798 she sprang into fame on 
the publication of her ' Children of the 
Abbey ' (4 vols.), a story abounding in senti- 
mentality, and almost rivalling in popularity 
Mrs. Radcliffe's ' Mysteries of Udolpho,' 
which was published in 1797. Many editions 
of it were called for, and until her death 
she industriously worked at a similar style 
of fiction. She died, aged 81, at her resi- 
dence on the Mall, Waterford, 17 May 1845. 
Her works are : 1 . ' The Vicar of Lans- 
downe,' 2nd ed., 2 vols., London, 1793. 
2. ' The Maid of the Hamlet,' 12mo, 3 vols., 
1793. 3. ' The Children of the Abbey,' 4 
vols. 1798 (numerous other editions). 

4. 'Clermont,' 12mo, 4 vols. London, 1798. 

5. ' The Nocturnal Visit,' 4 vols. 12mo, 1800 
(a French version appeare'd in 1801 in 5 vols.) 

6. ' The Discarded Son, or the Haunt of the 
Banditti,' 5 vols. 12mo, 1807. 7. 'The 
Houses of Osma and Almeria, or the Convent 
of St. Ildefonso,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1810. 
8. ' The Monastery of St. Colomba,' 5 vols. 
12mo, 1812. 9. ' Trecothiek Bower,' 3 vols. 
12mo, 1813. 10. 'London Tales' (anony- 
mously), 2 vols., 1814. 11. 'The Munster 
Cottage Boy,' 4 vols. 1819. VI. 'The Bridal 
of Dunamore' and 'Lost and Won,' two 
tales, 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1823. 13. ' The 
Castle Chapel,' 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1825 
(a French version appeared the same year). 

14. 'Contrast,' 3 vols., London, 1828. 

15. ' The Nun's Picture,' 3 vols. 12mo, 1834. 

16. ' The Tradition of the Castle, or Scenes 

in the Emerald Isle,' 4 vols. 12mo, London, 

[Gent. Mag. 1845, ii. 86 (reprinting the 
Literary Gazette) ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. 
ix. 509, x. 36, 119; Allibone's Diet, of Engl. 
Lit. vol. iii. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Diet, of Living 
Author.-, 1816.] D. J. O'D. 

ROCHE, ROBERT(1576-1629), poetaster, 
born about 1676, a native of Somerset of 
lowly origin, was admitted of Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, in November 1594, being then aged 
18, and graduated B.A. 9 June 1599. He 
was presented to the vicarage of Hilton in 
Dorset in 1617, and held the benefice until 
his death on 12 May 1629. A Latin inscrip- 
tion in the aisle of Hilton church marks the 
common grave of Roche and a successor 
in the vicariate, John Antram ; an English 
i quatrain is appended. Roche's son Robert 
\ graduated B.A. from Magdalen Hall, 23 Jan. 
1630, and became vicar of East Camel. 

Roche was author of ' Eustathia, or the 
Constancie of Susanna, containing the 
Preservation of the Godly, Subversion of the 
Wicked, Precepts for the Aged, Instructions 
for Youth, Pleasure with Profitte . . . Domi- 
nus mea rapes. Printed at Oxford by 
Joseph Barnes, and are to be sold in Paules 
Churchyard at the Sign of the Bible,' 1599, 
b.l. 8vo. It contains seventy-four pages of 
didactic doggerel, of which a long specimen 
is given in Dr. Bliss's edition of Wood's 
'Athenae,' on the ground of its extreme 
rarity. The only copy known is in the 
Bodleian ; it once belonged to Robert Burton. 

[Univ. Reg. Oxf. Hist. Soc. ii. 206, iii. 215; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Wood's Athenae, ed. 
Bliss, i. 682 ; Bibl. Bodleiana, 1 843 ; Hazlitt's 
Handbook, p. 516; Hutchins's Dorset, iv. 357, 
359 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum (Add. MS. 24491, 
f. 194) ; Madan's Early Oxford Press, p. 47.] 

T. S. 

1878), architect, son of John Rochead, char- 
tered accountant, was born in Edinburgh on 
28 March 1814. He was educated in George 
Heriot's hospital, and at the age of sixteen 
entered the office of David Bryce, architect. 
After seven years' apprenticeship there he 
became principal draughtsman in Harst & 
Moffatt's office, Doncaster, where he re- 
mained for two years. In 1840, among 150 
competitors, he gained the first premium 
for a proposed Roman catholic cathedral in 
Belfast. In 1841 he started as an architect 
in Glasgow, where he resided till 1870. He 
soon became recognised as an architect of 
great ability and originality. He was a skil- 
ful draughtsman, and his designs, to their 
most minute details, were done by his own 



hand. After the 'disruption' he designed 
many free churches in Scotland. His know- 
ledge of C4othic art is well displayed in the 
Park church and St. John's Free Church, 
both in Glasgow, the parish churches of 
Renfrew and Aberfoyle, and St. Mary's Free 
Church, Edinburgh. His able treatment of 
Italian and classic architecture was shown 
in the Bank of Scotland, John Street, United 
Presbyterian Church, the Unitarian Chapel, 
and his design for building the Univer- 
sity all in Glasgow. In 1857 he won a 
300/. prize in the competition for designs for 
the war office in London, and in two keen 
competitions his designs for the Wallace 
monument, Stirling, were successful. Roc- 
head was the architect of Queen Margaret 
College, Glasgow, and he designed many 
private mansions in Scotland, including Mi- 
nard Castle, Knock Castle, West Shandon, 
Blair Vaddoch, and Sillerbut Hall. In 1870, 
owing to impaired health, he retired to Edin- 
burgh, where he died suddenly on 7 April 
1878. He was survived by his widow (Cathe- 
rine Calder, whom he married in 1843), a 
son, and four daughters. 

[Scotsman, 10 April 1878, and Builder, 20 April 
1878 ; Diet, of Architecture, vii. 54 ; informa- 
tion supplied by the family.] G. S-H. 

ROCHES, PETER DBS (d. 1238), bishop 
of Winchester. [See PETEK.] 

MOT, HENRY, first earl, 1610?-! 659; WIL- 
MOT, JOHN, second earl, 1648-1680 ; HYDE, 
LAURENCE, first earl of the Hyde family, 

[See HYDE, JANE.] 

ROBERT, d. 1645, afterwards EARL OF SO- 

1557), comptroller of the household to Queen 
Mary, born about 1494, was eldest of the 
three sons of John Rochester, by his wife 
Grissell, daughter and coheir of Walter 
Writtle of Bobbingworth, Essex. His grand- 
father, Robert Rochester, was yeoman of the 
pantry to Henry VIII, and bailiff of the ma- 
nor of Syleham, Suffolk, and outlived his son 
John, who died on 16 Jan. 1507-8. (Morant 
erroneously states that Robert died in 1506 ; 
cf. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. 
i. passim.) Probably through his grand- 
father, Rochester became known at court, 
and was attached to the Princess Mary's 
household. In 1547 he was managing her 
finances, and before 1551 was appointed 

comptroller of her household. On '2'2 March 
of that year he was examined by the council 
as to the number of Mary's chaplains. On 
14 Aug. he was again summoned before the 
council, and ordered, in spite of his protests, 
not merely to carry the council's directions to 
the princess, but personally to take measures 
that no one should say or hear mass in her 
household. Rochester returned to Copped 
Hall, but could not bring himself to carry 
out these commands, and on the 23rd again 
appeared before the council. He bluntly re- 
fused to carry any more such messages to 
his mistress, professing his readiness to go 
to prison instead. Finally Rich, Wingfield, 
and Petre had to undertake the mission. 
Rochester was sent to the Fleet on 24 Aug., 
and to the Tower a week later. On 18 March 
1552 he was allowed ' for his weakness of 
body' to retire to his country house, and on 
14 April, on Mary's request, was permitted 
to resume his functions as comptroller. 

Rochester's fidelity was rewarded on Mary's 
accession. He was made comptroller of the 
royal household, created a knight of the Bath 
at the queen's coronation, and sworn of the 
privy council. On 26 Sept. 1553 he was 
returned to parliament as knight of the shire 
for Essex, being re-elected for the same con- 
stituency on 13 March 1553-4,23 Oct. 1554, 
and 24 Sept. 1555. lie became one of Mary's 
most intimate and trusted counsellors. On 
28 Jan. 1554 he was sent to Wyatt to inquire 
into his intentions. In the same year he was 
made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 
placed on a commission to examine Sir 
Thomas Gresham's accounts, and suggested 
as one of the six advisers to whom the active 
work of the privy council was to be entrusted, 
while the other members were to be employed 
in the provinces. This scheme came to 
nothing, but Rochester remained one of the 
inner ring of councillors who rarely missed 
a meeting, and had most weight in the 
council's decisions. He was one of the com- 
missioners who drew up the treaty of marriage 
between Mary and Philip, and in 1555 was 
placed on commissions appointed to try Bishop 
Hooper, and to consider the restoration of 
the monasteries and the church property 
vested in the crown. In the same year he 
was one of Gardiner's executors, and was 
present at the martyrdom of John Rogers 
(1509P-1555) [q. v.] He was nevertheless a 
staunch friend of the Princess Elizabeth and 
Edward Courtenay, earl of Devonshire [q. v.], 
whose union he is said to have advocated, 
and it was in some degree due to his in- 
fluence with Mary that the princess's life 
was spared. 

In 1556 Rochester was one of the select 




committee appointed by Philip to look after 
his affairs during his absence ; he was also 
placed on a commission to inquire into the 
plots against the queen. In September there 
was some popular discontent because the 
loan was ordered to be paid through his 
hands, ' the people being of the opinion that 
this was done in order that the crown might 
less scrupulously avail itself of the money 
through the hands of so very confidential a 
minister and creature of her majesty, than 
through those of the treasurer' (Cal. State 
Papers, Venetian, vi. 588). On 23 April 
1557 Rochester was elected K.G., but was 
never formally installed at Windsor. On 
4 May he was placed on a commission to 
.take the surrender of indentures, patents, 
&c., and grant renewal of them for adequate 
fines. He died, unmarried, on 28 Nov. fol- 
lowing, and was buried at the Charterhouse 
at Sheen on 4 Dec. He was succeeded as 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster by his 
nephew, Sir Edward Waldegrave [q. v.], son 
of Edward Waldegrave (d. 1543) and Ro- 
chester's sister Lora. The substance of 
Rochester's will is printed in Collins's ' Peer- 
age,' iv. 424-5. 

[Cal. of State Papers, Dom., Venetian, and 
Foreign Ser. ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. 
Dasent; Official Return of Members of Parl. i. 
382, 386, 389, 393 ; Ducatus Laneastriae, Record 
ed. ii. 175; Visitations of Essex, 1558 and 1612 
(Harl. Soc.); Morant's Essex, ii. 127, 391 ; Lit. 
Remainsof Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; Trans. 
Royal Hist. Soc. iii. 310, 311 ; Ashmole's Order 
of the Garter, p. 715; Metcalfe's Book of 
Knights ; Strype's Eccl. Mem. passim ; Foxe's 
Actes and Monuments; Burnet's Hist, of Re- 
formation, ed. Pocock ; Dixon's Hist, of Church 
of England; Chester's John Rogers, pp. 173, 
204, 308 ; Strickland's Lives of the Queens of 
England ; Tytler's England under Edward VI 
and Mary; Froude's and Lingard's Histories of 
England.] A. F. P. 

judge, was a native of Rochester, whence he 
took his name. His brother Gilbert held the 
living of Tong in Kent. Solomon took 
orders, and was apparently employed by 
Henry III in a legal capacity. In 1274 he 
was appointed justice in eyre for Middlesex, 
and in the following year for Worcester- 
shire. From this time forward he was con- 
stantly employed in this capacity, and 
among the counties included in his circuits 
were Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Berkshire, Ox- 
fordshire, and Cornwall. He was frequently 
placed on commissions of oyer and terminer, 
and for other business, such as taking quo 
warranto pleas, and inquiring into the con- 
cealment of goods forfeited by the Jews. In 

1276 he was present at council when the 
king gave judgment against Gilbert de Clare, 
earl of Gloucester, and he was also sum- 
moned to councils held in November 1283 
and October 1288. In the following year 
he was, like all the other j udges except two, 
dismissed for maladministration of justice 
and corruption. He was probably one of 
the worst offenders, as he was fined four 
thousand marks, a sum much larger than 
that extorted from several of the other 
judges (OxENEDES, p. 275). On 4 Jan. 1290 
his name appears on a commission of oyer 
and terminer, but he does not appear to have 
had any further employment. In the parlia- 
ment of 1290, as a consequence of Roches- 
ter's fall, numerous complaints were preferred 
against his conduct as a judge, one of them 
beingfrom the abbey of Abingdon,from which 
he had extorted a considerable sum of money 
to give to his brother Gilbert. 

Rochester now aimed at ecclesiastical 
preferment. He already held the prebend 
of Chamberlain Wood in St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and on the death of Thomas Inglethorp, 
bishop of Rochester, in May 1291, he made 
fruitless efforts to induce the monks to 
elect him to that see. Their refusal deeply 
offended him, and in a suit between the 
monks and the bishop of Rochester in 1294 
Solomon persuaded the judges in eyre at 
Canterbury to give a decision adverse to 
the monks. According to Matthew of West- 
minster, the monks were avenged by the 
sudden death of their chief enemies, and the 
judges in terror sought their pardon, alleg- 
ing that they had been ' wickedly deceived 
by the wisdom of Solomon.' Solomon him- 
self was one of the victims; on 14 Aug. 
1294 one Guynand or Wynand, parson of 
Snodland in Kent, entered Solomon's house, 
ate with him, and put poison into his food 
and drink, so that he died fifteen days after- 
wards (Placit. Abbreviatio, p. 290). Accord- 
ing to Matthew of Westminster. Guynand 
only made Solomon drunk. He was charged 
with the murder, but pleaded his orders, and 
was successfully claimed as a clerk by the 
bishop of Rochester. Finally he purged him- 
self at Greenwich, and was liberated. Solo- 
mon de Rochester had a house at Snodland, 
and another in Rochester, which in 1284 he 
was licensed to extend to the city walls and 
even to build on them. 

[Matthew of Westminster, iii. 82-3, Reg. 
Epistol. Johannis Peckham, iii. 1009. 1041, 
Cartul. de Rameseia, ii. 292, Bartholomew Cot- 
ton's Hist. Anglicana, pp. 166, 173, Annales de 
Dunstaplin, de Oseneia, de Wigornia, and John 
de Oxenedes (all in Rolls Ser.); Placita de Quo 
Warranto, passim, Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 52 b, Placi- 




torum Abbrev. p. 290 (Record ed.) ; Parl. Writs 
and Rolls of Parl. passim; C<tl. of Patent Rolls, 
Edw. I, ed. 1893-5, vols. i. and ii. ; Dugdale's 
Orig. Jurid. and Chronica Series; Le Neve's 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 375 ; Arch;eol. Cantiana, v. 
25 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] A. F. P. 

earl, 1645-1709; ZULESTEIN DE NASSAU, 
WILLIAM HENRY, fourth earl, 1717-1781.] 

GEORGE, d. 1536.] 

1410), mediaeval writer, was apparently son of j 
Saer de Rochford of Holland in Lincolnshire, I 
and, according to Pits, after receiving a good 
education in England, studied in France and 
Italy. In 1381 he served on a commission 
to inquire into certain disturbances at 
Boston (Cal. Patent Rolls, Richard II, 
ed. 1895, p. 421). Before 1386 he was 
knighted, and in that year was placed on 
commissions in the same county to raise 
sums lent to the king, and to supervise 
the purchase of arms and horses. In the 
following year he was sworn to support the 
lords appellants. On 26 Sept. 1405 he was 
summoned to meet Henry IV at Coventry, 
and accompany him on his expedition to 
Wales. But his interests lay chiefly in 
literary work. In 1406 he completed his 
' Notabilia extracta per Johannem de Roche- 
fort, militem, de viginti uno libris Flavii : 
Josephi antiquitatis Judaice ; ' it is extant ! 
in All Souls' College MS. xxxvii. ff. 206 et | 
seqq. He also compiled a ' Tabula super ! 
Flores Storiarum iacta per Johannem 
Rochefort, militem, distincta per folia/ con- j 
tained in All Souls' College MS. xxxvii. ff. : 
157 et seqq. It was also extant, with an 
'Extractum Chronicarum Cestrensis EC- i 
clesiae per Johannem Rocheford, a Christo 
nato ad annum 1410,' in Cotton MS. Vitel- j 
lius D. xii. 1, which is now lost. The ! 
' Tabula ' is merely an index of the ' Flores \ 
Historiarum ' of Matthew of Westminster \ 
[q. v.], the authorship of which has been i 
erroneously ascribed to Rochford. Pits also ! 
attributes to Rochford ' Ex Ranulphi Chro- 
nico librum unum,' and says that he trans- 
lated many works, but he does not specify 

[Rymer's Fcedera, original edition, vii. 544, 
547, viii. 413 ; Rolls of Parl. iii. 401 ; Hardy's 
Descr. Cat. of Materials, iii. 316; Matthew of 
Westminster's Flores Hist. (ed. Luaid, in the 
Rolls Ser.), Pref. pp. xxix, xxx, xlii ; Bale's 
Script, vii. 4; Pits, ed. 1619, p. 581; Fabricius's [ 
Bibl. Med. JEvi Latinitatis, iv. 363 ; Oudin's 
Comment, de Script, iii. 2227; Thomas James's 
Ecloga Oxonio-Cantabr. 1600, p. 45; Vossius's 

Hist. Lat. ed. 1651, pp. 545-6; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.-Hib. ; Coxe's Cat. MSS. in Coll. Aulisque 
Oxon. ; Chevalier's Repertoire.] A. F. P. 

ROCHFORT, ROBERT (1652-1727), 
Irish judge, born on 9 Dec. 1652, was second 
son of Lieutenant-colonel Primeiron Roch- 
fort, who was shot on 14 May 1652, after 
trial by court-martial at Cork House, Dub- 
lin, for having killed Major Turner. By 
his wife, Thomazine Pigott, the colonel left 
two sons, the younger of whom, Robert, ' he 
begot the verv night he received his sentence 
of death,' 9 March 1651-2. The Rochfort 
family was settled in co. Kildare as early as 
1243, and to it belonged Sir Maurice Roch- 
fort, lord-deputy in 1302, and Maurice Roch- 
fort, bishop of Limerick, and lord-deputy in 

Robert was ' bred to the law,' his mother 
having received a gratuity and pension. He 
became recorder of Londonderry on 13 July 
1680, and acted as counsel to the commis- 
sioners of the revenue in May 1686 (Claren- 
don to Rochester, Correspondence, i. 396). 
His name appears in the first division of the 
list in James II's act of attainder in 1689, 
and his estate in co.Westmeath was seques- 
tered. In 1690, however, either on 26 May 
(LUTTRELL, ii. 47), before the arrival of 
William III, or on 1 Aug. (LODGE ; STORY'S 
Continuation, p. 36), on his departure for the 
siege of Limerick, Rochfort was made com- 
missioner of the great seal with Richard Pyne 
and Sir Richard Ryves ; and they held the 
post till the appointment of Sir Charles 
Porter to the chancellorship on 3 Dec. On 
6 June 1695 he was made attorney-general 
of Ireland, vice Sir John Temple, and, having 
been elected member for co. Westmeath on 
27 Aug., was chosen speaker of the Irish 
House of Commons on the 29th (BuRNET ; 
TINDALL, iii. 287). He took a prominent 
part in the attack on the chancellor, Sir 
Charles Porter [q. v.] He was continued 
as attorney-general on the accession of Anne, 
but refused re-election as speaker in Septem- 
ber 1703 (LUTTRELL, v. 344). On 30 June 
1707 he succeeded Richard Freeman as chief 
baron of the exchequer, which post he held 
till removed by the whigs in October 1714, 
after the accession of George I, when he re- 
sumed practice at the bar. During this 
period he had acquired considerable property 
in Westmeath (see LODGE, p. 21 n.), and on 
21 May 1704 had been dangerously wounded 
in St. Andrew's Church, Dublin, by a ' dis- 
gusted suitor,' one Francis Cresswick, of 
Hannams Court, Gloucestershire. In Octo- 
ber 1722 Swift writes that 'old Rochfort 
has got a dead palsy;' he died at his fine 
house of Gaulstown, on Lough Ennel, near 




Mullingar, Westmeath, on 10 Oct. 1727, and 
was buried there. He left 1001. to the school, 
and endowed a church he had built at Gauls- 
town with the tithes of Killnegenahan. A 
portrait of him is preserved at Middleton 
Park, co. "Westmeath. 

Rochfort married Hannah (d. '2 July 1732), 
daughter of William Handcock of Twyford, 
Westmeath, ancestor of the earls of Castle- 
maine. By her he left two sons, George and 
John. Their names occur frequently in 
Swift's correspondence, and after visits to 
Gaulstown in 1721 and 1722, Swift wrote 
two poems on their home there ; one he en- 
titled 'Country Life' (SwiFT, Works, 2nd 
edit. (Scott) xiv. 163 sqq.) It was doubtless 
to John Rochfort's wife that Swift addressed 
his letter of ' Advice to a very Young Lady 
on her Marriage ' (ib. ix. 202 sqq.) 

George Rochfort (d. 1730), long M.P. for 
Westmeath, married Lady Betty, daughter 
of Henry Moore, third earl of Drogheda ; his 
son Robert (1708-1774) represented West- 
meath till 1737. when he was created an 
Irish peer, with the title of Baron Bellfield, 
and subsequently Viscount Bellfield (1751) 
and Earl of Belvedere (1757). The title 
became extinct on the death of the first earl's 
son George (1738-1814), who sold Gaulstown 
to Sir John Browne, first lord Kilmaine, and 
left all his unentailed estates to his widow, 
Jane, daughter of the Rev. James Mackay ; 
she bequeathed them to George Augustus 
Rochfort- Boy d, her son by her second 
husband, Abraham Boyd, and they now be- 
long to his descendant, George Arthur Boyd- 
Rochfort of Middleton Park, co. Westmeath. 
The entailed estate of Belvedere passed to 
Lady Jane, only daughter of the first earl of 
Belvedere, who married Brinsley Butler, se- 
cond earl of Lanesborough ; it is now held 
by George Brinsley Marlay, esq. 

From Robert Rochfort's younger son John, 
M.P. for Ballyshannon in 1715, who married 
Deborah, daughter of Thomas Staunton, re- 
corder of Galway, descend the Rochforts of 
Clogrenane, co. Carlow, among whom Anne 
Rochfort (b. at Dublin in 1761, d. at Tor- 
quay in 1862), wife of Sir Matthew Blakiston, 
second baronet, is a well-authenticated in- 
stance of centenarianism. 

[Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. Archdall.iii. 13-30; 
Swift's Works, passim ; King's State of the Pro- 
testants; Smyth's Law Officers in Ireland; in- 
formation from Lady Danvers (nee Rochfort).] 

H. E. D. B. 

ROCHFORT, SIMOX (d. 1224), bishop 
of Meath, was the first Englishman who held 
that see, to which he was consecrated in 1194 
(COTTON, Fasti Eccles. Hibern. iii. 111). He 
was one of the judges appointed by Inno- 

cent III in the famous suit for possession of 
the body of Hugh de Lacy, fifth baron Lacy 
and first lord of Meath [q. v.], between the 
monks of Bective in Meath and the canons 
of St. Thomas's, Dublin. He gave sentence 
in favour of the latter in 1205 (Reg. St. 
Thomas, Dublin, pp. 348-50, Rolls Ser.) 
Bishop Simon founded a house of regular 
canons at Newtown, near Trim, in 1206, 
and ultimately erected the church into the 
cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, forsak- 
ing the old cathedral of Clonard (Annals of 
Clonard ap. COGAN, Diocese of Meath, i. 
20, 71). At Newtown he held a synod in 
1216, of which an account is extant (WiL- 
KINS, Concilia Maynce Brit. i. 547, ed. 1737). 
He alloted vicar's portions to the churches 
in his diocese, in which his work was valu- 
able (WARE, Works on Ireland, i. 141, ed. 
1739). He died in 1224 ( Chartularies, S?c., 
of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, ii. 288, Rolls 
Ser.), and was buried in the church at New- 

[Authorities cited in the text.] A. M. C K. 

ROCK, DANIEL, D.D. (1799-1871), 
ecclesiologist, born at Liverpool on 31 Aug. 
1799, was entered as a foundation scholar at 
St. Edmund's College, near Ware, Hertford- 
shire, in 1813. In December of the same 
year he was one of six students who went 
from England to Rome on the reopening of 
the English College in that city. He was 
ordained subdeacon on 21 Dec. 1822, deacon 
on 20 May 1823, and priest on 13 March 

1824. He returned to England in April 

1825, and it is thought that his degree of 
D.D. was obtained before leaving Rome. He 
was engaged on the ' London mission ' from 
1825 to 1827, when he became a domestic 
chaplain to the Earl of Shrewsbury. About 
1838-45 he was a prominent member of a 
club of priests calling themselves the 
' Adelphi,' formed for promoting the resto- 
ration of the Roman catholic hierarchy in 
this country. In 1840 he was appointed 
priest of the Roman catholic congregation 
of Buckland, near Faringdon, Berkshire, and 
in 1852 was elected one of the first canons 
of Southwark Cathedral. Two years later 
he resigned his country charge and took up 
his residence in London. In 1862 he served 
as a member of the committee appointed to 
carry out the objects of the special exhibi- 
tion at the South Kensington Museum of 
works chiefly of the mediaeval period. He 
died at his residence, Kensington, on 28 Nov. 
1871, and was buried at Kensal Green ceme- 

He wrote: 1. ' Hierurgia, or the Holy 
Sacrifice of the Mass expounded,' 1833, 


2 vols. ; 2nd edit. 1851 ; 3rd edit., revised 
by W. H. J. Weale, 1893 ; illustrated from 
paintings, sculptures, and inscriptions be- 
longing to the earliest ages of the church. 
2. ' Did the Early Church in Ireland ac- 
knowledge the Pope's Supremacy ? An- 
swered in a Letter to Lord John Manners,' 
1844. 3. ' The Church of our Fathers, as 
seen in St. Osmund's Rite for the Cathedral 
of Salisbury; with Dissertations on the 
Belief and Ritual in England before the 
Coming of the Normans,' 1849-54, 3 vols. 
in four parts ; a new edition, by the Bene- 
dictines of Downside, is in preparation (1896). 

4. 'The Mystic Crown of Mary the Holy 
Maiden, Mother of God,' &c., in Verse, 1857. 

5. ' Textile Fabrics, a Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Collection of Church Vestments, 
Dresses, Silk Stuffs, Needlework, and Tapes- 
tries, forming that Section of the (South 
Kensington) Museum,' 1870. The introduc- 
tion to this volume was reissued as No. 1 of 
the ' South Kensington Handbooks,' 1876. 
Rock contributed to Manning's ' Essays in 
Religion,' &c., 1865, a paper ' On the In- 
fluence of the Church on Art in the Dark 
Ages,' also three papers to the 'Archaeo- 
logical Journal ' (vols. xxv. xxvi. xxvii.), and 
many communications to ' Notes and Queries.' 
He also wrote an article on the ' Fallacious 
Evidence of the Senses ' in the ' Dublin Re- 
view ' for October 1837. 

[English Cyclopaedia, Suppl. to Biography, 
1872, col. 1047: Graphic, 30 Dec. 1871 (por- 
trait) ; Brady's Episcopal Succes>ion in England, 
iii. 350 ; information kindly supplied by the 
rector of the English College at Rome, by the 
president of St. Edmund's College, and by Mr. 
Joseph Gillow.] C. W. S. 



ROCKRAY, EDMUND (d. 1597), puri- 
tan divine, matriculated as a sizar of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, in November 1558, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1560-1, M.A. in 1564, B.D. 
in 1570, and became fellow of his college and 
bursar shortly after 1560, and proctor of the 
university in 1568. Rockray was a zealous 
puritan. In 1570 he openly avowed his 
sympathy with Thomas Cartwright (1535- 
1603) [q.v.] (State Papers, Dom. Eliz. Ixxii. 
11 ; STRYPE, Annals, I. ii. 376, n. ii. 415-16). 
For attacking the new statutes imposed by 
the government on the university he was sum- 
moned before Whitgift, then vice-chancellor 
of the university, declined to recant, and was 
ordered to keep his rooms (IlEiwooD and 
WRIGHT, Cambridge Transactions during the 
Puritan Period, i. 59 ; NEAL, Puritans, i. 

i Rockstro 

306 ; Baker M'SS. iii. 382-4). In May 1572 
he signed the new statutes of the university 
(ib. i. 62 ; LAMB, Cambridge Documents), but 
about the same time he was ejected from his 
fellowship by order of the privy council for 
scruples as to the vestments, but was read- 
mitted by Burghley's influence. He still 
continued obstinate as to the ecclesiastical 
and academic vestments (STRYPE, Annals, 
ii. ii. 58), but he retained his fellowship 
until January 1578-9. In 1577 he had been 
made canon of Rochester, but, owing to his 
persistence in nonconformist practices, was 
suspended from the ministerial functions 
from 1584 till 1588. In 1587 he vacated his 
canonry, and, after continuing under eccle- 
siastical censure for many years, died in 

[Authorities as in text; Neal's Puritans; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ; ' second part of a 
register,' manuscript at Dr. Williams's Library, 
pp. 285. 585 ; Urwick's Nonconformity in Hunt- 
ingdonshire, p. 803 ; information kindly sent by 
F. G-. Plaistowe, librarian of Queens' Coll. Cam- 
bridge.] W. A. S. 

1895), musical composer and theorist, was 
born on 5 Jan. 1823 at North Cheam, Surrey, 
and baptised at Morden church in the name 
of Rackstraw. Rockstro was an older form 
of the surname, which the composer resumed 
in early life. His first professional teacher 
was John Purkis, the blind organist, and his 
first recorded composition brought forward 
publicly was a song, ' Soon shall chilling fear 
assail thee,' which Staudigl sang at F. Cra- 
mer's farewell concert on 27 June 1844. 
About the same time he officiated as organist 
in a dissenting chapel in London, and re- 
ceived instruction from Sterndale Bennett. 
Apparently on Bennett's recommendation,, 
he studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium 
from 20 May 1845 until 24 June 1846. He 
was one of seven specially selected pianoforte 
pupils of Mendelssohn, with whom he also 
studied composition, and whose intimacy he 
enjoyed. His studies with Hauptmann laid 
the foundation of his great theoretical know- 
ledge, and from Plaidy he received the finest 
traditions of pianoforte technique. 

On his return to England he lived for some 
time with his mother in London, and was 
successful as a pianist and teacher. In con- 
nection with a series of ' W ednesday concerts ' 
he came into contact with Braham and other 
famous singers, from whom he acquired the 
best vocal traditions of that day. He wrote 
at the period a number of beautiful songs, 
some of which, such as ' Queen and Hun- 
tress ' and ' A jewel for my lady's ear,' be- 
came in a sort classical. He edited for the 




firm of Boosey & Co. a series of operas in 
vocal score, under the title of 'The Standard 
Lyric Drama,' which were the earliest to be 
published at moderate price, and which con- 
tained the valuable innovation of noting pro- 
minent orchestral effects above the pianoforte 
part. For many years Rockstro was chiefly 
known to the musical world as the composer 
of pianoforte fantasias, transcriptions, and 
drawing-room pieces, which he continued to 
produce after he left London for Torquay, 
a change made on account of his own and 
his mother's health. He also enjoyed a high 
reputation as a teacher of singing and the 
pianoforte, and from 1867 was organist and 
honorary precentor at All Saints Church, 
Babbacombe. On the death of his mother in 
1876, he openly joined the church of Home. 

On musical archaeology Rockstro ulti- 
mately concentrated most of his attention, 
and in that branch of the art he soon had no 
rival among his contemporaries. His ' Fes- 
tival Psalter adapted to the Gregorian Tones,' 
with T. F. Ravenshaw (1863), and 'Accom- 
panying Harmonies to the Ferial Psalter ' 
(18H9), did much to promote the intelligent 
study of ancient church music. Two ex- 
amples may be given of his insight into 
the methods and style of the great Italian 
contrapuntists, and more especially of Pales- 
trina. A composition which he sent in 
anonymously to a competition held by the 
Madrigal Society about 1883 was so closely 
modelled upon Palestrina's work that the 
presiding judge rejected it on the ground 
that it must have been literally copied. It 
is the beautiful madrigal ' O too cruel fair,' 
perhaps the best example of Rockstro's work 
as a composer. On another occasion, in 
scoring- a sacred work by Palestrina, an hiatus 
of considerable length was discovered in one 
of the only set of parts then known to exist 
in England. The missing portion was con- 
jecturally restored by Rockstro, and on the 
discovery of a complete copy the restoration 
was found to represent the original exactly. 

But Rockstro's deep and practical know- 
ledge of the ancient methods of composition, 
of modal counterpoint, and of the artistic 
conditions of old times, was only imperfectly 
turned to account in some useful little 
manuals on harmony (1881) and counter- 
point (1882) until the publication of Sir 
George Grove's ' Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians/ to which he contributed many 
articles on subjects connected with eccle- 
siast ical music and the archaeological side of 
music. In 1886 Rockstro published a valu- 
able ' General History of Music,' and pro- 
duced with little success an oratorio, ' The 
Good Shepherd,' at the Gloucester Festival, 

under his own direction. His literary work 
increased as years went on, and he finally 
settled in London in 1891, where, in spite 
of failing health, he achieved not only much 
work as a teacher, but delivered lectures 
at the Royal Academy of Music and the 
Royal College, and was appointed at the 
latter institution teacher of a class for coun- 
terpoint and plain-soiig. He died in London 
on 2 July 1895. 

Besides the writings already enumerated, 
and a few short stories published in 1856-8, 
Rockstro's chief works were : 1. ' A History 
of Music for Young Students' (1879). 
2. 'The Life of George Frederick Handel' 
(1883). 3. 'Mendelssohn' (Great Musicians 
Series, 1884). 4. ' Jenny Lind the Artist ' 
(in collaboration with Canon Scott Holland, 
1891; abridged edition, 1893). 5. 'Jenny 
Lind, her Vocal Art and Culture ' (partly 
reprinted from the biography, 1894). 

[Parish Registers, Morden, Surrey; Register 
of the Leipzig Conservatorium, communicated 
by Herr G. Schreck ; Musical Herald, August 
1895 ; private information ; personal know- 
ledge.] J. A. F. M. 

1880), ornithologist, born at the vicarage of 
St. Just-in-Roseland, Cornwall, on 17 March 
1810, was third son of Edward Rodd, D.D. 
(1768-1842), by his wife Hariet, daughter of 
Charles Rashleigh, esq. , of Duporth, Corn wall . 
He was educated at Ottery St. Mary school, 
and trained for the law, being admitted to 
practise as a solicitor in Trinity term 1832. 
Early in the following year he settled at Pen- 
zance, where he entered into partnership witli 
George Dennis John. On John's death Rodd 
was joined by one Drake, and after the latter's 
death the firm became Rodd & Cornish. 
Rodd retired about 1878. He had also held 
many official posts in the town. He was 
town clerk from 1847, clerk to the local board 
from 1849, clerk to the board of guardians 
from the passing of the Poor Law Act, and 
superintendent registrar, besides being head 
distributor of stamps in Cornwall from 1844 
to 1 867. He died unmarried at Penzance on 
25 Jan. 1880, and was buried in the cemetery 

Rodd was an ardent ornithologist, and 
especially interested in the question of mi- 
gration. He studied minutely the avifauna 
of his county, and it was entirely due to his 
exertion that many a rare bird was rescued 
from oblivion, while several species were 
added by him to the list of British birds. 

Besides upwards of twenty papers on orni- 
thological matters contributed to the ' Zoo- 
logist,' the ' Ibis,' and the 'Journal of the 
Roval Institution of Cornwall' from 1843 



onwards, Rodd wa author of: 1. ' A List of 
British Birds as a Guide to the Ornithology 
of Cornwall,' 8vo, London, 1864 ; 2nd edit, j 
1869. 2. ' The Birds of Cornwall and the j 
Scilly Islands . . . Edited by J. E. Harting,' 
8vo, London, 1880. His collection is pre- 
served by his nephew, F. II. Rodd, esq., at 
Trebartha Hall, Launceston. 

[Memoir by J. E. Harting, prefixed to Birds 
of Cornwall ; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 
ii. 580, and Suppl. p. 1327; information kindly 
supplied by his nephew, F. R. Rodd, esq., of 
Trebartha Hall, Launceston ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; 
Royal Soc. Cat.] B. B. W. 

RODD, THOMAS, the elder (1763-1822), 
bookseller, born in Bow Street, Covent 
Garden, London, 17 Feb. 1763, was the son 
of Charles Rodd of Liverpool and Alicante in 
Spain. He was educated at the Charter- 
house and afterwards in France. For three 
years he was in his father's counting-office 
at Alicante, where he acquired a taste for 
Spanish literature. In 1794 he received 
from the Society of Arts their first premium 
of 20/. for osier-planting ( Transactions, xii. 
136-42). He sold a small property at Walt- 
ham St. Lawrence, Berkshire, and started 
a manufactory of imitation precious stones 
at Sheffield in 1804-5, and about 1809 
opened a bookseller's shop in Great Newport 
Street, London. The excise officials inter- 
fered with the working of his glass furnaces. 
He subsequently gave up the manufactory and 
confined himself to bookselling and amateur 
authorship. He was a facile writer of sermons. 
Charles Knight acknowledged obligation to 
his wide acquaintance with early English 
literature (Pictorial Shakespeare, 1867, iv. 
312), and J. P. Collier refers to him ' as cele- I 
brated for his knowledge of books as for his : 
fairness in dealing with them' (Bibl. Account, \ 
1865, vol. i. pref. p. x). He retired from busi- 
ness in 1821. 

He died at Clothall End, near Baldock, on 
27 Nov. 1822, aged 59. He was twice mar- 
ried, first to Elizabeth Inskip, by whom he 
had two sons, Thomas (1796-1849), who 
succeeded in the business ; and Horatio (see 
below). By a second wife, who survived 
him, he had three children. A portrait from 
a pencil sketch by A. Wivell is reproduced 
by Nichols (Illustrations of Lit. Hist. viii. 

lie wrote: 1. 'The Theriad, an heroic 
comic Poem,' London, 1790, sm. 8vo. 2. ' The 
Battle of Copenhagen, a Poem,' 1798, sm. 8vo. 
3. ' Zuma, a Tragedy translated from the 
French of Le Fevre,' 1800, 8vo. 4. ' Ancient 
Ballads from the Civil Wars of Granada and 
the twelve Peers of France,' 1801, 8vo (also 
with new title, 1803). 5. ' Elegy on Francis, 

Duke of Bedford,' 1802, 4to. 6. ' The Civil 
Wars of Granada, by G. Perez de Hita,' 1803, 
8vo (only the first volume published). 

7. ' Elegiac Stanzas on C. J. Fox,' 1806, 4to. 

8. ' Translation of W. Bowles's " Treatise on 
Merino Sheep,"' 1811, 4to. 9. 'Sonnets, 
Odes, Songs, and Ballads,' 1814, 8vo. 
10. ' Ode on the Bones of T. Paine,' 1819, 
8vo. 11. 'Original Letters from Lord 
Charlemont, c.,' 1820, 4to. 12. 'Defence 
of the Veracity of Moses by Philobiblos,' 
1820, 8vo. 13. 'Sermon on the Holy 
Trinity,' 1822, 4to. 

THOMAS RODD, the younger (1796-1849), 
eldest son of the above, was born on 9 Oct. 
1796, at Waltham St. Lawrence, Berkshire. 
At an early age he received an injury to his 
knee in his father's manufactory, and after- 
wards helped in the bookselling business in 
Great Newport Street, London, which he 
took over in 1821. In 1832 he circulated a 
' Statement ' with reference to a brawl in 
Piccadilly in which he was involved. He 
wrote ' Traditionary Anecdotes of Shake- 
speare ' (1833, 8vo), and printed in 1845 a 
' Narrative of the Proceedings instituted in 
the Court of Common Pleas against Mr. T. 
Rodd for the purpose of wresting from him a 
certain manuscript roll under pretence of its 
being a document of the court.' His memory 
and knowledge of books were remarkable, 
and his catalogues, especially those -of 
Americana, are still sought after. He was 
much esteemed by Grenville. Douce left 
him a legacy in token of regard, and Camp- 
bell specially complimented him in the 
' Lives of the Chancellors.' He was married, 
but left no children, and died at Great 
Newport Street on 23 April, in his fifty- 
third year. 

HORATIO RODD (^?. 1859), second son of 
Thomas Rodd, the elder, after helping his 
father, went into the bookselling business 
with his brother, but on a dissolution of 
partnership was for many years a picture- 
dealer and printseller in London. He after- 
wards lived in Philadelphia. He wrote : 
1. ' Opinions of Learned Men on the Bible/ 
London, 1839, sm. 8vo. 2. ' Remarks on the 
Chandos Portrait of Shakespeare,' 1849, 8vo. 
3. ' Catalogue of rare Books and Prints illus- 
trative of Shakespeare,' 1850, 8vo. 4. ' Cata- 
logue of all the Pictures of J. M. W. Turner,' 
1857, 8vo. 5. ' Letters between P. Cunning- 
ham and H. Rodd on the Chandos Portrait,' 
1858, 8vo, and various catalogues of portraits 
(1824, 1827, 1831). 

[Gent. Mag. 1849 i. 653-6 (memoir by Horatio 
Rodd) ; Nichols's Illustrations <>f Lit. Hist. viii. 
346, 678-80; Allibone's Dictionary, ii. 1845-6.1 

H. R. T. 




RODDAM, ROBERT (1719-1808), ad- 
miral, born in 1719, was second son of Edward 
Roddam of Roddam. The family was settled 
from time immemorial at Roddam, near Aln- 
wick. Robert entered the navy in 1735 on 
board the Lowestoft, in which he served on 
the West India station for five years. He 
was afterwards for short periods in the 
Russell, Cumberland, and Boyne, was present 
in the attack on Cartagena in March-April 
1741, and in the occupation of Guatanamo or 
Cumberland harbour. On 3 Nov. 1741 he was 
promoted to be lieutenant of the Superbe, with 
Captain William Harvey, who, on the return 
of the ship to England in August 1742, was, 
mainly on Roddam's evidence, cashiered for 
tyranny, cruelty, and neglect of duty. Rod- 
dam was then appointed to the Monmouth, 
with Captain Charles Wyndham, and for the 
next four years was engaged in active cruising 
on the coast of France, and as far south as 
the Canary Islands. On 7 June 1746 he was 
promoted to command the Viper sloop, then 
building at Poole. She was launched on 
11 June, and on 26 July she joined the fleet 
at Spithead. Roddam's energy and seaman- 
ship attracted the notice of Anson, then in 
command of the Channel fleet, with whom, 
and afterwards with Sir Peter Warren [q. v.], 
he continued till 9 July 1747. He was then 
advanced to post rank in consequence of 
Warren's high commendation of the gal- 
lantry and skill with which he had gone into 
Cedeiro Bay, near Cape Ortegal, stormed a 
battery, destroyed the guns, burnt twenty- 
eight merchant ships, and brought away five 
together with a Spanish privateer. 

He was then appointed to the Greyhound, 
employed in the North Sea till the peace, and 
afterwards at New York till 1751. In 1753 
he commanded the Bristol guardship at Ply- 
mouth, and in 1755 was appointed to the 
Greenwich of 50 guns for service in the 
West Indies, where, off Cape Cabron, on 
16 March 1757, the Bhip was captured by a 
squadron of eight French ships, including 
two ships of the line and a large frigate. 
Roddam was sent to Cape Francais, but in 
July was sent to Jamaica on parole. On 
being tried by court-martial for the loss of 
his ship he was honourably acquitted, and 
returned to England in a packet. When at 
last exchanged, he was appointed to the 50- 
gun ship Colchester, attached to the fleet 
with Hawke on the coast of France. He 
joined her on 7 Dec. 1759. In 1760 he went 
to St. Helena in charge of convoy, and on 
his return the Colchester was paid off. In 
December 1770 he was appointed to the 
Lennox, which, after the dispute with Spain 
about the Falkland Islands was happily ar- 

ranged, he commanded, as a guardship at 
Portsmouth, till the end of 1773. In 1776, 
on the death of his elder brother Edward, he 
succeeded to the Roddam estates. In 1777 
he commanded the Cornwall at Portsmouth. 
On 23 Jan. 1778 he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral of the white, and shortly afterwards 
was appointed commander-in-chief at the 
Nore, where he continued till the end of the 
war. On 19 March 1779 he was advanced 
to be vice-admiral of the blue. During the 
Spanish armament in 1790 he had his flag 
flying at Spithead on board the Royal Wil- 
liam ; after which he had no further em- 
ployment. He became admiral of the blue 
on 1 Feb. 1793, but for the following years 
lived in comparative retirement at Roddam. 
He died at Morpeth on 31 March 1808, being 
then senior admiral of the red. He was three 
times married, but left no issue, and the es- 
tates went by his will to William Spencer 
Stanhope, the great-grandson of his first 
cousin Mary, wife of Edward Collingwood. 
His portrait was engraved in 1789 by H. 
Hudson after L. F. Abbot (BROMLEY). 

[Naval Chronicle, ix. 253, xix. 470; Char- 
nock's Biogr. Nar. vi. 56 ; Official letters, &c.. 
in the Public Eecord Office. The minutes of 
the court-martial were printed, but copies seem 
to be extremely scarce. Gent. Mag. 1808, i. 
371 ; European Mag. 1808, i. 314 ; Burkp's Hist, 
of the Commoners, i. 675.] J. K. L. 

BERT, first earl, 1731-1797 ; JOCELYN, 
ROBERT, third earl, 1788-1870.] 

1892), portrait-painter, was born in Bradford 
Street, Birmingham, in 1817, and appren- 
ticed to Mr. Dew, an engraver. He continued 
to practise engraving for about ten years, and 
then took to portrait- painting. As he suc- 
ceeded in producing very good likenesses, 
Roden obtained plenty of employment in his 
native town. In the council house, among 
other portraits by Roden, there is a portrait 
of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone ; in the 

Art Gallery portraits of Cardinal John Henry 
painter and engraver, Peter Hollins [see 


Samuel Lines 

.], the 

under HOLLTNS, WILLIAM], the sculptor, 
and John Henry Chamberlain, the architect ; 
and at Aston Hall portraits of Dr. Lloyd 
and Sir John Ratcliff. Other portraits are 
in the General Hospital, and for Saltley Col- 
lege he painted a portrait of George William, 
fourth lord Lyttelton [q. v.] He also painted 
three portraits of Lord Palmerstou. Roden's 
work was almost entirely confined to his 
native town and its neighbourhood, where 
it was much esteemed. He died on Christ- 

Roderic * 

mas day 1892, at his sister's house in Hands- 
worth, after a long illness. He rarely ex- 
hibited works at the London exhibitions. 

[B ; rmingham Post, 12 Dec. 1892; Graves's 
Diet, of Artists, 1760-1893; information from 
Whitworth Wallis, esq., F.S.A.] L. C. 

RODERIC THE GREAT (d. 877), Welsh 
king. [See RHODRI MAWR.] 

RODERIC O'CONNOR (1116-1198), 
king of Ireland. [See O'CONNOR.] 

RODERICK, RICHARD (d. 1756), critic 
and versifier, a native of Cambridgeshire, was 
admitted pensioner of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, on 20 Dec. 1728, and graduated B.A. 
in 1732. He subsequently became a fellow 
commoner of the college, and a grace was 
granted by the president and fellows for him 
to proceed to the degree of M.A. on 5 June 
1736. On 19 Jan. 1742-3 he was admitted 
to a fellowship at Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, probably through the influence of 
Edward Abbot, master of Magdalene Col- 
lege (1740-6), who was his cousin. Roderick 
was elected F.R.S. on 21 June 1750, and 
F.S.A. on 6 Feb. 1752. He died on 20 July 

Roderick was the intimate friend and 
coadjutor of Thomas Edwards [q. v.] in the 
latter's ' Canons of Criticism.' The ' Shep- 
herd's Farewell to his Love,' from Metas- 
tasio, and the riddles that follow, which are 
inserted in Dodsley's 'Collection of Poetry' 
(ed. 1766, ii. 309-21), are by Roderick, and 
his translation of No. 13 in the Odes of 
Horace, book iv., is inserted in Duncombe's 
versions of Horace (ii. 248-9). Edwards de- 
dicated No. xxxix. of his sonnets to Roderick. 

[Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. Hist. i. 17-18, 24; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 200 ; Gent. Mag. 1756 
p. 412, 1780 p. 123; information from Queens' 
and Magdalene Colleges.] W. P. C. 

RODES, FRANCIS (1530 ? -1588), judge, 
born about 1530, was son of John Rodes of 
Staveley Woodthorpe, Derbyshire, by his first 
wife, Attelina, daughter of Thomas Hewett 
of Wales in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
The family traced its descent from Gerard 
de Rodes, a prominent baron in the reign 
of Henry II. Francis was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, but did not gra- 
duate. In 1549 he was entered at Gray's 
Inn, and in 1552 was called to the bar. He 
was Lent reader at his inn in 1566, and 
double reader in 1576, and seems to have 
derived a considerable fortune from his prac- 
tice. In 1578 he was raised to the degree 
of the coif, and on 21 Aug. 1582 he was 
made queen's Serjeant. On 29 June 1585 he 
was raised to the bench as justice of the 


common pleas, and in October 1586 he took 
part in the trial of Mary Queen of Scots at 
Fotheringay. He died towards the end of 
1588 at Staveley Woodthorpe. His will, 
dated 7 June 1587, was proved on 28 April 
1591 ; among numerous other benefactions 
he made bequests to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and the newly founded grammar 
school at Staveley Netherthorpe. His ' Re- 
ports' were among the manuscript collections 
of Sir John Maynard (1602-1690) [q. v.], 
and are now in Lincoln's Inn library (HuN- 
TER, Cat. of Lincoln's Inn MSS.) His prin- 
cipal seat was at Barlborough, Derbyshire, 
where he built the hall which is still stand- 
ing ; he also purchased extensive estates 
Billingsley, Dar field, Great and Little 
Houghton, all in Yorkshire. 

Rodes married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Brian Sandford of Thorpe Salvine, York- 
shire ; and, secondly, Mary, eldest daughter 
of Francis Charlton of Appley in Shropshire. 
Her sister Elizabeth married John Manners, 
fourth earl of Rutland, who appointed Rodes 
one of his executors. Rodes was succeeded 
in the Barlborough estates by his eldest son 
by his first wife, Sir John Rodes (1562- 
1639), whose son Francis (d. 1645) was 
created a baronet on 14 Aug. 1641. The 
title became extinct on the death of Sir John 
Rodes, fourth baronet, in 1743. Darfield 
and Great Houghton passed to the judge's 
eldest son by his second wife, Sir Godfrey 
Rodes (d. 1634), whose son, Sir Edward 
Rodes (1599-1666), served as sheriff of York- 
shire and colonel of horse under Cromwell; 
he was also a member of Cromwell's privy 
council, sheriff of Perthshire, and represented 
Perth in the parliaments of 1 656-8 and 1659- 
1660. Sir Edward's sister Elizabeth was 
third wife of Thomas Wentworth, earl of 
Strafford. Her portrait, by an unknown 
hand, belongs to the Earl of Crewe, who 
also possesses a portrait of her father, Sir 
Godfrey Rodes. 

[Cooper's AthenaeCantalir. i.35; Foss's Judges 
of England ; Dti^dale's Orig. Jurid. and Chron. 
Ser. ; Collins's Peerage, i. 473 ; Wotton's Baro- 
netage, eH. Kimber and Johnson, ii. 2.55 ; Burke's 
Extinct Baronets and Landed Gentry, ed. 1871 ; 
Lysons's Derbyshire ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, 
ii. 129, 130; Strype's Annals, iii. 364; Foster's 
Gray's Inn Register, pp. x, 20, and Members of 
Parl. of Scotland ; Familise Minorum Gentium 
(Harl. Soc.), pp. 38-9, 583-7; Genealogist, new 
ser. x. 246-8.] A. F. P. 

RODGER, ALEXANDER (1784-1846), 
minor poet, son of a farmer, was born at 
Mid-Calder, Midlothian, on 16 July 1781. 
Owing to his mother's weak health he was 
boarded out till he was seven years of age, 




when his father, who had become an inn- 
keeper in Mid-Calder, took him home and 
put him to school. Presently the family 
removed to Edinburgh, where Rodger for a 
year was apprenticed to a silversmith. Busi- 
ness difficulties then constrained the father 
to go to Hamburg, and Rodger settled with 
relatives of his mother in the east end of 
Glasgow. Here he began handloom weav- 
ing in 1797. In 1803 he joined the Glasgow 
highland volunteers, with which regiment, 
and another formed from it, he was asso- 
ciated for nine years. After his marriage 
in 180B he lived in Bridgeton, then a suburb 
of Glasgow, where he prosecuted his trade, 
and also composed and taught music. For- 
saking his loom in 1819, he joined the staff 
of a Glasgow weekly newspaper, ' The Spirit 
of the Union.' The seditious temper of the 
publication soon involved it in ruin, and the 
editor was transported for life. Returning to 
his trade, Rodger was shortly afterwards im- 
prisoned as a suspected person ; during his 
confinement he continued to compose and 
sing revolutionary lyrics. 

In 1821 Rodger became inspector of the 
cloths used for printing and dyeing in Bar- 
rowfield print-works, Glasgow. This post he 
retained for eleven years. During this period 
he completed some of his best literary work, 
and manifested a useful public spirit, 
securing in one instance the permanence of 
an important right of way on the Clyde 
near Glasgow. Resigning his inspectorship 
in 1832, he was for a few months manager 
of a friend's pawnbroking business. Then 
for about a year he was reader and local re- 
porter for the ' Glasgow Chronicle,' after 
which he had a short engagement on a 
weekly radical paper. Finally he obtained 
a situation on the ' Reformer's Gazette ' 
which he held till his death. In 1836, at a 
public dinner in his honour, under the pre- 
sidency of Professor Wilson, admirers of 
widely different political views presented 
him with a silver box filled with sovereigns. 
He died on 26 Sept. 1846, and was buried 
in Glasgow necropolis. A handsome monu- 
ment at his grave has an appropriate inscrip- 
tion by William Kennedy (1799-1871) [q. v.] 
In 1800 Rodger married Agnes Turner, and 
several members of their large family emi- 
grated to America. 

His connection with the highland volun- 
teers gave Rodger opportunities of observing 
Celtic character, and prompted witty verses 
at the expense of comrades. One of his 
earliest serious poems is devoted to Bolivar 
on the occasion of the slave emancipation in 
1816. Collections of Rodger's lyrics ap- 
peared in 1821 ('Scotch Poetry: Songs, 


Odes, Anthems, and Epigrams,' London, 
8vo), in 1827 (' Peter Cornclips, with other 
Poems and Songs,' Glasgow, 12mo), and 
1838 (' Poems and Songs, Humorous and 
Satirical,' Glasgow, 12mo), and a small 
volume of his political effusions was pub- 
lished later, under the title of ' Stray Leaves 
from the Portfolios of Alisander the Seer, 
Andrew Whaup, and Humphrey Henkeckle ' 
(Glasgow, 1842,8vo). Somewhat unpolished, 
Rodger's verses, humorous or sentimental, 
are always easy and vigorous. He is at his 
best in the humorous descriptive lyric, and 
in his ' Robin Tamson's Smiddy ' he has 
made a permanent contribution to Scottish 
song. One of his pieces, 'Behave yourself 
before Folk,' was quoted with approval in 
one of the uncollected ' Noctes Ambrosianse.' 
Rodger assisted the publisher, David Robert- 
son [q. v.], in editing some of the early series 
of 'Whistle Binkie' (1839-46), a Glasgow 
anthology of contemporary Scottish lyrics. 

[Whistle Binkie, vol. i. ed. 1878; Rogers's 
Modern Scottish Minstrel ; Mackay's Through 
the Long Day ; Hedderwick's Back ward Glances.] 

T. B. 

RODINGTON, JOHN (d. 1348), Fran- 
ciscan, was probably a native of Rudding- 
ton, Nottinghamshire. He was educated at 
Oxford, where he graduated D.D., and at 
Paris (BtJDiNSZKY, Die Universitdt Paris 
und die Fremden an derselben im Mittelalter, 
1870, p. 92). Entering the Franciscan order, 
he was attached to the convent of Stamford, 
and subsequently became nineteenth pro- 
vincial minister of the order in England. He 
died in 1348, probably of the plague, at Bed- 
ford, where he was buried. He was author 
of: 1. 'Joannes Rodinchon in librum i. 
Sententiarum ; ' the manuscript is not known 
to be extant, but it was printed by Joannes 
Picardus in his ' Thesaurus Theologorum,' 
1503. 2. ' Johannis de Rodynton Determi- 
nationes Theologicse,' extant at Munich in 
Bibl. Regise, Cod. Lat. 22023, which also 
contains 3. ' Quaestiones super quartum li- 
brum Sententiarum.' 4. ' Quaestiones super 
Quodlibeta,' extant in Bruges MS. No. 503. 

[Monumenta Franciscana, i. 538, 554, 560 ; 
Wadding, p. 153, and Sbaralea, p. 458 ; Pits, p. 
462 ; Bale, vi. 27 ; Fabricius's Bibl. Med. 2Evi 
Latinitatis, iv. 364 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; 
Little's Grey Friars in Oxford, pp. 171, 174.] 

A. F. P. 

BARON RODNEY (1719-1792), admiral, second 
son of Henry Rodney, was baptised in the 
church of St. Giles-in-the Fields, London, on 
13 Feb. 1718-19. His grandfather, Anthony 
Rodney, son of George, youngest brother of 



Sir Edward Rodney of Stoke Rodney in So- 
merset, after serving through the wars of 
"William III as captain in Colonel Leigh's 
regiment of dragoons, was in 1702 lieutenant- 
colonel of Holt's regiment of marines, and 
was killed in a duel at Barcelona in 1705. 
Anthony's brother George served during the 
reign of William III as a captain of marines, 
and died in 1700. Henry Rodney (1681- 
1737), son of Anthony, served with his father 
as a cornet in Leigh's dragoons, and after- 
wards as a captain in Holt's marines. The 
regiment was disbanded in 1713, and Henry 
settled down at Walton-on-Thames and mar- 
ried Mary, elder daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Henry Newton (1661-1716) [q.v.] (MtTHBI ; 
information kindly supplied by Colonel Edye). 
The story that he was captain of the king's 
yacht is unsupported by evidence, and is in 
itself improbable. That the king was god- 
father to young Rodney ispossible, but George 
was already a family name ; Brydges, his 
second Christian name, commemorated the 
relationship of his family with that of James 
Brydges (afterwards duke of Chandos) [q. v.], 
to whom the Stoke Rodney estates had de- 
scended by the marriage of Sir Edward 
Rodney's daughter and heiress. 

George Brydges Rodney is said (COLLINS, 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, vii. 561) to have been 
brought up as a child by George Brydges 
of Avington and Keynsham. He was also 
for a short time at Harrow, and entered 
the navy in July 1732 as a volunteer per 
order, or king's letter-boy, on board the 
Sunderland of 60 guns, with Captain Ro- 
bert Man. In May 1733 he joined the Dread- 
nought with Captain Alexander Geddes, who, 
in December 1734, was superseded by Cap- 
tain Henry Medley [q. v.] In July 1739 he 
joined the Somerset of 80 guns, flagship of 
Rear-admiral Nicholas Haddock [q.v.], by 
whom, on 29 Oct., he was promoted to be 
lieutenant of the Dolphin frigate, with his 
uncle, Lord Aubrey Beauclerk [q.v.] In 
1741 he was lieutenant of the Essex, one of 
the fleet in the Channel, under Sir John 
Norris (1660-1749) [q. v.],and in 1742 went 
out to the Mediterranean with Admiral 
Mathews, by whom, on 9 Nov., he was pro- 
moted to be captain of the Plymouth of 60 ' 
guns, then under orders for England. On 
his arrival his commission as captain was 
confirmed without his passing through the 
intermediate grade of commander. 

In September 1743 Rodney was appointed ! 
to the Sheerness, a 24-gun frigate, from j 
which, in October 1744, he was moved to 
the Ludlow Castle, employed during the 
following year in the North Sea under the 
orders of Admiral Edward Vernon [q. v.] 

In December 1745 he was appointed to the 
new 60-gun ship Eagle. During 1746 he 
was for the most part employed in cruising 
off the south coast of Ireland for the pro- 
tection of trade ; in 1747 he was with Com- 
modore Fox in a successful and lucrative 
cruise to the westward, and had a brilliant 
share in the defeat of the French fleet under 
L'Etenduere on 14 Oct. [see HAWKE, ED- 
WARD, LORD]. He afterwards complained 
that at a critical period in the action he had 
not been properly supported by Fox, who, 
on his representations, was tried for mis- 
conduct and dismissed from his command. 
After the peace in 1748 Rodney was ap- 
pointed to the 40-gun ship Rainbow as 
governor of Newfoundland, and with secret 
orders to support the colonists against the 
encroachments of the French in Nova Scotia. 
The Rainbow was paid off in the autumn of 
1752, and during the following years Rodney 
successively commanded the Kent, Fougueux, 
Prince George, and Monarque, as guardships 
at Portsmouth. In December 1756 he was 
in London on leave, and although he was 
ordered to return to sit on the court-martial 
on Admiral John Byng [q. v.], his attendance 
was excused on the score of ' a violent bilious 
colic.' With equal good fortune he was 
moved to the Dublin in February 1757, a 
very few weeks before Byng was shot. In 
the autumn of 1757 the Dublin was one of 
the fleet with Hawke in the abortive expe- 
dition to the Basque Roads, and in 1758 was 
with Boscawen on the coast of North Ame- 
rica, but, being very sickly, she was left at 
Halifax when the fleet sailed for the reduc- 
tion of Louisbourg. 

On 19 May 1759 Rodney was promoted to 
the rank of rear-admiral, and at once ap- 
pointed, with his flag in the Achilles, to the 
command of a squadron including several 
bomb-ketches, with which, on 4, 5, and 
6 July, he bombarded Havre, destroying the 
stores and flat-bottomed boats prepared for 
the contemplated invasion of England. He 
continued off Havre during the rest of the 
year, and again during 1760 ; and in 1761 
went out to the West Indies as commander- 
in-chief on the Leeward Islands station,when, 
in concert with a large land force, he reduced 
Martinique in February 1762, and took pos- 
session of St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. Vin- 
cent. On 21 Oct. 1762 he was advanced to 
the rank of vice-admiral. In August 1763 
he returned to England, and on 21 Jan. 

1764 was created a baronet. In November 

1765 he was appointed governor of Green- 
wich Hospital, and during the five years 
that he held this appointment is said to have 
suggested and insisted on several measures 



conducive to the comfort and well-being of 
the pensioners. 

Since 1751 he had had a seat in the House 
of Commons as a nominee of the govern- 
ment or the Duke of Newcastle for Saltash, 
Okehampton, or Penryn. At the election 
of 1768 he was thrown on his own resources, 
and in securing his election for Northampton 
is said to have expended 30,000/. He was 
not a wealthy man, and this, added to social 
extravagance, completed his pecuniary ruin. 
Early in 1771, therefore, on the prospect of 
a war with Spain, he very readily accepted 
the command at Jamaica, hoping that he 
might also retain his appointment at Green- 
wich, as had, indeed, been usual. Lord 
Sandwich, however, refused to allow this, and 
as the difference with Spain was peaceably 
arranged, Rodney returned to England in the 
summer of 1774 no richer than when he 
went out, and much disgusted with the 
ministry which had refused to appoint him I 
governor of Jamaica. He had been nomi- 
nated rear-admiral of Great Britain in August 
1771, but for some reason the emoluments 
of the office had not been paid to him. He 
now found himself so pressed by his liabilities 
in England that he retired to France in 
the beginning of 177o, and for the next 
four years or more lived in Paris ; but, far 
from economising, he increased his indebted- 
ness, and, when the war with England was 
on the point of breaking out, he was unable 
to leave France. There was more due to 
him as rear-admiral of Great Britain than 
would have cleared him twice over ; but, in 
his absence, the navy board refused to pay 
it, and he was only relieved from his em- 
barrassment by the friendly interposition of 
the MarSchal de Biron, who advanced him 
one thousand louis, and thus enabled him to 
return to England in May 1778 (MuxDY, i. I 
180). The often repeated but incredible and : 
unsupported story that Biron was commis- j 
sioned by the French king to offer him a high 
command in the French fleet is contradicted j 
by Rodney's letter to his wife of G May (#.) I 

Rodney returned full of bitterness against j 
Sandwich, who, as first lord of the admi- 
ralty, should, he thought, have ordered the 
navy board to satisfy his just claims. Sand- 
wich cherished an equal resentment against 
Rodney. The latter had been promoted to the 
rank of admiral on 29 Jan. 1778, but it was 
not till towards the close of 1779, when no 
other officer of standing and repute would ac- 
cept a command under his government, that 
Sandwich offered Rodney the command of 
the fleet on the Leeward Islands station ; 
and Rodney believed that even then it was 
at the direct desire of the king. It appears 

certain that at the time and afterwards he 
considered himself in a peculiar degree the 
servant of the king. On his way to the 
West Indies he was to relieve Gibraltar, 
then closely blockaded by the Spaniards, 
and for this purpose took command of a fleet 
of twenty-one sail of the line, which, with 
frigates and some three hundred storeships 
and transports, sailed from Plymouth Sound 
on 29 Dec. On 16 Jan. 1780, to the south- 
ward of Cape St. Vincent, he caught the 
Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lan- 
gara, making its way towards Cadiz with a 
fresh westerly gale. It was of very inferior 
force, consisting of only eleven ships- of the 
line, two of which were nearly out of sight 
ahead. Rodney at once grasped the situa- 
tion and ordered a general chase, the ships 
to get between the enemy and the land and 
to engage as they came up with them. 
Night closed in as the action began, and 
through it a fearful storm was raging, but 
neither darkness nor storm stayed the bril- 
liant rush of the English fleet, and the com- 
pleteness of the result was commensurate 
with the vigour of the attack. Of the nine 
Spanish ships engaged, two only escaped : 
one was blown up, six (including Langara's 
flagship) were captured, and Gibraltar was 
relieved without the possibility of hindrance. 
The disproportion between the forces was so 
great as to deprive the action of much of its 
interest, but the peculiar circumstances of it 
the darkness, the storm, and the rocks to 
leeward enhanced the merit of Rodney's 
prompt decision. At home the victorious 
admiral was the hero of the hour, and Sand- 
wich, with sublime impudence, wrote to him, 
' The worst of my enemies now allow that 
I have pitched upon a man who knows his 
duty, and is a brave, honest, and able officer.' 
He was nominated an extra knight of the 
Bath ; the city of London presented him with 
the freedom of the city in a gold casket. 

From Gibraltar the bulk of the fleet re- 
turned to England. Rodney, with four sail 
of the line, went on to the West Indies, 
and reached St. Lucia on 22 March, five days 
before the Comte de Guichen took command 
of the French fleet at Martinique. On 
13 April Guichen put to sea, and Rodney, 
having early intelligence of his movements, 
at once followed. The French fleet was still 
under the lee of Martinique when Rodney 
sighted it on the evening of the 16th. By 
the morning of the 17th the two fleets were 
abreast of, and parallel to, each other, though 
heading in opposite directions, the French 
towards the south, the English, some ten or 
twelve miles to windward, towards the 
north. Now, early in the century, it had 



8 4 


been laid down by the admiralty as a posi- 
tive order that when the fleet was to wind- 
ward of the enemy ranged in line of battle, 
the van was to engage the van, and so on 
the whole length of the line. For a viola- 
tion of this order Mat hews had been cashiered ; 
for not giving effect to it Byng had been shot ; 
by attempting it in 1781 Graves was de- 
feated and the American colonies were lost. 
Rodney was keenly alive to the absurdity of 
it, and risked departure from it. Two days 
before he had acquainted each captain in the 
fleet that it was his intention to bring the 
whole force of his fleet on a part perhaps 
two- thirds of the enemy's (Sir Gilbert Blane 
in Athenesum, 1809, a monthly magazine, 
v. 302) ; so that when, early in the morning 
of the 17th, he made the signal that he in- 
tended to attack the enemy's rear, he took 
for granted that his meaning was patent to 
every one. Unfortunately several signals 
and manoeuvres intervened, and both fleets 
were on the sam=; tack, heading to the north, 
when, a few minutes before noon, the order 
to engage was finally given. By that time 
the rear-admiral and captains in the van 
had quite forgotten both the earlier signal 
and the communication made two days 
before, which they probably never under- 
stood. The result was a grievous disap- 
pointment. Rodney felt that he had Guichen 
in his grasp. The French fleet was in very 
open order ; their line extended to some- 
thing like twelve miles ; and he had thus 
the chance of Jailing, with his whole force, 
on half of that of the enemy. But Captain 
Robert Carkett q. v.], who commanded the 
leading ship, and Rear-admiral Hyde Parker 
(1714-1782) [q. v.], who commanded the 
van, could not understand anything beyond 
the fatal ' instruction,' and stretched ahead 
to seek the enemy's van. Others followed 
their example ; and others, again, between 
the contradictory signals of Rodney and 
Parker, were completely puzzled, and did 
nothing. There followed a partial engage- 
ment, in which several of the ships on either 
side were much shattered, in which many 
men were killed or wounded, but in which 
no advantage was obtained by either party. 
In his letter to the admiralty Rodney laid 
the blame for tin- failure on several of the 
captains, and . -pecially on Carkett. But 
the responsibility was largely his in not 
making it clear 10 at least the junior flag- 
officers that he proposed attempting some- 
thing distinctly contrary to the admiralty 
fighting instructions. Guichen, on his part, 
was quick to realise that, with an enemy 
who refused to !> bound by office formulae, 
the lee gage might be a position of un- 

wonted danger ; and accordingly, a month 
later, when the fleets were again in presence 
of each other, to windward of Martinique, 
he obstinately retained the weather-gage 
which fortune gave him ; and thus, though 
on two separate occasions, 15 and 19 May, 
Rodney, aided by a shift of wind, was able 
to lay up to his rear and bring on a passing 
skirmish, no battle took place. And so the 
campaign ended. A couple of months later 
Guichen returned to Europe, while Rodney, 
doubtful if he had not gone to the coast of 
North America, went himself to join Vice- 
admiral Arbuthnot at New York. There 
Arbuthnot received him with insolence and 
insubordination. Rodney behaved with mode- 
ration, but as Arbuthnot refused to be con- 
ciliated, he referred the matter to the ad- 
miralty [see ARBTJTHSTOT, MARRIOT] ; and, 
having satisfied himself that he was no 
longer needed in North American waters, he 
returned to the West Indies, where he ar- 
rived in the beginning of December. 

By the end of the month he was joined by 
Sir Samuel (afterwards Viscount) Hood [q.v.] 
with a large reinforcement, and a few weeks 
later, on 27 Jan. 1781, he received news of 
the war with Holland, and a recommenda- 
tion to attack St. Eustatius. This coincided 
with Rodney's own wishes. The contraband 
and partial trade of St. Eustatius had been 
an annoyance and grievance to him during 
the whole of the past year, and he eagerly 
grasped the opportunity of vengeance. He 
seized the island and its accumulation of mer- 
chandise, to the value of from two to three 
millions sterling. This enormous mass of 
wealth seems to have intoxicated him. A 
large proportion of it belonged to English 
merchants, and against these Rodney was 
especially furious ; they were traitors who 
had been gathering riches by supplying the 
enemies of their country with contraband of 
war. ' My happiness,' he wrote to Germain, 
' is having been the instrument of my coun- 
try in bringing this nest of villains to con- 
dign punishment. They deserve scourging, 
and they shall be scourged.' Unfortunately, 
he did not consider that, as the offenders 
claimed to be Englishmen, the scourging 
must be by legal process. He confiscated 
the whole of the property, sold some of it 
by auction, and sent a large part of the re- 
mainder for England. But as the convoy 
approached the shores of Europe it fell into 
the hands of a French squadron under 
Lamotte Picquet, who captured a great part 
of it [see HOTHAM, WILLIAM, LOUD] : and 
St. Eustatius itself, with the rest of the 
booty, including the money realised by the 
sales, was afterwards recaptured by De 


Bouille. Rodney's dream of wealth thus 
vanished, and all that remained was a number 
of vexatious and costly lawsuits, which swal- 
lowed up the greater part of his lawful gains. 

Meanwhile he had sent Hood with a 
strong force to blockade Fort Royal oft' Mar- 
tinique. It was rumoured that a powerful 
French fleet was expected, and Rodney's 
post was clearly off Martinique. But he 
could not tear himself away from the fasci- 
nations of St. Eustatius, and he refused to 
believe the rumour. The result was that 
the French fleet, when it arrived, forced its 
way into Martinique, and that Hood, having 
been unable to prevent it, rejoined Rodney 
at Antigua. Rodney's ill-health \vas doubt- 
less largely responsible for his blunder. He 
was obliged to resign the command to Hood, 
and on 1 Aug. he sailed for England. On 
6 Nov. he was appointed vice-admiral of 
Great Britain. 

A few months' rest at home restored his 
health, and on 16 Jan. 1782 he sailed from 
Torbay with his flag in the 90-gun ship 
Formidable. On 19 Feb. he rejoined Hood 
at Barbados. The position of affairs was 
critical. The French had just captured St. 
Kitts, and were meditating an attack in ! 
force on Jamaica. Some fourteen Spanish I 
ships of the line and eight thousand soldiers J 
were assembled at Cape Francais, where i 
they were to be joined by the Comte de | 
Grasse from Martinique, with thirty-five sail j 
of the line, five thousand troops, and a large ' 
convoy of storeships. But timely reinforce- j 
ments had brought Rodney's force up to ; 
thirty-six sail of the line, with which he j 
took up a position at St. Lucia, waiting for ] 
De Grasse to move. On the morning of [ 
8 April he had the news that the French I 
fleet was putting to sea. In two hours he | 
was in pursuit, and the next morning sighted 
the enemy under the lee of Dominica, where 
the trade wind was cut oft" by the high land 
and blew in fitful eddies, alternating with 
calms and sea breezes. A partial action fol- 
lowed, without any result, and De Grasse, 
drawing off, attempted to get to windward j 
through the Saintes Passage. Various acci- 
dents prevented his doing so, and, on the 
morning of the 12th, Sir Charles Douglas 
[q. v.], the captain of the fleet, awakened j 
Rodney with the glad news that ' God had 
given him the enemy on the lee bow.' 

De Grasse was tempted still further to 
leeward to cover a disabled ship, and then, 
seeing that he could no longer avoid an 
action, he formed his line of battle and stood 
towards the south, while the English, on the 
opposite tack, advanced to meet him. About 
eight o'clock the battle began, the two lines 

5 Rodney 

passing each other at very close quarters. 
But as the French line got more to the 
southward, and under the lee of Dominica, 
it was broken by the varying winds, and at 
least two large gaps were made, through one 
of which the Formidable passed, and almost 
at the same moment the Bedford, the lead- 
ing ship of the rear division, passed through 
the other [see AFFLECK, SIR EDMUND]. The 
ships astern followed ; the French line was 
pulverised, and endeavoured to run to lee- 
ward to reform. But for this they had no 
time: a rout ensued, and their rearmost ships, 
attacked in detail, were overpowered and 
taken. Just as the sun set, De Grasse's flag- 
ship, the Ville de Paris, surrendered to the Bar- 
fleur, and Rodney made the signal to bring to. 
Hood was astounded. Douglas begged 
Rodney to continue the chase. He refused, 
on the ground that the ships, getting in 
among the enemy in the dark, would run 
great danger, while some of the French ships, 
remaining behind, might do great damage 
among the islands to windward ; all which, 
as Captain Mahan has said, is ' creditable 
to his imagination.' for the French were 
thoroughly beaten and could not have had 
any idea of aggression (Influence of Sea- 
Power upon History, p. 497). Hood's opinion 
was that at least twenty ships might have 
been captured, and wrote, ' Surely there 
never was an instance before of a great fleet 
being so completely beaten and routed, and 
not pursued.' The neglect, he thought, was 
'glaring and shameful,' and he did not 
scruple to attribute it to the admiral's child- 
like vanity in the possession of the Ville de 
Paris, which he could not bring himself to 
part from (Letters of Sir Samuel Hood, Navy 
Records Society, pp. 129, 130, 136-7). It 
is impossible to say that Rodney was not 
influenced by some such motive. Hood fully 
believed it, and his criticisms, though very 
bitter, are generally just. But it is pro- 
bable that a large part of the neglect should 
be ascribed to the physical weakness and 
mental lassitude of a man prematurely old, 
racked by gout and gravel, and worn out with 
a long day's battle, following the three days' 
chase. That, having won a glorious and re- 
markable victory, he failed to make the most 
of it must be admitted. Still, the victory 
restored the English prestige, which had 
been sorely shaken by the defeat of Graves 
and the surrender of Cornwallis ; and it 
enabled the government to negotiate on much 
more favourable terms. That the victory was 
Rodney's there can be no reasonable doubt. 
The attempt which was made to assign 
the credit of it to John Clerk (1728-1812) 
[q. v.] of Eldin, or to Sir Charles Douglas, 




is supported by no satisfactory evidence, and 
on many points is distinctly contradicted. 
It is of course quite probable that Douglas 
called his attention to the gap in the French 
line ; but Rodney's whole career shows him 
as a man quick to see an opportunity, prompt, 
to seize it, and tenacious to an extreme 
degree of his dignity and authority ; while, 
according to Hood, Douglas though un- 
questionably an able and brave officer had 
neither fortitude nor resolution sufficient to 
open his lips in remonstrance against any 
order which Rodney might give (ib. p. 106 ; 
MTTNDT, ii. 303). 

When the ships were refitted, Rodney 
proceeded with the fleet to Jamaica, and was 
still there, on 10 July, when he was sum- 
marily superseded by Admiral Hugh Pigot 
[q. v.j, who had sailed from England before 
the news of the victory had arrived. That 
the whig government should supersede Rod- 
ney whose conduct at St. Eustatius Burke 
had denounced was natural ; but the news 
of the victory showed them that they had 
made a mistake, and they did everything in 
their power to remedy it. On 22 May the 
thanks of both houses of parliament were 
voted to him ; on 19 June he was created a 
peer by the title of Baron Rodney of Stoke- 
Rodney ; and on 27 June the House of 
Commons voted him a pension of 2,000/., 
which in 1793 was settled on the title for 
ever. The committee of inquiry into the St. 
Eustatius prize affairs was discharged, and, 
when he arrived in England in September, 
he was received with unmeasured applause. 

Rodney had no further service, and during 
his last years he lived retired from public 
life. He was sorely straitened for money ; he 
was worried by lawsuits arising out of the St. 
Eustatius spoil ; and his health was feeble. 
He suffered much from gout, which, it was 
said, occasionally affected his intellect, 
though it did not prevent his writing very 
clear notes in the margin of his copy of 
Clerk's ' Essay.' He died suddenly on 
23 May 1792, in his house in Hanover Square. 
Rodney was twice married. First, in 1753, 
to Jane (<O757), daughter of Charles Comp- 
ton, brother of the sixth earl of Northampton. 
By her he had two sons: George, who suc- 
ceeded as second baron; and James, who 
was lost in command of the Ferret sloop of 
war in 1776. He married secondly, in 1764, 
Henrietta, daughter of John dies of Lisbon, 
by whom he had issue three daughters and 
two sons, the elder of whom, John, is noticed 
below ; the younger, Edward, born in 1783, 
died, a captain in the navy, in 1828. Lady 
Rodney survived her husband many years, 
and died in 1829 at the age of ninety. 

According to Wraxall. who claimed ' great 
personal intimacy with him,' Rodney's ' per- 
son was more elegant than seemed to be- 
come his rough profession; there was even 
something that approached to delicacy and 
effeminacy in his figure.' In society he laid 
himself open to the reproach of ' being ylo- 
rieuxet ba vard, making himself frequently the 
theme of his own discourse. He talked much 
and freely upon every subject, concealed 
nothing in the course of conversation, regard- 
less who were present, and dealt his censures 
as well as his praises with imprudent libera- 
lity. Throughout his whole life two passions- 
the love of women and of play carried 
him into many excesses. It was believed 
that he had been distinguished in his youth 
by the personal attachment of the Princess 
Amelia, daughter of George II ' (Historical 
Memoirs, ed. Wheatley, i. 223-4). 

A portrait of Rodney, by Reynolds, is in 
j St. James's Palace ; a copy of it, presented by 
j George IV, is in the painted hall at Green- 
wich, and was engraved by W. Dickinson. 
Another small oval portrait by Reynolds was 
engraved by P. Tomkins and J. Watson in 
1762. Another portrait, by Gainsborough, 
has been engraved by Dupont. A portrait by 
H. Baron was engraved by C. Knight and 
Green. A miniature by W. Grimaldi has 
also been engraved (see BROMLEY). 

Rodney's elder son by his second wife, JOHN" 
RODNEY (1765-1847), born on 27 Feb. 1765, 
affords a striking example of the abuse of fa- 
vouritism. On 18 May 1778, at the request 
of Admiral John Byron [q. v.], he was ad- 
mitted as a scholar in the Royal Academy at 
Portsmouth (Byron to the secretary of the 
admiralty, 20 April 1778, in Admiral's Des- 
patches, North America, 7 ; secretary of the 
admiralty to Hood, 24 April 1778, in Secre- 
tary'sLetter$,].778; Commissionand Warrant 
Book). On 28 Oct. 1779 he was ordered to be 
discharged from the Academy, at Sir George 
Rodney's request, but not to any ship, ' as he 
i has not gone through the plan of learning, or 
been the usual time in the Academy' (Minute 
on Sir G.Rodney's letter of 26 Oct. \n Admiral's 
Despatches, Leeward Islands, 7). He was 
then entered on board the Sandwich, carry- 
ing his father's flag, and in her was present 
at the defeat of Langara, off Cape St. Vincent, 
at the relief of Gibraltar, and in the action 
of 17 April 1780. On 27 May his father, 
writing to the boy's mother, wrote with a 
customary exaggeration : ' John is perfectly 
well, and has had an opportunity of seeing 
more service in the short time he has been 
from England than has fallen to the lot of 
the oldest captain in the navy. . . . He is 
now gone on a cruise in one of my frigates* 

Rodney < 

(MuNDY, Life of Rodney, i. 296). On 30 July 
he wrote again : ' John is very well, and has 
been kept constantly at sea to make him 
master of his profession. He is now second 
lieutenant of the Sandwich, having risen to 
it by rotation ; but still I send him in frigates ; 
he has seen enough of great battles. All he 
wants is seamanship, which he must learn. 
When he is a seaman he shall be a captain, 
but not till then' (ib. i. 357). By 14 Oct. 
1780, being then only fifteen, he was able 
to satisfy his father's requirements, and was 
promoted to be commander of thePocahontas, 
and the same day to be captain of the Fowey. 
In compliment to his father these very irregu- 
lar promotions were confirmed to their original 
date, on 22 May 1782 (Commission and War- 
rant Book}. During 1781 he was captain of 
the Boreas frigate, and in April 1782 was 
moved to the Anson, in which he returned to 
England at the peace. In March 1795 he was 
appointed to the Vengeance, but in August, 
before she was ready for sea, he accidentally 
broke his leg. It had to be amputated, and 
he was superseded. In June 1796 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners of vic- 
tualling, and in February 1799, on being 
passed over in the flag promotion, his name 
was removed from the list of captains. He 
continued a commissioner of victualling till 
August 1803, when he was appointed chief 
secretary to the government of Ceylon, in 
which office he remained till 1832 (Order in 
Council, 3 Dec.) He was then, on a memorial 
to the king in council, replaced on the navy 
list as a retired captain, and so continued till 
his death on 9 April 1847. 

[Mundy's Lifeand Correspondence, in which last 
the language has been altered to suit the taste of 
the editor ; Hannay's Rodney (English Men of 
Action) ; Rodney and the Navy of the Eighteenth 
Century, in Edinburgh Rev., January 1892 ; Offi- 
cial letters and other documents in the Public 
Record Office ; Naval Chronicle, i. 354, xxxi. 360, 
363 ; Charnock's Biogr. Nav. v. 204 ; Beatson's 
Naval and Military Memoirs ; United Service 
Journal, 1830, vol. ii. ; White's Naval Researches; 
Mat the ws's Twenty-one Plans of Engagements in 
the West Indies ; Clerk's Essay on Naval Tactics j 
(3rd edit.); Ekins's Battles of the British Navy ; 
JSir Howard Douglas's Statement of some Im- ' 
portant Facts, &c. (1829), and Naval Evolutions 
(1832); Sir John Barrow's Rodney's Battle of 
12 April, in Quarterly Review, xlii.; Foster's 
Peerage; Chevalier's Hist, de la Marine Fran- 
(,'aise pendant la Guerre de 1'Independance Ame- 
ricaine ; Troude's Batailles navales de la France.] 

J. K. L. 

I'.H IN A I'ARTE (1800-1852), author, musi- 
cal director and composer, the brother (not 
the son) of James Thomas Gooderham Rod- 

i Rodwell 

well, playwright and lessee of the Adelphi 
Theatre (d. 1825), was born in London, 
15 Nov. 1800. A pupil of Vincent Novello 
[q. v.] and Sir Henry Rowley Bishop [q. v.], 
Rodwell was in 1828 professor of harmony 
and composition at the Royal Academy of 
Music. Upon the death of his brother James 
in 1825, Rodwell succeeded to the proprietor- 
ship of the Adelphi Theatre. He mainly 
occupied himself with directing the music at 
the theatre, and in composition for the stage. 
His opera, ' The Flying Dutchman,' was pro- 
duced at the Adelphi in 1826, and 'The 
Cornish Miners ' at the English Opera House 
in 1827. His marriage with Emma, the 
daughter of John Listen [q. v.], the come- 
dian, improved his theatrical connection, 
though, according to the 'Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' the union proved 'very unfortunate.' 
In 1836 he was appointed director of music 
at Coveut Garden Theatre, where a farce by 
him, ' Teddy the Tiler,' from the French, had 
been performed in 1830. The Covent Garden 
management sought popularity by antici- 
pating the repertory of Drury Lane; and 
Rodwell, though friendly with Bunn, the 
Drury Lane manager, was somewhat unscru- 
pulous in this regard. When Auber's opera, 
' The Bronze Horse,' was announced at Drury 
Lane, he brought out at Covent Garden an 
opera on the same theme, with music by him- 
self. In some cases Rodwell wrote the words 
as well as the music. His principal librettist 
was Fitzball ; but Buckstone, James Kenney, 
and Richard Brinsley Peake also supplied 
him with romances, burlettas, operettas, and 
incidental songs for musical setting. He was 
fortunate to find exponents of his clever and 
tuneful ballads in artists like Mrs. Keeley, 
Mrs. Waylett, and Mary Anne Paton [q. v.] 
But his efforts to establish a national opera 
in England had no lasting result. For 
many years Rodwell resided at Brompton. 
He died, aged 52, at Upper Ebury Street, 
Pimlico, on 22 Jan. 1852, and was buried at 
Brompton cemetery. 

Ivodwell wrote some forty or fifty musical 
pieces for the stage, besides songs, works on 
musical theory, romances, farces, and novels. 
Among his publications were : 1. ' Songs of 
the Birds,' 1827. 2. 'First Rudiments of 
Harmonv,' 1831. 3. ' Letter to the Musicians 
of Great'Britain,' 1833. 4. 'Memoirs of an 
Umbrella,' a novel, 1846. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852, i. 309 ; Grove's Dictionary, 
iii. 143; Baptie's Handbook; Musical Times, 
1852, p. 337 ; Theatrical Observer, 1825-50, pas- 
sim ; Registers of Wills, P. C. C., St. Alban's, 4 ; 
Fitzball's Life, passim; Bunn's The Stage, ii. 9 ; 
Home's edition of Croker's Walk ... to Fulham, 
pp. 49, 76 ; Rodwell's Works.] L. M. M. 




1873), physician, born on 18 May 1795 at 
New Ross, co. Wexford, was the eldest son 
of Peter Roe, a banker, and a cousin of George 
Roe, a distiller in Dublin. He began his 
medical studies somewhat late in life, after his 
marriage in 1817, and was admitted to the 
degree of M.D. in Edinburgh on 1 Aug. 1821, 
his inaugural thesis being ' De respiratione.' 
He then proceeded to Paris, returning later 
to London, where he was admitted a licen- 
tiate of the Royal College of Physicians on 
25 June 1823. He was still pursuing his 
studies at Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated as B.A., M.A., M.B., and M.D., 
the last degree being conferred upon him in 
1827. He was incorporated upon this degree 
at Oxford in 1828, being at that time a 
member of Magdalen Hall, afterwards Hert- 
ford College. He was admitted a candidate 
of the Royal College of Physicians of Lon- 
don on 13 April 1835, and a fellow on 
25 June 1836. 

He was appointed a physician to the 
Westminster Hospital in 1825, and, after 
serving for some time as a lecturer on medi- 
cine, he resigned in 1854. He was also a 
physician to the Hospital for Consumption 
and Diseases of the Chest, Brompton, to 
which he attached himself upon its founda- 
tion in 1841. He was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
in 1835, and served upon its council during 
1841-2. He was Harveian orator at the 
Royal College of Physicians in 1856, and 
consiliarius in 1864, 1865, and 1866. He 
died on 13 April 1873, and was buried in 
the Brompton cemetery. His son, William 
Gason Roe, was a medical practitioner at 

Dr. Roe was an intelligent, well-informed, 
and practical physician. His decided manner 
won for him the confidence of his patients, 
but his private practice was small . He early 
gained the disapprobation of the members 
of his own profession by the promiscuous 
manner in which he gave advice gratuitously 
to those who could well afford to pay for 
it. He belonged to the Christian apostolic 

He was the author of 'A Treatise on the 
Hooping Cough and its complications, with 
Hints on the Management of Children,' 8vo, 
London, 1836. The publication of this book 
gave rise to a fierce controversy between 
himself and Dr. Augustus Bozzi Granville 
[q. v.], who charged him with gross plagiarism. 

[Obituary notices by Dr. C. J. B. Williams in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Medico-Chirurg. 
Soc. vii. 232 ; Autobiographical Recollections of 
the Medical Profession, by J. F. Clarke, London, 

1874, pp. 506-9 ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. ; Foster's 
Alumni OXOD. ; information kindly given to the 
writer by Mrs. George Cowell, Dr. Roe's daugh- 
ter-in-law.] D'A. P. 

ROE, JOHN SEPTIMUS (1797-1878), 
explorer, seventh son of the Rev. James Roe, 
and his wife, Sophia Brookes, was born at 
Newbury, Berkshire, 8 May 1797. He was 
educated in the royal mathematical school 
at Christ's Hospital, and entered the navy 
as midshipman on 11 June 1813, being ' ap- 
prenticed to Sir Christopher Cole, captain of 
H.M.S. Rippon.' Under Captain Phillip 
Parker King he served in the expedition to 
survey the north-west coast of Australia in 
1818, and again in King's fourth expedition 
in 1821. He was promoted lieutenant on 
21 April 1822. He went through the Bur- 
mese war of 1825-7, for which he received 
the medal in 1851, and was engaged at the 
siege of Ava. In December 1828 Roe was 
appointed surveyor-general of Western Aus- 
tralia. Accompanied by his wife, he sailed 
in the Parmelia with Captain (afterwards 
Admiral Sir) James Stirling, and was one of 
the first to land, on 1 June 1829, in the colony 
of Western Australia. He held his appoint- 
ment for forty-two years, and fulfilled its 
duties with eminent success, surveying and 
exploring the coasts and unknown tracts in 
the interior, until he made the long and event- 
ful journey from the Swan river to the south 
coast at Cape Pasley in 1848-9. During the 
journey he received injuries that incapaci- 
tated him from further active work in the 
field. Accounts of this expedition, appa- 
rently the only productions from his pen, 
appeared in the ' Journal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society' for 1852, and in Hooker's 
'Journal of Botany,' vols. vi. and vii. 

It was on Roe's advice that the sites for 
the capital, Perth and its port, Fremantle, 
were selected. He also fuunded the public 
museum at Perth and a mechanics' institute, 
of which he was for many years the presi- 
dent. He became a member of the execu- 
tive and legislative council of the colony, 
was an associate of the Royal Geographical 
Society and a fellow of the Linnean Society 
(1 April 1828). He died at Perth, Western 
Australia, on 28 May 1878. He married in 
England, on 8 Jan. 1828, Matilda Bennett, 
who died on 22 July 1870. 

[Proceedings of the Royal Geographical So- 
ciety, new ser. i. 277; Mennell's Diet. Austra- 
lasian Biogr. ; Britten and Boulger's British 
Botanists ; Tablettes Biographiques ; Royal So- 
ciety's Catalogue ; information kindly supplied 
by Robert Little, receiver, Christ's Hospital, 
and by B. H. Woodward, curator of the Perth 
Museum.] B. B. W. 


8 9 


ROE, RICHARD (d. 1853), stenographer 
and miscellaneous writer, doubtless gradu- 
ated B.A. in the university of Dublin in 
1789. In the early part of his career he 
may have been a mathematical and classical 
teacher. Afterwards he was in holy orders. 
He was residing in Dublin in 1821, and in 
183o. He was a popular bass-singer, and gave 
in London some glee and ballad entertain- 
ments. He died in London in March 1853. 

His principal works are : 1 . 'A New 
System of Shorthand, in which legibility 
and brevity are secured upon the most natu- 
ral principles, with respect to both the sig- 
nification and formation of the characters : 
especially by the singular property of their 
sloping all one way according to the habitual 
motion of the hand in common writing,' 
London, 1802, 8vo; 1808, 4to. 2. ' Radiogra- 
phy, or a System of Easy Writing, comprised 
in a set of the most simple and expeditious 
characters,' London, 1821, 8vo. These works 
mark a new departure in the development of 
stenography. Roe was in fact the originator 
of that cursive or script style of shorthand 
which, though it has never found favour in 
this country, has acquired wide popularity 
in Germany, where it has been successfully 
developed by Gabelsberger, Stolze, Arends, 
and others. 

Roe was also the author of : 3. ' Elements 
of English Metre,' London, 1801, 4to. 
4. 'Principles of Rhythm both in Speech 
and Music,' Dublin, 1823, 4to, dedicated to 
the president and members of the Royal 
Irish Academy. 5. ' Introduction to Book- 
keeping,' London, 1825, 12mo. 6. 'The 
English Spelling Book,' Dublin, 1829, 12mo ; 
a work of great value to the advocates of 
spelling reform. 7. ' Analytical Arrange- 
ment of the Apocalypse,' Dublin, 1834, 4to. 
8. 'Analytical Arrangement of the Holy 
Scriptures,' 2 vols. London, 1851, 8vo ; on 
the title-page he gives his name as Richard 
Baillie Roe. 

The shorthand writer is sometimes con- 
fused with Richard Roe, a surveyor, skilled 
in mathematics, who died at Derby in July 
1814, aged 5(5 (Gent. Mag. 1814, ii. 194; 
Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, pp. 299, 

[Allibone's Diet, of Authors ; Faulmann's 
Historische Grammatik der Stenographic, p. 
157 ; Gibson's Bibliography of Shorthand, p. 
194 ; Gibson's Memoir of Simon Bordley, 1890, 
pp. 11-13; Levy's Hist, of Shorthand, p. 137; 
Lewis's Historical Account of Shorthand, p. 182 ; 
Shorthand, i. 103-7, 130 ; Zeibig's Geschichte 
der Geschwindschreibkunst, pp. 89, 2 1 2 ; Brown's 
Diet, of English Musicians; Athensenm, 1853, 
p. 360.] T. C. 

ROE, SIR THOMAS (1581 P-1644), am- 
bassador, son of Robert Rowe, was born at 
Low Leyton, near Wanstead in Essex, in 
1580 or 1581. His grandfather, Sir Thomas 
Rowe or Roe, merchant tailor, was alderman, 
sheriff (1560), and lord mayor of London 
(1568); Mary, daughter of Sir John Gresham, 
was Sir Thomas's wife [see under GRESHAM, 
SIR RICHARD ; and Remembrancia, p. 332]. 
Robert, the father of the ambassador, died 
while his son was a child ( WOOD, Athena, ed. 
Bliss, iii. 111). His mother, Elinor, daugh- 
ter of Robert Jermy of Worstead, Norfolk 
(Philpot pedigree in College of Arms), sub- 
sequently married ' one Berkeley of Rend- 
comb in Gloucestershire, of the family of the 
Lord Berkeley.' 

Thomas matriculated as a commoner of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, on 6 July 1593, 
at the age of twelve. He had clearly power- 
ful family influence, whether from the Berke- 
leys, the family of his stepfather, or from 
his father's wealthy relations. After spend- 
ing some time ' in one of the inns of court 
or in France or both ' (Wooo), he was ap- 
pointed esquire of the body to Queen Eliza- 
beth in the last years of her reign, and 
after her death was knighted by James I on 
23 March 1604-5. He was popular at court, 
especially with Henry, prince of Wales, and 
his sister Elizabeth, afterwards queen of Bo- 
hemia : and the former gave him his first 
opportunity of distant travel by sending 
him ' upon a discovery to the West Indies.' 
Roe equipped a ship and pinnace, and sailed 
from Plymouth on 24 Feb. 1609-10. Striking 
the mouth of the Amazon, then unknown to 
English explorers, he sailed two hundred 
miles up the river, and rowed in boats one 
hundred miles further, making many excur- 
sions into the country from the banks ; then 
returning to the mouth, he explored the coast 
and entered various rivers in canoes, passing 
over' thirty-two falles in the river of Wia 
Poko' or Oyapok. Having examined the 
coast from the Amazon to the Orinoco for 
thirteen months, without discovering the gold 
in which the AVest Indies were believed to 
abound, he returned home by way of Trini- 
dad, and reached the Isle of Wight in July 
1611. Twice again was he sent to the same 
coast, ' to make farther discoveries, and 
maintained twenty men in the River of Amo- 
zones, for the good of his countrey, who are 
yet [1614] remaining there, and supplied' 
(Sxow, Annales, continued by Howes, 1631, 
p. 1022). At the close of 1613 he was at 
Flushing 'going for Captaine Floods com- 
panye,' who was just dead ( COLLINS, Z<tera 
and Memorials of State of the Sydney Family, 
ii. 329). While in the Netherlands he 



entered in July 1613 into some theological 
disputations with Dr. T. Wright at Spa, and 
these were published by the latter in 1614 
at Mechlin, under the title of ' Quatuor Col- 

In 1614, after being elected M.P. for Tarn- 
worth, Roe was commanded by James I to 
proceed, at the request and at the expense 
of the East India Company, as lord ambas- 
sador to the court of Jehangir, the Mogul 
emperor of Hindustan (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 24 Nov. 1614). His instructions were 
to arrange a commercial treaty and obtain 
concessions for ' factories ' for the English 
merchants in continuation of the privileges 
obtained by Captain William Hawkins [q. v.l 
in 1609-12 (PURCHAS, 1625, i. 544 ; ' STOW, 
Annales). The expedition consisted of four 
ships under the command of Captain AVilliam 
Keeling [q. v.] Roe embarked in March 
1614-15, and, sailing round the Cape of 
Good Hope, landed at Surat on 26 Sept. 
Thence he travelled by way of Burhanpur 
and Mandu to Ajmir, where the Emperor 
Jehangir resided. He had his first audi- 
ence of the emperor on 10 Jan. 1615-16. He 
remained in close attendance at the court, 
following Jehangir in his progress to Ujain 
and Ahmadabad, until January 1617-18, 
when he took his leave, having accom- 
plished the objects of his mission as far as 
seemed possible. He obtained the redress of 
previous wrongs, and an imperial engagement 
for future immunities, which placed the esta- 
blishment at Surat in an efficient position 
for trade, and laid the foundations of the 
future greatness of Bombay, and. indeed, of 
British India in general. The patience and 
self-restraint exercised by Roe under excep- 
tional provocation are admirably displayed in 
the pages of his entertaining ' Journal,' which 
gives an inimitable picture of the Indian court. 

On his way home Roe went to Persia, to 
settle matters in respect of the trade in 
silks (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 7 Jan. 1619), 
and was reported on 11 Sept. 1619 as ' returned 
[to London] rich from India,' though it ap- 
pears the wealth consisted chiefly in presents 
for King James, and that the ambassador 
had ' little for himself.' 

Roe was elected, in January 1620-1, one 
of the burgesses for Cirencester, doubtless 
by the Berkeley interest. But his parlia- 
mentary career was quickly interrupted by 
a new foreign mission. He was sent in Sep- 
tember 1621 as ambassador to the Ottoman 
Porte. In passing through the Mediter- 
ranean he received ample evidence of the 
depredations of the Barbary pirates, and re- 
solved to make it his business to try to sup- 
press them. He arrived at Constantinople 

on 28 Dec. 1621, displacing Sir John Eyre. 
Roe's audience of Sultan Osman II took place 
about the end of February 1621-2, and was 
of course purely formal. ' I spake to a 
dumb image,' he reports (Negotiations, p. 37). 
He was under 110 illusions as to the strength, 
or the dignity of the Turkish empire. He 
described it as ' irrecoverably sick ' (ib. p. 
126), and compared it (almost in the words 
of the Emperor Nicholas 230 years later) to 
' an old body, crazed through many vices, 
which remain, when the youth and strength 
is decayed ' (ib. p. 22). He remained at the 
Porte till the summer of 1628, his term of 
appointment having been specially extended 
at the urgent prayer of the well-satisfied 
Levant merchants to Buckingham, in spite 
of Roe's repeated requests for recall (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 8 March 1625). 

At Constantinople Roe succeeded in en- 
larging the privileges of English merchants, 
and the secretary of state, Sir George Calvert 
[q.v.], wrote that he had 'restored the honour 
of our king and nation' (Negotiations, p. 60). 
He also mediated a treaty of peace between 
Turkey and Poland (ib. pp. 129, 133), and 
liberated many Polish exiles at Constanti- 
nople (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 20 May 1623), 
services for which he received the thanks of 
King Sigismund in September 1622 (T. SMITH, 
Account of the Greek Church, 1680, p. 252 ; 
WOOD, I.e.) The suppression of the Alge- 
rine piracy in the Mediterranean proved be- 
yond the power of mere diplomacy ; but Roe's 
negotiations put England's relations with 
Algiers on a better footing, and he arranged 
for the freeing of English captives, partly at 
his own cost (Negotiations, pp. 14, 117, 140). 
By his efforts a treaty with Algiers was 
patched up in November 1624 (ib. p. 146) ; 
and though it was not wholly approved in 
England, it led to the liberation, of seven to 
eight hundred English captive mariners (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1623). Roe, however, 
met with doubtful success in his zealous 
efforts to attach Bethlen Gabor, the prince 
of Transylvania, to the protestant alliance, 
and to use him as an instrument for the sup- 
port of Count Mansfeld and the restoration 
of the palatinate. Gabor's attitude perplexed 
the ambassador, and James I's hesitation and 
lack of money for subsidies impeded the ne- 
gotiation. But eventually Roe procured the 
promise of a monthly subsidy from England, 
and the Forte's support for the prince. The 
Porte consented to the reversion of the 
principality of Transylvania to Gabor's wife, 
a princess of Brandenburg, who was duly 
invested with the banner and sceptre by a 
Turkish ambassador (ib. p. 558 ; vox HAM- 
MER, Gesch.d. osm. Reiches, iii. 73-5). Gabor 



accordingly allied himself to Mansfeld and 
the protestant union in October 1626 (Ne- 
gotiations, p. 571); but a victory over the 
imperialists was neutralised by a truce and 
Mansfeld's subsequent death (ib. pp. 579- 
593). Suspicion was aroused by the conduct 
of Bethlen, who complained that the pro- 
mised subsidy of ten t housand dollars a month 
from England had not been paid (ib. p. 595), 
Nevertheless Roe succeeded in keeping Gabor 
more or less on the side of the German pro- 
testants, and also managed in their interest 
to quash the proposal for a treaty between 
Spain and the Porte (ib. p. 452). At the 
same time he was a warm friend of the Greek 
church in Turkey, and on intimate terms 
,with its celebrated patriarch, Cyril Lucaris. 
Cyril presented through Roe to James I the 
celebrated* Codex Alexandrinus ' of the whole 
Bible, which the patriarch brought from his 
former see of Alexandria ; it was transferred 
with the rest of the royal library to the 
British Museum in 1757 (cf. Negotiations,^. 
618). Roe was himself a collector of Greek 
manuscripts. Twenty-nine Greek and other 
manuscripts, including an original copy of 
the synodal epistles of the council of Basle, 
which he brought home, he presented in 
1628 to the Bodleian Library (MACRA.Y, 
Annals of the Bodleian, 2nd ed., pp. 70, 72). 
A collection made by him of 242 coins was 
given by his widow, at his desire, to the Bod- 
leian after his death. He also searched for 
Greek 'marbles' in behalf of the Duke of 
Buckingham and the second Earl of Arundel. 
' Naked I came in, and naked I goe out,' 
he Avrote on 6 April 1628, on finally leaving 
his embassy at Constantinople (ib. p. 810). 
June found him at Smyrna, whence he sailed 
to Leghorn, and on the way fought an engage- 
ment with Maltese galleys, during which 
he was struck down by. a spar which had 
fortunately checked a ball (ib. pp. 826-7). 
Travelling across the continent, Roe visited 
Princess Elizabeth, the electress-palatine and 
queen of Bohemia, at Rhenen, and, in com- 
pliance with her wish, adopted the two 
daughters of Baron Rupa, an impoverished 
adherent of the elector (GREEN, Princesses 
of Etu/land, vi. 471). Reaching the Hague 
in December 1628, he presented to the 
Prince of Orange a memorial in which he 
urged that Bethlen Gabor should again be 
subsidised, and that Gustavus Adolphus 
should march into Silesia, where Bethlen 
would join him ( Camden Society Miscellany, 
vol. vii. ; Letters of Sir T. Roe, ed. S. R. Gardi- 
ner, pp. 2-4). He left the Hague at the end 
of February for England, and in May 1629 
he submitted another memorial to the same 
effect to Charles I, and in the result was 

despatched in June on a mission to mediate 
a peace between the kings of Sweden and 
Poland (Instructions, printed ib. pp. 10-21). 
He visited the Swedish camp near Marienburg, 
and then the Polish camp, brought about a 
meeting of commissioners in September 1629, 
and succeeded in arranging a truce for six 
years (ib. p. 39). He was in close personal 
relations with Gustavus Adolphus, whose 
generous character strongly impressed him, 
while the Swedish king admitted that he 
owed chiefly to Roe the suggestion, which he 
put into effect in June 1630, of carrying the 
war into Germany and placing himself at the 
head of the protestant alliance. He called 
Roe his ' strenuum consultorem,' and sent 
him a present of 2,000/. on his victory at 
Leipzig (HowELL, Familiar Letters,^. 1754, 
p. 228). After arranging the truce be- 
tween Poland and Sweden, Roe drew up a 
treaty at Danzig settling the claims of that 
city with which he had been instructed to 
deal, and, breaking his homeward journey at 
Copenhagen, he concluded a treaty with Den- 
mark which in other hands had been lan- 
guishing for years. 

In the summer of 1630 Roe returned to 
England from this successful mission. The 
king had a gold medal struck in his honour, 
bearing the shields of Sweden and Poland 
and the date 1630, and on the reverse the 
crown of England supported by two angels, 
and beneath a monogram of Roe's initials 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1630-1, p. 466). 
This medal Dame Eleanor Roe presented to 
the Bodleian Library in 1668 (MA.CBA.Y, An- 
nals, 2nd edit. p. 134). But beyond this 
barren honour the ambassador received no 
rewards. For six years he lived in retire- 
ment, suffering from limited means; his wife's 
purchased pension was in arrears ; even pay- 
ment was long withheld from him on ac- 
count of the diamonds which he bought for 
the king at Constantinople, and the pleasures 
of a country life ill requited him for the lack 
of state employment. He ' bought a cell ' 
for his old age at Stanford, and afterwards 
moved to BulwickandthentoCranford(C'a/. 
State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, pp. 344, &c.) 
At last, in January 1636-7, he was appointed 
chancellor of the order of the Garter, to 
which a year later a pension of 1,200/. a year 
was added (ib. 1637-8, p. 214). Meanwhile 
he was in constant correspondence with the 
queen of Bohemia, who addressed him as 
' Honest Tom,' and who depended on his in- 
fluence to counteract the indiscretions of her 
London agent, Sir Francis Nethersole [q. v.] 
(GREEN, Princesses, vi. 556-66). 

In 1638 he was once more sent abroad as 
ambassador extraordinary to attend the con- 



gress of the imperial, French, and Swedish 
plenipotentiaries for the settlement of the 
terms of a general peace, which sat success! vely 
at Hamburg, Ratisbon, and Vienna (Negotia- 
tions, p. 13 ; Letters and Memorials of Sidney 
Family, ii. pref., 564,570; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1638-43, passim ; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
21993, f. 294). The plenipotentiaries did their 
utmost to exclude him, but Roe contrived to 
join the conferences and to make his influence 
felt towards the restoration of the palatinate. 
Roe's ability profoundly impressed the em- 
peror, who is reported to have exclaimed, ' I 
have met with many gallant persons of many 
nations, but I scarce ever met with an ambas- 
sador till now ' (WOOD, Athence, loc. cit. ; DE 
WICQUEFORT, L'Ambassadeur, 1682, p. 105). 
These negotiations and a further treaty with 
Denmark occupied most of his energies till 
September 1642 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1639, pp. 143, 206; Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 
28937, f. 25), but he was at intervals in 
London, where he busied himself with par- 
liamentary work. He was sworn a mem- 
ber of the privy council in June 1640 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 447), and was 
returned on 17 Oct. 1640 as one of the 
burgesses for the university of Oxford. His 
wide experience, sober learning, and dig- 
nified eloquence had their weight in the 
House of Commons. Some of his speeches, 
chiefly on commercial and currency questions 
(e.g. on brass money, 1640, on Lord-keeper 
Finch, 1640, on the decay of coin and trade, 
1641), were printed, and on 13 Nov. 1640 he 
presented to the house a report on the nego- 
tiations connected with the Scottish treaty 
at Ripon (NALSON, Collect, ii. 524). In the 
following summer he asked and obtained 
the leave of the house to retain his seat 
during his absence at the diet of Ratisbon 
(ib. p. 804). In July 1642, when ambassa- 
dor-extraordinary at Vienna, he wrote a letter 
to Edmund Waller, which was read to the 
House of Commons, repudiating the rumour 
that he had offered an offensive and defensive 
alliance to the king of Hungary without his 
own sovereign's permission (Letter to Waller, 
Brit. Mus., 1642). On 2 July 1643 Roe ob- 
tained permission of the commons to retire to 
Bath in the hope of improving his health. He 
died on 6 Nov. 1644 in the words of Dr. 
Gerard Langbaine's proposed epitaph, ' prse- 
reptus opportune, ne funestam regni catastro- 
phen spectaret ' and was buried two days 
later in the chancel of Woodford church, 
Essex (WOOD, Athenai) : the manor of Wood- 
ford had been conveyed to him in 1640 
(J. KENNEDY, Hist. ofLeyton, p. 357). 

Roe's solid judgment, penetration, and sa- 
gacity are sufficiently proved by his published 

journal and despatches ; in knowledge of 
foreign affairs and in a practical acquaintance 
with the details of British commerce he pro- 
bably had no living equal ; he was not afraid 
of responsibility ; while of the charm of his 
manner and conversation it is enough to 
quote the emperor's remark, that ' if Roe had 
been one of the fair sex, and a beauty, he 
was sure the engaging conversation of the 
English ambassador would have proved 
too hard for his virtue ' ( COLLINS, Letters 
and Memorials of State of the Sydney Family, 
ii. 541 n. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, 
p. 131). In his personal character he was 
devout and regular ; he always gave a tenth 
of his income to the poor ; he was an earnest 
supporter of the protestant principle, and 
devoted to his king, though lightly re- 
warded. ' Those who knew him well have 
said that there was nothing wanting in him 
towards the accomplishment of a scholar, 
gentleman, or courtier ; that also as he was 
learned, so was he a great encourager and 
promoter of learning and learned men. His 
spirit was generous and public, and his heart 
faithful to his prince ' ( WOOD, Athenee, iii. 
113). He married, before 1614, Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Cave of Stamford, 
Northamptonshire (Philpot pedigree, Col- 
lege of Arms), and niece of Lord Grandison 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1626, p. 475). She 
accompanied her husband in 1621 on his 
embassy to the Ottoman Porte, and showed 
great courage during the engagement with 
Maltese galleys on the way home. 

Roe's diplomatic memoirs and volumi- 
nous and interesting correspondence have 
only been in part published or preserved. 
Part of the ' Journal ' of his mission to the 
mogul, to February 1616-17, with inter- 
spersed letters, exists in two manuscripts in 
j the British Museum, Addit, 6115 and 19277, 
and was first published during his lifetime in 
1625 by Purchas in ' His Pilgrimes,' pt. i. 
pp. 535-78, together with some of his corre- 
spondence with George Abbot [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and others. The 
journal was reprinted by Harris in 1705 in 
his ' Navigantium Bibliotheca,' i. 156-67, 
and more fully by Churchill in 1732 in his 
' Collection of Voyages,' i. 688-728, where 
it is stated that the original manuscript has 
been used. It was also translated into French 
in the ' Relations de divers Voyages Curieux,' 
1663, into German in Schwabe's ' Allgemeine 
Historie der Reisen,' 1747, and into Dutch in 
the ' Journael van de Reysen,' 1656. 

Proposals were published in 1730 for edit- 
ing Roe's European correspondence, and his 
' Negotiations in his embassy to the Ottoman 
Porte,' 1621-8, were eventually printed in 




great detail by Samuel Richardson (1740), but 
with scarcely any attempt at annotation or 
editing, beyond a very full analytical table of 
contents and decipherments of some of the 
ciphers. This large volume (of Ixiv + 828 
folio pages) was published mainly at the cost 
of the 'Society for the Encouragement of 
Learning,' and Thomas Carte [q. v.l, Avho 
originated this society, appears to have 
arranged the papers published in this volume 
(Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 6190 f. 21, 6185 ff. 
103, 111 ; Harl. 1901). This was prospec- 
tively the first of several volumes, and the 
intention was to have published the rest 
of Roe's correspondence up to his death, but 
the scheme was abandoned. Roe also printed, 
besides several of his parliamentary speeches 
^in pamphlet form: 1. ' A True and Faith- 
ful Relation ... of what hath lately hap- 
pened in Constantinople, concerning the death 
of Sultan Osman and the setting up of Mus- 
tapha his uncle,' London, 1622, 4to. 2. 'A. 
Discourse upon the reasons of the resolution 
taken in the Valteline against the tyranny 
of the Orisons and heretics,' translated from 
Fra Paolo Sarpi, London, 4to, 1628 (reissued 
in 1650 as ' The Cruel Subtilty of Ambi- 
tion'). A poem by Roe on the death of 
Lord Harington appeared in ' The Churches 
Lamentation for the Losse of the Godly/ 
1614 (Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 9). 

A few of Roe's despatches, preserved in the 
state paper office, were edited in 1847 by 
Dr. S. R. Gardiner for the ' Camden Society 
Miscellany,' vol. vii., 'Letters relating to the 
Mission of Sir T. Roe to Gustavus Adolphus,' 
and George lord Carew's letters to Roe 
between 1615 and 1617 were edited by Sir 
John Maclean for the Camden Society in 
1860. There are numerous letters and des- 
patches of Roe's, still unpublished, in the 
public record office; but few of those pub- 
lished in the volume of ' Negotiations ' 
seem to be preserved there (Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 351-2). In the British 
Museum, besides his Indian journal and 
letters, there are letters among the Harleian, 
Egerton, and Sloane manuscripts. Roe is 
further stated by Wood to have left in 
manuscript ' A Compendious Relation of the 
Proceedings and Acts of the Imperial Dyet 
held at Ratisbon in 1640 and 1641, abstracted 
out of the Diary of the Colleges,' which was 
in the possession of T. Smith, D.D., of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, and a ' Journal of 
several proceedings of the Knights of the 
Garter,' frequently cited by Ashmole in his 
'Institution' (Cat. MSS. Any lice et Hib. i. 
330). His portrait, by Michael van Miere- 
veldt of Delft, is engraved by Vertue as a 
frontispiece to the ' Negotiations.' 

[Authorities cited above ; Laud's Works, pas- 
sim ; information from Messrs. T. M. J. Watkin, 
Portcullis, S. K. Gardiner, J. Cartwright, F. H. 
Bickley, and Lionel Gust, F. S. A.] S. L.-P. 

ROEBUCK, JOHN, M.D. (1718-1794), 
inventor, born in 1718 at Sheffield, was the 
son of John Roebuck, a prosperous manufac- 
turer of Sheffield goods, who wished him to 
engage in and inherit the business. John had 
a higher ambition, and, after receiving his 
early education at the Sheffield grammar 
school, was removed to Dr. Doddridge's aca- 
demy at Northampton. He became a good 
classical scholar, retaining throughout life a 
taste for the classics ; and he formed at 
Northampton a lasting intimacy with his 
fellow-pupil, Mark Akenside. Thence he 
proceeded to Edinburgh University to study 
medicine. There the teaching of Cullen 
and Black specially attracted him to che- 
mistry. He became intimate with Hume, 
Robertson , and their circle, forming an attach- 
ment to Scotland which influenced his sub- 
sequent career. He completed his medical 
education at Leyden, where he took his degree 
of M.D. on 5 March 1742. A promising open- 
ing having presented itself at Birmingham,he 
settled there as a physician. He had soon a 
considerable practice, but his old love of 
chemistry revived, and he spent all his spare 
time in chemical experiments, particularly 
with a view to the application of chemistry to 
some of the many industries of Birmingham. 
Among his inventions was an improved me- 
thod of refining gold and silver and of collect- 
ing the smaller particles of them, formerly lost 
in the processes of the local manufacturers. 
Stimulated by his successes, he established 
in Steelhouse Lane a large laboratory, and 
in connection with it a refinery of the precious 
metals. He associated with himself in the 
management of the laboratory an able busi- 
ness coadjutor in the person of Samuel Gar- 
bett, a Birmingham merchant. Roebuck be- 
came, in fact, what is now called a consulting 
chemist (PitossER, p. 15), to whom the local 
manufacturer applied for advice, and thus a 
considerable impetus was given to the indus- 
tries of Birmingham. The most important of 
his several improvements in processes for the 
production of chemicals at this period was one 
of very great utility in the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. In the fifteenth century the Ger- 
man monk Basil Valentine had first produced 
oil of vitriol by subjecting sulphate of iron 
to distillation, and the process had been but 
little improved previous to 1740, when Joshua 
Ward facilitated the manufacture by burning 
nitre and sulphur over water, and condensing 
the resulting vapour in glass globes, the largest 
that could be blown with safety. For glass 




globes Roebuck now substituted leaden cham- 
bers. The change effected a revolution in the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, which was 
thus reduced to a fourth of its former cost, 
and was soon applied to the bleaching of 
linen, displacing the sour milk formerly used 
for that purpose. The first of the leaden 
chambers was erected by Koebuckand Garbett 
in 1746, and the modern process of manufac- 
ture is still substantially that of Roebuck 
(PARKES, i. 474-6 ; cf. BLOXAM, Chemistry, 
1895, p. 220). 

Encouraged by the success of the new pro- 
cess, Roebuck and Garbett established in 1749 
a manufactory of sulphuric acid at Preston- 
pans, eight miles east of Edinburgh. This 
proved for a time very profitable, but the firm 
neglected at the outset to procure a patent 
for their invention either in England or in 
Scotland, and endeavoured to reap exclusive 
profit from it by keeping the process a secret. 
The nature of the process became, however, 
known in England through an absconding 
workman, and in 1756 it was used by rivals 
in England, and later by others in Scotland. 
In 1771 Roebuck took out a patent for Scot- 
land (cf. specification printed in the Bir- 
mingham Weekly Post, 19 May 1894), and 
with Garbett sought to restrain the use of the 
invention in Scotland by others than them- 
selves. The court of session decided against 
this claim, on the ground that the process was 
freely used in England, and therefore could 
be freely used in Scotland. A petition against 
this decision was in 1774 dismissed by the 
House of Lords (Journals, xxxiv. 76, 217). 

It is uncertain whether Roebuck was still 
in Birmingham when he turned his atte?ition 
to the manufacture of iron. With the death 
of Dud Dudley [q. v.] the secret of smelting 
iron by pit-coal instead of by charcoal, a much 
more expensive process, had expired or be- 
come latent. The smelting of iron ore by 
coke made from pit-coal was probably redis- 
covered by Abraham Darby [q.v.l at Cole- 
brookdale about 1734, but Roebuck was un- 
doubtedly among the first to reintroduce the 
industry into Britain, and, further, to con- 
vert by the same agency cast iron into mal- 
leable iron. If the iron manufacture was 
comparatively unproductive in England, it 
was virtually non-existent in Scotland, al- 
though a country abounding in ironstone and 
coal. After adding a manufacture of pottery 
to that of sulphuric acid at Prestonpans, Roe- 
buck appears to have thought of trying in the 
same district the manufacture of iron on a 
small scale (JARDINE, p. 71). In the result 
there was formed for the purpose of manufac- 
turing iron on a large scale in Scotland a 
company consisting of Roebuck and his three 

brothers, Garbett, and Messrs. Cadell & 
Sons of Cockenzie (PARKES, i. 478). The 
latter firm had already made some unsuc- 
cessful efforts to manufacture iron. Every 
arrangement of importance in the establish- 
ment of the company's works was due to 
Roebuck's insight and energy. He selected 
for their site a spot on the banks of the river 
Carron in Stirlingshire, three miles above its 
influx into the Firth of Forth. The Carron 
furnished water-power, the Forth a water- 
way for transport, and all around were 
plentiful supplies of coal, ironstone, and 
limestone. The first furnace was blown at 
Carron on 1 Jan. 1760, and during the same 
year the Carron works turned out fifteen 
hundred tons of manufactured iron, then 
the whole annual produce of Scotland 
(SMILES, Industrial Bioc/raphy, p. 136). 
Large quantities of charcoal were used at 
first (SCRIVENER, p. 84) ; but Roebuck's in- 
genuity brought the much cheaper pit-coal 
into play, both for smelting and refining. 
I In 1762 he took out a patent for the con- 
j version of any kind of cast iron into malle- 
able iron by the ' action of a hollow pit-coal 
fire ' {Specifications of Patents, 1762, Xo. 
I 780). The use of pit-coal on a large scale 
j required, however, a much more powerful 
| blast than was needed for charcoal. Roe- 
i buck consulted Smeaton [see SME ATON, JOHN], 
i in whose published ' Reports '(1812, vol. i.) are 
! to be found accounts of several of his in- 
! genious contrivances in aid of the operations 
at Carron. The chief of these was his pro- 
duction of the powerful blast needed for the 
effective reduction of iron by pit-coal. The 
| first blowing cylinders of any magnitude con- 
structed for this purpose were erected at Car- 
ron by Smeaton about 1760 (cf. SCRIVENER, 
p. 83, and SMILES, Life of Smeaton, p. 61). 
Besides turning out quantities of articles of 
, manufactured iron for domestic use, the Car- 
ron works became famous for their production 
! of ordnance, supplied not only to our own 
army, but to the armies of continental coun- 
tries. It was from being made at Carron that 
carronades derived their name. The first of 
; them was cast at Carron in 1779 (SMILES, 
Industrial Biography, p. 137 n.) The Carron 
ironworks were long the largest of their kind 
in the United Kingdom, and are still produc- 
tive and prosperous. 

When the Carron works were firmly esta- 
blished in a career of prosperity, Roebuck, 
unfortunately for himself, engaged in a new 
enterprise which proved his ruin. Mainly 
to procure an improved supply of coal for 
the Carron works, he took a lease from the 
Duke of Hamilton of large coalmines and 
saltworks at Borrowstounness (Bo' ness) in 




Linlitkgowshire, which were yielding 1 little 
or no profit, and about 1764 he removed with 
his family to Kenneil House, a ducal mansion 
which overlooked the Firth of Forth and 
went with the lease. Roebuck set to work 
to sink for coal, and opened up new seams ; 
but his progress was checked by water flood- 
ing his pits, a disaster which the Newcomen 
engine employed by him was powerless to 
avert. It was this difficulty which led to 
one of the most interesting episodes of his 
career, his intimacy with and encouragement 
of Watt, then occupied in the invention of 
his steam-engine [see WATT, JAMES]. Roe- 
buck was intimate with Robert Black, then 
professor of chemistry at Edinburgh, who 
was a patron of Watt. Hearing from Black 
1 of Watt and his steam-engine, Roebuck en- 
tered into correspondence with him, in the 
hope that the new engine might do for the 
water in his coalpits what Newcomen's had 
failed in doing. Eventually Roebuck came 
to believe in the promise of Watt's invention, 
rebuking him for his despondency, and wel- 
coming him to Kenneil House, where Watt 
put together a working model of his engine. 
Roebuck took upon himself a debt of 1,200/. 
which Watt owed to Black (SMILES, Indus- 
trial Biographies, p. 139), and helped him 
to procure his first patent of 1769. Watt ad- 
mitted that he must have sunk under his 
disappointments if he ' had not been sup- 
ported by the friendship of Dr. Roebuck.' 
Roebuck became a partner with Watt in his 
great invention to the extent of two thirds. 
But the engine had not yet been so perfected 
as to keep down the water in Roebuck's mines. 
Through the expense and loss thus incurred 
Roebuck became involved in serious pecu- 
niary embarrassments. To his loss by his 
mines was added that from an unsuccessful 
attempt to manufacture soda from salt. After 
sinking in the coal and salt works at Bor- 
rowstounness his own fortune, that brought 
him by his wife, the profits of his other en- 
terprises, and large sums borrowed from 
friends, he had to withdraw his capital from 
the Carron ironworks, from the refining works 
at Birmingham, and the vitriol works at Pres- 
tonpans to satisfy the claims of his creditors. 
Among Roebuck's debts was one of 1 ,2001. to 
Boulton, afterwards Watt's well-known part- 
ner. Rather than claim against the estate 
Boulton offered to cancel the debt in return 
for the transfer to him of Roebuck's two-thirds 
share in Watt's steam-engine, of which so little 
was then thought that Roebuck's creditors 
did not value it as contributing a farthing 
to his assets (SMILES, Life of Watt, p. 177). 
Roebuck's creditors retained him in the 
management of the Borrowstounness coal and 

salt works, and made him an annual allow- 
ance sufficient for the maintenance of him- 
self and his family. To his other occupations 
he added at Kenneil House that of farming 
on rather a large scale, and though, as usual, 
he made experiments, he was a successful 
agriculturist ( WIGHT, Husbandry of Scot- 
land, iii. 508, iv. 665). He died on 17 July 
1794, retaining to the last his faculties and 
his native good humour. He married, about 
1746, Ann Ward of Sheffield, but left her un- 
provided for. His third son, Ebenezer, was 
father of John Arthur Roebuck [q. v.] An- 
other grandson, Thomas, is separately noticed. 

Roebuck was a member of the Royal So- 
cieties of London and Edinburgh, and con- 
tributed to the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
(vols. 65 and 66). Of two pamphlets of 
which he is said to have been the author, 
one is in the library of the British Museum, 
' An Enquiry whether the guilt of the present 
Civil War in America ought to be imputed to 
Great Britain or America ? A new edition,' 
London, 1776, 8vo. Roebuck's verdict was in 
favour of Great Britain. 

Roebuck was both warm-hearted and 
warm-tempered, an agreeable companion, 
much liked by his many friends, and exem- 
plary in all the relations of private life. When 
he received the freedom of the city of Edin- 
burgh during the provostship of James Drum- 
mond, he was assured that the honour con- 
ferred on him was ' given for eminent services 
done to his country.' Certainly the esta- 
blishment of the Carron ironworks and the 
improvements which he introduced into the 
iron manufacture were of signal benefit to 
Scotland. Not only did it originate in Scot- 
land a new industry which has since become 
of great magnitude, but it gave an impetus 
then much needed to Scottish industrial en- 
terprise. Even the works at Borrowstoun- 
ness, though ruinous to himself, contributed 
to the same end, so that the mineral re- 
sources of the district were developed with 
a spirit unknown before. Roebuck's personal 
failure there is to be ascribed mainly to the 
ultra-sanguine views which resulted from 
his success elsewhere. 

[Memoir of Roebuck in vol. iv. of Transactions 
of the Royal Soc. of Edinburgh, communicated 
by Professor Jardine of Glasgow'; R. B. Prosser's 
Birmingham Inventors and Inventions; Parkes's 
Chemical Essays, 2nd edit. ; Scrivener's Hist, of 
the Iron Trade ; Percy's Metallurgy, ii. 889 ; 
Smiles' s Lives of Boulton and Watt ; Hunter's 
Hallamshire.ed.Gratty, p. 310 ; Webster's Patent 
Cases ; authorities cited.] F. E. 

1879), politician, born at Madras in 1801, was 
fifth son of Ebenezer Roebuck, a civil servant 


9 6 


in India, who was third son of Dr. John Roe- 
buck [q. v.] His mother was a daughter of 
Richard Tickell, the brother-in-law and friend 
of Sheridan. Losing his father in childhood, 
he was brought to England in 1807, whence 
his mother took him to Canada after her 
marriage to a second husband. He was edu- 
cated in Canada. Returning to England in 
1824, he was entered, at the Inner Temple, and 
called to the bar on 28 Jan. 1831. He went 
the northern circuit. In 1843 he was ap- 
pointed queen's counsel, and was elected a 
bencher of his inn. In 1835 he became agent 
in England for the House of Assembly of 
Lower Canada during the dispute between 
the executive government and the House of 
Assembly, and on 5 Feb. 1838 he was heard 
at the bar of the House of Lords in opposi- 
tion to Lord John Russell's Canada Bill. 
His practice as a barrister was not large. 
The only trial in which he made a decided 
mark was that in which he successfully de- 
fended Job Bradshaw, the proprietor and 
editor of a Nottingham newspaper, for a 
libel upon Feargus O'Connor [q. v.] 

A disciple of Bentham and a friend of 
John Stuart Mill, Roebuck professed advanced 
political opinions, which he resolved to up- 
hold in the House of Commons. On 14 Dec. 
1832 he was returned by Bath to the first 
reformed parliament. The constituency had 
previously invited Sir William Napier [q. v.] 
to contest the seat. Napier refused, but ex- 
pressed warm approval of the selection of 
Roebuck, with whom he thenceforth cor- 
responded frequently on public questions 
(ButrcE, Life of Napier, i. 418, ii. 40, 61, 
70). Roebuck delivered his maiden speech 
on 5 Feb. 1833, during the debate on the 
address, declaring himself ' an independent 
member of that house.' That position he ' 
always occupied, attacking all who differed 
from him with such vehemence as to earn 
the nickname of ' Tear 'em.' With the 
whigs he was always out of -sympathy, and 
never lost an opportunity of exhibiting his 
contempt for them. In domestic questions 
his attitude was usually that of a thorough- 
going radical. He joined O'Connell in oppos- 
ing coercion in Ireland, and advocated the 
ballot and the abolition of sinecures. In 
1835, when he was re-elected for Bath, he 
proposed to withdraw the veto from the 
House of Lords, substituting a suspensive 
power, and providing that a bill which had 
been rejected by the lords should become 
law, with the royal assent, after having been 
passed a second time by the commons. In 
the same year he collected in a volume a 
series of ' Pamphlets for the People,' in sup- 
port of his political views, which he had 

issued week by week, first at the price of 
three-halfpence each, and afterwards of two- 
pence. Their aim resembled that of Cob- 
bet's 'Twopenny Trash' (1815). The act 
which, by the imposition of a fourpenny 
stamp on each copy, had caused the sus- 
pension of Cobbett's periodical was circum- 
vented by Roebuck's scheme of publishing 
weekly pamphlets, each complete in itself. 
His chief fellow-workers were Joseph Hume, 
George Grote, Henry Warburton, and Francis 
Place, all, save the last, being members of par- 
liament. In one of his pamphlets Roebuck 
denounced newspapers and everybody con- 
nected with them, with the result that John 
Black [q. v.], editor of the ' Morning Chroni- 
cle,' sent him a challenge. A duel was fought 
on 19 Nov. 1835, but neither party was injured. 
The Reform Club was founded in 1836 
for promoting social intercourse between the 
whigs and the radicals, and Roebuck became 
a member and continued one till 1864 ; but 
his original aversion for the whigs was not 
modified by personal association. His final 
opinion of them was declared in his ' His- 
tory of the Whig Ministry of 1830 to the 
Passing of the Reform Bill' (1852). 'The 
whigs,' he wrote, 'have ever been an ex- 
clusive and aristocratic faction, though at 
times employing democratic principles and 
phrases as weapons of offence against their 
opponents. . . . When out of office they are 
demagogues ; in power they become exclu- 
sive oligarchs' (ii. 405-6). He failed to 
be re-elected for Bath in 1837, but he re- 
gained the seat in 1841. On 18 May 1843 
a motion of his in favour of secular educa- 
tion was rejected by 156 to 60, and on 
28 June, in the debate on the Irish Colleges 
Bill, he taunted the Irish supporters of the 
bill with such bitterness that Mr. Somers, 
M.P. for Sligo, threatened him with a chal- 
lenge, a threat that Roebuck brought to the 
attention of the speaker. In April 1844 
Roebuck, with some inconsistency, defended 
Sir James Graham, Sir Robert Peel's home 
secretary, from various charges, and was de- 
nounced by George Sydney Smythe, seventh 
viscount Strangford [q. v.], as the ' Diogenes 
of Bath,' whose actions were always con- 
tradictory. Roebuck's retort provoked a 
challenge from Smythe. He was rejected 
for the second time by Bath in 1847, when his 
admirers there consoled him with an address 
of confidence and a gift of 600/. He spent 
some of his leisure in writing ' A Plan for 
Governing our English Colonies,' which was 
published in 1849. He was returned for 
Sheffield unopposed in May of the same year, 
and with that constituency he was closely 
identified until death. 




In questions of foreign policy Roebuck 
always championed spirited action on Eng- 
land's part. On 24 June 1850 he moved 
a strongly worded vote of confidence in 
Palmerston's recent foreign policy. In 1854 
he defended the Crimean war ; but the in- 
efficiency which soon became apparent in 
carrying it on excited his disgust. His most 
noteworthy appearance in parliament was 
on 26 Jan. 1855, when he moved for a com- 
mittee to inquire into the conduct of the 
war. Lord John Russell resigned the office of 
president of the council as soon as notice was 

fiven of the motion. Although physical in- 
rmity hindered Roebuck from saying more 
than a few sentences, his motion was carried 
on 29 Jan. by 305 against 148 votes, and the 
administration of Lord Aberdeen resigned 
next day. Lord Palmerston succeeded to 
the premiership, and at once appointed a 
committee of inquiry into the war. Of this 
body, which was known as the Sebastopol 
committee, Roebuck was appointed chair- 
man. Its report was adverse to Lord Aber- 
deen's government, and on 17 July Roebuck 
moved that the ministers who were respon- 
sible for the Crimean disasters should be 
visited with severe reprehension. The pre- 
vious question was carried, but 181 members 
voted with Roebuck. Kinglake, in recording 
these incidents, criticises with acerbity the 
indiscriminate invective which Roebuck ha- 
bitually employed. Roebuck was an un- 
successful candidate for the chairmanship 
of the metropolitan board of works at the 
first meeting on 22 Dec. 1855. On 3 Sept. 
1856 his Sheffield constituents marked their 
appreciation of his parliamentary activity 
by presenting him with his portrait and 
eleven hundred guineas. At the same period 
he became chairman of the Administrative 
Reform Association, but that body failed to 
answer the expectation formed of it by its 
friends. He was re-elected at Sheffield after 
a contest in 1852 and 1857, and without oppo- j 
sit ion in 1859. He headed the poll there in j 
1865. But, although his popularity with the ' 
Sheffield electors was always great, his stu- 
died displays of political independence and 
the gradual modification of his radical views 
on domestic questions alienated many of his 
liberal supporters. A speech at Salisbury 
in 1862, in which he alleged that working 
men were spendthrifts and wife-beaters, made 
him for a time unpopular with the artisan 
classes. Broadhead and other organisers of 
trade-unionist outrages at Sheffield in 1867 
found in him a stern denouncer. When 
civil war raged in the United States of 
America he violently championed the slave- 
holders of the South, boasting that Lord 

Palmerston had cynically confessed to him 
that he was on the same side. In like man- 
ner, Roebuck defended Austrian rule in 
Italy. So uncompromisingand so apparently 
illiberal an attitude led to Roebuck's rejection 
by Sheffield at the election of 1868, when the 
liberals returned Mr. Mundella in his stead. 
His friends gave him 3,000/. by way of testi- 
monial. He regained the seat in 1874. 
During the administration of I&ad Beacons- 
field, with whom, when Mr. Disraeli, he had 
had many lively encounters, he favoured the 
policy of supporting the Turks against the 
Russians, and finally broke with his few re- 
maining liberal friends. On 14 Aug. 1878 
he was made a privy councillor by the tory 
government. He died at 19 Ashley Place, 
Westminster, on 30 Nov. 1879. He married, 
in 1834, Henrietta, daughter of Thomas 
Falconer (1772-1839) [q. v.J of Bath. She, 
with a daughter, survived him. 

Roebuck was short in stature, vehement 
in speech, bold in opinion. He addressed 
popular audiences with easy assurance and 
great effect. His indifference to party ties 
was appreciated by the multitude, who re- 
garded him as a politician of stern integrity. 
A portrait of him by H. W. Pickersgill, R.A., 
belongs to the corporation of Sheffield. 

[Times, 1 Dec. 1879; Blackwood, xlii. 192, 
versified address of ' Roebuck to his Con- 
stituents ; ' Spencer Walpole's Lord John Rus- 
sell ; Hunter's Hallamshire, ed. G*tty, pp. 183- 
184 ; Greville Memoirs ; Kinglake's Crimea, vii. 
281. 313-20; Matthew Arnold's Essays in Cri- 
ticism, 1875, p. 25.] F. R. 

ROEBUCK, THOMAS (1781-1819), 
orientalist, grandson of John Roebuck [q. v.] 
the inventor, was born in Linlithgowshire in 
1781. He went to school at Alloa, and after- 
wards to the high school at Edinburgh. 
His uncle Benjamin Roebuck (d. 1809), of 
the Madras civil service, procured him an 
appointment with the East India Company, 
and early in 1801 he left England to enter 
the 17th regiment of native infantry as a 
cadet. He became a lieutenant-captain in 
the same regiment on 17 Sept. 1812, and 
captain on 15 June 1815. 

Roebuck soon acquired a complete com- 
mand of Hindustani, and, on account of his 
proficiency, was frequently sent in advance 
when the regiment was on active service. 
His health suffering, he obtained leave in 
1806-9. returned to England, and spent 
much time in Edinburgh assisting Dr. John 
Borthwick Gilchrist [q. v.] to prepare an Eng- 
lish and Hindu dictionary, and two volumes 
of the ' British-Indian Monitor,' 1806-8. On 
the return voyage he compiled ' An English 
and Hindustani Naval Dictionary,' with a 


9 8 


short grammar (Calcutta, 1811 ; 2nd edit. 
1813; 4th 1848; 5th, re-edited and enlarged 
as a ' Laskari Dictionary ' by George Small, 
M.A., London, 1882). In March 1811 Roe- 
buck was attached to the college of Fort 
William, Madras, as assistant-secretary and 
examiner. Here he had leisure to pursue 
his oriental studies, to superintend the pub- 
lication of a Hindustani version of Persian 
tales, and to edit, with notes in Per- 
sian, a Hindu-Persian dictionary (Calcutta, 
1818). He died prematurely of fever at 
Calcutta on 8 Dec. 1819. Just before his 
death he completed 'The Annals of the Col- 
lege of Fort William ' (Calcutta, 1819, 8vo) 
and ' A Collection of Proverbs and Pro- 
verbial Phrases in the Persian and Hindus- 
tani Languages ' (Calcutta, 1824). His un- 
published materials for a lexicon of the latter 
language, which he had long projected, be- 
came, after his death, the property of the go- 
vernment, and were deposited in the library 
of the college. Roebuck was a member of 
the Asiatic Society. 

[Memoir by Professor H. H. Wilson in his 
edition of Roebuck's Persian Proverbs ; Registers 
of the East India Company, 1803-1819; Roe- 
buck's Works ; Dodwell and JVIiles's Indian Army 
List, pp. 148-9.] C. F. S. 

1700), painter of portraits and still life, son 
of Gerrit van Roestraten of Amsterdam, was 
born at Haarlem in Holland in 1627. He 
was a pupil of Frans Hals, whose daughter 
Ariaentge he married in 1654. Although he 
practised portrait-painting, Roestraten de- 
voted himself principally to painting still 
life, this class of art being practised with 
great success in Haarlem by the sons and 
pupils of Frans Hals. Roestraten espe- 
cially excelled in the delineation of gold and 
silver plate, musieal instruments, &c. He 
came over to England, and was patronised 
by his fellow-countryman. Peter Lely, who 
showed some of his work to Charles II. 
Lely is doubtfully said to have been jealous of 
him as a portrait-painter, and therefore to 
have encouraged him to devote himself to 
still life. Roestraten met with great success 
in England, and his pictures are far from 
uncommon, although they have seldom met 
with the recognition they deserve. Two 
pictures by him are in the royal collec- 
tion at Hampton Court, six at Newbattle 
Abbey, others at Chatsworth, Waldershare, 
and other seats of the nobility and gentry. 
During the fire of London Roestraten re- 
ceived an injury to his hip which lamed him 
for the rest of his life. A portrait of him 
(engraved in Walpole's ' Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing ') suggests that he was of a convivial dis- 

position. In his will, dated 29 April 1700 
(P. C. C. 105, Noel), he is described as of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 'picture-drawer.' 
The will was proved on 24 July 1700 by 
his widow, Clara, who was his second wife. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wor- 
num ; De Piles's Lives of the Painters ; Bode's 
Studien der hollandischen Malerei; Oud Hol- 
land, iii. 310, xi. 215; Houbraken's Groote 
Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders ; 
information from Dr. A. Bredius, Dr. C. Hofstede 
De Groot, and Mr. Oswald Barron.] L. C. 

ROETTIERS, JAMES (1663-1698), 
medallist, the second son of John Roettiers 
[q. v.], the medallist, was born in London in 
1663. From about 1680 he assisted his 
father at the English mint in making dies 
and puncheons (Gal. Treasury Papers, 1556- 

1696 pp. 108, 110, 513, 1697-1701-2 p. 
195), and in 1690 was officially employed as 
an assistant engraver at the mint together 
with his brother Norbert. An annual salary 
of 325/. was divided between the brothers. In 

1697 (before July) James Roettiers was re- 
moved from his office at the mint in conse- 
quence of the theft of dies from the Tower 
[see under ROETTIERS, JOHN]. He was how- 
ever allowed to retain his dies and puncheons 
for medals. He died in 1698 at Bromley in 

His principal medals are : 1. ' Battle of 
La Hogue,' rev. ' Nox nulla secuta est ' (pro- 
bably by him), 1692. 2. 'Death of Queen 
Mary,' rev. inscription, 1694-5 (by James 
and 'Norbert Roettiers). 3. 'Death of 
Mary,' rev. Sun setting behind hill, 1694-5. 
4. ' Death of Mary,' rev. Interior of chapel 
(signed I. R.), 1694-5. 5. 'Medal of 
Charles I, rev. ' Virtutem ex me,' &c. (by 
James and Norbert Roettiers), 1694-5. 
6. ' Presentation of collar to the Lord Mayor 
of Dublin,' signed ' James R.' (one of his 
best medals), 1697. 

He was the father of JAMES ROETTIERS 
(1698-1772), medallist, who was born in 
London in 1698, and held the office of en- 
graver-general of the Low Countries from 
31 Aug. 1733 till his death at Brussels on 
15 July 1772. 

[For authorities see under ROETTIERS, JOHN.] 

W. W. 

JOHN (1631-1703), medallist, born on 4 July 
1631, was the eldest son of Philip Roettiers 
(or Rotier), medallist and goldsmith of Ant- 
werp, by his wife Elizabeth Thermos. John's 
younger brothers, Joseph (1635-1703) and 
Philip (b. 1640), were born at Antwerp, but 
it is doubtful if this was his own birthplace. 
John Roettiers adopted the profession of a 




medallist and stonecutter, and his earliest 
known medals are of 1656 (?) and 1660. 

In 1661 he and his brother Joseph (and 
subsequently the third brother, Philip) 
were invited to England by Charles II to 
work at the English mint. According to 
Walpole (Anecdotes of Painting, ii. 184), 
their father had lent money to Charles during 
his exile, and had been promised employ- 
ment for his sons. The letters patent ap- 
pointing the three Roettiers engravers at the 
mint state that they were employed on 
account of the King's long experience of 
their great skill and knowledge ' in the arts 
of graveing and cutting in stone ' (see Cal. 
Treasury Papers, 1697-1701-2, pp. 437, 438). 

In January and February 1662 John 
Roettiers and Thomas Simon [q. v.] were 
ordered to engrave dies for the new ' milled' 
money in gold and silver, but, ' by reason of 
a contest in art between them,' they could 
not be brought to an agreement. They there- 
upon submitted patterns for gold ' unites ' 
and for 'silver crowns.' Simon produced his 
splendid ' petition crown,' but his rival's 
work was preferred, and John Roettiers was 
entrusted with the preparation of the coinage, 
and on 19 May 1662 received a grant of the 
office of one of the chief engravers of the mint. 

Roettiers had been already at work upon 
medals commemorating the Restoration, and 
he produced many important medals through- 
out the reign of Charles II. In February 
1666-7 he was directed to make a new great 
seal of the kingdom of Great Britain, com- 
pleted at a cost of 246/. 3s. 2d. Joseph Roet- 
tiers, John's principal assistant at the mint, 
left England in or before 1680, and in 1682 
became engraver-general of the French mint. 
He died at Paris in 1703. James Roettiers, 
John's second son, rendered assistance to his 
father at the mint in place of Joseph. Philip 
Roettiers was officially connected with the 
English mint as an engraver till February 
1684, but he was absent (at any rate tem- 
porarily) in the Low Countries from about 
1673, and afterwards became engraver- 
general of the mint of the king of Spain in 
the Low Countries. He produced a few 
English medals : ' Charles II and Catharine,' 
1667 (?) (signed ' P. R.') ; ' State of Britain,' 
1667? ('P. R.'); 'Liberty of Conscience,' 
1672 ('Philip Roti'). Norbert Roettiers, 
John's third son, assisted his father after 
Philip's departure from England. John, Jo- 
seph, and Philip Roettiers appear to have 
originally received an annual allowance of 
'L'.")/. divided between them. On 7 April 
1669 they were granted by warrant a yearly 
pension of 4oO/. (i.e. 150/. each). John con- 
tinued to receive the 450J. after his brothers 

had left the mint, but he had to petition 
more than once for arrears of payment. 

John Roettiers produced the official coro- 
nation medals of James II (1685) and Wil- 
liam and Mary (1689), but he was not ac- 
tively employed after the death of Charles II. 
In January 1696-7 it was discovered that 
dies for coins of Charles II and James II had 
been abstracted by labourers at the mint, 
and had been handed over by them to coiners 
in the Fleet prison, who used the dies for 
striking ' guineas ' of James II on gilded 
blanks of copper. A committee of the House 
of Commons reported on 2 Feb. 1696-7 that 
John Roettiers, who occupied ' the graver's 
house ' at the Tower, was responsible for the 
custody of the dies, and was an unfit cus- 
todian, inasmuch as he was a violent papist, 
and ' will not nor ever did own the king 
[William III], or do any one thing as a 
graver since the revolution.' Roettiers ap- 
pears to have been removed from his office 
about this time, and to have taken up his 
residence in Red Lion Square, London. In 
his later years he suffered from the stone 
and from ' a lameness in his right hand.' He 
died in 1703, and was buried in the Tower. 

John Roettiers was one of the best en- 
gravers ever employed at the English mint. 
Evelyn (Diary, 20 July 1678) refers to him 
as ' that excellent graver . . . who emulates 
even the ancients in both metal and stone;' 
and Pepys (Diary, 26 March 1666), who 
visited Roettiers at the Tower, declares that 
he there saw ' some of the finest pieces of 
work, in embossed work, that ever I did see 
in my life, for fineness and smallness of the 
images thereon.' On 11 Oct. 1687 Henry 
Slingsby (ex-master of the mint) offered 
Pepys his collection of Roet.tiers's medals. 
The ' Great Britannia ' (' Felicitas Britanniae ') 
was valued by Slingsby at 4/. 10*., and the 
other medals at sums from 10.*. to 31. 4*. 
apiece. The following is a list of Roettiers's 
principal medals, all of them made subsequent 
to the Restoration: 1 .' Archbishop Laud.' 
2. ' Giles Strangways.' 3. ' Memorial of 
Charles I ; ' rev. hand holding crown. 

4. ' Landing of Charles II at Dover, 1660.' 

5. 'Restoration,' 1660, ' Britannia?.' 6. ' Re- 
storation, Felicitas Britannia? ' (the head said 
to be by Joseph Roettiers). 7. ' Marriage of 
Charles II and Catharine,' 1662, in silver 
and in gold probably the ' golden medal ' 
commemorated by Waller. 8. ' Naval Re- 
ward,' 1665 (' Pro talibus ausis '). 9. ' Duke 
of York, naval action, 1665.' 10. ' Proposed 
Commercial Treaty with Spain,' 1666. 
11. ' Peace of Breda' [1667] (' FayenteDeo,' 
with figure of Britannia, a portrait of Mrs. 
Stuart, duchess of Richmond). 12. ' Duke 

H 2 




of Lauderdale,' 1672. 13. ' Nautical School 
Medal ' and ' Mathematical Medal ' for 
Christ's Hospital, 1673. 14. 'Sir Samuel 
Morland,' 1681. 15. 'Duke of Beaufort,' 
1682. 16. ' Charles II,' 1683 (?) ; rev. royal 
arms. 17. ' Coronation Medals of James II,' 
1685. 18. ' Coronation Medal of William 
and Mary,' 1689. 19. Dies and puncheons 
for intended medals of the Duchesses of 
Richmond, Cleveland, Portsmouth, and 
Mazarin (1667 P-1676). 

John Roettiers's usual signature on medals 
is ' J. R.' in monogram. He also signs ROTI. ; 
KOETTI ; IAN. R. ; JOAN. EOTI. Little is known 
of his work as a gem-cutter. Walpole (Anec- 
dotes of Painting, ii. 187) mentions a cornelian 
seal by him with the heads of Mars and 
Venus. Many dies and puncheons executed 
by John Roettiers and his relatives were pur- 
chased from the Roettiers family by a Mr. 
Cox, and were by him sold in 1828 to 
Matthew Young, the coin dealer, who, after 
striking some impressions for sale, presented 
them in 1829 to the British Museum. 

John Roettiers married, in 1658, Cathe- 
rine Prost, by whom he had five daughters 
and three sons : John (b. 1661 ?), James [q.v.], 
and Norbert [q.v.] John Roettiers (the 
younger), unlike his two brothers, does not 
appear to have been a medallist. The commit- 
tee of the House of Commons concerning the 
abstraction of the dies reported (2 Feb.1696-7) 
that this younger John was suspected of par- 
ticipation in the conspiracy of Rookwood 
and Bern ado, ' the assassinators/ 'having at 
that time provided himself of horses and arms 
at his own house in Essex, where he enter- 
tained very ill company, to the great terror of 
the neighbourhood.' A warrant for high trea- 
son was out against him, 'but he is fled from 
justice ' [see under ROOKWOOD, AMBROSE]. 

[The principal authority for the life of John 
Roettiers and for the complicated history of the 
Roettiers family is Burn's Memoir of the 
Roettiers in the Numismatic Chronicle, iii. 
158 sq. See also Numismatic Chronicle, ii. 
199, iii. 56; Hawkins's Medallic Illustrations, 
ed. Franks and Grueber ; Advielle's Notices 
sur les Roettiers in the Report of the Reunion 
des Societfe des Beaux- Arts, May 1888 (Paris, 
1888); Jouin and Mazerolle, Les Roettiers 
(Macoo, 1894); Guiffrey in Revue Numis- 
matique, 1889, 1891 ; Revue beige de Numis- 
matique, 1895, pp. 282 f. ; Walpole's Anecd. of 
Painting, ed. Wornum ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1661-9; Cal. Treasury Papers, 1695-1702.] 

W. W. 

ROETTIERS, NORBERT (1665 P-1727), 
medallist, the third son of John Roettiers 
[q. v.], the medallist, was probably born at 
Antwerp in 1665. lie assisted his father at 

the English mint in making dies and pun- 
cheons from about 1684, and in 1690 wa& 
officially employed as an assistant en- 
graver at the mint, together with his elder 
brother James [see ROETTIERS, JAMES, 1663- 
1698]. He was an ardent Jacobite, and, 
according toWalpole (Anecdotes of Painting f 
ii. 186), was suspected by persons with 
' penetrating eyes' of having introduced a 
small satyr's head within the head of Wil- 
liam III on the English copper coinage of 
1694. The existence of the satyr is more 
than doubtful, and, in any case, James, and 
not Norbert, Roettiers had the principal 
hand in the coinage. It is however certain 
that Norbert left the country about 1695, 
and attached himself to the Stuarts at St. 
Germain, He made several medals for the 
Stuart family (1697-1720) and their ad- 
herents, and was appointed ' engraver of the 
mint ' by the elder Pretender. He made 
(1709) the English 'crown-piece,' with the 
effigy and titles of James III (Numismatic 
Chronicle, 1879, p. 135, pi. v. 3) and the 
Scottish ' coins ' (1716) with the pretender's 
title of 'James VIII.' He was appointed 
engraver-general of the French mint in suc- 
cession to his uncle, Joseph Roettiers, who 
died in 1703, and in 1722 became a member 
of the French Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture. He described himself officially as 
' Graveur general des monnaies de France et 
d'Angleterre.' He died at his country seat at 
Choisy-sur-Seine on 18 May 1727. 

His principal medals, generally signed 
N. R., are as follows: 1. 'Memorial of 
Charles I,' rev. ' Rex pacificus.' 2. Portrait 
of Queen Mary (Medallic Illustrations, ii. 
106). 3. 'Death of Mary' (with James 
Roettiers), 1694-5. 4. Medal of Charles I, 
rev. ' Virtutem ex me,' &c. (with James 
Roettiers), 1694-5. 5. Prince James, rev. 
Ship in storm, 1697. 6. Prince James, rev. 
Dove, 1697. 7. Medals of James II and 
Prince James, 1699. 8. Succession of Prince 
James, 1699. 9. Portrait of William III 
(plaque). 10. Portrait of Queen Anne. 
11. James III protected by Louis XIV, 
1704. 12. James III, ' Restoration of King- 
dom,' rev. map, 1708. 13. 'Claim of elder 
Pretender,' rev. Sheep feeding, 1710. 

14. James III and Princess Louisa, 1712. 

15. ' Birth of the Young Pretender,' 1720. 
He probably also made the touchpiece of 
James III (1708 ?), and a few other medals 
are attributed to him in the ' Revue Numis- 
matique' (1891, p. 325). 

Norbert Roettiers married, first, Elizabeth 
Isard ; secondly, Winifred, daughter of 
Francis Clarke, an Englishman living at St 




ROETTIERS, JAMES (1707-1784), medallist 
and goldsmith, the eldest son of Norbert 
Roettiers, by his second wife, was born at St. 
Germain-en-Laye on 20 Aug. 1707, the elder 
Pretender being his godfather. He at first 
practised medal engraving, but subsequently 
devoted himself with success to the business 
of a goldsmith, and was appointed gold- 
smith to the French king. On the death 
of his father in 1727 he was appointed ' en- 
graver of the mint ' of the Pretender. In 
1731 he came to London with a project of 
striking medals from the dies made by his 
grandfather, John Roettiers. He was en- 
couraged by Mead and Sloane, and himself 
produced medals of the Duke of Beaufort 
<1730), John Locke (1739), and Sir Isaac 
Newton (1739). His signature is JAC. 
KOETTIEES. He became a member of the 
French Academy of Painting aud Sculpture, 
and in 1772 obtained 'lettres de confirmation 
<le noblesse.' He died at Paris on 17 May 1784. 

[For authorities see under ROETTIEHS, JOHX.] 

W. W. 

FORD ( A. 1071-1075). [See FITZWILLIAM, 

of the Norman family of Montgomery, In 
the foundation charter for the abbey of 
Troarn he describes himself as ' ego Rogerius 
ex Xormanno Normannus, magni autem 
Rogerii films' (STAPLETON, Rot. Normannice, 
I. Ixiii, II. xciii). He was son of Roger the 
Great, who in 1035 was an exile at Paris for 
treachery, and was a cousin not only of the 
Conqueror, but also of Ralph de Mortimer 
(d. 1104 ?) [q.v.] and of William FitzOsbern 
fq. v.] His brothers, Hugh, Robert, Wil- 
liam, and Gilbert, took a prominent part in 
the disorders of Normandy under the young 
Duke William ; it was William de Mont- 
gomery who murdered Osbern, the duke's 
steward, and father of William FitzOsbern 

<WlLLIAM OF JtJMlkGES, 268 B, 313 A). 

The young Roger, however, soon became one 
of William's most attached and trusted sup- 
porters. In 1048 he was with the duke be- 
fore Domfront, and was one of the spies who 
discovered the hasty flight of Geoffrey Martel 
<WiLL.PoixiERs,pp. 182-3; WILL. MALMES- 
BURY, Gesta Reyum, ii. 288). Roger added 
to his paternal estate as lord of Montgomery 
and viscount of L'Hiemois by marrying 
Mabel, daughter of William Talvas of Bel- 
leme, Alencon, and S6ez, and thus became 
the greatest of the Norman lords. His in- 
fluence with William was great. By in- 

ducing the duke to give the castle of Neuf- 
marche-en-Lions to Hugh de Grantmesnil he 
rid himself of a dangerous neighbour, while 
by his advice Ralph of Toesny, Hugh de 
Grantmesnil, and Arnold d'Echaufour were 
for a time banished from Normandy (ORi>. 
VIT. ii. 81, 113). Roger was present at the 
council of Lillebonne in 1066, and agreed to 
contribute sixty ships for the invasion of 
England. At Hastings he was in command 
of the French on the right, and distinguished 
himself by his valour in killing an English 
giant (WACE, 7668-9, 13400). He returned 
with William to Normandy in 1067, and 
when the king went over to England was 
left as guardian of the duchy jointly with 
Matilda (ORD. VIT. ii. 178). But William 
soon summoned Roger to rejoin him, and 
made him Earl of Chichester and Arundel. 

About 1071 Roger obtained also the more 
important earldom of Shrewsbury, which, if 
it was not a true palatinate, possessed under 
Roger and his sons all the characteristics of 
such a dignity. In Shropshire there were 
no crown lands and no king's thegns ; and 
in 'Domesday' there is mention of only five 
lay tenants in chief, besides the earl (Domes- 
day, p. 253 ; STUBBS, Const. Hist. i. 294-5 ; 
FREEMAX, Norman Conquest, iv. 493). The 
importance of this earldom and the need for 
its exceptional strength lay in its position on 
the Welsh border. Roger's special share in 
the conquest was achieved at the expense 
of the Welsh. This work was accomplished 
by politic government, and by a well-devised 
scheme of castle-building. Chief of his 
castles was that of Montgomery, to which 
he gave the name of his Norman lordship 
(EYTOX, iv. 52, xi. 118). The chief of 
Roger's advisers were Warin, the sheriff, 
who married his niece, Amieria ; William 
Pantulf or Pantolium [q.v.] ; and Odelerius, 
his chaplain, the father of Ordericus Vitalis 
(ORD. VIT. ii. 220). But though Roger is 
praised by Ordericus, he does not seem to 
have been so popular with his English sub- 
jects, for the English burgesses of Shrews- 
bury complained that they had to pay the 
same geld as before the earl held the castle 
(Domesday, p. 252). Roger exerted himself 
to bring about the peace of Blanchelande 
between William and Fulk Rechinof Anjou 
in 1078, and to effect a reconciliation between 
the king and his son Robert in the following 
year (ORD. VIT. ii. 257, 388). In December 
1082 his Countess Mabel was killed by Hugh 
de la Roche d'Ig6 at Bures-sur-Dives. Mabel 
was a little woman, sagacious and eloquent, 
but bold and cruel (WILL. JUMIKGES, p. 275). 
Among other ill deeds, she had deprived 
Pantulf of Perai. Pantulf, who was a friend 




of Hugh d'Ige, was suspected of complicity 
in the murder, and in consequence suffered 
much at the hands of Roger and his sons 
(ORD. VIT. ii. 410-11, 432). After Mabel's 
death Roger married Adeliza, daughter of 
Ebrard de Puiset, a woman of very different 
character, who supported her husband in his 
beneficence to monks. In 1083 Roger com- 
menced to found Shrewsbury Abbey by the 
advice of Odelerius ; the work was still in 

?rogress at the time of the Domesday survey 
ib. ii. 421; WILL. MALMESBTTRY, Gesta 
Pont. p. 306 ; Domesday, p. 252 b). 

Roger secretly supported the cause of 
Robert of Normandy against William Rufus 
in 1088, but apparently he took no active 
part in the rebellion (English Chron. ; FLOR. 
WIG. ii. 21 ; but cf. WILL. MALMESBURY, 
Gesta Regum, pp. 360-1). While Rufus was 
engaged in Sussex, he found an opportunity 
to meet Roger, and by conciliatory argu- 
ments won him over to his side (WiLL. 
MALMESBURY, Gesta Regum, p. 361). Roger 
was actually present at the siege of Ro- 
chester in the king's host, while his three 
sons were fighting on the other side within 
the castle. Robert of Belleme [q. v.], the 
eldest son, soon made his peace with Wil- 
liam, and presently crossed over to Nor- 
mandy, where Duke Robert threw him into 
prison. Roger of Shrewsbury then also went 
to Normandy, and garrisoned his castles 
against Duke Robert. The duke was urged 
by his uncle, Odo of Bayeux [q. v.], to expel 
the whole brood of Talvas ; for a time he 
followed Odo's counsel, but after a little dis- 
banded his army. Roger then, by making 
false promises, obtained all he wished for, in- 
cluding his son's release (ORD. VIT. ii. 292- 
294, 299). Soon afterwards Roger went 
back to England. A little before his death 
he took the habit of a monk at Shrewsbury, 
and, after spending three days in pious con- 
versation and prayer, died on 27 July (ORD. 
VIT. iii. 425). The year was probably 1093, 
as given by Florence of Worcester (ii. 31), 
for Ordericus (ii. 421) says distinctly that 
Roger survived the Conqueror for six years ; 
the date is, however, often given as 1094, 
and M. Le Prevost even favours 1095 (see 
EYTON,IX. 29, xi. 119). According to a late 
tradition, Roger died at his house at Quat- 
ford (ib. ix. 317), but this is against the plain 
statement of Ordericus. He was buried in 
the abbey at Shrewsbury, between two altars. 
Roger of Montgomery was ' literally fore- 
most among the conquerors of England ' 
(FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, ii. 194). To 
Ordericus he is the ancient hero, the lover 
of justice, and of the company of the wise 
and moderate (ii. 220, 422). Even in Mabel's 

lifetime he was a munificent friend of monks. 
In 1050 he established monks at Troarn in 
place of the canons provided for by Roger I 
in 1022. By the advice of Mabel's uncle 
William, bishop of Seez, Roger restored St. 
Martin Se"ez as a cell of St. Evroul (ORD. 
VIT. ii. 22, 46-7, iii. 305). Roger's second 
wife, Adeliza de Puiset, joined with him in 
the foundation of Shrewsbury Abbey, bring- 
ing monks from Seez ; the benefactions com- 
menced in 1083 seem to have been com- 
pleted in 1087 (ib. ii. 416, 421-2 ; DTJGDALE, 
Monast. Angl. iii. 518-20). Roger also 
restored the abbey of St. Milburga at Wen- 
lock for Cluniac monks, and established the 
priory of St. Nicholas, Arundel (ib. vi. 1377). 
The collegiate church at Quatford, Shrop- 
shire, is said to have been founded by Earl 
Roger to commemorate the escape of Adeliza 
from shipwreck (BROMPTON, ap. Scriptores 
Decem, col. 988). Roger was also a bene- 
factor of the abbey of Cluny, and of Alme- 
| nesches and Caen in Normandy, and of St. 
Evroul, to which he gave lands at Melbourne 
in Cambridgeshire (ORD. VIT. ii. 415, iii. 
20). Besides the castles at Shrewsbury and 
Montgomery, he built another at Quatford. 

By Mabel, Roger was father of five sons : 
Robert of Belleme [see BELLEME], Hugh de 
Montgomery [see HUGH], Roger, Philip, and 
Arnulf; the last three are noticed below. 
He had also four daughters : Emma, who was 
abbess of Almenesches from 1074 to 4 March 
1113 ; Matilda, who married Robert of Mor- 
tain ; Mabel, wife of Hugh de Chateauneuf 
en Thimerais ; and Sybil, who was, by Robert 
FitzHamo, mother of Matilda, the wife of 
Earl Robert of Gloucester [q. v.] By Ade- 
liza he had one son, Ebrard, a learned clerk, 
who was in Orderic's time one of the royal 
chaplains in the court of Henry I (ORD. 
VIT. ii. 412, iii. 318, 426). 

ROGER THE POITEVIN (fl. 1110), the third 
son, owed his surname to his marriage with 
Almodis, daughter of the Count of Marche 
in Poitou, in whose right he succeeded to 
her brother, Count Boso, in 1091 (Recueildes 
Historiens de France, xii. 402). His father 
obtained for him the earldom of Lancaster 
in England (ORD. VIT. ii. 423, iii. 425-6). 
In 1088 he fought on the rebel side at 
Rochester, but was taken into favour soon 
after, and in September was acting on behalf 
of Rufus in the negotiations with William 
of St. Calais [see WILLIAM], bishop of Dur- 
ham, in whose behalf he afterwards appealed 
without success (DUGDALE, Monast. Angl. 
i. 246-8 ; FREEMAN, William Rufus, ii. 93, 
109, 117). In 1090 he was fighting on be- 
half of his brother Robert of Belleme 
against Hugh of Grantmesnil (ORD. VIT. 




iii. 361). Afterwards he held Argentan in 
Normandy for William against Duke Ro- 
bert, but was forced to surrender in 1094 
(English Chronicle : HEN. HUNT. p. 217). 
Roger sided with his brother Robert of 
Belleme in his rebellion against Henry I in 
1102, and for his treason was deprived of 
his earldom and expelled from England. 
He retired to his wife's castle of Charroux, 
near Civrai, where he waged a long war 
with Hugh VI of Lusignan as to the county 
of La Marche. He was succeeded as count of 
La Marche by his son, Audebert III; his 
daughter Pontia married Vulgrin, count of 
Angouleme (OKD. VIT. iv. 178-9 ; Recueil, 
xii. 402). Roger gave lands in Lancashire 
to his father's foundation at Shrewsbury, 
and was himself the founder of a priory at 
Lancaster as a cell of St. Martin Seez 
(DUGDALE, Monast. Angl. iii. 519, 521, vi. 

PHILIP OF MONTGOMERY (d. 1099), called 
Grammaticus or the Clerk, fourth son of 
Roger de Montgomery, witnessed the founda- 
tion charter of Shrewsbury Abbey (DUGDALE, 
Monast. Angl. iii. 520). He took part in the 
rebellion of Robert de Mowbray [q.v.] in 1094. 
Early in 1096 he was imprisoned by Wil- 
liam II (FLOR. WIG. i. 39), but was soon 
released, and in the same year went on the 
crusade with Robert of Normandy, and, after 
fighting valiantly against Corbogha at An- 
tioch, died at Jerusalem. William of Malmes- 
bury describes him as renowned beyond all 
knights in letters. His daughter Matilda 
succeeded her aunt Emma as abbess of 
Almenesches (ORD. VIT. iii. 483, iv. 183; 
WILL. MALM. Gesta Regum, p. 461). The 
Scottish family of Montgomerie, now repre- 
sented by the Earl of Eglinton, claims to be 
descended from Philip de Montgomery [see 
under MONTGOMERIE, SIR JOHN]. Philip had 
issue, who remained in Normandy and bore 
the name of Montgomery (STAPLETON, Rot. 
Norm. n. xciv). 

fifth son of Roger de Montgomery, obtained 
Dy ved or Pembroke as his share by lot (ORD. 
VIT. ii. 423, iii. 425-6 ; Brut y Tywysogion, 
p. 67). He built the castle of Pembroke 'ex 
virgisetcespite'aboutl090(z'6. ; GIR.CAMBR. 
vi. 89). The same year he was fighting for 
Robert of Belleme, and twelve years later he 
took a chief part in the rebellion against 
Henry I. Arnulf sent for help to Ireland, and 
asked for the daughter of Murchadh [q. v.], 
king of Leinster, in marriage, which was 
easily obtained. He crossed over to Ireland 
to receive his wife, and is said to have sup- 
ported the Irish against Magnus of Norway, 
and aspired to obtain the kingdom of Ireland. 

Murchadh, however, took away his daughter 
Lafacroth, and schemed to kill Arnulf. Sub- 
sequently Arnulf was reconciled to Mur- 
chadh and married to Lafacroth, but he died 
the day after the wedding (ORD. VIT. iv. 
; 177-8, 193-4; Brut, pp. 69, 73). He founded 
i the priory of St. Nicholas in the castle at 
1 Pembroke as a cell of St. Martin Seez, 
27 Aug. 1098 (DUGDALE, Monast. Angl. iv. 
320, vi. 999). The Welsh family of Carew 
claims descent from Arnulf. 

[Orderbus Vitalis (Soc. de 1'Hist. de France) ; 
William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum and 
Gesta Pontificum ; Brut y Tywysogion (Rolls 
Ser.); William of Jumieges, and William of 
Poitiers, ap. Duchesne's Hist. Norm. Scriptores ; 
Wace's Roman de Rou ; Stapleton's Rot. Scacc. 
NormanniiB ; Battle Abbey Roll, ed. Duchess of 
Cleveland ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 26-32, and 
Monasticon Anglicanum ; Freeman's Norman 
Conquest and William Rufus ; Eyton's Anti- 
quities of Shropshire, passim ; Owen and Blake- 
way's History of Shrewsbury ; Blanche's Con- 
queror and his Companions ; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

ROGER BIGOD (d. 1107), baron. [See 

ROGER OF SALISBURY (d. 1139), also 
called ROGER THE GREAT, bishop of Salis- 
bury and justiciar, was of humble origin, 
and originally priest of a little chapel near 
Caen. The future king, Henry I, chanced, 
while riding out from Caen, to turn aside to 
this chapel to hear mass. Roger, guessing 
the temper of his audience, went through 
the service with such speed that they de- 
clared him the very man for a soldier's 
chaplain, and Henry took him into his ser- 
vice. Roger, though almost wholly unlet- 
tered, was astute and zealous, and as Henry's 
steward managed his affairs with such skill 
that he soon won his master's confidence 
(WiLL. NEWB. i. 36, ap. Chron. Stephen, 
Henry II, and Richard I, Rolls Ser.) After 
Henry became king, he made Roger his 
chancellor in 1101. In September 1102 
Henry invested Roger with the bishopric of 
Salisbury. In this capacity Roger attended 
Anselm's council at Michaelmas; but though 
the archbishop did not refuse to communi- 
cate with him, he would not consecrate Roger 
or two other intended bishops who had lately 
received investiture from the king. Henry 
then appealed to Archbishop Gerard [q. v.] of 
York, who was ready to perform the cere- 
mony, but the other two bishops declined to 
accept consecration from Gerard, while Roger 
prudently temporised, so as neither to anger 
the king nor to injure the cause of Anselm 
(WiLL. MALM. Gesta Pontificum, pp. 109-10). 




The consecration was in consequence post- 
poned, but Roger nevertheless resigned the 
chancellorship, in accordance with the usual 
practice, soon after his investiture as bishop. 
He may possibly have resumed his office as 
chancellor in 1106, but, if so, again resigned, 
when he was at last consecrated in the fol- 
lowing year. The contest between the king 
and archbishop on the question of investi- 
tures was formally settled in August 1107, 
and on 11 Aug. Roger and a number of other 
bishops were consecrated by Anselm at Can- 
terbury (ib. p. 117; EADMER, p. 187). 

Shortly afterwards Roger was raised to the 
office of justiciar. William of Malmesbury 
(Gesta Seffum, ii. 483) speaks of him as 
having the governance of the whole kingdom, 
whether Henry was in England or in Nor- 
mandy. But it is uncertain whether he really 
acted as the king's lieutenant in his absence, 
or even whether the name of justiciar yet 
'possessed a precise official significance' 
(SxuBBs). He is, however, the first justiciar 
to be called ' secundus a rege ' (HEX. HUNT. 
p. 245). Roger was one of the messengers 
sent by the king to Anselm in 1108 to in- 
duce him to consecrate the abbot of St. 
Augustine's in his own abbey, and was pre- 
sent in the Whitsuntide court of that year 
at London, when he joined with other 
bishops in supporting Anselm's contention 
as to the consecration of the archbishop- 
elect of York (EADMER, pp. 189, 208). Roger 
was responsible for the peaceful administra- 
tion of England during the king's long ab- 
sences in Normandy. On 27 June 1115 he 
was at Canterbury for the consecration of 
Theodoald as bishop of Worcester, and on 
19 Sept. for that of Bernard of St. Davids 
at Westminster (ib. pp. 230, 236). In 1121 
he claimed to officiate at the king's marriage 
with Adela of Louvain, on the ground that 
Windsor was within his diocese; but Arch- 
bishop Ralph d'Escures [q. v.] resisted, and 
entrusted the duty to the bishop of Win- 
chester (ib. p. 292; WILL. MALM. Gesta 
Pontificum, p. 132, n. 3). Roger was in the 
king's company when Robert Bloet [q. v.] 
died in their presence at Woodstock, January 
1123. Robert and Roger had arranged to 
prevent the election of a monk to the vacant 
archbishopric of Canterbury, and through 
Roger's influence William of Corbeuil was 
elected in the following February, and Roger 
took part in his consecration at Canterbury 
on 18 Feb. (English Chronicle, 1123). At 
Christmas 1124 Roger summoned all the 
coiners of England to Winchester, and had 
the coiners of base money punished (ib. 1125). 
In 1126 Robert, duke of Normandy [q. v.], 
was removed from Roger's custody (ib. 1126). 

At Christmas Henry held his court at Wind- 
sor, and made all the chief men of the country 
swear allegiance to his daughter Matilda. 
Roger was foremost in recommending this 
oath (HEN. HUNT. p. 256), but he was after- 
wards first to break it. William of Malmes- 
bury relates that he often heard Roger de- 
clare that he took the oath only on the 
understanding that Henry would not marry 
Matilda except with his advice and that of 
his nobles, and that therefore he was ab- 
solved when Matilda married Geoffrey of 
Anjou without their consent (Hist. Nov. p. 
530). Roger was present at the consecration 
of Christ church, Canterbury, on 4 May 1130. 
When, after the death of King Henry on 
1 Dec. 1135, Stephen of Blois came over to 
secure the crown, Roger took his side with 
little hesitation. His adhesion secured the 
new king the command of the royal treasure 
and the administration, and thus contributed 
chiefly to Stephen's success. He was present 
at Stephen's coronation, and after Christmas 
went with the king to Reading. At Easter 
1136 Roger was with the king at West- 
minster (cf. ROUND, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
ii. 262-3 ; Select Charters, p. 121). Stephen, 
who was dependent on Roger's support, 
naturally retained him as justiciar. Roger's 
influence was all-powerful, and Stephen 
declared he would give him half England 
if he asked for it ; 'he will be tired of asking 
before I am of giving.' When Stephen 
proposed to cross over to Normandy, he in- 
tended to leave the government of Eng- 
land in Roger's hands during his absence. 
But a false report that Roger was dead re- 
called Stephen to Salisbury, and the expedi- 
tion was postponed to the spring of 1137 
(OED. VIT. v. 63). The whole administra- 
tion of the kingdom was under Roger's 
control ; his son Roger (see below) was 
chancellor, his nephew Nigel (d. 1169) [q.v.] 
was bishop of Ely and treasurer, and a second 
nephew, Alexander (d. 1148) [q. v.], was 
bishop of Lincoln. The three bishops used 
their resources in fortifying the castles in 
their dioceses. Roger's intention may have 
been to keep the balance of power in his own 
hands. His power and wealth excited the 
enmity of the barons in Stephen's party 
(WILL. MALM. Hist. Nov. p. 548), or, as 
another writer alleges, made the king sus- 
picious of his fidelity (ORD. VIT. v. 119). 
According to the author of the ' Gesta Ste- 
phani ' (p. 47), Count Waleran of Meulan was 
Roger's chief accuser. Ordericus relates that 
Waleran, Earl Robert of Leicester, and Alan 
de Dinan stirred up the king. Stephen sum- 
moned Roger and his nephews to come to 
him at Oxford on 24 June 1139. Roger, 




with a foreboding of evil, unwillingly started 
on his way, saying, ' I shall be of as much 
good at this council as a young colt in a 
battle' (WILL. MALM. Hist. Nov. p. 548). 

At Oxford Earl Alan's followers picked 
a quarrel with the bishops' men, and in the 
riot Alan's nephew was killed. Stephen 
declared that the bishops' men had broken 
his peace, and demanded that in satisfac- 
tion the bishops should surrender the keys 
of their castles. The bishops demurred, and 
Stephen then arrested Bishop Roger, his son 
Roger the chancellor, and Alexander of Lin- 
coln. Nigel fled to his uncle's castle of 
Devizes. Stephen at once marched against 
him, taking his prisoners with him. On ap- 
pearing before Devizes, the king confined 
Roger in the cowhouse, and threatened to 
hang the bishop's son if the castle were not 
surrendered. By Stephen's permission Roger 
had an interview with Nigel, whom he re- 
buked for not fleeing to his own diocese. 
Nigel, however, refused to yield. Roger then 
declared that he would fast till the castle 
surrendered. After three days his concubine, 
Matilda de Ramsbury, who held the keep, 
surrendered it to save her son's life, and 
Nigel was then compelled to yield (WiLL. 
MALM. Hist. Nov. p. 548 ; Gesta Stephani, 
pp. 49-50; Cont. FLOE. WIG. ii. 108; ac- 
cording to ORD. VIT. v. 120-1, Roger's fast- 
ing was involuntary). The surrender of De- 
vizes was followed by that of Roger's other 
castles of Sherborne, Salisbury, and Malmes- 
bury. Bishop Henry of Winchester, the 
king's brother and papal legate, at once pro- 
tested against the treatment of the bishops, 
and summoned Stephen to appear at a 
council at Winchester on 29 Aug. Even- 
tually a compromise was arranged, by which 
the bishops were to surrender the castles 
other than those which belonged to their 
sees, and confine themselves to their ca- 
nonical rights and duties. Stephen had to 
do penance for his treatment of the bishops. 
The incident was the ruin of Stephen's 
prospects, since it shattered his hold on the 
clergy and on the machinery of government. 
But Roger did not survive to take any share 
in the political consequences of his breach 
with the king. He died at Salisbury on 
11 Dec., according to some accounts, from 
vexation at his ill-usage ( WILL. MALM. Hist. 
Nov. p. 557 ; HEN. HUNT. p. 266 ; Cont. 
FLOH. WIG. ii. 113, where the date is given 
as 4 Dec. ; WILL. NEWS. i. 382, says that 
Roger went mad before his death). Roger 
was buried in his cathedral, whence his 
remains were translated on 14 June 1226, 
on the removal of the see to the new city 
and cathedral in the plain (Reg. St. Osmund, 

ii. 55). A tomb in the modern cathedral of 
Salisbury has been conjectured to be Roger's 
(Archeeotoffia, ii. 188-93) ; it bears an in- 
scription commencing 

Flent hodie Salesberie, quia decidit ensis 
Justitie, pater eeclesie Salesberiensis. 

But the last lines of this inscription imply 
that the bishop referred to was of noble birth, 
and it is perhaps more probable that the 
tomb belongs to Bishop Jocelin (d. 1174) 
(cf. Reg. St. Osmund, ii. p. Ixxv). 

In Roger, the statesman completely over- 
shadowed the bishop, and fifty years after 
his death he was regarded as the prototype 
of those prelates who allowed themselves to 
be immersed in worldly affairs (RALPH DE 
DICETO, ii. 77). Yet William of Malmesbury 
expressly states that Roger did not neglect 
the duties of his ecclesiastical office, and that 
he accepted the justiciarship only at the bid- 
ding of the pope and of three archbishops 
Anselm, Ralph, and William (Gesta Regum, 
p. 484). Through his five years' admini- 
stration of church affairs in the interregnum 
after the death of Anselm, though the bi- 
shoprics were used as rewards for state ser- 
vices and the spiritual life of the church was 
little regarded, the evils that had prevailed 
under William Rufus were avoided. If 
bishops were appointed from motives of 
state, the men chosen were on the whole 
worthy. From a worldly point of view, the 
advantages of the system established by 
Roger were great; it secured for the ad- 
ministration of state affairs the most capable 
officials, and men who were less exposed to 
temptation than laymen. 

Roger's main energies were devoted to the 
work of secular government ; under his di- 
rection ' the whole administrative system was 
remodelled ; the jurisdiction of the curia 
and exchequer was carefully organised, and 
the peace of the country maintained in that 
theoretical perfection which earned for him 
the title of the Sword of Righteousness' 
(SxuBBs). His great-nephew, Richard Fitz- 
neale [q. v.], in the ' Dialogus de Scaccario ' 
(SxiTBBS, Select Charters, p. 194), attributes 
to Roger the reorganisation of the exchequer 
on the basis which lasted down to his own 
time. It was perhaps a defect in Roger's 
character that he concentrated so much 
power in the hands of his own relatives. 
But the great administrative family that he 
founded served the state with conspicuous 
ability for over a century. Besides Roger's 
nephews Alexander and Nigel, his son, the 
chancellor, and his great-nephew, Richard 
FitzNeale, this family probably included 
Richard of Ilchester [q. v.J and his sons Her- 


1 06 


bert and Richard Poor [see POOR, HERBERT, 
Hov. vol. iv. p. xcf?z.^ His failings were 
family ambition and avarice. 

In the accomplishment of his designs he 
spared no expense. Above all else he was 
a great builder, particularly of castles. He 
founded the castles of Sherborne and Devizes, 
added to that at Salisbury, and commenced 
a fourth at Malmesbury. The castle of De- 
vizes is described as the most splendid in 
Europe (HEN. HTJNT. p. 265). Freeman 
speaks of him as having ' in his own person 
brought to perfection that later form of 
Norman architecture, lighter and richer than 
the earlier type, which slowly died out before 
the introduction of the pointed arch and its 
accompanying details . . . The creative genius 
of Roger was in advance of his age, and it took 
some little time for smaller men to come up 
with him.' But after the anarchy ' men had 
leisure to turn to art and ornament, and the 
style which had come in at the bidding of 
Roger was copied by lesser men almost a 
generation after his time' (Norman Conquest, 
v. 638-9). Besides his castle-building, Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury relates that Roger made 
new the cathedral of Salisbury, and adorned 
it so that there was none finer in England 
(Gesta Regum, p. 484). Nor was Roger un- 
mindful of the temporal welfare of his see. 
Through his influence with Henry I and 
Stephen additional endowments and prebends 
were obtained for the cathedral (cf. Reg. St. 
Osmund, vol. ii. pp. xlvii-viii ; Sarum Char- 
ters, pp. 5-10). He also annexed to his see 
the abbeys of Malmesbury and Abbotsbury, 
which after his death recovered their inde- 
pendence (WILL. MALM. Hist. Nov. pp. 559- 
560). Two copes and a chasuble that had 
belongedto Roger were preserved at Salisbury 
(Reg. St. Osmund, ii. 130, 13o). Roger lived 
openly with his wife or concubine, Matilda 
de Ramsbury, who was the mother of his ac- 
knowledged son, Roger Pauper (see below). 
Alexander of Lincoln and Nigel of Ely, who 
owed their education and advancement to 
Roger, seem to have been his brother's sons. 

ROGER PAUPER (fl. 1139), chancellor, was 
the son of the great Bishop Roger, and is 
supposed to have been called Pauper or Poor 
in contrast to his father's wealth ( Cont. FLOR. 
WIG. ii. 108; WILL. MALM. Hist. Nov. p. 
549 ; Genealogist, April 1896, where Count 
de la Poer argues that Le Poher or Poor is 
a territorial name). He became chancellor 
to King Stephen through his father's influ- 
ence, and as chancellor witnessed three char- 
ters early in the reign, including the charter 
of liberties granted at Oxford in April 1136. 
He retained his post down to June 1139. 

The part which he and his mother played in 
the overthrow of the bishops and capture of 
Devizes is described above. Roger Pauper 
was kept in prison for a time, and eventually 
released on condition that he left England. 

[William of Malmesbury 's Gesta Pontificum, 
Gesta Regum, and Historia Novella, Henry of 
Huntingdon, Eadmer's Historia Novorum, Re- 
gister of St. Osmund, Sarum Charters and Docu- 
ments (all these in Rolls Ser.) ; Gesta Stephani, 
and Flor. Wig. (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; English 
Chronicle ; Ordericus Vitalis (Soc. de 1'Hist. de 
France); Freeman's Norman Conquest ; Stubbs's 
Constitutional Hist. ; Norgate's England under 
the Angevin Kings ; Round's Geoffrey de Man- 
deville; Foss's Judges of England, i. 151-9; 
Boivin-Champeaux, Notice sur Roger le Grand.] 

C. L. K. 

ROGER INFANS (/. 1124), writer on 
the ' Compotus ' (i.e. the method of comput- 
ing the calendar), states that he published 
his treatise in 1124, when still a young man, 
though he had already been engaged for 
some years in teaching. For some reason he 
was called ' Infans,' which Leland, without 
sufficient justification, translated Yonge. 
Wood, whom Tanner follows, puts Roger's 
date at 1186, and absurdly calls him rector 
of the schools and chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Oxford. The only known manuscript 
of his Treatise is Digby MS. 40, ff. 25-52, 
where it commences with a rubric (of the 
thirteenth century) : ' Prsefatio Magistri 
Rogeri Infantis in Compotum.' Wright has 
printed an extract from this preface. Roger's 
chief authorities are Gerland and Helperic, 
whom he frequently corrects. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 718; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. Univ. Oxon. i. 153 ; Wright's 
Biogr. Brit. Litt. ii. 89 ; Cat. of Digby MSS.] 

C. L. K. 

ROGER OF FORD (fl. 1170), called also 
Roger Gustun, Gustum, and Roger of 
Citeaux, hagiographer, was a Cistercian 
monk of Ford in Devonshire. He went to 
Schonau, and wrote, at the order of William 
of Savigny, abbot of Schonau, ' An Account 
of the Revelations of St. Elizabeth of 
Schonau,' with a preface addressed to Bald- 
win (d. 1190) [q. v.l, abbot of Ford, after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury. The pre- 
face begins ' Qui vere diligit semper,' and 
the text ' Promptum in me est, frater.' A 
manuscript of this work is in St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, clxix, No. 8 ; another copy is 
in Bodleian MS. E. 2. Roger also wrote a 
sermon on the eleven thousand virgins of 
Cologne, beginning ' Vobis qui pios affectus/ 
and an encomium of the Virgin Mary in 
elegiacs, both of which are contained in the 




St. John's College MS. clxix. No. 8, and the 
latter in Bodleian MS. E. 2 as well. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; Coxe's Cat. MSS. in 
Coll. Aulisque Oxon.] M. B. 

ROGER OF HEREFORD (Jl. 11 78), mathe- 
matician and astrologer, seems to have been 
a native of Herefordshire, and is said to have 
been educated at Cambridge. He was a 
laborious student, and was held in great 
esteem by his contemporaries. His chief 
studies were natural philosophy and astro- 
logy, and he was an authority on mines and 
metals. The following tracts are attributed 
to him: 1. ' Theorica Planetarum Rogeri 
Herefordensis ' (Digby MSS. in Bodl. Libr. 
No. 168). 2. ' Introductorium in art-em 
judiciariam astrorum.' 3. ' Liber de quatuor 
partibus astronomise judiciorum editus a 
magistro Rogero de Herefordia ' (Digby MSS. 
in Bodl. Libr. No. 149). 4. ' De ortu et 
occasu signorum.' 5. ' Collectaneum anno- 
rum omnium planetarum.' 6. ' De rebus 
metallicis.' In the Arundel collection in 
the British Museum is an astronomical table 
by him dated 1178, and calculated for Here- 

[Bale's Script, Brit. Cent. iii. 13 ; Pits, De 
Illustr. Angl. Script, p. 237 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Brian Twyne's Ant. Acad. Oxon. Apol. ii. 218-21; 
Fuller's Hist, of Cambridge ; Thomas Wright's 
Biogr. Brit. Lit. ii. 218; Hardy's Cat. of Hist. 
Materials, ii. 415 ; Mag. of Pop. Science, iv. 275 ; 
Cat. MSS. in Bodleian Library.] W. F. S. 

ROGER (d. 1179), bishop of Worcester, 
was either the youngest, or the youngest but 
one, of the five sons of Robert, earl of Glou- 
cester [q. v.], and his wife Mabel of Gla- 
morgan (cf. Materials, vii. 258, and iii. 105). 
His father's favourite, and destined from 
infancy for holy orders, he shared for a while 
in Bristol Castle the studies of his cousin, 
the future Henry II (ib. vii. 258, iii. 104), who 
in March 1163 appointed him bishop of 
Worcester (Ann. Monast. i. 49). He was 
present as bishop-elect at the council of Cla- 
rendon in January 1164 (Materials, iv. 207, 
v. 72), and was consecrated by Archbishop 
Thomas at Canterbury on 23 Aug. (GERV. 
CANT. i. 182 ; Ann. Monast. i. 49). At the 
council of Northampton in October, when 
Thomas asked his suffragans to advise him 
how he should answer the king's demand 
for an account of his ecclesiastical admini- 
stration, Roger ' so framed his reply as to 
show by negatives what was in his mind.' 
' I will give no counsel in this matter,' he 
said, ' for if I should say that a cure of souls 
may be justly resigned at the king's com- 
mand, my conscience would condemn me ; 
but if I should advise resistance to the king, 

he would banish me. So I will neither say 
the one thing nor recommend the other' 
(Materials, ii. 328). He was one of the 
three bishops whom Thomas sent to ask the 
king for a safe-conduct on the night before his 
flight (ib. iii. 09, 312). He was also one of 
those charged to convey to the pope the 
king's appeal against the archbishop. But 
his part in the embassy was a passive one ; 
in the pope's presence he stood silently by 
while his colleagues talked (ib. iii. 70, 73 ; 
THOMAS SAGA, i. 283). On Candlemas Day, 
1165, he was enthroned at Worcester (Ann. 
Monast. i. 49, iv. 381). It is doubtful 
whether he joined in the appeal made by 
the English bishops as a body, under orders 
from the king, against the primate's juris- 
diction at midsummer 1166. Roger was soon 
afterwards, in company with Bartholomew 
of Exeter (d. 1184) [q. v.], who had protested 
against the appeal, denounced by the king 
as a ' capital enemy of the kingdom and the 
commonwealth ' (Materials, vi. 65, 63) ; 
while the appellants in general were over- 
whelmed with reproaches by the archbishop 
and his partisans, Roger seems never for a 
moment to have forfeited the confidence 
and the approval of his metropolitan; and 
the martyr's biographers talk of him as ' the 
morning star which illuminates our sad story, 
the brilliant gem shining amid this world's 
darkness ' the Abdiel who. alone of all Tho- 
mas's suffragans, not. only never swerved 
from his obedience to his spiritual father, but 
even followed him into exile. 

Soon after his flight Thomas summoned 
Roger to join him, and Roger made a fruitless 
application to the king for leave to go over 
sea, on the plea of wishing to complete his 
studies, 'he being a young man' (ib. iii. 86). 
Later in the year (1166) a clerk of Roger 
[q. v.], bishop of Hereford, came to the 
king in Normandy, and stated that his own 
bishop and ' Dominus Rogerus ' had both 
been cited by the primate and intended to 
obey the citation, ' unless the king would 
furnish help and counsel whereby they might 
stay at home,' i.e. would make some arrange- 
ment which might enable them to do so 
without incurring the guilt of disobedience 
to their metropolitan. Henry ' complained 
much of the lord Roger,' and threatened that 
if they went they should find the going 
easier than the return (ib. vi. 74). This 
Dominus Rogerus is probably the bishop of 
Worcester, who certainly went over sea next 
year (Ann. Monast. i. 50), and without the 
royal license, for Thomas's friends im- 
mediately began to rejoice over him as one 
who had voluntarily thrown in his lot with 
them in their exile, and was prepared to lose 




his bishopric in consequence. Henry, however, 
was not disposed to proceed to extremities 
with his cousin. Some of the archbishop's party 
urged that Roger might be more useful to 
the cause at home than in exile, and accord- 
ingly Roger sought direction from the pope 
as to the terms on which he might return. 
The pope bade him go back to his diocese if 
he could exercise his office there without sub- 
mitting to the royal ' customs ' (Materials, vi. 
393-4, 390). On this he seems to have re- 
joined the court in Normandy. In November 
he was present, with several other English 
bishops, at a conference between the king 
and the papal legates at Argentan, when he 
appears to have acquiesced in the renewal 
of the bishops' appeal ; and he was even re- 
ported to have spoken very disrespectfully 
of the primate and of his cause (ib. pp. 270, 
276, 321). His friendly relations with 
Thomas, however, seem to have continued 
unbroken. Early in 1169 he endeavoured 
to persuade the archbishop to delay his 
threatened excommunications, and asked for 
instructions how to frame his own conduct 
towards their victims when once the sen- 
tences were issued. Thomas bade him have 
no dealings whatever with excommunicate 
persons (ib. vi. 577-9, vii. 50; accordingly 
when Geoffrey Ridel [q. v.] entered the royal 
chapel one day, just as mass was about to 
begin, Roger at once walked out. The king, 
on hearing the reason of his withdrawal, 
ordered him out of his dominions, but re- 
called him immediately (ib. iii. 86-7). Roger 
was the one English prelate summoned to 
attend the king at a conference with the 
legates Vivian and Gratian at Bayeux on 
1 Sept. 1169; but he did not make his ap- 
pearance till the next day, when the business 
of the meeting was practically over (ib. vii. 
72). He was one of the commissioners sent 
to convey the king's offered terms to the 
legates at Caen a week later (ib. p. 80). In 
March 1170 Henry bade the bishop of 
Worcester follow him to England to take 
part in the coronation of the ' young king ' 
{see HENRY II]. Thomas, on the other 
hand, also bade him go, but for the purpose 
of conveying to the archbishop of York and 
the other bishops a papal brief forbidding 
the coronation (ib. vii. 259-60). The queen 
and the seneschal of Normandy, discover- 
ing this, gave orders that no ship should 
take him on board, and he could get no 
further than Dieppe. On Henry's return 
(midsummer) the cousins met near Falaise. 
The king upbraided the bishop for his dis- 
obedience, and denounced him as ' no true 
son of the good earl Robert.' Roger ex- 
plained how he had been prevented from 

crossing. Henry angrily demanded whether 
he meant to shift the blame on the queen. 
! ' Certainly not,' retorted Roger, ' lest, if she 
' be frightened into suppressing the truth, 
! you should be more angry with me ; or, if 
she avow the truth, you should turn your 
unseemly wrath against her. Matters are 
best as they stand ; never would I have 
( shared in a rite so iniquitously performed ; 
and if I had been there it never should have 
I taken place. You say I am not earl Robert's 
son. I know not ; at any rate I am the son 
of my mother, with whose hand he acquired 
all his possessions ; while from your conduct 
to his children nobody would guess that he 
] was your uncle, who brought you up and 
! risked his life in fighting for you.' He went 
j on in the same bold strain till a bystander 
: interrupted him with words of abuse, where- 
upon Henry suddenly declared that ' his 
j kinsman and his bishop ' should be called 
names by no one but himself, and the cousins 
went amicably to dinner together (ib. iii. 
I 104-6). 

In 1171, when Henry's dominions were 
i threatened with an interdict on account of 
I the murder of St. Thomas, Roger was one of 
the prelates sent to intercede, first with the 
legate Archbishop William of Sens, and 
afterwards with the pope himself (Materials, 
vii. 444, 474, 476, 485 ; Ann. Monast. i. 50). 
He went to England in August 1172 with 
the young king and queen, assisted at their 
crowning at Winchester on 27 Aug., and re- 
turned to Normandy about 8 Sept (Gesta Hen. 
i. 31). In July 1174 he was with the king at 
Westminster (EYTON, p. 181). According to 
the ' Gesta Henrici ' (i. 84) he was there again 
in May 1175, at a council held by the new 
archbishop, Richard (d. 1184) [q. v.] ; but 
Gervase (i. 251) says that sickness prevented 
his attendance. In July at Woodstock he 
and the archbishop as papal commissioners 
confirmed the election of the king's son 
Geoffrey [see GEOFFREY, d. 1212] to the 
see of Lincoln (R. DICETO, i. 401). At the lega- 
tine council at Westminster in May 1176, 
i when the archbishops of Canterbury and 
I York came to blows, he averted the king's 
j wrath from his own metropolitan by turning 
! the matter into a jest at the expense of the 
I northern primate ^GiR. CAMBR. vii. 63) [see 
ROGER OF PONT L'EVEQUE]. He assisted at 
Canterbury at the coronation of Peter de 
Leia as bishop of St. David's on 7 Nov. of the 
same year (GERV. CANT. i. 260 ; R. DICETO, i. 
415). On 29 Jan. 1177 he was sent by the 
king, with the bishop of Exeter, to expel the 
nuns of Amesbury (Gesta Hen. i. 135); in 
March he was present at a great council 
j in London (ib. pp. 144, 155) ; at Christmas 




1178 he was with the court at Winchester 
(EYTON, p. 224). He went over sea shortly 
afterwards to attend the Lateran council 
(Ann. Monast. i. 52), which was summoned 
for 5 March 1179 ; on the journey back he 
died on 9 Aug. at Tours, and there he was 
buried (ib. i. 52, ii. 241 ; Gesta Hen. i. 243 ; 
R. DICETO, i. 432). 

Like St. Thomas, Roger never bestowed 
benefices or revenues on his own kinsfolk 
(GiR. CAMBE. vii. 66) ; and he refused to 
assist Archbishop Richard in a consecration 
which he regarded as uncanonical (Anglo- 
Norm. Satir. Poets, i. 198), just as decidedly 
as he had protested to the king against a 
coronation which he held to be illegal. He 
was a great favourite with Alexander III, 
who called him and Bishop Bartholomew 
of Exeter ' the two great lights of the Eng- 
lish church,' and usually employed them 
as his delegates for ecclesiastical causes in 
England (GiK. CAMBR. vii. 57). The fear- 
lessness which he displayed in his relations 
with the king showed itself in another way 
when the western tower of a great church in 
which he was celebrating mass crumbled 
suddenly to the ground, and amid a blinding 
dust and the rush of the terrified congrega- 
tion he alone stood unmoved, and as if utterly 
unconscious that anything had happened (ib. 
p. 64). The church is said by Giraldus to 
have been Gloucester Abbey, but it was more 
probably Worcester Cathedral (cf. Mr. Di- 
mock's note, I.e., with Ann. Monast. iv. 383 
and 415). Roger's bold, independent cha- 
racter and his ready wit had at least as great 
a share as his high birth in enabling him to 
go his own way amid the troubles of the time, 
and yet to win the esteem of all parties, both 
in church and state. 

[Materials for History of Becket, Annales 
Monastici, Thomas Saga, Gervase of Canter- 
bury, Ralph de Diceto, Gesta Henrici, Giraldus 
Cambrensis, Anglo-Norman Satirical Poets (all 
in Rolls Ser.); Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II.] 

K. N. 

archbishop of York, a ' Neustrian ' scholar, 
was brought up in the court of Theobald, 
[q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury (BROMPTON, 
ed. Twysden, col. 1057). His surname, 
' De Ponte-Episcopi ' (sometimes translated 
Bishop's-bridge), was probably derived from 
Pont 1'Eveque in Normandy. He was an 
able student, but by temperament ambitious 
and masterful ; and he soon fell out with 
young Thomas of London, afterwards Arch- 
bishop Becket. ' He was not only consumed 
internally by envy, but would often break 
out openly into contumely and unseemly 
language, so that he would often call Thomas 

clerk Baillehache; for so was named the 
clerk with whom he first came to the palace ' 
(Materials for the Life of Archbishop Thomas 
Becket, iv. 9). Twice he procured the dis- 
missal of Thomas (ib. iii. 16, cf. ii. 362) ; but 
Walter, archdeacon of Canterbury, the arch- 
bishop's brother, procured Thomas's restora- 
tion to favour. On the consecration of the 
archdeacon, Walter, to the see of Rochester, 
14 March 1148, Roger was made archdeacon 
ed. Stubbs, Rolls Ser. i. 133). He shortly 
afterwards became one of the king's chap- 
lains. He was present at the council held 
at Rheims by Eugenius III in the same year 
(1148; Historia Pontificalis, ed. Pertz, xx. 
523). He was also involved in controversy 
about his rights as archdeacon, and sought the 
intervention of Gilbert Foliot [q. v.], bishop 
of Hereford (Epistolce G. Foliot, i. 30, 124). 
In 1152 he was sent by King Stephen to 
Rome to procure a reversal of the papal pro- 
hibition of the crowning of Eustace (letter 
of Becket to Boso, Materials, vi. 58). He 
was unsuccessful, but is asserted to have 
endeavoured to foment discord between the 
king and Archbishop Theobald (ib.) Pro- 
bably he received about the same time the 
provostship of Beverley (ib. iv. 10, 11 ; but 
RAINE, Archbishops of York, i. 234 n., denies 
this). On the death of William, archbishop 
of York, Archbishop Theobald, with the 
assistance of the dean, Robert, and the arch- 
deacon, Osbert, procured the election of 
Roger as William's successor ( WILL. NEWS. 
Rolls Ser. i. 81-2). He was consecrated by 
Theobald, at the request of the chapter of 
York (see WALT. HEM. i. 79), on 10 Oct. 
1154 in Westminster Abbey, in the presence 
of eight bishops. He then went to Rome 
and received the pall. He was present at 
the coronation of Henry II. 

On the election of Becket to the see of 
Canterbury, Roger of York claimed ex 
officio the right of consecrating him (GEE- 
VASE, i. 170), but his claim was rejected. He 
obtained a few weeks afterwards authority 
from the pope to carry his cross and to 
crown kings (13 July 1162; Material*, v. 
21). Becket protested and appealed (ib. 
pp. 44-6), and the right was temporarily 
withdrawn (ib. pp. 67-8). Eventually he was 
ordered not to carry his cross in the southern 
province (ib. pp. 68-9). He was present with 
Becket at the council of Tours, Whitsuntide 
1163, where he sat on the pope's left hand 

During the earlier stages of the contro- 
versy concerning criminous clerks, Roger, in 
whose diocese a case submitted to the king 
had arisen in 1158, asserted the privilege of 




his order, and at the London council in 1163 
opposed the king's claims. Henry, however, 
succeeded in winning him over to his side 
(Materials, ii. 377), and Becket, learning his 
defection, spoke of him as ' malorum omnium 
incentor et caput.' Roger now threw him- 
self boldly into the contest in support of the 
king, and from the first gave full assent to 
the constitutions of Clarendon. He con- 
tinued to negotiate with Becket, though he 
proposed to Henry that Becket should be im- 
prisoned for contumacy (ib. i. 37). Henry 
asked of the pope that Roger should be 
appointed papal legate in England, and he 
received a papal commission dated Sens, 
27 Feb. 1164 (ib. v. 85-7). Roger, now im- 
mersed in intrigue, had envoys in France 
supporting his interests at the king's court 
and in the papal curia (ib. p. 117), and 
claiming the primacy of the Scottish church 
(ib. p. 118). He himself was sent by Henry, 
with other envoys, to Sens to lay his causes 
of complaint against Becket before Alex- 
ander III. They visited Louis VII on their 
way, but Louis warmly supported the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Speaking before the 
pope, Roger declared that he had known the 
character of Thomas from his youth, and 
that there was no way but by papal rebuke 
to correct his pride (ALAN OF TEWKESBTJRY, 
c. 22). The pope temporised, but eventually 
ordered Roger to aid his legates, Rotrou, 
archbishop of Rouen, and Henry, bishop of 
Nevers, in compelling Henry to do justice to 
Becket. Roger, however, caused the clergy 
of his diocese to take an oath, at the king's 
command, that they would not obey the 
pope's orders in the matter of the archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

On o April 1 166 Pope Alexander III with- 
drew his permission to Roger to crown kings, 
on the ground that he had learnt that, by 
immemorial custom, the privilege belonged 
to Canterbury ( Thomas Saga ; Materials, 
v. 323). On 17 June 1167, however, he for- 
mally authorised Roger to crown the young 
Henry (Materials, vi. 206 ; the authen- 
ticity of the letter has been doubted by 
Roman catholic writers, such as BERINGTON, 
Henry II, pp. 606-8 ; LINGARD, ii. 153 ; but 
the manuscripts seem conclusively to prove 
its genuineness ; cf. Materials, vi. 269 sqq.) 
But Becket's remonstrances induced the 
pope to withdraw his license to Roger to 
crown the young Henry, and on 26 Feb. 
1170 Alexander forbade the archbishop of 
York to perform the ceremony of coronation 
during the exile of the primate of all Eng- 
land (ib. vii. 217). Nevertheless, on 14 June 
1170, the coronation took place at West- 
minster. Roger of York performed the cere- 

mony, assisted by the bishops of London, 
Salisbury, and Rochester, and in spite of 
the protests of Becket. The pope eagerly 
I took up the cause of Becket, and suspended 
Roger (ib. vii. 398). Henry, under fear of ex- 
| communication, was (22 July 1170) brought 
to a reconciliation, and the archbishop of 
York was thus left unprotected. Roger en- 
| deavoured to prevent his rival's return to 
j England ; but Becket, before sailing, sent 
over on 31 Nov. a letter suspending Roger, 
which was delivered at Dover on the follow- 
ing day. Becket, on his return in December, 
met with great opposition from Roger, who 
dissuaded the young Henry from admitting 
him to his presence, and eventually crossed 
to Normandy to lay his complaints before 
the king. He bitterly urged upon Henry 
that he would have no peace so long as 
Thomas was alive (ib. iii. 127), and, accord- 
ing to one authority, himself urged the four 
knights to take Becket's life, giving them 
money, and suggesting the very words they 
used when they saw the archbishop of Can- 
Hippeau, pp. 174 sqq.) When the murder 
was accomplished, Roger hastened to purge 
himself of all complicity. He took oath 
before the archbishop of Rouen and the 
bishop of Amiens that he was innocent, and 
that he had not received the pope's letter 
prohibiting the coronation of the young king. 
He was thereupon absolved. In a long and 
joyful; letter to Hugh de Puiset [q. v.] he 
announced his absolution and return, and he 
sent his thanks to the pope (Materials, vii. 
502, 504). 

Roger's relations with Richard (d. 1184) 
[q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, were hardly 
more happy than with his predecessor. He 
was absent from the Westminster synod of 
1175, but sent claims to carry his cross 
within the province of Canterbury, and to 
have supervision of the sees of Lichfield, 
Worcester, Hereford, and Lincoln. He ap- 
pealed to Rome against the archbishop of 
Canterbury. His power to carry his cross 
was restored provisionally (ib. vii. 568). He 
claimed also the rule over the church of St. 
Oswald at Gloucester (BENEDICT OF PETER- 
BOROUGH, i. 89, 90). Later in the year an 
agreement was arrived at by which that 
church was yielded to York, 'sicut do- 
minicam capellam Domini regis' (ib. p. 104), 
and the other matters were referred to the 
decision of the archbishop of Rouen. On 
25 Jan. 1175-6, in a council at Northampton. 
Roger claimed that the Scots church should 
be subject to the see of York as metropolitan, 
and a new dissension broke out with Can- 
terbury, to whom also the subjection was 

Roger i 

declared to belong [see RICHARD, d. 1184]. 
On 15 Aug. 1176 the two archbishops made 
peace for five years. In the Lateran council 
of 1179 it was declared that no profession of 
obedience was due from York to Canterbury. 
No further controversy appears to have oc- 
curred between the sees during the life of 

During the next few years Roger was 
actively engaged in pushing his claims to 
supremacy over the Scots church. These 
he had originally asserted while Becket was 
still alive, and they were strengthened by 
the submission made by William the Lion 
in 1175. He claimed that the sees of Glasgow 
and Whitherne had always belonged to York; 
but the question was complicated by the 
claims of the archbishop of Canterbury and 
by the Scottish prelates' declaration that they 
were immediately subject to the pope. On 
3 June 1177 Cardinal Vivian, papal legate, 
held a synod at Edinburgh, and suspended 
Christian, bishop of Whitherne, for his ab- 
sence. Christian claimed that his bishopric 
belonged to the legation of Roger of York, 
who had consecrated him bishop according 
to the ancient custom of the predecessors of 
them both, and Roger, on his own part, sup- 
ported this claim (ib. i. 166-7). The question 
continued to be discussed for many years ; but 
in 1180 Alexander III recognised a certain 
authority over Scotland as belongingto Roger 
of York, when he ordered him to compel the 
king of Scots to compliance with his order 
to make peace with Bishop John of St. An- 
drews. He also made him legate for Scot- 
land (ib. pp. 263-4). In 1181 Roger pro- 
ceeded to excommunicate William the Lion 
for his contumacy. 

Roger remained steadfast in his allegiance 
to Henry II. During the rebellion of 1173- 
1174 he gave valuable assistance to the royal 
forces. When Henry took the barons' castles 
into his hands in 1177, he gave Scarborough 
to the custody of the archbishop of York, 
who was constantly present at royal councils 
during the ten years previous to his death. 

He remained a friend of Gilbert Foliot 
fq.v.], as well as of his great neighbour, 
Hugh de Puiset [q. v.], bishop of Durham. In 
1181 he felt his end approaching. He called 
together his clergy, and ordered the distri- 
bution of his property for the benefit of the 
poor (BENEDICT, i. 282-3). He was moved 
from his palace at Cawood to York, where 
he died on 21 Nov. He was buried by Hugh 
de Puiset in the choir of York minster. His 
body was removed to a new tomb by Arch- 
bishop Thoresby. 

Hugh of Durham was forced by the king 
to disgorge a large sum which he had taken 

i Roger 

from the treasure of the archbishop, and to 
apply it to pious uses. 

Roger's true character is hard to discover. 
He is asserted to have been an opponent of 
monasticism, and William of Newburgh fre- 
quently speaks severely of his treatment of 
the monks. He was in fact engaged for 
many years in a quarrel with the canons of 
Newburgh. John of Salisbury charges him 
with odious vices (Materials, vii. 527), and 
it is certain that he amassed a very large 
treasure William of Newburgh asserts 'by 
shearing rather than tending the Lord's 
flock.' He was, however, a munificent builder 
' the most munificent ruler that ever pre- 
sided over the see of York ' (Dixox and RAINE, 
p. 248). He erected an archiepiscopal palace 
at York of which small ruins remain and 
endowed many churches in his diocese. As 
an enemy of Becket he incurred the hate of 
almost all those who wrote the history of his 
times, and his lack of spiritual fervour, if not 
his personal vices, served to deepen the bad 
impression. He was one of Henry II's states- 
men-prelates, and as a bishop he shaped his 
course so as to satisfy a political ambition.j 

[Materials for the Hist, of Archbishop Thomas 
Becket (Rolls Ser.) ; Thomas Saga Erkibyskups 
(Rolls Ser.); Benedict of Peterborough (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Ser.) ; Gervase 
of Canterbury (Rolls Ser.); William of New- 
burgh (Rolls Ser.) ; GarnierdePont S.Maxence's 
Vie de S. Thomas, ed. Hippeau, Paris, 1859. 
Almost all contemporary writers, in fact, contain 
some references to his character and career. 
Among modern writers may be named : J. C. Ro- 
bertson's Life of Beeket ; J. Morris's Life of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury; Dixon and Raine's Lives 
of the Archbishops of York ; Radford's Thomas 
of London before his Consecration ; Button's 
St. Thomas of Canterbury.] W. H. H. 

1201 ?), chronicler. [See HOVEDEN.] 

ROGER (<Z.1202), bishop of St. Andrews, 
was second son of Robert de Beaumont, third 
earl of Leicester (d. 1190) [q. v.], by Petronil, 
daughter of Hugh de Grantmesnil [q.v.], lord 
high steward of England. The marriage in 
1186 of his relative, Ermengarde, daughter of 
Richard, viscount de Beaumont, with Wil- 
liam the Lion, king of Scotland, probably 
accounts for the description of him as cousin 
of the king. Craufurd states that Roger was 
dedicated to the church in his youth, and that 
his father caused him to pursue his studies 
for that purpose. Having taken orders, he 
was made lord high chancellor of Scotland by 
William the Lion in 1178, and held that 
office till 1189. For twelve years before that 
date the possession of the see of St. Andrews 
had been disputed by two claimants John 




and Hugh who were both described as bi 
shops of St. Andrews. John died in 1187 
and Hugh in the following year. Thereupon 
Roger was elected bishop (13 April 1189 
(Chron. de Mailros), but, for some unex- 
plained reason, was not consecrated untf 
1198. Spotiswood adds that the ceremony 
was performed by Richard, bishop of Moray 
but Hoveden avers that Matthew, bishop o: 
Aberdeen, officiated. It is possible that this 
delay arose through the oft-asserted claim o: 
the archbishop of York [see ROGER OF PONT 
L'EVEQTJE, d. 1181] to supremacy over the 
Scottish church, a claim which the Scottish 
king declined to acknowledge ; the bull o: 
Clement III declaring the independence o: 
the Scottish church was promulgated in 1188 
It has been stated that after his election 
to the bishopric Roger was made abbot ol 
Melrose. This is not impossible, as Radulfus, 
the abbot, became bishop of Down in 1189. 
Between 1199 and 1201 Roger was often in 
England, and his name is found as witness 
to many charters by King John. Wyntoun 
says that the castle of St. Andrews was built 
by Roger as an episcopal residence in 1200. 
According to Fordun, Roger's last political 
act was the reconciliation of the king of Scot- 
land and Harald, earl of Orkney, which he 
effected at Perth in the spring of 1202. He 
died at Cambuskenneth on 9 July 1202, and 
was buried within the chapel of St. Regulus 
at St. Andrews, beside his predecessors Robert 
and Arnold. Dempster states that Roger 
wrote ' Sermones varies in Ecclesiast.' 

[Balfour's Annales, i. 28 ; Chron. of Melrose, 
pp. 97, 103, 104; Rog. Hov. in Rolls Ser. ; 
Spotiswood's Hist, of the Church of Scotland, 
i. 83; Registrum Vetus de Aberbrothock, pp. 
6, 23, 101, 102, 103, 104, 141 ; Registrum Prio- 
ratus Sancti Andree, pp. 147, 158; Keith's Cat. 
of Bishops, p. 9 ; Lyon's Hist, of St. Andrews, 
i. 97 ; Gordon's Scotichronicon, i. 143 ; Crau- 
furd's Officers of State, p. 10 ; Anderson's Scot- 
tish Nation, iii. 357.] A. H. M. 

ROGER OF CROYLAND (d. 1214?), 
biographer of Becket, was one of the many 
monks employed at the close of the twelfth 
century and early in the thirteenth in com- 
piling lives of St. Thomas of Canterbury 
(cf. HERBERT OF BOSHAM). In 1213 he re- 
vised the compilation made by an Evesham 
monk in 1199. The work was undertaken 
at the request of Henry, abbot of Croyland, 
to whom it was dedicated by Roger (letter 
printed by GILES, Vita et Epistolce S. Thorn. 
Cant. ii. 40-5). The abbot presented it to 
Stephen Langton on the translation of the 
martyr, 27 June 1220 (ib.) The work is of no 
original value, though the author had known 
Becket during his life. Roger after 1213 

became prior of Preston, and is supposed to 
have died in the following year (see Henry 
of Croyland's letter to Stephen Langton, ib.} 
Manuscripts of Roger's life of Becket are 
preserved in the Bodleian Library (E. Mus. 
133, 3512), in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris (5372, 1), and at University College, 

[Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue, ii. 344-5, iii. 
34 ; Leland's De Scriptoribus Britannise, i. 219 ; 
Magnusson's Preface to Thomas Saga (Rolls Ser.) 
ii. xcv.] W. H. H. 

ROGER OF WENDOVER (d. 1237), chro- 
nicler. [See WENDOVER.] 

ROGER OF WALTHAM (d. 1336), author, 
was a clerk in the service of Antony Bek 
(d. 1310) [q. v.], bishop of Durham (Reg. Pal. 
Dunelm. i. 530 ; Cal. Close Rolls, Edward II, 
i. 257). On 30 April 1304, being then rector 
of Langnewton, Durham, he obtained license 
to hold another benefice together with his. 
prebend of Sakynton at Darlington (Buss, 
Cal. Pap. Reg. i. 613). On 23 March 1314 
he was rector of Eggescliffe, and held canon- 
ries or prebends at Loddon, Darlington, Auck- 
land (East Marie), and Chester-le-Street (Reg. 
Pal. Dunelm. i. 523, iii. 102-4). In 1316 he 
occurs as prebendary of Cadington Minor at 
St. Paul's, London, and is said to have been 
also precentor. He was keeper of the king's 
wardrobe from 1 May 1322 to 19 Oct. 1323, 
for which period he delivered his account at 
the exchequer on 22 May 1329 (BERNAKD, 
Cat. MSS. Anglice, s.v. Bodl. MS. 4177 ; Cal. 
Close Rolls, Edw. II, iii. 626, 634 ; Cal. Pat. 
Rolls, Edw. Ill, i. 131). In 1322 he was 
nominated to the archdeaconry of Bucking- 
bam, but the appointment was cancelled as 
made in error (Cal. Close Rolls, Edw. II, 
iii. 602). There is nothing to show whether 
the canon of St. Paul's is identical with the 
Roger de Waltham who was keeper of rebels' 
^ands in Stafford in 1322 (ib. iii. 572-3, 576- 
579, &c.) On 1 Feb. 1325 he was present 
at St. Paul's for the translation of the re- 
mains of St. Erkenwald (Chron. Edw. I and 
Edw. II, i. 311, Rolls Ser.) During the 
next two years he commenced to provide for 
a chantry with two priests at St. Paul's; 
;he ordinance was finally completed in 1329 
(DUGDALE, St. Paul's, pp. 21, 26, 382, 383 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pp. 28 b, 40 a, 
4:5 a). Roger was alive in 1332 (ib. p. 20), 
)ut probably died before 1337, when Thomas 
Bradwardine held Cadington Minor (DuG- 
>ALE, p. 239), and certainly before 20 Oct. 
.341, when his successor was appointed at 
Auckland (Reg. Pal. Dunelm. iii. 410-11). 
lis ' obit ' was kept at St. Paul's on 12 Oct. 
SIMPSON, pp. 71, 98). 


Roger was author of: 1. 'Compendium 
Moralis Philosophise,' which is extant in 
Laud. Misc. MS. (51 6, and Bodleian 2664, both 
in the Bodleian Library; there was anciently 
a copy at Durham Cathedral (Cat. Vet. Script. 
Dunelm.Tp. 137,inSurteesSoc.) Roger's 'Com- 
pendium ' was used by Sir John Fortescue 
(1394 P-1476 ?) [q. v.] in his ' Governance of 
England.' It is not really a treatise of moral 
philosophy, but a series of moral disquisitions 
on the virtues and duties of princes. It is 
largely derived from Seneca among classical, 
and Ilelinand of Froidmont among mediaeval 
writers. 2. ' Imagines Oratorum,' of which 
Leland says that he had seen a copy at 
St. Paul's. 3. A manuscript at St. Paul's 
marked ' W. D. o,' contains on folios 56-60 a 
list of pittances of the church of St. Paul, 
drawn up by Roger of Waithain (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 9th Rep. p. 69 a). 

A table to Roger of Waltham's ' Compen- 
dium Morale,' compiled by Thomas Graunt 
(d. 1474), is in Fairfax MS. 4 in the Bod- 
leian Library. 

[ Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense ( Rolls Ser.); 
Hist. Dunelm. Script. Tres, p. cvii (Surtees 
Soc.) ; Simpson's Documents illustrative of the 
History of St. Paul's (Camd. Soc.) ; Leland's 
Comment, de Script. Brit. pp. 264-5 ; B.ile's 
Centuriae, iv. 16; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 
340 ; Plummer's edition of Fortescue's Go- 
vernance of England ; Kingsford's Song of Lewes 
(in the latter two there are a few citations from 
the Compendium) ; other authorities quoted.] 

0. L. K. 

ROGER OF CHESTER (fl. 1339), chroni- 
cler. [See CHESTEB.] 

ROGER OF ST. ALBANS (Jl. 1450), genea- 
logist, was born at St. Albans, and became a 
friar of the Carmelite house in London. He 
wrote a genealogy and chronological tables, 
tracing the descent of Henry VI from Adam, 
beginning ' Considerans historic sacre pro- 
lixitatem,' of which there are copies, both in 
fifteenth-century hands, at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, Nos. xxiii. and Iviii. (the last con- 
taining the biblical part only). A copy in 
Queen's College, Oxford (No. clxviii.), is said 
to be the very roll which the author pre- 
sented to Henry VI (TANNER, Eibl. Jirit.), 
but it is in a sixteenth-century hand (CoxE, 
Cat.) The biblical part of the same work is 
in the Cambridge University Library, Dd. 
iii. ">">, 56. The Cottonian copy (Otho D. 1) 
was destroyed by fire. A closely similar 
work in Jesus College, Oxford (cxiv.), begins 
* Cuilibet principi congruum,' and carries 
the chronological table to 1473. 

[Villiers de St. Etienne's Bibl. Cannel.; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit.] ,M. B. 

[3 Rogers 

ROGERS, BEXJAMCN (1614-1698), 
organist and composer, born at Windsor, and 
baptised at the church of Xew Windsor on 
2 June 1614, was son of George Rogers of 
Windsor (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon.) lie was 
a chorister of St. George's Chapel under Dr. 
Nathaniel Giles, and afterwards lay clerk. In 
1639 he succeeded Randolph Jewitt [q. v.l as 
organist of Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin. 
The outbreak of the Irish rebellion of 164 L 
drove Rogers from his post, and he returned 
as singingman to Windsor; but there also the 
choral services were discontinued about 1644. 
Occupied with composition and teaching, 
Rogers maintained himself, with the help of a 
small government allowance, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Windsor. By virtue of Crom- 
well's mandate, dated 28 May 1658, Rogers 
obtained the degree of Bac. Mus. of Cam- 
bridge, a distinction probably due to the influ- 
ence of Dr. Nathaniel Ingelo [q. v.] For the 
city banquet given to the king to celebrate the 
Restoration, he supplied the music both to 
a hymn by Ingelo and to the 32ud Psalm, 
'Exultate justi in Domino,' for which he 'ob- 
tained a great name . . . and a plentiful re- 
ward' (WOOD). 

As early as 1653 the fame of Rogers's. 
' Sets of Ayres in Four Parts ' extended to 
the court of the emperor, and when Ingelo 
went as chaplain to the Swedish embassy 
upon the Restoration, he presented to Queen 
Christina some of Rogers's music, which was 
performed ' to her great content ' by the 
Italian musicians at the Swedish court. His 
' Court-Masquing Ayres ' were performed 
with no less applause in Holland. 

Rogers won a high reputation in England 
by his music for the services of the established 
church and by his reorganisation of important 
choirs. At the Restoration he had been re- 
appointed lay clerk of St. George's Chapel, 
with an addition to his allowances in con- 
sideration of his playing the organ whenever 
Dr. Child was absent, and in 1662 he was also 
appointed organist to Eton College. Invited 
by Dr. Thomas Pierce [q.v.] to fill a similar 
post at Magdalen College, Oxford, he became, 
on 25 Jan. 1664-5, informator choristaruni ; 
his duties, which included the playing of 
the organs, were remunerated by a salary of 
60/. and lodgings in the college. On 8 July 
1669 he proceeded Mus. Doc. Oxon. 

In 1685 Rogers ' forfeited his place through 
misdemeanour,' that is to say, through the 
misconduct of his daughter, whom he per- 
sisted 'in keeping at home, within the pre- 
cincts. This irregularity, together with some 
trivial charges of loud talking in the chapel 
and the like, led to Rogers's dismissal, which 
has been wrongly ascribed to the persecuting 




spirit of James II. In 1687 he petitioned the 
royal commissioners, then sitting at Oxford, 
to reinstate him, but he was persuaded to rest 
satisfied with the 30/. per annum which the 
college had voted him two years previously. 
His hymn ' Te O Patrem colimus ' has been 
used every evening as grace in the college 
hall since his time, and is also sung annually 
on Magdalen tower every Mayday morning. 
Rogers retired to New Inn Hall Lane, and 
died there, aged 84, in 1698. He was buried 
on 21 June at St. Peter-le-Bailey . His widow, 
Ann, survived him only a few months. His 
son John, born in 1654, was B.A. 1674, M.A. 
1677, clerk 1674-81. A granddaughter, Ann 
Rogers, dying in 1696, left most of the little 
property she possessed to ' her deare, affec- 
tionate, tender, and well-beloved grand- 
father, Dr. Benjamin Rogers.' 

Rogers's chief works are found in the 
various collections of cathedral music. They 
include a morning and evening service in I) 
(Boyce,i.) ; evening service in A minor (Rim- 
bault, Goss, and Turle) ; morning and even- 
ing verse service in G, by Peter or Benjamin 
Rogers (Rimbault) ; service in F ; verse 
service in E minor (Ouseley). Among his 
published anthems are : a 4, ' Behold, now 
praise the Lord ; ' ' Teach me, O Lord ' 
(Boyce, ii. ; Hullah) ; Sanctus in D (Boyce, 
iv.) ; ' Lord, who shall dwell ' (Page, iii.) ; 
' Praise the Lord, O my soul ; ' ' How long 
wilt Thou forget me ; ' ' Behold how good 
and joyful ; ' ' O give thanks ; ' ' O pray for 
the peace ; ' ' O that the salvation ; ' ' Save 
me, O God' (Cope); 'O God of truth' 
(Hullah) ; ' Everlasting God ; ' ' Hear me 
when I call' (Clifford). For treble and 
bass : ' Exaltabo Te ; ' ' Audivit Dominus ; ' 
' Deus misereatur nostri ; ' ' Jubilate Deo 
omnis terra ; ' ' Tell mankind Jehovah reigns.' 
For two trebles or tenors : ' Lift up your 
head; ' ' Let all with sweet accord ' (' Cantica 
Sacra ') ; ' Gloria ' (Playford's ' Four-part 
Psalms '). His glees include : ' The Jolly 
Vicar,' a 3 ; 'In the merry month of May,' 
a 4 ; ' Come, come, all noble souls,' a 3 
(many editions) ; ' Bring quickly to me 
Homer's lyre ' (' Musical Companion '). 
Thirty-six of his pieces are in ' Court Ayres ' 
and ' Mustek's Handmaid ' (Playford). 

There are unpublished anthems at Mag- 
dalen and New Colleges, Oxford, in the Aid- 
rich collection at Christchurch, and at Ely, 
Gloucester, and other cathedral libraries. 

[Wpod's Fasti, ed. Bliss, ii. 305; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon., 1500-1714; Hawkins's History, 
p. 582; State Trials, ed.Howell.xii. 40: Carlyle's 
Cromwell, v. 243 ; Bloxam's Kegisters of Mag- 
dalen College, ii. 192 et seq., containing list of 
works and fullest details of Rogers's career. For 

Kogers's family, Bloxam's Reg. i. 93 ; Oxford Re- 
gisters of Wills, 1695-6, fol. 310.] L. M. M. 

ROGERS, CHARLES (1711-1784), art 
collector, born on 2 Aug. 1711, was second 
surviving son of William and Isabella Rogers 
of Dean Street, Soho, London. In May 
1731 he was placed in the custom house 
under William Townson, from whom he ac- 
quired a taste for the fine arts and book- 
collecting. Townson and his two sisters left 
by will all their estate, real and personal, to 
Rogers, a bequest which included a house at 
3 Laurence Pountney Lane, London, con- 
taining a choice museum of art treasures. 
Here Rogers in 1746 took up his residence, 
and, aided by several friends who lived 
abroad, made many valuable additions to 
the collection. In 1747 he became clerk of 
the certificates. Through the interest of 
his friend Arthur Pond [q. v.] he was elected 
fellow of the Society of Antiquaries on 
23 Feb. 1752, and several times served on 
the council. He became fellow of the Royal 
Society on 17 Nov. 1757 (THOMSON, Hist, of 
Royal Society, App. iv. p. xlviii). Among 
his friends were Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Horace Walpole, Richard Gough, Paul 
Sandby, Cipriani, Romney, and Angelica 
Kauffmann. He died unmarried on 2 Jan. 
1784, and was buried in Laurence Pountney 

Rogers's collections passed at his death 
into the hands of William Cotton (d. 1791), 
who married his sister and heiress, and from 
him descended to his son, William Cotton, 
F.S. A., of the custom house. The latter sold 
by auction in 1799 and 1801 a considerable 
portion of the collection ; the sale occupied 
twenty-four days, and realised 3,886/. 10*. 
The remainder, on Cotton's death in 1816, 
became the property of his son, William 
Cotton, F.S.A. (d. 1863), of the Priory, 
Leatherhead, Surrey, and Highland House, 
Ivybridge, Devonshire, who, after making 
some additions to the collection, handed it 
over in two instalments, in 1852 and 1862, 
to the proprietors of the Plymouth Public 
(now Proprietary) Library. A handsome 
apartment was built for its reception at a 
cost of 1,500^., and was opened to the public 
on 1 June 1853 by the name of the Cottonian 
Library. The collection includes four por- 
traits by Sir Joshua Reynolds, about five 
thousand prints, a few fine examples of early 
typography, illuminated manuscripts of the 
fifteenth century, carvings, models, casts, 
bronzes, and medals. A catalogue of the 
first part of the benefaction, compiled by 
Llewellynn Frederick William Jewitt [q.v.], 
was printed in 1853 ; the second part re- 
mains uncatalogued. 


The chief work of Rogers's life was a series 
of carefully executed facsimiles of original 
drawings from the great masters, engraved 
in tint. The book was issued in 1778, with 
the title 'A Collection of Prints in Imita- 
tion of Drawings ... to which are annexed 
Lives of their Authors, with Explanatory 
and Critical Notes,' 2 vols. imperial folio. 
The plates, which are 11:2 in number, were 
engraved chiefly by Bartolozzi, Ryland, 
Basire, and Simon Watts, from drawings 
some of which were in Rogers's own col- 

In 1782 Rogers printed in quarto an 
anonymous blank-verse translation of Dante's 
* Inferno.' He also contributed to ' Archaeo- 
logia ' and the ' Gentleman's Magazine.' 

A portrait of Rogers was painted in 1777 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and now hangs in 
the Cottonian Library. It was engraved in 
mezzotint by W. Wynne Ryland for Rogers's 
' Imitations,' also by S. W. Reynolds and 
by J. Cook for the ' Gentleman's Magazine.' 

[Wilson's Hist, of the Parish of St. Laurence 
Pountney, London ; Preface to Sale Cat. of 
Rogers's Collections, 1799 ; Introduction to 
Jewitt's Cat. of Cottonian Library, 1853; Gent. 
Mag. 1784 i. 159-61 (with portrait), 1801 ii. 
692, 792, 1863 i. 520-1 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
iii. 255 ; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. viii. 451 ; 
Correspondence in Western Morning News, 
19 and 22 Sept., 3 and 16 Nov. 1893 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Manual (Bohn), pt. viii. p. 2116; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Authors, ii. 1848; Monthly Re- 
view for May 1779.] G. G. 

ROGERS, CHARLES (1825-1890), Scot- 
tish author, only son of James Rogers (1767- 
1849), minister of Denino in Fife, was born 
in the manse there on 18 April 1825. His 
mother, who died at his birth, was Jane, 
second daughter of William Haldane, mini- 
ster successively at Glenisla and Kingoldrum. 
The father published a ' General View of the 
Agriculture of Angus,' Edinburgh, 1794, 4to; 
an ' Essay on Government/ Edinburgh, 1797, 
8vo ; and contributed an account of Monikie 
and of Denino to the ' New Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland,' vol. ix. After attending 
the parish school of Denino for seven years, 
Charles in 1839 matriculated at the university 
of St. Andrews, and passed a like period there. 
Licensed by the presbytery of that place in 
June 1846, he was employed in the capacity 
of assistant successively at Wester Anstru- 
ther, Kinglassie, Abbotshall, Dunfermline, 
Ballingry, and Carnoustie. Subsequently he 
opened a preaching station at the Bridge of 
Allan, and from January 1855 until 11 Aug. 
1863 was chaplain of the garrison at Stirling 

During his residence in Stirling Rogers 

5 Rogers 

was elected in 1861 a member of the town 
council, and took a prominent part in local 
improvements, including the erection of the 
national Wallace monument on the Abbey 
Craig. In 1855 he inaugurated at Stirling a 
short-lived Scottish Literary Institute. In 
1862 he opened the British Christian Insti- 
tute, for the dissemination of religious tracts, 
especially to soldiers and sailors, and in con- 
nection with it he issued a weekly paper, 
called ' The Workman's Friend,' and after- 
wards monthly serials, 'The Briton' and 
' The Recorder ; ' but the scheme collapsed in 
1863. In 1863 he founded and edited a news- 
paper, ' The Stirling Gazette,' but its career 
was brief. These schemes involved Rogers 
in much contention and litigation, and he 
imagined himself the victim of misrepresen- 
tation and persecution. To escape his calum- 
niators he resigned his chaplaincy in 1863, 
went to England, and thenceforth devoted 
himself to literary work. 

Rogers's earliest literary efforts in London 
were journalistic, but Scottish history, litera- 
ture, and genealogy were throughout his 
life the chief studies of bis leisure, and his 
researches in these subjects, to which he 
mainly devoted his later years, proved of 
value. Nor did he moderate the passion for 
founding literary societies which he had first 
displayed in Stirling. In November 1865 he 
originated in London a short-lived Naval 
and Military Tract Society, as a successor to 
his British Christian Institute, and in con- 
nection with it he edited a quarterly periodi- 
cal called 'The British Bulwark.' When 
that society's existence terminated, he set 
up ' The London Book and Tract Depository,' 
which he carried on until 1874. A more 
interesting venture was Rogers's Grampian 
Club, for the issue of works illustrative of 
Scottish literature, history, and antiquities. 
This, the most successful of all his founda- 
tions, was inaugurated in London on 2 Nov. 
1868, and he was secretary and chief editor 
until his death. He also claimed to be the 
founder of the Royal Historical Society, 
which was established in London on 23 Nov. 
1868, for the conduct of historical, biographi- 
cal, and ethnological investigations. He 
was secretary and historiographer to this 
society until 1880, when he was openly 
charged with working it for his own pecu- 
niary benefit. He defended himself in a 
pamphlet, ' Parting Words to the Members,' 
1881, and reviewed his past life in ' The 
Serpent's Track : a Narrative of twenty-two 
years' Persecution ' (1880). He edited eight 
volumes of the Historical Society's ' Trans- 
actions,' in which he wrote much himself. 
In 1873 a number of Rogers's friends 





presented him with a house in London, which 
he called Grampian Lodge. As early as 
1854 Columbia College, New York, had 
given him the degree of LL.D. He was 
made a B.D. by the university of St. An- 
drews in 1881. He was a member, fellow, or 
correspondent of numerous learned societies, 
British, foreign, and colonial, and an associate 
of the Imperial Archaeological Society of 
Russia. He returned to Scotland some years 
before his death, which took place at his 
house in Edinburgh on 18 Sept. 1890, at the 
aged 65. Rogers married, on 14 Dec. 1854, 
Jane, the eldest daughter of John Bain of 
St. Andrews. 

Rogers's chief original writings may be 
classified thus : I. HISTOKICAL AND BIO- 
GRAPHICAL. 1. 'Notes in the History of Sir 
Jerome Alexander,' 1872. 2. ' Three Scots 
Reformers,' 1874. 3. ' Life of George Wis- 
hart,' 1875. 4. ' Memorials of the Scottish 
House of Gonrlay,' 1888. 5. ' Memorials of 
the Earls of Stirling and House of Alex- 
ander,' 2 vols. 1877. 6. ' The Book of Wal- 
lace,' 2 vols. 1889. 7. ' The Book of Burns,' 
3 vols. 1889-91. 

II. TOPOGRAPHICAL. 8. ' History of St. 
Andrews,' 1849. 9. ' A Week at the Bridge 
of Allan,' 1851 ; 10th edit. 1865. 10. ' The 
Beautiesof Upper Strathearn,' 1854. 11. ' Et- 
trick Forest and the Ettrick Shepherd,' 1860. 

III. GENEALOGICAL. 12. ' Genealogical 
Chart of the Family of Bain,' 1871. 13. 'The 
House of Roger,' 1872. 14. 'Memorials of 
the Strachans of Thornton and Family of 
Wise of Hillbank,' 1873. 15. ' Robert Burns 
and the Scottish House of Burnes,' 1877. 
16. ' Sir Walter Scott and Memorials of the 
Halibnrtons,' 1877. 17. ' The Scottish House 
of Christie,' 1878. 18. ' The Family of Colt 
and Coutts,' 1879. 19. ' The Family of John 
Knox,' 1879. 20. ' The Scottish Familv of 
Glen,' 1888. 

IV. ECCLESIASTICAL. 21. 'Historical No- 
tices of St. Anthony's Monastery,' Leith, 
1849. 22. ' History of the Chapel Royal of 
Scotland,' 1882. 

V. SOCIAL. 23. 'Familiar Illustrations 
of Scottish Life,' 1861; 2nd edit. 1862. 
24. ' Traits and Stories of the Scottish People,' 
1867. 25. ' Scotland, Social and Domestic,' 
1869. 26. ' A Century of Scottish Life,' 
1871. 27. 'Monuments and Monumental 
Inscriptions in Scotland,' 2 vols. 1871-2. 
28. ' Social Life in Scotland,' 3 vols. 1884-6. 

VI. RELIGIOUS. 29. ' Christian Heroes 
in the Army and Navy,' 1867. 30. ' Our 
Eternal Destiny,' 1868. 

VII. POETICAL. 31. 'The Modern Scottish 
Minstrel,' 6 vols. 1855-7. 32. 'The Sacred 
Minstrel,' 1859. 33. 'The Golden Sheaf,' 

1867. 34. ' Lyra Britannica,' 1867. 35. ' Life 
and Songs of the Baroness Nairne,' 1869. 

36. 'Issues of Religious Rivalry,' 1866. 

37. ' Leaves from my Autobiography,' 1876. 

38. ' The Serpent's track,' 1880. 39. ' Part- 
ing Words to the Members of the Royal 
Historical Society,' 1881. 40. 'Threads of 
Thought,' 1888. 41. < The Oak,' 1868. 

Rogers also edited: 1. ' Aytoun's Poems,' 
1844. 2. ' Campbell's Poems',' 1870. 3. 'Sir 
John Scot's Staggering State of Scottish 
Statesmen,' 1872. 3. ' Poetical Remains of 
King James,' 1873. 4. ' Hay's Estimate of 
the Scottish Nobility.' 5. 'Glen's Poems,' 
1874. 6. ' Diocesan Registers of Glasgow,' 
2 vols. 1875 (in conjunction with Mr. Joseph 
Bain). 7. ' Boswelliana,' 1874. 8. Regi- 
ster of the Church of Crail,' 1877. 9. 'Events 
in the North of Scotland, 1635 to 1645,' 1877. 
10. ' Chartulary of the Cistercian Priory of 
Coldstream,' 1879. 11. 'Rental-book of the 
Cistercian Abbey of Cupar-Angus,' 1880. 
12. ' The Earl of Stirling's Register of Royal 
Letters,' 2 vols. 1884-5. 

[The autobiographical works above named ; 
Athenseum, September 1890.] H. P. 

ROGERS, DANIEL (1538 P-1591), diplo- 
matist, eldest son of John Rogers (1500?- 
1555) [q. v.], -was born at Wittenberg about 
1538, came to England with his family in 
1548, and was naturalised with them in 1552. 
After his father's death in 1555 he returned to 
Wittenberg, and studied under Melanchthon, 
but returned on Elizabeth's accession, and 
graduated B.A. at Oxford in August 1561. 
Nicasius Yetswiert, Elizabeth's secretary of 
the French tongue, who had known his father, 
and whose daughter Susan he afterwards 
married, introduced him to court. His know- 
ledge of languages stood him in good stead. 
He was employed by Sir Henry Norris, the 
English ambassador in Paris between 1566 
and 1570, and sent home much useful intelli- 
gence to Secretary Cecil. In October 1674 
he went with Sir William Winter to Ant- 
werp, and he accompanied an important em- 
bassy to the Netherlands, to treat with the 
Duke of Orange, in June 1575. In July he 
was elected secretary of the fellowship of 
English merchants settled at Antwerp. His 
father had in earlier years been their chap- 
lain. He was still engaged in diplomatic 
business in the Low Countries through 1576, 
and in March 1577 was there again to ne- 
gotiate the terms on which Queen Elizabeth 
was to lend 20,000/. to the States-General. 
This business occupied him till March 1578. 
In September 1580 he was ordered to Germany 
to induce the Duke of Saxony to stay dis- 




sensions which were threatening a schism 
among German Lutherans. By an unhappy 
mischance he was arrested on imperial ter- 
ritory by the Baron von Anholt, at the 
request of Philip of Spain, and spent four 
years in captivity. His release was procured 
by the baron's counsellor-at-law, Stephen 
Degner, who had been Roger's fellow-student 
under Melanchthon at Wittenberg. Degner 
promised Rogers's gaolers 160/. When Rogers 
put the facts before Lord Burghley, the latter 
ordered a collection to be made among the 
clergy to defray the sum. On 5 May 1587 
Rogers was appointed a clerk of the privy 
council ; he had already filled the office of 
assistant clerk. He still occasionally trans- 
acted official business abroad, visiting Den- 
mark in December 1587, and again in June 
1588, when he conveyed expressions of sym- 
pathy from Queen Elizabeth to the young 
king on the death of his father, Frederic II. 
On his own responsibility he procured an 
arrangement by which the subjects of Den- 
mark and Norway undertook not to serve 
the king of Spain against England. 

He died on 11 Feb. 1590-1, and was buried 
in the church of Sunbury beside his father- 
in-law's grave. In a ' Visitation of Middlesex ' 
dated 1634 he was described as ' of Sunbury.' 
According to the same authority he had two 
children a son Francis, who married a lady 
named Cory ; and a posthumous daughter, 
Posthuma, who married a man named Speare. 
The son is said to have left a son, also named 
Francis, but his descendants have not been 

Rogers was a man of scholarly tastes, and 
was the intimate friend of the antiquary 
Camden. The latter calls him ' vir opti- 
mus' in a letter to Sir Henry Savile (SMITH'S 
Epistolee, No. 13), and he contemplated a dis- 
course ' concerning the acts of the Britons ' 
for Camden's ' Britannia,' but it was never 
completed. Camden quotes some Latin 
poems by him in his account of Salisbury, 
including an epigram on the windows, pillars, 
and tower-steps in the cathedral there, which 
he represented as respectively equalling in 
number the months, weeks, and days in the 
year. Rogers was also known to the scholar 
Gruter, who described him to Camden as ' pro- 
testantissimus,' and he wrote to Iladrianus 
Junius asking him for early references to the 
history of Ireland (Epistola;, 476, 479, 628). 
He wrote Latin verses in praise of Bishop 
Jewel, which are appended to Lawrence 
Humphrey's 'Life of the Bishop,' and Latin 
verses by him also figure in the preface to 
Ortelius's ' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ' and in 
Ralph Aggas's description of Oxford Univer- 
sity, 1578. 

[Chester's John Rogers, 1863, pp. 259-71 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 569 ; Hunter's 
MS. Chorus Vatum in Addit. MS. 24487, ff. 1-2 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom ; Chauncey's Hertford- 
shire, i. 123.] S. L. 

ROGERS, DANIEL (1573-1652), divine, 
eldest son of Richard Rogers (1550P-1618) 
[q. v.] of Wethersfield, Essex, by his first 
wife, was born there in 1573. Ezekiel Rogers 
[q. v.l was his younger brother. He pro- 
ceeded to Christ's College, Cambridge, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1595-6, and M.A. in 1599, 
and was fellow from 1600 to 1608. Reared 
in the atmosphere of puritanism, Rogers be- 
came at college a noted champion of the 
cause. It is related that when Archbishop 
Laud sent down a coryphaeus to challenge 
the Cambridge puritans, Rogers opposed him 
with such effect that the delighted under- 
graduates carried him out of the schools on 
their shoulders, while a fellow of St. John's 
bade him go home and hang himself, for he 
would never die with more honour. 

On leaving the university Rogers officiated 
as minister at Haversham, Buckinghamshire, 
but when Stephen Marshall [q. v.], his father's 
successor at Wethersfield, removed from that 
place to Finchingfield, Rogers returned to 
Wethersfield as lecturer, with Daniel Weld 
or Weald, another puritan, as vicar. He 
had several personal discussions with Laud, 
who paid a high tribute to his scholarship, 
but, after being much harassed for various 
acts of nonconformity, he was suspended by 
the archbishop in 1629. The respect of the 
conforming clergy in North Essex was shown 
by their presenting a memorial to the bishop 
on his behalf, but he apparently left Essex 
for a time. It is doubtful if he be identical 
with Daniel Rogers, M.A., who was pre- 
sented by the parliament to the rectory of 
Green's Norton, Northamptonshire, on 22 July 
1643, in succession to Bishop Skinner, who 
vacated the rectory on 16 July 1645, and 
seems to have been intruded into the vicar- 
age of Wotton in the same county in 1647 
(BRIDGES, Northamptonshire, ed. Whallev, 
ii. 293). 

The latter part of Rogers's life was passed 
at Wethersfield. where he had for neighbour 
as vicar of Shahbrd his relative, Giles Fir- 
min (1614-1697) [q. v.], a warm royalist. 
On the fast day proclaimed after the execu- 
tion of the king, Rogers, who had preached 
at Wethersfield in the moniing, attended 
Firmin's church in the afternoon, which he 
had only once done before. After the service 
he went home with Firmin and ' bemoaned 
the king's death' (Preface to FIRMIN^ 
Weighty Questions). When the army's peti- 
tion for tolerance, called ' the agreement of 




the people,' was sent down for the Essex 
ministers to sign, Rogers, on behalf of the 
presbyterians, drew up, and was the first to 
sign, the Essex ' Watchmen's Watchword,' 
London, 1649, protesting against the tolera- 
tion of any who refused to sign the Solemn 
League and Covenant. 

Rogers died on 16 Sept. 1652, aged 80. 
He was buried at Wethersfield. Rogers's 
first wife, Margaret Bishop, had the reputa- 
tion of a shrew. His second wife, Sarah, 
daughter of John Edward of London, was 
buried at Wethersfield on 21 Dec. 1662. A 
daughter married the Rev. William Jenkyn, 
vicar of All Saints, Sudbury, Suffolk [see 
under JEXKYN, AVILLIAM]. His son by his 
first wife, Daniel, was minister of Havers- 
ham, Buckinghamshire, from 5 Oct. 1665 
until his death, 5 June 1680; Daniel's daugh- 
ter, Martha Rogers, was mother of Dr. John 
Jorfcin [q. v.] 

Rogers was of a morose and sombre tem- 
perament, and his creed was severely Cal- 
vinistic. Never securely satisfied of his own 
salvation, he offered to ' exchange circum- 
stances with the meanest Christian in We- 
thersfield who had the soundness of grace 
in him.' His religious views developed in 
him a settled gloom, and Firmin's ' Real 
Christian,' London, 1670, was mainly written 
to counteract his despondency. Rogers's 
stepbrother, John Ward, said of him that, 
although he ' had grace enough for two men, 
he had not enough for himself.' 

Several of Rogers's works are dedicated to 
Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick [q. v.], 
and to his countess Susanna, at whose house 
at Leighs Priory he, like ' all the schis- 
maticall preachers ' in the county, was often 
welcomed. Their titles are: 1. 'David's 
Cost, wherein every one who is desirous to 
serve God aright may see what it must cost 
him,' enlarged from a sermon, London, 1619, 
12mo. 2. ' A Practicall Catechisme,' &c. ; 
2nd ed. corrected and enlarged, London, 
1633, 4to, published under the author's 
initials; 3rd ed. London, 1 640, 4to ; in 1648 
appeared ' Collections or Brief Notes ga- 
thered out of Mr. Daniel Rogers' Practical 
Catechism by R. P.' 3. ' A Treatise of the 
Two Sacraments of the Gospel,' &c., by 
D.R. ; 3rd ed. London, 1635, 4to, dedicated 
to Lady Barrington of Hatfield Broad Oak, 
Essex. 4. ' Matrimoniall Honour, or the 
mutuall crowne and comfort of godly, loyall, 
and chaste marriage,' London, 1642, 4to. 
5. ' Naaman the Syrian, his Disease and 
Cure,' London, 1642, fol. ; Rogers's longest 
work, consisting of 898 pages folio. 

[Firmiu's Weighty Questions Discussed, and 
his Real Christian ; Chester's John Rogers, p. 

243; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, ii. 231, iii. 
149; Crosby's Hist, of Baptists, i. 167; Davids's 
Hist, of Evangel. Nonconf. in Essex, p. 147 ; 
Lite and Death of John Angier, p. 67; Prynne's 
Canterburies Doom, 1646, p. 373 ; Fuller's Hist, 
of the Univ. Cambr. ed. Prickett and Wright, p. 
184; Masson's Life of Milton, ed. 1881, i. 402; 
Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1629-31, p. 391 ; Divi- 
sion of the County of Essex into Classes, 1648 ; 
Essex Watchmen's Watchword, 1649; Baker's 
Hist, of Northamptonshire, ii. 63 ; Lipscomb's 
Hist, of Buckinghamshire ; Ranew's Catalogue, 
1680: Harl. MS. 6071, f. 482; information 
kindly supplied by the master of Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; Registers at Wethersfield, 
which only begin 1648, and are dilapidated.] 

C. F. S. 

1567 ?), comptroller of Queen Elizabeth's 
household, born about 1498, was son of 
George Rogers of Lopit, Devonshire, by 
Elizabeth, his wife. The family of Rogers 
in the west of England was influential, and 
benefited largely by the dissolution of the 
monasteries. Edward Rogers was an es- 
quire of the body to Henry VIII, and had a 
license to import wine in 1534 ; on 11 Dec. 
1534 he became bailiff of Hampnes in the 
marches of Calais and Sandgate in Kent. 
On 20 March 1536-7 he received a grant of 
the priory of Cannington, in Somerset. At 
the coronation of Edward VI he was dubbed 
a knight of the carpet, and on 15 Oct. 1549 
was made one of the four principal gentle- 
men of the privy chamber. In January 
1549-50 he was confined to his house in 
connection with the misdemeanours of the 
Earl of Arundel, whom he had doubtless 
assisted in his peculations. But he was 
soon free, arid on 21 June 1550 had a pension 
of 50/. granted to him. As an ardent pro- 
testant he deemed it prudent to go abroad in 
Queen Mary's days. Under Elizabeth he ob- 
tained important preferment. On 20 Nov. 
1558 he was made vice-chamberlain, captain 
of the guard, and a privy councillor. In 
1560 he succeeded Sir Thomas Parry (d. 1560) 
[q. v.] as comptroller of the household. Sir 
James Croft [q. v.] succeeded him as con- 
troller in 1565. He was dead before 21 May 
1567, when his will, dated 1560, was proved. 
A portrait by an unknown painter, at Wo- 
burn, is inscribed 1567, and the note states 
that it was drawn when Rogers was sixty-nine. 
He married Mary, daughter and coheiress of 
Sir John Lisle of the Isle of Wight. He 
left a son George, and he speaks also of sons 
named Thomas Throckmorton, Thomas Har- 
man, and John Chetel. These were doubt- 
less sons-in-law. 

[Gal. of State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 119, 
&c., Additional,1547-65, pp. 437, 530, 549 ; Acts 




of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, ii. 345; 
Froude's Hist, of Engl. iv. 217 ; Lit. Hem. of 
Edw.VI (Roxb. Club), cxxxii. 244, 359 ; Parkers 
Corresp. pp. 75sq., 1 Zurich Letters. p. 5n., and 
Grindal's Works, p. 32, all in the Parker Soc. ; 
Progresses of Queen Eliz. i. 30 ; Scharf 's Cat. of 
Woburn Pictures; Collinson's Somerset, i. 231; 
Hugo's Med. Nunneries of Somerset, p. 137 ; 
Visit, of Somerset (Harl. Soc.), p. 128 ; Brown's 
Somerset Wills, 2nd ser. p. 90 ; Strype's Works 
(Index).] W. A. J. A. 

ROGERS, EZEKIEL (1584 P-1661), colo- 
nist, born about 1584, was son of Richard 
Rogers (1550 P-1618) [q. v.], incumbent of 
Wethersfield in Essex, and younger brother 
of Daniel Rogers (1573-1652) [q. v.] lie gra- 
duated M. A. Irom Christ's College, Cambridge, 
1604, and became chaplain in the family of 
Sir Francis Barrington in Essex. He was 
preferred by his patron to the living of Rowley 
in Yorkshire. There he became conspicuous 
as a preacher, attached himself to the puritan 
party, and was suspended. In 1638 became 
with a party of twenty families to New Eng- 
land. On 23 May 1639 he was admitted a 
freeman of Massachusetts. In the same year 
lie and his companions established themselves 
as a township, to which they gave the name of 
their old home, Rowley. Theophilus Eaton 
[q. v.l and John Davenport [q. v.], then en- 
gaged in establishing their colony at New 
Haven, tried to enlist Rogers, but without 
success. In 1639 Rogers was appointed 
pastor of the new township. In 1643 he 
preached the election sermon, and in 1647 a 
sermon before the general synod at Cam- 
bridge. He died on 23 Jan. 1661, leaving 
no issue. He was three times married : first, 
to Sarah, widow of John Everard ; secondly, 
to a daughter of the well-known New Eng- 
land divine, John Wilson ; thirdly, to Mary, 
widow of Thomas Barker. 

Rogers published in 1642 a short treatise, 
entitled ' The Chief Grounds of the Christian 
Religion set down by way of catechising, 
gathered long since for the use of an honour- 
able Family, London, 1642. Several of his 
letters to John Winthrop, the governor of 
Massachusetts, are published in the ' Massa- 
chusetts Historical Collection ' (4th ser. vii.) 

[Cotton Mather's Magnalia ; Winthrop's Hist, 
of New England (Savage's edit.); Savage's 
Genealogical Register of New England; Chester's 
John Rogers, p. 249.] J. A. D. 

MAN (1791-1851), legal writer, son of the 
Rev. James Rogers of Rainscombe, Wilt- 
shire, by Catherine, youngest daughter of 
Francis Newman of Cadbury House, Somer- 
set, was born in 1791. He was educated at 
Eton, matriculated from Oriel College, Ox- 

ford, on 5 May 1808, graduated B.A. in 
1812, and M.A. in 1815. He was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 21 May 1816, 
and to the Inner Temple ad eundem in 1820. 
He went the western circuit and practised 
in the common-law courts and as a special 
pleader. On 24 Feb. 1837 he was created a 
king's counsel, and soon after was elected a 
bencher of the Inner Temple. From 1835 
to his death he was recorder of Exeter, and 
from 1842 deputy judge-advocate-general. 
He died at 1 Upper Wimpole Street, Lon- 
don, on 19 July 1851, and was buried in the 
Temple Church on 25 July, having married, 
on 29 June 1822, Julia Eleanora, third daugh- 
ter of William Walter Yea of Pyrland 
Hall, Somerset, by whom he had three sons 
and two daughters. Two of the sons, Wal- 
ter Lacy Rogers (d. 1885) and Francis New- 
man Rogers (d. 1859), were barristers. 

He was the author of: 1. 'The Law and 
Practice of Elections, with Analytical Tables 
and a Copious Index,' 1820 (dedicated to 
Sir W. D. Best, knt.) ; 3rd edit, as altered 
by the Reform Acts, 1835 ; 9th edit, with 
F. S. P. Wolferstan, 1859; 10th edit, by 
F. S. P. Wolferstan, 1865 ; llth edit, (with 
the New Reform Act), 1868 ; loth edit, by 
M. Powell, J. C. Carter, and J. S. Sandars, 
1890 ; 16th edit, by S. H. Day, 1892. 2. Par- 
liamentary Reform Act, 2 Will. IV, c. 45, 
with Notes containing a Complete Digest of 
Election Law as altered by that Statute,' 
1832. 3. 'A Practical Arrangement of Eccle- 
siastical Law,' 1840; 2nd edit. 1849. 4. 'The 
Marriage Question : an Attempt to discover 
the True Scripture Argument in the Question 
of Marriage with a Wife's Sister,' 1855. 

[Gent. Mag. 1851, ii. 322-3; Illustr. London 
News, 1851, xix. 138 ; Masters of the Bench of 
the Inner Temple, 1883, p. 102.] G. C. B. 

FORD (1811-1889), born at Marylebone on 
31 Jan. 1811, was the eldest son of Sir Frede- 
rick Leman Rogers, bart. (d. 13 Dec. 1851), 
who married, on 12 April 1810, Sophia, se- 
cond daughter and coheiress of the late Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Charles Russell Deare of the 
Bengal artillery. She died on 16 Feb. 1871. 
He went to Eton in September 1822, and left 
in the sixth form in July 1828. He was con- 
temporary there with Mr. Gladstone, Bishops 
Hamilton of Salisbury and Selwyn of Lieu- 
field, and with Arthur Henry 1 1 a 11 a in. 
While at school he contributed, under the 
pseudonym of ' Philip Montagu,' to the ' Eton 
Miscellany,' which Gladstone and Selwyn 
edited. He matriculated from Oriel College, 
Oxford, on 2 July 1828. It is said that his 
choice of a college was due to the fact that 




John Henry Newman, then on the look-out 
for pupils of promise, had asked a friend at 
Eton to bring the college under the notice of 
his boys. He was a pupil of Hurrell Froude, 
a fellow Devonian ; both Froude and New- 
man soon became his intimate friends, and 
remained so throughout life. 

Rogers was elected Craven scholar in 1829, 
and graduated B. A. in 1832 (taking a double 
first, classics and mathematics), M. A. in 1835, 
and B.C.L. in 1838. In 1833 he was elected 
to a fellowship at Oriel, his examination 
being ' in strength of mind ' one of the very 
best that Keble ever knew. He was ad- 
mitted a student of Lincoln's Inn on 28 Oct. 
1831, and called to the bar on 26 Jan. 1837 
(FOSTER, Men at the Bar, p. 39), but he re- 
turned to Oxford in 1838, remained a fellow 
of Oriel until 1845, and became Vinerian 
scholar in 1834, and Vinerian fellow in 1840. 
In the last year he spent the winter in Rome 
with James Hope, afterwards Hope-Scott 
[q. v.j His friendship with Dean Church 
began at Oriel in 1838 ; they travelled 
together through Brittany during the long 
vacation of 1844, and their friendship con- 
tinued unbroken until death. The tractarian 
movement had the sympathy and counsels 
of Rogers, and in 1845 he issued 'A Short 
Appeal to Members of Convocation on the 
proposed Censure on No. 90.' During the 
latter part of Newman's stay at Oxford Rogers 
became for a time somewhat estranged from 
him (ISAAC WILLIAMS, Autobiography, pp. 
122-3). Rogers was one of the little band 
of enthusiastic churchmen that started on 
21 Jan. 1846 the 'Guardian 'newspaper. They 
met together in a room opposite the printing 
press in Little Pulteney Street, wrote articles, 
revised proofs, and persevered in their un- 
remunerative labour until the paper proved 
a success. 

In 1844 Rogers was called to official life 
in London. He became at first registrar of 
joint-stock companies, and then a commis- 
sioner of lands and emigration. In 1857 he 
was appointed assistant commissioner for the 
sale of encumbered estates in the West Indies, 
and in 1858 and 1859 he was 'employed on a 
special mission to Paris, to settle the condi- 
tions on which the French might introduce 
coolie labour into their colonies. In May 
1860 he succeeded Herman Merivale [q. v.] 
as permanent under-secretary of state for 
the colonies. That office he retained until 
1871. George Higinbotham, an Australian 
politician, spoke in 1869 of the colonies as 
having ' been really governed during the 
whole of the last fifteen years by a person 
named Rogers' ( MORRIS, Memo ir of Higin- 
botham, p. 183). Honours fell thick on him 

He succeeded his father as eighth baronet 
in 1851, was created K.C.M.G. in 1869, 
G.C.M.G. in 1883, and a privy councillor in 
1871, and on 4 Nov. 1871 was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Blachford of Wisdome, and 
Blachford in Cornwood, Devonshire. Al- 
though he served as cathedral commissioner 
from 1880 to 1884, and was appointed in 1881 
chairman of the royal commission on hospi- 
tals for smallpox and fever, and on the best 
means of preventing the spread of infection, 
he dwelt for the most part after 1871 on his. 
estate in Devonshire. He restored the chancel 
of Cornwood church, and placed a window of 
stained glass in the south transept. He died 
at Blachford on 21 Nov. 1889. He married, 
at Dunfermline, on 29 Sept. 1847, Georgiana 
Mary, daughter of Andrew Colvile, formerly 
Wedderburn, of Ochiltree and Craigflower,. 
North Britain. She survived him ; they had 
no children. 

Rogers was unswervingly honest and 
markedly sympathetic. While at the colonial 
office he took much trouble over the organisa- 
tion and position of the church in the colonies. 
Walter enlisted Rogers on the 'Times 'by 
the offer of constant employment (1841-4),. 
but the labour soon proved distasteful to him 
(DEAN BOYLE, Recollections, pp. 286-7). He 
wrote for the ' British Critic,' and contri- 
buted some reminiscences of Froude to Dean 
Church's ' Oxford Movement,' pp. 50-6. An 
article by him on ' Mozley's Essays ' appeared 
in the 'Nineteenth Century' for June 1879. 
His views on the conditions under which uni- 
versity education may be made more avail- 
able for clerks in government offices appeared 
in No. iv. of the additional papers of the 
Tutors' Association (Oxford, 1854), and he 
set forth his opinions of South African policy 
in the 'Edinburgh Review' (April 1877) 
and the ' New Quarterly Review ' (April 
1879). A manuscript autobiography of his 
early years has been published, with a selec- 
tion from his letters, under the editorship of 
Mr. G. E. Marindin (1896). 

[Lord Blachford's Letters, ed. Marindin, 1896 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Guardian, 27 Nov. 1 889, 
Ly Dean Church; Dean Church's Life and Letters; 
Letters of Newman, ed. Mozley ; Sir Henry- 
Taylor's Autobiography; T. Mozley's Eeminis- 
cences of Oxford.] W. P. C. 

ROGERS, GEORGE, M.D. (1618-1697), 
physician, son of George Rogers, M.D., a fellow 
of the College of Physicians of London, who 
died in 1622, was born in London in 1618. 
He entered in 1635 Lincoln College, Oxford, 
where he was a contemporary and friend of 
Christopher Bennet [q. v.] He graduated 
B.A. on 24 Jan. 1638, M.A. 4 Dec. 1641, 
and M.B. 10 Dec. 1642. He then studied 




medicine at Padua, where he was consul of 
the English nation in the university, and 
graduated M.D. John Evelyn, who con- 
tinued his acquaintance throughout life, 
visited him at Padua in June 1645. He was 
incorporated M.D. at Oxford on 14 April 
1648, and about 1654 began to practise as a 
physician in London. He was elected a 
fellow of the College of Physicians on 
20 Oct. 1664, was treasurer 1683-5, and was 
president in 1688. In 1681 he delivered the 
Harveian oration, which was printed in 
1682, and of which he gave a copy to Evelyn 
(EVELYN, Diary). His only other publica- 
tion is a congratulatory Latin poem to his 
friend Christopher Bennet, printed in the 
'Theatrum Tabidorum' in 1655. He re- 
signed on 11 Dec. 1691, owing to ill-health, 
the office of elect, which he had held in the 
College of Physicians since 5 Sept. 1682. 
He died on 22 Jan. 1697, and was buried at 
Ruislip, Middlesex. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Hawtrey of Ruislip, and 
had three daughters, who died young, and 
three sons, George, Thomas, and John. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 316 ; Works; Evelyn's 
Diary ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] N. M. 

ROGERS, HENRY (1585 P-1658), theo- 
logian, born in Herefordshire about 1585, was 
son of a clergyman. He matriculated from 
Jesus College, Oxford, on 15 Oct. 1602, and 
graduated B.A. 21 Oct. 1605, M.A. 30 May 
1608, B.D. 13 Dec. 1616, D.D. 22 Nov. 1637. 
He became a noted preacher, and was suc- 
cessively rector of Moccas from 1617, and of 
Stoke-Edith from 1618, and vicar of Foy 
from 1636 to 1642, and of Dorstone all are 
in Herefordshire. He was installed in the 
prebend of Pratum Majus of Hereford Cathe- 
dral on 28 Nov. 1616 (Ls NEVE, Fasti), 
and in 1638 became lecturer, apparently in 
Hereford, through the influence of Secretary 
Sir John Coke and of George Coke, then 
bishop of Hereford. Laud gave testimony 
that Rogers was ' of good learning and con- 
formable ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. ii. 
199, 200, 208). Rogers also had the repu- 
tation of being an eminent schoolmaster. In 
the convocation of 1640 ' he showed him- 
self an undaunted champion' for the king 
(WALKEK, Sufferings of the Clergy, i. 35, ii. 
343). On the surprise of Hereford by the 
parliamentary forces (December 1645), Rogers 
was imprisoned and deprived of his prebend, 
and on 17 Dec. 1646 of his rectory of Stoke- 
Edith. He subsequently experienced great 
straits, though ' sometimes comforted by the 
secret munificence of John, lord Scudamore, 
and the slenderer gifts of the loyal gentry ' 
(WALKEK, ubi supra ; cf. Calendar of Com- 

mittee for Compounding, v. 3239). He died 
in 1658, and was buried under the parson's 
seat in Withington church on 15 June 1658. 

Rogers wrote : 1. ' An Answer to Mr. 
Fisher the Jesuit his five propositions con- 
cerning Luther, by Mr. Rogers, that worthy 
Oxford divine, with some passages also of 
the said Mr. Rogers with the said Mr. 
Fisher. Hereunto is annexed Mr. W. C. 
[i.e. William Crashaw, q. v.] his dialogue 
of the said argument, wherein is discovered 
Fisher's folly ' [London ?], 1623, 4to. 2. ' The 
Protestant church existent, and their faith 
professed in all ages and by whom, with a 
catalogue of councils in all ages who pro- 
fessed the same,' London, 1638, 4to ; dedi- 
cated to George Coke, bishop of Hereford. 

[Wood's Athense, ed. Bliss, iii. 31 ; Rogers' s 
works ; information kindly sent by the Rev. 
Thomas Prosse Powell, rector of Dorstone, and 
the Eev. Charles S. Wilton, rector of Foy; 
Havergal's Fasti Herefordenses.] W. A. S. 

ROGERS, HENRY (1806-1877), Edin- 
burgh reviewer and Christian apologist, was 
third son of Thomas Rogers, surgeon, of St. 
Albans, where he was born on 18 Oct. 1806. 
He was educated at private schools and by his 
father, a man of profound piety and more 
than ordinary culture, who, bred a church- 
man, had early attached himself to the con- 
gregationalist sect. In his seventeenth year 
he was apprenticed to a surgeon at Milton- 
next-Sittingbourne, Kent; but a perusal of 
John Howe's discourse on ' The Redeemer's 
Tears wept over Lost Souls ' diverted his at- 
tention from surgery to theology, and after 
somewhat less than three years spent at 
Highbury College, he entered the congrega- 
tionalist ministry in June 1829. His first 
duty was that of assistant pastor of the 
church at Poole, Dorset, whence in 1832 he 
returned to Highbury College as lecturer on 
rhetoric and logic. In 1&&& he was ap- 
pointed to the chair of English language 
and literature at University College, Lon- 
don, which in 1839 he exchanged for that of 
English literature and language, mathema- 
tics and mental philosophy in Spring Hill 
College, Birmingham. That post he held for 
nearly twenty years. An incurable throat 
affection early compelled him to abandon 
preaching, so that his entire leisure was free 
for literary pursuits. 

In 1826 Rogers published a small volume 
of verse, entitled ' Poems Miscellaneous and 
Sacred;' and at Poole he began to write 
for the nonconformist periodical press. On 
his return to London he contributed intro- 
ductory essays to editions of Joseph Tru- 
man's 'Discourse of Natural and Moral Im- 
potency,' the works of Jonathan Edwards, 




Jeremy Taylor (1834-5), and Edmund Burke 
(1836-7) and Robert Boyle's ' Treatises on 
the High Veneration Man's Intellect owes 
to God, on Things above Reason, and on the 
Style of the Holy Scriptures.' In 1836 he 
issued his first important work, ' The Life 
and Character of John Howe ' (1630-1705) 
[q. v.] (London, 8vo), of which later edi- 
tions appeared in 1863, 12mo; 1874, 8vo; 
and 1879, 8vo. In 1837 he edited, under 
the title 'The Christian Correspondent,' 
a classified collection of four hundred and 
twenty-three private letters ' by eminent 
persons of both sexes, exemplifying the fruits 
of holy living and the blessedness of holy dy- 
ing,' London, 3vols. 12mo. In October 1839 he 
commenced, with an article on ' The Structure 
of the English Language,' a connection with 
the ' Edinburgh Review ' which proved to be 
durable. In 1850 two volumes of selected 
* Essays ' contributed to that organ were 
published, and a third in 1855, London, 8vo. 
Still further selected and augmented, these 
miscellanies were reprinted at London in 
1874 as 'Essays, Critical and Biographical, 
contributed to the " Edinburgh Review," ' 
2 vols. 8vo, and ' Essays on some Theological 
Controversies, chiefly contributed to the 
" Edinburgh Review," ' 8vo (cf. for his unac- 
knowledged essays bibliographical note infra). 

In 1852 Rogers issued anonymously, as 
'by F. B.,' the work upon which his fame 
chiefly rests, 'The Eclipse of Faith, or a 
Visit to a Religious Sceptic ' (London, 8vo), 
a piece of clever dialectics, in which the 
sceptic (Harrington) plays the part of can- 
did and remorseless critic of the various 
forms of rationalism then prevalent. The 
liveliness of the dialogue and the adroit use 
made of the Socratic elenchus to the con- 
fusion of the infidel and the confirmation of 
the faithful gave the \vork great vogue with 
the religious public of its day, so that in the 
course of three years it passed through six 
editions. From Mr. Francis William New- 
man, who figured in its pages in the thinnest 
of disguises, it elicited an animated ' Reply,' 
to which Rogers rejoined in an equally ani- 
mated ' Defence of " The Eclipse of Faith," ' 
London, 1854 (3rd edit. I860). 

To the '(Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (8th 
edit.) Rogers contributed the articles on 
Bishop Butler (1854), Gibbon, Hume, and 
Robert Hall (1856), Pascal and Paley 
(1859), and Voltaire (1860). In 1858 he 
succeeded to the presidency of the Lanca- 
shire Independent College, with which he 
held the chair of theology until 1871. His 
leisure he employed in editing the works 
of John Howe, which appeared at London 
in 1862-3, 6 vols. 12mo, and in contri- 

buting to ' Good Words ' and the ' British 
Quarterly ' (for his articles, most of which 
have been reprinted, see infra). His health 
failing, he retired in 1871 to Silverdale, 
Morecambe Bay, whence in 1873 he removed 
to Pennal Tower, Machynlleth, where he 
died on 20 Aug. 1877. His remains were 
interred in St. Luke's Church, Cheetham 
Hill, Manchester. 

In Rogers a piety, which, though essen- 
tially puritan, had in it no tinge of sourness, 
was united with a keen and sceptical intel- 
lect. He was widely read, especially in the 
borderland between philosophy and theology, 
but he was neither a philosopher nor a theo- 
logian. He held, indeed, the suicidal posi- 
tion that reason rests on faith (cf. ' Rea- 
son and Faith : their Claims and Conflicts ' 
in his Essays, 1850-5). In criticism he is 
seen to advantage in the essays on Lu- 
ther, Leibnitz, Pascal, Plato, Des Cartes, and 
Locke in the same collection. As a Christian 
apologist he continued the tradition of the 
last century, and Avas especially influenced 
by Butler. His last work, ' The Superna- 
tural Origin of the Bible inferred from itself 
(the Congregational Lecture for 1873), Lon- 
don, 1 874, 8vo (8th edit. 1893), evinces no little 
ingenuity. His style is at its best in two 
volumes of imaginary letters entitled ' Selec- 
tions from the Correspondence of R. E. H. 
Greyson, Esq.' (the pseudonym being an 
anagram for his own name), London, 1857, 
8vo; 3rd edit. 1861. He was a brilliant 
conversationalist and engaging companion. 

Rogers married twice, first, in 1830, Sarah 
Frances, eldest daughter of W. N. Bentham 
of Chatham, a relative of Jeremy Bentham, 
Avho died soon after giving birth to her third 
child ; secondly, in November 1834, her sister, 
Elizabeth Bentham, who died in the autumn 
of the folloAving year, after giving birth to 
her first child. As the law then stood his 
second marriage was not ab initio void, but 
only voidable by an ecclesiastical tribunal. 

Besides the Avorks mentioned above, the 
following miscellanea by Rogers haA r e been 
published separately, all at London, and in 
8vo, viz. 1. 'General Introduction to a Course 
of Lectures on English Grammar and Com- 
position,' 1837. 2. ' Essay on the Life and 
Genius of Thomas Fuller ; ' reprinted from the 
' Edinburgh Review ' in the ' Travellers' 
Library,' vol. xv. 1856. 3. ' A Sketch of the 
Life and Character of the Re\'. A. C. Simpson, 
LL.D.;' reprinted from the 'British Quar- 
terly Review,' 1867, 8vo. 4. ' Essays ' from 
' GoodWords,' 1867, 8vo. 5. ' Essay ' introduc- 
tory to a new edition of Lord Lyttelton's 
' Observations on the Conversion of St. Paul,' 
1868. The following articles are also under- 




stood to be his work : ' Keligious Movement 
in Germany' (Edinburgh Review, January 
1846), 'Marriage Avith the Sister of a De- 
ceased Wife ' (ib. April 1853), ' Macaulay's 
Speeches' (ib. October 1854), ' Servetus and 
Calvin ' (Brit. Quarterly Review, May 1849), 
'Systematic Theology' (ib. January 1866), 
' Nonconformity in Lancashire ' (ib. July 
1869), 'Coal' (Good Words, April 1863), 
Coal and Petroleum ' (ib. May 1863), ' The 
Duration of our Coalfields ' (ib. April 1864). 

Rogers's portrait and a memoir by R. W. 
Dale are prefixed to the eighth edition of the 
* Superhuman Origin of the Bible/ 1893, 8vo. 

[Dale's Memoir above mentioned ; Macvey 
Napier's Selection from the Correspondence of 
the late Macvey Napier, 1879; Evangel. Mag. 
1877, vii. 599 ; Congregational Yearbook, 1878, 
p. 347.] J. M. R. 

ROGERS, ISAAC (1754-1839), watch- 
maker, son of Isaac Rogers, Levant merchant 
and watchmaker, was born in White Hart 
Court, Gracechurch Street, on 13 Aug. 1754. 
His father did a good trade in watches in 
foreign markets, and a specimen of his work 
is in the British Museum. Educated at Dr. 
Milner's school, Peckham, the son was ap- 
prenticed, and in 1776 succeeded, to his 
father's business at 4 White Hart Court. 
On 2 Sept. 1776 he was admitted to the free- 
dom of the Clockmakers' Company by patri- 
mony, and on 11 Jan. 1790 became a livery- 
man, on 9 Oct. 1809 a member of the court of 
assistants, in 1823 warden, and on 29 Sept. 
1824 master. In 1802 he moved his business to 
24 Little Bell Alley, Coleman Street. He was 
also a member of the Levant Company, and 
carried on an extensive trade with Turkey, 
Smyrna, Philadelphia, and the West Indies. 
He designed and constructed two regulators 
one with a mercurial pendulum, and the 
other with a gridiron pendulum. One of the 
projectors of a society for the improvement 
of naval architecture, he became treasurer 
of the society in 1799. He was much inte- 
rested in the promotion of methods of light- 
ing the streets with gas, and on the esta- 
blishment of the Imperial Gas Company in 
1818 was elected one of the directors and 
subsequently chairman of the board. In 
conjunction with Henry Clarke and George 
Atkins, he devised a permanent accumula- 
tion fund as a means of restoring the finances 
of the Clockmakers' Company. He died in 
December 1839. His portrait is in the com- 
pany's collection in the Guildhall Library. 

[E. J. Wood's Curiosities of Clocks and 
Watches, p. 348 ; Britten's Former Clock and 
Watch Makers, p. 372; Atkins and Overall's Ac- 
count of the Company of Clockmakers, pp. 83, 
88, 89, 143, 173, 185, 215, 282.] W. A. S. H. 


(1823-1890), political economist, eleventh son 
of George Vining Rogers, was born at West 
Meon, Hampshire, in 1823. Educated first 
at Southampton and King's College, Lon- 
don, he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, on 9 March 1843, graduated B. A. with 
a first class in lit. hum. in 1846, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. in 1849. An ardent high- 
churchman, he was ordained shortly after 
taking his degree, and became curate of St. 
Paul's, Oxford. In 1856 he also acted volun- 
tarily as assistant curate at Headington, 
near Oxford. He threw himself into paro- 
chial work with energy ; but, losing sympathy 
with the tractarian movement after 1860, he 
resolved to abandon the clerical profession. 
He was subsequently instrumental in obtain- 
ing the Clerical Disabilities Relief Act, by 
which clergymen could resign their orders. 
Of this act he was the first to avail himself 
(10 Aug. 1870). 

On graduating Rogers had settled in Ox- 
ford, and, while still engaged in clerical 
work, had made some reputation as a suc- 
cessful private tutor in classics and philo- 
sophy. In 1859 he published an 'Intro- 
ductory Lecture to the Logic of Aristotle,' 
and in 1865 an edition of the Nicomachean 
Ethics. He was long engaged on a ' Dic- 
tionary to Aristotle,' which he abandoned in 

1860 on the refusal of the university press 
to bear the expense of printing it ; the manu- 
script is now at Worcester College, Oxford. 
Later contributions to classical literature 
were a translation of Euripides' ' Bacchse ' 
into English verse in 1872, and some ' Verse 
Epistles, Satires, and Epigrams ' imitated 
from Horace and Juvenal in 1876. He was 
examiner in the final classical school in 1857 
and 1858, and in classical moderations in 

1861 and 1862. In the administrative work 
of the university he took a large share ; but 
he severely criticised the professorial-system 
and the distribution of endowments in ' Edu- 
cation in Oxford : its Methods, its Aids, and 
its Rewards,' 1861. In later life, while ad- 
vocating the admission of women to the ex- 
aminations and the revival of non-collegiate 
membership of the university, he disapproved 
of the official recognition by the university 
of English literature and other subjects of 
study which had previously lain outside the 
curriculum. From an early period Rogers 
devoted much of his leisure to the study of 
political economy, and in 1859 he was elected 
first Tooke professor of statist ics and economic 
science at King's College, London. This 
office he held till his death, besides acting 
for some years as examiner in political eco- 
nomy at the university of London. In 1860 




he began his researches into the history of 
agriculture and prices, on which his per- 
manent fame rests. In 1862 he was elected 
by convocation for a term of five years 
Drummond professor of political economy 
in the university of Oxford. He zealously 
performed the duties of his new office, and 
in 1867, when his tenure of the Drum- 
mond professorship expired, he offered him- 
self for re-election. But his advanced poli- 
tical views, and his activity as a speaker 
on political platforms, had offended the 
more conservative members of convocation. 
Bonamy Price [q. v.] was put up as a rival 
candidate, and, after an active canvas on 
his behalf, was elected by a large majority. 
Despite his rejection, Rogers busily con- 
tinued his economic investigations. He had 
published the first two volumes of his ' His- 
tory of Agriculture ' in 1866. There followed 
in 1868 a student's ' Manual of Political 
Economy,' in 1869 his edition of Adam 
Smith's ' Wealth of Nations,' and in 1871 an 
elementary treatise on ' Social Economy.' 

One of Rogers's elder brothers, John Bligh 
Rogers, who was engaged in medical prac- I 
tice at Droxford, Hampshire, had married j 
Emma, sister of Richard Cobden, on 16 Oct. 
1827. This connection brought Rogers in 
his youth to Cobden's notice, and the two 
men, despite the difference in their ages, I 
were soon on terms of intimacy. Rogers 
adopted with ardour Cobden's political and 
economic views, and, though subsequent ex- 
perience led him to reconsider some of them, 
he adhered to Cobden's leading principles 
through life. He was a frequent visitor at 
Cobden's house at Dunsford, and Cobden 
visited Rogers at Oxford. After Cobden's 
death Rogers preached the funeral sermon 
at West Lavington church on 9 April 1865, 
and he defended Cobden's general political 
position in ' Cobden and Modern Political 
Opinion.' 1873. He was an early and an 
active member of the Cobden Club. Through 
Cobden he came to know John Bright, 
and, although his relations with Bright 
were never close, he edited selections of 
Bright's public speeches in 1868 and 1879, 
and co-operated with him in preparing Cob- 
den's speeches for the press in 1870. Under 
such influences Rogers threw himself into 
political agitation, and between 1860 and 
1880 proved himself an effective platform 
speaker. He championed the cause of the 
North during the American civil war, and 
warmly denounced the acts of Governor 
Eyre in Jamaica. In the controversy over 
elementary education he acted with the ad- 
vanced section of the National Education 
League. In 1867 he contributed an article on 

bribery to ' Questions for a Reformed Parlia- 
ment.' He was always Avell disposed towards 
the co-operative movement, and presided at the 
seventh annual congress in London in 1875. 

Having thus fitted himself for a seat in 
parliament, Rogers was in 1874 an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for Scarborough in the 
liberal interest. From 1880 to 1885 he re- 
presented, together with Mr. Arthur Cohen, 
Q.C., the borough of Southwark. After the 
redistribution of seats by the act of 1885 he 
was returned for the Bennondsey division. 
He took little part in the debates of the 
House of Commons, but on 10 March 1886 
moved and carried a resolution recommend- 
ing that local rates should be divided be- 
tween owner and occupier. He followed 
Mr. Gladstone in his adoption of the policy 
of home rule in 1886, and consequently 
failed to retain his seat for Bermondsey at 
the general election in July of that year. 

Before and during his parliamentary career 
Rogers lectured on history at Mr. Wren's 
' coaching' establishment in Bayswater. But 
he still resided for the most part at Oxford, 
and continued his contributions to economic 
literature. In 1883 he was appointed lecturer 
in political economy at Worcester College, 
and on the death of his old rival, Bonamy 
Price, in 1888, he was re-elected to the 
Drummond professorship at Oxford. He 
died at Oxford on 12 Oct. 1890. 

Rogers married, on 19 Dec. 1850, at Peters- 
field, Anna, only daughter of William Pes- 
kett, surgeon, of Petersfield ; she died with- 
out issue in 1853. On 14 Dec. 1854 Rogers 
married his second wife, Anne Susanna 
Charlotte, second daughter of H. R. Rey- 
nolds, esq., solicitor to the treasury, by 
whom he had issue five sons and a daughter. 
A portrait by Miss Margaret Fletcher is in 
the possession of the National Liberal Club, 
the library of which owes much to his 
counsel, and another by the same artist is in 
the hall of Worcester College, Oxford. 

It is as an economic historian that Rogers 
deserves to be remembered. Of minute and 
scholarly historical investigation he was a 
keen advocate, and to his chief publica- 
tion, 'History of Agriculture and Prices,' 
English historical writers stand deeply in- 
debted. No similar record exists for any other 
country. The full title of the work was ' A 
History of Agriculture and Prices in Eng- 
land from the year after the Oxford Parlia- 
ment (1259) to the commencement of the 
Continental War (1793), compiled entirely 
from original and contemporaneous records.' 
Vols. i. and ii. (1259-1400) were published 
at Oxford in 1866, 8vo ; vols. iii. and iv. 
(1401-1582) in 1882 ; vols. v. and vi. (1583- 




1702) in 1887 ; while vols. vii. and viii. (1702- 
1793), for which Rogers had made large col- 
lections, are being prepared for publication 
by his fourth son, Mr. A. G. L. Kogers. 

Rogers published both the materials which 
he extracted from contemporary records and 
the averages and the conclusions he based 
upon them. The materials are of permanent 
value, but some of his conclusions have been 
assailed as inaccurate. He sought to trace 
the influence of economic forces on political 
movements, and appealed to history to illus- 
trate and condemn what he regarded as eco- 
nomic fallacies. But he seems to have over- 
estimated the prosperous condition of the 
English labourer in the middle ages, and to 
have somewhat exaggerated the oppressive 
effects of legislation on his position in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Mr. 
Frederic Seebohm proved that Rogers greatly 
underestimated the effects on the rural popu- 
lation of the ' black death ' of 1349 (cf. Fort- 
nightly Review, ii. iii. iv.) ; Dr. Cunningham 
has shown that Rogers seriously antedated 
the commutation of villein-service, and mis- 
apprehended the value of the currency in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (Growth 
of English Industry and Commerce, passim). 
But it should be recognised that much of 
Rogers's vast work is that of a pioneer 
making roads through an unexplored country. 
To abstract economic theory Rogers made 
no important contribution. He objected to 
the method and to many of the conclusions 
of the Ricardian school of economists, but 
he never shook himself free from their con- 
ceptions. Nor had he much sympathy with 
the historical school of economists of the 
type of Roscher. 

Several of Rogers's other publications were 
largely based upon the ' History of Agricul- 
ture and Prices.' Of these the most impor- 
tant was ' Six Centuries of Work and Wages' 
(2 vols. London, 1884, 8vo; new edition re- 
vised in one volume, London, 1886, 8vo ; 3rd 
edit. 1890, 8vo). Eight chapters of his ' Six 
Centuries ' were reprinted separately as ' The 
History of Work and Wages,' 1885, 8vo. 
His ' First Nine Years of the Bank of Eng- 
land,' Oxford, 1887, 8vo, and his article ' Fi- 
nance ' in the ' Encylopsedia Britannica,' 9th 
edit., are valuable contributions to financial 
history. The former reprints a weekly regis- 
ter discovered by Rogers of the prices of 
bank stock from 1694 to 1703, with a narra- 
tive showing the reasons of the fluctuations. 

Rogers also published: 1. ' Primogeniture 
and Entail,' &c., Manchester, 1864, 8vo. 
2. ' Historical Gleanings : a series of sketches, 
Montague, Walpole, Adam Smith, Cobbett,' 
London, 1869, 8vo ; 2nd ser. Wiclif, Laud, 

Wilkes, Home Tooke, London, 1870, 8vo. 

3. ' Paul of Tarsus : an inquiry into the 
Times and the Gospel of the Apostle of the 
Gentiles, by a Graduate' [anon.], 1872, 8vo. 

4. ' A Complete Collection of the Protests 
of the Lords, with Historical Introductions,' 
&c., 3 vols. Oxford, 1875, 8vo. 5. ' The Cor- 
respondence of the English establishment, 
with the Purpose of its Foundation,' London 
[1875], 8vo. 6. 'Loci e Libro Veritatum. 
Passages selected from Gascoyne's Theo- 
logical Dictionary . . . ' 1881, 4to. 7. ' En- 
silage in America : its Prospects in English 
Agriculture,' London, 1883, 8vo ; 2nd edit., 
with a new introduction on the progress of 
ensilage in England during 1883-4, London, 
1884, 8vo. 8. 'The British Citizen: his 
Rights and Privileges,' 1885 (in the People's 
Library.) 9. 'Holland '(Story of the Nations 
series), 1888, 8vo. 10. 'The Relations of 
Economic Science to Social and Political 
Action,' London, 1888, 8vo. 11. ' The Eco- 
nomic Interpretation of History,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1888, 8vo ; there are translations in 
French, German, and Spanish. 12. ' Oxford 
City Documents . . . 1268-1665' (Oxford 
Historical Society), Oxford, 1891, 8vo. 
13. ' Industrial and Commercial History of 
England,' a course of lectures, edited by his 
fourth son, Mr. A. G. L. Rogers, London, 
1892, 8vo. 

JOSEPH ROGERS (1821-1889), medical 
practitioner, elder brother of the above, for 
forty years actively promoted reform in the 
administration of the poor law. Commencing 
practice in London in 1844, he became super- 
numerary medical officer at St. Anne's, Soho, 
in 1855, on the occasion of an outbreak of 
cholera. In the following year he was ap- 
pointed medical officer to the Strand work- 
house. In 1861 he gave evidence before the 
select committee of the House of Commons 
on the supply of drugs in workhouse in- 
firmaries, when his views were adopted by 
the committee. In 1868 his zeal for reform 
brought him into conflict with the guardians, 
and the president of the poor-law board, 
after an inquiry, removed him from office. 
In 1872 he became medical officer of the 
Westminster infirmary. Here also the 
guardians resented his efforts at reform and 
suspended him, but he was reinstated bv 
the president of the poor-law board, and 
his admirers presented him with a testimonial 
consisting of three pieces of plate and a 
cheque for 150/. He was the founder and 
for some time president of the Poor Law 
Medical Officers' Association. The system 
of poor-law dispensaries and separate sick 
wards, with proper staffs of medical atten- 
dants and nurses, is due to the efforts of 




Rogers and his colleagues. He died in 
April 1889. His 'Reminiscences' were 
edited by his brother, J. E. Thorold Rogers. 

[Rene de Laboulaye's Thorold Rogers, Les 
Theories sur la Propriete(1891) ; Times, 10 April 
1889, 14 Oct. 1890; Academy, 1890, ii. 341; 
Athenseum, 1890, ii. 512 ; Guardian, 1890, ii. 
1609; Economic Review, 1891, vol.^i. No. 1; 
Dr. Rogers's Reminiscences ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 1219.] W. A. S. H. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1500 P-1555), first 
martyr in the Marian persecution, born about 
1500 at Deritend in the parish of Aston, 
near Birmingham, was son of John Rogers 
a loriner, of Deritend, by his wife, Margery 
Wyatt (cf. R. K. DENT, John Rogers of Deri- 
tand, in ' Transactions of Birmingham Ar- 
chaeological Section' [Midland Institute] 
1896). After being educated at Pembroke 
Hall, Cambridge, he graduated B. A. in 1526. 
He is doubtless the John Rogers who was pre- 
sented on 26 Dec. 1532 to the London rectory 
of Holy Trinity, or Trinity the Less, now 
united with that of St. Michael, Queenhithe. 
He resigned the benefice at the end of 1534, 
when he seems to have proceeded to Ant- 
werp to act as chaplain to the English mer- 
chant adventurers there. He was at the 
time an orthodox catholic priest, but at Ant- 
werp he met William Tindal, who was en- 
gaged on his translation of the Old Testa- 
ment into English. This intimacy quickly 
led Rogers to abandon the doctrines of Rome ; 
but he enjoyed Tindal's society only for a 
few months, for Tindal was arrested in the 
spring of 1535, and was burnt alive on 
6 Oct. next year. The commonly accepted 
report that Rogers saw much of Coverdale 
during his earlv sojourn in Antwerp is re- 
futed by the fact 'that Coverdale was in s 
England at the time. Rogers soon proved j 
the thoroughness of his conversion to pro- j 
testantism by taking a wife. This was late j 
in 1536 or early in 1537. The lady, Adriana \ 
de Weyden (the surname, which means 'mea- 
dows,' Lat. prata, was anglicised into Pratt), 
was of an Antwerp family. ' She was more 
richly endowed,' says Fox, ' with virtue and 
soberness of life than with worldly treasures.' 
After his marriage Rogers removed to Wit- 
tenberg, to take charge of a protestant con- 
gregation. He rapidly became proficient in 

There seems no doubt that soon after his 
arrest Tindal handed over to Rogers his in- 
complete translation of the Old Testament, 
and that Rogers mainly occupied himself 
during 1536 in preparing the English version 
of the whole bible for the press, including 
Tindal's translation of the New Testament 
which had been already published for the first 

time in 1526. Tindal's manuscript draft of the 
Old Testament reached the end of the Book 
of Jonah. But Rogers did not include that 
book, and only employed Tindal's rendering 
to the close of the second book of Chronicles. 
To complete the translation of the Old Tes- 
tament and Apocrypha, he borrowed, for the 
most part without alteration, Miles Cover- 
dale's rendering, which had been published 
in 1535. His sole original contribution to 
the translation was a version of the ' Prayer 
of Maiiasses' in the Apocrypha, which he 
drew from a French Bible printed at Neu- 
chatel by Pierre de Wingle in 1535. The 
work was printed at the Antwerp press of 
Jacob von Meteren. The wood-engravings of 
the title and of a drawing of Adam and Eve 
were struck from blocks which had been used 
in a Dutch Bible printed at Liibeck in 1533. 
Richard Grafton [q. v.] of London purchased 
the sheets, and, after presenting a copy to 
Cranmer in July 1537, obtained permission 
to sell the edition (of fifteen hundred copies) 
in England. The title ran: 'The Byble, 
which is all the Holy Scripture : in whych 
are contayned the Olde and Newe Testament 
truly and purely translated into Englysh by 
Thomas Matthew, MDXXXVII. Set forth 
with the kinges most gracyous Lyce[n]ce.' 
The volume comprised 1,110 folio pages, 
double columns, and was entirely printed in 
black letter. Three copies are in the British 
Museum. A second folio edition (of great 
a rarity) appeared in 1538, and Robert Red- 
man is credited with having produced a 
16mo edition in five volumes in 1540; of 
this no copy is known. It was twice re- 
printed in 1549 : first, by Thomas Raynalde 
and William Hyll, and again by John Day 
and William Seres, with notes by Edmund 
Becke [q. v.] Nicholas Hyll printed the latest 
edition in 1551. 

Although Rogers's responsibility for the 
translation is small, to him are due the valu- 
able prefatory matter and the marginal notes. 
The latter constitute the first English com- 
mentary on the Bible. The prefatory matter 
includes, firstly, ' The Kalendar and Almanack 
for xviii y cares' from 1538; secondly, 'An 
exhortacyon onto the Studye of the Holy 
Scripture gathered out of the Byble,' signed 
with Rogers's initials ' I. R.' (the only direct 
reference to Rogers made in the volume) ; 
thirdly, ' The summe and content of all the 
Holy Scripture, both of the Old and Newe 
Testament ; ' fourthly, a dedication to King 
Henry, signed ' Thomas Matthew ; ' fifthly 
' a table of the pryncypall matters conteyned 
in the Byble, in whych the readers may 
fynde and practyse many commune places/ 
occupying twenty-six folio pages, and com- 




bining the characteristics of a dictionary, a 
concordance, and a commentary; and sixthly, 
' The names of all the bokes in the Byble, and 
a brief rehersall of the yeares passed sence 
the begynnvnge of the worlde unto 1538.' 
In the ' table of the princypall matters ' the 
passages in the Bible which seemed to Rogers 
to confute the doctrines of the Romish church 
are very fully noted. An introductory ad- 
dress to the reader prefaces the apocryphal 
books, which are described as uninspired. 

By adopting the pseudonym 'Thomas Mat- 
thew ' on the title-page, and when signing 
the dedication to Henry VIII, Rogers doubt- 
less hoped to preserve himself from Tindal's 
fate. He was thenceforth known as ' Rogers, 
alias Matthew,' and his bible was commonly 
quoted as ' Matthew's Bible.' 

It was the second complete printed version 
in English, Coverdale's of 1535 being the 
first. Rogers's labours were largely used in 
the preparation of the Great Bible (1539- 
1540), on which was based the Bishop's Bible 
(1568), the latter being the main foundation 
of the Authorised Version of 1611. Hence 
Rogers may be credited with having effec- 
tively aided in the production of the classical 
English translation of the Bible (J. R. DORE, 
Old Bibles, 1888, pp. 113 seq. ; EADIE, Eng- 
lish Bible, i. 309 sqq. ; ANDERSON, Annals of 
the English Bible, i. 519 sq.) 

Rogers returned to London in the summer 
of 1548. For a time he resided with the pub- 
lisher, Edward Whitchurch, the partner of 
Richard Grafton, and Whitchurch published 
for him ' A Waying and Considering of the 
Interim, by the honour-worthy and highly 
learned Phillip Melancthon, translated into 
Englyshe by John Rogers.' Rogers's preface 
is dated 1 Aug. 1548. ' The Interim ' was 
the name applied to an edict published by the 
Emperor Charles V's orders in the diet of 
Augsburg on 15 May 1548, bidding protes- 
tants conform to catholic practices. Accord- 
ing to Foxe's story, which may be true, though 
some details are suspicious, Rogers in 1550 
declined to use his influence with Cranmer, 
archbishop of Canterbury, to prevent the 
anabaptist, Joan Bocher, from suffering death 
by burning. Rogers told the friend who in- 
terceded with him for the poor woman that 
death at the stake was a gentle punishment. 
' Well, perhaps,' the friend retorted, pro- 
phetically, ' you may yet find that you your- 
self shall have your hands full of this so 
gentle fire' (FoxE, Commentarii Rerum in 
Ecclesia Gestarum, p. 202). 

On 10 May 1550 Rogers was presented 
simultaneously to the rectory of St. Mar- 
garet Moyses and the vicarage of St. Se- 
pulchre, both in London. They were crown 

livings, but Nicasius Yetswiert, whose 
daughter married Rogers's eldest son, was 
patron of St. Sepulchre pro hac vice. On 
24 Aug. 1551 Rogers was appointed to the 
valuable prebend of St. Pancras in St. Paul's 
Cathedral by Nicholas Ridley [q. v.], bishop ot 
London. With the prebend went the rectory 
of Chigwell, but this benefice brought no 
pecuniary benefit. Ridley formed a high 
opinion of Rogers's zeal. He wrote some- 
what enigmatically to Sir John Cheke, on 
23 July 1551, that he was a preacher ' who 
for detecting and confuting of the anabaptists 
and papists in Essex, both by his preaching 
and by his writing, is enforced now to bear 
Christ's cross.' Subsequently the dean and 
chapter of St. Paul's appointed him divinity 
lecturer in the cathedral. But Rogers's atti- 
tude to the government was not wholly com- 
placent. The greed of the chief courtiers 
about Edward VI excited his disgust, and 
in a sermon at Paul's Cross he denounced 
the misuse of the property of the suppressed 
monasteries with such vigour that he was 
summoned before the privy council. He 
made an outspoken defence, and no further 
proceedings are known to have been taken. 
But at the same time he declined to conform 
to the vestments, and insisted upon wearing 
a round cap. Consequently, it would appear, 
he was temporarily suspended from his post 
of divinity lecturer at St. Paul's. According 
to an obscure entry in the ' Privy Council 
Register' in June 1553, orders were then 
issued by the council to the chapter to ad- 
mit him within the cathedral, apparently to 
fulfil the duties of divinity-lecturer. In 
April 1552 he secured a special act of par- 
liament naturalising his wife and such of 
his children as had been born in Germany. 

On 16 July 1553, the second Sunday after 
the death of Edward VI and the day before 
Mary was proclaimed queen, Rogers preached, 
by order of Queen Jane's council, at Paul's 
Cross. Unlike Ridley, who had occupied 
that pulpit the previous Sunday, he con- 
fined himself to expounding the gospel of the 
day. On 6 Aug., three days after Queen Mary's 
arrival in London, Rogers preached again at 
the same place. He boldly set forth ' such 
true doctrine as he and others had there 
taught in King Edward's days, exhorting 
the people constantly to remain in the same, 
and to beware of all pestilent Popery, idola- 
try, and superstition.' For using such lan- 
guage he was summoned before the council. 
He explained that he was merely preaching 
the religion established by parliament. 
Nothing followed immediately, but Rogers 
never preached again. On the 16th he was 
again summoned before the council. The 




register described him as ' John Rogers alias 
Matthew.' He was now ordered to confine 
himself to his own house, within the cathe- 
dral close of St. Paul's, and to confer with 
none who were not of his own household. 
About Christmas-time his wife, with eight 
female friends, paid a fruitless visit to Lord- 
chancellor Gardiner to beg his enlargement. 
He had been deprived of the emoluments 
of his benefices. The St. Pancras prebend was 
filled as early as 10 Oct. 1553, and, although 
no successor was inducted into the vicarage of 
St. Sepulchre until 11 Feb. 1555, Rogers de- 
rived no income from it in the interval. On 
27 Jan. 1554 Rogers was, at the instigation 
of Bonner, the new bishop of London, re- 
moved to Newgate. 

With Hooper, Lawrence Saunders, Brad- 
ford, and other prisoners, Rogers drew up, 
on 8 May 1554, a confession of faith, which 
adopted Calvinistic doctrines in their ex- 
tremest form (FoxE). Thenceforth Rogers's 
troubles rapidly increased. He had to pur- 
chase food at his own cost, his wife was rarely 
allowed to visit him, and petitions to Gardiner 
and Bonner for leniency met with no response. 
In December 1554 Rogers and the other im- 
prisoned preachers, Hooper, Ferrar, Taylor, 
Bradford, Philpot, and Saunders, petitioned 
the king and queen in parliament for an op- 
portunity to discuss freely and openly their 
religious doctrines, expressing readiness to 
suffer punishment if they failed to fairly esta- 
blish their position. Foxe states that while 
in prison Rogers wrote much, but that his 
papers were seized bv the authorities. Some 
of the writings ascribed to his friend Brad- 
ford may possibly be by him, but, beyond 
his reports of his examination, no lite- 
rary compositions by him belonging to the 
period of his imprisonment survive. The 
doggerel verses ' Give ear, my children, to my 
words,' which are traditionally assigned to 
Rogers while in prison, were really written 
by another protestant martyr, Robert Smith. 

In December 1554 parliament revived the 
penal acts against the lollards, to take effect 
from 20 Jan. following. On 22 Jan. 1555 
Rogers and ten other protestant preachers 
confined in London prisons were brought 
before the privy council, which was then 
sitting in Gardiner's house in Southwark. 
To Gardiner's opening inquiry whether he 
acknowledged the papal creed and authority, 
Rogers replied that he recognised Christ 
alone as the head of the church. In the 
desultory debate that followed Rogers held 
his own with some dexterity. Gardiner de- 
clared that the scriptures forbad him to dis- 
pute with a heretic. ' I deny that I am a 
heretic,' replied Rogers. ' Prove that first, 

and then allege your text.' From only one 
of the councillors present Thomas Thirlby, 
bishop of Ely did he receive, according to 
his own account, ordinary civility. Before 
the examination closed he was rudely taunted 
with having by his marriage violated canoni- 
cal law. On 28 Jan. Cardinal Pole directed 
a commission of bishops and others to take 
proceedings against persons liable to prose- 
cution under the new statutes against heresy. 
On the afternoon of the same day Rogers, 
Hooper, and Cardmaker were carried to St. 
Saviour's Church, Southwark, before Gar- 
diner and his fellow-commissioners. After 
a discussion between Rogers and his judges, 
in which he maintained his former attitude, 
Gardiner gave him till next day to consider 
his situation. Accordingly, on 29 Jan. he 
was again brought before Gardiner, who heard 
with impatience his effort to explain his 
views of the doctrine of the sacrament. As 
soon as he closed his address, Gardiner sen- 
tenced him to death as an excommunicated 
person and a heretic, Avho had denied the 
Christian character of the church of Rome 
and the real presence in the sacrament. A 
request that his wife ' might come and speak 
with him so long as he lived ' was brusquely 
refused. A day or two later, in conversation 
with a fellow-prisoner, John Day or Daye 
[q. v.], the printer, he confidently predicted 
the speedy restoration of protestantism in 
England, and suggested a means of keeping 
in readiness a band of educated protestant 
ministers to supply future needs. While 
awaiting death his cheerfulness was undimi- 
nished. His fellow-prisoner Hooper said of 
him that ' there was never little fellow better 
would stick to a man than he [i.e. Rogers] 
would stick to him.' On Monday morning 
(4 Feb.) he was taken from his cell to the 
chapel at Newgate, where Bonner, bishop of 
London, formally degraded him from the 
priesthood by directing his canonical dress to 
be torn piecemeal from his person. Imme- 
diately afterwards he was taken to Smithfield 
and burnt alive, within a few paces of the 
entrance-gate of the church of St. Bartho- 
lomew. He was the first of Mary's protes- 
tant prisoners to suffer capital punishment. 
The privy councillors Sir Robert Rochester 
and Sir Richard Southwell attended as 
official witnesses. Before the fire was kindled 
a pardon in official form, conditional on re- 
cantation, was offered to him, but he refused 
life under such terms. Count Noailles, the 
French ambassador in London, wrote : ' This 
day was performed the confirmation of the 
alliance between the pope and this kingdom, 
by a public and solemn sacrifice of a preaching 
doctor named Rogers, who has been burned 




alive for being a Lutheran ; but he died per- 
sisting in his opinion. At this conduct the 
greatest part of the people took such plea- 
sure that they were not afraid to make him 
many exclamations to strengthen his courage. 
Even his children assisted at it, comforting 
him in such a manner that it seemed as if 
he had been led to a wedding ' (Ambassades, 
vol. iv.) Ridley declared that he rejoiced at 
Rogers's end, and that news of it destroyed 
* a lumpish heaviness in his heart.' Bradford 
wrote that Rogers broke the ice valiantly. 

There is a portrait of Rogers in the 
' Herwologia,' which is reproduced in Chester's 
'Biography' (1861). Awoodcut representing 
his execution is in Foxe's ' Actes and 

By his wife, Adriana Pratt or de Weyden, 
Rogers had, with three daughters, of whom 
Susannah married William Short, grocer, 
eight sons Daniel (1538 ?-1591) [q.v.], John 
{see below), Ambrose, Samuel, Philip, Ber- 
nard, Augustine, Barnaby. Numerous fami- 
lies, both in England and America, claim 
descent from Rogers through one or other of 
these sons. But no valid genealogical evi- 
dence is in existence to substantiate any of 
these claims. The names of the children of 
Rogers's sons are unknown, except in the 
case of Daniel, and Daniel left a son and 
daughter, whose descendants are not trace- 
able. According to a persistent tradition, 
Richard Rogers (1550P-1618) [q. v.], in- 
cumbent of Wethersfield, and the father of a 
large family, whose descent is traceable, was 
a grandson of the martyr Rogers. Such 
argument as can be adduced on the subject 
renders the tradition untrustworthy. More 
value may be attached to the claim of the 
family of Frederic Rogers, lord Blachford 
[q. y.Ji to descend from John Rogers; his 
pedigree has been satisfactorily traced to 
Vincent Rogers, minister of Stratford-le- 
Bow, Middlesex, who married there Dorcas 
Young on 25 Oct. 1586, and may have been 
the martyr's grandson. Lord Blachford's 
4 family,' wrote the genealogist, Colonel 
Chester, ' of all now living, either in Eng- 
land or America, possesses the most (if not 
the only) reasonable claims to the honour 
of a direct descent from the martyr.' 

The second son, JOHN ROGERS (1540?- 
1603?), born at Wittenberg about 1540, 
came to England with the family in 1548, 
and was naturalised in 1552. He matricu- 
lated as a pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on 17 May 1558, graduated B.A. 
in 1562- 3, and 1567, and was elected 
a fellow. He afterwards migrated to Trinity 
College, where he became a scholar. In 1574 
he was created LL.D., and on 21 Nov. of 

that year was admitted to the College of 
Advocates. He also joined the Inner Temple. 
He was elected M.P. for Wareham on 
23 Nov. 1585, 29 Oct. 1586, and 4 Feb. 
1588-9. Meanwhile he was employed on 
diplomatic missions abroad, at first conjointly 
with his brother Daniel. In August 1580 
he was sent alone to arrange a treaty with 
the town of Elving, and afterwards went 
to the court of Denmark to notify the king 
of his election to the order of the Garter ; 
thence he proceeded to the court of Poland. 
In 1588 he was a commissioner in the Nether- 
lands to negotiate the ' Bourborough Treaty ' 
with the Duke of Parma, and his facility in 
speaking Italian proved of great service. 
Later in 1588 Rogers went to Embden to 
treat with Danish commissioners respecting 
the traffic of English merchants with Russia. 
From 11 Oct. 1596 till his resignation on 
3 March 1602-3 he was chancellor of the 
cathedral church of Wells. He married Mary, 
daughter of William Leete of Everden, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Cassandra Rogers, who married 
Henry, son of Thomas Saris of Horsham, 
Sussex, was possibly his daughter. He must 
be distinguished from John Rogers, M.P. for 
Canterbury in 1596, and from a third John 
Rogers, who was knighted on 23 July 1603. 
The former was of an ancient Dorset family ; 
the latter of a Kentish family (COOPER, 
Athena Cantabr. ii. 385 ; CHESTER, John 
Rogers, pp. 235, 271-4). 

[There is an elaborate biography, embracing 
a genealogical account of his family, by Joseph 
Lemuel Chester, London, 1861. Foxe, who is 
the chief original authority, gave two accounts 
of Rogers which differ in some detail. The first 
iipprared in his Rerum in F/vlesia Pars Prima, 
Basle, 1559 ; the second in his Actes and Monu- 
ments, 1563. The Latin version is the fuller. 
An important source of information is Rogers's 
own account of his first examination at South- 
wark, which was discovered in manuscript in his 
cell after his death by his wife and son. This 
report was imperfectly printed, and somewhat 
garb'.ed by Foxe. A completer transcript is 
among Foxe's manuscripts at the British Mu- 
seum (Lansdowne MS. 389. ff. 190-202), which 
Chester printed in an appendix to his biography. 
See also Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 121, 546 ; 
Strype's Annals ; Anderson's Annals of the Bible; 
Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.] S. L. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1572 P-1636), puritan 

divine, a native of Essex, was born about 

j 1572. He was a near relative of Richard 

Rogers (1550P-1618) [q. v.J, who provided 

I for his education at Cambridge. Twice did 

1 the ungrateful lad sell his books and waste 

the proceeds. His kinsman would have dis- 




carded him but for his wife's intercession. 
Onathird trial Rogers finished his university 
career with credit. In 1592 he became vicar 
of Honingham, Norfolk, and in 1603 he suc- 
ceeded Lawrence Fairclough, father of Samuel 
Fairclough [q. v.], as vicar of Haverhill, 

In 1605 he became vicar of Dedham, 
Essex, where for over thirty years he had 
the repute of being ' one of the most awaken- 
ing preachers of the age.' On his lecture days 
his church overflowed. Cotton Mather re- 
ports a say ing of Ralph Brownrig [q. v.Jthat 
Rogers would ' do more good with his wild 
notes than we with our set music.' His 
lecture was suppressed from 1629 till 1631, 
on the ground of his nonconformity. His 
subsequent compliance was not strict. Giles 
Firmin [q. v.], one of his converts, ' never 
saw him wear a surplice,' and he only occa- 
sionally used the prayer-book, and then re- 
peated portions of it from memory. He 
died on 18 Oct. 1636, and was buried in the 
churchyard at Dedham. There is a tomb- 
stone to his memory, and also a mural monu- 
ment in the church. His funeral sermon was 
preached by John Knowles (1600P-1685) 
[q. v.] His engraved portrait exhibits a worn 
face, and depicts him in nightcap, ruff, and 
full beard. Matthew Newcomen [q. v.] suc- 
ceeded him at Dedham. Nathaniel Rogers 
[q. v.] was his second son. 

He published : 1. 'The Doctrine of Faith,' 
&c., 1627, 12mo; 6th edit. 1634, 12mo. 2. 'A 
Treatise of Love,' &c., 1629, 12mo ; 3rd edit. 
1637, 12mo. Posthumous was 3. ' A Godly 
and Fruitful Exposition upon . . . the First 
Epistle of Peter,' &c., 1650, fol. Brook 
assigns to him, without date, ' Sixty Me- 
morials of a Godly Life.' He prefaced ' Gods 
Treasurie displayed,' &c., 1630, 12mo, by 
F. B. (Francis Bunny?) 

[Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii. 421 
sq. ; Cotton Mather's Magnalia, 1702, iii. 19; 
Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 298; Granger's 
Biogr. Hist, of England, 1779, ii. 191 sq. ; 
Davids's Annals of Evang. Nonconf. in Essex, 
1863, pp. 146 sq.; Browne's Hist. Congr. Nor- 
folk and Suffolk, 1877, p. 503.] A. G. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1627-1665?), fifth- 
monarchy man, born in 1627 at Messing in 
Essex, was second son of Nehemiah Rogers 

Eq. v.], by his wife Margaret, sister of Wil- 
iam Collingwood, a clergyman of Essex, who 
was appointed canon of St. Paul's after the 
Restoration. In early life John experienced 
a deep conviction of sin. After five years he 
obtained assurance of salvation, but not before 
he had more than once in his despair at- 
tempted his own life. Thenceforth he threw 
in his lot with the most advanced section 

of puritans, and in consequence was turned 
out of doors by his father in 1642. He made 
his way on foot to Cambridge, where he was 
! already a student of medicine and a servitor 
at King's College. But the civil war had 
broken out, and Cambridge was doing penance 
for its loyalty. King's College Chapel was 
turned into a drill-room, and the servitors 
dismissed. Rogers, almost starved, was 
driven to eat grass, but in 1643 he obtained 
a post in a school in Lord Brudenel's house 
in Huntingdonshire, and afterwards at the 
free school at St. Neots. In a short time he 
became well known in Huntingdonshire as a 
preacher, and, returning to Essex, he received 
presbyterian ordination in 1647. About the 
same time he married a daughter of Sir Ro- 
bert Payne of Midloe in Huntingdonshire, 
and became ' settled minister ' of Purleigh in 
Essex, a valuable living. Rogers, however, 
found country life uncongenial, and, en- 
gaging a curate, he proceeded to London. 
There he renounced his presbyterian ordina- 
tion, and joined the independents. Becoming 
lecturer at St. Thomas Apostle's, he preached 
violent political sermons in support of the 
Long parliament. 

In 1650 he was sent to Dublin by parlia- 
ment as a preacher. Christ Church Cathedral 
was assigned him by the commissioners as a 
place of worship (REID, History of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Ireland, ii. 245). He did 
not, however, confine himself to pastoral 
work, but ' engaged in the field, and ex- 
posed his life freely,' for conscience' sake. A 
schism arising in his congregation owing to 
the adoption by a party among them of ana- 
baptist principles, he wearied of the con- 
troversy, and returned to England in 1652 
(ib. ii. 260). In the following year his 
parishioners at Purleigh cited him for non- 
residence, and, much to his sorrow, he lost 
the living. 

Rogers was now no longer the champion 
of parliament. In its quarrel with the army 
it had alienated the independents whose 
cause Rogers had espoused. Amid the un- 
settlement of men's opinions, which the dis- 
putes of presbyterians and independents 
aggravated, the fifth-monarchy men came 
into being, and Rogers was one of the fore- 
most to join them. Their creed suited his 
ecstatic temperament. They believed in the 
early realisation of the millennium, when 
Christ was to establish on earth ' the fifth 
monarchy ' in fulfilment of the prophecy of 
the prophet Daniel. According to their 
scheme of government, all political authority 
ought to reside in the church under the 
guidance of Christ himself. They wished to 
establish a body of delegates chosen by the 

Rogers i 

independent and presbyterian congregations, 
vested with absolute authority, and deter- 
mining all things by the Word of God alone. 
In 1653 Rogers published two controversial 
works ' Bethshemesh, or Tabernacle for 
the Sun,' in which he assailed the presby- 
terians, and ' Sagrir, or Doomes-day drawing 
nigh,' in which he attacked the 'ungodly 
laws and lawyers of the Fourth Monarchy,' 
and also the collection of tithes. The two 
books indicate the date of his change of 
views. ' Bethshemesh ' is written from the 
normal independent standpoint, while in 
' Sagrir ' he has developed all the charac- 
teristics of a fifth-monarchy man. 

The forcible dissolution of the Long par- 
liament met with Rogers's thorough appro- 
bation. Besides doctrinal differences, he had 
personal quarrels with several prominent 
members. Sir John Maynard [q. v.] had ap- 
peared against him as advocate for the con- 
gregation at Purleigh. Zachary Crofton 
[q. v.] had anonymously attacked his preach- 
ing in a pamphlet entitled ' A Taste of the 
Doctrine of Thomas Apostle ; ' at a later 
date Crofton renewed the controversy by 
publishing a reply to ' Bethshemesh ' styled 
' Bethshemesh Clouded.' 

After Cromwell's coup d'etat Rogers oc- 
cupied himself with inditing two long ad- 
dresses to that statesman, in which he recom- 
mended a system of government very similar 
to that which was actually inaugurated. His 
utterances were no doubt inspired by those 
in power. This accord did v not survive the 
dissolution of Cromwell's first parliament and 
his assumption of the title of Lord Protector. 
By that act he destroyed the most cherished 
hopes of the fifth-monarchy men, when they 
seemed almost to have reached fruition. In 
consequence they kept no terms with the 
government, and two of them, Feake and 
Powell, were summoned before the council 
and admonished. Rogers addressed a cau- 
tionary epistle to Cromwell, and, finding that 
the Protector persisted in his course, he 
assailed him openly from the pulpit. Being 
denounced as a conspirator in 1654, his house 
was searched and his papers seized (Caf. 
State Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 434). This 
drew from him another denunciation, 'Mene, 
Tekel, Perez: a Letter lamenting over Oliver, 
Lord Cromwell.' On 28 March he proclaimed 
a solemn day of humiliation for the sins of 
the rulers. His sermon, in which he likened 
Whitehall to Sodom and demonstrated that 
Cromwell had broken the first eight com- 
mandments (time preventing his proceeding 
to the last two), procured his arrest and im- 
prisonment in Lambeth. On 5 Feb. 1655 he 
was brought from prison to appear before 


Cromwell. Supported by his fellows he held 
undauntedly by his former utterances, and 
desired Cromwell ' to remember that he must 
be judged, for the day of the Lord was near.' 
On 30 March he was removed to Windsor, 
and on 9 Oct. to the Isle of Wight (ib. 1655, 
pp. 374, 579, 608, 1656-7 p. 12). He was 
released in January 1657, and immediately 
returned to London (ib. 1656-7, p. 194). 
He found the fifth - monarchy men at the 
height of their discontent, one conspiracy 
succeeding another. Although some caution 
seems to have been instilled into Rogers by 
his imprisonment, and there is no proof that 
he was actually concerned in any plot, yet 
informations, were repeatedly laid against 
him, and on 3 Feb. 165.8 he was sent to the 
Tower on the Protector's warrant (THTTKLOE, 
vi. 163, 185, 186, 349, 775 ; WHITELOCXE, 
p. 672 ; SOMERS, State Tract a, vi. 482 ; 
BURTON, Diary, iii. 448, 494; Merc. Pol. 
Nos. 402, 403, 411). His imprisonment, how- 
ever, lasted only till 16 April. Four and a 
half months later Cromwell died. The fifth- 
monarchy men followed Sir Henry Vane 
in opposing Richard Cromwell's succession. 
Rogers rendered himself conspicuous by de- 
nouncing the son from the pulpit as vehe- 
mently as he had formerly denounced the 
father (Reliquiae Baxteriana, i. 101). On 
Richard's abdication the remnant of the 
Long parliament was recalled to power, and 
Rogers rejoiced at its reinstatement as 
sincerely as he had formerly triumphed over 
its expulsion. At the same time he involved 
himself in controversy with William Prynne 
[q. v.] Both supported ' the good old cause,' 
but differed in defining it. Prynne remained 
true to the older ideal of limited monarchy, 
while Rogers advocated a republic with 
Christ himself as its invisible sovereign. 

Rogers was a source of disquietude even 
to the party he supported, and they took the 
precaution of directing him to proceed to 
Ireland 'to preach the gospel there' (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 35). The 
insurrection of Sir George Booth [q. v.] saved 
him for a time from exile in Ireland, which 
was by no means to his taste, and procured 
him the post of chaplain in Charles Fair- 
fax's regiment. He served through the cam- 
paign against Booth, and at its conclusion 
was relieved of his duties in Ireland (ib. p. 
211). In October he was nominated to a 
lecturoship at Shrewsbury (ib. p. 251), but 
he was again in Dublin by the end of the 
year, and was imprisoned there for a time 
by the orders of the army leaders, after 
they had dissolved the remnant of the Long 
parliament. The parliament ordered his 
release immediately on regaining its ascen- 

K 2 




dency, and he took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to secure himself from the greater 
dangers of the Restoration by taking refuge 
in Holland (ib. pp. 326, 328, 576). There he 
resumed the study of medicine, both at Ley- 
den and Utrecht, and received from the latter 
university the degree of M.D. In lb'62 he re- 
turned to Englandand resided at Bermondsey. 
In 1664 he was admitted to an ad eundem 
degree of M.I). at Oxford. In the following 
year advertisements appeared in the ' In- 
telligencer ' and ' News ' of ' Alexiterial and 
Antipestilential Medicine, an admirable and 
experimented preservative from the Plague,' 
'made up by the order of J. R., M.D.' The 
phraseology would seem to indicate that 
these advertisements proceeded from his pen. 
No mention of him is to be found after 1665, 
and it is difficult to suppose that so versatile 
and so vivacious a writer could have been 
suddenly silenced except by death. The 
burial of one John Rogers appears in the 
parish register on 22 June 1670, but the 
name is too common in the district to render 
the identity more than possible. 

By his wife Elizabeth he left two sons : 
John (1649-1710), a merchant of Plymouth, 
and prison-born, who was born during his 
father's confinement at Windsor in 1655 ; 
two other children, Peter and Paul (twins), 
died in Lambeth prison. A portrait of 
Rogers, painted by Saville, was engraved by 
W. Hollar in 1653, and prefixed to Rogers's 
' Bethshemesh, or Tabernacle for the Sun.' 
There is another engraving by R. Gaywood. 

Besides the works already mentioned, 
Rogers was the author of : 1 . ' Dod or 
Chathan. The Beloved ; or the Bridegroom 
going forth for his Bride, and looking out 
for his Japhegaphitha,' London, 1653, 4to 
(Brit.Mus.) 2. 'Prison-born Morn ing Beams,' 
London, 1654: not extant; the introduction 
forms part of 3. 'Jegar Sahadutha, or a 
Heart Appeal,' London, 1657, 4to. 4. 'Mr. 
Prynne'sGood Old Cause stated and stunted 
ten year ago,' London, 1659; not extant. 
5. ' AwTroXtTfj'a, a Christian Concertation,' 
London, 1659, 4to (Brit. Mus.) 0. ' Mr. Har- 
rington's Parallel Unparalleled,' London, 
1659, 4to. 7. 'A Vindication of Sir Henry 
Vane,' 1659, 4to. 8. ' Disputatio Medica In- 
auguralis,' Utrecht, 1G62; 2nd edit. London, 

[Edward Rogers's Life and Opinions of a 
Fifth-Monarchy Man, 1867: Rogers's Works; 
Chester's John Rogers, the First Martyr, p. 282 ; 
Wood's Athenae, ed. Bliss, passim ; Wood's Fasti, 
ed. Bliss, ii. 279.] E. I. C. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1610-1680), ejected 
minister, was born on 25 April 1610 at 
Chacombe, Northamptonshire ; his father, 

John Rogers, reputed to be a grandson of 
the martyr, John Rogers (1500 P-1550) 
[q. v.], and author of a ' Discourse to Chris- 
tian Watchfulness,' 1620, was vicar of 
Chacombe from 1587. On 30 Oct. 1629 he 
matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, 
graduated B.A. on 4 Dec. 1632, and M.A. on 
27 June 1635. His first cure was the rec- 
tory of Middleton Cheney, Northampton- 
shire. In 1644 he became rector of Leigh, 
Kent, and in the same year became perpetual 
curate of Barnard Castle, Durham. All these 
livings appear to have been sequestrations. 
After the Restoration, Rogers, having to 
surrender Barnard Castle, was presented by 
Lord Wharton to the vicarage of Croglin, 
Cumberland, whither he removed on 2 March 

1661. He had been intimate Avith the Vanes, 
whose seat was at Raby Castle, Durham, 
and visited the younger Sir Henry Vane in 

1662, during his imprisonment in the Tower. 
In consequence of the Uniformity Act 
(1662) he resigned Croglin. 

Rogers, who had private means, henceforth 
lived near Barnard Castle, preaching wherever 
he could find hearers. During the indulgence of 
1672 he took out a licence (13 May) as congre- 
gational preacher in his own house at Lar- 
tington, two miles from Barnard Castle, and 
another (12 Aug.) for Darlington, Durham. 
Here and at Stockton-on-Tees he gathered 
nonconformist congregations. In Teesdale 
and Weardale (among the lead-miners) he 
made constant journeys for evangelising 
purposes. Calamy notes his reputation for 
discourses at ' arvals ' (funeral dinners). He 
made no more than 101. a year by his preach- 
ing. In spite of his nonconformity he lived 
on good terms with the clergy of the dis- 
trict, and was friendly with Nathaniel Crew 
[q. v.], bishop of Durham, and other digni- 
taries. His neighbour, Sir Richard Cradock, 
would have prosecuted him, but Cradock's 
granddaughter interceded. He died at Start- 
forth, near Barnard Castle, on 28 Nov. 1680, 
and was buried at Barnard Castle, John 
Brokell, the incumbent, preaching his funeral 
sermon. He married Grace (d. 1673), second 
daughter of Thomas Butler. Her elder sister, 
Mary, was wife of Ambrose Barnes [q. v.] 
His son Timothy (1658-1728) is separately 
noticed. Other children were Jonathan, John, 
and Margaret, who all died in infancy ; also 
Jane and Joseph. He published a catechism, 
and two ' admirable ' letters in ' The Virgin 
Saint' (1673), a religious biography (CALAMY). 

[Calamy 's Account, 1713, pp. 1 5 1 sq. ; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, i. 226; Walker's Sufferings 
of the Clergy, 1714, !i. 101; Palmer's Non- 
conformist's Memorial, 1802, i. 379 sq. ; Chester's 
John Rogers, p. 280 ; Hutchinson's Hist, of Dur- 




ham, 1823, iii. 300; Sharp's Life of Ambrose 
Barnes (Newcastle Typogr. Soc.), 1828; Surtees's 
Hist, of Durham, 1840, iv. 82; Archseologia 
.SJiiana, 1890, xv. 37 sq. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1891, iii. 127.] A. G. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1679-1729), divine, 
son of John Rogers, vicar of Eynsham, Oxford, 
was born at Eynsham in 1679. He was edu- 
cated at New College School, and was elected 
scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
whence he matriculated on 7 Feb. 1693, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1697, and M.A. in 1700. He 
took orders, but did not obtain his fellow- 
ship by succession until 1706. In 1710 he 
proceeded B.D. About 1704 he was presented 
to the vicarage of Buckland, Berkshire, where 
he was popular as a preacher. In 1712 he 
became lecturer of St. Clement Danes in the 
Strand, and afterwards of Christ Church, 
Newgate Street, with St. Leonard's, Foster 
Lane. In 1716 he received the rectory of 
Wrington, Somerset, and resigned his fel- 
lowship in order to marry. In 1719 he was 
appointed a canon, and in 1721 sub-dean of 
Wells. He seems to have retained all these 
appointments until 1726, when he resigned 
the lectureship of St. Clement Danes. 

Rogers gained considerable applause by the 
part that he took in the Bangorian contro- 
versy, in which he joined Francis Hare [q. v.] 
in the attack on Bishop Benjamin Hoadly 
[q. v.] In 1719 he wrote ' A Discourse of the 
Visible and Invisible Church of Christ ' to 
prove that the powers claimed by the priest- 
hood were not inconsistent with the su- 
premacy of Christ or with the liberty of 
Christians. An answer was published by 
Dr. Arthur Ashley Sykes [q. v.], and to this 
Rogers replied. For this performance the 
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by di- 
ploma at Oxford. 

In 1726 he became chaplain in ordinary 
to George II, then Prince of Wales, and 
about the same time left London with the 
intention of spending the remainder of his 
life at Wrington. In 1727 he published a 
volume of eight sermons, entitled ' The 
Necessity of Divine Revelation and the 
Truth of the Christian Religion,' to which 
was prefixed a preface containing a criticism 
of the ' Literal Scheme of Prophecy con- 
sidered,' by Anthony Collins [q. v.]. the deist. 
This preface did not entirely satisfy his friends, 
and drew from Dr. A. Marshall a critical letter. 
Samuel Chandler [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, 
included some remarks on Dr. Rogers's pre- 
face in his ' Conduct of the Modern Deists,' 
and Collins wrote ' A Letter to Dr. Rogers, 
on occasion of his Eight Sermons.' To all of 
these Rogers replied in 1728 in his ' Vin- 
dication of the Civil Establishment of Reli- 

gion.' This work occasioned ' Some Short. 
Reflections,' by Chubb, 1728, and a preface 
in Chandler's ' History of Persecution,' 1736. 

In 1728 Rogers, who was devoted to 
country life, reluctantly accepted from the 
dean and chapter of St. Paul's the vicarage 
of St. Giles, Cripplegate, but held the living 
little more than six months. He died on 
1 May 1729, and was buried on the 13th at 
Eynsham. His funeral sermon was preached 
by Dr. Marshall, and was the occasion of 
' Some Remarks,' by Philalethes i.e. Dr. 
Sykes. Many of his sermons were collected 
and published in three volumes after his 
death by Dr. John Burton (1696-1771) [q. v.] 

Rogers is a clear writer and an able 
controversialist. He makes no display of 
learning, but he was well acquainted with 
the writings of Hooker and Norris. After 
his death there were published two works by 
him, entitled respectively ' A Persuasive to 
Conformity addressed to the Dissenters ' (Lon- 
don, 1736) and 'A Persuasive to Conformity 
addressed to the Quakers,' London, 1747. 

[Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Life, by Dr. J. Bur- 
ton ; Funeral Sermon, by A. Marshall ; Re- 
marks, by Philalethes ; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] 

E. C. M. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1740P-1814), Irish 
seceding divine, succeeded Dr. Thomas Clark 
(d. 1792) [q. v.] in 1767 as minister at Cahans, 
co. Monaghan. In 1781 he published ' An His- 
torical Dialogue between a Minister of the 
Established Church, a Popish Priest, a Presby- 
terian Minister, and a Mountain Minister' 
(Dublin), in which he discussed the attitude 
of the reformed and the seceding presby- 
terians towards the civil power. On 15 Feb. 
1782 he attended the great meeting of volun- 
teers held in the presbyterian church at Dun- 
gannon, and was one of the two members 
who opposed the resolution expressing ap- 
proval of the relaxation of the penal laws 
against Roman catholics. In 1788 he dis- 
cussed in public at Cahans with James M'Gar- 
ragh, a licentiate of the reformed presby- 
terians, the question whether the authority 
of a non-covenanting king ought to be ac- 
knowledged. Hogers argued in the affirma- 
tive as champion of the seceders (REID, Irish 
Presbyterian Church, ed. Killen, iii. 473-4). 
Both sides claimed the victory. 

In 1796 Rogers was appointed professor 
of divinity for the Irish burgher synod, and 
was clerk of the synod from its constitution 
in 1779 to his death. He continued to reside 
at Cahans as minister, and delivered lectures 
to the students in the meeting-house. W T hen 
an abortive attempt had been made to unite 
the burgher and anti-burgher synods of the 




secession church, Rogers delivered before his 
own synod at Cookstown in 1808 a remark- 
able speech, in which he clearly explained 
the causes of the failure, and maintained that 
the Irish anti-burgher synod ought not to be 
dependent on the parent body in Scotland. 
The union was not effected until 1818. 
Rogers died on 14 Aug. 1814, leaving a son 
John, who was minister of Glascar. 

He published, in addition to sermons and 
the works cited, ' Dialogues between Students 
at the College, Monaghan,' 1787. 

[Reid's Hist, of Presbyterian Church in Ire- 
land (Killen), 1867, iii. 364, 426; Witherow's 
Hist, and Lit. Mem. of Presbyt. in Ireland, 2nd 
ser. 1880, vi. 247; Latimer'n Hist, of the Irish 
Presbyt. 1893, pp. 169, 173.] E. C. M. 

ROGERS, JOHN (1778-1856), divine, 
born at Plymouth on 17 July 1778, was 
eldest son of John .Rogers, M.I', for Penryn 
and Helston, by his wife Margaret, daughter 
of Frances Basset. Rogers was educated at 
Helston grammar school, at Eton, and at 
Trinity College, Oxford. He matriculated 
on 8 April 1797, graduated B.A. as a pass- 
man in 1801, and M.A. in 1810. Having 
been ordained to the curacy of St. Blazey, 
he became rector of Mawnan, the advowson 
of which belonged to his family, in 1807. 
In 1820 he was appointed canon residentiary 
of Exeter. In 1832 he succeeded to the 
Penrose and Helston estates of about ten 
thousand acres, comprising the manors of 
Penrose, Helston, Carminow, Winrianton, 
and various other estates in Cornwall, in- 
cluding several mines. The Penrose lands 
had been acquired in 1770 by his grandfather, 
Hugh Rogers, and the Helston in 1798 by 
his father. Rogers resigned his rectory in 
1838. He died at Penrose on 12 June 1856, 
and was buried at Sithney, where there is a 
monument to him. 

Rogers married, first, in 1814, Mary, only 
daughter of John Jope, rector of St. Ives and 
vicar of St. Cleer; and, secondly, in 1843, 
Grace, eldest daughter of G. S. Fursdon of 
Fursdon, Devonshire ; she survived him, and 
died in 1862 (Gent. Mar/. 1862, i. 239). By 
his first wife Rogers had issue five sons and 
a daughter. His eldest son, John Jope (1816- 
1880), was M.P. for Helston from 1859 to 
1865 ; the latter's eldest son, Captain J. P. 
Rogers, is the present owner of Penrose. 

Rogers was a popular and energetic land- 
lord, and a good botanist and mineralogist. 
As lord of the Tresavean mine, he took an 
active part in forwarding the adoption of the 
first man-engine, the introduction of which 
in the deep mines, in place of the old per- 
pendicular ladders, proved an important re- 
form. He contributed several papers to the 

' Transactions of the Royal Geological So- 
ciety of Cornwall.' 

He was, however, chiefly distinguished as 
a Hebrew and Syriac scholar. In 1812, when 
Frey prepared the edition of the Hebrew 
Bible published by the newly formed Society 
for Promoting the Conversion of the Jews, 
the general supervision of the work was 
entrusted to Rogers. His own works, in 
addition to sermons and occasional papers, 
were: 1. 'What is the Use of the Prayer 
Book?' London, 1819. 2. ' Scripture Proofs 
of the Catechism,' London, 1832. 3. ' Re- 
marks on Bishop Lowth's Principles in cor- 
recting the Text of the Hebrew Bible,' 
Oxford, 1832. 4. ' The Book of Psalms in 
Hebrew, with Selections from various Read- 
ings and from the ancient Versions,' Oxford 
and London, 1833-4. 5. ' On the Origin and 
Regulations of Queen Anne's Bounty,' Lon- 
don, 1836. 6. ' Reasons why a new Edition 
of the Peschito Version should be published,' 
Oxford and London, 1849. A few days before 
his death he completed his last article on 
; Variae Lectiones of the Hebrew Bible' for 
the ' Journal of Sacred Literature.' 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1838, i. 299; Eton 
School Lists; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; 
Boas-e's Collect. Cornubiensia, c. 829 ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Corn. p. 586 ; Gent. Mag. 

1856. ii. 248; Journal of Sacred Literature, 

1857, iv. 243-4.] E. C. M. 
ROGERS, JOSIAS (1755-1795), captain 

in the navy, was born at Lymington, Hamp- 
shire, where his father would seem to have 
had a large interest in the salterns. In Oc- 
tober 1771 he entered the navy on board 
the Arethusa with Captain (afterwards Sir) 
Andrew Snape Hamond, whom he followed 
to the Roebuck in 1775. In March 1776 he 
was sent away in charge of a prize taken in 
Delaware Bay, and, being driven on shore in 
a gale, fell into the hands of the American 
enemy. He was carried, with much rough 
treatment, into the interior, and detained for 
upwards of a year, when he succeeded in 
making his escape, and, after many dangers 
and adventures, in getting on board his ship, 
which happened to be at the time lying in 
the Delaware. For the next fifteen or eighteen 
months he was very actively employed in 
the Roebuck's boats or tenders, capturing or 
burning small vessels lurking in the creeks 
along the North American coast, or landing 
on foraging expeditions. On 19 Oct. 1778 he 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, 
and after serving in several different ships, 
and distinguishing himself at the reduction 
of Chariest own in May 1780, he was, on 
2 Dec. 1780, promoted to the command of 
the General Monk, a prize fitted out as a 




sloop of war with eighteen guns. After 
commanding her for sixteen months, in which 
time he took or assisted in taking more than 
sixty of the enemy's ships, on 7 April 178:? 
the General Monk, while chasing six small 
privateers round Cape May, got on shore, 
and was captured after a stout defence, in 
which the lieutenant and master were killed 
and Rogers himself severely wounded. He 
was shortly afterwards exchanged, and ar- 
rived in England in September, still suffer- 
ing from his wound. From 1783 to 1787 he 
commanded the Speedy in the North Sea, 
for the prevention of smuggling, and from 
her, on 1 Dec. 1787, he was advanced to post 

In 1790 Rogers was flag captain to Sir 
John Jervis (afterwards-Earl of St. Vincent) 
[q. v.] in the Prince. In 1793 he was ap- 
pointed to the Quebec frigate, and in her, 
after a few months in the North Sea and oft' 
Dunkirk, he joined the fleet which went out 
with Jervis to the West Indies. He served 
with distinction at the reduction of Mar- 
tinique and Guadeloupe in March and April 
1794, and was afterwards sent in command 
of a squadron of frigates to take Cayenne. 
One of the frigates, however, was lost, two 
others parted company, and the remainder 
of his force was unequal to the attempt. 
Rogers then rejoined the admiral at a time 
when yellow fever was raging in the fleet, 
and the Quebec, having suffered severely, 
was sent to Halifax. By the beginning of 
the following year she was back in the West 
Indies and was under orders for home, when, 
at Grenada, where he was conducting the 
defence of the town against an insurrection 
of the slaves, he died of yellow fever on 
24 April 1795. He was married and left 
issue. A monument to his memory was 
erected by his widow in Lymington parish 

[Paybooks, logs, &c., in the Public Record 
Office. The Memoir by W. Gilpin (8vo, 1808) 
is an undiscritninating eulogy by a personal 
friend, ignorant of naval affairs.] J. K. L. 

ROGERS, NATHANIEL (1598-1655), 
divine, second son of the puritan John Rogers 
(1572 P-1636) [q. v.], by his first wife, was 
born at Haverhill, Essex, in 1598. He was 
educated at Dedham grammar school and 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, which he 
entered as a sizar on 9 May 1614, graduating 
B. A., in 1617 and M.A. 1621. For two years 
he was domestic chaplain to some person of 
rank, and then went as curate to Dr. John 
Barkham at Bocking, Essex. There Rogers, 
whose chief friends were Thomas Hooker 
[q. v.], the lecturer of Chelmsford, and other 

Essex puritans, adopted decidedly puritan 
views. His rector finally dismissed him for 
performing the burial office over ' an eminent 
person ' without a surplice. Giles Firmin 
[q. v.], who calls Rogers ' a man so able and 
judicious in soul-work that I would have 
trusted my own soul with him,' describes his 
preaching in his ' reverend old father's ' pul- 
pit at Dedham against his father's interpre- 
tation of faith, while the latter, 'who dearly 
loved him,' stood by. 

On leaving Bocking he was for five years 
rector of Assington, Suffolk. On 1 June 
1636 he sailed with his wife and family for 
New England, where they arrived in No- 
vember. Rogers was ordained pastor of 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, on 20 Feb. 1638, 
when he succeeded Nathaniel Ward as co- 
pastor with John Norton (1606-1663) [q. v.] 
On 6 Sept. he took the oath of freedom at 
Ipswich, and was soon appointed a member 
of the synod, and one of a body deputed to 
reconcile a difference between the legalists 
and antinomians. He died at Ipswich on 
3 July 1655, aged 57. 

By his wife Margaret (d. 23 Jan. 1656), 
daughter of Robert Crane of Coggeshall, 
Essex, whom he married in 1626, Rogers had 
issue Mary, baptised at Coggeshall on 8 Feb. 
1628, married to William Hubbard [q. v.] ; 
John (see below) ; and four sons (Nathaniel, 
Samuel, Timothy, and Ezekiel) born in Ips- 
wich, Massachusetts. The youngest was left 
heir by his uncle Ezekiel Rogers [q. v.] 
Rogers's descendants in America at the 
present time are more numerous than those 
of any other early emigrant family. Among 
them was the genealogist, Colonel Joseph 
Lemuel Chester [q. v.] 

Rogers published nothing but a letter in 
Latin to the House of Commons, dated 
17 Dec. 1643, urging church reform ; it was 
printed at Oxford in 1644. It contained a 
few lines of censure on the aspersions of the 
king in a number of ' Mercurius Britannicus,' 
to which that newspaper replied abusively on 
12 Aug. 1644. He also left in manuscript a 
treatise in Latin in favour of congregational 
church government, a portion of which is 
printed by Mather in the ' Magnalia.' 

JOHN ROGERS (1630-1684), the eldest son, 
baptised at Coggeshall, Essex, on 23 Jan. 
1630, emigrated with his father to New Eng- 
land in 1636. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1649 in theology and medicine, 
and commenced to practise the latter at Ips- 
wich. But he afterwards became assistant 
to his father in the church of the same place, 
arid abandoned medicine. He was chosen 
president of Harvard in April 1682, to suc- 
ceed Urian Oakes [q. v.], was inaugurated in 




1683, but died on 2 July 1684, aged 53, and 
was succeeded by Increase Mather [q. v.] 
By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of General 
Denison,he left a numerousfamily in America, 
three sons being ministers, the youngest, John 
Rogers of Ipswich, himself leaving three sons, 
all ministers. 

[Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, i. 
87; Chester's John Rogers, 1861, p. 246; preface 
to Firmin's Real Christian; Davids's Hist, of 
Evangel. ISonconform. in Essex, p. 148 ; Mather's 
Magnalia, ed. 1853, i. 414-23 ; Neal's Hist, of 
Puritans, ii. 252 ; McClintock and Strong's 
Encycl. of Bibl. and Eccles. Lit. ix. 64 ; Felt's 
Hist, of Ipswich, Mass. p. 219 ; Beaumont's Hist, 
of Coggeshall, p. 217 ; Dale's Annals of Cogges- 
hall, p. 155; Essex Archaeol. Trans, iv. 193; 
Mercurius Britannicus, August 1644; Win- 
throp's Hist, of New England, 1853, i. 244; 
Gage's Hist, of Rowley, Mass. p. 15 ; Mass. Hist. 
Collections, iv. 2, 3, v. 240, 274, vi. 554 ; Harl. 
MS. 6071, ff. 467, 482 ; Registers of Emmanuel 
College, per the master. For the son see 
McClintock and Strong's Encycl. of Bibl. and 
Eccles. Lit. ix. 63 ; Sprague's Annals of Amer. 
Pulpit, i. 147; Savage's Geneal. Diet, of First 
Settlers, iii. 564, where the question of Rogers 
of Dedham's descent from John Rogers the martyr 
is discussed; Harl. MS. 6071, f. 482; Allen's 
American Biogr. Diet.] C. F. S. 

ROGERS, NEHEMIAH (1593-1660), 
divine, baptised at Stratford on 20 Oct. 1593, 
was second son of Vincent Rogers, minister 
of St ratfbrd-le-Bow, Middlesex, by his wife 
Dorcas Young.whose second husband he was. 
Timothy Rogers (1589-1650?) [q.v.] was his 
elder brother. Vincent Rogers was probably 
a grandson of John Rogers (1500P-1550) 
[q.v.] the martyr ( CHESTEK, John Rogers, &c. 
1861, p. 252 seq.) Nehemiah was admitted to 
Merchant Taylors' School on 15 Nov. 1602, 
and entered as a sizar at Emmanuel College, 
, Cambridge, on 21 March 1612, and graduated 
,-M.A. in 1618. He also became a fellow oi 
Jesus College. He was appointed assistant 
to Thomas Wood, the rector of St. Margaret's, 
Fish Street Hill, London, where he officiated 
until 13 May 1620. Through the influence 
of the widow of Sir Charles Chiborn, serjeant- 
at-law, he was then appointed to the vicarage 
of Messing. Essex (Christian Curtesie, dedi- 
cation). On 25 May 1632 he was presented 
by Richard Hubert to the sinecure rectory 
of Great Tey, Essex, and he further received 
from the king the lapsed rectory of Gatton 
in Surrey, an advowson which he presented 
as a free gift in 1635 or early in 1636 to the 
president and fellows of St. John's, College, 
Oxford. The living was worth more than 
100/. a year, and a letter from Archbishop 
Laud says it was given to the college out of 
friendship for him by ' Mr. Nehemiah Rogers, 

now a minister in Essex, and a man of good 
lote ' ( Works, Oxford, 1860, vii. 242). On 
L May 1636 Rogers was presented by the 
iing to a stall in Ely Cathedral. He ex- 
banged the living of Great Tey withThomas 
Wykes for that of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, 
in 1642. Upon Wykes's death Rogers pre- 
sented his eldest son, Xehemiah, to the Tey 
rectory on 15 Aug. 1644. The Messing living 
lie appears to have resigned before May 1642. 
Rogers was as uncompromising a royalist 
as a friend of Laud's was likely to be. About 
1643 he was sequestered of both rectory and 
prebend. The vestry of St. Botolph's on 
23 Feb. 1653 petitioned the Protector for 
liberty to the inhabitants to choose a mini- 
ster in place of Rogers, but none appears to 
have been appointed. Rogers had many 
influential friends, and he obtained leave to 
continue preaching in Essex during the 
Commonwealth, mainly through the efforts 
of Edward Berries of Great Baddow, to 
whom one of his works is dedicated. For 
six years he was pastor to a congregation at 
St. Osyth, below Colchester, and next took 
up his abode for three years at Little Braxted, 
near Witham, where his friends Thomas 
Roberts and his wife Dorothy provided him 
with ' light, lodging, and fyring.' By them 
he was appointed in 1657 or early in 1658 
to the living of Doddinghurst, near Brent- 
wood. He died there suddenly in May 1660> 
and was buried there. 

Rogers married Margaret, sister of William 
Collingwood, canon of St. Paul's after the- 
Restoration, and bad a daughter Mary, 
buried 1642, and at least three sons : Nehe- 
miah (1621-1683), John Rogers (1627- 
1665 ?) [q. v.], and Zachary. The last gra- 
duated B.A. from Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, 1648, was vicar of Tey 1661-1700, 
and of Chappel from 1674. A portrait of 
Nehemiah Rogers, engraved by Berningroth 
of Leipzig, with a German inscription, is 
mentioned by Colonel Chester. 

Rogers wrote ably on the parables, in a 
style learned and full of quaint conceits. 
His expositions have become exceedingly 
scarce. The titles of his publications run : 
1. ' Christian Curtesie, or St.PavlsVltimum 
Vale,' London, 1621, 4to. 2. 'A Strange 
Vineyard in Palaestrina,' London, 1623, 4to. 
3. ' The Trve Convert, containing three 
Parables : the Lost Sheepe, the Lost Groat 
[which Watt misreads for lost goat], and 
the Lost Sonne,' London, 1632, 4to. 4. ' The 
Wild Vine, or an Exposition on Isaiah's. 
Parabolicall Song of the Beloved,' London, 
1632, 4to. 5. 'A Visitation Sermon preached 
atKelvedon, Sep. 3. 1631,' London, 1632, 4to. 
6. 'The Penitent Citizen, or Mary Magdalen's 




Conversion,' London, 1640. 7. 'The Good 
Samaritan/ London, 1640. 8. 'The Fast 
Friend, or a Friend at Midnight,' London, 
1658, 4to. 9. 'The Figgless Figgtree, or 
the Doome of a Barren and Unfruitful Pro- 
fession layd open,' London, 1659, 4to. 

[Prefaces and dedications to Roger's works ; 
Chester's John Kogers, 1861. pp. 252, 277; 
Walker's Sufferings, ii. 22, 342 ; Kennett's Re- 
gister, pp. 618, 919 ; Notes and Queries. 4th ser. 
vii. 79, 179 ; Newcourt's Repert. Eccles. i. 313, 
ii. 572, 573 ; McClintock and Strong's Encycl. of 
Eccles. Lit. ix. 64 ; Ranew's Catalogue, 1C78 ; 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 360; Malcolm's 
Londini Redivivum, i. 331 ; Bentham's Ely Ca- 
thedral, p. 258 ; Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, 
ii. 386; Darling's Cyclopaedia Bill. ii. 2581; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit ; Registers of Emmanuel Col- 
lege, per the master, of the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Registry, per J. W. Clark, esq., and of Dod- 
dinghurst, per the Rev. F. Stewart ; Robinson's 
Merchant Taylors' Reg. pp. 45, 132.] C. F. S. 


(1786?- 1853), painter, was born at Plymouth 
about 1786, and educated at Plymouth gram- 
mar school under John Bidlake [q. v.] Like 
his fellow-pupil, Benjamin Robert Haydon 
[q.v.J, he was encouraged in his taste for art 
by Bidlake, who took more interest in the 
artistic talent of his pupils than in their 
regular studies. Bidlake sent Rogers to study 
in London, and maintained him for several 
years at his own expense. He returned to 
Plymouth, and painted views of Mount Edg- 
cumbe and Plymouth Sound, choosing prin- 
cipally wide expanses of water under sunlight 
or golden haze, in imitation of Claude. Many 
of these are at Saltram, the seat of the Earl 
of Morley. A large picture by him, ' The 
Bombardment of Algiers,' has been engraved. 
He exhibited ninety-one pictures between 
1808 and 1851, chiefly at the Royal Academy 
and British Institution. He etched twelve 
plates for ' Dartmoor,' by Noel Thomas Car- 
rington, 1826. He was elected a member of 
the Artists' Annuity Fund in 1829, at the 
age of forty-three. After residing abroad 
for some years, he died at Lichtenthal, near 
Baden-Baden, on 25 June 1853. 

[Gent. Mag. 1853, ii. 424; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists; Gravcs's Diet, of Artists ; Athenaeum, 
30 July 1853.] C. D. 

ROGERS, RICHARD (1532 P-1597), 
dean of Canterbury and suffragan bishop of 
Dover, son of Ralph Rogers (d. 15-V-M <>f 
Sutton Valence in Kent, was born in 1532 
or 1533. His sister Catherine married as her 
second husband Thomas Cranmer, only son 
of the archbishop, and his cousin, Sir Edward 
Rogers, comptroller of Queen Elizabeth's 
household, is separately noticed. Richard 

is said 1o have been a member of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M . A . 
in 1552 and B.D. in 1562. On 18 March 
1555-6 he was admitted B.A. at Oxford, 
and in May 1560 he proceeded M.A. During 
the reign of Queen Mary he is said to have 
been an exile for religion. Soon after Eliza- 
beth's accession, probably in 1559, he was 
made archdeacon of St. Asaph, and on 11 Feb. 
1560-1 was presented to the rectory of Great 
Dunmow in Essex, which he resigned in 
1564. He sat in the convocation of 1562- 
1563, when he subscribed the Thirty-nine 
Articles and the request for a modification 
of certain rites and ceremonies. He also 
held the livings of Llanarmon in the diocese 
of St. Asaph and Little Canfield in Essex, 
which he resigned in 1565 and 1566; the 
rectory of ' Pasthyn ' in the diocese of St. 
Asaph he retained till his death. In 1566 
he was collated to the prebend of Ealdland 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, resigning the arch- 
deaconry of St. Asaph. On 19 Oct. 1567 
Archbishop Parker presented him to the 
rectory of Great Chart in Kent, and on 
12 May 1568 the queen nominated him, on 
Parker's recommendation, to be suffragan 
bishop of Dover. In 1569 he was placed on 
a commission to visit the city and diocese of 
Canterbury, and he received Elizabeth when 
she visited Canterbury in 1573. In 1575 
Parker appointed him overseer of his will, 
and left him one of his options. On 16 Sept. 
1584 he was installed dean of Canterbury, 
and in 1595 he was collated to the master- 
ship of Eastgate hospital in Canterbury, and 
to the rectory of Midley in Kent. In De- 
cember he was commissioned to inquire into 
the number of recusants and sectaries in his 
diocese. He died on 19 May 1597, and was 
buried in the dean's chapel in Canterbury 
Cathedral. By his wife Ann (d. 1613) he 
left several children, of whom Francis (d. 
1638) was rector of St. Margaret's, Canter- 
bury. The suffragan bishopric of Dover lapsed 
at his death, and was not revived until the 
appointment of Edward Parry (1830-1890) 
[q. v.] in 1870. 

[Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 33924, ff. 18, 21 
(letters from Rogers) ; Todd's Account of the 
Deans of Canterbury, 1793, pp. 50-65 ; Cooper's 
Athens Cantabr. ii. 224; Boase's Reg. Univ. 
Oxon. i. 231 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; 
Waters's Ches^rs of Chicheley, ii. 395 ; Parker 
Corresp. pp. 370, 475 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1560-97; Willis's Survey of the Diocese of St. 
Asaph; Hasted's Kent, iii. 101, 538, 590, 630; 
Newcourt's Rep. Eccl. ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 
Hardy; Strype's Works, paasim ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ii.777 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 37.] 

A. F. P. 




ROGERS, RICHARD (1550 ?-1618),puri- 
tan divine, born in 1550 or 1551, was son or 
grandson of Richard Rogers, steward to the 
earls of Warwick. He must be distinguished 
from Richard Rogers (1532 P-1597) [q. v.], 
dean of Canterbury. He matriculated as a 
sizar of Christ's College, Cambridge, in No- 
vember 1565, and graduated B.A. 1570-1, 
M.A. 1574. He was appointed lecturer at 
Wethersfield, Essex, about 1577. In 1583 
he, with twenty-six others, petitioned the 
privy council against Whltgift's three articles, 
and against Bishop Aylmer's proceedings 
on them at his visitation (' Second part 
of a Register,' manuscript at Dr. Williams's 
Library, p. 330 ; BROOK, Puritans, ii. 275 ; 
DAVID, Nonconformity in Essex,^. 78). Whit- 
gift suspended all the petitioners. After a 
suspension of eight months Rogers resumed 
his preaching, and was restored to his mini- 
stry through the intervention of Sir Robert 
Wroth. Rogers espoused the presbyterian 
movement under Cartwright, and signed the 
Book of Discipline (NEAL, Puritans, i. 387). 
He is mentioned by Bancroft as one of a 
classis about the Braintree side, together 
with Culverwell, Giftbrd, and others (BAN- 
CROFT, Dangerous Positions, p. 84). In 1598 
and 1603 he was accordingly again in 
trouble ; on the former occasion before the 
ecclesiastical commission, and on the latter 
for refusing the oath ex offitio (Baker MSS. 
xi. 344; BROOK, Puritans, ii. 232). He 
owed his restoration to the influence of 
William, lord Knollys, and acknowledged 
his protection in several passages of his 
diary (quoted in DAVID, u.s.) Under the 
episcopate of Richard Vaughan [q. v.], bishop 
of London between 1604 and 1607, he en- 
joyed much liberty ; but under Vaughan's 
successor, Thomas Ravis [q. v.], he was again 
persecuted. Rogers died at Wethersfield on 
21 April 1618, and was buried on the right 
side of the path in. Wethersfield churchyard 
leading to the nave of the church (see his epi- 
taph in Congregational Mag. new ser. April 
1826). Rogers was the father of Daniel 
(1573-1652) and Ezekiel Rogers, both of 
whom are separately noticed, and the imme- 
diate predecessor at Wethersfield of Stephen 
Marshall [q. v.] 

Rogers wrote: 1. ' Seaven treatises con- 
taining such directions as is gathered out of 
the Holie Scriptures,' 1603 ; 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1605, dedicated to King James ; 4th 
edit. 1627, 8vo, 2 parts ; 5th edit. 1630, 4to. 
An abbreviated version, called ' The Practice 
of Christianity,' is dated 1618, and was often 
reissued. 2. ' A garden of spirit uall flowers, 
planted by R[ichard] R[ogers], W[ill] P[er- 
kins], R[ichard] Gfreenham], M. M., and 

G[eorge] W[ebbe], London, 1612 8vo, 1622 
16mo, 1632 12mo, 1643 12mo (2 parts), 1687 
12mo(2parts). 3. 'Certaiiie Sermons, directly 
tending to these three ends, First, to bring any 
bad person (that hath not committed the same 
that is unpardonable) to true conversion ; 
secondly, to establish and settle all such as 
are converted in faith and repentance ; 
thirdly, to leade them forward (that are so 
settled) in the Christian life . . . whereunto 
are annexed divers . . . sermons of Samuel 
Wright, B.D.,' London, 1612, 8vo. 4. 'A 
Commentary upon the whole book of Judges, 
preached first and delivered in sundrie lec- 
tures,' London, 1615, dedicated to Sir Edward 
Coke. 5. ' Samuel's encounter with Saul, 
1 Sam. chap. xv. . . . preached and penned by 
that worthy servant of God, Mr. Richard 
Rogers,' London. 1620. 

[David's Nonconformity in Essex, p. 108 ; 
Chester's John Kogers, pp. 238, 243; State 
Papers. Dom. ; Granger's Biogr. Hist. ; Firmin's 
Rpal Christian, p. 67, 1670 edit. ; Kennett's Chro- 
nicle, p. 593 ; Eogers's Works in the British Mu- 
seum.] W. A. S. 

ROGERS. ROBERT (1727-1800), colonel, 
was born in 1727 at Dunbarton. New Hamp- 
shire, where his father, James Rogers, was 
one of the first settlers. He gained great 
celebrity as commander of ' Rogers's rangers ' 
in the war with the French in North America, 
1755-60, and a precipice near Lake George 
is named ' Rogers's Slide,' after his escape 
down the precipice from the Indians. On 
! 13 March 1758, with one hundred and seventy 
men, he fought one hundred French and six 
hundred Indians, and retreated after losing 
one hundred men and killing one hundred 
and fifty. In 1759 he was sent by Sir JefFery 
Amherst from Crown Point to destroy 
the Indian village of St. Francis, near St. 
Lawrence River, and in 1760 he was ordered 
to take possession of Detroit and other western 
posts ceded by the French after the fall of 
Quebec, a mission which he accomplished 
with success. He soon afterwards visited 
England, where he suffered from neglect and 
poverty; but in 1765 he found means to print 
his ' Journals,' which attracted George Ill's 
favourable notice. In 1765 the king ap- 
pointed him governor of Mackinaw, Michi- 
gan. On an accusation of intriguing with 
the Spaniards, he was sent in irons to Mont- 
real and tried by court-martial. Having 
been acquitted, he in 1769 revisited England, 
where he was soon imprisoned for debt. 
Subsequently he became a colonel in the 
British army in America, and raised the 
'queen's rangers.' His printed circular to 
recruits promised them ' their proportion of 
all rebel lands.' On 21 Oct. 1776 he escaped 




being taken prisoner by Lord Stirling at 
Mamaroneck. Soon after he went to Eng- 
land, and in 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished by the provincial congress of New 
Hampshire. He died in London in 1800. 
Among his works are : ' A Concise Account 
of North America,' and ' Journals,' giving a 
graphic account of his early adventures as a 
ranger, London, 1765, 8vo, and edited by 
Franklin B. Hough, Albany, 1883. (The 
' Journals ' are also condensed in Stark's 
'Reminiscences of the French War,' 1831, 
and in the ' Memoir of John Stark,' 1860). 
' Ponteach, or the Savages of America : a 
Tragedy,' by Rogers in verse, appeared in 
1766. 8vo ; only two copies are known to 
exist, one in the possession of Mr. Francis 
Parkman, and the other in the British Mu- 
seum Library. Rogers's ' Diary of the Siege 
of Detroit ' was first edited by F. B. Hough 
at Albany in 1860. 

[Sabine's Amer. Loyalists; Ryerson's Amer. 
Loyalists ; Appleton's Cycl. vol. v. ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; Parkman's Works, passim ; Duyckinck's 
Cycl. vol. i. ; Allibone's Diet. vol. ii.] B. H. S. 

ROGERS, SAMUEL (1763-1855), poet, 
was born at Stoke Newington on 30 July 
1763. The family is said to have been ori- 
ginally "Welsh, with a dash of French blood 
through the marriage of the poet's great- 
grandfather, the first ancestor of whom there 
is any record, with a lady from Nantes. The 
poet's father, Thomas Rogers, was son of a 
glass manufacturer at Stourbridge,Worcester- 
shire, and through his mother was related to 
Richard Payne Knight [q. v.]; he went in 
youth to London to take part in the manage- 
ment of a warehouse in which his father was 
a partner with Daniel Radford of Stoke 
Newington. In 1760 Thomas married Daniel 
Radford's daughter Mary, and was taken into 
partnership in the following year. Daniel 
Radford, who descended through his mother 
from Philip Henry, was treasurer of the pres- 
byterian congregation at Stoke Newington, 
and an intimate friend of Dr. Price and other 
notable persons connected with it. His son- 
in-law, whose family connections had been 
tory and high church, embraced liberal and 
nonconformist principles, and the children 
were brought up as dissenters. 

Samuel Rogers received his education at 
private schools in Hackney and Stoke New- 
ington, at the former of which he contracted 
a lifelong friendship with William Maltby 
[q. v.] His Newington master, Mr. Burgh, 
afterwards gave him private lessons in Isling- 
ton, and exercised a highly beneficial influ- 
ence upon him. He lost his mother in 1776. 
His own choice of a vocation had been the 

kresbyterian ministry, but his father, who 
ad in the meantime become a banker in 
Cornhill, in partnership with a gentleman of 
| the name of Welch, wished him to enter the 
bank, and he complied. His intellectual 
tastes found an outlet in a determination to 
acquire fame as an author. During long holi- 
days at the seaside, necessitated by indif- 
ferent health, he read widely and fami- 
liarised himself with Johnson, Goldsmith, 
and Gray, who remained his models through- 
out his life. He went, with his friend Maltby, 
to proffer his personal homage to Dr. Johnson, 
but the youths' courage failed, and they re- 
treated without venturing to lift the knocker. 
In 1781 he contributed several short essays 
to the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ and the fol- 
lowing year wrote an unacted opera, ' The 
Vintage of Burgundy,' of which some frag- 
ments remain. In 1786 he published, anony- 
mously; 'An Ode to Superstition, with some 
other Poems.' An elder brother, Thomas, died 
in 1788, and his share in the bank's manage- 
ment and profits became considerable. In 
1789 he visited Scotland, where he received 
especial kindness from Dr. Robertson, the 
historian, and made the acquaintance of 
almost every Scottish man of letters, but 
heard nothing of Robert Burns. In 1791 
he visited France, and in 1792 published, 
again anonymously, the poem with which 
his name as a poet is, on the whole, most 
intimately associated, ' The Pleasures of 
Memory.' The child of ' The Pleasures of 
Imagination' and the parent of ' The Pleasures 
of Hope,' it entirely hit the taste of the day. 
By 1806 it had gone through fifteen editions, 
two-thirds of them numbering from one to 
two thousand copies each. 

Rogers's father died in June 1793. His 
eldest brother, Daniel, had offended his father 
by marrying his cousin ; the family share in 
the bank was bequeathed to Samuel, and he 
found himself possessed of five thousand a 
year. Without immediately giving up the 
family house on Newington Green, he took 
chambers in Paper Buildings, and laid himself 
out for society. He had already many lite- 
rary acquaintances ; and now constrained by 
hereditary connections and his own well-con- 
sidered opinions to chose his friends mainly 
from the opposition, he became intimate 
with Fox, Sheridan, and Home Tooke. 
Another friend who had more influence upon 
him than any of the rest was Richard Sharp 
[q. v.], generally known as ' Conversation 
Sharp,' one of the best literary judges of his 
time. In 1795 Rogers wrote an epilogue for 
Mrs. Siddons, a sufficient proof of the position 
which he had gained as a poet, a position 
which was even raised by the ' Epistle to a 




Friend,' published in 1798. In 1802 he took 
advantage of the peace of Amiens to pay a 
visit to Paris, which exercised an important 
influence upon a taste which had been 
slowly growing up in him that for art. 
With this he had been inoculated about 
1795 by his brother-in-law, Sutton Sharpe, 
the friend of many painters ; and he had 
already, in 1800, been concerned with 
others in bringing over the Orleans gallery 
to England. By 1802 the victories of 
Bonaparte had filled the Louvre with the 
artistic spoils of Italy, and Rogers's pro- 
longed studies made him one of the first of 
connoisseurs. He proved his taste in the 
following year by building for himself a 
house in St. James's Street, Westminster, 
overlooking the Green Park. Flaxman and 
Stothard took a share in the decoration, but 
all details were superintended by liogers, 
who proceeded to adorn his mansion, modest 
enough in point of size, with pictures, en- 
gravings, antiquities, and books, collected 
with admirable judgment. His younger 
brother, Henry, now relieved him almost 
entirely of business cares, and he henceforth 
lived wholly for letters, art, and society. Ex- 
cept for the absence of domestic joys, which 
he afterwards lamented, his position was en- 
viable. He had won, in the general opinion, 
a high place among the poets of his age, not 
indeed without labour, for no man toiled 
harder to produce less, but with more limited 
productiveness than any poet of note, ex- 
cept the equally fastidious Gray and Camp- 
bell. He might have found it difficult to 
maintain this position but for the social 
prestige which came to him at a critical 
time through his new house and his re- 
fined hospitality. ' Rogers's first advances 
to the best society,' says Mr. Hay ward, ' were 
made rather in the character of a liberal 
host than of a popular poet.' Gradually 
he came to be regarded as a potentate in 
the republic of letters. Except when violent 
political antipathies intervened, every one 
sought his acquaintance ; and the more age 
impaired his originally limited productive 
faculty, the more homage he received as the 
Nestor of living poets. Apart from the ex- 
quisite taste, artistic and social, which dis- 
tinguished both his house and the company 
he gathered around him, his influence rested 
mainly upon two characteristics, which at 
first sight seemed hardly compatible the 
bitterness of his tongue and the kindness of 
his heart. Everybody dreaded his mordant 
sarcasm ; but everybody thought first of him 
when either pecuniary or personal aid was to 
be invoked. When some one complained to 
Campbell of Rogers's spiteful tongue, ' Borrow 

five hundred pounds of him,' was the reply, 
' and he will never say a word against you 
until you want to repay him.' Campbell did 
not speak without warrant; his experience 
of Rogers was equally honourable to both 

The history of Rogers's life henceforth, 
apart from his travels and the gradual 
growth of his art collections, is mainly that 
of his publications and of his beneficent in- 
terpositions in the affairs of clients and 
j friends. The latter are more numerous than 
| his verses. He soothed the last illness of 
I Fox ; he was the good angel of the dying 
' Sheridan ; he reconciled Moore with Jeffrey, 
, and negotiated his admission as a contributor 
! to the ' Edinburgh Review ; ' under his roof 
the quarrel between Byron and Moore was 
made up; he procured Wordsworth his dis- 
tributorship of stamps by a seasonable hint 
to Lord Lonsdale ; he obtained a pension for 
Cary (the translator of Dante, who had re- 
nounced his acquaintance), and regulated as 
far as possible the literary affairs of that 
impracticable genius, Ugo Foscolo. In com- 
parison with these good deeds the acerbity 
of his sarcasms appears of little account. 
Sometimes these were prompted by just re- 
sentment, and in other cases it is usually 
evident that the incentive to their utterance 
was not malice, but inability to suppress a 
clever thing. It would no doubt have been 
an ornament to Rogers's character if he had 
possessed in any corresponding measure the 
power of saying amiable and gracious things, 
and his habitually censorious attitude fully 
justified the remark of Moore, a sincere friend, 
not unconscious of his obligations : ' I always 
feel that the fear of losing his good opinion 
almost embitters the possession of it.' How 
generous Rogers could be in his estimate of 
the productions of others appears from his 
declaration to Crabb Robinson, that every 
line of Wordsworth's volume of 1842, not 
in general very enthusiastically admired, was 
' pare gold.' He could be equally kind to 
young authors coming into notice, such as 
Henry Taylor. So unjust was Lady Duf- 
ferin's remark that he gave what he did not 
value money but withheld what he did 
value praise. Rogers's poems met with re- 
spectful treatment from his contemporaries, 
Byron, in particular, claiming him, with 
several other much stronger poets, as a 
champion of sound taste against the Lake 
school, now a conspicuous example of a ver- 
dict reversed. 

His first production of importance after 
settling in Westminster was his fragmentary 
epic on 'Columbus' (1810, but privately 
printed two years earlier). The subject was 




too arduous for him, and the poem was 
placed by himself at the bottom of his com- 
positions. It shows, however, that he was 
not unaffected by the spirit of his age, for 
the versification is much freer than in ' The 
Pleasures of Memory.' It was severely cas- 
tigated by William Ward, third viscount 
Dudley, in the ' Quarterly/ and Rogers re- 
torted by the classical epigram : 

Ward has no heart, they say ; but I deny it. 
He has a heart he gets his speeches by it. 

' Jacqueline ' appeared in 1814 in the same 
volume as Byron's ' Lara,' a questionable 
companion, the wits declared, for a damsel 
careful of her character. The poem is of 
little importance except as proving that 
Rogers could, when he chose, write in the 
style of Scott and Byron. Successful, too, 
was 'Human Life' (1819), which Rogers 
justly preferred to any of his writings. A 
visit to Italy in 1815 had suggested to him 
the idea of a poem descriptive of that country, 
which Byron had not then handled in the 
fourth canto of ' Childe Harold.' The poems 
have nothing in common but their theme ; 
yet it may have been awe of his mighty rival 
that made Rogers, always cautious and fasti- 
dious, so nervous respecting the publication 
of his ' Italy.' It appeared anonymously in 
1822 ; the secret was kept even from the 
publisher, and the author took care to be out 
of the country. No such mystery, however, 
attended the publication of the second part 
in 1828. The book did not take. Rogers 
destroyed the unsold copies, revised it cave- 
fully, engaged Turner and Stothard to illus- 
trate it, and republished it in a handsome 
edition in 1830. The success of this edition, 
as well as of a similar issue of his other 
poems in 1834, was unequivocal, and he soon 
recovered the 7,0001. he had expended upon 
them. The tardy success of the volume 
occasioned, among many other epigrams, 
Lady Blessington's mot, that ' it would have 
been dished were it not for the plates.' AIL 
his works, except ' Jacqueline/ were pub- 
lished at his own expense. 

An interesting incident in Rogers's life 
was his visit to Italy in 1822, when he spent 
some time with Byron and Shelley at Pisa. 
Shelley he respected ; Byron fell in his 
esteem, and would have declined still more 
if he had then known that Byron had already 
in 1818 penned a bitter lampoon upon him. 
Byron boasted that he induced Rogers in 
1822 to sit upon a cushion under which the 
paper containing the malignant lines had 
been thrust. They partly related to Rogers's 
cadaverous appearance, the ordinary theme 
of jest among his detractors, but greatly ex- 

aggerated. ' He looked,' says the ' Quarterly ' 
reviewer, ' like what he was, a benevolent 
man and a thorough gentleman.' 

In 1844 the placid course of Rogers's 
existence was perturbed by a startling blow, 
a robbery at his bank. Forty thousand pounds 
in notes and a thousand pounds in gold 
were abstracted on a Sunday from a safe 
which had been opened with one of its own 
keys. The promptitude of the measures 
taken prevented the cashing of the stolen 
notes, the bank of England repaid their value 
under a guarantee of indemnity, and after 
two years the notes themselves were re- 
covered by a payment of 2,5001. Rogers 
manifested admirable fortitude throughout 
this trying business. ' I should be ashamed 
of myself, he said, ' if I were unable to bear 
a shock like this at my age.' He was also 
consoled by universal testimonies of sym- 
pathy : ' It is the only part of your fortune,' 
wrote Edward Everett, ' which has gone for 
any other objects than those of benevolence, 
hospitality, and taste.' In 1850 he had 
another proof of the general respect in the 
offer of the laureateship on the death of 
Wordsworth, which was declined. Shortly 
afterwards he met with a severe accident by 
breaking his leg. From that time his health 
and faculties waned, but, cheered by the 
devotion of a niece and the constant atten- 
tions of friends, he wore on until 18 Dec. 
1855, when he tranquilly expired. He was 
buried in Hornsey churchyard, with his 
brother Henry and his sister Sarah, the latter 
of whom, his special friend and confidant, 
he survived only a year. His art collections 
and library, when sold at Christie's after his 
death, produced 50,000/. (see ' Sale Cata- 
logue ' and ' Catalogue of Purchasers ' by 
M. H. Bloxam, in the British Museum). 

Rogers was not a man of exceptional 
mental powers or moral force, but such of 
his characteristics as exceeded the average 
standard were precisely those which contri- 
bute most to the embellishment of human 
life. They were taste, benevolence, and wit. 
His perception and enjoyment of natural and 
moral beauty were very keen. In other re- 
spects he was the exemplary citizen, neither 
heroic nor enthusiastic, nor exempt from 
frailties, but filling his place in the commu- 
nity as became his fortune and position. 

Rogers's title to a place among the repre- 
sentatives of the most brilliant age the 
drama apart of English poetry cannot now 
be challenged, but his rank is lower than 
that of any of his contemporaries, and his 
position is due in great measure to two for- 
tunate accidents : the establishment of his 
reputation before the advent, or at least 




the recognition, of more potent spirits, 
and the intimate association of his name 
with that of greater men. He has. how- 
ever, one peculiar distinction, that of ex- 
emplifying beyond almost any other poet 
what a moderate poetical endowment can 
effect when prompted by ardent ambition 
and guided by refined taste. Among the 
countless examples of splendid gifts marred 
or wasted, it is pleasing to find one of medio- 
crity elevated to something like distinction 
by fastidious care and severe toil. It must 
also be allowed that his inspiration was 
genuine as far as it went, and that it ema- 
nated from a store of sweetness and tender- 
ness actually existing in the poet's nature. 
This is proved by the great superiority of 
' Human Life ' to ' The Pleasures of Me- 
mory.' The latter, composed at a period of 
life when the author had really little to 
remember, necessarily, in spite of occasional 
beauties, appears thin and conventional. The 
former, written after half a century's ex- 
perience of life, is instinct with the wis- 
dom of one who has learned and reflected, 
and the pathos of one who has felt and 

Rogers's own portrait, after a drawing by 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, is prefixed to several 
editions of his works. It exhibits no trace 
of the ' wrinkles that would puzzle Cocker.' 
There was also an oil-painting by Lawrence 
of the poet and one by Hoppner (set. 46). 
The bust by Dantan suggests a likeness to 
the senile visage of Voltaire. The sketch 
by Maclise, though described by Goethe as 
a ' ghastly caricature,' was regarded by many 
of the poet's friends as a faithful likeness. 

[Rogers pervades the literary atmosphere of 
the first half of the nineteenth century ; its 
memoirs, journals, and correspondence teem with 
allusions to him. Moore's Diary is probably the 
most important source of this nature, but there 
is hardly any book of the class relating to this 
period from which some information cannot be 
gained. The most important part of it, how- 
ever, is gathered up in The Early Life of Samuel 
Rogers (1887) and Rogers and his Contempo- 
raries (1889), both by P. W. Clayden, two ex- 
cellent works. See also Mr. Clayden's Memoir 
of Samuel Sharpe, Rogers's nephew. A very 
satisfactory abridged memoir by this nephew 
is prefixed to the edition of Rogers's Poems pub- 
lished in 1860. His recollections of the conver- 
sation of others, published after his death by 
another nephew, William Sharpe, in 1856, supply 
reminiscences of Fox, Burke, Person, Grattan, 
Talleyrand, Scott, Erskine, Grenville, and Wel- 
lington. Rogers's table-talk, edited by Alex- 
ander Dvce in 1860, though not directly con- 
cerned with himself, preserves much of Burke's, 
Fox's, and Home Tooke's conversation. Of the 

numerous notices in periodicals, the more im- 
portant are that by Abraham Hay ward in the 
Edinburgh Review for July 1856, and that by 
Lady Eastlake in the Quarterly for October 
1888. The most elaborate criticism upon him 
as a poet is perhaps that in the National Re- 
view by William Caldwell Roscoe, reprinted in 
his essays, acute but somewhat too depreciatory. 
See also Saintsbury's History of the English 
Literature of the Nineteenth Century, and The 
Maclise Portrait Gallery, ed. Bates, pp. 13 sq.] 

R. G. 

ROGERS, THOMAS (d. 1616), protes- 
tant divine, was a student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1571, and graduated B.A. 7 July 
1573, andM.A. 6 July 1576 (CLAEK,O.?/or^ 
JKef/.) He was subsequently (11 Dec. 1581) 
rector of Horningsheath or Horringer, Suf- 
folk. Browne's statement (Congregationalism 
in Surrey, p. 50) that he suffered suspension 
along with Dr. Bound in 1583 seems to be 
due to a confusion with Richard Rogers 
(1550-1618 ?) [q. v.] Rogers was the great 
opponent of Bound in the Sabbatarian con- 
troversy (Cox, Literature of the Sabbath 
Question, i. 146, 149, 212; FULLER, Church 
History, v. 81, 215; STRYPE, Grindal, p. 453). 
His numerous religious publications were 
held in high esteem among adherents of his 
own views in his own and later times. 
Rogers became chaplain to Bancroft, and 
aided him in his literary work. He died 
at Horningsheath in 1616. He was buried 
in the chancel of his church there, 22 Feb. 

Rogers's chief works were two volumes on 
the English creed, respectively entitled 
' The English Creed, wherein is contained in 
Tables an Exposition on the Articles which 
every Man is to Subscribe unto,' London, 
1579 and 1585, and 'The English Creede, 
consenting with the True, Auncient, Catho- 
lique and Apostolique Church,' London, pt. i. 
1585, fol., pt. ii. 1587, fol., and 1607, 4to. 
This latter subsequently appeared in another 
form as an exposition of the Thirty-nine 
Articles, entitled 'The Faith, Doctrine, and 
Religion professed and protected in the Realm 
of England and Dominions of the same, ex- 
pressed in Thirty-nine Articles,' Cambridge, 
1607 4to; London, 1621 4to, 1629 4to, 1633 
4to, 1658 4to, 1661 4to ; Cambridge, 1691 4to ; 
abstracts are dated 1658 4to, 1776 8vo. 
This book, which was praised by Toplady, 
Bickersteth, and other evangelical divines, 
was reprinted in 1854 by the Parker Society 
(cf. WOOD, Athena O.ron. ii. 163). Almost 
equally popular were Rogers's translation of 
'The Imitation of Christ' (London, 1580, 
12mo; often reprinted till 1639) and his 
' Of the Ende of this World and the Second 




Coming of Christ,' &c. [translated from the 
Latin of S. a Geveren [London, 1577], 4to, 
1578 4to, 1589 4to. 

Other original publications by him were : 
1. 'A Philosophical Discourse, entituled the 
Anatomie of the Minde,' black letter, Lon- 
don, 1576, 8vo. '2. ' General Session, con- 
taining an Apology of the Comfortable Doc- 
trine concerning the End of the World and 
the Second Coming of Christ,' London, 
1581, 4to. 3. ' A Golden Chaine taken out 
of the Rich Treasure House, the Psalms of 
King David . . .' 1587, 8vo, with ' The 
Pearls of King Solomon gathered into 
Common Places taken from the Proverbs 
of the said King.' 4. ' Historical Dialogue 
touching Antichrist and Popery,' London, 
1589, 8vo. 5. ' A Sermon upon the 6, 7 and 
8 Verses of the 12 Chapter of St. Pauls 
Epistle unto the Romanes [in answer to a 
sermon by T. Cartwright on the same Text]/ 
London, 13 April 1590, 4to. 6. ' Miles Chris- 
tianus, or a Just Apologie of all necessarie 
. . . writers, specialise of them which 
. . . in a ... Deffamatorie Epistle [by 
M. Mosse] are unjustly depraved,' 1590, 4to. 
7. ' Two Dialogues or Conferences (about an 
old question lately renued . . .) concerning 
kneeling in the very act of receiving the 
Sacramental bread and wine in the Supper 
of the Lord,' London, 1608, 4to. 

Rogers's numerous translations included 
' A General Discourse against the damnable 
Sect of Usurers, &c. [from the Latin of 
Csesar Philippus],' 1578, 4to ; ' The Enemie 
of Securitie . . . [from the Latin of J. Haber- 
mann],' 1580 12mo, 1591 12mo ; 'The 
Faith of the Church Militant . . . described 
in this Exposition of the 84 Psalme by ... 
N. Hemmingius . . .' 1581, 8vo; 'St. Augus- 
tine's Praiers,' London, 1581, with ' St. 
Augustine's Manual ; ' 'A pretious Book 
of Heavenlie Meditations by St. Augustine,' 
London, 1600 12mo, 1612 12mo, 1616 
12mo, 1629 12mo, dedicated to Thomas 
Wilson, D.C.L. ; ' Of the Foolishness of 
Men in putting off the Amendement of their 
Lives from Daie to Daie [from the Latin of 
J. Rivius] ' (1582 ?), 8vo ; 'A Methode unto 
Mortification : called heretofore the Con- 
tempt of the World and the vanitie thereof. 
Written at the first in the Spanish [by D. 
de Estella], afterwards translated into the 
Italian, English, and Latine Tongues,' Lon- 
don, 1608, 12mo ; ' Soliloquium Animae . . . 
[by Thomas a Kempis],' 1616 12mo, 1628 
12mo, 1640 12mo. 

Hazlitt also identifies him with the Tho- 
mas Rogers, author of ' Celestiall- Elegies of 
the Goddesses and the Muses, deploring the 
death of Frances, Countesse of Hertford,' 

London, 1598 ; reprinted in the Roxburghe 
Club's ' Lamport Garland,' 1887. In Harleian 
MS. 3365 is 'The Ambassador's Idea,' a 
work finished by T. Rogers on 13 July 1638, 
and dedicated to Jerome, earl of Portland. 
It does not appear to have been printed. 

[Authorities as in text; Hazlitt's Handbook 
and Collections, passim.] W. A. S. 

ROGERS, THOMAS (1660-1694), di- 
vine, son of John and grandson of Thomas 
Rogers, successively rectors of Bishop's 
Hampton (now Hampton Lucy), Warwick- 
shire, was born at Bishop's Hampton on 
27 Dec. 1660, and educated at the free school 
there. He entered Trinity College, Oxford, 
matriculating, on 15 March 1675-6, under 
the tutorship of John W'illis. He shortly 
afterwards transferred himself to Hart Hall, 
and graduated thence on 23 Oct. 1679, and 
M. A. on 5 July 1682 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxon. ; 
WOOD, Fasti, 'ii. 383; Athence Oxon. iv. 400). 
He took holy orders, and on Low Sunday 
1688 performed in St. Mary's Church the 
part of repetitioner of the four Easter ser- 
mons; he was inducted in April 1690 to 
the small rectory of Slapton, near Towcester 
in Northamptonshire. He died of small-pox 
in the house of Mr. Wright, a schoolmaster, 
in Bunhill Fields, on 8 June 1694. He was 
buried in the church of St. Mary Overy, 
South wark (WOOD; COLVILE, Warwickshire 

Rogers wrote: 1. 'Lux Occidentalis, or 
Providence displayed in the Coronation of 
King William and Queen Mary and their 
happy Accession to the Crown of England, 
and other remarks,' London, 1689, 4to (poem 
of twentv-eight pages under the running 
title of ' The Phoenix and Peacock '). 2. ' The 
Loyal and Impartial Satyrist, containing 
eight miscellany poems, viz. (1) " The 
Ghost of an English Jesuit," &c. ; (2) ' Look- 
ing on Father Peter's Picture ; " (3) " Ecce- 
bolius Britannicus, or a Memento to the 
Jacobites of the higher order," ' London, 
1693, 4to. 3. 'A Poesy for Lovers, or the 
Terrestrial Venus unmask'd, in four poems, 
viz. (1) " The Tempest, or Enchanting 
Lady ; " (2) " The Luscious Penance, or the 
Fasting Lady,"' &c., London, 1693, 4to. 
4. ' The Conspiracy of Guts and Brains, or an 
Answer to the Twin Shams,' &c., London, 
1693. 5. 'A True Protestant Bridle, or 
some Cursory Remarks upon a Sermon 
preached [by William Stephens, rector of 
Suttoh in Surrey] before the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen of London on 30 January 
1693, in a Letter to Sir P. D.,' London, 1694. 
6. ' The Commonwealths Man unmasqu'd, 
or a just Rebuke to the Author of the " Ac- 




count of Denmark," in two parts,' London, 
1694, 8vo ; a wearisome and bigoted tirade 
against the advanced whig principles em- 
bodied in the book of Kobert Molesworth, 
first viscount Molesworth [q. v.] There is a 
prefatory epistle addressed to William III. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 401, 
giving a list of minor pieces by Rogers which 
appear to bo no longer extant ; Colvile's War- 
wickshire Worthies ; Bodleian Libr. CUt.; Rogers 's 
Works in Brit. Mus. p. v. Rogers, Thomas and 
E. T.] W. A. S. 

ROGERS, THOMAS (1760-1832), divine, 
born at Swillington, near Leeds, on 19 Feb. 
1760, was youngest son of John Rogers, vicar 
of Sherburn, Yorkshire, who is said to have 
been a lineal descendant of John Rogers 
[q. v.], the martyr. On leaving Leeds 
grammar school he entered Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1779, graduated B.A. in 
1783, and was ordained deacon on Trinity 
Sunday in that year. After being succes- 
sively curate of Norton-cum-Galby in Leices- 
tershire, Ravenstone in Derbyshire, and at 
St. Mary's, Leicester, under Thomas Robin- 
son (1749-1813) [q. v.], he was appointed 
headmaster of the Wakefield grammar school 
on 6 Feb. 1795. In December of the same 
year he was allowed to hold with this office 
the afternoon lectureship of St. John's, Wake- 
field. Rogers conducted some confirmation 
classes in 1801 in Wakefield parish church 
with such success that a weekly lectureship 
was founded in order to enable him perma- 
nently to continue his instruction. His 
Sunday-evening lectures were thronged, and 
raised the tone of the neighbourhood, where ' 
religious feeling had long been stagnant. In | 
1814 he resigned the mastership of the | 
grammar school, and in 1817 became chap- ! 
lain of the West Riding house of correction : 
in Wakefield. He effected many reforms in j 
the prison. He died on 13 Feb. 1832, aged ' 
71, and was buried in the south aisle of the , 
parish church. His wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Robert Long of Norton, whom he married 
in 1785, died in 1803, leaving six children. 

Besides ' Lectures on the Liturgy of the 
Church of England ' (London, 1804, 2 vols. 
8vo; 3rd edit. 1816), he composed a manual 
of 'Family Prayers,' 1832. 

[Memoir by his son, the Rev. Charles Rogers, 
1832; Peacock's Hist, of the Wakefield Gram- 
mar School, 1892, pp. 143-6 ; Walkers Cathe- 
dral Church of Wakefield, 1888, pp. 187-9, 223.] I 

J. H. L. 

ROGERS, TIMOTHY (1589-1650 ?), 
puritan divine, eldest son of Vincent Rogers, 
rector of Stratford-le-Bow, Middlesex, was 
born at Stratford, and baptised there on 

30 March 1589. His father is supposed to 
have been a grandson of John Rogers (1500?- 
1555) [q. v.] Nehemiah Rogers [q. v.] was 
his younger brother. From the title-page of 
Timothy's ' Roman-Catharist,' it appears that 
hewas preacher at Steeple, Essex, in 1621, but 
he does not seem to have held the vicarage. 
In 1623 he became perpetual curate of Pontes- 
bright or Chapel, Essex, and held this living 
till 1650. On 19 Aug. 1636 he was appointed 
to the vicarage of All Saints', Sudbury, Suf- 
folk. How long he held this preferment is 
not certain. In 1648 he was a member of 
the twelfth or Lexden classis in the presby- 
terian organisation for Essex, and in the 
same year he signed the 'Testimony' of 
Essex ministers as ' pastor of Chappel.' He 
probably died in 1650. His son Samuel was 
admitted vicar of Great Tey, Essex, on 
27 Jan. 1G37-8, on the presentation of his 
uncle Nehemiah. 

Rogers published: 1. 'The Righteous Man's 
Evidence for Heaven,' &c., 1619, 8vo (WATT) ; 
8th edit, 1629, 24mo; 12th edit. 1637, 12mo; 
also Glasgow, 1784, 12mo; and in French, 
'L'Heritage du Ciel,' Amsterdam, 1703, 8vo. 

2. ' The Roman Catharist,' &c. (1612), 4to. 

3. ' Good Xewes from Heaven,' 1628, 24mo ; 
3rd edit. 1631, 12mo. 4. ' A Faithful! Friend 
true to the Soul . . . added, the Christian 
Jewell of Faith,' 1653, 12mo. 

[Morant's Essex, 1768, ii. 208; Chester's John 
Rogers, 1861, pp. 252, 275 sq. ; David's Evang. 
Nonconformity in Essex, 1863, pp. 294 sq] 

A. G. 

ROGERS, TIMOTHY (1658- 1728), non- 
conformist minister, son of John Rogers 
(1610-1680) [q. v.], was bora at Barnard 
Castle, Yorkshire, on 24 May 1658. He was 
educated at Glasgow University, where he 
matriculated in 1673, and afterwards studied 
under Edward Veal [q. v.] at Wapping. His 
entrance into the ministry was as evening 
lecturer at Crosby Square, Bishopsgate. 
Some time after 1682 he was prostrated by 
hereditary hypochondria, from which he re- 
covered in 1690, and then became assistant 
to John Shower [q. v.], minister of the pres- 
byterian congregation in Jewin Street, re- 
moved in 1701 to the Old Jewry. His services 
were highly acceptable, but his hypochondria 
returned, and in 1707 he left the ministry, 
retiring to Wantage, Berkshire, where he 
died in November 1 728 ; he was buried in the 
churchyard there on 29 Nov. His portrait 
is in Dr. Williams's Library ; an engraving 
from it by Hopwood is in Wilson. John 
Rogers, his grandson, was minister at Poole, 

He published, besides single sermons, in- 




eluding funeral sermons for Robert Linager 
(1682), Anthony Dunswell (1692), Edmund 
Hill (1692), Edward Rede (1694), M. Hassel- 
born (1696), and Elizabeth Dunton (1697) : 
1. 'Practical Discourses on Sickness and 
Recovery,' &c., 1690, 8vo. 2. ' A Discourse 
concerning . . . the Disease of Melancholy ; 
in three parts,' &c., 1691, 8vo ; 2nd ed. 1706, 
8vo ; 3rd ed. 1808, 12mo (with life by Walter 
Wilson). He prefaced the 'Works' of 
Thomas Gouge (1665 P-1700) [q. v.] 

[Life by Wilson, 1808 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches of London, 1808, ii. 321 ; Dunton's 
Life and Errors, ed. Nichols ; information from 
W. Innes Addison, esq., assistant clerk of Senate, 
Glasgow ; extract from burial register of Wan- 
tage parish.] A. G. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM (jft. 1580-1610), 
engraver, was the first Englishman who is 
known to have practised copperplate en- 
graving. It is not known where he studied 
the art, but it was probably in the school of 
the Wierix family at Antwerp. That Rogers 
was an Englishman is shown by his signing 
one of his engravings ' Angluset Civis Lond.' 
He engraved some portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth, which are very scarce. Of one of them, 
a full-length portrait in royal robes, only one 
impression in its complete state is known; 
this is now in the print-room at the British 
Museum. Another portrait, with allegorical 
figures, is signed and dated 1589, and another 
bears the inscription ' Rosa Electa.' Rogers 
also engraved the large picture of Henry VIII 
and his family attributed to Lucas de Heere, 
now at Sudeley Castle. Of this print only 
three impressions are known. Rogers en- 
graved numerous portraits, title-pages, and 
illustrations for books, among these being the 
titles to Linschoten's ' Discours of Voyages 
into ye Easte and West Indies,' 1596, and 
to Sir John Harington's translation of 
Ariosto's ' Orlando Furioso ' (1591), the cuts 
in Broughton's ' Concert of Scripture,' 1596, 
and the portraits in Segar's ' Honor, Mili- 
tary and Civile ' (1602), and Milles's ' Cata- 
logue of Honour, or Treasuiy of True 
Nobility ' (1610). 

Rogers's work shows him to have been a 
trained artist in the art of engraving. He 
is mentioned by Francis Meres [q. v.] in 
his ' Palladia Tamia,' 1598 : ' As Lysippus, 
Praxiteles, and Pyrgoteles were excellent 
engravers, so have we these engravers : 
Rogers, Christopher Switzer, and Cure.' 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting (ed. Wornum); 
O'Donoghue's Cat. of Portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved British Por- 
traits; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.; Strutt's Diet, 
of Engravers ; Caulfield's Calcographiana.] 

L. C. 


ROGERS, WILLIAM (1819-1896), edu- 
cational reformer, born in Bloomsbury on 
24 Nov. 1819, was the son of William Lo- 
rance Rogers (d. 1838), a barrister of Lin- 
coln's Inn and a London police magistrate, 
by Georgiana Louisa, daughter of George 
Daniell, Q.C. His father, who owed his 
appointment as magistrate to Sir Thomas 
Plumer [q. v.], was the second sou of Cap- 
tain John Rogers, by Eleanor, a niece of Sir 
Horace Mann [q. v.], and was a direct 
descendant of Captain Thomas Rogers, who 
distinguished himself by repelling the assault 
of a Biscay privateer upon a transport ship 
under his command in 1704 (London Gazette, 
8 Feb. s.a.) 

William was sent to Eton in September 
1830, and was four years under the sway of 
Dr. Keate (Reminiscences, pp. 8-15). From 
Eton he went to Oxford, matriculating from 
Balliol College on 8 March 1837, and gra- 
duating B.A. in 1842 and M.A. in 1844. 
While at Oxford he obtained no academical 
distinction, but became well known on the 
river. He had in May 1837 rowed in the 
Eton boat against Westminster. He took 
an active part in founding the Oxford Uni- 
versity Boat Club, and rowed number four 
in the fourth contest between Oxford and 
Cambridge in 1840. On leaving Oxford he 
went with his mother and sisters on a pro- 
longed tour abroad, staying mainly in Flo- 
rence, and on his return entered the university 
of Durham (October 1842) for theological 
training. Though he had often said that 
nothing would induce him to become a 
London clergyman, he was ordained to his 
first curacy at Fulham on Trinity Sunday 
1843. Rogers, by his independence, soon 
displeased his vicar, who, in the summer 
of 1845, induced Bishop Blomfield to appoint 
him to the perpetual curacy of St. Thomas's, 
Charterhouse, a parish containing ten thou- 
sand people, with an income of 150Z. In 
this district, which he denominated ' Coster- 
mongria,' Rogers remained for eighteen years, 
and devoted himself earnestly to the work 
of ameliorating the social condition of his 
parishioners by means of education. At 
Balliol he had formed intimacies with many 
who subsequently rose to high places in 
church and state, including Lord Coleridge, 
Stafford Northcote, Lord Hobhouse, Dean 
Stanley, Jowett, Archbishop Temple, and 
many others, and he ' eternally dunned ' his 
friends, as he admits, for his great educa- 
tional work, but never for his own advance- 
ment. Within two months of his arrival 
he opened a school for ragamuffins in a black- 
smith's shed. In January 1847 he opened a 
large school building, erected at a cost of 




1,750/., ' which,' he says, ' I eoon put together.' 
In five years' time he was educating eight 
hundred parish children at the new school, 
but was determined to extend his operations. 
He was encouraged by the sympathy of the 
Marquis of Lansdowne, president of the 
council, who in 1852 laid the foundation of 
new buildings in Goswell Street, completed 
in the following year at a cost of 5,500Z. 
Rogers had obtained 80(W. from the council 
of education ; the remainder he raised by his 
private exertions. But before the debt was 
extinguished he had projected another new 
school in Golden Lane, and contrived to 
extract nearly 6,000/. from the government 
for the purpose. This was opened by the 
prince consort on 19 March 1857. Before 
he left St. Thomas's, Charterhouse, the whole 
parish was a network of schools (cf. Remi- 
niscencesand the official reports on the schools 
published by Rogers successively in 1851, 
1854, 1856, and 1857). 

In June 1858 he was appointed by Lord 
Derby a member of the royal commission to 
inquire into popular education. The com- 
mission recommended the extension of the 
state grant on the basis of school attendance, 
and the formation of county and borough 
boards of education. Upon the passing of 
Forster's Act, for which the commission 
had somewhat cautiously prepared the way, 
llogers was in 1870 returned at the head 
of the poll as a representative of the London 
school board. Meanwhile, in 1857, he had 
been appointed chaplain in ordinary to the 
queen, and in 1862 Bishop Tait, formerly his 
tutor at Balliol, gave him a prebendal stall 
at St. Paul's/but ' with no provender attached 
to it.' In the following year, however, Tait 
presented him to the rectory of St. Botolph's, 
Bishopsgate, of which llogers took possession, 
as sixty-third rector, in June 1863. There 
he devoted himself largely to the foundation 
of middle-class schools. His advocacy of 
secular education in these schools, and the 
relegation of doctrinal training to parents 
and clergy, earned him the sobriquet of ' hang 
theology' llogers, and much bitter opposition 
from the religious newspapers. But the work 
went on, and the Cowper Street middle-class 
schools were built at a cost of 20,OOOJ. His 
next important work was the reconstruction 
of Alleyn's great charity at Dulwich, of which 
he was appointed a governor in 1857. The 
sale of a portion of the estate to the London 
and Chatham and London, Brighton, and 
South Coast railways for 100,000/. enabled 
the board, which was greatly under Rogers's 
guidance, to satisfy his aspirations, and on 
21 June 1871 the new school was opened by 
the Prince of Wales. At the same time, in 

Bishopsgate, Rogers was active in the re- 
storation of the church of St. Botolph, and 
at all times, both in his own and adjoining 
parishes, the erection of baths and wash- 
houses and drinking fountains, the extension 
of playgrounds, and the provision of cheap 
meals, industrial exhibitions, picture gal- 
leries, and free libraries had his heartiest 
support. His labours in his own parish culmi- 
nated in the opening of the Bishopsgate In- 
stitute (which combined many of these aids 
to civilisation) upon 24 Xov. 1894. Upon 
the same day (his seventy-fifth birthday) a 
presentation of his portrait, by Arthur S. 
Cope, and of a gift of plate was made to him 
at the Mansion House, in the presence of the 
prime minister (Lord Rosebery), the lord 
chancellor, the lord chief justice, the lord 
mayor, and many other distinguished friends. 
He died at his house in Devonshire Square 
on Sunday, 19 Jan. 1896, and was buried at 
Mickleham, Surrey, on 23 Jan. His sister 
Georgiana, the companion of his ministerial 
life, died at Mickleham on 24 May 1896, 

A man of great social gifts, of broad views, 
and irrepressible humour, Rogers, like his 
lifelong friend Jowett, dispensed a large 
hospitality. Many persons were ready to 
detect the inconsistency between his indiffe- 
rence to church doctrine and his position as 
a beneficiary of the national church. But 
his geniality overcame those of his opponents 
with whom he came into personal contact 
(' He may be an atheist,' said one, ' but he is 
a gentleman'), while the great results he 
achieved disarmed the hostility of the re- 

[The outlines of Kogers's life are graphically 
sketched in his Reminiscences, with portrait, 
London, 1888, 8vo, compiled by the Kev. R. H. 
Hadden, formerly curate at St. Botolph's. See 
also Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1888; Times, 
24 and 27 Jan. 1896, and 26 May 1896 ; Guardian, 
27 Jan. 1896; Spectator, 29 Jan. 1896; Illus- 
trated London News (with portrait), 25 Jan. 
1896.] T. S. 

1875), wood-carver, was born at Dover on 
10 Aug. 1792. He showed an early taste 
for drawing and modelling, and was appren- 
ticed by his parents in 1807 to one McLauch- 
lan of Printing House Square, London (after- 
wards master of the Shipwrights' Company). 
Although possessed of much original skill of 
his own, he was attracted at an early age by 
the beautiful wood carving and modelling of 
Grinling Gibbons [q. v.] His enthusiasm was 
further stimulated by an old wood-carver 
among his fellow- workers, who in his youth 
had worked at Burghley House, where he 




had been associated with men employed on 
the carvings in St. Paul's Cathedral under 
Gibbons himself. Rogers devoted his studies 
to the works of Gibbons, and thoroughly 
mastered that carver's art. Gaining much 
reputation, he was employed by the royal 
family on carvings for Carlton House, Ken- 
sington Palace, and the Pavilion at Brighton. 
His progress was assisted by the collection 
which he made of fine specimens of art. In 
1848 he executed some of his best known 
carvings those in the church of St. Mary-at- 
Hill in the city. In 1850 he was elected on 
the committee for carrying out the scheme of 
the Great Exhibition, and received a com- 
mission from the queen to carve a cradle in 
boxwood in the Italian style, which was ex- 
hibited and much admired at the exhibition 
in 1851. Rogers was awarded both a prize 
and a service medal. Among his innumerable 
wood carvings may be mentioned those exe- 
cuted for the palace of the sultan, Abdul 
Medjid, at Constantinople, and the church of 
St. Michael, Cornhill, in the city. While it 
cannot be said that his works reproduce the 
consummate genius of Gibbons, they have 
great merit in themselves, and are sufficiently 
successful in their imitation to deceive the 
inexperienced eye. Rogers carried his devo- 
tion to the art of Gibbons far enough to 
devise a mode of preserving Gibbons's carvings 
from the ravages of worms and age. His 
method was completely successful, and among 
the carvings thus rescued from destruction 
may be noted those at Belton House, Grant- 
ham, at Melbury, at Chatsworth, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Rogers received 
a pension of 50/. on the civil list, and after a 
long and successful career, he died on 21 March 
1875, in his eighty-third year. He married, 
in April 1824, Miss Mary Johnson, and left a 
numerous family, of whom William Harry 
Rogers (1825-1873) showed great talents in 
designing; Edward Thomas Rogers (1830- 
1884), and Mary Eliza Rogers (b. 1827), who 
resided for many years in the East, and wrote, 
among other essays on oriental life, a well- 
known work, entitled 'Domestic Life in 
Palestine ' (1862). His youngest son, George 
Alfred Rogers (b. 1837), who still survives, 
was the only son who adopted his father's 
profession. A portrait (with a memoir) of 
Rogers appeared in the ' Illustrated London 
News ' for 4 April 1875. 

[Private information.] L. C. 

ROGERS, WOODES (d. 1732), sea- 
captain and governor of the Bahamas, was 
in 1708 appointed captain of the Duke and 
commander-in-chief of the two ships Duke 
and Duchess, private men-of-war fitted out by 

some merchants of Bristol to cruise against 
the Spaniards in the South Sea. Among the 
owners, it is stated, were several quakers 
(SEYEE, Memoirs of Bristol, ii. 559), and 
Thomas Dover [q. v.], who sailed with the ex- 
pedition as second captain of the Duke, presi- 
dent of the council and chief medical officer. 
William Dampier [q. v.] was master of the 
Duke and pilot of the expedition, Rogers, it 
would seem, having no personal experience 
of the Pacific. The crew were of varied 
character, about a third were foreigners, and 
a large proportion of the rest, landsmen 
' tailors, tinkers, pedlars, fiddlers, and hay- 
makers.' The ships themselves were ' very 
crowded and pestered, their holds full of 
provisions, and between decks encumbered 
with cables, much bread, and altogether in 
a very unfit state to engage an enemy.' 
They sailed from King Road on 2 Aug. 
1708, and, after touching at Cork, steered for 
the Canary Islands, Rogers, on the way, 
suppressing a dangerous mutiny by seizing 
the ringleader with the assistance of the 
officers, who were unusually numerous and 
making ' one of his chief comrades whip him, 
which method I thought best for breaking 
any unlawful friendship amongst them.' Oft' 
Tenerife they captured a small Spanish bark 
laden with wine and brandy, which they 
added to their own stores, and touching at 
St Vincent of the Cape Verd Islands, and 
Angra dos Reis on the coast of Brazil, they 
got round Cape Horn in the beginning of Ja- 
nuary 1708-9, be ing driven by a violent storm 
as far south as latitude 61 53', ' which,' wrote 
Rogers, ' for aught we know is the furthest 
that any one has yet been to the southward.' 
But the men had suffered greatly from cold, 
wet, and insufficient clothing, and Rogers re- 
solved to make Juan Fernandez, the exact 
position of which was still undetermined, 
but which he fortunately reached on 31 Jan. 

It was dark when they came near the 
land, and seeing a light, they lay to, think- 
ing that it might come from an enemy's 
ship. In the morning, however, no strange 
ship was to be seen, and Dover, going on 
shore in the boat, brought off a man dressed 
in goatskins and speaking English with 
difficulty. This was the celebrated Alexan- 
der Selkirk [q. v.], who had been marooned 
there more than four years before, and, being 
now recognised by Dampier as an old ship- 
mate and good sailor, was appointed by 
Rogers a mate of the Duke. 

After refitting at Juan Fernandez, they 
cruised off the coast of Peru for some months, 
capturing several small vessels and one 
larger one in attacking which Rogers's 
brother Thomas was killed by a shot through 





the head and sacking and ransoming the 
town of Guayaquil. They then went north, 
and on 21 Dec., off the coast of California, 
captured a rich ship from Manila, in en- 
gaging which Rogers was severely wounded 
by a bullet in the mouth, which smashed 
his upper jaw and lodged there, causing him 
much pain till it was extracted six months 
later. From the prisoners he learnt that 
another ship, larger and richer, had sailed 
from Manila in company with them, but had 
separated from them. This they sighted on 
the 26th, but it was not till the 27th that 
their tender, the Marquis, an armed prize, 
and the Duchess were able to engage her, 
the Duke being still a long way off, and 
nearly becalmed. They were beaten off 
with much loss, and when, on the next day, 
the Duke got up to her, she too was beaten 
off, Rogers receiving another severe wound, 
this time in the foot, ' part of my heel bone/ 
he says, ' being struck out and ankle cut 
above half through.' After this they crossed 
the Pacific, refitted and took in some fresh 
provisions at Guam, and again at Batavia 
(June 1710). In the beginning of October 
they sailed for the Cape of Good Hope, 
which they reached on 27 Dec., and, sailing 
thence with the Dutch convoy in April, 
arrived in the Downs on 1 Oct. 1711. 

In the following year Rogers published 
his journal under the title of 'A Cruising 
Voyage round the World' (cr. 8vo, 1712; 
2nd ed. 1718), a work of great interest and 
of a quaint humour that renders it delight- 
ful reading. In many respects the voyage 
was a notable one, but in none more than 
in this, that with a mongrel crew, and 
with officers often insubordinate and even 
mutinous, good order and discipline were 
maintained throughout ; and though many 
men were lost by sickness, especially from an 
infection caught at Guayaquil, they suffered 
little or nothing from scurvy, the disease 
which in the next generation proved so fatal 
to seamen. Financially, too, the voyage was 
a success, and seems to have placed Rogers 
in easy circumstances, so that in 1717 he was 
able to rent the Bahama Islands from the 
lords proprietors for twenty-one years. At 
the same time he obtained a commission as 

He arrived at Nassau in July 1718, when 
he found that the place and the islands 
generally were a nest of pirates, to the 
number, he estimated, of more than two 
thousand. These, under the leadership of 
Charles Vane and Edward Teach [q. v.], re- 
sented the prospect of disturbance by a 
settled government. Moreover, with the 
crews of his own ships, private men-of-war, 

and the inhabitants of Nassau whose loyalty 
was doubtful Rogers could muster only 
three hundred armed men. And the situa- 
tion was rendered more difficult by a Spanish 
protest against the legal occupation of the 
islands, and threats of an attack by fifteen 
hundred Spaniards. Rogers bore up against 
the difficulties with undaunted courage r 
set the pirates at defiance, and in Decem- 
ber 1718 hanged ten of them on his own 
responsibility, without any valid commis- 
sion. A few months later he ' was forced 
to condemn and hang a fellow for robbing 
and burning a house.' ' If,' he added, ' for 
want of lawyers our forms are something 
deficient, I am fully satisfied we have not 
erred in justice.' But the home government 
gave him no support, he had no money, no 
force, and the king's ships would not come 
near him ; and in the end of February 1720-1 
he left for England, his place being tem- 
porarily filled by ' Mr. Fairfax, a kinsman of 
Colonel Bladen's,' presumably Martin Bladen 
[q. v.] The government sent out a successor, 
George Phenney, who maintained himself for 
eight years, at the end of which he was. 
superseded by Rogers, who arrived on 25 Aug. 
1729 with a commission dated 18 Oct. 1728, 
appointing him ' captain general and go- 
vernor-in-chief over the Bahama Islands.' 
He died at Nassau on 16 July 1732 (Gent. 
Mag. 1732, p. 979). He was married and 
left issue. 

[The chief authority is Rogers's Cruising 
Voyage round the World. The original edition 
is extremely rare, but there is one copy in the 
British Museum (G. 15783) ; another copy, from 
the library of George III, which appears in the 
Catalogue (303 h. 8), is in reality only the title- 
page and introduction, bound up with the se- 
cond volume of E. Cooke's Voyage to the South 
Sea (1712). Cooke was first lieutenant of the 
Duchess and afterwards captain of the Marquis, 
and published his account of the voyage, in two 
volumes, just before Rogers. It is altogether an 
inferior book ; its second volume is for the 
most part a hydrographical description of the 
ports visited. The account of Rogers's later 
life is to be found in the correspondence in 
the Public Record Office, Board of Trade, 
Bahamas, vols. i. ii. and iii. ; see also Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. x. 107, referring to Sloane MS. 
4459, No. 29.] J. K. L. 

1859), poet, was born at Manchester on 
20 Jan. 1809. At the age of thirteen he 
left school and began work in a mercantile 
firm, but was afterwards placed with a soli- 
citor. Law being distasteful, he opened in 
1834 a bookshop in Manchester, which he 
carried on until 1841. The next few years 
were devoted to literary work, and in 1849 




he was appointed registrar of the Manchester 
cemetery at Harpurhey. He was a clever 
amateur actor, was president for some years 
of the Manchester Shakespearean Society, 
and was for a short time on the staff of 
the Manchester Theatre Royal. In youth he 
had written a play in three acts, called ' The 
Baron of Manchester,' which was produced 
at a local theatre. He also lectured on lite- 
rary and educational subjects. 

From early years he was an eager, desul- 
tory reader, and soon became a writer of 
verse, but had enough discretion to destroy 
most of his juvenile efforts. He first ap- 
peared in print in 1826 in the ' Manchester 
Guardian,' and in the following year wrote 
for the ' Liverpool Kaleidoscope.' In 1828 he 
joined John Hewitt in editing the ' Phoenix, 
or Manchester Literary Journal,' a creditable 
performance, which lasted only a few months. 
He was joint-editor of the ' Falcon, or Jour- 
nal of Literature,' Manchester, 1831 ; and 
edited the 'Oddfellows' Magazine' from 1841 
to 1848; the ' Chaplet, a Poetical Offering 
for the Lyceum Bazaar,' 1841, and the ' Fes- 
tive Wreath,' 1842 (both published at Man- 

Chronic rheumatism disabled him about 
1855 from continuing his duties as registrar. 
He afterwards kept a tavern in Newton 
Street, Ancoats, Manchester, and in 1857 
was master of a school at Accrington. In 
the succeeding year he was awarded a govern- 
ment pension of 50/. ; then he retired to the 
Isle of Man, where he died on 15 Oct. 1859, 
and was interred at Kirk Braddan, near 
Douglas. His wife was Mary Anne, born 
Horabin, by whom he left several children. 

His separate publications were: 1. 'Rhyme, 
Romance, and Revery,' London, 1840 ; 2nd 
edit. 1852. 2. 'A Voice from the Town, 
and other Poems,' 1843. 3. ' The Wandering 
Angel, and other Poems,' 1844. 4. 'Poetical 
Works,' 1850, )with portrait. 5. ' Flowers 
for all Seasons ' (verses and essays), 1854. 
6. ' Musings in Many Moods,' 1859, which 
contains most of the poems in the preceding 
volumes. His works, though pleasing, lack 
originality and vigour. 

[Oddfellows' Quarterly Magazine, January 
1847 (with portrait); Procter's Literary Remi- 
niscences, 1860 (portrait); Procter's Bygone 
Manchester; Manchester Weekly Times Supple- 
ment, 3 June 1871 (article by J. Dawson); 
Lithgow's Life of J. C. Prince, p. 132 ; informa- 
tion supplied by Mr. G. C. Yates, F.S.A.] 

C. W. S. 

ROGET, PETER MARK (1779-1869), 
physician and savant, born in Broad Street, 
Soho, London, on 18 Jan. 1779, was only son 
of John Roget, a native of Geneva, who was 

pastor of the French protestant church in 
Threadneedle Street. His mother, Cathe- 
rine, was only surviving sister of Sir Samuel 
Romilly. His father died in 1783 at Geneva, 
and he was brought up by his mother, from 
whom he inherited his systematic habit of 
mind. Mrs. Roget took up her residence in 
Kensington Square in the family of a Mr. 
Chauvet of Geneva, who kept a private school, 
which young Roget attended. He studied 
mathematics on his own account unaided, 
and made considerable progress. In 1793 
the mother and her children removed to 
Edinburgh, where Roget, then fourteen 
years old, was entered at the university. 
In the summer of 1795 he went for a tour 
in the highlands with his uncle Romilly 
and M. Dumont, the friend of Mirabeau. He 
entered the medical school of the Edinburgh 
University in the winter session of the same 
year, and after recovering in 1797 from an 
attack of typhus fever, which he caught in 
the wards of the infirmary, he graduated 
M.D. on 25 June 1798, being then only nine- 
teen years of age. The title of his graduation 
thesis was ' De Chemicse Affinitatis Legibus.' 
He was subsequently a pupil in the London 
medical schools of Baillie, Cruikshank, Wil- 
son, Heberden, and Home. 

In 1798 Roget proved his powers of obser- 
vation by writing a letter to Dr. Beddoes 
on the non-prevalence of consumption among 
butchers, fishermen, &c., which Beddoes pub- 
lished in his ' Essay on the Causes, &c., of 
Pulmonary Consumption ' (London, 1799). 
In 1799 he sent to Davy a communica- 
tion on the effects of the respiration of the 
newly discovered gas, nitrous oxide, and 
the communication appeared in Davy's ' Re- 
searches ' (1800). In October 1800 Roget 
spent six weeks with Jeremy Bentham, who 
consulted him upon a scheme which he was 
devising for the utilisation of the sewage of 
the metropolis. In 1802 he became travel- 
ling tutor to two sons of John Philips, a 
wealthy merchant of Manchester. In the 
summer they proceeded to Geneva, having 
for their travelling companion Lovell Edge- 
worth, half-brother to Maria Edgeworth, the 
authoress. The tour terminated owing to the 
rupture of the peace of Amiens, and Roget 
was detained at Geneva as a prisoner on 
parole. He successfully pleaded his rights as 
a citizen of Geneva by virtue of his descent 
from Genevese ancestors, and was released. 
After a long detour, made necessary by the 
military operations of the French, he and 
his pupils sailed for England, reaching 
Harwich on 22 Nov. 1803. After a brief 
visit in 1804 to Edinburgh with a view to 
pursuing his studies, he became private physi- 


cian to the Marquis of Lansdowne, whom he 
accompanied to Harrogate and Bowood. 

In his twenty-sixth year, on the death of 
Dr. Thomas Percival [q.v.j, Roget was ap- 
pointed in 1805 physician to the infirmary 
at Manchester, and he became one of the 
founders of the Manchester medical school. 
In the spring of 1806 he gave a course of lec- 
tures on physiology to the pupils at the infir- 
mary. In November 1 806 he accepted the ap- 
pointment of private secretary to Charles, vis- 
count Howick (afterwards Earl Grey), then 
foreign secretary ; but, disliking the duties, 
he resigned in a month and returned to Man- 
chester. While in London he had attended 
some of Abernethy's lectures at St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital. In 1807 he delivered a 
popular course of lectures on the physiology 
of the animal kingdom at the rooms of the 
Manchester Philosophical and Literary So- 
ciety, of which he was a vice-president. In 
October 1808 he resigned his post at the 
infirmary and migrated to London. There 
he pursued a career of almost unexampled 
activity for nearly half a century, engaging 
with indomitable energy in scientific lec- 
turing, in work connected with medical 
and scientific societies, or in scientific re- 
search. In London he first resided in Ber- 
nard Street, Russell Square, whence he re- 
moved to 18 Upper Bedford Place. 

Admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians on 3 March 1809, Roget delivered 
in the spring of that and the following year 
popular lectures on animal physiology at the 
Russell Literary and Scientific Institution in 
Bloomsbury. In October 1809 he projected 
the Northern Dispensary, which was opened 
in the following June with Roget as its phy- 
sician. The active duties of this office he 
performed gratuitously for eighteen years. In 
1810 he began to lecture on the theory and 
practice of physic at the theatre of anatomy in 
Great Windmill Street, in conjunction with 
Dr. John Cooke, who two years afterwards re- 
signed him his share of the undertaking. He 
then delivered two courses of lectures a year 
until 1815. In 1820 he was appointed phy- 
sician to the Spanish embassy, and in 1823 
physician to the Milbank penitentiary during 
an epidemic of dysentery. In the autumn 
of 1826 he commenced lecturing at the new 
medical school in Aldersgate Street. His 
introductory lecture was published. In 1827 
he was commissioned by the government to 
inquire into the water-supply of the metro- 
polis, and published a report next year. In 
1833 he was nominated by John Fuller, the 
founder, the first holder of the Fullerian 
professorship of physiology at the Royal 
Institution, where, as at the London Institu- 

o Roget 

tion, he had already lectured frequently on 
animal physiology. He held the Fullerian 
professorship for three years, and in his lec- 
tures during 1835 and 1836 confined himself 
to the external senses. 

Meanwhile some of Roget's energy had 
been devoted to other fields. He always 
cultivated a native aptitude for mechanics. 
In 1814 he had contrived a sliding rule, so 
graduated as to be a measure of the powers 
of numbers, in the same manner as the scale 
of Gunter was a measure of their ratios. It 
is a logo-logarithmic rule, the slide of which 
is the common logarithmic scale, while the 
fixed line is graduated upon the logarithms 
of logarithms. His paper thereon, which 
also describes other ingenious forms of the 
instrument, was communicated by Dr. Wol- 
laston to the Royal Society, and read on 
17 Nov. 1814. The communication led, on 
16 March 1815, to his election as a fellow of 
the society. On 30 Nov. 1827 he succeeded 
Sir John Herschel in the office of secretary 
to the society, retiring in 1849. He not only 
edited, while secretary, the 'Proceedings' 
both of the society and council, but prepared 
for publication the abstracts of papers. 
This labour he performed from 1827 to his 
retirement. He was father of the Royal 
Society Club at the time of his death. 

On many other literary and scientific so- 
cieties Roget's active mind left its impress. 
From 1811 to 1827 he acted as one of the 
secretaries of the Medico-Chirurgical So- 
ciety ; he was one of the earliest promoters 
of the society, and was vice-president in 
1829-30. He was a founder of the Society 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and 
wrote for its ' Library of Useful Knowledge' 
a series of treatises on ' electricity,' ' gal- 
vanism,' 'magnetism,' and 'electro-magnet- 
ism,' during 1827, 1828, and 1831. On 
24 June 1831 he was elected, speciali gra- 
tia, fellow of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians, and in the following May he delivered 
the Gulstonian lectures on 'The Laws of 
Sensation and Perception.' He held the 
office of censor in the college in 1834 and 
1835. Roget was a frequent attendant at 
the meetings of the British Association for 
over thirty years, and at an early meeting 
filled the chair of the physiological section. 
He wrote in 1834 one of the Bridgewater 
treatises on ' Animal and Vegetable Phy- 
siology considered with reference to Natural 
Theology;' it was reissued in 1839, 1840, 
and 1862. 

In 1837 and the subsequent years he took 
an active part in the establishment of the 
university of London, of the senate of which 
he remained a member until his death ; in 



June 1839 he was appointed examiner in 
physiology and comparative anatomy. 

After 1840 he retired from professional 
practice and at first mainly devoted himself 
to compiling his useful ' Thesaurus of English 
Words and Phrases, classified and arranged 
so as to facilitate the expression of ideas, and 
assist in literary composition ' (1852, 8vo). 
During his life the work reached its twenty- 
eighth edition, and it is still widely used. 
Many generations of literary men and jour- 
nalists have testified to its practical utility. 
An edition of 1879, embodying^Roget's latest 
corrections, was edited by his son. 

Roget always used Feinaigle's system of 
mnemonics, and spent much time in his 
last years in attempts to construct a calcu- 
lating machine. He also made some pro- 
gress towards the invention of a delicate 
balance, in which, to lessen friction, the 
fulcrum was to be within a small barrel 
floating in water. He was fond of exercising 
his ingenuity in the construction and solu- 
tion of chess problems, of which he formed a 
large collection. Some of these figured in 
the ' Illustrated London News.' In the 
' London and Edinburgh Philosophical Ma- 
gazine' for April 1840, there is a 'De- 
scription of a Method ' which he invented, 
' of moving the knight over every square of 
the chessboard without going twice over 
any one, commencing at a given square and 
ending at any other given square of a different 
colour.' The complete solution of this pro- 
blem was never effected before. To assist 
persons interested in chess, he contrived and 
published in 1845 a pocket chessboard, called 
the ' Economic Chessboard.' 

He died at West Malvern, in the ninety- 
first year of his age, on 12 Sept. 1869. In 
1824 he married the only daughter of ! 
Jonathan Hobson, a Liverpool merchant. ! 
Mrs. Roget died in the spring of 1833, leaving \ 
two children. One of them, John Lewis j 
Roget, is author of the ' History of the Old j 
Water Colour Society' (1890). A portrait 
of Roget was engraved by Eddis. 

Besides the works mentioned, Roget was 
author of many able papers in encyclopaedias, 
notably in the sixth and seventh editions of 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' in the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Metropolitana," Rees's Cyclopaedia,' 
and the ' Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine ' 
(1832). He contributed important articles 
to the ' Edinburgh Review,' especially those 
upon Hiiber's works on ants and bees (vols. 
xx. and xxx.), and wrote in the ' Quarterly ' 
on Ampere's ' Observations ' (1826). His 
paper on the ' Optical Deception in the Ap- 
pearance of the Spokes of a Wheel seen 
through Vertical Apertures ' was published in 

the ' Philosophical Transactions ' (1826;, and 
essays on ' Quarantine ' and' Pauper Lunatics ' 
in the 'Parliamentary Review' (1826 and 
1828). Many memoirs byhim appeared in the 
'Annals of Philosophy ' and ' Medico-Chirur- 
gical Transactions,' and other periodicals. 

[Jackson's Guide to the Literature of Botany; 
Britten and Boulger's Biogr. Index of British 
and Irish Botanists ; Allibone's Critical Dic- 
tionary of English Literature ; Lancet, 25 Sept. 
1869 ; Proceedings of the .Royal Society of 
London, vol. xviii. 1869-70 ] W. W. W. 

RICHARD, first baron 1709-1794; ROBIN- 
SON-MOKBIS, MATTHEW, second baron, 1713- 

ROKEBY, JOHN (d. 1573?), canonist, 
was probably second son of Sir Robert 
Rokeby of Rokeby Morton (Harl. Soc. Publ. 
xvi. 268). He joined St. Nicholas's Hostel, 
Cambridge, where he graduated bachelor of 
civil law in 1530, and doctor in 1533. He 
was engaged as a tutor at Cambridge (ELLIS, 
Original Letters, 3rd ser. ii. 243). On 11 Feb. 
1536-7 he was admitted a member of Doc- 
tors' Commons (CooTE, Cimlians, p. 33), and 
practised in the court of arches and the ex- 
chequer court of York. According to the state- 
ment of his nephew, Ralph Rokeby (d. 1596, 
(see under ROKEBY, RALPH, 1527P-1596; 
and WHITAKEE, Rkhmondshire, i. 173), he 
was counsel for Henry VIII in the divorce, 
and so confounded the pope by his canon law 
that Henry offered him the bishopric of 
London, which he declined. He became 
vicar-general of York. According to his 
nephew, he held for thirty-two years the 
post of 'justice' in York. During that 
period no sentence of his was annulled on 
appeal (lift.) In May 1541 he was appointed 
a commissioner for the visitation of All 
Souls' College, Oxford (STEYPE, Cranmer, 
p. 130). In 1545 he became chaunter or 
precentor of York, with the prebend of 
Driffield attached. On 7 Sept. 1558 he was 
admitted prebendary of Dunham in South- 
well Cathedral. Both these preferments he 
held till his death (WOOD, Athena O.von. ii. 
719 ; LE NEVE, Fasti). From the accession 
of Edward VI to 1572 he was a member of 
the king's council in the north (THOMAS, Hist . 
Notes, i. 461). In later years he was sent as 
commissioner into Scotland with Sir Thomas 
Gargrave and others to reform the law of the 
marches . Rokeby probably di ed before 10 Dec . 
1573 (cf. LE NEVE, iii. 156 with p. 419). 

[Authorities as in text; Burners Reformation, 
ii. 331-3 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ; Grindal's 
Remains (Parker Soc.), p. 151; Retrospective 
Review, new ser. ii. 484; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
12th Rep. pt. iv. p. 84.] W. A. S. 




ROKEBY, RALPH (1527 ?-l 596), master 
of requests, born about 1527, was the second 
son of Thomas Rokeby of Mortham, York- 
shire, by his wife Jane, daughter of Robert 
Constable of Cliffe in the same county 
(CEconomia Rokebeiorum, f. 313). His uncle 
John is noticed separately. Another uncle, 
Ralph Rokeby (d. 1556), was called to the 
degree of serjeant-at-law in 1552, fought 
against Wyatt in the following year, and 
declined the chief-justiceship of common 
leas in 1555, when Sir Richard Morgan 
<j. v.] was disabled by insanity. This Ralph 
"okeby's son, also named RALPH ROKEBY 
(d. 1575), was educated at Queens' College, 
Cambridge, and then became a member of 
Lincoln's Inn, where he formed a friendship 
with John Stubbe (1543-1600 ?) [q. v.] ; he 
was subsequently appointed secretary of the 
council of the north, and was described as 
' the most learned canonist of his time '(Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1598-1601, p. 205). 
He was buried at Belfreys, Yorkshire, on 
12 March 1594-5. By his second wife, Joan, 
daughter of John Portington, he left a daugh- 
ter, Anne, who became second wife of Sir 
John Hotham [q. v.l Rokeby was author 
of ' CEconomia Rokebeiorum,' which he 
wrote in 1565 and revised in 1593 (a copy, 
made by Joseph Hunter, who calls it ' a most 
curious piece of family history,' is in Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 24470, ff. 294-333, and it 
has been printed in Whitaker's ' Richmond- 
shire,' i. 158-80). 

The subject of this article, Ralph, son of 
Thomas, was educated at Cambridge and 
Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the 
bar. In 1566 he was sent on the queen's 
service to Ireland, and was recalled on 
19 Feb. 1568-9 (ib. Ireland, 1509-1573, p. 
402). On 1 Jan. 1569-70, however, he 
was appointed chief justice of Connaught 
and entrusted with the difficult task of in- 
troducing English law into that province. 
He soon confessed to Cecil that the people 
of Connaught ' were unwilling to embrace 
justice,' and urged that ' it must be valiant 
and courageous captains and hardy soldiers 
that must make a way for law and justice, 
or else farewell to Ireland' (ib.) At the 
same time he applied for three months' leave 
in order to marry, which was granted a year 
later ; but no marriage took place. He is 
said to have represented the borough of 
Huntingdon in the parliament which met on 
2 April 1571, but the official returns are 
wanting. In October 1571 he was recom- 
mended for the lord-chancellorship of Ire- 
land by Loftus, and again in 1573 by Fitz- 
William, but was not appointed. He be- 
came bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1572, and 

a master of requests about 1576; in 1580 he 
appears as master of St. Catherine's Hospital, 
near the Tower (ib. Dom. 1547-80, p. 658). 
He was principally employed in searching 
for and examining papists (ib. passim) ; he 
served on the special commissions of oyer and 
terminer which indicted William Parry (d. 
1585) [q. v.] in February 1584-5 and Babing- 
ton in September 1586. Early in 1588 he sub- 
scribed 301. for the defence of the kingdom 
against the Spanish armada, and in 1589 was 
on a commission for the sale of crown lands. 
He took part in the trials of Philip, earl of 
Arundel, in March 1588-9, of Sir John 
Perrot in March 1591-2, of Patrick Cullen 
and of Rodrigo Lopez in February 1593-4. 
He died on 14 June 1596, and was buried in 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, where there is an 
inscription to his memory. By his will, a 
copy of which is extant in Addit. MS. 24436, 
f. 87, he left sums of 100J. to Christ's Hos- 
pital, to the poor in Greenwich, to the poor 
scholars of Oxford and of Cambridge, to the 
prisoners in the Fleet, Newgate, King's 
Bench, Marshalsea, and other prisons. He 
appointed Lord-chancellor Egerton his execu- 
tor an office which is said to have been 
worth 10,OOOJ. to the latter. 

[CEconomia Rokebeiorum in Addit. MS. 24470, 
ff. 294-333 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. and Irish ; 
Familise Minorum Grentium(Harl. Soc.), pp. 587- 
590 ; Cal. Irish Fiants in llthEep. Dep.-Keeper 
of Kecords in Ireland ; Foster's Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees; Whitaker's Richmondshire, i. 177, 178, 
182; Willis's Notitia Parl. iii. 81; Dugdale's 
Orig. Jurid. pp. 260-2 ; Lascelles's Liber Mu- 
nerum Hib. ; Strype's Works, index ; Egerton 
Papers, pp. 110, 308; Ducarel's St. Catherine's 
Hospital, p. 85 ; Bagwell's Ireland under the 
Tudors, ii. 170 ; Retrospective Review, new ser. 
ii. 487 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr.] A. F. P. 

justiciar of Ireland, was probably son of 
Thomas de Rokeby, who died in 1318. He 
first comes into notice as the squire who, 
having been a prisoner with the Scots and 
released by them, was able to earn the re- 
ward of 100Z. per annum offered by the 
young king, Edward III, in July 1327, to 
the man who should bring him in sight of 
the enemy. Edward knighted Rokeby on 
the spot, and on 28 Sept. made him the pro- 
mised grant of lands worth 1001. a year 
(Fcedera, ii. 717). Froissart, in narrating the 
incident, calls the squire Thomas Housagre, 
which is the equivalent of Whittaker ; but 
the royal grant is conclusive as to Thomas's 
true name. On 17 Jan. 1331 Rokeby was 
going beyond sea with Henry Percy (Cal. 
Pat. Rolls, Edward III, ii. 42). In 1336 
he was serving in Scotland, and from 8 June 




to 26 Oct. was in command of the royal 
escort (Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, 
ii. 367). On 26 Oct. 1336 he received the 
charge of Stirling Castle, and in 1338 that 
of Edinburgh also ; he retained both offices 
till the recovery of these places by the Scots 
in 1341-2 (ib. ii. 1249, 1284, 1323, 1383 and 
pp. 364-8). During 1342 Rokeby was em- 
ployed on the Scottish marches (tb. ii. 1387, 
1393). In the following year he was ap- 
pointed sheriff of Yorkshire, an office which 
he held for seven years ; he had held it pre- 
viously in 1337 (DRAKE, Eboracum, p. 352). 
As sheriff of Yorkshire he was one of the 
leaders of the English at the battle of 
Neville's Cross, and ' gave the Scots such a 
draught as they did not care to taste again ' 
(Chron. de Lanercost, pp. 347-8, 351, Ban- 
natyne Club). Rokeby was charged to bring 
David Bruce to London in December 1346, 
and at the same time had a grant of 200/. a 
year out of the issues of the county of 
York for his rank of banneret till provided 
.with lands of that value in Scotland or else- 
where (Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, 
ii. 1474-5; Fcedera, iii. 98). In 1347 he 
was employed in Scotland, and in 1348 was 
the king's escheator in Yorkshire (ib. iii. 
113, 180). 

In December 1349 Rokeby was made 
justiciar of Ireland. In this office he was 
distinguished by his regard for equity and 
his zeal in checking the extortion of 
officials. In the Irish annals, printed in the 
Chartulary of St. Mary, Dublin ' (ii. 392), 
he is described as ' one that did punish very 
well Irishmen and paid very well for his 
victuals, and would commonly say that he 
would eat and drink of cups made of timber, 
and pay gold and silver therefor rather than 
to extort the poor ' (cf. Book of Howth, p. 
166). On 8 July 1355 he was succeeded as 
justiciar by Maurice FitzThomas, earl of 
Desmond [q. v.] Rokeby was a witness to 
the treaties concluded with Edward Baliol at 
Roxburghe on 20 Jan. 1356. Soon afterwards 
Desmond died, and on 26 July Rokeby was 
again appointed justiciar of Ireland (Fcedera, 
iii. 306, 317-21, 332, 335). He, however, 
died that same year at the castle of Kilkea 
in Kildare (Annals of Loch Ce, ii. 15 ; Chart. 
St. Mary, Dublin, ii. 393). Rokeby had 
numerous grants of land for his good ser- 
vices in Yorkshire, Westmoreland, Ireland, 
and elsewhere (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, 
ii. 214, 224, iii. 472; Cal. Documents relating 
to Scotland, ii. 1249; Fcedera, iii. 399). 

According to the accepted pedigrees, Roke- 
by was grandfather of Thomas de Rokeby (d. 
1418) [see below] (FOSTER, Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees ; WHITTAKER, Loidis and Elmet, ii. 

253). But these two pedigrees do not agree, 
nor does either seem satisfactory. Thomas 
Rokeby, the justiciar, is commonly referred 
to in contemporary documents as ' 1'oncle,' 
to distinguish him from Thomas Rokeby 
' le neveu,' the son of his brother Robert. 
Thomas Rokeby ' le neveu ' is mentioned 
frequently in connection with his uncle 
from 1336 onwards. He served in France 
in 1360, and in 1379-80 was warden of 
Lochmaben Castle (Cal. Documents relat- 
ing to Scotland, ii. 1236, and p. 367, iii. 
279,293; Fcedera, iii. 332, 483). Thomas 
Rokeby, 'le neveu,' was more probably 

THOMAS DE ROKEBY (d. 1418), soldier, 
given in pedigrees as grandson of the uncle, 
This Thomas represented Yorkshire on the 
parliament of 1406, and was sheriff of the 
county in 1407-8 and in 1411-12. When 
Henry Percy, first earl of Northumberland, 
crossed the border in January 1408, Rokeby 
held the passage of the Niddagainst him, near 
Knaresborough. Northumberland turned 
aside and took up a position at Bramham 
Moor, where Rokeby attacked and routed 
him on 19 Feb. 1408. Rokeby was rewarded 
with Northumberland's manor of Spofforth, 
and with Linton and Leathley for life (Fcedera, 
viii. 529, orig. edit.) He served in France 
in 1417. and, according to Foster, died next 
year. By a daughter of Sir Ralph Ewere 
he was ancestor of the later family of Roke- 
by, several members of which are separately 
noticed (Cont. Eulogium Historiarum, iii. 
411; WALSINGHAM, Hist. Angl. ii. 278; 
WYNTOUN, Chron. Scotland, iii. 2588 ; Gesta 
Henrici Quinti, p. 270 ; DRAKE, Eboracum, 
p. 352 ; WYLIE, Hist. Henry IV, iii. 147, 
154-8 ; RAMSAY, Lancaster and York, i. 112). 

[Chron. deMelsa, iii. 62 (Rolls Ser.); Fcedera 
(Record edit.) ; Book of Howth ap. Carew MSS. ; 
Froissart, i. 61-2, 273-5, ed. Luce ; Cal. Inquisit. 
post mortem, ii. 201-2 ; Surtees Soc. xli. 40 ; 
Bolls of Parliament, ii. 109, 113, 115, 207; 
Whittaker's Richmondshire, i. 162-3; Gilbert's 
Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 205, 211 ; other autho- 
rities quoted.] C. L. K. 

ROKEBY, SIR THOMAS (1631 P-1699), 
judge, second son of Thomas Rokeby of 
Burnby in the East Riding of Yorkshire, a 
Cromwellian officer, who fell at the battle 
of Dunbar on 3 Sept. 1650, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert, and sister of Sir William 
Bury of Grantham, Lincolnshire, was born 
about 1631. His father, Thomas Rokeby, 
was eldest son of William Rokeby of Hotham 
in the East Riding, by his cousin Dorothy, 
daughter of William Rokeby of Skiers, and 
niece of Ralph Rokeby (d. 1595) [see under 
ROKEBY, RALPH, 1527 P-1596J. 




Thomas Rokeby. the future judge, was ad- 
mitted on 20 June 1646 a pensioner at 
Catharine Hall, Cambridge, where he ma- 
triculated in the following month, graduated 
B.A. in January 1649-50, and at Christmas 
following was elected to a fellowship at his 
college, which, however, he resigned in 
Michaelmas 1651. He had meanwhile, 
17 May 1650, been admitted a student at 
Gray's Inn, where in June 1657 he was 
called to the bar, and in 1676 elected ancient. 
A strong presbyterian, and possessed of large 
estate and influence at York, he exerted 
himself on behalf of the Prince of Orange in 
November 1688, and on the change of dynasty 
was rewarded with a puisne judgeship in the 
common pleas, 8 May 1689, having received 
the degree of serjeant-at-law four days before. 
He was knighted at Whitehall on 31 Oct. 
following, and was removed on 28 Oct. 
1695 to the king's bench. He was a member 
of the commissions which tried, 23-4 March 
1695-6, Sir John Friend [q. v.] and Sir 
William Parkyns [q. v.] He died on 26 Nov. 
1699 at his rooms in Serjeant's Inn. His 
remains were interred on 8 Dec. in the me- 
morial chapel of his ancestor, William Rokeby 
[q. v.], archbishop of Dublin, in the church 
at Sandal, near Doncaster. His wife, Ursula, 
daughter of James Danby of New Building, 
Thirsk, survived him, and died on 10 Aug. 

Rokeby was a competent judge, and a man 
of profound piety, as abundantly appears 

from his ' Diary,' edited with a memoir b; 
Raine, in Surtees Society's Publications, vol. 
His portrait was painted by G. 


[Diary and Memoir above mentioned ; Fos- 
ter's Gray's Inn Adm. Reg. ; Luttrell's Brief 
Eolation of State Affairs, i. 529, iii. 543, iv. 
587; Howell's State Trials, xiii. 1, 63, 451 ; Le 
Neve's Pedigrees (Harl. Soc.) ; Foster's York- 
shire Pedigrees and Familise Minorum Gentium 
(Harl. Soc.)] J. M. E. 

ROKEBY, WILLIAM (d. 1521), arch- 
bishop of Dublin, born at Kirk Sandall or 
Halifax, was the eldest of the five sons of 
John Rokeby of Kirk Sandall, near Don- 
caster. Both his parents died in 1506 ; his 
brother Sir Richard Rokeby, comptroller to 
Wolsey's household and treasurer of Ireland, 
is buried in the Savoy Chapel, London 
((Economia Rokebeiorum, f. 311). William 
was educated at Rotherham and at a hostel 
in St. Aldate's parish, Oxford, perhaps Broad- 
gates Hall (afterwards Pembroke College), 
where he graduated doctor of canon law. Ac- 
cording to Cooper (Athena Cantabr. i. 25), 
he became fellow of King's Hall (afterwards 
merged in Trinity College), Cambridge. On 

4 Aug. 1487 he was presented to the rectory 
of Kirk Sandall by the monks of Lewes, who 
in 1502 nominated him to the vicarage of 
Halifax. In 1496 he was collated to the 
rectory of Thorpland, Norfolk, and on 5 June 
1501 he was instituted to the rectory of 
Sproatley, Yorkshire, on the presentation of 
the prior and convent of Bridlington; he re- 
signed the living in February 1502-3, receiv- 
ing a retiring pension of 41. a year, and at the 
same time being collated to the stall of St. 
Andrew's at Beverley. In the following June 
he was presented to the free chapel at Ferry- 

In 1507 Rokeby was provided by Julius II 
to the bishopric of Meath in succession to John 
Payne (d. 1506) [q. v.], and was sworn of the 
privy council in Ireland. On 26 Jan. 1511- 
1512 he was transferred to the archbishopric 
of Dublin in succession to Walter Fitz- 
simons [q. v.] On 12 May following he suc- 
ceeded Fitzsimons as lord chancellor of 
Ireland. All the authorities state that he 
was appointed lord chancellor in 1498, but 
the official record is wanting and the state- 
ment is highly improbable. In 1514 he 
brought to a conclusion the long-standing 
disputes between the archbishop and dean 
and chapter of St. Patrick's. On 20 Feb. 
1515-16 he officiated at the christening of 
the Princess Mary at Greenwich. In 1518 
he confirmed the establishment of Maynooth 
College, which had been founded by Gerald, 
earl of Kildare, and drew up rules for its 
government. In the same year he held an 
important provincial synod, in which he en- 
joined the discontinuance of the use of the 
chalice at mass, the payment of tithes, and 
appraisement of the goods of persons dying 
intestate by two valuers appointed by the 
bishop ; he also prohibited the disposal of 
church property by laymen, and the playing 
of football by clergymen, under penalty of 
paying three shillings and fourpence to the 
ordinary, and a similar sum for the repair of 
the parish church. In 1520 he was appointed 
archdeacon of Surrey, and in the same year 
was sent by the Earl of Surrey, on his arrival 
in Ireland, to Waterford to mediate between 
Sir Pierce Butler [q. v.] and the Earl of 
Desmond [cf. HOWARD, THOMAS, third DUKE 
OF NOEFOLK]. He died on 29 Nov. 1521, 
and his body was buried in St. Patrick's, but 
his heart and bowels were interred in the 
choir of the church at Halifax, where they 
have been more than once dug up. By his 
will he left 200/. towards building St. Mary's 
Church at Beverley, and provided for the erec- 
tion of a sepulchral chapel at Sandall, which 
is described as the most perfect specimen 
extant of what mortuary chapels used to be. 




[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer 
(where several of Rokeby's letters to Wolsey are 
calendered), passim ; Cal. Irish State Papers and 
Carew MSS. ; (Economia Rokebeiorum in Addit. 
MS. 24470, ff. 310-11; Ware's Bishops, ed. 
Harris; Brady's Episcopal Succession, i. 234, 
325 ; Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hiberniae ; Lascelles's 
Liber Mun. Hib. ; Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 
25,526; Wood's Athense Oxon.; Monck Mason's 
Hist, of St. Patrick's ; Cogan's Diocese of 
Meath, p. 82 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.-Hib. ; Coote's Civilians, p. 1 6 ; Coxe's 
Hibernia Anglicana ; Bagwell's Ireland under 
the Tudors, i. 131, 290, 291 ; D' Alton's Arch- 
bishops of Dublin, pp. 178-82 ; J. R. OTlana- 
gan's Lord Chancellors of Ireland, pp. 152-7; 
Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees; TestamentaEbora- 
censia (Surtees Soc.), v. 141 ; Whitaker's Loidis 
et Elmete, p. 383 ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, i. 
200; Poulson's Holderness; Watson's Halifax, 
p. 387 ; Blomefield's Norfolk, vii. 99 ; Oliver's 
Beverlac; Manning and Bray's Surrey; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Lansd. MS. 979, ff. 4, 6.] 

A. F. P. 

mayor of London, a native of Rokesley in 
Kent, whence he took his name, was the 
richest goldsmith of his time, and a great 
wool merchant. He appears in the earliest 
extant list of aldermen of the city of Lon- 
don, his name being connected with Dowgate 
ward. In 1264, and again in 1270, he served 
the office of sheriff. In the latter year he 
and his colleague, HenryWaleys, caused a 
new pillory to be erected in the Chepe. 
In 1273 he championed civic purity in a 
violent dispute on the subject of certain 
charters illegally granted to various city 
guilds by the late mayor, Walter Hervey. 
Hervey attempted to instigate the craftsmen 
against the more discreet section of the citi- 
zens, and caused much excitement by collect- 
ing and haranguing mobs in the streets. His 
charters were, however, suppressed and ' cried 
throughout the city.' The next year (June 
1274) Rokesley accompanied the mayor, 
Waleys, to a conference with Edward I in 
Paris, and in July again waited upon the 
king at Montreuil in order to advise upon 
terms of peace between the king and the 
Countess of Flanders. 

Rokesley was appointed mayor in 1274, 
and held that office eight times, comprising the 
years 1274-1281 and 1285. In 1276 he was 
made king's chamberlain, and acted in that 
capacity for two years, and for a short period 
he discharged the functions of coroner and 
' pincerna.' The important post of master 
of the exchange throughout all England 
was conferred upon Rokesley in 1278. The 
office is otherwise described as that of chief 
director of the royal mint. At this period 

great inconvenience was caused by the abun- 
dance of clipped coin. This was called in, and 
a new coinage was circulated under Rokesley's 
superintendence, consisting of sterling half- 
penny and farthing, the silver coins being of 
the fineness commonly known as ' silver of 
Gunthron's Lane.' 

When Ed ward was engaged in the conquest 
of Wales in 1282, Waleys and Rokesley were 
deputed by the city to take an aid of six thou- 
sand marks to the king. Next year they, 
with four others, were the city representa- 
tives at a special parliament held at Shrews- 
bury to conduct the trial of David of Wales. 
Rokesley's eighth mayoralty in 1285 was 
marked by important events in the history 
of London. In the previous year a quarrel 
between two citizens culminated in a duel, 
and one of them, having dangerously wounded 
his opponent, took sanctuary in Bow Church, 
where, not long afterwards, his dead body 
was found under circumstances which sug- 
gested foul play. The king having appointed 
a commission of inquiry, John de Kirkeby, 
the lord treasurer, summoned the mayor, 
aldermen, and citizens to wait upon him at 
the Tower. This peremptory order seems to 
have been issued in neglect of the standing 
rule that forty days' notice of such a summons 
should be given. Under ordinary conditions 
the citizens would have donned gay apparel 
and marched in procession from Barking 
church to the Tower, bearing presents for 
the king's justiciars. On this occasion 
Rokesley went to the church of All Hallows, 
stripping himself of the robes and insignia 
of office, handed the city seal to Stephen 
Aswy, and then proceeded to the Tower as a 
mere private citizen. The lord treasurer was 
highly provoked, and committed Rokesley 
and about eighty other leading citizens to 
prison at the feast of St. Peter. The king 
deposed the mayor, and appointed Ralph de 
Sandwich [q. v.j as custos of the city and its 
liberties. To give a graver colour to the 
offence, it was alleged that the mayor had 
taken bribes of dishonest bakers, who sold 
penny loaves six or seven ounces too light. 
The prisoners were set at liberty in a few 
days, except Aswy, who was lodged in Wind- 
sor Castle. Rokesley died on 13 July 1291 
(Annul. Londin. i. 99 ; ROBERTS, Cal. Gen. i. 
441), and was buried in the monastery of the 
Grey Friars. His monument existed in Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, until the great fire. 
A letter by him is printed in ' Archseologia 
Cantiana,' ii. 233-4. 

By his wife, Avice, Rokesley had two sons, 
Sir Reginald and Sir Richard, who became 
seneschal of Poitouand govern or of Montreuil 
in Picardy (see RYMER, Fcedera, vol. iii. 




passim). The latter's daughter Agnes mar- 
ried Thomas, first baron Poynings, and was 
mother of Michael, second baron Poynings 
[q. v.] Nevertheless the inquisition taken on 
ms death affirmed his heir to be Roger de 
Risslepe, son of Gregory's sister Agnes 
(ROBERTS, Cal. Gen, i. 441). The Rokesley 
arms, which appeared with nearly thirty 
others among the designs in the windows of 
old St. Paul's, were azure a fess gules be- 
tween six shields sable, each charged with a 
lion rampant argent. Rokesley's will, un- 
dated and enrolled in the court of Husting 
on 25 July 1291 (Calendar, ed. Sharpe, i. 
98-9), mentions, among other property in 
London, Canterbury, and Rochester, his 
dwelling-house, with adjoining houses 'to- 
wards Cornhulle,' charged to maintain a 
chantry in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, 
where his wife lies buried ; a ' former dwelling- 
house ' in the parish of All Hallows at the 
Hay towards the Ropery, also charged with 
the maintenance of a chantry in that parish 
church. He possessed eight manors in Kent, 
two in Surrey, and one in Sussex[( Cal. Ing. 
^ post mortem, i. 109)7] After legacies to nu- 
merous relatives, he left the residue of his 
estate to the poor. Rokesley had in his life- 
time built on the site of the modern Bluecoat 
School in London a dormitory for the friars 

[Archseol. Cantiana, vols. ii. and x.-xviii. 
passim ; Hasted's Kent contains many errors in 
the account of the Rokesley family; Parl. Writs, 
passim ; Roberts's Cal. Genealog. i. 441, ii. 757; 
John de Oxenedes (Rolls Ser.), pp. 328, 332 ; 
Annales Londin. apud Ann. Edw. I and Edw. II 
(Rolls Ser.), passim; Liber Albus, ed. Riley; 
Strype's Stow, 1755, ii. 214-15, 486; Sharpe's 
London and the Kingdom, i. 107-22, and au- 
thorities there quoted; Maitland's Hist, of Lon- 
don, 1760, i. 105; Simpson's Gleanings from Old 
St. Paul's, pp. 66, 68.] C. W-H. 

1606). [See ROOKWOOD.] 

1842), antiquary, born on 13 Sept. 1786, was 
the fourth and youngest son of Sir Thomas 
Gage, the fourth baronet of Hengrave Hall, 
Suffolk, by his first wife, Charlotte, daughter 
of Thomas Fitzherbert, esq. of Swinnerton, 
Staffordshire, and of Maria Teresa, daughter 
of Sir Robert Throckmorton, bart. He was 
descended in the female line from Ambrose 
Rookwood [q. v.] Educated in the college 
of the Jesuits at Stonyhurst, Lancashire, he 
afterwards travelled on the continent. On 
his return he studied law in the chambers of 
Charles Butler (1750-1832) [q. v.], the con- 
veyancer, and he was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn on 10 Feb. 1818, but he never j 

^ The 

practised. He was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries on 5 Nov. 1818, and 
he also became a fellow of the Royal Society. 
In 1829 he was elected director of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and he held that post until 
his death. On the death, 31 July 1838, of 
his brother, Robert Joseph Gage Rookwood 
(who had taken the name of Rookwood in 
1799), he inherited the estates of the Rook- 
wood family, with their mansion at Coldham 
Hall in the parish of Stanningfield, near Bury 
St. Edmunds, and he received the royal license 
to assume the name of Rokewode. He died 
suddenly on 14 Oct. 1842, while on a visit to 
his cousin, Thomas Fitzherbert Brockholes, 
at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, and was in- 
terred in the family vault at Stanningfield. 

His works are : 1. ' The History and An- 
tiquities of Hengrave in Suffolk,' London, 
1822, royal 4to, dedicated to the Duke of 
Norfolk. This work is valuable no less for 
its ornamental and useful illustrations than 
for its curious details of private history and 
biography, and of ancient customs and cha- 
racters. 2. ' The History and Antiquities of 
Suffolk, Thingoe Hundred,' London, 1838, 
royal 4to, in a large and highly embellished 
volume, dedicated to the Marquis of Bristol. 

For the Camden Society he edited ' Chro- 
nica Jocelini de Brakelonda, de rebus gestis 
Samsonis Abbatis Monasterii Sancti Ed- 
mundi,' London, 1840, 4to. An English 
translation by T. E. Tomlins appeared in 
1844, under the title of ' Monastic and Social 
Life in the Twelfth Century,' and on Roke- 
wode's book Carlyle based his ' Past and Pre- 
sent ' in 1843 [see JOCELIN DE BRAKELOND]. 

Rokewode was an occasional contributor 
to the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' and to the 
' Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica.' 
In vol. ii. of the latter work he printed an 
ancient genealogy and charters of the Roke- 
wode family. His communications to the 
Society of Antiquaries are enumerated in 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1842, ii. 
659. The more important are (a) ' A Dis- 
sertation on St. ^Ethelwold's Benedictional,' 
an illuminated manuscript of the tenth 
century, in ' Archseologia,' xxiv. 1-117, with 
thirty-two plates ; (6) ' A Description of 
a Benedictional or Pontifical, called Bene- 
dictionarius Robert! Archiepiscopi,' an il- 
luminated manuscript of the tenth century 
in the public library at Rouen, ib. pp. 118- 
136; (c) 'The Anglo-Saxon Ceremonial of 
the Dedication and Consecration of Churches,' 
ib. xxv. 235-74 ; (d) ' Remarks on the Lou- 
terell Psalter,' printed, with six plates, in 
the ' Vetusta Monumenta,' vol. vi. ; (e) ' A 
Memoir on the Painted Chamber in the 
Palace at Westminster,' printed, with four- 




teen plates, in the same volume of ' Vetusta 

A portrait, of which the original by Mrs. 
Carpenter is at Hengrave Hall, has been en- 
graved. There is also an excellent bust by 
II. C. Lucas, which was presented to the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries. A portion of Roke- 
wode's valuable library was sold in London 
on 22 and 23 Dec. 1848. 

[MS. Addit, 19167, f. 265; Aungier's Hist, of 
Isle worth, p. 104* ; London and Dublin Orthodox 
Journal, xv. 276; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
p. 853.1 T. C. 

ROLFE, JOHN (1585-1622), colonist, 
grandson of Eustacius Rolfe, of an old Nor- 
folk family, and son of John Rolfe, who mar- 
"rled, on 24 Sept. 1582, Dorothea Mason, was 
baptised at Heacham, Norfolk, on 6 May 
1585. Representatives of the Rolfe family 
still occupy Heacham Hall. A twin-brother, 
Eustacius, died in childhood. Rolfe married 
in England during 1608, and sailed with his 
wife for Virginia in June 1609. On the 
voyage he was wrecked and cast on the Ber- 
mudas, where a daughter, who died an infant, 
was born to him. The parents reached Vir- 
ginia in May 1610, whereupon the mother 
died. In 1612 Rolfe signalised himself as the 
first Englishman to introduce the regular 
cultivation of tobacco into Virginia. He was 
thus a leading settler, when, on 5 April 1613, 
whether captivated by the grace and beauty 
of the newly converted savage or, as his 
fellow-colonist Hanior wrote, ' for the good 
of the plantation,' and in spite of personal 
scruples, it is impossible to say, he married 

Pocahontas, or Matoaka (1595-1617), was 
a younger daughter of Powhattan, overking 
of the Indian tribes from the Atlantic sea- 
board to ' the falls of the rivers.' This poten- 
tate was naturally perturbed by the ar- 
rival of English colonists upon the Virginian 
seaboard in 1585, and he and his subjects 
were probably instrumental in the extermi- 
nation of the early colonists, no traces of 
whom were ever found [see under RALEGH, 
SIE WALTEK]. On 30 April 1607 a second 
colony, sent out by the Virginian Company of 
London, anchored in Chesapeake Bay. The 
fresh colonists, who settled at Jamestown, 
soon entered into friendly relations with the 
natives. One of the most prominent of their 
number, Captain John Smith (1580 P-1631) 
[q. v.], essayed the exploration of the Indians' 
country. In December 1607 he sailed up the 
Chickahominy river on the second of such 
expeditions, was captured by the Indians and 
eventually taken to Powhattan's chief camp, 
about eighteen miles south-east of Jamestown 

(5 Jan. 1608). According to the account of 
these transactions which he sent to England 
a few months later, Smith succeeded in con- 
vincing the king of the friendliness of his in- 
tentions, and was accordingly sent back to 
Jamestown with a native escort. Eight years 
later, when writing a short account of Poca- 
hontas, then in England, for the benefit of 
Queen Anne, consort of James I, Smith em- 
bellished this plain tale with some romantic 
incidents. According to this later version, 
first published in 1622, Powhattan, after 
a parley with his chiefs, decided upon the 
Englishman's execution, and the natives 
were preparing to brain him with their clubs, 
when Pocahontas, ' the king's darling daugh- 
ter,' rushed forward and interposed her own 
head between Smith and his executioners, 
whereupon Powhattan ordered his life to be 
spared. Other writers corroborate Smith's 
statement that from 1608 Pocahontas was 
henceforward a frequent visitor at Jamestown, 
where she played with the children, and acted 
as an intermediary between the colonists and 
Powhattan. Smith returned to England on 
4 Oct. 1609, after which her regular visits to 
the English camp ceased. In Smith's earlier 
narrative, or ' True Relation ' (1608), Poca- 
hontas is mentioned incidentally as a child 
of ten, ' who not only for feature, counte- 
nance, and proportion ' greatly exceeded the 
rest of her countrywomen, but was ' the only 
nonpareil' of the country. In the later 
' General History ' (1622) she is depicted as 
the good genius of the settlers, warning them 
of hostile schemes on the part of the Indians, 
and sending them provisions in times of 

^ When, in the spring of 1612, Captain 
Samuel Argal, a leading colonist, was trading 
for corn along the Potomac, it came to his 
ears that Pocahontas was staying on a visit 
with the chief of the district. Through the 
agency of this chiefs brother, whom Argal 
alternately threatened and cajoled, the 
princess, now about sixteen years of age, 
was lured on board Argal's vessel, and taken, 
as a hostage for the good behaviour of the 
Indian tribes, to Jamestown, where she 
arrived on 13 April 1612. In the following 
year she was converted to Christianity, and 
christened Rebecca. Powhattan appeared 
flattered when his daughter's projected mar- 
riage with Rolfe was announced to him, and 
it was hoped that the match would cement 
a friendly alliance between the planters and 
the Indian potentate. It was followed by an 
exchange of prisoners and other overtures of 
good-will. In 1616 Sir Thomas Dale, who 
was acting as governor of the colony, carried 
Pocahontas, with her husband and child, to 




England, where she and her native attendants 
were handsomely received by the London 
company and others, the queen and courtiers 
(who had at first looked askance at Rolfe's 
union) paying her marked attention. She 
renewed her acquaintance with her old friend 
Captain Smith, and attended the Twelfth 
Night masque of 1617 (Jonson's Christmas), 
in company with the queen. During her stay 
in town Simon de Passe engraved the well- 
known portrait of her, the features of which 
are agreeable, modest, and not undignified. 
She is described in an inscription upon , the 
plate as ' Matoaka,^'as Rebecka, wife of the 
worshipful Mr. Thos. Rolff. yEtatis suse 
21 A 1616.' Another portrait in oils was 
painted by an Italian artist, and belongs to 
the family of Edwin of Boston Hall, Nor- 
folk, ancient connections of the Rolfes ; an 
excellent engraving from it appeared in the 
' Art Journal ' (1885, p. 299). 

Pocahontas, although reluctant to return 
to America, pined under an English sky, and 
in March 1617, after all arrangements had 
been made for her departure, she died at 
Gravesend. In the parish register of St. 
George's Church, Gravesend, is the crude 
entry: < 1616, May 2j, Rebecca Wrothe,wyff of 
Thomas Wroth, gent., a Virginia lady borne, 
here was buried in ye chauncell' (Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. v. 123 ; cf. Court of James I, 
under date 29 March 1617). Several of her 
attendants proved consumptive, and gave 
trouble to the company after their mistress's 
death. Rolfe subsequently married Jane, 
daughter of William Pierce, and died in Vir- 
ginia in 1623, leaving a widow with children. 
By the princess Rolfe left a son Thomas (born 
in 1615), who after his mother's death was 
brought up by his uncle, Henry Rolfe of Lon- 
don. He returned to Virginia in 1640, and 
married there Jane, daughter of Francis Poy- 
thress, leaving a daughter Jane, who married 
Robert Boiling, and had many descendants. 

Ben Jonson introduced Pocahontas into 
his ' Staple of News' (1625), and since his 
day she has formed the title character of 
many works of prose fiction, by Sigourney, 
Seba Smith, Samuel Hopkins, John Davis, 
and others. The romantic incident of the 
rescue is depicted in stone as a relief upon 
the Capitol, Washington. 

[Capt. John Smith's works, ed. Arber, 1884; 
Wingfield's Discourse of Virginia ; Newport's 
Discoveries in Virginia ; Observations by George 
Percy (Purchas) ; Spelman's Eelation of Vir- 
ginia; Whitaker's Good News from Virginia; 
and Hamor's True Discourse of the Present 
Estate of Virginia all written 1607-15 ; Stith's 
History of Virginia; Brown's Genesis of the 
United States ; New England Hist, and Genealog. 

Regist. January 1884; Nichols's Progresses of 
James I, iii. 243 ; Gal. State Papers, Dora. 

Since Thomas Fuller expressed doubt of the 
veracity of Captain Smith in his Worthies, Mr. 
Charles Deane was the first, in a note to his edi- 
tion of Wingfield's Discourse (1860), to impugn 
Smith's story of his rescue by Pocahontas. Mr. 
Deanerepeated hisdoubts inanotetohis edition of 
Smith's True Eelation in 1866, and the same view 
was supported in the Rev. E. D. Neill's Virginia 
Company in London (vol. v., printed separately 
as Pocahontas and her Companions, London, 
1869), and in the same writer's English Colonisa- 
tion in America (chap, iv.) Charles Dudley War- 
ner, in the Study of the Life and Writings of John 
Smith (1881), treats the Pocahontas episode with 
sceptical levity. Deane's views were also sup- 
ported by Henry Adams in the North American 
Review, January 1867; by Henry Cabot Lodge 
in his English Colonies in America ; by Justin 
Winsor in History of America, vol. iii. ; and, 
with some reservations, by J. Gorham Palfrey in 
his Hist, of New England (1866), and by Mr. J. A. 
Doyle in his English in America: Virginia (1882). 
Bancroft found a place for the story in his nar- 
rative until 1879, when, in the centenary edition 
ofhisHistory of the United States, he abandoned 
it without expressing judgment. Coit Tyler, in 
his History of American Literature, laments that 
the ' pretty story ' has lost historical credit. Pro- 
fessor S. R. Gardiner, in his History of England 
(1883, iii. 158), regrets its demolition by histori- 
cal inquirers. The balance of trained opinion is 
thus in favour of treating the rescue episode as a 
poetical fiction. Its substantial correctness is, 
however, contended for by Wyndham Robertson in 
Pocahontas and her Descendants, 1887, by Poin- 
dexter in his Capt. John Smith and his Critics 
(1893), by Professor Arber in his elaborate vin- 
dication of Smith (Smith's Works, ed. Arber, esp. 
p. cxvii), and by Mr. William Wirt Henry, the 
most eloquent champion of the story, in his 
Address to the Virginia Historical Society (Pro- 
ceedings, February 1882).] T. S. 


CRANWORTH (1790-1868), lord chancellor, 
born at Cranworth in Norfolk on 18 Dec. 
1790, was elder son of Edmund Rolfe, curate 
of Cranworth and rector of Cockley-Clay, by 
his wife Jemima, fifth daughter of William 
Alexander, and granddaughter of Messenger 
Monsey [q. v.], physician to Chelsea Hospital. 
His father was first cousin of Admiral Lord 
Nelson, while his mother was a niece of 
James, first earl of Caledon. He received 
his early education at the grammar school of 
Bury St. Edmunds, where he was the junior 
of Charles James Blomfield [q. v.], after- 
wards bishop of London. He was then sent 
to Winchester, where he obtained the silver 
medal for a Latin speech in 1807. Proceed- 
ing to Trinity College, Cambridge, he became 




seventeenth wrangler in 1812, and gained one 
of the members' prizes for senior bachelors in 

1814. He graduated B.A. in 1812, M.A. in 

1815, and was elected a fellow of Downing 
College. Rolfe was admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn on 29 Jan. 1812, and was called to the 
bar on 21 May 1816. His progress as a 
junior was slow ; but he gradually acquired 
a large business in the chancery courts. At 
the general election in the spring of 1831 he 
unsuccessfully contested Bury St. Edmunds 
in the whig interest. He was appointed a 
king's counsel in Trinity vacation 1832, and 
was called within the bar on the first day of 
the following Michaelmas term. He was 
elected a bencher of Lincoln's Inn on 2 Nov. 
1832, but left the society on 11 Nov. 1839, 
when he became a serjeant-at-law. At the 
general election in December 1832 he was 
returned to the House of Commons for 
Penryn and Falmouth, and continued to 
represent that constituency until his ap- 
pointment to the judicial bench. He spoke 
for the first time in the House of Commons 
on 19 March 1833 (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. 
xvi. 847-9), but he seldom took part in the 
debates. Rolfe was appointed solicitor- 
general in Lord Melbourne's first administra- 
tion on 6 Nov. 1834, and resigned office in 
the following month, on Sir Robert Peel's 
accession to power. On the return of the 
whigs to office, in April 1835, Rolfe was re- 
stored to the post of solicitor-general, and 
received the honour of knighthood on 6 May 
following. He was appointed a baron of the 
exchequer in the place of Sir William Henry 
Maule [q. v.], and, having received the order 
of the coif, took his seat on the bench on 
11 Nov. 1839. Though Rolfe had only prac- 
tised in the court of chancery, he had acquired 
experience in criminal cases while sitting as 
recorder of Bury St . Edmunds, a post which he 
had held for some years. With Abinger and 
Williams he took part in the trial of John 
William Bean for shooting at the queen in 
August 1842 (Reports of State Trials, new 
ser. iv. 1382-6). In March 1843 he presided 
at the trial of Feargus O'Connor and fifty- 
eight other chartists for seditious conspiracy 
(ib. iv. 935-1231). In March 1849 he presided 
at the trial of Rush for the murder of Isaac 
Jermy [q. v.] and his son. He acted as a 
commissioner of the great seal from 19 June 
1850 to 15 July following, his colleagues 
being Lord Langdale and Vice-chancellor 
Shadwell. Owing to Shadwell's illness 
nothing but the routine business could be 
done, and the long arrears of appeals arising 
from Cottenham's absence remained un- 
touched (Life of John, Lord Campbell, 1861, 
ii. 281). On 2 Nov. 1850 Rolfe was ap- 

pointed a vice-chancellor in the room of 
Shadwell, and on the 13th of the same 
month was admitted to the privy council. 
He was created Baron Cranworth of Cran- 
worth in the county of Norfolk on 20 Dec. 
1850, and took his seat in the House of 
Lords at the opening of parliament on 4 Feb. 
1851 (Journals of the House of Lords, Ixxxiii. 
4). He made his maiden speech in the 
house during the discussion of Brougham's 
County Courts Extension Bill on 7 Feb. 
1851 (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cxiv. 178-9). 
When the court of appeal in chancery was 
created under the provisions of 14 & 15 Viet, 
cap. 83, Cranworth and Knight Bruce were 
appointed the first lords justices (8 Oct. 1851). 
On the formation of Lord Aberdeen's 
cabinet in December 1852, Cranworth was 
promoted to the post of lord chancellor. The 
great seal was delivered to him on the 28th, 
and he took his seat on the woolsack as speaker 
of the House of Lords on 10 Feb. 1853 
(Journals of the House of Lords, Ixxxv. 65). 
Four days afterwards he introduced a bill for 
the registration of assurances. At the same 
time he announced the intention of the go- 
vernment to deal with the question of the 
consolidation and simplification of the statute 
law, and was bold enough to hold out some 
hope that the proposed step would lead to 
the formation of a Code Victoria (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. cxxiv. 41-6). A small 
board was nominated by Cranworth to con- 
solidate the statutes under the superinten- 
dence of Charles Henry Bellenden Ker [q. v.l 
In the following year this board was replaced 
by a royal commission, over which Cranworth 
himself presided (see Parl. Papers, 1854 
vol. xxiv., 1854-5 vol. xv.) The result of 
their deliberations led ultimately to the 
successive statute law revision acts passed 
during the chancellorships of Lords Camp- 
bell, Westbury, and Chelmsford. Though 
the Registration Bill passed through the 
House of Lords in spite of the strenuous 
opposition of Lord St. Leonards, it was 
dropped in the House of Commons. Cran- 
worth was more successful with his bill for 
the better administration of charitable trusts, 
which became law during the session (16 & 
17 Viet. cap. 137). On 11 July 1853 he 
moved the second reading of the Transporta- 
tion Bill (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cxxix.7-13). 
This bill, which substituted penal servitude 
in lieu of transportation and adopted the 
ticket-of-leave system, passed through both 
houses with but little opposition, and re- 
ceived the royal assent on 20 Aug. 1853 
(16 & 17 Viet, cap. 99). In the session of 
1854 Cranworth carried through the house 
a bill for the further amendment of the 


1 60 


common-law procedure (17 & 18 Viet. cap. 
125) ; but neither the Testamentary Juris- 
diction Bill nor the Divorce and Matrimonial 
Causes Bill, which he introduced, passed 
into law (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cxxx. 702- 
720, cxxxiv. 1-12). Cranworth continued in 
his post on the formation of Lord Palmerston's 
administration in February 1855, in which 
year he was also appointed a governor of the 
Charterhouse. He introduced a bill to facili- 
tate leases and sales of settled estates on 
11 May following (ib. cxxxviii. 398-9), but it 
failed to pass through the House of Commons. 
The delay of the ministerial measures of legal 
reform in this session was the occasion of 
an attack on Cranworth by Lord Lyndhurst, 
who pointed out ' the want of cordial co- 
operation between the lord chancellor and 
the law officers of the crown in the other 
house' (ib. cxxxix. 1189-96). Cranworth 
took part in the debate on Lord "Wensley- 
dale's patent on 7 Feb. 1856 [see PARKE, SIR 
JAMES]. He defended the action of the 
government, and insisted that ' the legality 
of life peerages was perfectly clear ' (ib. cxl. 
314-27). The bill to facilitate leases and 
sales of settled estates passed through both 
houses in this session (19 & 20 Viet. cap. 
120); but neither the Appellate Jurisdic- 
tion Bill nor the Divorce and Matrimonial 
Causes Bill passed the commons. In the 
session of 1857 the government measures 
for the establishment of the probate and 
divorce court passed through both houses 
(20 and 21 Viet. caps. 77 and 85). Cran- 
worth, however, refused to distribute any of 
the patronage under these acts, and gave the 
whole of it to Sir Cresswell Cresswell [q. v.], 
the first judge in ordinary. He resigned 
office on the accession of Lord Derby to 
power in February 1858. On 23 March fol- 
lowing he moved the second reading of a 
Land Transfer Bill and a Tenants for Life 
Bill, but neither of them became law during 
that session {Parl. Debates, clxix. 559-63). 
Cranworth was not offered the great seal on 
Lord Palmerston's return to office in June 
1859, as ' his reputation had been so much 
damaged while chancellor by allowing 
Bethell to thwart and insult him ' {Life of 
John, Lord Campbell, ii. 368). He moved 
the second reading of the Endowed Schools 
Bill on 9 Feb. 1860 (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. 
clvi. 689-95). This bill, which enabled the 
children of dissenters to enjoy the benefit of 
the King Edward's schools, received the royal 
assent on 31 March following (23 & 24 Viet, 
cap. 11). ' Cranworth's Act,' by which his 
name is remembered, became law during the 
session (23 & 24 Viet. cap. 145). Its object 
was the shortening of conveyances, and it 

has now been superseded by Lord Cairns's 
Conveyancing and Law of Property Act. 
He differed with Lord Westbury with regard 
to the Bankruptcy Bill of 1861, and opposed 
the appointment of a chief judge (Parl. De- 
bates, 3rd ser. clxiii. 1223-5). In the session 
of 1862 he introduced a bill for obtaining a 
declaration of title, as well as a Security 
of Purchasers Bill (ib. clxv. 373, 897-903, 
clxvi. 1190-1). The former became law 
(25 & 26 Viet. cap. 67), but the latter was 
dropped in the House of Commons. On 
Lord Westbury's retirement Cranworth was 
reappointed lord chancellor (7 July 1865), 
and at the opening of parliament on 1 Feb. 
1866 he again took his seat on the woolsack 
(Journals of the House of Lords, xcviii. 7). 
On 1 May 1866 he moved the second reading 
of the Law of Capital Punishment Amend- 
ment Bill (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. clxxxiii. 
232-41), which passed through the lords, 
but was withdrawn in the commons. In 
the following month he introduced a Statute 
Law Revision Bill (ib. clxxxiv. 210), but 
withdrew it before the second reading. He 
resigned the great seal on the formation of 
Lord Derby's second administration in July 
1866. In the session of 1867 he took charge 
of Russell Gurney's Criminal Amendment 
Bill, and safely piloted it through the House 
of Lords (ib. clxxxvii. 933-4). In the session 
of 1868 he took charge of two other bills 
which had been sent up from the House of 
Commons, viz. the Religious Sites Bill and 
a Bankruptcy Amendment Bill, both of 
which passed into law (ib. cxcii. 233-4, 
cxciii. 866). Cranworth spoke for the last 
time in the House of Lords on 20 July 1868 
(ib. cxciii. 1474). He died after a short 
illness at No. 40 Upper Brook Street, Lon- 
don, on 26 July 1868, aged 77, and was 
buried in the churchyard of Keston, the 
parish where his seat, ' Holwood Park,' was 
situate, and where there is a monument to 
his memory. He married, on 9 Oct. 1845, 
Laura, daughter of Thomas Carr of Frognal, 
Hampstead, Middlesex, and of Esholt Heugh, 
Northumberland, who died in Upper Brook 
Street on 15 Feb. 1868, in her eighty-first 
year, and was buried at Keston. There were 
no children of the marriage, and the peerage 
became extinct upon Cranworth's death. 

Cranworth was a man of high personal 
character and strong common-sense. He was 
a sound lawyer, and an acute and patient 
j udge. He was not a successful speaker in 
parliament ; but, though destitute of elo- 
quence and wit, his speeches were always 
listened to with respect. Owing to his ex- 
treme caution and timidity, Cranworth failed 
as a law reformer. He had ' an unhappy 



knack, though always with the best inten- 
tions, of making exactly such proposals for 
their amendment as would entirely defeat 
the operation of some of Lord Westbury's 
most masterly measures ' (Law Magazine 
and Review, 1873, p. 724). Few men en- 
joyed greater personal popularity. Lord 
Campbell declares ' there never lived a better 
man than Rolfe ' (Life of John, Lord Camp- 
bell, ii. 125) ; while Greville says : ' Nobody 
is so agreeable as Rolfe a clear head, vi- 
vacity, information, an extraordinary plea- 
santness of manner without being soft or 
affected, extreme good humour, cheerfulness, 
and tact make his society on the whole as 
attractive as that of anybody I ever met ' 
{Memoirs, 2nd part, 1885, ii. 265). 

There is an oil portrait of Cranworth by 
George Richmond, R.A., in the National 
Portrait Gallery. A crayon drawing of Cran- 
worth by the same artist has been engraved 
by Francis Holl. 

Cranworth's judgments are reported in 
Meeson and Welsby (v.-xvi.), Welsby, Hurl- 
stone, and Gordon" (i.-v.), Hall and Twells 
(ii.), Macnaghten and Gordon (ii.), De Gex, 
Macnaghten, and Gordon (i.-viii.), De Gex 
and Jones (i. and ii.), De Gex, Jones, and 
Smith (ii.-iv.), Clark's ' House of Lords Cases' 
(iv.-xi.), Moore's 'Privy Council Cases,' and 
the ' Law Reports,' English and Irish Appeal 
Cases (i.-iii.), Chancery Appeal Cases (i.) 

[Foss's Judges of England, 1864, ix. 251-3 ; 
Nash's Life of Richard, Lord Westbury, 1888, 
i. 133-4, 138, 150-1, 159, 168-70, ii. 10, 77, 144, 
149, 152, 153, 176; W. O'Connor Morris's Me- 
moirs and Thoughts of a Life, 1895, pp. 129-30; 
Random Recollections of the House of Commons, 
1836, pp. 222-3; Times. 27-30 July 1868 ; Law 
Times, xlv. 260-1, xcvi. 415-16; Law Maga- 
zine and Review, xxvi. 278-84 ; Illustrated Lon- 
don News, 1 and 15 Aug. 1868; Gent. Mag. 
1868, new ser. i. 563-4; Annual Register, 1868, 
ii. 167-8 ; G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, ii. 403 ; 
Whishaw's Synopsis of the Bar, 1835, p. 120; 
Cambridge University Calendar, 1894-5, pp. 
152, 508; Holgate's Winchester Commoners, 
1800-35, pp. 27, 40 ; W. Haig Browne's Charter- 
house Past and Present, 1879, p. 204; Lincoln's 
Inn Registers ; Official Return of Lists of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, ii. 340, 352, 365 ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, 1890; Notes and Queries, 
6th ser. i. 495, ii. 56, 94, 8th ser. viii. 168.] 

G. F. R. B. 

ROLL AND, JOHN (fi. 1560), Scottish 
poet, was probably son of John Rolland 
who in 1481 was sub-dean of Glasgow (see 
DEMPSTER, xvi. 1051). From a writ among 
the Laing charters it appears that he was a 
presbyter of the diosese of Glasgow, and 
that in 1555 he was acting as a notary at 
Dalkeith. He attests the document with 


the words ' Ego vero Joannes Rolland pres- 
byter Glasguensis Diocesis publicus sacra 
auctoritate apostolica notarius.' 

Before 1560 he composed a poem entitled 
' The Court of Venus,' and about May 1560 
wrote a second poem called ' The Seven 
Sages.' In the interval between the com- 
position of these poems he turned protestant ; 
the later poem strongly contrasts with the 
earlier in its reference to Rome. There is 
no evidence that he was alive after 1560, 
and the publication of all his works was 
doubtless posthumous. 

Rolland wrote : 1. 'Ane Treatise call it the 
Court of Venus, dividit into Four Buikes 
newlie compylit be John Rolland in Dal- 
keith,' Edinburgh, 1575. The circumstances 
attending the composition of this poem are 
related in the second of Rolland's works, and 
it was clearly composed before 1560, pro- 
bably dating from the reign of James V 
(1527-42) ; it was reproduced and edited for 
the Scottish Text Society by the Rev. Walter 
Gregor in 1889. 2. ' The Sevin Seagis trans- 
latit out of prois in Scottis meter by Johne 
Rolland in Dalkeith with ane Moralitie efter 
everie Doctours tale and seclike after the 
emprice tale, togidder with ane loving and 
laude to everie Doctour after his awin tale, 
and ane exclamation and outcrying upon 
the empereours wife after her fals contruvit 
tale,' Edinburgh, 1578; reprinted in 1590, 
1592, 1599, 1606, 1620, 1631. From internal 
evidence the poem is proved to have been 
written after the attack on Leith in February 
1560, and before the treaty of Edinburgh in 
July of the same year. The first edition was 
reproduced by the Bannatyne Club, vol. lix., 
and in Sibbald's ' Chronicle of Scottish 
Poetry ' (cf. G. Biichner's ' Die Historia Sep- 
tem Sapientum . . . nebst einer Untersuchung 
iiber die Quelle der Sevin Seagis des Johann 
Rolland von Dalkeith,' in VABNHAGEN'S 
Erlant/er Beitraye zur englischen Philologie). 
Sibbald also conjecturally ascribes to Rolland 
'The Tale of the Thrie Priestis of Peblis,' 
which was probably written about 1540, 
and is printed in Pinkerton's ' Ancient Scot- 
tish Poems,' 1786, and by Sibbald in his 
' Chronicle of Scottish Poetry,' 1802, ii. 227. 
Catharine Rolland, daughter of another 
John Rolland, who married, in 1610,Dr. Wil- 
liam Gould, the principal of King's College, 
Aberdeen, founded in 1659 several Rolland 
bursaries at Marischal College, Aberdeen. 

[Reprints of Rolland's two poems in the 
Scottish Text Society and the Bannatyne Club; 
Irving's Lives of Scottish Poets, ii. 297; Sih- 
bnld's Chronicle of Scottish Poetry; Burke's 
Commoners; Tanner's Bill. Brit.-Hib.] 

W. A. S. 




ROLLE, HENRY (1589 P-1656), judge, 
second son of Robert Rolle (d. 1633) of 
Heanton, Devonshire (a scion of the family 
of Rolle of Stevenstone), by Joan, daughter 
of Thomas Hele of Fleet in the same county, 
was born about 1589. John Rolle (1598- 
1648) [q. v.J was his brother. He matricu- 
lated from Exeter College at Oxford on 
20 March 1606-1607, and was admitted on 
1 Feb. 1608-9 of the Inner Temple, where ; 
he was called to the bar in 1618, was elected 
bencher in 1633, and reader in 1637 and 1638 ; j 
but, owing to the prevalence of the plague, j 
did not give his reading until Lent 1639. j 
Among his contemporaries at the Temple and j 
his intimate friends were Sir Edward Little- | 
ton (1589-1645) [q.v.], afterwards lord keeper 
and baron Littleton ; Sir Edward Herbert 
[q.v.], afterwards attorney-general ; Sir Tho- 
mas Gardiner [q. v.J, afterwards recorder of 
London ; and John Selden [q. v.],by whose 
conversation and friendly rivalry he profited 
no little in the study of the law and humane 
learning. Rolle practised with eminent 
success in the court of king's bench, was ap- 
pointed recorder of Dorchester in 1636, and 
was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law 
on 10 May 1640. 

He sat for Callington, Cornwall, in the 
last three parliaments of King James (1614 
to 1623-4), and for Truro in the first three 
parliaments of his successor (1625 to 1629). 
He early identified himself with the popular 
party ; no member was more urgent for the 
impeachment of Buckingham, none more 
determined that supply must be postponed to 
the redress of grievances. On the outbreak 
of the civil war he adhered to the parlia- 
ment, contributed 100/. to the defence fund, 
and took the covenant. His advancement 
to a judgeship in the king's bench was 
one of the stipulations included in the pro- 
positions for peace of January 1642-3 ; on 
28 Oct. 1645 he was sworn in as such, and 
on 15 Nov. 1648, pursuant to votes of both 
houses of parliament, he was advanced to the 
chief-justiceship of the court. After the 
execution of the king he accepted, 8 Feb. 
1648-9, a new commission as lord chief jus- 
tice of the upper bench on the understanding 
that no change should be made in the funda- 
mental laws, and on the 13th of the same 
month he was voted a member of the council 
of state. His accession strengthened the go- 
vernmeut, and his charges on the western 
circuit contributed much to the settlement of 
the public mind. On 4 Aug. 1654 he was 
appointed commissioner of the exchequer. 
Rolle yielded the palm to none of his con- 
temporaries either as advocate or judge, 
with the single exception of the great Sir 

Matthew Hale [q. v.] His decisions, re- 
ported by Style {Modern Reports, 1658), 
rarely relate to matters of historic interest. 
Nevertheless he established in the case 
of Captain Streater, committed to prison 
by order of the council of state and the speaker 
of the House of Commons for the publi- 
cation of seditious writings, the principle 
that a court of justice cannot review parlia- 
mentary commitments if regular in form ; 
and his name is associated with one of 
the causes celebres of international law. Don 
Pantaleon Sa, brother of the Portuguese am- 
bassador, was arrested for murder committed 
in an affray in the New Exchange in the 
Strand. The fact was undeniable, but the 
Don claimed the privilege of exterritoriality, 
as being of the household of the ambassador. 
The point was discussed by Rolle in con- 
sultation with two of his puisnes, two ad- 
miralty judges, and two civilians, and on 
16 Jan. 1653-4 was decided against the Don. 
The decision was without precedent, for it 
could neither be denied that the Don was of 
the household of the ambassador, nor that 
the privilege of exterritoriality had thereto- 
fore been understood to extend even to cases 
of murder. At the trial, over which Rolle 
presided on 6 July following, the prisoner 
was conceded a jury, half English half Por- 
tuguese, but was denied the assistance of 
counsel, and compelled to waive his privilege 
and plead to the indictment by a threat of 
peine forte et dure (pressing to death). He 
was found guilty, sentenced to death, and 
executed at Tyburn on 10 July. 

On the outbreak of Penruddock's insurrec- 
tion, 12 March 1654-5, Rolle was at Salis- 
bury on assize business, when he was surprised 
by the cavaliers under Sir Joseph Wagstaife, 
who coolly proposed to hang him [cf. NICHO- 
Penruddock's intercession, however, he was 
released; he served as one of the commis- 
sioners for the trial of the insurgents at 
Exeter in the following May. Shortly after- 
wards, being unable to decide against the 
merchant Cony, Avho had sued a customs 
officer for levying duty from him by force 
without authority of parliament [cf. MAY- 
NARD, SIR JOHN, 1602-1690], he resigned 
(7 June 1655) rather than give further offence 
to the Protector, and was succeeded by Sir 
John Glynne [q. v.] He died on 30 July 
1656, and was buried in the church of Shap- 
wick, near Glastonbury, in which parish 
he had a house. By his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Foot, alderman, 
of London, Rolle had issue an only son, 
Francis, who was knighted at Portsmouth 
on 1 March 1664-5 and was lord of the 




manor of East Titherley, Hampshire, which 
he represented in the parliament of 1681. 

While at the bar Rolle spent much of his 
leisure in making reports and abridgments 
of cases. His ' Abridgment des plusieurs 
Cases et Resolutions del Commun Ley,' 
published at London in 1668, 2 vols. fol., is 
prefaced by his portrait and a memoir by Sir 
Matthew Hale, in which he is characterised 
as ' a person of great learning and experience 
in the common law, profound judgment, 
singular prudence, great moderation, justice, 
and integrity.' His ' Reports de divers Cases 
en le Court del Banke le Roy en le Temps 
del Reign de Roy Jacques,' appeared at 
London in 1675-6, 2 vols. fol. 

[Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. Soc.), 
pp. 30, 31, 189; Howard's Misc. Geneal. et 
Herald, ii. 136 ; Memoir by Sir Matthew Hale, 
prefixed to Rolle's Abridgment ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 416 ; Fosters Alumni Oxon. ; 
Inner Temple Books ; Dugdale's Orig. p. 168, 
Chron. Ser. p. 109 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. 
xii. 358 ; Whitelocke's Mem. passim ; Vivian's 
Visitation of Devon, 1896, p. 654; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, viii. 519 ; Granger's Biogr. 
Hist. Engl. (2nd edit.), iii. 70; Walker's Hist. 
Independ. ii. 119 ; Noble's Protectoral House of 
Cromwell, i. 430 ; Lords' Journ. x. 587 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1649-50 p. 6, 1651 p. 44, 
1653-4 p. 360, 1654pp. 156, 169; Cobbett's State 
Trials, v. 366, 461 et seq. ; Ludlow's Memoirs, 
ed. Firth, i. 412, 413 ; Thurloe State Papers, iii. 
365 et seq. ; Clarendon's Eebellion, ed. Macray, 
bk. xiv. 39, 131 et seq. ; Burton's Diary, iv. 
47 ; Bates's Elench. Mot. Nup. ii. 133 ; Manning 
and Bray's Surrey, ii. 657 ; Campbell's Chief 
Justices ; Foss's Lives of the Judges ; Lysons's 
Mag. Brit. ii. pi. ii. 387.] J. M. K. 

ROLLE, JOHN (1598-1648), merchant 
and politician, fourth son of Robert Rolle 
(d. 1633) of Heanton, Devonshire, by his 
wife Joan (d. 1634), daughter of Thomas 
Ilele of Fleet in the same county, was bap- 
tised at Petrockstow on 13 April 1598 
(ViviAN, Visitations of Devon, 1896, p. 654). 
Henry Rolle [q. v.], chief justice, was his 
elder brother. John engaged in the Turkey 
trade in London. He represented Callington 
borough, Cornwall, in the parliaments of 1626 
and 1628 (Return of Members, i. 468, 474). In 
the latter year, in accordance with the order 
of the commons, he refused to pay tonnage 
and poundage. His silks and other goods, 
to the value of 1,517/., were seized by the 
custom-house officers. On 12 Nov. he brought 
a writ of replevin, but execution was stopped 
by order of the council. A second writ, in 
January 1629, was stopped by order of the 
exchequer. In February Rolle was served 
with a subpoena in the Star-chamber, where 
he was called in question for his replevins. As 

the House of Commons was then debating 
the question of the seizure of the merchants' 
goods, the house made the Star-chamber's 
treatment of Rolle a matter of privilege 
(Commons' Journals, i. 921-8, iii. 483). 
Although ' a man of great trading ' at the 
time, Rolle declined to continue his business 
after the seizure of his goods. In January 
1630 he was again subpoenaed by the Star- 
chamber, and questioned for his speeches in 
the commons. In the Short and Long parlia- 
ments he represented Truro borough (Re- 
turn of Members, i. 480-1). The Long par- 
liament instructed the committee of trade 
to consider his case in May 1641 (ib. ii. 154, 
907). After long delay the case was re- 
ported on 7 May 1644 (ib. iii. 483), and the 
house resolved that satisfaction should be 
made to him of 1,517/. for the goods arrested, 
4,844/. as interest on his remaining capital 
(6,887/.) in 1628, from which date he had 
refused to trade, and of 500/. for his four 
years' expenses in lawsuits in the exchequer 
and Star-chamber. In an ordinance of 
14 June 1644 the total fine of 8,64U was 
ordered to be levied on the executors of the 
farmers of the customs in 1628, and of Sir 
William Acton, sheriff of London in that 
year (ib. iii. 530). In April 1645 Rolle was 
unsuccessfully nominated as a member of 
the committee of three for the command of 
the navy (ib. iv. 125). In 1647 he was co- 
executor of the will of his brother, Sir 
Samuel Rolle (1585 P-1647). He died un- 
married in November 1648, and was buried 
at Petrockstow on the 18th (parish register, 
quoted in VIVIAN, Visitations, p. 654). 

[Vivian's Visitations of Devon, 1896, p. 654; 
authorities quoted in text; Gardiner's Hist. vol. 
v. ; Hamilton's Notebook of Sir John Northcote, 
p. 75 ; Old Parl. Hist. viii. 254 ; Whitelocke's 
Memorials, pp. 12, 87, 178; Kushworth, ii. 
653-8.] W. A. S. 

stone (1750-1842), eldest son of Denys Rolle 
of Bicton, Devonshire (d. 1797), by Anne, 
daughter of Arthur Chichester of Hall in 
the same county, was born on 16 Oct. 1750, 
the same year in which his uncle Henry, 
created Baron Rolle of Stevenstone, 8 Jan. 
1747-8, died without issue. Returned to 
parliament for Devonshire on 4 Jan. 1780, 
Rolle retained the seat at the general elec- 
tions of April 1784 and June 1790. He was 
a staunch adherent of Pitt, held somewhat 
coarse ' common-sense ' views, and spoke fre- 
quently, but made no great figure as a de- 
bater. Having rendered himself obnoxious 
to the opposition by the severity of his com- 
ments upon Fox's recall of Rodney in 1782, 
and the levity with which he treated Fox's 

M 2 




complaints touching the violated rights of 
the Westminster electors, Rolle was made 
the hero of the ' Rolliad,' in which he was 

S'bbeted as the degenerate descendant of 
olio, though the satire was principally 
aimed at Pitt and Dundas. By patent dated 
20 June 1796 the revived title of Baron 
Rolle of Stevenstone was conferred upon 
him ; and on 5 Oct. he took his seat in the 
House of Lords, in which, except to second 
the address to the throne on 26 June 1807 and 
that to the prince regent on 30 Nov. 1812, he 
hardly spoke. He voted against Earl Grey's 
reform bill on its second reading, 13 April 
1832, and remained a strong conservative 
throughout life. He was colonel of the 
South Devon Militia and Royal Devon 
Yeomanry, an active county magistrate, a 
good landlord, and a liberal benefactor to 
the church. He died at Bicton House, near 
Exeter, on 3 April 1842. He married twice, 
viz. first, on 22 Feb. 1778, Judith Maria (d. 
1820), only daughter of Henry Walrond of 
Bovey, Devonshire ; and, secondly, on 24 Sept. 
1822, Louisa Barbara, second daughter of 
Robert George William Trefusis, seventeenth 
baron Clinton, who survived him. He left 
issue by neither wife. 

A bust of Rolle was exhibited in the Royal 
Academy exhibition in 1842 ; an engraving 
of his portrait by Cruickshank is in Ryall's 
'Portraits of eminent Conservatives and 
Statesmen,' 2nd ser. 

[Memoir in the work by Eyall above men- 
tioned and Gent. Mag. 1842, ii. 201; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, viii. 528 ; Pole's Descrip- 
tion of Devonshire, pp. 163, 414; Hansard's Parl. 
Hist. vol. xxiv.-ix., and Parl. Debates, ix. 580, 
xxiv. 19, and 3rd ser. xii. 459; Lords' Journ. 
xli. 1 2 ; Wraxall's Posth. Memoirs, ed. Wheatley ; 
Greville Memoirs, Geo. IV and Will. IV, iii. 
107, Viet. i. 108.] J. M. E. 

1349), hermit and author, born about 1290 
at Thornton in Yorkshire (probably Thorn- 
ton-le-Street), was the son of William Rolle 
of Thornton in Richmondshire, and was sent 
by his parents to school at an early age, 
where he showed such good promise that 
Thomas de Neville, archdeacon of Durham, 
sent him to Oxford, paying all the charges of 
his education. There he is said to have made 
rapid progress in his studies, but, being 
moved with a strong desire to devote him- 
self to a religious life, at the age of nine- 
teen he left the university and returned to 
his home. Richard's ambition was not to 
enter any of the recognised communities of 
monks and friars, but to become a hermit 
and give himself up to contemplation. His 
mode of making his profession was to con- 

struct for himself a costume from two of his 
sister's kirtles, one white, the other grey, 
which she lent to him, and having bor- 
rowed also his father's rain-hood, he took 
up his abode in a wood near his father's 
house. His family naturally looked upon 
him as out of his senses. Richard, there- 
fore, fearing that he would be put under 
restraint, fled from his home and commenced 
a wandering life. Entering a certain church 
at Dalton, near Rotherham, to pay his devo- 
tions on the eve of the Assumption, he was re- 
cognised by the sons of John de Dalton, the 
squire of the place, who had known him at 
Oxford. The next day, the festival of the 
Assumption, he appeared again in church, 
and, putting on a surplice, took part in the 
service. At the mass he went, with the 
priest's permission, into the pulpit and 
preached with wonderful power. John de 
Dalton, having conversed with him, and 
satisfied himself as to his sanity, offered to 
provide him with a fitting cell, hermit's 
clothing, and the necessaries of life. This 
Richard accepted, and, establishing himself 
near his patron at Dalton, devoted himself to 
contemplation and devotional writings. The 
' Legenda ' represent him as becoming com- 
pletely ecstatic, living in a spiritual world, and 
having many conflicts with devils, in all of 
which he is victorious. In his ' De Incendio 
Amoris ' he describes in detail the steps by 
which he reached the highest point of divine 
rapture : the process occupied four years 
and three months. Richard soon began to 
move from place to place, and in the course 
of his wanderings came to Anderby in Rich- 
mondshire, where was the cell of an an- 
choress, Dame Margaret Kyrkby, between 
whom and Richard there had long existed 
a holy love. Here he procured the miraculous 
recovery of the recluse from a violent seizure. 
Subsequently he established himself at Ham- 
pole, near Doncaster, in the neighbourhood 
of the Cistercian nunnery of St. Mary, which 
was founded there by William de Clairefai 
in 1170 for fourteen or fifteen nuns. Here 
the fame of his sanctity and his learning 
became very great, bringing numerous visi- 
tors to his cell, and here he died on 
29 Sept. 1349. His grave at Hampole was 
visited by the faithful for many years after 
his death, and miracles chiefly of healing 
were reported to be worked there ; 20 Jan. 
was the day traditionally assigned to his 
commemoration. An ' office,' consisting of 
prayers and hymns, together with a series of 
legends adapted to the canonical hours and 
the mass, was drawn up in anticipation of his 
canonisation, which did not take place. The 
legends there preserved are the chief source 




of Richard's biography. The < office ' is printed 
in the York Breviary (Surtees Soc. vol. ii. 
app. v.), and from the Thornton MS. in Lin- 
coln Cathedral Library, by Canon Perry in his 
edition of Rolle's ' English Prose Treatises ' 

Rolle represented a revolt against many 
X of the conventional views of religion in his 
day. He was a voluminous writer of devo- 
tional treatises or paraphrases of scripture. 
In his literary work he exalted the contem- 
plative life, denounced vice and worldliness, 
and indulged in much mystical rhapsodising. 
But he was by no means wholly unpractical 
in his methods of seeking to rouse in his 
countrymen an active religious sense. He 
addressed them frequently in their own lan- 
guage. As a translator of portions of the 
bible into English the Psalms, extracts 
from Job and Jeremiah he deserves some of 
the fame subsequently acquired by Wiclif. 
y^ "While he was well read in patristic lite- 
rature, he had no sympathies with the sub- 
tleties of the schoolmen; and when comment- 
ing on scripture avoided any mere scholas- 
tic interpretation, although he often digressed 
into mysticism of an original type. His 
popularity was so great that in after times 
' evil men of Lollardry,' as they are described 
in the rhyming preface to his version of the 
Psalms, endeavoured to tamper with his 
writings, with the view of putting forth his 
authority for their views. Therefore the 
nuns of the Hampole convent kept genuine 
copies in ' chain bonds ' at their house. 

Rolle wrote in both Latin and English. 
His English works were written in avigorous 
Northumbrian dialect, but they won imme- 
diate popularity all over England, and his dia- 
lectical peculiarities were modified or wholly 
removed in the numerous copies made in 
southern England. Many of his Latin works 
he himself or his disciples translated into 
English. With regard to the treatises which 
exist in both Latin and English versions, 
it is often difficult to determine for which 
version Rolle was personally responsible. 
Two of Rolle's Latin ethical treatises, ' De 
Emendatione Vitse ' and ' De Incendio Amo- 
ris,' seem best known in English translations 
made by Richard Misyn in 1434 and 1435 
respectively [see MISYN, RICHAKD]. The 
English versions have been published by 
the Early English Text Society (1896). A 
great part of his literary remains is still un- 
published. Manuscripts of his works are 
numerous in all public libraries fifty-four 
are in the Bodleian Library, forty-nine are 
in the British Museum, and forty-four in the 
Cambridge University Library. Of his Eng- 
lish paraphrases of scriptures only those of 

the Psalms have been printed. His rendering 
of Job in English verse, entitled 'The IX 
lessons of the diryge whych Job made in hys 
trybulacyon . . . clepyd Pety Job,' remains in 
Harl. MS. 1706 (art. 5) a volume containing 
many other of Rolle's tracts. An English 
verse paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer, as- 
signed by Ritsonto Rolle, is in Harl. MS. 435. 
Of Rolle's English works, two prose trea- 
tises were printed by Wynkyn de Worde 
in a single volume in 1506, 4to, viz. ' Rycharde 
Rolle Hermyte of Hampull in his contem- 
placyons of the drede and loue of God with 
other dyuerse tytles as it sheweth in his 
table,' and ' The remedy ayenst the troubles 
of temptacyons' (Brit. Mus.) The latter 
was also reissued by Wynkyn de Worde in 
1508, 4to (an imperfect copy on vellum is 
in the British Museum) ; and again by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1519, 4to (the copy 
of this edition in the British Museum is 
perfect, and is said to be unique). 

Rolle's chief English work long remained 
in manuscript. It is the religious poem 
called the ' Pricke of Conscience.' This, he 
tells us, was written in English for the 
instruction of those who knew no Latin. 
Lydgate in his ' Bochas'(f. 2176) mentions 

In perfit living, which passeth poysie, 
Kichard hertnite, contemplative of sentence, 
Drough in Englishe 'the prick of conscience.' 

Rolle's poem consists of a prologue and seven 
books, treating respectively of the begin- 
ning of man's life, the unstableness of 
this world, death and why death is to be 
dreaded, purgatory, doomsday, the pains of 
hell and joys of heaven. Human nature is 
treated as contemptible, and asceticism is 
powerfully enjoined on the reader. The 
style is vigorous ; the versification is rough. 
It is written throughout in rhyming cou- 
plets, the syllables of each verse varying in 
number from eight to twelve, although never 
more than four are accented. The lines 
reach a total of 9,624. Rolle quotes freely 
from the scriptures and the fathers, and 
shows himself acquain ted with Innocent Ill's 
' De Contemptu Mundi ; ' Bartholomew 
Glanville's ' De Proprietatibus Rerum ; ' the 
' Compendium Theologicae Veritatis ; ' and 
the ' Elucidarium ' of Honorius Augusto- 
dunensis. In title and subject, although 
not in treatment, the work resembles the 
English prose treatise, the ' Ayenbite of 
Inwyt ' (i.e. the ' Remorse of Conscience '), 
which Dan Michel of Northgate translated 
in 1340 into the Kentish dialect from the 
French ('Le Somme des Vices et des Vertus,' 
written by Frere Lorens in 1279). Rolle's 
poem was freely quoted by Warton in his 




' History of English Poetry,' and by Joseph 
Brooks Yates in ' Archaeologia,' 1820, xix. 
314-34. The whole was first printed, in 
the Northumbrian dialect in which it was 
first written, from the Cottonian MS. Galba 
E. ix. by the Rev. Richard Morris for the 
Philological Society in 1863. Manuscripts 
abound, not only of the original Northum- 
brian, which was modified and altered in end- 
less particulars by southern English copyists, 
but of translations into Latin. The latter 
bear the title of ' Stimulus Conscientise.' 
There are eighteen English manuscripts in 
the British Museum ; collations of all these 
were published at Berlin in 1888 in a German 
dissertation by Dr. Percy Andrese. Dr. Bui- 
bring of Groningen has printed collations of 
thirteen other manuscripts, at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in Lichfield Cathedral Library, | 
Sion College, London, Lambeth Palace, 
Cambridge University Library (Ee, 4, 35), 
Bodleian Library (Ashmole, 00). and else- 
where (cf. Transactions of the Philological 
Society, 1889-90; Englische Studien, vol. 
xxiii. 1896 ; HERRIG'S Archiv, vol. Ixxxvi. 
390-2). Five manuscripts of the ' Pricke of 
Conscience ' are in the Cambridge University j 
Library, and at least twelve are in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

Of hardly less interest than the ' Pricke of 
Conscience ' is Rolle's English paraphrase 
of the Psalms and Canticles. The work was 
first fully printed at the Clarendon Press in 
1884 from a manuscript at University Col- 
lege, Oxford. This manuscript preserves 
Rolle's Northumbrian dialect, but is imper- 
fect. The editor (the Rev. H. R. Bramley) 
has supplied the defects partly from a copy j 
at Sidney-Sussex College, Cam bridge, -and 
partly from one in the Bodleian Library. 
An imperfect Northumbrian manuscript is 
in the church of St. Nicholas, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne (cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. i. 41- 
42). Dr. Adam Clarke, the biblical com- 
mentator, owned a manuscript copy, and in 
his own work often quoted Rolle's com- 
mentary with approval (LEWIS, History of 
the Translations of the Bible, 1739, pp. 12-16). 
A copy at Trinity College, Dublin, is in course 
of printing by the Early English Text Society. 
Ten English prose treatises by Rolle found 
in Robert Thornton's manuscript (dated 
about 1440) in the Lincoln Cathedral Library 
were edited for the Early English Text So- 
ciety by Canon Perry in 1866. Thornton 
lived near llampole; he ascribes seven of 
the treatises to ' Richard Hermite,' and the 
rest are assigned to Rolle on good internal 
evidence. The subjects of the treatises are 
respectively ' Of the Vertuz of the Haly 
Name of Ihesu ; ' ' A Tale that Rycherde 

Ilermet made ; ' ' De in-perfecta contri- 
cione ; ' ' Moralia Ricardi Heremite de Na- 
tura Apis ; ' ' A Notabil Tretys off the Ten 
Comandementys ; ' 'Of the Gyt'tes of the 
Haly Gaste ; ' ' Of the Delyte and Yernyng 
of Gode ; ' ' Of the Anehede of Godd with 
Mannys Saule ; ' ' Active and Contemplative 
Life ;' and the* Virtue of our Lord's Passion.' 
Mr. Carl Horstmann published in 1895 in 
his ' Richard Rolle and his Followers,' ' The 
Form of Perfect Living ' (prose), many short 
poems and epistles (from Cambr. Univ. MS. 
v. 64), as well as ' Meditations on the 
Passion ' (prose) from Cambridge Addit. MS. 
3042, and other pieces from British Museum 
MS. Arundel 507. 

Of Rolle's Latin works there was published 
at Paris in 1510, as an appendix to ' Speculum 
Spiritualium,' his ' De Emendatione Vitae ' 
or ' Peccatoris,' a short religious tract. In 
the same place and year appeared in a sepa- 
rate volume Rolle's ' Explanationes No- 
tabiles,' a commentary on the book of Job, 
in Latin prose. The latter is in part a 
translation from Rolle's ' Pety Job ' (in 
Harl. MS. 1706, art, 5). The De Emen- 
datione 'was reissued at Antwerp in 1533, 
together with 'De Incendio Amoris ' and 
' Eulogium Nominis lesu.' Later reissues, 
with various additions of other Latin trea- 
tises (including Rolle's English paraphrases 
of the Psalms, Job, and Jeremiah turned into 
Latin), appeared at Cologne in 153o, and 
again in 1536, when the volume was entitled 
' D. Richardi Pampolitani Anglosaxonis Ere- 
mitse, viri in diuinis scripturis ac veteri ilia 
solidaque Theologia eruditissimi, in Psal- 
terium Davidicum, atque alia qusedam sacrse 
pia enarratio.' The Latin tracts, with the 
exception of the commentaries on scripture, 
were reprinted at Paris in 1618, and again 
in torn. xxvi. pp. 609 et sqq. of the ' Biblio- 
theca Patrum Maxima ' at Lyons in 1677. 

[The Legenda appended to Kolle's Office, no- 
ticed above, is the main authority for Rolle's 
biography. See also the editions of his printed 
works already mentioned ; B. ten Brink's Ge- 
schichte der engl. Litt. vol. i. ; Studien zu 
Richard Rolle de Hampole, von J. Ullmann, in 
Englische Studien, vol. vii. ; Hampole Studien, 
von G. Kribel, in Englische Studien, vol. viii. ; 
Ueber die Richard Rolle de Hampole zuge- 
schriebene Paraphrase der sieben Busspsalmen, 
von Max Adler, 1885; Heinrich Middendorff's 
Studien liber Richard Rolle, Magdeburg, 1888 ; 
Ritsoa's Bibliographia Anglo-Poetica ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit.; Oudin's De Seriptoribus Ecclesiae, 
iii. col. 927-9 ; Morley's English Writers, iv. 
263-9 ; Hunter's South Yorkshire, i. 358. Some 
assistance has been rendered by Canon Gr. G-. 
Perry and by Dr. i'rank Heath.] 




ROLLE or ROLLS, SAMUEL (ft. 1657- 
1678), divine, born in London, was admitted 
a scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, on 
24 April 1646, became a minor fellow on 
28 Sept. 1647, and was appointed ' sublector 
tertius ' in 1650. He took orders, and in 
August 1657 was minister of Isleworth, Mid- 
dlesex, and weekly lecturer at Hounslow 
chapel. He was afterwards beneficed at Dun- 
ton, Buckinghamshire. At the Restoration 
he pronounced against the ' prodigious im- 
piety of murdering ' the king, but he was 
ejected from Dunton by the Act of Uni- 
formity, 1662. He afterwards preached in 
divers places, asserting that but for ' an im- 
pediment,' known to the archbishop, he 
would have worked within the church. He 
was admitted doctor of physic at Cambridge, 
by the king's letter mandatory, on 27 Oct. 
1675. He then publicly disavowed anything 
in his signed or anonymous writings contrary 
to the principles acknowledged by the church 
of England and the university of Cambridge. 
About 1678 he was appointed chaplain in 
ordinary to the king, but mainly devoted 
himself to writing religious books. He was 
living in 1678. 

He published: 1. 'The Burning of Lon- 
don commemorated and improved in CX 
Discourses,' &c., London, 1667, 8vo; in four 
parts, with titles and separate pagination. 
2. ' London's Resurrection, or the Rebuild- 
ing of London/ London, 1668, 8vo. 3. ' A 
Sober Answer to the Friendly Debat e bet wixt 
a Conformist and a Nonconformist, written 
by way of a Letter to the Author ' (Simon 
Patrick [q.v.], bishop of Ely), 3rd edit. 1669, 
published under the name of Philagathus. 
4. ' Justification Justified, or the great Doc- 
trine of Justification stated,' in opposition to 
William Sherlock, London, 1674. 6. 'Loyalty 
and Peace, or Two Seasonable Discourses,' 
London, 1678, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 106, 108 ; 
Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, i. 298 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dora. 1657-8, pp. 81, 264; Lips- 
comb's Hist, of Buckinghamshire, iii. 343 ; 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, iii. 570; Owen's 
Works, ed. Goold, 1851, ii. 276 ; Orme's Life of 
Owen, p. 380 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 
88, 139 ; Sylvester's Reliquiae Baxterianse, iii. 13 ; 
notes kindly furnished by W. Aldis Wright, esq. 
Rolls has been confounded with a Dr. Daniel 
Rolles, whose funeral sermon by Daniel Burgess 
[q.v.] was published, London, 1692, dedicated 
to his widow Alice.] C. F. S. 

ROLLESTON, GEORGE (1829-1881), 
Linacre professor of anatomy and physiology 
at Oxford, was second son of George Rol- 
leston, squire and vicar of Maltby, a village 

near Rotherham in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. He was born at Maltby Hall on 
30 July 1829. He received his early edu- 
cation from his father to such good effect 
that he was able to read Homer at sight by 
the time he was ten years old, and he was 
accustomed to say that he could then think 
in Greek. He was sent to the grammar 
school at Gainsborough in 1839, and two 
years later to the collegiate school at Shef- 
field, at that time under the mastership of 
Dr. George Andrew Jacob. At the age of 
seventeen he won an open scholarship at 
Pembroke College, Oxford, and matriculated 
on 8 Dec. 1846, though he did not come into 
residence until the following term. He 
worked hard during his undergraduate career, 
and obtained a first class in classics at the 
final examination for the B.A. degree in 
Michaelmas term 1850. The college elected 
him on 27 June 1851 to a fellowship esta- 
blished in 1846 by Mrs. Sheppard for the 
promotion of the study of law and physic. 
This fellowship he held until his marriage 
in 1862, when he was elected an honorary 
fellow of the society. 

His election to the Sheppard fellowship ap- 
pears to have determined Rolleston to follow 
the profession of medicine. In October 1851 
he entered as a student at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital in London, living in Dyer's Build- 
ings, Thavies Inn. He worked as zealously 
at the hospital as he had done at the uni- 
versity, and he came under the intluence of 
two remarkable leaders then attached to the 
school as physician and surgeon respectively, 
Sir George Burrows and Sir William Law- 
rence [q. v.] He proceeded M.A. at Oxford 
in 1853, and, having qualified in due course 
as M.B. in 18o4, he was admitted a doctor 
of physic in 1857. He was admitted a 
member of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London in 1856, and a fellow in 1859. 

Rolleston was appointed one of the phy- 
sicians to the British civil hospital at 
Smyrna in 1855, towards the close of the 
Crimean war, and in that capacity he had 
charge of surgical as well as of medical cases. 
Later in the year he went to Sebastopol, 
but soon returned to Smyrna, where his 
work was so highly appreciated that he and 
three other civil practitioners were retained 
when the rest of the staff were sent home 
on the closure of the civil hospital at the 
end of the campaign. The four doctors were 
directed to compile a report upon the sani- 
tary and other aspects of Smyrna. This re- 
port, containing much local information of 
great value, was completed before November 
1856. Rolleston, after making a tour in 
Palestine, returned to England in June 1857. 




For some time Rolleston acted as an as- 
sistant physician to the Hospital for Sick 
Children in Great Ormond Street, London. 
But in 1857, on the death of James Adey 
Ogle [q. v.], regius professor of physic in 
Oxford, Rolleston was elected, in his stead, 
physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary, and was 
at the same time appointed by the dean and 
chapter of Christ Church Lee's reader in 
anatomy, in succession to Dr. (afterwards 
Sir Henry Wentworth) Acland, the new 
regius professor of medicine. Rolleston con- 
tinued to practise as a physician in Oxford, 
but the development of scientific teaching in 
the university, mainly due to the energy of 
the new regius professor, soon led to the 
establishment of a Linacre professorship of 
anatomy and physiology. In 1860 Rolleston 
was called to that chair, and he filled it with 
conspicuous ability until his death. 

Rolleston's scientific work dates from this 
period. He was present at the historical ' 
meeting of the British Association at Oxford j 
in 1860, when Richard (afterwards Sir ! 
Richard) Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley \ 
discussed with some heat, in reference to the j 
Darwinian theory, the structural differences 
between the brains of men and monkeys. 
The controversy set Rolleston to work upon i 
the problem of brain classification, and he 
published his first results in a lecture at the i 
Royal Institution on 24 Jan. 1 862. Owen ' 
renewed the dispute with Huxley at the 
Cambridge meeting of the British Associa- 
tion in 1862, and Rolleston entered into the 
debate on Huxley's side. The questions of j 
cerebral development and the classification 
of skulls maintained their interest for him 
until the end of his life. To his suggestion 
is due the magnificent collection of human 
skulls in the Oxford Museum. 

The earlier years of his professorship were 
largely occupied in preparing his work on ' The 
Forms of Animal Life,' published in 1870. 
It was the first instance of instruction by the 
study of a series of types, a method which 
has since obtained general recognition in the 
teaching of biology. His intervals of leisure 
were spent with his friend Canon Green- 
well in examining the sepulchral mounds in 
various parts of England, the results being 
published in ' British Barrows, a Record of 
the Examination of Sepulchral Mounds in 
various parts of England,' Oxford, 1877. He 
thus became a skilled anthropologist. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1862, and a fellow of Merton College in 
1872. In 1873 he delivered the Harveian 
oration at the Royal College of Physicians, 
Rolleston subsequently wasted much energy 

in university and municipal politics. He did 
much, however, to promote the study of 
sanitary science, and, as a member of the 
Oxford local board, he was mainly instru- 
mental in causing the isolation of the cases 
of smallpox as they occurred during the 
epidemic of 1871, while to his advocacy Ox- 
ford owes the system of main drainage which 
replaced the cesspools of previous genera- 
tions. In later life Rolleston was a strong 
advocate of the Permissive Bill, and he be- 
came from conviction a total abstainer for 
two years. He gave evidence before the 
commission appointed in 1874 to inquire into 
the practice of experiments upon living ani- 
mals. He was in favour of vivisection under 
fitting restrictions, and the act 39 & 40 Viet, 
cap. 77 was to a large extent drafted from 
his suggestions ; but these were curiously 
perverted by the opponents of the bill. 

Failing health, accompanied by a nervous 
irritability, the result of overwork, obliged 
him to spend the winter of 1880-1 in the 
Riviera. Returning home with difficulty, 
he died in Oxford on 16 June 1881. He 
was buried in the cemetery at Holywell, 
Oxford. His professorship was subdivided 
at his death, Professor Henry Nottidge 
Moseley [q. v.] being entrusted with the 
chair of human and comparative anatomy, 
Professor Tylor with that of anthropology, 
and Professor Burden Sanderson, the pre- 
sent regius professor of physic, with that of 

Rolleston married, on 21 Sept. 1861, Grace, 
the daughter of Dr. John Davy and the niece 
of Sir Humphry Davy. They lived until 
1868 at 15 New Inn "Hall Street, Oxford, 
and then removed to the house which they 
had built in South Parks Road, close to the 
museum. Rolleston left seven children. 

Rolleston represented an admirable type 
of university professor. On his pupils he 
impressed the love of knowledge for its own 
sake and not from any mere monetary benefit 
which might accrue from it. While deeply 
learned in his special branch of study, he was 
well informed on all subjects. He was per- 
haps the last of a school of English natural 
historians or biologists in the widest sense of 
the term, for, with the training of a Francis 
Trevelyan Buckland [q. v.] or of a William 
Kitchen Parker [q. v.J he combined the cul- 
ture of a classical scholar, the science of a 
professor, and the gift of speech which be- 
longs to a trained linguist and student of 
men. He was an attractive conversationalist, 
apt at quotation and brilliant in repartee. 
Warm-hearted and of sterling honesty, he 
was a good hater, and never abandoned a 
losing cause after he had convinced himself 




that it was right. But the breadth and vast- 
ness of his knowledge led to carelessness of 
detail, and to some diffuse thinking and writ- 
ing. His literary style was often involved, 
and his essays were overloaded with refe- 

Rolleston published numerous papers and 
addresses, and the following books: 1. 'Forms 
of Animal Life,' Clarendon Press, Oxford, 8vo, 
1870 ; 2nd edit, (edited and much enlarged 
by Win. Hatchett Jackson, F.L.S.), 8vo, 
1888. 2. 'A Selection from his Scientific 
Papers and Addresses, arranged and edited 
by Sir "William Turner, with a biographical 
sketch by Dr. E. B. Tylor,' was issued from 
the Clarendon Press at Oxford in 1884, 
2 vols. 8vo, with portrait. 

A crayon portrait, drawn by W. E. Miller 
in 1877, hangs in the common room at Pem- 
broke College, Oxford. It was presented by 
Professor Goldwin Smith, and bears a Latin 
quatrain from his pen. This drawing is re- 
produced in the two-volume edition of his 
' Collected Addresses.' A marble bust in 
the museum at Oxford, executed from a 
study after death, by H. R. Pinker, hardly 
does justice to that massiveness of feature 
which, in his later life, lent a great charm 
and strength to Rolleston's face. 

[Personal knowledge ; obituary notices by Sir 
W. H. Flower, F.K.S., in Proc. Royal Soc. xxxiii. 
24-7 ; Dr. T^lor's Biographical Sketch prefixed 
to the Collected Addresses; additional facts 
kindly contributed to the writer by Dr. H. G. 
Rolleston and by Mr. G. Wood, the bursar of | 
Pembroke College, Oxford.] D'A. P. 

(1700-1765), born in 1700, was the eldest son ; 
of Robert, fourth lord Rollo, by Mary, eldest 
daughter of Sir Harry Rollo of VVoodside, 
Stirlingshire, knight. Entering the army 
after he had attained the age of forty, he so 
distinguished himself at the battle of Dettin- I 
gen in 1743 that he was promoted to a com- 
pany in the 22nd regiment of foot. On 1 June 
1750 he was appointed major, and on 26 Oct. ' 
1756 lieutenant-colonel. He succeeded his 
father on 8 March 1758, and the same year 
the regiment under his command was des- | 
patched to take part in the expedition to 
Louisburg, when it displayed great gallantry 
in effecting a landing at Cape Breton. He 
was stationed with his regiment at Louis- 
burg during 1759, and in the spring of 1760 
the 22nd and 40th regiments, under his : 
command, proceeded from Louisburg up the 
river Lawrence to Quebec, whence, with the I 
forces under Brigadier-general Murray, they 
advanced against Montreal, which surren- 
dered, and with it all Canada. On 19 Feb. j 
1760 Lord Rollo was appointed colonel, and j 

at the same time also obtained the rank 
of brigadier-general in America. After the 
conquest of Canada he removed with the 
troops under his command to Albany, and \ 
thence to New York. In June 1761 he was sent 
in command of twenty-six thousand troops 
to the West Indies, and, landing in Dominica 
under fire of the men-of-war, he drove the 
French from their entrenchments, and in 
two days reduced the island to submission. 
He was then sent to take part in the opera- 
tions against Martinique, joining General 
Monckton in Carlisle Bay, Barbados, in De- 
cember 1761, and arriving with him at Mar- 
tinique on 16 Jan. 1762. The island surren- 
dered on 4 Feb., and Rollo, with his brigade, 
joined the forces of the Earl of Albemarle 
for the reduction of Havannah in the island 
of Cuba ; but before its surrender on 1 Aug. 
1762 ill-health compelled him to leave Cuba 
and set sail for England. He died at Leicester 
on 2 June 1765, from a lingering illness 
caught at Havannah, and was buried in 
St. Margaret's Church. By his first wife, 
Catherine, eldest of two daughters and co- 
heiresses of Lord James Murray of Donally, 
brother of John, first duke of Atholl, he had 
several children, of whom the only one who 
reached maturity was John, master of Rollo, 
who died at Martinique on 24 July 1762 
while serving as major in his father's brigade. 
By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
James Moray of Abercairney, Lord Rollo left 
no issue. 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 399- 
400; Scots Mag. 1765, pp. 279, 336; Cannon's 
Historical Records of the 22nd Regiment.] 

T. F. H. 

ROLLO, JOHN, M.D. (d. 1809), surgeon, 
was born in Scotland,and received his medical 
education at Edinburgh. He became a sur- 
geon in the artillery in 1776, and served in the 
West Indies, being stationed in St. Lucia in 
1778 and 1779 and in Barbados in 1781. He 
published ' Observations on the Diseases in 
the Army on St. Lucia,' in 1781. He soon 
after returned to Woolwich as surgeon- 
general, and in 1785 published ' Remarks on 
the Disease lately described by Dr. Hendy.' 
The disease was that form of elephantiasis 
known as ' Barbados leg.' In 1786 he pub- 
lished ' Observations on the Acute Dysentery,' 
and in 1794 became surgeon-general. He 
printed at Deptford in 1797 'Notes of a 
Diabetic Case,' which described the improve- 
ment of an officer with diabetes who was 
placed upon a meat diet. In a second edition, 
published in 1798, other cases were added, 
so thatthewhole made a considerable volume 
oi which a further edition appeared in 1806. 




He was frequently consulted about cases of 
diabetes, and in treatment had the degree of 
success which has always followed the use 
of a nitrogenous diet. He published in 1801 
a ' Short Account of the Royal Artillery 
Hospital at Woolwich,' and in 1804 a 
' Medical Report on Cases of Inoculation,' in 
which he supports the views of Jenner. He 
died at Woolwich on 23 Dec. 1809. 

[Works ; Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1804 ii. 1114, 1809 ii. 1239.1 

N. M. 

ROLLO, sometimes called ROLLOCK, 
SIR WILLIAM (d. 1645), royalist, was the 
fifth son of Andrew Rollo of Duncruib, 
Perthshire, created 10 Jan. 1651 by Charles II 
while in Scotland Lord Rollo of Duncruib, 
by Catherine Druminond, fourth daughter of 
James, first lord Maderty. The family trace 
their descent from Richard de Rollo, an 
Anglo-Norman, who settled in Scotland in 
the reign of David I. The lands of Dun- 
cruib were obtained by charter on 13 Feb. 
1380 from David, earl of Strathearn, by John 
de Rollo, who was notary public to the act 
of settlement of the crown of Scotland by 
Robert II on 27 March 1371, and was after- 
wards secretary to Robert III ; the lands were 
erected into a free barony on 21 May 1540. 

Although his elder brother, James, second 
lord Rollo, was a follower of Argyll, whom 
he accompanied on board his galley previous 
to the battle of Inverlochy, Sir William 
Rollo continued a staunch royalist. He 
suffered from a congenital lameness, but en- 
joyed a high reputation as a soldier. While 
serving in England as captain in General 
King's lifeguards in 1644, he, at Montrose's 
request, transferred his services to Montrose, 
whom he accompanied into Scotland. When 
they reached Carlisle, Rollo and Lord Ogilvie 
were sent forward in disguise to report on 
the state of the country (WiSHART, Memoirs 
of Montrose, ed. 1893, p. 47). Their report 
was of such a despondent character that Mon- 
trose deemed special precautions necessary, 
and, in company with Rollo and Colonel 
William Sibbald, journeyed north to the 
highlands disguised as a groom (ib. p. 50). 
Rollo held under Montrose the rank of major, 
and commanded the left wing at the attack 
on Aberdeen (ib. p. 66). After the action 
he was sent from Kintore with despatches 
to the king at Oxford, but fell into the hands 
of Argyll. According to AVishart, he would 
have been immediately executed but for the 
interposition of Argyll, who gave him his 
life and liberty on condition that he would 
undertake the assassination of Montrose. 
This, Wishart asserts, Rollo promised to do, 

and being sent back to Montrose immedi- 
ately disclosed to him the whole matter (ib. 
p. 158) ; but such a strange story requires 
corroboration before it can be accepted. 
Rollo was present at the battle of Alford on 
2 July 1645, sharing the command of the 
left wing with the Viscount of Aboyne. He 
accompanied Montrose on his march south- 
wards, and is credited with putting to flight 
two hundred covenanting horse with only ten 
men during the march through Fife. He 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Philip- 
haugh on 13 Sept. 1645, and executed at the 
market cross of Glasgow on 24 Oct. 

[Wishart's Memoirs of Montrose; Gordon's 
Britanes Distemper and Spalding's Memorialls 
(Spalding Club); ZSapier's Montrose; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 398.] T. F. H. 

1619), writer of Latin verse, was an elder 
brother of Robert Rollock [q. v.] He gra- 
duated at St. Andrews, was regent at King's 
College, Aberdeen, and then spent several 
years abroad, chiefly in France, where he 
studied at Poitiers. He enjoyed the friendship 
of Scaliger. Returning to Scotland, he owed 
to the recommendation of Thomas Buchanan 
his appointment (1580) as commissary of St. 
Andrews and the Carse of Gowrie. In 1584 
he became master of the high school of 
Edinburgh. From this post he was removed 
in 1595, and subsequently held some office in 
connection with the courts of justice. His 
earliest dated epigram refers to the comet of 
1577. In an undated ' Apologia,' written at 
the end of his tenth lustrum, he speaks of 
his wife and numerous family. He died 
before 5 March 1619 ; on 20 Feb. 1600 the 
Edinburgh magistrates gave an allowance to 
his ' relict and bairns.' His verses are to 
be found in Arthur Johnston's ' Delitiae 
PoetarumScotorum' (1637, 12mo,ii. 323-87). 

[Bollock's Poems; Steven's Hist of the High 
School of Edinburgh, 1849 ; McCrie's Life of 
Melville, 1856, pp. 381 sq., 395, 431.] A. G. 

ROLLOCK, PETER (d. 1626 ?), bishop 
of Dunkeld and lord of session, was pro- 
bably connected with the old Scottish family 
of Rollo of Duncruib [see ROLLS, SIR WIL- 
LIAM]. He was educated for the law both 
at home and abroad, and passed as advocate 
prior to 1573 (Books of Sederunt). About 
1585 he became titular bishop of Dunkeld, 
having no ecclesiastical function, but merely 
holding the title, and dealing with the tem- 
poralities of what was then a very dilapidated 
see. An act of parliament was passed in 1594 
so far abrogating the act of annexation as to 
allow him to exercise the rights of superiority 
(Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, iii. 




373, iv. 76). The general assembly of 1586 
appointed a commission of ministers to take 
trial of him as bishop whether any occasion 
of slander could be found in his life, conversa- 
tion, or doctrine, and the assembly of 1587 
ordered the commission to proceed (Book of 
the Universal Kirk, pp. 606, 690). 

In July 1587 Rollock was nominated by 
the parliament one of the extraordinary lords 
of council, i.e. to act when he should happen 
to be present or to be sent for by the king. 
In this capacity he was shortly afterwards 
sent to Berwick as one of the commissioners 
to treat with the English respecting the 
management of the borders. On the death 
of Lord Cranston-Riddell, a lord of session, 
the king included his name in the leet for 
the vacant judgeship (8 March 1595), but 
though he did not receive that appointment, 
he was admitted on 19 May 1596 an extra- 
ordinary lord ; and upon a reconstitution of 
the privy council of Scotland on 14 Dec. 
1598, he was appointed an ordinary lord. 

In 1603 he accompanied King James to 
England, and, according to Keith, was 
naturalised there. During his absence, on 
15 Feb. 1604, a ' Supersedere' was issued in 
his favour in respect of all actions in which 
he was concerned until his return (Books of 
Sederunt). He was again in Scotland be- 
fore October 1605, when negotiations were 
in progress for obtaining his surrender of 
the bishopric of Dunkeld. On 19 Jan. of 
that year the lords commissioners of the 
kirk pointedout to the kingthat the bishopric 
was held by one who had no public function 
in the kirk, and that it was an exceedingly 
poor see, scarcely worth four hundred merks 
Scots (less than 25/. sterling), and asking 
that it might be conferred on a clergyman, 
Jameses icolson( OriginalLetters relating to the 
Ecclesiastical Affairs of Scotland, i. 1 1 ). Lord 
Balmerino and the laird of Lauriston were 
deputed to treat with Rollock, to whom the 
king proposed to grant the deanery of York 
by way of compensation (ib. ii. 359). Rol- 
lock demitted the bishopric, but obtained 
nothing in its place. He was thenceforth 
known as ' Mr. Peter Rollock of Pilton.' 

Although he diligently attended the Scot- 
tish council meetings, and took the new 
oath which in June 1607 the king imposed 
for securing the recognition of his authority 
in all matters civil and ecclesiastical, yet on 
the reduction of the number of the privy 
council in February 1610 Rollock was dis- 
placed; and about the same time he was de- 
prived of his seat on the bench, to make room 
for John Spottiswood [q. v.], bishop of Glas- 
gow, afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews. 
Rollock, in a letter to the king, claimed to 

have served his majesty with all faithfulness 
and without one blemish, but his dismissal 
had given rise to the suspicion that he had 
offended his majesty, and he prayed for a 
renewal of the royal favour (Original 
Letters, ut supra, p. 223). The whole Scot- 
tish bench of fifteen lords also appealed to 
the king on 11 Jan. 1610 for his restoration 
(ib. p. 225 ; also the Melros Papers, p. 76, and 
original letter in the Denmiln Collection, 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). These ap- 
peals had the desired effect, and on 5 April 
1619 the king ordered his restoration with 
the provision that this should form no pre- 
cedent for the establishment of a fifth extra- 
ordinary lord of session (Letters and State 
Papers of the Reign of King James VI, p. 
186). Rollock again took the oath of office 
and continued in his post until 1620, when 
he resigned it in favour of John, lord Erskine. 

An attempt upon Rollock's life was made 
on 21 Sept. 1611, by two sons of a neigh- 
bour, Matthew Finlayson of Killeith, with 
whom he had a lawsuit. They waylaid 
him at the back of Inverleith while he was 
on his way from Restalrig to his house at 
Pilton, and shot at him with their pistols, 
but the weapons missed fire (Register of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, ix. 260). In 1616 
he was restored to his seat in the privy 
council. His last attendance is recorded in 
September 1625 (ib. in manuscript). Men- 
tion is made of his death in a charter of his 
estate of Pilton to his successor, who was 
his grand-nephew, 2 Aug. 1626 (Registrum 
Magni Sigilli). 

Rollock married Elizabeth Weston, widow 
of John Fairlie, portioner of Restalrig, but 
appears to have had no lawful surviving 
issue. He had, however, a natural son, 
Walter Rollock. 

[Register of the Privy Council, passim ; Brun- 
ton and Haig's Senators of the College of Jus- 
tice, pp. 236-7 ; Keith's Historical Catalogue of 
the Scottish Bishops, p. 97 ; and the authorities 
cited above.] H. P. 


(1555 P-1599), first principal of the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, born about 1555, was son 
of David Rollock, laird of Powis, near Stir- 
ling, and Mary Livingstone, connected with 
the noble family of that name. Hercules 
Rollock [q. v.] was his elder brother. He was 
educated at the grammar school of Stirling 
under Thomas Buchanan, a nephew of George 
Buchanan the historian, and in 1574 he en- 
tered St. Salvator's College in the university 
of St. Andrews, where he so greatly distin- 
guished himself that soon after taking his 
M. A. degree he was appointed one of the re- 




gents or professors of the college. In 1580 he 
was also made examiner of arts, and in the 
same year director of the faculty of arts. At 
this time he was continuing his studies in 
divinity, and James Melville states that in 
1580 ' he had the honour to be his teacher 
in the Hebrew tongue' (Diary, Wodrow Soc. 
p. 86). In 1583, on the recommendation 
of James Lawson {q. v.], he was appointed 
by the town council of Edinburgh to be 
sole regent of the newly founded college 
of James VI, afterwards known as the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. His appointment was 
for one year certain ; but should the college 
be successful it was provided that he should 
be advanced to the highest post or title that 
might be created. His salary was fixed at 
4:01. Scots, with the students' fees, 40s. for 
sons of burgesses, and 3/. or more for other 
students ; the council moreover agreeing to 
' sustain him and one servant in their or- 
dinary expenses,' and to give him an aug- 
mentation not exceeding forty merks, should 
the fees from the students not afford him a 
sufficient salary. In 1585-6 he took the 
title of ' principal or first master.' He carried 
his class through to graduation in 1587, after 
which, other regents having been appointed, 
he gave up the teaching of philosophy, and, 
with the sanction of the presbytery of Edin- 
burgh, was appointed professor of theology 
at a salary of four hundred merks, retaining 
at the same time his position as principal. 
On 5 Sept. 1587 he also began to preach, 
though not as an ordained minister, every 
Sunday morning in the East Kirk at seven 
A.M. ; but on 13 Dec. 1589 another was ap- 
pointed to that duty. In 1596 he entered 
on the full charge of the congregation. 

In 1590 Rollock was appointed assessor to 
the moderator of the general assembly, and 
in 1591 he was named one of a committee of 
the presbytery of Edinburgh to hold a con- 
ference with the king on the affairs of the 
kirk (CALDERWOOD, Hist. v. 130). In con- 
nection with the prosecution of the Earls of 
Angus, Huntly, and Errol for their attempts 
' against the true religion,' he was named 
one of a committee of the assembly to confer 
with a committee of the estates (ib. p. 277). 
In 1595 he was chosen one of a commission 
for the visitation of the colleges (ib. p. 371), 
and in the following year he was appointed 
with three other ministers to remonstrate 
with the king for his ' hard dealing with the 
kirk/ and especially for his prosecution of 
David Black (ib. p. 463). Subsequently 
Rollock, who, according to Calderwood, was 
' a godly man, but simple in the matters of 
the church government, credulous, easily led 
ty counsel, and tutored in a manner by his 

old master, Thomas Buchanan ' (ib. viii. 47), 
was won over to support the policy of the 
king in church matters, and at the instance 
of the king's party he was chosen moderator 
of the assembly that met at Dundee in May 
1597. According to Calderwood, he ' kythed 
[discovered] his own weakness in following the 
humours of the king and his commissioners ' 
(ib. v. 650). Rollock supported the proposal 
made in 1595 that certain ministers should 
be allowed to sit and vote in parliament as 
bishops, affirming that ' lordship could not 
be denied them that were to sit in parlia- 
ment, and allowance of rent to maintain 
their dignities ' (ib. p. 697). It was generally 
supposed that he himself was not averse to 
such a promotion in his own case. In 1598 
he became minister of the Upper Tolbooth 
probably the west portion of St. Giles's 
Cathedra] and on 18 April of the same year 
he was admitted to Magdalen Church, after- 
wards Greyfriars. He died on 8 Feb. (old 
style) 1598-9, in his forty-fourth year. By 
his wife Helen, daughter of James, baron 
of Kinnaird, he had a posthumous daugh- 
ter, Jean, who married Robert Balcanquhal, 
minister of Tranent. 

Although ' grieved ' at what he deemed 
Rollock's weakness in lending his aid to 
the king's ecclesiastical policy, Calderwood 
admits that he was ' a man of good conversa- 
tion and a powerful preacher' (ib. p. 732). 
He was reckoned to be of ' great learning,' 
and he discharged the duties of professor and 
principal of the university with great success. 
He was the author of numerous theological 
works, the majority of them being com- 
mentaries or expositions of scripture which, 
although somewhat commonplace and super- 
ficial, are of interest as among the earliest 
of this species of literature in Scotland. 

Rollock's principal works are: 1. 'Com- 
mentarius in Epistolam ad Ephesios,' Edin- 
burgh, 1">90; Geneva, 1593. 2. ' Commen- 
tarius in Librum Danielis Prophetae,' Edin- 
burgh, 1591 ; St. Andrews, 1594. 3. ' Analysis 
Epistolfe ad Romanos,' Edinburgh, 1594. 
4. ' Qutestiones et Responsiones aliquot de 
Foedere Dei et de Sacramentis.' Edinburgh, 
1596. o. ' Tractatus de Efficaci Vocatione,' 
Edinburgh, 1597. 6. ' Commentarius in 
utramque Epistolam ad Thessalonicenses, et 
Analysis in Epistolam ad Philemonem, cum 
Notis Joan. Piscatoris,' Edinburgh, 1598 ; 
Herborn, in Hesse-Nassau, 1601 ; translated 
under the title ' Lectures upon the First and 
Second Epistles to the Thessalonians,' Edin- 
burgh, 1606. 7. ' Certaine Sermons upon 
several places of the Epistles of Paul,' Edin- 
burgh, 1599. 8. ' Commentarius in Joannis 
Evangelium, una cum Harmonia ex iv Evan- 




gelistis in Mortem, Resurrectionem, et Ascen- 
sionem Dei,' Geneva, 1599; Edinburgh, 1599. 
' 9. ' Commentarius in selectos aliquot 
Psalmos,' Geneva, 1598, 1599; translated 
under the title 'An Exposition of some select 
Psalms of David,' Edinburgh, 1600. 10. ' Ana- 
lysis Logica in Epistolam ad Galatas,' Edin- 
burgh, 1602 ; Geneva, 1603. 11. ' Tractatus 
brevis de Providentia Dei, et Tractatus de 
Excommunicatione,' Geneva, 1602 ; London, 
1604. 12. ' Commentarius in Epistolam ad 
Colossenses,' Edinburgh, 1600; Geneva, 1602. 
13. ' Commentarius in Epistolam ad Hebrseos,' 
Edinburgh, 1605. 14. ' Commentarius in 
Epistolas ad Corinthios,' Herborn, in Hesse- 
Nassau, 1600. 15. ' A Treatise of God's Effec- 
tual Calling,' translated by H. Holland, Lon- 
don, 1603. 16. ' Lectures upon the History of 
the Passion,' Edinburgh, 1616. 17. 'Epi- 
scopal Government instituted by Christ, and 
confirmed by Scripture and Reason,' London, 
1641. ' The Select Works of Rollock,' edited 
by William Gunn, D.D., with the Latin life 
by Charteris, and notes to it, was printed by 
the Wodrow Society in two volumes, Edin- 
burgh, 1844 and 1849. 

[De Vita et Morte Roberti Rollok, auctoribus 
Georgio Robertson et Henrico Charteris (Banna- 
tyne Club), 1826; Life by Charteris, with notes, 
prefixed to Gunn's edition of Rollok's Works 
(Wodrow Soc.) ; Histories by Spotiswood and 
Calderwood ; Grant's Hist, of the University of 
Edinburgh.] T. F. H. 

ROLPH, JOHN (1793-1870), Canadian 
insurgent and politician, son of Dr. Thomas 
Rolph by his wife Frances, was born at 
Thornbury, Gloucestershire, on 4 March 1793, 
and was originally brought up for the me- 
dical profession, studying at both Guy's and 
St. Thomas's Hospitals, and being admitted 
to membership of the Royal Colleges both 
of Physicians and Surgeons. But soon aban- 
doning medicine in favour of the law, he 
was called to the bar of the Inner Temple. 
Thereupon he migrated to Canada in 1820, 
and was called to the bar in 1821, practising 
first at Dundas. Entering political life as a 
member of assembly for Middlesex, Upper 
Canada, in 1825, he became known as a mem- 
ber of the reform party, and in 1828 was 
chairman of the committee of the house 
which reported the charges against the family 
compact party and Sir John Beverley Ro- 
binson [q. v.] 

Under the Baldwin ministry, on 20 Feb. 
1836, Rolph became a member of the execu- 
tive council, but resigning on 4 March as a 
protest against the methods of government, 
led the attack upo i Sir Francis Bond Head 
~j.v.] In 1837 he joined William Lyon 
Lackenzie [q-v.] in his secret scheme for a 

rebellion against the existing government ; 
his timidity is alleged to have precipitated 
the rising on 4 Dec. 1837, and to have largely 
contributed to its failure. It is said that he 
was not in favour of a direct appeal to arms, 
but desired a strong popular demonstration to 
overawe the imperial government. He was 
still unsuspected by the government when the 
critical moment came, and was sent by the 
authorities to the rebels with a flag of truce : 
he urged Mackenzie to trust to a night attack, 
and promised aid from within Toronto. On 
the failure of the attack, Rolph joined the 
rebels openly, and subsequently, when the 
rising was crushed, fled with Mackenzie to 
the United States. He took a prominent 
part in organising the executive committee 
at Buffalo and in planning an invasion of 
Canada. When the whole movement col- 
lapsed he fled to Russia. 

Before leaving Canada Rolph had resumed 
the practice of medicine. On the first de- 
claration of amnesty he returned in 1843 
to Canada, and settled down to practice, 
founding the Toronto school of medicine, at 
which he lectured regularly. In 1845 he was 
induced to enter the assembly of the now 
united Canadas as member for Norfolk, and, 
joining the radical or ' Clear-grit ' party, took 
office with the Hincks-Morin ministry as 
commissioner of crown lands. His political 
views at the time were attacked by the op- 
position as socialistic. He was described as 
one of the ' chiefs of that Clear-grit school 
which has broken up the liberalism of Upper 
Canada ' (HiNCKS, Reminiscences). On 8 Sept. 
1854 the ministry resigned, and in 1857 he 
retired from political life, and devoted him- 
self to the work of social reform. Till 1868 
he lectured at the People's School of Medicine 
in Toronto, also known as Rolph's school. 
He died on 19 Oct. 1870 at Michell, near 
Toronto. Rolph was a man of powerful cha- 
racter, which was marred, it is said, by a love 
of finesse. He was an eloquent speaker, and 
in private life was credited with much cul- 
ture. Rolph was married and left descendants 
in Canada. 

[Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biogr. ; 
Withrow's Hist, of Canada ; Toronto Globe, 
21 Oct. 1870; Lindsey's Life and Times of 
W. L. Mackenzie.] C. A. H. 

ROLT, SIB JOHN (1804-1871), judge, 
second son of James Rolt, merchant, of 
Calcutta, by Anne Braine, daughter of 
Richard Iliorns, yeoman, of Fairford, 
Gloucestershire, and widow of Samuel 
Brunsdon, of the baptist mission at Seram- 
pore, was born at Calcutta on 5 Oct. 1804. 
Brought to England by his mother about 




1810, he received an elementary education 
under strictly dissenting influences at pri- 
vate schools at Chipping Norton and Is- 
lington. His father died in 1813, and his 
mother in the following year; and about 
Christmas 1818 Rolt was apprenticed to a 
London firm of woollendrapers. Though 
his hours were long, he managed, by early 
rising and reading as he walked, to repair 
in a measure the defects of his education. 
On the expiration of his indentures in 1822- 
1823, he found employment in a Manchester 
warehouse in Newgate Street, which he 
exchanged in 1827 for a clerkship in a 
proctor's office at Doctors' Common. His 
next step was to obtain two secretaryships 
one to a school for orphans, the other to 
the protestant dissenters' school at Mill 
Hill. Meanwhile he pursued his studies, and 
entered in 1833 the Inner Temple, where he 
was called to the bar on 9 June 1837. Con- 
fining himself to the court of chancery, he 
rapidly acquired an extensive practice, and 
took silk in Trinity vacation 1846. After 
some unsuccessful attempts to enter parlia- 
ment, he was returned in the conservative 
interest for the western division of Glouces- 
tershire, 31 March 1857, and for ten years 
continued to represent the same constituency. 
In 1862 he carried through the House of 
Commons the measure commonly known as 
Bolt's Act (25 and 26 Viet. c. 42), by which 
an important step was taken towards the 
fusion of law and equity. In 1866 he suc- 
ceeded Sir Hugh Cairns as attorney-general, 
29 Oct., and was knighted on 10 Nov. 

In parliament Rolt made no great figure, 
but he voted steadily with his party, and did 
the drudgery connected with the carriage of 
the Reform' Bill of 1867. On 18 July of 
that year he succeeded Sir George James 
Turner [q. v.] as lord justice of appeal, and 
on 3 Aug. was sworn of the privy council. 
Incipient paralysis, due to long-continued 
overwork, compelled his resignation in Fe- 
bruary 1868, and on 6 June 1871 he died at 
his seat, Ozleworth Park, Wotton-under- 
Edge, Gloucestershire. His remains were in- 
terred on 12 June in Ozleworth churchyard. 

Rolt was neither a profound lawyer nor 
a great advocate; but he was thoroughly 
versed in chancery practice, had sound judg- 
ment, and quickness of apprehension. 

In early life Rolt abandoned dissent for 
the church of England, to which he became 
strongly attached. 

Rolt married twice : first, in 1826, Sarah 
(d. 1850), daughter of Thomas Bosworth of 
Bosworth, Leicestershire; secondly, in 1857, 
Elizabeth (d. 1867), daughter of Stephen 
Godson of Croydon. By his first wife he 

had issue, with four daughters, a son John, 
who succeeded to his estate ; he had also a 
son by his second wife. 

[Times, 8 June 1871 ; Law Journal, 9, 23 June 
1871 ; Law Times, 10 June 1871 ; Law Mag. and 
Law Rev. xxxii.; Solicitors' Journ. 10 June 1871, 
Ann. Reg. 1867 ii. 259, 1871 ii. 155; Law List; 
Gent. Mag. 1867, ii. 234, 279 ; Foss's Biogr. 
Jurid. ; Nash's Life of Lord Westbury ; Return 
of Members of Parl. (official).] J. M. R. 

ROLT, RICHARD (1725P-1770), mis- 
cellaneous writer, descended from a Hert- 
fordshire family (see CUSSANS, Hertfordshire, 
passim), was born probably at Shrewsbury 
in 1724 or 1725. Placed under an excise 
officer in the north of England, he joined 
the Jacobite army in 1745, and was there- 
fore dismissed from his situation. He then 
went to Dublin, hoping to obtain employ- 
ment through the influence of his relative 
Ambrose Philips [q. v.], but, owing to Philips's 
death in 1749, failed to do so. While he was 
in Dublin he is said to have published in 
his own name Akenside's ' Pleasures of the 
Imagination.' This story appears to be un- 
true ; but, as Malone suggests, it is not im- 
probable that Rolt acquiesced in having the 
poem, which was published anonymously, 
attributed to him (European Magazine, 1803, 
ii. 9, 85 ; BOSWELL, Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, 
i. 358, 359). Patronised by General Ogle- 
thorpe, Lord Middlesex, and others, Rolt 
published ' Cambria, a Poem in three books ' 
(London, 1749, 4to), dedicated to Prince 
George (afterwards George III). His 'Poem 
... to the Memory of Sir W. W. Wynne, 
Bart.,' London, 1749, 4to, was very favour- 
ably received. He then issued ' An Impar- 
tial Representation of the Conduct of the 
Several Powers of Europe engaged in the late 
general War . . . from 1739 ... to ... 1748 ' 
(4 vols. London, 1749-50, 8vo), which Vol- 
taire read ' with much pleasure ' ('Rolt's Cor- 
respondence with Voltaire,' European Maga- 
zine, 1803, i. 98-100). Entirely dependent 
on authorship for a living, he is said to have 
composed more than a hundred cantatas, 
songs, and other pieces for Vauxhall, Sadler's 
Wells, and the theatres. His ' Eliza, a new 
Musical Entertainment . . . the Music com- 
posed by Mr. Arne ' (London, 1754, 8vo), and 
' Almena, an English Opera . . . the Music 
composed by Mr. Arne and Mr. Battishill ' 
(London, 1764, 8vo; another edit. Dublin 
[1764?], 12mo), were successfully produced 
at Drury Lane Theatre on 20 Jan. 1757 and 
2 Nov. 1764 respectively (GENEST). He, in 
conjunction with Christopher Smart [q. v.], 
was employed by Gardner the bookseller to 
write a monthly miscellany, ' The Universal 




Visitor.' It is said that the authors were 
to receive one-third of the profits, and that 
the contract was for ninety-nine years. Bos- 
well, however, throws doubt on the reality 
of ' this supposed extraordinary contract ' 
(BoswELL, Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, ii. 344, 

Rolt died on 2 March 1770, aged 45. He 
was twice married, and left a daughter by 
each of his wives. His second wife, who 
survived him many years, was, by her 
mother, related to the Percys of Worcester. 
After Rolt's death, Bishop Percy allowed 
her a pension. 

Rolt is accused of conceit and incompe- 
tence. Though unacquainted with Dr. John- 
son, he used to say, ' I am just come from 
Sam Johnson ' (ib. i. 358). In the ' Pasqui- 
nade ' (1753) he is described as ' Dull Rolt 
long steep'd in Sedgeley's nut-brown beer.' 
In addition to the works mentioned above, 
he published: 1. 'The Ancient Rosciad,' 
1753. 2. ' Memoirs of the Life of ... James 
Lindesay, Earl of Crawfurd and Linde- 
say,' &c., London, 1753, 4to. 3. ' A New 
and Accurate History of South America,' 
&c., London, 1756, 8vo. 4. ' A New Dic- 
tionary of Trade and Commerce,' &c., Lon- 
don, 1756, fol. ; 2nd ed. London, 1761, fol. Dr. 
Johnson wrote the preface to this ' wretched 
compilation ' (MoCuLLOCH), though he 
' never saw the man and never read the 
book.' ' The booksellers wanted a Preface. 
... I knew very well what such a dictionary 
should be, and I wrote a preface accordingly ' 
(BoswELL). 5. ' The Lives of the Principal 
Reformers, &c. . . . Embellished with the 
Heads of the Reformers ... in Mezzotinto 
... by ... Houston,' London, 1759, fol., 
and other works. He also edited from the 
author's manuscript ' Travels through Italy' 
(1766), by Captain John Northall [q.v.] At 
the time of his death he had projected a 
' History of the Island of Man,' which was 
published in 1773, and a ' History of the 
British Empire in North America ' in six 
volumes, which has disappeared. 'Select 
Pieces of the late R. Rolt (dedicated to Lady 
Sondes, by Mary Rolt),' sm. 8vo, was pub- 
lished in 1772 for the benefit of Rolt's widow. 

[Authorities quoted ; Chalmers's Biographical 
Dictionary, xxvi. 353-6 ; Baker's Biogr. Dram. ; 
Nichols's Literary Illustrations, iv. 687-91, 
vi. 61, 62 ; McCulloch's Literature of Political 
Economy, p. 52.] W. A. S. H. 

ROMAINE, WILLIAM (1714-1795), 
divine, born atHartlepool on 25 Sept. 1714, 
was younger son of William Romaine, a 
French protestant, who came to England at 
the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and 

settled at Hartlepool, where he carried on 
the trade of a corn-dealer. He became a 
loyal member of the church of England, and 
died in 1757. Romaine's letters attest the 
deep piety of his mother, who died in 1771. 

When about ten years old William was 
sent to the school founded by Bernard Gil- 
pin at Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, and 
matriculated on 10 April 1731 at Hart Hall 
(afterwards Hertford College), Oxford, where 
he was noted as much for his untidy and 
slovenly dress as for his ability. Migrating 
to Christ Church he graduated B.A. in 1734 
and M.A. in 1737. He was ordained deacon 
the year before, and became curate of Lew- 
Trenchard, Devonshire. While still a deacon, 
he had the audacity to break a lance with 
Warburton, in a series of letters about the 
'Divine Legation' a subject which he pur- 
sued in his first two sermons before the 
university of Oxford (1739, 1741). He was 
ordained priest by Hoadly (1738), probably 
to the curacy of Banstead, Surrey, which he 
held for some years with that of Horton 
in Middlesex. At Banstead he became ac- 
quainted with Sir Daniel Lambert, who 
made him his chaplain during his office as 
lord mayor of London (1741). 

His theological views had not then taken 
their ultimate shape. His earliest published 
works attest a settlement of belief on or- 
thodox lines and a lively interest in the 

ilogetic and critical branches of theology. 

To critical study Romaine soon made a solid 
contribution by editing a new edition of the 
Hebrew concordance of Marius de Calasio, 
1748. The evangelical revival, which had 
not touched him in his Oxford days, changed 
the current of his thought. At first he 
was attracted by Wesley's view of the 
Atonement, as made for all men and open 
freely to all that would accept it, and the 
righteousness of Christ as an inherent and 
not only an imputed righteousness (see 
Works, viii. 193). But in 1755 he had passed 
entirely to the side of Whitefield (see Ser- 
mons on the 107th Psalm,' Works,\o\. iv.), and 
from that time to the end of his life he remained 
the ablest exponent among the evangelicals 
of the highest Calvinistic doctrine, holding 
Wesley's views, especially in the matter of 
free will and perfection, as a subtle reproduc- 
tion of the Romish theory of justification by 
Avorks (see Works, viii. 125 letter to his 
sister; 'Dialogue concerning Justification,' ii. 
200 seq.) In a letter written in 1766 Romaine 
has drawn the portrait of 'a very, very vain, 
proud young man,' who ' knew almost every- 
thing but himself, and therefore was mighty 
fond of himself,' and ' met with many disap- 
pointments to his pride, till the Lord was 




pleased to let him see and feel the plague of 
his own heart ' ( Works, via. 188). It has 
been thought that the portrait was his own 
(ib. vii. 19). In 1748 he was appointed to a 
lectureship at the united parishes of St. 
George's, Botolph Lane, and St. Botolph's, 
Billingsgate, and entered on the career of a 
London clergyman. In 1749 he was insti- 
tuted to a double lectureship at St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-West. In 1750 he became in 
addition morning preacher at St. George's, 
Hanover Square. About this time also he 
held for a little while the professorship of 
astronomy in Gresham College. His lectures 
must have been original ; he used to ' attack 
some part of the Newtonian philosophy with 
boldness and banter.' In 1753 he published 
a pamphlet against the bill for naturalising 
the Jews. 

Romaine was now an ardent follower of 
Whitefield, proclaiming his belief not only 
to the citizens of St. Dunstan's, but to the 
fashionable world of St. George's. Perse- 
cution followed. The fashionable people of 
Hanover Square could not tolerate the poor 
folk that crowded to his preaching, al- 
though the old Earl of Northampton de- 
fended him, dryly remarking that no com- 
plaint was made of crowds in the ballroom or 
in the playhouse. Romaine consequently, 
at the request of the vicar, resigned his morn- 
ing lectureship at St. George's. Trouble next 
arose at St. Dunstan's; the parishioners com- 
plained that they had to force their way to 
their pews through a 'ragged, unsavoury 
multitude,' ' squeezing,' ' shoving,' ' panting,' 
' riding on one another's backs.' The rec- 
tor sat in the pulpit to prevent Romaine 
from occupying it (Monthly Review, xxi. 
271). The matter was carried to the king's 
bench, and that court deprived him of one 
parish lectureship, supported by voluntary 
contributions, but confirmed him in the other, 
which was endowed with 18Z. a year (1762), 
and granted him the use of the church at 
seven o'clock in the evening. The church- 
wardens, however, refused to open the church 
until the exact hour, and declined to light 
it. Romaine had frequently to perform his 
office by the light of a single candle, which 
he held in his hand ; until Terrick, the bishop 
of London, who happened on one occasion 
to precede him in the pulpit, observing the 
crowd at the closed door, interfered, and ob- 
tained fair and decent arrangements for the 

Romaine stood almost alone. The uni- 
versity of Oxford refused him the pulpit of 
St. Mary's in consequence of two sermons 
(1757) preached before it, in which he de- 
claimed against moral rectitude being put 

in the place of justification by faith. The 
' Monthly Review ' treated his sermons and 
treatises with pitiless ridicule. A sermon, 
'The Self-existence of Jesus,' 1755, on the 
divinity of Christ, was called an ' amazing 
rhapsody.' ' The Life of Faith ' (1763) was 
' a silly treatise, a stupid treatise, a nonsen- 
sical treatise, a fanatical treatise.' But Ro- 
maine reiterated his views and retracted 
nothing (Preface to ' Sermon on 107th Psalm,' 
Works, 1758, iv. p. xx). If men called the 
plain doctrines of scripture and the church 
' enthusiasm,' he hoped, he said, to live and 
die ' a church of England enthusiast ' (ib. 
iv. p. cclxii). 

After his dismissal from St. George's he 
was appointed chaplain by Lady Hunting- 
don, preaching both in her kitchen and in her 
drawing-room. In 1756 he became curate 
and morning preacher at St. Olave's, South- 
wark; in 1759 he removed to the same post 
at St. Bartholomew the Great ; and nearly 
two years afterwards to Westminster chapel, 
a chapel-of-ease to St. Margaret's, from which 
he was driven in six months by the hostility of 
the dean and chapter. The outlook in London 
seemed hopeless. Lord Dartmouth offered 
him a living in the country, and Whitefield 
wished him to take charge of a great church at 
Philadelphia at a salary of 6QOI. a year. But 
he declined to leave St. Dunstan's. He found 
occupation in preaching charity sermons, and 
assisted Archbishop Seeker at Lambeth. He 
also preached to Ingham's societies at Leeds, 
with Grimshaw at Haworth, in the new 
chapel at Brighton, and in Lady Huntingdon's 
chapel at Bath, where his learning made him 
not wholly unequal to his temporary col- 
league, Whitefield. 

In 1764 Romaine became a candidate for 
the living of St. Anne's, Blackfriars, with 
St. Andrew of the Wardrobe, which was in 
the gift of the parishioners, and preached 
before them a straightforward and charac- 
teristic sermon. The poll of the parish 
issued in his favour, but was disputed ; and 
it was not till 1766 that the court of chan- 
cery confirmed his right to the benefice. 
There, at last, he had an assured position 
and a satisfied congregation : the communi- 
cants on his first Good Friday rose to the 
unprecedented number of five hundred, and 
on Easter-day there were as many as three 
hundred. A gallery had soon to be erected 
for the crowded congregations. Romaine 
stayed at Blackfriars for the remaining 
twenty-nine years of his life. Until John 
Newton's arrival in 1780, Romaine was the 
sole incumbent preaching the doctrines of 
the revival ; and his learning made him 
always the central figure in it in London. 






He died on 26 July 1795, and his body 
was borne to Blackfriars through a dense 
crowd, the city marshals preceding it on 
horseback, and nearly fifty private coaches 

In 1755 he married Miss Price, by whom 
he had two sons and a daughter. A son, 
captain in the army, died in 1783 at Trin- 

Romaine was by nature reserved. He 
possessed little of those varied sympathies 
\vhich made John Newton excellent as a 
spiritual counsellor. He was capable, too, of 
displays of hot temper. When he saw people 
talking in church, he would not only tap them 
on the shoulder, but sometimes knock their 
heads together. 

As a preacher he exercised great power. 
His theology and his conception of the 
spiritual life are most fully exhibited in 
three treatises, 'The Life of Faith' (1763), 
The Walk of Faith ' (1771), and ' The 
Triumph of Faith' (1795), which contain 
many passages full of tender and passionate 
devotion. The idea of a spiritual progress, 
which the titles convey, is not realised. 
The same field of religious ideas is surveyed 
in each treatise. The form which the doctrine 
of election took in his creed was too extreme 
for some even of his religious friends. Newton 
confessed to Wilberforce that Romaine had 
made many antinomians (ABBEY and OVEK- 
TOX, Hist, of the English Church in the 
Eighteenth Century, p. 374). He was strongly 
opposed to dissenters, holding the Calvinist 
side of the articles as the essence of the 
church of England. In the bitter Calvinist 
controversy he was free from bitterness. 
When Whitefield's opposition was fiercest, 
John Wesley wrote to Lady Huntingdon 
that Romaine had shown ' a truly sympa- 
thising spirit.' He adhered to the metrical 
psalms against the hymns of Watts and 
Wesley ; his revival of the old nicknames of 
' Watts's whims ' and ' Watts's jingle,' in his 
strenuous defence of psalmody' (1775), gave 
offence to Lady Huntingdon. 
^ A portrait of Romaine, painted in 1758 by 
F. Cotes, was engraved by Houston, who also 

engraved another by J. Russell ; an engrav- 
ing of Romaine in the 'Gospel Magazine' (L 
1 1' I ) in wig and gown shows a keen and 
animated face. 

[Works and Life, by Rev. W. B. Cadogan, 
8 vols. 1809; Christian Leaders of the Last 
Century, by Rev. J. C. Rjle, bishop of Liver- 
P""'. 1871.] H. L. B. 


(1815-1893), comptroller-general in Egypt, 
se ond son of Robert Govett Romaine, 


vicar of Staines, Middlesex, was born in 1815, 
and graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 1837, M.A. 1859). He was entered 
at the Inner Temple, 9 Nov. 1834, and was 
called to the bar 25 Jan. 1839. After 
practising in the courts, he was appointed 
in 1854, on the outbreak of the Crimean war, 
' deputyjudge-advocateofthearmyin the east, 
and there distinguished himself in many 
capacities. At the close of the battle of the 
Alma, he voluntarily undertook the humane 
work of attending to the Russian wounded 
who had been left neglected on the field of 
battle. Adventurous, fond of travel, a keen 
observer, high-spirited, and zealous in all he 
undertook, Romaine often proved himself 
exceedingly useful to Lord Raglan. The 
latter called him ' the eye of the army,' in 
reference to the long sight with which he 
was gifted, and it was owing to his wise 
counsel that the Crimean army fund was 
set on foot. In appreciation of his ser- 
vices he was made a companion of the Bath 
in 1857. At the general election of March 
1857 he unsuccessfully contested the repre- 
sentation in parliament of Chatham. iNext 
month he was made second secretary to the 
admiralty. In June 1869 he became judge- 
advocate-general in India, where he remained 
until 1873. In 1876 the foreign office recom- 
mended Romaine to Ismail Pacha as member 
of the Egyptian Conseil du Tresor. Of that 
body he afterwards became president, and 
eventually under the Joint Control he acted as 
English comptroller-general of finances until 
he retired from public life in 1879. Romaine 
died at Old Windsor, 5 May 1893, at the 
age of seventy-six. He married, in 1861, 
Frances, daughter of Henry Tennant of 
Cadoxton Lodge, Glamorganshire. 

[Foster's Men at the Bar; Kinglake's Inva- 
sion of the Crimea ; McCalmont's Parliamentary 
Poll Book ; Annual Register ; Obituary Notices 
in the Times and Guardian.] W. R. W. 

1894), man of science, third son of the Rev. 
George Romanes, was born at Kingston, 
Canada West, on 20 May 1848. His father, 
who held the professorship of Greek in the 
university of Kingston, belonged to an old 
lowland Scottish family settled since 1586 in 
Berwickshire. His mother, Isabella Gair, 
whose vivacity was in marked contrast with 
the reticence of her husband, was daughter 
of Robert Smith (d. 1824), minister of Cro- 
marty. The father inherited a considerable 
fortune in 1848, and removed to England, 
settling at 8 Cornwall Terrace, Regent's 
Park, and visiting the continent from time 
to time. Georges early education was de- 




sultory, his constitution being delicate, and 
his faculties slow in development. After 
reading for a time with a tutor, he entered 
in October 1867 at Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge, obtaining in the following 
year a science scholarship there. He gra- 
duated in the second class of the natural 
science tripos in 1870. Under the influence 
of Professor Michael Foster, he then worked 
at physiology, Francis Maitland Balfour 
[q. v.] being a fellow-student. An early wish 
to take holy orders was abandoned, and after 
winning the Burney prize at Cambridge in 
1873, for an essay ' On Christian Prayer and 
General Laws,' he for a time read mathe- 
matics. Possessed of ample private means, 
he was under no necessity of working for a 
livelihood, and ultimately resolved to devote 
himself to scientific research. Darwin no- 
ticed an early contribution made by him to 
' Nature ' (viii. 101), and sent him an en- 
couraging letter. This proved the founda- 
tion of a friendship which profoundly affected 
Romanes's studies, and lasted till Darwin's 

From 1874 to 1876 Romanes studied under 
Professor Burden Sanderson in the physio- 
logical laboratory at University College, 
London, and dated thence his first commu- 
nication to the Royal Society, on ' The 
Influence of Injury on the Excitability of 
Motor Nerves.' He counted the advice, the 
teaching, the example, and the friendship of 
Professor Sanderson as among the most im- 
portant determinants of his scientific career. 
In addition to the stimulus he received from 
Darwin in biological speculation, he was 
specially encouraged by him to apply the 
theory of natural selection to the problems 
of mental evolution. Darwin himself en- 
trusted him with unpublished matter on in- 

While associated with Professor Sander- 
son, Romanes initiated a series of researches 
on the nervous and locomotor systems of the 
medusae and the echinodermata. He con- 
ducted his observations in a laboratory which 
he built for the purpose at Dunskaith on the 
Cromarty Firth. The first-fruits of this in- 
vestigation were communicated to the Royal 
Society through Professor Huxley, and Ro- 
manes also made his results the subject of the 
Croonian lecture, which he was appointed by 
the Royal Society to deliver in 1876; the 
paper was published in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions.' In the same year he read a 
paper before the British Association at Glas- 
gow. A second paper, in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions,' followed in 1877, and a third, 
which concluded the researches on the me- 
dusae, in 1880. In the investigation on the 

echinoderms Romanes was associated with 
Professor Cossar Ewart, and their joint work 
formed the subject of the Croonian lecture 
for 1881. These researches, the results of 
which were subsequently set forth in a vo- 
lume of the ' International Scientific Series ' 
(' Jelly-fish, Star-fish, and Sea-urchins, Ner- 
vous Systems,' 1885), established the position 
of Romanes as an original worker in science, 
and he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1879. Near the close of his life 
he contributed to the society a summary of 
an experimental inquiry on ' Plant Excita- 
bility,' showing that amid other work his 
interest in physiological investigation had 
not diminished. 

Meanwhile other problems, scientific and 
philosophical, occupied his mind. At the 
Dublin meeting of the British Association 
in 1878 he delivered a lecture on ' Animal 
Intelligence,' by which he became known to 
the wider public that is interested in general 
scientific questions rather than in special 
lines of research. This lecture formed the 
starting-point of an important investigation. 
In 1881 he published in the ' International 
Scientific Series,' under the same title that 
he had given to his Dublin lecture, a collec- 
tion of data, perhaps too largely anecdotal, 
respecting the mental faculties of animals in 
relation to those of man. This work was 
followed in 1883 by another on 'Mental 
Evolution in Animals' (with Darwin's pos- 
thumous essay on instinct), and in 1888 by 
the first instalment of ' Mental Evolution in 
Man,' dealing with the ' Origin of Human 
Faculty.' Further instalments, dealing with 
the intellect, emotions, volition, morals, and 
religion, were projected. Other lines of work, 
however, intervened,, and the design was 
never completed. The keynote of the whole 
series is the frank and fearless applica- 
tion of the principles of evolution as for- 
mulated by Darwin to the development of 

In addition to his special researches in 
physiology and mental evolution, Romanes 
interested himself in the progress and deve- 
lopment of the theory of organic evolution. 
A lecture on this subject delivered at Bir- 
mingham and Edinburgh was published in 
the 'Fortnightly Review' (December 1881), 
and republished as a volume in the ' Nature 
Series.' This essay, ' On the Scientific Evi- 
dences of Organic Evolution,' may be re- 
garded as the germ from which were deve- 
loped his course of lectures on ' The Philo- 
sophy of Natural History,' delivered at 
Edinburgh (1886-90) during his tenure of a 
special professorship, founded by Lord Rose- 
bery, and his subsequent course on ' Darwin 




and after Darwin,' delivered as Fullerian 
professor of physiology at the Koyal Insti- 
tution, a position which he held for three 
years (1888-91). The substance of these 
two courses of lectures was subsequently 
embodied in a treatise bearing the title of 
the Fullerian course, of which the first part 
was published in 1893; two other parts, 
completing the work, were left ready for pub- 
lication at the time of his death. Thefirstpart 
deals with the ' Darwinism of Darwin ; ' the 
second part, which appeared with a portrait 
of the author in 1895, deals with those 
post-Darwinian problems which involve 
questions of heredity and utility; while 
the third part (at present unpublished) con- 
tains a discussion of the problems of isola- 
tion and of the author's theory of 'physio- 
logical selection.' This theory, which was 
regarded by Romanes as his chief substan- 
tive contribution to evolutionary doctrine, 
was first propounded by him in a paper 
contributed to the Linnean Society in 1886, 
the full title of which was ' Physiological 
Selection : an Additional Suggestion on the 
Origin of Species.' The suggestion is briefly 
as follows. It was part of the body of bio- 
logical doctrine that when a group of ani- 
mals or plants belonging to any species is 
isolated by geographical barriers, that group 
tends, under the influence of its specialised 
environment, to develop characters different 
from those of the main body of the species 
from which it is isolated. " Eventually the 
divergence of characters may proceed so far 
as to render the isolated group reciprocally 
sterile with the original species, and thus to 
render it not only morphologically but also 
physiologically a distinct species. Romanes, 
in his Linnean paper, suggested that reci- 
procal sterility between individuals not other- 
wise isolated may be the primary event, the 
cause and not the effect ; and that in this 
way a physiological barrier may be set up 
between two groups of the individuals ori- 
ginally belonging to one species and inhabit- 
ing the same geographical area. The essen- 
tial feature of the suggestion is that this 
physiological barrier may be primary and not 
secondary. The title of the paper was un- 
fortunate. ' Physiological Isolation ' would 
have indicated the author's contention more 
accurately than 'Physiological Selection,' 
and would perhaps have more effectually 
guarded him from the attacks of those who 
charged him with the intention of substi- 
tuting a new doctrine of the origin of species 
for that which was associated with the name 
of Darwin. The paper, which gave rise to 
much controversy, was unquestionably spe- 
culative, and the main contention was not 

supported by a sufficient body of evidence 
to carry conviction. 

As early as 1874 Romanes suggested in 
letters to ' Nature ' what he termed ' the 
principle of the cessation of selection.' He 
argued that since organs are maintained at a 
level of maximum efficiency through natural 
selection, the mere withdrawal or cessation 
of selection will lead to diminution and de- 
generation of organs. He distinguished this 
' cessation of selection ' from ' reversal of 
selection ' where such diminution or degene- 
ration is, through ' the principle of economy 
of growth ' or otherwise, advantageous, and 
therefore promoted by natural selection. 
When Weismann advocated panmixia, which 
includes the effects of both cessation and re- 
versal of selection, Romanes reiterated his 
former contention (Nature, 1890, xli. 437), 
and returned to the subject in ' Darwin and 
after Darwin' (vol. ii.) The matter has 
given rise to some discussion. It would 
seem that, though the cessation of selection 
may reduce the level of efficiency of an 
organ from the maximum maintained by 
natural selection to the mean efficiency in 
the individuals born subsequently to the 
withdrawal of the eliminative influence, it 
cannot reduce it in any marked degree unless 
we call in a further ' principle ' of the failure 
of heredity. That the mere cessation of 
selection cannot of itself lead to great re- 
duction was shown by Darwin before Ro- 
manes's letters were published (cf. Origin of 
Species, 6th edit. pp. 401-2). 

With regard to the vexed question of the 
inheritance of acquired characteristics, Ro- 
manes lent the weight of his support 
to the Lamarckian side, but he constantly 
sought to put the matter to the test of ex- 

Romanes's ' Essay on Christian Prayer and 
General Laws,' which won the Burney prize 
at Cambridge in 1873, necessarily pursued 
the lines of orthodox apologetics ; but there 
is no reason to suppose that it did not in the 
main indicate the author's own views at the 
time when it was written. But when he 
issued in 1878, under the pseudonym of 
' Physicus,' a work entitled ' A Candid Ex- 
amination of Theism,' he assumed towards 
orthodox religious beliefs a negative and 
destructive attitude. Powerfully written, 
and showing much dialectic skill, the ' Can- 
did Examination ' made some stir both in the 
orthodox and the unorthodox camps. But 
five years later Romanes struck another note 
in an article in the ' Nineteenth Century' 
on 'The Fallacy of Materialism' (1882); 
while in the Rede lecture, which he was 
chosen to deliver in Cambridge in 1885, he 



1 80 


adopted the principles of monism, according 
to which matter and mind are of at least co- 
ordinate importance and diverse aspects of 
phenomenal existence. An article in the 
' Contemporary Review ' of the following 
year (1886) on ' The World as an Eject ' has 
distinctly theistic implications ; while an i 
'Essay on Monism ' (published after the 
author's death) goes further in the same 
direction. These modifications of philosophic 
opinion were accompanied by no less pro- 
found modifications of religious conviction. 
Near the close of his life Romanes was occu- 
pied in writing a ' Candid Examination of 
Religion,' to be published under the pseudo- 
nym of ' Metaphysicus.' Such notes for this 
work as were sufficiently complete were 
published after the author's death under the 
editorship of Canon Gore. They indicate a 
return to the orthodox position, and express 
a conviction that the fault of the essay of 
1878 lay in an undue reliance on reason to ; 
the exclusion of the promptings of the emo- 
tional side of man's complex nature. 

Romanes married on 11 Feb. 1879, and, 
settling at 18 Cornwall Terrace, London, 
threw himself with enthusiasm for the next 
ten years into the scientific and social life 
of London. He was for some years honorary 
zoological secretary of the Linnean Society, 
and a member of the council of University 
College, London. In 1890, warned by severe , 
headaches of approaching ill-health, he re- 
moved from London to Oxford, where he [ 
had many friends and where facilities for ! 
scientific work abounded. He took up his i 
residence at an old house in St. Aldates, 
opposite Christ Church, of which he became 
a member, being incorporated M.A. of the 
university of Oxford. There he mainly 
spent his remaining years as happily as his 
health permitted. In 1891 he founded in 
the university a lectureship which bears his 
name ; under the terms of the foundation a 
man of eminence was to be elected annually 
to deliver a lecture on a scientific or literary 
topic. The first Romanes lecture, on ' Me- 
diaeval Universities,' was delivered by Mr. 
Gladstone on 24 Oct. 1892. In the same year 
Romanes's old college (Caius, Cambridge) 
made him an honorary fellow. Aberdeen 
University had conferred on him the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. in 1882. For some 
time before his death Romanes suffered from 
a disease a condition of the arteries result- 
ing in apoplexy the gravity of which he fully 
realised, facing the inevitable event with 
admirable fortitude. An occasional visit to 
Madeira or Costabelle gave only temporary 
relief. He died at Oxford on 28 May 1894, 
and was buried in Holywell cemetery. 

Romanes was through the greater part of 
his career an ardent sportsman, and fre- 
quently visited Scotland to indulge his sport- 
ing tastes. In private life he was a genial 
and delightful companion, and to those who 
knew him intimately a warm and staunch 
friend. His widow (Ethel, only daughter 
of Andrew Duncan, esq., of Liverpool) sur- 
vived him, and edited his ' Life and Letters ' 
(1896). He left five sons and a daughter. 

The following is a list of his published 
works: 1. 'A Candid Examination of Theism, 
by " Physicus," ' 1878. 2. ' Animal Intelli- 
gence,' 1881. 3. 'Scientific Evidences of 
Organic Evolution,' 1882. 4. ' Mental Evo- 
lution in Animals,' 1883. 5. 'Jelly-Fish, 
Star-Fish, and Sea-Urchins,' 1885. 6. ' Men- 
tal Evolution in Man : Origin of Human 
Faculty,' 1888. 7. ' Darwin and after Dar- 
win,' pt. i. 1892. 8. ' An Examination of 
Weismannism,' 1893. 9. ' Thoughts on Re- 
ligion,' posth. 1895. 10. ' Mind and Motion : 
An Essay on Monism,' posth. 1895. 11. 'Dar- 
win and after Darwin,' pt. ii. posth. 1895. 
12. 'Essays,' 1896 (edited by the present- 

Apart from these works and the scientific 
papers which he read before learned societies, 
he was a frequent and versatile contributor 
to periodical literature and a writer of verse, 
a volume of which (containing a memorial 
poem on Charles Darwin) was privately 
printed in 1889. A selection from his poems 
has been published under the editorship of 
Mr. T. H. Warren, president of Magdalen 
College (1896). 

[Obituary notice in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, vol. Ivii. p. vii, by Professor J. 
Burdon-Sanderson, F.R.S. ; obituary notice in 
Nature, 31 May 1894, by Professor E. Ray 
Lankester, F.R.S. ; letter to the Times, 19 June 
1894, by Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S.; Life 
and Letters, by Mrs. G. J. Romanes, 1896.] 

C. LL. M. 

ROMANS, BERNARD (1720?-! 784?), 
engineer and author, was born in Holland 
about 1720. He was educated in England, 
and about 1755 was sent to North America 
by the British government in the capacity 
of civil engineer. Between 1760 and 1771 he 
was living near the town of St. Augustine in 
East Florida, and was described as 'draughts- 
man.' He was also government botanist, and 
claimed to be the first surveyor settled in the 
state, then under Spanish rule. In 1775 he 
stated that during the preceding fourteen 
years he had been ' sometimes employed as a 
commodore in the king's service, sometimes 
at the head of large bodies of men in the 
woods, and at the worst of times master 
of a merchantman fitted in a warlike man- 




ner' (FORCE, American Archives, 4th ser. iii. 
1367). He received a pension of 50J. for his 

On the outbreak of the revolution he 
joined the provincials, and in the autumn of 
1775 was engaged by the New York com- 
mittee of safety, it is said, on the recom- 
mendation of Washington, to construct the 
fortifications at Fort Constitution, opposite 
AVest Point on the Hudson river. On 8 Nov. 
he reported that ' the plan we at present 
pursue is a very lame one ' (FORCE). A 
week later he sent in a petition and me- 
morial to the New York provincial congress, 
complaining that his promised commission 
as engineer and colonel had not been for- 
warded, and that his orders had been con- 
tradicted and overruled. He also prayed for 
an assistant, as his office was ' a very exer- 
cising one, keeping body and mind con- 
stantly employed together' (ib. iii. 1303). 
The commission never seems to have been 
granted, though in some of his letters Ro- 
mans calls himself ' colonel.' 

On 8 Feb. 1776, however, he was ap- 
pointed captain of the Pennsylvania artil- 
lery, which was serving at Ticonderoga 
during the greater part of the year (SAF- 
FELL, Records of the Revolutionary War, pp. 
178-81). On 18 March he applied to the 
New York committee of safety for the fulfil- 
ment of a resolution of the continental con- 
gress at Philadelphia to the effect that he 
should be paid up to the date of his new com- 
mission, adding that want of money prevented 
his appearing at the head of his company 
(FORCE, v. 405). On 10 May General 
Schuyler wrote to Washington that as 'a 
string of complaints ' had been lodged 
against Romans, he had sent for him to 
be tried at Albany (ib. vi. 413) ; and five 
days later Benedict Arnold told Samuel 
Chase that 'Mr. Romans's conduct by all 
accounts has been very extraordinary' (ib. 
p. 581). The charges, which seem to have 
had reference to connivance at depredations 
by his men, were not sustained, and Romans 
after his acquittal by the court-martial served 
for three years afterwards in the ' continental' 
army. In 1779 he was captured by the British, 
probably at Stoney Point on the Hudson, 
and was sent to England. His exchange was 
refused, and after the peace he again prac- 
tised in England as an engineer. In 1784 he 
sailed for New York, carrying with him a 
large sum of money, and, as he was never 
heard of again, is supposed to have been 
murdered during the passage. Romans is 
said to have been introduced by Washington 
to Elizabeth Whiting, who became his wife ; 
she died at New York on 12 May 1848. 

Romans was the author of the ' Concise 
Natural History of East and West Florida,' 
New York, 1775. In spite of typogra- 
phical errors and some pretentiousness of 
style, it contains highly valuable informa- 
tion. It has twelve copperplates, etched by 
the author, and an engraved dedication to 
John Ellis (1710P-1776) [q. v.], the natu- 
ralist. Only the first volume seems to have 
been issued. The work is now very rare. A 
copy, dated 1776, is in the British Museum. 
Another of Romans's works, also un- 
finished, is said to have been the earliest book 
printed at Hartford. This was his ' Annals 
of the Troubles in the Netherlands from the 
Accession of Charles V,' published in 1778. 
It is a compilation from ' the most approved 
! historians,' and was designed as ' a proper 
' and seasonable Mirror for the present Ameri- 
! cans.' Romans also published ' A Map of 
I the Seat of Civil War in America,' 1775, 
j 12mo ; and ' The Compleat Pilot for the 
Gulf Passage,' 1779, which seems to be 
identical with the appendix to the ' Natural 
History of Florida.' He also contributed in 
August 1773 a paper on improvements in 
the mariner's compass to the American 
Philosophical Society ( Trans. Amer. Philos. 
Soc. ii. 396), which he joined in 1771. 

[Force's Amer. Archives, 4th ser. vola. iii. v. 
ri. passim; Duyckinck's Cycl. Amer. Lit. i. 317, 
318; Wynne's Private Libraries of New York, pp. 
345-6; Rich's Bibl. Americ. Nova, i. 467; Fair- 
banks's Hist, of St. Augustiue.] G. LE G. N. 

ROMANUS (ft. 624), bishop of Roches- 
ter, was probably among the missionaries 
sent with Augustine to Britain in 597 by 
Pope Gregory the Great. In 624, on the 
death of Mellitus, Justus was moved to the 
metropolitan see of Canterbury, and the 
bishopric of West Kent thus became vacant. 
Romanus was consecrated as second prelate 
in the same year by Justus, his predecessor, 
who soon after despatched him on a mission 
to Rome. He was shipwrecked and drowned 
in a storm off the coast of Italy, apparently 
before the death of Justus in 627, ' being 
sent to Pope Honorius by Archbishop Justus 
as his legate.' 

[Bede's Hist,. Eccl. ii. 8, 20 ; cf. Bishop Stubbs 
in Diet. Christian Biogr.] C. R. B. 

(d. 1296), archbishop of York, was son of 
John Romanus, subdean and treasurer of 
York. JOHN ROMANUS (d. 1255) the elder is 
described by Matthew Paris as one of the 
first Romans to seek preferment in England, 
and is stated to have been a canon of York 
for nearly fifty years (v. 544). He was canon 




of York on 23 Oct. 1218, and on 1 March 1226 
received a dispensation from Honorius III, 
removing the defect of his doubtful legiti- 
macy, in consideration of his devotion to 
the Roman see ( Cal. Papal Reg. i. 59, 100 ; 
RAINE, Hist, of Church of York, iii. 125). 
He was a friend of Archbishop Gray, who 
made him first subdean of York in 1228, 
and was constantly employed by the papal 
see on various commissions in England 
(MATT. PARIS, iii. 218, iv. 251 ; Cal. Papal 
Reg. i. 59, 76, 88, 160, 188, 193, 225). He 
was archdeacon of Richmond in 1241, but 
resigned that post before 15 July 1247, when 
he received a dispensation to hold the trea- 
surership of York with his other benefices 
(ib. i. 225, 319; LE NEVE, Fasti Eccl. Anal. 
iii. 104, 136, 159). He died before 2 Jan. 
1256, when John Mansel [q. v.] became 
treasurer of York. Matthew Paris speaks of 
him as very rich and avaricious (v. 534, 544). 
He held quit-rents and other property in the 
city of London (Hist. MSS. Comtn. 9th Hep. 
App. pp. 4, 5, 15, 26, 37-8). There are two 
letters addressed to him by Robert Grosse- 
teste (GKOSSETESTE, Epistola, 65, 203-4, 
Rolls Ser.) He built the north transept and 
central tower of York Cathedral. He also 
founded a chantry in the minster for the 
souls of the donor and his parents, John and 
Mary, and gave land to the vicars-choral to 
provide for his obit (Fasti Eboracenses, p. 
328 n.; Hist, of Church of York, iii. 152). 
The archbishop was his son by a servant girl 
(HEMiireBFRGH, ii. 70). 

John Romanus, the future archbishop, re- 
ceived a dispensation from his illegitimacy, 
so far as regarded ordination and the hold- 
ing of benefices, from Otho, cardinal of St. 
Nicholas in Carcere, presumably in 1237-8, 
when Otho was papal legate in England 
(Cal. Papal Reg. i. 484). A bull of Inno- 
cent IV, in which he is styled remembrancer 
of the papal penitentiary, specially forbade 
John to accept a bishopric without papal per- 
mission (BALUZE, Misc. i. 211). John was, 
by his own account, educated at Oxford (cf. 
WILKINS, Concilia, ii. 214). He received the 
livings of Bolton-in-Lunesdale in 1253, and 
Wallop in Hampshire about 1254, and on 
7 July 1256 had license of absence for five 
years while pursuing his studies (Cal. Papal 
Reg. i. 332, 484). Afterwards he received 
the living of Melling, by dispensation from 
Alexander IV ; in 1258 he obtained the 
prebend of North Kelsey, Lincoln, and in 
1275 became chancellor of Lincoln. On 
9 Dec. 1276, when he is described as chap- 
lain to Matthew de Ursinis, cardinal of St. 
Mary in Porticu, he had dispensation to re- 
tain the benefices which he held, and to 

accept a bishopric, having been appointed to 
a professorship of theology at Paris. He 
taught theology at Paris for several years 
(ib. i. 451, 484 ; see DENIFLE, Cartularium 
Univ. Paris, i. 599, for a reference to the 
house of Master John Romanus in 1282). In 
1279 he exchanged the chancellorship and 
prebend of North Kelsey for the precentor- 
ship and prebend of Nassington,and on 7 Dec. 
1279 was collated to the prebend of Wart- 
hill, York (LE NEVE, ii. 83, 92, 191, 196, 
iii. 220). After the death of Archbishop 
Wickwane, he was elected archbishop of 
York on 29 Oct. 1285, and received the 
royal assent on 15 Nov. (LE NEVE, iii. 104; 
Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward I, 1281-92, p. 199). 
He at once went to Rome to receive papal 
confirmation. On 3 Feb. he obtained a re- 
newed dispensation for his illegitimacy, and, 
the validity of his election being questioned, 
was re-elected under a papal mandate, and 
consecrated by the bishop of Ostia on 10 Feb. 
(Cal. Papal Reg. i. 483-4; LE NEVE, iii. 
104). He returned to England in March, 
and received the temporalities on 12 April. 
Archbishop Peckham made the usual protest 
against the bearing of the cross by Roma- 
nus in the southern province (Letters from 
Northern Rer/isters, 82-4; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edward I, 1281-92, pp. 198-9, 229-30). 

Romanus was enthroned at York on 
Trinity Sunday, 9 June 1286. He was chiefly 
concerned with the government of his diocese, 
and took little part in public affairs. He was 
with the king in Gascony in the summer of 
1288. In 1291 he was summoned to render 
military service against Scotland, and was 
also occasionally summoned to parliament 
(Fa-dera, i. 753,*762, 802, 808-10, 832 ; ParL 
Writs, i. 25, 30-2,261). In August 1295 he 
was summoned to meet the cardinals at 
London (Cont. GERVASE. ii. 213). In his 
diocese Romanus had disputes with the dean 
of York, Robert de Scarburgh, and the chap- 
ter of Durham (Hist. Church of York, iii. 
212). Of more importance was a dispute 
with Anthony Bek [see BEK, AXTOXY I], 
bishop of Durham, as to the relations of the 
see of Durham to that of York. The king 
in vain endeavoured to arrange the dispute 
when the bishops were present at the funeral 
of Queen Eleanor in December 1290. An 
| attempt at arbitration in the following 
i July failed, and in November 1291 Romanus 
1 obtained leave to plead his cause at Rome 
| ( Cal. Papal Reg. i. 443, 450). He was abroad 
as late as September 1292(^.1.497,508), but 
his suit does not seem to have been successful. 
During his absence Bek imprisoned two of 
the archbishop's officials, and in consequence 
Romanus ordered Bek to be excommunicated 






in a letter from Viterbo on 8 April 1292 
(Letters from Northern Registers, p. 97). 
Edward took the matter up, and contended 
that the excommunication was an infringe- 
ment of his prerogative, since Bek was, as 
palatine, a temporal as well as a spiritual dig- 
nitary. Romanus was for a time imprisoned 
in the Tower, but obtained his release and 
restoration to royal favour on payment of a 
fine of four thousand marks, at Easter 1293 
(Chron. Lanercost, p. 138; Hist. Dunelm. 
Script. Tres, pp. 73, 93 ; Ann. Mon. iii. 376; 
Hot. Parl. i. 102-5). At York itself Ro- 
manus continued the building of the minster. 
In 1289 he had obtained a papal indult to 
apply the first-fruits to this purpose, and on 
6 April 1291 he laid the foundation-stone of 
the nave (Cal. Papal Reg. i. 496; Hist, 
of the Church of York, ii. 409). He likewise 
founded the prebend of Bilton at York, and 
obtained leave from the pope to divide the 
prebends of Langtoft and Masham, but the 
scheme was vetoed by the king ( Cal. Papal 
Rey. i. 496, 500). Romanus was also a bene- 
factor of the church of Southwell, where he 
founded several stalls (DUGDALE, Monast. 
Anal. vi. 1314-15). He died at Burton, near 
Beverley, on 11 March 1296, and was buried 
in York Minster on 17 March. 

Romanus was engaged in constant quarrels, 
and was probably hot-headed and indiscreet. 
Hemingburgh describes him as a great theo- 
logian and very learned man, but maddened, 
as it were, with avarice (ii. 70-1). The York 
historian, however, says that he was hos- 
pitable and munificent beyond all his pre- 
decessors. He kept up a great retinue, and 
was always zealous for the welfare of his 
church (Hist, of the Church of York, ii. 409). 
Romanus preserved his interest in learning. 
In 1295 we find him writing on behalf of 
the university of Oxford ("VViLKisrs, Concilia, 
ii. 214), and he encouraged the attendance 
of clergy study ing theology in the chancellor's 
school at York (Hist, of the Church of York, 
iii. 220). A number of letters from Ro- 
manus's register are printed in Raine's ' Let- 
ters from the Northern Registers ' (pp. 84- 
105, 108) and ' Historians of the Church of 
York' (iii. 212-20). A letter from Romanus, 
refusing to sanction the papal appropriation 
of the prebend of Fenton in the church of 
York, is printed in ' Fasti Eboracenses,' pp. 
342-4. Some of the principal contents of 
the ' Register ' are summarised in the same 
work, pp. 330-40. Hemingburgh says that, 
owing to his early death, Romanus left little 
wealth, and his executors were unwilling to 
act, so that the cost of his funeral was de- 
frayed by others (ii. 71). He, however, be- 
queathed a mill and fifteen acres of land to 



the vicars-choral of the church of St. Peter, 
York (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward 1, 1292-1301, 
pp. 352, 382). 

[Raine's Letters from the Northern Registers ; 
Historians of the Church of York and its Arch- 
bishops (both in Rolls Ser.); Chron. de Melsa 
(if>.) ; Chron. de Lanercost (Bannatyne Club) ; 
Trivet's Annals, and Walter de Hemingburgh 
(Engl.Hist.Soc.); Bliss's Cal. of Papal Registers; 
Cal. Pat. Roils, Edward I ; Dixon and Raine's 
Fasti Eboracenses, pp. 327-49 ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Anglican*, ed. Hardy; other authorities 
quoted.] C. L. K. 

ROMER, EMMA, afterwards Mrs. 
ALMOND (1814-1868), vocalist, born in 
1814, was the daughter of John Romer and 
his wife, Sarah Cooper. She was a pupil of 
James Elliot, and later of Sir George Smart. 
Her first theatrical appearance was an- 
nounced at Co vent Garden Theatre for 
16 Oct. 1830, when, as Clara in the 'Duenna,' 
she exhibited a soprano voice of great volume 
and compass, together with considerable 
dramatic talent. But the faultiness of her 
voice-production, and failure in the tech- 
nique of her art, checked her immediate 

In 1834, however, after appearing at 
Covent Garden as Zerlina in ' Fra Diavolo ' 
and Rosina in the ' Barber of Seville ' (for 
her benefit), Miss Romer was engaged at 
the English Opera House (Lyceum), where 
she created the roles of Eolia in Barnett's 
Mountain Sylph' and Zulima in Loder's 
' Nourjahad.' In the winter she returned to 
Covent Garden, where, in 1835, as Amina 
in ' La Sonnambula,' she ' reached the top- 
most round of the ladder of fame '(Theatrical 
Observer). But she immediately afterwards 
declined a minor part, and threw up her 
Covent Garden engagement. Subsequently, 
as Agnes in ' Der Freischiitz ' and Liska 
in ' Der Vampyr ' (Lyceum, 1835), she 
won much admiration. In September 1835 
she married George Almond, an army con- 

After her marriage Mrs. Almond appeared 
at Covent Garden as Esmeralda in ' Quasi- 
modo,' a pasticcio from the great masters. 
The death of Malibran in 1836 afforded her 
further opportunities, and she now filled the 
chief roles in English and Italian opera at 
Drury Lane, appearing in ' Fair Rosamond ' 
(1837), ' Maid of Artois,' La Favorita,' ' Ro- 
bert le Diable,' 'Bohemian Girl, ' Maritana,' 
and many other pieces. In 1852 she under- 
took the management of the Surrey Theatre, 
where, during three seasons, she brought out 
a series of operas in English. After the death 
of her husband, Mrs. Almond retired from 
her profession, settling at Margate. She 




died there, aged 54, on 11 April 1868, and 
was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

Her brother, Frank Romer, musical com- 
poser and member of a publishing firm, died 
in 1889. Her sister Helen (d. 1890) was 
wife of Mark Lemon [q. v.] Ann Romer 
(d. 1852), the vocalist, who married William 
Brough [q. v.], was Emma Romer's first 

[Grove's Diet. iii. 154 ; Musical World, 1868, 
pp. 269, 285; Theatrical Observer, 1830-7, 
passim ; Phillips's Recollections, i. 190 ; Fitz- 
ball's Dramatic Life, passim.] L. M. M. 


1852), miscellaneous writer, was the young- 
est daughter of Major-general John Augustus 
Romer by his wife, Marianne Cuthbert. She 
married Major Hamerton of the 7th fusiliers 
in December 1818, but separated from him in 
1827, and resumed her maiden name. She 
was a firm believer in mesmerism and animal 
magnetism, and in 1841 published, in three 
volumes, ' Sturmer, a Tale of Mesmerism, 
with other Sketches from Life.' She next 
turned her attention to travel, and brought 
out in 1843, in two volumes, 'The Rhone, the 
Darro, and the Guadalquivir, a Summer 
Ramble in 1842.' Another edition appeared 
in 1847. The 'Quarterly Review ' (Ixxvi. 119) 
characterised it as ' well written.' 

She died at Chester Square, London, 
27 April 1852, while at work on her last 
book, ' Filia Dolorosa, Memoirs of Marie 
Therese Charlotte, Duchess d'Angouleme ' 
[Madame Royale]. It was completed by Dr. 
John Doran [q. v.], and published in two 
volumes in 1852. 

Other works by Miss Romer are: 1. 'A 
Pilgrimage to the Temples and Tombs of 
Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine in 1845-6,' 
2 vols. 1846 ; 2nd ed. 1847. 2. The Bird 
of Passage, or Flying Glimpses of many 
Lands,' 3 vols. 1849; some of the tales and 
sketches here printed had been published 

[Allibone's Diet. ii. 1860 ; Gent. Mag. 1852, 
i. 636.] E. L. 


(1640-1713), military engineer, born at The 
Hague on 23 April 1640, was third son, in 
a family of six sons and five daughters, of 
Mathias Romer of Dusseldorf and Anna 
Duppengiezeer, who were married at Aix-la- 
Chapelle on 2 Jan. 1637. His father was 
ambassador to Holland from the elector pala- 
tine, who stood godfather to young Wolfgang 
at his baptism on 17 May 1640. Romer 
entered the service of the prince of Orange 
as a military engineer, and saw much service 

before 1688, when he accompanied Prince 
William to England. At that time he held 
the rank of colonel. 

By royal warrant of 13 May 1690 he was 
appointed engineer in Ireland at 20s. a day, 
to commence from 1 March 1689. He took 
part in the campaigns of 1690 and 1691, and 
was employed on the fortifications of Cork, 
Longford, and Thurles. He remained in 
Ireland until 1692, when he was appointed by 
royal warrant of 7 July chief engineer of the 
artillery train fitted out at St. Helen's for 
the expedition against the coast of France. 
On 26 July he embarked with fourteen thou- 
sand troops in transports, and joined the 
fleet at Portland, when the expedition was 
abandoned. In 1693 he was chief engineer 
of the ordnance train of the expedition to the 
Mediterranean ; he served under Lord Bella- 
mont [see COOTE, RICHAKD], and embarked 
in the fleet under Delaval, Killigrew, and 
Rooke, to convoy the so-called Smyrna fleet. 
On 8 May 1694 he was directed by royal 
warrant to report on the defences of Guern- 
sey, and to lay out any additional works 
which were urgent, with a special allow- 
ance of 20*. a day. A plan of Castle Cornet, 
drawn by Romer when on this duty, is in 
the British Museum. 

At the beginning of 1697 Romer was 
ordered to New York, but objected to go on 
the proposed salary of 20s. per diem. The 
board of ordnance recommended that his 
warrant should be cancelled, and that he 
should be discharged from the king's service. 
The king was, however, well acquainted with 
his value, and although the board had sus- 
pended him in February, in August the sus- 
pension was removed, ' from the time of its 
being first laid on,' and Romer accompanied 
Lord Bellamont, the newly appointed go- 
vernor, to New York as chief engineer and 
with pay of 30s. a day. Bellamont had so high 
an opinion of Romer that he was specially 
allowed to retain his services beyond the 
term arranged. 

Romer made a plan of the Hudson River, 
New York, and the adjoining country. In 
1700 he explored the territories of the five 
Indian nations confederated with the British, 
and made a map of his journey among them. 
These maps are in the British Museum. 
From 1701 to 1703 he was engaged in 
fortifying Boston harbour. He built on 
Castle Island a formidable work of defence, 
called Fort William, mounting one hundred 
guns. It was destroyed on 17 Marchl776,when 
the British evacuated Boston. Many years 
afterwards a slate slab with a Latin inscrip- 
tion was found among the ruins, giving the 
dates when the work was commenced and 




finished, and stating that it was constructed 
by Romer, ' a military architect of the first 
rank.' Romer constructed defensive posts 
and forts in the Indian territories, and many 
of them were executed at his own expense, 
for which he was never reimbursed. He 
was a member of the council of New York 
province ; his knowledge of the colony, and 
especially of the Indians, was invaluable 
both to Lord Bellamont and to Lord Corn- 
bury, who succeeded to the government in 

In 1703 Romer, who was suffering from 
' a distemper not curable in those parts for 
want of experienced surgeons,' applied to 
return to England. The board of ordnance 
nevertheless ordered him to go to Barbados 
in the West Indies, and it was only on the 
intervention of the council of trade, who 
represented his eminent services, that on 
14 Aug. 1704 he was ordered home so soon 
as he should be relieved. He remained in 
America until 1706. He completed the 
plans of Castle Island, Boston Bay, which 
are now in the British Museum. On his 
homeward voyage he was captured by the 
French and carried to St. Malo, where he 
was liberated on parole. The usual offer of 
twenty seamen in exchange for a colonel was 
refused by the French commissioner of sick 
and wounded, and Romer returned to Eng- 
land to negotiate for an exchange. The board 
of ordnance suggested that the French might 
accept the Marquis de Levy, taken in the 
Salisbury, or Chevalier Nangis. 

In September 1707 Romer visited Diissel- 
dorf, carrying a letter of recommendation 
from the queen to the elector palatine. In 
1708, his exchange having been effected, he 
was employed in designing defences for 
Portsmouth, which were submitted to the 
board of ordnance in the following year, and 
in the construction of Blockhouse Fort at 
the entrance of Portsmouth Harbour. He 
continued in charge of the Portsmouth de- 
fences, occasionally visiting other fortified 
towns, such as Harwich, which he reported 
on in 1710, and places in Flanders, until 
his death on 15 March 1713. He was 
buried at Diisseldorf, where he had some 

A miniature of him, in uniform, done in 
middle age, is in possession of the family. 

1754 ?), born in 1680, served in the train of 
artillery in Flanders, Spain, and on several 
expeditions, and in 1708 was ensign in Bri- 
gadier Rooke's regiment. On 28 Aug. of that 
year he was appointed by royal warrant assis- 
tant engineer to his father at Portsmouth, 
and was employed on works for protecting 

the shore near Blockhouse from the sea. In 
August 1710 he went to Ireland to settle 
his affairs. On 4 April 1713 he was pro- 
moted to be lieutenant in the 4th foot. In 
1715 he was placed on half-pay from his regi- 
ment, and on 20 April appointed engineer at 
Sheerness, his district comprising the de- 
fences of the Thames and Medway. He was 
employed at Portsmouth at the end of 1716, 
but returned to Sheerness on 7 April of the 
foil owing year. At the end of July 1719 he 
joined the expedition to Vigo, under Lord 
Cobham, and took part in the capture of the 
citadel, which surrendered on 10 Oct. On 
his return home he was appointed engineer in 
charge of the northern district and Scotland, 
and arrived in Edinburgh on 19 March 1720. 
In Scotland he had under his charge the erec- 
tion of barracks, proposed by Field-marshal 
Wade, at Inversnaid, Ruthven, Bernera, and 
Killiwhinen. ;He had also important de- 
fence work at Forts Augustus, William, and 
George. On 24 Sept. 1722 he was promoted 
engineer-in-ordinary, and on 30 Oct. he went 
to the office of the board of ordnance in Lon- 
don, whence he carried out the administra- 
tion of the Scottish and northern engineer 
districts for many years. He was promoted 
to be sub-director of engineers on 1 April 
1730, captain-lieutenant on 22 Dec. 1738, 
and captain in the 4th foot (Barrell's regi- 
ment) on 19 Jan. 1739. In 1742 he became 
director of engineers. During 1745 and 
1746 he served under the Duke of Cumber- 
land in the suppression of the Jacobite re- 
bellion, and was wounded at Culloden, 
16 April 1746. He retired from the service 
in 1751. The date of his death is not given, 
but it is stated that he was buried in St. 
Margaret's, Westminster. He married, in 
1711, Mary Hammond, by whom he had a 
son John (1713-1775), many of whose 
descendants entered the army and distin- 
guished themselves in active service. 

Among plans drawn by John Lambertus 
Romer (in the British Museum) may be men- 
tioned Fort Augustus, Scotland, and the 
fortifications of Portsmouth in 1725. Two 
miniatures of him, in uniform, at about the 
ages of twenty and forty-five years, are in 
the possession of his descendant, the Hon. 
Mrs. Wynn of Rug Corven, Merionethshire, 
younger daughter of Colonel Robert William 
Romer of Brynceanlyn, Merionethshire (d. 
1889), great-great-grandson of John Lam- 
bertus Romer. 

[War Office Records ; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords; Cal. State Papers; William Smith's Hist, 
of New York, by Carey, Philadelphia, 1792; 
Daniel Neal's Hist, of New England to 1 700, 
London, 1790 ; private sources.] R. H. V. 


1 86 


1892), explorer, third son of Colonel Frede- 
rick Romilly and Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Elliot, third earl of Minto, was 
born in London on 15 March 1856, and edu- 
cated, first at the Rev. C. A. Johns's school 
at Winchester, and then at Repton. He 
entered Christ Church, Oxford, on 10 Oct. 
1874, but took no degree, leaving to enter 
the business of Messrs. Melly & Co., mer- 
chants, of Liverpool. 

Of adventurous disposition, he joined in 
Fiji in October 1879 Sir Arthur Gordon, 
the governor (afterwards Lord Stanmore). 
On 12 Nov. he accompanied his chief to 
Tonga, and in December to Rotumah, in 
connection with the annexation of that 
island. He arrived again in Fiji on 17 April 
1880, and returned to Rotumah on 18 Sept. 
1880 as deputy-commissioner on its annexa- 
tion to the British crown. Early in 1881, 
owing to continued ill-health, he rejoined 
Sir Arthur Gordon, who had gone to New 
Zealand as governor, but in March he was 
appointed deputy-commissioner for the 
Western Pacific, and started for his first 
long tour through these seas in H.M.S. 
Beagle. He visited New Hanover, the Ad- 
miralty group, Hermit Islands, Astrolabe 
Bay in New Guinea, the Louisiade archi- 
pelago,Woodlark Islands, and the Trobriands. 
After a visit on sick leave to England, suc- 
ceeded by a short stay in Fiji, he was ordered 
to New Guinea for the first time, at the end 
of 1883. In November 1884 he was one of 
the party which declared the British protec- 
torate over part of New Guinea. By some 
misunderstanding he hoisted the British flag 
in advance of the formal declaration of pro- 
tectorate. He gave effective aid in the early 
administration of the new colony, and on the 
death of the chief administrator, Sir Peter 
Scratchley, he acted as administrator in 
charge of the settlement from December 
1885 to the end of February 1886, but went 
to London in June to supervise the New 
Guinea exhibits at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition. For these services he was 
created a C.M.G. On 17 Jan. 1887 he once 
again started for the Pacific, staying en 
route in Egypt and Australia, and in June 
took up the appointment of deputy-com- 
missioner and consul of the New Hebrides 
and Solomon Islands, residing chiefly at Port 
Moresby, New Guinea. His task during 1888 
and 1889 was peculiarly trying. There was 
a good deal of native hostility, and he was 
much isolated, owing largely, he believed, 
to the neglect of the home authorities. 
Finally, in 1890, he resigned his offices. 
In 1891 Romilly went out to Africa in 

command of an expedition for the Northum- 
berland Mining Syndicate, and travelled for 
some time in Mashonaland. While there he 
contracted fever, and, returning home, died 
at Cecil Street, Strand, London, on 27 July 
1892. He was unmarried. 

Romilly is described by Sir Arthur Gor- 
don (afterwards Lord Stanmore) as of ' a 
quick intelligence, great physical strength, 
and an easy temper.' His writings prove 
that he possessed all the qualifications for an 
explorer of new lands and a student of native 
ways. A portrait forms the frontispiece of 
the memoir by his brother, Samuel H. Ro- 

Romilly published: l.'Atrue Story of the 
Western Pacific in 1879-80,' London, 1882 
(2nd edit, with portrait, 1893). 2. 'The 
Western Pacific and New Guinea,' London, 
1886. 3. ' From my Verandah in New Gui- 
nea,' London, 1889. 

[Letters and Memoir of Hugh Hastings 
Romilly, London, 1893 ; Mennell's Diet, of Aus- 
tralian Biogr. ; official records ; private informa- 
tion.] C. A. H. 

(1802-1874), master of the rolls, second son 
of Sir Samuel Romilly [q.v.], by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Francis Garbett of Knill 
Court in Herefordshire, was born on 10 Jan. 
1802. He was educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he became a wrangler, 
and graduated B.A. in 1823, and M.A, in 
1826. In 1827 he was called to the bar at 
Gray's Inn, of which society he had been 
admitted a member on 26 Jan. 1817, and 
of which for many years before his death 
he was a bencher. In 1832 he entered 
parliament in the liberal interest as member 
for Bridport, a seat which he held till 1835, 
when Horace Twiss, Q.C., defeated him by 
eight votes only. In 1846 he again contested 
the same borough, and on a scrutiny was 
declared entitled to the seat. At the general 
election of 1 847 he was elected member for 
Devonport. Meantime he had prospered at 
the chancery bar, became a queen's counsel 
in 1843, was appointed solicitor-general by 
Lord John Russell in March 1848, was 
knighted, and was advanced to be attorney- 
general in July 1850 in the same administra- 
tion. While law officer his principal achieve- 
I ment in parliament was carrying the En- 
cumbered Estates Act through the House of 
Commons, but he also introduced and carried 
through bills for improving equitable proce- 
dure in Ireland, for making freehold land 
liable to the simple contract debts contracted 
by its late owner in his lifetime, and he ob- 
tained the appointment of a commission for 




the reform of the court of chancery. On 
28 March 1851 he was, on Lord John Russell's 
recommendation, appointed master of the 
rolls, on the death of Lord Langdale, and 
was sworn of the privy council. The right 
of the master of the rolls to hold a seat in 
parliament had not yet been taken away by 
the Judicature Act (36 & 37 Viet. c. 66, 9), 
and he continued to represent Devonport 
in the House of Commons till the general 
election of 1852; but, having lost his seat 
there, he sought no other, and was in fact 
the last master of the rolls who sat in the 
House of Commons. In addition to the dis- 
charge of his judicial duties, he was active 
in facilitating access to the public records 
under his care, continuing in this respect 
the work begun by his predecessor, Lord 
Langdale. In particular, he relaxed the rules 
as to fees enforced by Lord Langdale, and 
permitted gratuitous access to the records 
for literary and historical purposes, and 
promoted the preparation and publication 
of calendars. On 19 Dec. 1865 he was 
raised to the peerage, taking the title of Lord 
Romilly of Barry in Glamorganshire, and 
in 1873 he resigned the mastership of the 
rolls, being succeeded by Sir George Jessel 
[q. v.] 

He died in London on 23 Dec. 1874, after 
a short illness. He was to the last actively 
engaged in the duties of arbitrator in con- 
nection with the European Assurance Com- 
pany, a task which he undertook when Lord 
Westbury, the previous arbitrator, died; 
but it may be doubted whether his judi- 
cial powers were equal to this work. At 
any rate he declined to follow the rules of 
law already laid down in the case by Lord 
Westbury, and thereby greatly unsettled 
matters that were thought to have been 
finally disposed of. The characteristic of his 
mind was indeed rather industry than breadth 
or grasp. As a judge he was unusually con- 
scientious and painstaking. His decisions 
were extremely numerous, and in a very 
large number of cases were reported, but 
they were somewhat often reversed on ap- 
peal. He was prone to decide causes with- 
out sufficiently considering the principles 
they involved and the precedents by which 
they were governed ; but perhaps, as the court 
of chancery then was, his example of rapid 
decision was worth more than the cost of the 
errors into which haste sometimes betrayed 

In October 1833 he married Caroline Char- 
lotte, second daughter of William Otter, 
[q. v.], bishop of Chichester, who died on 
30 Dec. 1856, and by her he had four sons 
and four daughters. 

[Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, vii. 322 ; 
Life of Lord Hatherley; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land; Foster's Gray's Inn Reg. pp. x, 421; 
Times, 24 Dee. 1874; Law Times, Law Journal, 
and Solicitors' Journal for 2 Jan. 1875.] 

J. A. H. 

ROMILLY, JOSEPH (1791-1864), re- 
gistrary of the university of Cambridge, born 
in 1791, was son of Thomas Peter Romilly 
of London, by his cousin Jane Anne, second 
daughter of Isaac Romilly. Sir Samuel 
Romilly [q. v.] was his uncle. He entered 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1809, be- 
came a scholar of the college, and graduated 
B.A. in 1813 as fourth wrangler. He was 
elected fellow in 1815, and proceeded M.A. 
in 1816. He took holy orders, but he never 
held any preferment, excepting that he was 
chaplain to Thomas Musgrave [q. v.], arch- 
bishop of York, who had been a friend 
at Trinity. From the first he belonged to 
the liberal party in the university, led by 
Wliewell and Adam Sedgwick [q. v.], Ro- 
milly's intimate friend. In 1821 he joined 
the committee for promoting a subscription 
in the university to aid the Greeks in their 
war of independence. He was one of the party 
who successfully opposed the petition which 
it was designed should be presented in 1829 
against catholic emancipation. He opposed 
Christopher Wordsworth, then master of Tri- 
nity, on the question of Thirlwall's dismissal 
in 1834. On 23 March 1832 he was elected 
registrary after a competition with Temple 
Chevallier [q. v.], and remained in this office 
until 1861, when he retired, and was pre- 
sented with a testimonial. His great work 
as registrar was the proper arrangement and 
cataloguing of all the university papers. From 
1832 till his death he kept a diary, which 
has been largely used by the authors of the 
' Life of Adam Sedgwick,' inasmuch as it 
contains nearly as much about Sedgwick as 
about himself. The closeness of their in- 
timacy can be gathered from Sedgwick's 
letters. OnlONov.1861 hewrites: 'Romilly 
comes every morning before breakfast to help 
me with my letters. He is the oldest friend 
I have in Cambridge, and the kindest. He 
has a great deal of French blood in his veins, 
which makes him a merry, genial man ; and 
to such gifts he has added a vast store of 
literature.' Again, just before his death on 
20 March 1864, Sedgwick wrote: ' Romilly 
is still here, but he lives in a house on the 
outskirts of Cambridge, and never dines in 
hall. I now and then go and drink tea with 
him.' He died very suddenly at Yarmouth, 
of heart disease, on Sunday 7 Aug. 1864, and 
was buried in a vault in Christ Church, 
Barnwell. He edited the ' Graduati Canta- 




brigienses,' 1760-1856, which was published 
at Cambridge in 1856, 8vo. 

[Information kindly furnished by Mr. J. W. 
Clark;, Gent. Mag. 1864, ii. 389 ; Willis, Clark, 
and Hughes's Life of Adam Sedgwick, i. pref. 
and pp. 235, 281, 309, 336, 427, ii. 374, 402, 
405, 406, 499; Douglas's Life of Whewell, p. 
167; Cambridge University Calendars.] 

W. A. J. A. 

ROMILLY, SIR SAMUEL (1757-1818), 
law reformer, youngest son of Peter Romilly, 
jeweller, of Frith Street, Soho, by Margaret, 
daughter of Aim Garnault, was born in 
Westminster on 1 March 1757. His father 
was a younger son of Etienne Romilly, a 
Huguenot of good family and estate, who 
fled from Montpellier to England on the re- 
vocation of the edict of Nantes, by Judith, 
second daughter of Francois de Montsallier, 
merchant, of Shoreditch. He was an upright 
and religious man, not without a taste for 
the fine arts, and, thrown on his own re- 
sources at an early age, realised a competent 
fortune by his business. He died on 29 Aug. 
1784, leaving, besides Samuel, an elder son, 
Thomas Peter (d. 1828), who married his 
cousin, Jane Anne, second daughter of Isaac 
Romilly, and was by her father of Joseph 
Romilly [q. v.], and a daughter Catherine, 
who married John Roget, pastor of the 
French protestant church, London, and was 
mother of Peter Mark Roget [q. v.] When 
Samuel Romilly was born, his mother, who 
died 30 April 1796, was already a confirmed 
invalid ; and he was accordingly brought up 
by a female relative who taught him to 
read from the Bible, the ' Spectator,' and an 
English translation of Telemaque and a 
methodist maid-servant, who stuffed his head 
with stories of the supernatural. The morbid 
bias thus given to his mind was aggravated 
by much poring over an immense martyro- 
logy and a copy of the ' Newgate Calendar ; ' 
and, though his home surroundings were 
otherwise cheerful, the gloom inspired by 
these early impressions haunted him at inter- 
vals throughout life. At school a private 
school kept by a preceptor more familiar 
with the use of the cane than the Latin gram- 
mar he learned little beyond the three R's. 

It was the rule to speak French every Sun- 
day at home, and to attend the French re- 
formed church once a fortnight. He early 
lost all faith in Christianity, but embraced 
with ardour the gospel of Rousseau, which 
was brought to" his notice by John Roget. 
At sixteen he began the study of Latin under 
a private tutor. He read hard, and in the 
course of a few years had mastered most of the 
authors of the golden age. During the same 
period he familiarised himself with the master- 

pieces of English literature, assiduously prac- 
tised verse and prose composition in both lan- 
guages, and began to contribute to the 
press. Greek literature he knew only through 
translations. He also attended lectures on 
natural philosophy, and the Royal Academy 
courses on the fine arts and anatomy, and 
acquired a knowledge of accounts by keeping 
his father's books. After some years spent 
in the office of William Michael Lally, 
one of the six clerks in chancery, he was 
admitted on 5 May 1778 a member of Gray's 
Inn, where he was called to the bar on 
2 June 1783, and was elected treasurer in 
1803. When the Inn was menaced during 
the Gordon riots in June 1780, he gallantly 
got under arms, did sentry duty at the Hoi- 
born gate, and fell ill from excitement and 
exposure. During his convalescence he 
learned Italian, and was soon deep in 
Machiavelli and Beccaria. The latter author 
doubtless helped to give his mind the strong 
bent towards law reform which became 
manifest in later years. 

During a vacation tour on the continent 
in 1781 he laid the basis of a lifelong friend- 
ship \vith the Genevese preacher and pub- 
licist Dumont, the friend of Mirabeau, and 
afterwards editor of Jeremy Bentham's works. 
At Paris he met Diderot and D'Alembert, 
and, on a subsequent visit, Dr. Franklin 
and the Abbe Raynal. In London in 
1784 he made the acquaintance of Mirabeau, 
and translated his pamphlet on the Ameri- 
can order of the Cincinnati. In the same 
year he wrote, in reference to the case of the 
dean of St. Asaph [see SHIPLEY, WILLIAM 
DA. VIES], ' A Fragment on the Constitutional 
Power and Duty of Juries upon Trials for 
Libels,' which was published anonymously 
by the Society for Constitutional Informa- 
tion. It was much admired by Jeremy 
Bentham and Lord Lansdowne, with both 
of whom Romilly became intimate. In 1786 
he exposed not a few of the anomalies of the 
criminal law in his anonymous ' Observa- 
tions on a late Publication [by Martin Ma- 
dan] entitled "Thoughts on Executive 
Justice," ' London, 8vo. The long vacations 
of 1788 and 1789 he spent with Dumont at 
Versailles and Paris, which he revisited in 
1802 and 1815. In 1788 he furnished Mira- 
beau with the matter for his 'Lettre d'un 
Voyageur Anglois sur la Maison de Force de 
Bicetre,' which was suppressed by the police. 
The English original, however, found a 
place in the ' Repository,' ii. 9*. Romilly's 
sympathies were at this time wholly with 
the radical party ; and on the assembling of 
the States-General he drafted for their use a 
precis of the procedure of the House of 




Commons, which was translated by Mira- 
beau, published at Paris under the title 
' Reglemens observes dans la Chambre des 
Communes pour dSbattre les matieres et pour 
voter,' 1789, 8vo, and entirely ignored by 
the deputies. On his return to England he 
published a sanguine pamphlet, 'Thoughts 
on the probable Influence of the French 
Revolution on Great Britain,' London, 1790, 
8vo ; and induced his friend, James Scarlett, 
afterwards Lord Abinger [q. v.], to complete 
a translation (begun by himself) of a series of 
letters by Dumont descriptive of the events 
of 1789, to which he added a few letters of 
his own embodying very free criticisms from 
a republican point of view of English politi- 
cal, legal, and social institutions. The whole 
appeared under the title ' Letters containing 
an Account of the late Revolution in France, 
and Observations on the Laws, Manners, 
and Institutions of the English ; written 
during the author's residence at Paris and 
Versailles in the years 1789 and 1790 ; trans- 
lated from the German of Henry Frederic 
Groenvelt,' London,