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VOL. L. 




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J. G. A. 
W. A. J. A. . 
E. B-L. . . . 
H. F. B. . . 
G. F. E. B. . 

M. B 

C. E. B. 
H. L. B. . . 
H. E. D. B. 
G. C. B. . . 
T. G. B. 

G. S. B. 
W. B-T. . , 
E. I. C.. . , 
W. C-B. . , 
E. C-E. . . 
A. M. C-E., 

T. C 

W. P. C. . . 

H. C 

L. C 

H. D 

J. C. D. . 
J. A. D. . 
E. D. . . . 
C. H. F. . 









, G. C. BOASE. 



, Miss A. M. COOKE. 





. J. C. DIBDIN. 
. J. A. DOYLE. 
. C. H. FIRTH. 

W. T. G. 

E. G. . . 
G. G. . . 
A. G. . . 
E. E. G. 
J. C. H. 
J. A. H. 
C. A. H. 
P. J. H. 
T. F. H. 
W. H.. . 
W. H. H. 
C. K. . . 
C. L. K. 
J. K. . . 
H. K. . . 
J. K. L. 
T. G. L. 
E. L. . . 
S. L. . . 
E. H. L. 
E. M. L. 
J. E. L. 
W. B. L. 
J. H. L. 
H. T. L. 





. E. E. GRAVES. 




. P. J. HARTOG. 






. T. G. LAW. 
. E. H. LEGGE. 


List of Writers. 

J. B. M. . . J. B. MACDONALD. 

E. C. M. . . E. C. MARCHANT. 

F. T. M. . . F. T. MARZIALS. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 

A. H. M. . . A. H. MILLAR. 





D. J. O'D. . D. J. O'DONOGHUE. 

F. M. O'D.. F. M. O'DONOGHUE. 


A. F. P. . . A. F. POLLARD. 

D'A. P. ... D'ARCY POWER, F.B.C.S. 


J. M. B. . . J. M. Brno. 


T. S-D. . . . T. SCATTERGOOD. 


W. F. S. . . W. F. SEDGWICK. 

W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW. 


C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

G. W. S. . . THE BEV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 



C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 




B. H. V. . . COLONEL B. H. VETCH, B.E., 


M. G. W.. . THE BEV. M. G. WATKINS. 


W. B, W. . W. B. WILLIAMS. 


B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 


** In vol. xlix. p. 10, col. 1, 11. 14 and 13 from bottom, for The Melbourne ministry consequently broke ^/p, read 
The Grey ministry subsequently broke up. 






RUSSEN, DAVID (ft. 1705), author, 
was in 1702 resident at Hythe, Kent. In 
1703 lie published ' Iter Lunare ; or a Voyage 
to the Moon.' It was reissued in 1707. 
The book consists of a detailed account and 
criticism of Cyrano Bergerac's ' Selenarchia,' 
which Russen had read ' with abundance of 
delight ' in the English version by Thomas 
St. Sere. He\ holds Bergerac's view that 
the moon was inhabited to be l more than 
probable,' and adds that he had t promised a 
just treatise of it.' After discussing the diffi- 
culties of various proposed means of ascent to 
the moon, he propounds one of his own. His 
method is to make use of ' a spring of well- 
tempered steel fastened to the top of a high 
mountain, having attached to it a frame or 
seat, the spring being with cords, pullies, or 
other engines bent, and then let loose by de- 
grees by those who manage the pullies.' The 
moon must be at the time of ascent ' in the 
full in Cancer, and the engine must be 
so order'd in its ascent that the top thereof 
may touch the moon when she comes to the 
meridian.' The moon's motion must be 
exactly calculated to prevent the rotation 
of the earth carrying away the engine, and 
the distance from the top of the mountain 
exactly known. Russen opines it ' possible 
in nature to effect such a spring, though 'tis 
a query if art will not be defective.' 

Russen also published 'Fundamentals 
without a Foundation, or a True Picture of 
the Anabaptists in their Rise, Progress, and 
Practice ' (1G98 ?). There is no copy in the 
British Museum Library. A reply by Joseph 
Stennett appeared about 1699, and was re- 
printed in 1704. Russen made insinua- I 
tions against the private character of Ben- i 
jamin Keach [q. v.], the baptist preacher. | 

VOL. L. 

A rejoinder to Stennett by James Barry, 
first published in 1699, was reprinted in 


[Russen's Iter Lunare ; Stennett's reply to 
Fundamentals without a Foundation; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Gent. Mag. 1777, pp. 506, 609 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] " a. LB G-. N. 

RUST, GEORGE (d. 1670), bishop of 
Dromore, was a native of Cambridge, where 
he graduated B. A. from St. Catharine's Hall 
early in 1647. He became a fellow of Christ's 
College in 1649, and proceeded M.A. in 1650. 
His reputation for learning was considerable 
even in youth. In 1655 he delivered a 
Latin discourse in St. Mary's, Cambridge, in 
answer to Pilate's question, ' What is Truth ? ' 
At the commencement of 1658 he maintained 
in the same place the thesis that scripture 
teaches the resurrection of the body, and 
that reason does not refute it. He belonged 
to the Cambridge Platonist school (MASSON, 
Life of Milton, vi. 307), and among his friends 
at Christ's were Sir John Finch (1626-1682) 
[q.v.] and the learned Henry More (1614- 
1687) [q.v.] He was also intimate with 
Joseph Glanvill [q. v.], an Oxford man, but 
closely associated with More. He gave up 
his fellowship in 1659. 

Soon after the Restoration, Rust was in- 
vited to Ireland by his fellow-townsman 
Jeremy Taylor [q. v.], ordained deacon and 
priest on the same day, 7 May 1661, and 
made dean of Connor in August. In 1662 
he was presented by the crown to the rectory 
of Island Magee. On 20 Oct. 1663, preaching 
at Newtownards at the funeral of Hugh 
Montgomery, first earl of Mount Alexander 
q. v.], Rust remarked, New presbyter is 
"' f old priest writ large.' Milton, whose 



sonnet containing the same line, probably 
written in 1646, was not published till 1673, 
was a Christ's man, and Rust perhaps de- 
rived the phrase from him. For himself, said 
Rust, he had studied all creeds, and pre- 
ferred the church of England. In 1664 Rust j 
was rector of Lisburn, whe v e Lord Conway 
lived. He naturally became the friend of 
Taylor's friends, and in 1665 he visited Con- 
way in England, when Valentine Greatrakes 
q. v.] was trying to cure Lady Conway's 
headaches (JRawdon Papers, pp. 206, 213). 
Jeremy Taylor died at Lisburn on 13 Aug. 
1667, and Rust preached a well-known funeral 
sermon. In succession to Taylor, Rust was 
appointed bishop of Dromore by patent in 
November 1667, and consecrated in Christ 
Church, Dublin, on 15 Dec. He died of 
fever in the prime of life in December 1670, 
and was buried in the choir of Dromore 
Cathedral in the same vault with his friend 
Taylor. No monument was erected there to 
either of them, and the bones of both were 
disturbed a century later to make room for 
another prelate. Bishop Percy of the * Re- 
liques ' collected the remains of his two pre- 
decessors and restored them to their original 

Joseph Glanvill [q.v.] says Rust gave a 
new turn to Cambridge studies : ' he had too 
great a soul for trifles of that age, and saw 
clearly the nakedness of phrases and fancies ; 
he out grew the pretended orthodoxy of those 
days, and addicted himself to the primitive 
learning and theology in which he even then 
became a great master.' Rust's works are : 
J.. * A Letter of Resolution concerning 
Origen,' &c., London, 1661, 4to. 2. 'Ser- 
mon on ii. Tim. i. 10, preached at Newtown, 
20 Oct. 1663, at the Funeral of Hugh, earl 
of Mount Alexander,' Dublin, 1664, 4to. 
3. ' Sermon at Jeremy Taylor's Funeral,' 
Dublin, 1667, 4to ; numerous later editions ; 
it was included by Heber in vol. i. of Tay- 
lor's 'Works.' 4. 'A Discourse of Truth,' 
London, 1677, 12mo j another edition, with 
copious notes and a preface by Joseph 
Glanvill, was published by James Collins, 
London, 1682 ; this is not identical with 
Rust's discourse delivered at Cambridge in 
1655. 5. ' A Discourse of the Use of Rea- 
son in Matters of Religion, showing that 
Christianity contains nothing repugnant to 
Right Reason, against Enthusiasts and 
Deists,' London, 1683, 4to ; this comprises 
the Latin original edited by Henry Hally- 
well, with a translation, copious notes, and a 
dedication to Henry More. 6. ' Remains,' 
edited by Henry Hallywell and dedicated 
to his diocesan, John Lake [q. v.], bishop of 
Chichester, London, 1686, 4to. 

[An account of Rust is given in Cooper's 
Annals of Cambridge, iii. 545-6 ; see also Ware's 
Bishops and Writers of Ireland, ed. Harris ; 
Worthington's Diary and Corresp. (Chetham 
Soc.), pp. iii, 118, 134, 301, 305, 312, 339 ; Cot- 
ton's Fasti Ecclesise Hibernic?e, vol. iii. ; Berwick's 
Rawdon Papers ; Jeremy Taylor's Works, ed. 
Heber; Wood's A thense Oxon. ed. Bliss: Cooper's 
Memorials of Cambridge; notes supplied by the 
master of Christ's College.] K. B-L. 

1895), divine, born at Stowmarket, Suffolk, 
on 25 March 1808, was educated in a board- 
ing school at Halesworth. He became a 
baptist preacher in London, ami in 1838 was 
ordained pastor of the baptist chapel, Eld 
Lane, Colchester. In 1849 he joined the- 
communion of the church of England, and 
entered Queens' College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated LL.B. in 1856. He had pre- 
viously been licensed to the perpetual curacy 
of St. Michael at Thorn, Norwich, and in 
1860 he was presented by Dr. Pelham, bishop 
of Norwich, to the rectory of Heigham. That 
huge parish was subsequently divided into- 
three, and Rust chose for himself the newly 
constituted parish of Holy Trinity, South 
Heigham, to the rectory of which he was 
admitted on 2 April 1868. In 1875 he was 
presented to the rectory of "Westerfield, near 
Ipswich, which he resigned in 1890. He 
died at Soham, Cambridgeshire, on 7 March. 
1895, in the house of his only child, John 
Cyprian Rust, vicar of the parish. 

Rust was an accomplished Hebrew scholar, 
and published : 1. 'Essay sand Reviews: a 
Lecture,' Norwich, 1861 . 2. ' The Higher 
Criticism : some Account of its Labours on 
the Primitive History the Pentateuch and 
Book of Joshua,' London. 1878 ; this treatise, 
which chiefly criticised the writings of Ewald, 
was entirely rewritten and republished under 
the same title in 1890, in order to deal with 
the theories of Wellhausen and Kuenen. 
3. ' Break of Day in the Eighteenth Century : 
a History and Specimen of its First Book of 
English Sacred Song: 300 Hymns of Dr. 
Watts carefully selected and arranged, with 
a Sketch of their History,' London, 1880. 

[Private information.] T. C. 

RUSTAT, TOBIAS (1606 ?-l 694), uni- 
versity benefactor, born at Barrow-upon- 
Soar, Leicestershire, about 1606, and said to 
have been the descendant of a refugee from 
Saxony, was the grandson of William Rustat, 
vicar of Barrow from 1563 to 1588. He was 
the second son of Robert Rustat (d. 1637), 
M.A., of Jesus College, Cambridge, vicar of 
Barrow-upon-Soar and rector of Skeffington 
in Leicestershire. His mother was a daugh- 



ter of Ralph Snoden of Mansfield, Notting- 
hamshire, and sister of Robert Snoden, bishop 
of Carlisle. 

Early in life Rustat was apprenticed to a 
barber-surgeon in London, but soon left, and 
entered the service of Basil, viscount Feilding, 
eldest son of William Fielding, Earl of Den- 
bigh [q.v.] About 3633 he attended that 
nobleman in his embassy to Venice ; he 
was next attached to the youthful George 
Villiers, second duke of Buckingham, and 
became a servant of the young Prince of 
Wales (Charles II) when he was about four- 
teen years old. While in this position he 
was often employed in carrying letters be- 
tween Charles I and the queen, discharging 
his duty during the civil war at great bodily 
risk. He was personally engaged in July 
1648 during the royalist rising instigated 
in Kent by the Earl of Holland, and, hav- 
ing saved the life of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, he escaped with him to the conti- 

Rustat bought the reversion of the post of 
yeoman of the robes to Charles II, and suc- 
ceeded to that empty honour about 1650. 
At the Restoration he was sworn into office 
(9 Nov. 1660), and held his place until the 
death of Charles II in 1685. His salary was 
only 4:01. a year, but the king gave him in 
addition an annuity of the same amount. By 
patent for his life he was created in 1660 
under-housekeeper of the palace at Hampton 
Court, and, according to John Evelyn, he 
was also ' a page of the back-stairs.' The 
emoluments attached to these posts were not 
excessive, but through strict frugality he 
became rich. He was a great benefactor 
to ' Churches, Hospitalls, Universities, and 
Colleges,' and found, says his epitaph, that 
the more he distributed ' the more he had at 
the year's end.' 

A grace to bestow on Rustat the degree 
of M. A. was passed by the university of Cam- 
bridge on 13 Oct. 1674, and he was admitted 
per literas reyias on 20 Oct. In 1676 his 
armorial bearings Avere confirmed by the king. 
Towards the end of his days he lived mostly 
at Chelsea, and for the last eight years of 
his life he kept his funeral monument in his 
house, with the inscription fully written, ex- 
cepting the date of death, and with the in- 
junction that no alteration or addition should 
be made in it. He died a bachelor on 1 5 March 
1693-4, and was buried in the chapel of 
Jesus College, Cambridge, on 23 March. The 
white marble monument to his memory, with 
his own inscription on it, is now placed in 
the south transept, and a small stone in the 
pavement of the chancel marks the place of 
sepulture. His will was dated on 20 Oct. 

1693, and precisely a century later the family 
became extinct. His portrait, by Sir Peter 
Lely, hangs in the hall of Jesus College, and 
was engraved by Gardiner in 1795, and for 
Hewett's memoir of Rustat in 1849. There 
is preserved at the British Museum a unique 
copy of a very fine mezzotint engraving of 
him, with a long Latin quotation, in which 
he is represented as a young man (J. C. 
SMITH, Portraits, iv. 1670). 

Rustat founded at Jesus College in 1671 
seventeen scholarships, ranging in annual 
value from 40/. to 50/., for the sons of clergy- 
men deceased or living. To the same college 
he gave money to provide annuities for the 
widows of six clergymen, and to defray the 
cost of the annual commemoration and visita- 
tion on Easter Thursday. He was a bene- 
factor to the library of St. John's College at 
Cambridge, and to the college of the same 
name at Oxford he left a large sum for the 
encouragement of 'the most indigent Fellows 
or Scholars,' and for the endowment of loyal 
lectures on certain days connected with the 
Stuart kings. On 1 June 1666 he gave 1,000/. 
to the university of Cambridge for the pur- 
chase of choice books for its library. 

The copper statue at Windsor by Stada 
of Charles II on horseback, on a marble 
pedestal by Grinling Gibbons, was given by 
Rustat in 1680. A brass statue of the same 
monarch, draped in the Roman habit, by 
Grinling Gibbons, now in the centre of the 
quadrangle at Chelsea Hospital, Avas simi- 
larly the gift of Rustat, who also presented 
the'hospital with the sum of 1,000/. The 
fine bronze statue of James II behind White- 
hall, set up on 31 Dec. '1686, was also the 
work of Gibbons, and the gift of Rustat. 
Nor does this list exhaust his benefactions. 
He is described by Evelyn as ' a very simple, 
ignorant, but honest and loyal creature.' 

[Wordsworth's Scholse Acad.pp. 294-6 ; Peck's 
Cromwell, pp. 83-5 ; Law's Hampton Court, ii. 
246 ; Dyer's Cambridge, ii. 70 ; Evelyn's Diary 
(1827 ed.), iii. 27; Cambridge Univ. Cal. pp. 
538, 663; Cooper's Annals of Cambr. iii. 519; 
Baker's St. John's Coll. Cambr. ed. Mayor, i. 
341, ii. 11 08; "Beaver's Chelsea, p. 283 ; Cunning- 
ham's London, ed. Wheatley, i. 384, iii. 513; 
Peck's Desid. Curiosa, ii. 553-554 ; Clark's Ox- 
ford Colleges, p. 361 ; information from the 
Rev. Dr. Morgan, master of Jesus Coll. Cambr. 
A memoir of him by William Hewett, jun., was 
published in 1849.] W. P. C. 

(d. 1523), bishop of Durham, was a native 
of Cirencester. His mother's name seems to 
have been Avenyng. He was educated at 
Oxford, and incorporated D.D. at Cambridge 




in 1500 ; but before this date he had entered 
the service of Henry "VII. In June 1499, 
being then described as prothonotary, he j 
went on an embassy to Louis XII of France, 
and he, on his return, occupied the position 
of king's secretary (cf. GAIKDNER, Letters 
and Papers of Richard III t:nd Henry VII, 
Rolls Ser. i. 405, &c. ; Cal. State Papers, 
Venetian, i. 795, 799). Ruthall had a long 
series of ecclesiastical preferments. In 1495 
he had the rectory of Booking, Essex, in 1502 
he became a prebendary of Wells, and in 
1503 archdeacon of Gloucester and chancellor 
of Cambridge University. In 1505 he was 
made prebendary of Lincoln, and was ap- 
pointed dean there (not, as Wood says, at 
Salisbury). Henry VII, who had already 
made him a privy councillor, appointed him 
bishop of Durham in 1509, but died before 
he was consecrated. Henry VIII confirmed 
his appointment, and continued him in the 
office of secretary. He went to France with 
the king in 1513 with a hundred men, but 
was sent back to England when James IV 
threatened war. He took a great part in the 
preparations for defence, and wrote toWolsey 
after Flodden. He was present at the mar- 
riage of Louis XII and the Princess Mary in 
1514, and in 1516 was made keeper of the 
privy seal. In 1518 he was present when 
Wolsey was made legate, and was one of the 
commissioners when the Princess Mary was 
betrothed to the Dauphin. He was at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and was 
again at Calais with Wolsey in 1521. When 
Buckingham was examined by the king, 
Ruthall was present as secretary. A story is 
told that being asked to make up an account 
of the kingdom, he did so, but accidentally 
gave in to the king another account treat- 
ing of his own property, which was very 
large, and that he became ill with chagrin. 
He was a hardworking official who did a 
great deal of the interviewing necessary in 
diplomatic negotiations. Brewer represents 
him as Wolsey's drudge, and Giustinian 
speaks of his ' singing treble to the cardinal's 
bass.' He died on 4 Feb. 1522-3 at Durham 
Place, London, and was buried in St. John's 
Chapel, Westminster Abbey. 

Ruthall was interested ' in architecture. 
He repaired the bridge at Newcastle, and 
built a great chamber at Bishop Auckland. 
He also increased the endowment of the 
grammar school at Cirencester which had 
been established by John Chedworth, bishop 
of Lincoln, in 1460. It afterwards fell into 
difficulties when the chantry commissioners 
of Edward VI's day attacked its endow- 
ments, which were not fully restored till 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 27; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 722 ; Wriothesley's 
Chron. (Carad. Soc.) i. 12; Chron. of Calais 
(Camd. Soc.\ pp. 12, 19, 30 ; Letters and Papers 
of Richard III and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls 
Ser.), i. 132, 405, 412, 414, ii. 338 ; Friedmann's 
Anne Boleyn, ii. 322 ; Leland's Itinerary, ii. 50, 
51 ; Brewer's Henry VIII, i. 27 n. ; Giustinian's 
Four Years at the Court of Henry VIII (ed. 
Rawdon Brown), i. 73 n., ii. 25 n. ; Chesham's 
Cirencester, p. 213 ; Cal. State Papers, Venetian, 
1509-19 passim, 1520-6 passim; in the index 
to vol. i. of the Spanish Series he is confused 
with Fox, cf. p. 158; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vols. i. and ii.] W. A. J. A. 

TEVIOT (d. 1664), was the only son of Wil- 
liam Rutherford of Q.uarrelholes, Roxburgh- 
shire, a cadet of the Rutherfords of Hunthill, 
by Isabella, daughter of Sir James Stuart of 
Traquair. He was educated at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, and at an early period 
he entered the French service, where he rose 
to the rank of lieutenant-general. He re- 
turned to Scotland at the Restoration, and, 
being specially recommended by the French 
king to Charles II, was by patent dated 
Whitehall, 10 Jan.1661, created Lord Ruther- 
ford ' to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, 
and that under the provisions, restrictions, 
and conditions which the said Lord Ruther- 
ford should think fit.' Soon afterwards he 
was appointed governor of Dunkirk, which 
had been captured from the Spanish in 1658, 
and was held in joint possession by the 
French and English. On the transference 
of the town in 1662 to Louis XII of France 
for 400,000/., Rutherford returned to Eng- 
land, and in recognition of his able services 
as governor he was on 2 Feb. 1663 created 
Earl of Teviot, with limitation to heirs male 
of his body. In April he was appointed 
colonel of the second or Tangier regiment 
of foot, and the same year was named governor 
of Tangier, where he was killed in a sally 
against the Moors on 4 May 1664. By his 
will he made provision for the erection of 
eight chambers in the college of Edinburgh, 
and gave directions that a Latin inscription 
which he had composed should be placed 
upon the building. By his death without law- 
ful male issue the earldom of Teviot became 
extinct ; but on 23 Dec. 1663 he had exe- 
cuted at Portsmouth a general settlement of 
his estates and dignities to Sir Thomas 
Rutherford of Hunthill, who on 16 Dec. 
1665 was served heir in his title of Lord 
Rutherford and also in his lands. 

[Monteath's Theatre of Mortality; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 458-9; Jeffrey's 
Hist, of Roxburghshire, ii. 286-8.] T. F. H. 



1819), physician and botanist, born at Edin- 
burgh on 3 Nov. 1749, was son of Dr. John 
Rutherford (1695-1779) [q. v.], by his second 
wife, Anne, born Mackay. Educated at first 
at home, he was sent, when seven years old, 
to the school of a Mr. Mimdell, afterwards 
to an academy in England, and thence to 
the university of Edinburgh, where, after 
graduating M.A., he entered on his medical 
studies. He studied under William Cul- 
len [q. v.] and Joseph Black [q. v.], and 
obtained his diploma as M.D. 12 Sept. 
1772, his inaugural dissertation being 'De 
aere fixo dictoaut Mephitico.' This tract owes 
its importance to the distinction, clearly 
established in it, between carbonic acid 
gas and nitrogen [see PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH]. 
It opens with an account of the work of 
Black and of Henry Cavendish [q. v.] on 
' fixed ' or l mephitic air ' (carbonic acid). 
Rutherford proceeds to point out (p. 17) 
that ' by means of animal respiration ' pure 
air not only in part becomes mephitic, but 
also undergoes another singular change in 
its nature ; ' for even after the mephitic air 
has been absorbed by a caustic lye from 
air which has been rendered noxious by re- 
spiration, the residual gas (atmospheric 
nitrogen) also extinguishes flame and life. 
The mephitic air he supposes to have been 
probably generated from the food, and to 
have been expelled as a harmful substance 
from the blood, by means of the lungs. He 
found experimentally that air passed over 
ignited charcoal and treated with caustic 
lye behaves in the same way as air made 
noxious by respiration ; but that when 
a metal, phosphorus, or sulphur is calcined 
in air (probably in the case of the sulphur 
in the presence of water), the residual gas 
contains no ' mephitic air,' but only under- 

foes the ' singular change ' above referred to. 
t follows then ' that this change is the only 
one which can be ascribed to combustion.' 
Rutherford gave no name to the residual gas 
(which has since been called nitrogen), but 
supposed that it was ' atmospheric air as it 
were united with and saturated with phlo- 
giston.' John Mayow [q. v.] had already 
conjectured that the atmosphere was com- 
posed of two constituents, of which one re- 
mained unchanged in the process, of combus- 
tion, and had supported this view by experi- 
ments. Moreover, practically all the facts 
and views recorded by Rutherford are to be 
found in Priestley's memoir published in the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1772 (p. 230 
and passim), and read six months before the 
publication of Rutherford's tract ; but Priest- 
ley's exposition is less methodical and precise. 

Rutherford mentions that he had heard of 
Priestley's researches on the action of plants 
on mephitic air (p. 25), but makes no other 
reference to Priestley's work, which he had 
quite possibly not seen. Neither of the two 
chemists regarded the gas as an element at 
this time. Rutherford's comparison of putre- 
faction to slow combustion (p. 24) is inte- 
resting, although Priestley had also previ- 
ously shown the similarity of the two pro- 

Having published this valuable paper and 
completed his university course, Rutherford 
travelled in England, went to France in 1773, 
and thence to Italy. He returned in 1775 to 
Edinburgh, where he began to practise. He 
became a licentiate of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh on 6 Feb. 1776, 
and a fellow on 6 May 1777. He was pre- 
sident of the college from December 1796 to 
Dec. 1798. 

On 1 Dec. 1786 he succeeded Dr. John 
Hope as professor of botany in the univer- 
sity and keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden 
at Edinburgh, and was nominated a member 
of the faculty of medicine in the university, 
which brought him into connection with the 
royal infirmary as one of the clinical pro- 
fessors, and, on the death of Henry Cullen 
in 1791, he was elected one of the physicians 
in ordinary to that establishment. He was 
elected a fellow of the Philosophical (after- 
wards the Royal) Society of Edinburgh about 
1776, and of the Linnean Society in 1796. 
He was also a member of the ^Esculapian, 
Harveian, and Gymnastic Clubs. 

When ten years old Rutherford suffered 
from gout, which increased in severity in 
later life, and was probably the cause of his 
sudden death, on 15 Nov. 1819, as he was 
preparing to go his usual round. He mar- 
ried, on 13 Dec. 1786, Harriet, youngest 
daughter of John Mitchelson of Middle- 

Besides the important dissertation referred 
to, Rutherford was author of ' Characteres 
Generum Plantarum,' &c., 8vo, Edinburgh, 
1793, and of a paper containing ' A Descrip- 
tion of an Improved Thermometer ' in the 
' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh,' vol. iii. A letter of his also appears 
in ' Correspondence relative to the Publica- 
tion of a Pamphlet, entitled * A Guide for 
Gentlemen studying Medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh," by James Hamilton, 
jun., D. Rutherford, and James Gregory,' 
4to [Edinburgh, 1793]. 

A portrait in oils by Raeburn is in the 
possession of Mrs. Rutherford-Haldane ; a 
replica hangs in the hall of the Royal College 
of Physicians in Edinburgh. This was en- 



graved by II oil, published in London 011 
1 June 1804, and included in R. J. Thorn- 
ton's ' New Illustration of the Sexual System 
of Carolus von Linnaeus/ 1807. 

[Information kindly supplied by P. J. Hartog, 
esq. of Owens College, Manchester, and D'Arcy 
Power, M.E., F.R.C.S. ; Ann. Biogr. and Obit. 
1821, pp. 138-48; Hoefer's Hist, de la Chemie, 
1st edit. ii. 486 ; Ilopp's Geschichte der Chemie, 
iii. 194, 200, and passim; Black's Lectures on 
Chemistry, ed. Robison, 1803, ii. 105 ; Britten 
and Boulger's Brit. Botanists ; Index Cat. Libr. 
Surg.-Grenl. United States Army ; Historical 
Sketch of the Royal College of Physicians, Edin- 
burgh.] B. B. W. 

RUTHERFORD, JOHN(dU577), divine, 
born at Jedburgh, studied under Nicolaus 
Gruchius at the college of Guienne at Bor- 
deaux. He accompanied his teacher and 
George Buchanan (1506-1582) [q. v.] in their 
expedition to the new university of Coimbra, 
and thence in 1552 he proceeded to the uni- 
versity of Paris. His reputation attracted the 
notice of John Hamilton (1511 P-1571) [q. v.], 
archbishop of St. Andrews, who offered him 
a chair in the college of St. Mary, which 
he had recently organised at St. Andrews 
(Hovcei Oratzo, MS. in Archiv. Univ. St. 
Andr. ) ; and, after teaching for some years 
as professor of humanity, Rutherford was 
translated in 1560 to be principal of St. Sal- 
vator's College in the same university. Soon 
after his admission to the university he was 
also made dean of the faculty of arts, although 
not qualified by the statutes. He had em- 
braced the reformed doctrines abroad, and on 
20 Dec. 1560 the assembly declared him one 
of those whom ' they think maist qualified 
for ministreing and teaching,' and on 25 June 
1563 he was ordained minister of Cults, a 
parish in the gift of his college (CALDER- 
WOOD, Hist, of the Kirk, ii. 45 ; KEITH, 
Affairs of Church and State, iii. 72). 

Rutherford retained the provostship of 
St. Salvator's till a short time before his 
death, at the close of 1577. He had a 
son, John, who became minister of St. An- 
drews in 1584, and died of the plague in the 
following year. 

Rutherford was the author of ' De Arte 
Disserendi,' lib. iv., Edinburgh, 1577, 4to: a 
work said by Thomas McCrie (1772-1835) 
[q. v.] to mark 'a stage in the progress of 
philosophy in Scotland.' He also wrote a 
reply to John Davidson's ' Dialogue betwixt 
a Clerk and a Courteour,' which was not 
printed ; it incurred the censure of the as- 
sembly (CALDEEWOOD, iii. 310-12). There 
are further assigned to him ' Collatio Philo- 
sophise Platonicse et Aristotelicse,' ' Collatio 
Divi Thomse Aquinatis et Scoti in Philo- 

sophicis,' and ' Prsefationes Solennes, Parisiis 
et Conimbriae habitse.' 

[Scott's Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse, n. ii. 422, 
483 ; McCrie's Life of Andrew Melville, i. 107- 
110, 127, 249; Dempster's Hist. Eccles. Gentis 
Scotorum, ii. 565 ; Masson's Register of Scottish 
Privy Council, 1569-78, p. 208.] E. I. C. 

RUTHERFORD, JOHN (1695-1779), 
physician, son of John Rutherford, minister 
of Yarrow, Selkirkshire, born 1 Aug. 1695, 
was educated at the grammar school of Sel- 
kirk. He entered the university of Edin- 
burgh in 1709-10, and, after passing through 
the ordinary arts course, was apprenticed to 
Alexander iS T esbit, an eminent surgeon, with 
whom he remained until 1716. He then pro- 
ceeded to London, and attended the various 
hospitals, hearing the lectures of Dr. Douglas 
on anatomy and the surgical lectures of 
Andre. From London he went to Leyden, 
which Boerhaave was then rendering famous 
as a centre of medical teaching. He obtained 
the degree of M.D. at Rheims about the end 
of July 1719, and passed the winter of that 
year in Paris ; he attended the private de- 
monstrations of Winslow. In 1720 he re- 
turned to Great Britain. He settled in Edin- 
burgh in 1721, and started, with Drs. Sin- 
clair, Plummer, and Innes, a laboratory for 
the preparation of compound medicines, an 
art which was then little understood in Scot- 
land. They also taught the rudiments of 
chemistry, and afterwards, by the advice of 
Boerhaave, lectured on other branches of 
physic. Each member of the band became 
a professor in the university of Edinburgh, 
Dr. Rutherford being appointed in 1726 to 
the chair of the practice of medicine, from 
which he delivered lectures in Latin until 
1765, when he resigned. He was succeeded 
by Dr. James Gregory [q. v.] 

Rutherford commenced the clinical teach- 
ing"of medicine in the university of Edin- 
burgh. In 1748 he was granted permission 
to give a course of clinical lectures in the 
Royal Infirmary. He encouraged his pupils 
to bring patients to him on Saturdays, when 
he inquired into the nature of the disease and 
prescribed for its relief in the presence of the 
class. The success of this innovation was so 
great, and the number of students increased 
so rapidly, that within two years the managers 
of the Royal Infirmary appropriated a special 
ward to the exclusive use of Rutherford, and 
they thus laid the foundation of that form of 
teaching in which the university of Edinburgh 
has long held a proud pre-eminence. Ruther- 
ford was buried on 10 March 1779 in Grey- 
friars Churchyard, Edinburgh. Sir Walter 
Scott says, in his 'Autobiography : ' ' In April 



1758 my father married Anne Rutherford, 
eldest daughter of Dr. John Rutherford, pro- 
fessor of medicine in the university of Edin- 
burgh. He was one of those pupils of Boer- 
haave to whom the school of medicine in our 
northern metropolis owes its rise, and a man 
distinguished for professional talent, for lively 
wit, and for literary acquirement. Dr. Ruther- 
ford was twice married. His first wife, of 
whom my mother is the sole surviving child, 
was a daughter of Sir John Swinton of Swin- 
ton. . . . My grandfather's second wife was 
Miss [Anne] Mackay/ a descendant of the 
family of Lord Rae, an ancient peer of Scot- 
land. His son by this marriage was Dr. 
Daniel Rutherford [q. v.] 

A three-quarter length, in oils, unsigned, 
represents Rutherford with powdered hair, 
and holding a copy of BoerhaaveV Aphorisms' 
in his left hand, at about the age of forty-five. 
This painting is in the possession of Mrs. 
Rutherford-Haldane, the wife of his great- 
grandson, and a copy of it hangs in the hall 
of the Royal College of Physicians of Edin- 
burgh. A second portrait is in existence, of 
which there is a replica at Abbotsford, and a 
reduced watercolour copy in the possession 
of Mrs. Rutherford-Haldane. It represents 
Rutherford at least twenty years later than 
the previous one. 

[Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary ; Stewart's 
History of the Eoyal Infirmary, in the Edinb. 
Hospital Reports, 1893, vol. i. ; Obituary Notice 
of Dr. Daniel Rutherford, in the Annual Bio- 
graphy and Obituary for 1821; information kindly 
given by Mr. James Haldane and Mrs. Ruther- 
ford-Haldane.] D'A. P. 

1661 ), principal of St. Mary's College, St. 
Andrews, was born about 1600 in the parish of 
Nisbet, now part of Crailing, Roxburghshire. 
His secretary says that ' he was a gentle- 
man by extraction/ and he used the arms 
of the Rutherford family. He had two 
brothers, one an officer in the Dutch army, 
the other, schoolmaster of Kirkcudbright. 
It is believed that he received his early 
education at Jedburgh. He entered the 
university of Edinburgh in 1617, graduated 
in 1621, and in 1623 was appointed regent 
of humanity, having been recommended by 
the professors for ' his eminent abilities of 
mind and virtuous disposition.' The re- 
cords of the town council of Edinburgh 
under 3 Feb. 1626 contain the following: 
'Forasmuch as it being declared by the 
principal of the college that Mr. Samuel 
Rutherford, regent of humanity, has fallen 
in fornication with Eupham Hamilton, and 
has committed a great scandal in the college 
and . . . has since demitted his charge there- 

in, therefore elects and nominates . . . com- 
missioners . . . with power ... to for 
depriving of the said Mr. Samuel, and being 
deprived for filling of the said place with a 
sufficient person.' Rutherford married the 
said Eupham, and his whole subsequent life 
was a reparation for the wrong he had done. 
According to his own statement, he had 
' suffered the sun to be high in heaven * 
before he became seriously religious. After 
this change he began to study theology 
under Andrew Ramsay, and in 1627 Gordon 
of Kenmure chose him for the pastorate of 
Anwoth in Galloway. He was no doubt 
ordained by Lamb, bishop of that diocese, 
who lived chiefly in Edinburgh or Leith, 
and was very tolerant towards those of his 
clergy who did not observe the five articles 
of Perth. Rutherford's secretary says that 
he entered ' without giving any engagement 
to the bishop,' which probably means that 
he took only the oath of obedience to the 
bishop prescribed by law in 1612, and not 
the Jater engagements imposed by the 
bishops on their own authority. 

At Anwoth he rose at 3 A.M., spent the 
forenoon in devotion and study, and the 
afternoon in visiting the sick and in catechis- 
ing his flock. Multitudes flocked to his 
church, and he became the spiritual director 
of the principal families in that part of Gal- 
loway. In 1630 he was summoned by ' a 
profligate parishioner ' before the high com- 
mission at Edinburgh for nonconformity to 
the Perth articles, but the proceedings were 
stopped as the primate was unavoidably 
absent, and one of the judges befriended 
him. In 1636 he published ' Exercitationes 
Apologeticse pro Divina Gratia,' a treatise 
against Arminianism, which attracted much 
attention. There is a tradition (which has 
a certain probability in its favour) that Arch- 
bishop Lusher paid him a visit in disguise at 
Anwoth, but was discovered and officiated 
for him on the following Sunday. Thomas 
Sydserf [q. v. ], appointed bishop of Galloway 
in 1634, had frequent interviews with Ruther- 
ford to induce him to conform, but without 
effect. Upon the appearance of the ' Exer- 
citationes ' Sydserf took proceedings against 
him, and, after a preliminary trial at Wigton, 
summoned him before the high commission 
at Edinburgh in July 1636, when he was 
forbidden to exercise his ministry, and was 
ordered to reside at Aberdeen during the 
king's pleasure. Baillie, in his ' Letters/ 
gives in detail the causes of his being 
silenced. Great efforts were made by Argyll 
and other notables and by his own flock to 
have the sentence modified, but to no purpose, 
and in August 1636, 'convoyed' by a number 




of Anwoth friends, he proceeded to Aberdeen. 
Rutherford gloried in his trials, but it was 
a great privation not to be allowed to preach. 
' 1 had but one eye,' he says, ' one joy, one 
delight, ever to preach Christ.' In exile he 
carried on his theological studies, and en- 
gaged in controversy with the Aberdeen 
doctors. ' Dr. Barren ' (professor of divinity), 
he says, ' often disputed with me, especially 
about Arminian controversies and for the 
ceremonies. Three yokings laid him by ... 
now he hath appointed a dispute before 
witnesses.' He wrote numerous letters, 
chiefly to his Galloway friends. After 
eighteen months of exile he took advan- 
tage of the covenanting revolution to re- 
turn to Anwoth. He was a member of 
the Glasgow Assembly of 1638, and by the 
commission of that assembly was appointed 
professor of divinity at St. Mary's College, 
St. Andrews. He was reluctant to accept 
the post, and petitions against his removal 
were sent in, one from his parishioners, 
another from Galloway generally. In the 
end he consented, but on condition that he 
should be allowed to act as colleague to 
Robert Blair [q. v.], one of the ministers of 
the city. 

He was a member of the covenanting as- 
semblies in following years, and took an 
important part in their deliberations, though 
* he was never disposed to say much in 
judicatories.' One of the burning questions 
'at that time was the action of some Scots, 
with Brownist leanings, who had returned 
from Ireland and troubled the church by 
holding private religious meetings, and by 
opposing the reading of prayers, the singing 
of the Gloria, the use of the Lord's Prayer, 
and ministers kneeling for private devotion 
on entering the pulpit. Rutherford be- 
friended them to some extent on account of 
their zeal. In 1642 he published his ' Plea 
for Presbytery,' a defence of that system 
against independency. 

In 1643 he was appointed one of the 
commissioners of the church of Scotland to 
the Westminster Assembly. He went to 
London in November of that year, and re- 
mained there for the next four years. He 
preached several times before parliament, 
and published his sermons. He also pub- 
lished, in 1644, * Lex Rex,' a political trea- 
tise ; in 1644, ' Due Right of Presbyteries ; ' 
in 1645, Trial and Triumph of Faith;' in 
1646, 'Divine Right of Church Government,' 
and in 1647 'Christ dying and drawing Sin- 
ners to Himself.' For his attacks on inde- 
pendency, Milton named him in the sonnet 
on ' The new Forcers of Conscience under 
the Long Parliament.' Rutherford took a 

prominent part in the Westminster As- 
sembly, and was much respected for his 
talents and learning. In November 1647, 
before leaving the assembly, he and the other 
Scots commissioners were thanked for their 

Rutherford then resumed his duties at 
St. Andrews, and was soon afterwards 
made principal of St. Mary's. In 1648 he 
published ' A Survey of the Spiritual Anti- 
christ,' a treatise against sectaries and en- 
thusiasts ; ( A Free Disputation against pre- 
tended Liberty of Conscience,' which Bishop 
Heber characterised as ' perhaps the most 
elaborate defence of persecution which has 
ever appeared in a protestant country ; ' and 
' The Last and Heavenly Speeches of Lord 
Kenmure.' In this year Rutherford was 
offerer! a divinity professorship at Harder- 
wyck in Holland, in 1649 a similar ap- 
pointment in Edinburgh, and in 1651 he 
was twice elected to a theological chair at 
Utrecht, but all these he declined. In 1651 
he was appointed rector of the university 
of St. Andrews, and in that year he pub- 
lished a treatise in Latin, ' De Divina Provi- 

On returning from London, Rutherford 
found his countrymen divided into moderate 
and rigid covenanters, and he took part with 
the latter in opposing the ' engagement ' and 
in overturning the government. After the 
death of Charles I there was a coalition of 
parties, and Charles II was proclaimed king. 
On 4 July 1650 Charles visited St. An- 
drews, and Rutherford made a Latin speech 
before him 'running much on the duty of 
kings.' He afterwards joined with the 
western remonstrants who condemned the 
treaty with the king as sinful, and opposed 
the resolution to relax the laws against the 
engagers so as to enable them to take part in 
the defence of the country against Crom- 
well. Rutherford was the only member of 
the presbytery of St. Andrews who adhered 
to their protest. When the assembly met 
at St. Andrews in July 1651, a protesta- 
tion against its lawfulness was given in by 
him and twenty-two others, and thus began 
the schism which mainly brought about 
the restoration of episcopacy ten years 

The last decade of Rutherford's life was 
spent in fighting out this quarrel. A section 
of the protesters went over to Cromwell 
and sectarianism, but he testified against 
those l who sinfully complied with the 
usurpers/ against the encroachments of the 
English on the courts of the church, 'against 
their usurpation, covenant-breaking, tolera- 
tion of all religion and corrupt sectarian 



ways.' On the other hand he was at war 
with those of his own house ; his colleagues 
in the college were all against him, and one 
of them, ' weary of his place exceedingly ' 
because of ' his daily contentions ' with the 
principal, removed to another college. He 
preached and prayed against the resolutioners, 
and \vould not take part with Blair in the 
holy communion, which because of strife 
was not celebrated at St. Andrews for six 
years. In 1655 Rutherford published < The 
Covenant of Life opened/ and in 1658 'A 
Survey of the Survey of Church Discipline,' 
by Mr. Thomas Hooker, New England. In 
the preface to this work he attacks the re- 
solutioners, and says of his own party ' we 
go under the name of protesters, troubled on 
every side, in the streets, pulpits, in divers 
synods and presbyteries, more than under 
prelacy.' The last work he gave to the press 
was a practical treatise free from contro- 
versy, ' Influences of the Life of Grace,' 

After the Restoration the committee of 
estates ordered Rutherford's ' Lex Rex ' to be 
burnt at the crosses of Edinburgh and St. 
Andrews, deprived him of his offices, and 
summoned him to appear before parliament 
on a charge of treason; but he was in his last 
illness, and unable to obey the citation. In 
February 1661 he emitted ' a testimony to 
the covenanting work of reformation,' and 
in March following he died, in raptures, 
testifying at intervals in favour of the ' pro- 
testers/ but forgiving his enemies. His last 
words were l Glory, Glory dwelleth in 
Emmanuel's land.' He was buried in St. 
Andrews. In 1842 a fine monument was 
erected to his memory on a conspicuous site 
in ' Sweet Anwoth by the Sol way.' Ruther- 
ford was much annoyed when he heard that 
collections of his letters were being made, 
and copies circulated. They were published 
by Mr. Ward, his secretary, in 1664, were 
translated into Dutch in 1674, and have 
since appeared with additions and expurga- 
tions in many English editions. His favourite 
topic in these letters is the union of Christ 
and his people as illustrated by courtship 
and marriage, and the language is sometimes 
coarse and indelicate. He left in manuscript 
'Exanien Arminianismi/ which was pub- 
lished at Utrecht in 1668, also a catechism 
printed in Mitchell's ' Collection of Cate- 
chisms.' He was best known during life by 
his books against Arminianism, and his repu- 
tation since has rested chiefly on his letters. 
He was a ' little fair man/ and is said to 
have been f naturally of a hot and fiery tem- 
per.' He was certainly one of the most per- 
fervid of Scotsmen, but seems to have had 

little of that humour which was seldom 
wanting in the grimmest of his contem- 
poraries. * In the pulpit he had ' (says a 
friend) ' a strange utterance, a kind of skreigh 
that I never heard the like. Many a time 
I thought he would have flown out of the 
pulpit when he came to speak of Jesus 
Christ.' His abilities were of a high order, 
but as a church leader by his narrowness 
he helped to degrade and destroy presby- 
terianism which he loved so well, and in 
controversy he was too often bitter and 
scurrilous (see e.g. his Preface to Lex Rex). 
With all his faults, his honesty, his stead- 
fast zeal, and his freedom from personal 
ambition give him some claim to the title 
that has been given him of the * saint of 
the covenant.' 

In 1630 his first wife died. In 1640 he 
married Jean M'Math, who, with a daughter 
Agnes, survived him. All his children by the 
first marriage, and six of the second, pre- 
deceased him. Agnes married W. Chiesly, 
W.S.. and left issue. 

[Lament's Diary ; Baillie's Letters ; Blair's 
Autobiogr. (Wod. Soc.) ; Crawford's Hist, of 
Univ. of Edin.; Life by Murray; Records of 
the Kirk; Bonar's edition of Rutherford's 
Letters.] G-. W. S. 

1871), mathematician, was born about 1798. 
He was a master at a school at Woodburn 
from 1822 to 1825, when he went to Hawick, 
Roxburghshire, and he was afterwards (1832- 
1837) a master at Corporation Academy, 
Berwick. In 1838 he obtained a mathe- 
matical post at the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich, where he was popular with his 
pupils. His mode of instruction was prac- 
tical and clear. Rutherford was a member 
of the council of the Royal Astronomical 
Society from 1844 to 1847, and honorary 
secretary in 1845 and 1846. He is said to 
have been well versed in both theoretical and 
practical astronomy, and interested in the 
proceedings of the society, but did not con- 
tribute to its ' Transactions.' He sent many 
problems and solutions and occasional papers 
to the ' Lady's Diary ' from 1822 to 1869, and 
also contributed to the ' Gentlemen's Diary.' 
He always delighted in a ' pretty problem/ 
although his mathematical studies were quite 
of the old north-country type. He was a 
friend of Woolhouse. He retired from his 
post at Woolwich about 1864, and died on 
16 Sept, 1871, at his residence, Tweed Cot- 
tage, Maryon Road, Charlton, at the age of 

Rutherford was the editor, in conjunction 
with Stephen Fenwick and (for the first 




volume only) with Thomas Stephen Davies, 
of The Mathematician,' vol. i. 1845, vol. ii. 
1847, vol. iii. 1850, to which he contributed 
many papers, lie edited ' Simeon's Euclid ' 
(1841, 1847) and IluttonV Course of Mathe- 
matics/ ' remodelled for R. M. A., Woolwich,' 
1841, 1846, 1854, 1860; Bonny castle's 'Al- 
gebra,' with William Galbiaith, 1848 ; Tho- 
mas Carpenter's 'Arithmetic,' 1852, 1859; 
Tyson's ' Key to Bonnycastle's Arithmetic,' 
1860 ; and published : 1. ' Computation of TT 
to 208 Decimal Places (correct to 153),' 
(' Phil. Trans.'), 1841. 2. ' Demonstration of 
Pascal's Theorem' ('Phil. Mag.'), 1843. 
3. ' Theorems in Co-ordinate Geometry ' 
(' Phil. Mag.') 1843. 4. ' Elementary Pro- 
positions in the Geometry of Co-ordinates ' 
(with Stephen Fenwick), 1843. 5. ' Earth- 
work Tables' (with G. K. Sibley), 1847. 
6. < Complete Solution of Numerical Equa- 
tions,' 1849. 7. The Arithmetic, Algebra, 
and Differential and Integral Calculus in 
1 Course of Mathematics for R.M.A. Wool- 
wich,' 1850. 8. 'The Extension of TT to 
440 Places ' ('Royal Soc. Proc.' 1853, p. 274). 
9. ' On Statical Friction and Revetments,' 
1859. Among several mathematical pam- 
phlets he wrote one on the solution of 
spherical triangles. 

[Monthly Notices Royal Astronom. Soc. 1871- 
1872, p. 146; Allibone ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; in- 
formation from Mr. W. J. Miller, Richmond-on- 
Thames.] W. F. S. 


(1712-1771), regius professor of divinity at 
Cambridge, was the son of Thomas Ruther- 
forth, rector of Papworth Everard, Cam- 
bridgeshire, who had made large manu- 
script collections for a history of that 
county. He was born at Papworth St. 
Agnes, Cambridgeshire, on 3 Oct. 1712, re- 
ceived his education at Huntingdon school 
under Mr. Ma'tthews, and was admitted a 
sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
6 April 1726. He proceeded B.A. in 1729, 
commenced M.A. in 1733, served the office 
of junior taxor or moderator in the schools 
in 1736, and graduated B.D. in 1740. On 
28 Jan. 1741-2 he was elected a member of 
the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding, and 
on 27 Jan. 1742-3 he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society (THOMSON, Chrono- 
logical List, p. xliii). He taught physical 
science privately at Cambridge, and issued 
in 1743 l Ordo Institutionum Physicarum.' In 
1745 he was appointed regius professor of 
divinity at Cambridge, and created D.D. 
His dissertation on that occasion, concerning 
the sacrifice of Isaac as a type of Christ's 
death, was published in Latin, and elicited a 

reply from Joseph Edwards, M.A. He be- 
came chaplain to Frederick, prince of Wales, 
and afterwards to the princess dowager. He 
also became rector of Shenfield, Essex, and 
was instituted to the rectory of Barley, 
Hertfordshire, 13 April 1751 (CLTTTTERBUCE:, 
Hertfordshire, iii. 387, 388). On 28 Nov. 
1752 he was presented to the archdeaconry 
of Essex (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 
337). He died in the house of his wife's 
brother, Sir Anthony Abdy, on 5 Oct. 1771, 
and was buried in the chancel of Barley 
church ; a memorial slab placed over his 
tomb was removed in 1871 to the west wall 
of the south aisle. 

Cole says that Rutherforth ' was pitted 
with the smallpox, and very yellow or 
sallow complexioned.' He married Char- 
lotte Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Abdy, bart., and left one son, Thomas 
Abdy Rutherforth, who became rector of 
Theydon Garnon, Essex, and died on 14 Oct. 

Besides single sermons, tracts, charges, 
and a paper read before the Gentlemen's 
Society at Spalding, on Plutarch's descrip- 
tion of the instrument used to renew the 
Vestal fire (cf. NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. ii. 196), 
Rutherforth published : 1. ' An Essay on the 
Nature and Obligations of Virtue,' Cam- 
bridge, 1744, 4to ; of this Mrs. Catherine 
Cockburn wrote a confutation, which War- 
burton, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, 
published with a preface of his own as ' Re- 
marks upon . . . Dr. Rutherforth's Essay ... in 
Vindication of the contrary Principles and 
Reasonings inforced in the Writings of the 
late Dr. Samuel Clarke,' 1747. 2. < A System 
of Natural Philosophy, being a Course of 
Lectures in Mechanics, Optics, Hydrostatics, 
and Astronomy,' 2 vols. Cambridge, 1748, 4to. 

3. ' A Defence" of the Bishop of London [T. 
Sherlock] 's Discourses concerning the use 
and intent of Prophecy ; in a Letter to Dr. 
Middleton ; ' 2nd edit. London, 1750, 8vo. 

4. ' The Credibility of Miracles defended 
against [David Hume] the Author of Philo- 
sophical Essays/ Cambridge, 1751, 4to. 

5. ' Institutes of Natural Law ; being the 
substance of a Course of Lectures on Grotius 
de Jure Belli et Pacis,' 2 vols. Cambridge, 
1754-6, 8vo ; second American edit, care- 
fully revised, Baltimore, 1832, 8vo. 6. < A 
Letter to ... Mr. Ivennicott, in which his 
Defence of the Samaritan Pentateuch is ex- 
amined, and his second Dissertation on the 
State of the printed Hebrew Text of the 
Old Testament is shewn to be in many in- 
stances Injudicious and Inaccurate,' Cam- 
bridge, 1761, 8vo. Ivennicott published in 
1762 an answer, to which Rutherforth at 



once retorted in 'A Second Letter.' 7. ' A 
Vindication of the Right of Protestant 
Churches to require the Clergy to subscribe 
to an established Confession of Faith and 
Doctrines, in a Charge delivered at a Visitation 
in July 1766,' Cambridge [1766], 8vo. ' An 
Examination ' of this charge * by a Clergyman 
of the Church of England ' [Benjamin Daw- 
son] reached a fifth edition in 1767. 8. 'A 
Second Vindication of the Right of Protes- 
tant Churches/ &c., Cambridge, 1766, 8vo. 
This was also answered anonymously by Daw- 
son. 9. 'A Defence of a Charge concern- 
ing Subscriptions, in a Letter to [F. Black- 
burne] the Author of the Confessional,' 
Cambridge, 1767, 8vo. This caused further 

[Addit. MS. 5879, f. 52 ; Brydges's Eestituta, 
iii. 224, iv. 230, 233, 401 ; Butterworth's Law 
Cat. p. 178 ; Mrs. Catherine Cockburn's Works, 
ii. 326, and Life prefixed, p. xlv ; Cooke's 
Preacher's Assistant, ii. 291; Gent. Mag. 1771, 
p. 475, 1780, p. 226, 1798, ii. 913; Georgian 
Era, i. 503 ; Button's Philosophical and Mathe- 
matical Diet. ii. 344 ; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), 
iii. 643, 656 ; Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 
ii. 196-8, 705, vi. 361; Account of the Gentle- 
men's Society at Spalding (1784), pp. xxxiv, 
xxxv.] T. C. 

RTTTHEBFTJRD (1791-1854), Scottish judge, 
born on 13 Dec. 1791, was educated at the 
high school and university of Edinburgh. 
Through ' his mother Mrs. Janet Bervie he 
was descended from the old Scottish house 
of Rutherfurd, and he and the other mem- 
bers of his family assumed this patronymic ' 
(ROGERS, Monuments and Monumental In- 
scriptions in Scotland, 1871, i. 131). Ruther- 
furd passed advocate on 27 June 1812, and 
rapidly acquired a great junior practice. On 
6 June 1833 he was appointed a member of 
the commission of inquiry into the state of 
the laws and judicatories of Scotland (see 
Parl. Papers, 1834 xxvi., 1835 xxxv., 1838 
xxix., 1840 xx.) He was described by Cock- 
burn in November 1834 as ' beyond all com- 
parison the most eminent person now in the 
profession ' (Journal, 1874, i. 77). He suc- 
ceeded John Ctuminghame as solicitor-gene- 
ral for Scotland in Lord Melbourne's second 
administration on 18 July 1837 {London 
Gazette, 1837, ii. 1833). He was promoted 
to the post of lord advocate in the room of 
Sir John Archibald Murray on 20 April 1839 
{ib. 1839, i. 857), and in the same month was 
elected to the House of Commons as mem- 
ber for Leith Burghs, which he continued to 
represent until his elevation to the judicial 
bench. He made his maiden speech in the 
House of Commons during a debate on 

Scottish business on 3 July 1839 (Parl. 
Debates, 3rd ser. xlviii. 1158, 1168-70). 
On 7 Feb. 1840 he made an able reply to Sir 
Edward Sugden during the adjourned de- 
bate on the question of privilege arising out 
of the case of Stockdale v. Hansard (ib. 3rd 
ser. Iii. 25-33). During this session he con- 
ducted the bill for the amendment of the 
Scottish law of evidence (3 & 4 Viet. cap. 59) 
through the House of Commons. He re- 
signed office with the rest of his colleagues 
on the accession of Sir Robert Peel to power 
in September 1841. Cockburn, in a review 
of Rutherfurd's official career, records, under 
27 Sept. of this year : ( Rutherfurd has made 
an excellent Lord Advocate, but far less a 
speaker than in other respects. The whole 
business part of his office has been done ad- 
mirably, but he has scarcely fulfilled the 
expectations which his reputation had ex- 
cited as a parliamentary debater or manager. 
. . . Yet the House of Commons contains 
few more able or eloquent men ' (Journal, i. 
307). In March 1843 he urged in vain the 
expediency of considering the petition of the 
general assembly of the church of Scotland, 
and warned the house that unless the peti- 
tion was granted * a schism would almost 
inevitably be created in Scotland which 
would never be cured ' (Parl. Hist. 3rd ser. 
Ixvii. 394-411). On 31 July 1843 he op- 
posed the second reading of Sir James Gra- 
ham's Scotch Benefices Bill, the only effect 
of which he declared * would be to deprive 
the Church of any small claim it might 
have on the affections of the people ' (ib. 3rd 
ser. Ixxi. 32-44). In the following session 
he supported Fox-Maule's bill for the aboli- 
tion of tests in Scottish universities (ib. 3rd 
ser. Ixxiv. 480-6). He was chosen lord 
rector of Glasgow University on 15 Nov. 
1844 by a majority of three nations, his op- 
ponent being Lord Eglinton. He was in- 
stalled on 10 Jan. 1845; when he 'made a 
judicious and pleasant address, in his style 
of pure and elevated thought and finished 
expression ' (Journal of Henry Cockburn, ii. 
98). On 16 April 1845 he spoke in favour 
of the Maynooth grant, though ' he knew 
that he was delivering an opinion against 
the sentiments of many of his constituents ' 
(Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. Ixxix. 831-3). On 
the 1st of the following month he brought 
in a bill for regulating admission to the 
secular chairs of the Scottish universities 
(ib. 3rd ser. Ixxx. 11-16). So good was his 
speech on this occasion that ' it had the rare 
effect of changing the previously announce 
resolution of government to refuse the leave 
(CocKBTJKNT, Journal, ii. 111). The bill was 
however, subsequently defeated on the se- 




cond reading in spite of Macaulay's eloquent 
appeal on its behalf. On 2 Dec. 1845 Ruther- 
furd and Macaulay addressed a public meet- 
ing in Edinburgh in favour of the abolition 
of the corn laws (ib. ii. 133). Rutherfurd 
was reappointed lord advocate on the for- 
mation of Lord John Russell's first admini- 
stration (6 July 1846). Owing to Ruther- 
f urd's exertions, five acts dealing with Scottish 
law reform were passed during the following 
session. These were about services of heirs 
(10 & 11 Viet. cap. 47), the transference of 
heritages not held in burgage tenure (cap. 
48), the transference of those held in burgage 
(cap. 49), the transference of heritable secu- 
rities for debt (cap. 50), and about crown 
charters and precepts from chancery (cap. 51). 
He failed, however, to pass his Registration 
and Marriage bills (Par I. Debates, 3rd ser. xc. 
386-7, xciii. 230-8). On 28 June 1847 he 
was nominated a member of the commission 
appointed to inquire into ' the state and ope- 
ration of the law of marriage as relating to the 
prohibited degrees of affinity and to mar- 
riages solemnized abroad or in the British 
colonies ' (see Parl. Papers, 1847-8 xxvin., 
1850 xx.) On 24 Feb. 1848 he moved for 
leave to bring in a bill to amend the law of 
entail in Scotland, the object of which, he 
explained, was ' to get rid of an absurd 
and preposterous system which had been the 
curse of the country for 160 years ' (ib. 3rd 
ser. xcvi. 1307-13). The credit of this im- 
portant measure, which received the royal 
assent on 14 Aug. 1848 (11 & 12 Viet. cap. 
36), belongs entirely to Rutherfurd. On 
20 June 1849 he supported the second read- 
ing of Stuart- Wortley's bill to amend the 
law of marriage (Parl. Debates, 3rd ser. cvi. 
613-16), and on 9 July he urged the house 
to pass the Scotch marriage bill which had 
received the sanction of the House of Lords 
no fewer than three times (ib. cvii. 3, 9- 
18, 37). During the following session he 
conducted the Scotch Police and Improve- 
ment of Towns Bill (13 & 14 Viet. cap. 33) 
through the commons. He spoke for the last 
time in the house on 16 May 1850 (Parl. 
Hist. 3rd ser. cxi. 146-7). At the commence- 
ment of 1851 Rutherfurd was seized with a 
severe attack of illness. On 7 April 1851 
he was appointed an ordinary lord of session 
in the place of Sir James Wellwood Mon- 
creiff [q.v.] He was sworn a member of 
the privy council on 5 May following (London 
Gazette, 1851, i. 981, 1196), and took his 
seat on the bench, with the title of Lord 
Rutherfurd, on the 23rd of the same month. 
He died at his residence in St. Colme 
Street, Edinburgh, after an illness of some 
months, on 13 Dec. 1854, and was buried on 

the 20th in the Dean cemetery, under a 
pyramid of red granite. He married, on 
10 April 1822, Sophia Frances, youngest 
daughter of Sir James Stewart, bart., of Fort 
Stewart, Ramelton, co. Donegal; she died at 
Lauriston Castle, Kincardineshire, on 10 Oct. 
1852. There were no children of the mar- 
riage. His nephew, Lord Rutherfurd Clark, 
was a judge of court of session from 1875 to 
1896. The fine library which Rutherfurd 
formed at Lauriston was sold in Edinburgh 
by T. Nisbet on 22 March 1855 and the ' ten 
following lawful days ' (Gent. Mag. 1855, i. 
391, 502). His Glasgow speech will be found 
in 'Inaugural Addresses delivered by Lords 
Rectors of the University of Glasgow,' 1848, 
pp. 147-57. 

Although Rutherfurd's manner was af- 
fected and artificial, he was an admirable 
speaker and a powerful advocate. ' In legal 
acuteness and argument, for which his pecu- 
liar powers gave him a great predilection, he 
was superior to both his friends, Cockburn 
and Jeffrey' (SiR ARCHIBALD ALISON, Life 
and Writings, 1883, i. 280). He was a pro- 
found lawyer, a successful law-reformer, and 
an accomplished scholar. He could read 
Greek with ease, and he possessed an extra- 
ordinary knowledge of Italian. According to 
Sir James Lacaita, Rutherfurd ' and Mr. 
Gladstone were the only two Englishmen 
he had ever known who could conquer the 
difficulty of obsolete Italian dialects' (Re- 
collections of Dean Boyle. 1895, p. 27). In 
private life he was a delightful companion, 
but as a public man he incurred unpopu- 
larity owing to his unconciliatory and some- 
what haughty demeanour. 

There is a portrait of Rutherfurd, by Col- 
vin Smith, in Parliament House, Edinburgh, 
where there is also a bust, by Brodie. A 
portrait, by Sir John Watson Gordon, is in 
the National Gallery of Scotland. Another 
portrait, by the last-named artist, belongs 
to the Leith town council. 

[Besides the authorities quoted in the text the 
following have been consulted : Mrs. Gordon's 
Memoir of Christopher North, 1862, i. 185, ii, 
248-9, 357-6, 367 ; Anderson's Scottish Nation, 
1863, iii. 392-3; Grant's Old and New Edin- 
burgh, ii. 98, 156, 174, iii. 68, 111 ; Scotsman, 
16 Dec. 1854 ; Times, 16 Dec. 1854 ; Illustrated 
London News, 23 Dec. 1854; Gent. Mag. 1852 
ii. 656, 1855 i. 194-5; Annual Register, 1854, 
App. to Chron. p. 373 ; Scots Mag. 1822, i. 694;' 
Irving's Book of Scotsmen, 1881, p. 455 ; Foster's 
Members of Parliament, Scotland, 1882, p. 301 ; 
Official Return of Lists of Members of Parlia- 
ment, ii. 374, 392, 409 ; Notes and Queries', 
8th ser. vii. 367 ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 
1890.] G. F. K. B. 




1600), master of Ruthven, third son of 
William, fourth lord Ruthven and first earl 
of Gowrie [q. v.], and Dorothea Stewart, 
was born probably in December 1580, and 
was baptised on 22 Jan. 1580-1. Like his 
brother John, third earl of Gowrie [q. v.], 
he was educated at the grammar school of 
Perth, and afterwards, under the special 
superintendence of Principal Robert Rollock 
[q. v.], at the university of Edinburgh. 
He became a gentleman of the bedchamber 
to James VI, and was a favourite and even 
the reputed lover of the queen. Accord- 
ing to tradition, he received on one occa- 
sion from the queen a ribbon she had got 
from the king, and having gone into the 
garden at Falkland Palace on a sultry day, 
and fallen asleep, his breast became acci- 
dentally exposed, and the ribbon was seen 
by the king, in passing, about his neck below 
the cravat (Pinkerton's ' Dissertation on the 
Gowrie Conspiracy' in MALCOLM LAING'S 
Hist, of Scotland^ 1st edit. i. 533). For 
whatever reason, Ruthven, either before or 
after the return of his brother to Scotland in 
May 1600, left the court, and he was present 
with his brother during the hunting in Stra- 
bran in the following July. If we accept the 
genuineness of the correspondence of the 
earl with Robert Logan [q. v.], the master 
was also at the time engaged in maturing a 
plot for the capture of the king. According 
to the official account of the conspiracy, the 
visit of Ruthven to the king at Falkland on 
the morning of 5 Aug. was totally unex- 
pected ; but the entries in the treasurer's 
accounts seem rather to bear out the state- 
ment that he went to Falkland on the 
summons of the king. Gowrie's chamberlain, 
Andrew Henderson, ' the man in armour,' 
stated that Ruthven set out for Perth after 
a conference on the previous evening with 
Gowrie, and took Henderson with him; 
but there is no other evidence as to this, 
and the king asserted that he was igno- 
rant that 'any man living had come' with 
Ruthven. According to the official account, 
when the king, between six and seven in 
the morning of 5 Aug., was about to mount 
his horse to begin buck-hunting, he was 
suddenly accosted by Ruthven, who informed 
him that he had ridden in haste from Perth 
to bring him important news. This was that 
he had accidentally met outside the town of 
Perth a man unknown to him, who had (con- 
cealed below his arm) a large pot of coined 
gold in great pieces. This mysterious stranger 
he had left bound in a <priviederned[i.e. con- 
cealed] house,' and his pot with him, and he 
now impetuously requested the king if the 

king's testimony is to be accepted ' with all 
diligence and secrecy ' to ' take order there- 
with before any one knew thereof.' The king 
became convinced of the truth of the strange 
story, and, after a long process of scholastic 
quibbling as to his duty in the matter, ulti- 
mately persuaded himself, although Ruthven 
apparently brought no information as to the 
mint of the great pieces, that ' it was foreign 
coin brought in by practising Jesuits,' and that 
the matter therefore demanded his personal 
inquiry. At first, however, he merely stated 
to Ruthven that he would give him a definite 
answer at the { end of the hunt ; ' and so 
the king asserted it was only by the in- 
cessant importuning of Ruthven that he was 
induced to ride off" with him to Perth as soon 
as the hunt ended. The king further asserted 
that Ruthven strongly urged him not to take 
any attendants with him, or, if he thought 
this necessary, not to take Lennox or Mar, 
but ' only three orfour of his own mean ser- 
vants ; ' but the king, struck and justly so, if 
Ruthven did make this suspicious proviso 
by his anxiety on this point, consulted Lennox, 
mentioning also the character of the errand 
on which he was bound. Lennox did not think 
that Ruthven could cherish any evil inten- 
tions, but the king nevertheless desired Len- 
nox without fail to follow him. In any case 
Lennox and Mar, with a considerable number 
of attendants, did not fail to follow the king, 
and gradually came up with him. When they 
were about a mile from Perth, Ruthven rode 
forward to inform his brother of the king's 
approach. This is the one indisputable fact. 
The whole story of the pot of gold rests 
solely on the evidence of the king, and if 
Ruthven did manufacture the strange narra- 
tive, and conduct himself in his interview 
with the king in the fashion described, the 
king displayed a marvellous simplicity in 
allowing himself to be made Ruthven's 
dupe. When it is remembered also that 
the king was at this time greatly in Gow- 
rie's debt, his belief in the earnest anxiety 
of Ruthven to deliver the pot of gold 
into the royal hands becomes more inex- 

After dinner in Gowrie's house the king 
left the table accompanied by Ruthven, but, 
instead of proceeding to the ' privie derned 
house,' passed into an upper chamber, which 
Ruthven locked on entering. What took 
place in that upper chamber between the 
king and Ruthven was witnessed by not 
more than two persons, Henderson, the ' man 
in armour,' who according to his own account 
had been stationed in the room by Gowrie, 
with orders to do whatever the master might 
require of him, and Sir John Ramsay (after- 



wards Earl of Holderness) [q. v.], to whom 
the master owed his death. It has, how- 
ever, been argued that there never was a 
man in armour' in the chamber, but that he 
was invented by the king in order to obtain 
independent evidence regarding the death of 
the master. In support of this theory it has 
been urged that, although Henderson was 
well known to the king, and his being in 
armour if he were in armour must have 
been known to other servants of Gowrie, it 
was at first found impossible to identify the 
man in armour, notwithstanding that many 
persons were arrested on suspicion, until 
Henderson voluntarily came forward, and 
this through Patrick Galloway, with whom 
presumably he made some kind of bargain, 
and declared that he was the person sought 
for : and, secondly, that the story of Hender- 
son is in itself strangely confused and con- 
tradictory, his passivity at certain stages of 
the struggle contrasting almost inexplicably 
with his occasional flashes of energetic de- 
cision. According to the official account, 
Ruthven, after locking the door of the 
chamber, drew a dagger from the girdle of 
the-' man in armour, 7 and holding it at the 
king's breast, swore that ' he behoved to be 
at his will,' and that if he opened the window 
or cried out, the dagger would be plunged 
into his heart. Henderson, however, asserts 
that but for his interposition the king would 
have been immediately despatched : that he | 
threw the dagger out of Ruthven's hand as j 
he was about to strike home. In further j 
contradiction of the statement of Henderson, j 
the official account affirms that while Ruthven ! 
continued standing with his drawn dagger ! 
in his hand and his sword by his side, the 
king made him a long harangue on his un- j 
grateful and heinous conduct, which ap- ! 
peared so to move him that he went out pro- | 
fessedly to consult his brother, the Earl of 
Gowrie, after causing the king to swear nei- 
ther meanwhile to open the window nor to cry 
out. With scrupulous regard for the letter 
of his oath, the king prevailed on Henderson 
to do him the favour to open the window, 
but refrained from asking him to give an 
alarm, although from the situation of the 
room, strangely chosen as it was for a con- 
templated deed of violence, an alarm would 
at once have proved effectual. It has been 
supposed that one reason why the master 
went out was to spread the report that the 
king had left Gowrie House. On his return 
to the chamber he did not bring his brother 
with him, as he had promised, but affirmed 
that there was no help for it, but that the 
king must die. He, however, proceeded first 
to go through the unnecessary formality of 

binding him with a garter ; but this Hender- 
son affirms he prevented by snatching the 
garter from Ruthven's hands. Nevertheless 
Henderson, on his own confession, stood a 
passive spectator while the king and Ruthven 
were in grips, and took no part in the struggle 
except that he withdrew Ruthven's hands 
from the king's mouth, so as to permit the 
king to give the alarm at the window. In 
the course of the struggle the king, accord- 
ing to his own account, practically mastered 
Ruthven, dragging him first to the window, 
whence, holding out his hand, he called for 
help, and then dragging him back and out 
of the chamber through the door, which had 
been left open by Ruthven on his second 
entry, to the door of the ' turnpike.' Here 
the king was just drawing his sword to 
despatch Ruthven, when Sir John Ramsay, 
having heard the king's cries, rushed in, and 
the king exclaiming ' Fy, strike him high, 
because he has a chayne doublet upon him/ 
Ramsay struck him once or twice with his 
dagger. The king continued to hold him 
some time in his grip, until the ' other man/ 
who, accustomed though he was to act with 
decision in the apprehension of Highland 
desperadoes, had borne himself throughout 
as the veriest poltroon, ' withdrew himself/ 
Immediately on his withdrawal the king 
' took the said Master Alexander by the 
shoulders, and shot him down the stair, who 
was no sooner shot out at the door but he 
was met by Sir Thomas Erskine and Sir 
Hew Herries, who there upon the stairs 
ended him.' As he was struck he exclaimed, 
1 Alas ! I had no wyte [blame] of it.' One 
difficulty in accepting the king's version is 
that it represents him as playing a part for 
which to all appearance he was physically 
unfit, Ruthven being a hardy athletic youth, 
and, as was said, ' thrice as strong as the 
king.' Ruthven's own account of the reason 
of the king's visit was, as given by Oan- 
stoun, Gowrie's servant, that ' Robert Aber- 
crombie, that false knave, had brought the 
king there to make his majesty take order 
for his debts.' Gowrie's estates were then 
burdened with debts on account of money 
advanced out of his father's own pocket, 
while treasurer, on behalf of the government 
[see under RUTHVEN, JOHN, third EAEL] ; but 
as Gowrie had no private interview with the 
king, it is unlikely that the king broached 
the subject of the earl's debts to Ruthven in 
the upper chamber. The general opinion 
at the time was that the discovery of some 
affection between the queen and the Earl of 
Gowrie's brother ' was the truest motive of 
the tragedy' (WiNWOOD, Memorials, i. 274). 
On this supposition it is possible that the 



king 1 taxed Ruthven with, his intimacy with 
the queen, that in consequence they in some 
way or other ' got into grips,' and that Ruth- 
ven was slain by Ramsay somewhat in the 
manner described by the king. Another 
theory is that the king's account of Ruth- 
ven's procedure is substantially correct, but 
that Ruthven was labouring under insanity. 
Either of these theories seems at least as 
probable as that there was a conspiracy to 
carry off' the king to Fort Castle, and subse- 
quently to England. The legal processes 
against Ruthven were identical with those 
against his brother John, third earl of Gowrie 
[q. v.] 

[For authorities see under RUTHVEN, JOHN, 
third EARL OF GOWRIE.] T. F. H. 

WELL (1772-1836), Irish politician, born 
in 1772, was the eldest of the three sons of 
Edward Trotter, a clergyman of the esta- 
blished church in co. Down. John Bernard 
Trotter [q. v.] was a younger brother, and 
the third, Ruthven Trotter, became a major 
in the army and was killed at Buenos Ayres 
in 1807. The family claimed descent from 
the earls of Gowrie, and in 1800 Edward 
Southwell assumed the name Ruthven instead 
of Trotter. On 9 Oct. 1790 he entered 
Wadham College, Oxford, as a fellow com- 
moner, matriculating two days later, but 
he left the university without a degree. 
Having succeeded to his father's estates at 
Oakley, co. Down, he successfully contested 
the parliamentary representation of Down- 
patrick as a whig, against John Wilson 
Croker [q. v.], in November 1806. He made 
his maiden speech on 17 Jan. 3807, but 
parliament was dissolved in the following 
April, and in the general election of May 
Croker succeeded in ousting Ruthven from 
Downpatrick. Ruthven did not enter parlia- 
ment again till 7 Aug. 1830, when he was 
re-elected member for Downpatrick as a 
supporter of O'Connell. He was re-elected 
for the same constituency on 9 May 1831, 
but on 17 Dec. 1832 was returned with 
O'Connell as member for Dublin. From this 
time he took an active part in parliamen- 
tary debates. He is said to have spoken 
well ; but, according to the author of 
* Random Recollections of the House of 
Commons/ his voice was harsh, his articula- 
tion bad, and he was given to the perpetra- 
tion of ' bulls.' He acted with O'Connell 
and generally supported Hume and the 
radicals, frequently moving for reductions 
in the estimates. He made many speeches 
in favour of the Reform Bill of 1831, but 
demanded a large increase in the number of 

Irish members. lie also supported Earl 
Grey's Irish church legislation as a protes- 
tant, though he did not consider it went far 
enough. On 12 Feb. 1833 he proposed that 
the number of Irish bishops should be re- 
duced to four ; he approved of the abolition 
of church rates, and maintained that church 
lands were public property, and ought to be 
appropriated to the education of the people 
and maintenance of the clergy of all sects. 
During the session of 1834 he acquired noto- 
riety by moving the adjournment of the 
house night after night, and members made 
an organised attempt to prevent his being 
heard by coughing and yawning, till Ruth- 
ven threatened to find a cure for their 
coughs outside the house ; he exchanged 
three shots with Louis Perrin [q. v.J In 
January 1835 he was again returned with 
O'Connell for Dublin, but a petition was at 
once presented ; the inquiry was prolonged 
until May 1836, when O'Connell and Ruth- 
ven were unseated. Meanwhile Ruthven 
had died 011 31 March 1836 at his lodging in 
North Street, Westminster. He was buried 
in Glasnevin cemetery, Dublin, his funeral 
being the occasion of a popular demonstra- 
tion ; a handsome monument, of which the 
foundation-stone was laid by O'Connell, was 
erected to his memory. 

Ruthven married Harriet Jane, daughter 
of Francis Price of Saintfield, co. Down. 
According to Fitzpatrick, he was son-in-law 
of Sir Philip Crampton [q. v.], but this is 
a confusion with Ruthven a son Edward, of 
Ballyfan House, Kildare, who represented 
co. Kildare in the parliaments of 1833 and 
1835, and married Cecilia, only daughter of 
John Crampton (1769-1840), surgeon-general 
of Ireland. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Gardiner's 
Reg. Wadham College, 1719-1871, p. 192 ; Fos- 
ter's Peerage and Baronetage ; Gent. Mag. 1836, 
i. 664-5; Annual Reg. 1833 pp. 89-90. 1834 
pp. 287-8, 1836 pp. 196, 204; Hansard's Parlia- 
mentary Debates, passim; Official Eeturn of 
Members of Parliament; J. B. Trotter's Walks 
in Ireland, p. vi ; Croker Papers, i. 1 1 ; Fitz- 
patrick's Correspondence of O'Connell, passim ; 
O'Brien's Fifty Years of Concession to Ireland, 
i.419.] A. F.P. 

GOWEIE (1578?-! 600), second son of Wil- 
liam, fourth lord Ruthven and first earl of 
Gowrie, by Dorothea Stewart, was born either 
in 1577 or 1578, and succeeded to the earl- 
dom on the death of his elder brother, James, 
second earl, in 1588. After attending the 
grammar school of Perth, he entered in 1591 
the university of P]dinburgh, where he gra- 
duated M.A. in 1593. He had as private 




tutor William Rind, a native of Perth, and 
his studies in Edinburgh were specially 
directed by Robert Rollock [q. v.], principal 
of the university, with whom he was after- 
wards on terms of special friendship. In 
1592 he was elected provost of Perth, and 
the same year had a ratification to him by 
parliament of the earldom of Gowrie and 
abbacy of Scone (Acta Parl. Scot. iii. 591). 
But though restored to his dignities, his 
sympathies, if not directly hostile to the 
king, were with the extreme protestant 
party. It was by the connivance of the 
young earl's mother, Lady Gowrie, and his 
brother-in-law, the Earl of Atholl, that the 
unruly Earl of Bothwell [see HEPBURN, 
FRANCIS STEWART, fifth EARL] succeeded on 
24 July 1593 in gaining admission to Holy rood 
Palace, where he had the strange interview 
with the king. In October of the same year 
Gowrie himself attended an armed conven- 
tion summoned to meet the Earl of Atholl 
at the castle of Doune, Perthshire ; but on 
the approach of the king with a large force, 
Atholl fled, and Gowrie and Montrose, hav- 
ing awaited the coming of the king, made 
their peace with him (DAVID MOYSIE, Me- 
moirs, p. 105). On the 8th of the same 
month Atholl informed Elizabeth that what- 
ever Bothwell should conclude with her, he 
(Atholl), Gowrie, Montrose, and others 
would hold unto with the utmost of their 
power (Cal State Papers, Scot. Ser. p. 

On 16 Aug. 1594 Gowrie gave notice to the 
town council of Perth of his intention to go 
to the continent to prosecute his studies, 
whereupon they agreed to elect him annually 
as their provost during his absence. Along 
with his tutor, William Rind, he proceeded 
to Padua, where he so greatly distinguished 
himself that, according to Calderwood, he 
was elected rector of the university during 
the last year of his stay there (History, vi. 
67). The studies to which he particularly 
devoted himself were the natural sciences, 
especially chemistry. From Padua Gowrie, 
on 24 Nov. 1595, addressed a letter to King 
James, in which he expressed the prayer- 
ful hope that God would bless his majesty 
* with all felicity and satisfaction in health, 
with an increase of many prosperous days ' 
(PITCAIRN, Criminal Trials, ii. 330), Gowrie 
concluded his education by a continental tour, 
and, after visiting Rome and Venice, arrived 
about the close of 1599 at Geneva on his 
way back to Scotland. At Geneva he stayed 
for about three months in the house of 
Theodore Beza, the successor of Calvin, to 
whom he had an introduction from Prin- 
cipal Rollock, and who, according to Calder- 

wood, conceived for him, from his intercourse 
with him, such an affection ' that he never 
heard nor made mention of his death but with 
tears ' (History, vi. 67). From Geneva Gowrie 
proceeded to Paris, where he was well re- 
ceived at the French court ; he there made 
the acquaintance of the English ambassador, 
Sir Henry Neville, who ' found him to be 
exceedingly well affected to the cause of 
religion, devoted to Elizabeth's service, and, 
in short, a nobleman of whom, for his good 
judgment, zeal, and ability, exceeding good 
use could be made on his return ' (Neville to 
Cecil, 27 Feb. 1599-1600, in WINWOOD'S Me- 
morials, i. 156). On arriving in London on 
3 April 1600, Gowrie was consequently 
warmly welcomed by Elizabeth, with whom, 
and with Cecil, he had frequent conferences. 
The statement that he made a prolonged 
stay at the English court cannot, however, 
be admitted. On his return to Scotland, al- 
though he spent some time in attendance on 
the king at Holy rood, he reached Perth by 
20 May. Nor can any faith be placed in 
the anonymous manuscript which states that 
Elizabeth ordered that ' all honours should 
be paid to him that were due to a prince of 
Wales, and to her first cousin ' (quoted in 
SCOTT'S Life and Death of the Earl of Gowrie, 
p. 118). 

On his arrival at Edinburgh Gowrie was 
met by a large cavalcade of his friends, who 
had come to welcome him back to Scotland ; 
and when the king heard of this half- 
triumphal entry into the city, he is said to 
have given vent to his chagrin in the sar- 
casm that ' there were more with his father 
when he was convoyed to the scaffold ' 
(CALDERWOOD, History, vi. 71). Other anec- 
dotes have been related to show that the 
king was more or less ill-disposed towards 
him. A more tangible motive for mutual 
discontent is to be found in the fact that 
the king was Gowrie's debtor to the extent 
of no less than 80,000/., representing a sum 
of 48,036/. due to his father while treasurer, 
with the interest at 10 per cent, per annum 
for the succeeding years. With this sum the 
old Earl of Gowrie, when treasurer, was 
forced to burden himself in order to meet the 
current expenses of the government. It was 
probably his inability to meet the obligations 
incurred by his father that had compelled the 
young earl to remain abroad; and on his 
return he presented a petition to the court 
of session, stating that he was unfit to pay 
any more to his creditors than he had done 
already, and asking to be relieved of these royal 
debts. In answer to his application he on 
20 June 1600 obtained a protection from 
debt for a year, ' that in the meantime his 



highness may see the said lord satisfied of 
the said super expenses resting by his ma- 
jesty to his said umquhile father.' 

In attendance on the king at court, while 
Gowrie was in Edinburgh, was Colonel Wil- ! 
liam Stewart, brother of Arran, who had I 
arrested Gowrie's father in Dundee; and it 
was supposed that Gowrie would sooner or i 
later take revenge on Stewart (Hudson to ! 
Cecil, Cat. State Papers, Scot. Ser. p. 784). 
It would appear, however, that Gowrie 
scorned to fly at such small game, for when, 
with some of his suite, he happened to meet 
Stewart with some of his servants in a cor- 
ridor of Holyrood Palace, and a inelee seemed 
imminent, he is said to have struck up the 
swords of his attendants and allowed Stewart 
to pass with the contemptuous remark, 
' Aquila non captat muscas ' (MS. quoted in 
PITCAIRN'S Criminal Trials, ii. 293). But, 
apart from Colonel Stewart, Gowrie seems 
to have found his attendance at court un- 
pleasant, if not even dangerous, on account 
of the antagonism of political parties, and he 
shortly retired to his estates, 'to be a be- 
holder of the issue of these many suspicions 
(Nicolson to Cecil, 22 May, in TYTLER'S His- 
tory, iv. 282). He, however, not only at- 
tended the convention of estates on 20 June, 
summoned to consider the burning question 
as to the preparations which should be made 
by James to insure his succession to the 
throne of England in case of Elizabeth's 
death, but in a speech in itself temperate 
and well reasoned headed the opposition of 
the barons and burgesses to the proposal of 
the king to raise one hundred thousand 
crowns by taxation for the maintenance of 
an army. His opposition may have been 
partly dictated by the fact that the king was 
so deeply in his own debt ; but since the 
protection to him for a year and the king's 
promise to pay the debt had probably been 
granted with a special view to obtain his 
agreement to the king's proposal, his inter- 
ference was doubly irritating to the king, 
who did not hesitate to express his resent- 
ment. While listening to the speech of 
Gowrie, Sir David Murray of Gorthy is also 
reported to have said, pointing to Gowrie, 
' Yonder is an unhappy man ; they are but 
seeking occasion of his death, which now 
he has given ' (CALDERWOOD, vi. 71). After 
the convention Gowrie again retired to his 
estates, and about the beginning of July 
went from Ruthven to Strabran to engage 
in hunting. If, however, the letters of 
Robert Logan [q. v.] are accepted as genuine, 
Gowrie while at Strabran must have been 
chiefly occupied in the perfecting of a scheme 
to convey the king to Logan's stronghold of 

YOL. L. 

Fast Castle. This would also seem to im- 
ply that Gowrie either directly or indirectly 
had been induced by Elizabeth to undertake 
the ultimate conveyance of the Scottish king 
to England; and it is almost incredible that 
Elizabeth should have really desired this. 
Against the genuineness of the letters it 
has been urged that the proof that they 
were in Logan's handwriting is not conclu- 
sive ; that they were not found in Gowrie's 
possession, but in Logan's, and that the sup- 
position that Gowrie returned them is im- 
probable; that no letters of Gowrie in reply 
were produced ; and that even if the letters 
were written by Logan they may have been 
concocted by him and Sprott after the oc- 
currences at Gowrie, for some special pur- 
pose now unknown. But if not in com- 
munication with Logan, Gowrie is stated to 
have been in communication with the king. 
According to Calderwood, * while the earl 
was in Strabran, fifteen days before the fact, 
the king wrote sundry letters to the earl, 
desiring him to come and hunt with him in 
the wood of Falkland, which letters were 
found in my lord's pocket at his death, as is 
reported, but destroyed' (History, vi. 71). 
This rumour it was deemed of some importance 
to contradict, apparently in order to establish 
the fact that the sudden visit of Gowrie's 
brother, Alexander, master of Ruthven [q.v.], 
to the king at Falkland was entirely volun- 
tary on his part. Consequently Craigenvelt, 
Gowrie's butler, was specially questioned on 
| the matter, and denied that any messenger 
j had come to Gowrie from the king, or that 
he had given any such messenger meat or 
drink. But whether seen by Craigenvelt 
or not, or whether they went to Perth or 
direct to Strabran, it is clearly established 
from entries of payments in the treasurer's 
accounts that in July messengers were 
sent from the king both to Gowrie and his 

Gowrie returned to Perth from his hunt- 
ing expedition on 2 Aug. Calderwood states 
that he intended on 5 Aug. to set out to 
Lothian to see his mother at Dirleton, but 
delayed his journey until his brother should 
return from Falkland (History, vi. 72). If 
we are to accept the evidence of Gowrie's 
chamberlain, Andrew Henderson, Henderson 
in the early morning accompanied the master 
of Ruthven in his ride to Falkland, having 
orders to return speedily to Gowrie with any 
letter or message he might receive ; but if 
Henderson did go to Falkland, he was not 
seen there by any one, nor is there any 
evidence that he was seen going or return- 
ing. In any case, he confessed that he re- 
ceived no message from Ruthven, although 





he informed Gowrie both that the master was 
well received and that not merely the king- 
but all the hunting party would be at Perth 
incontinently. Thus Henderson must have 
been better informed than the master him- 
self, who, according 1 to the official statement, 
did not obtain a decisive arswer to his re- 
quest. If Gowrie from the information of 
Henderson expected such a party, he, from 
whatever motive, made no preparations to 
receive his guests ; and it was while in the 
midst of dinner that the master of Ruthven, 
who had galloped on in advance, arrived to 
announce the approach of the king. There- 
upon Gowrie rose, and, along with the master, 
went out to meet him at the Inch. Some 
time before the arrival of the king, Hender- 
son, according to his own statement, had by 
Gowrie's orders put on his armour to arrest 
a highlandmau; arid after the arrival of the 
king, Gowrie, while the king was still at 
dinner, ordered Henderson to go up to the 
chamber to the master of Ruthven; and, 
following him as he went up, Gowrie in- 
formed him that he was to be at the master's 
orders and do anything he told him. Ac- 
cording to the official account in the f Dis- 
course of the Vile and Unnatural Conspiracy,' 
Gowrie during the king's visit was very ill 
at ease; but this is as consistent with in- 
nocence as with guilt. That he had been 
previously in communication with the king 
is certain, but the nature of these communi- 
cations is unknown. The master stated to 
a servant that the visit of the king had 
reference to the earl's debts ; and as the 
earl by his speech on taxation had incurred 
the king's violent displeasure, he may have 
inferred that the visit boded to him no 

When the king, accompanied by the master 
of Ruthven, left the dining table, Gowrie 
led Lennox and the other attendants into the 
garden to 'eat cherries/ stating, according 
to Lennox, who had proposed to follow the 
king, that the king had gone on 'a quiet 
errand,' and would not be disturbed (Pix- 
' CAIRN, Criminal Trials, ii. 172). While they 
were in the garden, Cranston, one of Gowrie's 
attendants, came with the message, given, he 
asserted, in perfect good faith, that the king 
had left the castle by the back way, and was 
riding to the Inch. Gowrie then called ' to 
horse,' but the porter affirmed that the king 
could not have left, as the gates were locked 
and he had the key. Gowrie, it is said, then 
went up to make inquiry, and, returning, 
asserted that the king had certainly left. It 
is supposed to have been the master who 
(when he left the chamber) spread the 
rumour that the king had left. But before 

they had time to decide as to the truth of the 
rumour, the voice of the king was heard 
shouting ' Treason ! ' and his face was seen for 
a moment at a window of the turret. There- 
upon Sir Thomas Erskine seized Gowrie, with 
the words l Traitor, thou shalt die the death/ 
but was immediately felled to the ground by 
a blow of the fist from Andrew Ruthven of 
Forgan. Thereupon Lennox, Mar, and others 
rushed towards the apartment whence pro- 
ceeded the cries; and Gowrie, running up the 
street to the house of a citizen, drew two 
swords from a scabbard, and, returning, ex- 
claimed that he l would gang into his own 
house or die by the way.' According to the 
official account, he passed up the back stairs 
with seven of his servants, all with drawn 
swords, and, entering the chamber, ' cried out 
with a great oath that they should all die as 
traitors;' but Calderwood asserts that the only 
servant who accompanied him was Cranston 
(History, vi. 72). The result of the conflict 
tallies best with the latter supposition. There 
were only four of the king's followers in the 
chamber Sir Thomas Erskine, Sir Hew 
Herries, Sir John Ramsay, and John Wil- 
son who would scarcely have been a match 
for eight. Moreover, the only servant hurt 
was Cranston, who was 'mortally wounded. 
Gowrie, an expert swordsman, and rendered 
desperate by the sight of his bleeding brother, 
whose body he had passed on the way up, 
attacked the king's friends with fury; but 
his attention having been suddenly diverted 
by an exclamation from some one that the 
king was killed, he either permitted Ramsay 
to get within his guard or else was stabbed 
from behind. 

The deaths of Gowrie and his brother 
removed the only witnesses for the defence. 
Since both were killed by the king or his 
immediate attendants, it was almost inevi- 
table that the judicial verdict should go 
against them. It must further be remem- 
bered that, while the king's attendants were 
naturally biassed in his favour, the ser- 
vants of Gowrie gave their evidence such 
as it was under threat of torture or under 
actual torture, the boot and the lokman 
having been brought from Edinburgh to 
Falkland for this purpose ; and that no 
evidence favourable to Gowrie would be 

The fact that the earl had spent but a few 
months of his manhood in Scotland, and 
these chiefly in retirement, deprives us of 
materials for an adequate knowledge of his 
character. If he did concoct such a plot as 
that indicated in the letters not then brought 
to light of Robert Logan [q. v.], he must 
have been the weak victim of English diplo- 



macy, for if Elizabeth did suggest such a plot, 
she cannot be credited with intending any- 
thing so foolish as to acknowledge it, or to 
accept the custody of the Scottish king. 
Moreover, on the supposition that there was 
a plot, the methods adopted by Gowrie and 
his brother to carry it out displayed a fan- 
tastic audacity, which, if consistent with 
sanity, indicates an amazing contempt for 
anything resembling precaution. As regards 
Gowrie himself, it must further be remem- 
bered that at first he was merely passive. 
Even supposing that the master intended to 
kill the king, the only suspicious circum- 
stance in the conduct of Gowrie is his state- 
ment that the king had left the house: 
and, accepting the evidence against him 
as genuine, it does not show beyond doubt 
that the statement was not made in good 
faith. Before he entered his house with a 
drawn sword, he had been denounced and 
threatened by the king's attendants ; and it 
was to revenge his brother's death, over 
whose bleeding body he had stepped, that he 
attacked his supposed murderers in the 
chamber. On the other hand, to exculpate 
Gowrie is not necessarily to inculpate the 
king. Indeed, all the weight of even cir- 
cumstantial evidence is against the theory 
that the purpose of the king's visit to Perth 
was to effect the assassination of Gowrie or 
his brother. The question mainly turns on 
the character of the interview between the 
master of Ruthven and the king in the 
upper chamber ; and unless the evidence of 
Henderson, the man in armour, be re- 
garded as unimpeachable, it is impossible 
to decide conclusively as to the origin of 
the sudden quarrel which had such a tragic 
ending; for besides Henderson, who may 
or may not have been present, the only 
survivors of the interview were the king 
and Ramsay, to whom the master owed his 

On 7 Aug. the privy council ordered that 
the corpses of Gowrie and the master of 
Ruthven should remain unburied until further 
order were taken with the matter, and also 
that no person of the name of Ruthven should 
approach within ten miles of the court {Ret/. 
P. C. Scotl. vi. 145). Orders were also sent 
for the apprehension of the earl's brothers 
William and Patrick [see under RUTHVEN, 
WILLIAM, first EARL OF GOWRIE], but they 
made their escape to England. The bodies 
of Gowrie and the master were embowelled 
and preserved by one James Melville, who, 
however, was paid for his services, not by 
the magistrates of Perth, but 'by the privy 
council ; and on 30 Oct. they were sent to 
Edinburgh to be produced at the bar of 

parliament. On 20 Nov. the estates of the 
Ruthvens were decerned by parliament to 
be forfeited and their family name and 
honours extinct. The corpses of the earl and 
master were also ordered to be hanged and 
quartered at the cross of Edinburgh, and the 
fragments to be put up on spikes 'in Edin- 
burgh, Perth, Dundee, and Stirling. An 
act was further passed abolishing for ever 
the name of Ruthven, ordering that the 
house wherein the tragedy happened should 
be levelled with the ground, and decreeing 
that the barony of Ruthven should hence- 
forth be known as the barony of Hunting- 
tower (Acta Parl. Scot. iv. 212-13). 

It must be confessed that the severity of 
the acts against the Ruthvens, and especially 
the merciless prosecution of the two younger 
brothers, who were then mere children, was 
scarcely justified by the character of the evi- 
dence adduced against them. It is by no means 
certain, even if they were the aggressors, 
that they intended to do more than wring from 
the king a settlement of their debts ; on the 
other hand, the relentless procedure of the 
king suggests the suspicion that he was at 
least anxious to utilise to the utmost a 
favourable opportunity to get rid of his 
debts, not merely by the confiscation of 
the earl's estates, but by placing the whole 
family under the ban of the law. It is 
characteristic of James that he should have 
directed a special inquiry into the reputed 
dealings of Gowrie in the black art. Some 
absurd evidence as to Ruthven's practice 
of carrying supposed magical charms upon 
his person was adduced, on the strength 
of which, and similar tales, Patrick Gallo- 
way, in his sermon at the cross of Edin- 
burgh, pronounced Gowrie to have been 
'a deep dissimulate hypocrite, a profound 
atheist, and an incarnate devil in the coat 
of an angel ; ' and also asserted that he had 
been plainly proved to be ' a studier of 
magic, a conjuror of devils, and to have 
had so many at his command.' It is worth 
noting that similar charges of sorcery were 
brought against both his grandfather and his 

[Cal. State Papers, Scot. Ser. and For. Ser. 
Reign of Elizabeth ; Winwood's Memorials of 
State ; Calderwood's History of the Kirk of 
Scotland ; Pitcairn's Criminal Trials ; Kegister 
of the Privy Council of Scotland, vol. vi. ; Acta 
Parl. Scot. vol. iv. ; Moysie's Memoirs and His- 
tory of James the Sext(BannatyneClub); Spotis- 
wood's History of Scotland; A Discourse of 
the Unnatural and Vile Conspiracy attempted 
against his Majesty's Person at St. Johnston's, 
1600 (republished with additions by Lord 
Hailes, 1770, translated into Latin with addi- 

c 2 




tions, under the title Ruvenorum Conjurat'o, 
1601); Vindication of the Earl of G own' e, pub- 
lished in 1600, but immediately suppressed; 
Earl of Cromarty's Historical Account of the 
Conspiracy of Gowrie and Robert Lojran of Res- 
talrig against James VI, 1713; Historical Disser- 
tation on the Gowrie Conspiracy in Malcolm 
Laing's History of Scotland, vol. i. ; Cant's Notes 
to Adamson's Muses Threnodie, 1774; Panton's 
Gowrie Conspiracy, 1812; Scott's History of the 
Life and Death of John, Earl of Gowrie, 1818 ; 
Barbe's Tragedy of Gowrie House, 1887 ; Histo- 
ries of Scotland by Tytler and Burton. The 
'conspiracy' forms the subject of G. P. R. 
James's romance ' Gowrie, or the King's Plot ' 
(1851).! T, F. H. 

RTJTHVEN (1520P-1566), eldest son of Wil- 
liam, second lord Ruthven [q.v.], and Janet, 
eldest daughter of Patrick, lord Haliburton, 
was born about 1520, and educated at the 
university of St. Andrews. While master of 
Ruthven he, in July 1544, commanded the 
forces of the town of Perth against Lord 
Gray, when an attempt was made by Cardi- 
nal Beaton to intrude John Charteris of 
Kinfauns as provost of the town in opposi- 
tion to Lord Ruthven (Kisrox, Works, ii. 
113). On 8 Aug. 1546 he received a grant 
under the great seal to him and his wife, 
Jean Douglas, of the lands of Humbie, and 
of Easter, Wester, and Over Newton (Reg. 
Mac/. %. Scot. 1513-46, No. 3289). In 
1548 the master delivered up St. Johnstoun 
[i.e. Perth] to the English (Cal Scottish State 
Papers, p. 82) : but, although for a time he 
pretended to be on the side of the English, 
he was latterly spoken of as a traitor (ib. p. 
98). In 1552 he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the footmen of the army sent to 
France (Reg. P. C. Scotl i. 135). He suc- 
ceeded his father before 15 Dec. of the same 
year, when the queen conceded to him and 
his wife, Janet Doug-las, a third part of the 
lands of Dirleton, Haliburton, and Hassin- 
dean, Berwickshire (Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 
1546-80. No. 735). From 1553 until his 
death he was annually elected provost of 
Perth, of which he was also hereditary 

When Ruthven in 1559 was requested by 
the queen regent to suppress the Reformation 
heresy among the inhabitants of Perth, he 
is reported to have answered ' that he would 
make their bodies come to her grace, and to 
prostrate themselves before her,' but that to 
' cause them do against their conscience he 
could not promise ' (KNOX, i. 316). He is 
also supposed to have lent his countenance 
to th.3 destruction of the monasteries at 
Perth on 11 May of the same year (LESLIE, 

Hist, of Scotland, Bannatyne ed. p. 272) ; 
but when the army of the queen regent 
approached Perth, Ruthven, although deemed 
by many ' godly and stout in that action,' left 
the town and went to his own country resi- 
dence (KNOX, i. 337). The action of thequeeii 
regent, however, after her entrance into the 
town on 29 May, in deposing him and the 
bailies of the town from their offices (ib. p. 
346) caused him immediately to join Argyll, 
Lord James, and other leaders of the con- 
gregation, who shortly afterwards held a 
council at St. Andrews, when it was re- 
solved to begin the Reformation there by 
' removing all monuments of idolatry, 
which they did with expedition ' (ib. p. 350 ; 
Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, No. 
862). In command of a number of horse 
he also joined the lords at Cupar-Muir, to 
oppose the progress of the queen regent 
eastwards (Kxox, p. 350) ; and he took part in 
the capture of Perth from the French troops 
on 24 June, firing the first volley on the west 
side (ib. p. 358 ; Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1558-9, No. 880). He was one of the com- 
missioners sent to treat with the queen re- 
gent at Preston; and subsequently, as the 
representative of the lords, succeeded in ne- 
gotiating an agreement for which he and 
the laird of Pitarrow entered themselves as 
pledges (KNOX, pp. 367-75, 378 ; Cal. State 
Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, No. 1052). On 
19 Sept. he signed the letter of the lordspro- 
testing against the siege of Leith by the 
French army (Kisrox, i. 414). Shortly after- 
wards the queen regent endeavoured to de- 
tach him from the lords by promises conveyed 
to him through Sir John Bellenden, lord jus- 
tice clerk, and his wife, who was the daugh- 
ter of Ruthven's second wife by her former 
marriage to Lord Methven (ib. p. 418) ; but 
the negotiation was the reverse of successful. 
Ruthven acted as president at the conven- 
tion of the nobility, barons, and burgesses 
held at Edinburgh on 21 Oct., and made a 
strong speech in favour of the suspension of 
the queen dowager from the office of regent, 
which was carried (Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. 1559-60, No. 234). Subsequently the 
lords came to entertain doubts of the faith- 
fulness of Ruthven (Sadler to the Earl of 
Arran in SADLER'S State Papers, i. 628 ; 
Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. No. 781); but if 
their suspicions were not quite groundless, 
Ruthven nevertheless did not finally com- 
mit himself against them. In January 1559- 
1560 he came to their aid against the French, 
whom he defeated in a skirmish near King- 
horn in Fife (KNOX ii. 6-7). Afterwards he 
was received into the full confidence of the 
lords, and he was appointed one of the com- 




missioners who, on 27 Feb. 1559-60, signed 
the contract with the English commissioners 
at Berwick, and his son Alexander was one 
of the pledges for the performance of the 
treaty (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1559-60, 
No. 787). lie also signed the band of 27 April 
1560 in' defence of the liberty of the evangel,' 
and for the expulsion of the French from 
Scotland (Kxox, ii. 63). 

In February 1563 Ruthven, at the instance 
of Maitland of Lethington, was chosen a 
privy councillor of Mary Queen of Scots. 
Referring to his election, Randolph affirmed 
that the appointment ' misliked Moray ' on 
account of his sorcery ; that ' an un- 
worthier there is not in Scotland than he,' 
and that more might be spoken than he 
dared write (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 
1563, No. 370). In a later letter he also 
mentions that the queen ' cannot abide him,' 
and that ' all men hate him ' (ib. No. 839). 
The explanation of these rumours regarding 
Ruthven is partly supplied by Knox, who 
states that the queen in conversation referred 
to the l offering of a ring to her by Lord 
Ruthven/ and declared that, though at 
Maitland's instance he had been made one of 
her privy council, she ' could not love ' him, 
for she knew him l to use enchantment ' 
(KNOX, Works, ii. 373). 

Ruthven, notwithstanding his admission 
to the privy council, continued to be a staunch 
defender of protestantism ; and at a meeting 
of the council, before which Knox was 
brought in 1563, he defended Knox's right 
to ' make convocation of the queen's lieges ' 
(ib. p. 406). On 22 Sept. of this year 
Ruthven was appointed to expel the clan 
Oregor out of the bounds of Strathearn 
(Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 249); and on 8 May 
1564 the queen conceded to him the office of 
sheriff-clerk of Perthshire. On 1 Dec. 1564 
he received a grant of a waste house ad- 
joining Holyrood House (Reg. May. Sig. 
Scot. 1546-80, No. 1567), which he pre- 
sumably fitted up for a residence, and in 
which he may have been living at the time 
of the murder of Rizzio, a fact which would 
sufficiently explain his appearance there from 
a sick-bed, and also the first thought of Mary's 
attendants, that he had escaped from his 
chamber while raving in a fever. On the 
same date on which he received a grant of 
the waste house, Ruthven also obtained a 
grant to him and his second wife, Janet 
.Stewart, widow of Lord Methven, of the 
lands and lordship of Methven, Perthshire 
(ib. No. 1568). 

The first wife of Ruthven having been a 
Douglas, and his children by her being 
cousins-german of Lord Darnley, Ruthven 

was naturally a supporter of the Darnley 
marriage. Randolph represents him as the 
' chief councillor ' of those who were bent 
on the marriage (Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. 1564-5, No. 1140) ; and Knox states 
that at Mary's council at this time were only 
the Earls of Atholl and Lennox and Lord 
Ruthven ( Works, ii. 483). It was Ruthven 
and Atholl who, with three hundred horse- 
men, escorted the queen safely from Perth 
through Fife to Callendar House, when a 

S n ot was suspected to have been formed by 
oray for her capture on the journey south. 
During the rebellion of Moray, after the 
queen's marriage to Darnley, Ruthven also 
joined the forces of the queen with a com- 
mand in the rearguard of the battle (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. i. 379). 

The rise of Rizzio in the favour of the 
queen, accompanied as it was by the declin- 
ing influence of Darnley and of the relatives 
and friends who had been the main sup- 
porters of the marriage, was observed by 
Ruthven with feelings of deep resentment. 
As early as 12 Oct. 1505 Randolph wrote that 
Morton and Ruthven * only spy their time, 
and make fair weather until it come to the 
pinch' (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1564-5, 
No. 1580). It was probably at the suggestion 
of Morton or Ruthven that George Douglas 
inspired Darnley to apply to Ruthven to aid 
him against the ' villain David.' Ruthven, 
although then so ill that he ' was scarcely 
able to walk twice the length of his cham- 
ber ' (RUTHVEN, Relation), agreed to assist 
him to the utmost of his power, and formally 
made known the proposal to Morton. It 
was Ruthven and Morton who agreed to 
undertake the management of the arrange- 
ments for seizing Rizzio. Their names are 
the only ones known to have been attached 
to the band signed by Darnley, and probably 
they were attached as witnesses. Ruthven, 
in complete arm our and pale and haggard from 
his long sickness, was the first of the conspira- 
tors to enter into the queen's supper chamber 
after Darnley had taken his seat beside the 
queen (9 March 1565-6). The first conjec- 
ture of the queen and her attendants was that 
he was ' raving through the vehemency of a 
fever.' In a stern voice Ruthven commanded 
Rizzio to come out from the presence of the 
queen, ' as it was no place for him ; ' and as 
he was about to seize Kizzio, who clung to 
the garments of the queen, the other conspira- 
tors broke in and hurried Rizzio to the outer 
chamber. When Atholl, Huntly, Bothwell, 
and other nobles then in attendance on the 
queen in the palace, alarmed at the uproar, 
appeared to be meditating a rescue, Ruthven 
went down, and explaining to them that 




harm was intended to no one except Rizzio, 
and that they were acting at the instance of 
Darnley, who was present, persuaded them 
to retire to their chambers. He then returned 
to the queen's chamber, and, being faint, sat 
down and called for a cup of wine. Then fol- 
lowed the remarkable conversation with the 
queen detailed at length by Ruthven in his 
' Relation (Brit. Mus. MS. Cotton Calig. bk. 
ix. f. 2 1 9, printed in appendix to KEITH'S His- 
tory of Scotland and also separately). After 
the murder, Ruthven, ill though he was, 
took part with the othor conspirators in the 
deliberations as to the future government of 
the country. After the arrival of Moray 
the queen was also persuaded to admit him 
and Morton into her presence and grant 
them a promise of pardon ; but on the 
queen's escape to Dunbar they fled into Eng- 
land. While in England Ruthven penned 
the description of the murder known as the 
* Relation ; ' but as it was specially intended 
for the perusal of Elizabeth, and as a justifi- 
cation of the conspiracy on the only ground 
that would be acceptable to Elizabeth that 
Mary had been unfaithful to her husband - 
its statements, notwithstanding the graphic 
ferocity of their tone, are open to suspicion. 
The excitement of the assassination, followed 
by a hurried flight into England, brought 
about a serious reaction in Ruthven's health, 
and after several months of great weakness 
he died at Newcastle on 13 June 1566. 
According to Calderwood he ' made a Chris- 
tian end, thanking God for the leisure 
granted to him to call for mercy ' (History, 
ii. 317). 

By his first wife, Jean or Janet Douglas, 
natural daughter of Archibald, earl of Angus, 
he had three sons and two daughters : Patrick, 
master of Ruthven ; William, fourth lord 
Ruthven and first earl of Gowrie [q. v.] : 
Alexander; Jean, married first to Henry, 
second lord Methven, and secondly to 
Andrew, fifth earl of Rothes ; and Isabel, 
married to James, first lord Colville of Cul- 
ross. By his second wife, Lady Jane Stewart, 
eldest daughter of the second earl of Atholl, 
and married three times previous to her 
marriage to Ruthven first to Alexander, 
master of Sutherland ; secondly, to Sir Hugh 
Kennedy ; and thirdly to Henry, lord 
Methven he had a son James, who in 1582 
had a charter of a part of the barony of 

[Histories by Knox, Buchanan, Leslie, Calder- 
wood, and Keith ; Cal. State Papers, For. Ser., 
Keign of Elizabeth ; Cal. State Papers, Scottish 
Ser.; Eeg. of Mag. Sig. Scot, 1546-80; Reg. 
Privy Council of Scotland, vol. i. ; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 662-3.] T. F. H. 

AND BRENTFORD (1573P-1651). second son of 
William Ruthven of Ballindean, Perthshire 
(great-grandson of William, first lord Ruth- 
ven), and Katherine Stewart, daughter of 
John, lord Stewart of Invermeath, was born 
about 1573. His name appears in the lists 
of Swedish captains about 1606-9. He was 
appointed captain in a regiment of Scots in 
Sweden, enrolled in 1612 ; and in 1615, while 
still captain, he was directed by Gustavus 
Adolplms to levy one thousand foreign sol- 
diers and conduct them to Narva. In 1616 
he was appointed to the command of an East 
Gothland troop of three hundred men ; and 
having, notwithstanding the proscription of 
the Ruthven family on account of the Gowrie 
conspiracy, obtained in June 1618 from 
James I of England a certificate of gentle 
descent, he was appointed by Gustavus to the 
command of a Smaland company of five hun- 
dred foot, and shortly afterwards was pro- 
moted colonel of a regiment. From this time 
he distinguished himself in many important 
engagements, especially at the battle of Dir- 
schau, on 8 Aug. 1627 ; and on 23 Sept. he re- 
ceived, along with several others, the honour of 
knighthood from Gustavus Adolplms, in pre- 
sence of the whole army. He is said to have 
won the special favour of Gustavus Adolplms 
mainly by the important services he rendered 
him through his extraordinary power of 
withstanding the effects of intoxicating 
liquor. ' When the king wanted,' says 
Harte, 'to regale ministers and officers of 
the adverse party, in order to extract secrets 
from them in their more cheerful hours, he 
made Ruthven field-marshal of the bottle 
and glasses, as he could drink immeasurably 
and preserve his understanding to the last* 
(HARTE, Life of Gustavus Adolphus, i. 177). 
He was present at the capture of Strasburg 
in 1628, and the battle of Leipzig, 2 Sept. 

1631. On the surrender of Ulm,in February 

1632, he was appointed commander of the 
Swedish garrison left to hold it, and shortly 
afterwards he received the grafschaft or earl- 
dom of Kirchberg, near Ulm, worth about 
1,800/. a year. In May he was raised to the 
rank of major-general, and left in Swabia in 
joint command, with Duke Bernard of 
Weimar, of eight thousand men. In October 
he was sent as sergeant-major-general to the 
Palatine Christian of Birckenfelt, and was 
present at the capture of Landsberg. In 
December he was appointed to the joint 
command, with Colonel Sparruyter, of the 
forces under General Banier, then incapaci- 
tated. He proceeded to England in March 
1634 for the purpose of raising new levies 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1633-4, 



pp. 496, 518) ; and having, after his re- 
turn, been appointed lieutenant-general to 
Banier in Thuringia, and also to the com- 
mand of a regiment of cavalry, he distin- 
guished himself in several important en- 

Ruthven, having finally quitted the Swedish 
service in 1 638, was about the close of that 
year appointed muster master-general of the 
forces in Scotland. He was also one of 
the commissioners appointed in 1638 to re- 
quire subscription to the king's covenant 
(GORDON, Scots Affairs, i. 109). Although 
his appointment as muster master-general 
implied the command of Edinburgh Castle, he 
was prevented by the covenanters from en- 
tering it, and finally retired to Newcastle, 
where he obtained a letter of thanks from the 
king, dated York, 6 April 1639. He was also 
created Lord Ruthven of Ettrick. After the 
treaty of the king with the Scots at Berwick, 
he was placed in command of the castle by 
his old Swedish companion-in-arms, the 
Marquis of Hamilton (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1639, p. 349), and entered it with 
three hundred men and a large quantity of 
ammunition without any opposition from 
the estates (BALFOTJR, Annals, ii. 373). On 
11 Nov. 1639 he received special instruc- 
tions from the king to hold it ( Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1639-40, p. 86), and on 
10 Feb. the covenanters, under protest, 
allowed reinforcements and a supply of 
ammunition to enter it (GORDON, Scots 
Affairs, iii. 100-2). Ultimately, realising 
the danger which threatened from Kuthven's 
occupation of the castle, the citizens began 
to take measures nominally to defend the 
town against attack, but in reality to reduce [ 
the castle by blockade ; and in June 1640 
Montrose, then acting with the covenanters, 
was sent under a flag of truce to demand its 
surrender (SPALDING, ii. 279). This Ruthven 
refused, and on the 10th an act of for- j 
faultry was passed against him by the Scot- [ 
tish parliament. To the demand for its 
surrender he replied that ' if they aimed to I 
take it by force, they should never have it so j 
long as he had life ; and if they should beat I 
down the walls, he should fight it out upon ' 
the bare rock ' ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. I 
Ser. 1640, p. 361). A furious attack was 
made against it on 12 June, and, although it j 
failed, the garrison ultimately surrendered 
after more than two hundred had died from j 
accident or sickness. The garrison were 
permitted to march out with colours flying ; 
and drums beating. They ' showed much 
resolution, but marched with feeble bodies,' 
and t were guarded to Leith by six hundred 
men, otherwise those of the good town had 

torn them to pieces' (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser. 1641-2, p. 136). Ruthven him- 
self, who was ' spoiled with the scurvy, his 
legs swelled, and many of his teeth fallen 
out ' (BALFOUR, ii. 403)", after journeying to 
Berwick by coach, ultimately went south, 
to London. 

Ruthven remained in London until 1641, 
when he returned to Edinburgh with a 
warrant from the king for a loan to him of 
the house of the dean of Edinburgh and an 
annual pension of 300/. until a grant of 
5,000/. promised to him should be paid. On 
12 Oct. he presented a petition for the repeal 
of the sentence of forfaultry (BALFOUR, iii. 
102), which was granted on 9 Nov. (ib, 
p. 143). Shortly after being created Earl 
of Forth on 27 March 16i2, he went to 
Germany on his private affairs ; but return- 
ing to England in the autumn, bringing 
with him some officers for the king's service 
(SPALDIXG, Memorials, ii. 198), he joined 
the king at Shrewsbury in October, and on the 
22nd was created ' marshal-general.' From 
Shrewsbury he accompanied the king in his 
march towards London ; and having greatly 
distinguished himself in the engagement at 
Edgehill on the 23rd, where he commanded 
the left wing, he was appointed by the king 
general-in-chief of the army in succession to 
the Earl of Lindsey, slain in the battle. From 
this time the king depended chiefly on his ad- 
vice in the arrangement of the campaigns ; and, 
if he somewhat lacked energy and prompti- 
tude on the battlefield, his plans indicated 
considerable strategic skill. On the day 
after Edgehill he earnestly urged the king 
to permit him to make a forced march on 
London with the horse and three thousand 
foot, assuring him that he would be able to 
reach it before the Earl of Essex, a proposal 
which, had it been accepted, would in all 
likelihood have been successful. As it was, 
Ruthven commanded at the successful cap- 
ture of Brentford, after a sharp engagement, 
on 12 Nov. 1642. 

On 26 April 1643 Ruthven was present 
with the king when a vain attempt was 
made to raise the siege of Reading; he was 
shot in the head on 7 August during the 
operations against Gloucester : and he was 
wounded at the battle of Newbury on 
20 Sept, On 7 March 1644 he was sent to 
join Lord Hopton at Winchester and assist 
him with his advice; but after the battle of 
Brandon Heath, on the 29th, he returned 
again to the king at Oxford. On 27 May 
he was created by the king Earl of Brent- 
ford. On 25 July he was, however, declared 
a traitor by the Scottish parliament, and on 
the 26th his estates were forfeited and his 



arms riven at the cross of Edinburgh (BAL- 
FOUK, Annals, iii. 235-7). 

On 26 June 1644 Ruthven accompanied 
the king from Oxford to Worcester, and 
after the victory of Cropredy Bridge, on the 
29th, proceeded with him to the west, and 
successfully blockaded the army of Essex at 
Lostwithiel, compelling it to surrender on 
2 Sept. He was wounded in the head at 
the second battle of Newbury on 27 Oct., 
and while lying exhausted at Donnington 
Castle, Colonel Urry came to him during the 
night and sought to persuade him to join 
the parliamentary party ; but his overtures 
were rejected with scorn. By this time 
the influence of Ruthven in the king's coun- 
sels was on the wane, and in the beginning 
of November he was superseded as com- 
mander-in-chief by Rupert, the chief reason 
being probably that, on account of his grow- 
ing infirmities, his strategic skill was more 
than counterbalanced by his lack of alert- 
ness and initiative power. 'Although he 
had been without a doubt a very good 
officer and had great experience,' says Cla- 
rendon, ' and was still a man of unquestion- 
able courage and integrity, yet he was now 
much decayed in his parts, and, with the 
long-continued custom of immoderate drink- 
ing, dozed in his understanding, which had 
been never quick and vigorous, he having 
been always illiterate to the greatest degree 
that can be imagined. He was now become 
very deaf, yet often pretended not to have 
heard what he did not then contradict, and 
thought fit afterwards to disclaim. He was 
a man of few words and of great compliance, 
and usually delivered that as his opinion 
which he foresaw would be grateful to the 
king ' (History of the Rebellion, viii. 30). But, 
although superseded, Ruthven continued 
to retain the king's favour. He was ap- 
pointed chamberlain to the Prince of Wales ; 
and by a grant dated Oxford, 26 March 
1645, his paternal coat-of-arms was aug- 
mented with bearings borrowed from the 
royal arms of England and of Scotland. He 
remained with the Prince of Wales in the 
west from March 1645 to March 1646, anc 
afterwards accompanied him to Jersey anc 

Notwithstanding his advanced age, Ruth- 
ven continued to the last to take an active 
interest in the royal cause. In February 1648 
he set out from the king to Queen Chris 
tina of Sweden to entreat her to extenc 
her aid to the exiled king. He left Sweden 
in the beginning of June, returning first to 
Breda, and afterwards going to St. Germain 
with arms and ammunition obtained chiefly 
by pledging his estate in Sweden. In Sep- 

ember he removed to The Hague, and, 
notwithstanding the objections of the Scot- 
ish commissioners, accompanied Charles II 
o Scotland. On 4 June 1650 an act was 
)assed excluding him and other royalists 
' beyond seas ' from entering Scotland, and 
n 27 June an act was passed against his 
remaining in the kingdom (Acta Parl. Scot. 
vi. 530, 537), whereupon he retired to Perth. 
At the parliament held at Perth in Decem- 
ber when a coalition of covenanters and 
royalists against Cromwell was deemed ad- 
visable an act was passed in his favour 
ib. vi. 551). He died at Dundee on 2 Feb. 
following, and was buried in Grange Dur- 
tiam's aisle in the parish church of Monifieth 
(BALFOTJR, Annals, iv. 256). By his first 
wife, a sister of Colonel John Henderson, 
who held the command of Dumbarton Castle 
in 1640, he had one son and three daughters : 
Alexander, lord Ettrick, who predeceased 
him ; Elspeth, married first to William 
Lundie of Lundie, and afterwards to George 
Pringle ; Jean or Janet, married to Lord 
Forester ; and Christian, married first to Sir 
Thomas Kerr of Fairmallie, Selkirkshire, and 
afterwards to Sir Thomas Ogilvie. By his 
second wife, Clara, daughter of John Berner 
of Saskendorff, Mecklenburg, he left no 

A large number of letters from Ruthven to 
Axel Oxenstierna 1624 to 1649 are among 
the ' Oxenstierna Papers ' in the Royal Ar- 
chives at Stockholm. There are oil portraits 
at Skokloste Castle and in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford. 

[In the Rev. W. D. Mac ray's valuable Intro- 
duction to the Ruthven Correspondence (Rox- 
burghe Club), the ascertained facts concerning 
Ruthven are combined into a connected narra- 
tive for the first time. See also Gordon's Scots 
Affairs and Spalding's Memorialls (Spalding 
Soc.) ; Robert Baillie's Letters and Journals 
(Bannatyne Club) ; Sir James Balfour's Annals ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. during Charles I 
and the Commonwealth; Acta Purl. Scot. vol. vi. ; 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion ; Harte's 
Life of Gustavus Adolphus ; Warburton's Life 
of Prince Rupert ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage 
(Wood), i. 605 ; information from the Rev.W. D. 
Macray.] T. F. H. 

RUTHVEN (d. 1552), was descended from an 
ancient Scottish family, the earliest of whom 
is said to have been Thor, a Saxon or Dane, 
who settled in Scotland in the reign of 
David I, and whose son Swan, in the reign 
of William the Lion, possessed the manors 
of Ruthven, Tibbermuir, and other lands in 
Perthshire. The first Lord Ruthven, created 
on 29 Jan. 1488, was the son of William de 


2 5 


Ruthven, said to have been the ninth in de- 
scent from Thor ; and Sir William's grand- 
father, also named Sir William de Ruthven, 
received from Robert III a charter of sheriff- 
ship of St. Johnstoun [i.e. Perth], and also of 
Ruthven and other lands. The second Lord 
Ruthven was the son of the master of Ruth- 
ven ; the latter, known as Lindsay until his 
legitimation on 2 July 1480, was the son of 
the first Lord Ruthven ; he was slain at 
Flodden on 9 Sept. 1513. The second lord's 
mother was Catherine, born Buttergask. He 
succeeded his grandfather, the first Lord 
Ruthven, some time before 10 Sept. 1528, 
when the king bestowed on him the office 
of custodian and constable of the king's hos- 
pital, near the Speygate, Perth (Reg. Mag. 
Sig. Scot. 1513-46, No. 683). In February 
1532 he, Lord Oliphant, and various barons in 
this district of Scotland were fined for not 
appearing to sit as jurymen at the trial of 
Lady Glamis at Forfar for poisoning her hus- 
band (PiTCAiRiir, Criminal Trials,i. *158). He 
was admitted an extraordinary lord of session 
on 27 Nov. 1533 ; and on 8 Aug. 1542 he was 
named a member of the privy council (Keg. 
Mag. Sig. Scot. 1513-46, No. 2747). On 
28 Aug. 1536 the king confirmed to him 
and his heirs the lands of Glenshie in 
Strathearn, erected into a free forest (ib. 
No. 1617). 

At the parliament held at Edinburgh in 
March 1543, after the death of James V, 
Ruthven, who is called by Knox i a stout 
and discreet man in the cause of God,' spoke 
in behalf of liberty being granted to the 
laity to read the Scriptures in the English 
tongue (KNOX, Works, i. 98); and at the 
same parliament he was chosen one of the 
eight noblemen, two of whom were to have 
the charge of the young queen every three 
months (Ada Par I. Scot. ii. 414). On 
24 July 1543 he signed a band to support 
Cardinal Beaton ( Cal. Hamilton Papers, ed. 
Bain, i. 631), but his adherence to the cardi- 
nal seems to have been only temporary, for 
in 1544 he resisted by force of arms the car- 
dinal's candidate for the provostship of Perth 
(Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 34 ; KNOX, Works, 
i. 111-13 ; HERRIES, Memoirs, p. 15). Ruth- 
ven was appointed keeper of the privy seal 
in July 1546 (Reg. Mag. Sic/. Scot. 1513-46, 
No. 3231 ; Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 35). On 24 Aug. 
of the same year he appeared before the privy 
council with Patrick, earl of Bothwell, as 
caution that Bothwell's ship, the Mary, and 
other four barks should not take any ships 
belonging to the Dutch, Flemings, or Hun- 
garians (ib. i. 41). On 13 Sept. he obtained 
an heritable grant of the king's house of 
Perth, of which he was keeper. He died 

early in December 1552 (Reg. Mag. Sig. 
Scot. 1546-80, Nos. 726, 735). By his wife 
Janet, eldest of three daughters and co- 
heiresses of Patrick, lord Haliburton, with 
whom he got that barony, he had three 
sons and seven daughters : Patrick, third 
lord [q.v.] ; James of Forteviot; Alexander 
of Freeland ; Lilias, married to David, second 
lord Drummond she was of high repute for 
her piety, and to her Robert Alexander in 
1539 dedicated the Testament of William 
Hay, earl of Erroll, which he set forth in 
Scottish metre (printed Edinburgh 1571) ; 
Catherine, to Sir Colin Campbell of Glen- 
orchy; Cecilia, to Sir David Wemyss of 
Wemyss; Barbara, to Patrick, first lord 
Gray ; Janet, to John Crichton of Strathaird ; 
Margaret, to John Johnstone of Elphin- 
stone; and Christina, to William Lundin of 

[Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1513-46, and 1546-80; 
Reg. P. C. Sfotl. vol. i. ; Acta Parl. Scot. vol. ii. ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyne Club) ; Lord 
Herries's Memoirs of the Reign of Mary (Abbots- 
tord Club) ; Knox's Works ; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 660.] T. F. H. 

RUTHVEN and first EARL OF GOWRIE (1541 ?- 
1584), second son of Patrick, third lord 
Ruthven [q. v.], by Janet Douglas, natural 
daughter of Archibald, earl of Angus, was 
born about 1541. On 4 April 1562 the 
queen conceded to him and his wife, Dorothy 
Stewart, certain lands in the barony of Ruth- 
ven which his father resigned in his favour 
(Reg. Mag. Sig. Scot. 1546-80, No. 1413). 
With his father he joined the conspiracy 
against Rizzio on 9 March 1566, and on the 
queen's escape to Dunbar he accompanied 
his father in his flight to England. On the 
death of his father at Newcastle on 13 June 
1566, he nominally succeeded him as fourth 
lord, but previous to this he had been de- 
nounced as a rebel and forfeited. Along 
with Morton, he was, however, through an 
agreement of Bothwell and the queen with 
the protestant lords, pardoned and permitted 
to return to Scotland, which he did about 
the end of December (Cal. State Papers, For. 
Ser. 1566-8, No. 872). Possibly he was un- 
aware of the plot which was then being 
hatched against his cousin, Lord Darnley ; 
and in any case there is no evidence that he 
had any direct connection with it. Nor was 
he present in Ainslie's tavern when, after 
Bothwell's acquittal of the murder, certain 
lords signed a paper recommending Bothwell 
as a suitable husband for the queen. Probably 
he was one of the few nobles who joined 
the band against Bothwell with a sincere 



desire to revenge the murder ; and he was pre- 
sent against the queen when she surrendered 
to the lords at Oarberry Hill. Along with 
Lord Lindsay, he was appointed to conduct 
the queen to the fortalice of Lochleven, and 
to have charge of her during her imprison- 
ment there ; but, according to Throckmorton, 
being suspected of having shown ' favour to 
the queen,' he was subsequently employed 
on another commission (Illustrations of the 
Reign of Mary, Bannatyne Club, p. 208). 
Along with Lord Lindsay, Ruthven acted 
as procurator in obtaining the queen's de- 
mission of the government in favour of her 
son (Reg. P. C. Scotl. i. 538), and at the 
coronation of the young king at Stirling he 
certified with Lord Lindsay that she had 
demitted the government willingly and 
without compulsion. On 24 Aug. he was 
selected provost of Perth (ib. p. 505) ; after 
the queen's escape from Lochleven he took 
up arms against her, and was present at her 
defeat at Langside on 13 May 1568 (Hist, of 
James the Sext, p. 27) ; and in August he 
stopped at the Fords of Tay the Earl of 
Huntly, a supporter of the queen, who was 
coming to attend the parliament, accompanied 
with a thousand horse (CALDEKWOOD, History, 
ii. 418). At the convention of Perth in July 

1569 he voted against the queen's divorce 
from Bothwell (Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 8). On 
24 Nov. of the same year he was appointed 
lieutenant of Perth, and bailie and justice 
of the king's lands of Scone (Reg. Mag. Sig. 
Scot. 1546-80, No. 1894) ; and on 7 Dec. he 
received a grant of certain lands in South 
Kinkell (ib. No. 1902). 

Ruthven was one of those who bore the 
body of the regent Moray from Holyrood to 
its burial in St. Giles's Church (Randolph to 
Cecil in Kxox's Works, vi. 571). He con- 
tinued to adhere to the lords in their contest 
with the supporters of Mary, who held pos- 
session of the castle of Edinburgh, and dis- 
tinguished himself in several engagements. In 

1570 he assisted in the capture of the garrison 
of the enemy at Brechin (CALDEKWOOD, iii. 8). 
In February 1571-2 he was sent to defend 
Jedburgh against Ker of Ferniehirst, whom 
he surprised and completely defeated (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. ii. 116-17 ; Hist, of James the Sext, 
p. 98 ; CALDERWOOD, History, iii. 155; Cal. 
State Papers, For. Ser. 1572-4, No. 116) ; 
and in July 1572 he defeated a sortie from 

Edinburgh Castle (ib. No. 458). On 24 July 

1571 he was, in room of Robert Richardson 
[q. v.], who resigned, appointed lord high 
treasurer for life. He was a commissioner 
for the pacification of Perth on 23 Feb. 
1572-3 (Reg. P. C. Scotl. ii. 193) ; and he 
signed the undertaking with the English | 

ambassador Drury as to the arrangements to 
be observed on the capture of the castle of 
Edinburgh (Cal. State Papers. For. Ser. 
1572-4, No. 897). 

Lord Ruthven was one of those deputed 
by Morton to represent him at the con- 
vention of nobles at Stirling in March 1577- 
1578, at which it was agreed that Morton 
should be deprived of the office of regent 
(MoYSiE, Memoirs, p. 2), and on the 15th 
he was sent with others of a deputation to 
Morton to request him to surrender the castle 
of Edinburgh (ib. p. 3), when he was chosen 
by Morton as one of the ' neutral men ' who 
might meanwhile be named keepers of the 
castle (ib.} In April he was also named one 
of the new councillors under whose direction 
the king was to carry on the government 
(ib. p. 5). Subsequently he joined Morton, 
who had obtained access to the castle of 
Stirling, and he was present at the meeting 
of parliament held there under Morton's 
auspices, and was chosen a lord of the articles 
(ib. p. 12). On 8 Sept. 1578 he was nomi- 
nated one of eight noblemen for the recon- 
ciliation of the two factions, and also lieu- 
tenant of the borders, w r ith special powers 
for reducing them to obedience (Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. iii. 25-6). On 28 Nov. he was ap- 
pointed an extraordinary lord of session. He 
signed the order for the prosecution of the 
Hamiltons on 30 April 1579 (ib. p. 147), and 
on 20 May was thanked for the discharge of 
his commission against them. Ruthven had 
long been at feud with James, fourth lord 
Oliphant, a supporter of Queen Mary, and 
while returning in October 1580 from Kin- 
cardine, where he had been at the marriage 
of the Earl of Mar, he happened to pass near 
the house of Lord Oliphant at Dupplin,where- 
upon he was pursued by Lord Oliphant, and 
his kinsman, Alexander Stewart, shot dead 
with a hacbut. Ruthven pursued the master 
of Oliphant at law for the slaughter, and on 
15 Nov. both parties were bound over by the 
council to keep the peace (ib. iii. 329). Ulti- 
mately the master in March 1582 went to 
the lodgings of Ruthven in Edinburgh with- 
out sword or weapon, and offered himself to 
his will. 

During a convention of the lords at Dal- 
keith on 3 May 1581, to consult on the trial 
of Morton, Ruthven fell sick through a drink 
of beer he got in Dalkeith, and it was 
rumoured that he had been poisoned, but the 
evil effects were only temporary (CALDEK- 
WOOD, iii. 556). After the execution of Mor- 
ton it w r as deemed advisable to gratify him 
by creating him by patent, 23 Aug. 1581, 
Earl of Gowrie and Lord Ruthven and 
Dirleton, and on 20 Oct. the lands and barony 



of Gowrie belonging to the monastery of 
Scone were erected into an earldom, and 
bestowed on him by charter under the great 
seal (Reg. Mag. Sic/. Scot. 1580-93, No. 
258). On 14 Dec. he had also a grant of the 
lordship of Abernethy (ib. p. 296). 

In the dispute between James Stewart or 
Stuart, earl of Arran, and the Duke of Len- 
nox, in regard to their right to bear the crown 
at the opening of parliament as next of kin to 
the crown, Gowrie sided with Arran, and sub- 
sequently he signed a band with other protes- 
tant nobles against Lennox ; they were led to 
take action mainly by information conveyed 
to them by Bowes, the English ambassador, 
that Lennox had determined to seize them, 
and charge them with meditated treason 
against the king (BowES, Correspondence, 
Surtees Soc. p. 170). Thereupon Gowrie 
and other conspirators immediately devised 
the plot now known as the ' Raid of Ruthven,' 
by which the king on 23 Aug. 1582 was 
induced or compelled to leave the town of 
Perth, and go to Gowrie's seat at Ruthven, 
where he was practically placed under the 
custody of the conspirators. Arran and his 
brother, Colonel Stewart, on learning that 
the king was at Ruthven, determined to 
effect a rescue, but Colonel Stewart, with a 
strong body of horse, was defeated by Mar ; 
and Arran, who had galloped by a nearer 
way to Ruthven, was promptly seized and 
placed under a guard. It was only the inter- 
position of Gowrie that saved him from 
being slain by the conspirators (MELVILLE, 
Memoirs, p. 281), but it was finally agreed 
that he should be placed under the charge 
of Gowrie in Stirling. 

After the ' Raid of Ruthven' the English 
ambassador, at the request of Elizabeth, was 
directed to use every means to obtain pos- 
session of the silver casket containing the 
letters of Mary Queen of Scots to Both well, 
which it was stated that Morton had deli- 
vered into the keeping of Gowrie (Bowes to 
Walsingham, 8 Nov. 1582, in BOWES'S Corre- 
spondence, Surtees Soc. p. 236) ; but Gowrie, 
while declaring that the lords had deter- 
mined to keep them in vindication of their 
conduct, declined at first to state whether 
they were in his possession or not (ib. p. 240) ; 
then, while practically admitting that they 
were in his possession, he affirmed that he 
could not give them up without the king's 
privity (ib. p. 254), and finally he insisted 
that it was necessary to keep their where- 
abouts secret from the king, as the Duke of 
Lennox had sought earnestly to get posses- 
sion of them (ib. p. 265). Their custody 
cannot be traced further. 

On 17 Dec. 1582, at a convention of certain 

of the lords with the ministers of Edinburgh, 
Gowrie earnestly desired that he might be 
allowed to set Arran at liberty, < so that the 
good action had no hurt thereby,' but it was 
determined that he should be retained in 
confinement (CALDEKWOOD, iii. 693). All 
that Gowrie would, however, agree to was 
that he should be kept in confinement until 
it was certainly known that Lennox had left 
the country (BowES, Correspondence, p. 222). 
It was thought Gowrie was privy to the 
king's escape from Falkland to St. Andrews 
on 27 June 1583 (MELVILLE, Memoirs, p. 
284; CALDERWOOD, History, iii. 715): in 
any case, on making his appearance at St. 
Andrews, he was permitted to enter the 
presence of the king, received from him a 
formal pardon, and was nominated one of 
his new privy council. On 23 Dec. the king 
also under the great seal granted full re- 
mission both to him and his servants for 
their share in the Ruthven raid (Reg. Mag. 
Sig..Scot. 1580-93, No. 648). 

Gowrie opposed a proposal of the king that 
Arran should be permitted to visit the court ; 
but on the king's assurance that he merely 
wished Arran to come and kiss his hand and 
then return, Gowrie withdrew his opposition 
(MELVILLE, Memoirs, pp. 292-3). Arran, 
however, took advantage of his visit to re- 
gain his old influence over the king, and 
remained at the court as his chief adviser. 
Gowrie and Arran were then nominally re- 
conciled, but in February 1583-4 Gowrie 
was, at the instance of Arran, commanded 
to leave the country. He made various ex- 
cuses for delay in obeying the command, and 
meanwhile he concerted with Angus, Mar, 
and others a plot for the capture of Stirling 
Castle. Ultimately he came to Dundee on 
the pretence of intending to take ship there, 
but in reality to be in readiness to concert 
measures with the other conspirators. His 
purpose was, however, fathomed by Arran, 
and on 13 April Colonel Stewart was sent by 
sea to Dundee with one hundred men, charged 
by a royal warrant, written by Arran, to 
bring Gowrie to Edinburgh. On the arrival 
of Stewart on the 15th, Gowrie immediately 
went to his lodgings, which he barricaded 
and resolved to hold, with the aid of his 
servants ; but finding that the townspeople, 
through the influence of the Earl of Craw- 
ford, sided with Stewart, he finally surren- 
dered. His capture upset the plans of the other 
conspirators, who took refuge in England. 
He was brought to Edinburgh on the 18th, 
thence to Kinkell on the 25th, and five days 
thereafter to Stirling, to be put upon his 
trial. Although the delay of Gowrie in 
leaving the country was suspicious, there 



was no direct proof that he was involved 
in a conspiracy against the king or Arran. 
Earnest attempts were therefore made to 
induce him to make a confession (see specially 
the papers printed in Papers relating to 
William, first Earl of Gowrie, pp. 25-43) ; 
and on a solemn verbal assurance of the king's 
promise of pardon, he did confess that he 
was concerned in the conspiracy with the 
other nobles who had fled to England, but, 
except as regards his share in the conspiracy, 
revealed nothing that was not already known. 
His own confession was nevertheless used as 
the main evidence against him at his trial, 
and, being convicted of high treason, he was 
beheaded at Stirling on 2 May 1584, and his 
lands were forfeited. In addition to the 
accusation of treason, he was charged with 
witchcraft ; but he repelled the accusation as 
a malicious slander, and it was not persisted 

Gowrie was married to Dorothea Stewart, 
daughter or granddaughter of Henry Stewart, 
second lord Methven. It has been disputed 
whether she was the daughter of the second 
Lord Methven by his first wife, Margaret 
Tudor, widow of James IV, or by his second 
wife. Lady Jane Stewart, who afterwards 
married Gowrie's father, Patrick, third lord 
Ruthven. It has, however, been clearly 
shown that she could not have been a daugh- 
ter of Margaret Tudor, inasmuch as in that 
case she would have been much too old to 
have borne so many children to Gowrie ; but 
it has also been argued that Lord Methven 
had by Margaret Tudor a son, the master of 
Methven, killed at Pinkie in 1547, and that 
Dorothea was the master's daughter, and 
therefore a granddaughter of Margaret Tudor. 
The theory is, however, unsupported by evi- 
dence, and owes its existence simply to the 
fact that it affords a plausible explanation 
of the so-called ' Gowrie Conspiracy' of 1600 
[see under RUTHVEN, ALEXANDER, master of, 
RIE], inasmuch as on this supposition the 
young Earl of Gowrie would have had a rival 
title with James to the throne of England. 
Be this as it may, Dorothea and her children 
were for a time treated with great severity. 
Not only was she left completely destitute, 
but when during the progress of the king to 
the parliament in August she appeared to 
ask mercy for herself and children, she was 
forcibly repelled at the instance of Arran, 
and fell down in the street in a swoon (CAL- 
DERWOOD, History, iv. 197). After the fall 
of Arran in 1586 the forfeited lands and 
dignities were, however, restored. At his 
death Gowrie was indebted to the amount 
of 48,063/., being the amount advanced to 

him on the security of his lands for the de- 
frayment of public expenses while he held 
the office of treasurer. After the Gowrie 
conspiracy the Countess of Gowrie penned a 
petition on 1 Nov. 1600, in which she wrote : 
' I am so overcharged with the payment of 
annual rents for his majesty's debts con- 
tracted during the time of my husband's 
being in office of treasurer, which sums of 
money were taken on my compact fee lands, 
that scarce am I able to entertain my own 
estate' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. pt. ii. 
p. 196). 

By Dorothea Stewart, Gowrie had five sons 
and eight daughters. The sons were James, 
second earl, who died in 1588; John, third 
earl [q. v.],and Alexander, master of Ruthven 
[q. v.], both killed in the affair of Gowrie 
House in 1600; William, and Patrick. After 
the affair of Gowrie House an order was sent 
to apprehend William and Patrick, then boys 
at school in Edinburgh, but, being fore- 
warned, they fled into England. On 27 April 
1603 James, during his progress southward 
to accept the crown of England, issued an 
order for their apprehension (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-10, p. 5). William 
escaped and went to the continent, where he 
gained a high reputation by his scientific 
acquirements; but Patrick was apprehended 
and lodged in the Tower. While there he 
on 24 July 1616 received a grant of 200/. 
per annum for apparel and books (ib. 1611- 
1618, p. 387). In 1622 he obtained per- 
mission to reside within the bounds of the 
university of Cambridge, and there was at 
the same time settled on him a pension of 
500/. a year. On 4 Feb. 1623-4 he was per- 
mitted to reside in Somerset. In February 
1639-40 he was living in St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. He died in 1652, in the king's bench 
prison. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Robert W^oodford, and widow of Thomas, 
lord Gerard, by whom he had, besides other 
children, Patrick, who succeeded him, and 
Mary, maid of honour to Queen Henrietta 
Maria, who married Sir Anthony Vandyke. 
On 3 Nov. 1657 the son, who styled himself 
Patrick, lord Ruthven, presented a petition 
to Cromwell for arrears of pension due to his 
father, in which he stated that the barony 
of Ruthven had been restored by parliament 
to his father in 1641 (for information regard- 
ing Patrick Ruthven, see especially Papers 
relating to William, first Earl of Gowrie, 
and Patrick Ruthven, his fifth and last sur- 
viving Son, 1867). The daughters of the first 
Lord Gowrie were Mary, married to John, 
first earl of Atholl ; Jean to James, lord 
Ogilvie, ancestor of the earls of Airlie; 
Sophia to Ludovick Stewart, second duke 



of Lennox ; Elizabeth to John, lord Graham, 
afterwards fourth earl of Montrose ; Lilias 
to Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar ; Dorothea 
to Sir John Wemyss of Pittencrieff ; Cathe- 
rine died in infancy ; and Barbara, lady of the 
bedchamber to Queen Anne of Denmark, who 
retained her position not withstanding the for- 
feiture of the family, and in September 1603 
obtained from the king a pension of 2007. , 
on the ground that, notwithstanding ' the 
abominable attempt of her family against 
the king, she had shown no malicious de- 
signs' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1603-10, 
p. 43). She married Sir John Hume of 

[Histories by Knox, Calderwood, and Spotis- 
wood ; Sir James Melville's Memoirs, and David 
Moysie's Memoirs (Bannatyne Club) ; Bowes's 
Correspondence (Surtees Society) ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig. Scot. 1516-80, and 1580-93 ; Reg. Privy 
Council of Scotland, vols. ii.-iv. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Scot. Ser. and For. Ser. reign of Eliza- 
beth; Papers relating to William, 1st Earl of 
Gowrie, privatelv printed, 1867 ; Douglas's Scot- 
tish Peerage (Wood), i. 662-3.] T. F. H. 

JOHN, first duke, 1638-1711; MANNERS, 
CHARLES, fourth duke, 1754-1787 ; MAN- 


THOMAS, first earl. d. 1 543 : MANNERS. HENRY. 
second earl, d. 1563; MANNERS, EDWARD, 
third earl, 1549-1587 : MANNERS, ROGER, fifth 
earl, 1576-1612 : MANNERS, FRANCIS, sixth 
earl, 1578-1632; MANNERS, JOHX, eighth 
earl, 1604-1679.] 

RUTLAND, HUGH OF (.A 1185), 

Anglo-Norman poet. [See ROTELANDE, 

(1743-1794), publicist, was the grandson of 
an Irish Jacobite who settled in France, and 
was son of Walter Rutledge (d. 1779), a 
banker and shipowner at Dunkirk, who 
assisted the Pretender in his expedition 
of 1715, and was consequently created a 
baronet by him. James accordingly styled 
himself ' chevalier' or * baronet.' Born, pro- 
bably at Dunkirk, in 1743, he was brought 
up to speak both French and English. He 
entered, without pay, Berwick's Franco-Irish 
cavalry regiment ; but on its being disbanded 
in 17(52 he returned to Dunkirk, where he 
married a shipowner's daughter. In 1772 
his father-in-law's embarrassments induced 
him to go to Paris, with a view to selling his 
reversionary interest in his father's property 
near Rheims : but his father's want of affection 

for him, the rapacity of his stepmother and 
her children, and the dishonesty of a notary 
reduced the proceeds, he asserted, to a very 
small sum. Thenceforth he lived by his pen, 
and he did much to make English literature 
known in France. He did not indeed, as is 
stated by the ' Biographic Universelle,' assist 
in Letourneur's translation of Shakespeare, 
for he crit icised that t ranslat ion as inaccurate ; 
but in' Observations a 1' Academic' (1776) he 
extolled Shakespeare, in reply to Voltaire, as 
far superior to French dramatists. He wrote 
a long letter to Goldsmith, accompanied by 
an imitation in French of a portion of the 
* Deserted Village/ and published this, with 
Goldsmith's reply. In 1783 he was cast in 
damages at the suit of the notary, Deherain, 
whom he had libelled, and, in default of pay- 
ment, was imprisoned. The revolution gave 
scope for his mania for delation. He charged 
Xecker with a conspiracy to deprive Paris of 
bread, covered the walls of Paris with de- 
nunciations of him, became the spokesman 
of the bakers in their grievances against the 
millers, and in November 1789 was arrested 
on the charge of usurpation of powers, in 
proposing to raise a loan for the bakers on 
easier terms than those offered by the muni- 
cipality. Released in the following January, 
he renewed his scurrilous attacks on Xecker 
and his family. He was a leading member 
of the Cordeliers' Club till his expulsion in 
I November 1791 ; but in 1790 he was refused 
admission to the Jacobin Club, then consist- 
ing mainly of moderate men, on account of 
his calumniating disposition. After the death, 
on 13 July 1793, of Marat, who had ap- 
plauded his denunciations, he seems to have 
fallen into obscurity, but was imprisoned by 
the committee of general security in the fol- 
\ lowing October. His death, in March 1794, 
I passed unnoticed except in the necrology of 
the Petites Am'ches. 

Rutledge's numerous productions include : 

I 1. ' Thamar: tragSdie,' 1769, 8vo. 2. ' Me- 

I moire sur le caractere et les mceurs des 

Franais compares a ceux des Anglais,' 1776, 

j 8vo. 3. ' La Quinzaine Anglaise,' London, 

1776, 8vo : this sketch, which depicts the 

j rapidity with which a 'plunger' may be 

I reduced to destitution by the harpies of 

Paris and purports to be a posthumous work 

; by Sterne, to whose works it bears no sort 

' of resemblance, was translated as ' The 

! Englishman's Fortnight in Paris,' by ' An 

Observer,' Dublin, 1771. The write/ states 

that attempts had been made to suppress 

: the work in Paris. A species of sequel, en- 

' titled ' Le Second Voyage de milord ,' 

appeared in 1779. 4. 'Le Train de Paris, 
ou les Bourgeois du Tours,' 1777, 8vo. 



5. ' Les Comediens ou le Foyer : comedie,' 
1777. 6. l Le Babillard,' 1778, an imitation 
ofthe'Tatler.' 7. ' Calypso,' 1784-5. 8. 'Le 
Creuset,' January to August 1791. 

[Manuscripts at the Archives Nationales and 
Musee Carnavalet, Paris ; Memorial au Koi, 
1770, and biographical data in his other works; 
Grimm's CorrespondanceLitteraire ; Lallemant's 
Marechal-de-camp Warren; Aulard's Club des 
Jacobins; Paris newspapers, 1789; Alger's Eng- 
lishmen in French Revolution ; Journal d'Adrien 
Duquesnoy, Paris, 1894 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

J. G. A. 

RUTT, JOHN TO WILL (1760-1841), 
politician and man of letters, born in London 
on 4 April 1760, was only son of George 
Rutt, at first a druggist in Friday Street, 
Cheapside, and afterwards a wholesale mer- 
chant in drugs in Upper Thames Street, who 
married Elizabeth To will. In early boyhood 
he was placed for some time under the care 
of Dr. Toulmin at Taunton (RuTT, Life of 
Priestley, i. 154), and on 1 July 1771 he was 
admitted at St. Paul's School, London, under 
Dr. Richard Roberts. The headmaster re- 
commended his parents to send him to the 
university, but they were strict nonconfor- 
mists, and would not accept the advice. The 
lad went into his father's business, and did 
not wholly withdraw from mercantile pur- 
suits until near the end of his days. But for 
his literary taste and public zeal he would 
have died a man of great wealth. 

Rutt joined in 1780 the Society for Con- 
stitutional Information, which was founded 
mainly by Major Cartwright (cf. Life of 
Cartwright, i. 134, ii. 295). Under the 
spell of the French revolution he became 
an original and active member of the ' So- 
ciety of the Friends of the People,' to which 
Lord Grey, Erskine, and other prominent 
whigs belonged. The suffe rings of the Scottish 
reformers, Muir, Palmer, and Skirving, ex- 
cited his warmest sympathy; he visited the 
convicts on board the hulks, when awaiting 
orders to sail, and sent papers and pamphlets 
to them in New South Wales (BELSHAM, 
Memoirs of T. Lindsey, p. 524). His reli- 
gious convictions gradually became Unitarian, 
and by 1796 he was a leading member of the 
Gravel Pit congregation at Hackney, of 
which Belsham was the pastor. With 
Priestley and Gilbert Wakefield he was on 
the closest terms of friendship. He rendered 
good service to the former after the riots at 
Birmingham, and he was one of Wakefield's 
bail, and smoothed his lot after his incarcera- 
tion in Dorchester gaol. Another intimate 
friend was Henry Crabb Robinson [q. v.] 

On his partial withdrawal from business 
about 1800 Rutt dwelt for some years at 

Whitegate House, near Witham in Essex, 
afterwards alternately at Clapton and Bromr- 
ley by Bow, and finally settled at Bexley. He 
aided in founding the ' Monthly Repository,' 
was a regular contributor to its columns, and 
occasionally acted as its editor (ASPLASTD, 
Memoir of Robert Aspland, pp. 191, 566). 
He also wrote in the ' Christian Reformer,' 
the other journal of the Unitarians. In 1802 
he edited for that religious body a ' Collection 
of Prayers, Psalms, and Hymns.' As a mem- 
ber of the Clothworkers' he worked energeti- 
cally in the administration of the company's 
charities, and he laid the first stone of the 
Domestic Society's school and chapel in Spicer 
Street, Spitalfields. His public speaking was 
vigorous, his conversation was animated, and 
his verses showed facility and playful humour. 
He died at Bexley on 3 March 1841. He 
married, in June 1786, Rachel, second daugh- 
ter of Joseph Pattisson of Maldon, Essex. 
They had thirteen children, seven of whom, 
with his widow, survived him. Rachel, the 
eldest daughter, married Sir Thomas Noon 
Talfourd [q. v.] 

Rutt was the author of a small volume of 
poetry, entitled t The Sympathy of Priests. 
Addressed to T. F. Palmer, at Port Jackson. 
With Odes,' 1792. In conjunction with 
Arnold Wainewright, he published in 1804 
an enlarged edition, brought down to the 
date of death, of the ' Memoirs of Gilbert 
Wakefield,'' originally published by Wake- 
field in 1792. The years between 1817 and 
1831 were chiefly spent in editing the ' Theo- 
logical and Miscellaneous Works of Dr. 
Priestley ' in twenty-five volumes, portions of 
which were subsequently issued separately. 
The first volume Rutt separately issued as 
'Life and Correspondence of Joseph Priest- 
ley,' 1831-2, 2 vols. Rutt also edited with 
ample notes, historical and biographical, the 
' Diary of Thomas Burton, M.P., 1656 to 
1659' (1828), 'Calamy's Historical Account 
of my own Life, 1671-1731 ' (1830), and * The 
Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Samuel 
Pepys. With a Narrative of his Voyage to 
Tangier ' (1841) (cf. MACRAY, Bodleian Li- 
brary, 2nd ed., pp. 236-7). He contributed 
several articles to the ' Encyclopaedia Metro- 
politana,' including that on the history of 

[Memorials of J. T. Rutt, for private circula- 
tion, 1845; Gent. Mag. 1841, i. 437-8; Gar- 
diner's St. Paul's School, p. 151 ; Crabb Robin- 
son's Diary, passim; Christian Reformer, 1841, 
pp. 122, 261-2.] W. P. C. 

RUTTER, JOHN (1796-1851), topo- 
grapher, son of Thomas Rutter, a quaker, of 
Bristol, was born there on 10 April 1796. 


3 1 


He was brought up as a quaker. About 1818 
he settled as a bookseller and printer at 
Shaftesbury, Dorset. He obtained an intro- 
duction to William Beckford [q. v.], author 
of 'Vathek,' who invited him to Fonthill 
Abbey. Butter published at Shaftesbury, 
in 1822 'Delineations of Fonthill Abbey and 
Desmesne, Wiltshire/ which ran to a sixth 
edition in the same year. In 1823 there 
appeared a handsomely illustrated large- 
paper edition. Tom Moore, who visited 
Shaftesbury on 21 July 1826 (Diary, v. 92), 
describes Rutter, ' the quaker bookseller,' 
as thrusting a copy of ' this splendid work ' 
into his carriage as he was driving off, saying 
it was a mark of his respect for the indepen- 
dent spirit Moore had shown in his life of 

Rutter also published : ' History of War- 
dour Castle,' 1823, 8vo ; < Guide to Cleve- 
don,' 1829; ' Delineations of North-West 
Somersetshire,' 1829, 4to ; ' The Westonian 
Guide,' 1829, 8vo (republished as ' A New 
Guide toWeston-super-Mare,' 1840(?),8vo); 
and ' Guide to Banwell Bone Caverns,' ] 829, 
8vo. Rutter's * Letters in Defence of the 
Bible Society to L. Neville ' appeared at 
London in 1836. 

Rutter was a strong reformer in politics, 
and was fined 51. for printing a circular 
note without putting his name to it during 
the election of 1830. An account of the 
election was published by Rutter anony- 

Soon afterwards Rutter gave up his busi- 
ness and studied law. He eventually acquired 
considerable practice in Shaftesbury and the 
neighbourhood. He withdrew from the So- 
ciety of Friends in 1836, at the time of Isaac 
Crewdson's publication of 'The Beacon,' 
but he attended quaker meetings all his life, 
and on his death, at Shaftesbury, on 2 April 
1851, was buried in the Friends' burial- 
ground there. By his wife, Anne Burchell 
(1791-1879), he had six children. 

[Smith's Cat. of Friends' Books, ii. 519 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Illustr. vi. 242; Allibone's Dic- 
tionary of English Literature, ii. 1904 ; Annual 
Monitor, 1880, p. 142; Registers at Devonshire 
House.] 0. F. S. 

RUTTER, JOSEPH (fl. 1635), poet, be- 
longed to Ben Jonson's latest circle of 
friends. In 1635 he published ' The Shep- 
lieard's Holy Day. A Pastorall Tragi 
Comoedie Acted before both their Majesties 
at White Hall. With an Elegie on the most 
noble lady Venetia Digby,' London, 1635, 8vo. 
Rutter appears to have lived with Sir Kenelni 
Digby [q. v.] for a time after the death of his 
\vife in 1033. To Rutter's work Ben Jonson 

wrote a preface addressed ' to my deare sonne 
and right learned friend.' Another is pre- 
fixed by Thomas May [q. v.] Rutter has an 
elegy on Ben Jonson in ' Jonsonus Virbius,' 
London, 1638, 4to. For some years Rutter 
was tutor to the two sons of Edward Sack- 
ville, fourth earl of Dorset [q.v.], lord cham- 
berlain to Queen Henrietta Maria. At the 
earl's desire Rutter translated from Corneille 
' The Cid. A Tragi comedy out of French 
made English and acted before their Majes- 
ties at Court, and on the Cock pit stage in 
Drury Lane, by the servants to both their 
Majesties,' London, 1637, 12mo. Part of the 
translation is said to have been the work of 
Rutter's pupils, Richard Sackville, after- 
wards Earl of Dorset, and Edward (d. 1645). 
The second part was published at the king's 
command in 1640, and both were repub- 
lished at London, 1650, 4to. Some verses 
1 On a Lady's tempting eye,' attributed to a 
John Rutter in Harleian MS. 6917, f. 77, 
may probably be his. 

[Ward's Hist, of Engl. Dram. Lit. vol. i. p.xlvi; 
Fleay's Biogr, Chron. of the English Drama, ii. 
173; Baker's Biogr. Dram. i. 614; Dodsley's 
Select Coll. of Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, xii. 361 ; 
Gray's Index to Hazlitt, p. 622 ; Cat. of Books 
before 1640, iii. 1334 ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum, 
Addit. MS. 24489, f. 294.] C. F. S. 

RUTTY, JOHN, M.D. (1698-1 775), physi- 
cian, was born in Wiltshire, of quaker parents, 
on 25 Dec. 1698, and after medical educa- 
tion at Leyden, where he graduated M.D. in 
1723, reading a thesis ' De Diarrhoea,' settled 
in Dublin as a physician in 1724, and there 
practised throughout his life. He had been 
brought up a member of the Society of Friends, 
and was zealously attached to its tenets and 
discipline. He was a constant student of 
medicine and the allied sciences, as well as 
of spiritual books, such as those of Thomas a 
Kempis, Law, the Port Royalists, and W^atts. 
Pie lived sparely, sometimes dined on nettles, 
practised various forms of abstinence, drank 
very little alcohol, and often gave his services 
to the poor. In 1737 he began, he says, to 
form a just conception of the nature of this 
life, and saw it as a scene of sorrows, infirmi- 
ties, and sins. In 1753 he began on 13 Sept. 
to keep ' a spiritual diary and soliloquies,' 
and continued it till December 1774, 
leaving directions in his will for its publica- 
tion. The chief ill-doings of which he ac- 
cuses himself are too great a love for the 
studies of the materia medica and meteoro- 
logy, irritability, and excessive enjoyment 
of food. Though he deplores these excesses 
in language which seems disproportioned, and 
which justly excited Dr. Johnson's laugh 


(BOSWELL'S Johnson, ii. 155), it is clear that 
he was sincere and that his life was blame- 
less. He avoided every kind of excess ex- 
cept that of verbal expression, as when he 
speaks, in 1768, of the 'dismal wounding 
news from England, even the vain profusion 
of expense in diamonds on occasion of the 
visit of the king of Denmark.' His first 
medical book was ' An Account of Experi- 
ments on Joanna Stephen's Medicine for the 
Stone,' published in London in 1742. He 
published in Dublin in 1751 'A History 
of the Rise and Progress of the People called 
Quakers in Ireland, from 1653 to 1751,' a 
continuation of a book originally written by 
Thomas Wight of Cork in 1700 ; a fourth 
edition was issued in 1811. In 1757 he 
published in London ' A Methodical Synopsis 
of Mineral Waters,' a quarto of 058 pages, 
which gives an account of the chief mineral 
springs of the British Isles and of Europe. 
He had thrown doubt on some statements 
of Charles Lucas (1713-1771) [q. v.] in his 
account of the spa of Lisdoonvarna, co. Clare, 
and Lucas issued a general attack on the 
book, of which Rutty remarks in his diary 
' a wholesome discipline, though severe.' 
He published in Dublin, in 1762, a tract 
called ' The Analysis of Milk,' and in 1770 
'The Weather and Seasons in Dublin for 
Forty Years,' which mentions the prevalent 
diseases throughout that period. He was 
always fond of natural history, and in 1772 
published ' A Natural History of the County 
of Dublin ' in two volumes. His last work 
was published in quarto at Rotterdam in 
1775. It was a Latin treatise on drugs, 
containing much learning, entitled * Materia 
Medica Antiqua et Nova,' and is still useful 
for reference. It had occupied him for 
forty years. On 6 April 1775 John Wesley 
(Journal, iv. 40) records that he 'visited 
that venerable man Dr. Rutty.' Rutty then 
lived in rooms, for which he paid an annual 
rent of 10Z., at the eastern corner of Boot 
Lane and Mary's Lane in Dublin. He 
died on 27 April 1775, and was buried in a 
Quaker burial-ground which occupied the 
site of the present College of Surgeons in 
Stephen's Green, Dublin. 

[Rutty 's Spiritual Diary, 2 vols. 1776, 2nd 
edit. 1796, 1 vol.; Hibernian Mag. 1775, p. 320; 
Leadbeater's Biographical Notices of Members 
of the Society of Friends, London, 1 828 ; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography, Dublin, 1878 ; 
Lucas's Analysis of Dr. Rutty's Methodical 
Synopsis of Mineral Waters, London, 1757; 
Smith's Catalogue of Friends' Books ; Gent. 
Mag. 1808, ii. 110 ; Works; Peacock's Index of 
Leyden Students ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, 
edit. 1791.] N. M. 


BUTTY, WILLIAM, M.D. (1687-1730), 
physician, was born in London in 1687. He 
entered at Christ's College, Cambridge, in 
1707, and there graduated M.B. in 1712 and 
M.D.on 17 July 1719. He was admitted a can- 
didate or member of the College of Physicians 
30 Sept. 1719, and was elected a fellow 
30 Sept. 1720. On 13 Aug. 1720 he was a 
candidate for the osteology lecture at the 
Barber-Surgeons' Hall, and again 30 Oct. 
1721 ; and was successful when a candidate 
for the third time on 29 March 1721. On 
20 Aug. 1724 he was elected to the viscera 
lectureship at the same place, and 15 Aug. 
1 728 to the muscular lectureship. In March 
1722 he delivered the Gulstonian lectures at 
the College of Physicians on the anatomy 
and diseases of the urinary organs, and pub- 
lished them in quarto in 1726 as ' A Treatise 
of the Urinary Passages,' with a dedication 
to Sir Hans Sloane. The lectures contain a 
clear statement of the existing knowledge 
of the subject, and relate two interesting 
cases, not to be found elsewhere : one in 
the practice of John Bamber, lithotomist to 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, of calcified 
concretions in the caecum giving rise to 
symptoms resembling renal colic, and the 
other of double renal calculus in the daughter 
of Sir Hugh Myddelton [q. v.], from a note 
by Dr. Francis Glisson [q. v.] He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society 30 June 
1720, and became second secretary 30 Nov. 
1727. He died on 10 June 1730. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 74 ; Young's His- 
tory of the Barber Surgeons ; Thomson's History 
of the Royal Society ; entry in the manuscript 
matriculation lists at Cambridge sent by Dr. 
John Peile, master of Christ's College ; Works.] 


DE RUVIGNY, HENKI DE, second marquis, 


1867), engraver, was born at Frome, Somerset, 
in August 1811. He was a pupil of Samuel 
William Reynolds [q. v.], the mezzotinto 
engraver, but the style in which he at first 
worked was that known as ' chalk ' or ' stipple.' 
He began his career by engraving plates for 
the editions in folio and in octavo of Lodge's 
' Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great 
Britain,' and for the series of ' Portraits of 
Eminent Conservatives and Statesmen,' as 
well as for Heath's ' Book of Beauty ' and other 
works. His larger and more important plates, 
however, are a combination of line and stipple, 
which he brought to a degree of perfection it 
had never reached before. Foremost among 
these are l The Coronation of Queen Victoria/ 


after the picture by Sir George Hayter, and 
' The Christening of the Princess Royal/ after 
Charles Robert Leslie, R.A., the engraving 
of which procured for him the honorary 
appointment of historical engraver to the 
queen. He likewise engraved ' Christopher 
Columbus at the Convent of La Rabida/ 
after Sir David Wilkie, 11. A. ; ' The Blind 
Girl at the Holy Well ,' after Sir Frederick W. 
Burton, the first publication of the Royal 
Irish Art Union ; ' Landais Peasants going 
to Market' and 'Changing Pasture,' after 
Rosa Bonheur ; ' The Death of a Stag,' ' The 
Combat,' ' The Fight for the Standard,' l Just 
Caught/ and ' Dogs and their Game ' (a series 
of six plates), after Richard Ansdell, R.A. : 
'The Halt' and 'The Keepers Daughter/ 
after R. Ansdell, R.A., and W. P. Frith, 
R.A. ; ' The Pursuit of Pleasure ' and ' Home ! 
The Return from the Crimea/ after Sir Joseph 
Noel Paton, R.S.A. ; ' Knox administering 
the first Protestant Sacrament in Scotland/ 
after William Bonnar, R.S.A. ; ' Queen Vic- 
toria and the Prince of Wales/ after Robert 
Thorburn, A. R.A. ; * The Princess Helena and 
Prince Alfred/ after F. Winterhalter ; 'Adam 
and Eve ' (< The Temptation and the Fall '), 
after Claude Marie Dubufe ; ' Devotion/ after 
Edouard Frere ; ' A Duel after a Bal Masque/ 
after Jean Leon Gerome ; ' The Prayer/ after 
Jean Baptiste Jules Trayer ; and the follow- 
ing, among other plates, after Sir Edwin 
Landseer, R.A. : 'There's Life in the Old 
Dog yet/ ' The Reaper/ ' The Dairy Maid/ 
'The Deerstalkers Return/ 'A Highland 
Interior/ ' Waiting for the Deer to rise/ 
' Coming Events/ and ' The Hawking Party/ 
from Sir Walter Scott's novel 'The Be- 
trothed.' He engraved also Sir William 
Charles Ross's miniatures of Queen Victoria 
and the prince consort, and several other 
portraits. He painted occasionally in oils, and 
exhibited in 1846 at the Society of British 
Artists ' Waiting for an Answer/ and at the 
Royal Academy ' A Reverie ' in 1852, and 
* The Crochet Lesson ' in 1859. 

Ryall died at his residence at Cookham, 
Berkshire, on 14 Sept. 1867. 

[Gent. Maar. 1867, ii. 683; Athenaeum. 1867, 
ii. 368 ; Art Journal, 1867, p. 249 ; Bryan's Dic- 
tionary of Painters and Engravers, e<l. Graves 
und Armstrong, 1886-9, ii." 431 ; Redgrave's 
Dictionary of Artists of the English School, 
1878.] R. E. G. 

1798), Irish loyalist, born about 1762, was 
the son of Dr. Ryan of Wexford and Mary, 
laughter of William Morton of Ballinaclash, 
<<>. Wexford. He was educated at Trinity 
< '"liege, Dublin, and afterwards entered the 
VOL. L. 



army as surgeon in the 103rd regiment, com- 
manded by Sir Ralph Abercromby [q. v.] On 
the reduction of that regiment in 1784 he 
married Catherine Bishopp of Kinsale, co. 
Cork, and obtained an appointment as editor of 
the ' Dublin Journal/ one of the chief govern- 
ment papers, of which his uncle by marriage, 
John Gitfard, was proprietor. In this way 
he was brought into close relations with Lord 
Castlereagh and under-secretary Edward 
Cooke [q. v.] He was soon noted for his 
loyalty, and, having raised the St. Sepulchre's 
yeomanry corps, of which he was captain, he 
was frequently employed in assisting town- 
majors Henry Charles Sirr [q. v.] and Swan 
! in the execution of their police duties (cf. 
Castlereagh Corresp. i. 464). He was instru- 
mental in capturing William Putnam M'Cabe 
[q. v.] (cf. Auckland Corresp. iii. 41 3), and at 
Cooke's request he consented to help Sirr and 
Swan on 19 May 1798 in arresting Lord Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald [q. v.] Arrived at Murphy's 
house in Thomas Street, where Fitzgerald 
lay in hiding, Major Sirr, with eight men, 
remained below with his men to guard the 
exits and to prevent a rescue, while Ryan and 
Swan searched the house. It was Swan who 
first entered the apartment where Fitzgerald 
lay, but the details of the conflict that ensued 
are rather confused, some claiming for Swan 
an equal if not a greater share than Ryan in 
the capture of Fitzgerald, while others attri- 
bute his capture solely to the bravery of 
Ryan. On a careful comparison of the autho- 
rities, and with due regard to the testimony 
of Ryan's family, it would appear that Swan, 
having been slightly, but, as he believed, 
mortally, wounded by Fitzgerald, hastily 
retired to seek assistance, leaving Ryan, who 
entered at that moment, alone with Fitz- 
gerald. Though possessing no more formi- 
dable weapon than a sword-cane, which bent 
harmlessly against him, Ryan at once grappled 
with him, while Fitzgerald, enraged at finding 
his escape thus barred, inflicted on him four- 
teen severe wounds with his dagger. When 
Sirr appeared, and with a shot from his pis- 
tol w T ounded Fitzgerald in the right arm, 
and thus terminated the unequal struggle, 
Ryan presented a pitiable spectacle. He 
was at once removed to a neighbouring 
house, and, though at first hopes were given 
of his recovery (ib. iii. 415), he expired of 
his wounds on 30 May 1798. Before his death 
he gave an account of the scene to a relative, 
who committed it to writing, and it is still 
in the possession of his descendants. He was 
buried on 2 June, his funeral being attended 
by a large concourse of citizens, includinghis 
own yeomanry corps. He left a wife and 
three young children. His widow received a 





pension from government of 200/. per annum 
for herself and her two daughters, while her 
son, Daniel Frederick Ryan, became a bar- 
rister at Dublin, an assistant secretary in 
the excise office, London, and subsequently 
found a friend and patron in Sir ilobert 

[Madden's United Irishmen, 2nd edit. 2nd ser. 
pp. 433-7; Gent. Mag. 1798, i. 539, ii. 720; 
Lecky's Hist, of England, viii; 42- 3 ; Fitzpatrick's 
Secret Service under Pitt, with Swan's o\vn ac- 
count from the Express of 26 May 1798; Castle- 
reagh Corresp. i. 458-63; Moore's Life of Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald, ii. 82-90 ; Auckland Corresp. 
iii. 413-18 ; Eeynolds's Life of Thomas Keynolds, 
ii. 230-6 ; Froude's English in Ireland, ed. 1881, 
iii. 393 ; information furnished by Kyan's grand- 
son, Daniel Bishopp Kyan, esq., of Glen Elgin, 
New South Wales, and Mrs. Eleanor D. Coffey, 
Kyan's granddaughter.] E. D. 

RYAN, EDWARD, D.D. (d. 1819), pre- 
bendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin, second son 
of John Philip Ryan, by his wife, Miss 
Murphy, was born in Ireland. He entered 
Trinity College, Dublin, as a scholar, 1767, 
graduated B.A. 1769, M.A. 1773, LL.B. 
1779, B.D. 1782, and D.D. in 1789. He was 
curate at St. Anne's, Dublin, from 1776, 
vicar of St. Luke's, Dublin, and prebendary 
of St. Patrick's from 16 June 1790 until his 
death in January 1819. Although some of 
his family were strictly catholic, Ryan 
strenuously attacked Catholicism in a ( His- 
tory of the Effects of Religion on Mankind' 
(vol. i. London, 1788, 8vo, vol. ii. 1793 ; 
3rd ed. Edinburgh, 1806, 8vo). It was 
translated into French (' Bienfaits de la Re- 
ligion,' Paris, 1810, 8vo). The proceeds of 
the publication Ryan devoted to the poor of 
the parish of St. Luke's. Other works by 
him are : 1. ' A Short but Comprehensive 
View of the Evidences of the Mosaic and 
Christian Codes,' &c., Dublin, 1795, 8vo. 
2. 'An Analysis of Ward's Errata of the 
Protestant Bible' (published 1688), Dublin, 
1808, 8vo ; this was answered by Dr. Milner 
in ' An Inquiry into certain Opinions con- 
cerning the Catholic Inhabitants of Ireland,' 
&c. ; 3rd ed. London, 1818. 3. 'Letter to G. 
Ensor, &c., to which are added Reasons for 
being a Christian,' Dublin, 1811, 8vo. 

[Cat. of Grad. Trin. Coll. Dublin, p. 499 ; 
Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hib. ii. 163*, 185, v. 125 ; 
Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors,1816, p. 303 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1819, i. 92; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
iv. 328, and 3rd ser. iii. 344 ; Nichols's Lite- 
rary Illustrations, vii. 106, 137, 149, 183, 825; 
Monck Mason's History and Antiquities of St. 
Patrick's, App. pp. Ixxxi, Ixxxiv ; informa- 
tion from C. M. Tenison, esq., of Hobart, Tas- 
mania.] C. F. S. 

RYAN, SIR EDWARD (1793-1875), 
chief justice of Bengal and civil-service com- 
missioner, second son of William Ryan, was 
born on 28 Aug. 1793. In the autumn of 
1810 he matriculated from Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he was the friend and 
contemporary of John E.W.Herschel, F.R.S., 
Charles Babbage, F.R.S., and George Pea- 
cock, F.R.S. Graduating B.A. in 1814, he 
directed his attention to the study of law, 
and on 23 June 3817 was called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, and went the Oxford cir- 
cuit. His acquaintance with Herschel led 
him to join the Royal Astronomical Society 
in February 1820. In 1826 he was appointed 
a puisne judge of the supreme court of Cal- 
cutta and was knighted. He was promoted 
to the chief-justiceship of the presidency of 
Bengal in 1833. During his residence in 
Calcutta he exercised much hospitality and 
was very popular. In January 1843 he re- 
signed his office and returned to England, 
and on 10 June 1843 was sworn a privy 
councillor, so that the country might have 
the benefit of his experience as a judge in 
cases of Indian appeals to the judicial com- 
mittee of the privy council, a duty which he 
discharged until November 1865. He was 
gazetted a railway commissioner on 4 Nov. 
1846, and served as assistant controller of 
the exchequer from 1851 to 1862. On the 
formation of the civil service commission, he 
was by an order in council dated 21 May 
1855 named one of the first unpaid com- 
missioners. In April 1862 he became first 
commissioner and a salaried officer, resigning 
the assistant-comptrollership of the ex- 
chequer and his membership of the judicial 
committee of the privy council. Under his 
presidency the scope of the commission was 
enlarged from year to year, the test examina- 
tion of nominees for civil appointments 
being succeeded by limited competition as 
recommended by Lord Derby's committee of 
1860, and that being followed by open com- 
petition as established by the order in council 
of June 1870. In addition, the commission 
from 1858 conducted the examinations for 
the civil service of India, and also for the ad- 
missions to the army. During all this period 
Ryan, assisted by his colleagues, was the 
guiding spirit, performing his duties with a 
rare tact and sagacity. 

Ryan also took much interest in the pro- 
sperity of the university of London, of which 
he was a member of the senate, and from 
1871 to 1874 vice-chancellor. He was a 
member of the council of University College, 
London, and was elected F.G.S. in 1846, and 
F.R.S. 2 Feb. 1860. He died at Dover on 
22 Aug. 1875. He married, in 1814, Louisa, 




sixth daughter of William Whitmore of , 
Dudmaston, Bridgnorth, Shropshire, and by 
her, who died on 6 Feb. 1866, he had five 
children. His third son, William Caven- 
dish Bentinck, became a colonel of the Ben- | 
gal army. 

Ryan was the author of ' Reports of Cases | 
at Nisi Prius, in the King's Bench and Com- | 
mon Pleas, and on the Oxford and Western 
Circuits, 1823-26,' 1827, and with Sir Wil- I 
liam Oldnall Russell [q. v.] he published ! 
1 Crown Cases reserved for Consideration and 
decided by the Twelve Judges of England 
from the year 1799,' 1825. 

[Emily Eden's Letters from India, 1872, i. 
114 et seq. ; Solicitors' Journal, 1875, xix. 825; \ 
Law Times, 1875, lix. 321 ; Illustrated London j 
News, 1875, Ixvii. 215, 253, 367, with portrait; j 
Dunkin's Obituary Notices of Astronomers, 1879, ; 
pp. 221-3; Annual Register, 1875, p. 146 ;j 
Times, 25 Aug. 1875, p. 7.] G-. C. B. 

RYAN, LACY (1694 ?-l 760), actor, the 
son of a tailor, of descent presumedly Irish, 
was born in the parish of St. Margaret, West- 
minster, about 1694. He was intended for the 
law, educated at St. Paul's School, and sent 
into the office of his godfather, one Lacy, a 
solicitor. This occupation he abandoned, 
and on 1 July 1710 he played at Greenwich, 
under William Pinkethman [q. v.], Rosen- 
crantz in 'Hamlet.' He must have pre- 
viously appeared at the Haymarket, since 
Betterton, who saw him as Seyton in * Mac- 
beth' (28 Nov. 1709?), and who died on 
4 May 1710, is said to have commended j 
him while chiding Downes the prompter for i 
sending on a child in a full-bottomed wig to | 
sustain a man's part. On 3 Jan. 1711 Ryan | 
played at Drury Lane Lorenzo in the ' Jew 
of Venice,' Lord Lansdowne's alteration of . 
the ' Merchant of Venice.' Granius in j 
' Caius Marius' followed on 17 March 1711, j 
and on 17 Aug. he was the original 
Young Gentleman in Settle's ' City Ramble, 
or a Playhouse Wedding.' On 12 ISov. he 
was the first Valentine in the ' Wife's 
Relief, or the Husband's Cure,' an altera- 
tion by Charles Johnson of Shirley's ( Game- 
ster.' In the ' Humours of the Army ' of 
Charles Shadwell he was on 29 Jan. 1713 
the original Ensign Standard. On the re- 
commendation of Steele, he was assigned the 
part of Marcus in the original production of 
'Cato' on 14 April, and on 12 May he 
was the first Astrolabe in Gay's 'Wife of 
Bath.' At Drury Lane he was on 5 Jan. 
1714 the original Areas in Charles Johnson's 
* Victim,' played Ferdinand in the ' Tempest,' 
Sir Andrew Tipstaff in the ' Puritan, or the 
Widow of Watling Street,' Loveday in 
4 London Cuckolds,' and Lovewell in the 

' Gamester;' he was on 20 April 1715 the 
original Sussex in Rowe's ' Lady Jane Gray,' 
played Laertes, Vincent in the ' Jovial 
Crew,' Edgworth in ' Bartholomew Fair,' 
Richmond in ' Richard III,' Frederick in 
the ' Rover,' Prince of Tanais in ' Tamer- 
lane,' Bonario in ' Volpone,' Cassio, Lucius 
in ' Titus Andrcmicus,' Sir William Rant in 
the ' Scourers,' Bertram in the * Spanish 
Friar,' Clerimont in the * Little French 
Lawyer;' was on 17 Dec. 1716 the first 
Learchus in Mrc. Centlivre's 'Cruel Gift,' 
on 25 Feb. 1717 the first Osmyn in Charles 
Johnson's 'Sultaness,' and on 11 April the 
first Vortimer in Mrs. Manley's 'Lucius, the 
first Christian King of Britain.' In the autumn 
of 1717 he was acting in the booth of Bullock 
and Leigh at Southwark Fair. In the fol- 
lowing summer, while eating his supper at 
the Sun tavern, Ryan was assaulted by a 
notorious tippler and bully named Kelly, 
whom in self-defence he ran through with 
his sword and killed, fortunately without 
serious consequence to himself (20 June 
1718). On 1 March 1718 he had made, as 
Cassius in 'Julius Csesar,' his first appear- 
ance at Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he 
remained about fourteen years. Quite in- 
terminable would be a list of the parts he 
played at this house, where he shared with 
Quin the lead in tragedy and comedy. 
Among them may be mentioned Torrismond 
in the ' Spanish Friar,' Careless in the 'Double 
Dealer,' Lysimachu.s in the ' Rival Queens,' 
Portius in ' Cato,' Courtwell in ' Woman's a 
Riddle,' Banquo, Essex, Hamlet, Richard II, 
lago, Oroonoko, Edgar, Ford, Troilus, Bene- 
dick, Hotspur, Castalio, Moneses, Archer, 
Sir George Airy, Hippolitus, Macduff, Mar- 
donius in ' King and No King,' Loveless 
in ' Love's Last Shift,' Captain Plume, 
Julius Caesar, Buckingham in ' Henry VIII,' 
Amintor in the ' Maid's Tragedy,' Sir Harry 
Wildair, the Copper Captain, and Lord 
Townly. Among very many original parts, 
Howard in Sewell's ' Sir Walter Raleigh,' 
16 Jan. 1719, and Flaminius in Fenton's 
' Mariamne,' 22 Feb. 1723, alone need be men- 

On the opening of the new house in Covent 
Garden, on 7 Dec. 1732, by the Lincoln's Inn 
Fields company, Ryan took part as Mirabell 
in the performance of the ' Way of the 
World.' At this house he continued during 
the remainder of his career. On 15 March 
1735 Ryan was shot through the jaw and 
robbed by a footpad in Great Queen Street. 
On the 17th, when his name was in the bill 
for Loveless, he wrote to the ' Daily Post ' ex- 
pressing his fear that he would never be able 
to appear again, and apologising for not being 


Ryan ; 

able to appeal in person to his patrons at his 
benefit on the 20th. The benefit was, however, 
a great success. The Prince of Wales sent ten 
guineas, and there was a crowded house, for 
which, on the 22nd, in the same paper, Ryan 
returned thanks. His upper jaw was prin- 
cipally injured. He reappeared on 25 April 
as the original Bellair in Popple's ' Double 
Deceit, or a Cure for Jealousy.' On 7 Feb. 
1760, as Eumenes in the ( Siege of Damascus,' 
he was seen for what seems to have been the 
last time. On 1 March he advertised that he 
had been for some time much indisposed, and 
had postponed his benefit until 14 April, in 
the hope of being able to pay his personal 
attendance on his friends. For that benefit 
' Comus ' and the ' Cheats of Scapin ' were 
played. It does not appear that he took part 
in either piece, and on 15 Aug. 1760, at his 
house in Crown Court, Westminster, or, ac- 
cording to another account, in Bath, he died. 

After his first success as Marcus in Addi- 
son's ' Cato,' Ryan enjoyed for nearly thirty 
years a claim rarely disputed to the lovers 
in tragedy and the fine gentlemen in comedy. 
Above the middle height, easy rather than 
graceful in action and deportment, and awk- 
ward in the management of his head, he ap- 
peared at times extravagantly ridiculous in 
characters such as Phocyas or Sir George 
Airy, yet for a long time he was highly 
esteemed. His parts were very numerous. 
His most important original part was Falcon- 
bridge in Gibber's 'Papal Tyranny in the 
Reign of King John,' 15 Feb. 1745. His best 
performances were as Edgar in ( Lear,' Ford, 
Dumont, lago, Mosca in l Volpone,' Cassius, 
Frankly in the * Suspicious Husband,' Mo- 
neses, and Jaffier. In the fourth act of 
1 Macbeth ' he was excellent as Macduff. His 
mad scene in ' Orestes ' won high commenda- 
tion, and in his last act as Lord Townly he 
triumphed, though he had to encounter the 
formidable rivalry of Barry. He was too old 
when he played Alonzo in the ' Revenge/ 
but showed power in the scenes of jealousy 
and distraction, and his Captain Plume, one 
of his latest assumptions, displayed much 
spirit. Without ever getting quite into the 
first rank, he approached very near it, and 
was one. of the most genuinely useful actors 
of the day. 

Ryan, whose voice had a drawling, croak- 
ing accent, due to the injury to his jaw, by 
which his features, naturally handsome, were 
also damaged, was one of the actors whom 
Garrick, in his early and saucy mimicries, 
derided on the stage. In subsequent years 
Garrick went to see Ryan for the purpose of 
laughing at his ungraceful and ill-dressed 
figure in l Richard III,' but found unexpected 

5 Ryan 

excellence in his performance, by which he 
modified and improved his own impersonation. 
Quin's friendship with Ryan was constant, 
and was creditable to both actors [see QFIN, 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; 
Dibdin's English Stage; Davies's Life of Garrick 
and Dramatic Miscellanies ; Tate Wilkinson's 
Memoirs and Wandering Patentee ; Theatrical 
Examiner, 1757 ; Doran's Stage Annals, ed. 
Lowe; Life of Garrick, 1894; Thespian Dic- 
tionary ; Georgian Era ; Clark Eussell's Repre- 
sentative Actors ; Dramatic Censor.] J. K. 

RYAN, MICHAEL (1800-1841), phy- 
sician and author, was born in 1800. He was 
a member of both the College of Surgeons 
and the college of Physicians in London, where 
he practised, and was physician to the Me- 
tropolitan Free Hospital. In 1830 he was a 
candidate for the professorship of toxicology 
in the Medico-Botanical Society. On 11 May 
of the same year he communicated to that 
society a paper on l The Use of the Secale 
Cornutum or Ergot of Rye in Midwifery.' 

Besides editing from 1832 to 1838 the 
original ' London Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal ' (J. F. CLARKE, Autobiographical Recol- 
lections, 1874, pp. 279-80), he published in 
1831 part of a course of lectures on medi- 
cal jurisprudence, delivered at the medical 
theatre, Hatton Garden, under the title ' Lec- 
tures on Population, Marriage, and Divorce 
as Questions of State Medicine, comprising 
an Account of the Causes and Treatment of 
Impotence and Sterility/ 

In the same year appeared the completed 
' Manual of Medical Jurisprudence, being 
an Analysis of a Course of Lectures on 
Forensic Medicine, &c.' A second and en- 
larged edition was issued in 1836, an edition 
with notes by R. E. Griffith, M.D., having 
been published in Philadelphia in 1832. In 
1831 also appeared the third edition, in 
12mo, of Ryan's ' Manual of Midwifery . . . 
comprising a new Nomenclature of Obstetric 
Medicine, with a concise Account of the 
Symptoms and Treatment of the most im- 
portant Diseases of Women and Children. 
Illustrated by plates.' An enlarged octavo 
edition was issued in 1841, rewritten, and 
containing ' a complete atlas including 120 
figures.' The 'Atlas of Obstetricity ' had 
been issued separately in 1840. An Ameri- 
can edition of the ' Manual ' appeared at 
Burlington, Vermont, in 1835. Ryan's later 
publications included l The Philosophy of 
Marriage in its Social, Moral, and Physical 
Relations ; with an Account of the Diseases 
of the Genito-Urinary Organs and the Phy- 
siology of Generation in the Vegetable and 
Animal Kingdom,' 1837, 8vo ; this formed 




part of a course of obstetric lectures delivered 
at the North London School of Medicine. 
Twelve editions in all, the last in 1867, were 
issued. It was followed in 1839 by ' Pro- 
stitution in London, with a Comparative 
View of that of Paris and New York . . . 
with an Account of the Nature and Treat- 
ment of the various Diseases, c. Illus- 
trated by plates.' 

He died in London on 11 Dec. 1841, leav- 
ing a young family unprovided for. 

Besides the works mentioned, Ryan pub- 
lished * The Medico-Chirurgical Pharma- 
copoeia,' 1837, 12mo, 2nd ed. 1839 ; and T. 
Denman's ' Obstetrician's Yade-Mecum, edited 
and augmented,' 1836, 12mo. He also trans- 
lated and added to ' Le Nouveau Formula-ire 
pratique des Hopitaux ' by Milne-Edwards and 

Another MICHAEL RYAN (f. 1800), medi- 
cal writer, graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 
1784, his thesis being 'De Raphania.' He 
was a fellow of the Irish College of Sur- 
geons, and practised for some years at Kil- 
kenny. He afterwards gained some reputa- 
tion at Edinburgh, and is described as a 
fellow of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, 
though his name is not in the lists. In 1787 
he published at Dublin ' An Enquiry into 
the Nature, Causes, and Cure of Consump- 
tion of the Lungs, &c.' This work was in 
the nature of a comment upon Cullen's ' First 
Lines of the Practice of Physic,' and had an 
appendix combating the views contained in 
Reid's * Essay on the Phthisis Pulmonalis.' 
In 1793 Ryan published ' Observations on 
the History and Cure of the Asthma, in 
which the propriety of using the cold bath 
in that disorder is fully considered;' and in 
1794 a treatise ' On Peruvian Bark.' He also 
contributed to the 'London Medical and Phy- 
sical Journal ' < Observations on the Medical 
Qualities of Acetate of Lead ; ' ' Remarks on 
the Cure of Autumnal Fever ; ' ' Observations 
on the Influenza of 1803 ;" An Account of 
an Epidemic at Kilkenny in 1800,' and other 
articles. He appears to have joined the Royal 
College of Surgeons (London), and afterwards 
entered the colonial service. His widow 
died at Ranelagh, Dublin, in 1851. His son, 
Michael Desmond Ryan, is separately noticed 
(Gent. Mag. 1851, ii. 555 ; cf. Lit. Memoirs of 
Living Authors, 1798 : Biogr. Diet, of Living 
Authors, 1814-16 ; CAMERON, Hist, of the 
Royal Coll. of Surgeons in Ireland, p. 46 ; 
Cat. Roy. Med. and Chirurg. Society ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.} 

[Gent. Mag. 1830 i. 351, 450, 1841 i. 105; 
List of Royal Coll. of Surg. and Physicians ; 
Cat. Royal Med. and Chirurg. Society; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.; Ryan's works; Allibone's Diet, of 

Engl. Lit. ii. 1904, which assigns the works of 
the two Michael Ryans to one author.] 

G. LE G. N. 

1868% dramatic and musical critic, son of 
Dr. Michael Ryan (f,. 1800) [see under 
RYAN, MICHAEL], was born at Kilkenny on 
3 March 1816. He was educated at Edin- 
burgh for the medical profession, but went 
to London in 1836 and gradually drifted 
into literature. ' Christopher among the 
Mountains,' a satire upon Professor Wilson's 
criticism of the last canto of 'Childe Harold/ 
and a parody of the ' Noctes Ambrosianso ' 
were his first notable efforts. In 1844 he be- 
came a contributor to the ' Musical World,' 
of which he was sub-editor from 1846 to 
1868. He was also connected as musical 
and dramatic critic with the ' Morning Post,' 
'Morning Chronicle,' ' Morning Herald,' and 
other journals. In 1849 he wrote the libretto 
of Macfarren's ' Charles II,' and a specta- 
cular opera, ' Pietro il Grande,' commissioned 
by Jullien, was produced at the Royal Italian 
Opera on 17 Aug. 1852. In collaboration 
with Frank Mori he wrote an opera, ' Lam- 
bert Simnel,' intended for Mr. Sims Reeves, 
but never produced. He wrote the words 
of a very large number of songs, of which 
may be mentioned * Songs of Even,' with 
music by F. N . Crouch (1841), a set of twelve 
' Sacred Songs and Ballads ' by Edward 
Loder (1845), and a collection of ' Songs of 
Ireland,' in which, in conjunction with 
F. N. Crouch, he fitted old melodies with 
new words. He died in London on 8 Dec. 

[Grore's Diet, of Music and Musicians; O'Do- 
noghue's Poets of Ireland ; Obituary notices in 
Musical World and Morning Post.] J. C. H. 

RYAN, RICHARD (1796-1849), bio- 
grapher, born in 1796, was son of Richard 
Ryan, a bookseller in Camden Town, who 
died before 1830 (cf. Gent. May. 1830, pt. i.) 
Ryan seems to have followed the business of 
a bookseller, but found time to write several 
interesting books, a few plays, and some 
songs which were set to music by eminent 
composers. His plays ' Everybody's Hus- 
band,' a comic drama in one act ; ' Quite at 
Home,' a comic entertainment in one act ; 
and 'Le Pauvre Jacques,' a vaudeville in 
one act, from the French are printed in J. 
Cumberland's Acting Plays/ 1825. Ryan 
died in 1849. 

Besides the works mentioned, he published 

1. 'Eight Ballads on the Superstitions of 
the Irish Peasantry/ 8vo, London, 1822. 

2. < Biographia Hibernica, a Biographical 
Dictionary of the Worthies of Ireland, from 


the earliest periods to the present time/ 2 
vols. 8vo, London, 1819-21. 3. < Poems on 
Sacred Subjects/ &c., 8vo, London, 1824. 

4. ' Dramatic Table Talk, or Scenes, Situa- 
tions, and Adventures, serious and comic, in 
Theatrical History and Biography, with en- 
gravings/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1825. 

5. ' Poetry and Poets, being a Collection of 
the choicest Anecdotes relative to the Poets 
of every age and nation, illustrated by en- 
gravings/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1826. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. vol. iii. ; 
O'Donoghue's Poets of Ireland, p. 220.] 

D. J. O'D. 

1888), first Anglican bishop of the Mauritius, 
son of John Ryan of the 82nd regiment, by 
his wife Harriett, daughter of Pierre Gauvain, 
judge, of Alderney, was born in Cork Bar- 
racks on 18 Dec. 1816, and within three years 
went with his parents to the Mauritius. On 
their return to England he was educated at 
Gosport. He entered Magdalen Hall (after- 
wards Hertford College), Oxford, in 1838, 
and graduated B.A. in 1841, M.A. 1848, and 
D.D. 1853. Taking holy orders, he went as 
curate to St. Anne's parish, Alderney, of 
which he became incumbent in 1842. In 
1847 he became curate of Edge Hill, near 
Liverpool, and vice-president of the Liver- 
pool Collegiate Institute. He moved to the 
principalship of the Church of England Metro- 
politan Training Institution at Highbury, 
London, on 1 July 1850. In 1854 he was 
nominated bishop' of Mauritius, a post for 
which his familiarity with the French lan- 
guage specially adapted him. He sailed for 
Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at 
Port Louis on 12 June. 

Ryan found only two clergymen in Port 
Louis and a missionary in the country districts, 
but there were signs of awakening interest 
of which he took full advantage. On 8 Jan. 
1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahe- 
bourg. Later in the year (11 Oct.) he started 
on his first visit to the Seychelles Islands, 
which were included in his diocese. In 1859 
he visited them again, and consecrated the 
new church at Mahe. To the schools all over 
his diocese he gave particular attention, and 
interested himself in the Hindu population. 

In June 1860 Ryan visited England to 
raise further funds for his missionary work. 
On 12 July 1862 he went, in H.M.S. Gorgon, 
with the special commissioner to Madagas- 
car, with a view to establishing a new mission 
to that island. He visited the capital and 
the scene of the massacres of the Christians, 
and returned to Mauritius in indifferent 
health. In October 1862 he revisited Sey- 


chelles after the hurricane of that year. 
He paid a second visit to England in the 
spring of 1863. In 1867 he finally left 

After holding for four months the arch- 
deaconry of Suffolk, Ryan became rector of St. 
Nicholas,Guildford, and commissary of Win- 
chester. In May 1870 he w r as transferred to 
the vicarage of "Bradford, Yorkshire, where 
his ministration was marked by a great de- 
velopment of the parish work. He was rural 
dean from 1870 to 1876, and in 1875 became 
archdeacon of Craven and commissary to the 
bishop of Ripon. In 1872 he went on a special 
mission to the Mauritius. In August 1880 
Ryan became vicar of St. Peter's, Bourne- 
mouth, and in 1881 rector of Middleham, 
whence he removed in 1883 to the rectory of 
Stanhope in Durham. He died at Stanhope 
on 11 Jan. 1888. 

Ryan married Elizabeth Dowse, daughter 
of Charles Atkins of Romford, Hampshire, 
and left two sons, who both took holy orders, 
and one daughter. 

He held pronounced evangelical views, 
and had notable power of organisation. He 
w r as the author of: 1. 'Lectures on Amos/ 
London, 1850. 2. ' The Communion of Saints : 
a Series of Sermons/ London, 1854. 3. ' Mau- 
ritius and Madagascar/ extracts from his 
journals, London, 1864. 

[Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1887 ; 
Colonial Church Chronicle, 1854-62; Mauri- 
tius and Madagascar, London, 1864; A Me- 
morial Sketch, "by W. M. Egglestone, Stanhope, 
1889.] C. A. H. 

(1628-1700), traveller and author, was born 
at The Friary, his father's seat at Aylesford 
in Kent, in the autumn of 1628. His grand- 
father was Andrew Rycaut, a grandee of 
Brabant, who married Emerantia, daughter 
of Garcia Gonzalez of Spain. Their son 
Peter, a financier who lent money to the 
sovereigns of Spain and England, came to 
London in James I's reign, bought lands at 
Aylesford and at Wittersham in Kent, and 
was knighted at Whitehall by Charles I on 
13 May 1641. He devoted a large treasure 
to the royal cause, and was assessed by the 
parliamentary commissioners to pay a fine of 
1,500/., or one twentieth of his income. The 
fine remaining unpaid, his debtors were or- 
dered to make payments to the committee, 
before whom Sir Peter \vas frequently sum- 
moned, until, on 3 March 1649, he was found 
to be ruined, and his assessment ' discharged' 
( Cal. ofProc. of Comm. for Advance of Money, 
p. 134). Having sold his estates in Kent, he 
tried, but without success, to obtain letters 
of marque from Cromwell in order to re- 



cover his debt from the king of Spain. He 
died about 1657, leaving 1 by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Roger Vercolad, a large family 
of sons and a daughter Mary. She married 
Sir John Mayney of Linton, Kent, who was 
created a baronet in 1641, and ruined him- 
eelf by his sacrifices for the royal cause, his 
son Sir Anthony dying of want in 1706. 

Sir Peter's youngest son, Paul, was educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, matriculating 
in 1647, and graduating B.A. in 1650. He 
spent the greater part of the next ten years 
abroad, and in 1661 was sent to Turkey as 
secretary in the embassy of Heneage Finch, 
second earl of Winchilsea [q. v.] He was 
attached to the Porte about six years, and 
during that period twice travelled to Eng- 
land, once through Venice and once through 
Hungary. He published in 1663, in his 
official capacity, ' The Capitulations and Ar- 
ticles of Peace between England and the 
Porte, as modified at Adrianople, January 
1661,' dedicated to the company of Levant 
merchants, and printed at Constantinople by 
Abraham Gabai, ' chafnahar.' In the mean- 
time he was collecting materials for his 
most important work, based largely upon his 
own observations, and entitled ' The Present 
State of the Ottoman Empire, containing the 
Maxims of the Turkish Politie,the most mate- 
rial points of the Mahometan Religion, their 
Military Discipline, a particular Description 
of the Seraglio . . . illustrated with divers 
pieces of Sculpture, representing the varieties 
of Habits among the Turks, in three books/ 
1668, London, 4to. A third edition appeared 
in 1670, and a sixth, dedicated to Lord Ar- 
lington, in 1686, while an abridgment was 
appended to Savage's ' History of the Turks 
In 1701.' It was translated by Briot, Paris, 
1670, and by Bespier, with valuable notes 
and corrections, Rouen, 1677, 2 vols. 12mo. 
It was also translated into Polish, 1678, and 
German, Augsburg, 1694. Dudley North, 
who knew Turkey well, condemned the work 
as superficial and erroneous, and Bespier 
pointed out a few direct misstatements, such 
as that Mahometan women have no hope of 
heaven. It nevertheless presents an ani- 
mated and, on the whole, faithful picture of 
Turkish manners. It long proved a useful 
companion to Richard Knolles's 'History,' 
while the writer's impartiality renders it of 
interest to the modern reader. It is quoted 
by Gibbon in his account of the rise of the 
Ottomans (Decline and Fall, ed. Milman, 
viii. 50). 

Meanwhile, in 1667, Rycaut was appointed 
by the Levant Company to be their consul 
at Smyrna, and he remained there eleven 
years. A summary of his instructions upon 


taking the post is printed (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1667-8, pp. 402-3). In 1669 he ob- 
tained a gratuity of two thousand dollars for 
two years' employment, while a post in the 
consulate was granted to his kinsman, James 
Rycaut. In 1679 he returned to England, 
and printed by command of the king ' The 
Present State of the Greek and Armenian 
Churches, Anno Christi 1678,' an essay cha- 
racterised by his former spirit of fairness, and 
expressing in the preface a desire for Christian 
reunion. In the following year he published 
* The History of the Turkish Empire from 
1623 to 1677, containing the reigns of the last 
three emperors (Amurath IV-Mahomet IV),' 
London, 4to, dedicated to the king. This 
was a continuation of Knolles's ' Turkish 
Histor}^,' to the sixth edition of which (3 
A r ols. 1687-1700) it was printed as a supple- 
ment. The whole work was abridged, with 
some addenda by Savage, in 1701. 

Early in October 1685 Rycaut was ap- 
pointed secretary to the Earl of Clarendon, 
recently created lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
and he was knighted at Whitehall on the 
8th of the month, and sworn a privy coun- 
cillor and judge of the admiralty in Ireland. 
The position was not a grateful one, as Cla- 
rendon soon became a cipher in Irish politics, 
and some charges of extortion were fomented 
by the Roman catholic party against the 
secretary. These, however, were warmly 
rebutted by Clarendon, who spoke highly of 
Rycaut's integrity and generosity to his sub- 
ordinates. In January 1688. after their return 
to England, Rycaut was instrumental in 
bringing about an interview between Cla- 
rendon and Halifax, who was urged to in- 
fluence the king in the former's favour. In 
July 1689 Rycaut's ability as a linguist and 
experience in affairs gained him the appoint- 
ment of resident in Hamburg and the Hanse 
Towns. His letters contain numerous warn- 
ings of privateers fitted out in the Hanse 
ports. In December 1698 he caused to be 
seized a Malagasy pirate ship which had been 
built in England. He remained at Ham- 
burg, with a few intervals, until June 1700, 
when he was finally recalled. He died of 
apoplexy on 16 Nov. 1700, and was buried 
near his father and mother in the south 
chancel of Aylesford church. 

Rycaut was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 12 Dec. 1666 (THOMSON, App. vol. 
iv. p. xxv), and contributed to the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions' (No. 251) in April 
1699 a paper on the gregarious habits of sable 
mice, described as 'mures norwegici' by 
Olaus Wormius in his ' Museum/ 1653, 4to, 
and now known as 'mures decuman i' (Zoolog. 
Soc. Proc. 1838, p. 350). He also translated 



' The Critick ' from the Spanish of Balthazar 
(iracian, 1681, 12ino; 'The Lives of the 
Popes, translated from the Latin of Baptist 
Platina, and continued from 1471 to this 
present time,' 1685, fol. and 1688 fol. ; and 
' The Royal Commentaries of Peru, from the 
Spanish of Garcilasso de la Vega,' 1688, fol. 
Some of his diplomatic papers from Ham- 
burg wereprinted from Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
manuscripts (Brit. Mus. 577, 1. 28). 

A portrait, by Sir Peter Lely, was en- 
graved by R. White for a frontispiece to 
ftycaut's 'Turkish History,' and represents 
the traveller with a refined and sensitive 
face, bearing a resemblance to Moliere's; 
another portrait was painted by Joliann 
Rundt at Amsterdam in 1691 (cf. EVANS, 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 301). 

[Le Neve's Pedigrees of the Knights, pp. 399, 
400; Metcalfe's Book of Kniffhts, p. 198; 
Burke* s Extinct Baronetcies, s.v.' May ney'; Bio- 
graphia Britannica, 1760, s.v. Ricant ; Hasted's 
Kent, ii. 170; Archseolo<iia Cantiana, iv. 134; 
Luttrell's Brief Hist. Relation, i. 361, 560, 583, 
ii. 351, iv. 96, 388. 416, 457, 570, 660, 708-9; 
Hyde Correspondence, ed. Singer, pas&ini ; Kem- 
Lle's State Papers ; Evelyn's Diary, November 
1685; Livesof the Norths, ed.Jessopp ; Granger's 
Bioar. Hist, of England, iv. 67-8 ; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. ; Ryeaut's Works 
in the British Museum.] T. S. 

RYDER. [See also RIDEE.] 


(1820-1888), admiral of the fleet, born on 
127 Nov. 1820, was seventh son of Henry 
Ryder [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, and of his 
wife Sophia, daughter of Thomas March 
Phillipps of Garendon Park, Leicestershire. 
He entered the navy in May 1833, passed 
his examination in July 1839, and in the 
special competitive course at the Royal Naval 
College won his commission as lieutenant 
on 20 July 1841. He was then appointed to 
the 42-gun frigate Belvidera, in which he 
served in the Mediterranean till his ship was 
paid off in 1845. On 15 Jan. 1846 he was 
promoted to the rank of commander, and in 
May 1847 was appointed to the steam sloop 
Vixen, on the North America and West 
Indies station, from which he was promoted 
on 2 May 1848, for brilliant service at the 
capture of Fort Serapique on the San Juan 
river. From 1853 to 1857 he commanded 
the Dauntless frigate in the Channel, and 
afterwards in the Black Sea during the 
Russian war. From 1863 to 1866 he was 
controller of the coastguard, and was pro- 
moted to be rear-admiral on 2 April 1866. 
He was second in command of the Channel 
fleet in 1868-9, and was afterwards naval 

attache at Paris. On 7 May ] 872 he became 
vice-admiral, was commander-in-chief in 
China from 1874 to 1877, became admiral on 
5 Aug. 1877, and from 1879 to 1882 was 
commander-in-chief at Portsmouth. On 
24 May 1884 he was nominated a K.C.B., 
and was promoted to the rank of admiral of 
the fleet on 29 April 1885. After resigning 1 
the Portsmouth command he lived for the 
most part at Torquay. His health, never 
robust, was impaired, and he suffered from 
depression of spirits. In April 1888 he came 
to London for medical treatment, and while 
taking a trip on the river was drowned near 
Vauxhall pier. He was buried on 5 May at 
Hambleden, near Henley-on-Thames. 

Ryder was a man of high attainments, and 
made persistent exertions to raise the stan- 
dard of education in the navy. He devoted 
much of his time on shore to scientific study, 
and was the author of some pamphlets on 
professional subjects, including one on a new 
method of determining distances at sea. 

[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Diet. ; Times, 2-3 May 
1 888 ; Catalogue of the Royal United Service 
Institution Library ; Navy Lists ; personal know- 
ledge.] J. K. L. 

RYDER, SIR DUDLEY (1691-1756), 
lord chief justice of the king's bench, born 
4 Nov. 1691, was the second son of Richard 
Ryder, a mercer in West Smithfield. His 
mother's maiden name was Marshall. His 
grandfather, the Rev. Dudley Ryder (d. 
1683), lost a good estate owing to an uncle's 
dislike of his puritan principles ; he was a 
graduate of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
was ejected from his living at Bedworth, 
Warwickshire, after the passing of the Act 
of Uniformity, and, after much suffering, was 
received into the family of Sir Samuel Clark. 
Both his sons were tradesmen, one at Nun- 
eaton and the other in Smithfield, the latter, 
Dudley R\der, being father of John Ryder 
(1697?-! 775) [q. v.] 

Dudley Ryder the younger, after having- 
been at a dissenting academy at Hackney, 
studied at Edinburgh and Leyden Universi- 
ties. He was at first designed for the mini- 
stry, but afterwards decided to go to the bar. 
Soon after his entrance at the Middle Temple 
he became a member of the church of Eng- 
land. He was called to the bar on 8 July 
1725. On 26 Jan. 1726 he was admitted at 
Lincoln's Inn, of which he subsequently be- 
came bencher (23 Jan. 1733), treasurer 
(8 Nov. 1734), and master of the library 
(28 Nov. 1735). His success at the bar was 
chiefly due to Peter, first lord King [q.v.], who 
was, like himself, the son of a nonconformist 
tradesman, and had been a Leyden student. 


By King Ryder was introduced to the notice 
of Sir Robert Walpole, who immediately 
discerned his merits. Ryder entered parlia- 
ment as member for St. Germans in March 
1733, and in the following November was 
appointed solicitor-general. He was elected 
for Ti vert on on 27 April 1734, and gained 
an interest in the borough, which his family 
maintained till the first Reform Bill. In the 
spring of 1737 he became attorney-general, 
and was knighted in May 1740. 

In 1738 he was designed as successor to Sir 
Joseph Jekyll [q. v.], master of the rolls, but 
the appointment, though actually announced, 
did not take place, owing mainly to Ryder's 
disinclination to accept it. As first law officer 
he was a frequent speaker in the House of 
Commons, but usually confined himself to 
legal questions. He never engaged in politi- 
cal intrigues. Ryder's first important parlia- 
mentary duty was to take charge of the bill of 
pains and penalties against the city of Edin- 
burgh which followed the murder of Captain 
John Porteous [q.v.] (Parl. Hist, x. 274-5). 
In 1741 he spoke in support of the bill which 
was to give justices of the peace the right of 
authorising impressment (ib. xii. 26). Horace 
Walpole mentions a speech made by Ryder 
in January 1742 as ' glorious ' (Walpole to 
Mann, 22 Jan. 1742). In 1744 the attorney- 
general had to move the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act in view of the threatened 
Jacobite rebellion ; and his { greatest effort ' 
in parliament, in Lord Campbell's opinion, 
was his speech in favour of the unpopular 
bill attainting the sons of the Pretender 
should they land in England, and making it 
high treason to correspond with them. At 
' enormous length but with very consider- 
able ability ' he proceeded to justify the pro- 
vision in the same bill by which the property 
of rebels' children was declared forfeit (Parl. 
Hist. xiii. 859-66). In 1747 he unsuccessfully 
opposed, on the principles of free trade, a 
bill prohibiting insurances on French ships 
during the war (ib. xiv. 128). In 1751 he 
had to defend the restrictions to be imposed 
on the Princess of Wales as regent (ib. p. 
1023). His last speech in parliament was 
an able advocacy of Lord Hardwicke's mar- 
riage bill (ib. xv. 1 &c.) Walpole told a 
correspondent that Ryder ' did amply gossip 
over ' the bill, and that during one of the 
debates he came into conflict with the speaker 
(Arthur On slow), who gave him ' a flat lie ' 
(Walpole to Hon. H. S. Conway, 24 May 

Ryder prosecuted for the crown the cap- 
tured rebels of '45. Walpole, in describing the 
impeachment of Lord Lovat, characterised 
Ryder as ' cold and tedious/ though a much 

i Ryder 

better lawyer than Murray, the solicitor- 
general (to Sir H. Mann, 20 March 1747). 
In 1753 Ryder met with a rebuff in a case 
of some constitutional interest. In that 
year he prosecuted a bookseller named Owen 
for libelling the House of Commons in a 
pamphlet reflecting on its conduct in com- 
mitting to Newgate the Hon. Alexander 
Murray (d. 1777) [q. v.] Pratt, afterwards 
Lord Camden, was for the defence. The 
jury, refusing to confine themselves to the 
proved fact of publication, returned a ver- 
dict of not guilty in the face of Ryder's 
strongly expressed views of the dignity and 
privileges of the House of Commons. After 
the trial he had to conceal himself from 
the mob in the lord-mayor's closet, and to 
give them money to drink the health of the 
jury before his coach was allowed to pass 
down Fleet Street to his house in Chancery 
Lane. The popular triumph was celebrated 
in a song, said to have been composed by an 
Irish porter, in which the attorney-general 
was addressed : 

Sir Doodley, Sir Doodley, do not use us so 


You look pale as if we had kilt ye ; 
Sir Doodley, Sir Doodley, we shamefully should 

If we say the defendant is guilty 

(Land. May. 1753). On 2 May 1754 Ryder 
was made lord chief justice of the king's 
bench. He also became a privy councillor, 
but was not immediately created a peer, pro- 
bably because Lord-chancellor Hardwicke was 
unwilling to have a rival lawyer in the upper 
house. Two years later Newcastle proposed 
his elevation, and on 24 May 1756 the king 
signed a patent creating Ryder Baron Ryder 
of Harrowby, and the chief justice was to 
have kissed hands on the following day. On 
25 May, however, he died suddenly. A me- 
morial was presented to George II in favour 
of inserting the name of his son in the patent, 
but in the midst of the existing political crisis 
the matter was overlooked. 

Lord Waldegrave sums up Ryder's cha- 
racter as that of l an honest man and a good 
lawyer, but not considerable in any other 
capacity.' Horace Walpole was of much the 
same opinion, declaring that he ' talked him- 
self out of all consideration in parliament by 
laying too great stress on every part of his 
diffusive knowledge.' In private life Ryder 
was amiable but somewhat uxorious. He 
corresponded daily with his wife, a cultivated 
woman, who managed all his money matters 
as well as his household affairs. 

Ryder was buried at Grantham, Lincoln- 
shire, where there is in the church a marble 


monument to his memory, with a figure of 
Justice and a medallion by Sir Henry de la 
Chere. A portrait of him in robes was 
painted by James Cranke [q. v.] and engraved 
by Faber. 

By his wife Anne, daughter of Nathaniel 
Newnham of Streatham, he had an only 
son, Nathaniel, first baron Harrowby. 

ROWBY (1735-1803), born on 3 July 1735, gra- 
duated M.A. from Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 
1756. He represented Ti vert on in the House 
of Commons from 1756 to 1776. On 20 May 
1776 he was created Baron Harrowby of 
Harrowby, Lincolnshire. In 1796 he was 
named a D.L. for Staffordshire and Lincoln- 
shire. He died at Bath on 20 June 1803. On 
22 Jan. 1762 he married Elizabeth (d. 1804), 
daughter and coheiress of Richard Terrick 
[q. v.], bishop of London, by Tabitha Waller. 
By her he had issue three sons, Dudley, first 
earl of Harrowby [q. v.] ; Richard [q. v.], 
politician ; and Henry [q. v.], bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry. The (laughter, Eliza- 
beth, died unmarried on 20 Oct. 1830. 

[Calamy and Palmer's Nonconformist Memo- 
rial, 2nd ed. iii. 339; Lord Campbell's Chief 
Justices of England, ii. 233-65 ; Foss's Judges 
of England, viii. 164-6 (the dates in which some- 
times differ from Campbell's); Walpole's Letters, 
ed. Cunningham, i. 119, ii. 75, 140, 204, 334-6, 
iii. 14, Memoirs of George II, ed. Holland, 
2nded. i. 123, 1 24, ii. 202, Memoirs of George III, 
ed. Barker, iii. 105 ; Grenville Papers, i. 160 ; 
Lord Waldegrave's Memoirs, p. 56 ; Parl. Hist. 
vols. x-xv. passim ; W. M. Torrens's Hist, of 
Cabinets, passim; Howell's State Trials, xviii. 
529-864; Allen's Hist, of Lincolnshire, ii. 306; 
Street's Hist. Notes on Grantham,p. 145 ; Evans's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 20995; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 583 ; Gent. Mag. 1803, ii. 1694 ; 
Doyle's Baronage ; Burke's Peerage.] 

G. LE G. N. 

EOWBY and VISCOUNT SANDON, and second 
BARON HARROWBY (1762-1847), was born in 
London on 22 Dec. 1762. He was the eldest 
son of Nathaniel Ryder, first baron Harrowby 
[see under RYDER, SIR DUDLEY], by Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Richard Terrick [q. v.], 
bishop of London. Henry Ryder [q. v.] and 
Richard Ryder [q. v.] were his brothers. 
He was sent to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where in 1782 he graduated M.A., 
and then entered parliament at the general 
election of 1784 as member for Tiverton, the 
family borough (cf. Hansard, 3rd ser. vii. 
1147). In August 1789, while the Duke of 
Leeds was foreign secretary, he became under- 
secretary of state for foreign affairs. Early in 
1790 he was promoted to be controller of the 

2 Ryder 

household and a member of the India board, 
and on 3 March 1790 he was sworn of the 
privy council. Thanks to his aptitude both 
for parliamentary and for departmental work, 
he was advanced in February 1791 to be pay- 
master of the forces and vice-president of 
the board of trade, and continued to hold 
this post for many years. He was a clear 
and fairly pleasing speaker, with a good 
presence, and steadily gained in parliamentary 
experience and reputation. He was appointed 
chairman of the finance committee in 1791, 
and chairman of the coin committee in 1800. 
His intimacy with Pitt, which had no doubt 
assisted his promotion, was in turn increased 
by his services to his chief both in office and 
elsewhere, and on 27 May 1798, when Pitt 
fought a duel with Tierney, Ryder was one of 
Pitt's seconds. In May 1800, while retain- 
ing his office at the board of trade, he became 
also treasurer of the navy, and continued to 
hold both posts until November 1801. His 
father's death on 20 June 1803 raised him 
to the House of Lords. When Pitt suc- 
ceeded Addington in 1804, Lord Harrowby 
became his foreign secretary, but retained 
that office only for a few months. At the 
end of 1804, having fallen downstairs on 
his head at the foreign office, he became at 
once ' totally disqualified for so laborious a 
post,' and was compelled by ill health to 
resign (Malmesbury Diaries, i v. 337 ; STAN- 
HOPE, Pitt, iv. 235; Colchester Diaries, i. 
531 ; Auckland Correspondence, iv. 251 ; Life 
of Wilberforce, iii. 208). After a stay at 
Bath his health was restored, and on 1 July 
1805 he was appointed to the chancellorship 
of the duchy of Lancaster, retaining his seat 
in the cabinet. At the end of October 1805, 
when England was attempting to unite the 
continental powers in a fresh coalition against 
Napoleon, Lord Harrowby w T as accredited to 
the emperors of Austria and Russia, and 
general directions were given to all the Bri- 
tish ministers on the continent to follow his 
instructions, winter having interrupted the 
usual communications with England. He 
w T as ordered to proceed to Berlin, Vienna, 
and St. Petersburg, to negotiate with the 
several courts, and after very great labour 
(CASTLEREAGH, Memoirs, i. 136) he had suc- 
ceeded in effecting an offensive and defensive 
alliance with Prussia, and in making an ex- 
cellent general impression (AUCKLAND, Cor- 
respondence, iv. 255), when the battle of 
Austerlitz (2 Dec.) put an end to any further 
prosecution of his mission. 

For the first two years after the Duke of 
Portland's ministry was formed Lord Har- 
rowby was out of office, though its warm 
supporter; but in 1809 he held for a few 




months the presidency of the board of control, 
and then, resigning that office, remained till 
Perceval's death a member of the cabinet 
without office. Meantime, on 20 July 1809, 
he had been created Earl of Harrowby and 
Viscount Sandon. He had particularly in- 
terested himself in church questions, publish- 
ing one or two pamphlets on the augmenta- 
tion of benefices, and introducing the bill 
which ultimately passed as the ' Curates Act ' 
in 1813 (53 Geo. Ill, c. 149). In 1812 he 
again became a minister president of the 
council in Lord Liverpool's administration, 
and retained that office till August 1827, 
when he retired from office o-n the formation 
of the Goderich administration, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Duke of Portland. When the 
British army had occupied Belgium in 1815, 
the cabinet despatched Lord Harrowby and 
Wellesley-Pole on a special mission to Brus- 
sels to confer with Wellington. They started 
on 5 April, and after meeting both Welling- 
ton and Louis XVIII, reported to Lord 
Castlereagb, and returned about the middle 
of the month (WELLINGTON, Supplemental 
Despatches,x.l7-3l ; CASTLEREAGH, Memoirs, 
x. 303 ; YONGE, Life of Lord Liverpool, ii. 
173). Lord Harrowby had devoted con- 
siderable thought and study to currency 
questions, and accordingly he became chair- 
man of the lords' committee on the currency 
in 1819. prepared its' valuable report, and 
moved the ministerial resolutions on 21 May 
which were founded on it. It was at his 
house in Grosvenor Square that the Cato 
Street conspiracy for the assassination of 
ministers was to have been accomplished by 
Thistlewood and his accomplices in February 
1820, and it was to him that the plot was 
first betrayed. 

Except on questions which were strictly 
questions of party politics, Lord Harrowby's 
disposition was towards a liberal and re- 
forming legislation. He had given proof of 
this in April 1791, when he avowed himself 
converted by the arguments of Wilberforce 
and Fox in the slave-trade debate of that 
month (STANHOPE, Life of Pitt, ii. 88). As 
early as 1812 he was known (COLCHESTER, 
Diaries, ii. 403) as a supporter of the catholic 
claims, and in 1823 and 1824 he spoke and 
voted in their favour. He also approved the 
repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. On 
the death of Canning, to whom he had 
adhered when Peel and Wellington resigned, 
Harrowby finally retired from office, and 
even refused the prime ministership when 
Goderich resigned in November 1827. Never- 
theless, when reform became a practical 
and pressing question, he returned to the 
debates of the House of Lords and to a con- 

siderable political activity. As early as 
4 Oct. 1831 he declared his opinion in the 
House of Lords that the time for some measure 
of parliamentary reform was come, and even 
indicated the changes which he would support, 
namely, a generous extension of the franchise 
to wealthy and populous places, and a re- 
duction in the number of small boroughs so 
as to make room for an increased represen- 
tation of the large counties. His speech 
was subsequently corrected and published by 
Roake and Varty {Hansard, 3rd ser. vii. 
1145, viii. 686). During the winter of 1831 
and the spring of 1832 he was active, along 
with Lord Wharncliffe, in endeavouring to 
arrange some compromise between Earl Grey 
and the tory lords, by which, a creation of 
fresh peers might be averted. He issued a 
circular letter to various members of the 
House of Lords, and repeatedly met Lord 
Grey (see Correspondence of Earl Grey and 
Princess Lieven, ii. 330), but he failed to 
obtain any definite terms from either side, 
and met with little but reproaches from both. 
He and those who acted with him were 
known as 'the waverers' (Greville Memoirs, 
1st ser. ii. 275 ; Croker Papers, ii. 156). 
After this time he took little part in politics, 
though for the party funds at the election of 
1834 he subscribed, in spite of his being a 
poor man, a sum of 1,OOOJ. 

Of Lord Harrowby Greville says that his 
manner was pert, rigid, and provoking; that 
he was crotchety, full of indecision, and an 
alarmist, but exceedingly well-informed, not 
illiberal in his views, and one of the most 
conscientious, disinterested, and unambitious 
statesmen that ever lived ; but the very 
openness of view and honesty of temper 
which had led him to try to moderate be- 
tween the two parties in 1831 had earned 
him the enmity of both. Pitt is said shortly 
before he died to have selected Harrowby 
as the fittest person to be his successor; 
but defects of temper .diminished his in- 
fluence with his own party, nor were his gifts 
as a speaker sufficiently signal to counter- 
balance them (see STANHOPE, Conversations 
with the Duke of Wellington, p. 157 ; but see 
also STANHOPE'S Life of Pitt, iv. 189). Lord 
Liverpool indeed boldly accused him of having 
'a wretched mind, or a distempered body 
which operates on his mind' to an extent 
which disqualified him for business, of being 
interested, and of winning Pitt's good opinion 
by mere subserviency (AUCKLAND, Corre- 
spondence, iv. 226) ; and Lord Grey told the 
Princess Lieven that although he found 
Lord Harrowby an able and agreeable man 
' as long as he keeps to English, when he 
talks French he bores me, for he is pre- 




tentious, is a purist in literature, recites 
verses, and has a grating voice, all of which 
are antipathetic to me' (Correspondence of 
Princess Lieven and Earl Grey, iii. 24, 43 ; 
cf. MOORE'S Memoirs, iv. 39). 

In addition to his high offices of state Lord 
Harrowby was at different times high steward 
of Tiverton, a commissioner for building 
churches, a trustee of the British Museum, 
a governor of Charterhouse, and was made 
D.C.L. of Oxford on 16 June 1814, and 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1833. He died at 
Sandon Hall, Staffordshire, on 26 Dec. 1847. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, Dudley, 
second earl of Harrowby [q. v.] 

Harrowby married, on 30 July 1795, Lady 
Susan Leveson-Gower, sixth daughter of the 
first Marquis of Stafford, by whom he had four 
sons and five daughters. Greville describes 
her as superior to all the women he had ever 
known, praising her noble, independent cha- 
racter, her sound judgment, vigorous under- 
standing, and brilliant conversation. She 
died on 26 May 1838 (Gent. Mao. 1838, ii. 

[In addition to the references given in the text 
see Gent. Mag. 1848, pt. i. 198, and Correspon- 
dence of William IV and Earl Grey, i. 437, 464 ; 
Burke's Peerage, 1895.] J. A. H. 

HARROWBY (1798-1882), born at the army 
pay office, Whitehall, London, on 19 May 
1798, was the eldest son of Dudley, first earl 
[q. v.], by his wife, Lady Susan Leveson- 
Gower, sixth daughter of the first Marquis 
of Stafford. He was known until his father's 
death as Viscount Sandon. At first privately 
educated, hematriculatedfrom Christ Church, 
Oxford, on 19 Oct. 1816, and in 1819 secured 
a 'double-first.' He graduated B.A. on 
10 Feb. 1820, M.A. on 21 June 1832, and 
was created D.C.L. on 5 July 1848. Among 
his personal friends at Oxford were the four- 
teenth Earl of Derby, Henry Labouchere 
(afterwards Lord Taunton) [q. v.~l, Lord Os- 
sington, and Lord F. Egerton (afterwards 
Lord Ellesmere). In 1819 he was elected to 
parliament as member for the family borough 
of Tiverton [see RYDER, SIR DUDLEY]. He 
was re-elected in 1820, 1826, and 1830. 

In 1827 Lord Sandon was appointed a 
lord of the admiralty in Lord Liverpool's 
administration, but resigned next year, be- 
lieving that the Duke of Wellington, who 
then became premier, would oppose catholic 
emancipation. Though a conservative, he 
held, like his father, many liberal opinions. 
He voted for the inquiry into the civil list 
which overturned the Wellington adminis- 
tration (1830). But on 18 Dec. in the same 

year he again accepted office under Welling- 
ton as secretary to the India board, and re- 
tained that post till May 1831. At the dis- 
solution in this year Lord Sandon did not 
again contest Tiverton, but, accepting an 
invitation from Liverpool, he was duly re- 
turned, and thus at the age of thirty-three 
became one of the representatives of that 
great commercial town. Its business inte- 
rests largely engrossed his time for eighteen 
years, and made official work difficult. He 
had many memorable contests for this seat, 
but was always returned by triumphant ma- 
jorities, being re-elected in 1832, 1835, 1837, 
and 1841. He supported the Reform Bill 
'as a measure of peace' (Address to Liver- 
pool Electors, 1834). 

In 1835, when Sir Robert Peel was prime 
minister, Lord Sandon was appointed com- 
missioner for inquiring into army punish- 
ments, a subject then attracting much atten- 
tion. Again, in the events which led to the 
dissolution of 1841, he took a prominent 
part. The whig ministry of Lord Melbourne, 
to regain its waning popularity, proposed to 
abolish the sliding scale and impose a fixed 
duty on corn, and no longer to prohibit the 
importation of slave-grown sugar. A reso- 
lution to this effect was brought before the 
House of Commons by Lord John Russell ; 
but Sandon moved an amendment which, 
being carried, virtually turned out the whig 
government. The general election which 
ensued made Sir Robert Peel prime mini- 
ster (DISRAELI, Lord G. Bentinck, p. 329). 
Sandon followed Peel in his adoption of 
free-trade principles in 1845, not because he 
was convinced by Peel's arguments, but 
because he considered that the policy was no 
longer a matter for discussion now that the 
leaders on both sides of the House were 
hostile to protection. He was by tempera- 
ment indisposed to support unreservedly any 
tory dogma. He had already voted, though 
a conservative and strong protestant, for the 
repeal of the Test Acts and for the grant to 
i Maynooth ; he further, aided by his friend 
Lord Ashley (afterwards Lord Shaftesbury), 
was active in supporting philanthropic mea- 
sures, such as the emancipation of negroes, 
and the shortening of work-time in factories. 

When parliament was dissolved in 1847, 
Sandon did not seek re-election. He was 
appointed an ecclesiastical commissioner on 
18 Dec., and on the 26th he succeeded his 
father as second Earl of Harrowby. In the 
House of Lords his liberal sympathies en- 
abled him in 1852 to act successfully as 
mediator between Lord Derby and the free- 
traders. On 31 March 1855 he became 
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 




Palmerston's first administration, and was 
sworn of the privy council. From December 
1855 to December 1857 he was lord privy 
seal. He was intimate with Palmerston, 
and supported his foreign policy. During 
the closing episodes of the Crimean war he 
fully shared with his colleagues the con- 
sequent labours and anxieties ; but his health 
gave way, and he was forced to resign, his 
services being subsequently recognised by his 
admission to the order of the Garter on 
28 June 1859. The first standing com- 
mittee of the cabinet, consisting of the poli- 
tical heads of the admiralty, war, and colo- 
nial departments, was established at his 
instance, and succeeded in redeeming many 
of the errors and shortcomings which had 
led to disaster in the early stages of the war. 

Harrowby seldom made speeches in the 
House of Lords. But he spoke in July 1861 
on behalf of Poland, and again in 1862 of the 
changes effected in Italy. His two most 
important interventions in public affairs were 
in the interests of the established church, to 
which he was earnestly devoted. On the 
first occasion, in 1869, lie moved the rejec- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church Bill 
in a speech of vigour and ability. Secondly, 
in 1880 in connection with the Burials Bill, 
he acted as peacemaker, being the author of j 
the arrangement which was finally adopted. 
Harrowby did good public service as chair- 
man of the Maynooth commission, member i 
of the first Oxford University commission, 
of the ritual commission, and of the clerical [ 
subscription commission ; he was also a go- 
vernor of the Charterhouse and of King's 
College, London, a magistrate for the coun- 
ties of Stafford and Gloucester, and was 
much interested in prison reform. As a 
speaker he was solid, sensible, and reason- 
able, remarkable for independent thought 
and felicity of expression, without attempt- 
ing oratorical display. 

He continued through life that connection 
with literary and scientific pursuits which 
he had commenced at the university. He 
was elected fellow of the Royal Society on 
24 Nov. 1853, and frequently attended its 
meetings, and presided over one of the early 
meetings of the British Association ; thus 
maintaining friendly relations with the chief 
scientific men of his time. Pie was an early 
member of the Geographical and Statistical 
Societies, and lengthened residences at Rome 
in his later years rendered him an acknow- 
ledged judge and authority on the works of 
the old masters. Being an accomplished 
French and Italian scholar, he cultivated 
relations with the leading men on the conti- 
nent whom he had met in his father's house 

in Grosvenor Square when it was the centre 
of the leading diplomatic and official society 
of London. 

As a landlord he was one of the earliest 
promoters of reform and of county agricul- 
tural societies, being a founder of that in 
Staffordshire. Till his eightieth year he was 
the active president of the Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and 
pleaded its cause in English and French with 
equal facility and success. 

Lord Harrowby died at Sandon, Stone, 
Staffordshire, on 19 Nov. 1882. 

He married at Berne, in 1823, Lady Fran- 
ces Stuart, fourth daughter of the first Mar- 
quis of Bute, a lady of great beauty and 
attractive character, who died in London 
in 1859. They had two daughters and 
four sons. Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder, 
his eldest surviving son, succeeded to the 

His portrait by Richmond is at Sandon ; 
it has been engraved, and there is an excel- 
lent copy at High Ashurst, Surrey, belong- 
ing to his second son, the Hon. Henry 
Dudley Ryder, who also has miniatures of 
Lady Harrowby. 

[Notes and Memoranda supplied by the Earl 
of Harrowby ; Documents kindly lent by the 
Hon. H. D. .Ryder ; a sermon preached in San- 
don Church and a memoir, reprinted from the 
Staffordshire Advertiser, 25 Nov. 1882 ; Obi- 
tuary notices: Times, 21 Nov. 1882; Morning 
Post, 21 Nov. 1882; Hertfordshire Express, 
26 Nov. 1882; Tablettes Biographiques des 
Homines du Temps, Paris-Neuilly, 1882; Dod's 
Peerage ; Lists of the Fellows of the Eoyal 
Society; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; 
Official Return of Members of Parliament; 
Doyle's Baronage ; Torrens's Memoirs of Lord 
Melbourne.] W. B-T. 

RYDER, HENRY (1777-1836), succes- 
sively bishop of Gloucester and of Lichfield 
and Coventry, was the youngest son of 
Nathaniel, first baron Harrowby, of Sandon 
in Staffordshire, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter and coheiress of Richard Terrick 
[q. v.], bishop of London [see under RYDEK, 
SIR, DUDLEY]. He was born on 21 July 
1777, and was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 
in 1798 and D.D. in 1813. In 1800 he was 
ordained by Bishop Cornwallis to the curacy 
of Sandon, the family seat of the Harrowbys ; 
in 1801 he was presented by the crown to 
the rectory of Lutterworth in Leicestershire, 
and in 1805 to the neighbouring vicarage 
of Claybrook in addition. In his early mini- 
sterial life Ryder was regarded as a model 
parish priest; at the same time he found 
leisure to read the early fathers and to study 


critically the sacred text, and mixed freely in 
general society. But he stood aloof from 
the rising evangelical party, of which he 
afterwards became a distinguished adherent. 
When, in 1807, Ryder was called upon to 
preach the sermon at the archdeacon's visita- 
tion at Leicester, he attacked the principles 
of the evangelicals as being at variance with 
the principles of the church of England. One 
of the most prominent leaders of the party, 
Thomas Robinson [q.v.], vicar of St. Mary's, 
Leicester, was present. In the following 
year (1808) it fell to Robinson's lot to preach 
at the archdeacon's visitation, but he declined 
the opportunity of replying to Ryder. Such 
magnanimity dispelled some of Ryder's pre- 
judices, which were also mitigated by read- 
ing Richard Cecil's ' Friendly Visit to the 
House of Mourning ' [see CECIL, RICHARD], 
The death of a favourite sister in 1801 and of 
his father in 1803 further encouraged a change 
of view, and he was impressed by reading in 
1809 or 1810 John Newton's 'Cardiphonia' 
and ' Letters to a Nobleman.' Very soon after 
he openly identified himself with the evan- 
gelicals, taking the chair at a Bible Society 
meeting at Leicester in 1811, and preaching 
Robinson's funeral sermon in 1813. In 1808 
he was made a canon of Windsor, and was as 
zealous and active there as in all his mini- 
sterial spheres. He became * lecturer of St. 
George's,' and in that capacity delivered 
sermons which made a great sensation. 
George III greatly admired his sermons, 
saying that ' they reminded him of the di- 
vinity of former days.' He took pains in 
examining and instructing in religious know- 
ledge the choristers of St. George's Chapel, 
and strove to influence for good the military 
officers stationed around the court. 

In 1812 Ryder was promoted to the deanery 
of Wells, to the dismay of the old-fashioned 
churchmen there. The discontent was not 
dispelled when he preached in Wells Cathe- 
dral on worldliness and formalism, and when 
he got an evening service introduced into the 
parish church, evening services being then 
regarded as sure signs of ' methodism.' He 
was in the habit, too, of preaching at the 
neighbouring churches, especially those of 
Mark and Wedmere, feeling an obligation to 
do so because part of the endowment of his 
deanery came from those places. He was 
also chiefly instrumental in establishing a 
national school, then quite a new institution, 
at AVells. He was now a neighbour of 
Hannah More [q. v.], who had made his 
acquaintance in 1811 at Yoxal Lodge, the 
residence of Thomas Gisborne, the noted 
evangelical, and had been much impressed 
by him. In 1815 Ryder received the offer of 

6 Ryder 

the bishopric of Gloucester, vacant by the 
translation of Bishop Huntingford to Here- 
ford. There was much opposition to the ap- 
pointment in high quarters, both civil and 
ecclesiastical, on account of his being ' iden- 
tified with a party ; ' but his brother Dudley, 
first earl of Harrowby [q. v.], who was an 
influential member of the administration, 
pressed his claims, and the opposition was 
defeated. The clergy of the diocese were not 
disposed to welcome him warmly ; but the 
prejudices, however, against him soon va- 
nished, partly through his own attractive 
personality, and partly because the clergy 
found that he was a better scholar and 
divine than they had supposed, and that, 
though he was ' a low churchman,' he was 
thoroughly loyal to his church. He was a 
vigorous bishop. He rarely preached less 
than twice, often three times, on a Sunday, 
besides a weekly lecture which he held in 
one of the Gloucester churches ; and on Sun- 
day afternoons he used to examine and in- 
struct the children in the Gloucester National 
School. In 1818 Hannah More wrote to 
the ' Christian Observer : ' ' The bishop of 
Gloucester has been almost the only visitor 
in my sick room. When I saw him he had 
confirmed some thousands, consecrated one 
church and two churchyards, and preached 
nine sermons within ten days.' He established 
in 1816 the Gloucester Diocesan Society for 
the education of the poor, and the female 
penitentiary owed its existence largely to his 
exertions. Opposition to him as an evan- 
gelical did not entirely cease ; at a public 
meeting on behalf of the Church Missionary 
Society at Bath in 1818, he was publicly re- 
buked by the archdeacon of Bath (Dr. Thomas) 
for taking the chair. 

In 1824 Ryder was translated to the see 
of Lichfield. Here there was far greater 
scope for his energies. The population was 
very much larger, and the late bishop, Earl 
Cornwallis, had been incapacitated for some 
time from taking active part in diocesan 
work. It was no small advantage to Ryder 
that he was a member of one of the leading 
families in the county. ' On corning to the 
diocese,' writes Mr. Beresford, the diocesan 
historian, ' he startled everybody by plunging 
into evangelistic work in all directions. . . . 
He worked on the old lines of the church of 
England in his attempt to recover the masses. 
He used the parochial system as the basis of 
his plan, and strove to find room for every- 
body in his parish church. After eight years 
of faithful labour, he could point to twenty 
new churches opened and ten in building/ 
He was largely assisted by his friend, Arch- 
deacon Hodson, with whose aid he organised 




a Church Building Association in the diocese. 
Ryder's days were shortened by overwork. 
He died at Hastings, where he was buried, 
on 31 March 1836. A monument by Chantry 
was erected in Lichfield Cathedral, and a 
memorial church, called Bishop Ryder's 
church, was built in Gosta Green, a populous 
suburb of Birmingham. In 1802 he married 
Sophia, daughter of Thomas March Phillipps 
of Garendon Park, Leicestershire, by whom 
he had ten sons and three daughters. His 
wife and all his children survived him except 
one son, Charles, who was drowned at sea 
in 1825. The seventh son was Sir Alfred 
Phillipps Ryder [q. v.] 

Ryder's published works consist merely of 
single sermons and episcopal charges. His 
reputation for piety and energy was extra- 
ordinarily but deservedly high. The evan- 
gelicals of course rejoiced in the first bishop 
who was chosen from among their ranks. 
Wilberforce ' highly prized and loved Bishop 
Ryder as a prelate after his own heart, who 
united to the zeal of an apostle the most 
amiable and endearing qualities, and the po- 
lished manners of the best society ' (Recollec- 
tions of William Wilberforce). Charles Si meon 
' delighted ' in him ; Hannah More is full of 
his praise ; a person of a very different type, 
Dr. Samuel Parr, said ' there is an halo of 
holiness about that man,' and left him at his 
death a mourning ring in token of his re- 
spect, though he knew little of him except 
his public acts. It is a curious instance of 
the lax notions about pluralities which then 
prevailed that even so conscientious a man 
as Ryder thought it no shame to hold a 
deanery in commendam with a bishopric from 
1815 to 1831, when 'from conscientious mo- 
tives ' (as his contemporary biographer puts 
it), he did not resign, but exchanged it with 
Dr. Goodenough for 'a less lucrative pre- 
bendal stall at Westminster,' which he held 
till his death. 

[Christian Observer, May, August, and Sep- 
tember 1836, and April 1837, containing long 
notices, equivalent to a volume in bulk, by a 
personal friend of Bishop Ryder ; Annual Bio- 
graphy and Obituary, 1837, and Christian Keep- 
sake (same accounts) ; Annual Kegister, 1836; 
Gent. Mag. 1836; Diocesan Histories, 'Lich- 
field,' by W. Beresford ; Roberta's Life of Mrs. 
Hannah More ; Recollections of William Wil- 
berforce (Colquhoun) ; Overton's English Church 
in the Nineteenth Century (1800-1833).] 

J. H. 0. 

RYDER, JOHN, D.D. (1697 P-1775), 
archbishop of Tuam, son of Dudley Ryder, 
haberdasher, was born at Nuneaton, War- 
wickshire, about 1697. His grandfather was 
Dudley Ryder (d. 1683) the ejected rector 

! of Bedworth. He was educated at Queens' 

\ College, Cambridge, where he graduated 

j B.A. 1715, M.A. 1719, D.D. 1741. In 1721 

he became vicar of Nuneaton, and held the 

; living till his appointment to the see of 

I Killaloe by patent of 30 Jan. 1742. He was 

consecrated in St. Bridget's, Dublin, on 

21 Feb. Next year he was translated to the 

see of Down and Connor, and was further 

| promoted, in March 1752, to be archbishop of 

Tuam and bishop of Ardagh. His views were 

| evangelical and his disposition courteous and 

kindly. His latter years he spent at Nice, 

j where he died on 4 Feb. 1775 from the effects 

| of a fall from his horse. He was buried on 

6 Feb. in a ground near the shore, purchased 

for protestant burials by the British consul, 

and since washed away by the sea. His 

portrait is at Queens' College, Cambridge. 

His eldest son, John, born at Nuneaton 
j in 1723, rector of Templemichael, co. Long- 
ford, prebendary of Tuam (1754), and dean 
of Lismore (1762), died at Nuneaton on 
18 April 1791, and is buried in the parish 

[Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hibern. ; Graduati 
Cantabr. 1823 ; Gent. Mag. 1832, i. 563 ; Mant's 
Hist, of the Church of Ireland, 1840, ii. 657 ; 
Colvile's Worthies of AVarwickshire [1870], pp. 
620 sq.] A. G. 

RYDER, JOHN (1814-1885), actor, born 
in the Isle of Thanet on 5 April 1814, had 
obtained in the country some recognition in 
the so-called 'legitimate drama' when he 
was engaged by Macready for Drury Lane 
i Theatrp, at which house he appeared as the 
! Duke Frederick in ' As you like it ' on 1 Oct. 
! 1842. He took part in most of Macready 's 
productions, and was (24 April) the original 
I King in Sheridan Knowles's ' Secretary/ In 
! September 1843 he accompanied Macready 
\ to America, supporting him, on a second 
i visit in 1848, through an arduous and, as 
! events proved, dangerous campaign. More 
i than once in his ' Diaries ' Macready ex- 
! presses his contentment at his choice of a 
j companion, saying that without him he * could 
I not have got through ' (Reminiscences, ii. 
222). Macready also owns to cutting down 
his parts. On 13 Oct. 1845, at the Princess's, 
Ryder was Claudius to Macready's Hamlet. 
On 20 May 1846 he was the original Sir 
Adam Weir in White's l King of the Com- 
mons.' At the production (22 Nov. 1848) of 
Macready's abridgment of Taylor's * Philip 
van Artevelde,' Ryder was Van den Bosch, 
and at that of Oxenford's version of Cor- 
neille's ' Ariane,' 28 Jan. 1850, he was 
(Enarus. In the opening performance at 
the Princess's under the Kean and Keeley 
| management, on 28 Sept. 1850, he played 


4 8 


Antonio in ' Twelfth Night.' In the character 
of Aymer de la Roche, the grand-master in 
A. R. Slous's Templar/ on 9 Nov. 1850, he 
won favourable recognition, being said to 
look the part magnificently, and act with 
much judgment. After Keeley's retire- 
ment from management Rydtr played, under 
Charles Kean at the same house, Pistol in 
the ' Merry Wives of Windsor ' ; Hubert in 
' King John ' (a great success, more than once 
repeated) ; Macduff, and Buckingham in ' King 
Henry VIII ; ' and was the original Colonel 
Boswell in Lovell's ' Trial of Love ' (7 June 
1852). On 9 Oct. 1854 he was the first John 
Dymond in Jerrold's ' Heart of Gold.' He 
was subsequently seen as Polixenes, Boling- 
broke in ' King Richard II,' Caliban, Edgar 
in * King Lear,' Pizarro, William in ' King 
Henry V/ and Bassanio. Upon Kean's retire- 
ment from the Princess's, Ryder remained 
under Augustus Harris, sen., creating the 
roles of Giovanni Orseolo in Falconer's 
' Master Passion ' (2 Nov. 1859), an adapta- 
tion of ' Les Noces Venitiennes ' of Victor 
Sejour, and Mark Beresford in ' Gossip/ an 
adaptation by T. J. Williams and A. Harris 
of ' L'Enfant Terrible ' (25 Dec.), and was, so 
far as England is concerned, the first Timothy 
Crabstick in Brougham's' Playing with Fire/ 
28 Sept. 1861. He also played Kent in 

* Lear/ and was, 23 Oct., lago to Fechter's 
Othello. He subsequently changed parts, 
playing Othello to Fechter's lago ; played 
Falstaff in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor/ 
and Jaques, and was, on ] 5 Feb. 1 862, the 
original Colonel Lambeth in Brougham's 
' Angel of Midnight ' (' L'Ange de Minuit ' 
of Barriere and Plouvier). At Astley's, re- 
christened the Westminster, he was, 26 Jan. 
1863, David Deans in Boucicault's 'Trial of 
Effie Deans.' Ryder had previously appeared 
at Drury Lane, 19 Sept. 1862, as the Rajah 
Gholam Bahadoor in Boucicault's ' Relief of 
Lucknow.' On 12 Sept. 1863 he played an 
original part at the same house in Falconer's 

* Nature 's above Art/ and on 8 Jan. 1864 
Santoni, a monk, in the ' Night and Morning ' 
of the same author. On Phelps's revival of 
4 Manfred/ he was the Abbot of Saint Mau- 
rice. On 22 Oct., at the Lyceum, under 
Fechter, he was the first Baron d'Alvares in 
the ' King's Butterfly/ an adaptation of 

* Fanfan la Tulipe.' Don Salluste in < Ruy 
Bias' followed at the same house, and on 
11 Nov. 1867, in consequence of the sudden 
illness of Fechter, he played the last four 
acts of ' Hamlet. At Drury Lane he was, 
on 30 March 1869, the original Javert in 
Bayle Bernard's ' Man with two Lives '('Les 
Miserables '). In Burnand's 'Turn of the 
Tide ' (Queen's, 29 May), he was the first 

Doctor Mortimer. At the Queen's he was, 
on 10 Dec., the original Sir Norwold in Bur- 
nand's ' Morden Grange.' In Tom Taylor's 
' 'Twixt Axe* and Crown/ 22 Jan. 1870, he 
was the first Simon Renard, and on 10 April 
1871 the first Raoul de Gaucourt in Taylor's 
' Joan of Arc/ his son William, who was for 
a short time on the London stage, playing 
the Count de la Tremouille. lachimo in 
' Cymbeline ' and Virginias were played at 
the Queen's, and on 8 July 1872 he was the 
first Creon in Wills's ' Medea in Corinth.' 
In Sir Charles Young's ' Montcalm/ 28 Sept., 
he was the first Chevalier Malcorne, and at 
the same house played the original Ireton in 
Bate Richard's ' Cromwell/ 21 Dec. ; Master 
Walter in ' The Hunchback ' followed. On 
15 Dec. 1874, at the Lyceum, he was Friar 
Lawrence, and in April 1875, at the Gaiety, 
Leonato in ' Much Ado about Nothing.' He 
played for a benefit Banquo at Drury Lane, 
12 Nov. 1882, and on 6 Oct. of the same year 
was, at the Adelphi, the original Colonel 
Wynter in 'In the Ranks/ by Sims and 
Pettitt. This part he was compelled by ill- 
ness to relinquish. He died, in poverty it 
is said, on 27 March 1885. 

Tall, well built, and with a powerful voice, 
Ryder was a serviceable actor in secondary 
parts. Friar Lawrence and Hubert were 
his best characters. He was a good stage- 
manager and a competent instructor. 
Among many pupils whom he trained and 
brought on the stage were Stella Colas and 
Lilian Adelaide Neilson [q. v.] An excel- 
lent portrait of Ryder, from a photograph, 
appears in Pascoe's ' Dramatic List.' 

[Personal recollections : Pascoe's Dramatic 
List ; Scott and Howard's Blanchard ; Cole's Life 
and Times of Charles Kean ; Macready's Reminis- 
cences, ed. Pollock; Coleman's Players and Play- 
wrights; Stirling's Drury Line ; Sunday Times, 
various years ; Era Almanac, various years ; Era 
Newspaper, 28 March 1885 ; Pemberton's Life 
and Writings of T. W. Robertson.] J. K. 

RYDER, RICHARD (1766-1832), poli- 
tician, second son of Nathaniel Ryder, first 
baron Harrowby [see RYDER, SIR DUDLEY], 
by Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of 
Richard Terrick [q. v.], bishop of London, 
was born 5 July 1766. Dudley Ryder, first 
earl of Harrowby [q. v.] and Henry Ryder 
[q. v.] were his brothers. After being edu- 
cated at Harrow, he proceeded to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M. A. 
in 1787. He was admitted a student of Lin- 
coln's Inn, 9 Feb. 1788, and was called to the 
bar, 19 Nov. 1791. Having entered parlia- 
ment in February 1795, at a by-election, for 
Tiverton, where his family had considerable 
influence, he retainel the seat for thirty-five 




years, retiring at the dissolution in 1830. 
He was appointed second justice of the great 
sessions for the counties of Carmarthen, Car- 
digan, and Pembroke, in July 1804, and con- 
tinued to act as a Welsh judge until 1807. 
He also took office under the Duke of Port- 
land as a lord-commissioner of the treasury, 
16 Sept. 1807. He was sworn in a member 
of the privy council, 25 Nov. 1807, and pro- 
moted to be judge-ad vocate-general, 4 Dec. 
following. In the ministry of Spencer 
Perceval [q. v.], from 1 Nov." 1809 to June 
1812, he was secretary of state for the home 
department, and was ex officio a commis- 
sioner of the board of control for the affairs 
of India. He proved himself a useful speaker 
in defence of ministerial measures. He was 
elected a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1812, 
and served as treasurer in 1819. For many 
years he held, too, the lucrative appointment 
of registrar of the consistory court. He died 
at his seat, Westbrook Hay, Hertfordshire, 
18 Sept. 1832. He married, 1 Aug. 1799, 
Frederica, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Skynner, knt., lord chief baron of the ex- 
chequer; she died 8 Aug. 1821. By her 
Ryder left an only surviving daughter, Susan. 

[Foster's Peerage ; Parliamentary Returns ; 
Gent. Mag. ; Roval Kalendar; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities.] W. R. W. 

RYDER, THOMAS (1735-1790), actor, 
son of a printer named Darley, by some sup- | 
posed to have been an Irishman, is believed 
to have been born in Nottingham in 1735, ! 
and brought up to his father's occupation, ; 
which he quitted for the stage. After some 
practice in the country, notably in York, 
he appeared on 7 Dec. 1757 at Smock Alley ! 
Theatre, Dublin, then under the management ; 
of Thomas Sheridan [q. v.], playing Captain j 
Plume in Farquhar's ' Recruiting Officer ' to 
the Captain Brazen of Foote. He sprang into I 
immediate favour. Hitchcock, the historian 
of the Irish stage, says : ' Mr. Ryder, whose 
merit, even at this early period, was univer- 
sally acknowledged, proved of infinite service 
to the cause. As few ever deserved public 
favour more, so have none enjoyed it longer 
than this excellent comedian ' (Irish Stage, 
ii. 23). After the failure of Sheridan, Ryder 
remained under his successor, Brown, sup- 
porting Mrs. Abington as Sir Harry in ' High 
Life below Stairs ' and in other parts. Under 
Henry Mossop [q. v.] he played at the same 
house in 1764 Tressel in ' King Richard III,' 
Scapin, Lord Aimworth in ' Maid of the Mill,' 
and Iiimenes in the opera of ' Artaxerxes.' 
During five years Ryder then conducted a 
company through Kilkenny, Waterford, Sligo, 
Galway, Derry, and Belfast, reopening at 

VOL. L. 

Smock Alley Theatre as Sir John Restless in 
'All in the Wrong,' and temporarily bring- 
ing back prosperity to the management. 
Lionel in the opera so named, Cymon in a 
dramatic romance so named, and attributed 
to Garrick, and the Copper Captain followed. 
During the slack season Ryder performed at 
Ranelagh Gardens (Dublin). He had married 
before the season of 1771-2, when Mrs. Ryder 
was seen as Clementina, Constance in ' King 
John,' Lady Macbeth, and other characters. 
She is said by Hitchcock to have been the 
original Grecian Daughter in Ireland. 

In the autumn of 1772, Mossop having 
retired ruined, Ryder stepped into the manage- 
ment of Smock Alley Theatre, and opened 
in September with ''She would and she 
would not,' in which he played for the first 
time Trappanti. He was then declared to 
be the most general actor living for tragedy, 
comedy, opera, and farce. 

Ryder remained in management in Dublin 
with varying success, though generally, like 
most Irish managers, with a downward ten- 
dency, until 1782. A prize in a lottery helped 
him at the outset. When a formidable oppo- 
sition began at the Fishamble Street Theatre, 
he encountered it by causing to be taken 
down in shorthand the words of the 'Duenna/ 
which his opponents were mounting at great 
expense, producing it with the title of the 
' Governess,' and himself playing Isaac, re- 
named Enoch. A prosecution ensued, but was 
unsuccessful. He now, spurred on by his wife, 
launched out into great expense, keeping 
horses, carriages, and a country house, as well 
as a town house, costing him 4,000/., and 
known as ' Ryder's Folly.' This he sold un- 
finished for 600/. He also started as printer, 
editing, after the fashion of Garrick, the plays 
in which he appeared, printing them and pub- 
lishing a tri- weekly theatrical paper. After 
trying in vain to manage both houses, Crow 
Street and Smock Alley, and engaging at 
high terms actors such as the Barrys, Sheri- 
dan, Foote, Henderson, Dodd, Palmer, Red- 
dish, and Mrs. Abington, he yielded up Crow 
Street to Daly, to whose better fortune he 
succumbed, resigning management in 1782, 
and becoming a member of Daly's company. 

On 25 Oct. 1787, at Covent Garden as Sir 
John Brute in the ' Provoked Wife,' he made 
his first appearance in England. His debut 
was not a conspicuous success. He had been 
overpuffed, and Edwin, a better actor than 
he, held possession of many of his best parts. 
During his first season he repeated, however, 
many favourite characters, and Avas seen as 
Sir John Restless, Scapin, Ben in ' Love for 
Love,' FalstafF in ' First Part of Henry IV ' 
and ' Merry Wives of Windsor,' Crispin in 




the ' Anatomist/ Lissardo in the ' Wonder/ 
Colonel Feignwell in ' A Bold Stroke for a 
Wife/ Hob in ' Hob in the Well/ Trim in 
the 'Funeral/ Tom in the * Conscious Lovers/ 
Lady Pentweazle in ' Lady Pentweazle in 
Town/ General Savage in the ' School for 
Wives/ Drunken Colonel in the ' Intriguing 
Chambermaid/ Captain Ironside in the 
' Brothers/ Sir Harry's Servant in ' High 
Life below Stairs/ Lovegold in the ' Miser/ 
and played an original part, unnamed, in 
1 Bonds without Judgment/ attributed to 
Topham, and Sebastian in Mrs. Inchbald's 
' Midnight Hour/ on 22 Mayl787. These parts 
indicate to some extent what must have been 
his Dublin repertoire, where, however, he also 
played Richard III, Scrub,Macheath,Wolsey, 
Pierre, and other parts. At Covent Garden, 
with one summer visit to the Haymarket, he 
remained until his death. He was seen as 
lago, Duretete in the 'Inconstant/ Heartwell 
in the ' Old Bachelor/ Bailiff in the ' Good- 
natured Man/ Shy lock, Beau Clincher, 
Peachum,Don Jerome in the 'Duenna/ Lopez 
in 'Lovers' Quarrels/ Old Hardcastle, Major 
Benbow in the ' Flitch of Bacon/ Leon, Sir 
Tunbelly Clumsy in the ' Man of Quality/ 
Darby in the 'Poor Soldier/ with other 
characters ; and at the Haymarket, where 
he made as Shylock his first appearance on 
22 June 1790, as Sidney, an original charac- 
ter in a farce called 'Try Again/ Don Lopez, 
an original part in Scawen's two-act opera, 
' New Spain, or Love in Mexico/ and the 
Marquis de Champlain (also original) in 
O'Keeffe's 'Basket Maker/' The principal ori- 
ginal parts he played at Covent Garden were 
Carty in O'Keeffe's ' Tantarara Rogues All ' 
on 1 March 1768, Duke Murcia in Mrs. Inch- 
bald's ' Child of Nature ' on 28 Nov., and 
Hector in O'Keeffe's ' Pharo Table/ on 4 April 

On 19 Nov. 1790 he played Old Groveby 
in the ' Maid of the Oaks.' A week later 
(26 Nov. 1790) he died at Sandymount, 
Dublin, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Drumcondra. Portraits of Ryder, painted by 
Martin (afterwards Sir Martin) Archer Shee 
and S. Harding, were engraved respectively 
l:y J. Ford and W. Gardiner (BROMLEY). 

Ryder was a diligent and versatile actor, 
seen at his best in low comedy, in which, 
however, he had in England to sustain for- 
midable rivalry. Two daughters were for a 
short time on the stage at Covent Garden, 
appearing respectively, Miss Ryder as Esti- 
fania and Miss R. Ryder as Leonora to their 
father's Leon in ' Rule a Wife and have a 
Wife/ on 16 April 1790. Ryder's son, who 
was in the army, was killed in 1796 in a 

Ryder was responsible for two plays : ' Like 
Master Like Man/ a farce, 12mo, Dublin, 
1770; this is simply a reduction to two 
acts of Vanbrugh's ' Mistake/ itself derived 
from ' Le Depit Amoureux/ and was doubt- 
less played in Dublin and brought over to 
England by Reddish, who played it atDrury 
Lane on 12 April 1768 ; it w r as revived at 
Drury Lane on 30 March 1773. His second 
piece, 'Such Things have been/ a two-act 
comedy taken from Jackman's ' Man of Parts/ 
was played by Ryder for his benefit at Covent 
Garden on 31 March 1789, and was printed. 

[Hitchcock's Irish Stage ; Genest's Account 
of the English Stage; The Thespian Dictionary ; 
Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror, the account in which 
is copied into the Biographia Dramatica ; Wil- 
kinson's Memoirs and Wandering Patentee ; 
Georgian Era, and History of the Dublin Stage, 
1870.] J. K. 

RYDER, THOMAS (1746-1810), en- 
graver, born in 1746, was a pupil of James 
Basire [see under BASIRE, ISAAC], and 
during his apprenticeship exhibited draw- 
ings with the Free Society in 1766 and 
1767. He was also one of the first students 
in the schools of the Royal Academy. Ryder 
engraved a few plates in the line manner, of 
which the most important are 'The Poli- 
tician ' (a portrait of Benjamin Franklin), 
after S. Elmer, 1782; and 'Vortigern and 
Rowena/ after A. Kauffman, 1802 ; but he is 
best known by his works in stipple, which are 
among the finest of their class. These include 
' The Last Supper/ after Benjamin West ; 
' The Murder of James I of Scotland/ after 
Opie ; ' Prudence and Beauty/ after A. Kauff- 
man ; nine of the plates to the large edition 
of Boydell's ' Shakspeare ; ' and others from 
designs by Bigg, Bunbury, Cipriani, Cosway, 
Ryley, and Shelley. Ryder also engraved 
portraits of Mrs. Darner, after Kauffman ; 
Henry Bunbury, after Lawrence ; Sir Wil- 
liam Watson, M.D., after Abbot ; and Maria 
Linley, after Westall. His plates are usually 
printed in brown ink and occasionally in 
colours. He had a son of the same Christian 
name who was also an engraver, and to- 
gether they executed the whole-length por- 
trait of Queen Charlotte, after Beechey, 
prefixed to the second volume of Boydell's 
' Shakspeare.' Ryder died in 1810. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; D odd's Memoirs 
of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Addit, MS. 
33404); Free Society Catalogues.] 

F. M. O'D. 

(Io44?-1611), lord mayor of London, born 
about 1544, was grandson of Thomas Ry- 
ther of Lynstead in Kent, and son of Thomas 
Ryther or Ryder of Mucklestone, Stafford- 



shire, to which county his mother belonged, j der's services received full recognition in his 
her maiden name being Poole. The family were appointment as ' collector-general ' of his 
descended from Sir William Ryther of Ry- majesty's ' customs inwards.' On the cap- 
ther in the county of York. In 1564, while tur'e of the Spanish ' caricke,' the St. Valen- 
serving an apprenticeship to Thomas Burdet, tine of Lisbon, and other prizes, a commis- 
he noticed, according to Stow, in an Italian sion, with Sir William as treasurer, was 
merchant's shop a pair of knitted worsted appointed to superintend the sale of the 
stockings from Mantua, and, having borrowed I cargo, which comprised large quantities of 
them, he made a pair exactly like, and indigo, pepper, cinnamon, rice, ginger, calico, 
presented them to the Earl of Pembroke. | silk, and pearls. In 1605 Ryder was in con- 
These were, Stow says, the first stockings ference with the lord chancellor ' about the 
knit in England of woollen yarn. He even- customs on kersies.' In 1606 he was appointed 

tually set up in business, joined the Company 
of Haberdashers, and became one of the 
most prosperous London merchants. He was 
elected alderman of Bridge-without on 
S July 1590 (Repertory 22, fol. 2906) and 
of Cornhill on 11 Feb. 1594 (ib. 23, fol. 
353 b). He served the office of sheriff in 

Ryder was elected lord mayor in 1600. 
He kept his mayoralty in Walbrook, his 
house adjoining St. Stephen's Church. On 
13 Nov. the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, 
attended by five hundred of the principal 
citizens on horseback, and ' sumptuously ap- 
pareled in velvet with golden chains,' met 
the queen at Chelsea, and accompanied her 
to Westminster. 

Ryder's loyalty to the queen triumphantly 
stood a severe test in February 1601, during 
the rebellion of the Earl of Essex. It was ru- 
moured (though, as the event proved, falsely) 
that the earl might safely count on the affec- 
tion of the citizens, and that out of twenty- 
four aldermen, twenty or twenty-one would 
probably declare themselves his adherents. 
On Sunday, 8 Feb., the mayor, sheriffs, and 
aldermen attended service at St. Paul's. A 
messenger hurriedly entered with Essex's 
friends, the Earls of Rutland and Southamp- 
ton, and a body of Essex's supporters armed 
with rapiers marched through the city and 
appealed to the citizens to join them [see 
When the earl halted his small force in 
Gracechurch Street, the lord mayor appeared 
on horseback, and Essex demanded to speak 
with him. This Ryder declined to do, but, 
retiring, drew up again with his followers 
at the stocks. Essex rode by, and Ryder 
sent a messenger begging him to come to 
his house, and pledging his word that no 
violence should be offered him. Essex re- 
torted that the mayor meant to betray him. 
On the apprehension of the rebels, six were 
lodged in the mayor's house. Next day 
Elizabeth sent grateful acknowledgments for 
the loyalty of the mayor and citizens. Ryder 

collector of ' toll, tonnage, and poundage in 
London for life,' the impost on sea-coal being- 
included. This formed a profitable source of 
income, and the coal duties are mentioned in 
his will. His name and that of Sir Thomas 
Lake, his son-in-law, appear as ' farmers of 
the impost on sugars,' a tax which supplied 
the queen's purse; and the same persons, with 
others, figure in various transact ; ons as ' con- 
tractors for rectories and chantry lands.' 

From 1600 to 1605 Sir William was pre- 
sident of Bridewell and Bethlehem hospitals 
(COPELAND, History of Brideivell, p. 124). 
In 1610 he built a chancel for Ley ton parish 
church, having inherited the manor and 
lordship of Leyton, Essex, from his brother 
Edward, who died in 1609. His arms appear 
on a partially defaced monument in Leyton 
church, in conjunction with the arms of the 
Stone family, to which his wife belonged. 

Ryder died at Leyton on 30 Aug. 1611, 
according to one authority ; but the parish 
registers of St. Olave, Hart Street, contain 
the following entry under 19 Nov. 1611 : 
' Sir William Rider, diing at Leyton, had 
his funeralle solemnized in our church, the 
hearss being brought from Clothworkers' 

He married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
Stone of Holme in Norfolk, by whom he had 
a son Ferdinando, who predeceased him in 
1603, and two daughters, Mary and Susan. 
Mary married Sir Thomas Lake [q. v.] of 
Canons, Middlesex, and was the ancestress of 
the Viscounts Lake ; Susan became the third 
wife of Sir Thomas Caesar [q. v.], baron of the 

Ryder's will, dated November 1610, was 
proved on 2 Dec. 1614 (Lawe 119). He left 
bequests to ' Christe Churche Hospital!,' to 
the prisoners in Ludgate, Newgate, and each 
of the compters, for the benefit of Drayton 
school in Shropshire, and to the poor of Low 
Leyton and of Mucklestone, where he was 
born. Among his estates he enumerates 
lands in Greenwich, Stepney, Leyton, Great 
Dunmow, and Ey thorn e Manor in Kent. 

received the honour of knighthood. The daughters disputed the terms of the 

On the accession of James I in 1603, Ry- will ; though Sir William had obviously in- 

E 2 



tended to divide his property equally, ' as if 
there went but a payer of cheers betwene 

[Metcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 1 38 ; Genea- 
logist, new ser. v. 47 , Cal. State Papers, Dora. 
1601-18; Lysons's Environs of London, 
iv. 160-1; Strype's Stow, 1755, ii. 229, 279, 
777, 779 ; CoU. Top. et Gen. ii. 316 ; No^es and 
Queries, 1st ser. i. 268-9; Morant's Essex, i. 
23 ; Lodge's Memoir of the Caesar Family, p. 
39 ; W hi taker's Loidis and Elmete, 1816, p. 166 ; 
Surrey Arch. Coll. iii. 374-5 ; Povah's Annals 
of St. Clave, Hart Street, pp. 181-2 ; Maitland's 
Hist, of London, 1760, i. 280-1; Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS. 5752 ff. 69, 118, 122-4, 126, 134, 
140, 5755 f. 60, 5843 f. 451.] C. W-H. 

1885), entomologist, eldest son of Edward 
Eye, a London solicitor of Norfolk descent, 
was born at Golden Square on 10 April 1832. 
His sister, Miss M.S. Eye, is well known in 
connection with female pauper emigration ; 
and his brother, Mr. Walter Eye, is a volumi- 
nous writer on Norfolk antiquities. Originally 
intended to succeed to his father's business, 
Edward was educated at King's College 
School, but, tiring of routine work, he de- 
voted his life to the study of natural history, 
and especially of entomology. He made 
valuable collections of the English coleop- 
tera (to the list of which he added very 
many species). He was the author of a 
useful work on 'British Beetles' (1866), 
was co-editor of the ' Entomologists' Monthly 
Magazine,' and for several years was editor 
of the ' Zoological Eecord.' Later in life he 
became librarian of the Eoyal Geographical 
Society and was a constant contributor to 
the ' Field,' and for some years honorary 
secretary of the geographical section of the 
British Association. He died of smallpox 
on 7 Feb. 1885, in his fifty-third year. 

He married the daughter of G. E. Water- 
house, F.E.S., of the British Museum, the 
Avriter on mammalia. 

[Private information.] 

EYEESON, EGEETON (1803-1882), 
founder of the school system of Ontario, 
born at Charlotteville, Upper Canada, on 
21 March 1803, was the youngest of the six 
sons of ColonelJoseph Eyerson (1761-1854), 
and his wife Mehetabel Stickney. The 
father, who was born at Paterson, New 
Jersey, suffered as a loyalist during the 
American war of independence. After the 
peace he settled near Fredericton, NewBruns- 
Avick; thence he removed in 1799 to Port 
Eyerse, near Long Point, co. Norfolk, Upper 
Canada, and took an active part in the war 
of 1812-14 against the United States. He 

died in 1854 (see EYERSON, The American 
Loyalists, ii. 257). Egerton was educated 
at the district grammar school, and then 
worked on his father's farm. In 1821 he 
joined the methodist church against the 
wishes of his father, who gave him the option 
of leaving his house or renouncing his metho- 
dist principles. Adopting the former alter- 
native, Eyerson became an assistant teacher 
in the London district grammar school, 
Ontario. Two years later he returned home 
at his father's request, and again took to- 
farming ; he continued his studies, however, 
and at the age of twenty-one was admitted 
a minister of the methodist church, and 
assigned to the Niagara circuit. Thence he 
was transferred to the Yonge-street circuit r 
including York, as Toronto was then called. 
In 1826 he made his first appearance as an 
author by publishing a reply to archdeacon 
(afterwards bishop) Strachan's strictures on 
the dissenters [see STRACHAN, JOHN, 1778- 
1867]. In 1829 he started at York the 
; Christian Guardian,' of which he was ap- 
pointed editor. In 1833 he was sent as a 
delegate to the Wesleyan conference in 
England, and succeeded in bringing about a 
union between it arid the methodist episcopal 
church in Canada. 

In 1835 Eyerson again visited England to 
enlist support for the establishment of a 
methodist academy in Canada. The scheme 
resulted in the erection of VictflpteCollege, 
Coburg, Ontario ; and Eyerson was appointed 
first president of the college upon its-incor- 
poration in 1841 . During this visit he wrote 
several letters to the ' Times ' to counteract 
the support Hume and Eoebuck were giving- 
to William Lyon Mackenzie [q. v.], whose 
reform principles Eyerson disliked. On the 
same occasion he supplied Mr. Gladstone, 
then under-secretary of state tor war and 
the colonies, with materials for his reply to 
Hume's attack on the government with refe- 
rence to Charles Duncombe's petition. Dur- 
ing Lord Durham's mission to Canada [see 
LAMBTON, JOHN GEORGE] Eyerson was fre- 
quently called upon to advise the govern- 
ment, and furnished some of the data for 
Durham's report. Similarly he supported 
Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe [q. v.] against 
the reform party, and published a defence of 
the governor. 

In 1844 Eyerson was appointed superin- 
tendent of schools in Upper Canada, and he 
at once set to work to remodel the existing 
system of education. He travelled through 
the United States, England, and the continent 
of Europe to study educational methods, and 
on his return published an elaborate report of 
his results (Montreal, 1847). His ideas were 



approved by a majority of the legislature of 
the province, and a school bill which he 
drafted became law in 1846. Three years 
later the Baldwin-Lafontaine administration 
passed another act making radical alterations 
in Ryerson's scheme ; but owing to Ryerson's 
representations the governor suspended the 
working of the act, and, in conjunction with 
Baldwin, Ryerson drafted a measure which 
retained the chief features of the 1846 act, 
and became law in 18*50. Public education 
in Ontario is still directed on the lines there, 
laid down. In 1853 he induced the govern:- 
ment to pass a law revising the Grammar 
School Act, and he drafted the Education 
Bill of 1860. In 1854 he severed his con- 
nection with the Wesleyan methodist body, 
publishing his reasons in a pamphlet entitled 
* Scriptural Rights of the Members of Christ's 
Visible Church ' (Toronto, 1854, 8vo). In 
1855 he established meteorological stations 
in connection with the county grammar 
schools throughout the province. He was 
created LL.D. by Middletown University in 
1842, and D.D. by Victoria College in 1866. 
In 1876 he resigned his position as superin- 
tendent of schools ; the office was abolished 
and its functions transferred to the minister 
of education. Ryerson died at Toronto on 
19 Feb. 1882, and was buried in Mount 
Pleasant cemetery. A statue with an in- 
scription to his memory was unveiled in the 
grounds of the education department, Toronto, 
in 1889. 

Ryerson was twice married, first, in 1828, 
to a daughter of John Aikman of Barton 
township, who died without issue in 1832 ; 
and, secondly, in 1833, to a daughter of J. R. 
Armstrong of Toronto, who with a son, 
Egerton, and a daughter, Mrs. Harris, sur- 
vived him. 

Ryerson's chief works were: 1. 'The 
Loyalists of America and their Times,' 2 
vols., Toronto, 1880, 8vo; containing much 
historical information (cf. Times, 31 Jan. 1882). 
2. 'The Story of my Life,' Toronto, 1884, 8 vo, 
completed and edited by J. G. Hodgins. He 
also contributed ' First Lessons in Christian 
Morals ' and ' First Lessons on Agriculture ' 
to the Canadian Series of School Books, 
1S67, &c.; edited 'The Journal of Educa- 
tion [Toronto] ' from 1848 to 1876, and pub- 
lished numerous tracts, letters, and reports 
in reference especially to the clergy reserve 
and education questions. 

His eldest brother, WILLIAM RYERSON 
(1791-1882), born near Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, took an active part in the war 
of 1812-14; on its outbreak he received a 
commission as lieutenant in the 18th Nor- 
folk regiment of Canadian militia, was pre- 

sent at the capture of Detroit on 21 Aug. 
1812, and carried the despatches announcing 
the event at headquarters ; he was incapaci- 
tated for several years by a wound received 
at the battle of Lundy's Lane. In 1819 he 
entered the ministry of the methodist church, 
and in 1831 was sent to England as a dele- 
gate to conference. There he met Edward 
Irving, and became a convert to his views ; 
on his return to Canada he established the 
catholic apostolic church in that country, 
and acted as its head until 1872. He was 
thrice married, and left a numerous family. 
He died at his son's residence, 3 1 7 Church 
Street, Toronto, on 19 Dec. 1882 (Toronto 
Globe, 21 Dec. 1882). 

[Story of my Life, e-d. Hotlgins, Toronto, 
1881; Hodgins's Ryerson Memorial Volume, 
1889; Toronto Globe, 20 and 23 Feb. 1882; 
Richardson's Eight Years in Canada: Appleton's 
Cyol. of American Biography; McClintock and 
Strong's Cyclopaedia (.Supplement) ; Allibone's 
Diet. English Lit ] A. F. P. 


(d. 1410), chancellor of the university of 
Oxford, was a native of Devonshire, and 
possibly a relative of Thomas de Bitton, 
bishop of Exeter. He was elected fellow of 
Exeter College in 1362, and held that posi- 
tion till the autumn of 1372. Afterwards 
he was a fellow of Morton College, and was 
bursar in 1374-5. He may be the Robert 
Rygge who was going abroad in the suite of 
Sir John de la Pole in March 1378 (NAPIER, 
Swyncombe and Ewelme, p. 268). In March 
1381 he had license, with other clerks, to 
alienate in mortmain to Merton College cer- 
tain lands at Bushey, Hertfordshire (Cal.Pat. 
Rolls, Richard II, pp. 608, 611). Rygge wais 
a secular priest, and had graduated as B.D. 
before 22 Sept. 1378 (BOASE, p. lix), and as 
D.D. before the date of the condemnation 
of Wiclif by William of Berton [q. v.], 
probably in 1379-80 (cf. English Hist. Re- 
view, v. 329-80). As a member of Merton. 
College, Rygge would naturally be inclined, 
in favour of the Wiclifites ; and his accession 
as chancellor of the university, on 30 May 
1381, probably marked the temporary ascen- 
dency of the reformer's party (cf. MATTHEW, 
Ew/lish Works of Wyclif hitherto unprinted, 
Introd. p. xxv). 

In the spring of 1382 doctrinal questions 
at Oxford came to a head, llysrge, in effect 
if not openly, favoured Wiclif 's followers, 
Nicholas of Hereford [q. v.] and Philip Rep- 
ingtonrq.v."], and supported them against the 
Carmelite, Peter Stokes [q. v.] Eventually 
he appointed Hereford to preach the sermon 
at St. Erideswide's on Ascension day, 15 May. 




On 30 May Archbishop Courtenay wrote to 
liygge rebuking him for his favour to Hereford 
and opposition to Stokes. But the chancellor 
nevertheless continued his former course of 
action, because Stokes's conduct was con- 
trary to the privileges of the university. 
He even assembled armed men for the inti- 
midation of his opponents, and appointed 
Repington to preach the university sermon 
at the feast of Corpus Christ! (5 June). 
Stokes had presented the archbishop's letter 
on 4 June, but Rygge did not publish it till 
two days later; and Stokes, on reporting 
the matter to the archbishop, announced that 
he dare not for his life proceed any further, 
liygge himself went to London immediately, 
and was present in the council at Blackfriars 
on 12 June. He was severely rebuked for 
his conduct, but nevertheless signed the de- 
crees of the council. A fresh mandate was 
at the same time issued, forbidding him to 
molest the archbishop's supporters, or to 
permit any further teaching of false doctrine. 
Rygge declared that he dared not publish 
this order at Oxford, but under pressure 
from the royal council published it, amid 
great excitement, on 15 June. However, he 
still held out so far as to suspend Henry 
Crump [q. v.] for attacking the lollards, and 
was in consequence summoned once more to 
London. A royal writ dated 13 July or- 
dered Rygge to proceed against Wiclif's 
followers, and send all the writings of 
Wiclif and Hereford to the archbishop. A 
second writ on the same day cancelled the 
suspension of Crump, and directed Rygge to 
abstain from molesting Crump, Stokes, or 
Stephen Patrington [q. v.] Rygge after 
this gave way, and abandoned the Wiclifites. 
When in November the convocation of Can- 
terbury met at Oxford, Rygge, as chancellor, 
preached at St.Frideswide's on the text ' Con- 
gregati sunt in valle benedictionis.' On 
25 Nov.. acting no doubt in defence of uni- 
versity privileges, he accused Crump and 
Stokes before the convocation of heresy. But 
they declared that what they had done was 
* causa exercitii et doctrinae ' in the schools, 
and with some difficulty they were recon- 
ciled to the university (WiLKiNS, Concilia, 
iii. 172). 

In 1384 Rygge obtained the exemption of 
the colleges from the payment of tenths. In 
1386 he was one of the commissioners for 
settling the dispute at Oriel College about the 
election of a provost. In the same year he 
expelled Robert Lytham of Merton College 
from the university for disturbing the peace 
of the town (ROGERS, History of Prices, ii. 
667). He had been ordered in 1385 to prohibit 
the quarrels of north and south, and in 1388 

was deposed from his office as chancellor by 
authority of parliament for having failed to- 
preserve the peace (WooD, Hist, and Antiq. 
i. 516, 519 ; ADAM OP USE, p. 7 ; LYTE, p. 
308). Nevertheless he was again chancellor 
in 1391, but held the office only one year. 
On 16 Feb. 1395 he was appointed canon 
of Exeter and archdeacon of Barnstaple. 
He was one of the doctors appointed in 1398 
to consider the letter of the university of 
Paris on the schism. In 1400 he resigned 
his archdeaconry, and on 30 Jan. was ap- 
pointed chancellor of Exeter Cathedral. He 
was vicar-general for Edmund de Stafford, 
bishop of Exeter, on 27 Sept. 1400, and in 
April 1404 was the bishop's proctor in con- 
vocation. He died in the spring of 1410 
before 10 April, which was the date when 
his successor at Exeter was collated. Pre- 
viously to 1393 Rygge had endowed a chest 
for loans to poor scholars at Exeter College, 
and at his death bequeathed some books to* 
the college (BOASE, p. 11). 

[Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Rolls Ser.) ; Knighton 
ap. Scriptores Decem, col. 2705 ; Brodrick's 
Memorials of Mertcn ; Boase's Register of Exeter 
College (these two in Oxf. Hist. Soc.) ; Register 
of Bishop Stafford, ed. Hingeston Randolph, pp. 
166, 311 ; Maxwell-Lyte's Hist. Univ. Oxford; 
Wood's History and Antiquities of the University 
of Oxford, i. 492, 499, 504, 510, 516, 519, 534, 
and Fasti, pp. 30-3 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. 
Angl. i. 406, 418.] C. L. K. 


1838), Canadian statesman, born at North- 
ampton in 1760, was younger son of John 
Collett Ryland [q. v.] and brother of John 
Ryland (1753-1825) [q. v.] He was edu- 
cated for the army, and in 1781 was assis- 
tant deputy-paymaster-general to the forces 
under Burgoyne and Cornwallis in America, 
rendering important service at New York 
prior to its final evacuation in 1782. He 
returned to England with Sir Guy Carleton 
(afterwards first Lord Dorchester) [q. v.], 
who had negotiated the peace. In 1793 
Lord Dorchester, being appointed governor- 
in-chief of British North America, took Ry- 
I land with him to Canada as his civil secre- 
tary; and thenceforward for many years 
Ry land's influence on the administration of 
affairs in Lower Canada was paramount. He 
was continued as secretary by Dorchester's 
successor, General Robert Prescott [q. v.], 
in 1797, and again (after serving with Sir 
Robert Miles, the lieutenant-governor) by 
Sir James Craig on 22 Oct. 1807. To Craig 
he seems to have been chiefly attached. He 
became also clerk of the executive council, 
clerk of the crown in chancery, and treasurer 
for the Jesuits' estates; and he received a 




pension in respect of his services prior to 

Ryland, a somewhat prejudiced Eng- 
lishman, set himself to establish in Canada 
the supremacy of the crown and the 
church of England, and to anglicise the 
French Canadians. He was the fountain- 
head of the opposition to Archbishop Joseph 
Octave Plessis [q. v.] ; in constant fear of 
' demagogues ' and ' sedition/ he advised the 
seizure of the reactionary press in March 1810. 
Soon afterwards he was despatched to Eng- 
land on a special mission, the objects of which 
were to obtain an alteration of the constitu- 
tion of Lower Canada, to appropriate to the 
use of the crown the revenues of the Jesuits' 
estates, and to induce the government to 
seize the patronage of the Roman catholic 
bishop of Quebec. On 31 July 1810 he ar- 
rived at Plymouth, and was admitted to a 
meeting of the cabinet on the subject of his 
mission on 22 Aug. ; but after about two years' 
delay he returned unsuccessful to Canada, 
arriving at Quebec on 19 Aug. 1812. Mean- 
while Sir James Craig had retired, and Sir 
George Prevost (1767-1816) [q. v.] took his 
place. The new governor did not approve 
Ryland's views, and, though Ryland came 
back with a recommendation from Lord Liver- 
pool and with the honour of a seat in the 
legislative council, he did not retain his old 
position of secretary more than a few months, 
resigning in April 1813. 

Henceforth Ryland's influence was chiefly 
felt in the legislative council ; but after 1820 
he appeared little in public life. He died at 
his seat, Beauport, near Quebec, on 20 July 
1838. He was married, and left children 
settled in Canada. A son, George Herman 
Ryland (d. 24 Sept. 1883), was clerk of the 
legislative council. 

[Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated Canadians ; 
Christie's History of Canada, especially vol. vi.; 
Rogers 's History of Canada.] C. A. H. 

RYLAND, JOHN (1717 P-1798), friend 
of Dr. Johnson, was born in London, but 
spent his early years at Stratford-upon-Avon. 
Though bred for the law, he took to business, 
and for many years was a West India mer- 
chant on Tower Hill, London. As a young 
man he spent much of his time with John 
Ilawkesworth [q.v.], and subsequently mar- 
ried his sister. Through this relationship 
he contributed to the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' and during Hawkesworth's occasional 
absences from London he saw the periodical 
through the press. He died at Cooper's Row, 
Crutched Friars, London, on 24 June 1798, 
aged 81. 

Ryland was acquainted with Dr. Johnson 

for many years, and was the last surviving 
friend of his early life. He belonged to the 
old club that met weekly in 1749 at the 
King's Head in Ivy Lane and was broken up 
about 1753, and he was one of the four sur- 
viving members that dined together in 1783. 
He also belonged to the Essex Head Club, 
which Johnson formed at the close of his life. 
He constantly visited the doctor in his last 
illness, he supplied Nichols with several of 
the particulars which are inserted in the 
article in the ( Gentleman's Magazine ' for 
1784 (p. 957), and attended the funeral. 
Several of Dr. Johnson's letters to him are 
included in the correspondence edited by Dr. 
G. B. Hill, but he is seldom mentioned by 
Boswell, possibly because these letters were 
withheld from publication inBoswell's 'Life.' 
In religion a dissenter, in politics a staunch 
whig, Ryland was a good scholar, and ex- 
pressed himself well both in speech and in 
writing ; he saw many aspects of life and 
owned a rich fund of anecdote. 

[Boswell's Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 242, iv. 360, 
435-6; Gent. Mag. 1798, ii. 629-30; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 500-2.] W. P. C. 

RYLAND, JOHN (1753-1825), baptist 

minister, son of John Collett Ryland [q. v.], 
was born at Warwick on 29 Jan. 1753. He 
learnt Hebrew when only five years old, 
and Greek when under nine, and before he 
was fifteen began teaching in his father's 
school. On 13 Sept. 1767 he was baptised 
in the river Nen, near Northampton, and, 
after preaching at small gatherings of bap- 
tists from 1769, was formally admitted into 
the ministry on 10 March 1771. Until his 
twenty-fifth year he assisted his father in 
his school at Northampton, and in 1781 was 
associated with him in the charge of his 
church. On his father's retirement in 1786, 
he was entrusted with the sole charge of the 

In December 1793 Ryland became minister 
of the Broadmead chapel at Bristol , combining 
with the post the presidency of the baptist 
college at Bristol. These positions he retained 
until his death. He joined, on 2 Oct. 1792, 
in founding the Baptist Missionary Society, 
and acted as its secretary from 1815 until 
his death at Bristol on 25 May 1825. On 
2 June he was buried in the ground adjoining 
Broadmead chapel, and on 5 June Robert 
Hall, who succeeded him in his church, 
preached a memorial sermon (published sepa- 
rately in 1825, and included in Hall's ' Works,' 
i. 369-414). Portraits of Ryland, painted by 
J. Russell and J. Burgniss, were engraved 
respectively by R. Houston (1775) and J. 
Thornthwaite. There are other engravings 



by J Goldar and Granger. The degree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him by Brown 
University, Rhode Island, in 1792. Ry- 
land married, on 12 Jan. 1780, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Tyler of Banbury, who 
died on 23 Jan. 1787, a few weeks after 
the birth of her only child. His second 
wife was Frances, eldest daughter of Wil- 
liam Barrett of Northampton, whom he 
married on 18 June 1789. She survived 
him, with one son, Jonathan Edwards Ry- 
land [q. v.], and three daughters. 

Ryland's reading was ' various and exten- 
sive;' he was a profound oriental scholar, 
and he had a passion for natural history. 
Though not a great preacher, he possessed, 
through his learning and uprightness, a great 
influence among the baptists. His views were 
Calvinistic, but in middle life he grew to 
sympathise with the opinions of Jonathan Ed- 
wards, and was more tolerant towards those 
who differed from him. He is said to have 
preached no fewer than 8,691 sermons. A 
considerable number of manuscripts and 
sermons by him are at the College Street 
church, Northampton, and the baptist col- 
lege, Bristol. Among his friends were Wil- 
liam Carey, Dr. John Erskine, Andrew Fuller, 
Robert Hall, John Newton, Dr. John Rippon, 
and Thomas Scott. 

Numerous sermons and charges were pub- 
lished by Ryland, and he drew up many re- 
commendatory prefaces for religious works 
and for biographies of his friends. His chief 
works were : 1. ' The Plagues of Egypt, by a 
School-boy thirteen years of Age/ n. p. ord. 
[1766] (cf. HALKETT and LAING, Diet, of 
Anonymous Lit. iii. 1918). 2. i Serious 
Essays on the Truths of the Gospel,' 1771 
(consisting of 121 pieces in verse) ; 2nd edit, 
corrected and enlarged, 1775 ; 3rd edit, re- 
vised by the Rev. J. A. Jones, 1829. 3. ' The 
Divine Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures ; 
a Poem,' 1772. 4. 'The Faithfulness of 
God in His Word evinced,' 1773 (a poetic 
rendering of the first argument of Robert 
Fleming the elder in his work on ' The Ful- 
filment of Scripture '). 5. ' Compendious 
View of the Principal Truths of the Gospel,' 
1774. 6. ' Salvation Finished : a Funeral Ser- 
mon on Robert Hall senior ; with an Appendix 
on the Church at Arnsby,' 1791 ; 2nd edit. 
revised by the Rev. J. A. Jones, 1850. 7. ' Ear- 
nest Charge of an Affectionate Pastor,' 1794. 
8. ' Christianas Militias Viaticum ; a brief 
Directory for Evangelical Ministers ; ' 2nd 
edit. 3798; 6th edit. 1825. 9. 'Candid 
Statement of the Reasons for the Baptists,' 
1814 and 1827. 10. 'Memoir of the Rev. 
Andrew Fuller,' 1816 and 1818. 11. 'Serious 
Remarks on the different Representations 

of Evangelical Doctrine,' pt. i. 1817, pt. ii. 
1818. Two volumes of ' Pastoral Memorials,' 
consisting of abstracts of some of his ser- 
mons, twenty-five of his hymns, and a short 
memoir, by his son, were published after his 
death (vol. i. in 1826 and vol. ii. in 1828). 

Ryland was a popular hymn-writer. His 
j earliest hymns appeared in the 'Serious 
Essays ' (1771). Others appeared in the re- 
ligious magazines between 1770 and 1790 T 
and twenty-five were included in the ' Pas- 
toral Memorials.' Ninety-nine ' Hymns and 
Verses on Sacred subjects ' (mainly from un- 
published manuscripts), with a biographical 
sketch, came out in 1862. Ryland's hymns 
are simple in thought and language, and lack 
passion or poetry. Thirteen of them are in 
common use ( JULIAN, Hymnology). 

[Memoir added to Pastoral Memorials, vol. 
ii.; Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies, pp. 623- 
625 ; Cox's Baptist Missionary Soc. i. 1-290 ; 
Swaine's Men at Bristol Baptist Coll. passim.] 

W. P. C. 

1792), divine, son of Joseph Ryland, a farmer 
and grazier of Lower Ditchford, Gloucester- 
shire, and grandson of John Ryland, yeoman, 
of Hinton-on-the-Green, Gloucestershire, was 
born at Bo urton-on-the- Water in the same 
county on 12 Oct. 1723. His mother, Free- 
love Collett, of Slaughter, was a collateral 
descendant of John Colet [q. v.], dean of St. 
Paul's. Ryland was baptised in 1741 by Ben- 
jamin Beddome [q. v.], who, perceiving him 
to be a lad of promise, sent him about 1744 
to Bernard Foskett's academy at Bristol to 
prepare for the ministry. After undergoing 
much spiritual conflict "he left Bristol in 1750 
to be pastor of the baptist church at Warwick, 
where he had already preached for four or five 
years. Here he kept school in St. Mary's par- 
sonage-house, rented of the rector, Dr. Tate, 
who, when remonstrated with on harbouring 
a dissenter, used to retort that he had brought 
the man as near the church as he could, 
though he could not force him into it. 

In October 1759 Ryland left Warwick for 
Northampton, where he lived twenty-six 
years as minister and schoolmaster, his pupils 
often numbering as many as ninety. Among 
them was Samuel Baxter. It is his chief 
merit to have done more perhaps than any 
man of his time to promote polite learning 
among the baptists and orthodox dissenters. 
Twice his church was enlarged, and in 1781 
his son, John Ryland (1753-1825) [q. v.], 
joined him as co-pastor. On 2 July 1784 he 
delivered at sunrise over the grave of Dr. 
Andrew Giffbrd [q. v.J in Bunhill Fields an 
' Oration,' which was published, and has been 
twice reprinted (1834 and 1888). In 1786 




Ryland resigned to his son the care of the 
church, and removed his school to Enfield, 
where it grew and flourished. Ryland fre- 
quently preached in the neighbourhood. He 
is said to have once addressed from a coach- 
box, in a seven-storied wig, holiday crowds 
assembled on the flat banks of the Lea, near 
Ponder's End. He was massive in person, 
and his voice in singing was compared to the 
roaring of the sea. The degree of M. A. was 
conferred upon him in 1769 by Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 
(founded 1765). 

Ryland died at Enfield on 24 July 1792, 
and was buried at Northampton, his funeral 
sermon being preached by Dr. John Rippon 
[q. v.] An elegy by ' Legatus ' was published 

< London, 1792, 4to). He was twice married : 
first, on 23 Dec. 1748, to Elizabeth Frith of 
Warwick (d. 1779) ; and secondly to Mrs, 
Stott, widow of an officer. His sons by his 
first wife, John (1753-1825) and Herman 
Witsius, are noticed separately. A portrait 
by John Russell (1745-1806) [q. v.], in full- 
bottomed wig and bands, engraved by Gran- 
ger, is prefixed to his 'Address to the In- 
genuous Youth of Great Britain/ London, 
1792, 12mo. 

Ry land's passion for book-making once 
or twice involved him in pecuniary diffi- 
culties. Neither printer, publisher, nor en- 
graver could turn out their work half fast 
enough for him. As his friends James 
Hervey (1714-1758) [q. v.] and Augustus 
Toplady told him, he would have done more 
had he done less. With James Ferguson 
(1710-1776) [q.v.jhe issued 'An Easy Intro- 
duction to Mechanics,' 1768, 8 vo, and 'A Series 
of Optical Cards.' He contributed to the 
4 Baptist Register,' edited by John Rippon, 
wrote many of the articles for Buck's 'Theo- 
logical Dictionary,' London, 1802, 8vo, and 
edited Edward Polhill's ' Christus in Corde,' 
Quarles's ' Emblems,' Jonathan Edwards's 

< Sermons' (1780), and Cotton Mather's ' Stu- 
dent and Preacher' (1781). 

His separate publications (all issued at Lon- 
don unless otherwise stated) were : 1. ' Me- 
moir of J. Alleine,' 8vo, 1766; 2nd ed. 1768. 
2. * Life and Actions of Jesus Christ ; by Way 
of Question and Answer, in Verse,' 1767, 
12mo. 3. ' Scheme of Infidelity,' London, 
1770, 8vo. 4. 'A Contemplation on the 
Existence and Perfection of God,' 1774, 
8vo. o. ' Contemplation on the Insufficiency 
of Reason,' 1775, 8vo. 6. ' Contemplation 
on the Nature and Evidences of Divine In- 
spiration,' Northampton, 1776, 8vo. These 
throe, with additions, republished, Northamp- 
ton, 1779, 8vo, with portrait, as 'Contem- 
plations on the Beauties of Creation ; ' 3rd 

ed. 3 vols. Northampton, 1780. 7. 'The 
Preceptor or Counsellor of Human Life,' 
1776, 12mo. 8. ' A Key to the Greek Tes- 
tament,' 1777, 8vo. 9. ' Character of James 
Hervey, with Letters,' 1790, 8vo. 10. ' A 
Translation of John Owen's Demonstrations 
of Divine Justice,' 1790. 11. ' A Picture of 
Popery, prefixed to Luther's Discourses by 
Capt. Henry Bell ;' 2nd ed. 1791, fol. 12. 'A 
Body of Divinity,' 1790, 12mo. 13. ' Evi- 
dences that the Christian Religion is of God ; ' 
2nd ed. 1798, 12mo. 14. ' Select Essays on 
the Moral Virtue, and on Genius, Science, 
and Taste,' 1792. 

[Ivimey's Hist, of Engl. Baptists, i\'. 609 ; 
Sibree's Independency in Warwickshire, p. 128 ; 
Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of Diss. it. 648 ; Gent. 
Mag. July 1792, p. 678 ; Evangel. Mag. October 
1800, p. 397; Baptist Ann. Keg. 1790-3, pp. 124, 
125, 329 ; European Mag. August, 1792, p. 167 ; 
Morris's Biogr.' Recoil, of Robert Hall, 1846, 
pp. 20-1 ; Newman's Rylandiana, 1835, passim; 
Cat. Sen. Acad. Univ. Brun. Providence, R. I., 
p. 47 ; Chaloner Smith's Brit. Mezz. Portraits, 
p. 685 ; Williamson's John Russell, R.A., 1894, 
pp. 47, 53, 163.] C. F. S. 


(1798-1866), man of letters, only son of John 
Ryland (1753-1825) [q.v.], by his second 
wife, was born at Northampton on 5 May 
1798. His earlier years were spent in Bris- 
tol, and he was educated at the baptist col- 
lege, over which his father presided, and at 
Edinburgh University, where he was a pupil 
of Dr. Thomas Brown. For a time he was 
mathematical and classical tutor at Mill Hill 
College, and for a short period he taught at 
Bradford College. He afterwards moved to 
Bristol, and in 1835 went to Northampton, 
where he remained for the rest of his life. The 
degree of M.A. was in 1852 conferred upon 
him by Brown University, Rhode Island. He 
died at Waterloo, Northampton, on 16 April 
1866. On 4 Jan. 1828 he married Frances, 
daughter of John Buxton of Northampton. 

Ryland was well acquainted with Hebrew, 
Latin, Greek, and German, but he was shy 
and reserved in manner, and did not do him- 
self justice. He chiefly employed himself in 
editing and translating the works of others. 
His earliest compositions were inserted in the 
'Visitor' (Bristol, 1823); he was a writer 
in the ' Baptist Magazine,' and he edited 
vols. ix.-xii. of the fifth series of the ' Eclectic 
Review.' He wrote for Kitto's ' Cyclopaedia 
of Biblical Literature,' and he published in 
1856 a ' Memoir ' of Kit to. In 1864 he pro- 
duced 'Wholesome Words; or One Hundred 
Choice Passages from Old Authors.' To the 
eighth edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica ' he contributed memoirs of John 



Foster, Andrew Fuller, John Kitto, Robert 
Robinson, Schleiermaclier,and Schwartz, and 
the articles on Northampton and Northamp- 

The translations, by Ryland, included 
Pascal's ' Thoughts on Religion,' Jacobi on 
the ' General Epistle of St. James,' Felix 
Neff's ' Dialogues on Sin and Salvation/ Sar- 
torius's ' Lectures on Christ,' Semisch's ' Life 
of Justin Martyr,' Gausseii's ' Canon of the 
Holy Scriptures,' Tholuck's ' Guido and Ju- 
lius/ Tholuck's ' Old Testament and the 
New/ Earth's 'Weaver of Quelbrunn/Lange's 
1 Life of Christ ' (vol. ii.), two treatises by 
Hengstenberg, and several volumes by Nean- 
der on the ' History of the Church and its 

Ryland edited the ' Pastoral Memorials ' 
of his father (1826-8), and the ' Life and Cor- 
respondence of John Foster' (1846, 2 vols.) 
He also edited collections of Foster's' Essays' 
and ' Lectures.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1866, i. 771 ; Freeman, 27 April 
1866, pp. 263, 269, 279; Works of J. E. Ry- 
land.] W. P. C. 

1783), engraver, born in the Old Bailey, 
London, in July 1732, was the eldest of seven 
sons of Edward Ryland, a native of Wales, 
who came to London and worked as an en- 
graver and copperplate printer in the Old 
Bailey, where he died on 26 July 1771. 
Young Ryland was apprenticed to Simon 
Franois Ravenet[q.v.]in London, and, after 
the expiration of his articles, he was assisted 
by his godfather, SirWatkin Williams- Wynn, 
to visit France and Italy in company with a 
former schoolfellow named Howard and 
Gabriel Smith, the engraver. He remained 
in Paris about five years, studying drawing 
under Francois Boucher, and engraving under 
Jacques Philippe Le Bas. In 1757 he gained 
a medal for a study from the life at the Aca- 
demie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, 
and while abroad he engraved several plates 
after the old masters and from the composi- 
tions of Boucher. On his return to England, 
soon after the accession of George III, he 
was commissioned to engrave Allan Ram- 
say's full-length portraits of the king and 
of the Earl of Bute, which had been de- 
clined by Sir Robert Strange, and afterwards 
that of Queen Charlotte with the infant 
princess royal, after Francis Cotes, R.A. He 
thus secured the patronage and friendship of 
George III, and received the appointment of 
engraver to the king, with an annual salary 
of 200/. 

Ryland had in 1761 sent his plate of ' Jupi- 
piter and Leda/ after Boucher, to the exhi- 

bition of the Society of Artists, of which he 
became a member on its incorporation in 
1765. In 1767 he exhibited his plate of 
George III in coronation robes, after Ram- 
say, and in 1769 three drawings. After this 
he exhibited only a few drawings after 
Angelica Kauffmann and some small por- 
traits at the Royal Academy between 1772 
and 1775. 

Some time after his return from abroad he 
adopted the ' chalk ' or dotted manner of 
engraving, which he had introduced into 
England, and carried to a higher degree of 
perfection than it had ever before attained. 
The plates which he executed in this popular 
style were chiefly after the works of Angelica 
Kauffmann, R.A., and included ' Juno bor- 
rowing the Cestus of Venus/ ' The Judgment 
of Paris/ ' Venus Triumphant/ ' Venus pre- 
senting Helen to Paris/ ' The Flight of Paris 
with Helen/ ' Cupid Bound/ ' Cupid Asleep/ 
'A Sacrifice to Pan/'Cymon and Iphigenia/ 
'Achilles lamenting the Death of Patro- 
clus/ ' Telemachus at the Court of Sparta/ 
'Penelope awakened by Euryclea/ ' Patience/ 
'Perseverance/ ' Faith ' and ' Hope/ ' Eleanor, 
the wife of Edward I, sucking the Poison 
from his Wound/ 'Lady Elizabeth Grey 
soliciting of Edward IV the restoration of 
her deceased Husband's Lands/ 'Maria' (from 
Sterne's ' Sentimental Journey '), a full-length 
of Mary, duchess of Richmond, in a Grecian 
dress, and a companion plate of a lady in a 
Turkish costume. Among other works by 
him were ' Antiochus and Stratonice/ after 
Pietro da Cortona, engraved in line for Boy- 
dell's collection ; ' Charity/ after Vandyck ; 
' The Graces Bathing/ after Frai^ois Bou- 
cher ; four plates of 'The Muses/ after 
G. B. Cipriani, R.A. ; fourteen plates from 
the designs of Samuel Wale, R.A., for Sir 
John Hawkins's edition of Walton's 'Angler/ 
published in 1760 ; and fifty-seven plates for 
Charles Rogers's ' Collection of Prints in imi- 
tation of Drawings/ completed in 1778, as 
well as the fine mezzotint portrait of Rogers, 
after Sir Joshua Reynolds, prefixed to that 

Ryland was at one time in possession of a 
handsome income. It is stated that he made 
no less than 3,000/. a year by the sale of his 
engravings, and a friend had left him an 
eleventh share in the Liverpool waterworks, 
valued at 10,000/. Infatuated by his pro- 
sperity he launched out into every kind of 
expense. Tiring of a sedentary life, he entered 
into partnership with his pupil, Henry Bryer, 
and they together opened a print-shop in 
Cornhill, where they carried on a very exten- 
sive business until December 1771, when they 
became bankrupt. After an interval Ryland 




resumed business as a print-seller in the 
Strand, but before long he retired to a private 
residence at Knightsbridge, from which he 
disappeared on 1 April 1783. On the follow- 
ing day an advertisement was issued offering 
a reward of 300/. for his apprehension on a 
charge of forging and uttering two bills of 
exchange for 7,1147. with intent to defraud 
the East India Company. On the arrival of 
the officers to arrest him in a small house 
near Stepney, he made a desperate attempt 
to commit suicide by cutting his throat. On 
27 July he was tried at the Old Bailey 
before Sir Francis Buller, convicted, and 
sentenced to death. He was hanged at 
Tyburn on 29 Aug. 1783, the execution 
being delayed some time by a violent thunder- 
storm, and was buried at Feltham, Middle- 
sex. He left a widow and six children, for 
whose benefit two plates left by him un- 
finished, ' King John ratifying Magna Charta,' 
after John Hamilton Mortimer, A.R.A., and 
1 The Interview between Edgar and Elfrida 
after her Marriage with Athelwold,' after 
Angelica Kauftmann, L'.A., were completed 
respectively by Francesco Bartolozzi, R.A., 
and by William Sharp. His widow kept a 
print-shop for many years in Oxford Road, 
and his daughter became a teacher of drawing, 
and instructed the Princess Elizabeth and 
others of the royal family. One of Ryland's 
brothers was in 1762 convicted of highway 
robbery, committed in a drunken frolic, and 
was reprieved only on the morning of the 
day of execution through his brother's per- 
sonal influence with the king. 

There is a medallion portrait in profile of 
Ryland, engraved by D. JP. Pariset from a 
drawing made by Pierre Etienne Falconet in 
1768, of which a smaller copy was pub- 
lished in 1783. The Rev. Mr. Cotton, ordi- 
nary of Newgate, had a drawing of Kyland 
for which he sat while in prison after his trial. 
A copy of it, by Robert Graves, A.R.A., is in 
the possession of the writer of this article. 

[Authentic Memoirs of William WynneRyland, 
1784 ; Dodd's Memoirs of English Engravers, xi. 
104-10 (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 33404); Noble's 
Catalogue of Engravers, 1806, manuscript in 
possession of R. E. Graves ; Strutt's Biogr. Diet, 
of Engravers, 1785-6, ii. 285; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists of the English School, 1878 ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and 
Armstrong, 1886-9, ii. 432 ; Exhibition Cata- 
logues of the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
1761-9, and of the Royal Academy', 1772-5.] 

R. E. G. 

RYLANDS, JOHN (1801-1888), mer- 
chant and manufacturer, third son of Joseph 
Rylands, manufacturer of cotton goods, of 
St. Helens, Lancashire, was born on 7 Feb. 

1801, and educated at the grammar school 
of his native town. His aptitude for trade 
declared itself early, and, after carrying on 
a small weaving concern on his own account, 
he, before the age of eighteen, entered into 
partnership with his elder brothers Joseph 
and Richard. Their father joined them in 
1819, when the firm of Rylands & Sons was 
established, the seat of operations being re- 
moved to AVigan. Their manufactures for 
some years consisted of ginghams, checks, 
ticks, dowlases, calicoes, and linens. John, 
the youngest partner, occupied himself with 
travelling over several counties for orders 
until 1823, when he opened a warehouse 
for the firm in Manchester. Business in- 
creased rapidly, and in the course of a few 
years extensive properties at AVigan, along 
with dye works and bleach works, were 
purchased. Valuable seams of coal were 
afterwards discovered under these properties, 
and proved a great source of wealth to the 
purchasers. In 1825 the firm became mer- 
chants as well as manufacturers, and about 
the same time they erected a new spinning 
mill. The Ainsworth mills, near Bolton, 
and other factories were subsequently ac- 
i quired. The brothers Joseph and Richard 
retired about 1839. Joseph Rylands senior 
died in July 1847, leaving his son John sole 
proprietor of the undertaking. A warehouse 
was opened in Wood Street, London, in 1849. 
A great fire occurred at the Manchester ware- 
house in 1854, but the loss, although very 
large, was speedily repaired. In 1873 Rylands 
converted his business into a limited company, 
retaining, however, the entire management 
of it, and purchasing new mills, and entering 
into fresh business in many quarters of the 
globe. The firm, which had a capital of two 
millions, became the largest textile manu- 
facturing concern in the kingdom. 

Rylands was personally of a peculiarly re- 
tiring and reserved disposition, except among 
his personal friends, and always shrank from 
public office of any kind, although he was 
not indifferent to public interests. "When 
the Manchester Ship Canal was mooted, and 
there seemed a doubt as to the ways and 
means for the enterprise, he took up 50,000/. 
worth of shares, increasing his contribution 
when the project appeared again in danger. 
In politics he was a liberal, and in religion 
a congregationalist, with leanings to the 
baptist form of faith. His charities were 
numerous but unobtrusive. Among other 
benefactions he established and maintained 
orphanages, homes for aged gentlewomen, 
a home of rest for ministers of slender means, 
and he provided a town-hall, baths, library, 
and a coffee-house in the village of Stret- 



ford, where he lived. He also built an 
institute for the benefit of the villagers of 
Haven Street in the Isle of Wight, where 
liylands passed some of his later years. His 
benefactions to the poor of Rome were so 
liberal as to induce the king to decorate 
him in 1880 with the order of the * crown 
of Italy.' For many years he employed the 
Rev. F. Bugby, John Gaskin, and other com- 
petent scholars to prepare special editions 
of the bible and religious works which he 
printed forfree distribution. These included : 
1. 'The Holy Bible,' arranged in numbered 
paragraphs, 1863, 4to, 127:2 pages, with an 
excellent index in a separate volume of 277 
pages. Two subsequent editions were printed 
in 1878 and 1886. 2. * Diodati's Italian 
Testament,' similarly arranged and indexed, 
printed for distribution in Italy. 3. ' Oster- 
vald's French Testament,' arranged on a 
similar plan. 4. ' Hymns of the Church Uni- 
versal, with Prefaces, Annotations, and In- 
dexes,' Manchester, 1885, pp. 604, royal 8vo ; 
a selection from a collection made by Ry- 
lands of sixty thousand hymns. 

He died at his residence, Longford Hall, 
Stretford, near Manchester, on 11 Dec. 1888, 
and was interred at the Manchester Southern 

He married three times : first, in 1825, 
Dinah, daughter of W. Raby of Ardwick, 
Manchester (by her he had six children, none 
of whom survived him) ; secondly, in 1848, 
Martha, widow of Richard Garden ; and 
thirdly, in 1875, Enriqueta Augustiiia, 
eldest surviving daughter of Stephen Catley 

Mrs. Rylands is erecting in Manchester 
a permanent memorial of her late husband 
in the beautiful and costly building to be 
known as the John Rylands Library, of 
which the famous Althorp Library, pur- 
chased by her from Earl Spencer in 1892, 
will form part of the contents. 

[In Memoriam, John Rylands, 1889 (by Dr. 
S. G-. Green), with portrait ; Sunday at Home, 
23 March 1889, with another portrait; Man- 
chester City News, 15 Dec. 1888; Fox Bourne's 
Romance of Trade ; Quaritch's English Book 
Collectors; Papers of the Manchester Literary 
Club (article by W. R. Credland), 1893, p. 134; 
private information.] C. W. S. 

RYLANDS, PETER (1820-1887), poli- 
tician, born in Bewsey House, Warrington, 
on 18 Jan. 1820, was the youngest son of John 
Rylands, a manufacturer, by his wife, a 
daughter of the Rev. James Glazebrook, vicar 
of Belton, Leicestershire. He was educated 
at the Boteler grammar school in his native 
town. As a boy he had a passion for politics, 

and in 1835 presided at a whig banquet of 
two hundred sons of Warrington electors, 
who had taken part in a mock election. Up 
to the age of twenty-one his time was chiefly 
passed in studying and writing papers on 
natural history and phrenology. He then 
found, however, that his father's means had 
shrunk, owing to the diversion of the manu- 
facture of sail-cloth from Warrington, and 
that the manufacture of steel and iron wire, 
another business conducted by his father, had 
ceased to pay. In concert with his brothers, 
Peter reconstituted the latter business, which 
in the course of a few years increased so 
largely as to contribute to the prosperity of 

Rylands interested himself in religious 
topics. Originally a nonconformist, he joined 
the church of England. In 1845 he published 
a little pamphlet on ' The Mission of the 
Church.' A larger work, on ' The Pulpit 
and the People,' appeared in 1847. He also 
took an active part in politics, and became a 
working member of the Anti-Cornlaw League. 
He was elected mayor of Warrington in 
1852, and in 1859 he was invited to become 
a liberal candidate in opposition to Mr. 
Greenall; but he declined on the ground of 
business engagements. In concert with Mr. 
McMinnies and the Rev. R. A. Mould, he 
contributed a series of letters to the 'War- 
rington Guardian,' signed Oliver West. They 
attracted wide attention, and stirred to energy 
the liberal sentiment of the district. The 
authorship was not disclosed until after Ry- 
lands's death (Life, p. 26). Rylands entered 
parliament as member for Warrington in 
1868. He was a candidate in 1874, first for 
Warrington, and next for south-east Lanca- 
shire, but failed in each case. In 1876 he 
returned to the House of Commons as mem- 
ber for Burnley, and represented it till his 

In parliament, Rylands proved himself an 
earnest and hard-working, but independent 
radical. He frequently criticised the foreign 
policy of both parties, and in 1886 joined 
the party of liberal unionists which was 
formed when Mr. Gladstone adopted the 
policy of home rule for Ireland. He died 
on 8 Feb. 1887 at his house, Massey Hall, 
Thelwall, Cheshire. He married twice and 
left issue. 

[Correspondence and Speeches of Mr. Peter 
Rylands, by L. Gordon Eylands, 2 vols.] 

F. R. 

RYLEY. [See also RILET.] 

REUBEN (1752 P-1798), painter, son of a 
trooper in the horse-guards, was born in 

Ryley 61 

London about 175:?. He was of weakly 
constitution and deformed in figure. He 
showed an early taste for art, and at first 
studied engraving, for which he received a 
premium in 1767 from the Society of Arts. 
Afterwards he took to painting and became a 
pupil of John Hamilton Mortimer, R. A. [q. v.] 
and a student of the Royal Academy, where 
he obtained a gold medal in 1 778 for a paint- 
ing of ' Orestes on the point of being sacri- 
ficed by Iphigenia.' This picture he ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1779, from 
which date he was a constant exhibitor of 
drawings and small pictures, mostly in the 
style of his master, Mortimer. Indifferent 
health prevented him from making much 
progress in his art, and he was compelled 
to fall back upon working for booksellers 
and teaching in schools. He was employed 
on decorative paintings by the Duke of Rich- 
mond at Goodwood, Mr. Willett at Merly, 
Mr. Conolly in Ireland, and elsewhere. After 
beginning life with strict methodist views, 
Ryley fell into irregular habits, which, acting 
on his enfeebled constitution, brought about 
his death on 13 Oct. 1798, at his house in 
what was then the New Road, Marylebone. 
Some of his works have been engraved. 

[Ed wards's Anecdotes of Painting ; Eedgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1769- 
1893.1 L. C. 


RYLEY, JOHN (1747-1815), mathe- 
matician, was the eldest son of Samuel 
Ryley, a farmer and clothier, of Alcoates, 
near Pudsey, Yorkshire, where he was born 
on 30 Nov. 1747. He received a village 
education, and was then employed at home 
as husbandman and cloth manufacturer, de- 
voting his leisure to mathematics with such 
success that in 1774 he was appointed ma- 
thematical master at Drighlington gram- 
mar school. Here he studied fluxions and 
the higher parts of algebra. In 1775 he 
opened a school of his own at Pudsey, where 
he married Miss Dawson of Topcliffe. In 
177(5 he became schoolmaster of Beeston, and 
soon began to contribute solutions of pro- 
blems to the ' Ladies' Diary,' winning many 
prizes. In 1789 Ryley was made headmaster 
of the Bluecoat school in Leeds, retaining 
the post till death. He also taught (about 
1800) in the grammar school, and took 
private pupils, several of whom distinguished 
themselves at Cambridge. Many eminent 
mathematicians visited him. He died of gout 
on 2 April 1815. He had three sons and 
four daughters. 

K'yley was a self-made man, but, though 
his ' countenance was repulsive, from his 
ti xt-d habits of close thinking,' he was of bene- 

volent character. In his hasty and nervous 
manner of speech, as well as in his heavy 
build, he somewhat resembled Dr. Johnson. 
Besides being a very successful teacher of 
mathematics, he was the first editor of the 
'Leeds Correspondent,' 1815, a literary, ma- 
thematical, and philosophical miscellany. 
He also contributed to many other mathe- 
matical periodicals for nearly half a century, 
and compiled ' The Leeds Guide,' containing 
a history of Leeds and adjacent villages, 
1806 and 1808 (now very scarce). 

[Leeds Correspondent, ii. 97, 242; Taylor's 
Leeds Worthies ; Rayner's Hist, of Pudsey. See 
also Leeds Intelligencer, April 1815, and Pudsey 
Almanac for 1873.] W. F. S. 

1837), actor and author, the son and only 
child of Samuel Romney, a wholesale grocer 
of St. James's Market, London, was born in 
London in 1759. After his retirement from 
affairs consequent upon ill-health, the elder 
Romney lived on an income of 350/. a year 
bequeathed to Mrs. Romney by her uncle, 
Sir William Heathcote, who also left 4,000/. 
to her children. Young Romney was edu- 
cated at a day school in Kensington, and 
afterwards at a second in Fulham, kept by a 
Mr. Day. In his seventh year he went with 
his parents to Chester, where he was placed 
at the grammar school. Bound apprentice 
to William Ken worthy of Quick wood, Saddle- 
worth, Yorkshire, a woollen manufacturer, 
he ran away with his master's daughter Ann 
(baptised at St. George's Church, Mossley, on 
9 Dec. 1759), and married her at Gretna Green 
on 15 Sept. 1776, remarrying her subsequently 
in Clifton, near Preston, where, after his 
mother's death, his father resided. 

In five years the money he had inherited 
was spent, and he retired in April 1782 on a 
small income of his wife's to Newby Bridge, 
Westmoreland. In February 1783 he joined 
on sharing terms Austin & Whitlock's thea- 
trical company at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where 
he appeared as George Barnwell in * The 
London Merchant.' After losing about 20/. 
by the engagement, he retired to join Powell's 
company in the west of England, and in 
1784, after raising 200/., joined Powell in 
management, beginning in Worcester [see 
POWELL, WILLIAM]. Soon buying out his 
partner with borrowed money, he became sole 
manager. The result was disastrous, and 
Romney, burdened with debt, had to resume 
his occupation of a strolling actor. At Taun- 
ton Mrs. Romney appeared as an actress. 
Among other parts she played Fanny to his 
Lord Ogleby in the ' Clandestine Marriage.' 
After rambling up and down principally in 


the west of England, Romney found his way 
to London, and tried unsuccessfully for an 
engagement at Drury Lane. As Lord Ogleby 
and Fanny the Romneys appeared in Man- 
chester, where he gave to the stage some 
ballads which were favourably received, and 
produced in 1792 'The Civilian, or the Farmer 
turned Footman,' a musical farce, Hudders- 
field, 12mo, no date. After an unsuccessful 
trip with a portion of the company to various 
country towns, he produced in 1793 at Man- 
chester ' Roderic Random,' a comic opera 
taken from Smollett, Huddersfield, 12mo, no 
date. He then resigned the stage, in order 
* to commence tradesman in the spirit line.' 
Upon the failure of this experiment he re- 
sumed a wandering life, with an entertain- 
ment written by himself, and called ' New 
Brooms.' With this he travelled in Yorkshire, 
where he gave it, under Tate Wilkinson's 
management, in Wales and in Cumberland. 
He then joined the company of Francis Aickin 
[q. v.] at Liverpool, and afterwards that of 
Stephen Kemole at Xewcastle-on-Tyne, and 
proceeded with the latter to Edinburgh. This 
must have been in 1797, since on 16 Jan. 
1797, between the play and the farce l Mr. 
Ryley ' from Liverpool gave his popular en- 
tertainment, ' New Brooms' and ' Lover's 
Quarrels.' This is the first time we trace his 
use of the name of Ryley. After playing in 
Glasgow and other Scottish towns, he re- 
turned to Newcastle where, while playing 
Sir Francis Wronghead, he had a first attack 
of paralysis. A series of experiments fol- 
lowed with varying success. Possessed at one 
time of 350/., he was about to build a theatre 
at Warrington. Soon afterwards he was once 
more penniless. 

The first three volumes of Ryley's * The 
Itinerant, or Memoirs of an Actor,' dedicated 
to William Roscoe, were published in Lon- 
don in 1808. A second series, also in three 
volumes, and dedicated to Roscoe, with a 
portrait of the author, showing him an old 
man, appeared in 1816 and 1817, and a third 
series, once more, in three volumes, and en- 
titled ' The Itinerant in Scotland,' was issued 
in 1827. The last series is very scarce. The 
first series was reprinted in 1817. Another 
reprint in a large size was executed in 1880 
at Oldham. ' The Itinerant ' purports to be 
in some respects autobiographical. It is a 
wild, fantastic work, fashioned in part upon 
'Tristram Shandy,' and in part upon Tate 
Wilkinson's ' Memoirs of his own Life,' and 
' Wandering Patentee.' 

After forty years' residence in Chester and 
Parkgate, Ryley was arrested for debt and 
lodged in Chester Castle. From this durance 
he was relieved by a benefit got up for him 



at the theatre, and embarked on another 
career of unsuccessful management. The 
success of 'The Itinerant' induced him to 
turn his attention again to the drama, and 
he wrote two plays, respectively entitled 
' The old Soldier' and ' The Irish Girl.' With 
these he came to London. Through his 
friend, Thomas Dibdin [q. v.], the former was 
sent in to Harris of Covent Garden. Some 
delusive hopes were raised, but neither piece 
was accepted. Ryley was well received by 
Charles Mathews, at whose house he met 
Theodore Hook and various notabilities, and 
he strengthened his friendship with many 
celebrated actors, some of whom visited him 
at Parkgate ; Mathews especially seems to 
have been a not unfrequent guest. The house 
at Parkgate, a diminutive edifice known as 
Ryley's Castle, was the deserted residence of 
the look-out custom-house officer. It is still 
in existence, commanding a beautiful view 
over the Dee. 

On 13 Feb. 1809, as Ryley from Liverpool, 
he made at Drury Lane, as Sir Peter Teazle, 
his first appearance in London. The ' Monthly 
Mirror' spoke of him contemptuously as 'a, 
thin gentleman about fifty,' and said his de- 
livery might make him respectable in the 
country. His hope of a three years' engage- 
ment was defeated in consequence, he holds, 
of the destruction of the theatre immediately 
afterwards by fire. Further essays in country 
management were no more prosperous than 
previous attempts, and his wife's money was 
at last all spent. Mrs. Ryley wrote a success- 
ful novel in three volumes, entitled ' Fanny 
Fitz-York, or the Heiress of Tremorne' (Lon- 
don, 1818, 3 vols. 12mo). She assisted her 
husband in a play, * The Castle of Glyn- 
dower,' with which Ryley again went to 
London. Through the influence of Kean, 
it was produced at Drury Lane on 2 March 
1818, with Mrs. Orger, Mrs. Alsop, Dowton, 
Harley, Knight, Penley, and Wallack in the 
cast. It was damned at the end of the second 
act, and never revived. A benefit was given 
Ryley for the purpose of enabling him to 
reach home. 

Under the date 7 Dec. 1819, Charles Ma- 
thews tells how ' poor old Ryley, penniless 
and melancholy as usual,' was ready for him 
on his arrival at Liverpool ; Mathews adds 
that he gave a performance of two acts of 
< The Mail Coach,' which old ' Triste ' (' Mun- 
dungus Triste' in one of Mathews's enter- 
tainments was taken from Ryley) exhibited, 
the result being a profit of 100/., ' so 
the Itinerant was in luck ' (MRS. MATHEWS, 
Memoirs, iii. 105). The 'Irish Girl' was 
played for the first time for Ryley's benefit 
at the Theatre Royal, Liverpool, on 2o Feb. 

Ryley < 

1825, as Ryley said in the prologue, i to keep 
the wolf from the door.' On this occasion 
Ryley played Sir John Trotley in Garrick's 
* Bon Ton, or High Life above Stairs.' The 
t Irish Girl ' was occasionally revived, chiefly 
for Ry ley's benefit, which became an annual 
affair. Ryley was accepted in Lancashire and 
Cheshire as Lord Ogleby, and Sir Peter 
Teazle, and played a great variety of cha- 
racters. He founded in Liverpool debating 
societies, and started classes for instruction 
in elocution, deportment, and acting. The 
most popular of his entertainments con- 
sisted of a number of pasteboard figures 
worked by machinery, which made ridiculous 
faces while the showman played on the 
violin and sang a song of his own composi- 
tion, with the chorus l Make faces.' His chief 
faculty was for writing songs, which, with 
little literary quality and defective in rhyme 
and metre, hit off topics of the day. Some are 
included in a volume published at Hudders- 
iield without date. He died, after a painful 
illness, on 12 Sept. 1837, at his house in 
Parkgate, and was buried in the churchyard 
of Neston, Cheshire. His portrait appears in 
vol. iv. of ' The Itinerant.' 

The first Mrs. Ryley died on 27 March 1823, 
and Ryley married her nurse, who was also 
her niece. She survived him in extreme 

[Particulars of Ryley's life are gleaned with 
much difficulty from his Itinerant, which has 
long ranked as one of the least accessible of 
stage records. The meagre information given 
in the Biographia Dramatica, copied by Upcott, 
has been supplemented by researches in local 
documents kindly undertaken by Mrs. Gamlin, 
the historian of Birkenhead. Genest's Account 
of the English Stage, Dibdin's Edinburgh Stage, 
Memoirs of Charles Mathews, The Monthly Ke- 
view, various years, and the Theatrical Inquisitor 
for March 1818 have also been laid under con- 
tribution ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ix. 87, 
112, 132.] J. K. 

RYLEY, WILLIAM, the elder (d. 1667), 
herald and archivist, a native of Lancashire, 
was the son of William Ryley, who held 
the office of Rouge Rose pursuivant-extra- 
ordinary from 1630 till his death about 1634. 
His family may have been settled at Accring- 
ton. Thomas Ryley, a king's scholar at 
Westminster School, who was elected to 
Cambridge in 1625, and afterwards became 
a fellow and tutor of Trinity College, has 
been identified as a brother. William re- 
ceived a legal education, being entered at 
the Middle Temple. He soon acquired a 
taste for antiquarian research, and about 
1620 he entered the Tower as clerk of the 
records, under Sir John Borough [q.v.], Garter 


king of arms, the keeper of those archives. 
His employment in that office extended over 
forty-seven years. On 4 Sept. 1633 he was 
appointed Bluemantle pursuivant of arms, 
and on 11 Nov. 1641 Lancaster herald. He, 
with the other heralds, followed Charles I 
to Oxford, but on 31 July 1643 he obtained 
the royal warrant to return to London, in 
order to protect the records in the Tower 
during the absence of Sir J. Borough, who 
remained at court. 

Ryley soon came to be regarded as a zealous 
parliamentarian. He was assessed for 20/., 
being the tax known as the ' twentieth part,' 
and his friends in the House of Commons 
procured the remission of the assessment, on 
the ground of his good service to the parlia- 
ment. Afterwards his political conduct was 
vacillating and suspected, and it is said that he 
was committed to prison in January 1643-4, 
for ' intelligence with Oxford ' (WHITELOCKE, 
Memorials, edit. 1732, p. 79). He was ac- 
cused before the committee of examinations 
at Westminster of being with Sir Basil 
Brooke, the chief agent, in a plot * to make 
a difference between the parliament and the 
city, to divert the Scots advancing hither, 
and to raise a general combustion under the 
pretence of peace.' After a few weeks' im- 
prisonment he was released, and, when Sir 
J. Borough died in April 1644, he was ap- 
pointed by the parliament to succeed him as 
keeper of the records. 

In September 1646 Ryley was one of three 
kings of arms appointed by parliament to 
conduct the state burial on 22 Oct. in West- 
minster Abbey of the Earl of Essex. Two 
days before he was created Norroy king of 
arms. His employments were, however, to 
use his own words, ' places of quality rather 
than of profit,' and in 1648 he petitioned 
parliament to settle upon him a compe- 
tency, on the ground that he had for seven 
years received no remuneration (PECK, De- 
siderata Curiosa, 1779, lib. ix. p. 384) ; 200/. 
was advanced to him, and his salary as clerk 
of the records was fixed at 100/. per annum 
by Cromwell, whom Ryley cordially sup- 
ported. About 1650 Ryley removed his 
household to Acton, Middlesex. The old 
charge of ' intelligence with Oxford ' was in 

1653 renewed against him in the committee 
of indemnity, and he was further accused 
of having been in actual arms for the king, 
but by the act of oblivion l he was dispensed 

He was asrent to the commission for the 
sale of the royal forests, and on 19 April 

1654 he wrote to Secretary Thurloe to solicit 
that his appointment might be changed 
from agent to commissioner (THTJELOE, State 


6 4 


Papers, ii. 232). He assisted as Norroy at 
the funeral of the Protector Oliver, and at 
the installation as Protector of Richard 
Cromwell, who on 25 Feb. 1658-9 created 
him Clarenceux ting of arms (Fourth Re- 
port of Dep.-Keeper of Public Records, p. 
199). ' 

When the king's return became imminent, 
Ryley's loyalty revived, and he was one of 
the three heralds who proclaimed Charles II 
at Westminster Hall gate on 8 May 1660, 
in obedience to the commands of both houses 
of parliament. On the Restoration Ryley 
was reduced to his former rank as Lancaster 
herald, though the chapter of the college of 
arms showed their appreciation of his ser- 
vices by making him their registrar on 13 Dec. 
1660. The place of keeper of the records 
was given to William Prynne, with a salary 
of 500Z. per annum ; but Ryley and his son 
remained in the office as his deputies. Prynne 
speaks disparagingly of Ry ley's abilities and 
research, but he can hardly be regarded as 
an impartial critic. Pepys, writing on 13 May 
1664, says : ' I saw old Ryley, the herald, 
and his son, and spoke to his son, who told 
me in very bad words concerning Mr. Prin, 
that the king had given him an office of 
keeping the Records ; but that he never comes 
thither, nor had been there these six months ; 
so that I perceive they expect to get his em- 
ployment from him ' (Diary, 3rd edit. ii. 325). 

Ryley was buried in the east cloister of 
Westminster Abbey on 25 July 1667 (CHES- 
TER, Registers of the Collegiate Church of 
St. Peter, p. 166). 

His children were William Ryley the 
younger (see below) ; John ; Philip, buried 
at Acton on 20 Oct. 1671 ; Charles, captain of 
a merchant ship, Hope, who died at sea, un- 
married, in 1666 ; Dorothy, wife of George 
Barkham of Acton, Lancaster herald : and 
Ann, who went to Virginia. 

He was associated with his son in the pro- 
duction of a book entitled ' Placita Parlia- 
mentaria. Or Pleadings in Parliament, with 
Judgments thereon in the Reign of Edward 
the First and Edward the Second . . . Con- 
taining . . . Statutes, Ordinances, Provisions, 
Inhibitions, Forms of Writs on several occa- 
sions, Prohibitions, Proclamations, with the 
Confirmation of Magna Charta and Charta 
de Foresta. As also of some other Records 
taken out of the Tower of London which 
prove the Homage anciently due to the Kings 
of England from Scotland, and the Esta- 
blishment of Ireland under the Laws of Eng- 
land,' London, 1661, fol. It was published 
in June 1661, and in September the same 
year another edition, with a slightly altered 
title-page, appeared under the son's name 

(K.ENNETT, Register and Chronicle, pp. 478, 
542). Ryley's * Collection of Arguments in 
several Cases of Heraldry,' written in Latin, 
1646, is in the Harleian MS. 4991. 'The 
Visitation of Oxfordshire,' taken by John 
Philpot [q. v.] and Ryley in 1634, was pub- 
lished by the Harleian Society, vol. v. (1871), 
and ' The Visitation of Middlesex,' begun by 
Ryley and Dethick in 1663, was printed at 
Salisbury, 1820, fol. The eldest son, 

WILLIAM RYLEY (d. 1675), claims, in a 
draft petition in the state paper office, to have 
been educated under Busby at Westminster, 
whence he went to Christ Church, Oxford, and 
graduated M. A. (Thirtieth Report of the Dep.- 
Keeper of Public Records, p. 249) . A scholar 
of Westminster he certainly was not, though 
he may have been a town-boy, neither is there 
any record of his matriculation or graduation 
at Oxford (FosxEE, Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, 
iii. 1295). He was admitted a student of 
the Inner Temple in November 1651, and he 
had then been for some time employed in 
the record office under his father (CooKE, 
Students admitted to the Inner Temple, 1547- 
1660). He was not called to the bar till 
12 Feb. 1664-5. Before the Restoration 
he married Elizabeth, fifth daughter of Sir 
Anthony Chester, bart., of Chicheley, and this 
alliance with a family of approved loyalty 
and some influence at court enabled him and 
his father to remain at the record office 
under the new keeper, William Prynne. 
Ryley was intimately associated with his 
father in all his literary pursuits and under- 
takings, and assisted him in the compilation 
of 'Placita Parliamentarian He sent in a 
petition for a grant in reversion of the office 
of keeper of the records, but his hopes were 
disappointed, and after Prynne's death the 
post was given to Sir Algernon May in 
February 1669-70. The rest of his life is 
only known by a series of petitions setting 
forth his services and embarrassments. In 
one of these documents, drawn up shortly 
before his death, he says : ' I have lost all 
preferments to attend to the study of the 
records, wherein I took my delight, and now, 
after all my endeavours and constant ser- 
vices to his Majesty, must by sad experience 
die a beggar.' He was buried in the church 
of St. Peter ad Vincula, near the Tower, on 
12 Nov. 1675. 

PHILIP RYLEY (d. 1733), his son and heir, 
was from an early age until 1702, and again 
from 1706, serjeant-at-arms, attending the 
lord treasurer of England ; was subsequently 
agent of the exchequer; from 1698 a com- 
missioner of excise ; from 30 May 1711 a 
commissioner for collecting the duties on 
hides ; and for many years surveyor of the 

Rymer e 

royal woods and forests. He was knighted 
by George II on 26 April 1728. His posses- 
sion through life of many lucrative offices 
enabled him to acquire considerable wealth, 
and he purchased the manor of Great Hock- 
ham, near Thetford, Norfolk, where he re- 
sided in his later years. He died at Norwich 
on 25 Jan. 1733 (Gent. Mag. 1733, p. 47). 

[The Troubles of William Ryley, Lancaster 
Herald, and of his Son, Clerks of the Records 
in the Tower, by John E. Bailey, F.S.A., pri- 
vately printed at Leigh, Lancashire, 1879, 8vo; 
Waters's Genealogical Memoirs of the Family 
of Chester of Chicheley, i. 174 ; Noble's Coll. of 
Arms, pp. 240, 248, 251, 253,261, 262, 264,289; 
Lowndes'sBibl.Man. (Bonn), p. 2160.] T. C. 

RYMER, JAMES (Jl. 1775-1822), me- 
dical writer, a native of Scotland, is said to 
be related to the family of Thomas Rymer 
[q. v.], compiler of the * Fcedera.' His father 
died when he was young, but he was carefully 
educated by his mother. After having served 
an apprenticeship to a surgeon and apothe- 
cary, he studied anatomy and medicine at 
Edinburgh University. In 1770 he left 
Edinburgh for London. He was there ap- 
pointed surgeon's mate on H.M.S. Montreal, 
with which he made two voyages in the 
Mediterranean and Levant. Soon afterwards 
he joined the Trident, the ship of Rear- 
admiral Sir Peter Denis ; subsequently went 
a voyage to Nevis in the West Indies, and 
in December 1775 became surgeon to the 
sloop Hazard. He very soon exchanged 
into the Surprise, commanded by Captain 
Robert Linzee, which reached Quebec in 
May 1776, and thence accompanied Admiral 
Montagu's squadron to St. John's, New- 
foundland. On the return voyage, in No- 
vember 1776, putrid fever broke out. Rymer 
was next attached as surgeon to the sloop 
Alderney, which was stationed at Great 
Yarmouth. While there he wrote a ' Sketch 
of Great Yarmouth, with some Reflections 
on Cold Bathing,' 1777, 12mo. In 1778, in 
which year he says he published a volume 
of ' Remarks on the Earl of Chesterfield's 
Letters,' he was transferred to the Conquis- 
tador, which was stationed at the Nore for 
the reception and distribution of impressed 
men and volunteers. After fifteen months' 
service he was transferred to the Marlbo- 
rough, which was ordered for foreign service. 
Uyiner, who attributed his transference to 
the dislike of his commanding officer, wrote 
a somewhat scurrilous pamphlet under the 
title 'Transplantation, or Poor Crocus pluckt 
up by the Root/ 1779. He appears to have 
remained in the navy till 1782. On 2 June 
1*1"> he was elected F.R.C.S. (Lond.), and 
seems to have practised afterwards at Reigate 

VOL. L. 


and Ramsgate. He was living at the latter 
place in 1841-2. His last surviving daughter 
died at Brighton on 13 June 1855 (Gent. 
Mag. 1855, ii. 331). 

Rymer wrote, besides the works already 
noticed : 1 . ; Introduction to the Study of 
Pathology on a Natural Plan, containing an 
Essay on Fevers,' 1775, 8vo. 2. ' Description 
of the Island of Nevis, with an Account of its 
Principal Diseases,' &c., 1776, 8vo. 3. ' An 
Essay on Medical Education, with Advice 
to Young Gentlemen who go into the Navy 
as Mates,' 1776, 8vo. 4. ' The Practice of 
Navigation on a New Plan, by means of 
a Quadrant of the Difference of Latitude 
and Departure,' 1778, 4to. 5. ' Observations 
and Remarks respecting the more effectual 
means of Preservation of Wounded Sea- 
men and Mariners on board H.M.'s ships 
in Time of Action,' 1780, 8vo ; 2nd edit. 
1782. 6. * Letter on the Scurvy,' 1782, 8vo. 
7. l Chemical Reflections relating to the Na- 
ture, Causes, Prevention, and Cure of some 
Diseases, particularly the Sea Scurvy,' 1784, 
8vo. 8. ' A Tract upon Indigestion and the 
Hypochondriac Disease, and on Atomic 
Gout,' 1785, 8vo ; 5th edit. 1789. 9. ' On 
the Nature and Symptoms of Gout,' 1785, 
8vo. 10. ' Physiological Conjectures concern- 
ing certain Functions of the Human (Eco- 
nomy in Foatus and in the Adult,' 1787, 8vo. 
11. 'A Short Account of the Method of 
treating Scrofular and other Glandular Af- 
fections,' 1790, 8vo. 12. ' Essay on Pesti- 
lential Diseases,' 1805, 8vo. 13. 'On the 
Nutriferous System in Men and all Creatures 
which have Livers,' 1808, 8vo. 14. 'A 
Treatise on Diet and Regimen, to which 
are added a Nosological Table, or Medical 
Chest Directory, Prescriptions,' &c., 1828, 
8vo ; dedicated to Dr. Abernethy. Rymer 
also contributed to the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for June 1822 (Supplement) ' Observa- 
tions on Hydrophobia,' for which he recom- 
mended the old remedy of immersion in 
cold or tepid water, with injections of the 
same; and he translated 'Analysis of the 
Section of the Symphysis of the Ossa Pubis, 
as recommended in cases of Difficult Labour 
and Deformed Pelvis. From the French of 
Alphonse le Roy,' 1783. 

[Rymer himself tells the story of his early 
life in Transplantation (1779), mentioned in the 
text. See also Lists of the Koyal College of 
Surgeons; Lit. Mem. Living Authors, 1798; 
Biogr. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. i. 824 ; Cat. Hoy. Med. and Chirurg. 
Socitty; Brit. Mus. Cat] G-. LE G. N. 

RYMER. THOMAS (1641-1713), author 
and archaeologist, son of Ralph Rymer, lord 
of the manor of Braflerton, Yorkshire, was 




born at 'The Hall' at Yafforth in 1641 
(INGLEDEW, Hist, of Northallerton, p. 288). 
The father, ' possessed of a good estate.' was, 
according to Clarendon, * of the quality of 
the better sort of grand jury men, who was 
esteemed a wise man, and was known to be 
trusted by the greatest men who had been 
in rebellion' (Continuation of Life, 1759, 
p. 461). An ardent roundhead, he was made 
treasurer of his district during the Common- 
wealth, and he was granted the estate at 
Yaftbrth and Wickmore, Yorkshire, which he 
had previously rented at 200/. a year of the 
royalist owner, Sir Edward Osborne. At the 
Restoration Sir Edward's son, Thomas, com- 
pelled him to surrender these lands. Ralph 
Rymer, resenting this treatment, joined ' the 
presbyterian rising ' in the autumn of 1663. 
He was arrested on 12 Oct., was condemned 
to death for high treason on 7 Jan., and was 
hanged at York. A son Ralph, who also 
engaged in the conspiracy, was detained in 
prison till 16 July 1666. 

Thomas was educated at the school kept by 
Thomas Smelt, a loyalist, at Danby-Wiske. 
George Hickes [q. v.] was a schoolfellow. 
He was admitted a l pensionarius minor ' at 
Sidney - Sussex College, Cambridge, on 
29 April 1658, at the age of seventeen. On 
quitting the university without a degree, he 
became a member of Gray's Inn on 2 May 
1666, and was called to the bar on 16 June 
1673 (cf. FOSTER, Reg. p. 300). 

But literature rather than law occupied 
most of his attention. In 1668 he first ap- 
peared as an author by publishing a trans- 
lation of a . Latin anthology from Cicero's 
works called ' Cicero's Prince ; ' this he dedi- 
cated to the Duke of Monmouth. The special 
study of his early life was, however, dramatic 
literature, and he reached the conviction that 
neglect of the classical rules of unity had 
seriously injured the dramatic efforts of Eng- 
lish writers. In 1674 he published, with an 
elaborate preface in support of such views, 
an English translation of R. Rapin's ' Reflec- 
tions on Aristotle's Treatise of Poesie.' In 
1677 he not only prepared an essay critically 
examining some typical English dramas in 
the light of his theories, but also wrote a play 
in which he endeavoured to illustrate prac- 
tically the value of the laws of the classical 
drama. The play, which was not acted, was 
licensed for publication on 13 Sept. 1677, and 
was published next year (in 4to) under the 
title * Edgar, or the English Monarch : an 
Heroick Tragedy.' It was in rhymed verse. 
The action takes place between noonday and 
ten at night. The plot was mainly drawn 
from William of Malmesbury. Abounding 
in strong royalist sentiments, the volume 

was dedicated to the king (other editions are 
dated 1691 and 1692). The only service that 
the piece rendered to art was to show how 
a play might faithfully observe all the classi- 
cal laws without betraying any dramatic 
quality. Addison referred to it in the ' Spec- 

I tator ' (No. 692) as a typical failure. 

Meanwhile Rymer's critical treatise was 

I licensed for the press on 17 July 1677. It 
was entitled ' The Tragedies of the Last Age 
consider'd and examin'd by the Practice of 
the Ancients, and by the Common Sense of 
all Ages, in a letter to Fleetwood Shepheard, 
esq.,' 1678, sm. 8vo. Here Rymer promised 
to examine in detail six plays, viz. Fletcher's 
'Rollo,' 'King or no King,' and 'Maid's 
Tragedy,' Shakespeare's ' Othello ' and ' Julius- 
Caesar,' and Ben Jonson's ' Catiline/ as well 
as to criticise Milton's ' Paradise Lost ' ' which 
some are pleased to call a poem.' But he 
confined his attention for the present to the 
first three of the plays only. He is uni- 
formly hostile to the works criticised. Most 
of his remarks are captious, but he displayed 
wide reading in the classics and occasionally 
exposed a genuine defect. The tract was 
republished, with ' Part I ' on the title-page, 
in 1692. He returned to the attack on 
' Othello ' in ' A Short View of Tragedy : its 
Original Excellency and Corruption; with 
some Reflections on Shakespeare and other 
Practitioners for the Stage.' This was pub- 
lished late in 1692, but bears the date 1693. 
In Rymer's eyes 'Othello' was 'a bloody 
farce without salt or savour.' He denies that 
Shakespeare showed any capacity in tragedy, 
although he allows him comic genius and 
humour. Both works attracted attention. 
Dry den wrote on the first volume some ap- 
preciative notes, which Dr. Johnson first pub- 
lished in his ' Life of Dryden.' The second 
volume was reviewed by Motteux in the 
' Gentleman's Journal ' for December 1692, 
and by John Dunton in the 'Compleat 
Library.' December 1692 ((ii. 58). Dunton 
in his ' Life and Errors ' (1818, p. 354) calls 
Rymer ' orthodox and modest.' Pope de- 
scribed him as ' a learned and strict critic/ 
and ' on the whole one of the best critics we 
ever had ... He is generally right, though 
rather too severe in his opinion of the par- 
ticular plays he speaks of (SPENCE, Anec- 
dotes). Comparing Rymer's critical efforts 
with Dryden's ' Essay on Dramatic Poetry J 
(1668), Dr. Johnson wrote that Dryden's criti- 
cism had the majesty of a queen, Rymer's 
the ferocity of a tyrant ( JOHNSON, Lives of 
the Poets, ed. Cunningham, i. 341). Macaulay 
judged him to be the worst critic that ever 
lived. It is fairer to regard him as a learned 
fanatic, from whose extravagances any level- 

Rymer < 

headed student of the drama may derive 
much amusement and some profit. 

In ' Martin Scriblerus ' Pope classed Rymer 
with Dennis as one of those 'who, beginning 
with criticism, became afterwards such poets 
as no age hath paralleled ' (cf.PopE, Works, ed. 
Courthope and Elwin, iv. 82, v. 48). Rymer 
wrote three poems to the memory of Edmund 
Waller, which were published in a volume 
of elegies in 1688, as well as in Dryden's 
' Miscellany Poems ; ' and he is said to have 
written the Latin inscription for Waller's 
tomb at Beaconsfield. In 1689 he published 
a poem on Queen Mary's arrival, and in 1692 
a translation of one elegy in Ovid's ' Tristia' 
(bk. iii. elegy 6 ; reissued in Dryden's ' Mis- 
cellanies,' 2nd edit. p. 148). Further speci- 
mens of his verse, which was on occasion 
sportively amorous, appear in Nichols's ' Se- 
lect Poems,' 1780, and two pieces figure in 
Mr. A. H. Bullen's ' Musa Proterva ' (1895, 
pp. 125-7). A contemporary caricature scorn- 
fully designates him ' a garreteer poet ' (CAUL- 
PIELB, Portraits, 1819, i. 50). Other contri- 
butions by Rymer to literature consisted of 
a translation of Plutarch's ' Life of Nicias ' 
in the collection of Plutarch's ' Lives ' (1683- 
1686), and he is supposed to be author of 
the preface to Thomas Hobbes's posthumous 
' Historia Ecclesiastica carmine elegiaco con- 
cinnata' (1688). ' A Life of Thomas Hobbes ' 
(1681), sometimes attributed to Rymer, is 
almost certainly by Richard Blackburne [q. v.] 
'An Essay concerning Critical and Curious 
Learning, in which are contained some short 
Reflections on the Controversie betwixt Sir 
William Temple and Mr. Wotton, and that 
betwixt Dr. Bentley and Mr. Boyl, by T. R., 
Esqr.,'1698 a 'very poor and mean perfor- 
mance ' is attributed to Rymer by Hearne 
(Collections, ii. 256-7) 

In the meantime Rymer's interests had 
been diverted to history. In 1684 he pub- 
lished a learned tract 'of the antiquity, 
power, and decay of parliaments' (other edi- 
tions in 1704 and 1714). In 1692 he re- 
ceived the appointment of historiographer 
to the king, in succession to Shadwell, at a 
salary of 200/. a year (LTJTTKELL, ii. 623). 

Shortly afterwards the government of 
William III determined, mainly at the sug- 
gestion of Lord Somers, to print by authority 
the public conventions of Great Britain with 
other powers. On 26 Aug. 1693 a warrant 
was issued to Rymer appointing him editor 
of the publication, which was to be entitled 
'Fcedera,' and authorising him to search all 
public repositories for leagues, treaties, alli- 
ances, capitulations, confederacies, which had 
at any time been made between the crown of 
England and other kingdoms. Rymer took 

7 Rymer 

as his model Leibnitz's recently published 
' Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus ' (Han- 
over, 1693), and founded his work on an 
Elizabethan manuscript ' Book of Abbrevia- 
tions of Leagues ' by Arthur Agard [q. v.] 
He corresponded with Leibnitz and with 
Bishop Nicolson, and benefited by their sug- 
gestions. The warrant enabling him to con- 
tinue his researches was renewed to Rymer 
on 12 April 1694. His expenses were large, 
and he was inadequately remunerated by 
the government. On 23 April 1694 he 
was granted, on his petition, a sum of 200/., 
' seized at Leicester on the conviction of a 
Romish priest,' Gervas Cartwright. But up 
to August 1698 he had expended 1,253/. 
in transcription and the like, and only re- 
ceived 500/. From May 1703 a salary of 
200/. was paid him for his editorial labours, 
but he suffered extreme poverty until his 
death. Many importunate petitions, which 
Lord Halifax supported with his influence, 
were needed before any money was set aside 
by the government for printing his work. 
The first volume was at length published on 
20 Nov. 1704, with a turgid dedication in 
Latin to the queen. It opens with a conven- 
tion between Henry I and Robert, earl of 
Flanders, dated 17* May 1101. Only two 
hundred and fifty copies were printed. The 
second volume appeared in 1705, and the third 
in 1706. In 1707, when the fourth volume 
was issued, Robert Sanderson [q. v.] was ap- 
pointed Rymer's assistant, and the warrant 
empowering searches was renewed on 3 May. 
The fifth and sixth volumes followed in 1708 ; 
the seventh, eighth, and ninth in 1709, the 
tenth and eleventh in 1710, the twelfth in 171 1 , 
the thirteenth and fourteenth in 1712, and the 
fifteenth, bringing the documents down to 
July 1586, in 1713, the year of Rymer's death. 
The sixteenth volume, which appeared in 
1715, was prepared by Sanderson, 'ex schedis 
Thomae Rymeri potissimum.' By a warrant 
dated ISFeb. 1717 Sanderson was constituted 
the sole editor of the undertaking, and he 
completed the original scheme by issuing the 
seventeenth volume in 1717 ('accurante 
Roberto Sanderson, generoso'). Here the 
latest treaty printed was dated 1625. There 
were appended an index and a ' Syllabus seu 
Index Actorum MSS. quse lix voluminibus 
compacta (praeter xviii tomos typis vulgatos) 
collegit ac descripsit Thomas Rymer.' The 
syllabus consists of a list of all the manu- 
scripts Rymer had transcribed during the 
progress of the undertaking. These papers, 
which dealt with the period between 1115 
and 1698, are now among the Additional 
MSS. at the British Museum (Nos. 4573- 
4630 and No. 18911). Of the two hundred 




and fifty copies printed of each of the seven- 
teen volumes, two hundred only were for sale 
at 2/. each. The cost of printing the seven- 
teen volumes amounted to 10,615/. 12s. 6d. 
Three supplemental volumes by Sanderson 
brought the total number to twenty, of which 
the last appeared in 1735. The latest docu- 
ment included was dated 1654. 

As the successive volumes issued from the 
press, the great design attracted appreciative 
attention, both at home and abroad. Each 
volume was, on its publication, abridged by 
Rapin in French in Le Clerc's ' Bibliotheque 
Choisie,' and a translation of this abridg- 
ment was published in English as ' Acta 
Regia ' by Stephen Whatley in 1731 in 4 vols. 
8vo (originally issued in twenty-five monthly 
parts). Hearne highly commended Rymer's 
industry, and welcomed every instalment 
with enthusiasm (cf. Collections, ii. 296). 
Swift, who obtained the volumes for the 
library of Dublin University, wrote in his 
Journal to Stella ' on 22 Feb. 1712 : < Came 
home early, and have been amusing myself 
with looking into one of the volumes of 
Rymer's records.' Though defective at some 
points, and defaced by errors of date and by 
many misprints, Rymer's ' Foedera ' remains 
a collection of high value and authority for 
almost all periods of the middle ages and 
for the sixteenth century. For the period 
of the Commonwealth the work is meagre, 
and Dumont's ' Corps Universel Diploma- 
tique ' (8 vols. 1726) is for that epoch an 
indispensable supplement. 

A corrected reprint, issued by Jacob Ton- 
son at the expense of government, under the 
direction of George Holmes (1662-1749) 
[q. v.], of the first seventeen volumes, ap- 
peared between 1727 and 1730, and was sold 
at 50/. a set ; this was limited to two hun- 
dred copies (Reliquice Hearniance, ed. Bliss, 
iii. 23). Anew edition in ten volumes, pub- 
lished by John Neaulme at The Hague, 
1737-45, is of greatly superior typographical 
accuracy, and supplies some new documents. 
A third edition of the 'Foedera ' was under- 
taken in 1806 by the Record Commission. 
Dr. Adam Clarke [q. v.] was appointed editor, 
and he was subsequently replaced by John 
Caley [q. v.] and Frederick Holbrooke ; but 
after 30,388/. 18s. 4^. had been spent, be- 
tween 1816 and 1830, on producing five hun- 
dred copies of parts i.-vi. (forming vols. i.-iii. 
and bringing the work to 1383), the publi- 
cation was finally suspended in 1830. A 
valuable syllabus of the ' Foedera,' contain- 
ing many corrections, was prepared by Sir 
Thomas Hardy, and was issued in three 
volumes (vol. i. appearing in 1869, 4to, vol. 
ii. in 1873, and vol. iii. in 1885). 

While engaged on the 'Foedera' Rymer 
found time to deal with some controverted 
historical problems. In 1702 he published 
a first letter to Bishop Nicolson ' on his 
Scotch Library/ in which he endeavours to 
free Robert III of Scotland from the imputa- 
tion of bastardy. A second letter to Bishop 
Nicolson contained ' an historical deduction 
of the alliances between France and Scot- 
land, whereby the pretended old league with 
Charlemagne is disproved and the true old 
league is ascertained.' Sir Robert Sibbald 
[q. v.], in a published reply, disputed Rymer's 
accuracy. Rymer, in a third letter to Nicol- 
son (1706), vindicated the character of Ed- 
ward III. 

Rymer died in poor circumstances at his 
house in Arundel Street, Strand, on 14 Dec. 
1713, and was buried in the parish church of 
St. Clement Danes. He left all his property 
to Mrs. Anna Parnell, spinster ; she sold his 
' Collectanea ' to the treasury for 215/. He 
seems to have been unmarried. After his 
death was published, in a volume called 
' Curious Amusements, by a Gentleman of 
Pembroke-hall in Cambridge ' (1714, 12mo), 
1 Some Translations [attributed to Rymer] 
from Greek, Latin, and Italian Poets, with 
other Verses and Songs never before 

[An unfinished life of Rymer, byDes Maizeaux, 
is among Thomas Birch's manuscripts (Add. MS. 
4423, f. 161). This and all other accessible 
sources of information have been utilised by Sir 
Thomas Duffus Hardy in the elaborate memoir 
which he prefixed to vol. i. of his Syllabus of 
Rymer's Foedera (1869). See also Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet. ; Rymer's Works ; Notes and Que- 
ries, 2nd ser. xi. 490 ; Diary of Ralph Thoresby, 
ed. Hunter; Gardiner's and Mullinger's Intro- 
duction to English History.] S. L. 

ANNES MICHIEL) (1693 P-1770), sculptor, 
is usually stated to have been born in Ant- 
werp on 24 June 1693, but the date and place 
both seem uncertain. He was son of Pieter 
Andreasz Rysbrack, a landscape-painter of 
Antwerp, who, after working in England 
for a short time in 1675, went to Paris, 
where he married a French woman, Genevieve 
Compagnon, widow of Philippe Buyster, by 
whom he had, besides the sculptor, two sons, 
Pieter Andreas and Gerard. A strong lean- 
ing to French models in the sculptor's work 
may be traced to the French origin of his 
mother. Rysbrack studied at Antwerp under 
Theodore Balant, one of the leading sculptors 
there, and in 1714-15 was ' meester ' of the" 
guild of St. Luke in that city. According 
to another account, his master from 1706 to 
1712 was the sculptor, Michiel Van der Vorst. 


6 9 


Rysbrack came to England in 1720, and at 
first gained a reputation for modelling small 
figures in clay. Afterwards he executed a 
few portrait-busts, which brought him into 
notice, and he obtained employment on 
monuments from James Gibbs [q. v.] and 
William Kent [q. v.], the architects. Not 
being satisfied with their treatment of him, 
Rysbrack began an independent practice, 
and quickly became the most fashionable 
sculptor of his day. He was very industrious 
and did much to introduce something of 
simplicity and good taste into the rather 
oppressive style which prevailed in monu- 
mental sculpture. Among the principal 
monuments executed by him are those in 
Westminster Abbey of Sir Isaac Newton 
(designed by Kent), the Duke of Newcastle, 
Matthew Prior, Earl Stanhope, Admiral 
Vernon, Sir Godfrey Kneller (designed by 
himself), Mrs. Oldfield (designed by Kent); 
in Worcester Cathedral Bishop Hough ; in 
Salisbury Cathedral, the Duke and Duchess 
of Somerset ; at Blenheim the Duke of Marl- 
borough. Among the statues executed by 
him were the bronze equestrian statue of 
William III at Bristol, the statues of the 
Duke of Somerset at Cambridge, John Locke 
at Oxford, George I and George II for the 
Royal Exchange. As a sculptor of portrait 
busts Rysbrack has seldom if ever been ex- 
celled. Nearly all the leading men of his 
time sat to him, including Pope, Walpole, Sir 
Hans Sloane, Gibbs, the Duke and Duchess 
of Marlborough, the Duke and Duchess of 
Argyll, Martin Folkes, and many others. 
When his supremacy was shaken by the 
growing popularity of Scheemakers and 
Roubiliac, Rysbrack produced three impor- 
tant portrait statues of Palladio, Inigo Jones, 
and Fiammingo, which were placed in the 
Duke of Devonshire's villa at Chiswick. At 
the same time he executed a large statue of 
Hercules, which was compiled from the Far- 
nese Hercules and studies made from noted 
pugilists and athletes of the time ; it was 
purchased by Mr. Hoare of Stourhead, Wilt- 
shire, who built a temple there on purpose 
to receive it. Besides his merits as a sculptor, 
Rysbrack was also an accomplished draughts- 
man, and executed many hundreds of highly 
finished drawings in bistre, all in the manner 
of the great Italian artists. In 1765 he 
retired from business, and sold part of his 
collection of models and drawings ; other 
sales followed in 1767 and 1770. Rysbrack 
resided for many years in Vere Street, Ox- 
ford Street, where he died on 8 Jan. 1770 ; 
he was buried in Marylebone churchyard. 
A portrait of Rysbrack was painted by J. 

[Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting (ed. 
Wornum) ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; J. T. 
Smith's Nollekens and his Times ; Rombouts and 
Van Lerius's Liggeren der Antwerpsche Sint 
Lucasgilde.] ' L. C. 

1590), engraver, one of the earliest English 
exponents of the art of engraving on copper, 
was a native of Leeds in Yorkshire, and a 
fellow-townsman of Christopher Saxton [q. v.] 
He was probably an offshoot of the old and 
knightly family of Ryther in Yorkshire. 
Ryther was associated with Saxton in en- 
graving some of the famous maps of the 
counties of England published by Saxton in 
1579. His name appears as the engraver of 
the maps of Durham and Westmoreland 
(1576), Gloucester and York (1577), and 
that of the whole of England, signed ' Au- 
gustinus Ryther Anglus Sculpsit An Dm 
1579.' His name appears in 1588 with those 
of Jodocus Hondius [q. v.], Theodore de Bry, 
and others, among the engravers of the charts 
to ' The Mariner's Mirrour . . . first made 
and set fourth in divers exact sea charts by 
that famous nauigator Luke Wagenar of En- 
chuisen, and now fitted with necessarie ad- 
ditions for the use of Englishmen by Anthony 
Ashley.' In 1590 Ryther published a trans- 
lation of Petruccio Ubaldini's ( Expeditionis 
Hispaniorum in Angliam vera Descriptio,' 
under the title of ' A discourse concerninge 
the Spanishe fleete inuadinge Englande in 
the yeare 1588, and overthrowne by her 
Ma ties Nauie under the conduction of the 
Right honorable the Lorde Charles Howarde, 
highe Admirall of Englande, written in 
Italian by Petruccio Ubaldino, citizen of 
Florence, and translated for A. Ryther : 
unto the w ch discourse are annexed certaine 
tables expressinge the seuerall exploites and 
conflictes had with the said fleete. These 
bookes, with the tables belonginge to them, 
are to be solde at the shoppe of A. Ryther, 
beinge a little from Leadenhall, next to the 
signe of the Tower.' The book was printed 
by A. Hatfield. This work is dedicated by 
Ryther to Lord Howard of Effingham, and 
in the dedication he alludes to the time spent 
by him in engraving the plates, and apolo- 
gises for the two years' delay in its publica- 
tion. In a letter to the reader, Ryther asks for 
indulgence ' because I count my selfe as yet 
but a yoong beginner.' The plates consist of 
a title and ten charts, showing the various 
stages of the progress and defeat of the 
Spanish Armada in the Channel, and tracing 
its further course round the British Isles. 
They were drawn out, as it appears, by 
Robert Adams (d. 1595) [q.v.], surveyor of 
the queen's buildings, and form the most im- 




portant record of the Spanish Armada which 
exists. It is probable that Ryther's charts, 
or Adams's original drawings, were the basis 
for the tapestries of the Spanish Armada, 
executed by Hendrik Cornelisz Vroom in 
Holland, and formerly in the House of Lords. 
Reduced copies of Ryther's charts were pub- 
lished by John Pine [q. v.] in his work on the 
Armada tapestries. The ' tables ' were pub- 
lished by Ryther separately from the book, 
and are very scarce. 

[Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert; Ryther's 
own works and publications.] L. C. 

RYTHER, JOHN (1634P-1681), noncon- 
formist divine, son of John Rither (d. 1673), 
a tanner, was born in Yorkshire about 1634, 
and educated at Leeds grammar school. 
On 25 March 1650, being then under sixteen 
years of age, he was admitted as a sizar at 
Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge. His 
father became a leader among the quakers at 
York. Ryther held the vicarage of Froding- 
ham (including Bromby), Lincolnshire, from 
which he was ejected, the presumption being 
that it was a sequestered living, which he 
lost at the Restoration. He retired to York, 
but soon obtained the vicarage of North 
Ferriby, Yorkshire : he resided, however, at 
Brough in the neighbouring parish of El- 
loughton. Ejected from Ferriby by the Uni- 
formity Act of 1662, he preached in his house 
at Brough till the operation of the Five 
Miles Act (which came into force 25 March 
1666) compelled him to remove. He preached 
at Allerton, near Bradford, and aided in 
founding in 1668 the congregational church 
at Bradford-dale. For illegal preaching he 
was imprisoned for six months, and again 
for fifteen months, in York Castle. About 
1669 he removed to London, a meeting-house 
was built for him at Wapping, and here he 
became exceedingly popular with sailors, who 
shielded him from arrest. He was known 
as the ' seaman's preacher.' He died in June 
1681. The mother of Andrew Kippis [q. v.] 
was his descendant. He published, besides 
single sermons (1672-80), including a funeral 
sermon for James Jarieway [q. v.] : 1. 'The 
Morning Seeker,' 1673, 8vo. 2. ( A Plat 
for Mariners; or the Seaman's Preacher,' 
1675, 8vo ; reprinted [1780], 8vo, with pre- 
face by John Newton (1725-1807) [q. v.] 
3. < The Best Friend ... or Christ's Awaken- 
ing Call/ 1678, 8vo. 

JOHN RYTHEK (d. 1704), son of the above, 
acted as chaplain on merchant ships trading 
to both the Indies, and early in 1689 became 
minister at Nottingham of the congrega- 
tional church in Bridlesmith Gate, and (from 
3 Oct. 1689) in Castle Gate. He published : 

' A Defence of the Glorious Gospel,' 1703, 
8vo, against John Barret (1631-1713) [q. v.] 
Among the manuscripts in the museum of 
Ralph Thoresby [q. v.] were ( A Journal kept 
by the Rev. Mr. John Ryther of his Voyage 
from Venice toZant, 1676 . . . fromZant . . . 
to London. . . . Another from Sardinia to 
England. From London, 1680, to the coast 
of Cormandell, and Bay of Bengale. From 
Fort St. George, 1681, "to Cape Bona Espe- 
rance, from St. Helena to England.' 

[Calamy's Account, 1713, pp. 448, 833; Calamy's 
Continuation, 1727, ii. 601 sq. 953 sq. ; Musseum 
Thoresbyanum, 1816, p. 81 (89); Carpenter's 
Presbyterianism in Nottingham [1862], pp. 106, 
109 ; Miall's Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 
1868, p. 240; Nottingham Daily Press, 30 May 
1889 (account of Castle Grate Chapel) ; informa- 
tion from the master of Sidney-Sussex College, 
and from J. S. Rowntree, esq., York.] A. G. 

RYVES, BRUNO (1596-1677), dean of 
Windsor, son of Thomas, and grandson of 
John Ryves of Damory Court, Dorset, was 
born in 1596, and educated at Oxford, sub- 
scribing as a clerk of New College in 1610. 
Sir Thomas Ryves [q. v.] was his first cousin. 
He graduated B.A. in 1616, and in the fol- 
lowing year became a clerk of Magdalen, 
proceeding M.A. 9 June 1619, B.D. 20 June 
1632, and D.D. 25 June 1639. He was 
admitted of Gray's Inn in 1634. In the 
meantime he was instituted to the vicarage 
of Stanwell in Middlesex, where he made a 
name by his ' florid ' preaching (WOOD), 
obtaining in September 1628 the additional 
benefice of St. Martin-le-Vintry. About 
1640 he became chaplain to Charles I. The 
inhabitants of Stanwell petitioned against him 
in July 1642, and he was forthwith deprived 
of his benefices, and a parliamentary preacher 
appointed in his stead. ' With his wife and 
four children and all his family he was (accord- 
ing to Walker) taken out of doors, all his goods 
seized, and all that night lay under a hedge in 
the wet and cold. Next day my Lord Arundel, 
hearing of this barbarous usage done to so 
pious a gentleman, sent his coach with men 
and horses,' and Ryves was entertained for 
some time at Wardour Castle. A patent of 
June 1646 created him dean of Chichester, 
but he remained in seclusion and dependent 
upon charity at Shafton in Dorset until 
after the king's death, when he made at 
least one journey abroad, bearing to Charles II 
some money which had been collected among 
his adherents. Upon the Restoration he 
petitioned for the vicarage of St. Giles's, 
Cripplegate ; but better preferment was in 
store for him. He was in July 1660 in- 
stalled dean of Chichester and master of the 
hospital there; he was also sworn chaplain- 


in-ordinary to the king, and appointed dean 
of Windsor (and Wolverhampton), being in- 
stalled on 3 Sept. 1660. He became scribe 
of the order of the Garter in the following 
January, and was shortly afterwards pre- 
sented to the rectories of Haseley, Oxon., 
and Acton, in Middlesex. As administrator 
of the charity of the poor knights of Wind- 
sor, he had great difficulty in dealing with 
the many and conflicting appeals of decayed 

In January 1662, upon the occasion of a 
great alarm caused by the prevalence of 
midsummer weather in midwinter, Ryves 
preached before the House of Commons at St. 
Margaret's, on Joshua vii. 12, showing how 
the neglect of exacting justice on offenders 
(by which he insinuated such of the old king's 
murderers as were yet reprieved and in the 
Tower) was a main cause of God's punishing 
aland ' (EVELYN, Diary, 15 Jan. : cf. PEPYS, 
i. 313). Being non-resident at Acton, he 
put in a drunken curate, whom he directed 
to persecute Richard Baxter. Baxter was 
drawing crowded audiences to his sermons 
in defiance of the conventicle act, by an un- 
popular application of which, in 1668, he 
was at length convicted and confined for six 
months. Baxter rightly attributed his mis- 
hap to the absentee rector, who had grown 
hard and sour ; even Sir Matthew Hale had 
no good word for him. Ryves died at 
Windsor on 13 July 1677, and was buried 
in the south aisle of St. George's Chapel, 
where he is commemorated by a long mural 
inscription in Latin. By his wife, Kate, 
daughter of Sir Richard Waldram, knt., of 
Charley, Leicestershire, he had several chil- 
dren. A son married Judith Tyler in 1668, 
and his son Bruno entered Merchant Tay- 
lors' School in 1709 ; a kinsman, Jerome 
Ryves (d. 1705), was installed dean of St. 
Patrick's, Dublin, in March 1699. 

Besides three separate sermons, Ryves 
was the author of ' Mercurius Rusticus ; or 
the Countries Complaint of the Barbarous 
Outrages committed by the Sectaries of this 
late flourishing Kingdom.' Nineteen num- 
bers (in opposition to which George Wither 
started a parliamentary ' Mercurius Rusticus ') 
appeared from August 1642, and the whole 
were republished, 1646, 1647, and 1685, with 
a finely engraved frontispiece, in compart- 
ments. The assaults upon Sir John Lucas's 
house, W ardour Castle, and other mansions 
are narrated, while a second part commences 
to deal with the violation of the cathedrals. 
From the fact of its being frequently bound 
up with < Mercurius Rusticus,' with the 
common title of ' Anglise Ruina,' the 
' Querela Cantabrigiensis ' of John Barwick 

i Ryves 

[q. v.] has been erroneously attributed to 
Ryves (WooD, Athena, iii. 1111). Ryves 
assisted Walton in the business of the Lon- 
don tithes, and contributed to his polyglot 
bible (ToDD, Memoirs of Walton, i. 4, 306). 
A number of his letters are among the Ash- 
mole MSS. in the Bodleian Library (see 
BLOXAM, Magd. Coll. Reg. ii. 58). Both 
Ryves's Christian name and surname were 
variously spelt by his contemporaries, Brune, 
I Bruen, Brian, Bruno, and Reeves, Rives, 
Ryve, Reeve, and Ryves. 

An engraved portrait of the dean, from 
an original miniature in oil, was published 
in 1810 ; a second was engraved by Earlom 
(EVANS, Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p. 302). 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1110; Bloxam's 
Magdalen Coll. Registers, ii. 51-8 ; Hutchins's 
Dorset, i. 228 and iv. 96 (pedigree^ ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eocles. Anglicanse; Newcourt's Eeper- 
torium, 1708, i. 423; Lysons's Environs of Lon- 
don, ii. 12 ; Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 
1714, ii. 12 ; Lloyd's Memoirs, pp. 5, 6 ; Grey's 
Examples of Neal's Puritans, iii. App. p. 13; 
Baxters Addit. Notes on Sir M. Hale, 1682, p. 
25 ; Baxter et 1'Angleterre religieuse de son 
temps, 1840, p. 249; Pote's Windsor, p. 365; 
j Fox- Bourne's Hist, of Newspapers, i. 13 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, passim ; Chalmers's 
Biogr. Diet.; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn); 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

RYVES, ELIZABETH (1750-1797), 
author, descended from an old Irish family 
connected with that of Bruno Ryves [q. v.], 
was born in Ireland in 1750. She owned 
some property, but, being cheated out of it, 
fell into poverty, and went to London to 
earn a living by her pen. She wrote poli- 
tical articles for newspapers, verses, plays, 
and learned French in order to make trans- 
lations ; she turned into English Rousseau's 
* Social Contract,' Raynal's ' Letter to the 
National Assembly,' and Delacroix's ' Re- 
view of the Constitutions of the Principal 
States of Europe,' 1792 ; she attempted Frois- 
sart, but gave it up as too difficult. For 
some time she is doubtfully said to have 
conducted the historical department of the 
'Annual Register' (cf. Gent. Mag. 1795 ii. 
540, 734, 1797 i. 522; and BAKER, Biogr. 
Dramat. i. 619). 

Her dramatic efforts, ' The Prude,' a comic 
opera in three acts (cf. ib. ii. 185), and ' The 
Debt of Honour,' were accepted by a thea- 
trical manager, but were never acted ; she re- 
ceived 100/. as compensation. She wrote one 
novel, ' The Hermit of Snowden,' said to be 
an account of her own life, and seven small 
volumes of poems. She died in poverty in 
April 1797 in Store Street, London. Isaac 


Disraeli, to whom she was personally known, 
expends much pity on her late (cf. Calamities 
of Authors, p. 95). 

[Webb's Irish Biography, p. 461 ; O'Dono^hue's 
Poets of Ireland, iii. 221; Male's Woman's Re- 
cord, p. 497 ; Gent. Mag 1797, i. 445.] E. L. 


(1758-1826), rear-adiniral, son of Thomas 
Ryves, of the old Dorset family, by his 
second wife, Anna Maria, daughter of Daniel 
Graham, was born on 8 Sept. 1758. He re- 
ceived his early education at Harrow, and 
in February 1774 was entered on board the 
Kent guardship at Plymouth. In April 1775 
he joined the Portland, going out to the West 
Indies as flagship of Vice-admiral James 
Young, and shortly after arriving on the 
station was appointed to command the Tartar 
tender, carrying eight guns and a crew of 
thirty-three men. In her he had the fortune 
to capture upwards of fifty prizes, some of 
them privateers of superior force. In May 
1778 the Portland returned to England, and 
in May 1779 Ryves joined the Europe, the 
flagship of Vice-admiral Arbuthnot, who in 
September appointed him acting-lieutenant 
of the Pacific armed ship. PI is lieutenant's 
commission was confirmed on 18 Nov. 1780, 
and in December he was appointed to the Fox 
on the Jamaica station. In her he returned 
to England in 1782, and early in 1783 he 
was appointed to the Grafton, which sailed 
for the East Indies ; but, having been dis- 
masted in a gale in the Bay of Biscay, was 
obliged to put back and, consequent on the 
peace, was paid off and Ryves placed on 
half-pay. In the armament of 1787 he was 
appointed first lieutenant of the Aurora 
frigate, and in January 1795 to the Arethusa 
on the coast of France. On 4 July 1795 he 
was promoted to the command of the Bull- 
dog, then in the West Indies, and went out 
to her as a passenger in the Colossus. On 
arriving at St. Lucia, in the absence of the 
Bulldog, Ryves volunteered for service with 
the seamen landed for the reduction of the 
and rendered important assistance in the 
making of roads and the transporting of 
heavy guns. He afterwards joined the Bull- 
dog, in which he returned to England in 
September 1797. 

On 29 May 1798 he was advanced to post 
rank, and in April 1800 was appointed to the 
Agincourt of 64 guns, which during the 
summer carried the flag of Sir Charles 
Morice Pole [q. v.] on the Newfoundland 
station. In the following year the Agin- 
court was one of the fleet with Lord Keith 
on the coast of Egypt [see ELPHINSTONE, 

s Ryves 

March 1802 Ryves was sent with a small 
squadron to receive the cession ot Corfu. 
Afterwards, on intelligence that the French 
were preparing to seize on the island of 
Maddalena,he was sent thither to prevent the 
encroachrnenc. The intelligence proved to 
be incorrect ; but while waiting there Ryves 
carried out a survey of the roadstead, then 
absolutely unknown, and by his chart Nelson, 
in the following year, was led to make it 
his base, calling it, in compliment to Ryves, 
Agincourt Sound. In May 1803 Ryves was 
moved to the Gibraltar, in which he re- 
mained in the Mediterranean, under Nelson's 
command, till the summer of 1804, when 
the Gibraltar, being almost worn out, was 
sent home and paid off. In 1810 Ryves 
commanded the Africa, of 64 guns, in the 
Baltic, from which he brought home a large 
convoy, notwithstanding the severity of the 
weather and the violence of the gales. He 
had no further service, but became rear- 
admiral on 27 May 1825, and died at his 
seat, Shrowton House, Dorset, on 20 May 
1826. Ryves was twice married : first, in 
1792, to Catherine Elizabeth, third daughter 
of the Hon. James Everard Arundel ; and, 
secondly, in 1806, to Emma, daughter of 
Richard Robert Graham of Chelsea Hos- 
pital. By both wives he left issue ; five of 
his sons served in the navy. The eldest,. 
George Frederick Ryves, nominated a C.B. 
in 1826 for distinguished service in the first 
Burmese war, died, a rear-admiral, in 1858. 
[Marshall's Eoy. Nav. Biogr. iii. (vol. ii.) 136 ; 
O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. p. 1017; Nicolas's 
Despatches of Lord Nelson (see Index) ; Service- 
book in the Public Eecord Office ; Gent. Mag. 
1826, i. 640.] J. K. L. 

HORTON DE SERRES (1797-1871), claim- 
ing to be Princess of Cumberland. [See 

RYVES, SIR THOMAS (1583 ?-1652) r 
civilian, born about 1583, was the eighth 
son of John Ryves (1532-1587 ?) of Damory 
Court, near Blandford, Dorset, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Mervyn of 
Fonthill, Wiltshire. Of his brothers, George 
(1569-1613) was warden of New College, 
Oxford, and Sir William (d. 1660) was ap- 
pointed attorney-general for Ireland in 1619 
arid judge of the king's bench in 1636-. 
Bruno Ryves [q. v.] was his first cousin. 
Thomas was admitted to Winchester School 
in 1590, was thence elected fellow of New 
College, Oxford, in 1598, and graduated 
B.C.L. on 7 Feb. 1604-5, and D.C.L. 
21 June 1610. He also studied law in Hhe 




best universities of France,' and the terms he 
spent there were allowed to count for his 
degree as if he had spent them in Oxford (Cal. 
State Papers, Ireland, 1615-25, pp. 105-7 ; 
Reg. Univ. Oxon. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 380). In 1611 
he was admitted advocate of Doctors' Com- 
mon. In September 1612 Sir John Davies 
[q. v.], whose wife was sister to Ry ves's aunt, 
took Ryves with him on his return to Ireland, 
and in the following October procured him 
the reversion of the office of judge of facul- 
ties and the prerogative court in Ireland. 
Meanwhile he did the king ' good service ' 
during the parliament of 1613, made notable 
by the struggle between Davies and Sir 
John Everard [q. v.] for the speakership, 
of which Ryves wrote an account, pre- 
served among the state papers (Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, 1611-14, pp. 354-5). On 
the death of Sir Daniel Donne [q. v.] in 
1617, Ryves succeeded to the office of judge 
of faculties ; but the bishops, including 
Ussher, objected to his authority in ecclesi- 
astical matters, and demanded the appoint- 
ment of a prelate. Ryves defended his 
claims in a letter to Sir Thomas Lake ($.), 
but finally resigned the office, which was 
given to the archbishop of Dublin in 1621. 
Ryves now returned to England and 
began to practise in the admiralty court. 
In April 1623 he was associated with the 
attorney-general in the prosecution of Ad- 
miral Sir Henry Mervyn and Sir William 
St. John before the admiralty court. In 
the following July he was ordered to attend 
Arthur, lord Chichester [q. v.], in his fruit- 
less mission to negotiate peace in the Pala- 
tinate, but does not appear to have started 
(Cal. State Papers; Ryves to Ussher, in 
USSHER'S Works, ed. Elrington, xv. 201). In 
the same year he was appointed king's ad- 
vocate. In June 1626 he was sworn a 
master of requests extraordinary (Cal. State 
Papers, 1625-6, p. 362), and his activity in 
the admiralty courts is evidenced by nu- 
merous entries in the state papers from this 
date to the outbreak of the civil war. In 
1634 he was placed on a commission to 
visit the churches and schools in the diocese 
of Canterbury. In 1636 he was made judge 
of the admiralty of Dover, and subsequently 
of the Cinque ports. His name does not 
occur after 1642, probably because he left 
his post to join the king. In spite of his 
advanced years he is said to have fought 
valiantly, and to have been several times 
wounded. He was knighted by Charles on 

19 March 1644, and in September 1648 was 
employed on the king's behalf to negotiate 
with the parliament. He died on 2 Jan. 
1651-2, and was buried on the 5th in St. 
Clement Danes Church, London. He 
married a lady named Waldram, but left no 
issue. Ryves was an able civilian, and his 
works evince considerable learning ; but 
Archbishop Ussher had no high opinion of 
his gratitude or honesty (UssHEE, Letters, 
ed. Parr, 1686, p. 335). 

His works are : 1 . ' The Poore Vicars 
Plea,' London, 1620, 4to ; it deals with the 
clergy of Ireland, and vindicates their claims 
to tithes, notwithstanding impropriations ; 
another edition was printed by Sir Henry 
Spelman in 1704. 2. ' Regiminis Anglican! 
in Hibernia Defensio adversus Analecten 
(by David Rothe [q. v.]),' London, 1624, 4to ; 
it seeks to exculpate James I from the charges 
of tyranny and oppression in Ireland, of de- 
basing the coin, and restraining freedom of 
speech in parliament ; it maintains the royal 
against papal supremacy in the church, and 
concludes with an eloquent vindication of 
Chichester's administration. 3. ' Impera- 
toris Justiniani Defensio adversus Aleman- 
num,' London, 1626, 12mo ; another edition 
appeared at Frankfort in 1628, 8vo. 4. ' His- 
toria Navalis, lib. i.,' London, 1629, 8vo; 
begins with Noah, and deals with ancient 
naval history down to the sixth century B.C. ; 
no more of this edition was published, and 
this volume was included in 5. 'Historia 
Navalis Antiqua, lib. iv.,' London, 1633, 8vo, 
which goes down to the establishment of the 
Roman empire. 6. ' Historia Navalis Media, 
lib. iii.,' London, 1640, 8vo ; carries on the 
history to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. 
Many of Ry ves's letters are preserved among 
the state papers ; two to Camden are printed 
in Smith's 'Camdeni Epistolse/ 1691, pp. 
236, 257, and seven to Ussher in Elrington's 
( Works of Ussher.' In the last two he speaks 
of having translated some of Ussher's works, 
but these translations do not seem to have 
been published. 

[Authorities cited; Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; 
Cal. State Papers, Domestic and Irish ; Lascelles's 
Liber Mun. Hib. ; Hutchins's Dorset, i. 228, iv. 
96 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 304-6 ; Ware's 
Ireland, ii. 339-40 ; Laud's Works, iv. 126, 129, 
130, v. 132; Reg. Univ. Oxon. vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 
120, 186, 380, pt. iii. p. 260; Kirby's Winches- 
ter Scholars; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Coote's Civilians, p. 70; Fuller's Worthies, i. 
315 ; Gent. Mag. 1813.. ii. 22-3.] A. F. P. 





SABIE, FRANCIS (/. 1595), poetaster, 
was a schoolmaster at Lichfield in 1587 
(ARBER, Stationers' Registers, ii. 146). He 
published three volumes of verse two in 
1595, and one in 1596. His earliest publica- 
tion, in two parts, was entitled ' The Fisher- 
mans Tale : Of the famous Actes, Life, and 
Loue of Cassander, a Grecian Knight/ 1595. 
The second part bears the heading ' Flora's 
Fortune. The second part and finishing of 
the Fisher-mans Tale.' The poem, which was 
licensed for publication to Richard Jones on 
11 Nov. 1594, is a paraphrase in monotonous 
blank verse of 'Pandosto, the Triumph of 
Time,' afterwards renamed 'Dorastus and 
Fawnia,' a romance by Robert Greene (1560 ?- 
1592) [q.v.] A reprint from a Bodleian manu- 
script, limited to ten copies, was issued by 
James Orchard Halliwell (afterwards Halli- 
well-Phillipps) [q. v.] in 1867. Later in 1595 
there appeared ' Pan's Pipe, Three Pastorall 
Eglogues in English Hexameter, with other 
poetical verses delightfull.' The publisher was 
Richard Jones, who obtained a license for the 
publication on 11 Jan. 1594-5 (ARBER, ii. 668). 
The prose epistle ( To all youthful Gentlemen, 
Apprentises, fauourers of the diuine Arte of 
sense-delighting Poesie,' is signed F. S. The 
hexameters run satisfactorily. In his third 
volume, which contains three separate works, 
Sabie showed for the first time his capacity 
in rhyme. The book was entitled ' Adams 
Complaint. The Olde Worldes Tragedie. 
Dauid and Bathsheba,' London, by Richard 
Jones, 1596, 4to. These poems, which are 
in rhyming stanzas (each consisting of three 
heroic couplets), versify scripture. ' The Olde 
Worldes Tragedie' is the story of the flood. 
The volume is dedicated to Dr. Howland, 
bishop of Peterborough. 

Copies of Sabie's three books all extremely 
rare are in the British Museum and at Brit- 
well. The British Museum copies of ' The 
Fisher-mans Tale ' and ' Flora's Fortune,' 
which are in fine condition, were acquired 
from Sir Charles Isham's collection in 1894 
(Times, 31 Aug. 1895; Bibliographica. iii. 

Sabie's son Edmond was apprenticed to 
Robert Cullen, a London stationer, 12 June 
1587 (ARBER, ii. 146), and was admitted a 
freeman on 5 Aug. 1594. 

[Collier's Bibl. Cat. ii. 2, 305-7 sq. ; Collier's 
Poet. Decameron, i. 137-41 ; information kindly 
supplied by E. E. Graves, esq.] S. L. 

SABINE, SIR EDWARD (1788-1883), 
general, royal artillery, and president of the 
Royal Society, fifth son and ninth child of 
Joseph Sabine, esq., of Tewin, Hertfordshire, 
and of Sarah (who died within a month of 
her son's birth), daughter of Rowland Hunt, 
esq., of Boreatton Park, Shropshire, was born 
in Great Britain Street, Dublin, on 14 Oct. 
1788. Sir Edward's great-grandfather was 
General Joseph Sabine (1662 P-1739) [q. v.], 
and Joseph Sabine (1770-1813) [q. v.] was 
his brother. 

Sabine was educated at Marlow and at 
the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, 
which he entered on 25 Jan. 1803. He re- 
ceived a commission as second lieutenant in 
the royal artillery on 22 Dec. of the same 
year, and was stationed at Woolwich. He 
was promoted to be first lieutenant on 
20 July 1804, and on 11 Nov. sailed for 
Gibraltar, where he remained until August 
1806. On his return to England on 1 Sept. 
he was posted to the royal horse artillery, in 
which he served at various home stations 
until the end of 1812. He was promoted to 
be second captain on 24 Jan. 1813, and on 
9 May sailed for Canada from Falmouth in 
the packet Manchester. When eight days 
out she was attacked by the Yorktown, an 
American privateer, but, carrying some light 
guns and carronades, was able to maintain 
a running fight for twenty hours, after which 
an hour's close engagement compelled her to 
strike her colours. Sabine and his soldier- 
servant were of great service in working the 
guns. On 18 July the Manchester was re- 
captured by the British frigate Maidstone, 
and Sabine was landed at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, whence he proceeded to Quebec. 

In the winter of 1813-14 there was an 
advance of American militia on Quebec, and 
Sabine was directed to garrison a small out- 
post. He served during August and September 
1814 in the Niagara frontier (Upper Canada) 
campaign under Lieutenant-general Gordon 
Drummond, was present at the siege of Fort 
Erie, took part in the assault on that fort 
on 15 Aug., when the British lost twenty- 
seven officers and 326 men, and was engaged 
in the action of 17 Sept. against a sortie, 
when the British loss was twenty officers 
and 270 men, was twice favourably men- 
tioned in despatches, and was privileged to 
wear the word ' Niagara ' on his dress and 
appointments. He returned home on 12 Aug. 




1816, and devoted himself to his favourite 
studies astronomy, terrestrial magnetism, 
and ornithology under the supervision of 
his brother-in-law, Henry Browne, F.R.S., 
at whose house (2 Portland Place, London) 
he met Captain Henry Kater, F.R.S., and 
other kindred spirits. 

Sabine was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1818, and the same year, on the 
recommendation of the president and council, 
he was appointed astronomer to the arctic 
expedition in search of a north-west passage, 
which sailed in the Isabella under Commander 
(afterwards Sir) John Ross (1777-1856) [q.v.] 
and was absent from May to November. His 
report on the biological results of the expe- 
dition appeared in the ' Transactions of the 
Linnean Society,' vol. xii., and embraced 
twenty-four species of birds from Greenland, 
of which four were new to the list, and one, 
the Larus Sabiiii, entirely new. He further 
contributed an account of the Esquimaux of 
the west coast of Greenland to the ' Quar- 
terly Journal of Science,' 1819. 

Sabine accompanied, in a similar capacity, 
a second arctic expedition in 1819, which 
sailed in the Hecla under Lieutenant-com- 
mander (afterwards Sir) Edward Parry [q.v.], 
and was away from May 1819 until No- 
vember 1 820. He tabulated all the observa- 
tions, and arranged nearly all the appendix of 
Parry's journal, and Parry warmly acknow- 
ledged his valuable assistance throughout 
the expedition. During the tedious stay for 
the winter months inWinter Harbour, when 
the sun was ninety-six days below the 
horizon, Sabine edited a weekly journal for 
the amusement of the party, which was en- 
titled 'The North Georgia Gazette and 
Winter Chronicle,' and extended to twenty- 
one numbers. In 1821 he received the Copley 
medal of the Royal Society for various com- 
munications relating to his researches during 
the arctic expedition. 

Sabine was next selected to conduct a 
series of experiments for determining the 
variation in different latitudes in the length 
of the pendulum vibrating seconds, with a 
view to ascertain the true figure of the 
earth, a subject which had engaged his at- 
tention in the first arctic voyage. He sailed 
in the Pheasant on 12 Nov. 1821, and re- 
turned on 5 Jan. 1823, having visited St. 
Thomas (Gulf of Guinea), Maranham, Ascen- 
sion, Sierra Leone, Trinidad, Bahia, and 
Jamaica. On 1 May 1823 he sailed in the 
Griper on the same duty, returningon 19 Dec., 
having visited New York, Trondhjem, Ham- 
merfest, Greenland, and Spitzbergen. 

Sabine's observations of the magnetic in- 
clination and force at St. Thomas in 1822 

I were the first made on that island. Utilised 
| as a base of comparison with later observa- 
tions of the Portuguese, they are important 
as showing the remarkable secular change 
which was in progress during the interval. 
The account of Sabine's pendulum experi- 
ments, printed in a quarto volume by the 
board of longitude in 1825, is an enduring 
monument of his indefatigable industry, his 
spirit of inquiry, and wide range of observa- 
tion. The work was honoured by the award 
to him of the Lalande gold medal of the 
Institute of France in 1826. 

In 1825 Sabine was appointed a joint com- 
missioner with Sir John Herschel to act 
with a French government commission in 
determining the precise difference of longi- 
tude between the observatories of Paris and 
Greenwich by means of rocket-signals. The 
difference of longitude thus found was nine 
minutes 21'6 seconds. The accepted dif- 
ference at the present time, by electric sig- 
nalling, is nine minutes twenty-one seconds. 
On 31 Dec. 1827 Sabine was promoted first 
captain, and having obtained from the Duke 
of Wellington, then master-general of the 
ordnance, general leave of absence so long 
as he was not required for military service, 
and on the understanding that he was use- 
fully employed in scientific pursuits, he acted 
until 1829 as one of the secretaries of the 
Royal Society. 

In 1827 and the two folio wing years Sabine 
j made experiments to determine the relative 
lengths of the seconds pendulum in Paris, 
London, Greenwich, and Altona, and he 
afterwards determined the absolute length 
at Greenwich. On the abolition of the board 
of longitude in 1828, it was arranged that 
three scientific advisers of the admiralty 
should be nominated, the selection being 
limited to the council of the Royal Society. 
Sabine, Faraday, and Young were appointed. 
Sabine's appointment was violently attacked 
by Charles Babbage in a pamphlet generally 
denouncing the Royal Society, entitled l Re- 
flections on the Decline of Science in Eng- 
land, and on some of its Causes ' (1830). 
Sabine did not answer Babbage's unmannerly 
attack, but contented himself with inserting 
in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for 1830 an 
explanation on one point upon which par- 
ticular stress had been laid. 

The condition of Ireland in 1830 necessi- 
tated an increased military establishment, 
and Sabine was recalled to military duty in 
that country, where he served for seven 
years. During this time he continued his 
pendulum investigations, and in 1834 com- 
menced, in conjunction with Professor Hum- 
phrey Lloyd, afterwards provost of Trinity 




College, Dublin, and Captain (afterwards 
Sir) James Clark Ross [q.v.], the first sys- 
tematic magnetic survey ever made of the 
British Islands. He extended it single- 
handed to Scotland in 1836, and in con- 
junction with Lloyd, Ross, and additional 
observers, in the following year to England. 
With the exception of the mathematical 
section of the Irish report, which was Pro- 
fessor Lloyd's, the reports published by the 
British Association were mainly Sabine's, 
as was also a very large share of the obser- 
vations, more particularly the laborious task 
of combining them, by equations of con- 
dition, to obtain the most probable mean 

Sabine was promoted to be brevet-major 
on 10 Jan. 1837, and did duty at Woolwich. 
On 22 April 1836 Humboldt wrote to the 
Duke of Sussex, president of the Royal So- 
ciety, in reference to a conversation he had 
recently held in Berlin with Sabine and 
Lloyd, and urged the establishment through- 
out the British empire of regular magnetic 
stations similar to those which, mainly by 
his influence, had been for some time in ope- 
ration in Northern Asia. The proposal was 
reported upon by Mr. (afterwards Sir) George 
Airey, astronomer royal, and Mr. Samuel 
Hunter Christie [q. v.] (see Royal Soc. Proc. 
vol. iii.) A committee on mathematics and 
physics, appointed in May, of which Sabine, 
Lloyd, and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) Wil- 
liam Thomas Denison [q. v.] were prominent 
members, worked out the details, and to- 
wards the end of the year a definite official 
representation was made to government to 
establish magnetic observatories at selected 
stations in both hemispheres, and to despatch 
a naval expedition to the South Antarctic 
regions to make a magnetical survey of them. 
In the spring of 1839 the scheme was ap- 
proved by the government. 

The fixed observatories were to be esta- 
blished at Toronto in Canada, St. Helena, 
and the Cape of Good Hope, and at stations 
to be determined by the East India Company, 
while other nations were invited to co- 
operate. Sabine was appointed to superin- 
tend the whole, and the observatories began 
their work in 1840. Sabine's first publica- 
tion of results was a quarto volume in 1843 
of ' Observations on Days of Unusual Mag- 
netic Disturbance,' which was followed by a 
second volume on the same subject in 1851. 
The subsequent publications, which were en- 
tirely edited by Sabine, who wrote an intro- 
duction to each volume, were : Toronto, 1842- 
1847, in 3 vols., dated 1845, 1853, and 1857 
respectively (observations were carried on 
from 1848 to 1853, but were not printed) ; 

St. Helena, 1843-9, in 2 vols., dated 1850 
and 1860 ; Cape of Good Hope, the magnetic 
observations to 1846, 1 vol., dated 1851, and 
the meteorological to 1848, 1 vol., dated 
1880 ; Hobart Town, Tasmania, to 1842, in 
3 vols., dated 1850, 1852, and 1853 respec- 
tively. To enable Sabine to cope with the 
work, a small clerical staff was maintained 
by the war office at Woolwich for about 
twenty years. 

In 1839 Sabine was appointed general 
secretary of the British Association, a la- 
borious office which he held for twenty years, 
with the single exception of 1852, when he 
occupied the presidential chair at Belfast. 
In 1840 he commenced the series of l Con- 
tributions to Terrestrial Magnetism,' which 
comprised fifteen papers in the ( Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society,' spread 
over thirty-six years. This gigantic work 
was a survey of the general distribution of 
magnetism over the globe at this epoch. In 
it is to be found every observation of any 
authority taken by sea or land since 1818 or 
thereabouts, arranged in zones of 5 and 10 
of latitude, and taken in the order of longi- 
tude eastwards from Greenwich round the 
globe. Illustrative maps were prepared for 
it in the hydrographical department of the 
admiralty, under the supervision of Captain 
(afterwards Rear-admiral Sir) Frederick 
Evans, R.N. Several of the numbers ap- 
peared after Sabine had lost the aid of his 
staff of clerks at Woolwich. Numbers 11, 
13, 14, and 15 contain a complete statement 
of the magnetic survey of the globe, in the 
double form of catalogue or tables and of 
magnetic maps. 

On 25 Jan. 1841 Sabine was promoted to 
be regimental lieutenant-colonel. On 1 Dec. 
1845 he was elected foreign secretary of the 
Royal Society. In 1849 he was awarded one 
of the gold medals of the society for his 
papers on terrestrial magnetism. On 30 Nov. 
1850 he was elected treasurer to the society. 
On 11 Nov. of the following year he was 

fromoted to be regimental colonel, and on 
4 June 1856 major-general. Between 1858 
and 1861, at the request of the British Asso- 
ciation, he undertook to repeat the magnetic 
survey of the British Isles. Dr. Lloyd was 
again his coadjutor, and, as before, Sabine 
reduced and reported the results relating to 
the elements of dip and force, Evans dealing 
with the declination. In 1859 he edited the 
* Letters of Colonel Sir Augustus Eraser, 
K.C.B., commanding the Royal Horse Artil- 
lery in the Army under the Duke of Wel- 
lington, written during the Peninsular and 
Waterloo Campaigns.' 

Sabine was elected president of the Royal 




Society in 1861, and held the office until his 
resignation in 1871. In 1864 he moved the 
government of India to undertake at various 
stations of the great trigonometrical survey, 
from the sea-level at Cape Cormorin to the 
lofty tablelands of the Himalayas, the series 
of pendulum observations which have thrown 
so much light on the constitution of the 
earth's crust and local variations of gravity. 

On 9 Feb. 1865 Sabine was made a colonel- 
commandant of the royal artillery, and on 
20 Sept. of the same year was promoted to 
be lieutenant-general. In 1869 he was made 
a civil knight-commander of the Bath, and 
on 7 Feb. 1870 was promoted to be general. 
In 1876 his scientific activity came to an 
end, and he retired from the army on full 
pay on 1 Oct. 1877. During his later years 
his mental faculties failed. He died at Rich- 
mond on 26 June 1883, and was buried in the 
family vault at Tewin, Hertfordshire, beside 
the remains of his wife. 

Sabine was created D.C.L. of Oxford on 
20 June 1855, and LL.D. of Cambridge. He 
was a fellow of the Linnean and the Royal 
Astronomical societies and many other 
learned bodies. He held the foreign orders 
of Pour le Me"rite of Prussia, SS. Maurice and 
Lazarus of Italy, and the Rose of Brazil. He 
contributed more than one hundred papers to 
the * Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society,' besides many others to the ' Philo- 
sophical Magazine,' ' Journal of Science,' and 
kindred publications (see Royal Society's Cat. 
of Scientific Papers). His scientific capacity 
was combined with an attractive personality. 
His grace of manner and invincible cheerful- 
ness rendered him universally popular. 

There is an oil portrait of Sabine by S. 
Pearce in the rooms of the Royal Society, 
presented by Lady Sabine in 1866. There is 
also a marble bust of him by J. Durham, 
presented by P. J. Gassiot, esq., F.R.S., in 
1860. In the mess-room of the royal artil- 
lery at Woolwich there is a portrait of him 
by G. F. Watts, R.A., dated 1876. 

Sabine married, in 1826, Elizabeth Juliana 
(1807-1879), daughter of William Leeves, 
esq., of Tortington, Sussex. She was an 
accomplished woman, who aided him for more 
than half a century in his scientific investi- 
gations. Her translation of Humboldt's 
' Cosmos,' in four volumes, was published 
1849-58. She also translated ' The Aspects 
of Nature ' (1819, 2 vols.) by the same author, 
Arago's meteorological essays, and 'Narra- 
tive of an Expedition to the Polar Sea '(1840; 
2nd ed. 1844) commanded by Admiral Fer- 
dinand von Wrangel, which were published 
under the sup3rintendence of her husband. 
There was no issue of the marriage. Sabine's 

only surviving nephew on the male side was 
Admiral Sir Thomas Sabine-Pasley [q. v.] 

The following is a list of some of the 
more important of Sabine's contributions to 
the Royal Society 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' that have not been mentioned: 1. ' Ir- 
regularities observed in the Direction of the 
Compass Needles of H.M.S. Isabella and 
Alexander in their late Voyage of Discovery, 
and caused by the Attraction of the Iron con- 
tained in the Ships,' 1819. 2. ' On the Dip 
and Variation of the Magnetic Needle, and 
on the Intensity of the Magnetic Fprce, 
made during the late Voyage in search of a 
North- West Passage,' 1819. 3. ' An Account 
of Experiments to determine the Accelera- 
tion of the Pendulum in different Latitudes,' 
1821. 4. ' On the Temperature at consider- 
able Depths of the Caribbean Sea/ 1823. 

5. ' A Comparison of Barometrical Measure- 
ment with the Trigonometrical Determina- 
tion of a Height at Spitsbergen,' 1826. 

6. ' Experiments to determine the Difference 
in the Number of Vibrations made by an In- 

! variable Pendulum in the Royal Observatory 
at Greenwich and in the House in London 
in which Captain Kater's Experiments were 
made,' 1829. 7. 'Experiments to ascertain 
the Ratio of the Magnetic Forces acting on 
a Needle suspended horizontally in Paris 
and London,' 1828. 8. ' Experiments to de- 
termine the Difference in the Length of the 
Seconds Pendulum in London and Paris,' 
i 1828. 9. ' An Account of Experiments to 
: determine the Amount of the Dip of the 
' Magnetic Needle in London in August 1821, 
' with Remarks on the Instruments which are 
i usually employed in such Determinations,' 
I 1822, being the Bakerian lecture. 10. ' On 
i the Dip of the Magnetic Needle in London 
! in August 1828 = 1829.' 11. ' On the Reduc- 
i tion to a Vacuum of the Vibration of an In- 
j variable Pendulum,' 1829. 12. ' Experiments 
I to determine the Difference in the Number 
of Vibrations made by an Invariable Pen- 
1 dulum in the Royal Observatories, Green- 
j wich and Altona/ 1830. 13. ' Experiments 
j on the Length of the Seconds Pendulum, 
made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich,' 
1831. 14. 'Report on a Paper by the late 
Mr. Douglas, entitled " Observations taken 
on the Western Coast of North America,"' 
1837. 15. ' On Magnetical Observations in 
Germany, Norway, and Russia,' 1840. 16. ' On 
the Lunar Atmospheric Tide at St. Helena,' 
1847. 17. 'On the Diurnal Variation of the 
Magnetic Declination of St. Helena,' 1847. 
18. 'On the Means adopted in the British 
Colonial Magnetic Observatories for deter- 
mining the Absolute Values, Secular Changes, 
and Annual Variation of the Magnetic Force,' 



1850. 19. 'On the Annual Variation of the Mag- 
netic Declination at different periods of the 
day,' 1851. 20. 'On Periodical Laws discover- 
able in the Mean Effect of the larger Magnetic 
Disturbances,' 1851 and 1852. 21. 'On the 
Periodic and Non-periodic Variations of Tem- 
perature at Toronto in Canada from 1841 to 
1852 inclusive,' 1853. 22. 'On the Influence 
of the Moon on the Magnetic Direction at 
Toronto, St. Helena, and Hobarton,' 1853. 

23. ' On some Conclusions derived from the 
Observations of the Magnetic Declination 
at the Observatory of St. Helena,' 1854. 

24. ' Reply (drawn up by Sabine) of the 
President and Council of the Royal Society 
to an Application of the Lords of the Com- 
mittee of Privy Council for Trade on the 
Subject of Marine Meteorological Observa- 
tion,' 1855. 25. ' On the Lunar Diurnal Mag- 
netic Variation at Toronto,' 1856. 26. ' On 
the Evidence of the Existence of the De- 
cennial Inequality in the Solar Diurnal 
Variations and its Non-existence in the Lunar 
Diurnal Variations of the Magnetic Declina- 
tion at Hobarton,' 1856. 27. 'On what the Co- 
lonial Magnetic Observations have accom- 
plished,' 1857. 28. ' On the Solar Magnetic 
Variation of the Magnetic Declination at 
Pekin,' 1860. 29. ' On the Laws of the 
Phenomena of the Larger Disturbances of 
the Magnetic Declination in the Kew Ob- 
servatory, with Notices of the Progress of 
our Knowledge regarding the Magnetic 
Storms,' 1860. 30. ' On the Lunar Diurnal 
Variation of the Magnetic Declination ob- 
tained from the Kew Photograms in the 
years 1858-60/1861 31. 'On the Secular 
Change in the Magnetic Dip in London be- 
tween the years' 1821 and I860,' 1861. 
32. ' Results of the Magnetic Observations 
at the Kew Observatory from 1858 to 1862,' 
1863. 33. 'A Comparison of the most 
notable Disturbance of the Magnetic Decli- 
nation in 1858-9 at Kew and Nertschinsk, 
with Retrospective View of the Progress of 
the Investigation into the Laws and Causes 
of the Magnetic Disturbances,' 1864. 34 'Re- 
sults of Hourly Observations of the Mag- 
netic Declination made by Sir F. L. McClin- 
tock, R.N., at Port Kennedy in the Arctic 
Sea in 1858-9, and a Comparison of them with 
those of Captain Maguire, R.N., in the Plover 
in 1852-4 at Point Barrow,' 1864. 35. ' Re- 
sults of the Magnetic Observations at the 
Kew Observatory of the Lunar Diurnal Varia- 
tion of the three Magnetic Elements,' 1866. 
36. ' Results of the First Year's Performance 
of the Photographically Self-Recording Me- 
teorological Instruments at the Central Ob- 
servatory of the British System of Meteoro- 
logical Observations,' 1869. 37. ' Analysis 

of the principal Disturbances shown by the 
Horizontal and Vertical Force Magnetometers 
of the Kew Observatory from 1859 to 1864/ 

Sabine also published a work ' On the Cos- 
mical Features of Terrestrial Magnetism/ 
London, 8vo, 1862. 

[Royal Artillery Eecords ; War Office Eecords ; 
Despatches ; Proceedings of the Royal Artillery 
Institution, vol. xii. pp. 381-396 ; Phil. Trans, 
and Proc. of the Royal Soc. from 1818 to 1876, 
vol. li. p. xliii of Proc. (esp.)] R. H. V. 

SABINE, JOSEPH (1662 P-1739), gene- 
ral, born about 1662, came of a family settled 
at Patricksbourne in Kent ; his grandfather, 
Avery Sabine, was an alderman of Canter- 
bury. Joseph was appointed captain lieu- 
tenant to Sir Henry Ingoldsby's regiment of 
foot on 8 March 1689, captain of the grena- 
dier company before 18 Oct. 1689, major of 
the late Col. Charles Herbert's regiment on 
13 July 1691, and lieutenant colonel on 6 July 
1695. He obtained the brevet rank of colonel 
on 1 Jan. 1 703. He took part in William Ill's 
campaigns in the Low Countries, and after- 
wards served during with the 23rd or royal 
Welsh fusiliers in the war of the Spanish suc- 
cession. He was wounded on 2 July 1704 at 
the battle of Schellenberg, and on 1 April fol- 
lowing became colonel of his regiment. He 
took part in the battle of Ramillies, being 
stationed with the fusiliers on the right of the 
English line. On 1 Jan. 1707 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general. At 
the battle of Oudenarde on 11 July 1708 he 
led the attack on the village of Heynam, and 
afterwards he took part in the siege of Lille. 
On 1 Jan. 1710 he was appointed major- 
general, and three years later, on the con- 
clusion of peace, returned with his regiment 
to England. In 1715 he purchased the 
estate of Tewin in Hertfordshire, and rebuilt 
the house in the following year. In 1727 he re- 
presented the borough of Berwick-on-Tweed 
in parliament, and on 4 March of that year 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
general. After being appointed general on 
2 July 1730, he was nominated governor of 
Gibraltar, where he died on 24 Oct. 1739. 
He was buried in Tewin church. 

Sabine was twice married : his first wife 
was Hester, daughter of Henry Whitfield 
of Bishop Stortford in Hertfordshire. His 
second wife was Margaretta (1682-1750), 
youngest daughter of Charles Newsham of 
Chadshunt in Warwickshire ; by her he had 
five children, of whom Joseph, a captain in 
the Welsh fusiliers, was killed at Fontenoy. 

Sabine's portrait was painted by Kneller 
in 1711, and engraved by Faber in 1742. 




[Granger's Biogr. Hist. ed. Noble, iii. 220 5 
Dalton's Army Lists, iii. 78; Clutterbuck's 
Hist, of Hertfordshire, ii. 224, 229, iii. 190 ; 
Marlborough Despatches, ed. Murray, iii. 689, iv. 
609, v. 20, 41, 531 ; Cannon's Hist. Record of the 
Twenty-Third Regiment, passim.] E. I. C. 

SABINE, JOSEPH (1770-1837), writer 
on horticulture, eldest son of Joseph Sabine 
of Tewin, Hertfordshire, and brother of Sir 
Edward Sabine [q. v.], was born at Tewin 
in 1770. He was educated for the bar, and 
practised until 1808, when he was made I 
inspector-general of assessed taxes, a post 
which he retained until his retirement in 
1835. Sabine was chosen one of the original 
fellows of the Linnean Society in 1798, was 
elected fellow of the Royal Society on 7 Nov. 
1779, and in 1810 succeeded Richard Anthony 
Salisbury [q. v.] as honorary secretary of the 
Horticultural Society. He found the society's 
accounts in the greatest confusion, and for his 
success in the work of reorganisation was 
awarded the society's gold medal in 1816. 
He took a leading part in the establishment 
of the society's garden, first at Hammersmith 
and afterwards at Chiswick ; in sending out 
David Douglas [q.v.] and others as collectors; 
in starting local societies in connection with 
the Royal Horticultural Society ; in growing 
fine varieties of fruit; and in distributing 
new and improved varieties of flowers, fruits, 
and vegetables throughout the country. To 
the ' Transactions ' of the society (vols. i.- 
vii.) he contributed in all forty papers, deal- 
ing among other subjects with paeonies, 
passion flowers, magnolias, dahlias, roses, 
chrysanthemums, crocuses, and tomatoes. 
His management of the society's affairs, 
which he ruled despotically, subsequently 
became unsatisfactory. A too sanguine view 
of its future led him to incur debts of more 
than eighteen thousand pounds. In 1830 a 
committee of inquiry was appointed, a vote 
of censure was threatened, and he resigned. 
He afterwards took an active part in the 
work of the Zoological Society, of which 
he was treasurer and vice-president, add- 
ing many animals to their collection. He 
was a recognised authority on British birds, 
their moulting, migration, and habits. He 
died in Mill Street, Hanover Square, London, 
on 24 Jan. 1837, and was buried in Kensal 
Green cemetery on 1 Feb. There is a litho- 
graph of him after a portrait by Eddis, and 
his name was commemorated by DeCandolle 
in the leguminous genus Sabinea. 

He contributed a list of plants to Clutter- 
buck's < History of Hertfordshire ' (1815), a 
zoological appendix to Sir John Franklin's 
' Narrative ' (1823), and four papers to the 
* Transactions of the Linnean Society,' vols. 

xii-xiv. (181 8-24), one dealing with a species 
of gull from Greenland, and another with 
North American marmots. 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, i. 435-5; Royal Society's 
Catalogue of Papers, v. 354-5 ; Britten and 
Boulger's Biogr. Index of British Botanists, and 
the authorities there cited.] Gr. S. B. 

SABRAN, LEWIS (1652-1732), Jesuit, 
was the son of the Marquis de Sabran, of the 
Saint-Elzear family, of the first nobility of 
Provence. His father was for many years 
resident ambassador to the court of St. 
James's, and married an English lady. Lewis 
was born at Paris on 1 March 1652, and 
educated in the college of the English Jesuits 
at St. Omer. He entered the novitiate of 
the Society of Jesus at Watten on 17 Sept. 
1670, and was admitted to the profession of 
the four solemn vows on 2 Feb. 1688. On 
the accession of James II he was appointed 
one of the royal chaplains at St. James's 
Palace, and on the birth of the Prince of 
Wales on 10 June 1688 became the prince's 
chaplain. At the outbreak of the revolution 
he was ordered (November 1688) to proceed 
to Portsmouth in charge of the royal infant, 
but was afterwards directed to return to the 
metropolis. In endeavouring to escape to 
the continent, disguised as a gentleman in 
the suite of the Polish ambassador, he fell 
into the hands of a furious mob, was brutally 
treated, and committed to prison. He was 
soon liberated, and escaped to Dunkirk. 

He was appointed visitor of the province 
of Naples, and subsequently of the English 
province. On 23 June 1693 he was chosen 
at the triennial meeting of the province at 
Watten as the procurator to be sent to 
Rome. In 1699 the prince-bishop of Liege, 
by leave of the father-general of the order, 
constituted him president of the episcopal 
seminary in that city (FoLEY, Records, v. 
294 ; DE BACKER, Eibl. des Ecrivains de la 
Compaffnie de Jesus, 1872, ii. 746). He held 
the office till 1708, when he was declared 
provincial of the English province. In 1712 
Sabran was appointed rector of the college 
at St. Omer, and in 1715 spiritual father at 
the English College, Rome. He died in 
Rome on 22 Jan. 1731-2. 

Of two separately issued sermons by Sa- 
bran, published in 1687, one (on 2 Tim. 
iv. 7) ' preached before the King at Chester 
on August 28, being the Feast of Saint Augus- 
tin,' raised a heated controversy concerning 
the doctrine of the invocation of saints, in 
which Edward Gee [q. v.J was Sabran's chief 
antagonist. Sabran replied to Gee's first 
attack in ' A Letter to a Peer of the Church 
of England,' London, 1687, 4to ; to his second 



in his ' Reply ; ' to his third in ' The Challenge 
of R.F. Lewis Sabran of the Society of Jesus, 
made out against the Historical Discourse 
[by Gee] concerning Invocation of Saints. 
The First Part,' London, 1688, 4to. A manu- 
script copy of the last pamphlet is among 
the printed books in the British Museum 
(T. 1883/12). Gee replied to this in 1688 ; 
and another reply by Titus Gates appeared 
in 1689. Sabran answered Gee's attack in 
< A Letter to Dr. William Needham,' 1688, 
4to, which elicited from Gee an anonymous 
' Letter to the Superiours (whether Bishops 
or Priests) . . . concerning Lewis Sabran, a 
Jesuit,' London, 1688, 4to. 
,, Sabran is also credited with ' Dr. Sherlock 
sifted from his Bran and Chaff' (London, 
1687, 4to) and ' An Answer to Dr. Sherlock's 
Preservative against Popery ' (anon.), Lon- 
don, 1688, 4to. When William Giles, < a 
Protestant footman,' published a reply to the 
latter, Sabran retorted in ' Dr. Sherlock's 
Preservative considered,' 1688, 4to. Sher- 
lock published ' A Vindication ... in answer 
to the cavils of Lewis Sabran,' 1688. 

[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Com- 
pagnie de Jesus, 1876, iii. 449 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist, iii. 493; Foley's Records, v. 291, 1004, 
1005, vii. 676 ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anon. Lit. i. 1 1 5 ; Jones's Popery Tracts, pp. 146, 
147, 408-11, 458, 484; Oliver's Jesuit Collec- 
tions, p. 183 ; Cat. of Library of Trinity Coll. 
Dublin.] T. C. 

1724), political preacher, son of Joshua 
Sacheverell, rector of St. Peter's Church, 
Marlboro ugh, Wiltshire, was born in or about 
1674, for he was fifteen when he matricu- 
lated at Oxford in 1689. He claimed to be 
connected with the Sacheverells of New Hall, 
Warwickshire, and of Morley, Derbyshire, and 
his claim was admitted by some of them, but 
the connection has not been made out. It 
is fairly certain that he was descended from 
a family formerly called Cheverell that held 
the manor of East Stoke, Dorset, from the 
reign of Edward IV until the manor was 
sold by Christopher Cheverell in or about 
1596. John Sacheverell, rector of East Stoke 
and Langtori-Matravers in the same county, 
who died in 1651, left three sons, John, 
Timothy, and Philologus, all of whom were 
nonconformist ministers and were ejected in 
1662. At the time of his ejection John 
ministered at Wincanton, Somerset. He 
had an estate of 60/. a year, which came to 
him by his third wife, but it went to her 
two daughters by a former husband, and this 
probably accounts for the fact that his eldest 
son Joshua, of St. John's College, Oxford, who 
graduated B.A. in 1667, and was the father 

of Henry, was in poor circumstances. The 
story that he was disinherited by his father 
for attachment to the church must be regarded 
with suspicion, especially as it is also said 
that his father left him his books (HuxCHiNS, 
History of Dorsetshire, i. 413, 423-4, 3rded. ; 
CALAMY, Memorials, iii. 222-4, ed. Palmer ; 
GLOVER, History of Derbyshire, I. ii. 220). 

As his father was poor and had other chil- 
dren, of whom two sons besides Henry and 
two daughters are mentioned, and Thomas 
and Susannah known by name, Sacheverell 
was adopted by his godfather, Ed ward Hearst, 
an apothecary, who sent him to Marlborough 
grammar school. After Hearst's death his 
widow Katherine, who resided at Wan- 
borough, Wiltshire, provided for the lad, 
and sent him to Magdalen College, Oxford 
(28 Aug. 1689), where he was chosen demy 
(BLOXAM). It is believed that he was the 
( H.S. 7 to whom, as his friend and chamber- 
fellow, Addison dedicated a poem in 1694. 
He himself wrote some verses, translations 
from the Georgics, and Latin verses in ' Musae 
Anglicanae ' (vol. ii.) on the death of Queen 
Mary. On 31 Jan. 1693 he was reproved by 
the college authorities for contemptuous be- 
haviour towards the dean of arts, but it is 
evident that his conduct was generally 
good. He graduated B.A. on 30 June, pro- 
ceeded M.A. on 16 May 1695, was elected 
fellow in 1701, was pro-proctor in 1703, was 
admitted B.D. on 27 Jan. 1707, and created 
D.D. on 1 July 1708, in which year he was 
senior dean of arts in his college ; he was 
bursar in 1709. He was incorporated at 
Cambridge in 1714. He took several pupils, 
and seems to have held the living of Can- 
nock, Staffordshire. Both in pamphlets and 
sermons he advocated the high-church and 
tory cause, and violently abused dissenters, 
low churchmen, latitudinarians, and whigs. 
He aired his predilections in 'Character of 
a Low Churchman,' 4to, 1701, and another 
pamphlet ' On the Association of ... Mode- 
rate Churchmen with Whigs and Fanatics,' 
4to, 3rd ed. 1702, and he joined Edmund 
Perkes, of Corpus Christi College, in writing 
1 The Rights of the Church of England,' 4to, 
1705. Not less violent than his pamphlets, 
his sermons on political and ecclesiastical 
matters attracted special attention owing to 
his striking appearance and energetic de- 
livery. Some of them, preached before the 
university of Oxford, were published, and one 
of these, preached on 2 June 1702, was among 
the publications that called forth Defoe's 
' Shortest Way with the Dissenters,' and is 
referred to in his l Hymn to the Pillory.' He 
was elected chaplain of St. Saviour's, South- 
wark, in 1705. 




On 15 Aug. 1709, when George Sacheverell, 
whom he claimed as a relative, was high 
sheriff of Derbyshire, Sacheverell preached 
the assize sermon at Derby on the ' com- 
munication of sin,' from 1 Tim. v. 22. This 
was published (4to, 1 709) with a dedication 
to the high sheriff and the grand jury. On 
5 Nov. following Sacheverell preached at St. 
Paul's before the lord mayor, Sir Samuel ! 
Garrard [q. v.], and aldermen on ' the perils 
of false brethren in church and state,' from 
2 Cor. xi. 26, this sermon, with some additions 
and alterations, being virtually identical with 
one preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, from the 
same text on 23 Dec. 1705. The Oxford 
sermon had excited Hearne's admiration by 
the boldness with which the preacher exposed 
the danger of the church from ' the fanatics 
and other false brethren,' in spite of the re- 
solution passed the same month by both 
houses of parliament that the church was ' in 
a nourishing condition,' and that whoever 
seditiously insinuated the contrary should 
be proceeded against as l an enemy to the 
queen, the church, and the kingdom.' Both 
the assize and the St. Paul's sermons are 
extremely violent in language. In the latter 
especially (November 1709), Sacheverell 
spoke strongly in favour of the doctrine of 
non-resistance, declared that the church was 
in danger from toleration, occasional con- 
formity, and schism, openly attacked the 
bishop of Salisbury [see BTIKNET, GILBERT], 
and pointed at the whig ministers as the false j 
friends and real enemies of the church, calling \ 
such, as he described them to be, * wiley } 
Volpones ' (p. 22), in obvious reference to 
the nickname of the lord treasurer, Sidney 
Godolphin, first earl of Godolphin [q. v.] 
The proposal that the St. Paul's sermon should 
be printed was rejected by the court of alder- 
men, but it was nevertheless published (4to, 
1709) with a dedication to the lord mayor, 
who, in spite of his subsequent denial, was 
generally believed to have encouraged its 
publication, and was declared by Sacheverell 
to have done so. On 13 Dec. John Dolben 

1710) [q. v.] called the attention of 
thf House of Commons to both sermons, and 
they were declared by the house to be 
* malicious, scandalous, and seditious libels, 
highly reflecting upon Her Majesty and her 

iH'iit, the late happy revolution, and 
the protestant succession.' The next day 
Sju'li.'verell and the printer of the sermons, 
Ht-nry Clements, appeared at the bar of the 

and Sacheverell owned the sermons. 
< 'lenient* was let go, but the house ordered 
that Stu-iu'ViMvll should be impeached for 
high crimes and misdemeanours, and he was 
committed to the custody of the sergeant-at- 

VOL. L. 

arms. A resolution passed the same day in 
favour of his rival, the whig divine, Benjamin 
Hoadly (1676-1761) [q. v.], was pointed at 
him. His petition on the 17th to be admitted 
to bail was refused on the 22nd by 114 votes 
to 79. The articles of impeachment were 
agreed to in spite of the vigorous opposition of 
Harley, afterwards first earl of Oxford [q. v.], 
and William Bromley (1664-1732) [q. v.] by 
232 to 131, objection being taken to the St. 
Paul's sermon and the dedication of the 
assize sermon only. Some of the leading 
whigs, and specially Lord Somers, the pre- 
sident of the council, disapproved of the im- 
peachment, but it was urged on his fellow 
ministers by Lord Sunderland, and heartily 
approved by Godolphin, who was irritated at 
the insult to himself (SwiFT, Works, iii. 
180). Sacheverell, having been transferred 
to the custody of the officer of the House 
of Lords, was, on 14 Jan. 1710, admitted to 
bail by the lords, himself in 6,000/. and two 
sureties, Dr. William Lancaster [q. v.], vice- 
chancellor of Oxford, and Dr. Richard Bowes 
of All Souls' College, vicar of New Rom- 
ney, Kent, in 3,000/. each. On the 25th 
he sent in a bold and resolute answer to 
the articles. 

Meanwhile the feeling of the country was 
strongly on Sacheverell s side, and it is said 
that forty thousand copies of the St. Paul's 
sermon were circulated. The case was made 
a trial of strength between the two parties, 
and the whigs gave special importance to it 
by ordering that it should be heard in West- 
minster Hall. The consequent delay gave 
time for the public excitement to reach the 
highest pitch. Prayers were desired for the 
doctor in many London churches ; he was 
lauded in sermons, and the royal chaplains 
openly encouraged and praised him. When, 
on 27 Feb., the day on which the trial began, 
he drove from his lodgings in the Temple to 
Westminster, his coach was followed by six 
others, and was surrounded by a vast multi- 
tude shouting wishes for his long life and 
safe deliverance. Among the managers of 
the impeachment were Sir James Montagu 
[q. v.], the attorney-general, Robert (after- 
wards Sir Robert) Eyre [q. v.], the solicitor- 
general, Sir Thomas Parker [q. v.], and Sir 
Joseph Jekyll [q. v.], while Sacheverell's 
counsel were Sir Simon Harcourt [q. v.], 
Const ant ine "Phipps, and three others. The 
queen, who went occasionally in a kind of 
private manner to hear the proceedings, was 
greeted by the crowd with shouts of ' God 
bless your majesty and the church. We. 
hope your majesty is for Dr. Sacheverell.' 
Riots were raised on the 28th, meeting- 
houses were attacked, the houses of several 



leading whigs were threatened, and the mob 
was only kept in check by the horse and 
foot guards. After Sacheverell's counsel 
had spoken, he read his own defence, which 
was very ably written, and was generally 
believed to have been composed for him by 
Atterbury. On 20 March the lords declared 
him guilty by 69 to 52, the thirteen bishops 
who voted being seven for guilty to six for 
acquittal. Sentence was given on the 23rd. 
It was merely that he should be suspended 
from preaching for three years ; he was left 
at liberty to perform other clerical functions, 
and to accept preferment during that period. 
His two sermons were ordered to be burnt 
by the common hangman. Such a sentence 
was felt to be a triumph for him and the 
high-church and tory party, and the news of 
it was received with extraordinary enthu- 
siasm throughout the kingdom ; great re- 
joicings being made in London, Oxford, and 
many other towns, and continued for several 
days. The ladies were specially enthusiastic, 
filled the churches where he read prayers, 
besought him to christen their children, and 
called several after him. During the progress 
of the trial he had been presented by Robert 
Lloyd of Aston, Shropshire, one of his 
former pupils, to the living of Selattyn in 
that county, said then to lie worth 200/. a 
year. On 15 June he set out for that place. 
His journeys there and back were like royal 
progresses. A large party on horseback ac- 
companied him to tlxbridge, and he was re- 
ceived with great honour at Oxford, Banbury, 
and Warwick, and at Shrewsbury, where the 
principal gentry of the neighbourhood and 
some fifty thousand persons assembled to 
meet him. On his way back he reached 
Oxford on 20 July, and was escorted into the 
city by the sheriff of the county and a com- 
pany of five hundred, having arranged his 
coming at the same time as the visit of the 
judges, in order, it was believed, to secure a 
large attendance. In August Godolphin 
was dismissed, the remaining ministers were 
turned out of office in September, and at the 
general election in November the tories 
gained an overwhelming victory. It was 
recognised at the time that the transference 
of power from the whigs to the tories was 
largely due to the ill-judged impeachment of 
Sacheverell. Much, however, as they owed 
to him, the leading tories disliked and de- 
spised him ( SWIFT, Works, ii. 340). William 
Bisset (d. 1747) [q. v.], who had previously 
replied to his sermon (Remarks, &c., 1709), 
made a violent attack upon him in 1710 in 
a pamphlet entitled ' The Modern Fanatick,' 
which contains several rather trumpery 
charges. Among these he was accused of j 

i unkindness to his relatives and specially to 
I his mother, who, after her husband's death, 
| became an inmate of Bishop Ward's founda- 
j tion for matrons at Salisbury. An answer 
to Bisset's pamphlet was published in 1711 
j by Dr. William King (1663-1712) [q. v.], 
| probably with some help from Sacheverell ; 
i but Bisset renewed the attack. Sacheverell 
expected immediate preferment as a reward 
for his championship of the tory cause, and 
it was thought likely that he would receive 
a ( golden prebend' of Durham, and a rich 
living in the same diocese, but the bishop 
bestowed them elsewhere. Partly by Swift's 
help he obtained from Harley a small place 
for one of his brothers in 1712. This brother 
had failed in business, and Sacheverell de- 
clared that he had since then maintained him 
and his family. 

Sacheverell's term of punishment having 
expired, he preached to a large concourse at 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, on Palm Sunday, 
1713, on the ' Christian triumph and the 
duty of praying for enemies/ from Luke xxiii. 
34, and sold his sermon for 100/. ; it was 
believed that thirty thousand copies were 
printed (4to,1713). On 13 April the queen pre- 
sented him to the rich living of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, and his acceptance of it vacated 
his fellowship at Magdalen. He preached 
before the House of Commons in St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster, on 29 May, on f False 
notions of liberty/ and his sermon was 
printed by order. In 1715 George Sa- 
cheverell, the former high sheriff of Derby- 
shire, left him a valuable estate at Callow 
in that county, and in June 1716 he married 
his benefactor's widow, Mary Sacheverell. 
who was about fourteen years his senior, 
He thus became a rich man. He had some 
quarrels with his Holborn parishioners, and 
notably in 1719 with William Whiston, 
whom he ordered not to enter his church. 
On 7 Jan. 1723, during a sharp frost, he fell 
on the stone steps in front of his house, 
hurting himself badly and breaking two of 
his ribs. He died of a complication of dis- 
orders on 5 June 1724 at his house, where 
he habitually resided, in the Grove, High- 
gate, Middlesex, and was buried in St. An- 
drew's, Holborn. On 26 July 1747 the 
sexton of that church was committed to 
prison for stealing his lead coffin. He left a 
legacy of 500A to Bishop Atterbury. He 
had no children. His widow married a third 
husband, Charles Chambers, attorney, of 
London, on 19 May 1735, and died, aged 75, 
on 6 Sept. 1739. 

Sacheverell is described by Sarah, duchess 
of Marlborough, as ' an ignorant and impudent 
incendiary, the scorn of those who made him 



their tool ' (Account of her Conduct, p. 247), 
and by Hearne. who, though approving his 
sermons, had private reasons for disliking him, 
as ' conceited, ignorant, impudent, a rascal, 
and a knave ' (Collections, iii. 65). He had a 
fine presence and dressed well. He was an 
indifferent scholar and had no care for learn- 
ing (for a proof see ib. p. 376), was bold, 
insolent, passionate, and inordinately vain. 
His failings stand in a strong light, because 
the whigs, instead of treating him and his 
utterances with the contempt they deserved, 
forced him to appear as the champion of the 
church's cause, a part which, both by mind and 
character, he was utterly unfitted to play even 
respectably, yet the eager scrutiny of his ene- 
mies could find little of importance to allege 
against his conduct, though the charge that he 
used profane language when irritated seems 
to have been true. 

A portrait is in the hall of Magdalen Col- 
lege ; it was bequeathed to the college in 1799 
by William Clements, demy, son of Sache- 
verell's printer (BLOXAM). Bromley gives a 
long list of engraved portraits of Sacheverell; 
three are dated 1710, one of which, en- 
graved by John Faber, the elder [q. v.], re- 
presents him with Francis Higgins (1669^ 
1728) [q- v.], and Philip Stubbs, afterwards 
archdeacon of St. Albans [q. v.], as l three 
pillars of the church ' (Cat . of Engraved Por- 
traits, p. 227). A medal was struck to com- 
memorate Sacheverell's trial, bearing the 
doctor's portrait on the obverse, with inscrip- 
tion, H. Sach: D:D:,' which was accompanied 
by two different reverses, both alike inscribed 
* is : firm : to : thee : ' ; but one bears a mitre 
for the church of England, the other the 
head of a pope. 

[Bloxam's Presidents, &c. of St. M. Magd. Coll. 
Oxf. vi.98 sq. ; Hearne's Collect, i.-iii., ed.Doble 
(Oxf. Hist.Soc.), contains frequent notices; others 
from Hearne's Diary extracted by Bloxam, u.s. ; 
Swift's Works, passim, ed. Scott, 3rd ed. ; Account 
of family of Sacheverell; Sacheverell's Sermons; 
Howell's State Trials, xv. 1 sq. ; Bisset's Modern 
Fanatick, 3 pts. ; King's Vindication of Dr. S. 
ap Orig. Works, ii. 179 sq. ; Dr. S.'s Progress, 
by 'K. J.' (1710); Spectator, No. Ivii. ; White 
Kennett's Wisdom of Looking Backwards; Whis- 

'count of Dr. S.'s Proceedings ; Burnet's 
Own Time, v. 539 sq., vi. 9, ed. 1823; Tindal's 
Cont. of Rapin's Hist. iv. 149 sq. ; Lecky's Hist. 

iund, i. 51 sq. ; Stanhope's Hist, of Queen 

n, ii. 130 sq., ed. 1872; Gent. Mag. 

1735) v. 275, (1747) xvii. 446, ( 1779) xlix. 291, 

538 ; Halket and Laing's Diet, of Anon, and 

Pseudon. Lit, An excellent bibliography of the 

ublished bv and concerning him has been 

compiled by Mr. Falconer Madari of Brasenose 

. Oxford (8vo, 1887, privately printed at 
Oxford). Besides the British Museum and Bod- 

leian libraries, the library of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, contains a large collection of Sacheverell 
literature.] W. H. 

1691), the 'ablest parliament man,' accord- 
ing to Speaker Onslow, of Charles IPs 
reign, was the representative of an ancient 
family which had fought against Henry VII, 
and had enjoyed the favour and confidence 
of Henry VIII. He was born in 1638, and 
in September 1662 succeeded his father, 
Henry Sacheverell, at Barton in Notting- 
hamshire and Morley, Derbyshire. His 
mother was Joyce, daughter and heir of 
Francis Mansfield of Hugglescote Grange, 
Leicestershire. In June 1667 he was present 
' as an eye-witness ' of the Dutch attack 
upon Chatham, and on 30 Dec. he was ad- 
mitted at Gray's Inn. Three years later, in 
November 1670, he came forward at a by- 
election in Derbyshire, ' when Esquire Var- 
non stood against him, besides all the dukes, 
earles, and lords in the county ' (Derbyshire 
Arch. Journal, vol. xviii.). He was trium- 
phantly returned to parliament as an oppo- 
nent of the court policy. On 28 Feb. 1672-3 
he opened a debate in supply with a proposal 
to remove all popish recusants from military 
office or command ; his motion, the origin of 
the Test Act which overturned the cabal, was 
enlarged so as to apply to civil employments, 
and accepted without a division. On the 
same day he was placed upon the committee 
of nine members appointed to prepare and 
bring in a test bill. From this time Sache- 
verell took part in almost every debate. He 
constantly expressed himself as opposed to 
the * increase of popery and arbitrary govern- 
ment ; ' he was of opinion that the security 
of the crown ought to rest upon the love of 
the people and not upon a standing army ; 
and, in foreign policy, he advocated an 
alliance with the Dutch against the growing 
power of France. His strength and readi- 
ness as a debater, his legal knowledge and 
acquaintance with parliamentary history and 
constitutional precedents, brought him ra- 
pidly to the front ; and in the same year he 
was the first named of the three members to 
whom the care of the second and more 
stringent test bill was recommended by the 
house. His attacks upon Buckingham, Ar- 
lington, and Lauderdale, had already gained 
him a dangerous notoriety, and, upon the un- 
expected news of the prorogation of February 
1673-4, he was one of those members who 
fled for security into the city. 

Sacheverell's hostility to the court policy 
was not lessened by the overthrow of the 
Cabal and by Danby's accession to power. 
In the session of 1675 he moved or seconded 




seven or eight debates upon the state of the 
navy and the granting of supplies, and was 
persistent in urging that money should not 
be voted, except it were appropriated to the 
use of the fleet. He acted as one of the 
commissioners of the commons in several 
conferences with the lords upon a quarrel 
which Shaftesbury had stirred up between 
the two houses, and showed himself ' very 
zealous ' in defending the rights of that to 
which he belonged. In February 1676-7, 
after the prorogation of fifteen months, 
Lords Russell and Cavendish, in the hope of 
forcing a dissolution, raised the question 
whether parliament was still legally in 
existence, and Sacheverell, who saw the un- 
wisdom of such a proceeding, risked his 
popularity with his party by opposing them. 
He continued to urge the necessity of a 
return to the policy of the triple alliance, 
and, after the surrender of St. Omer and 
Cambray, an address to that effect was voted 
at his instance. This attempt to dictate a 
foreign policy made the king exceedingly 
angry; parliament was prorogued, and by 
the royal command the speaker immediately 
adjourned the house, though Powle, Sa- 
cheverell, Cavendish, and others had risen 
to protest. The incident led, when parlia- 
ment met again, to a fierce onslaught by 
Sacheverell upon Sir Edward Seymour, the 
speaker, whom he accused of ' making him- 
self bigger than the House of Commons.' The 
charge was supported by Cavendish, Garro- 
way, Powle, and a majority of members, but 
eventually, after several adjournments, was 
allowed to lapse without a division. 

In January 1677-8 the commons were 
again summoned, and were informed in the 
king's speech that he had concluded alliances 
of the nature they desired. Sacheverell, 
however, had his suspicions, and did not 
hesitate to say that he feared they were 
being deceived, and that a secret compact 
had been negotiated with the French. Upon 
being assured that the treaties were, in all 
particulars, as they desired them, Sacheverell, 
still protesting that war was not intended, 
moved that such a supply should be granted 
as would put the king into condition to at- 
tack the French should he decide to do so. 
Ninety ships, thirty-two regiments, and a 
million of money were voted, but when the 
treaties which had been so often inquired 
for were produced at last, it was found that 
they were intended to make war impossible. 
From this moment the leaders of the country 
party abandoned as hopeless their struggle for 
a protestant foreign policy, and Sacheverell 
was one of the most resolute in demanding 
the disbandment of the forces which had 

been raised, and the refusal of money for 
military purposes. 

In October 1678 Oates's discovery of a 
pretended popish plot furnished the oppo- 
nents of the court with a new cry and a 
new policy. Sacheverell, like Lord Russell, 
was honestly convinced of the reality of the 
plot, and from the very commencement of 
the parliamentary inquiry he took a pro- 
minent part in investigating it. He served 
upon the committees to provide for the king's- 
safety, to inquire into the murder of Godfrey 
and the particulars- of the conspiracy, to- 
translate Coleman's letters, to prepare a bill 
to exclude papists from sitting in either 
house of parliament, and to draw up articles- 
of impeachment against Lord Arundel of 
Wardour and the five popish lords. He 
was elected chairman of committees to ex- 
amine Coleman, to examine Mr. Atkins in 
Newgate, to present a humble address that 
Coleman's letters might be printed and pub- 
lished, to prepare and draw up the matter 
to be presented at a conference between the 
two houses, and of several others. He was 
one of the commissioners of the commons in 
several conferences, one of the managers of 
the impeachment of the five popish lords, 
and the first named of the two members to 
whom the duty was assigned of acting as- 
counsel for the prosecution of Lord Arundel. 
He apparently presided also for some time 
over the most important committee of all, 
| that of secrecy, making four or five reports- 
from it to the house, including the results 
of the examinations of Dugdale, Bedloe, and 

Sacheverell, though he believed that ' the. 
Duke of York had not been the sole cause of 
the insolence of the papists,' was ready and 
eager to attack the duke, and the compromis- 
ing facts announced in his report of Cole- 
man's examination furnished his party with 
the desired opportunity. A week later, on 
4 Nov. 1678, Lord Russell moved to address 
the king that James might be removed from 
the royal presence and counsels, and in the 
debate that followed ' the greatest,' as was 
said at the time, l that ever was in parlia- 
ment ' Sacheverell suggested the exclusion 
of the duke from the succession to the throne. 
This proposal he continued vigorously to ad- 
vocate, though Cavendish, Russell, and the 
other leaders of the country party were not 
yet prepared even to consider so desperate a 
remedy. Sacheverell was one of those who 
pressed for the impeachment of Danby, and 
he served upon the committee which drew 
up the articles. At the general election of 
February 1678-9 he and his colleague, Lord 
Cavendish, were returned again for Derby- 



shire ' without spending A penny ' upon the 
freeholders. A day or two afterwards Sache- 
verell dined with Shaftesbury in Aldersgate 
Street, and expressed his high regard for 

The new parliament opened with a contest 
between the commons and the king over 
the election of Seymour as speaker. In 
this Sacheverell took the lead, and did not 
give way until a short prorogation had re- 
moved the danger that a new precedent would 
be created to the disadvantage of the house. 
On 30 April the lord chancellor laid before 
both houses a carefully considered scheme 
to limit the powers of a catholic king, and 
Sacheverell greatly influenced the debate in 
the commons by his arguments that the pro- 
posed safeguards amounted to nothing at 
all, and that no securities could be of any 
value unless they came into operation in the 
lifetime of Charles. On 11 May the debate 
was resumed, and, in spite of the opposition 
of Cavendish, Littleton, Coventry, and 
Powle, and the disapproval of Lord Russell 
it was decided to bring in a bill to exclude 
the Duke of York from the imperial crowi 
of the realm. It is probable that Sacheverel 
had the chief hand in drawing up the bill 
and he advocated the withholding of supplies 
until the bill became law. He was one of the 
managers of the impeachment of Danby, anc 
of the several conferences with the lords con- 
cerning it : and in May he was elected chair- 
man of a committee to draw up reasons 'why 
the house cannot proceed to trial of the 
lords before judgment given upon the Earl 
of Danby's plea of pardon.' This able state 
paper, written chiefly, if not entirely, by 
Sacheverell, was published in several forms 
as a pamphlet or broadside, and had a large 
circulation in the country. Sacheverell con- 
tinued to lead the attack upon Danby, and 
opened six other debates on the subject, 
expressing a belief that, if the house con- 
firmed the pardon, they made the king abso- 
lute, and surrendered their lives, liberties, 
and all. He drew attention also to the fact, 
red by the committee of secrecy, that 
enormous sums of public money had been 
paid by ministers to various members of par- 
liament ; and, being determined to unmask 
'nders, at last compelled the cofferer, 
Sir Stephen Fox, to disclose their names. A 
list of these pensioners was printed, and 
: of special advantage to the whigs in 

On '27 May, before the Exclusion Bill 

could be read a third time, Charles prorogued 

and dissolved parliament; and the newly 

House of Commons was not allowed 

to meet until 21 Oct. 1680. On the 27th 

Sacheverell brought forward a motion 
affirming the subject's right to petition, and 
in the same month he spoke in favour of 
impeaching Chief-justice North. lie warmly 
urged the punishment of the judges who had 
foiled the intended presentment of the Duke 
of York as a popish recusant, and acted on 
behalf of the commons as a manager of Lord 
Stafford's trial in Westminster Hall. After 
the trial, Sacheverell ceased for a long time 
to take an active part in public affairs. His 
belief in the plot may perhaps have been 
shaken by Stafford's defence, or it may be 
that he was one of those of whom Ferguson 
speaks, who proposed to abandon the Exclu- 
sion Bill until they had secured themselves 
against the power of the court by impeach- 
ing several of the judges. At the election 
of February 1680-1 he and Lord Cavendish 
were not required even to put in an appear- 
ance at the show of hands at Derby, though 
' the popish party ' had been ' very indus- 
trious ' in sending emissaries to that place 
' to disparage and scandalise the late House 
of Commons.' In the autumn of 1682 
Sacheverell led the opposition to the new 
charter at Nottingham, and for his share in 
this popular movement, which was described 
by the crown lawyers as 'not so much a riot 
as an insurrection,' he was tried at the 
king's bench and fined five hundred marks 
by Chief-justice Jeffreys. At the election of 
1685 the court interest proved too strong 
for him, and he seems to have retired into 
private life until the revolution of 1688. 
He was returned to the Convention parlia- 
ment for the borough of Heytesbury, and 
was the second person named to serve upon 
the committee which drew up the new con- 
stitution in the form of a declaration of 
right. He was appointed also a manager 
for the commons in the conference concern- 
ing the vacancy of the throne; and in the 
first administration of King \Villiam was 
persuaded to accept office as a lord of the 

The year brought little but disasters and 
disappointments, and in December 1689 
Sacheverell resigned his post owing to the 
impending removal of his chief, Lord Tor- 
rington. This action seems, however, to have 
increased rather than diminished the ' great 
authority ' he possessed with his party. It 
was just" at this moment that the whigs, who 
lad greatly offended the king by their back- 
wardness in granting supplies for the war, 
found themselves compelled to face the pos- 
sibility of a dissolution. The Corporation 
Bill had not yet passed. No change had 
been made in the electoral bodies since 
Charles and James had remodelled them in 




the court interest; and though, in the first 
heat of the revolution, they had returned a 
whig majority, it was certain that they 
would revert to their old allegiance. Three 
or four days after his resignation Sacheverell 
proposed to add a new clause to the bill, 
which was intended to shut out from the 
franchise a great number of those who had 
been concerned in the surrender of charters, 
and thus to secure the lasting ascendency of 
his party. The great debate which ensued, 
and ended in the discomfiture of the whigs, 
has been admirably described by Lord Macau- 
lay. Sacheverell and his friends, though 
defeated and discouraged, did not abandon 
the design of excluding their opponents from 
power. It was resolved to graft a bill of 
pains and penalties upon the bill of indem- 
nity, and soon afterwards a number of ex- 
ceptions from the latter were carried, among 
which Sachevereli's famous clause appeared 
in another form. At last the king's mind 
was made up. He desired to unite the 
nation, and was weary of these continual 
attempts to divide it. Four days later he 
prorogued parliament, and the dissolution 
which followed resulted in a large tory 
majority. Sacheverell was returned for 
Nottinghamshire ; but his health had begun 
to fail, and in October 1691, just as parlia- 
ment was about to meet for the opening of 
the new session, he died at Barton. His body 
was carried to Morley, and buried there on 
the 12th, and an altar-tomb was afterwards 
erected to his memory, which records with 
truth that he had ' served his king and country 
with great honour and fidelity in several 

He was twice married : first, to Mary, 
daughter of William Staunton of Staunton ; 
and secondly (before 1677), to Jane, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Newton of Barr's Court, and 
had issue by both wives. Dr. Henry Sache- 
verell [q. v.] was not related to the family 
of the politician. 

Sacheverell appears in Barillon's list of 
those who accepted presents of money from 
Louis XIV towards the end of 1680 ; but the 
evidence against him has been rejected by 
Hallam as untrustworthy, and the charge 
seems to be hardly consonant either with his 
character or with his circumstances. It is 
more difficult to defend his share in the events 
of the 'popish plot/ except at the expense of 
his judgment; but the excuse may be urged 
that he was a zealous protestant, and there- 
fore more prone than Shaftesbury to be im- 
posed upon by the perjured testimony of Gates. 
In the parliamentary struggles over the Test 
Act, the impeachment of Danby, the ' popish 
plot,' and the attempt to exclude James from 

the throne, he effectively influenced the 
policy of his party and the course of events ; 
but the whole of his life, with the exception 
of a single year, was passed in opposition, 
and (unless it were in the constitutional 
settlement of the revolution) he had never 
the opportunity of showing that he possessed 
the higher qualities of statesmanship. It 
was as an orator and a party tactician that 
he shone, and he was perhaps the earliest, 
certainly one of the earliest, of our great 
parliamentary orators. Many years after 
his death his speeches were still, writes 
Macaulay, l a favourite theme of old men 
who lived to see the conflicts of Walpole 
and Pulteney.' 

A fine portrait of William Sacheverell, 
' set. 18 ' (the property of the present writer), 
is at Renishaw ; an engraving from it forms 
the frontispiece to The First Whig.' 

[Sacheverell is not mentioned in any biographi- 
cal dictionary, but many of his speeches are pre- 
served in Grey's Debates. See the present 
writer's ' The First Whig : with 49 illustrations 
from cuts, engravings, and caricatures, being- 
an Account of the Political Career of William 
Sacheverell, the Origin of the two great political 
Parties, and the Events which led up to the 
Eevolution of 1688,' 1894. Of this book fifty- 
two copies were privately printed.] Of. E. S. / 

1706), poet and courtier, born on 24 J 
1637-8, was the son of Richard Sack ville, fifth . 
earl (1622-1677), and Frances, daughter of 
Lionel Cranfield, first earl of Middlesex [see 5 
under SACKVILLE, SIR EDWARD, fourth earl]. 
Owing, perhaps, to the confusion of the times 
in his youth, he received his education from 
a private tutor, and, as Lord Buckhurst ? 
travelled in Italy at an early age. Returning 
at the Restoration, he was in 1660 elected to 
parliament for East Grinstead, but i turned 
his parts,' says the courtly Prior, l rather to 
books and conversation than to politics.' In 
other words he became a courtier, a wit, and 
a man about town, and for some years seems 
to have led a very dissipated life. In February 
1662, he, his brother Edward, and three 
other gentlemen were apprehended and in- 
dicted for killing and robbing a tanner named 
Hoppy. The defence was that they took him 
for a highwayman, and his money for stolen 
property ; and either the prosecution was 
dropped or the parties were acquitted. In 
1663 he was mixed up in the disgraceful frolic 
of Sir Charles Sedley [q.v.] at < Oxford Kate's/ 
and, according to Wood and Johnson, was 
indicted along with him, but this seems to 
be negatived by the contemporary report of 
Pepys (1 July 1663). He found better 



employment in 166-5, volunteering in the 
fleet fitted out against the Dutch, and taking 
an honourable part in the great naval battle 
>{' '! June 1665. On this occasion he com- 
posed that masterpiece of sprightly elegance, 
the song, ' To all you ladies now at land/ 
which, according to Prior, he wrote, but ac- 
cording to the more probable version of 
Lord Orrery, only retouched on the night 
before the engagement. Prior claims for 
him a yet higher honour, as the Eugenius of 
Dry den's ' Dialogue on Dramatic Poesy.' Dry- 
den, however, gives no hint of this in his 
dedication of the piece to Sackville himself; 
and if it is really the case, he committed an 
extraordinary oversight in fixing his dialogue 
on the very day of the battle, when Sack- 
ville could not possibly have taken part in 
the conference. For some time after his re- 
turn Buckhurst seems to have continued his 
wild course of life. Pepys, at all events, in 
October 1668 classes him" along with Sedley 
as a pattern rake, ' running up and down all 
the night, almost naked, through the streets ; 
and at last fighting, and being beat by the 
watch and clapped up all night; and the 
king takes their parts ; and the Lord-chief- 
justice Keeling hath laid the constable by 
the heels to answer it next sessions ; which 
is a horrid shame.' He had a short time 
previously taken Nell Gwynne [see GWYN, 
ELEANOR] under his protection, to the addi- 
tional scandal of Mr. Pepys, not on moral 
grounds, but because the stage was thus 
deprived of a favourite actress. The latter 
is said to have called him Tier Charles I. He 
and Xell ' kept merry house at Epsom ' during 
lt;<>7, but about Michaelmas 1668 Nell be- 
came the king's mistress, and Sackville was 
sent to France on a complimentary mission 
(Or. as Dryden called it, 'on a sleeveless 
errand ') to get him out of the way. 

From this time we hear little of his follies, 
but much of his munificence to men of letters 
and of the position generally accorded him as 
an arbiter of taste. He befriended Dryden, 
Butler, Wycherley, and many more ; he was 
consulted, if we may believe Prior, by 
r for verse, by Sprat for prose, and 
by Charles II touching the merits of the 
.rsofSir Peter Lely. He inherited 
Bttderable estates that of his maternal 
unrl. , Lionel Cranfield, third earl of Middle- 
.M'\, in 1674; and that of his father in 1677, 
Avlu'ii he succeeded to the title. He had 
isly, on 4 April 1675, been created 
llaron Cranfield and Earl of Middlesex. 
He preserved Charles's favour throughout 
hole of his reign; but neither his 
nor his patriotism was a recommenda- 
tion to Charles's successor, whose mistress, 

Lady Dorchester, he had moreover bitterly 
satirised. Dorset withdrew from court, 
publicly manifested his sympathy with the 

! seven bishops, and concurred in the invita- 
tion to the Prince of Orange. His active 
part in the revolution was limited to escort- 

I ing the Princess Anne to Nottingham. 

j Having no inclination for political life, he 

| took no part in public affairs under William, 
but accepted the office of lord chamberlain of 
the household, which he held from 1689 to 
1697, and was assiduous in his attendance 
on the king's person, being on one occasion 
tossed for twenty-two hours in his company 
in an open boat off the coast of Holland. 
When obliged in his official capacity to with- 
draw Dryden's pension as poet laureate, he 
allowed him an equivalent out of his own 
estate. Dryden in a measure repaid the obli- 
gation by addressing his ' Essay on Satire ' to 
Dorset. Dorset also received the Garter 
(1691), and was thrice one of the regents 

I during the king's absence. In his old age 
he grew very fat, and, according to Swift, 
extremely dull. He died at Bath on 29 Jan. 
1706, and was interred in the family vault 
at Withyham, Sussex. 

His first wife, Mary, widow of Charles 
Berkeley, earl of Falmouth, having died with- 

' out issue, he married in 1685 Mary, daughter 
of James Compton, third earl of Northamp- 
ton, celebrated alike for beauty and under- 
standing. His second wife was a lady of the 
bedchamber to Queen Mary; she died on 
6 Aug. 1691, and the earl married, thirdly, on 
27 Aug. 1704, Anne, ' Mrs. Roche,' a ' woman 
of obscure connections.' His only son, Lionel 
Cranfield Sackville, succeeded to the title, 
and afterwards became first Duke of Dorset 
q. v.] An anonymous portrait of Dorset be- 
"onged in 1867 to the Countess De la Warr 
(cf. Cat. Second Loan Exhib. No. 110). 

Walpole wrote of Dorset with discern- 
ment that he was the finest gentleman of 
the voluptuous court of Charles II. 'He 
had as much wit as his master, or his con- 
temporaries Buckingham and Rochester, 
without the royal want of feeling, the duke's 
want of principle, or the earl's want of 
thought ' (Noble Authors, ii. 96). Despite 
the excesses of his early life, and the probably 
malicious innuendoes of the Earl of Mul grave 
in his ' Essay upon Satyr,' Sackville's charac- 
ter was not unamiable. His munificence to 
men of letters speaks for itself, and tempts 
us to accept in the main the favourable esti- 
mate of Prior, overcoloured as it is by the 
writer's propensity to elegant compliment, 
his confessed obligations to Dorset, and its 
occurrence in a dedication to his son. Prior's 
eulogiums on Dorset's native strength of 




understanding, though it is impossible that 
they should be entirely confirmed, are in no 
way contradicted by the few occasional poems 
which are all that he has left us. Not one 
of them is destitute of merit, and some are ! 
admirable as ' the effusions of a man of wit ' j 
(in Johnson's word's), 'gay, vigorous, and j 
airy.' 'To all you Ladies ' is an admitted j 
masterpiece ; and the literary application of I 
the Shakespearian phrase ' alacrity in sink- ! 
ing ' comes from the satirical epistle to the | 
Hon. Edward Howard. 

Dorset's poems, together with those of Sir | 
Charles Sedley, appeared in ' A New Mis- I 
cellany ' in 1701, and in vol. i. of ' The Works j 
of the most celebrated Minor Poets ' in 1749. I 
They are included in the collection of the 
' Poets ' by Johnson, Anderson, Chalmers, i 
and Sanford. Eight of his pieces are in- ! 
eluded in ' Musa Proterva,' 1889, edited by 
Mr. A. H. Bullen, who calls him one of the 
lightest and happiest of the Restoration 

[Prior's Dedication to his own Poems, ed. 1709; i 
Collins's Peerage ; Beljame's Hommes de Lettres j 
en Angleterre, 1883, pp. 108, 5"! ; Cunningham's 
Story of Nell G-wyn ; Gramont's Memoirs, ed. j 
Vizetelly, passim ; Burnet's Hist, of his Own | 
Time; Maoaulay's Hist, of England ; Johnson's ' 
Lives of the Posts, ed. A. vVaugh ; Pepys's 
Diary.] E. G. 

OFDoKSET (1711-1769), born on 6 Feb. 1711, j 
and baptised at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 
the 25th of the same month, was the eldest son 
of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, first duke of ; 
Dorset [q. v.], by his wife Elizabeth, daugJi- j 
ter of Lieutenant-general Walter Philip 
Colyear, and niece of David, first earl of j 
Portmore. He was educated at Westmin- 
ster School and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he matriculated on 27 Nov. 1728, and 
was created M.A. on 15 Sept. 1730. He sub- 
sequently went for the usual grand tour, ac- 
companied by the Rev. Joseph Spence [q. v.] 

Sackville had along and bitter quarrel with 
his father, whom he actually opposed in his 
own boroughs, and became an intimate friend 
of Frederick, prince of Wales (cf . DODINGTON, 
Diary). At the general election in April 
1734 he unsuccessfully contested Kent, but 
was returned for East Grinstead, which he 
continued to represent until his appoint- 
ment as high steward of the honour of 
Otford on 26 May 1741. He sat for Sussex 
from January 1742 to June 1747, and was 
one of the iords of the treasury in Henry 
Pelham's administration from 23 Dec. 1743 
to June 1747, when he was appointed master 
of the horse to Frederick, prince of Wales, j 
He was returned for Old Sarum at a by- ! 

election in December 1747, and continued to 
represent that borough until the dissolution 
of parliament in April 1754. He was with- 
out a seat in the House of Commons during 
the whole of the next parliament. At the 
general election in March 1761 he was again 
elected for East Grinstead. He succeeded 
his father as second Duke of Dorset on 
9 Oct. 1765, and took his seat in the House 
of Lords on 17 Dec. following (Journals of 
the House of Lords, xxxi. 227). On 10 Feb. 
1766 he was admitted a member of the privy 
council, and sworn in as lord-lieutenant of 
Kent (London Gazette, 1766, No. 10599). 
He died at his house in St. James's Street, 
Piccadilly, on 5 Jan. 1769, aged 57, and was 
buried at Withyham, Sussex, on the llth of 
the same month. On Dorset's death, without 
issue, the title descended to his nephew, John 
Frederick Sackville Tq. v.] 

Dorset married, on 30 Oct. 1744, the Hon. 
Grace Boyle, only daughter and heiress of 
Richard, second viscount Shannon, by his 
second wife, Grace, daughter of John Sen- 
house of Netherhall, Cumberland. She is 
described by Horace Walpole as ' very short, 
very plain, and very yellow : a vain girl, full 
of Greek and Latin, and music, and painting ; 
but neither mischievous nor political ' ( WAL- 
POLE, Reign of George II, i. 76). She suc- 
ceeded Lady Archibald Hamilton as mistress 
of the robes to Augusta, princess of Wales, 
in July 1745, and became the object of the 
prince's most devoted attention. She died 
on 10 May 1763, and was buried at W T alton- 
on-Thames on the 17th. 

Dorset was a dissolute and extravagant 
man of fashion. One of his chief passions was 
the direction of operas, in which he not only 
wasted immense sums of money, but ' stood 
lawsuits in Westminster Hall with some 
of those poor devils for their salaries ' (WAL- 
POLE, Reign of George II, 1847, i. 97; see 
also WALPOLE'S Letters, 1857-9, i. 88, 140, 
239-40, 244, et seq.) According to Lord 
Shelburne, Dorset's appearance towards the 
close of his life was ' always that of a proud, 
disgusted, melancholy, solitary man,' while 
his conduct savoured strongly of madness 
liam, Earl of Shelburne, 1875, i. 342). He 
spoke little or not at all in the House of 
Peers, but he wrote a number of detached 
verses and 'A Treatise concerning the Militia 
in Four Sections,' London, 1752, 8vo. His 
portrait, painted for the Dilettanti Society 
by George Knapton, was exhibited at South 
Kensington in 1868 (Catalogue, No. 916). 

[Bridgman's Sketch of Knole (18 17). pp. 114- 
115; Walpole's Catalogue of Royal and Noble 
Authors (1806), rv. 323-8; Doyle's Official 


8 9 


Baronage, 1886, i. 630; O. E. C.'s Complete 
Peerage, iii. 152; Collins's Peerage of England, 
1812, ii. 178-9; Gent. Mag. 1744 p. 619, 1745 
p. 45, 1763 p. 257, 1769 p. 54 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1715-1886, iv. 1241 ; Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, 1812-15, ii. 374, iii. 643, viii. 98 ; 
Nichols's II lustrations of Literary History, 1817- 
1858, iii. 145; Alumni Westmonast. 1852, pp. 
235, 543; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; 
Kogers's Protests of the Lords, ii. 89 ; Official 
Return of Lists of Members of Parliament, ii. 
79, 92, 105, 131.] G. F. R. B. 

EARL OF DORSET (1591-1652), born in 1591, 
was the younger surviving son of Robert 
Sackville, second earl [q. v.] His elder bro- 
ther, Richard, born 28 March 1590, suc- 
ceeded as third earl on 28 Sept. 1609 and 
died on 28 March 1624. Edward matricu- 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, with his 
brother Richard, on 26 July 1605. He may 
have been removed to Cambridge ; an ' Ed- 
ward Sackvil' was incorporated at Oxford 
from that university 9 July 1616. He was 
one of the handsomest men of his time, and 
in August 1613 became notorious by killing 
in a duel Edward Bruce, second lord Kinloss 
{Cal. State Papers, 14 Jan. and 9 Sept. 1613 ; 
WIXWOOD, Memorials, iii. 454). The'meet- 
ing took place on a piece of ground pur- 
chased for the purpose two miles from 
Bergen-op-Zoom, which even in 1814 was 
known as Bruceland. Sackville was himself 
severely wounded. He sent, in self-justifi- 
cation, a long narrative from Louvain, dated 
8 Sept. 1613, with copies of Bruce's chal- 
lenges. The cover of this communication 
alone remains at Knole ; but the whole was 
frequently copied, and was first printed in the 
' Guardian'(Nos. 129 and 133) 8 and 13 Aug. 
1713, from a letter-book at Queen's College, 
Oxford (cf. Archceologia, xx. 515-18). The 
quarrel may have arisen out of Sackville's 
liaison with Venetia Stanley, afterwards wife 
of Sir Kenelm Digby [q. v.] The latter after 
his marriage maintained friendly relations 
with Sackville, who is the ' Mardontius ' of 
Dig-by 's memoirs (WARNER, Poems from 
/ Papers, Roxburghe Club, app. p. 49; 
v in Bodleian Letters, ii. 326 sqq.) 
ville's life was attempted soon after his 

n to England (Cal. State Papers, 5 Dec. 

In 1614 and in 1621-2 Sackville repre- 

-d the county of Sussex in parliament, 
and was one of the leaders of the popular 

v. In 1616 he was visiting Lyons, when 
Sir Edward Herbert was arrested there, and 
he procured Herbert's release (HERBERT OF 
< '.' 1 1 K u R TRY'S Autobiography, ed. Lee, pp. 1 68- 
171). He was made a knight of the Bath 

when Charles I was created Prince of Wales 
(3 Nov. 1616). He was one of the comman- 
ders of the forces sent under Sir Horatio Vere 
to assist the king of Bohemia, sailed on 
22 July 1620, and was present at the battle 
of Prague, 8 Nov. 1620 (RUSHWOBTH, Collec- 
tions, pp. 15, 16). The following March he 
was nominated chairman of the committee 
of the commons for the inspection of the 
courts of justice, but did not act. He spoke 
on Bacon's behalf in the house 17 March 
1621, and frequently pleaded for him with 
Buckingham (SPEDDING, Letters and Life of 
Bacon, vii. 324-44). In July 1621 he was 
for a short time ambassador to Louis XIII, 
and was nominated again to that post in Sep- 
tember 1623 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 4th Rep. 
app. p. 287). In November 1621 he vigorously 
defended the proposal to vote a subsidy for 
the recovery of the palatinate, declaring that 
'the passing-bell was now tolling for reli- 
gion.' To this occasion probably belongs 
the speech preserved by Rush worth (Collec- 
tions, pp. 131-4) and elsewhere, but wrongly 
attributed to 1623, when Sackville was not 
a member of parliament. In April 1623 he 
was 'roundly and soundly' reproved by the 
king at a meeting of the directors of the 
Virginia company, having been since 1619 a 
leading member of the party which supported 
Sir Edwin Sandys [q. v.] (Cal. State Papers, 
April 1623). He was governor of the Ber- 
muda Islands Company in 1623, and com- 
missioner for planting Virginia in 1631 and 
1634. On 23 May 1623 he received a license 
to travel for three years. He was at Rome 
in 1624, and visited Marc Antonio de Dominis 
[q. v.], archbishop of Spalatro,in his dungeon. 
At Florence he received the news of the 
death of his elder brother Richard, which 
took place on 28 March 1624. He there- 
upon became fourth Earl of Dorset. 

The estates to which he succeeded were 
much encumbered : he was selling land to 
pay off his brother's debts 26 June 1626, and 
something was still owing on 26 Sept. 1650. 
He became joint lord lieutenant of both 
Sussex and Middlesex, and held many similar 
offices, such as the mastership of Ashdown 
Forest, and stewardship of Great Yarmouth 
from 1629. He was made K.G. on 15 May 
1625, and installed by proxy 23 Dec. At 
the coronation of Charles I on 2 Feb. 1626 
he was a commissioner of claims, and carried 
the first sword, and he was called to the privy 
council 3 Aug. 1626. His influence at court 
was fully established by his appointment as 
lord chamberlain to the queen on 16 July 

As a peer and privy councillor Dorset 
showed great activity. He was a commis- 



sioner (30 May 1625 and 10 April 1636) for 
dealing with the new buildings which had 
been erected in or about London and West- 
minster ; a lord commissioner of the ad- 
miralty (Cal. State Papers, 20 Sept. 1628, 
20 Nov. 1632, 13 March 1636) ; one of the 
adventurers with the Earl of Lindsey and 
others for the draining of various parts of 
Lincolnshire (ib. 5 June 1631, 18 May 1635, 
&c.) ; a commissioner for improving the 
supply of saltpetre (ib. 1 July 1631), and 
constable of Beaumaris Castle 13 June 1636. 
In 1626, while sitting on the Star-chamber 
commission, he advised the imprisonment of 
the peers who refused to pay a forced loan 
(GARDINER, vi. 150). but was himself among 
the defaulters for ship-money in Kent to the 
extent of 51. in April 1636. He was nomi- 
nated on a committee of council to deal with 
ship-money 20 May 1640 ; but he seems to 
have abstained carefully from committing 
himself to the illegal proceedings encouraged 
by his more violent colleagues. He kept up 
his connection with America, and petitioned 
for a grant of Sandy Hook Island (lat. 44), 
on 10 Dec. 1638. 

In 1640 Dorset was nominated one of the 
peers to act as regents during the king's 
absence in the north (Cal. State Papers, 
2 Sept. 1640 ; see also 26 March 1639). In 
January 1641 he helped to arrange the 
marriage of the Princess Mary with the 
Prince of Orange, and was again a com- 
missioner of regency, 9 Aug. to 25 Nov. 
He was opposed to the proceedings against 
the bishops, and ordered the trained bands 
of Middlesex to fire on the mob that as- 
sembled to intimidate parliament on 29 Nov. 
1641. Clarendon (bk. iv. 110) says that 
the commons wished to impeach him either 
for this or ( for some judgment he had been 
party to in the Star-chamber or council 
table.' He joined the king at York early 
in 1642, and pledged himself to support a 
troop of sixty horse ; he was among those 
who attested, 15 June 1642, the king's decla- 
ration that he abhorred the idea of war (ib. 
bk. v. 345-6). In July he attended the 
queen in Holland, but returned before the 
king's standard was raised at Nottingham. 
On 25 Aug. he was sent, with Lord South- 
ampton and Sir J. Culpepper, to treat with 
the parliamentary leaders. At the same 
date Knole House was plundered by parlia- 
mentary soldiers. He was present at the 
battle of Edgehill, perhaps in charge of the 
young princes. James II wrote (in 1679) that 
' the old Earl of Dorset at Edgehill, being 
commanded by the king, my father, to go and 
carry the prince and myself up the hill out 
of the battle, refused to do it, and said he 

would not be thought a coward for ever a 
king's son in Christendom ' (Hist. MSS. llth 
Hep. App. v. 40). He came to Oxford with 
the king, but more than once protested against 
the continuance of the war ; a speech made 
by him at the council table against one by 
the Earl of Bristol, 18 Jan. 1642-3, was cir- 
culated as a tract (reprinted in Somers Tracts, 
iv. 486-88). He was made a commissioner of 
the king's treasury, 7 March 1643, and wa& 
lord chamberlain of the household (vice the 
Earl of Essex) from 21 Jan. 1644 to 27 April 
1646. Early in 1644 he was also entrusted 
with the privy seal and the presidency of 
the council ; and he made sensible speeches, 
which were printed in Oxford and London 
as ' shewing his good affection to the Parlia- 
ment and the whole state of this Kingdom.' 
He signed the letter asking Essex to pro- 
mote peace, in January 1644 ; was one of 
the committee charged with the defence of 
Oxford ; and was nominated by Charles in 
December 1645 one of those to whom he 
would entrust the militia. He was one of 
the signatories to the capitulation of Oxford, 
24 Juns 1646. 

In June 1644 Dorset had been assessed at 
5,000/. and his eldest son at 1,500Z. by the 
committee for the advance of money (Comm. 
Advance Money, p. 398) ; in 1645 he resigned 
an estate of 6,000/., the committee under- 
taking to pay his debts ( Verney Papers, ii. 
248). In September 1646 he petitioned to 
compound for his delinquency on the Ox- 
ford articles, and his fine of one tenth was 
fixed at 4,360/. ; it was reduced to 2,415/. 
on 25 March 1647, and he was discharged 
on 4 June 1650 (Comm. for Compounding, 

Whitelocke (Memorials, p. 275) mentions 
Dorset as one of the six peers who intended 
to go to Charles at Hampton Court in 
October 1647 and reside with him as a 
council. This was not permitted by the 
parliament ; and he seems to have taken no 
further part in public affairs. After the execu- 
tion of the king, he is said never to have left 
his house in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street. 
There he died 17 July 1652, and was buried 
in the family vault at Withyham. His 
monument perished in the fire of 16 June 
1663. An elegy on him was printed, with 
heavy black edges, by James Ho well, in the 
rare "pamphlet entitled i Ah-Ha, Tumulus 
Thalamus ' (London, 4to, 1653). 

Dorset married, in 1612, Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Sir George Curzon of Crox- 
hall, Derbyshire. In 1630 she was ap- 
pointed ' governess ' of Charles, prince of 
Wales, and James, duke of York, for a term 
of twelve years. On 20 July 1643 she re- 



ceived charge of the younger children, Henry, 
duke of Gloucester, and his sister Elizabeth, 
and was allowed 600/. a year, with Knole 
House and Dorset House, in recognition of 
her services. In 1645 she died, just as she 
was about to be relieved of her duties, and, 
as a reward for her l godly and conscientious 
care and pains,' received a public funeral 
in Westminster Abbey (Cat. State Papers; 
GREEN, Princesses, vi. 342, 348; WHITE- 
LOCKE, p. 154). Dorset's children were : 

(1) .Mary, who died young, 30 Oct. 1632; 

(2) Richard, fifth earl (see below); (3) Ed- 
ward, who was wounded at Newbury, 20 Sept. 
1643, and soon after his marriage with 
Bridget, baroness Norreys, daughter of Ed- 
ward Wray, was taken prisoner by parlia- 
mentary soldiers in a sortie at Kidlington, 
and murdered in cold blood at Chawley in 
the parish of Cumnor, near Oxford, 11 April 

Dorset is described by Clarendon (bk. i. 
12U-37) as ' beautiful, graceful, and vigo- 
rous : his wit pleasant, sparkling, and sub- 
lime .... The vices he had were of the age, 
which he was not stubborn enough to con- 
temn or resist.' He was an able speaker, 
and on the whole a moderate politician, 
combining a strong respect for the royal 
prerogative with an attachment to the pro- 
testant cause and the liberties of parliament 
(GARDINER, iv. 70-1, 257). He was evi- 
dently an excellent man of business. The 
contemporary descriptions of his personalap- 
pearaiice are borne out by the fine portrait by 
Vandyck at Knole, the head from which has 
been frequently engraved e.g. by Hollar, 
Vertue, and Vandergucht. 

His elder son, RICHARD SACKVILLE, fifth 
EARL of DORSET (1622-1677), was born 'at 
Dorset House on 16 Sept. 1622. As Lord 
Buckhurst he contributed an elegy to t Jon- 
sonus Virbius' (1638), a collection of poems 
in Ben Jonson's memory, and he represented 
East Grinstead in the House of Commons 
from 3 Nov. 1640 till he was 'disabled' on 
1643; but his seat was not filled 
up till 1646. He was one of the fifty-nine 
rdians ' who opposed the bill of at- 
tainder against Lord Strafford on 21 April 
he was imprisoned by the parliament 
in 1642, and was fined 1,600/. in 1644, but 
>t seem to have taken any part in 
the civil war. In January 1656 he com- 
! that his property in Derbyshire and 
Staffordshire had been seized on an erro- 
mforination of delinquency, and an 
-toration was made on 12 April. 
March 1660 he was appointed a corn- 
er of the militia of Middlesex ; and 
April was on the committee of safety 

in the new parliament or convention, and 
chairman of a committee on the privileges of 
the peers ; in May he was placed on several 
committees connected with the restoration, 
being chairman of the one for arranging 
for the king's reception. Charles II ap- 
pointed him joint lord lieutenant of Mid- 
dlesex on 30 July 1660, which office he 
held till 6 July 1662; in the same year 
he received the stewardships in Sussex 
usually held by his family, and was joint 
lord lieutenant from 1670. In October he 
was nominated on the commission for the 
trial of the regicides. He acted as lord sewer 
at the coronation on 23 April 1661. and was 
made a member of the Inner Temple with 
the Duke of York on 3 Nov. He frequently 
petitioned for the renewal of grants made to 
his family, especially for a tax of 4s. a ton 
on coal. In 1666 he was inconvenienced by 
an encroachment by Bridewell Hospital on 
the site of Dorset House, which had been 
burnt in the fire ; but in September 1676 he 
was enriched by reversions which fell in on 
the death of the old Countess of Dorset, Pem- 
broke, and Montgomery, whose first husband, 
Richard, third earl of Dorset, was his uncle. 
[see CLIFFORD, ANNE]. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society on 3 May 1665, 
Aubrey says that Samuel Butler told him 
that Dorset translated the 'Cid ' of Corneille 
into English verse (Aubrey MSS. vii. 9, viii. 
20). He died on 27 Aug. 1677, and was buried 
at Withy ham. 

He married, before 1638, Lady Frances, 
daughter of Lionel Cranfield, first earl of 
Middlesex [q. v,], and eventually heiress to 
her brothers ; she married, secondly, Henry 
Powle [q. v. ], master of the rolls, and died on 
20 April 1687. He had seven sons and six 
daughters. His eldest son was Charles Sack- 
ville, sixth earl of Dorset [q. v.] In memory 
of his youngest child Thomas (b. 3 Feb. 1662, 
d. at Saumur 19 Aug. 1675) he contemplated 
a monument in the Sackville Chapel in Withy- 
ham church, which he had rebuilt. The con- 
tract (for a sum of 3507.) with the Dutch 
sculptor, Caius Gabriel Cibert or Gibber 
(1630-1700), is dated April 1677 ; and the 
monument, finished by the countess as a 
memorial of the whole family in 1678, is one 
of the finest works of the period. There are 
three portraits of Earl Richard at Knole, 
one of which was engraved by Bocquet and 
published by J. Scott in 1806. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydgcs, ii. 151-69 ; Wood's Athenpe Oxon. 
iii. 748 ; Gardiner's Hist, of England ; Bridg- 
rnan's .Sketch of Knole ; Alexander Brown's 
Genesis U.S.A. ; Historical Notices of Withyham 
(by R. W. Sackville- West, the late Earl De la 



Warr); Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1590-1677; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. especially 4th Rep. App. 
pp. 276-317, and 7th Rep. App. pp. 249-60, being 
calendars of the papers at Knole, mostly those 
of the Cranfield family.] H. E. D. B. 

SACKVILLE (1716-1785). [See GERMAIN, 


third DUKE of DORSET (1745-1799), only 
son of Lord John Philip Sackville, M.P., by- 
Frances, daughter of Jolin, earl of Gower, 
and grandson of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 
first duke of Dorset [q. v.], was born on 
24 March 1745, and educated at West- 
minster School, with which he kept up a 
connection in later life. As ' Mr. Sackville ' 
he was elected member for Kent at the 
general election of 1768 (Parliamentary Re- 
turns), but vacated his seat and was called to 
the House of Lords on the death of his uncle 
Charles, second duke of Dorset [q. v.] (5 Jan. 
1769), when he succeeded to the title and 
estates. He was sworn of the privy council 
on being appointed captain of the yeomen 
of the guard on 11 Feb. 1782, which post at 
court he resigned on 3 April 1783, and from 
26 Dec. 1783 to 8 Aug. 1789 he filled the 
responsible position of ambassador-extra- 
ordinary and plenipotentiary to the court of 
France. He quitted that country at the be- 
ginning of the revolution. He received the 
Garter on 9 April 1788, and was lord steward 
of the royal household 7 Oct. 1789 till he 
resigned on 20 Feb. 1799. He was also lord 
lieutenant of Kent from 27 Jan. 1769 till 
13 June 1797, and colonel of the West Kent 
militia from 13 April 1778 till his death, 
being granted the rank of colonel in the army 
on 2 July 1779. He was appointed one of 
the trustees under the will of Dr. Busby on 
11 May 1797 (PHILLIMORE, Alumni West- 
monasterienses) ; was elected a governor of 
the Charterhouse on 4 March 1796, and was 
high steward of Stratford-upon-Avon for 
many years. The duke died in his fifty-fifth 
year at his seat at Knole, Kent, on 19 July 
1799, and was buried in the family vault 
at Withyham, Sussex. Dorset's manners 
were soft, quiet, ingratiating, and formed 
for a court, free from affectation, but not 
deficient in dignity. He possessed good 
sense, matured by knowledge of the world 
(WRAXALL, Memoirs]. A member of the 
Hambledon Club and a patron of cricket, 
he was one of the committee by whom the 
original laws of the Marylebone Club were 
drawn up. On 4 Jan. 1790 he married 
Arabella Diana, daughter of Sir Charles 
Cope, bart., of Brewerne, Oxfordshire ; and 

he left two daughters and a son, George 
John Frederick, who, dying from a fall in 
the hunting field in 1815, was succeeded as 
fifth and last duke by his cousin, Charles 
Sackville Germain (1767-1 843), son of Lord 
George Sackville Germain [q. v.] The se- 
cond daughter, Elizabeth (d. 1870), mar- 
ried, in June 1813, George John West, fifth 
earl De la Warr, who assumed in 1843 
the additional surname and arms of Sack- 
ville. The countess was in April 1864 
created Baroness Bucklmrst, and, dying on 
9 Jan. 1870, left, with other issue, the pre- 
sent Baron Sackville. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage; Haydn's Book of 
Dignities, ed. Ockerby ; Burke's Peernge, s.v. 
De la Warr and Sackville ; Gent. Mas:.] 

W. R. W. 

first DUKE OF DORSET (1688-1765), born on 
18 Jan. 1688, the only son of Charles, sixth 
earl of Dorset [q. v.], by his second wife, Lady 
Mary Compton, younger daughter of James, 
third earl of Northampton, and sister of 
Spencer, earl of Wilmington, was educated 
at Westminster School. In April 1706 he 
accompanied Charles Montagu, earl of Hali- 
fax, on his special mission to Hanover for 
the purpose of transmitting to the elector 
the acts which had been passed in the in- 
terests of his family. He succeeded his 
father as seventh Earl of Dorset and second 
Earl of Middlesex on 29 Jan. 1 706, and took 
his seat in the House of Lords on 19 Jan. 
1708 (Journals of the House of Lords, xviii. 
430). In December 1708 he was appointed 
constable of Dover Castle and lord warden 
of the Cinque ports, posts from which he 
was removed in June 1713. He is said to 
have written the whig address from the county 
of Kent, which was presented to the queen 
on 30 July 1710 (Annals of Queen Anne, ix. 
177-9), and on 15 June 1714 he protested 
against the Schism Act (ROGERS, Complete 
Collection of the Protests of the Lords, 1875, 
i. 218-21). On Anne's death he was sent 
by the regency as envoy-extraordinary to 
Hanover to notify that fact to George I. 

He was appointed groom of the stole and 
first lord of the bedchamber on 18 Sept. 
1714, and constable of Dover Castle and 
lord warden of the Cinque ports on 18 Oct. 
On the 16th of the same month he was elected 
a knight of the Garter, being installed on 
9 Dec. following. He assisted at the corona- 
tion of George I on 20 Oct., as bearer of the 
sceptre with the cross, and on 16 Nov. 1714 
was sworn a member of the privy council. 
In April 1716 he supported the Septennial 
Bill in the House of Lords, and is said to 




have declared that 'triennial elections de- I 
stroy all family interest and subject our ex- > 
cellent constitution to the caprice of the 
multitude ' (Par/. Hist. vii. 297). In July 
1717 he was informed by Lord Sunderland j 
that the king had no further occasion for his j 
services (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. 
iii. 8). 

He was created Duke of Dorset on 17 June 
1720, and took his seat at the upper end of 
the earls' bench on 8 Oct. following (Journals 
of the House of Lords, xxi. 370). On 30 May 
1725 he was appointed lord steward of the j 
household. He acted as lord high steward 
of England at the coronation of George II j 
on 11 Oct. 1727, and was the bearer of St. ! 
Edward's crown on that occasion. On 4 Jan. 
1728 he was reappointed constable of Dover 
Castle and lord warden of the Cinque ports. 
On resigning his post of lord steward of the 
household, Dorset was appointed lord-lieu- 
tenant of Ireland (19 June 1730). During 
his viceroyalty he paid three visits to Ire- 
land, where he resided during the parlia- 
mentary sessions of 1731-2, 1733-4, and 
1735-6. In 1731 the court party was de- 
feated by a majority of one on a financial 
question (LECKY, Hist, of England, 1878, ii. 
428) : but with this exception the political 
history of Ireland during Dorset's tenure of | 
office was uneventful. In 1735 Sir Robert 
Walpole appears to have obtained the queen's 
consent to Dorset's removal, and to have i 
secretly offered the post to Lord Scarbrough. ; 
To Walpole's great surprise, Scarbrough 
refused the offer, and ' Dorset went to Ire- 
land again, as satisfied with his own security 
as if he had owed it to his own strength ' 
(LORD HERVEY, Memoirs of the Reign of , 
George II, 1884, ii. 163-4). He was suc- 
ceeded as lord-lieutenant of Ireland by Wil- 
liam, third duke of Devonshire, in March 
1737, and was thereupon reappointed lord 
steward of the household. Dorset continued 
to hold this office until 3 Jan. 1745, when he 
became lord president of the council. He 
was reappointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland 
on 6 Dec. 1750, being succeeded by Granville 
as president of the council in June 1751. 
During his former viceroyalty Dorset had 
performed the duties of his office to the en- I 
tire satisfaction of the court party. He had ! 
' then acted for himself,' but now ' he was I 
in the hands of two men most unlike him- | 
self/ his youngest son, Lord George Sack- ! 
ville, who acted as his first or principal se- j 
cretary, and George Stone, the primate of j 
Iivland (\VALPOLE, Memoirs of the Reign of 
George II, 1847, i. 279; see also Letters 
! \\ W.-x of the Earl of Chesterfield, 1845- 
;, ii. :'.<><>, i v . 101). In consequence of I 

their policy, a serious parliamentary oppo- 
sition was for the first time organised in 
Ireland; while an injudicious attempt on 
the part of Lord George Sackville to oust 
Henry Boyle, the parliamentary leader of the 
whig party in Ireland, from the speakership 
led to his temporary union with the patriot 
party. The most important of the many alter- 
cations which arose between the court party 
and the patriots concerned the surplus re- 
venue. This the House of Commons wished 
to apply in liquidation of the national debt. 
Though the government agreed to the mode 
of application, they contended that the sur- 
plus could not be disposed of without the 
consent of the crown. In his speech at the 
opening of the session, in October 1751, 
Dorset signified the royal consent to the ap- 
propriation of part of the surplus to the 
liquidation of the national deto. The bill 
for carrying this into effect was passed, but 
the house took care to omit taking any 
notice of the king's consent. Upon the re- 
turn of the bill from England, with an 
alteration in the preamble signifying that 
the royal consent had been given, the house 
gave way, and the bill was passed in its 
altered form (LECKY, Hist, of England, ii. 
432). In 1753 the Earl of Kildare pre- 
sented a memorial to the king against the 
administration of the Duke of Dorset and 
the ascendency of the primate ; but this re- 
monstrance was disregarded (WALPOLE, 
Reign of George II, i. 354). In the session 
of 1753 the contest between the court and 
the patriots was renewed. Dorset again an- 
nounced the king's consent to the appropria- 
tion of the fresh surplus. The bill again 
omitted any notice of the sovereign's con- 
sent. It was returned with the same alte- 
ration as before, but this time was rejected 
by a majority of five. Dorset thereupon 
adjourned parliament, and dismissed all the 
servants of the crown who had voted with 
the majority, while a portion of the surplus 
was by royal authority applied to the pay- 
ment of the debt (LECKY, Hist, of England, 
ii. 432 ; see WALPOLE, Reign of George II, 
i. 368-9). 

Another exciting struggle was fought over 
the inquiry into the peculations of Arthur 
Jones Nevill, the surveyor-general, who was 
ultimately expelled from the House of Com- 
mons on 23 Nov. 1753 (Journals of the 
Irish House of Commons, v. 196). A curious 
indication of the feeling against Dorset's 
administration was shown at the Dublin 
Theatre on 2 March 1754. The audience 
called for the repetition of some lines which 
appeared to reflect upon those in office. 
West Digges [q. v.], by the order of Sheridan 




the manager, refused to repeat them. Where- 
upon ' the audience demolished the inside 
of the house and reduced it to a shell' 
(WALPOLE, Reign of George II, i. 389 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1754, p. 141). 

Alarmed by the discontent which had 
been aroused, the English government de- 
termined at last to make terms with Boyle, 
and to appoint Lord Hartington in Dorset's 
place. In February 1755 Dorset was in- 
formed that he was to return no more to 
Ireland. According to Horace Walpole, 
' he bore the notification ill,' and hoped that, 
1 if the situation of affairs should prove to 
be mended/ he might be permitted to re- 
turn (WALPOLE, Reign of George II, ii. 10). 
Dorset was appointed master of the horse 
on 29 March 1755, a post in which he was 
succeeded by Earl Gower in July 1757. 
During the riots occasioned by the Militia 
Bill in 1757, he was attacked at Knole, 
near Sevenoaks, by a mob, but was saved 
'by a young officer, who sallied out and 
seized two-and-twenty of the rioters ' (ib. 
iii. 41). On 5 July 1757 Dorset was con- 
stituted constable of Dover Castle and lord 
warden of the Cinque ports for the term of 
his natural life. He died at Knole on 9 Oct. 
1765, aged 76, and was buried at Withyham, 
Sussex, on the 18th. 

Dorset, says Lord Shelburne, was l in all 
respects a perfect English courtier and 
nothing else. . . . He had the good fortune 
to come into the world with the whigs, and 
partook of their good fortune to his death. 
He never had an opinion about public 
matters. ... He preserved to the last the 
good breeding, decency of manners, and 
dignity of exterior deportment of Queen 
Anne's time, never departing from his style 
of gravity and ceremony' (LoRD EDMOND 
FITZMAURICE, Life of William, Earl of Shel- 
burne, 1875, i. 341). According to Horace 
Walpole, Dorset, in spite of ' the greatest 
dignity in his appearance, was in private 
the greatest lover of low humour and buf- 
foonery ' (Reign of George II, i. 98). Swift, 
in a letter to Lady Betty Germain, an inti- 
mate friend of Dorset, writes in January 
1727 : * I do not know a more agreeable per- 
son in conversation, one more easy or of 
better taste, with a greater variety of know- 
ledge, than the Duke of Dorset ' ( Works, 
1824, xix. 117). 

Dorset was appointed a Busby trustee 
(14 March 1720), custos rotulorum of Kent 
(12 May 1724), vice-admiral of Kent (27 Jan. 
1725), high steward of Tamworth (6 May 
1729), governor of the Charterhouse (17 Nov. 
1730), and lord-lieutenant of Kent (8 July 
1746). He also held the office of high 

steward of Stratford-on-Avon, and was a 
member of the Kit-Cat Club. He was 
created a D.C.L. of Oxford University on 
15 Sept. 1730, and acted as one of the lords 
justices of Great Britain in 1725, 1727, 
1740, 1743, 1745, 1748, and 1752. He 
married, in January 1709, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Lieutenant-general Walter Philip 
Colyear, and niece of David, first earl of 
Portmore. She was maid of honour to Queen 
Anne, and became first lady of the bed- 
chamber to Caroline, the queen consort, 
both as princess of Wales and queen. She 
was also appointed groom of the stole to the 
queen on 16 July 1727, a post which she 
resigned in favour of Lady Suffolk in 1731. 
By this marriage Dorset had three sons, viz. 
(1) Charles Sackville, second duke of Dor- 
set [q. v.] ; (2) Lord John Philip Sackville, 
M.P. for Tamworth, whose only son, John 
Frederick, became third duke of Dorset [q.v.] ; 
(3) Lord George Sackville Germain, first 
viscount Sackville [q. v.] ; and three daugh- 
ters, Lady Anne Sackville, who died on 
22 March 1721, aged 11 ; (2) Lady Eliza- 
beth Sackville, who was married on 6 Dec. 
1726 to Thomas, second viscount Wey- 
mouth, and died on 9 June 1729 ; and 
(3) Lady Caroline Sackville, who was mar- 
ried to Joseph Darner, afterwards first earl 
of Dorchester, on 27 July 1742, and died 
on 24 March 1775. The duchess died on 
12 June 1768, aged 81, and was buried at 
Withyham on the 18th. 

Matthew Prior dedicated his l Poems on 
Several Occasions,' London, 1718, fol., to 
Dorset, out of gratitude to the memory of 
his father. Some of Dorset's correspon- 
dence is preserved among the manuscripts 
of Mrs. Stop ford Sackville of Dray ton 
House, Northamptonshire. Among the 
collection are several letters addressed to 
Dorset by Swift (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th 
Rep. pt. iii.) 

Portraits of Dorset, by Kueller, are in 
possession of the family. There are nume- 
rous engravings of Dorset by Faber, McAr- 
dell, and others, after Kneller. 

[Horace Walpole's Letters, 1857-9; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. 1812-15; E. W. Sackvi lie- West's 
Historical Notices of the Parish of Withyham, 
1857 ; Autobiography and Correspondence of 
Mrs. Delany, 1863-4, vols. i. ii. iii. iv. ; Letters 
to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, 
1824, i. 62, 63, ii. 29, 33-6, 220 ; Memoirs of 
the Kit-Cat Club, 1821, pp. 66-9 (with por- 
trait) ; Plowden's Historical Eelation of the 
State of Ireland, 1803, i. 280-4, 309-16, App. 
pp. 255-7 ; Fronde's English in Ireland, 1872-4, 
i. 4P7-8, 574, 580-2, 610-12, ii. 5 ; Lyon's Hist, 
of Dover, 1813-14, ii. 262-3; Doyle's Official 




Baronage, 1886, i. 628-9 ; G. E. C.'s Complete 
Peerage, iii. 152; Collins's Peerage of England, 
1812, ii. 174-8; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 
1890; Alumni Oxoniensps, 1715-1886, iv. 1241 ; 
Alumni Westmonast. 1852, pp. 194, 240-1, 
245, 294, 555, 556. 575; Gent. Mag. 1765, p. 
491.] G. F. E. B. 

under-treasurer of the exchequer and chan- 
cellor of the court of augmentations, was 
eldest son of John Sackville of Chiddingley, 
Kent, by Anne, daughter of Sir William 
Boleyn, and sister of Thomas Boleyn, earl 
of Wiltshire and Ormonde. Queen Anne 
Boleyn was thus his first cousin. In later 
life he expressed regret that l a fond school- 
master, before he was fullie fourtene years 
olde, drove him with feare of beating from 
all love of learning ' (ASCHAM, Scholemaster, 
pp. xvii-xviii). He was educated at Cam- 
bridge but did not graduate ; he soon went 
to the bar, becoming Lent reader at Gray's 
Inn in 1529. He acted as steward to the 
Earl of Arundel, and sat for Arundel in the 
Reformation parliament of 1529. He pro- 
bably gave proof of his willingness to do 
what was wanted ; from 1530 he was con- 
stantly on commissions of the peace and of 
sewers for Sussex. In November 1538 he 
was one of those appointed to receive indict- 
ments against Sir Geoffrey Pole, Sir Edward 
Neville, and others, and shortly afterwards 
he became under-treasurer of the exchequer, 
treasurer of the army, and in 1542 escheator 
for Surrey and Sussex. In 1545 he received 
large grants of land. Under Edward VI he 
took a more prominent part in public life. 
On 24 Aug. 1548 he was appointed chan- 
cellor of the court of augmentations, and 
thus had ample opportunities of enrich- 
ing himself. He was knighted in 1549 
(Lit. Rem. Edw. VI, p. cccvii). In 1552 
he was a commissioner for the sale of chan- 
try lands ; at this time he lived at Derby 
Place, Paul's Wharf. He witnessed the will 
of Edward VI, but Mary renewed his patent 
as chancellor at the augmentations court 
on 20 Jan. 1553-4, and made him a mem- 
ber of her privy council. He sat in the 
parliament of 1554 as member for Ports- 
mouth. He lost, however, for the time, the 
advantage which he had gained in the last 
reign as patentee of the bishop of Winchester's 
lands, though he regained it under Elizabeth, 
who retained him in her service. He was 
appointed to supervise the arrangements for 
her coronation, and was present at the first 
meeting of her council on 20 Nov. 1558. He 
sat for Kent in the parliament of 1558, and 
for Sussex from 1563 till his death. In 
1558 he was one of those appointed to audit 

the accounts of Andrew Wise, under-trea- 
surer for Ireland. In 1559 he was one of 
the commissioners appointed to administer 
the oaths to the clergy ; the same year, with 
Sir Ambrose Cave, he conducted the search 
among the papers of the bishops of Win- 
chester and Lincoln. On 9 and 10 Sept. 
1559 he was one of the mourners at the 
funeral services held at St.Paul's on the death 
of Henry II of France ; he was also a 
mourner on the death of the emperor in 
1564, when Grindal preached. On 25 April 
1561 he received charge of Margaret, coun- 
tess of Lennox. In 1566 he took part in 
the fruitless negotiations as to the marriage 
with the Archduke Charles. He died on 
21 April 1566, and was buried at Withyham 
in Sussex. 

He married Winifred, daughter of Sir John 
Bruges, lord mayor of London in 1520, and 
by her left 'a son Thomas, afterwards first 
Earl of Dorset (who is separately noticed), 
and a daughter Anne, who married Gre- 
gory Fiennes, tenth lord Dacre of the South 
[q. v.] His widow married William Paulet, 
first marquis of Winchester [q. v.], died 
in 1586, and was buried in Westminster 

Sackville was a pleasant, capable, and ac- 
commodating official. He grew very rich 
and established his family. Naunton de- 
clared that his accumulation of wealth en- 
titled him to be called 'Fill-sack' rather 
than ' Sack-ville ' (Fragmenta Regalia, ed. 
Arber, p. 55). But he had intellectual in- 
terests. He was dining with Sir William 
Cecil at Windsor in 1563, when another 
guest, Roger Ascharn [q. v.], turned the 
conversation on the subject of education. 
Sackville later in the day had a private 
colloquy with Ascham on the topic, urged 
the scholar to write his l Scholemaster,' and 
entrusted to him his grandson, Robert Sack- 
ville, second earl of Dorset [q. v.], to be edu- 
cated with Ascham's son. Ascham, in his 
1 Scholemaster,' speaks of Sackville in terms 
of great respect. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed.Gaird- 
ner, passim ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 241 ; 
Foster's Reg. of Gray's Inn, p. 2 ; Hasted's Kent, 
i. 344 ; Coll. Top. et Gen. iii. 295 ; Arch. Cantiana, 
xvii. 214, &c. (Rochester Bridge); Acts of the 
Privy Council, ed. Dasent, passim; Strype's 
Works: Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1547-80, 
p. 10, &c. Addenda, For. Ser. 1558-9 ; Sussex. 
Arch. Coll. xxvi. 41 ; Napier's Swyncombe and 
Ewelme ; Ascham's Schoolmaster, ed. Mayor ; 
Narratives of the Reformation, p. 267, and Wrio- 
thesley's Chron. ii. 145 (Camd. Soc.) ; Lit. Re- 
mains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club), passim.] 

W. A. J. A. 


9 6 


OP DORSET (1561-1609), born in 1561, was 
the eldest son of Thomas Sackville, first 
earl of Dorset [q. v.], by Cecily (d. 1 Oct. 
1615), daughter of Sir John Buker of Sis- 
singhurst, Kent, speaker of the House of 
Commons. His grandfather, Sir Richard 
Sackville [q. v.], invited Roger Ascham to 
educate Robert with his own son ( ASCHAM, 
Scholemaster, ed. Mayor). He matriculated 
from Hart Hall, Oxford, 17 Dec. 1576, and 
graduated B.A. and M.A. on 3 June 1579; 
it appears from his father's will (COLLINS, ii. 
139-40) that he was also at New College. 
He was admitted to the Inner Temple in 
1580, and elected to the House of Com- 
mons in 1585 as member for Sussex. In 
1588 he sat for Lewes, but represented the 
county again in 1592-3, 1597-8, 1601, and 
1604-8. He is said to have been a leading 
member of the House of Commons, serving 
as a chairman of several committees (cf. 
D'Ewss, Journals, passim). According to 
a contemporary writer (MiLLES, Catalogue 
of Honour, p. 414), he was ' a man of 
singular learning and many sciences and 
languages, Greek and Latin being as familiar 
to him as his own natural tongue.' At the 
same time he engaged in trading ventures, 
and had ships in the Mediterranean in Fe- 
bruary 1602. He also held a patent for the 
supply of ordnance (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
20 Feb. 1596). He succeeded to the earldom 
of Dorset on the death of his father on 
19 April 1608. He inherited from his father 
over sixteen manors in Sussex, Essex, Kent, 
and Middlesex, the principal seats being 
Knole and Buckhurst. 

Dorset survived his father less than a year, 
dying on 27 Feb. 1609 at Dorset House, Fleet 
Street. He was buried in the Sackville Chapel 
at Withy ham, Sussex, and left by will 200/. or 
300/. for a tomb. This monument perished 
when Withyham church was destroyed by 
lightning on 16 June 1663. He left 1,000/. 
for the erection and a rent charge of 330/. 
for the endowment of a ' hospital or college' 
for twenty-one poor men and ten poor women, 
to be under the patronage and government 
of his heirs. This may have been an imita- 
tion of Emmanuel College, Westminster, 
founded by his aunt, Anne Fiennes, lady 
Dacre [q. v.] Accordingly, the building of j 
the almshouse known as ' Sackville College 
for the Poor ' at East Grinstead, Sussex, was 
commenced about 1616 by the executors, his 
brother-in-law, Lord William Howard [q. v.], 
and Sir George Rivers of Chafford. It was 
inhabited before 1622 (Burial Registers of 
East Grinstead ; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th 
Rep. App. p. 120, House of Lords). Most 

of the Sackville lands were soon alienated by 
the founder's son, and the buyers refused to 
acknowledge the estate's liability to the col- 
lege. On 6 July 1 631 the poor inmates received 
a charter of incorporation, but their revenues 
were still irregularly paid (Hist. MSS. Comm. 
7th Rep. p. 44; PEPYS, Diary, 9 Feb. 1660). 
But in 1700, after tedious litigation, a re- 
duced rent charge of 216Z. 12s. 9d. was im- 
posed on the Sackville estates on behalf of 
the college, and the number of inmates re- 
duced to twelve, with a warden. The col- 
lege buildings were restored in the pre- 
sent century by the Dorset coheiresses, the 
Countess Amherst and the Countess De la. 
Warr (Baroness Buckhurst), and the pa- 
tronage remains with their representative, 
Earl De la Warr, the owner of the Sussex 

Dorset married first, in February 1579-80, 
Lady Margaret, only daughter of Thomas 
Howard, fourth duke of Norfolk [q. v.] She 
was suspected of attending mass ( Cal. State 
Papers, 20 Dec. 1583). By her he had six 
children, of whom Richard became third earl, 
and Edward fourth earl [q. v.] A daughter, 
Anne, married Sir Edward Seymour, eldest 
son of Edward Seymour, lord Beauchamp, 
and Cecily married Sir Henry Compton, 
K.B. Lady Margaret died on 19 Aug. 1591 
(coffin-plate) ; Robert Southwell [q. v.], the 
Jesuit, published in her honour, in 1596, a 
small quarto entitled ' Triumphs over Death/ 
with dedicatory verses to her surviving- 
children. It is reprinted in Sir S. E. Brydges's 
1 Archaica ' (vol. i. pt. iii). Dorset married, 
secondly, on 4 Dec. 1592, Anne (d. 22 Sept. 
1618), daughter of Sir John Spencer of Al- 
thorp, and widow of, first, William Stanley, 
Lord Monteagle, and, secondly, Henry, lord 
Compton. In 1608-9 Dorset found reason to 
complain of his second wife's misconduct, and 
was negotiating with Archbishop Bancroft 
and Lord-chancellor Ellesmere for a separa- 
tian from her when he died (Cal. State 
Papers, 1603-10, pp. 477, 484). 

There are two portraits of Dorset; at Knole 
House ; neither has been engraved. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, ii. 146-9 ; Cal. State Papers, passim ; 
Kev. E. W. Sackville-West (the late Earl De la 
Warr), Hist. Notices of Withyham ; Stenning's 
Notes on East Grrinstead, originally a paper in 
Sussex Arch. Soc. Collectanea; Bridgman's 
Sketch of Knole ; Willis's Not. Parl.] 

H. E. D. B. 

DOESET and BARON BUCKHURST (1536-1608), 
only son of Sir Richard Sackville [q. v.], was 
born in 1536 at Buckhurst in the parish of 
Withyham, Sussex. He seems to have at- 




tended the grammar school of Sullington, 
Sussex, and in 1546 was nominated incum- 
bent of the chantry in the church there, a 
post from which he derived an income of 
31. 16s. a year. There is no documentary 
eorroboration of the reports that he was a 
member of Hart Hall at Oxford and of St. 
John's College, Cambridge. Subsequently 
he joined the Inner Temple, of which his 
father was governor, and he was called to 
the bar (ABBOT, Funeral Sermon, 1608). In 
early youth he mainly devoted himself to 
literature. About 1557 he planned a poem 
on the model of Lydgate's ' Fall of Princes.' 
The poet was to describe his descent into the 
infernal regions after the manner of Virgil 
and Dante, and to recount the lives of those 
dwellers there who, having distinguished 
themselves in English history, had come to 
untimely ends. Sackville prepared a poetical 
preface which he called an ' Induction.' Here 
' Sorrow ' guides the narrator through Hades, 
and after the poet has held converse with 
the shades of the heroes of antiquity he 
meets the ghost of Henry Stafford, duke of 
Buckingham, who recites to him his tragic 
story. Sackville made no further contribu- 
tion to the design, which he handed over to 
Richard Baldwin [q. v.] and George Ferrers 
[q. v.] They completed it adopting Sack- 
ville's seven-line stanzas under the title of 
* A Myrrovre for Magistrates, wherein may 
be seen by example of others, with howe 
grievous plages vices are punished, and howe 
frayle and unstable worldly prosperity is 
founde even of those whom fortune seemeth 
most highly to favour.' A first volume was 
issued in 1559, and a second in 1563. Sack- 
ville's ' Induction,' though obviously designed 
to introduce the work, appears towards the 
end of the second volume. It is followed 
by his ' Complaint of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham.' These contributions give the vo- 
lumes almost all their literary value. In 
dignified, forcible, and melodious expression 
Sackville's t Induction ' has no rival among 
the poems issued between Chaucer's ' Canter- 
bury Tales ' and Spenser's ' Faerie Queene.' 
Spenser acknowledged a large indebtedness 
to the ' Induction,' and he prefixed a sonnet 
to the * Faerie Queene ' (1590) commending 
the author 

Whose learned muse hath writ her own record 
In golden verse, worthy immortal fame. 

Other editions of the 'Mirror' are dated 
1563, 1571, 1574, 1587, 1610, and 1815 [see 
Of equal importance in literary history, if less 
interesting from the literary point of view, 

VOL. L. 

was Sackville's share in the production of the 
first English tragedy in blank verse, ' The 
Tragedy of Gorboduc.' It was first acted in 
the hall of the Inner Temple on Twelfth 
Night 1560-1. Sackville was alone respon- 
sible (according to the title-page of the first 
edition of 1565) for the last two acts. These 
are by far the ' most vital ' parts of the piece, 
although Sackville's blank verse is invariably 
'stiff and cumbersome.' There is no valid 
ground for crediting him with any larger re- 
sponsibility for the undertaking. The first 
three acts were from the pen of a fellow 
student of the law, Thomas Norton [see art. 
NORTON, THOMAS, 1532-1584, for biblio- 
graphy and plot of ' Gorboduc ']. Sackville's 
remaining literary work is of comparatively 
little interest. Commendatory verses by 
him were prefixed to Sir Thomas Hoby's 
' Courtier,' a translation of Castiglione's 
' Cortegiano,' 1561, and he has been credited 
with a poem issued under the signature 
'M. S.' in the 'Paradise of Dainty De- 
vices,' 1576. That lie wrote other poems 
that have not been identified is clear from 
Jasper Hey wood's reference to ' Sackvyles 
Sonnets, sweetly sauste,' in his preface to 
his translation of Seneca's ' Thyestes ' (1560). 
George Turberville declared him to be, in his 
opinion, superior to all contemporary poets. 
In his later years William Lambarde eulo- 
gised his literary efforts ; and Bacon, when 
sending him a copy of his ( Advancement of 
Learning,' reminded him of his ' first love.' 
His chaplain, George Abbot, spoke in his 
funeral sermon of the ' good tokens ' of his 
learning' in Latine published into the world ; ' 
but the only trace of his latinity survives 
in a Latin letter prefixed to Bartholomew 
Clerke's Latin translation of Castiglione's 
' Cortegiano ' (1571). Literature was not 
the only art in which Sackville delighted. 
Music equally attracted him. Throughout 
life he entertained musicians ' the most 
curious which anywhere he could have' 
(ABBOT). Among his other youthful inte- 
rests was a zeal for freemasonry, and he be- 
came in 1561 a grand master of the order, 
whose headquarters were then at York. He 
resigned the office in 1567, but while grand 
master he is stated to have done the fraternity 
good service by initiating into its innocent 
secrets some royal officers who were sent to 
break up the grand lodge at York. Their 
report to the queen convinced her that the 
society was harmless, and it was not molested 
again (Dr. JAMES ANDEKSON, New Book of 
Constitutions of the Fraternity of Freemasons, 
1738, p. 81 ; PRESTON, Illustrations of Ma- 
sonry ; HYNEMAN, Ancient York and London 
Grand Lodges, 1872, p. 21). 



Politics, however, proved the real business 
of Sackville's life. To the parliament of 
Queen Mary's reign which met on 20 Jan. 
1557-8 he was returned both for Westmore- 
land and East Grinstead, and he elected to 
serve for Westmoreland. In the first parlia- 
ment of Queen Elizabeth's reign, meeting on 
23 Jan. 1558-9, he represented East Grin- 
stead, and he represented Aylesbury in the 
parliament of 1563. On 17 'March he con- 
veyed a message from the house to the queen. 
The queen recognised his kinship with her 
his father was Anne Boleyn's first cousin 
and she showed much liking for him, ordering 
him to be in continual attendance on her. 
But extravagant habits led to pecuniary 
difficulties, and, in order to correct his ' im- 
moderate courses/ he made about 1563 a 
foreign tour, passing through France to Italy. 
At Rome an unguarded avowal of pro- 
testantism involved him in a fourteen days' 
imprisonment. While still in the city news 
of his father's death on 21 April 1566 
reached him, and he hurried home to assume 
control of a vast inheritance. 

Rich, cultivated, sagacious, and favoured 
by the queen, he possessed all the quali- 
fications for playing a prominent part in 
politics, diplomacy, and court society. He 
was knighted by the Duke of Norfolk in 
the queen's presence on 8 June 1567, and 
was raised to the peerage as Lord Buck- 
hurst on the same day. His admission 
to the House of Lords was calculated to 
strengthen the protestant party there. In 
the spring of 1568 he was sent to France, 
and, according' to 'Cecil's 'Diary,' he per- 
suaded the queen-mother to make i a motion 
for a marriage of Elizabeth with her second 
son, the Duke of Anjou.' Later in the year 
he was directed to entertain the Cardinal 
Chatillon at the royal palace at Sheen, which 
he rented of the crown, and where he was 
residing with his mother. Early in 1571 he 
paid a second official visit to France to con- 
gratulate Charles IX on his marriage with 
Elizabeth of Austria. He performed his 
ambassadorial functions with great magnifi- 
cence (cf. HOLINSHED, s.a. 1571), and did 
what he could to forward the negotiations 
for the queen's marriage with Anjou, pri- 
vately assuring the queen-mother that Eliza- j 
bethwas honestly bent on going through with 
the match (cf. F'KOUDE, History, ix. 368-70). 
Later in the year in August he was in 
attendance on Paul de Foix, a French am- 
bassador who had come to London to con- 
tinue the discussion of the marriage. On 
30 Aug. he accompanied the ambassador 
from Audley End to Cambridge, where he 
was created M.A. 

Buckhurst joined the privy council, and 
found constant employment as a commis- 
sioner at state trials. Among the many 
prisoners on whom he sat in judgment were 
Thomas, duke of Norfolk (15 Jan. 1571-2), 
Anthony Babington (5 Sept. 1586), and 
Philip, earl of Arundel (14 April 1589). 
Although nominated a commissioner for the 
trial of Mary Queen of Scots, he does not 
seem to have been present at Fotheringay 
Castle or at Westminster, where she was 
condemned; but he was sent to Fotherin- 
gay in December 1586 to announce to Mary 
the sentence of death (cf. AMIAS POTILET, 
Letter Book; FROTJDE, xii. 219-21). He 
performed the painful duty as considerately 
as was possible, and the unhappy queen pre-< 
sented him with a wood carving of the pro- 
cession to Calvary, which is still preserved 
at Knole. 

Next year he once again went abroad on 
political service. Through the autumn of 
1 586 Leicester's conduct in the Low Countries 
caused the queen much concern, and Leicester 
urged that Buckhurst might be sent to in- 
vestigate his action and to allay the queen's 
fears that he was committing her to a long 
and costly expedition. ' My lord of Buck- 
hurst would be a very fit man,' Leicester 
wrote, ' ... he shall never live to do a better 
service ' (Leycester Correspondence, pp. 304, 
378). At the end of the year Leicester came 
home, and in March 1587 Buckhurst was di- 
rected to survey the position of affairs in the 
Low Countries. His instructions were to 
tell the States-General that the queen, while 
she bore them no ill-will, could no longer 
aid them with men or money, but that she 
would intercede with Philip of Spain in 
their behalf. He faithfully obeyed his 
orders, but the queen, perceiving that it 
was incumbent on her to continue the war, 
abruptly recalled him in June. She severely 
reprimanded him by letter for too literally 
obeying his instructions. She expressed 
scorn of his shallow judgment which had 
spilled the cause, impaired her honour, and 
shamed himself (MOTLEY, United Nether- 
lands, chaps, xv. and xvi. ; FEOUDE, xii. 
301). On arriving in London he was di- 
rected to confine himself to his house. For 
nine months the order remained in force, and 
Buckhurst faithfully respected it, declining 
to see his wife or children. 

On Leicester's death he was fully restored 
to favour, and for the rest of her reign the 
queen's confidence in him was undisturbed. 
In December 1588 he \vas appointed a 
commissioner for ecclesiastical causes. On 
24 April 1589 he was elected K.G., and was 
installed at Windsor on 18 Dec. Mean- 




while he engaged anew in diplomatic busi- 
ness. Pie went on an embassy to the Low 
Countries in November 1589, and in 1591 
he was one of the commissioners who signed 
a treaty with France on behalf of the queen. 
In 1598 he joined with Burghley in a futile 
attempt to negotiate peace with Spain, and 
in the same year went abroad, for the last 
time, to renew a treaty with the united pro- 
vinces, which relieved the queen of a sub- 
sidy of 120,000/. a year. 

High office at home finally rewarded his 
service abroad. He was one of the four 
commissioners appointed to seal writs during 
the vacancy in the office of chancellor after 
the death of Sir Christopher Hatton (20 Nov. 
1591) and before the appointment of Pucker- 
ing on 3 June 1592. In August 1598 Lord- 
treasurer Burghley died, and court gossip at 
once nominated Buckhurst to the vacant post 
(CHAMBERLAIN", Letters, pp. 31, 37) ; but it 
was not until 19 May 1599 that he was in- 
stalled in the office of treasurer. He per- 
formed his duties with businesslike precision. 
Every suitor could reckon on a full hearing 
in his turn, and he held aloof from court 
factions. His character and position alike 
recommended him for the appointment in 
January 1601 of lord high steward, whose 
duty it was to preside at the trials of the 
Earl of Essex and his fellow-conspirators. 

The accession of James I did not affect 
his fortunes. On 17 April 1603 he was re- 
appointed lord treasurer for life. He at- 
tended Elizabeth's funeral at Westminster 
on the 28th of that month, and on 2 May 
met the king at Broxbourne. He was gra- 
ciously received. lie was one of the peers 
who in November 1603 sat in judgment on 
Henry, lord Cobham, and Thomas, lord 
Grey de Wilton, and he was created Earl of 
Dorset on 13 March 1603-4. In May 1604 
he was nominated a commissioner to nego- 
tiate a new treaty of peace with Spain, which 
was finally signed on 18 Aug. The king of 
Spain showed his appreciation of Dorset's 
influence in bringing the negotiations to u 
satisfactory issue by bestowing on him a 
pension of 1,000/. in the same month, and by 
presenting him with a gold ring and a richly 
jewelled chain. 

Dorset's wealth and munificence in private 
life helped to confirm his political position. 
His landed property inherited or purchased 
was extensive. He resided in early life 
at Buckhurst, Sussex, where he employed 
John Thorpe to rebuild the manor-house 
between 1560 and 1565. In 1569 he ob- 
tained from King's College, Cambridge, a 
grant of the neighbouring manor of Withy- 
ham and the advowson of the church there 

in exchange for the manor and advowson of 
Sampford-Courtenay in Devonshire. The 
church of Withy ham was the burial-place of 
his family. He built a house, which was 
soon burnt down, on part of the site of 
Lewes Priory, which had been granted to 
his father. He had been joint lord lieutenant 
of Sussex as early as 1569, and he some- 
what humorously distinguished himself in 
that capacity in 1586, when, a false alarm 
having been given that fifty Spanish ships 
were off the coast, he hastily summoned the 
muster of the county and watched with 
them all night between Itottingdean and 
Brighton, only to discover in the morning 
that the strangers were innocent Dutch- 
men driven near the coast by stress of 

Meanwhile, in June 1566, the queen 
granted to him the reversion of the manor 
of Knole, near Sevenoaks in Kent, subject 
to a lease granted by the Earl of Leicester, 
to whom the estate had been presented by 
the queen in 1561 (HASTED, Kent, i. 342). 
It was not until 1603 that Dorset came into 
possession of the property. He at once set 
to work to rebuild part of the house from 
plans supplied at an earlier date by John 
Thorpe. Two hundred workmen were em- 
ployed on it, and it was completed in 1605 
(cf. Archccologia Cantiana, vol. ix. pp. xl et 

Another office of dignity which Dorset 
long filled was that of chancellor of the 
university of Oxford. He. was elected on 
17 Dec. 1591. His competitor was Robert 
Devereux, earl of Essex, but the queen's 
influence was thrown decisively on the side of 
Lord Buckhurst. On 6 Jan. 1591-2 he was 
incorporated, at his residence in London, 
M.A. in the university. In September 1592 
he visited Oxford, and received the queen 
there with elaborate ceremony (NICHOLS, 
Progresses, iii. 149 seq.) H> gave books to 
Bodley's Library in 1600, anl a bust of the 
founder, which is still extant there, in 1605 
(MACRAY, ytert/*, pp.20, 31). In August 1605 
he entertained James I at Oxf >rd, keeping 
open house at New College for a week. The 
earl sent 20/. and five brace o ' bucks to 
those who had disputed or acted b ;fore the 
king, and money and venison to e "erv col- 
lege and hall (NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, 
i. 539 seq.) 

One of Dorset's latest acts in his office of 
lord treasurer was to interview privately 
the barons of the exchequer (November 
1606) while they were sitting in judgment 
on the great constitutional case of the mer- 
chant Bates who had refused to pay the im- 
positions that had been levied by the crown 

u 2 




without parliamentary sanction. Dorset had 
previously assured himself that judgment 
would be for the crown, but he apparently 
wished the judges to deliver it without 
stating their reasons (GARDINEP,, History, ii. 
6-7). He died suddenly at the council-table 
at Whitehall on 19 April 1608. His body 
was taken to Dorset House, Fleet Street, and 
was thence conveyed in state to Westminster 
Abbey on 26 May. There a funeral sermon 
was preached by his chap^in, George Abbot 
[q. v.], dean of Winchester, and afterwards 
archbishop of Canterbury. In accordance 
with his will he was buried in the Sack- 
ville Chapel, adjoining the parish church of 
Withyham. His tomb was destroyed by 
lightning on 16 June 1663, but his coffin 
remains in the vault beneath. 

Dorset is credited by Naunton with strong 
judgment and self-confidence, but in domestic 
politics he showed little independence. His 
main object was to stand well with his" 
sovereign, and in that he succeeded. He was 
a good speaker, and the numerous letters and 
state papers extant in his handwriting exhibit 
an unusual perspicuity. In private life lie 
was considerate to his tenants. By his will, 
made on 7 Aug. 1607, a very detailed docu- 
ment, he left to his family as heirlooms rings 
given him by James I and the king of Spain, 
and a portrait of Queen Elizabeth, cut in 
agate and set in gold. This had been left 
him by his sister Ann, lady Dacre. Plate or 
jewels were bequeathed to his friends, the 
archbishop of Canterbury, Lord-chancellor 
Ellesmere, the Earls of Nottingham, Suffolk, 
Worcester, Northampton, Salisbury, and 
Dunbar. The Earls of Suffolk and Salisbury 
were overseers of his will, and his wife and 
eldest son were joint executors. He left 
1,000. for building a public granary at 
Lewes, 2,000/. for stocking it with grain in 
seasons of scarcity, and 1,000/. for building 
a chapel at Withyham. 
"'He married, in 1554, Cecily, daughter of 
Sir John Baker of Sissinghurst in Kent ; 
Dorset speaks of her in his will in terms of 
warm affection and respect. She survived 
till 1 Oct. 1615. By her he was father of 
four sons and three daughters : the eldest 
son was Robert Sackville, second earl of 
Dorset [q. v.]; William, born about 1568, 
was knighted in France by Henry IV in 
October 1589, and was slain fighting against 
the forces of the league in 1591 ; Thomas, 
born on 25 May 1571, distinguished himself 
in fighting against the Turks in 1595, and 
died on 28 Aug. 1646. Of the daughters, 
Anne was wife of Sir Henry Glemham of 
Glemham in Suffolk (cf. Cal State Papers 
1603-10, pp. 499, 575) ; Jane was wife of 

Anthony Browne, first viscount Montague 
[q. v.] ; and Mary married Sir Henry Neville, 
ultimately Lord Abergavenny. 

His poetical works, with some letters and 
the preamble to his will, were collected and 
edited in 1859, by the Rev. Reginald W. 
Sackville West, who prefixed a memoir. 

There are portraits of the Earl of Dorset 
at Knole and Buckhurst (by Marcus Ghee- 
raerts the younger [q. v.]) ; while in the 
picture gallery at Oxford there is a painting 
of him in the robes of chancellor, with the 
blue ribbon, George, and treasurer's staff. 
This was presented by Lionel, duke of 
Dorset, in 1735. There are engravings by 
George Vertue, E. Scriven, and W. J. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 484-92, sup- 
plies the most detailed account of his official 
career. George Abbot's Funeral Sermon, 1608, 
dedicated to the widowed countess, gives a con- 
temporai'y estimate of his career (esp. pp. 13-18). 
W. D. Cooper's memoir in Shakespeare Society's 
edition of Gorboduc and Sackville West's memoir 
in his Collected Works, 1859, are fairly com- 
plete. See also Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia, 
ed. Arber, pp. 55-6 ; Strype's Annals ; Corres- 
pondance Diplomatique de Fenelon, iii. iv. v. 
vii. ; Birch's Queen Elizabeth ; Camden's An- 
nals; Doyle's Official Baronage; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1571-1608 ; Warton's Hist, of 
English Poetry; Ritson's Bibliographia Anglo- 
Poetica; Brydges's Memoirs of the Peers of 
James I.] S. L. 


(1562-1616), Jesuit. [See HOLYWOOD.] 

1230), mathematician. [See HOLYWOOD or 

SADDINGTON, JOHN (1634 P-1679), 
Muggletonian, was born at Arnesby, Lei- 
cestershire, about 1634, and was engaged in 
London in the sugar trade. He was among 
the earliest adherents to the system of John 
Reeve (1608-1658) [q. v.] and Lodowicke 
Muggleton [q. v.], and hence was known as 
the * eldest son ' of their movement. He was 
a tall, handsome man, and an intelligent 
writer; his strenuous support in 1671 was 
of essential service to Muggleton's cause. 
He died in London on 11 Sept, 1679. Two 
only of his pieces have been printed: 1. ' A 
Prospective Glass for Saints and Sinners/ 
1673, 4to; reprinted, Deal, 1823, 8vo. 2. 'The 
Articles of True Faith,' written in 1675, but 
not printed till 1830, 8vo. Of his unprinted 
pieces in the Muggletonian archives, the most 
important is ' The Wormes Conquest,' a poem 
of 1677, on the trial of Muggleton, who is 
the ' worme.' 




[Saddington's printed and manuscript writ- 
ings; Muggleton's Acts and Letters; Ancient 
and Modern Muggletonians (Transactions of 
Liverpool Lit. and Phil. Hoc. 4 April 1870); 
Smith's Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, 
pp. 321 sq.] A. G. 

SADDLER, JOHN (18] 3-1892), line 
engraver, was born on 14 Aug. 1813. He 
was a pupil of George Cooke (1781-1834) 
[q. v.], the engraver of Turner's ' Picturesque 
Views on the Southern Coast of England,' 
and it is related that on one occasion he was 
sent to Turner with the trial proof of a 
plate of which he had himself engraved a 
considerable portion. Scanning the plate 
with his eagle eye, Turner asked ' Who did 
this plate, my boy?' 'Mr. Cooke, sir,' 
answered Saddler, to which Turner replied, 
' Go and tell your master he is bringing you 
on very nicely, especially in lying.' Later 
on he engraved the vessels in the plate of 
Turner's ' Fighting Temeraire,' the sky of 
which was the joint production of R. Dickens 
and J. T. Willmore, A.R.A., and he used 
to say that Turner took a keener interest in 
the engraving of this than of any others of 
his works. He assisted Thomas Landseer 
in several of his engravings from the works 
of Sir Edwin Landseer, especially ' The 
Twins,' 'The Children of the Mist,' ' Mar- 
mozettes,' and * Braemar,' and also in the 
plate of the ' Horse Fair,' after Rosa Bon- 
heur. Among works executed entirely by 
him are ' The Lady of the "Woods/ after 
John Mac Whirter, R.A.; 'The Christening 
Party,' after A. Bellows, engraved for the 
'Art Journal' of 1872; 'Shrimpers' and 
' Shrimping,' after H. W. Mesdag, and many 
book illustrations after Millais, Poynter, 
Tenniel, Gustave Dore, and others. He also 
engraved plates of ' Christ Church, Hamp- 
shire,' after J. Nash, and ' Durham Cathe- 
dral,' after H. Dawson, for the 'Stationers' 
Almanack,' and some other views and por- 
traits, and at the time of his death was en- 
gaged on the portrait of John Walter, from 
the picture begun by Frank Holl, R.A., and 
finished by Hubert Herkomer, R. A. He ex- 
hibited a few works at the Society of British 
Artists, and others at the Royal Academy 
between 1862 and 1883. 

Saddler was for many years the treasurer 
of the Artists' Amicable Fund, and was thus 
brought into contact with most of the artists 
of his time, and many and racy were the 
anecdotes of them which he was wont to 
tell, In 1882 he left London, and went to 
reside at Wokingham in Berkshire, where 
on 29 March 1892 he committed suicide by 
hanging himself during an attack of tem- 
porary insanity. 

[Times, 7 April 1892; Reading Mercury, 
2 April 1892 ; Koyal Academy Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1862-83.] K. E. G. 

1340), chancellor, was no doubt a native of 
Sadington in Leicestershire, and perhaps a 
son of John de Sadington, a valet of Isa- 
bella, wife of Edward II, and custos of the 
hundred of Gertre [Gartree] in that county 
(Abbrev. Rot. Orig. i. 243). He may be the 
Robert de Sadington who was named by Joan 
de Multon to seek and receive her dower in 
chancery in January 1317 (Cal. Close Rolls, 
Edw. II, ii. 451). He appears as an advo- 
cate in the year-books from 1329 to 1336. 
In 1329 he was on a commission to sell the 
corn from certain manors then in the king's 
hands. On 18 Feb. 1331 he was on a com- 
mission of oyer and terminer to inquire into 
the oppressions of the ministers of the late 
king in Rutland and Northamptonshire 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edw. Ill, ii. 134). In the 
following years he frequently appears on 
similar commissions. On 12 Feb. 1332 he 
was placed on the commission of peace for 
Leicestershire and Rutland, and on 25 June 
1332 was a commissioner for the assessment 
of the tallage in the counties of Leicester, 
Warwick, and Worcester (ib. ii. 287, 312). 
Previously to 8 Aug. 1334 he was justice in 
eyre of the forest of Pickering and of the 
forests in Lancashire (ib. iii. 1, 4, 172, 261). 
On 31 Dec. 1334 he was appointed on an in- 
quiry into the waterways between Peter- 
borough and Spalding and Lynn, and, on 
10 July 1335, on an inquiry into the collec- 
tion of taxes of Northamptonshire, Warwick- 
shire, and Rutland (ib. iii. 70, 202). During 
1336 he was a justice of gaol delivery at 
Lancaster and Warwick (ib. iii. 300, 324). 
On 20 March 1334 he was appointed chief 
baron of the exchequer (ib. iii. 400), and ap- 
pears to have been the first chief baron who 
was summoned to parliament by that title. 
On 25 July 1339 he was acting as lieutenant 
for the treasurer, William de Zouche, and 
from 2 May to 21 June 1340 was himself 
treasurer, but retained his office as chief 
baron. On 29 Sept. 1343 he was appointed 
chancellor, being the third layman to hold 
this position during the reign. He resigned 
the great seal on 26 Oct 1345. Thereasonfor 
his resignation is not given, but the fact that 
he was reappointed chief baron on 8 Dec. 

1345 seems to preclude the suggestion of 
Lord Campbell, that it was due to inefficiency. 
He had been a trier of petitions for England 
in the parliaments of 1341 and 1343, and was 
a trier of petitions from the clergy in 1347 
(Rolls of Parliament, ii. 126, 135, 164). In 

1346 Sadington was one of the guardians of 




the principality of Wales, duchy of Corn- 
wall, and earldom of Chester during 1 the 
minority of the prince. In 1347 he presided 
over the commission appointed to try the 
earls of Fife and Menteith, who had been 
taken prisoners in the battle of Neville's 
Cross. Sadington perhaps died in the spring 
of 1350, for his successor as chief baron was 
appointed on 7 April of that year. He mar- 
ried Joyce, sister and heiress of Richard de 
Mortival, bishop of Salisbury. Isabel, his 
daughter and sole heir, married Sir Ralph 

[Murimut.h's Chronicle, p. 118; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, ii. 187, 612, 740, 776 ; Foss's 
Judges of England ; Campbell's Lives of the 
Chancellors, i. 245-6 ; other authorities quoted.] 

c. L: K. 

SADLEIR, FRANC (1774-1851), pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin, youngest son 
of Thomas Sadleir, barrister, by his first wife, 
Rebecca, eldest daughter of William Wood- 
ward of Clough Prior, co. Tipperary, was 
born in 1774. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he became a scholar 
in 1794, and a fellow in 1805. He graduated 
B.A. 1795, M.A. 1805, B.D. and D.D. 1813. 
In 1816, 1817, and 1823 he was Donnelan 
lecturer at his college ; from 1824 to 1836 
Erasmus Smith professor of mathematics, 
and from 1833 to 1838 regius professor of 

In politics he was a whig, and his ad- 
vocacy of catholic emancipation was earnest 
and unceasing. In conjunction with the 
Duke of Leinster, the archbishop of Dublin, 
and others, he was one of the first com- 
missioners for administering the funds for 
the education of the poor in Ireland, 1831. 

In 1833 he was appointed, with the pri- 
mate, the lord chancellor, and other digni- 
taries, a commissioner to alter and amend 
the laws relating to the temporalities of the 
church of Ireland, but resigned the trust in 
1837. On 22 Dec. of that year, during the 
viceroyalty of the Marquis of Normanby, he 
was made provost of Trinity College, a 'post 
which he held for fourteen years. On more 
than one occasion he is said to have declined 
a bishopric. He upheld the principle of the 
Queen's colleges in Ireland. He died at 
Castle Knock Glebe, co. Dublin, on 14 Dec. 
1851, and was buried in the vaults of Trinity 
College on 18 Dec. He married Letitia, 
daughter of Joseph Grave of Ballycommon, 
King's County, by whom he left five children. 
There is a portrait of F. Sadleir in the pro- 
vost's house, Trinity College. 

Sadleir published f Sermons and Lec- 
tures preached in the Chapel of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin,' 1821-4, 3 vols. ; and ' National 

Schools for Ireland defended in a Letter to 
Dr. Thorpe,' 1835. 

[Gent. Mair. 1852, i. 193-4; Illnstr. London 
News, 27 Dec. 1851, p. 763 ; Freeman's Journal, 

16 Dec. 1851, p. 2, 17 Dec. p. 2; Guardian, 

17 Dec. 1851, p. 867; Taylor's History of the 
University of Dublin, 1845, p. 262; The Book of 
Trinity Coll., Dublin, 1892, p. 198.] G. C. B. 

SADLEIR, JOHN (1814-1856), Irish 
politician and swindler, born in 1814, was 
the third son of Clement William Sadleir, 
a tenant farmer living at Shrone Hill, near 
Tipperary, by his wife, a daughter of James 
Scully, founder of a private bank at Tip- 
perary. His parents were Roman catholics. 
He was educated at Clongowes College, and 
succeeded an uncle in a prosperous solicitor's 
business in Dublin. He became a director 
of the Tipperary joint-stock bank, established 
about 1827 by his brother, James Sadleir, 
afterwards M.P. for Tipperary. 

Shortly before 1846 he was an active par- 
liamentary agent for Irish railways, and re- 
tired from the legal profession in 1846. At 
that period and subsequently he was con- 
nected with a number of financial enterprises, 
including the Grand Junction Railway of 
France, the East Kent line, the Rome and 
Frascati Railway, a Swiss railway, and a 
coal company. He was an able chairman of 
the London and County Joint-Stock Bank- 
ing Company from 1848 to within a few 
months of his death. 

Sadleir was elected M.P. for Carlow in 
1847. He was a firm supporter of Lord 
John Russell till the period of the Wiseman 
controversy, when he became one of the 
most influential leaders of the party known 
as ' the pope's brass band ' and l the Irish 
brigade.' In 1853, on the formation of Lord 
Aberdeen's ministry, he accepted office as a 
junior lord of the treasury, but his consti- 
tuents rejected him when applying, on his ap- 
pointment, for re-election. In the same year 
(1853) he was elected M.P. for Sligo, but 
the disclosure of some irregularities in con- 
nection with the election led to his resign- 
ing his junior lordship, though he retained 
his seat till his death. 

At the beginning of February 1856 the 
Tipperary bank, at that time managed by 
James Sadleir, was in a hopelessly insolvent 
condition, and John Sadleir had been allowed 
to overdraw his account with it to the ex- 
tent of 200,000^. On Saturday, 16 Feb., 
Messrs. Glyn, the London agents of the bank, 
returned its drafts as not provided for. John 
Sadleir was seen during the day in the city, 
and at his club till 10.30 at night ; but on 
the morning of Sunday the 17th his dead 
body was found lying in a hollow about a 




hundred, and fifty yards from Jack Straw's 
Castle on Hampstead Heath. A silver cream 
jug, and a bottle which had contained the es- 
sential oil of almonds, and which bore several 
labels of ' poison,' were found by his side. 

Sadleir's suicide created a great sensation, 
and a revelation soon followed of his long 
career of fraud and dishonesty. The 'Times' 
for 10 March 1856 began a leading article 
with the words ' J ohn Sadleir was a national 
calamity.' The assets of the Tipperary bank 
were found to be only 3o,000/., and the losses 
of the depositors and others amounted to not 
less than 400,0007. The loss fell heavily 
upon many small farmers and clerks in the 
south of Ireland, who had been attracted by 
a high rate of interest to deposit their savings 
in the bank. 

Sadleir, who had dealt largely in the lands 
sold in the encumbered estate court in Ire- 
land, was found in several instances to have 
forged conveyances of such land in order to 
raise money upon them. His frauds in con- 
nection with the Royal Swedish Railway Com- 
pany, of which he was chairman, consisted 
in fabricating a large number of duplicate 
shares, and of appropriating 19,700 of these. 

The ' Nation ' (Dublin) described Sadleir 
at the time of his death as a sallow-faced 
man, ' wrinkled with multifarious intrigue, 
cold, callous, cunning.' He was a bachelor, 
and, to all appearance, had no expensive 
habits ; his only extravagance seemed to be 
that of keeping a small stud of horses at 
Watford to hunt with the Gunnersbury 
hounds. The character of Mr. Merdle in 
Dickens's ' Little Dorrit ' was.*according to 
its author, shaped out of l that precious ras- 
cality,' John Sadleir (FoKSTEE, Life of Charles 
Dickens, bk. viii. p. 1). In the spring of 
1856 a curious belief was current that the 
body found at Hampstead was not Sadleir's, 
and that he was alive in America. But at 
the coroner's inquest the identification with 
Sadleir had been clearly established. 

[Gent. Mag. 1856, i. 530 ; Times 1856, 18 Feb. 

E. 1 1, 1 March, p. 8 (other references in Palmer's 
ndex) ; Walford's Old and New London, v. 455.1 


SADLER, ANTHONY (/. 1630-1680), 
divine, son of Thomas Sadler, was born at 
Chitterne St. Mary, Wiltshire, in 1610. He 
matriculated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, on 
21 March 1628, graduated B. A. on 22 March 
1632, was ordained by Dr. Richard Corbet 
[q.v.], bishop of Oxford,when only twenty-one, 
and became chaplain to the Sadler family in 
Hertfordshire, to whom he was related. Dur- 
ing the following twenty years he w r as curate 
at Bishopstoke, Hampshire, lived (Wood says 
beneficed) in London six or seven years, and 

was chaplain to Lettice, lady Paget, widow 
of Sir William Paget. By her he was pre- 
sented in May 1654 to the rectory of Comp- 
ton Abbas, Dorset, but was rejected by the 
triers in spite of his certificates from William 
Lenthall [q. v.], then master of the rolls, and 
Dr. Thomas Temple. On 3 July he was ex- 
amined before Philip Nye [q. v.] and four 
other commissioners. He then printed 'In- 
quisitio Anglicana,' London, 1654, 4to, con- 
taining the examination, with comments and 
complaints. Nye replied with l Mr. Sadler 
re-examined,' 1654, 4to, in which he declared 
that Sadler * preached not always for edifica- 
tion, but sometimes for ostentation.' Much 
graver charges were brought against him 
later. An order in council was given in 
December to three members to examine him 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 410). He 
probably lived about London until the Re- 
storation, when, one authority says, ' being 
very poor, but well stocked with wife and chil- 
dren, he went up and down a birding for a 
spiritual benefice.' He preached an appro- 
bation sermon at Mitcham, and was presented 
to that living by the patron, Robert Cranmer, 
a London merchant. Sadler soon instituted a 
suit against Cranmer for dilapidations. It 
lasted two years and a half. Cranmer had 
Sadler arrested for libel, but he was liberated 
after a few days, on giving his bond in 500/. 
to relinquish the living on 10 April. He was 
accused of disorderly practices and omitting 
to perform divine service. He wrote from 
the Borough prison on 25 Nov. 1664 a peti- 
tion to George Morley, bishop of Winchester, 
' Strange Newes indeed from Mitcham in 
Surrey,' London, 1664. Sadler next ob- 
tained an appointment to Berwick St. James, 
Wiltshire; but in 1681 Seth Ward, bishop 
of Salisbury, complained to Archbishop San- 
croft of his debauchery. Archdeacon Robert 
Woodward (afterwards dean) advised him, 
21 May 1683, to submit to suspension by 
the bishop, but he petitioned the archbishop 
against it (CoxE,Cjotf. of Tanner MSS.y. 1091). 
Wood is wrong in saying he died in 1680. 
More accurate is Wood's description of him 
as ' leaving behind him the character of a 
man of a rambling head and turbulent spirit.' 
Sadler wrote: 1. ' The Subjects' Joy,' 1660, 
4to, a kind of semi-religious drama. 2. ' The 
Loyal! Mourner, shewing the murdering of 
King Charles I. Foreshowing the restoring 
of Charles II,' London, 1660, 4to. The latter 
portion, which he pretends was written in 
1648, contains the lines : 

And now is seen that maugre rebel's plots, 
The name of C. K. lives, and 0. C. rots. 

3. 'Majestic Irradiant,' a broadside issued in 




May 1660. 4. 'Schema Sacrum,' verses, with 
portraits of the king and archbishop, 1667 ; 
eprinted without the cuts in 1683. 

Another ANTHONY SADLER (fl, 1640), was 
admitted to Exeter College, Oxford, in 1621 ; 
graduated M.A. 1624, and M.D. 1633. The 
same or another (more probably of Cam- 
bridge) was presented to West Thurrock rec- 
tory, Essex, on 19 Dec. 1628 (NEWCOURT, 
Re'p. Eccles. ii. 592;, and died there on 20 May 
1643. His dying confession, entitled ' The 
Sinner's Tears/ London, 1653, 12mo, was pub- 
lished by Thomas Fettiplace, master of Peter- 
house, Cambridge (reprinted 1680, 1688). 

[Kennett's Eegister, pp. 191, 215, 268, 330; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 1267, and his Fasti, i. 
460; Foster's Alumni Oxon. early ser. iii. 1298; 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, i. 175-8, ii. 
356; works above mentioned; Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Surrey, iii. 695; Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. iii. 483 ; Hanbury's Hist. Mem. iii. 425- 
429. There are no entries for 1610 in the Chit- 
terne parish register.] C. F. S. 

SADLER, JOHN (d. 1595 ?), translator, 
is said by Wood, without authority, to have 
been ' educated for a time in Oxon, in gram- 
mar and logic' (Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 
406). In reality he studied at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 
in 1534-5, and commenced M.A. in 1540 
(COOPEE, AthencB Cantabr. ii/203). He was 
appointed one of the original fellows of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, by the charter of foun- 
dation in 1546. On 11 June 1568 he was 
instituted to the rectory of Sudborough, 
Northamptonshire. In October 1571 he was 
residing at Oundle, and was in receipt of a 
liberal annuity from Francis Russell, second 
earl of Bedford, which he had enjoyed for 
many years previously. He died about 1595. 

He is author of ' The Foure bookes of 
Flavius Vegetius Renatus, briefelye con- 
tayninge a plaine forme, and perfect know- 
ledge of Martiall policye, feates of Chivalrie, 
and whatsoever pertayneth to warre. Trans- 
lated out of lattine into Englishe/ London, 
1572, 4to, dedicated to Francis, earl of Bed- 
ford, K.G. The translation was undertaken 
at the request of Sir Edmund Brudenell, knt. 
It has commendatory lines by Christopher 
Carlisle, Thomas Drant, William Jacobs, 
William Charke, William Bulleyne, and 
John Higgins, all Cambridge men. 

[Addit. MS. 5880, f. 346; Ames's Typogr. 
Antiq. ed. Herbert, p. 862 ; Briclges's North- 
amptonshire, ii. 255 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714 ir. 1299; Kymer's Fcedera, xv. 108; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 649.] T. C. 

SADLER, JOHN (1615-1674), master 
of Magdalene College, Cambridge, descended 
from an ancient Shropshire family, was born 

on 18 Aug. 1615, being son of the incumbent 
of Patcham, Sussex, by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Henry Shelley of that parish. He received 
his academical education at Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, of which he was for some 
years a fellow. He became very eminent 
for his great knowledge in Hebrew and other 
oriental languages. In 1633 he graduated 
B.A., and in 1638 he commenced M.A 
(Addit. MS. 5851, f. 12). After studying 
law at Lincoln's Inn, he was admitted one 
of the masters-in-ordinary in the court of 
chancery on 1 June 1644, and he was also 
one of the two masters of requests. In 1649 
he was chosen town-clerk of London. He 
was highly esteemed by Oliver Cromwell, 
who, by a letter from Cork, 1 Dec. 1649, 
offered him the office of chief jusrice of 
Munster in Ireland with a salary of 1 ,000/. 
per annum, but he declined the offer. 

On 31 Aug. 1650 he was constituted 
master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
upon the removal of Dr. Edward Rainbow, 
who was reinstated after the Restoration 
(COOPER, Annals of Cambridge, iii, 435, 484). 
In January 1651-2 he was appointed one of 
the committee for the better regulation of 
the law ; in 1653 he was chosen M.P. for 
Cambridge ; and in 1655, by warrant of the 
Protector Cromwell, pursuant to an ordi- 
nance for regulating and limiting the juris- 
diction of the court of chancery, he was con- 
tinued one of the masters in chancery when 
their number was reduced to six. It was by 
his interest that the Jews obtained the privi- 
lege of building a synagogue in London. In 
1658 he was chosen M.P. for Great Yarmouth, 
and in December 1659 he was appointed first 
commissioner under the great seal, with 
Taylor, Whitelocke, and others, for the pro- 
bate of wills. Soon after the Restoration 

j he lost all his employments. 

As he was lying sick at his manor of 
Warmwell, Dorset, which he acquired by 
marriage in 1662, he made the prophecy 
that there would be a plague in London, and 
that l the greatest part of the city would be 
burnt, and St. Paul's Cathedral' (MATHER, 
Magnalia Christi Americana, bk. vii. p. 102). 
In the fire of London his house in Salis- 
bury Court, which cost him 5,000/. in build- 

| ing, and several other houses belonging to 
him, were burnt down ; and shortly after- 
wards his mansion in Shropshire had the 
same fate. He was now also deprived of 
Vaux Hall, on the river Thames, and other 
estates, which being crown lands, he had 
purchased, and of a considerable estate in the 
Bedford Level, without any recompense. 
Having a family of fourteen children to 
provide for, he was obliged to retire to his 



seat at Warmwell, where he died in April 

On 9 Sept. 1645 he married Jane, youngest 
daughter and coheiress of John Trenchard, 
esq., of Warmwell, Dorset, receiving with 
her a fortune of 10,000/. (HuTCHiNS, Hist, 
of Dorset, 3rd. edit., 1861, i. 430). 

Walker describes John Sadler as ' a very 
insignificant man' (Sufferings of the Clergy, 
ii. 151), and a clergyman who knew him well 
in the university told Calamy, ' We accounted 
him not only a general scholar and an accom- 
plished gentleman, but also a person of great 
piety . . . though it must be owned he was 
not always right in his head, especially to- 
wards the latter end of his being master of 
the college ' (Life and Times of Baxter, con- 
tinuation, i. 116). 

His works are : 1. ' Masquarade du Ciel : 
presented to the Great Queene of the Little 
World. A Celestiall Map, representing the 
late commotions between Saturn and Mer- 
cury about the Northern Thule. By J. S.,' 
London 1640, 4to ; dedicated to the queen ; 
ascribed to Sadler on the authority of Arch- 
bishop Sancroft, who wrote the name of 
the author on a copy of this masque or play 
in the library of Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge (BAKER, Biogr. Dramatics, ed. Eeed 
and Jones, 1812, i. 623, iii. 28). 2. < Rights 
of the Kingdom ; or Customs of our ancestors 
touching the duty, power, election, or suc- 
cession of our Kings and Parliaments, our 
true liberty, due allegiance, three estates, 
their legislative power, originall, judicial!, 
and executive, with the Militia,' London, 
1649, 4to ; reprinted London, 1682, 4to. 
3. l Olbia. The new Hand lately discovered. 
With its Eeligion and Rites of Worship ; 
Laws, Customs, and Government; Cha- 
racters and Language; with Education of 
their Children in their Sciences, Arts, and 
Manufactures ; with other things remarkable. 
By a Christian Pilgrim,' pt. i. London, 1660, 
4to. No second part was published. 4. ' A 
Prophecy concerning Plague and Fire in the 
City of London, certified by Cuthbert Bound, 
minister of Warmwell, Dorset,' Lansdowne 
MS. 98, art. 24 ; printed in Hutchins's < His- 
tory of Dorset,' 3rd ed., i. 435. 

THOMAS SADLEK (ft. 1670-1700), his 
second son, was intended for the law, and 
entered at Lincoln's Inn. He was, however, 
devoted to art, and received some instruc- 
tions from Sir Peter Lely in portrait-painting. 
He painted in oils and also in miniature, and 
his portraits were commended by his con- 
temporaries. In 1685 he drew the portrait 
of John Bunyan [q-. v.], which was engraved 
more than once. His son Thomas Sadler 
the younger became deputy-clerk of the 

Pells ( HUTCHINS, Hist, of Dorset, i. 431, 
ed. 1861 ; WALPOLE, Anecdotes of Painting, 
REDGEAVE, Diet, of Artists}. 

[Memoir by his grandson, Thomas Sadler, of 
the exchequer, in Birch MS. 4223, f. 166; Addit. 
MS. 5880, f. 35 ; Ayscough's Cat. of MSS. p. 737; 
General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, 
1739, ix. 19 ; Halkett and Laing's Diet, of 
Anonymous Lit. ii. 1555, iii. 1808; Hutchins's 
Dorset, 1815, i. 259, iv. 355; Kennett's Register 
and Chronicle, pp. 906,913; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. (Bohn), p. 2168; Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. in. 175.] T. C. 


(1819-1895), theologian, eldest son of 
Michael Thomas Sadler [q. v.], was born at 
Leeds in 1819. Educated at Sherborne 
school, he entered St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, after a short interval of business 
life. He was elected Tyrwhitt's Hebrew 
scholar in 1846, and graduated B.A. 1847. 
He was vicar of Bridgwater from 1857 to 1864 
(during which time he was appointed to the 
prebend of Combe, 13th in Wells Cathedral), 
and of St. Paul's, Bedford, from 1864 to 
1869 ; he was rector of Honiton from 1869 till 
his death. In 1869 he received an offer of 
the bishopric of Montreal, carrying with it 
the dignity of metropolitan of Canada, but re- 
fused it on medical advice. He was a volu- 
minous writer on theological subjects, and a 
strong high churchman. His works, which 
had a large circulation, did much to popu- 
larise the tractarian doctrines. The chief 
of them were : 1 . ' The Sacrament of Re- 
sponsibility,' 1851, published in the height 
of the Gorham controversy. 2. ' The Second 
Adam and the New Birth,' 1857. 3. ' Church 
Doctrine, Bible Truth,' 1862. 4. 'The 
Church Teacher's Manual.' 5. * The Com- 
municant's Manual.' 6. ' A Commentary on 
the New Testament.' He died at Honiton 
on 15 Aug. 1895. 

He married, in 1855, Maria, daughter of 
John Tidd Pratt [q. v.], formerly registrar of 
friendly societies in England. 

[Obituary notices in the Guardian, by Canon 
Temple and Rev. H. H. Jebb ; Church Times; 
Churchwoman (27 Sept.) ; Liverpool Post, and 
Western Mercury.] M. E. S. 


(1780-1835), social reformer and political 
economist, born at Snelston, Derbyshire, on 
3 Jan. 1780, was the youngest son of James 
Sadler of the Old Hall, Do veridge. A ccording 
to tradition his family came from Warwick- 
shire, and was descended from Sir Ralph 
Sadler [q. v.] His mother was the daughter of 
Michael Ferrebee (student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1722, and afterwards rector of Rol- 




leston, Staffordshire), whose father was a 
Huguenot. Sadler received his early train- 
ing from Mr. Harrison of Doveridge, and 
while at school showed a special aptitude for 
mathematics, but from his fifteenth year he 
was practically self-taught, acquiring in his 
father's library a wide but desultory know- 
ledge of classical and modern literature. 
His family, though members of the church 
of England, were in sympathy with the 
methodist movement, and suffered obloquy 
in consequence. Mary Howitt, who lived 
at Uttoxeter, wrote in her autobiography 
(vol. i.) that the SacHers, who were the first 
to bring the methodists into that district, 
1 were most earnest in the new faith, and a ! 
sonnamed Michael Thomas, not then twenty, 
a youth of great eloquence and talent, 
preached sermons and was stoned for it.' 
' The boy preacher ' (Mrs. Howitt continues) 
' wrote a stinging pamphlet (' An Apology 
for the Methodists,' 1797) that was widely 
circulated. It shamed his persecutors and 
almost wrung an apology from them .... 
His gentlemanly bearing, handsome dress, 
intelligent face, and pleasant voice, we 
thought most unlike the usual Uttoxeter 
type.' In 1800 Sadler was established by 
his father in the firm of his elder brother, 
Benjamin, at Leeds, and in 1810 the two 
brothers entered into partnership with the 
widow of Samuel Fenton, an importer of 
Irish linens in that town. In 1816 he 
married Ann Fenton, the daughter of his 

Eartner and the representative of an old 
eeds family. 

Sadler, who had no liking for business, 
soon took an active part in public life, espe- 
cially in the administration of the poor law, 
serving as honorary treasurer of the poor 
rates. An enthusiastic tory, he expressed 
his political convictions in a speech, widely 
circulated at the time, which he delivered 
against catholic emancipation at a town's 
meeting in Leeds in 1813. In 1817 he pub- 
lished his ' First Letter to a Reformer,' in 
reply to a pamphlet in which Walter Fawkes 
of Farnley had advocated a scheme of politi- 
cal reform. But Sadler concentrated his 
chief attention on economic questions, and 
read papers on such subjects to the Leeds 
Literary and Philosophical Society, of which 
he was one of the founders. The general dis- 
tress and his personal experience of poor- 
law administration led him to examine the 
principles which should govern the relief of 
destitution from public funds. Growing 
anxiety about Irish affairs and the proceed- 
ings of the emigration committee in 1827 
next drew his attention to the condition of 
the poor in Ireland, with which country his 

business brought him into close connec- 
tion ; but as early as 1823 his friend, the 
Rev. G. S. Bull (afterwards a leader of the 
agitation for the Ten-hour Bill), found him 
deeply moved by the condition of the chil- 
dren employed in factories (ALFRED, Hist. 
of the Factory Movement, i. 220). His repu- 
tation in the West Riding rapidly spread. 
Charlotte Bronte, writing at Haworth in 
1829, says that in December 1827, when she 
and her sisters played their game of the 
'Islanders/ each choosing who should be the 
great men of their islands, one of the three 
selected by Ann Bronte was Michael Sadler 
(MRS. G.A.SKELL, Charlotte Bronte, p. 60). 
In 1828 he published the best-written of 
his books, * Ireland : its Evils and their Re- 
medies,' which is in effect a protest against 
the application of individualistic political 
economy to the problems of Irish distress. 
His chief proposal was the establishment of 
a poor law for Ireland on the principle that 
in proportion to its means ' wealth should be 
compelled to assist destitute poverty, but 
that, dissimilar to English practice, assist- 
ance should in all cases, except in those of 
actual incapacity from age or disease, be 
connected with labour' (p. 193). He closely 
followed the argument of Dr. Woodward, 
bishop of Cloyiie ('An Argument in support 
of the Right of the Poor in the Kingdom of 
Ireland to a National Provision,' 1768). 
Sadler's book was well received. Bishop 
Copleston of Llandaff wrote of ifc to him in 
terms of warm approval. 

Sadler now found himself a leader in the 
reaction against the individualistic prin- 
ciples which underlay the Ricardian doc- 
trines, and he essayed the discussion of the 
more abstract points of political economy, a 
task for which he was indifferently equipped. 
He protested that in a society in which persons 
enjoyed unequal measures of economic free- 
dom, it was not true that the individual 
pursuit of self-interest would necessarily lead 
to collective well-being. His point of view 
was that of the Christian socialist (cf. Ire- 
land, pp. 207-17). He held that individual 
effort needed to be restrained and guided by 
the conscience of the community acting 
through the organisation of the state ; and 
that economic well-being could be secured 
by moralising the existing order of society 
without greatly altering the basis of politi- 
cal power. He first addressed himself to an 
attempted refutation of Malthus, issuing 
his ' Law of Population : a Treatise in Dis- 
proof of the Super-fecundity of Human 
Beings and developing the Real Principle of 
their Increase' (published 1830). Here 
Sadler advanced the theory that ' the pro- 




lificness of human beings, otherwise similarly 
circumstanced, varies inversely as their num- 
bers.' In the ' Edinburgh Review ' for July 
1830 Macaulay triumphantly reduced the 
new law to an absurdity. In replying to 
his critic (Refutation of an Article in the 
( Edinburgh Review} No. cii.), Sadler denied 
that he had used the fatal word ' inversely ' 
in a strictly mathematical sense, and ad- 
mitted that the problem of population was 
too complex to admit at present of the 
establishment of an undeviating law. Party 
feeling ran too high for dispassionate criti- 
cism, and Macaulay's rejoinder (< Sadler's 
Refutation Refuted/ in Edinburgh Review 
January 1831) vituperatively renewed the 
controversy on the old ground. 

In March 1829 Sadler offered himself as 
tory candidate for Newark at the suggestion 
of the Duke of Newcastle. He was elected 
by a majority of 214 votes over Serjeant 
Wilde (afterwards Lord-chancellor Truro). 
Soon after taking his seat he delivered a 
speech against the Roman catholic relief 
bill, which gave him high rank among the 
parliamentary speakers of the day. Of this 
and a second speech on the same subject 
half a million copies were circulated. Sir 
James Mackintosh told Zachary Macaulay 
at the time ' that Sadler was a great man, 
but he appears to me to have been used to a 
favourable auditory.' At the general elec- 
tion in 1830 Sadler w r as again returned for 
Newark. On 18 April 1831 he seconded 
General Gascoyne's motion for retaining the 
existing number of members for England 
and Wales, and the carrying of this amend- 
ment against Lord Grey's ministry] led to 
the dissolution of parliament. Newark hav- 
ing become an uncertain seat, Sadler, at the 
suggestion of the Duke of Newcastle, stood 
and was returned for Aldborough in York- 
shire. He now devoted himself in the house 
to questions of social reform. In June 1830 
he had moved a resolution in favour of the 
establishment of a poor law for Ireland on 
the principle of the 43rd of Queen Elizabeth, 
with such alterations and improvements as 
the needs of Ireland required. A second 
resolution of his to a similar effect, moved on 
29 Aug. 1831, was lost by only twelve votes, 
a division which ministers acknowledged to 
be equivalent to defeat. The Irish Poor 
Law Act, however, was not passed till 

In October 1831 Sadler moved a resolution 
for bettering the condition of the agricultural 
poor in England. He ascribed the degrada- 
tion of the labourers to the growth of large 
farms which had caused the eviction of small 
holders, and to flagrant injustice committed 

in the enclosure of commons. He proposed 
(1) the erection of suitable cottages by the 
parish authorities, the latter to be allowed 
to borrow from government to meet the 
capital outlay ; (2) the provision of allot- 
ments large enough to feed a cow, to be let, 
at the rents currently charged for such land 
in the locality, to deserving labourers who 
had endeavoured to bring up their families 
without parochial relief; (3) the offer of 
sufficient garden ground at fair rents to en- 
courage horticulture among, the labourers; 
and (4) the provision of parish allotments for 
spade cultivation by unemployed labourers. 
In September 1830 Sadler's friend Richard 
Oastler [q. v.] had called public attention 
to the overwork of children in the worsted 
mills of the West Riding. The agitation for 
legislative interference quickly spread, and 
in 1831 Sir J. 0. Hobhouse (afterwards 
Baron Broughton) and Lord Morpeth intro- 
duced a bill for restricting the working hours 
of persons under eighteen years of age, em- 
ployed in factories, to a maximum (exclud- 
ing allowance for meals) of ten hours a day, 
with the added condition that no child under 
nine years should be employed. Sadler sup- 
ported the bill, though he was prepared to go 
far beyond it (ALFRED, History of the Factory 
Movement, i. 127). In the meantime alarm 
spread among many of the manufacturers, 
and, yielding to their pressure, Hobhouse 
consented to seriously modify his bill. But 
Oastler pursued his agitation for ' ten hours 
a day and a time-book/ and agreed with the 
radical working-men's committees to allow 
no political or sectarian differences to inter- 
fere with efforts for factory reform. Sadler 
was chosen as the parliamentary leader of 
the cause. He especially resented Hob- 
house's attitude, and wrote on 20 Nov. 1831 
that the latter had f not only conceded his 
bill but his very views and judgment' to 
the economists, ' the pests of society and the 
persecutors of the poor.' The economists 
were not all opposed to legislative control 
of child labour in factories. Both Malthus 
and, later, McCulloch approved it in prin- 
ciple (cf. Essay on Population, 6th ed. 1826, 
bk. iii. ch. 3 ; HODDER, Life of Lord Shaftes- 
bury, i. 157). Hobhouse, however, regarded 
it as hopeless to make an effort at that time 
for a Ten-hour Bill, and deprecated imme- 
diate action. Nevertheless Sadler, on 15 Dec. 
1831 , obtained leave to bring in a bill { for 
regulating the labour of children and young 
persons in the mills and factories of this 
country.' He moved the second reading on 
16 March 1832, and his speech was published. 
He argued that ' the employer and employed 
do not meet on equal terms in the market of 




labour/ and described in detail the sufferings 
endured by children in the factories. His 
speech deeply moved the House of Commons 
and the nation. The main features of Sadler's 
bill were ( to prohibit the labour of infants 
under nine years ; to limit the actual work, 
from nine to eighteen years of age, to ten 
hours daily, exclusive of time allowed for 
meals, with an abatement of two hours on 
Saturday, and to forbid all night work under 
the age of twenty-one/ He had intended to 
insert clauses (1) ' subjecting the millowners 
or occupiers to a heavy fine when any serious 
accident occurred in consequence of any 
negligence in not properly sheathing or de- 
fending the machinery/ and (2) proposing l a 
remission of an hour from each day's labour 
for children under fourteen, or otherwise of 
six hours on one day in each week, for the 
purpose of affording them some opportunity 
of receiving the rudiments of instruction.' 
He had also contemplated a further clause 
putting down night work altogether. But, 
not to endanger the principal object which 
he had in view, and ' regarding the present 
attempt as the commencement only of a 
series of measures in behalf of the indus- 
trious classes/ he had confined his measure 
within narrower limits. The reply to Sadler 
was that his statements were exaggerated, 
and that a committee should investigate his 
facts. Sadler consented to an inquiry, and 
the bill, after being read a second time, was 
referred to a committee of thirty members, 
to whom seven more were after wards added. 
The committee included Sadler as chairman, 
Lord Morpeth, Sir J. C. Hobhouse, Sir Ro- 
bert Peel, Sir Robert Inglis, and Messrs. 
Poulet Thomson and Fowell Buxton. It 
held its first sitting on 12 April 1832, met 
forty-three times, and examined eighty-nine 

About half the witnesses were workpeople. 
The appearance of these working-class wit- 
nesses was much resented by some of the 
employers, and on 30 July 1832 Sadler ad- 
dressed the House of Commons on behalf of 
two of them who had been dismissed from 
their employment for giving evidence, and 
prayed for compensation. Among the phy- 
sicians summoned before the committee were 
Sir Anthony Carlisle, Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, 
Dr. P. M. Roget, Sir W. Blizard, and Sir 
Charles Bell, who all condemned the exist- 
ing arrangements. The committee reported 
the minutes of evidence on 8 Aug. 1832. 
The report impressed the public with the 
gravity of the question. Even Lord Ashley 
had heard nothing of the matter until ex- 
tracts from the evidence appeared in the news- 
papers (ib. i. 148). J. R. McCulloch, the eco- 

nomist, writing to Lord Ashley on 28 March 
1833, said : ' I look upon the facts disclosed 
in the late report (i.e. of Sadler's committee) 
as most disgraceful to the nation, and I con- 
fess that until I read it I could not have 
conceived it possible that such enormities 
were committed ' (ib. p. 157). The chief 
burden of the work and of the collection of 
evidence fell on Sadler, and his health never 
recovered from the strain. 

Sadler had been one of the chief speakers 
at the great county meeting which Oastler 
organised at York on 24 April 1832 to 
demonstrate to parliament the strength of 
public opinion in favour of a ten-hour bill. 
Later in the year, sixteen thousand persons 
assembled in Fixby Park, near Huddersfield, 
to thank him for his efforts in the committee. 
At Manchester, on 23 Aug., over one hundred 
thousand persons are said to have been pre- 
sent at a demonstration held in honour of 
him and Oastler, and in support of the agita- 
tion for the bill (ALFRED, History of the 
Factory Movement, i. 235-57). His parlia- 
mentary career, however, had drawn to a 
close. Aldborough, for which he sat, was 
deprived of its member by the Reform Bill 
of 1832, and, at the dissolution in December, 
he declined other offers in order to stand for 
Leeds. His chief opponent was Macaulay, 
who defeated him by 388 votes. The fight 
was a bitter one (cf. TREVELYAN, Life and 
Letters of Macaulay, p. 209). In 1834 Sad- 
ler stood unsuccessfully for Huddersfield, but 
failing health compelled him to decline all 
later invitations. After his rejection for 
Leeds, his place as parliamentary leader of the 
ten-hour movement was taken, in February 
1833, by Lord Ashley [see. COOPER, ANTONY 
who never failed to recall the services 
previously rendered by Sadler to the cause 
(HODDER, Life of Lord Shaftesbury, i. 153 ; 
ALFRED, History of the Factory Movement, 
ii. 17, 19-20). 

The manufacturers complained that, when 
the session of 1832 ended, they had not had 
time to open their case before Sadler's com- 
mittee. Accordingly in 1833 the govern- 
ment appointed a royal commission to collect 
information in the manufacturing districts 
with respect to the employment of children 
in factories. In May Sadler published a 
' Protest against the Secret Proceedings of 
the Factory Commission in Leeds/ urging 
that the inquiry should be open and public ; 
and in June renewed his protest in a ' Reply 
to the Two Letters of J. E. Drinkwater and 
Alfred Power, Esqs., Factory Commis- 
sioners.' After this, his health failed, and 
he took no further part m public affairs. 




Retiring in 1834 to Belfast, where his firm 
had linen works, he died at New Lodge on 
29 July 1835, aged 55. He was buried in 
the churchyard of Ballylesson. Sadler's 
eldest son was Michael Ferrebee Sadler 
[q. v.] His nephew, Michael Thomas Sadler 
(1801-1872), a surgeon at Barnsley, was the 
anthor of * The Bible the People's Charter/ 

A statue of Sadler, by Park, was erected 
by public subscription in Leeds parish church. 
There are two portraits of him one sitting 
on the benches of the House of Commons ; 
the other, engraved by T. Lupton from a 
painting by W. Robinson. He was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society in June 1832. 

Sadler's brief public life deeply impressed 
his contemporaries. He was one of those 
philanthropic statesmen whose inspiration 
may be traced to the evangelical movement 
and the necessities of the industrial revolu- 
tion. He did not believe in any purely 
political remedy for the discontent caused 
by the unregulated growth of the factory 
system, but underrated the need for political 
reform, and was too sanguine in his belief 
that the territorial aristocracy would realise 
the necessity of social readjustments, and 
force the needed changes on the manufac- 
turing element of the middle class. He met 
with as much opposition from his own side as 
from his opponents. Lloyd Jones, who knew 
him well, bore testimony to his eloquence, 
marked ability, and ' modest honesty of pur- 
pose plain to the eye of the most careless ob- 
server in every look and action of the man.' 
And Southey, writing to Lord Ashley on 
13 Jan. 1833, said : ' Sadler is a loss ; he 
might not be popular in the house, or in Lon- 
don society, but his speeches did much good 
in the country, and he is a singularly able, 
right-minded, and religious man. Who is 
there that will take up the question of our 
white slave-trade with equal feeling ? ' 

Besides the works mentioned above, Sadler 
published in pamphlet form : 1 . ' Speech on 
the State and Prospects of the Country, de- 
livered at Whitby 15 Sept. 1829.' 2. < The 
Factory Girl's Last Day,' 1830. 3. 'On Poor 
Laws for Ireland, 3 June 1830, and 29 Aug. 
1831.' 4. 'On Ministerial Plan of Reform, 
1831.' 5. On the Distress of the Agricul- 
tural Labourers, 11 Oct. 1831.' 

[The Memoir of Michael Thomas Sadler, by 
Seeley, 1842, is unsatisfactory. Southey offered 
to write a biography of Sadler, but the family 
made other arrangements. There is a short life 
in Taylor's Leeds Worthies, or Eiographia 
Leodiensis. Of. .also History of the Factory 
Movement by 'Alfred' (i.e. Samuel Ivy del ); 
Cunningham's Growth of English History and 

Commerce in Modern Times, pp. 584 and 628 ; 
Toynbee's Lectures on the Industrial Revolution,' 
p. 207 ; Bonar's Malthus and his Work, pp. 377 
and 395 ; Macaulay's Miscellaneous Writings 
(articles on Sadler's Law of Population, and Sad- 
ler's Refutation Refuted) ; Hodder's Life of the 
Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, pp. 143-58 ; and 
the Report from the Committee of the House of 
Commons on the Bill to regulate the Labour of 
Children in the Mills and Factories of the 
United Kingdom, with minutes of evidence 
(8 Aug. 1832). The writer has also had access 
to family letters and papers.] M. E. S. 

SIE RALPH (1507-1587), diplomatist, 
born in 1507 at Hackney, Middlesex, was the 
eldest son of Henry Sadleir, who held a situa- 
tion of trust in the household of a nobleman 
at Cillney, Essex. The son, as is shown by his 
correspondence, received a good education, 
and knew Greek as well as Latin. At an 
early age he was received into the family of 
Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex, 
whose increasing favour with Henry VIII 
proved highly beneficial to his ward's for- 
tunes. It was probably soon after Crom- 
well's elevation to the peerage, 9 July 1536, 
that Sadler was named gentleman of the 
king's privy chamber ; for on his tombstone 
he is stated to have entered the king's ser- 
vice ' about the twenty-six year of his reign/ 
not the tenth, as Sir Walter Scott (Bio- 
graphical Memoirs, p. iv) erroneously re- 
lates. So high an opinion did the king form 
of his ability and character that in 1537 he 
sent him to Scotland during the absence of 
James in France to inquire into the com- 
plaints of the Queen-dowager Margaret 
against the Scots and her son, and to dis- 
cover, if possible, the exact character of the 
relations of the king of Scots with France. 
Shortly after his return to England he was 
also sent to the king of Scots, who was 
then at Rouen, preparing to return to Scot- 
land with his young French bride. His 
object was to bring about an understanding 
between the Scottish king and his mother. 
He was so far successful that, shortly after- 
wards, the Queen-dowager Margaret in- 
formed her brother that her ' son had written 
affectionately to the lords of his council to 
do her justice with expedition' (State Papers. 
Henry VIII, v. 74). 

In January 1540 Sadler was again des- 
patched to Scotland on a mission of greater 
importance. Although his ostensible errand 
was merely to convey a present of horses to 
King James, he was specially directed to 
make use of the opportunity to instil into 
him distrust of the designs of Cardinal 
Beaton, and his ambition to arrogate to 




himself supreme political power ; and to 
advise the king to follow the example of his 
uncle, and, instead of ' trafficking in cattle 
and sheep,' to increase his revenues by tak- 
ing such * of the possessions ' of the monks 
who ' occupy a great part of his realm to 
the maintenance of their voluptie, and the 
continual decay of his estate and honour ' 
as ' might best be spared ' (Instructions to 
Sadler, SADLER, State Papers, pp. 3-13). 
The young king seems to have been perfectly 
frank. He was sincerely desirous to be on 
friendly terms with his uncle of England ; 
but he had no intention whatever of adopt- 
ing his ecclesiastical policy. 

Shortly after his return to England Sadler 
was appointed one of the king's two prin- 
ctpal secretaries of state, the other being 
Thomas Wriothesley. He was knighted 
probably on the anniversary of the king's 
coronation, and on 14 May 1542 he was 
granted armorial bearings. 

After the rout of Solway Moss, which 
was followed by the death of James V on 
16 Dec. 1542, Sadler was sent by Henry to 
reside in Edinburgh, with a view to pre- 
venting the revival of the influence of Beaton 
by arranging for the marriage of the young 
Princess Mary of Scotland with Prince Ed- 
ward of England. When the Scottish parlia- 
ment agreed that a * noble English knight 
and lady ' should be established at the Scot- 
tish court for the training of the young 
princess for her future position Henry pro- 
posed that Sir Ralph Sadler and his lady 
should undertake this duty. To Sadler the 
proposal was probably the reverse of agree- 
able, and he represented to the king not only 
that a journey to Scotland would be dan- 
gerous to his wife in her then delicate con- 
dition, but that, not having ' been brought 
up at court,' she was unfitted for the duties 
with which it was proposed to honour her. 
Other arrangements were therefore made ; 
but it was soon found impossible to carry 
them out. All along the Scots had been 
influenced more by considerations of expe- 
diency than by a sincere desire for an Eng- , 
lish alliance ; and Sadler discovered that no 
absolute trust could be placed in any of the 
rival parties, who were only sincere in their 
desires for each other's downfall. 'There 
never was (he lamented) so noble a prince's 
servant as I am so evil intreated as I am 
among these unreasonable people ; nor do I 
think never man had to do with so rude, so 
inconsistent, and beastly a nation as this 
is' (State Papers, Henry VIII, v. 355). 
Beaton's influence, which he endeavoured to 
overthrow, revived. The seizure of certain 
Scottish merchantmen and the confiscation 

of their cargoes by Henry, on the ground 
that they were carrying provisions to France, 
roused the slumbering antipathies of the na- 
tion, and compelled the governor to save 
himself by an alliance with the cardinal. The 
house of Sadler was surrounded by the popu- 
lace of Edinburgh, and he was threatened 
with death in case the ships were not re- 
stored. While walking in his garden he 
narrowly escaped a musket-bullet ; and, hav- 
ing prayed Henry either to recall him or 
permit him to retire to a stronghold of the 
Douglases, leave was granted him in Novem- 
ber to go to Tantallon Castle, and in Decem- 
ber he was escorted by Sir George Douglas, 
with four hundred horsemen, across the 
border. On the outbreak of hostilities he ac- 
companied the Earl of Hertford in his de- 
vastating raid against Scotland, as treasurer 
of the navy ; and he also accompanied the 
expedition to the borders in the following 

In accordance with the directions of 
Henry VIII, who died on 28 Jan. 1547, 
Sadler was appointed one of a council of 
twelve to assist the sixteen executors to 
whom was entrusted the government of the 
kingdom and the guardianship of the young 
king, Edward VI. Having been already 
intimately associated with Hertford, after- 
wards duke of Somerset, it was only natural 
that he should favour his claims to the pro- 
tectorate of the realm; and he again ac- 
companied him in his expedition against 
Scotland as high treasurer of the army. 
At the battle of Pinkie, 10 Sept. 1547, he 
displayed great gallantry in rallying the 
English cavalry after the first repulse by the 
Scottish spearmen, and he was made, on the 
field, one of three knight bannerets. 

On the succession of Queen Mary Sadler 
retired to his country house at Standon, not 
intermeddling with state matters until her 
death ; but though not a member of the 
privy council, he attended the meeting at 
Hatfield, 20 Nov. 1558, at which arrange- 
ments were made for Elizabeth's state entry, 
and issued the summons to the nobility 
and gentry to attend it. A keen protestant, 
like Elizabeth's minister, Cecil, and of 
similarly puritanic temper, he became one of 
Cecil's most trusted agents. With the Earl 
of Northumberland and Sir James Crofts, 
he was in August 1559 appointed a com- 
missioner to settle the border disputes with 
Scotland ; but the appointment of the com- 
mission was merely intended to veil pur- 
poses of higher moment, of which Sadler's 
fellow-commissioners knew nothing. Sadler 
was entrusted by Cecil with secret instruc- 
tions to enter into communication with the 



protestant party in Scotland with a view to 
an alliance between them and Elizabeth, and, 
in order that the support of the leading pro- 
testant nobles might be assured, was em- 
powered to reward ' any persons in Scotland 
with such sums of money ' as he deemed ad- 
visable to the amount of 3,OOOJ. (SADLEK, 
State Papers, i. 392). When the arrival of 
the French auxiliaries to the aid of the Scot- 
tish queen regent compelled Elizabeth to take 
an avowed and active part in support of the 
protestant party, the Duke of Norfolk was 
instructed to guide himself by the advice of 
Sadler in the arrangements he made with the 
Scots. At a later period Sadler was sent to the 
camp at Leith, and thus had a principal 
share in arranging the treaty of peace and of 
alliance with England signed at Edinburgh 
on 6 July 1560. On 5 Nov. 1559 he had 
been appointed warden of the east and 
middle marches, in succession to the Earl 
of Northumberland, but with the termina- 
tion of his secret mission to Scotland, 
he ceased for some years to be engaged in 
any formal state duties. On 10 May 1568 
he, however, received the office of chancellor 
of the duchy of Lancaster ; and in the same 
year the startling flight of the queen of 
Scots to England gave occasion for the 
employment of his special services. Much 
against his inclination (' He had liever, he 
said, serve her majesty where he might ad- 
venture his life for her than among sub- 
jects so difficult '), he was appointed one of 
the English commissioners the others being 
the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Sussex 
to meet with the Scottish commissioners 
at York to ' treat of the great matter of the 
Queen of Scots.' There can scarcely be a doubt 
that of the three commissioners, Sadler was 
the one specially trusted by Cecil. On 29 Oct. 
1568 he sent to Cecil (from whom he doubt- 
less had private advice) a precis of the con- 
tents of the casket letters, under three 
heads : ' (1) the special words in the Queen of 
Scots' letters, written with her own hand to 
Both well, declaring the inordinate and filthy 
love between her and him ; (2) the special 
words in the said letters declaring her hatred 
and detestation of her husband ; and (3) the 
special words of the said letters touching 
and declaring the conspiracy of her hus- 
band's death' (ib. ii. 337-40 ; Calendar of Hat- 
field Manuscripts in the series of the Hist. 
MSS. Comm. pt. i. p. 370). When the 
conference was in November transferred to 
Westminster, Sadler was also appointed a 
member of the enlarged commission. On the 
discovery of the Duke of Norfolk's intrigues 
with the Queen of Scots, Sadler was entrusted 
with the duty of arresting him and convey- 

ing him to the Tower. He also, nominally 
as paymaster-general, but really both as ad- 
viser and superintendent, accompanied Sussex 
in his expedition to quell the rebellion on 
behalf of Norfolk and the Queen of Scots in 
the north of England ; and after its suppres- 
sion he was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to examine witnesses in connection 
with the inquiry into the conspiracy. Shortly 
after Norfolk's execution he was sent to 
Mary Queen of Scots ' to expostulate with 
her by way of accusation ; ' and on subse- 
quent occasions he was sent on other 
errands to her. During the temporary ab- 
sence of the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1580 he 
was, with Sir Ralph Mildmay, appointed one 
of her guardians at Sheffield ; and when 
Shrewsbury, on account of the accusations 
of the Countess of Shrewsbury of a criminal 
intrigue between him and the Queen of 
Scots, was permitted, much to his relief, to 
resign his charge, Sadler was on 25 Aug. 
appointed to succeed him, the Queen of Scots 
being on 3 Sept. removed from Sheffield to 
Wingfield. He undertook the duty with 
reluctance, and on 2 Sept. wrote to the 
secretary, Walsingham, beseeching him to 
apply his ' good helping hand to help to re- 
lieve ' him ' of his charge as soon as it may 
stand with the queen's good pleasure to 
have consideration of ' his ' years and the cold 
weather now at hand '(SADLER, State Papers, 
ii. 384) ; but it was not till 3 Dec. that she 
promised shortly to relieve him, and effect 
was not given to the promise till the follow- 
ing April, when it was expressly intimated 
to him that one reason for the change of 
guardianship was that the Queen of Scots 
whose more lenient treatment Sadler had 
repeatedly advocated might 'hereafter re- 
ceive more harder usage than heretofore she 
hath done ' (ib. ii. 544). Sadler's last employ- 
ment on matters of state was a mission in 
1587 to James VI of Scotland to endeavour 
to reconcile him not a difficult task to the 
execution of his mother. He died shortly 
after his return from Scotland, 30 May 
1587, and was buried under a splendid 
monument, with recumbent effigy, in Stan- 
don church. 

Sadler ' was at once a most exquisite writer 
and a most valiant and experienced soldier, 

qualincationsthatseldommeet Littlewas 

his body, but great his soul' (LLOYD, State 
Worthies}. He excelled rather as subor- 
dinate than an independent statesman. 
Although he did not attain to the highest 
offices of state, he amassed such wealth as 
caused him to be reputed the richest com- 
moner of England; and, according to Fuller, 
the great estate which 'he got honestly ' he 




spent nobly ; knowing that princes honour 
them most that have most, and the people 
them only that employ most.' His des- 
patches are written with such minute at- 
tention to details that they arc among the 
most interesting and valuable of contempo- 
rary historical records. 

Sadler married Margaret Mitchell or Barre. 
According to catholic writers she was a 
laundress, and he married her during the 
lifetime of her husband, Ralph Barre. The 
accusation seems to have been substantially 
correct ; but when the marriage took place 
the husband, who had gone abroad, was 
supposed to be dead. In 1546 a private act 
of parliament was passed on Sir Ralph 
Sadler's behalf, apparently to legitimise his 
children. He had three sons : Thomas, who 
succeeded him ; Edward of Temple Dinsley, 
Hertfordshire, and Henry of Everley, Wilt- 
shire ; and four daughters, who all married. 
There is a portrait of Sadler at Everley. 

[Sadler's State Papers, with memoir and his- 
torical notes by [Sir] Walter Scott, 2 vols. 1809 ; 
Memoir of the Life and Times of Sir Ralph 
Sadler, by Major F. Sadleir Storey ; State 
Papers, during the reigns of Henry VIII, Ed- 
ward VI. and Elizabeth ; Knox's Works ; Calen- 
dar of Hatfleld Manuscripts in the Hist. MSS. 
Comm.l T. F. H. 

SADLER, THOMAS, in religion VIN- 
CENT FAUSTUS (1604-1681), Benedictine 
monk, born in Warwickshire in 1604, was 
converted to the catholic religion by his 
uncle, Father Robert Sadler (d. 1621), first 
Benedictine provincial of Canterbury. En- 
tering the order of St. Benedict, he made his 
profession at St. Laurence's monastery at 
Dieulouard in 1622. He was sent to the 
mission in the southern province of England ; 
became cathedral prior of Chester, and defi- 
nitor of the province in 1661. In 1671 he 
and John Huddleston, another Benedictine, 
visited Oxford to ses the solemnity of the 
Act, and on that occasion Anthony a Wood 
made their acquaintance (WooD, Autobiogr. 
ed. Bliss, p. Ixix). Sadler died at Dieulouard 
on 19 Jan. 1680-1. 

His works are : 1. An English translation 
of Cardinal Bona's ' Guide to Heaven, con- 
taining the Marrow of the Holy Fathers and 
Ancient Philosophers,' 1672, 12mo. 2. < Chil- 
dren's Catechism,' 1678, 8vo. 3. 'The De- 
vout Christian,' 4th edit., 1685, 12mo, pp. 

He was also the joint author with Anselm 
Crowder [q. v.] of l Jesus, Maria, Joseph, or 
the Devout Pilgrim of the Ever Blessed Virgin 
Mary,' Amsterdam, 1657, 12mo. He pro- 
bably wrote, or at least enlarged, a book of 
' Obits ' attributed to his uncle Robert. 

[Oliver's Cornwall, p. 523 ; Snow's Necrology, 
p. 69 ; Tablet, 1879, ii. 495, 526, 590, 623 ; Wei- 
don's Chronological Notes, pp. 122, 156, 193, 
Suppl. p. 15.] T. C. 

SADLER, THOMAS (1822-1891), di- 
vine, was the son of Thomas Sadler, Unitarian 
minister of Horsham in Sussex, where he 
was born on 5 July 1822. He was educated 
at University College, London, studied for 
some months at Bonn, and proceeded to 
Erlangen, whence he graduated Ph.D. in 
1844. He entered the Unitarian ministry 
at Hackney, but migrated in 1846 to become 
minister of Rosslyn Hill chapel at Hamp- 
stead, which he served for the remaining 
forty-five years of his life. In 1859 he pub- 
lished l Gloria Patri : the Scripture Doctrine 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,' in which 
he defended the Unitarian position against the 
views expressed in the 'Rock of Ages' by Ed- 
ward Henry Bickersteth (afterwards bishop 
of Exeter) . Through his instrumentality the 
new chapel on Rosslyn Hill was opened on 
5 June 1862. Dr. James Martineau preached 
the opening discourse, which was printed, 
together with Sadler's sermon on the closing 
of the old chapel and an appendix on the 
former ministers of Hampstead. Sadler was 
specially interested in the history of the 
older English presbyterianism. His literary 
tastes and intimacies, together with his 
knowledge of German university life, led 
the trustees to confide to him, in 1867, the 
editing of Crabb Robinson's * Diaries.' The 
work appeared in 1869, and a third edition 
was called for in 1872 ; but only a small 
portion of the Crabb Robinson papers (now 
in Dr. Williams's Library) was utilised. In 
addition to minor devotional works, Sadler 
was also author of ' Edwin T. Field : a me- 
morial sketch,' 1872 ; ' The Man of Science 
and Disciple of Christ ' (a funeral discourse 
onWilliam Benjamin Carpenter [q. v.]), 1885 ; 
and ' Prayers for Christian Worship,' 1886. 
He died at Rosslyn Manse on 11 Sept. 1891, 
and was buried on the 16th in Highgate 
cemetery. At the time of his death he was 
the senior trustee of Dr. Williams's Library 
and visitor of Manchester New College, 
where his addresses were highly valued. 
Sadler married, in 1849, Mary, daughter of 
Charles Colgate, but left no issue. 

[Baines's Eecords of Hampstead, 1890, p. 97 ; 
Inquirer, 19 and 26 Sept. 1891 (memorial sermon 
byDr.JamesDrummond); Times, 18 Sept. 1891; 
Sadler's Works ; J. Freeman Clarke's Autobiogr. 
1891, p. 369; private information.] T. S. 

(1796-1824), aeronaut, born near Dublin 
in 1796, was the son by a second wife of 
James Sadler, one of the earliest British 



aeronauts. The elder Sadler made his first 
ascent on 5 May 1785, in company with 
William "Windham, the politician, who sub- 
sequently consented to stand godfather to 
his son. In October 1811 he made a rapid 
flight from Birmingham to Boston in Lincoln- 
shire, in less than four hours. Less success- 
ful was his attempt to cross the Irish Sea 
on 1 Oct. 1812, when he ascended from the 
lawn of the Belvedere House, Dublin, receiv- 
ing his flag from the Duchess of Richmond. 
In spite of a rent in the balloon (which he 
partially repaired with his neckcloth), he 
nearly succeeded in crossing the Channel; but 
when over Anglesey a strong southerly cur- 
rent carried him out to sea, and he had a 
most perilous escape, being rescued by a 
fishing craft, which ran its bowsprit through 
the balloon. He was not deterred from 
making other ascents, and his name was 
long familar in connection with ballooning ; 
George III took a special interest in his 

The son, Windham, was brought up as an 
engineer, acquired a good practical know- 
ledge of chemistry, and entered the service 
of the first Liverpool gas company. He 
gave up his employment there for professional 
aerostation, with which, upon his marriage 
in 1819, he combined the management of an 
extensive bathing establishment at Liver- 
pool. His most notable feat was performed 
in 1817, when, with a view to carrying his 
father's adventure of 1812 to a successful 
issue, he ascended from the Portobello bar- 
racks at Dublin on 22 June. He rose to a 
great height, obtained the proper westerly 
current, and managed to keep the balloon 
in it across the St. George's Channel. In 
mid-channel he wrote, ' I enjoyed at a glance 
the opposite shores of Ireland and Wales, 
and the entire circumference of Man.' Hav- 
ing started at 1.20 p.m., he alighted a mile 
south of Holyhead at 6.45 p.m. On 29 Sept. 
1824 Sadler made his thirty-first ascent at 
Bolton. He prepared to descend at dusk 
near Blackburn, but the wind dashed his car 
against a lofty chimney, and he was hurled 
to the ground, sustaining injuries of which 
he died at eight on the following morning 
(Gent. Mag. 1824, ii. 366). He was buried 
at Christchurch in Liverpool, where he was 
very popular. He well deserved the title of 
' intrepid ' bestowed on his father by Erasmus 
Darwin, but he did little to advance a scien- 
tific knowledge of aerostation by making 
systematic observations. 

[Tumor's Astra Castra, pp. 126-8 ; Gent, Mag. 
1815 ii. passim, 1824 ii. 475; Nicholson's 
Journal ; Journal kept by H. B. H. B. during 
an aerial voyage with Mr. Sadler, 29 Aug. 1817; 

VOL. L. 

John Evans's Excursion to Windsor in 1810; 
Tissandier's Hist, des Ballons, pp. 22-9 ; Hamon's 
La Navigation Aerienne ; Picton's Memorials of 
Liverpool, i. 388 ; cf. art. LUNARDI, VINCENZO.] 

T. S. 

SADLINGTON, MARK (d. 1647), divine, 
matriculated as a pensioner of Christ's Col- 
lege. Cambridge, in June 1578, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1580-1. Soon afterwards he 
was elected fellow of Peterhouse, and in 
1584 commenced M.A. He was head lec- 
turer of Peterhouse in 1588. On 2 Oct. in 
that year he became a candidate for the 
mastership of Colchester grammar school, 
but was unsuccessful, though strongly sup- 
ported by Sir Francis Walsingham and 
Samuel Harsnett [q.v.] (afterwards arch- 
bishop of York), the retiring master. He 
was, however, chosen master of St. Olave's 
grammar school, Southwark, on 25 June 
1591, which office he resigned in 1594. On 
11 March 1602-3 he was instituted to the 
vicarage of Sunbury, Middlesex, on the pre- 
sentation of the dean and chapter of St. 

Sadlington was buried at Sunbury on 
27 April 1647 (parish register), his estate 
being administered to by his widow, Jane, 
on 4 May following (Administration Act-book, 
P.C.C., 1647). 

To Sadlington has been doubtfully ascribed 
the authorship of: 1. ' The Arraignment and 
Execution of a wilfull & obstinate Traitour, 
named Euaralde Ducket, alias Hauns : con- 
demned . . . for High Treason . . . and executed 
at Tiborne . . . 1581. Gathered by M. S./ 
London (1581). 2. 'The Spanish 'Colonie, 
or brief Chronicle of the Actes and gestes 
of the Spaniardes in the West Indies . . . 
for the space of xl. yeeres, written in the 
Castilian tongue by the reuerend Bishop 
Bartholomew de las Casas . . . and now first 
translated into English by M. M. S.,' 4to, 
London, 1583. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 385, 554 ; In- 
troduction to Cat. of Harsnett Library, Col- 
chester, 1888 ; information kindly supplied by 
the vicar of Sunbury, and J. Challenor C. 
Smith, esq.] Cr. Gr. 

SAEWULF (/. 1102), traveller, was 
apparently a native of Worcester, and an 
acquaintance of Wulfstan [q.v.], bishop of 
Worcester. William of Malmesbury, in his 
' History of the English Bishops,' tells us of a 
certain Ssewulf, a merchant, who was often 
advised by Wulfstan, in confession, to em- 
brace a monastic life, and in his old age, adds 
the historian, he became a monk in the 
abbey of Malmesbury. Probably it was the 
same penitent who went on pilgrimage to 




Syria in 1102, three years after the recover} 
of the holy city by the crusaders.' In th< 
narrative of this journey Saewulf only de 
scribes his course from Monopoli, near Bar 
in Italy, whence he sailed to Palestine on 
13 July 1102. He went by way of Corft 
and Cephalonia, ' where Robert Guiscarc 
died,' to Corinth and Rhodes, ' which is saic 
to have possessed the idol called Colossus 
that was destroyed by the Persians [Sara- 
cens ?] with nearly all Romania, while on 
their way to Spain. These were the Colos- 
sians to whom St. Paul wrote.' From Rhodes 
he sailed to Cyprus and Joppa ; thence he 
went up to Jerusalem, where he visited the 
sacred sites, also going to Bethlehem, Beth- 
any, Jericho, the Jordan, and Hebron, in the 
neighbourhood. In the north of Palestine 
he describes Nazareth, Mount Tabor, the 
Sea of Galilee, and Mount Lebanon, ' at the 
foot of which the Jordan boils out from two 
springs called Jor and Dan.' 

On the feast of Pentecost (17 May) 1103 
Ssewulf sailed from Joppa to Constanti- 
nople on his return. For fear of the Sara- 
cens he did not venture out into the open 
sea this time, but coasted along Syria to 
Tripolis and Latakiyeh (Laodicea), after 
which he crossed over to Cyprus and pro- 
ceeded on his way to Byzantium. But after 
describing the voyage past Smyrna and 
Tenedos to the Dardanelles, the narrative 
breaks off abruptly. Ssewulf mentions Bald- 
win, king of Jerusalem, and Raymond, count 
of Toulouse, as living in his time ; and adds 
that Tortosa was then in the latter's posses- 
sion, and that Acre was still in the hands 
of the Saracens. Tortosa was captured by 
Count Raymond on 12 March 1102, Acre 
on 15 May 1104. 

[Ssewulfs pilgrimage only exists in one manu- 
script in the library of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, from -which it was edited by M. 
Avezac for the French Geographical Society, and 
translated by T.Wright for his Early Travels in 
Palestine, 1848. The only other reference is in 
William of Malmesbury's De GestisPontificum; 
see Wright's Biographia Britannica Literaria, 
Anglo-Norman period, p. 38.] C. K. B. 


(1772-1858), hymn-writer and poet, was 
daughter of William Andrews of Stroud 
Green, Newbury, Berkshire, where she was 
born early in 1772. Her mother was a cul- 
tured woman of literary tastes, and while still 
a child Maria gave evidence of poetic talent. 
At the age of fifteen she wrote a poem entitled 
1 Cheyt Sing ' (the name of an unfortunate 
Hindoo rajah), which, when published later, 
in 1790, was by permission inscribed to the 
statesman, Charles James Fox. Maria An- 

drews was in early life brought under the 
personal influence of Thomas Scott, the com- 
mentator (1747-1821) [q. v.] While still 
young she removed to Salisbury, and there 
attended the ministry of John Saffery, pastor 
of the Brown Street baptist church in that 
city. She became Saffery's second wife in 
1799, and bore him six children, the eldest 
of whom, Philip John Saffery, succeeded to 
the pastorate of the church at his father's 
death in 1825. Subsequently she conducted 
with great success a girls' school in Salis- 
bury. In 1834 she published an effective 
volume of ' Poems on Sacred Subjects.' The 
following year she retired to Bratton in 
Wiltshire, where the rest of her life was 
spent with her daughter, Mrs. W T hitaker. 
She died on 5 March 1858, and was buried 
in the graveyard of the baptist chapel 

Besides the works already mentioned, Mrs. 
Saffery wrote many hymns for special occa- 
sions, which were published in the ' Baptist 
Magazine ' and other periodicals. Other 
hymns by her have found a place in various 
collections. Among them are: 1. 'Fain, 
my child, I'd have thee know.' 2. ' Saviour, 
we seek the watery tomb.' 3. ' The Jordan 
prophet cries to-day.' 4. ' 'Tis the Great 
Father we adore.' 

[Private sources; Julian's Diet. Hymnology.] 

W. B. L. 

SAFFOLD, THOMAS (d. 1691), empiric, 
originally a weaver by trade, received a 
License to practise as a doctor of physic from 
ihe bishop of London on 4 Sept. 1674. He 
iad a shop at the Black Ball and Lilly's 
[lead ' near the feather shops within Black 
Fryers Gateway.' Thence he deluged the 
town with dogererel in advertisement of his 
nostrums, medical and astrological. He 
:aught astrology, solved mysteries, kept a 
Doarding-house for patients, and ( by God's 
Blessing cureth the sick of any age or sex of 
any distemper.' He warned the public against 
mistaking his house, f another being near him 
)retending to be the same.' Those l conceited 
bols ' and ' dark animals ' who asked how he 
came to be able to work such great cures and 
;o foretell such great things he admonished 
n fluent rhyme. He fell ill in the spring of 
.691, and, refusing medicines other than his 
wn pills, he died on 12 May, a satirical 
elegist lamenting the ' sad disaster ' that 
sawcy pills at last should kill their master.' 
The advertisements and goodwill passed to 
Dr. Case,' who gilded the l Black Ball ' and 
g-ave the customers to understand that 

At the Golden Ball and Lillie's Head, 
John Case yet lives, though Saffold's dead. 



[Harl. MS. 5946 (curious advertisements by 
Saffold) ; An Elegy on the Death of Dr. Thomas 
Saffold, 1691 ; Ashton's Social Life under Queen 
Anne; Everitt's Doctors and Doctors, 1888, 
p. 237 ; see art. CASE, JOHN (fl. 1680-1700).] 

T. S. 

SAGE, JOHN (1652-1711), Scottish 
nonjuring bishop, was born in 1652 at 
Creich, Fifeshire, where his ancestors had 
lived for seven generations. His father was 
a captain in the royalist forces at the time 
of the taking of Dundee by Monck in 1651. 
Sage was educated at Creich parish school 
and St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, 
where he graduated M.A. on 24 July 1669. 
Having been parish schoolmaster successively 
at Ballingray, Fifeshire, and Tippermuir, 
Perthshire, he entered on trials before Perth 
presbytery on 17 Dec. 1673, and gained tes- 
timonial for license on 3 June 1674; He 
became tutor and chaplain in the family of 
James Drummond of Cultmalundie, Perth- 
shire. While residing with his pupils at 
Perth he made the acquaintance of Alex- 
ander Rose or Ross [q. v.], then minister of 
Perth. He visited Rose at Glasgow in 1684, 
and was introduced to Rose's uncle, Arthur 
Ross [q. v.], then archbishop of Glasgow, 
who ordained him (lie was then thirty-two), 
and instituted him in 1685 to the charge of 
the east quarter in Glasgow. He held the 
clerkship of presbytery and synod. In 1688 
Ross, being then primate, nominated him to 
a divinity chair at St. Andrews, but the com- 
pletion of the appointment was prevented 
by the abdication of James II. 

Driven from Glasgow by the Cameronian 
outbreak, Sage made his way to Edinburgh, 
and took up his pen in the cause of the ex- 
truded clergy. He carried with him nine 
volumes of the presbytery records, ' which 
were only recovered after the lapse of 103 
years' (HEW SCOTT). In 1693 he was banished 
from Edinburgh by the privy council for 
officiating as a nonjuror. He retired to Kin- 
ross, and found shelter in the house of Sir 
William Bruce. But in 1696 Bruce was 
committed to Edinburgh Castle, and a war- 
rant was issued for the arrest of Sage. He 
hid himself among * the hills of Angus/ 
going by the name of Jackson, and giving 
out that he was come for a course of goat's 
milk. After a few months he became domestic 
chaplain, at Falkirk, to Anne, dowager 
countess of Callendar, and subsequently for 
some years to Sir John Stewart of Grand- 
tully, Perthshire. 

On 25 Jan. 1705 Sage was privately con- 
secrated at Edinburgh, along with John 
Fullarton, as a bishop without diocese or 
iurisdiction, in pursuance of the policy of 

continuing the episcopal order, while respect- 
ing the right of the crown to nominate to 
sees [see ROSE or Ross, ALEXANDEK]. In 
November 1706 Sage was seized with para- 
lysis while on a visit to Kinross. He re- 
covered sufficiently to take part in a conse- 
cration at Dundee on 28 April 1709. He 
then went to Bath. Proceeding to London, 
he remained there about a year, ' his company 
and conversation very much courted.' He 
died at Edinburgh on 7 June 1711 ; his in- 
timate correspondent, Henry Dodwell the 
elder, died on the same day. Sage was buried 
in the churchyard of Old Grey friars, Edin- 
burgh. Gillan gives a long Latin inscription 
intended for his tomb. 

Most of Sage's publications were anony- 
mous, but their authorship was well known. 
He wrote with learning and ability, and con- 
ducted his controversies with dignity and 
acuteness. He published: 1. ' Letters con- 
cerning the Persecution of the Episcopal 
Clergy in Scotland/ 1689, 4to (anon.) ; Sage 
wrote the second and third letters, the first 
was by Thomas Morer, the fourth by Alex- 
ander Monro (d. 1715?) [q. v.] 2. ' The Case 
of the afflicted Clergy in Scotland/ 1690, 
4to ('By a Lover of the Church and his 
Country '). 3. ' An Account of the late Esta- 
blishment of the Presbyterian Government/ 
1693, 4to (anon.) 4. 'The Fundamental 
Charter of Presbytery . . . examin'd/ 1695, 
8vo ; 2nd edit. 1697, 8vo (anon. ; preface in 
answer to Gilbert Rule rq. v.] answered in 
' Nazianzeni Querela/ 1697, by William 
Jameson (fl. 1689-1720) [q. v.]) 5. ' The 
Principles of the Cyprianic Age/ 1695, 4to ; 
2nd edit. 1717, 8vo (by ' J. S.') 6. ' A Vin- 
dication of ... the Principles of the Cypri- 
anic Age/ 1695, 4to : 2nd edit. 1701, 4to (in 
reply to Rule ; this and No. 5 are answered 
in Jameson's ' Cyprianus Isotimus/ 1705). 
7. ' Some Remarks on the late Letters . . . 
and Mr. [David] Williamson's Sermon/ 1703, 
4to. 8. ' A*Brief Examination of ... Mr. 
Meldrum's Sermon against a Toleration/ 
1703, 4to. 9. ' The Reasonableness of Tole- 
ration to those of the Episcopal Perswasion/ 
1703, 4to ; 2nd edit, 1705, 8vo (anon. ; con- 
sists of four letters to George Meldrum [q.v.]) 
10. 'An Account of the Author's Life and 
Writings/ prefixed to Ruddiman's edition of 
Gawin Douglas's 'Virgil's ^Eneis,' 1710, fol. 
He assisted Ruddiman in the edition, Edin- 
burgh, 1711, fol., of the works of William 
Drummond (1585-1649), and wrote an in- 
troduction to Drummond's ' History of Scot- 
land during the Reigns of the five Jameses.' 
Among his unfinished manuscripts was a 
criticism of the Westminster Confession of 
Faith. Gillan gives an account of other 





literary projects. His ' Works,' with me- 
moir, were issued by the Spottiswoode So- 
ciety, Edinburgh, 1844-6, 8vo, 3 vols. 

[Life, 1714, anonymous, but by John Grillan, 
bishop of Dunblane ; Memoir in Works (Spot- 
tiswoode Society), 18i4; Scott's Fasti Eccles. 
Scoticanae ; Grub's Eccles. Hist, of Scotland, 
1861, iii. 348 sq. ; Anderson's Scottish Nation, 
1872, iii. 399 sq.] A. GK 

SAHAM, WILLIAM DE (d. 1304?), 
judge, is said by Foss (Judges, iii. 146) to 
have been the son of Robert de Saham, but 
his father's name seems to have been Ralph 
(Abbrev. Placit. p. 255). William was pro- 
bably a native of Saham Toney, Norfolk, 
where he had property; he became a clerk, 
and was, in the beginning of the reign of 
Edward I, made a judge of the king's bench. 
He was constantly employed in judicial 
itinera, as at Northampton in 1285 (Cont. 
FLOE. WIG. ii. 336) and in Bedfordshire in 
1286-7 (Annals of Dumtable, pp. 326, 334), 
until 1289, when he shared in the disgrace 
of many other judges, was removed, and, 
though innocent of any wrong, had to pay 
a fine of three thousand marks to the king 
(Parl. Writs, i. 15). About ten years later he 
appears as defendant in an action for damages 
to property at Huningham in Norfolk. He 
granted lands to the abbey of Wendling, 
Norfolk, for the erection and maintenance of 
the chantry chapel of St. Andrew at Saham. 
He probably died in or about 1304, leaving 
his brother John le Boteler his heir (Abbrev. 
Placit. u. s.) Another brother, Richard de 
Saham, was sworn a baron of the exchequer 
in Ireland in 1295 (Foss ; SWEETMAN, Cal. 
Doc. relating to Ireland). 

[Foss's Judges, iii. 146-7; Abbrev. Placit. 
pp. 206, 212, 255, Parl. Writs, i. 15 (both Re- 
cord publ.); Blomfield's Norfolk, ii. 320; Flor. 
Wig. Cont. ii. 236, Ann. Dunstapl. ap. Ann. 
Monast. iii. 326, 334 (both Rolls Ser.)] W. H. 

VIAL DE (1753-1793), veterinary surgeon, 
was born at Lyons on 28 Jan. 1753, during 
the mayoralty of his grandfather. The family 
had long possessed an estate at Sain-Bel, 
near Lyons. His grandfather, the mayor, 
and both his parents died in 1756, and he 
was educated by his guardian, M. de Fles- 
ssille. He early displayed so marked a 
fondness for studying the organisation of 
animals that at the age of sixteen he began 
to attend the veterinary school, where M. 
Pean was then the professor, and in 1772 he 
gained the prize offered by the Royal Society 
of Medicine, with an essay l On the Grease 
or Watery Sores in the Legs of Horses.' He 
also studied under the great Claude Bour- 

gelat, the father of veterinary science. He 
was appointed in 1772 lecturer and demon- 
strator to a class of sixteen pupils, and in 
1773 he was made upper student, assistant- 
surgeon, and one of the public demonstrators, 
a post of great importance on account of the 
extensive practice which it involved and the 
opportunity it afforded of obtaining patrons. 
In 1774 an extensive epizootic raged among 
the horses in many provinces of France, and 
Sainbel was ordered to choose five students 
from the veterinary college at Lyons to 
accompany him in his provincial visits, and 
to assist in stopping the outbreak of disease, 
He accomplished his mission so satisfactorily 
that the king sent for him to Paris, and 
appointed him one of the junior professorial 
assistants at the Royal Veterinary College 
in the metropolis. Here he soon incurred the 
envy of his senior colleagues, one of whom 
threatened to have him confined in the 
Bastille by a lettre de cachet. He therefore 
left Paris and returned to Lyons, where he 
practised for some time as a veterinary phy- 
sician and surgeon. He then held for five 
years the post of professor of comparative 
anatomy in the veterinary college at Mont- 
pellier. He afterwards returned to Paris 
under the patronage of the Prince de Lam- 
besc, and was appointed one of the equerries 
to Louis XVI, and chief of the manege at the 
academy of Lyons, posts which he retained 
for three years. 

Sainbel came to England in June 1788, 
provided with letters of introduction to Sir 
Joseph Banks, Dr. Simmons, and Dr. Layard 
of Greenwich, and in the following Septem- 
ber he published proposals for founding a 
veterinary school in England. The project 
was unsuccessful, and, after marrying an 
English wife, Sainbel returned to Paris. He 
found that the revolution was impending in 
France, and he quickly came back to Eng- 
land, under the pretext of buying horses for 
the stud of his sovereign. His patrimonial 
estate of Sainbel was confiscated during the 
revolution, and he was proscribed as an 

On 27 Feb. 1789 he was requested by 
Dennis O'Kelly [q. v.] to dissect the body of 
the great racehorse Eclipse. He did so, and 
his essay on the proportions of Eclipse 
brought him the highest reputation as a 
veterinary anatomist. In 1791 the Odiham 
Society for the Improvement of Agriculture 
took up Sainbel's scheme of founding a school 
of veterinary medicine and surgery in this 
country. A preliminary meeting was held 
on 11 'Feb. 1791 at the Blenheim coffee- 
house in Bond Street, and on 18 Feb. in the 
same year it was decided to form an institu- 




tion to be called the Veterinary College of 
London, with Sainbel as professor. The 
college began its work, but Sainbel died, 
after a short illness, on 21 Aug. 1793, in the 
fortieth year of his age. He was buried in 
the vault under the Savoy Chapel in the 
Strand. The college granted his widow an 
annuity of 50/. 

Sainbel may justly be looked upon as the 
founder of scientific veterinary practice in 
England. Hitherto, owing to the ignorance 
of cattle-disease, the loss of animal life had 
been very great, and farriers had depended 
upon antiquated or empirical treatises such 
as those of Gervase Markham [q. v.] Like all 
innovators, Sainbel had much to contend 
against; but the lines which he laid down 
have been faithfully followed in England 
and in Scotland, and led from the merest 
empiricism to the scientific position now held 
by veterinary science. Sainbel was essen- 
tially an honourable man, following the best 
traditions of the old regime in France. That 
he was a first-rate anatomist and a scientific 
veterinary surgeon is proved by his writings. 
An engraving of a half-length portrait is 
prefixed to Sainbel's collected works. 

He was author of: 1. ' Essai sur les Pro- 
portions Geometrales de TEclipse,' French 
and English, London, 4to, 1791 ; 2nd edit. 
1795. This work was originally inscribed to 
the Prince of Wales, and was illustrated 
with careful geometrical drawings, repre- 
senting the exact proportions of the famous 
racehorse. Sainbel endeavoured in this 
essay to analyse the component parts of 
a horse's gallop, but his conclusions have 
lately been much modified by the instan- 
taneous photographs obtained by Marey, 
Stanford, Muybridge, Stillman, and other 
observers. 2. ' Lectures on the Elements 
of Farriery/ London, 1793, 4to. 3. A pos- 
thumous volume, issued in 1795 for the 
benefit of Sainbel's widow, containing trans- 
lations into English of four essays origi- 
nally published in French ; the English titles 
ran: 'General Observations on the Art of 
Veterinary Medicine:' 'An Essay on the 
Grease or Watery Sores in the Legs of 
Horses ' (this essay was written when Sain- 
bel was only eighteen, and it gained him the 
prize given by the Royal Society of Medi- 
cine of France); 'Experiments and Obser- 
vations made upon Glandered Horses with 
intent to elucidate the Rise and Progress of 
this Disease, in order to discover the proper 
treatment of it;' 'Short Observations on 
the Colic or Gripes : more particularly that 
kind to which racehorses are liable ' 4. (Also 
posthumously published) 'The Sportsman, 
Farrier, and Shoeing Smith's New Guide, 

edited by J. Lawrence,' London, (1800 ?), 

[Memoir prefixed to the Works of Sainbel, 
London, 1795; Huth's Bibl. Record of Hippo- 
logy, 1887.] D'A. K 


(1825-1895), historical writer, third son of 
John and Mary Ann Sainsbury, was born at 
35 Red Lion Square, Hoi born, London, on 
7 July 1825. On 1 April 1848 he entered 
the old state paper office as an extra tem- 
porary clerk. On 28 Nov. he was confirmed 
in the appointment,andeventually was trans- 
ferred to the record office when it absorbed 
the state paper office in 1854. In August 
1862 he became a senior clerk, and in Novem- 
ber 1887 an assistant-keeper! of the records. 

Sainsbury chiefly devoted himself to calen- 
daring the records which bore on the 
history of America and the West Indies. 
The first volume of his calendar of the 
colonial state papers relating to America 
and the West Indies was published in I860. 
That on the papers of East India, China, 
and Japan followed in 1862. At intervals 
of three or four years other volumes have 
appeared, making nine in all. The value of 
his public work was not greater than that 
of the aid which he gave unofficially to the 
historians and historical societies of the 
United States. In his early days he col- 
lected for Bancroft, the American historian, 
from the papers of the board of trade, all evi- 
dence bearing upon the history of the Ame- 
rican colonies. In recognition of his ser- 
vices to American historical writers he was 
made an honorary or corresponding member 
of the principal historical societies in the 

Sainsbury retired from the public service 
in December 1891, but continued, with the 
help of a daughter, to edit the calendar up 
to the time of his death, which took place on 
9 March 1895. Besides various uncollected 
papers on colonial history, he published : 

1. ' Original unpublished Papers illustra- 
tive of the Life of Sir P. P. Rubens as an 
artist and diplomatist,' London, 1859, 8vo. 

2. ' Hearts of Oak : stories of early English 
Adventure,' London, 1871, 8vo. 

He married twice: first, in 1849, Emily 
Storrs, second daughter of Andrew Moore, 
by whom he had two sons and eight 
daughters ; secondly, in 1873, Henrietta 
Victoria, youngest daughter of John Haw- 
kins, and widow of Alfred Crusher Auger, 
whom he also survived. 

[Proceedings of American Antiquarian Society, 
1895, vol. x. pt, i. p. 28 ; Times, H March 1895 ; 
private information.] C. A. H. 

St. Albans 


St. Amand 

CLEKK, CHAKLES, 1670-1721.] 

xotf, HARRIOT, 1777 P-1837.] 

HENRY, d. 1684.] 

FRANCIS, 1561-1626.] 

(1157-1217). [See NECZAM.] 

ST. ALBANS, ROGER OF (fl. 1450), 

genealogist. [.See ROGER.] 

BARON DE ST. AMAND (1314 P-1382), jus- 
ticiar of Ireland, was son of John de St. 
Amand. His ancestor, ALMARIC DE ST. 
AMAND (fl. 1240), had a grant of Liskeard 
in 1222, and was heir of the lands of Walter 
de Verdun in Ireland. He was sheriff of 
Herefordshire and warden of the castles of 
Hereford and St. Briavel's in 1234. He was 
godfather to the future Edward I in 1239, 
and went on the crusade in 1240 (MATT. 
PARIS, iii. 540, iv. 44). His grandson, 
Almaric de St. Amand, who died in 1285, 
left three sons. Guy, the eldest, died soon 
after his father. Almaric, the second son, 
Lorn in 1268, served in Gascony in 1294, and 
in Scotland in 1300 and 1306 ; was sum- 
moned to parliament in 1300, and signed the 
barons' letter to the pope, on 12 Feb. 1301, 
as ' Dominus de Wydehaye ' (Chron. Edw. I 
and Edw. II, i. 123) ; he died without issue 
in 1310, and was succeeded by his brother 
John, who is styled ' magister,' and pre- 
sumably had received a clerkly training ( Cal. 
Close Rolls, Edw. II, i. 284, iii. 200, 332). 
John de St. Amand was summoned to parlia- 
ment from 1313 to 1326, and was the father 
of the justiciar of Ireland. 

Almaric de St. Amand, born probably in 
1314, had livery of his lands in 1335. He 
served in Scotland in 1338 and in the French 
wars in 1342,1345, and 1346. In 1347 he had 
200/. per annum for his services in the wars. 
He took part in the abortive campaign in Scot- 
land under Sir Robert Herle in 1355 (GEOF- 
FREY LE BAKER, p. 126, ed. Thompson). He 
was lord of Gormanstown in Meath, and, after 
the death of Sir Thomas Rokeby [q.v.] in 1356, 
was appointed justiciar of Ireland on 14 July 
1357 with 500/. per annum (Fcedera, iii. 361). 
Maurice Fitzgerald, fourth earl of Kildare 
[q. v.], was for a time his substitute, but St. 
Amand came to Ireland before the end of 
the year. He went back to England in 1358, 
and, on 16 Feb. 1359, vacated his office (ib. 
iii. 368, 419). During 1358 St. Amand 

served in France. On 15 March 1361 he 
was summoned to attend a council on the 
affairs of Ireland (ib. iii. 610). In 1368 he 
once more served in France, and in 1373 was 
steward of Rockingham Castle. He was. 
summoned to parliament from 1370, and died 
in 1382. His male line became extinct with 
his son, Almaric de St. Amand, fourth baron, 
who died in 1403. A daughter of Gerard 
de Braybrooke, grandson of the last baron, 
married William Beauchamp of Powyk, who 
was summoned to parliament as Baron de 
St. Amand in 1449. 

[Annales Hibernise ap. Chart. St. Mary, Dub- 
lin, ii. 393, Annales Monastic! (Rolls Ser.); 
Book of Howth; Roberts' s Calendarium Genea- 
logicum ; Fcedera, iii. 49, 82, Record edition ; 
Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edw. I, and of Close Rolls, 
Edw. II; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 19-20; Gil- 
bert's Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 211-14; other 
authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

ST. AMAND, JAMES (1687-1754), 
antiquary, second son of James St. Amand, 
apothecary to the family of James II, was 
born at Covent Garden, London, on 7 April 
1687, and baptised at St. Paul's Church by 
Dr. Patrick on 21 April. He was probably 
at Westminster School, as his library in- 
cluded a schoolbook for use there, printed 
in 1702, containing notes in his handwriting. 
On 17 March 1702-3, the day on which his 
elder brother George (for whom Prince 
George of Denmark had acted as sponsor) 
matriculated from Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, he went through the same ceremony 
at Hart Hall. He probably never went into 
residence, and on 5 Sept. 1704 he was entered 
as a gentleman-commoner at Lincoln Col- 
lege. After a year's residence he embarked, 
on 11 Sept. 1705, at Greenwich for Holland, 
and travelled through that country, Ger- 
many, and Austria to Venice. He remained 
in Italy until 1710, and then returned to 
England by Geneva and Paris. 

Warton speaks of St. Amand as ' literarum 
Groecarum nagrans studio,' and the object of 
his travel was to collate the manuscripts for 
a new edition of Theocritus which he 
meditated. His collections ' magno studio 
et sumptu facta et comparata a viro Greece 
doctissimo ' were much used by Warton in 
his edition of Theocritus (1770). His 
house was in East Street, near Red Lion 
Square, in the parish of St. George the 
Martyr, Bloomsbury, and he collected there 
a considerable library of books and manu- 
scripts. He died on 5 Sept. 1754, and his 
will, which was dated on 9 Aug. 1749, was 
proved on 17 Sept. 1754. He ordered his 
body to be buried at Christ's Hospital, Lon- 
don, with this inscription : ' Here lyes a 

St. Andr6 


St. Andre 

benefactor, let no one move his bones,' and 
without his name. The tablet is in the 
cloisters, and is reproduced in R. B. Johnson's 
'Christ's Hospital '(p. 142). 

St. Amand left his books, coins, and prints 
to the Bodleian Library, but those which it 
did not want were to go to Lincoln College. 
The books, a catalogue of which was drawn 
up by Alexander Cruden in September 1754, 
consisted 'chiefly of the then modern edi- 
tions of the classics and of the writings of 
modern Latin scholars ; ' many of them had 
belonged to Arthur Charlett [q. v.] The 
manuscripts were mainly his notes on Theo- 
critus, Horace, and other poets, and letters 
and papers relating to the Low Countries. 
Among them were numerous letters from 
Italian scholars on his projected Theocritus, 
and a letter from Jervas on the pictures to 
be seen at Rome (cf. COXE, Cataloyi Cod. 
MSS. Bibl Bodl. Pars prima, 1853, coll. 
889-908, and MADAN, Western MSS. at the 
Bodleian Library, pp. 158-9). William 
Stukeley [q. v.] was one of the executors, 
and in May 1755 he brought the .books to 
Oxford in twenty-seven cases ; the coins and 
medals followed subsequently (STUKELEY, 
Memoirs, i. 136, ii. 6, iii. 474). 

The residue of the estate was bequeathed 
to Christ's Hospital, together with a minia- 
ture set in gold of his grandfather, John St. 
Amand. The picture was left inalienable, 
and, if this condition were not complied 
with, the whole estate was to revert to the 
university of Oxford. A court was annually 
held, called ' The Picture Court,' when the 
miniature was formally produced. There 
was a legend that this painting was a por- 
trait of the Oli Pretender. 

[Notes and Queries, 6th ser. viii. 425; Gent. 
Mag. 1754 p. 435, 1801 ii. 599, 1802 i. 493, ii. 
599; Trollope's Christ's Hospital, pp. 121-3; 
Johnson's Christ's Hospital, p. 270 ; Macray's 
Bodleian Library, 2nd ed. pp. 252-4.] 

W. P. C. 

1776), anatomist, was a native of Switzer- 
land, who is said to have been brought to 
England in the train of a Jewish family. 
He earned his living either by fencing or as 
a dancing-master, and he probably taught 
French and German, for he was proficient 
in both languages. He was soon placed with 
a surgeon of eminence, who made him an 
anatomist. There is no notice of his appren- 
ticeship among the records of the Barber- 
Surgeons' Company, and it does not appear 
that he was ever made free of the company, so 
that it is probable that he was throughout life 
an unqualified practitioner, at first protected 
by court influence. St. Andrews knowledge 

of German led George I to appoint him 
anatomist to the royal household. The 
patent is dated May 1723, and he was then 
living in Northumberland Court, near Char- 
ing Cross, where he practised his profession, 
and held the post of local surgeon to the 
Westminster Hospital, then a dispensary. 
He published in 1723 a translation of Ga- 
rengeot's treatise of chirurgical operations, 
and he was also engaged in delivering public 
lectures upon anatomy. 

Unfortunately for himself, St. Andre be- 
came, in 1726, involved in the imposture of 
Mary Tofts [q. v.] of Godalming, who pro- 
fessed to be delivered of rabbits. In conse- 
quence of the determination shown by Queen 
Caroline to have the matter thoroughly in- 
vestigated, Howard the apothecary, who at- 
tended Mary Tofts, summoned St. Andre to 
see her, and he, taking with him Samuel 
Molyneux [q. v.], secretary to the Prince 
of Wales (afterwards George II), reached 
Godalming on 15 Nov. 1726. St. Andr6 
was deceived, and believed the truth of the 
woman's story in all its impossible details. 
He published a full account of the case, and 
appended to it a note that ' the account of 
the Delivery of the eighteenth Rabbet shall 
be published by way of Appendix to this 
Account.' The king then sent his surgeon, 
Cyriacus Ahlers, to report upon the case, 
and the woman was brought to London and 
lodged at the Bagnio in Leicester Square. 
The fraud was then exposed by Dr. Douglas 
and Sir Richard Manningham, M.D., who 
eventually succeeded in obtaining a confes- 

St. Andre only once presented himself at 
court after this exposure, and, although he 
retained his position of anatomist to the king 
until his death, he never drew the salary. 
Molyneux was seized with a fit in the House 
of Commons, and died on 13 April 1728. 
St. Andre had been on terms of intimacy 
with him, and had treated him professionally. 
Molyneux's wife, Lady Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Algernon Capel, earl of Essex, 
left the house with St. Andre on the night 
of her husband's death, and was married to 
him on 17 May 1730 at Heston, near Houns- 
low in Middlesex. This proceeding caused 
a second scandal, for it was vehemently 
suspected that St. Andr6 had hastened the 
death of his friend by poison. There is no 
reason to believe that Molyneux died from 
other than natural causes. Nevertheless, 
St. Andre and his wife, who was dismissed 
from her attendance upon Queen Caroline 
in consequence of her marriage, found it 
necessary to retire into the country. They 
moved to Southampton about 1750, and lived 

St. Andre 


St. Aubyn 

there for the last twenty years of St. Andre's 
long life. His marriage placed St. Andre in 
easy circumstances, for the Lady Elizabeth 
Capel had a portion of 1 0,000 /. when she 
married Molyneux in 1717, and L,he inherited 
a further sum of 18,000/., with Kew House, 
on the death in 1721 of Lady Capel of 
Tewkesbury, her great-uncle's widow. This 
money, however, went from St. Andre on 
his wife's death, and he died a compara- 
tively poor man, at Southampton, in March 

St. Andre's mind appears to have been 
strongly inclined towards mysticism, and 
he was beyond measure credulous. He com- 
plained of having been decoyed and poisoned 
by an unknown person on 23 Feb. 1724-5. 
His complaint was investigated by the privy 
council, who offered a reward for the discovery 
of the alleged offender ; but the whole busi- 
ness seems to have arisen in the imagination 
of St. Andre, unless, indeed, it was done for 
the purpose of bringing his name before the 
public. It is difficult to determine whether 
St. Andre was more knave than fool in the 
affair of Mary Tofts, but it is tolerably cer- 
tain that he was both. It is equally certain 
that he was extremely ignorant ; that he 
was lecherous and foul-mouthed is allowed 
by his partisans as well as by his enemies. 
He had some professional reputation as a 
surgeon, though it was rather among the 
public than among his brethren. Lord 
Peterborough was his patient, and he was 
once called upon to treat Pope when by 
accident he had hurt his hand. 

There is a portrait of St. Andre in the 
engraving by Hogarth published in 1726. 
It is entitled ' Cunicularii, or the Wise Men 
of Godliman in consultation/ and it was paid 
for by a few of the principal surgeons of the 
time, who subscribed their guinea apiece to 
Hogarth for engraving the plate as a me- 
morial of Mary Tofts. St. Andre is labelled 
* A ' in the print, and is represented with a 
fiddle under his arm, in allusion to his original 
occupation of a dancing-master. He is de- 
scribed as ' The Dancing-Master, or Prseter- 
natural Anatomist.' A detailed account of 
the persons caricatured in this print is con- 
tained in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' (1842, 
i. 366). 

[Memoir by Thomas Tyers in the Public Ad- 
vertiser, reprinted in Gent. Mag. 1781, pp. 320, 
513, and again, with critical remarks, in Nichols 
and Steeven's Genuine Works of Hogarth, Lon- 
don, 1808, i, 464-92 ; an account of his own poison- 
ing will be found in the Gazette, 23 Feb. 1724- 
1725. The story of Mary Tofts, the rabbit 
breeder, is told at greater length in the British 
Medical Journal, 1896, ii. 209.] D'A. P. 

ST. AUBYN, CATHERINE (d. 1836), 
amateur artist, second daughter of Sir John 
St. Aubyn, fourth baronet, of Clowance in 
Cornwall, and sister of Sir John St. Aubyn 
(1758-1839) [q. v.], is known by a few pri- 
vately printed etchings which she produced 
in 1788 and 1789. These comprise portraits 
of Lady St. Aubyn and Dolly Pentreath [see 
JEFFERY, DOROTHY], from pictures by Rey- 
nolds and Opie in her father's possession ; a 
portrait of her sister, Mrs. Robert White ; 
and a view of St. Michael's Mount. Two 
drawings by her of St. Michael's Mount were 
engraved by William Austin (1721-1820) 
[q. v.] Miss St. Aubyn married, on 26 June 
1790, her cousin John Molesworth (d. 1811),, 
rector of St. Breocke, Cornwall, second son 
of Sir John Molesworth, bart., of Pencarrow, 
and died on 21 Oct. 1836. Her eldest son 
John (d. 1844), who assumed the surname 
of St. Aubyn, succeeded to the St. Aubyn 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's Memoirs 
of English Engravers (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33394); Burke's Landed Gentry. 1894, ii. 1770 ; 
Parochial History of Cornwall, i. 272.] 

F. M. O'D. 

ST. AUBYN, SIR JOHN (1696-1744), 
third baronet, politician, born on 27 Sept. 
1G96, was son and heir of Sir John St. Au- 
byn, second baronet (d. 20 June 1714), who 
married, in 1695, Mary, daughter and co- 
heiress of Peter de la Hay of Westminster. 
He was entered as gentleman-commoner at 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 10 June 1718, 
and created M.A. on 19 July 1721. In May 
1722 he was returned to parliament for the 
county of Cornwall, and sat fDr it until his 
death. In the House of Commons St. Aubyn 
spoke ' but seldom, and never but on points 
of consequence ' (Quarterly Heview, October 
1875, p. 376). Joining the opposition against 
Walpole, he was hostile to the Septennial 
Act and the employment of the Hanoverian 
troops, and on 9 March 1742 he seconded 
Lord Limerick's motion for a committee to 
inquire into the transactions of the previous 
twenty years, which was defeated by 244 
votes to 242. A fortnight later he seconded 
a motion by the same member for a secret 
committee of twenty-one to examine into 
Walpole's official acts during the last ten 
years, and it was carried by 252 votes to 
245. In the polling for the committee he 
obtained the first place with 518 votes, a 
result pronounced by Speaker Onslow to be 
without precedent, but he declined to pre- 
side over the proceedings. He is said to 
have also declined a seat at the board of 
admiralty. Walpole is believed in the west 
country to have remarked, when speaking 

St. Aubyn 


St. Aubyn 

of the House of Commons, 'All these men have 
their price except the little Cornish baronet.' 

He was on close terms of intimacy 
throughout life with Dr. William Borlase 
[q. v.], and was a friend and correspondent 
of Pope. 

St. Aubyn died of fever at Pencarrow, 
Egloshayle, Cornwall, on 15 Aug. 1744, 
and was buried in a granite vault in Crowan 
church on 23 Aug. He married at St. 
James's, Westminster, on 3 Oct. 1725, 
Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
Nicholas Morice, who brought him 10,000^. in 
cash and the manor of Stoke-Damerel, within 
which the town of Devonport is situate. 
She died at Clowance in Crowan on 16 June 
1740, and was buried in the same vault. 
They had issue five children. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. ii. 585, 
612, 614 (where his chief speeches are enume- 
rated) ; Boase's Collect. Cornub. 854, 856 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1744, p. 452; Walpole's Letters, i. 
142, 146, 150; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 
371, 8th ser. viii. 368 ; Courtney's Parl. Eep. of 
Cornwall, pp. 403-4 ; Boase's Exeter Coll. Com- 
moners, p. 284 ; Quarterly Review, October 
1875.] W.P. C. 

ST. AUBYJST, SIR JOHN (1758-1839), 
fifth baronet, lover of science and the arts, 
born at Golden Square, London, on 17 May 
1758, was elder son of Sir John St. Au- 
byn, fourth baronet (d. 12 Oct. 1772), who 
married, in May 1756, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William Wingfield of Durham. He 
was admitted to Westminster School on 
19 Jan. 1773, and in 1775, while there, and 
only seventeen years old, induced a school- 
fellow named Baker to join him in a bond for 
moneys advanced to supply his extravagances. 
Afterwards he pleaded that he was not of 
age, and the case came before the lord 
chancellor on 2 July 1777, when it was 
ordered that the money actually lent should 
be repaid, with 4 per cent, interest (ibl. 
Cornub. ii. 616 ; cf. WALFOLE, Journal of 
reign of George III, ii. 126). 

St. Aubyn was sheriff of Cornwall in 
1781, and in 1784 he entered upon political 
life. He sat for Truro from 25 March 1784 
to the dissolution, for Penryn from May 
1784 to June 1790, and for Helston from 
June 1807 to 1812. In the interests of the 
whigs, and with the support of his relative, 
Sir Francis Basset (afterwards Lord de Dun- 
stanville), he contested the county of Corn- 
wall in 1790, but was defeated after a very 
close and bitter contest. His election song 
on this occasion is printed in Worth's ' West- 
country Garland ' (pp. 98-100). St. Aubyn 
was provincial grand-master of the Free- 
masons in Cornwall from 1785 to 1839. He 

was a fellow of the Linnean Society, and 
was elected F.S.A. in 1783 and F.R.S. 
18 May 1797. In 1799 he bought the fossils 
and minerals of Richard Greene [q. v.] of 
Lichfield. His collection of minerals, pre- 
viously the property of Earl Bute, was de- 
scribed in 1799 in the ' New System of 
Mineralogy in the form of catalogue,' by 
William Babington, M.D., which is dedi- 
cated to him. St. Aubyn joined with others 
in May 1804 in the proposition to raise 4,OOOJ. 
for a mineralogical collection at the Royal 
Institution, and he subscribed to the fund 
for providing an annuity for Richard Person 
[q. v.] His gifts to Devonport included a 
site for the town-hall, a cabinet of minerals, 
a corporation mace, Opie's picture of Mary, 
queen of James II, quitting England, and a 
painting of the Holy Family. He died at 
Lime Grove, Putney, 10 Aug. 1839. His 
body was conveyed to Cornwall, passing 
through Devonport on 23 Aug., when it 
was attended by the municipal authorities, 
and lying in state at St. Austell, Truro, and 
Clowance. On 29 Aug. he was buried, with 
great masonic ceremonial, in the family vault 
in Crowan parish church. He married, at 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, on 1 July 1822, 
Juliana Vinicombe. a native of Cornwall, 
who died at Lime Grove, Putney, on 14 June 
1856, aged 87, and was also buried in the 
vault in Crowan church. The entailed es- 
tates, with the old family seat of Clowance, 
passed to a nephew, the Rev. John Moles- 
worth of Crowan (d. 1841). St. Aubyn had 
in all fifteen natural children, and the pro- 
perty at Devonport was incumbered by 
130,000/. in payment of the marriage por- 
tions of thirteen of them. He left his pro- 
perty at Devonport and elsewhere to James 
St. Aubyn, his eldest natural son, with 
reversion to Edward St. Aubyn, another 
natural son, and his descendants. Edward 
St. Aubyn (<tf. 1872) was created a baronet 
31 July 1866, and was father of the present 
Baron St. Levan (cr. 1887). 

St. Aubyn was an early and constant 
patron and friend of John Opie [q. v.], and 
was a pall-bearer at that artist's funeral in 
April 1807. His portrait was painted by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds in March 1786, and 
there are three pictures of him by Opie, one 
of which is in Devonport Guildhall. His 
wife was also painted by Opie, and there is 
another portrait of her by Adam Buck in 

[Boase and Courtney's. Bibl. Cornub. i. 222, 
250, 264, 414, ii. 509, 536, 613-16, Hi. 1209, 
1332; Boase's Collect. Cornub. pp. 854, 857; 
Rogers's Opie, pp. 153-4, 229 ; Opie's Lectures 
on Painting, pp.48, 52, 68; Gent. Mag. 1807 




i. 387, 1808 i. 172, 1839 ii. 542; West Briton, 
16 Aug. 1839 p. 3, 6 Sept. p. 2; Worth's 
Devonport, pp. 39, 45-6 ; Notes and Queries, 4th 
ser. iii. 311 (sale of St. Aubyn's engravings).] 

W. P. C. 

WILLIAM OF (d. 1096), bishop of Durham. 


(1613 ?-l 703), soldier, poet, and essayist, and, 
according to the Due d'Aumale, the ' most 
refined epicurean of his age,' is said to have 
been born on 1 April 1613 at Saint-Denis-le- i 
Guast in Normandy. He belonged to a noble 
and fairly wealthy family, and, as a younger | 
son, it was at first intended that he should i 
enter the magistracy. At the age of nine he j 
was sent to the College de Clermont in Paris, ! 
a school conducted by the Jesuits. After re- 
maining there four years he was removed to 
the university of Caen, and then, a year 
afterwards, to the College d'Harcourt in 
Paris, where he devoted himself to the study 
of law, and became a skilled fencer. He 
soon decided to abandon the law for a mili- 
tary career, and, when scarcely more than 
sixteen, obtained a commission in the army 
as an ensign. He served, during the thirty 
years' war, in Italy, on the Rhine, and in 
Flanders, obtaining his captaincy for his 
conduct at the siege of Landrecies in 1637. 
At Paris, during the winter suspension of 
hostilities, he came under the influence of 
Gassendi, the opponent of Descartes and 
teacher of Moliere. Saint-Evremond ac- 
quired from Gassendi a sceptical habit of 
mind in religious matters, and a resolve to 
govern his life with an exclusive view to 
its enjoyment. Well read and witty, he 
was favourably noticed by the young Due 
d'Enghien, ' the Grand Conde,' who, in order 
to enjoy his society, appointed him in 164:2 to 
the lieutenancy of his guards. With the duke, 
Saint-Evremond fought at Rocroi (1643), 
Friedburg (1644), and Nordlingen (1645), 
where he was dangerously wounded in the 
knee. Next year (1646) he followed the 
duke into Flanders, again doing good ser- 
vice, and was commissioned by the latter to 
induce Mazarin to sanction the siege of Dun- 
kirk, a mission in which he succeeded ex- 
cellently. The winter of 1646-7 he again 
spent in Paris, mixing in the most brilliant 
society. Already, some three years before, he 
had written, or helped to write, a clever dra- 
matic satire on the then still young French 
academy (La Comedie des Academistes}, and 
now, 1647, he wrote three or four short 

essays on subjects suggested by the conver- 
sation of the salons, such as ' That the man 
who would know everything does not know 
himself.' These essays were circulated in 
manuscript among the wits. In 1647 Saint- 
Evremond followed Conde into Catalonia ; 
but next year (1648), after accompanying 
him to Flanders, he offended his commander 
by a satire, and was cashiered. 

During the troubles of the Fronde, the 
Due de Longueville, a leader against the 
court in Normandy, vainly offered Saint- 
Evremond the command of the artillery ; 
and Saint-Evremond wrote soon after a 
satirical account of the ' Retreat of M. le 
Due de Longueville in his Government of 
Normandy.' The piece so pleased Mazarin 
that during his last illness he invited the 
author to read it to him several times, On 
16 Sept. 1652, while the civil war was at its 
height, the king appointed Saint-Evremond 
to be a l marechal de camp ' in his armies, 
and by warrant dated the following day gave 
him a pension of three thousand livres. In 
his new rank he served under the Due de 
Candale in Guienne till the reduction of 
Bordeaux, and, with the help of Fouquet, 
supplemented his emoluments so satisfac- 
torily as to bring home from the campaign 
fifty thousand francs, which, as he told Sil- 
vestre, proved ' of great use to him during- 
the remainder of his life.' Soon afterwards 
he fell into temporary disgrace for some unex- 
plained cause, and was confined to the Bas- 
tille for two or three months. Mazarin made 
him a kind of apology on his release. In 
the next year (1654) he was again serving 
in Flanders, and continued his active mili- 
tary service till the peace with Spain in 

Meanwhile his fame as a man of society 
had spread. The time was one of easy 
morality, when, according to his own ac- 
count, ' delicate vice went by the name of 
pleasure.' He himself was not, if we are to 
believe Des Maizeaux, greatly addicted to 
the society of women ; but he was one of the 
first lovers of the famous Ninon de Lenclos, 
named by him * the modern Leontium,' and 
remained in affectionate correspondence with 
her till the end of their long lives. He had 
a wide reputation as a gastronome. In the 
autumn of 1659 he accompanied Mazarin on 
his journey south to conclude the peace of 
the Pyrenees with Don Louis de Haro, the 
Spanish minister. Before starting, he pro- 
mised the Marquis de Crequi to give him 
an account of what took place. The peace 
was very unpopular with the army, and 
Saint-Evremond s report to the marquis 
formed, in effect, a very able and bitter 


123 Saint-Evremond 

attack on Mazarin and his policy, but 
it was kept secret at the time. Early in 
1661 he formed a member of the embassage 
sent to England to congratulate Charles II 
on his accession. In the August of that 
year Saint-Evremond, before proceeding with 
the court into Brittany, confided some of his 
more important papers, and among them the 
manuscript of his report for the Marquis de 
Crequi on the peace, to Madame de Plessis- 
Belliere,his friend, and the friend of Fouquet. 
After Fouquet's fall Madame de Plessis- 
Belliere's house was searched, and the letter 
on the peace came to light. Mazarin had 
died on the previous 9 March, but Colbert 
and Le Tellier, making a show of respect 
for his memory, placed the letter in the king's 
hands, and the^ arrest of the writer was de- 
creed. Saint-Evremond had already had a 
taste of the Bastille, and did not care to re- 
new the experience. He lay hid for some 
time in Normandy, and towards the end of 
1661 took refuge in Holland, bidding a final 
farewell to France. 

The letter on the peace was the ostensible 
cause of Saint-Evreniond's downfall; but 
Voltaire says expressly, 'The Marquis de 
Miremond, his friend, told me in London 
that there was another reason for his dis- 
grace, and that Saint-Evremond never would 
explain what it was.' The secret has been 
well kept. Possibly his satiric gifts of pen 
and tongue had rendered him obnoxious to 
Colbert and Colbert's master. 

Saint-Evremond, according to Des Mai- 
zeaux, ' had too many friends in England to 
remain long in Holland.' At the English 
court, then at its gayest, he found a society 
differing little from the society of Paris, and 
no more outwardly decorous. The Dukes of 
Buckingham and Ormonde, the Earls of St. 
Albans and Arlington, were among his best 
friends. Almost at the same time with him- 
self, Grammont, also in disgrace, came^over 
from France. "With the latter Saint-Evre- 
mond was on the best possible terms, Gram- 
mont being, according to Hamilton, Gram- 
mont's biographer, Saint-Evremond's hero, 
whom he nevertheless constantly exhorted 
to greater sobriety. Saint-Evremond was a 
constant guest at Grammont's supper parties. 
Saint-Evremond was also on excellent terms 
with Cowley, with Hobbes, and with Waller, 
for whom he entertained a great admiration. 
English he seems never to have learned. 

In 1664 Saint-Evremond fell ill, and went 
to Holland for change of air. He remained 
in the Low Countries till 1670, not without 
hopes of being allowed to return to France, 
mixing with the best Dutch society, and 
making acquaintance with Spinoza. In April 

1670 it was intimated to him by Lord Arling- 
ton, through Sir William Temple, then am- 
bassador at The Hague, that his return to 
London would be favourably regarded. On 
his acceding to this request Charles II gave 
him a pension of 300/. a year, which he en- 
joyed till the king's death. He afterwards 
stood well with James II and with Wil- 
liam III, who showed him marked favour. 

Towards the end of 1675 the Duchess of 
Mazarin, niece of the cardinal, came to 
England with designs on the king's affec- 
tions, and, to counteract the influence of the 
Duchess of Portsmouth, Saint-Evremond at 
once attached himself to her service. He 
had previously exhorted Mile, de Keroualle 
not to turn a deaf ear to the royal addresses. 
He now urged Mme. de Mazarin, whose heart 
was fickle, not to neglect her golden oppor- 
tunities. Until her death on 2 July 1699 he 
remained in almost daily attendance upon 
her, whether at St. James's or Windsor, or 
at her house in Chelsea. Much of his later 
prose and verse was composed for her edifi- 

During the earlier years of Saint-Evre- 
mond's exile he made more than one fruit- 
less effort to obtain permission to return to 
France. In 1689 an intimation was sent to 
him that he might do so ; but the old man 
answered that it was then too late, and that 
he was happy where he was. 'In the 
country in which I now am,' he wrote in 
1693, 'I see Mme. Mazarin every day; I live 
among people who are sociable and friendly, 
who have great cleverness and much wit.' 
Nor when the duchess died in 1699 could he 
be induced to stir. After her death he fre- 
quented the society of a dubious Marquise de 
la Perrine, to whom he left a legacy of 50/. 
He himself died on 20 Sept. 1703, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. ' Mr. Saint- 
Evremond,' wrote Atterbury (Correspon- 
dence, iii. 117), ' l died renouncing the Chris- 
tian religion, yet the church of Westminster 
thought fit, in honour of his memory, to give 
his body room in the abbey, and to allow 
him to be buried there gratis, as far as the 
chapter was concerned, though he left 800 L 
sterling behind him, which is thought every 
way an unaccountable piece of manage- 
ment. . . . Dr. Birch proffered to be at the 
charge of the funeral on the account of the 
old acquaintance between Saint-Evremond 
and his patron Waller, but that proffer not 
being accepted, is resolved to have the honour 
of laying a marble stone upon his grave/ 
His monument is in Poets' Corner, within a 
few feet of that of Chaucer. 

Saint-Evremond's literary reputation has 
undergone some vicissitudes. In his own 



St. Faith's 

time it stood very high five hundred louis ' 
according to Voltaire being offered for the 
play of 'Sir Politick Would-be.' In the 
eighteenth century his fame declined, and 
Voltaire, notwithstanding, o perhaps be- 
cause of, a sort of intellectual filiation, spoke 
of him with uniform disparagement ; ' never/ 
he said, ' was reputation more usurped than 
his.' In the last fifty years greater justice 
had been rendered him, and it has been re- 
cognised that he was in certain respects a 
fit contemporary or even precursor of Pascal, 
and a precursor of Voltaire, and that a fair 
proportion of his prose not his verse is, to 
use the Due d'Aumale's words, ' exquisite 
and delicate.' 

His medical attendant, Silvestre, has 
given this portrait of him : ' M. de Saint- 
Evremond was well made. As he had in 
youth taken part in all manly exercises, he 
retained, even to a very advanced age, a na- 
tural and easy carriage. His eyes were blue, 
keen, and full of fire, his face bright and in- 
telligent, his smile somewhat satirical. In 
youth he had had fine black hair, but though 
it had become quite white, and even very 
sparse, he never would wear a wig, and con- 
tented himself with wearing a skull-cap. 
More than twenty years before his death a 
wen developed at the root of his nose, and 
grew to a good size, but this did not dis- 
figure him very much, at least in the eyes of 
those who saw him habitually. His con- 
versation was gay and easy, his repartees 
lively and incisive, his manners good and 
polite ; in a word, one can say of him that in 
all things he showed himself to be a man of 

There exist, however, hints of less flatter- 
ing characteristics. Christopher Pitt [q. v.], 
in a ' Dialogue between a Poet and his Ser- 
vant,' has the following lines : 

Old Evremond, renowned for wit and dirt, 
"Would change his living oftener than his shirt; 
Roar with the rakes of state a month ; and come 
To starve another in his hole at home. 

A portrait of Saint-fivremond, painted by 
Parmentier in 1701, is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. An engraving of it is given 
in the first volume of the quarto edition of 
the ' Works,' London, 1705, and another en- 
graved portrait from an original by Kneller is 
in volume iii. of the edition of the l Works ' 
in English, 1728 (London). There is also a 
bust over the grave in Westminster Abbey. 

All his works were composed for his own 
pleasure, or the pleasure of his friends, and 
circulated only, so far as his responsibility 
was concerned, in manuscript. They are 
thus mainly of an occasional kind, and con- 

sist of poems, chiefly of an amatory kind ; 
three or four plays, the ' Comedie des Acade- 
miciens/ ' Sir Politick Would-be,' a play ' a 
la maniere angloise,' ' Les Opera ; ' various 
essays, dialogues, dissertations, and reflec- 
tions, the most extended being ' Sur les 
divers ge'nies du Peuple Remain dans les 
divers terns de la Republique,' and a con- 
siderable correspondence with Ninon de 
Lenclos, the Duchess of Mazarin, and others. 
Being much sought after, and having there- 
fore a money value, all that he wrote was 
pirated, and a good deal was attributed to 
him of which he was not the author. A 
pirated selection appeared in an English 
translation in 1700 (London, 2 vols. 8vo). 
Pie treated such piracies with characteristic 
indifference till quite the end of his life, 
when Des Maizeaux induced him to begin 
the work of authentication. Death super- 
vened. But Des Maizeaux and Silvestre, 
with such notes and indications as Saint- 
Evremond had left, published his authentic 
works in 1705, in London, in 2 vols. 4to (3rd 
edit. 1709). Des Maizeaux also brought out 
at Amsterdam in 1706 a collection of the 
works attributed to Saint-Evremond, under 
the title of ' Melange curieux des meilleures 
pieces attributes a M. de Saint-Evremond.' 
The works were several times republished, 
the edition of 1753, in 12 vols., containing 
much that he confessedly had not written. 
,. In later times selections from Saint- 
Evremond's works have been edited by 
Hippeau (1852), Giraud (1865), Gidel (no date, 
but circa 1866), Merlet (1870), Lescure (1881), 
Mac6 (1894). 

[The chief authority about Saint-Evremond is 
Des Maizeaux, who first published, in 1705, a 
memoir with Saint-Evremond's collected works ; 
it was several times reprinted. To it should be 
added the preface of P. Silvestre to the fifth 
edition of 1739. The volumes of selections men- 
tioned above contain biographical sketches more 
or less extended, the notice by Giraud being 
specially elaborate, but^un fortunately only carry- 
ing the story of Saint-Evremond's life to the date 
of his exile. A continuation had been projected, 
but was apparently never carried out. Sainte- 
Beuve wrote two papers on Saint-Evremond in 
his Causeries du Lundi, vol. iv., and Nouveaux 
Lundis, vol. xiii. A notice with some refer- 
ence to his influence on English literature 
will be found in Saintsbury's Miscellaneous 
Essays.] F. T. M. 

ST. FAITH'S, JOHN or (d. 1359), theo- 
logical writer, was educated at the Carmelite 
house of St. Faith, near Norwich, and 
studied at Oxford. He was made governor 
of the Carmelites of Burham Norton, Nor- 
folk, and died there, 18 Dec. 1359. He 



St. George 

wrote numerous commentaries on the gospels, 
with indices, sixty-three sermons, a con- 
cordance to the works of Thomas Aquinas, 
on Aristotle's t De Cselo et Mundo/ and a 
' Tabula Juris.' Many of the t incipits ' are 
given by Bale and Tanner, but the works 
are not known to exist. 

Other learned Carmelites educated at 
St. Faith's were BENEDICT OP ST. FAITH'S 
(Jl. 1400), who left Norfolk for Italy, was 
patronised by Cardinal Henricus Minutulus, 
and is said to have died at Naples. 

PETEE OP ST. FAITH'S (d. 1452), prior of 
St. Faith's, of noble birth, studied at Cam- 
bridge, and became a master in theology. 
After Henry V's victory over France many 
Carmelites went to Paris, and Peter was 
made a doctor of the Sorbonne. On 13 Sept. 
1428 he was present at a diocesan synod at 
Norwich, when William Whyte was charged 
with heresy (Fascic. Zizan. Rolls Ser. p. 
417). In 1450 he was presented to the 
rectory of Taverham, Norfolk (BLOMEPIELD, 
Norfolk, xi. 473). He died at Norwich, 
8 Nov. 1452. He wrote commentaries on 
St. Peter's Epistles, capitular sermons on 
Peter Lombard, and other works mentioned 
by Tanner but not known to be extant. 

ROBERT OP ST. FAITH'S (d. 1386) was 
sent by Urban VI as papal nuncio to Spain 
and England. He wrote 'much against the 
schismatics, but the names of his works are 
lost. He died in Spain in 1386. 

WILLIAM OP ST. FAITH'S (d. 1372) left 
Norwich for Cambridge, where he became a 
doctor of divinity. He died in 1372, and was 
buried at St. Faith's. Bale (vi. 45) and 
Pits (p. 510) attribute to him numerous 
theological works, none of which are known 
to be extant. 

[Bale's Scriptores ; Tanner's Bibliotheca, s.v. 
' Sanctofidensis ; ' Villiers de Sainte-Etienne's 
Bibliotheca Carmelitana.] M. B. 

1644), Garter king-of-arms, eldest son of Sir 
Richard Saint-George [q. v.], born on 27 Jan. 
1581, was created Rouge Rose pursuivant- 
extraordinary in May 1610; Bluemantle 
pursuivant-in-ordinary on 23 Dec. 1611 ; and 
Richmond herald on 22 March 1615-16. In 
1624 he was one of the learned persons re- 
commended by Edmund Bolton [q. v.] to be 
members of the projected Academy Royal 
or College and Senate of Honour. In 1625 
he and William Le Neve, York herald, were 
sent to France by Charles I to conduct the 
princess Henrietta Maria to England. They 
performed this duty so much to the satisfac- 
tion of the court of France that Louis XIII 
gave them a thousand French crowns. In 

1627 Saint-George was joined in a com- 
mission with Lord Spencer and Peter Young 
to present the insignia of the order of the 
Garter to Gustavus Adolphus,king of Sweden, 
who conferred upon Saint-George the honour 
of knighthood on 23 September (METCALFE, 
Book of Knights, p. 188 ; Addit. MS. 32102, 
f. 200 b). He was created Norroy king-of- 
arms on 24 June 1635. At the commence- 
ment of the civil war he attended the royal 
standard and remained with the king at 
Oxford, where he was created a doctor of 
medicine 9 May 1643 (WOOD, Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 67). He was advanced to the 
dignity of Garter king-of-arms in April 1644, 
in succession to Sir John Borough [q. v.] 
He died in Brasenose College on 5 Nov. 1644, 
and was buried in the cathedral of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

Saint-George drew up in 1628 a 'Cata- 
logue of the Nobility of England,' manuscript 
folio. This is ' involved ' in ' A New Cata- 
logue of the Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, 
Viscounts, Barons, &c.,' published by Thomas 
Walkley, London, 1658, 8vo. 

Of the heraldic visitations held by him 
the following have been printed : Cornwall 
(1620), edited by Lieut. -Col. J. L. Vivian 
andH. H. Drake, 1874; Somerset (1623), 
edited by F. T. Colby for the Harleian 
Society, 1876 ; London (1633-5), edited by 
J. J. Howard and J. L. Chester for the 
Harleian Society, 2 vols. 1880-83: Wiltshire 
(1623), edited by G. W. Marshall, Exeter, 
1882, 8vo ; and Dorset (1623), edited by J.P. 
Rylands for the Harleian Society, 1885. 

Saint-George married, in 1614, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Dayrell, knight, 
of Lillingston Dayrell, Buckinghamshire. 
Among his children was SIR THOMAS SAINT- 
GEORGE (1615-1703), who became Somerset 
herald in July 1660, Norroy king-of-arms in 
January 1679-80, and Garter king-of-arms 
in February 1685-6, in succession to Dug- 
dale ; he left in manuscript a treatise on 
' Titles of Honour,' printed in London, 1864. 
Another son, SIR HENRY SAINT-GEORGE the 
younger (1625-1715), became Richmond 
herald on 18 June 1660, Norroy king-of- 
arms on 27 April 1677, Clarenceux king-of- 
arms on 25 Jan. 1678-9. and Garter king-of- 
! arms on 26 April 1703 ; and Richard Saint- 
| George, who became Ulster king-of-arms. 

[Anstis's Order of the Garter, i. 402 ; Foster's 
I Alumni Oxon., 1500-1714, iv. 1300; Howard's 
| Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, new ser. 
| iii. 79 ; Noble's College of Arms.] T. C. 

ST. GEORGE, SIR JOHN (1812-1891), 
general, born on 18 Jan. 1812, was the eldest 
son of Lieutenant-colonel John St. George of 

St. George 



Parkfield, Birkenhead, by Frances, daughter 
of Archibald Campbell, M.D. He obtained 
a cadetship at the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich, in 1826, and was commissioned 
as second lieutenant in the royal artillery 
on 19 May 1828. He became first lieutenant 
on 11 July 1829, captain on 1 April 1841, and 
lieutenant-colonel on 17 Feb. 1854. He 
served in Canada, the West Indies, China, 
and Ceylon, and was for two years (1844- 
1846) instructor in practical artillery at the 
Royal Military Academy. 

In 1855 he was ordered to the Crimea. 
He arrived there in March, and on 4 Aug. 
he succeeded to the command of the siege 
train. Sir Richard Dacres, in his report of 
the artillery operations, which preceded the 
fall of Sebastopol, said that he had received 
the greatest assistance from him (London 
Gazette, 2 Nov. 1855). He was made brevet 
colonel and C.B. on 4 Feb. 1856 ; he also 
received the Crimean medal with one clasp, 
the Turkish medal, the fourth class of the 
Medjidie and of the Legion of Honour. 

He commanded the royal artillery in Malta 
for two years, becoming colonel in the regi- 
ment on 29 Aug. 1857. In 1859 he was made 
president of the ordnance select committee, 
and remained so till December 1863, when 
he was appointed director of ordnance. He 
held the latter office for five years, and he 
was thus for nearly ten years continuously 
at headquarters, in positions of the highest 
responsibility at the most critical period in 
the history of artillery. He became major- 
general on 30 Sept. 1865, having been given 
the temporary rank previously as director of 

In October 1868 he went to St. Petersburg 
as British delegate to the conference held 
there, at the instance of the Russian govern- 
ment, on the subject of explosive bullets, 
which had for some years been coming into 
use. The result was the declaration of 11 Dec. , 
by which the powers represented renounced 
them. This was his last military employ- 
ment. He was promoted lieutenant-general 
on 29 March 1873, and general on 1 Oct. 
1877, and was placed on the retired list on 
1 July 1881. He was made K.C.B. on 2 June 
1869, and received the G.C.B. on 25 May 
1889. He became a colonel-commandant 
R.A. on 31 Jan. 1872, and in 1884 he was 
appointed to the honorary office of master- 
gunner of St. James's Park. 

He took an active interest in the order of 
the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, of 
which the English langue was reorganised 
in 1831. He was made a knight of justice 
in 1861, and was chancellor when the order 
received a roval charter in 1888. He was 

also a member of the order of the friendly 
brothers of St. Patrick. 

He married, on 15 Aug. 1860, Elizabeth 
Marianne, daughter of Thomas Evans of 
Lyminster House, Arundel, and left one son. 
He died in London on 17 March 1891, and 
was buried at Brompton cemetery. 

[Memoir by Colonel Dalton, in Proc. of E. A. 
Institution, vol. xviii.; Eeilly's Artillery Opera- 
tions at Sebastopol.] E. M. L. 


1635), Clarenceux king-of-arms, belonged to 
an ancient family which traced its descent 
from Baldwin Saint-George, who is said to 
have fought at Hastings under the banner 
of William the Conqueror. He was the 
second son of Thomas Saint-George of 
Hatley Saint-George, Cambridgeshire, by 
Rose, daughter of Thomas Hutton of Dry 
Drayton in that county. He was appointed 
Berwick pursuivant-extra ordinary in 1602 ; 
afterwards he held for a brief period the 
office of Windsor herald, and in 1603 he 
was created Norroy king-of-arms in succes- 
sion to Sir William Segar [q. v.] During 
his tenure of the latter office he held heral- 
dic visitations in the counties of Derby, 
York, Chester, Lancaster, Stafford, Cumber- 
land, Durham, Northumberland, and West- 
morland. He was knighted at Hampton 
Court, 28 Sept. 1616 (METCALFE, Book of 
Knights, p. 168 ; Addit. MS. 32102, f. 179 b~). 
He obtained a patent on 17 Sept. 1623 for 
the post of Clarenceux king-of-arms, and was 
created at Arundel House on 23 Dec. fol- 
lowing, in succession to William Camden 
[q. v.] Subsequently he received a commis- 
sion, jointly with Sir John Borough, Norroy 
king-of-arms, to institute visitations in any 
part of England. They accordingly visited, 
either personally or by deputies, London, 
Sussex, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Der- 
byshire, Essex, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, 
Leicestershire, Middlesex, and Rutland. 
Saint-George died on 17 May 1635, and was 
buried in the chancel of St. Andrew's Church, 

He married, in 1575, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Nicholas Saint John of Lidiard-Tregoz, 
ancestor of the Viscounts Saint John and 
Bolingbroke [see under SAINT-JOHN", OLIVER, 
first EARL OF BOLINGBROKE]. By her he 
had issue William and John, who were both 
slain in Ireland; Sir Henry Saint-George 
[q. v.], Garter king-of-arms ; and Sir George 
Saint-George, who settled at Carrick-Drum- 
rusk, co. Leitrim. 

He was the friend and companion of Sir 
Robert Cotton, Spelman, Camden, Weever, 
and other eminent antiquaries. His * Col- 




lectanea Historica et Genealogica,' written 
in 1606, are in Addit. MS. 10108, and three 
other volumes of similar collections by him 
are in the Landsdowne MSS. 861, 862, 863. 
He also compiled < Pedigrees, Evidences, and 
other Matters relating to Nottinghamshire ' 
(Lansdowne MS. 871). Transcripts of many 
of the visitations held by him are also in the 
British Museum, and the following have 
been printed: Durham (1615), printed at 
Sunderland [1816 ?] ; Westmoreland (1615), 
London, 1853, 8vo ; Lancashire (1613), edited 
by F. R. Raines for the Chetham Society, 
1871; Cumberland (1615), edited by J. 
Fetherston for the Harleian Society, 1872 ; 
Yorkshire (1612), edited by Joseph Foster, 
1875; Northumberland (1615), edited by 
G.W. Marshall, London, 1878, 8vo ; Hertford- 
shire (1634), edited by Walter C. Metcalfe 
for the Harleian Society, 1886. 

In the British Museum there is a copy of 
Guillim's ' Display of Heraldrie,' 1638, with 
manuscript additions by Saint George. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry (1868), p. 1319; 
Howard's Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, 
new ser. iii. 78 ; Le Neve's Pedigrees of Knights, 
p. 223; Noble's College of Arms; West's Sym- 
boleography, part ii. (1627), p. 334.] T. C. 


(1460P-1540), legal writer and controver- 
sialist, born about 1460, was son of Henry 
Saint-German, knight, and his wife Anne, 
daughter of Thomas Tindale. He was born 
probably about 1460 at Shilton, Warwick- 
shire; both his parents are buried in the 
church there. He was educated at Oxford, as 
a member, it is said, of Exeter College. He 
then entered the Inner Temple, where he 
studied law and was called to the bar. Ac- 
cording to Wood he became a ' counsellor of 
note,' and ' won immortal fame among the 
citizens of London.' In July 1534 some of 
Cromwell's agents requested his services in 
legal matters, and in 1536 the northern 
rebels mentioned him as one of those whose 
heresies should be destroyed (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, vii. 1008, xi. 1246). 
But as a rule Saint-German avoided politics, 
and confined himself to legal and literary 
work, and to the collection of a library 
which exceeded that of any other lawyer. 
He died an octogenarian in September 1540, 
and was buried near Thomas Lupset [q. v.] 
in the church of St. Alphage-within-Cripple- 
gate, in which parish he had lived during 
his latter years. No mention of wife or chil- 
dren appears in his will (dated 10 July 1540 
and proved 30 May 1541) ; but the confused 
wording of a letter to Cromwell (Letters 
and Papers, xiv. pt. i. No. 1349) seems to 

imply that he was twice married and had 
three children. By his will he desired alms 
to be given at Shilton till 1550, and left 
other sums to Lawford and Builton in War- 

In religious matters Saint-German was a 
moderate reformer. Probably in 1532 he 
issued, anonymously, his ' Treatise concern- 
ynge the diuision betwene the spiritualtie 
and the temporaltie ' (8vo, Th. Berthelet, 
n.d.) This work is very rare, but copies are 
in the British Museum and Huth Libraries. 
In it Saint-German lays the blame of the 
division on the clergy. It is said to have 
been commended to Sir Thomas More for its 
moderation, in contrast to his own intem- 
perance of language. Early in 1533 More 
made a vigorous attack upon it in his ' Apo- 
logy,' referring to the author as ' the pacifier.' 
This provoked a reply from Saint-German 
entitled ' A Dialogue betwixte two English- 
men, whereof one was called Salem and the 
other Bizance' (Th. Berthelet, 1533, 8vo), 
and More retorted in the same year with his 
' Debellacyon of Salem and Bizance,' which 
ended the controversy. Another work by 
Saint-German of a similar character < A 
Treatise concernynge the power of the clergye 
and the lawes of the realme ' was issued 
with no date by Thomas Godfrey. 

Saint-German is, however, chiefly re- 
membered as author of < Doctor and Stu- 
dent,' a handbook for legal students, which 
was not superseded until the appearance of 
Blackstone's ' Commentaries.' This work 
was first issued by Rastell in 1523 in Latin, 
under the title 'Dialogus de Fundamentis 
Legum et de Conscientia.' Herbert pos- 
sessed a copy, but none is now known to be 
extant. Another edition was published by 
Rastell in 1528 (Brit. Mus.) An English 
translation, entitled ' A Fyrste Dialoge in 
Englysshe,' was brought out in 1531 by 
Wyer, and a ' Second Dialoge in Englysshe ' 
was published by Peter Treveris in 1530. 
Both these were printed in 1532 ' with new 
addycions ' by Redman. Subsequent editions 
were numerous, both in English and in 
Latin. In 1604 Thomas Wight published a 
Latin edition, with Bale's account of the 
author and his will prefixed. A ' complete 
abridgement ' appeared in 1630. The six- 
teenth edition, enlarged, was published in 
1761, and the last appeared at Cincinnati in 
1874. Two copies of a ' replication ' to the 
' Doctor and Student ' are extant (in Harl. 
MSS. 829 and 7371). Bale attributes various 
other works to Saint-German ; but some 
of their titles are variations of the books 
already noticed, and the others are not known 
to be extant. 

St. Germans 


St. John 

[Works in Brit. Mus. Libr. ; Cat, Huth Libr. ; 
Maitland's Cat. Early Printed Books at Lam- 
beth ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. ed. Herbert, i. 
332, and Dibdin, iii. 86-7, 191-2; Hazlitt's 
Coll. 1st ser. p. 371 ; Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, ed. Brewer and Gairdner ; Sir T. 
Here's Apology and Debellacyon of Salem and 
Bizance, 1533 ; More's Life of Sir T. More, ed. 
Hunter, pp. 335-9 ; Button's Life of More, 
1895, pp. 225-6 ; Bale ; Pits ; Tanner's Bibl. p. 
313; Wood's Athense Oxon. i. 120; Dodd's 
Church Hist. i. 205; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714; Colvile's Warwickshire Worthies; 
BoaseandCourtney'sBibl.Cornub. ; Blaekstone's 
Legal Tracts, 1771, p. 225; Keeve's English Law, 
iv. 416; Bridgman's Legal Bibliogr. pp. 290-5; 
Marvin's Legal Bibl. p. 626.] A. F. P. 

ST. GERMANS, third EAKL OF. [See 

ST. GILES, JOHN OF (Jl. 1230), Do- 
minican. [See JOHN.] 


HEEBEET, ALLEYNE, 1753-1839.] 

ST. JOHN, BAYLE (1822-1859), author, 
second son of James Augustus St. John [q.v.], 
and brother of Horace Stebbing Roscoe St. 
John [q. v.] and Percy Bolingbroke St. John 
[q. v.], was born in Kentish Town, London, 
on 19 Aug. 1822. He accompanied his 
father on visits to France and Switzerland 
during 1829-34, and then studied, with the 
intention of becoming an artist, until 1839. 
When scarcely thirteen he sent an article 
to a monthly magazine which was accepted. 
For a long time he was employed in assisting 
his father in his work on the l History of the 
Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece,' 
1842, 3 vols. At the same time he con- 
tributed regularly to the ' Sunday Times ' 
and the * Penny Magazine,' and furnished 
occasional articles to many periodicals. In 
1834 he wrote for ' Fraser's Magazine,' be- 
sides some poetry, a series of articles en- 
titled ' De re Vehicular!, or a Comic His- 
tory of Chariots,' which were popularly 
attributed to Dr. Maginn. In 1845 he pub- 
lished a novel in three volumes called ' The 
Eccentric Lover.' In 1843 he helped to 
form the Ethnological Society, and con- 
tributed a paper on the Mongols to its 
< Journal ' (1848, i. 86-102). In the follow- 
ing year he helped to establish the Syro- 
Egyptian Society. As a contributor to the 
' Foreign Quarterly Eeview ' he discussed 
the political questions of the day, and re- 
ceived the thanks of the London Missionary 
Society for his treatment of the subject of 
Tahiti (October 1844, pp. 165-94) [see 
PRITCHAEB, GEORGE]. In 1846 he went to 
Egypt, where he studied Arabic, explored 

many unknown districts, and journeyed to 
the oasis of Siwah, in order to study the 
route of Alexander the Great. No Eng- 
lishman excepting George Browne (1768- 
1813) had previously crossed that dangerous 
desert. St. John published a narrative of 
the expedition in l Adventures in the Libyan 
Desert and the Oases of Ammon,' 1849, 
forming a volume of ' Murray's Home and 
Colonial Library.' This work was made the 
basis of ' Five Views in the Oasis of Siwah, 
accompanied by a Map of the Libyan Desert/ 
1850. In June 1848 he took up his resi- 
dence in Paris, and witnessed the coup d'etat 
of 2 Dec. 1851. While in Paris he wrote 
his charming ' Two Years' Residence in a Le- 
vantineFamily' for Chapman and Hall's series 
of * Works of Fiction,' 1850 it was reissued 
in 1856 and he began contributing to 
1 Chambers's Journal ' and to ' Household 
Words.' In 1851 he returned to Egypt for 
another year, visiting the valley of the 
Cataracts, and collecting materials for his 
' Village Life in Upper Egypt, with Sketches 
of the Said,' 2 vols. 1852. After a subse- 
quent visit to Italy he published * The Sub- 
alpine Kingdom, or Experiences and Studies 
in Savoy, Piedmont, and Genoa,' 1856, 2 vols., 
a work containing new information, de- 
rived from unpublished documents, respect- 
ing the life of Rousseau. During a further 
residence in Paris, where he acted for a time 
as correspondent for the ' Daily Telegraph,' 
he projected, but did not live to write, a 

1 History of the Establishment of the Empire 
in France.' He died at 13 Grove End Road, 
St. John's Wood, London, on 1 Aug. 1 859. 

He was also author (among other works) 
of : 1. ' The Fortunes of Francis Croft,' 1852, 
anon. 2. < The Turks in Europe, a Sketch of 
Manners and Politics in the Ottoman Em- 
pire/1853. 3. ' Purple Tints of Paris, Charac- 
ter and Manners in the New Empire,' : ,1854, 

2 vols. 4. l The Louvre, or Biography of a 
Museum,' 1855. 5. ' Legends of the Christian 
East,' 1856. 6. Maretimo : a Story of Ad- 
venture,' 1856, in ' Select Library of Fic- 
tion,' new edit. 1884. 7. ' Montaigne the 
Essayist : a Biography,' 1858, 2 vols. He 
translated ' Sketches of the Hungarian Emi- 
gration into Turkey, by a Honved,' 1853. 

[Men of the Time, 1857, pp. 665-7; Gent. 
Mag. September 1859, p. 317; Sala's Life and 
Adventures, i. 397 ; Athenaeum, 6 Aug. 1859, p. 
177.] G- C. B. 

LIAM (1809-1856), sportsman and natu- 
ralist, was fourth son of General the Hon. 
Frederick St. John (1765-1844), second son 
of Frederick, second viscount Bolingbroke. 

St. John 



His mother was Lady Arabella, daughter of 
William, sixth earl of Craven. Born at 
Chailey, Sussex, on 3 Dec. 1809, Charles 
St. John was sent in due time to Midhurst 
School. The characteristic bent of his mind 
showed itself at school, where he is reported 
to have been a proficient in spinning for 
pike and catching eels in the river Arun. 
In 1828 he was appointed to a clerkship in 
the treasury, but the regular work and con- 
finement proved irksome. 

He left the treasury when his uncle, Lord 
Bolingbroke, lent him Roeehall, a shooting- 
box in Sutherland. There he devoted him- 
self to the study of animals and birds. On 
20 Nov. 1834 he married Ann, daughter of 
T. Gibson, a Newcastle banker, who brought 
him some fortune, and much sympathy with 
sport and natural history. He afterwards 
spent much time in Moray. The fine moors 
of Moray, studded with lochs, and the ad- 
joining seaboard gave him exceptional op- 
portunities of studying seabirds. 

In 1844 some reminiscences by St. John 
of his sporting experiences were incorporated 
by his friend Cosmo Innes [q. v.], sheriff of the 
county, in an article which Innes published 
in the ' Quarterly Review ' (vol. Ixxvii.) St. 
John's contributions to the article included 
the story of l The Muckle Hart of Benmore,' 
which charmed Lockhart, the editor of the 
' Quarterly.' Thenceforth St. John made care- 
ful and regular notes of all he saw. In 1846 
he issued 'Short Sketches of the Wild Sports 
and Natural History of the Highlands.' The 
work was recognised as that of an accurate 
observer and a writer of talent. Other 
sporting books followed ; but on 6 Dec. 1853, 
when starting on a shooting expedition to 
Pluscardine, he was struck with paralysis. 
He was moved to the south of England, but 
never rallied, and died on 12 July 1856 at 
Woolston. He was buried in Southampton 
cemetery. The skull of a favourite retriever 
was buried with him. 

As a sportsman St. John was keen and 
persevering, but took more delight in seeing 
his dogs work and in rambling over the 
hills and moors, taking his chance of finding 
varied game, than in securing large bags of 
partridges and pheasants. He was unrivalled 
as a field naturalist, never accepting facts on 
hearsay. With the birds of Scotland he 
was especially familiar. Possessed of con 
siderable skill as a draughtsman, he drew 
and painted his specimens, and some of his 
books were illustrated by himself. His 
works preserve the memory of many curious 
birds and animals which are now scarcer 
than they were in his days, and may become 
extinct. His style is clear and direct, and 

VOL. L. 

the genuine appreciation of scenery is appa- 
rent beneath the sober details in which the 
books abound. His writings have sent 
multitudes of lovers of nature and sport to 
the rivers and moors of the north. 

St. John left three sons and one daughter, 
who are still living. His sons include 
Colonel Frederick Charles St. John (b. 1835), 
of the Madras staff corps, and Rear-admiral 
Henry Craven St. John (b. 1837). 

Besides ' Short Sketches of the Wild Sports 
and Natural History of the Highlands,' 
1846, the ninth edition of which contains 
the author's notes and a life by the present 
writer (1893), St. John published : 1. ' A. 
Tour in Sutherlandshire ; with Extracts 
from the Field Books of a Sportsman and a 
Naturalist,' 2 vols., 1849 ; 2nd edition in 
2 vols., 1884, with an appendix on the fauna 
of Sutherland by J. A. Harvie-Brown and 
T. E. Buckley, and 'Recollections of the 
Author,' by his son. 2. ' Natural History 
and Sport in Moray,' with a memoir by 
Mr. C. Innes, 1863 ; reissued with plates in 

[St. John's books; Burke's Peerage; private 
information.] M. Gr. W. 

LINGBROKE (1678-1751), statesman, baptised 
at Battersea on 10 Oct. 1678, was the only 
son of Sir Henry St. John, by his wife, Lady 
Mary, second daughter of Robert Rich, se- 
cond earl of Warwick [q. v.] The elder 
Henry was the son of Sir Walter St. John, 
third baronet. Three of Sir Walter's elder 
brothers fell on the king's side in the civil 
war ; and he inherited the baronetcy and 
manors of Battersea and Wandsworth on the 
death of a nephew. He married Johanna, 
daughter of Sir Oliver St. John [q. v.], chief 
justice under Cromwell (for genealogy see 
COLLINS'S Peerage, ed. Brydges, vi. 53 ; cf. 
G.E.C.'s Peerage, i. 368). Sir Walter and his 
son Henry lived together in the manor-house 
at Battersea, where Sir Walter died on 3 July 
1708 at the age of eighty-seven. Sir Walter 
repaired the church and founded a charity 
school. Simon Patrick (1626-1707) [q. v.] 
was for a time his chaplain ; Daniel Burgess 
[q. v.], the presbyterian divine, was intimate 
with the family, and the younger Henry 
complained to Swift (28 July 1721) of having 
been so bored in his infancy by the sermons of 
Dr. Thomas Manton [q. v.], another presby- 
terian divine, as to be ready to become a high 
churchman (cf. first essay addressed to Pope). 
Henry, the son of Sir Walter, was a dissipated 
man about town, who got into trouble for 
killing Sir William Estcourt in a brawl in 
1684, and is said by Burnet (Own Times, ii. 




444) to have had to pay Charles II and two' 
ladies 16,OOOZ. for a pardon. 

The younger Henry was sent to Eton, and 
afterwards, it has been said, to Christ Church. 
No record, however, appears at Christ 
Church, and the report may be due, as Mr, 
Churton Collins suggests, to the honorary 
degree conferred upon him at Oxford in 1702. 
He soon became conspicuous for such quali- 
ties as are typified by the heroes of Con- 
greve's comedies. He '.vas a hard drinker, 
and lived, says Goldsmith, with Miss Gum- 
ley, 'the most expensive demirep of the 
kingdom.' (The Miss Gumley who married 
Pulteney in 1714 has been confounded with 
this woman ; see Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
ii. 401. x. 303, where a coarse caricature of 
St. John and his mistress is described). 
Goldsmith heard from an eye-witness that he 
had 'run naked through the park in a fit of 
intoxication.' He showed his pretensions 
to be a wit by a copy of verses prefixed to 
Dryden's translation of Virgil (these were 
afterwards prefixed, with some alterations, to 
the Chef-d'oeuvre d'un Inconnu (1714), by 
Saint-Hyacinthe). During 1698 and 1699 St. 
John travelled on the continent, and there ac- 
quired a remarkably accurate knowledge of 
French. After his return he wrote an ode 
called ' Almahide' a remonstrance to one of 
his mistresses upon her infidelity (printed 
in Whartoniana, 1727, ii. 166, and in WAL- 
POLE'S Royal and 'Noble Authors, where are 
also mentioned one or two other trifles). 
In 1700 he married Frances, daughter of 
Sir Henry "Winchcombe, a rich country 
gentleman of Bucklebury, Berkshire, and a 
descendant of ' Jack of Newbury.' His father 
and grandfather settled family estates upon 
him in Wiltshire, Surrey, and Middlesex; 
and his wife brought him a fortune. Mar- 
riage did not improve his morals, and Mrs. 
St. John had many causes of complaint. 
/ St. John was elected to William's last 
: parliament for the family borough of Woot- 
ton-Bassett in Wiltshire. His grandfather 
and father had sat both for the borough and 
county. Harley was elected speaker upon 
the opening of the session in February 1700 - 
1701, and St. John became his warm sup- 
porter. Harley, like St. John, had been 
brought up under presbyterian influences, 
and had taken the tory side. St. John at 
once made his mark as a speaker. In one 
of his early efforts he was answered by his 
Eton schoolfellow, Robert Walpole. Walpole 
failed, while St. John made a brilliant suc- 
cess ; though, according to Coxe, an intelli- 
gent observer prophesied Walpole's success, 
and said that the ' spruce gentleman who had 
made the set speech would never improve/ 

St. John was appointed in May 1701 to pre- 
pare and bring in the bill for the security of 
the protestant succession. He supported the 
impeachment of the whig lords for their 
share in the partition treaties, a question 
upon which he afterwards admitted himself 
I to have been wrong (Eighth Letter on Study 
: of History}. In the new parliament which 
! met in December 1701, St. John again sat 
| for Wootton-Bassett. He was afterwards 
! accused of having joined the opposition of 
the tories to the bill imposing an oath of ab- 
juration of the pretender. He explains the 
j vote which he gave upon different grounds 
| in his ' Final Answer ' to the attacks on the 
| ( Craftsman.' In any case, he became dis- 
tinguished on the tory side. The parliament 
was dissolved after the death of William, 
and soon afterwards St. John, with other tory 
leaders, received a doctor's degree at Oxford. 
In the next session St. John took a con- 
spicuous part in supporting the bill against 
occasional conformity. He was one of the 
managers for the commons in a conference 
with the lords on 16 Jan. 1702-3. He was 
also one of the commissioners appointed by 
the tories who reported against the Earl of 
Ranelagh, formerly paymaster of the army. 
The report was made the foundation of 
an attack upon Halifax for his conduct 
as auditor of the exchequer [see under 
The lords passed a vote in favour of Halifax, 
and a sharp contest between the houses 
took place, which was ended by a proro- 
gation. In the next session (1703-4) St. 
John again supported the bill against occa- 
sional conformity, and took a leading part 
in another quarrel with the lords, as to their 
right of examining witnesses to the f Scot- 
tish plot.' He presented the report of a 
committee on the subject, which was an- 
swered by the lords in' papers drawn up by 
Somers. He also took the side of the com- 
mons in the famous case of Ashby v. White. 
At the end of this session (April 1704) 
the Earl of Nottingham resigned, and was 
succeeded by Harley, a step which marked 
the gradual divergence of the Marlborough 
and Godolphin from the extreme tory party. 
St. John became secretary at war at the 
same time, whether from his connection with 
Harley or through the favour of Marlborough. 
Marlborough certainly expressed great con- 
fidence in St. John, and in 1707 took pains to 
increase his ' poundage ' (CoxE, Marlborovgh, 
1818, i. 232, ii. 270 ; Private Correspondence of 
the Duchess of Marlborough, ii. 292 n.) St. 
John's office brought him into close relations 
with the commander-in-chief , and he of course 
accepted the government policy for the time. 



He voted with Harley against the proposal 
for the 'tacking ' the Occasional Conformity 
Bill to the Land-tax Bill in November 1704. 

In the new parliament of 1 705 St. John 
again sat for Wootton Bassett. During the 
following period he appears to have conducted 
his business in parliament with general ap- 
plause, and to have remained on intimate 
terms with Marlborough, whose special fa- 
vourite he was generally supposed to be. 
Marlborough (see MACPHEKSON,ii. 532), after 
the death of his son in 1703, is said to have 
transferred his paternal affection to St. 
John. Meanwhile Harley was beginning to 
intrigue against the whigs. Godolphin was 
becoming suspicious of St. John as well as 
Harley. St. John does not appear to have 
taken any important part in the private 
manoeuvres. He belonged, however, to Har- 
ley's party in the government. Marlborough 
and Godolphin were relying more and more 
upon the support of the whigs ; and when 
Harley was forced to leave office (11 Feb. 
1707-8), St. John retired with him, and was 
succeeded by Robert Walpole. 

Parliament was dissolved in April 1708, 
and St. John did not sit in the next session. 
He retired to Bucklebury, which was now 
his wife's property, her father having died \ 
the year before. He wrote a warm compli- i 
mentary letter to Marlborough upon the vic- 
tory of Oudenarde from Battersea, where j 
his grandfather had just died. He professed 
to retire tt^fuilosopliy and reflection, though 
some verses given to him by a friend at the 
time imply that he was still as much of a 
rake as ever (Journal to Stella, 13 Jan. 
1710-11). St. John, however, seems to have 
read a good deal, especially in history, though | 
he could not resign himself to be a mere \ 
student. He had kept up his relations with 
Harley, and when the revolution in the cabinet 
took place in the autumn of 1710, he became 
secretary of state, while Harley became 
chancellor of the exchequer. Harley, how- ' 
ever, had desired at first to place St.' John in 
a subordinate office, a fact which St. John did 
not forget (Bolinybroke Corresp. i. 132). Lord 
Dartmouth was St. John's colleague ; but St. 
John took the lead, and was entrusted with 
the foreign negotiations. He sat intheparlia- 
ment that followed as member for Berkshire. 

Although petty backstairs intrigues had 
led to the fall o*f the whigs, the new go- 
vernment was supported by the great change 
of public opinion. Peace was clearly desi- 
rable, if hot absolutely necessary. The coun- 
try was becoming sick of the war, jealous of 
its allies, suspicious of the motives of the 
government for refusing terms of peace, and 
irritated by the attack upon Sacheverell. 

Harley and St. John appeared to be bound by 
the closest friendship (see SWIFT, Behaviour 
of the Ministers}, and their chief difficulty 
at first was in the excessive zeal of their 
supporters, who formed the ' October Club.' 
St. John gave assurances to the Dutch of 
continued fidelity to the alliance. The 
' Examiner ' had been started in August in 
the interest of the tory party, and the tenth 
number, attacking the conduct of the war, 
was at once attributed to St. John, and 
served as a manifesto of the new policy. 
When Marlborough reached England at the 
end of 1710, St. John gave him a lecture 
upon the necessity of returning to his old 
friends (Corresp. i. 78). Although the 
duchess was dismissed from her office, the 
duke was persuaded to continue in command 
of the military operations. During the fol- 
lowing session the commons, under St. John's 
management, voted various party addresses : 
they passed the act requiring that members 
should possess a certain income from landed 
property ; voted a sum for building fifty new 
churches in London ; and published a report 
stating that thirty-five millions of money 
had been spent without being sufficiently 
accounted for. The murderous attack upon 
Harley by Guiscard [see under HAKLEY, 
ROBERT, 1661-1724], on 8 March 1711, made 
the victim popular as a martyr. Guiscard had 
been the companion of some of St. John's dis- 
reputable excesses, and had at first intended 
to stab St. John in revenge for his arrest. 
Harley got the wound and the credit by ac- 
cident, and this appears to have stimulated 
their latent jealousy. Harley's elevation to 
the peerage, on 23 May, left to St. John the 
management of the House of Commons ; 
though Harley became lord treasurer, and 
was still supposed to have the supreme 
power. St. John, in the summer, was re- 
sponsible for the expedition to Canada, of 
which he boasts that he was the sole de- 
signer (Corresp. i. 264). The tory policy 
at the time was in favour of diverting Eng- 
lish enterprise from the continental war, 
which, as they held, was chiefly profitable to 
the Dutch and our other allies. The failure 
of the expedition was no doubt insured by 
the military command being entrusted to 
John Hill (d. 1732 ?) [q. v.], whose merit 
was that he was brother of Lady Masham. 

Meanwhile negotiations had been started 
with the Frencli government through the 
Abb6 Gaultier, who had long been in England 
as chaplain to foreign ministers. He was sent 
to France about the end of 1710 by the mini- 
stry. According to Swift (Last Four Years), 
Gaultier had been previously instructed by 
the French court. The papers collected by 




Mackintosh show that this was actually the 
case, although Torcy in his ( Memoirs ' gives 
an apparently inconsistent account. After 
some communications had passed, Gaultier 
came to London with definite proposals for 
a separate negotiation, dated 22 April 1711. 
St. John informed the Dutch pensionary of 
the proposals, with assurances that he would 
act in concert with the states. On 1 July 
Prior was sent with Gaultier to Paris, with 
definite propositions, and returned in August 
with Gaultier and with M. Mesnager, who 
had powers to treat with England or her 
allies. At the request of St. John, however, 
he was instructed to treat separately with 
the English. Although the Duke of Shrews- 
bury, as lord chamberlain (Corresp. i. 335), 
expressed alarm at the probable jealousy of 
the allies, the difficulties were overcome, and 
preliminaries of peace were finally signed on 
27 Sept. Those relating to the English inte- 
rests were kept secret; while more general 
articles were signed at the same time for com- 
munication to the allies. The English mini- 
sters were anxious for secrecy, in order, as 
Torcy observes (TORCY, p. 36), that the Dutch 
might not be aware of the advantages to be 
obtained for English commerce. The Eng- 
lish ambassador, Thomas Wentworth (Lord 
Strafibrd) [q. v.], was instructed on 1 Oct. 
to propose to the Dutch to join a conference 
for a peace based upon these preliminaries. 
The allies were naturally alarmed at the 
separate understanding with France. Buys, 
the pensionary of Amsterdam, was sent to 
ask for explanations. Count Gallas, who re- 
presented the emperor at London, complained 
loudly, published the copy of the preliminary 
articles which had been communicated to 
him, and was forbidden the court (Corresp. 
i. 449). MarlborouglT and Godolphin were 
indignant; and the whigs arranged that 
Prince Eugene should come to England. 
St. John retorted by complaining that Eng- 
land had taken an excessive share of the 
burdens of the war, and intimated that un- 
less the Dutch agreed to the conferences, 
she would cease to take the same part in the 
operations. The allies finally consented to 
the meeting of the congress at Utrecht on 
1 Jan. 1711-12 [cf. ROBINSON, JOHN (1650- 
1723). The whigs were furious, and a 
fierce paper war was raging. St. John 
boasted to the queen that he had seized thir- 
teen libellers, and was at the same time in- 
spiring Swift to write his ' Conduct of the 
Allies.' When parliament met on 7 Dec., a 
motion was carried by the lords condemning 
any peace which should leave Spain and the 
West Indies to the house of Bourbon. The 
preliminaries had stipulated that the crowns 

of France and Spain should not be united 
upon one head, which was understood to 
imply the abandonment of all attempts to 
expel Philip from Spain. The English mi- 
nistry had, in fact, made up their minds to 
this practically inevitable condition; and 
they met the vote of the lords by the creation 
of twelve peers and the dismissal of Marl- 
borough. A promise was made to St. John of 
a peerage at the end of the session, though 
he could not be as yet spared from the com- 
mons (Journal to Stella, 29 Dec. 1711). 

During the following session attacks upon 
the corruption of the previous ministry were 
carried on, and upon one charge Walpole 
was expelled and committed to the Tower 
(17 Jan. 1711-12). A ' Representation of 
the State of the Nation/ drawn up by Sir J. 
Hanmer with the help of St. John and Swift, 
was presented to the queen on 4 March, at- 
tacking the ' Barrier Treaty,' and arguing 
elaborately that we paid most of the ex- 
penses while our allies were getting the chief 
benefits of the war. This view was best 
represented by Arbuthnot, another ' club ' 
friend of St. John, in his ( History of John 
Bull ' (1712). Meanwhile, the full explana- 
tion of the French proposals in February, at 
Utrecht, had again roused the indignation of 
the allies ; while the English ministry were 
still communicating on friendly and confi- 
dential terms with the enemy. The death of 
the dauphin and of his eldest son in February 
and March 1713 produced new difficulties. 
If the infant prince (afterwards Louis XV) 
should die, the king of Spain would become 
heir to the French throne. St. John pro- 
posed to the French that Philip should re- 
nounce his right to succeed ; to which the 
French minister replied that, as the king 
ruled by divine right, any renunciation would 
be invalid. After some correspondence St. 
John (29 April) proposed an alternative 
scheme ; and Torcy finally replied (18 May) 
that one of the two schemes should be 
adopted. The king of Spain was to decide 
which course he would take ; and, mean- 
while, he suggested, it would be very sad 
if any event should happen to destroy the 
good feeling. St. John was satisfied, and on 
10 May, the day after receiving the despatch, 
wrote to Ormonde, who had succeeded to 
Marlboro ugh's command, telling him not to 
engage in any battle. Ormonde was directed 
to keep these orders secret from the allies, 
and was told at the same time that the order 
had been communicated to the French court 
(Corresp. ii. 317, &c.) St. John told Prior 
afterwards that he believed that this order 
had saved the French army (ib. iii. 78). The 
French, by way of security, agreed to put 





Dunkirk in possession of the English until 
the peace, and Ormonde also took possession 
of Ghent. The allies had protested in vain 
against the desertion of the English. The 
Dutch, as St. John put it (20 June), ' kick 
and flounce like wild beasts caught in a toil ; 
yet the cords are too strong for them to 
break' (Committee of Secrecy} ; and, although 
the foreign forces under English orders de- 
clined to abandon their allies, they were told 
that they were no longer to receive pay from 
the English. Upon the French victory at 
Denain (24 July N. S.) Torcy congratulated 
the English minister upon an event which 
was calculated to diminish the old obstinacy 
of their allies. Ormonde's behaviour was 
warmly approved by the English tories (see 
Journal to Stella, 19 July 1712). Mean- 
while the prospects of a satisfactory peace 
had been announced in the queen's speech 
at the end of the session (6 June). One of 
the last measures was the imposition of the 
stamp upon newspapers, by which St. John 
hojfed to destroy the influence of 'Grub 
Street.' As a reward for his services, he 
was created, on 7 July, Viscount Boling- 
broke and Baron St. John of Lydiard Tre- 
goze, with special remainder to collaterals. 
The earldom of Bolingbroke, held by the 
elder branch of his family, had expired in 
the person of Paulet St. John, third earl, on 
5 Oct. 1711 ; and .he was greatly vexed at 
receiving only the lower rank as well as at 
having to abandon his position in the House 
of Commons. ' My promotion,' he says 
(23 July), 'was a 'mortification to me' (Cor- 
resp. ii. 484). 'Jack Hill' was sent soon 
afterwards to take possession of Dunkirk: 
the king of Spain had made his renunciation ; 
and in August Bolingbroke was himself sent 
to Paris to make final arrangements, taking 
Prior and Gaultier with him. An agreement 
for a suspension of arms for four months be- 
tween France and England was signed on 
19 Aug., and Bolingbroke considered that 
the queen was justified, by the conduct of 
the allies, in withdrawing from the war, and 
employing her good offices with France as a 
common friend. 

Bolingbroke at once returned to England, 
visiting Dunkirk on his way, and leaving 
Prior to finish the negotiations. Bolingbroke 
would now have been prepared to make a 
separate treaty of peace (see TOKCY, p. 202). 
He had, however, difficulties at home. Ox- 
ford was dissatisfied with a policy which 
might have led to an actual conflict with 
our former allies, and at any rate would 
shock public opinion. After Bolingbroke's 
return the conduct of the negotiations was 
for a time put into the hands of his col- 

league, Lord Dartmouth, though he continued 
to correspond with Torcy and Prior. He 
was greatly irritated when, in October, he 
was passed over in a distribution of the order 
of the Garter. The allies meanwhile suffered 
other reverses, and the congress at Utrecht 
was being distracted by petty quarrels. The 
French were beginning to take a higher tone 
than the English ministry could approve, 
and now endeavoured to obtain Tournay 
from the Dutch. St. John had declined to 
support this in the previous autumn, although 
he had suggested to Torcy the best means of 
removing the 'unaccountable obstinacy of 
the Dutch.' The Dutch, however, were now 
on more friendly terms with the English, 
and Louis, moved by his own ill-health and 
the precarious state of Anne, became more 
anxious for peace (ToKCY, p. 217), and 
finally abandoned this claim. The last ob- 
stacle was thus removed ; though there were 
various difficulties as to the treaty of com- 
merce still under discussion. Bolingbroke 
in February again took charge of the nego- 
tiations. He was now supported by the 
queen's favourite, Lady Masham, and, his 
influence becoming dominant, the Duke of 
Shrewsbury was sent as ambassador to 
France. At last everything was arranged ; 
and the treaty of Utrecht was signed by the 
English and their allies, except the emperor, 
on 1 April 1713. The peace was announced 
to parliament, which now met after several 
prorogations, in the queen's speech on 9 April. 
The production of Addison's 'Cato' on 
14 April was made the occasion of a party 
demonstration, and Bolingbroke turned the 
point against Marlboro ugh and the whigs 
by presenting the actor Booth with fifty 
guineas for ' defending the cause of liberty 
against a perpetual dictator.' 

The peace of Utrecht became henceforth 
the object of the constant denunciation of 
the whigs, and the disgraceful proceedings 
in connection with the Duke of Ormonde's 
desertion of the allies admit of no defence. 
A full account of Bolingbroke's proceedings 
formed the main topic of the report of the 
committee of secrecy in 1715. The position 
in which the ministry had placed themselves 
undoubtedly enabled the French to obtain 
far better terms than they could have ex- 
pected or had previously claimed, and how- 
ever desirable the peace may have been in 
itself, it seemed to be an ignominious conclu- 
sion of a victorious war. Torcy points out the 
advantage which the French derived from 
their knowledge that Oxford and Boling- 
broke were not only anxious for peace, but 
felt that their heads as well as their fortunes 
might depend upon their success (ToECY, 




p. 52). Bolingbroke admitted afterwards 
that the French had gained too much, but 
threw the whole blame upon the Dutch 
and the whigs, who intrigued against him 
(Eighth Letter on Study of History}. The 
greatest feeling was aroused at the time by 
what now seems the most enlightened part 
of the arrangement. Bolingbroke hoped, as 
he said, that the commercial treaty would 
tend to produce permanently good feeling 
between the countries ( Corresp. iv. 153). The 
proposed regulations, however, were not only 
attacked by the whigs, who were supported j 
by the protected interests, but alienated some | 
of the tories. Bolingbroke was represented ! 
in the House of Commons by Arthur Moore 
[q. v.], the only man whom he seems to have 
consulted on the question, who was suspected 
of corrupt motives and had little personal 
weight. The bill to give effect to the treaty 
was rejected by 194 to 185 on 15 June. 
Bolingbroke is also charged with the shame- 
ful desertion of the Catalans who had sup- 
ported the side of the allies under promises 
that their privileges should be maintained. 
He appears to have considered them as 
troublesome and l turbulent people,' made 
no effective demands on their behalf in nego- 
tiating the treaty, and scarcely remonstrated 
when they were forcibly suppressed by Philip. 
Domestic difficulties had been accumu- 
lating for some time. Oxford, in his ' Brief 
Account of Public Affairs' (published in the 
report of the committee of secrecy), says 
that St. John was already making a party 
for himself in February 1710-11, when an 
attempt was made by Rochester to recon- 
cile them. Swift (Change of the Queen's 
Ministry} says that he had very good reasons 
to know that there were jealousies at the 
time of Guiscard's attempt (Journal to Stella, 
27 April 1711). Bolingbroke thought that 
Oxford had prevented him from receiving 
an earldom and the Garter. But the cha- 
racters of the two were so opposed as to 
make discord certain. Bolingbroke, impe- 
tuous, brilliant, and overbearing, could not 
endure to be led by the timid, procrasti- 
nating, and vacillating Oxford. Oxford's 
occasional interferences in the negotiations 
and their temporary transference to Dart- 
mouth provoked him, and matters soon 
came to a struggle for superiority. Swift, 
who was at Dublin in July 1713, was ear- 
nestly entreated to return in order to try 
once more to patch up a reconciliation. The 
case, however, was hopeless. The critical 
difficulty was one of which Swift was not 
allowed to be aware. The health of the queen 
was evidently breaking, and the question of 
the succession becoming daily more pressing. 

Both Oxford and Bolingbroke had kept up 
negotiations with the Pretender. Gaultier, 
on his first mission to France in 1710, had 
communicated to the Duke of Berwick a pro- 
posal, in Oxford's name, for the restoration of 
the Stuarts upon the death of Anne (BERWICK, 
p. 219). Gaultier brought other communi- 
cations, although the English ministers were 
very cautious to commit themselves to writ- 
ing. Bolingbroke, it is said, threatened to 
send Gaultier out of the kingdom for putting 
on the table a letter signed with the king's 
arms (Marchmont Papers, ii. 241 n.) It is 
asserted in the ' Mackintosh Papers ' that he 
had the secret interviews with the Pretender 
during his visit to Paris in 1712. Boling- 
broke saw him in public at the opera (MAC- 
PHERSON, ii. 338 ; Swift to King, 16 Dec. 1716 ; 
Stuart Papers, Roxburghe Club, p. 383), but 
the private interview is at least doubtful. 
The Jacobites became suspicious of Oxford's 
intentions, but Bolingbroke took up their 
cause decidedly. He spoke openly to Lock- 
hart of Carnwath, and sent advice to the 
exiles (LOCKHART, i. 412-13 ; MACPHERSON, 
ii. 366-7). Bolingbroke's great point was 
that the Pretender should give up the catholic 
church. The Pretender honourably refused | , 
this concession, which would have removed ' 
one of the strongest grounds of objection, ' 
and both Bolingbroke and Oxford are said 
by Gaultier (Stuart Papers in STANHOPE'S 
History, vol. i.) to have ceased to insist upon 
it. The ' Mackintosh Papers,' however, show 
that they attached the greatest importance 
to the proposal. The difficulty illustrates 
Bolingbroke's real attitude. He had no en- 
thusiasm for the Stuarts, and in fact no man 
despised their religious and political creed 
more heartily. It is doubtful whether a 
restoration of the Pretender ever appeared 
practicable either to Oxford or Bolingbroke 
(of. WTON, Queen Anne, ii. 517-19). Their 
position, however, as leaders of the tories 
compelled them to keep up some relations 
with the Jacobites. The accession to the 
crown of the elector of Hanover meant in- 
evitably the triumph of the whigs and the 
ruin of the ministers responsible for the peace. 
Bolingbroke was endeavouring to strengthen 
himself by every available means, and was 
thwarted at every step by the timidity of i _j 
Oxford. He made friends with the queen's I 
favourite, Lady Masham, who had been 
gained by the Jacobites. His appointment 
of her brother to the command of the Canadian 
expedition in 1711, and afterwards to Dun- 
kirk, marks the progress of this connection. 
Oxford asserted that the public had been 
cheated of 20,000/. on the first occasion. 
St. John and Arthur Moore had brought 




him the queen's orders to pay the money, 
which apparently went to Lady Masham or 
her brother (Oxford's ' Brief Account ; ' first 
additional articles of impeachment of Oxford 
and his reply; and see MACPHEKSON, ii. 532). 
St. John now began to hold the predomi- 
nant influence at court. By the end of 1713 
he had profited by Oxford's weakness ; was 
constantly advising the queen, and making 
his influence felt in every department of the 
government. At Christmas 1713 he went 
to Windsor to attend the queen, and found 
Anne suffering from a dangerous illness. 
General alarm was excited. On 1 Feb. the 
queen wrote a letter to the lord mayor an- 
nouncing her recovery, and the intended 
opening of parliament on the 16th (printed 
in BOYEE'S Queen Anne, p. 660). Mean- 
while public excitement was rising. Steele's 
' Crisis' and Swift's 'Public Spirit of the 
Whigs' were the opening blows in a fierce 
controversy. Animated debates took place 
in both houses, and votes were passed in both 
that the protestant succession was not in 
danger. A demand from the Hanoverian 
envoy Schutz that the elector's son (after- 
wards George II) should receive his writ as 
duke of Cambridge perplexed the govern- 
ment. Schutz, at Bolingbroke's desire, was 
forbidden the court, and his recall was de- 
manded from the elector. The queen was 
made to write indignant letters to the Duke 
of Cambridge and his grandmother, the 
electress Sophia, on 19 May (BoYER, p. 699), 
and the death of the electress immediately 
afterwards was attributed to the insult. To 
lull the fears which had been aroused, a pro- 
clamation was issued on 23 June offering a 
reward of 6,000/. for the arrest of the Pre- 
tender, if he should land in England. Boling- 
broke privately assured the French minister 
that this would make no difference. At the 
same time a bitter warfare was taking place 
over the Schism Act, which was introduced 
in the House of Commons on 12 May by Sir 
William Wyndham, who had become chan- 
cellor of the exchequer through Bolingbroke's 
influence. It was carried by great majorities, 
and, after a sharp struggle in the lords, was 
passed with some amendment, and received 
the queen's assent 011 25 June. The in- 
tention of the measure was to make a license 
from a bishop necessary for schoolmasters, 
and therefore to take all education out of the 
hands of the dissenters. Bolingbroke, whose 
indifference to orthodox belief was notorious, 
was bitterly taunted by the great whig lords, 
but carried his point. Oxford lost his last 
influence with his party by shuffling, and 
finally declining to vote either way. He 
still tried to hold on, and his last attempt 

appears to have been an accusation against 

Arthur Moore, who had been concerned in 

negotiating the commercial treaty with Spain, 

and was supposed to have taken bribes for 

himself, Bolingbroke, and Lady Masham. A 

| censure was refused by a narrow majority in 

' the House of Lords, and the session ended 

immediately afterwards (9 July). 

A final rupture followed, and on 27 July 
Oxford was dismissed from his offices. ' If 
my grooms did not live a happier life than 
I have done this great while,' Bolingbroke 
had written to Swift (13 July), * I am sure 
they would quit my service.' He was still 
in perplexity. On the day of Oxford's dis- 
missal he gave a dinner to the leading whigs, 
and the next day told an agent to prepare for 
making overtures to the elector of Hanover. 
Meanwhile, it was generally noticed (see 
BOYER. Queen Anne, p. 679) that the army 
was being ' remodelled ' and the most impor- 
tant posts put in the hands of Jacobites. 
The Duke of Ormonde was made warden of 
the Cinque ports, and the whig earl of Dorset 
advised to give up the governorship of Dover 
Castle (Walpole to Mann, 17 May 1749). 
Bolingbroke declared, as the French envoy 
Herville stated, on 2 Aug. that in six weeks 
he could have made matters safe (Mackintosh 
Collection). Queen Anne had died the day 
before. What Bolingbroke's plans may have 
been must be uncertain. He said afterwards, 
in his letter to Windham, that ' none of us 
had any very settled resolution 'as to the steps 
to be taken. Probably he wished to attain 
such a position as to be able to dictate terms 
to whigs or Jacobites according to circum- 
stances. He would not decide which card to 
play till he knew which was the trump suit. 
The intervention of Argyle and Somerset, 
and the appointment of Shrewsbury as trea- 
surer just before the queen's death, destroyed 
Bolingbroke's power (in regard to this in- 
cident see LECKY, i. 164 n.) ' Oxford was re- 
moved on Tuesday, the queen died on Sunday/ 
wrote Bolingbroke to Swift (3 Aug.) ' What 
a world this is ! and how does fortune banter 

The dismissal of Bolingbroke from his office 
was among the first acts of the new king. 
He had held office for nearly four years of 
extraordinary activity. Swift (Behaviour of 
the Queen's Last Ministry) says that he 
' would plod whole days and nights like the 
lowest clerk in an office,' and his correspon- 
dence gives abundant indications of his 
energy. He was as much given to pleasure 
as to business, and, as Swift observes in the 
same place, had a great respect for 'Alci- 
biades and Petronius, especially the latter, 
whom he would be gladly thought to re- 




semble.' Swift also states that he partly 
broke off his habits of drinking, but did not 
refrain from ' other liberties.' The account 
is sufficiently confirmed by many passages in 
the Journal to Stella.' The ' Brothers Club/ 
founded by him in June 1711, was intended 
to bring together the leading politicians and 
authors, and to direct the patronage of lite- 
rature (Journal to Stella, 21 June 1711, and 
St. John's letter to Orrery, 12 June), and 
rivalled the Whig Kit-cat Club. It became, 
however, chiefly political and convivial. Lady 
Bolingbroke appears to have been attached 
to her husband in spite of many wrongs, and 
was pitied and liked by Swift (see, e.g., Journal 
of 10 April 1711). They set up together in 
a new house at Golden Square, then the most 
fashionable part of the town, at the end of 
1711. He spent his holidays with her at 
Bucklebury, where he indulged in hunting, 
knew all his hounds by name, and smoked 
and drank with the country squires (Journal 
to Stella, 4 and 5 Aug. 1711, and Swift to 
Bolingbroke, 14 Sept. 1714). They were 
never formally separated, though Boling- 
broke's misconduct was flagrant (see Went- 
worth Papers, 1883, pp. 294, 395). Macknight's 
assertion that Bolingbroke had a ' separate 
establishment' at Ashdown Park is a mistake. 
He was at Ashdown Park, in the neighbour- 
hood of Bucklebury, for a few days' hunting 
in October (Corresp. iv. 318, &c.), but his time 
was passed between London and Windsor. 
Lady Bolingbroke's letter in August is a 
playful reference to her being ' discarded' by 
Oxford, not by Bolingbroke. Voltaire is re- 
sponsible for the story of the woman who 
said upon his taking office, ' Seven thousand 
guineas a year, my girls, and all for us! 
( Works, 1819, &c. Ivii. 273). Upon his dis- 
missal Bolingbroke retired to Bucklebury. 
His papers had been seized, and a pamphlet 
called ' The Secret History of the White Staff, 
said to have been written by Defoe at Ox- 
ford's instigation, endeavoured to show that 
Bolingbroke's high-handed policy was leading 
him to the Jacobites, and that Oxford had 
done his best to resist. A pamphlet in 
answer has been attributed to Bolingbroke. 
The new parliament was controlled by the 
whigs. Bolingbroke, on the motion for an 
answer to the king's speech, spoke against 
passage reflecting upon the queen's ministers 
(22 March). He was defeated by 66 to 33, 
and in the House of Commons an address 
prepared by W^alpole announced that an 
attack was to be made upon the authors oi 
the treaty. Bolingbroke showed himself at 
Drury Lane, and bespoke a play, but instantly 
set out for Dover. Thence (27 March) he 
wrote a letter to his friend, Lord Lansdowne 

reprinted in Somers Tracts, vol. xiii.), and 
massed over to Calais in disguise. The letter,, 
which was shown about, protested his inno- 
cence, but said that he knew of a design to 
pursue him to the scaffold.' Marlborough 
seems to have given him a hint to fly, though 
tie denies, in the letter to Sir W. Wyndham, 
that he was moved by Marlborough's ' arti- 
fices.' He 'knew him too well.' Bolingbroke 
says in the same place that one motive was his 
hatred for Oxford, whom he would not consult 
ven for their common defence. If he sup- 
posed Oxford to have inspired the ' Secret 
History,' he might probably infer that his 
old colleague was ready to make peace by 
betraying him. Meanwhile a ' committee of 
secrecy ' was appointed, and made its report, 
through Walpole, on 9 June. A motion for 
his impeachment was unanimously carried 
(10 June). An act of attainder, unless he 
should surrender by 10 Sept., was passed on 
18 Aug., and his name, with that of the Duke 
of Ormonde, was erased from the roll of peers- 
on 14 Sept. (Par/. Hist. vii. 66, 143, 214). 

Bolingbroke was warmly received in 
France. His first step apparently was to 
tell the English ambassador, Lord Stair, that 
he intended to retire to an ' obscure retreat/ 
and would make no engagement with the 
Jacobites (Letters to Stair and Stanhope 
in MACZNIGHT, pp. 451-2). Berwick, how- 
ever, says (p. 225) that Bolingbroke saw him 
at once and declared his goodwill, to the 
Jacobite cause. He retired to Lyons and in 
July received a messenger from the tories 
which determined him to have an interview 
with the Pretender at Commercy. He con- 
sented to be James's secretary of state. His 
first letter in that capacity (STANHOPE, His- 
tory, vol. i. App.) is dated 23 July (12 July 
O.S.) The bill of attainder, by a reference 
to which he justifies himself in his letter to 
Wyndham, was not yet introduced, but his 
assailants had no doubt sufficiently indicated 
their intentions. 

1^. Bolingbroke was now minister in a mock 
court, and found it hard, as Stair afterwards 
told the elder Horace Walpole (3 March 
1716), to 'play his part with a grave enough 
face.' It was full of Irish priests, whom he 
especially despised, and who heartly dis- 
liked him, and of refugees cherishing absurd 
illusions, and as ignorant of England as of 
Japan. His own account of his conduct is 
probably correct enough. He thought, he 
says, that the English people were inclining 
daily towards Jacobitism. He was, however, 
fully convinced that a rising would be im- 
practicable unless it were supported by the 
French. He hoped that Louis XIV, though 
not likely to intend a' new war, might be 




willing to give help, and be ultimately en- 
tangled. He applied to Torcy for help, and 
warned the Pretender against an Irish friar, 
who professed to come from Ormonde to re- 

?uest James to start at once for England. The 
'retender received the warning graciously, 
and in return gave Bolingbroke a patent for 
an earldom. In spite of this, he was only 
prevented by the interference of the French 
ministry from acting at once upon the 
message. Bolingbroke, with Berwick's ad- 
vice, then applied for help to Charles XII 
of Sweden, but without success. Meanwhile 
Ormonde [see under BUTLEE, JAMES, second 
DUKE OP ORMONDE] had been impeached, 
and fled to France at the beginning of Au- 
gust. A The hopes which had been enter- 
tained from his influence in England were 
crushed. He occupied the same house with 
Bolingbroke at Paris. The death of Louis XIV 
on 1 Sept. (N.S.) was still more conclusive. 
Louis had induced his grandson, the king of 
Spain, to send money to the Jacobites, and 
some arms had been provided in French 
ships at Havre. The Duke of Orleans, now 
regent, was on good terms with Lord Stair, 
and resolved not to help the Jacobites. Bo- 
lingbroke had carried on some indirect in- 
trigues with him through Mme. de Tencin, 
who was associated with his favourite, Du 
Bois. Now, however, Sir George Byng 
entered the roads at Havre, and upon his 
request the arms were removed to the French 
magazines, and the regent promised that they 
should not be used against the English. 

Bolingbroke had protested against a rising 
without better prospects. The Pretender, 
however, had, without the knowledge of his 
ministers (BERWICK, p. 245), sent orders to 
the Earl of Mar for a rising in Scotland. 
The Pretender resolved to go to Scotland 
himself, and Bolingbroke was employed to 
draw up a declaration. Bolingbroke was 
careful to make promises of security for the 
church of England, and was intensely 
irritated when he found that the document 
had been edited by James's priests and the 
assurances removed.. Ormonde departed and 
made a futile attempt to land in the west of 
England. James started in October, but 
after many delays only reached Scotland in 
December 1715, after the rising had failed. 
Bolingbroke meanwhile stayed in Paris, and 
tried to carry on the plot. A woman named 
Olive Trant, with some congenial allies, had 
been in communication with Ormonde, who 
did not confide in Bolingbroke, and profess- 
ing to negotiate on his behalf with the re- 
gent. On Ormonde's departure she applied to 
Bolingbroke, who, finding reasons to distrust 
her, applied directly to the regent, through 

his minister, Huxelles, and threw over Mrs. 
Trant and her friends. The Pretender on 
leaving Scotland went to Paris, and sent 
Bolingbroke to request an interview with 
the regent, who, however, declined. The 
Pretender then said that he would go to 
Lorraine, and asked Bolingbroke when he 
could follow. Instead of going to Lorraine, 
however, the Pretender went to the ' little 
house in the Bois de Boulogne ' occupied by 
Mrs. Trant and her friends, and there listened 
to complaints against Bolingbroke. Ormonde, 
at the request of the Earl of Mar, repeated 
some phrases which Bolingbroke had when 
drunk applied to the Pretender. Next day 
Ormonde brought Bolingbroke notes dismiss- 
ing him from his office and ordering him to 
give up his papers. He gave up the papers, 
which would all go in 'a letter-case of 
moderate size,' and was glad to be free from 
the connection. When Mary of Modena sent 
a message to him hoping for a reconciliation, 
he replied, 'May my arm rot off" if I ever use 
pen or sword in their service again ! ' (CoxE, 
Walpole, i. 200). Bolingbroke was of course 
accused of treachery, and his secretary wrote 
some letters in answer (printed in TINDAL'S 
Rapin, ii. 477 ; see full account of these 
transactions in the i Letter to Sir W. Wynd- 
ham '). Berwick emphatically declares that 
Bolingbroke had done all that was possible 
for the cause (BERWICK, p. 282). 

Lord Stair sent an account of these pro- 
ceedings to Horace Walpole on 3 March 
1716. On 28 March Stanhope, the secretary 
of state, wrote to Stair, authorising him to 
sound Bolingbroke and to make him pro- 
mises of the king's favour (letter in MACK- 
NIGHT, p. 495). He saw Bolingbroke ac- 
cordingly, who declared that he had aban- 
doned the Jacobite cause, and would do all 
he could to detach his friends from it. He 
added that he would never act as an in- 
former or reveal any secrets that had been 
entrusted to him. Soon afterwards Boling- 
broke's father was createdViscount St. John, 
with remainder to his sons by a second wife. 
Lady Bolingbroke was interceding for her 
husband, and { found great favour ' from the 
king (Letters to Swift, 5 May and4Aug. 1716). 
In September Bolingbroke wrote a letter to 
Sir W. Wyndham exhorting him to abandon 
the Jacobites, and arranged that it should 
be submitted to the government before reach- 
ing his friend (see letters COXE'S Walpole, ii. 
308, &c.) Bolingbroke afterwards declared 
that he had received promises of restoration 
from the king, though the precise terms do 
not appear. Nothing was done for him at 
present. He amused himself towards the 
end of 1716 by writing his 'Reflections upon 




Exile/ in imitation of Seneca. The Jacobites 
were meanwhile denouncing him as a spy 
and a traitor. He determined to clear him- 
self and do service to the English govern- 
ment by writing an ' apologia/ and in April 
1717 began the letter to Sir W. Wyndham, 
which is his most interesting autobiographi- 
cal document. It gives full details of his 
conduct as the Pretender's minister, and 
appears to be a frank statement of his posi- 
tion. The letter, however, was not published ] 
till after Bolingbroke's death. Mackiiight 
suggests that he wished before publishing 
to receive some more definite pledge. The 
letter, however, goes into details which 
might well be thought unfit for publication, 
and Bolingbroke seems always to have been 
singularly shy of publishing anything under 
his own name. For some time he was left 
in a painful state of suspense. In 1717 he 
had formed an intimacy with Marie Claire 
Deschamps de Marcilly, who had in 1695 
become the second wife of the Marquis de 
Villette, a cousin of Mme. de Maintenon. 
He died in 1707, and his widow was now 
forty-two (GRIMOARD, i. 145). She had a 
house in Paris and a family mansion at Mar- 
cilly, near Nogent-sur-Seine, where Boling- 
broke spent much time, amusing himself with 
hunting, and superintending buildings. Lady 
Bolingbroke died in November 1718, when 
Bucklebury went to the heirs of her sister. 
She had left nothing to Bolingbroke, and 
had probably been alienated by the accounts 
of his relations with Mme. de Villette. 
Arbuthnot mentions a rumour of Boling- 
broke's marriage to Mme. de Villette in a 
letter to Swift of 11 Dec. 1718. Bolingbroke 
had some rivals, but the marriage ultimately 
took place at Aix-la-Chapelle in May 1720. 
His wife joined the church of England on 
the occasion. According to an anecdote told 
by Grimoard, Bolingbroke's morals were not 
at once reformed, but he seems to have 
always lived on very affectionate terms with 
his second wife. Bolingbroke had invested 
some money in the Mississippi scheme, and 
sold some of the shares to buy, at the time 
of his marriage, a small estate near Orleans. 
His letters seem to imply, though the con- 
trary has been said, that his speculation 
was the reverse of profitable (ib. iii. 63, 68). 
The estate was called La Source, from what 
Bolingbroke describes as ' the biggest and 
clearest spring perhaps in Europe ' (to Swift, 
28 July 1721). He rebuilt the house and or- 
namented the grounds. A description given 
in Robert Plumer Ward's novel, l De Vere ' 
(1827, iii. 186-200), applies to this, as is 
shown by the inscriptions quoted, not to a 
later house, as Lord Stanhope says. He here 

* For 'buy' 
read c rent for 2500 livres per annum 
(S. Radice, " Bolingbroke in France," Notes 
and Queries, clxxvii. 309) ' ; after ' Orleans ' 
insert ', which he continued to rent until 
March 1734 (ibid.) ' 

began philosophical studies, under the guid- 
ance of Leveque de Pouilly, and discussed the 
chronology of the bible. He formed also a 
friendship with Brook Taylor [q. v.], the 
eminent mathematician, who stayed at La 
Source in 1720, and had himself a turn for 
philosophical discussion. Bolingbroke after- 
wards showed him much kindness (see TAY- 
LOR'S Contemplatio Philosophica, 1793). He 
was also visited here by Voltaire, who speaks 
with enthusiasm of his politeness, learning, 
and complete command of French. Boling- 
broke, moreover, and his wife appreciated the 
' Henriade/ then in manuscript (Voltaire 
to Thieriot, 2 Jan. 1722). In 1722 Boling- 
broke met at Paris Lord Polwarth (March- 
mont Papers, ii. 187 n.) } who was on his way to 
the congress of Cambray, and complained of 
the delay in his pardon. Polwarth gave him 
a promise from Lord Carteret, who, as secre- 
tary of state, was then struggling in the 
cabinet against AValpole and Townshend. 
Bolingbroke, thus encouraged, applied to the 
king and to the other ministers. His pardon 
passed the great seal in May 1723. He went 
to London in June, and wrote to Townshend, 
thanking him warmly and sending acknow- 
ledgments to the king and the Duchess of 
LTJSINA von der]. They sent gracious mes- 
sages in return, though pointing out that 
his full restitution would depend upon par- 
liament. Bolingbroke now took the side 
of Walpole. He proposed to bring over 
some of his tory friends to Walpole's sup- 
port (CoxE, ii. 264). Walpole warned him 
that such a scheme, if known, would be 
fatal to his hopes from a whig parliament. 
Bolingbroke returned to France, and there 
endeavoured in the winter co make him- 
self useful to the Walpoles. Horace Wal- 
pole was sent there to oppose Sir Luke 
Schaub, Carteret's agent, in various in- 
trigues which followed the death of the 
regent (2 Dec. 1723). Bolingbroke gave in- 
formation as to the state of politics in France. 
He offered to use his influence with the 
Duke of Bourbon, the new prime minister, 
with whose friendship he had been 'honoured 
these many years ' (to Harcourt, 28 Dec. 1723). 
Horace Walpole made use of Bolingbroke's 
information, but was on his guard against 
allowing Bolingbroke to get the negotiation 
into his own hands (Horace Walpole's letter 
in COXE'S Lord Walpole, chap, vi., gives the 
fullest account of these transactions). Al- 
though Bolingbroke was thus prevented 
from establishing so strong a claim as he 
desired, he had made himself useful, and 
more might be expected from him, as Horace 
Walpole observes. Mme. de Villette had en- 




trusted 50,000/. to Sir Matthew Decker [q. v.] 
New family arrangements upon the marriage 
of a daughter made it desirable to obtain 
the repayment of this money. Decker made 
difficulties, on the ground that, as she was 
now Bolingbroke's wife, he might be respon- 
sible to parliament for the money. It was 
decided that she should go to England, with 
a recommendation from the Duke of Bour- 
bon, to get the matter settled. The ministers 
approved, and a present of 11,OOOZ. to the 
Duchess of Kendal brought the business to a 
successful end. Lady Bolingbroke with this 
influence obtained also a promise of parlia- 
mentary action in the next session (CoxE, 
ii. 325-32, 344). An act was accordingly 
passed, though with some opposition, in 
1725 enabling Bolingbroke to inherit and ac- 
quire real estate, though still leaving him 
excluded from the House of Lords. Coxe 
states, on the authority of unpublished 
papers (Life of Lord Walpole, ch. vi.), that 
Walpole only agreed to the measure when 
' threatened with dismission ' by the king 
and the duchess, and then compromised by 
refusing a complete restoration. Boling- 
broke therefore owed him no gratitude, and 
renewed his old enmity. 

Bolingbroke now settled at Dawley, near 
Uxbridge. He was within a moderate dis- 
tance of Pope's villa at Twickenham, and 
soon became the object of Pope's reverence 
and the inspirer of much of his poetry. 
Swift, during his visits to England in 1726 
and 1727, renewed his personal acquaintance 
with Bolingbroke. Voltaire when in Eng- 
land at this time had his letters directed to 
Bolingbroke's house, and had some inter- 
course with him and his literary friends. 
It does not appear, however, that they 
really saw much of each other, and Boling- 
broke evidently suspected Voltaire's sincerity 
(CHUKTON COLLINS, Voltaire in England}. 
Voltaire had talked of dedicating the 
* Henriade ' to Bolingbroke (GRIMOARD, iii. 
269, 274), and, as Bolingbroke thought, tried 
to make a ' dupe ' of him by verbiage.' After- 
wards, however, Voltaire dedicated to him 
the ' Brutus ' (first played in December 
1730), in language hardly warmer than that 
of the early letter to Thieriot. Bolingbroke 
acted the part of country gentleman and 
farmer with great spirit, and had his hall 
painted with rakes and spades, says Pope 
(to Swift, 28 June 1728), ' to countenance 
his calling it a farm.' 

Meanwhile he was again taking an im- 
portant though obscure part in politics. 
Pulteney's formal rupture with "Walpole 
took place in the spring of 1726 [see under 

he was ready to accept the alliance of Boling- 
broke and Bolingbroke's disciple, Wyndham. 
The first indication was the appearance of the 
1 Craftsman ' in December 1726. Bolingbroke 
contributed in the beginning of 1726-7 three 
papers, by an ' Occasional Writer,' bitterly 
attacking the Walpoles. He proposed to 
Swift to follow up the discussion (to Swift, 
18 May and August 1727). He made a 
more dangerous move by sending a paper 
through the Duchess of Kendal to the king. 
The king handed it to Walpole, who there- 
upon insisted, for fear of being charged with 
keeping the thing to himself, that Boling- 
broke should be admitted to an audience. 
The audience was granted; but the king 
only laughed, and told Walpole that Boling- 
broke had merely talked bagatelles. Wal- 
pole, however, was greatly alarmed, thinking 
that in time the duchess's influence would 
be irresistible (CoxE, ii. 344, 571). The 
king's death (9 June 1727) put an end to 
these intrigues ; and Bolingbroke remained 
at Dawley, amusing himself with farming 
and in the literary warfare of Pope, whose 
' Dunciad ' appeared at this time. At the 
end of 1728 he again attacked the foreign 
policy of the government in the l Crafts- 
man.' His letters, signed ' John Trot,' 
brought him into conflict with Bishop 
Hoadly, and with a writer in the ( London 
Journal ' who signed himself ' Publicola,' 
and was supposed to be Walpole. The illness 
of his wife took him to Aix-la-Chapelle in 

1729. He returned to Dawley in October, 
while she remained abroad till the end of 

1730. Bolingbroke now made it his great end 
to bring about a combination between the 
opposition whigs who followed Pulteney 
and the tories led by his old pupil, Sir W. 
Wyndham. His knowledge of foreign poli- 
tics enabled him to speak with authority 
upon the complicated series of transactions 
which Walpole and his brother were carry- 
ing on, and upon which he could write dig- 
nified letters in the ' Craftsman.' His lead- 
ing principle was that whatever the Walpoles 
did was wicked, corrupt, and blundering. He 
sent his private secretary, Brinsden, to Dun- 
kirk to examine the state of the fortifications. 
Sir W. Wyndham made a motion in the 
house upon the subject, and asserted that 
the demolition was not properly enforced. 
Bolingbroke was bitterly denounced by Wal- 
pole and Pelham, who, according to Horace 
Walpole (CoxE, ii. 669), roused the warmest 
indignation against their enemy in the 
house. After the session Bolingbroke began 
a series of letters in the ' Craftsman ' called 
' Remarks on the History of England, by 
Humphry Oldcastle.' Chesterfield recom- 




mended his son to ' transcribe, imitate, emu- 
late ' them, although the style scarcely re- 
deems the poverty of the subjects. The 
last letter (22 May 1731) was a defence of 
Pulteney and himself, which provoked ' Re- 
marks on the "Craftsman's" Vindication,' 
inspired, if not written, by Walpole. Pul- 
teney's reply to the ' Remarks ' caused his 
dismissal from the privy council, while 
Bolingbroke retorted in a ' Final Answer ' 
of some biographical interest. 

Bolingbroke was now writing the philo- 
sophical fragments which were partly ver- 
sified in Pope's ' Essay on Man.' Wyndham 
still represented his opinions in the House 
of Commons, especially by attacks upon the 
standing army, and by speeches in favour of 
the Pension Bill, first introduced by Sandys 
in ] 730. This bill, disqualifying holders of 
pensions for the House of Commons, was so 
far popular that Walpole allowed it to pass 
more than once, and caused it to be rejected 
by the House of Lords. Bolingbroke fre- 
quently insists upon the topics upon which 
whigs and Jacobites could agree in opposing 
the government. The political world, how- 
ever, was comparatively quiet until the 
great storm of Walpole's Excise Bill again 
roused the hopes of the opposition in 1733. 
Wyndham's speeches in the house were in- 
spired by Bolingbroke, and regarded as the 
most powerful on the opposition side. The 
subsequent dismissal by Walpole of Chester- 
field and other suspected traitors strength- 
ened the ranks of the opposition by fresh 
whig deserters. Bolingbroke carried on the 
assault by a fresh series of letters in the 
1 Craftsman' called 'A Dissertation on Par- 
ties,' which were collected, with a bitter de- 
dication to Walpole. They have often been 
considered as the ablest of his writings. In 
the session of 1734 he suggested an attack 
upon the Septennial Act. The whigs in 
opposition had some delicacy in proposing to 
repeal a measure for which their own party 
had been responsible. Bolingbroke, however, 
and the tories prevailed, and a motion for 
the repeal was proposed on 13 March. 
Wyndham, in his speech, drew a fancy por- 
trait of Walpole, to which Walpole replied 
by describing a traitor who spat venom 
through the mouths of his dupes. The mo- 
tion was rejected by 247 to 184, and the 
whigs in opposition appear to have been dis- 
gusted with Bolingbroke. Walpole had a 
majority in the new parliament, which met 
in January 1735, and Bolingbroke suddenly 
gave up the game, thoroughly discouraged. 
Some speculation has been wasted upon his 
precise motives. His letters to Wynd- 
ham at the time (CoxE, ii. 333, &c.) give 

vague generalities. In a letter written in 
1739 he tells Wyndham that Pulteney 
thought that his presence in England was 
hurtful (CoxE, iii. 523 ; see also Marchmont 
Papers, ii. 179, and iii. 350). It is probable 
enough that the opposition whigs felt that 
the suspicions of his influence in the back- 
ground made them unpopular. An intima- 
tion to this effect would be specially annoy- 
ing to a proud and sensitive man, who, after 
struggling for years to form an alliance 
with the whigs, was now told that he was 
in their way. There were no immediate 
prospects of victory, and his restoration to 
the House of Lords was obviously impossible. 
Pulteney told Swift (22 Nov. 1735) that the 
cause of Bolingbroke's retreat was want of 
money. He would not be able to return, 
said Pulteney, till the death of his father, 
who was still ' very hale/ brought him the 
family estates. Bolingbroke was always ex- 
travagant, and was certainly embarrassed at 
this time. He was always impulsive and 
given to hasty decisions ; and there seems to 
be no cause for supposing, as Coxe suggests, 
that Walpole had discovered intrigues with 
foreign ministers. It is of course impos- 
sible to estimate the importance of Boling- 
broke's influence during the preceding period. 
Hervey (Memoirs, ii. 86) observes that the 
quiet of the next session (1736) was due in part 
to his departure. His writings in the ' Crafts- 
man ' were the most brilliant pieces of jour- 
nalism between the time of the ' Examiner ' 
and Junius. His policy, however, was on 
the whole a failure, and the attempt to 
unite irreconcilable elements led to a final 

Bolingbroke now retired to Chanteloup 
in Touraine, afterwards occupied by the 
Due de Choiseul. He endeavoured to dis- 
pose of Dawley, which was ultimately sold, 
after long negotiations, in 1739. Pope tells 
Swift (17 May 1739) that 26,000/. was paid 
for it. From 1736 Bolingbroke writes from 
Argeville (Addit. MS. 34196), a chateau 
on the Seine between Fontainebleau and 
Montereau. Bolingbroke, says Pope in the 
same letter, was still hunting twice a week, 
and had the whole forest of Fontainebleau 
at his command. One of his wife's daughters 
was married to the Baron deVolore, governor 
of Fontainebleau, and her other daughter was 
abbess of the convent of Notre-Dame at 
Sens (REMUSAT, i. 408). Lady Bolingbroke 
spent part of her time at this convent, and 
Bolingbroke was allowed to occupy & pavilion 
in a garden belonging to it, where he could 
pursue his studies (Marchmont Papers, ii. 
285). He wrote essays upon history and 
the ' Uses of Retirement ' in the form of letters 




to friends, and contemplated a history of the 
reign of Queen Anne, to which Swift and 
Pope make frequent references. He had 
been discussing this project for years (see 
letter to Swift, 19 Nov. 1729), and in 1736 
was asking Wyndham to apply to the Duchess 
of Marlborough for information about her 
husband's campaigns (CoxE, ii. 337). The 
only fragment executed is apparently repre- 
sented by the 'Eighth Letter on the Study of 
History.' In 1738 he visited England upon 
the Dawley business. He was introduced 
to Frederick, prince of Wales, who was now 
the centre of the opposition party. Boling- 
broke had apparently no concern in the 
quarrel between the prince and his father in 
1737 (ib. ii. 494), but he now wished to re- 
commend himself to the new combination. 
The result was ' The Patriot King,' dated 
December 1738, It is his most elaborate 
piece of rhetoric ; and Chesterfield declares 
that till he read it he did not know ' the 
extent and power of the English language ' 
( Works, 1845, i. 376). An essay previously 
written upon the ' Spirit of Patriotism,' and 
afterwards addressed to Lyttelton, forms an 
introduction, and a paper on ' The State of 
Parties at the Accession of George I ' is an 
appendix, added at Lyttelton's suggestion. 
The manuscripts were intrusted to Pope, 
with whom Bolingbroke was staying at the 
time, but not published. 

Bolingbroke returned to France in the 
spring of 1739. He had now ceased to have 
any real influence in politics. He continued 
to write to Sir W. Wyndham, and expressed 
the gloomiest views of English affairs in 
general. The death of Wyndham (17 June 
1740) deprived him of his most attached 
friend. Letters to him upon this occasion 
from Pope and Lyttelton (printed in MAC- 
KNIGHT, pp. 643-9) indicate the great im- 
portance attributed to the loss. Boling- 
broke now adopted Hugh Hume [q. v.], who 
in February had become third Earl of March- 
mont, as the successor to his confidence, and 
said that he would address to him all the 
philosophical and historical papers, the his- 
torical part of which had been intended for 
Wyndham. He was at this time revising 
the papers addressed to Pope (Marchmont 
Papers, ii. 213), and Chesterfield, who saw 
him in France in 1741, says that he would 
talk nothing but metaphysics (CHESTER- 
FIELD, v. 443). A close correspondence fol- 
lowed with Marchmont, in which Boling- 
broke wrote fully and vigorously upon the 
last struggle with Walpole. In April 1742 
Bolingbroke inherited the house at Battersea 
upon the death of his father, Lord St. John. 
He visited London, but found that the fall 

of Walpole had made no opening for his 
activity. He retired again to Argeville, and 
left his house at Battersea to Marchmont 
(Marchmont Papers, ii. 280). In 1743 he 
was again in England. Pope had now fallen 
under the influence of Warburton. He had 
in the previous year shown Bolingbroke's 
letters on the ' Study of History,' containing 
remarks on Jewish chronology, to Warbur- 
ton, and innocently assured his friend that 
Bolingbroke would be glad to receive a 
candid criticism. Warburton wrote some 
remarks on the spot, which Pope sent to 
Bolingbroke. Bolingbroke's wrath was 
roused, and he made some very disagreeable 
remarks upon his critic. Pope, however, 
now introduced the two, and they all dined 
together at the house of Murray, afterwards 
Lord Mansfield. A sharp altercation fol- 
lowed, which led to later quarrels (see end 
of Warburton's fourth letter on Boling- 
broke's philosophy ; the end of Bolingbroke's 
fourth l Philosophical Essay ; ' and RUFFHEAD, 
Pope, p. 220). Bolingbroke was again at 
Argeville in June 1743, and went to Aix-la- 
Chapelle for his own and his wife's health 
in August. Thence he resolved to return 
to England and settle at Battersea with his 
friend Marchmont. He was present at Pope's 
death (30 May 1744), and much affected. 
His discovery that Pope had had a question- 
able transaction with the Duchess of Marl- 
borough, and afterwards that he had secretly 
printed fifteen hundred copies of the ' Patriot 
King ' [see under POPE, ALEXANDER], roused 
Bolingbroke's indignation, and he com- 
plained bitterly to Marchmont (22 Oct. 
1744). A bitter controversy followed a 
little later. Bolingbroke made up his mind 
to publish a correct edition of the ' Patriot 
King,' some of the copies printed by Pope 
being in circulation. David Mallet [q. v.], 
who was known to him as a dependent of 
the Prince of Wales and Lyttelton, edited 
the book, and was said to be author of the 
preface. In this an attack was made upon 
Pope for his breach of faith. Warburton 
retorted in a letter to the 'Editor of the 
Letters on Patriotism,' &c., and Bolingbroke 
replied in, or inspired, a ' Familiar Epistle to 
the most impudent man living.' A final 
reply of unknown authorship was made in 
1 A Letter to the Lord Viscount Bolingbroke, 
occasioned by his treatment of a deceased 
friend ' (see WATSON, Life of Warburton, p. 
366, for Mallet's denial of his authorship of 
the * Familiar Epistle'). Bolingbroke's con- 
duct appears to have been generally con- 
demned. Chesterfield told him that he had 
now succeeded in uniting whigs, tories, trim- 
mers, and Jacobites against himself (March- 




mont Papers, ii. 380 ; see also H. Walpole 
to Mann, Correspondence, ii. 158-60). 

Meanwhile Bolingbroke continued to live 
at Battersea. He was visited by his politi- 
cal friends, and kept up his correspondence 
with Marchmont. He speaks of political af- 
fairs in a tone of despondency, and had 
little influence, though still under suspicion. 
Chesterfield, who admired him warmly, de- 
fended Marchmont, of whom the king had 
complained for intimacy with Bolingbroke ; 
and told the king that he frequently himself 
talked with Bolingbroke to profit by his 
knowledge of foreign affairs. Bolingbroke's 
last political writing was an unfinished 
paper on the ' Present State of the Nation,' 
written apparently in 1749. His own health 
was breaking, and his wife obviously sink- 
ing. She died on 18 March 1750, and was 
buried at Battersea on the 22nd. Ele ' acted 
grief,' says Horace Walpole spitefully, 'flung 
himself upon her bed, and asked if she could 
forgive him ' (to Mann, Correspondence, ii. 202). 
The grief was certainly genuine. Boling- 
broke's warm affection for his wife is the most 
amiable trait in his private character. As 
Walpole says in the same letter, she was 
greatly admired for wit, and reports of her 
talk in Marchmont's diary show especially 
that her familiarity with French society 
enabled her to take an effective part in con- 
versations upon foreign politics. Her death 
involved him in a lawsuit about her pro- 
perty in France which outlasted his life. 
His marriage was denied by some of his 
wife's relations. Ultimately the case was 
decided in his favour in March 1752. He 
made his will on 22 Nov. 1750, leaving 
legacies to his servants, and all his works, 
published and unpublished, to Mallet. He 
died of a cancer in the face on 12 Dec. 1751. 
Chesterfield saw him shortly before his 
death, and reports his saying, l God, who had 
placed me here, will do what he pleases 
with me hereafter ; and he knows best what 
to do. May he bless you ! ' (see CHESTER- 
FIELD, ii. 448, iii. 432, iv. 1). There were 
also edifying reports of his refusing to 
see the clergyman, and occasionally falling 
into a rage. 

Bolingbroke was buried by the side of his 
wife in the family vault at Battersea on 18 Dec. 
There is a monument with medallion busts of 
himself and wife, by Roubiliac, in the parish 
church, with inscriptions composed by him- 
self. The greater part of the manor-house 
was demolished in 1778. Bolingbroke's 
father had married a second wife, Angelica 
Magdalene, daughter of G. Pittesary, and 
left by her four children: Henrietta, who 
became Lady Luxborough [see KNIGHT, 

HENRIETTA] ; Bolingbroke wrote affec- 
tionate letters to her for many years (Addit. 
MS. 34196) ; George, to whom Bolingbroke, 
when in power, was very kind, and who 
died at Venice in January 1715-16 ; John, 
who became Viscount St. John, on his father's 
death, and who died in 1749; and Hollis, 
who died unmarried in October 1738. John's 
son Frederick (1734-1787) became second 
Viscount Bolingbroke upon the death of his 

An engraving from a portrait by Thomas 
Murray (1663-1734) [q. v.] is prefixed to his 
works. A portrait, by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 
is in the National Portrait Gallery ; a third 
was painted by Kneller. 

Bolingbroke's most undeniable excellence 
was in the art of oratory. Swift says (Be- 
haviour of the Last Ministry) that men of all 
parties assured him that, as a speaker, Boling- 
broke had never been equalled : and the tradi- 
tion survived to the days of the younger Pitt. 
Pitt is reported to have said that he would 
rather have recovered one of those speeches 
than the best compositions of antiquity. 
It has often been remarked that his writ- 
ings are substantially orations. Their style 
has been greatly admired. Chesterfield calls 
the style ' infinitely superior to any one's f 
( Works, i. 376, ii. 78, 109, 117). Chatham 
(Correspondence.!. 109) advises his nephew to 
get Bolingbroke by heart, for the inimitable 
beauty of his style as well as for the matter. 
The style, however, does not prevent them 
from being now exceedingly tiresome, except 
to persons of refined tastes. The causes are 
plain. His political theories are the out- 
come not of real thought, but of the necessi- 
ties of his political relations. He was in a 
false position through life. A profligate 
and a freethinker, he had to serve the most 
respectable of queens and to lead the high- 
church party. He was forced by political 
necessities to take up with the Pretender, 
whom he cordially despised, and afterwards 
repudiated. Having given up the Jacobites, 
he denounced high-flying ' principles in the 
spirit of Locke and the whigs of 1688. As 
he wished to combine whigs and tories, he 
insists that the old party distinctions had 
become obsolete a theory for which indeed 
there was much to be said in the days of 
Walpole. He attacks Walpole for his noto- 
rious corruption, and accepts the whig objec- 
tions to standing armies and placemen. As a 
typical aristocrat by temper, he traces one 
main cause of the corruption to the ' monied 
men ' as opposed to the landed classes, and 
denounces the stockjobbers and the bankers 
who were Walpole's main support. This 
position leads him to attack the whole 




system of party government which was 
elaborated during his time and resulted in 
the subordination of the royal authority to 
the parliamentary combinations. His ideal 
is therefore the king who will 'begin to 
govern as soon as he begins to reign ' (Idea 
of a Patriot King}. The king is to be power- 
ful enough to override parties, and yet to 
derive strength like Queen Elizabeth, whom 
he specially admires, from representing the 
true rule of the people. In other words, 
Bolingbroke advocates a kind of democratic 
toryism, and may be understood as antici- 
pating Disraeli's attacks upon the ' Venetian 
aristocracy.' Disraeli claims Bolingbroke and 
Wyndham as representatives of the true poli- 
tical creed in ' Sybil' (bk. iv. chap. 14). His 
theories, however, had to be adapted to the 
circumstances of the day ; and he was forced 
to see his ideal ruler in Frederick, prince of 
Wales. He emits brilliant flashes of per- 
ception rather than any steady light, and 
fails in the attempt to combine philosophi- 
cal tone with personal ends. \y His dignified 
style, his familiarity with foreign politics, 
and with history especially as regarded by a 
diplomatist mainly interested in the balance 
of power, impressed his contemporaries. 
But his dignity prevents him from rivalling 
Swift's hard hitting, on the one hand, while 
his philosophy is too thin on the other to 
bear a comparison with Burke, His philo- 
sophical writings are still less satisfactory. 
He began to study such topics, as he says in 
the letter to Pouilly, when he was past forty, 
and was chiefly anxious to display his rhetoric. 
His favourite topic is a supposed alliance 
between divines and atheists : and, in order 
to attack both, he adopts a very flimsy de- 
ism. He hates the divines the worse of the 
two, and especially such metaphysicians as 
Leibnitz and Clarke, whom he assails with 
weapons taken from Locke and with strong 
language of his own. He made many at- 
tacks upon the chronology and history of the 
Old Testament, but without much origi- 
nality. His tendency is best represented 
by Pope's ' Essay on Man,' which, though often 
brilliant, has never passed for logical. Boling- 
broke seems to have been singularly sensi- 
tive to criticism, and often lost his temper 
in controversy. Mr. Churton Collins gives 
reasons for thinking that he had much in- 
fluence upon Voltaire. The personal con- 
nection, however, seems to have been slight ; 
and Voltaire had studied more thoroughly 
the writers from whom Bolingbroke drew. 
The concidences, therefore, may be sus- 
ceptible of a different explanation. Bo- 
lingbroke's philosophical works were pub- 
lished after the deist controversy in Eng- 

land had lost much of its novelty. They 
w ere attacked by Warburt on, Robert Clayton 
(1695-1758) [q. v.], James Hervey (1714- 
1758) [q. v.], and John Leland (1691-1766) 
[q. v.] ; and Voltaire wrote a short pamphlet 
in defence of the ' Letters on History,' ' Defense 
de Milord Bolingbroke, par le docteur Good- 
natured Wellwisher, chapelain du Comte de 
Chesterfield,' which was also published in 
English. It is given in the section ' Philo- 
sophic ' in Voltaire's works, where it follows 
' Un Examen important de Lord Boling- 
broke.' Bolingbroke's name is here merely 
used as a convenient mask for one of Vol- 
taire's characteristic essaj'S. Bolingbroke's 
works excited only a momentary attention, 
and are too fragmentary and discursive to be 
of much value. Burke's ' Vindication of 
Natural Society,' another essay in imitation 
of Bolingbroke, but intended to expose his 
principles, is an interesting illustration of 
the positions of both thinkers. 

Bolingbroke's works are: 1. 'Letter to 
the Examiner' (1710) ; reprinted in ' Somers 
Tracts' (1815), vol. xiii. 2. 'The Con- 
siderations upon the Secret History of the 
White Staff"' (1714); and 3. 'The Repre- 
sentation of the Lord Viscount Boling- 
broke,' 1715 (reprinted in ' Somers Tracts/ 
vol. xiii.), have been conjecturally attri- 
buted to him. The following have been re- 
printed from the 'Craftsman:' (1) 'The 
Occasional Writer '(three numbers), 1727 ; 
(2) 'Remarks on the History of England, 
from the Minutes of Humphry Oldcastle ' 
(5 Sept. 1730 to 22 May 1731, in the ' Crafts- 
man ') ; (3) < The Freeholder's Political Cate- 
chism,' 1733 (reprinted at the time and in 
' Collection ' of 1748, but not in works) ; 
(4) ' A. Dissertation upon Parties ' (27 Oct. 
1733 to 21 Dec. 1734, in ' Craftsman ') ; re- 
| printed in 1735 ; llth ed. 1786. In the 
' Craftsman 'appeared also an ' Answer to the 
"London Journal" of 28 Dec. 1728; ' 'An- 
swer to the Defence of the Enquiry,' c. ; 
' Final Answer to the Remarks on the 
" Craftsman's" Vindication- ' and the ' First 
Vision of Camilick.' These are reprinted 
(except the ' Catechism ') in his ' Works.' A 
' Collection of Political Tracts by the Author 
of the Dissertation on Parties,' 1748, includes 
the ' Occasional Writer,' various papers from 
the ' Craftsman/ and the ' The Case of Dun- 
kirk considered,' not in the collected works. 
It was reprinted by Cadell in 1788. The 
'Letter on the Spirit of Patriotism,' 'The 
Idea of a Patriot King,' and the essay ' On 
the State of Parties at the Accession of 
George I' were published (see above) in 

The 'Letters on the Study and Use of 



St. John 

History/ the first dated Chanteloup in Tou- 
raine, 6 Nov. 1735, were privately printed 
before Bolingbroke's death ; but first pub- 
lished by Mallet in 1752, in 2 vols. 8vo, 
with ' Plan for a General History/ ' True Use of 
Retirement and Study,' and ' Reflections upon 
Exile.' In 1752 was also published 'Reflec- 
tions concerning Innate Moral Principles ' 
(not included in his ' Works '), in French 
and English, said to have been written for 
the * Entresol ' Club, founded by Alari, of 
which there is an account in Grimoard, iii. 
451, &c. In 1753 ' Letter to Sir W. Wynd- 
ham,' the l Reflections on the State of the 
Nation,' and the ' Introductory Letter to 
Pope ' were published by Mallet. Finally, 
in 1754, Mallet published the collected 
works, in 5 vols. 4to ; which add ' Substance 
of some Letters written originally in French 
about 1720, to M. de Pouilly ; ' < A Letter 
occasioned by one of Archishop Tillotson's 
Sermons ; ' l [Four] Essays addressed to 
Alexander Pope,' ' Fragments or Minutes of 
Essays,' .fee., which, according to Mallet, were 
sent to Pope as written. This edition was 
* the gun charged against Christianity ' of 
Dr. Johnson's famous comment. Another 
quarto edition was published in 1778, and 
an octavo edition in 8 vols. 8vo, in 1809, 
with the ' Life ' by Goldsmith prefixed. 

[A contemporary Life and History of Boling- 
broke appeared in 1774, and a Life by Goldsmith 
in 1770. A short life is prefixed to the editions 
of his Works. The first life worth notice, by 
George Wingrove Cooke [q. v.], published in 
1835, is superficial. A Life by Thomas Mac- 
knight (1863) shows more research, and is still 
the best in that respect, though not always 
accurate. Mr. John Churton Collins's Boling- 
broke, a Historical Study (with Voltaire in 
1886), gives a spirited summary and criticism. 
There are also a Life by Thomas Harrop (1884), 
and one by Dr. Moritz Brosch, Lord Boling- 
broke und die Whigs und Tories seiner Zeit, 
which add little. Mr. Arthur Hassall's Boling- 
broke (1889), in the Statesman Series, and 
Dr. Gottfried Koch's short notice, ' Bolingbroke's 
politische Ansichten und die Squirearchei ' 
(1890), may also be noticed. Kemusat's L'An- 
gleterre an Dix-huitieme Siecle, i. 1 1 1-452, gives 
a fair summary of his career, and his philosophical 
position is outlined in Carran's La Philosophic 
Religieuse en Angleterre depuis Locke, 1888, 
pp. 64-91. The original authorities are chiefly 
for the last four y.?ars of Queen Anne, Boling- 
broke's Letters and Correspondence, by G. Parke, 
1798, containing papers saved by his secretary, 
Thomas Hare, at the time of Queen Anne's death ; 
Swift's Journal to Stella, Memoirs relating to the 
Charge in the year 1710, Inquiry into the Be- 
haviour of the Queen's Last Ministry, Four Last 
Years and Correspondence; Torcy's Memoirs 

(quoted from Petitot's Collection, vol. Ixviii.); 
The Report of the Committee of Secrecy (printed 
in appendix to Parl. Hist, vol.vii.) Macpherson's 
Original Papers; Lockhart Papers (1817); 
Stuart Papers, at Windsor, from which extracts 
are printed in the appendices to the first two 
volumes of Stanhope's History; and Mackintosh's 
Collections, now in the British Museum, from 
which extracts were given in the Edinburgh Re- 
view for October 1835, are the chief authorities 
as to the early Jacobite intrigues. Berwick's 
Memoirs (Petitot Collection, vol. Ixvi.) and the 
Letter to Sir W. Wyndham give the best account 
of the first period in France. The Lettres 
Historiques, Politiques, Philosophiques, et Par- 
ticulieres, &c., 3 vols. 8vo, 1808, with introduc- 
tion by Grimoard, contains translations of let- 
ters published elsewhere, with some new letters 
to the Abbe Alari, a friend of Bolingbroke, and 
Mme. de Villette, and to Mme. de Ferriol, from 
1717 to 1736. Grimoard's introduction adds a 
few facts. For the later history, the correspon- 
dence published in the second volume of Coxe's 
Walpole (quoted from the qivirto edition of 
1798) is of chief importance. It includes Boling- 
broke's Letters to Wyndham from the Egremont 
Papers. The correspondence of Swift and Pope 
contains many letters from Bolingbroke, and 
much incidental information. The Marchmont 
Papers, edited by Sir G. Kose, contain many 
letters from Bolingbroke during his last years, 
in vol. ii., and some accounts of him in March- 
mont's Diary, in vol. i. Phillimore's Life of 
Lyttelton and Chesterfield's Works add some 
letters and notices. In the 9th App. to the 
14th Eep. of the Hist. MS3. Comm. pp. 465-7, 
470-2, 515, are some interesting remarks by 
Speaker Onslow upon Bolingbroke's relations to 
George I, the Duchess of Kendal, and Walpole. 
See also Spence's Anecdotes ; Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes ; Schlosser's Hist, of the Eighteenth 
Century; Stephen's Religious Thought in the 
Eighteenth Century ; Watson's Life of Warbur- 
ton, and Walpole's Letters.] L. S. 

ROSCOE (1832-1888), journalist, youngest 
son of James Augustus St. John [q'. v.], was 
born in Xormandy in 1832 and educated 
under his father. He began his journalistic 
career as a boy, and while 'in a round 
jacket and turn-down collar 'wrote a lead- 
ing article for the ' Sunday Times.' With 
his brothers Bayle and Percy Bolingbroke 
St. John, both of whom are separately 
noticed, he edited in 1854 ' Utopia : a poli- 
tical, literary, and industrial journal,' which 
only ran to six numbers. For many years 
he was a leader-writer on political topics on 
the ' Daily Telegraph,' and frequently acted 
as special correspondent of the ' Times,' the 
'Standard,' and other newspapers. During 
1862 and 1863 he was a contributor to the 
' Athenaeum,' to the ' Seven Days' Journal/ 

St. John 


and to the ' Leader.' Falling into pecu- 
niary difficulties, he was, on his own peti- 
tion, made a bankrupt on 9 Jan. 186:2, and 
received a conditional order of discharge on 
11 April 1862. He died at 49 Sydenham 
Place, Anerley, Surrey, on 29 Feb. 1888. 

He was the author of: 1. 'A Life of 
Christopher Columbus,' 1850. 2. ' History 
of the British Conquests in India,' 1852, 
2 vols. 3. t The Indian Archipelago : its 
History and Present State,' 1853, 2 vols. 

His wife, a daughter of Thomas Roscoe 
[q. v.], was author of: 1. ' Audubon the Na- 
turalist in the New World : his Adventures 
and Discoveries,' 1856 ; new edit., revised, 
Boston, 1856. 2. ' Englishwomen and the 
Age,' 1860. 3. ' Masaniello of Naples : the 
Record of a Nine Days' Revolution,' 1865. 
4. ' The Court of Anna Carafa : an historical 
narrative,' 1872. 

[Allibone's Dictionary, 1871, ii. 913; Athe- 
naeum, 10 March 1888, p. 310: Times, 8 March 
1888, p. 7 ; Sala's Life and Adventures, i. 397- 
398.] (T. C. B. 


(1801-1875), author and traveller, was born 
in Carmarthenshire on 24 Sept. 1801. When 
he was seven his father died, and in his educa- 
tion at the village school he was assisted by 
the local clergyman, who taught him classics 
and modern languages. When sixteen he 
came to London, and immediately afterwards 
joined the staff of a Plymouth radical news- 
paper : and on the publication of the ' Ori 
ental Herald,' by James Silk Buckingham 
[q. v.], in 1824, he was appointed assistant 
editor. In partnership with David Lester 
Richardson [q. v.], he started the 'Weekly 
Review ' in 1827. The paper appeared for 
three years, and was then sold and became 
the ' Court Journal.' 

Meanwhile St. John removed with his 
family to Caen. His life there, and the fre- 
quent excursions he made in the provinces, 
form the basis of his ' Journal of a Resi- 
dence in Normandy ' contributed in 1826 
to ' Constable's Miscellany.' In 1830-1 he 
was in Paris, and subsequently in Switzer- 
land. Leaving his family behind him at 
Lausanne, he set out in 1832 to Egypt, and 
travelled there and in Nubia, mostly on foot. 
The record of this journey was published in 
two volumes in 1834, under the title of 
' Egypt and Mohammed Ali.' He returned 
through Italy in 1834, and the European 
portions of this tour form the subject of 
' There and back again in search of Beauty ' 
(2 vols. London, 1853). He then returned 
with his family to London. The events of 
1848 called him to Paris. Subsequently he 

VOL. L. 

wrote forcible letters in the liberal interest 
under the signature of l Grevilie Brook ' in 
the ' Sunday Times,' and supplied political 
leaders for many years to the ' Daily Tele- 
graph.' In 1868 he brought out an elabo- 
rate ' Life of Sir W'alter Raleigh ' (2 vols. 
1868, 1 vol. 1869), in which he embodied 
some researches previously made at Madrid 
and Simancas. In his last years he became 
blind. He died in London in September 
1875. He had married in 1819 Eliza Agar 
Hansard, and by her had had a large family. 
Three of his sons Percy Bolingbroke, Bayle, 
and Horace Stebbing Roscoe are noticed 

St. John's works were of a varied character. 
In addition to those mentioned above, he 
wrote: 1. 'Anatomy of Society,' London, 
1831. 2. 'Lives of Celebrated Travellers/ 
3 vols. London, 1831. 3. 'Margaret Ra- 
venscroft/ a novel, 3 vols. London, 1835. 
4. ' Tales of the Ramad'han,' 3 vols. London, 
1835. 5. ' Manners and Customs of Ancient 
Greece,' 3 vols. London, 1842. 6. 'Sir 
Cosmo Digby : a Tale of the Monmouthshire 
Riots,' 3 vols. London, 1843. 7. ' Egypt and 
Nubia,' London, 1845. 8. ' Views in the 
Eastern Archipelago ' (descriptions accom- 
panying), London, 1847. 9. ' Oriental 
Album ' (descriptions accompanying), Lon- 
don, 1848. 10. ' Isis, an Egyptian Pilgrimage,' 
2 vols. London, 1853. 11. "' Philosophy at the 
Foot of the Cross,' London, 1854. 12. ' Ne- 
mesis of Power,' London, 1 854. 13. ' Preach- 
ing of Christ,' London, 1856. 14. ' Ring 
and the Veil,' a novel, 3 vols. London, 1856. 
15. 'Louis Napoleon,' a biography, London, 
1857. 16. ' Education of the People,' Lon- 
don, 1858. 17. 'History of the Four Con- 
quests of England/ 2 vols. London, 1862. 
18. ' Weighed in the Balance/ a novel, 3 vols. 
London, 1864. He also edited : ' Master- 
pieces of English Prose Literature/ 6 vols. 
London, 1836-8 ; ' Pilgrim's Progress/ Lon- 
don, 1838 ; John Locke's ' Works,' London, 
1843 and 1854; Milton's 'Prose Works/ 
London, 1848. 

[Men of the Time ; Sala's Life and Adven- 
tures, i. 397 ; autobiographical information in 
his own Works ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. E. M. 

SAINT-JOHN, JOHN DE (d. 1302), lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine, was the son of Robert 
de Saint-John and his wife Agnes, daughter 
of William de Cantelupe. His grandfather, 
William de Saint-John, was the son of 
Adam de Port [q.v.], by his marriage with 
Mabel, the granddaughter and heiress of 
Roger de Saint-John. In virtue of inheriting 
Roger's estates, William assumed the name 
of Saint-John, describing himself as ' Wil- 





liam de Saint-John, son and heir of Adam 
de Port.' The Ports had been an important 
Hampshire family, having their chief seat at 
Basing, near Basingstoke, which continued 
to be the centre of the Saint-John influ- 

Robert de Saint- John died in 1267 ( Wor- 
cester Annals, p. 457), whereupon John re- 
ceived livery of his lands. John also suc- 
ceeded his father as governor of Porchester 
Castle. He held land in six counties 
Hampshire, Herefordshire, Berkshire, War- 
wickshire, Kent, and Sussex (cf. BURROWS, 
Brocas Family of Beaurepaire, p. 364). After 
Basing, his chief centre of power was Hal- 
naker, near Chichester in Sussex, round 
which he held four manors (cf. Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1281-92, p. 67). In November 1276 
he was one of the magnates present at the 
council at which judgment was given against 
Llywelyn of Wales. In 1277 and in 1282 he 
took part in Edward 1's two great invasions 
of Wales, and in 1283 was summoned to the 
Shrewsbury parliament. On 26 April 1286 
he received letters of protection for one year 
on going abroad with the king, and on 16 May 
nominated Thomas of Basing, clerk, as his 
attorney in England (ib. pp. 239, 247). His 
absence, however, was prolonged beyond that 
period {ib. p. 277), and during Edward I's 
three years' residence in Aquitaine, between 
1286 and 1289, he seems to have been in con- 
stant attendance on him. He was busied, 
for example, in negotiations resulting from 
Edward's mediation between the kings of 
Aragon and Naples, and in October 1288 
was one of the hostages handed over to Ara- 
gon to secure the conditions upon which the 
prince of Salerno had been released (Foedera, 
i. 690). He thus first gained that exceptional 
experience in Aquitanian affairs that ac- 
counts for his subsequent employment in 
Edward's south French duchy. He was 
back in England before 2 Feb. 1289 (cf. Cal. 
Patent Rolls, 1281-92, p. 346). In May 

1290 he attended parliament. 

On 29 Oct. 1290 Saint-John again re- 
ceived letters of protection for a year, as 
going abroad on the king's service, but he 
did not appoint his attorneys until 8 Jan. 

1291 (ib. pp. 392, 413). He was now des- 
patched on a mission to Nicholas IV as 
regards the crusading tenth and the pro- 
jected crusade (Feeder a, i. 743). In March 
he was at Tarascon, dealing with business 
arising out of Edward I's mediation between 
Sicily and Aragon (ib. i. 744-5). Again, in 
November, he was once more quitting Eng- 
land for the continent (Cal. Patent Rolls, 
3281-92, p. 449). In November 1292 he 
was in Scotland attending on the king (Hist. 

Doc. Scotland, i. 371). Various grants fol- 
lowed these services (cf. Cal. Patent Rolls, 
1281-92, pp. 465, 483, 511). 

In 1293 the relations between Edward I 
and Philip the Fair became unfriendly, and 
Saint-John was again despatched to Gascony 
I to act as the king's lieutenant, with two 
I thousand livres tournois as his stipend. His 
administration of Aquitaine was just and 
popular (WALTER DE IlEMiNGBURGri, ii. 49). 
He specially busied himself with strengthen- 
ing and provisioning the fortified towns and 
castles, and in providing adequate garrisons 
for them (RisiiANGER, Chron. p. 139). Mean- 
while, however, Edmund of Lancaster had 
been tricked into allowing Philip the Fair 
the temporary possession of the Gascon 
strongholds. On 3 Feb. 1294 Saint- John 
received instructions from Edmund to de- 
liver seisin of Gascony to its overlord (Fce- 
dera, i. 793 ; CHAMPOLLION FIGEAC, Lettres 
desRoiset des Reines d 1 Angleterre, i. 406-8). 
He accordingly admitted the French into the 
castles, sold off the provisions and stores that 
he had collected, and returned to England 
by way of Paris (TRIVET, p. 330 ; RISHANGER, 
p. 141 ; Flares Hist. iii. 271). 

Philip treacherously kept possession of 
Gascony, and Edward I prepared to recover 
his inheritance by force. Unable to go to 
Gascony in person, Edward, on 1 July 1294, 
appointed his nephew John of Brittany as 
his lieutenant in Aquitaine with Saint-John 
as seneschal and chief counsellor (Fce.dera, 
i. 85). The expedition finally left Plymouth 
on 1 Oct. (HEMINGBTJRGH, ii. 46-9 ; cf. 
Fcedera, i. 808). On 28 Oct. the Gironde 
was reached. On 31 Oct. Macau was cap- 
tured. Bourg and Blaye were next subdued, 
and the fleet sailed up the Garonne to Bor- 
deaux; but, failing to capture so great a 
town, it went higher up stream to Rions, 
which was captured, along with Podensac 
and Villeneuve. Leaving John of Brittany 
at Rions, Saint-John went, by river and sea, 
to Bayonne, and attacked the town. On 
1 Jan. 1295 the citizens of Bayonne, with 
whom he was very popular, drove the French 
garrison into the castle and opened their 
gates to him. Saint- John sent the ring- 
leaders of the French party to England and 
attacked the castle, which surrendered eleven 
days later (TRIVET, pp. 334-5 ; RISH ANGER, 
p. 147 ; Worcester Ann. p. 520). These great 
successes caused many Gascons to join the 
English army. 

Charles of Valois, the brother of Philip the 
Fair, now invaded Aquitaine and won back 
most of Saint-John's conquests in the Ga- 
ronne valley. Both Saint-John and John of 
Brittany strove to defend Rions, but became so 




alarmed at the fall of the neighbouring 
towns that they abandoned the place, and 
the French re-entered on 8 April (GuiL- 
LATTME BE NANGIS, i. 288-9). Much quieter j 
times ensued. In 1296 Edmund of Lancas- 
ter took the command, and, after his death, 
Henry de Lacy, third earl of Lincoln [q. v.] 
But the brunt of the hard work still fell on 
Saint-John, who continued to be seneschal. 
Bayonne remained the centre of the English | 
power, and on 28 Jan. 1297 Saint-John i 
marched with Lincoln to convey provisions j 
to Bellegarde, which was closely besieged by ' 
Robert, count of Artois. The army passed | 
through Peyrehorade in safety, and, ap- ! 
proaching a wood within three miles of 
Bellegarde, was divided into two divisions, 
of which Saint-John led the former. Be- 
yond the wood he was suddenly attacked 
by the French. Saint- John, though out- 
numbered, fought bravely ; but Lincoln and 
the second division failed to give him proper 
support. Night approached, and the Gascon 
contingent ran away. Supported only by the 
English knights, Saint-John was utterly de- 
feated, and taken prisoner along with ten other 
knights (TRIVET, pp. 353-4 ; RISHANGER, pp. 
168-9; KNIGHTON, i. 363, who calls the 
place ' Helregard ; ' LANGTOFT, ii. 280-2 ; 
HEMINGBURGH, ii. 74-6, gives a rather dif- 
ferent account, which seeks to explain away 
the English defeat ; GUILLAUME DE NANGIS, 
i. 295, says that night alone prevented Lin- 
coln's destruction). The prisoners were sent 
in triumph to Paris, and the French rejoiced | 
over Saint-John's capture as the Philistines j 
rejoiced over that of Samson (Flores Hist, j 
iii. 100). Saint- John was only released after 
the treaty of L'Aumone in the summer of 
1299. His captivity involved him in heavy ! 
debts, and on 3 Nov. 1299 he was forced to < 
pledge four of his manors for sixteen years i 
to the merchants of the society of the Buon- j 
signori of Siena (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1292- ! 
1301, p. 482). 

The Scots war soon furnished Saint-John 
with new occupation. On 3 Jan. 1300 he j 
was appointed the king's lieutenant and cap- i 
tain in Cumberland, Westmoreland, Lanca- j 
shire, Annandale, and the other marches j 
west of Roxburgh (ib. p. 484). He was soon j 
busy raising troops and receiving submis- j 
sions of the Scots favourable to Edward ! 
(Hist. Doc. Scotland, ii. 407-8). In the 
famous siege of Carlaverock in 1300, Saint- 
John took a conspicuous part, being en- 
trusted with the custody of Edward, the ! 
king's son, who was then making his first i 
campaign (NICOLAS, Siege of Carlaverock,^. 
42, 46, 50). In 1301 he is described as | 
warden of Galloway and the sheriff dom of [ 

Dumfries, as well as of the adjacent inarches 
(Cal. Patent Rolls, 1292-1301, p. 590). In 
the spring of that year he was appointed, with 
Earl Warenne and others, to treat at Can- 
terbury of a peace between the English and 
the Scots with the envoys of Philip the Fair (ib. 
p. 580) . The entries against Saint- John's name 
in the wardrobe accounts of the twenty-eighth 
year of Edward I show in detail his losses, 
confidential charges, and retinue as lieutenant 
of the western marches (Liber Quotidianus 
Garderobce, pp. 176, 183, 200, London, 1787). 
In January 1301 Saint- John was at the Lin- 
coln parliament, and signed the famous letter 
of the barons to the pope (Fcedera, i. 926 ; 
the description of the signatory as ' lord of 
Halnaker ' shows clearly that it was John, 
and not his son). On 12 July 1302 he was 
with the king at Westminster (Fcedera, i. 
941), but must soon have returned to his 
border command. He died on Thursday, 
6 Sept. 1302, at Lochmaben Castle ( ; Ann. 
London,' in STFBBS, Chron. Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 128). He is described as a 
1 most faithful and most valiant knight r 
(Flores Hist. iii. 387), as ' discreet, strenuous 
in arms, and experienced in battles' (TRIVET). 
'No more valiant and prudent man could 
be found ' (Siege of Carlaverock, p. 46). His 
arms were argent, on a chief gules, two 
mullets or, and his crest a lion passant be- 
tween two palm branches (Siege of Carlave- 
rock, p. 248 ; Archceological Journal, xxi. 

Saint-John's wife was Alice, daughter of 
Pteginald FitzPeter, who survived him. Their 
eldest son, John, was either twenty-eight or 
thirty years old at his father's death ( Calen- 
darium Oenealogicum, p. 624), and succeeded 
to his estates. He had already been for 
some years actively engaged in war and 
politics, had fought at Falkirk in 1298 and 
Carlaverock in 1300 (GouGH, Scotland in 
1298, p. 152), and had been summoned to 
parliament in 1299 as 'John de Saint-John 
junior.' The peerage writers take this sum- 
mons as the beginning of the ' barony by 
writ ' (G. E. C., Complete Peerage, i. 256 ; 
NICOLAS, Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope, p. 
412). There is some difficulty in distinguish- 
ing father and son in the last years of the 
former's life, though he is commonly distin- 
guished as ' John de Saint-John senior.' The 
younger John married Isabel, daughter of 
Hugh Courtenay, and died in 1329. His son 
and successor, Hugh, died in 1337, and was 
never summoned to parliament. His heir, 
Edmund, died in his minority, and the barony 
fell into abeyance. The estates went to two 
coheiresses, but ultimately the whole passed 
to Isabel, Edmund's sister, and to her chil- 

L 2 

St. John 


St. John 

dren by her second husband, Luke de Poyn- 
ings. From the Poynings they passed to 
the Paulets (a pedigree is given on page 
365 of BURROWS, Brocas Family of Beau- 

Besides the confusion with his son. John 
de Saint-John, lord of Basing and Halnaker, 
is often confused with another John de 
Saint- John of Stanton or Lagham, the son 
of Roger de Saint-John, an adherent of 
Simon de Montfort,who was slain at E vesham. 
These knights represented an Oxfordshire 
house, whose chief seat was at Stanton Saint- 
John, four miles east of Oxford, and who 
also owned the fortified house of Lagham, 
situated at Godstone in Surrey, of which 
they possessed half the manor. John de 
Saint- John ' of Lagham ' was also sum- 
moned to parliament in 1299, and died in 
1317, leaving a son and heir, John, aged 
40, who died on 8 April 1349, and was 
the last of his stock summoned to parlia- 

[Calendars of Patent Rolls of Edward I, 1281- 
1292 and 1292-1301 ; RynWs Foedera, Record 
edit. vol. i. ; Parl. Writs, i. 819-20 ; Calendarium 
Genealogicum ; Historic Documents relating to 
Scotland, 1286-1306 (the documents in ii. 158, 
181. 296, and 305 are either misdated or refer 
to the younger John) ; Rishanger, Flores Histo- 
riarum. Knighton, Annals of Worcester and 
Osnev(all in Rolls Series) ; Trivet and Heming- 
burcrh (both in English Hist. Soc.) ; Guillanme 
de Nangis (Soc. de L'Histoire de France) ; Nico- 
las's Sies^e of Crirlavercck, pp. 42, 46, 50 (with 
short biographies of both father and son, pp. 
244-8 and pp. 281-3) ; Wardrobe Accounts of 
Edward I, 1787; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 463-5, 
539 ; Burrows' s Family of the Brocas of Beau- 
repaire.] T. F. T. 

ST. JOHN, JOHN (1746-1793), author, 
born in 1746, was third son of John, second 
viscount St. John, by Anne, daughter of Sir 
Robert Furness of Waldershare, Kent. He 
was nephew of the first viscount Bolingbroke 
and brother of the second. He matriculated 
at Trinity College, Oxford, on 13 Dec. 1763, 
but did not graduate. Both John and his 
brothers Frederic, second viscount Boling- 
broke, and Henry (afterwards a general, 
but in early life known as the ' baptist ') 
were known as young men to George Sel- 
wyn. Selwyn spoke well of John's abilities 
in 1766, but described ' the personal accom- 
plishments of the most refined Macaroni ' as 
the limits of his ambition. In 1770 he was 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple. 
He represented Newport (Isle of Wight) in 
the House of Commons from 1773 to 1774, 
and again from 1780 to 1784, and in the in- 
tervening parliament sat for Eye. From 

1775 to 1784 he held the office of surveyor- 
general of the land revenues of the crown. 
In 1787 he published ' Observations on the 
Land Revenue of the Crown,' 4to ; octavo 
editions were issued in 1790 and 1792. In 
1791 he assailed Paine's 'Rights of Man' in 
a vigorous pamphlet, addressed to a whig 
friend (< Letter from a Magistrate to Mr. 
Will. Rose of Whitehall'). He was also* 
the author of ' Mary Queen of Scots,' a 
tragedy in five acts, produced at Drury Lane 
6n 20 March 1789, and acted nine times. 
Mrs. Siddons took the title role and Kemble 
the part of Norfolk. Genest thought some 
of Norfolk's speeches good, but the rest of 
the play dull. The published tragedy reached 
a third edition within the year, and was re- 
printed in Mrs. Inchbald's ' Modern Theatre 7 
(vol. viii.) St. John's other piece, 'The 
Island of St. Marguerite,' an opera in two 
acts, produced at Drury Lane on 13 Nov. 
1789, was successful largely owing to its 
allusions to current events, especially the 
taking of the Bastille ; some excisions were 
made by the censor. 

St. John died at his house in Park Street, 
Grosvenor Place, on 8 Oct. 1793. There is 
a monument to him, with inscription, erected 
by his brother, General Henry St. John 
(1738-1818), in the church of Lydiard-Tre- 
goze, Wiltshire. 

[Collins's Peerage ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; 
Britton's Beauties of Wilts, iii. 31 ; Gent. Mas?. 
1793, ii. 962 ; Biogr. Dramatica, i. 623, ii. 335, 
iii. 24 ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage, vi. 535-6 r 
586; Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit. ii. 1914; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities; Jesse's G. Selwyn 
and his Contemporaries, ii. 44, 384-8, &c.] 

G. LE G. N. 

SON and BARON TREGOZ (1559-1630), lord 
deputy of Ireland, born in 1559, was the 
second son of Nicholas St. John (d. 1589) 
of Lydiard-Tregoz (or Liddiard Tregoze, as 
it is now spelt), Wiltshire, by his wife 
Elizabeth (d. 1587), daughter of Sir Richard 
Blount of Mapledurham, Oxfordshire. His 
mother was distantly related to Charles 
Blount, earl of Devonshire [q. v.], and on the 
father's side he was descended through a 
female line from the Grandisons (see G.E.C.'s 
Complete Peerage), and was related to the 
St. Johns, barons of Bletsho [see ST. JOHN, 
future lord deputy was educated at Ox- 
ford, matriculating from Trinity College 
on 20 Dec. 1577, and graduating B.A. on 
26 June 1578. He adopted the legal pro- 
fession, and in 1580 was admitted a stu- 
dent of Lincoln's Inn. But about March 
1583-4 he killed George Best [q. v.], the 

St. John 

i 49 

St. John 

navigator, in a duel, and was compelled to 
flee the country. 

St. John now sought his fortunes as a 
soldier abroad, and served with distinction 
in Flanders and in France. Before 1591 he 
had attained the rank of captain, and in the 
autumn of that year commanded Essex's 
horse at the siege of Rouen ; ' he served very 
valiantly, namely, the first day of the siege 
of Rouen, when he had his horse killed in a 
charge, which he performed very well ' (Cal. 
Hatjield MSS. vi. 570). In 1592 he re- 
turned to England, and was elected member 
for Cirencester in the parliament summoned 
to meet on 19 Feb. 1592-3. In March he 
was placed on a commission for the relief of 
maimed soldiers and mariners, and made 
several speeches during the session (see 
D'EwES, Journals, pp. 475, 489) ; but parlia- 
ment was dissolved in April, and soon after- 
wards Essex recommended St. John to Cecil 
as 'a leader of horse fit to be employed.' 
He again sought service in the Netherlands, 
and was present at the battle of Nieuport 
on 2 July 1600. 

Meanwhile Tyrone's rebellion necessitated 
the presence of experienced soldiers in Ire- 
land, and St. John accompanied Mountjoy 
thither in February 1601 : he was knighted 
by Mountjoy at Dublin on 28 Feb. (COLLINS, 
Letters and Memorials, ii. 180), and was 
given command of two hundred men. He 
took a prominent part in the siege of Kin- 
sale in the autumn, repulsing a night attack 
of the Spaniards on 2 Dec., when he was 
wounded. On 13 Dec. he left the camp to 
carry despatches to Elizabeth and inform 
her of the state of Ireland (CHAMBERLAIN, 
Letters, pp. 130,134). In November 1602 
he was back in Ireland commanding twenty- 
five horse and 150 foot in Connaught, under 
Sir George Carew, and in the same year he 
was recommended by Cecil for the office of 
vice-president of that province. The ar- 
rangement does not seem to have been car- 
ried out. From 1604 to 1607 he sat in the 
English parliament as member for Ports- 
mouth. On 12 Dec. 1605 he was made 
master of the ordnance in Ireland with a 
salary of 200/. a year, and sworn of the Irish 
privy council. Several of his reports on 
arms and ammunition in Ireland are pre- 
served among the state papers. 

From this time St. John was Chichester's 
most trusted adviser. Early in 1608 he was 
named a commissioner for the plantation of 
Ulster. In that capacity he drew up a 
scheme for the plantation of the province, 
and accompanied Chichester in his progress 
through Ulster in 1609. As an ' undertaker ' 
he had grants of fifteen hundred acres in 

Ballymore, co. Armagh, and a thousand 
acres in < Keernan.' He advised that no 
grants of the lands of the banished earls 
should be made, but that they should be let 
to natives at a high rent. Early in 1609 
Chichester sent him to England, and he drew 
up a report of the commissioners' proceed- 
ings for Salisbury's benefit. In 1613 he was 
elected member of the Irish parliament for 
co. Roscommon, and took an important part 
in the dispute about the speakership [see 
Speaking from his experience of the English 
House of Commons, he urged that the first 
business of the house was to elect a speaker, 
and that the proper method of voting was 
to leave the house and be counted in a lobby. 
Everard's supporters, however, refused ; and, 
during the absence of their opponents, placed 
Everard in the chair, from which he was 
forcibly ejected by the majority. St. John 
was one of the members sent to lay the 
matter before James I. In December 1614 
he resigned the mastership of the ordnance, 
being highly commended for his conduct in 
that office. He was in England during 
October 1615, when the Earl of Somerset 
was committed to his custody (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1011-18, p. 317). 

On 2 July 1616 St. John was appointed 
lord deputy of Ireland ; he received the 
sword of state on 30 Aug. His appointment 
was partly due to his connection with George 
Villiers (afterwards Duke of Buckingham), 
and his administration was marked by a 
vigorous persecution of the recusants. Bacon 
spoke of him as ' a man ordained of God to 
do great good to that kingdom ' (SPEDDING, 
Letters of Bacon, vi. 207). He banished, by 
proclamation, all monks and friars educated 
abroad, and thought it would be a good thing 
if a hundred thousand native Irish could be 
sent to enlist in foreign countries. He also 
prosecuted the colonisation of Ulster, and 
the plantation of co. Longford in 1618 was 
followed next year by that of co. Leitrim. 
His ' intolerable severity' against the re 
cusants created many enemies, and the fact 
that he owed his appointment to Villiers 
made him unpopular with many of his coun- 
cil. Early in 1621 they urged his recall ; 
and, though James commended him and pro- 
tested against involving him in disgrace, he 
was finally commanded to deliver up the 
sword of state to Loftus on 18 April 1622. 
He left Ireland on 4 May. 

St. John still remained in favour at court. 
On 28 June 1 622 he was sworn of the English 
privy council, on 23 June 1623 he was created 
Viscount Grandison of Limerick in the peer- 
age of Ireland, on 16 Aug. 1625 he was made 

St. John 

St. John 

lord high, treasurer of Ireland, and on 20 May 
1626 was raised to the English peerage as 
Baron Tregoz of High worth, Wiltshire. In 
1624 he was placed on the council of war, and 
served on various other commissions. He 
also interested himself in foreign and colo- 
nial affairs, frequently corresponding with 
his nephew, Sir Thomas Roe [q. v.] In 1627 
he bought the manors of Wandsworth and 
Battersea, where he had had a house since 
1600 (COLLINS, Letters and Memorials, ii. 
207). His health failing, he sought the 
advice of Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne 
[q. v.] After a visit to Ireland in 1630 
to settle his estates there, he returned to 
Battersea, where he died on 30 Dec. in the 
same year, being buried there on 12 Jan. 

St. John married Joan, daughter and 
heiress of John Roydon of Battersea, and 
widow of Sir William Holcroft ; she was 
buried at Battersea on 10 March 1630-1 : by 
her he had no issue. The barony of Tregoz 
became extinct. Grandison' smanors, Wands- 
worth and Battersea, passed into the same 
branch of the family. The viscounty of 
Grandison passed, in accordance with the 
limitation of the patent, to his grand-nepheAv, 
William Villiers, son of Sir Edward Villiers, 
brother of the Duke of Buckingham, by his 
wife Barbara, younger daughter of Sir John 
St. John, Grandison's elder brother. Many 
of St. John's letters and reports have been 
calendared among the Domestic, Irish, and 
Carew papers. His portrait is included 
in a rare print of the council of war, pre- 
served in the library of the Society of Anti- 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom., Ireland, China, and 
Persia; Cal. Carew MSS. ; Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MSS. 19839, 29314 ; Egerton MS. 2126, if. 4, 6; 
Stowe MS. 173, f. 260; Cal. Hatfield MSS.; 
"Win-wood's Memorials ; Aubrey's Topographical 
Collections, ed. Jackson, 1862, pp. 170, 174; 
Marshall's Visitation of Wiltshire, ed. 1882, p. 
36 ; Lascelles's Liber Munerum Hib. ; Morrin's 
Cal. Patent Eolls ; Official Eeturn of Members 
of Parl. ; Clark's Keg. Univ. Oxon. n. ii. 79, iii. 
75; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Met- 
calfe's Book of Knights ; Ellis's Original Letters ; 
Letters of Carew to Sir Thomas Eoe, passim ; 
Letters of Sir Kobert Cecil to Sir George Carew, 
passim, Chamberlain's Letters, pp. 130, 134, 
Portescue Papers, pp. 133-4 (these four publ. 
by Camden Soc.) ; Gardiner's Hist, of England ; 
Stafford's Pacata Hibernia, ed. Standish O'Grady ; 
Fynes Moryson's Hist, of Ireland and Itinerary, 
passim; Rot he's Analecta Sacra, ed. Moran, 1884, 
pp. 210, 212, 215; Coxe's Hibernia Anglieana, ii. 
33-7; Lenihan's Hist, of Limerick, pp. 142, &c.; 
O'Donoghue's Hist. Memoir of the O'Briens, p. 
253 ; Journal of the Cork Hist, and Archseol. 

Soe.ii. 47, 59; Dugdale's Baronage; Collins's 
Peerage, vi. 65-78; Lodge's Irish Peerage; 
Burke's Extinct Peerage; G.E.C.'s Complete 
Peerage, s.v. ' Grandison ; ' Manning and Bray's 
Surrey, iii. 330 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ii. 
373, vii. 27-8.] A. F. P. 

BOLINGBROKE (1580 ?-l 646), born about 
1580, was son and heir of Oliver St. John, 
third baron St. John of Bletsho, by his wife 
Dorothy, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Rede of Odington, Gloucestershire. The 
St. Johns of Bletsho and the St. Johns of 
Lydiard-Tregoz [see ST. JOHN, OLIVER, 
VISCOUNT GUANDISON] were both descended 
from Sir Oliver St. John, K.B. (d. 1437), 
and his wife Margaret Beauchamp, who 
afterwards married John Beaufort, second 
duke of Somerset, and was grandmother of 
Henry VII. The Bletsho family was the 
elder branch (see pedigree in G.E.C.'s 
Peerage, s.v. ' Boling broke '). Sir -Oliver's 
great-great-grandson, Oliver, was created 
first baron St. John of Bletsho in 1558 ; was 
one of the judges who tried Thomas Howard, 
fourth duke of Norfolk [q. v.] in 1572, and 
died in 1582 (cf. Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. 
v. 150). He was succeeded by his eldest son, 
John, second baron, who sat on the trial of 
Mary Queen of Scots, and died without male 
issue on 23 Oct. 1596. His only daughter, 
Anne, married William, eldest son of Charles 
Howard, earl of Nottingham [q. v.] The 
barony of Bletsho devolved upon his brother, 
Oliver St. John, third baron (d. 1618), father 
of the subject of this article (cf. SPEEDING, 
Letters and Life of Bacon, ii. 283). Oliver 
St. John (1598P-1673) [q. v.], the chief 
justice, was grandson of Thomas, third son 
of the first baron St. John. Distinct from 
all the above was Oliver St. John who was 
fined 5,000/. by the Star-chamber and con- 
demned to lifelong imprisonment for opposi- 
tion to benevolences in 1615. He subse- 
quently made a full submission, was re- 
leased, and had his fine remitted (ib. v. 
131-52; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 
27-8 ; HOWELL, State Trials, ii. 899 ; Letters 
of Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, Camden Soc. 
pp. 140-3). 

The third baron signalised himself by his 
opposition to the benevolence of 1614 (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 225), and 
his son identified himself with the popular 
party in parliament. He was elected mem- 
ber for Bedfordshire in 1601, and again in 
1603-4. In 1604 he served on the com- 
mittee appointed to discuss the change in the 
royal title. On 3 June 1610 he was made 
knight of the Bath at the creation of Henry, 

St. John i 

prince of Wales. In September 1618 he 
succeeded his father as fourth Baron St. John 
of Bletsho. In the following year he 
sumptuously entertained James I at his 
house, and in 1620 he took his seat in the 
House of Lords (Lords' 1 Journals, iii. 3). The 
'right hon. Sir Oliver St. John, baron of 
Bletsho/ who according to the official 
return sat for Bedford in the parliament of 
February 1623-4, must mean his eldest son 
(see below). On 28 Dec. 1624 he was 
created Earl of Bolingbroke (a manor that 
had belonged to theBeauchamp family, from 
which he was descended). He took his seat 
on 22 June 1625. In December 1626 he 
refused to contribute to the forced loan 
(GARDINER, vi. 190); but in 1638-9 he 
contributed towards the expenses of the 
Scottish war. Nevertheless on 28 Aug. 
1640 he signed the petition of the twelve 
peers, attributing the evils of the day to the 
absence of parliaments, and urging Charles 
to summon one forthwith. He remained 
with the Long parliament in 1642 when 
Charles retired to York, and in February 
1642-3 was named by the parliament lord 
lieutenant of Bedfordshire ; in this capacity he 
took an active part in raising the militia and 
providing for the safety of the shire. In the 
same year he took the covenant, and was 
appointed a lay member of the Westminster 
assembly. On 10 Nov. he was one of the 
commissioners named for the custody of the 
great seal. In 1645 he was excused at- 
tendance at the House of Lords, and he died 
in June or July 1646. He married, in April 
1602, Elizabeth, daughter of William Paulet 
and granddaughter of Sir George Paulet, 
brother of William Paulet, first marquis of 
Winchester [q. v.] A portrait of Boling- 
broke with his family, by Vandyck, belongs 
to the Earl of Morley (see Cat. First Loan 
Rrhib. 1866, No. 732). 

His eldest son, OLIVER ST. JOHN (1603- 
1642), born in 1603, was returned to parlia- 
ment as member for Bedfordshire in February 
1623-4, being erroneously described as 
' Baron St. John of Bletsho.' He was re- 
elected in 1625, 1626, and 1628-9, acting 
throughout with the popular party. After 
his father's elevation to the earldom of 
Bolingbroke he was known by the courtesy 
title Lord St. John, and at the coronation 
of Charles I was made K.B. In 1628 he 
visited Eliot in the Tower. According to 
Clarendon (Rebellion, bk. vi. 93), he 'got 
himself well beloved by the reputation of 
courtesy and civility which he expressed to- 
wards all men,' but was of licentious habits, 
and was compelled by his pecuniary embar- 
rassments to seek license to travel abroad 

i St. John 

under an assumed name. On 3 Nov. 1639 
he was summoned by writ to the House of 
Lords on the strength, it is said, of a promise 
to support the king. Nevertheless he voted 
uniformly with the popular party, and on the 
outbreak of the civil war raised a regiment, 
in which Cromwell's eldest son, Oliver, served 
as cornet. Early in October 1642 he took 
possession of Hereford in the parliamentary 
interest, fortified the town, and refused ad- 
mittance to Charles when he appeared before 
it on the 8th (A True Relation of the Pro- 
ceedings at Hereford by the Lord St. John, 
1642, 4to). He then joined the Earl of 
Essex and fought at Edgehill on the 23rd. 
According to Clarendon, he fled from the 
field, was Avounded, taken captive, and died 
next morning. He married, in May 1623, 
Arabella, eldest daughter of John Egerton, 
first earl of Bridgewater [q. v.], but had no 
issue. The earldom of Bolingbroke conse- 
quently passed to Oliver St. John (1634?- 
1688), eldest son of Paulet St. John 
(d. 1638), second son of the first earl. On 
the death of Paulet St. John, third earl, un- 
married, in 1711, the earldom became ex- 
tinct,, while the barony of St. John of 
Bletsho passed to Paulet St. Andrew 
St. John, a descendant of Rowland, younger 
brother of the first earl of Bolingbroke, in 
whose family it still remains. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. passim ; Journals 
of the House of Lords, vols. iii. iv. v. and vi. 
passim ; Stowe MS. 276, f. 2 ; Off. Ret, Members 
of Parl.; Add. MSS. 22115 f. 8 ; 28852 ff. 30-7, 
46 ; Visitation of Huntingdonshire, p. 2, and 
Chamberlain's Letters (Camden Soc.) ; Claren- 
don's Hist, of the Rebellion ; Masson's Milton, 
passim ; Gardiner's Hist, of England and Civil 
War ; Forster's Life of Eliot ; Foss's Lives of the 
Judges; Wood's A thense Oxon. iii. 134 ; Collins, 
Burke, Doyle, and G. E. C.'s Peerages.] 

A. F. P. 

ST. JOHN, OLIVER (1598 P-1673), 
chief justice, born about 1598, was the son 
of Oliver St. John of Cayshoe, Bedfordshire 
(a grandson of the first Lord St. John of 
Bletsho) [see under ST. JOHN, OLIVER, first 
EARL OF BOLING BROKE], by Sarah, daughter 
of Edward Buckley of Odell in the same 
county (WOTTON, Baronetage, iv. 178 ; Foss, 
Judges, vi. 475). St. John was admitted a 
pensioner of Queens' College, Cambridge, on 
16 Aug. 1615, under the tuition of John Pres- 
ton (1587-1628) [q. v.] He entered Lincoln's 
Inn on 22 April 1619, and was called to the 
bar on 22 June 1626 (if), vi. 477 ; NOBLE, 
House of Cromwell, ii. 15). Lord Campbell 
erroneously identifies him with the Oliver 
St. John of Marlborough who was brought 
before the Star-chamber in 1615 for a letter 

St. John 


St. John 

against benevolences (Lives of the Chief 
Justices, i. 450; cf. GARDINER, History of 
England, ii. 268). He also erroneously de- 
scribes him as member for Bedford county 
in 1628, and ' mainly instrumental in carry- 
ing the Petition of llight' (CAMPBELL, i. 452). 
St. John received employment from Francis 
Russell, fourth earl of Bedford [q. v.J, in 
his law business, and was sent to the Tower 
in November 1629 for communicating to 
Bedford Sir Robert Dudley's l Proposition 
for his Majesty's service to bridle the imper- 
tinence of Parliaments,.' He was threatened 
with the rack and brought lief ore the Star- 
chamber for circulating a seditious docu- 
ment, but the prosecution was dropped and 
the offenders pardoned on the occasion of 
the birth of Charles II (GARDINER, vii. 139 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1629-30, pp. 97, 98, 
110; Life of Sir Simonds HEwes, ii. 40). 
St. John was also associated with the Earl 
of Warwick, Lord Saye, John Pym, and 
other opposition leaders in the management 
of the company for the plantation of the 
island of Providence (Cal. State Papers, 
Colonial, 1574-1660, p. 123). 

Even more important in its influence on 
his political career was the connection with 
the Cromwell family, resulting from St. 
John's marriage, first with a distant relative, 
and after her death with a cousin of the 
future Protector. Cromwell's close friendship 
with the second Mrs. St. John is shown by 
the remarkable letter which he addressed to 
her in 1638 (CARLYLE, Cromwell, Letter 2). 
According to Clarendon, St. John never for- 
gave the court his imprisonment in 1629, 
and 'contracted an implacable displeasure 
against the church purely from the company 
he kept' (Rebellion, iii. 32). In 1637 his 
papers were seized in consequence of the 
suspicion that he had drawn Henry Burton's 
answer to the information preferred against 
him in the Star-chamber for his attack 
against the bishops (BRUCE, Documents re- 
lating to William Prynne, pp. 77, 83, Camd. 
Soc. 1877). In the same year he acted as 
counsel for Lord Saye and John Hampden 
in their resistance to the payment of ship- 
money. His speech in Hampden's case 
gained him an immense reputation, and, 
though hitherto he had had little practice in 
Westminster Hall, henceforward he was 
called ' into all courts and to all causes 
where the King's prerogative was most con- 
tested ' (CLARENDON, Rebellion, iii. 32 ; RUSH- 
WORTH, ii. 481-544). In the Short parlia- 
ment of April 1640 St. John represented 
Totnes. In August of the same year he 
helped Pym to draw up the famous petition 
of the twelve peers which led to the calling 

of the Long parliament (Camden Society 
Miscellany, vol. viii. ' Papers relating to the 
Delinquency of Lord Savile/ p. 2). When 
the Long parliament met, St. John, who 
was again returned for Totnes, became 
naturally one of its leaders. He was * in a 
firm and entire conjunction ' with Pym and 
Hampden, and ' of intimate trust ' with the 
Earl of Bedford, being thus one of the half- 
dozen opposition politicians who made up 
'' the engine which moved all the rest.' 
Clarendon describes him as ' a man reserved, 
and of a dark and clouded countenance, very 
proud, and conversing with very few, and 
those men of his own humour and inclina- 
tions.' He was 'very seldom known to 
smile,' but could not conceal his cheerful- 
ness when the king dissolved the Short par- 
liament, believing that so moderate a body 
of men ' would never have done what was 
necessary to be done ' (CLARENDON, ii. 78, 
iii. 32). In the Long parliament St. John 
opened the attack on ship-money. On 7 Dec. 
1640 he presented the report of the committee 
appointed by the commons to deal with the 
subject, and a month later set forth the case 
against that impost to the House of Lords 
(Commons' Journals, ii. 46; Mr. St. John's 
Speech in the Upper House of Parliament, 
7 Jan. 1640-1, concerning Ship-money. 4to, 
1640). On 29 Jan. following the king, at 
the proposal of the Earl of Bedford, ap- 
pointed St. John solicitor-general, ' hoping 
that he would have been very useful in the 
House of Commons, where his authority 
was then great ; at least that he would be 
ashamed ever to appear in anything that 
might prove prejudicial to the crown ' (CLA- 
RENDON, iii. 85). 

Office, however, made no change in St. 
John's political attitude. He played an im- 
portant part in Strafford's trial, promoted 
the bill for his attainder, and argued in his 
speech to the lords on its behalf that, as 
Strafford had endeavoured to destroy the 
law, he was not entitled to its protection. 
* He that would not have had others to have 
law, why should he have any himself? . . . 
We give law to hares and deer because they 
be beasts of chase. It was never accounted 
either cruelty or foul play to knock foxes 
and wolves on the head, as they can be found, 
because they are beasts of prey ' (ib. iii. 140 : 
An Argument of Law concerning the Bill of 
Attainder of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, 4to, 
1641, p. 72 ; SANFORD, Studies and Illustra- 
tions of the Great Rebellion, pp. 341-7). 
According to Clarendon, both the Root and 
Branch Bill and the Militia Bill were drawn 
by St. John (Rebellion^ iii. 156, 245). He 
was also a member of the committee ap- 

St. John 

St. John 

pointed by the commons to sit during the recess 
in the summer of 1641, and on 26 Oct. 1641 de- 
livered a speech in support of the exclusion of 
the bishops from votes in parliament ( Old Par- 
liamentary History, x. 14). The king, find- 
ing he ' did disserve him notoriously,' pro- 
posed to appoint Hyde solicitor-general in 
his place, but Hyde refused, and it was not 
till 30 Oct. 1643 that Sir Thomas Gardiner 
superseded St. John (CLARENDON, Rebellion, 
iv. 126, viii. 213 ; Foss, vi. 480). When the 
king summoned St. John to follow him to 
York, the House of Commons refused him 
leave to go (Commons' Journals, ii. 600). 
They passed an ordinance enabling him to 
perform all the duties of the attorney-gene- 
ral, who had joined the king (28 May 1644), 
and also appointed him one of the six com- 
missioners charged with the custody of the 
new great seal (10 Nov. 1643), which office 
he continued to hold till 30 Oct. 1646 (Hus- 
BAND, Ordinances, 1646, folio, pp. 385, 499). 

During the civil war St. John came gra- 
dually to be regarded as one of the leaders 
of the independents. He delayed taking the 
Solemn League and Covenant as long as he 
could safely do so (Memoirs of the Verney 
Family, ii. 166). From the close of 1643 he 
and Vane were the heads of the war party in 
the lower house. Robert Baillie terms him 
'Mr. Pym's successor' (Letters, ii. 133). In 
January 1644 he discovered and revealed 
Brook's plot for inducing the city to declare 
for peace (A Cunning Plot to divide and destroy 
the Parliament and the City of London, 4to, 
1643). The original institution of the com- 
mittee of both kingdoms, of which he was from 
the first a member (16 Feb. 1644), and the de- 
vice by which the opposition of the lords to its 
renewal was frustrated were the work of St. 
John and Vane (GARDINER, Great Civil War, 
i. 304, 343 ; BAILLIE, ii. 141). St. John, who 
was an active member of the Westminster 
assembly, was at first regarded by the Scots as 
one of their strongest friends ; but his share in 
passing the toleration order of 13 Sept. 1644 
produced loud complaints from the presby- 
terians (ib. ii. 117, 145, 230, 235-7). In the 
later period of the Westminster assembly he 
was one of the 'Erastian lawyers' who ob- 
structed the establishment of the presby terian 
system by their insistence on the rights of 
the state. 

St. John was one of the commissioners 
appointed to treat for a peace at Uxbridge 
in January 1645, but took little part in the 
debates (GARDINER, Great Civil War, ii. 
121). He supported the self-denying ordi- 
nance, and helped to procure the exemption 
of Cromwell from its operation (HoLLES, 
Memoirs, ed. Maseres, pp. 209-14 ; CLA- 

RENDON, Rebellion, viii. 261). A letter which 
St. John wrote to Cromwell in February 
1646, about the lands conferred by parlia- 
ment upon the latter, supplies a further proof 
\ of the political agreement which then existed 
between the two (Thurloe Papers, i. 75). In 
i 1647, during the quarrel between the army 
! and the parliament, St. John adhered to the 
j army, though remaining rather in the back- 
ground while the struggle lasted. He signed 
the engagement of 4 Aug. 1647, to support 
j Fairfax against the city, and was a member 
j of the committee appointed after the army's 
victory to examine into the late riots (RUSH- 
WORTH, vii. 755; WALKER, History of Inde- 
pendency, i. 51, ed. 1661 ; Clarke Papers, i. 
135, 158, 219, 231). St. John doubtless con- 
curred in the vote for no further addresses 
to Charles I, although during the months 
which followed he, like Cromwell, made an 
attempt to open negotiations with the Prince 
of Wales, and even discussed the desirability 
of fresh overtures to the king (GARDINER, 
iii. 57 ; Hamilton Papers, Camden Society, 
i. 148, 174). Thus from 1644 to the begin- 
ning of 1648 he continually acted in har- 
mony with Cromwell, and Holies gave 
voice to the general opinion, when in Fe- 
bruary 1648 he dedicated his memorial to 
' the unparalleled couple ' as being ' the two 
grand designers of the ruin of three king- 
doms.' The enthusiastic letter which Crom- 
well addressed to St. John after his victory 
at Preston shows how complete his confidence 
in his associate was (CARLYLE, Cromwell, 
Letter 67). Towards the end of 1648, how- 
ever, St. John's policy began to diverge from 
Cromwell's. On 12 Oct. 1648 the commons 
appointed him chief justice of the com- 
mon pleas, and on 22 Nov. following he was 
sworn in. He therefore abstained, in accord- 
ance with the usual custom, from attending 
parliament, took no part in the proceedings 
which brought Charles I to the block, and, 
though appointed one of the commissioners 
for the trial of the king, refused to act (Foss, 
vi.481). In the vindication which he printed 
at the Restoration St. John protested that 
he had nothing to do with the king's death, 
Pride's Purge, or the establishment of the 
Commonwealth (The Case of Oliver St. 
John, 1660, 4to, pp. 5, 12 ; Thurloe Papers, 
vii. 914). His dissatisfaction was shown by 
the fact that, though a member of the council 
of state, he attended sixteen only out of 319 
meetings during his first year of office. During 
the second year he attended forty-nine meet- 
ings. In June 1650, when Fairfax resigned 
command rather than invade Scotland, St. 
John was one of the committee appointed 
by parliament to satisfy him of the justice of 

St. John 


St. John 

the intended invasion (WHITELOCKE, Memo- 
rials, iii. 207, ed. 1853). The letter in which 
he congratulated Cromwell on the victory | 
of Dunbar marks his complete reconciliation | 
with the policy of the republic, and is also 
the fullest exposition of his religious views 
which has survived (NiCKOLLS, Original Let- 
ters addressed to Cromwell, 1743, fol., p. 24). 
On 14 Feb. 1651 the parliament selected St. 
John (with Mr Walter Strickland for his col- 
league) to negotiate a close alliance between 
the United Provinces and England. Their 
instructions directed them to propose not 
only ' a confederacy perpetual,' but, if that 
were accepted, ' a further and more intrin- 
secal union ' between the two nations. Great 
hopes were built upon the embassy. Marvell 
addressed St. John in a copy of Latin verses, 
dwelling upon the significance of his name 
and his mission, while a suite of nearly 250 
persons showed the desire of the English 
government to enhance the prestige of its 
negotiators and secure their safety (MARVELL, 
Works, ed. Grosart, i. 413). St. John arrived 
at the Hague on 17 March, but three months 
of negotiating ended in failure. The servants 
of the ambassador were assaulted in the streets 
by exiled cavaliers, and the lives of their 
masters were threatened. The proposed league 
failed because the Dutch refused to expel the 
English royalists from their dominions, or to 
make the princess of Orange answerable for 
their intrigues against the English common- 
wealth. The political union of the two re- 
publics was in consequence never actually 
proposed. On 20 June St. John left Hol- 
land, haughtily telling the Dutch commis- 
sioners that they would repent of having 
rejected his offers (GARDINER, Commonwealth 
and Protectorate, i. 357-65; GEDDES, John 
fie Witt, i. 157 : Report on the Duke of Port- 
land's MSS. i. 557, 605 ; THFRLOE, i. 174- 
195 ; GREY, Examination ofNeal's Puritans, 
iv. App. li. ; Rawlinson MS. C. 366, Bodleian 
Library). He had shown no great skill as 
a diplomatist, but he was full of wrath at 
his failure, and contemporaries asserted that 
the passing of the Navigation Act was largely 
due to his resentment (LuDLOW, Memoirs, 
i. 267, ed. 1894; CLARENDON, Rebellion, xiii. 
155, 169). . 

On 27 June 1651 parliament rescinded the 
vote of October 1649, which relieved judges 
from their attendance in the house while 
they executed their offices. This enabled St. 
John to take his seat again without the ne- 
cessity of expressing his dissatisfaction with 
the treaty of Newport, which was exacted 
from other members of the house ( Case of 
Oliver St. John, p. 11). On 2 July 1651 he 
gave an account of his embassy to parliament. 

On 6 Sept. he was sent with three other 
members to congratulate Cromwell on his 
victory at Worcester (Commons' Journals, vi. 
593, 595, vii. 13). Two months later the com- 
mittee for the reformation of the universities 
appointed St. John chancellor of the uni- 
versity of Cambridge in place of the Earl of 
Manchester (27 Nov. 1651 ; BAKER, History 
of St. John's College, i. 230). As chancellor, 
however, he interfered very little in the 
government of the university (THTJRLOE, vii. 
574, 582). St. John was also chosen by par- 
liament as one of the eight commissioners to 
be sent to Scotland in order to settle the 
civil government of that country, and to 
prepare the way for an incorporating union, 
with England (23 Oct. 1651). He arrived 
in Scotland in January 1652, and returned 
to England in the following May, having suc- 
cessfully achieved the purpose of his mission 
(Commons' Journals, vii. 30: Scotland and 
the Commonwealth, Scottish History Society, 
1895, pp. xxiii, 32, 40, 42). 

St. John's attitude during the events which 
led to the elevation of Cromwell to the pro- 
tectorate is somewhat difficult to define. At 
the Restoration it was alleged ' that he was 
the dark lantern and privy counsellor in 
setting up and managing affairs in the late 
Protector's time,' a charge which he strenu- 
ously denied (Case of Oliver St. John, p. 5). 
He certainly desired to see the Long parlia- 
ment dissolved, and on 14 Nov. 1651 he was 
teller with Cromwell for the motion re- 
solving that a date for the dissolution should 
be fixed (Commons' Journals, vii. 36 ; cf. 
WHITELOCKE, Memorials, ed. 1853, iii. 4). 
In the conference on the settlement of the 
government which took place on 10 Dec. 
1651, St. John declared ' that the govern- 
ment of this nation, without something of 
monarchical power, will be very difficult to 
be so settled as not to shake the foundation 
of our laws and the liberties of the people ' 
(ib. ii. 373). After Cromwell had turned out 
the Rump he wished, according to Ludlow, 
to persuade St. John and others to draw up 
a new constitution, but there is no evidence 
that St. John had any part in drawing up 
the instrument of government (LUDLOW, 
Memoirs, i. 358). He did not sit either 
in the council of state set up by the officers 
in April 1653, or in the Little parliament. 
He says himself: 'In October I fell sick so 
dangerously, that from that time untill the 
end of May [1654] my friends expected death/ 
Of his conduct during the protectorate he 
adds : ' He named me one of the council, and 
summoned me one of the council, and sum- 
moned me to sit in that which was called 
the other House. I never w^ould come to his 

St. John 


St. John 

council, or sit in the other House. He made 
me one of the commissioners of the treasury. 
I never intermeddled, or received salary, 
either as a councillor or commissioner ; I, nor 
any of my relations, never had one penny 
advantage by him, or by his means, directly 
or indirectly, save the continuance of my 
place as a judge. And in the pretended par- 
liament of 1656, when the petition and advice 
was made, my relations then that were of 
the house forbore to sit all that Parliament, 
few others absenting themselves. As soon 
as the term was ended, I ever went down 
into the country and came not up until the 
beginning of the term following ; seldom saw 
him save before or after the term to take 
leave, but followed my calling' (Case, p. 6). 
St. John's own account is confirmed by other 
evidence. The domestic state papers show 
that he was appointed a commissioner of the 
treasury ("2 Aug. 1654), but contain no record 
of his acting in that capacity. He was named 
a member of the committee for the advance- 
ment of trade (12 July 1655), and of that 
selected to discuss the readmission of the 
Jews into England (15 Nov. 1655). He was 
present at one of the discussions of the latter 
( Cromwelliana, p. 154). St. John's name 
appears in the account of the discussions of 
the committee employed by the parliament 
of 1656 to persuade Cromwell to accept the 
crown (Old Parliamentary History, xxi. 69, 
70). But this appears to be the result of a 
confusion between Chief-justice Glyn and 
Chief-justice St. John ; for the journals show 
that St. John was not a member of the com- 
mittee ( Commons' Journals,vi'i. 521 ; cf. Trea- 
son's Masterpiece, 8vo, 1680, pp. 6, 7). Thurloe, 
who was popularly supposed to be the medium 
of communication between St. John and 
Cromwell, describes him as opposed to Crom- 
well's elevation to the protectorate, and a 
severe critic of the instrument of govern- 
ment. ' As he had nothing to do with the 
setting up this government, so neither was 
there, so far as I know or have heard, any 
communication of counsels between Oliver 
and him, mediately or immediately, touch- 
ing the management of any part of the public 
affairs, my lord St. John always refusing to 
meddle in anything but what concerned his 
place as judge, and in that he refused to 
proceed upon any of the laws made under 
that government, for which he was com- 
plained of to the council, and it was imputed 
to his example that the judges refused to act 
upon the last high court of justice. Nor was 
lie to my knowledge advised with in the Peti- 
tion and Advice. The truth is that my lord 
St. John was so far from being a confidant, 
that some who loved and valued him had 

something to do to preserve him under that 

government' (THURLOE, vii. 914). In one 

important case St. John gave judgment 

| against the government, and summed up 

! strongly against the arbitrary methods by 

j which freedom of election was destroyed 

| (LUDLOW, Memoirs,u.3~); Commons' Journals, 

vi. 598). 

St. John was not in London when Crom- 
well died, and seems to have had nothing to 
do with the elevation of Richard to the pro- 
tectorate, though in a letter written on 3 Sept. 
1658 he expressed his devotion to the Pro- 
tector and his family, and his willingness to 
take part in any consultations on the state 
of public affairs (Case, p. 7 ; THURLOE, vii. 
370). lie was not a member of Richard's 
council, and continued to confine himself to 
his judicial duties. Nevertheless royalist 
I agents continued to assert that he and Wil- 
| liam Pierrepoint were, in conjunction with 
Thurloe, the new Protector's secret advisers, 
but no direct evidence of the fact exists (Cla- 
rendon State Papers, iii. 423, 435, 441). 
When Richard was overthrown and the Long 
parliament was restored, St. John came to 
the front once more, and was elected a member 
of the council of state (16 May 1659). The 
parliament employed him to extract a formal 
| abdication from Richard Cromwell (Commons' 
| Journals, vii. 664). According to Ludlow, he 
contrived to insert a clause in the parlia- 
mentary act of indemnity securing himself 
fiom the liability of refunding money for 
places which he had sold under the late 
government (Memoirs, ii. 97). At the same 
time, having no great confidence in the sta- 
bility of the republic, he endeavoured to raise 
money by selling some of his lands, so as to 
be prepared for a turn of fortune (Clarendon 
State Papers, iii. 528). When the army 
again turned out the parliament, and threa- 
I tened a rough and ready reformation of the 
law, St. John treated with the officers on 
i behalf of the lawyers in order to prevent it 
(LUDLOW, ii. 161). On the second restora- 
tion of the parliament St. John was again 
elected one of the council of state (31 Dec. 
1659 ), but forbore to sit in that body, from 
unwillingness to take the oath abjuring the 
Stuarts, and opposed the act for imposing 1 
such an engagement on members of parlia- 
ment (Case, p. 12 ; but see LUDLOW, ii. 204). 
On 17 Feb. 1660 he took part in a conference 
regarding the readmission of the secluded 
members, which his election to the new 
council of state on 23 Feb. shows that he 
promoted (LUDLOW, ii. 228 ; KENNET, Regi- 
ster, p. 61). Pepys heard on good authority 
that l my Lord St. John is for a free Parlia- 
ment, and that he is very great with Monk' 

St. John 


St. John 

{Diary, 7 Feb. 1660), a statement which 
confirms St. John's own account of his en- 
deavours for that object (Case, p. 13). To 
the last moment before the Restoration the 
Royalists suspected him of intrigues to im- 
pose conditions upon the king, or to restore 
Richard Cromwell (Clarendon State Papers, 
iii. 661, 086, 710, 729, 749). 

After the Restoration St. John's conduct 
during the earlier part of the struggle, and 
the high offices he had held under the re- 
public and protectorate, led him to fear the 
worst. To counteract the rumours as to his 
part in the king's death, and his intimate re- 
lations with Oliver and Richard Cromwell, 
he printed his ' Case,' which was backed by 
a letter testifying its truth from Thurloe to 
the speaker of the Convention parliament 
(THURLOE, vii. 914). The statements it 
makes are substantially correct, though it 
naturally omits many facts which might 
have told against the writer, and makes no 
mention of his earlier political career. It 
was so far effective that while the commons 
had excluded him from the act of indemnity 
for some penalty, not extending to life, to be 
hereafter determined (13 June), the lords 
were content with his perpetual incapacita- 
tion from office (2 Aug. 1660 ; Commons' 
Journals, viii. 63; Lords' Journals, xi. 115). 
St. John's recent co-operation with Monck 
doubtless secured him the good offices of the 
latter. Charles II is said to have expressed 
regret at his escape (LUDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 

During the earlier part of the reign of 
Charles II, St. John lived in retirement at 
Longthorpe in Northamptonshire, where he 
had built a house which, it is said, Clarendon 
attempted to extort from him as the price of 
his safety (NOBLE, ii. 21). About November 
1662 he left England and took ship for Havre, 
whence he made his way first to Basle, and 
afterwards to Augsburg (LUDLOW, Memoirs, 
ed. 1894, ii. 419, 493). On 10 July 1667 the 
English government ordered his return, but 
he appears to have remained abroad till his 
death, which took place on 31 Dec. 1673 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2 p. 567, 
1663-4 p. 144, 1667 p. 282 ; NOBLE, ii. 23), 

St. John's character has been painted in 
the blackest colours by Clarendon and Holies. 
The latter describes him as one ' who has as 
much of the blood of this kingdom to answer 
for, and has dipped as deep in all cunning 
pernicious counsels, as any one man alive.' 
He dwells on his fierceness and cruelty, ' his 
composition being, as it seems, like that 
monster emperor's, " lutum sanguine macera- 
tum." ' Both Holies and Clarendon attribute 
to him far-reaching ambition, and Holies and 

other contemporary opponents describe him 
as avaricious and greatly enriched by his 
different public employments. He ' got infi- 
nitely,' adds Holies, ' by the pardons upon 
compositions, which was a device only to fill 
his pockets' (Memoirs, ed. Maseres, pp. 209, 
267). In his apology St. John confines him- 
self to refuting the rumours about the profit- 
able nature of his embassy to the United Pro- 
vinces : ' all the reward of that embassy was, 
that whereas the minster of Peterborough, 
being an ancient and goodly fabric, was pro- 
pounded to be sold and demolished, I begged 
it to be granted to the citizens of Peter- 
borough, who at that present and ever since 
have accordingly made use of it' (Case, p. 9 ; 
cf. KENNET, Register, p. 202). St. John was 
concerned in the completion of the Bedford 
Level, and drew up the act under which that 
undertaking was managed. His connection 
with the work is commemorated in the name 
of ' St. John's Eau' (WELLS, Bedford Level, 
i. 199; Foss, vi. 489; cf. THURLOE, v. 383, 

St. John married three times : first, Jo- 
hanna, daughter of Sir James Altham of 
Marks Hall, Latton, Essex, and of Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Francis Barrington. Eliza- 
beth Barrington's mother was Joan, daugh- 
ter of Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbroke, 
aunt both to the Protector Cromwell and to 
John Hampden (Foss, Judf/es of England, 
vi. 476). By his first wife St. John had four 
children : (1) Francis, member for Peter- 
borough in the parliaments of 1656 and 
1659; (2) William (cf. THURLOE, iv. 250); 
(3) Johanna, married Sir Walter St. John, 
bart., of Lydiard-Tregoz,Wiltshire (the son of 
this marriage was Henry St. John, created in 
1716 Baron St. John of Battersea, who was 
father of Henry St. John, viscount Boling- 
broke) [q. v.] ; (4) Catherine, married Henry 
St. John, younger brother of Sir Walter 
St. John, mentioned above (cf. NICKOLLS, 
Letters addressed to Cromwell, p. 48 ; NOBLE, 
House of Cromwell, ii. 24-9). St. John's 
second wife, whom he married on 21 Jan. 
1638, was Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 
Cromwell of Upwood, the Protector's uncle 
(Foss, vi. 478). By her he had two chil- 
dren : (1) Oliver, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William Hammond (CHESTER, Lon- 
don Marriage Licenses, 1176); (2) Elizabeth, 
married, on 26 Feb. 1655-6, John Bernard 
of Huntingdon (CAMPBELL, Lives of the 
Chief Justices, i. 477 ; NOBLE, ii. 29). St. 
John's third wife (married 1 Oct. 1645) 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Oxen- 
bridge, M.D., of Daventry, and sister of 
John Oxenbridge, the nonconformist divine 
I [q. v.] She was widow of Caleb Cockcroft 

St. John 


St. John 

of London, merchant, outlived St. John, and 
took for her third husband Sir Humphrey 
Sydenham of Cholworthy, Somerset (Foss, 
vi. 489 ; LE NEVE, Knights, p. 292 ; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 454). 

[An account of St. John is given by Wood, 
Fasti Oxonienses, ed. Bliss. Noble, in his Pro- 
tectoral House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, ii. 15, 
gives a life of St. John, quoting a manuscript 
vindication given by his son, and adding much 
information about his descendants. Lives are 
also contained in Lord Campbell's Lives of the 
Chief Justices of England, 1849, i. 447-78, and 
loss's Judges of England, 1857, vi. 475-92.] 

C. H. F. 

COVENTRY (1837-1891), officiating agent 
to the governor-general of India in Balu- 
chistan, eldest son of Captain Oliver St. John, 
Madras army, and of his wife Helen, daugh- 
ter of John Young, esq., and widow of Henry 
Anson Nutt, was born at Springfield House, 
Ryde, Isle of Wight, on 21 March 1837. He 
was great-grandson of the tenth baron St. 
John of Bletsho [see under ST. JOHN, OLIVEE, 
EARL OF BOLINGBROKE]. He was educated 
at Norwich grammar school, and at the East 
India Company's military college at Addis- 
combe, where he took many prizes, and re- 
ceived a commission as second lieutenant in 
the Bengal engineers on 12 Dec. 1856. He 

1868), received the thanks of the government 
of India and the war medal, and was recom- 
mended for a brevet majority on attaining 
the rank of captain. On his return home 
in 1868 he was employed to report on the 
military telegraphs of France, Prussia, and 
Russia. St. John was promoted to be cap- 
tain on 10 Nov. 1869, and returned to Persia 
in 1870, with the local rank of major. Sir 
Frederick Goldsmid, on being appointed in 
1872 arbitrator in thePerso- Afghan boundary 
dispute, applied for St. John's services, but 
he could not be spared from his telegraph 
duties in Persia. 

In October 1871 he went to Baluchistan 
as boundary commissioner of the Perso-Kalat 
frontier. Having completed the survey of 
the boundary he returned to England, and 
during his furlough was employed on special 
duty at the India office in 1873 and 1874 
in compiling maps of Persia and Persian 
Baluchistan. These maps were based on 
longitudes of the principal Persian telegraph 
stations, fixed in co-operation with General 
J. T. Walker of the Indian trigonometrical 
survey, Captain William Henry Pierson 
[q. v.], royal engineers, and Lieutenant Stiffe 

the Indian navy, by whom time-signals 
were exchanged between Greenwich and 
Karachi on the one hand, and stations in 
Persia on the other. A result of the Perso- 

went to Chatham for the usual course of i Kalat survey was St. John's ( Narrative of a 
professional instruction, was promoted to be i Journey through Baluchistan and Southern 
first lieutenant on 27 Aug. 1858, and in the Persia, 'published in vol. i. of 'Eastern Persia' 
following year went to India, where he was 

employed in the public works department in 
the North- West Provinces and Oudh for the 
next four years. 

In October 1863 he joined the expedition 
to Persia, under Lieutenant-colonel Patrick 
Stewart, royal engineers, to establish tele- 
graphic communication from India through 
Persia and Asia Minor to the Bosphorus. 
His duties lay in the Persian section. He 
landed at Bushahr in January 1864, and took 
charge of the fifth and last telegraph division, 
the most difficult and important of all. From 
December 1865 to June 1866 he had charge of 
the directors' office during Stewart's absence, 
and from June 1866 to January 1867 his own 
immediate superintendence embraced the line 
from Tehran to Bushahr. 

In May 1867 St. John returned to Eng- 
land, and joined the expedition to Abyssinia 
under Sir Robert Cornelis (afterwards Lord) 
Napier [q. v.], as director of the field tele- 
graph and army signalling department of the 
Abyssinian field force. He laid the telegraph 
line, under great difficulties, for some two 
hundred miles from the coast ; was mentioned 
in despatches (London Gazette, 30 June 


In January 1875 St. John was appointed 
principal of the Mayo College, Ajmir. He 
was promoted to be regimental major on 
29 Aug. 1876. In August 1878 he was at- 
tached to Sir Neville Chamberlain's mission 
to Kabul, which came to nothing in conse- 
quence of the amir's refusal to admit it to 
the Khaibar. In November he was attached 
as chief political officer to the staff of Sir 
Donald Stewart, who commanded the Kan- 
dahar field force, which entered Afghanistan 
by the Bolan pass and occupied Kandahar. 
On 10 Jan. 1879 an attempt was made to 
assassinate St. John in the streets of Kan- 
dahar, but the shot missed him, and the 
assassin was apprehended. On 29 July he 
was made a companion of the order of the 
Star of India. On 26 Dec. some mounted 
Ghazis ran amuck through the camp at Kan- 
dahar, when Major Tytler was wounded, and 
St. John had another narrow escape. During 
the occupation of Kandahar he found time 
to contribute a valuable paper on Persia to 
the ' Journal of the Royal United Service In- 
stitution of India/ for which he was awarded 
the gold medal of the institution for 1879. 

St. John 


St. John 

He was made a companion of the Star of 
India on 29 July 1879, and was promoted 
brevet lieutenant-colonel on 4 Feb. 1880. 
On visiting Calcutta early in 1880 to confer 
with the viceroy on Afghan affairs, he was 
appointed political agent for Southern Af- 
ghanistan. He returned to Kandahar in 
April, and, on the departure shortly after of 
Sir Donald Stewart with a field force for 
Ghazni and Kabul, entered on his new ap- 

In July 1880 a force under Brigadier- 
general Burrows was sent from Kandahar 
to support the Wali Shir Ali Khan, governor 
of the province of Kandahar, against the 
advance of Ayub Khan on Kandahar. St. 
John, with Brigadier-general Nuttall and 
the advanced column, arrived at Girishk on 
10 July, Burrows with the main body coming 
up the following day. The wali was en- 
camped on the opposite side of the Halmand 
river. Disaffection having shown itself in 
the wali's army, it was arranged by St. John's 
advice to bring it over the river, and to dis- 
arm the disaffected troops on the 14th ; but 
before this could be done they had absconded, 
carrying with them their arms, and also a 
battery of guns and ammunition. St. John 
took part in the pursuit and action of the 
Halmand, which resulted in the capture of 
the guns. Bv his advice Burrows then fell 
back on Kushk-i-Nakhud. St. John was 
present at the battle of Maiwand on 27 July, 
and reached Kandahar with Burrows and 
the remnant of the force on the following 
day, having lost three out of his escort of 
five and had a horse shot under him. 

St. John was in Kandahar during the in- 
vestment, took part in the sortie of 16 Aug., 
and, on its relief by Sir Frederick (now Lord) 
Roberts, was present at the battle of Kan- 
dahar on 1 Sept. 1880. The governor-general 
of India in council, in a minute dated 15 Jan. j 
1881 to the secretary of state for India on the 
services of officers in the Afghan campaign, 
mentioned the conspicuous ability, zeal, and 
energy shown by St. John throughout, and 
recommended their recognition. St. John was 
mentioned in despatches (London Gazette, 
3 Dec. 1880), and received the medal with 
clasp. On the evacuation of Kandahar he 
was appointed officiating agent to the go- 
vernor-general for Baluchistan, in succession 
to Sir Robert Sandeman [q. v.], and moved 
toQuetta in April 1881. On 23 May 1882 he 
was made K.C.S.I. 

St. John went to Kashmir on special duty, 
and as resident in January 1883. He was 
promoted to be brevet colonel on 4 Feb. 1884, 
and in April went temporarily to Haidarabad 
as acting resident, returning to Kashmir in 

August. On 7 March 1886 he was promoted 
to be regimental lieutenant-colonel, and in 
May he returned to Quetta as officiating agent 
to the governor-general for Baluchistan. In 
December 1887 he was appointed resident at 
Baroda, and in January 1889 resident and 
chief commissioner at Maisur andKurg. In 
May 1891 he left perhaps the pleasantest 
billet in India to again temporarily officiate 
as governor-general's agent for Baluchistan, 
an appointment which gave a better field for 
his active mind and his keen interest in the 
frontier question. A fortnight after his arrival 
at Quetta he died there of pneumonia, follow- 
ing influenza, on 3 June 1891. His remains 
were buried in the new cemetery at Quetta, 
with military honours, on 5 June. 

To soldierly qualities in the field St. John 
added the courage and skill of the oriental 
sportsman, and the tastes and capabilities of 
the naturalist and scientific traveller. Mr. 
W. T. Blanford, in his introduction to the 
1 Zoology of Persia' (1876), acknowledges the 
value of contributions made to his collections 
by St. John, whom he accompanied in his 
journey from Gwadar to Teheran in 1872. 
St. John was a fellow of the Royal Geogra- 
phical and the Zoological Societies, and he 
sent the latter many animals, among them 
a two-humped Bactrian camel, which Ayub 
Khan left behind him in Kandahar. He 
made collections of birds and reptiles for 
various museums. When travelling in Persia 
he used to lodge in the black tents or houses 
of the natives, and his memory still lingers 
among them. 

St. John made many contributions to news- 
papers and journals ;' among them may be 
mentioned a paper in the ' Royal Geographical 
Society Proceedings' in 1868 ' On the Eleva- 
tion of the Country between Bushire and 
Teheran.' There is an oil portrait of him in 
the residency at Quetta, of which his widow 
possesses a copy. He married, on 23 Sept. 
1869, Jannette, fourth daughter of James 
Ormond, esq., of Abingdon, Berkshire. She 
survives him, with three children : Henry 
Beauchamp, born in 1874, lieutenant 14th 
Sikhs; Olive Helen, born in 1870; and 
Muriel, born in 1873. 

[India Office Records; Royal Engineers' Re- 
cords ; Despatches ; Blue Books ; Royal En- 
gineers' Journal, 1879, 1880, and 1881 ; Proc. 
of the Royal Geographical Soc. July 1891 ; 
London Times, 5 June 1891; Goldsmid's Tele- 
graph and Travel, 1874 ; private sources.] 

R. H. V. 


(1821-1889), journalist, the eldest son of 
James Augustus St. John [q. v.], was born in 
Camden Town in 1821 . He accompanied his 

St. Lawrence 

St. Lawrence 

father on some of his travels, particularly to 
Madrid, when the latter was searching for 
materials for his < Life of Sir Walter Raleigh,' 
and he also travelled in America. lie began 
to write tales when a lad, and translated 
about thirty of Gustave Aimard's Indian tales 
into English. His translations appeared be- 
tween 1876 and 1879. In 1846 he edited 
the ' Mirror of Literature,' and in 1861 the 
* London Herald.' As correspondent to vari- 
ous newspapers, his miscellaneous contribu- 
tions to the press were numerous, but of no 
special note ; and he was also a frequent con- 
tributor of papers to * Chambers's Journal ' 
and other magazines. He died in London 
on 15 March 1889. 

St. John's original works were : 1. t Young 
Naturalist's Book of Birds,' London, 1838. 

2. ' Trapper's Bride; and Indian Tales,' Lon- 
don, 1845 ; several subsequent editions. 

3. l Paul Peabody,' London, 1853 (incom- 
plete) ; another edit. London, 1865. 4. ' Our 
Holiday : a Week in Paris,' London, 1854. 
5. < Lobster Salad ' (collaborated with Ed- 
ward Copping), London, 1855. 6. ' Qua- 
droona, or the Slave Mother,' London, 1861. 
7. ' The Red Queen,' London, 1863. 8. < Snow 
Ship ' (adventures of Canadian emigrants), 
London, 1867 ; various editions subsequently. 

9. ' The Young Buccaneer,' London, 1873. 

10. ' The North Pole ' (a narrative of Arctic 
explorations), London, 1875. 11. 'Polar 
Crusoes,' London, 1876. 12. 'The Sailor 
Crusoe/ London, 1876. 

[Literary World, March 1889 ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.] J. K. M. 

PHER, twentieth or more properly eighth, 
BARON HOWTH (d. 1589), commonly called 
the ' Blind Earl,' was the third son of Sir 
Christopher, seventeenth baron Howth, and 
younger brother of Edward and Sir Richard, 
eighteenth and nineteenth barons respec- 
tively. His grandfather was Nicholas St. 
Lawrence, sixteenth baron Howth [q. v.] 
On the death of Sir Richard in 1558 he 
succeeded to the family estates ; but the 
title of baron was not confirmed to him and 
his heirs male by Elizabeth until 1561 (Cal. 
Carew MSS. i. 311). He appears to have 
sat in the first parliament of Elizabeth's 
reign, and he and Lord Slane were instru- 
mental in inducing Shane O'Neill to repair 
to England. He himself paid a visit thither 
in December 1562 with letters of credit to 
the privy council, and returned to Ireland 
on 28 Feb. 1563. In 1565 he signed a me- 
morial to the queen commending the go- 
vernment of Sir Nicholas Arnold, and he 
was knighted by Sir Henry Sidney at Dro- 

gheda on 9 Feb. 1569 in acknowledgment 
of the assistance he had rendered the deputy 
against Shane O'Neill (ib. ii. 148). Subse- 
quently, however, he gave great offence by 
the part he played in the agitation of the 
Pale against cess in 1577-8 [see under NU- 
DELVIN], In his examination before the 
council he justified his conduct by declaring 
that, ' having read the chronicles and laws/ 
he was convinced that the imposition was 
unconstitutional. But after five months' 
confinement in the castle he consented to 
admit that he had no intention ' to gainsay 
any part of the queen's prerogative,' and 
acknowledged ( that, in times of necessity, 
the queen may lay charge upon her subjects 
here as fully as in England;' whereupon, 
having been sharply reprimanded for his 
undutiful behaviour, he was set at liberty 
(ib. ii. 133). The question was, however, 
revived in 1586, and it was mainly in conse- 
quence of the opposition offered by him and 
Lords Slane and Louth that an attempt of 
Sir John Perrot [q. v.] to induce parliament 
to consent to a composition for cess was de- 
feated. He was induced to confess his fault, 
and seems to have become reconciled to 
Perrot, to whom he sent, shortly before his 
death, an ' intermute gossawk.' He died 
at Howth on 24 Oct. 1589, and was buried 
in the south aisle of the abbey. Over him 
is a monument in high relief, with the effigies, 
it is said, of him and his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir John Plunket of Beau- 
lieu, co. Louth, though, as the inscription is 
now entirely obliterated, it is questionable 
whether they do not represent some earlier 
members of the family, conjecturally Chris- 
topher, thirteenth baron, and his wife (LEWIS, 
Topogr. Diet. s.v. ' Howth ; ' Journal of the 
Royal Society of Antiquaries, Irel. iii. 449). 
By his first wife St. Lawrence had Nicho- 
las, his successor [see below], Thomas, and 
Leonard ( LODGE ; or, according to the pedi- 
gree in Harl. MS. 1425, f. 104, Richard, 
who married a daughter of Francis Corby of 
Queen's County, and Lionel, who married 
Ann Eustace), and three daughters, viz. Jane 
(d. 1577) ; Mary, who married Sir Patrick 
Barnwell of Turvey, and (?) Margaret. His 
second wife, by whom he had no issue, was 
Cecilia, second daughter of Henry Cusack, 
alderman of Dublin, who remarried, first, 
John Barnwell of Monctown, co. Meath, 
and, secondly, John Finglas of Westpals- 

The well-known ' Book of Howth ' (pub- 
lished by the master of the rolls), a compila- 
tion of considerable historical value, bears 
evidence of having belonged to him, and he 

St. Lawrence 

1 60 

St. Lawrence 

may possibly have been the author of some 
of the concluding entries. 

first or ninth BARON HOWTH (1550P-1607), 
his eldest son and heir, born about 1550, 
was knighted by Sir William Fitzwilliam in 
1588 ; but he incurred some suspicion as a 
discontented person by the eagerness with 
which, two years later, he joined the Nugents 
in attacking Sir Robert Dillon, chief justice 
of the common pleas, for maladministration 
(Col. State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. v. 98). He 
had the honour of entertaining the lord 
deputy, Sir William Russell [q. v.], for one 
night on his arrival in Ireland on 31 July 
159-4, and subsequently, in May 1595, at- 
tended him on an expedition against Fiagh 
MacHugh O'Byrne [q. v.], the outlaw of the 
Wicklow glens ; and for his services on that 
occasion the deputy thought he deserved 
' some few words of thanks from her majesty.' 
He earned the commendation of the Lords- 
justices Loftus and Gardiner for his prompt- 
ness in obeying their order in 1598 to as- 
semble the gentlemen of county Dublin 'to 
consider of a course for some provision to 
be made for the soldiers intended to be laid 
at Naas under Sir Henry Bagenal.' But his 
alacrity in this respect did not prevent him 
from complaining directly to Sir Robert 
Cecil, in October 1600, of the spoils com- 
mitted by the soldiery upon the inhabitants 
of the Pale. Being a Roman catholic, though 
at one time he apparently conformed to the 
established church, he resented the increased 
rigour of the laws against his co-religionists 
that followed the accession of James I : and 
on 8 Dec. 1605 he signed a memorial to the 
Earl of Salisbury pray ing that the penal laws 
might be rather restrained than extended. 
He died early in May 1607, and was buried 
with his ancestors in the abbey of Howth. 
He married, first, Margaret or Allison, fifth 
daughter of Sir Christopher Barnwell of 
Turvey, by whom he had Sir Christopher 
(1568 P-1619) [q. v.], his successor; Thomas, 
who served in the Spanish army in the 
Netherlands ; and, according to Lodge, 
Richard and Mary (? Margaret), the wife of 
William Eustace of Castlemartin, co. Kil- 
dare. His second wife was Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir Nicholas White of Leixlip, master 
of the rolls, widow of Robert Browne of 
Mulrankan, co. Wexford, and also of Chris- 
topher Darcy of Platin, by whom he had, 
according to Harl. MS. 1425, f. 104, the 
above-mentioned Richard, Americ, Edward, 
Margaret (married to Viscount Gormanston), 
and Allison (married to a Luttrell). 

[Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, iii. 196-9; 
D'Alton'sHist. of Dublin, pp. 127-9 ; Cal. State 

Papers, Ireland, Eliz. i. 172, 175, 210, 213, 276, 
318, ii. 115, 118, 129, iii. 10, 20, iv. 235, 415, 
419, 576, v. 15-27, 98, 317, vii. 342, James I i. 
365, ii. 147: Cal. Carew MSS. i. 311, ii. 58, 
133, 148, 354, iii. 62-84, 221, 228, 475; Cal. 
Fiants Eliz. Nos. 260, 542, 2117, 2345, 2445, 
3601, 3657, 4515, 5134, 5342, 6044, 6692.] 

K. D. 

PHER, twenty-second, or more properly 
tenth, BARON HOWTH (1568 P-1619), eldest 
son of Sir Nicholas St. Lawrence, twenty- 
first baron Howth [see under ST. LAWRENCE, 
was born about 1568. According to a story 
recorded by D'Alton (Hist, of Dublin, p. 136), 
he was, when very young, kidnapped by the 
celebrated Grace O'Malley [q. v.] in retalia- 
tion for a supposed act of inhospitality to~ 
wards her on the part of his father or grand- 
father. A picture said to represent this in- 
cident is preserved in Howth Castle. He 
displayed great aptitude in military exer- 
cises, and accompanied his father' on an 
expedition into Wicklow against Fiagh 
MacHugh O'Byrne, when he showed some 
boldness by capturing two of Fiagh's fol- 
lowers in April 1595. Subsequently he 
paid a visit to England, and, returning to 
Ireland with Sir Conyers Clifford on 4 July 
1597, he was given a company of foot, and 
for the next two years was chiefly employed 
on the borders of King's County in holding 
the O'Conors in check. He acquired a repu- 
tation as an active but somewhat quarrel- 
some officer, though there was no truth 
in the report that he stabbed Sir Samuel 
Bagenal ' about the lie or such like brabble ? 
(CHAMBERLAIN, Letters, p. 23). He served 
under the Earl of Essex in Leinster in 
1599, and distinguished himself by swim- 
ming across the Barrow in order to re- 
cover some stolen horses, and returned with 
one of the marauders' heads. He was pre- 
sent at the siege of Cahir Castle, and, having 
repulsed a sortie of the garrison, was one of 
the first to enter the place. He accompanied 
Essex, to whom he was greatly attached, to 
England, and is said to have offered to re- 
venge him personally on Lord Grey de Wil- 
ton and Sir Robert Cecil (CAMDEN* iii. 796). 
In April 1600 he was sent to reinforce the 
president of Minister, Sir George Carew ; but 
later in the year he accompanied Lord-deputy 
Mountjoy into Leix, and in October he was 
slightly wounded in an encounter with the 
forces of O'Neill in the neighbourhood of 
Carlingford. On the news of the arrival of 
the Spaniards he was despatched into Mun- 
ster, but his attempt, in conjunction with the 
president, to intercept O'Donnell failed. At 

St. Lawrence 


St. Lawrence 

the siege of Kinsale he and the Earl of Clan- 
ricarde were stationed to the west of the town 
in order to prevent a junction between the 
Spaniards and O'Donnell. On the submis- 
sion of Hugh, earl of Tyrone, his company 
was reduced, and in February 1605 he ven- 
tured to solicit the king for ' some mark of 
his gracious and liberal recognition of past 

His appeal met with no response, and, 
having about this time separated from his 
wife, he made preparations for realising his 
property with the intention of seeking his 
fortunes abroad. Chichester, who evidently 
felt that he had not been treated according 
to his deserts, wrote strongly in his favour 
to Salisbury, emphasising the fact of his 
being a protestant, and insisting that he 
should not quit the kingdom without per- 
mission. Nothing, however, was done for 
him, and in July 1606, having obtained the 
king's consent to go abroad, he entered the 
service of the archduke. His example proved 
contagious, and in January 1607 Chichester 
wrote that so many of the Irish gentry 
were preparing to leave the country that 
he thought it would be for the public ser- 
vice if he could be induced to return. But 
his father's death early in May relieved the 
deputy from further anxiety on that point, 
and in June St. Lawrence returned to Ire- 
land. Meanwhile, however, he had be- 
come mixed up in an obscure conspiracy 
for subverting the government ol Ireland, 
in which several noblemen, including, it 
was said, the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrcon- 
nel and Lord Delvin, were implicated. Now 
whether the prospect of returning to Ire- 
land in a position more suited to his am- 
bition, or the dread of the consequences 
of discovery, induced him to inform the 
government, Howth, on his way through 
England, revealed some part of the con- 
spiracy to the privy council. His infor- 
mation was regarded with suspicion, and 
the work of sifting him was transferred to 

Arrived in Dublin, * A. B.' (the initials 
under which Howth concealed his identity) 
was secretly examined by the lord deputy ; but 
his story, resting solely on his own authority, 
seemed so improbable that the deputy was 
inclined to treat it as a fiction of a disordered 
mind, when the sudden and unexpected flight 
of the northern earls, owing doubtless to a 
rumour of treachery, caused him to view the 
matter in another light. Howth, who was 
himself apparently meditating flight, was, in 
consequence of directions from the privy 
council, arrested, along with Lord Delvin 
[see NUGENT, SIR RICHARD, first EARL or 

VOL. L. 

WESTMEATH], and confined to the castle. 
Delvin shortly afterwards managed to es- 
cape ; and, in order to avoid another mishap, 
Howth was in December sent to London in 
charge of Sir John Jephson, Chichester re- 
marking that during his imprisonment in 
the castle he had ' carried himself in his ac- 
customed half-witted fashion/ He was ex- 
amined before the. privy council, and 'no 
cause of exception to his loyalty ' having 
been found, he was allowed to return to 
Ireland in March 1608. Meanwhile his 
secret had leaked out, so that he went about 
in constant fear of his life, distrusting his 
most intimate acquaintances. Even those 
who could hardly be suspected of sympa- 
thising with any attempt to upset the go- 
vernment looked askance at him and spoke 
contemptuously of him. The remarks of 
Sir Garret Moore [q. v.] galled him particu- 
larly ; and, in revenge, Ilowth preferred a 
charge against Moore of complicity in the 
conspiracy, to which Moore's well-known 
intimacy with the Earl of Tyrone lent plau- 
sibility. But, meeting with little encourage- 
ment from Chichester, Howth repaired to 
England, and was so far successful that on 
his return to Ireland in June the deputy was 
ordered to assign him a company of 150 sol- 
diers ; and for his encouragement, as ' having 
raised himself adversaries for doing service 
for the king,' to give him the support that he 
required. Being called upon to make good 
his charge of treason against Sir Garret Moore, 
he refused to open his case before the Irish 
council on the ground of its partiality to- 
wards Moore, and in February 1609 repaired 
to England. This time he obtained a letter 
from the king testifying to his loyalty, exone- 
rating him ' in verbo regis ' of having in 
his disclosures compromised Lord Delvin, 
' of whose safety he had been more careful 
than of his own,' and recommending him for 
employment l in any fitting service which 
may fall out.' But the letter unfortunately 
did him more harm than good, being, as he 
dolefully expressed it to the king, ' rather 
construed disgraceful than of favour or pro- 
tection for him,' and he implored to be 
allowed to quit Ireland and fix his residence 
in England. 

This time it was Sir Roger Jones who had 
offended him, by speaking of him as ' a brave 
man among cowards ; ' and one day when 
Jones and some friends were playing tennis 
together in a court in Thomas Street, he re- 
paired thither ' with some ten or twelve 
persons in his company and a cudgel in 
his hand with purpose to have cudgelled 
him.' Jones's friends interfered, and in 
the fray one of his retainers was killed. 


St. Lawrence 


St. Lawrence 

The lord deputy, who happened at the time 
to be at Christ Church, hearing of the up- 
roar, at once committed Howth to the castle 
till an inquest having been held on the 
dead man and the jury having returned a 
verdict of manslaughter he was enlarged on 
his own bonds. When called upon to ex- 
plain himself, Howth declared that he was 
the victim of a conspiracy on the part of Sir 
Roger's father, the lord chancellor, Arch- 
bishop Jones, and Sir Garret Moore, and 
even went so far as to reflect on the im- 
partiality of Chichester's government. His 
' audacity in daring to incense the king 
against his faithful servants ' the deputy pro- 
nounced to be ' beyond comparison ' and en- 
durance. After hearing both sides, the 
privy council found that 'most of Lord 
Howth's charges arose out of unkind speeches 
behind backs, and were grounded sometimes 
upon looks and sometimes on loose observa- 
tions that men did not much love him ; ' 
wherefore, seeing that he was l so much sub- 
ject to his own passions,' he was strictly 
commanded ' to retire himself to his own 
house . . . that the world might take notice 
that his majesty disliked his proud carriage 
towards the supreme officers of the king- 
dom.' He was expressly forbidden to leave 
Ireland on any pretext ; but, notwithstanding 
the prohibition, he repaired to England with- 
out license early in May 1611. He was im- 
mediately, on his arrival in London, clapped 
in the Fleet, but had sufficient interest at 
court to procure his release in July. He 
refused to be reconciled to Sir Roger Jones, 
whom the council had exonerated of all blame; 
but his behaviour in England impressed the 
king favourably, and on returning to Ireland 
in October 1612 he was specially commended 
to Chichester, who was desired to treat him, 
as he had not hitherto done, in friendly sort. 
He sat in parliament in 1612, and in 1614 
he subscribed 100/. by way of a free gift to 
the^king. He died on 24 Oct. 1619, and was 
buried at Howth. By his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Wentworth of Little 
Horkesley, Essex, from whom he had long 
been separated, and who after his death mar- 
ried Sir Robert Newcomen, bart., he had two 
sons Nicholas, his successor ; and Thomas, 
who settled at Wiston, Suffolk, and mar- 
ried Ellinor, daughter of William Lynne of 
Wormingford and Little Horkesley ( Genea- 
logist, new ser. i. 149-50, note on the ' Essex 
Visitation ' by J. H. Round) and a daughter 
Margaret, said by Lodge to have married, 
first, William Fitz William of Donamon, and, 
secondly, Michael Birford of Kilrow. 

[Lodge's Peerage, ed. Archdall, iii. 199 ; Gr.E. 
C[okayne]'s Peerage ; Cal. Carew MSS. iii. 229, 

254, 304, 323, 378, 431-2, 439, 465; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland, Eliz. vii. 121, 411, 457; James I, 
i. 91, 2-58, 338, 346, 519, and vols. ii. iii. iv. 
passim ; Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudor.s, 
vol. iii. ; Cal. of Fiants, Eliz. 6164, 6281, 6288, 
6572, 6636 ; Erck's Repertory, p. 148 n. ; Har- 
rington's Nugge Antiquse, pp. 31, 41 ; Meehan's 
Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell ; J. Huband- 
smith's A Day at Howth ; Devereux's Earls of 
Essex; D'Alton's Hist, of Dublin, pp. 164-5; 
Harl. MS. 1425, f. 104; Lansdowne MS. 160, 
f. 221.] E. D. 

teenth, or more properly fourth, BAROX 
HOWTH (d. 1526), son of Robert, fifteenth 
baron [q. v.], and of Joan, daughter of Edmund 
Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and great-uncle 
of Henry VII, succeeded to the barony on 
the death of his father in 1483. Unlike the 
majority of the English in Ireland, Nicholas 
was a staunch Lancastrian. When Lambert 
Simnel [q. v.], in 1486, personated the Earl of 
Warwick, Howth not only refused to recog- 
nise his claims, but apprised Henry VII of his 
designs. At the close of the rebellion, after 
the battle of Stoke, Henry summoned Nicho- 
las with the rest of the Irish nobilitv to 
London, and rewarded him by presenting 
him with three hundred pieces of gold, and 
by confirming the lands of Howth to him 
by charter. 

Howth attended the parliaments held at 
Dublin in 1490 and in 1493. In 1504 he 
attended Lord Kildare on an expedition to 
repel an Irish invasion of the Pale. On ar- 
riving at Cnoctuagh in Connaught, they found 
the natives gathered before them in great 
force. Lord Gormanston and some of the 
leaders were in favour of retreating, or at 
least of trying to negotiate with an enemy so 
superior. But Howth was for an immediate 
engagement, and led the bill-men to the attack 
on foot. The result of the conflict justified 
his counsel, for the English were completely 
victorious. In 1509 Hcxwth was created 
lord chancellor of Ireland, and retained that 
office till 1513. Although he did not agree 
with the lord deputy (Gerald Fitzgerald, 
Earl of Kildare [q. v.]) on the justice of 
Lambert Simnel's claims, yet in later times 
he became a devoted partisan of the deputy, 
and went so far as to defy the Earl of Or- 
monde to mortal combat for speaking ill of 
Kildare (Book of Howth, p. 176). After 
Kildare's death in 1513 the opposite faction 
obtained the dismissal of Howth from the 
council (ib. 191). From this time he remained 
in obscurity. He died on 10 July 1526, 
and was buried in the family sepulchre at 

He was thrice married : first, to Genet, only 

St. Lawrence 


St. Leger 

daughter of Christopher Plunket, third lord 
Killeen, by whom he had a son Christopher, 
who succeeded him as seventeenth Baron 
Howth, and was father of Sir Christopher, 
twentieth baron Ilowth [q. v.], and four 
daughters, Alison, Elizabeth, Ellenor, and 
Anne. He married, secondly, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Birford of Kilrow, co. Meath, 
by whom he had two sons, Amorey and 
Robert, and one daughter, Katherine. His 
third wife was Alison, daughter of Robert 
Fitzsimons, by whom he had a son and a 
daughter, William and Marian. 

[Letters and Papers of Henry VII (Rolls Ser.), 
i. 379, ii. 307, 370; G. E. C.'s Peerage, iv. 272; 
Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. Archdall, iii. 189 ; 
Harleian MS. 1425, f. 104; O'Flanagan's Lord 
Chancellors of Ireland.] E. I. C. 

ST. LAWRENCE, ROBERT, fifteenth, 
or more properly third, BARON" HOWTH (d. 
1483), son of Christopher, fourteenth baron, 
whose father Christopher, thirteenth lord of 
Howth, created a peer by writ shortly before 
1430, was head of the ancient family of 
St. Lawrence. Their ancestor, Almaric de 
Tristram, landed in Ireland with De Courei 
in 1176, and having distinguished himself by 
his conduct in the first engagement with 
the Irish at the hill of Howth, received as a 
reward the grant of the district. He assumed 
the name of St. Lawrence after defeating the 
Danes near Clontarf on St. Lawrence's day, 
and fell in battle in 1189. Robert's mother 
was Elizabeth Bermingham of Athenrv. He 
succeeded to the barony on the death of 
his father about 1463, and was created chan- 
cellor of the green wax of the exchequer 
by patent on 22 Feb. 1467 (Harl. MS. 
433). In 1474 he formed one of the ' thirteen 
most noble and worthy persons within the 
four shires,' known as the brotherhood of 
St. George, who were entrusted by an act of 
parliament of that year with the duty of 
defending the Pale against Irish invasions 
and of preserving order within its bounds 
(Cal. of Irish State Papers, Carew MS. Misc. 
403). On 20 May 1483 he was appointed lord 
chancellor of Ireland by Richard III, but he 
died a few months later. He married Joan, 
second daughter of Edmund Beaufort, duke 
of Somerset, and great-uncle of Henry VII, 
who afterwards married Sir Richard Frv. 

By her he had four sons Nicholas [q. v. 
Thomas, Walter, and Christopher and two 
daughters, Genet and Anne. 

[Lodge's Irish Peerage, ed. Archdall, iii. 187 ; 
G. E. C.'s Peerage, iv. 272 ; Rymer's Foedera, 
xii. 181 ; D' Alton's History of Dublin, p. 160; 
Harleian MS. 142o, f. 104; O'Flan;i<:nn's Lord 
Chancellors of Ireland.] E. I. C. 

1559), lord-deputy of Ireland, eldest son of /^ 
Ralph St. Leger, esq., of Ulcombe, Kent, and $ * f* 
Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Haut of #r te** 
Shelvingbourne in the same county, was ^ofu ** & 
born about 1496. ' When twelve years of 
age,' says Lloyd (State Worthies, i. 99), < he 
was sent for his grammar learning with his 
tutor into France, for his carriage into Italy, 
for his philosophy to Cambridge, for his law 
to Grays-Inne ; and for that which com- 
pleted all, the government of himself, to 
court ; where his debonnairness and free- 
dome took with the king, as his solidity and 
wisdome with the cardinal.' He was present 
at the marriage of the Princess Mary at 
Paris in October 1514, and is mentioned in 
the following year as forming one of Lord 
Abergavenny's suite (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, i. 898, ii. 134). After Wolsey's 
downfall, in which, if we may trust the un- 
corroborated evidence of Lloyd, he seems to 
have taken a prominent part, he attached 
himself to Cromwell, whose active agent he 
was in the demolition of the suppressed 
abbeys. On 2 Aug. 1535, he was appointed, 
along with Sir William Fitzwilliam and 
George Poulett, to inquire into the state of 
Calais, and to take measures for strengthen- 
ing the English Pale in France (ib. ix. 79). 
The following year he was one of the grand 
jury of Kent that found a true bill against 
Anne Boleyn (cf. FROUDE, ii. 507), and his 
name appears in the list of such noblemen 
and gentlemen as were appointed in October 
that year to attend upon the king's own 
person in the northern rebellion (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, xi. 233). On 31 July 
1537 he was placed at the head of a com- 
mission ' for the ordre and establishment to 
be taken and made touching the hole state 
| of our lande of Ireland, and all and every 

our affaires within the same, bothe for the 
| reducsion of the said lande to a due civilitie 
; and obedyens, and the advanncement of the 

publique weale of the same' (State Papers, 

! Henry VIII, printed, ii. 452-63). He and 

his fellow-commissioners arrived at Dublin 

on 8 Sept., and, having with the assistance 

1 of the lord-deputy, Lord Leonard Grey [q. v.], 

dissolved the army, they set out on the 26th 
' on a tour of inspection through the parts 

adjacent to the English Pale. Beginning at 
! Kilkenny, where a jury of the inhabitants 
gave evidence as to the nature of the dis- 
orders prevailing among them and of the 
I grievances they suffered at the hands of the 
neighbouring native Irish and of the degene- 
rate Anglo-Norman gentry, the commis- 
sioners proceeded systematically in like 
manner through Tipperary, Waterford, Wex- 

M 2 

St, Leger 


St. Leger 

ford, Dublin, Meath, and Louth. The 
inquisitions taken by them are most valu- 
able as presenting a vivid picture of the 
state of affairs prevailing in the debatable 
lands at the eve of the reconquest of the 
island. (With the exception of those for Dub- 
lin, Meath, and Louth, which appear unfortu- 
nately to have been lost, they have been edited 
by Messrs. Graves and Hare in the * Annuary ' 
of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society for 
1856.) The rapidity toid discretion with 
which the commissioners accomplished their 
work extorted general admiration. 'Trewlye,' 
wrote Agard to Cromwell, ' they have takyn 
great paynz, and in ther bussyness here do 
usse them verrey dyscretelye, and, in espe- 
chiall, Mr. Sentleger, whom, by reason of his 
dyscreschion and indyffrensye towardes 
everye man, is hylye commendyd here ; and 
ryght well he is worthie ' (ib. ii. 532). As 
for St. Leger himself, while postponing 
fuller discussion till his return to England, 
he significantly remarked that in his opinion 
Ireland was much easier to be won than to 
be retained, l for onelesse it be peopled with 
others than be there alredy, and also certen 
fortresses there buylded and warded, if it be 
gotten the one daye, it is loste the next ' (ib. 
ii. 534). 

He returned to England at the end of 
March or beginning of April 1538, and ap- 
parently in June was appointed one of the 
gentlemen of the king's privy chamber. He 
was knighted early in 1539, and was one of 
the jury that tried and condemned Sir 
Nicholas Carew [q. v.] on 14 Feb. In 
October that year he went to Brussels in 
order to procure a safe-conduct through 
Flanders from the queen of Hungary for 
Anne of Cleves, whom he escorted to Eng- 
land (Gal. State Papers, Henry VIII, xiv. 
pt. i. 114, pt. ii. 126), and on his return was 
made sheriff of Kent and a commissioner for 
the establishment of the church of Canter- 
bury, with a view to its conversion into a 
cathedral. On 7 July 1540 he was consti- 
tuted lord deputy of Ireland with a salary 
of 666/. 13s. 4^., and in the same year ob- 
tained an act of parliament disgavelling his 
estates in Kent (ROBINSON'S Gavelkind, 
p. 299). 

St. Leger's appointment as lord deputy 
marks the beginning of a new epoch in the 
history of Ireland. Hitherto Henry VIII 
had been content to follow more or less 
closely in the footsteps of his predecessors ; 
but the rebellion of the Greraldines, while 
convincing him of the futility of trying to 
govern through the heads of the great Irish 
families, furnished him with the pretext and 
opportunity for adopting an entirely new 

system of government. The results of the 
inquiry instituted in 1537 supplied him with 
the general outlines of his new policy, which 
may be briefly summed up as aiming at the 
recognition of his own temporal and spiritual 
supremacy, the gradual conquest of the island 
by a judicious admixture of force and concilia- 
tion, and the substitution of the English sys- 
tem of land tenure for that of the old tribal 
system. For the nonce the plan of import- 
ing colonists, as hinted at by St. Leger, was 
to remain in abeyance ; but in selecting St. 
Leger to carry his new policy into effect, 
Henry could have found no better qualified 

Leaving court on 19 July, St. Leger reached 
Dublin on 5 Aug. The country on the whole 
was fairly quiet, except for the Kavanaghs to 
the south of the Pale. Five days after his 
arrival St. Leger made an inroad into their 
country, ' burnyng and destroying the same/ 
The Kavanaghs, bending before the sudden 
storm, submitted, and their chieftain agreed 
to renounce the objectionable title of 
MacMurrough, and St. Leger, wishing to 
show them and the Irish generally that it 
was rather their obedience than their pro- 
perty that the king desired, restored them to 
their lands on condition of holding them by 
knight's service and keeping the peace in 
future. By such ' gentle handling ' he hoped 
to overcome their * fickle and inconstant 
natures' and give to their submission a 
lasting basis. Thence he proceeded into 
Leix, where he took hostages from the 
O'Mores and their confederates, and entered 
into a treaty with Owen O'Conor, chief of 
Irry, the main object of which was to keep 
the O'Conors of OfFaly in subjection. The 
only immediate danger to be i'eared was on 
the\side of the O'Tooles, and, on the expira- 
tion of their truce, St. Leger determined to 
proceed against them. They were accord- 
ingly shortly afterwards required to quit 
their mountain fastnesses and settle else- 
where, ' where they should have no occasion 
to do your subjectes so moche harme.' On 
their refusal, St. Leger invaded their country, 
whereupon Turlough O'Toole demanded a 
parley, in consequence of which he repaired 
to England with an interpreter and a letter 
of recommendation from St. Leger to Nor- 
folk. His petition and that of his brother, 
Art Oge, to be allowed to hold their lands 
on conditions similar to those enjoyed by the 
Kavanaghs was supported by St. Leger and 
granted by Henry. Christmas was spent at 
Carlow Castle settling the Kavanaghs and 
O'Mores, and on new year's day St. Leger 
set out for Munster. At Cashel he was met 
by James FitzJohn Fitzgerald, fourteenth 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

earl of Desmond [q. v.], with whom St. Leger 
was much pleased, and on his submission 
admitted him to the earldom of Desmond. 
He even accepted an invitation to Kilmal- 
lock, * where/ as he wrote to the king, ' I 
thinke none of your Graces Deputies cam 
this hundreth yeris before.' From Kilmal- 
lock he proceeded to Limerick, chiefly in 
order to parley with O'Brien, who met him 
there. The interview was not so satisfactory 
as he could have wished, but he was gratified 
by the submissive attitude of MacGilla- 
patrick of Ossory and MacWilliam of Con- 
naught, and returned, much satisfied with 
his journey, to Dublin. 

Parliament, for which great preparations 
had been made, assembled at Dublin on 
13 June, and among the acts passed was one 
giving to Henry and his heirs the title of 
King of Ireland. ' And for that the thing,' 
wrote St. Leger, * passed so joyously, and so 
miche to the contentation of every person, 
the Sonday foloing ther were made in the 
citie greate bonfires, wyne sette in the 
stretis, greate festinges in their howses, 
with a goodly sorte of gunnes.' Two noble- 
men of importance alone held aloof O'Don- 
nell and O'Neill. With the former St. Leger 
had an interview on 6 Aug. in O'Reilly's 
country, when a basis for an agreement was 
arrived at. O'Neill, on the other hand, ob- 
stinately refused either to submit or to meet 
the deputy, and so on 15 Sept. St. Leger 
invaded his territory with fire and sword. 
O'Neill attempted to outflank him and attack 
the Pale, but his manoeuvre was frustrated 
by Lord Louth. A second and third hosting 
followed in quick succession, which brought 
O'Neill to his knees. A parley was granted 
him and a subsequent meeting appointed at 
Dundalk to arrange the terms of his submis- 
sion. The adjourned meeting of parliament 
at Limerick on 15 Feb. 1542 was attended 
with good results, and O'Brien having re- 
nounced his claim to any land on the east 
side of the Shannon, he was received to 
mercy and recommended for the title of Earl 
of Thomond. Henry, indeed, complained 
that St. Leger was a little too free in grant- 
ing Irishmen their requests ; but things were 
going smoothly for the first time within the 
memory of the oldest living official, and his 
object ions were treated, as perhaps they were 
meant to be made, pro forma. But there 
were those of his colleagues that regarded 
St. Leger with jealousy, and Robert Cowley, 
master of the rolls, slipped across to England 
without license to complain of his malad- 
ministration. His complaint was found to 
be grounded on malice, and, having been 
dismissed from his office, he was left for a 

time to reflect on his misdemeanour in the 

After the submission of O'Neill, St. Leger 
thought the time had come when he could 
advise the king to entrust the government 
to an Irish nobleman, especially since he 
had found in the Earl of Desmond a counter- 
poise to any overweening pretensions on the 
part of Ormonde. But his suggestion was 
not likely to recommend itself to Henry, 
and indeed appears to have been ignored by 
him (cf. St. Leger to Paget, 3 Aug. 1545). 
Other proposals of a more practical sort, 
however, received his approval, such as the 
establishment of a permanent council in 
Munster, the removal of restrictions on the 
admission of Irish students into the inns 
of court, and the adoption of measures for 
the better preservation of state documents 
and for the reformation of the countries 
bordering on the Pale. As a sign that 
Ireland could be made a source of strength 
to the crown, St. Leger in April 1543 
volunteered to raise a force of five hundred 
horsemen for the war in France or Scot- 
land. But in January 1544 he was allowed 
to repair to England, and the execution 
of his project devolved on Lord-justice Sir 
William Brabazon [q. v.] St. Leger's de- 
parture was the signal for disturbances, 
which the council attributed to ' youre lord- 
shipes olde frende Occhonor ' [see O'CoN- 
NOR, BRIAN or BERNARD, 1490P-1560?]; 
but which were perhaps as much due to 
the rumour that the young heir to the earl- 
dom of Kildare w r as about to return with 
the assistance of France. Nevertheless the 
levy was fairly satisfactory, and the list of 
kerne raised is an excellent commentary on 
the practical results of St. Leger 's admini- 

It was the end of June before St. Leger, 
having in the meantime received the honour 
of the Garter together with an augmenta- 
tion of 200/. to his salary as deputy, re- 
turned to his post. The effect of his return 
was instantaneous, and before many weeks 
had elapsed he was able to report that the 
country had returned to its former state of 
tranquillity. In view of the threatened in- 
vasion by France, measures were taken by 
him to fortify Cork and Kinsale, and in 
September orders arrived from the council 
to raise two thousand kerne to assist the Earl 
of Lennox in his Scottish expedition. The 
notice, St. Leger remarked, was a short one, 
and ' two thousand men were not so soon to 
be levied/ but he hoped to have them ready 
for embarkation within a fortnight. The 
men were forthcoming at the time fixed, 
owing to the exertions of the Earl of Or- 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

monde, who was appointed to command 
them. But the earl, who had teen led to 
believe that his appointment was a device 
on the part of St. Leger to get rid of him, 
shortly afterwards preferred a serious charge 
against him. What ; toy ' he had in his 
head, the archbishop of Dublin, George 
Browne, was unable to say, and St. Leger, 
being equally ignorant, intercepted Or- 
monde's letters to the privy council. During 
the winter the quarrel became so acute that 
the privy council intervened, and in April 
1546 St. Leger and Ormonde repaired to 
England, where they were speedily recon- 
ciled. The mischief was soon afterwards 
traced to the lord chancellor, John Alen, 
who was thereupon deprived of the great 
seal and clapped in the Fleet. St. Leger 
returned to Ireland on 16 Dec., and his 
commission as deputy was confirmed on 
7 April 1547 by Edward VI. The O'Byrnes, 
who had taken the opportunity to annoy 
the citizens of Dublin, were sharply re- 
pressed, as were also the O'Mores and 
O'Conors ; and in order to bridle the latter 
more effectively, St. Leger repaired the fort 
of Dingan in Offaly, and Fort Protector, as it 
w r as now called, in Leix. An incipient re- 
bellion on the part of the sons of Thomas 
Eustace was likewise repressed before it had 
time to come to a head, but in September 
1548 St. Leger, having been superseded by 
Sir Edward Bellingham [q.v.], returned to 
England, taking with him those two dis- 
turbers of the public peace, Brian O'Conor 
and Patrick O'More. 

On 20 April 1550 he was appointed to 
meet the French hostages for the fulfilment 
of the treaty of Boulogne, between London 
and Dover, and on 4 Aug. he was recon- 
stituted lord deputy of Ireland (Instructions 
in CaL Carew MSS. i. 226-30), being sworn 
in on 10 Sept. In February 1551 he re- 
ceived an order, having already taken 
measures for the translation of the whole 
service of the communion into Latin, for the 
introduction of the English liturgy; but 
before any proclamations were issued, he 
convoked an assembly of the clergy at 
Dublin on 1 March, and, in declaring the 
king's intention to them, he is reported to 
have said (Ilarl. Miscellany, ed. 1810, v. 
601) : ' This order is from our gracious king 
and from the rest of our brethren, the 
fathers and clergy of England, who have 
consulted herein and compared the holy 
scriptures with what they have done ; unto 
who I submit, as Jesus did to Caesar, in all 
things just and lawful, making no questions 
why or wherefore, as we own him our true 
and lawful king.' The speech, intended to 

conciliate such men as Primate DoAvdall, 
and breathing a spirit of enlightened tole- 
rance, gave great oifence from its lukewarm- 
ness to George Browne (d. 1556) [q. v.], 
archbishop of Dublin, and, complaints of St. 
Leger's predilection for the old religion 
reaching the king's ears, it was determined 
early in April to revoke his appointment. 
It was some time before the commission for 
his successor, Sir James Croft [q. v.], ar- 
rived, but in the meantime he governed 
only by Croft's advice. He surrendered the 
sword at Cork on 23 May, and shortly after- 
wards repaired to England. On 6 Aug. 
Browne transmitted a long complaint touch- 
ing St. Leger's alleged papistical practices 
! (SHIRLEY, Orig. Letters, vol. xxiii.) There is 
little doubt that St. Leger believed that the 
zeal of the reformers was outrunning their 
j discretion. ' Goe to, goe to,' said he to 
! Browne, f yo r matters of religion woll marre 
i all.' His case came before the privy council in 
i January 1552, and in the meantime he was, 
I by Edward's own orders, banished the royal 
I chamber. The acts of the council are un- 
fortunately silent as to the course of his ex- 
amination ; but, from the fact that in April 
he was readmitted to the king's chamber, 
there is every reason to believe that he had 
j little difficulty in rebutting Browne's charges. 
In May he had a grant in fee farm of the 
castle of Leeds in Kent, and on 12 June he 
was appointed a commissioner for the survey 
of Calais and the marches. His name oc- 
curs as one of the witnesses to the will of 
Edward VI, 21 June 1553 ; but he supported 
the claims of Mary, and on 7 Aug. was 
J sworn a privy councillor. He was reap- 
pointed lord deputy of Ireland in October, 
and reached Dublin on 11 Nov. 

His instructions touched the restoration 
of the old religion, the reduction of the 
army, the establishment of a council in 
Minister, and the leasing of lands in Leix 
and Oifaly. Want of money crippled his 
administration. According to Campion, he 
offended the catholics by certain verses ridi- 
culing the doctrine of transubstantiation. 
But he had other and more powerful ene- 
mies, chief among whom must be reckoned 
Sir William. Fitzwilliam (1526-1599) [q. v.], 
who charged him with falsifying his accounts 
in favour of Andrew Wyse, late vice-trea- 
surer. He was accordingly recalled for the 
third time, and on 26 May 1556 surrendered 
the sword of state to Thomas Radcliffe, lord 
Fitzwalter (afterwards third Earl of Sussex) 
[q. v.] The question of his defalcations was 
discussed at the council board, but St. Leger, 
who was suffering from sciatica, did not 
appear. On 8 Dec. 1558 a letter was ad- 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

dressed to him requiring him ' to signifye 
with speed . . . what lie myndetli to doo 
herein ; ' but his death at Ulcombe on 
16 March 1559 put a stop to further pro- 
ceedings. He was buried in the parish 
church there on 5 April, the day following the 
interment of his wife, who died eight days 
after him, on 24 March. 

St. Leger married Agnes, daughter of 
Hugh Warham, esq., of Croydon, niece and 
heiress of Archbishop Warham, and had issue 
William, who married Isabel, daughter of 
Thomas Keys or Knight, was father of Sir 
Warham St. Leger (d. 1600) [see under ST. 
LEGER, SIR WARHAM, 1525 P-1597], and 
died during his father's lifetime, having, it 
is said (IlarL MS. 1425, f. 54), been disin- 
herited by him ; and Sir Warham (d. 1597) 
[q. v.] who succeeded him. According to 
Lloyd, Sir Anthony St. Leger 'was neither 
souldier, nor scholar, nor statesman, yet 
he understood the way how to dispose of 
all those to his countries service and his 
master's honour, being all of them eminently, 
though none of them pedantickly and for- 
mally, in himself.' ' He was the deputy that 
made no noise,' and he might have added the 
only deputy out of a long succession who 
appreciated fully the good and bad points of 
Irish character. He originated the custom 
of cess, but he was the only deputy that 
managed to make the revenues of Ireland 
suffice to meet the expenses of its govern- 
ment (cf. BAGWELL, Ireland under the 
Tudors, i. 379). An epitaph by him on Sir 
Thomas Wyatt is printed among Wvatt's 
< Poems.' 

[There is a good life of St. Leger in Cooper's 
Athense Cantabr. i. 192-6. The principal autho- 
rities are Berry's County Genealogies, Kent, p. 
287 ; Hasted's Kent, ii. 423 ; Lodge's Peerage, ed. 
Archdall,vi. 96-106; State Papers, Henry VIII 
(printed), vol. iii. passim ; Cal. State Papers, 
Hen. VIII, ed. Brewer and Gairdner, i. 898, ii. 
134, ix. 79, x. 219, xi. 233, xiv. pt. i. 3, 114, 151, 
xiv. pt. ii. 126, 223 ; Acts of the Privy Council 
of England, new ser. vols. i. vii.; Cal. State 
Papers, Ireland (ed. Hamilton), vol. i. ; Cal. Carew 
MSS. vol. i. ; Cal. Hatfield MSS. i. 82; Hayneb's 
State Papers, pp. 165, 166, 193; Chronicle of 
Queen Jane (CaradenSoc.), pp. 100, 135; Journal 
of King Edward VI in Cotton. MS. Nero C. x. ; 
Shirley's Original Letters ; Ware's Rerurn Hiber- 
nicarum Annales; Annals of the Four Masters, 
ed. O'Donovan ; Lloyd's State Worthier ; Machyn's 
Diary ; Chronicle of Calais (CamdenSoc.1; Ho'lin- 
shed's Chronicle; Cal. Fiants, Hen. VIII, Nos. 
304,325, 340, 372, Edw. VI, Nos. 157, 162; Hist. 
MSS. Cornm. 2nd Rep. p. 94, 4th Rep. p. 202, 
9th Rep. pt. i. p. 120; *Harl. MS. 284, f. 1 16 ; 
Cotton. MS. Titus B. xi. f. 437 ; Egerton MS. 
2790, f. 1, and also Sloane MS. 2442, f. 132; 

Addit.MSS. 5751 f. 293, 6362 f. 11, 34079 f. 2; 
Gent. Mag. 1862, ii. 785; Wills's Irish Nation, 
i. 367-71 ; Webb's Compendium."] R. D. 

BOYLE (1799-1829), novelist, born in 
Ireland on 16 Sept. 1799, was the second 
eldest son of Richard St. Leger (second son 
of the first Viscount Doneraile) by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Charles Blakeney of Holy- 
well, Roscommon. After being educated at 
Rugby he is said to have obtained in 1816 
a civil appointment in the East India Com- 
pany's service. He resigned his post about 
1821 and returned to England, where he 
edited from 1822 onward the fashionable 
annual called ' The Album.' He printed in 
1821, for private circulation, a volume of 
poems ' Remorse and other Poems' and 
in 1824 appeared his best-known work, 
' Some Account of the Life of the late Gil- 
bert Earle, Esq.' (anon. 12mo, London). In 
1826 he was editor of l The Brazen Head,' 
and in the same year published (anony- 
mously) another novel, entitled ' Mr. Blount's 
MSS., being selections from the papers of 
a Man of the World' (12mo, London). In 
1829 he published ' Tales of Passion.' He 
died unmarried, after an epileptic seizure, 
on 20 Nov. 1829. A posthumous work, 
' Froissart and his Times,' appeared in 1832 
(3 vols. 8vo, London). 

[Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage, 1896 ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Annual Biography and Obituary, 
1830.] I). J. O'D. 

1597), soldier, second son of Sir Anthony 
St. Leger [q. v.'] by his wife Agnes, daugh- 
ter of Sir Hugh Warham, brother of Arch- 
bishop Warham, was born probably about 
1525. His mother died on 24 March 1558-9, 
and was buried in Ulcombe church (cf. 
MACIIYN, Diary,. pp. 192, 372). His eldest 
brother, William, was disinherited ; the third 
brother, Sir Anthony St. Leger, entered 
Gray's Inn in 1563 or 1568 (FosTEE, Keg.}, 
was made master of the rolls in Ireland in 
1593, and died at Cork early in 1613. War- 
ham may have served in Somerset's invasion 
of Scotland in 1547, and he was a prisoner 
there until January 1549-50, when he was 
ransomed for 1007. (Acts of the Pricy Coun- 
cil, 1547-50, p. 373). In 1553 he fought 
against Wyatt's supporters in Kent (Archfsol. 
Cant. xi. 143), and perhaps he served in Ire- 
land under his father during Mary's reign. 
About 1559 he was named a commissioner 
to transfer to England Bale's manuscripts 
and books. In 1560 he was sheriff of Kent. 
He was soon a member of the Irish privy 
council, and in July 1565 he was knighted. 
Thenceforward he took a prominent part in 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

Irish affairs. The queen had resolved to 
establish a presidential government in Mun- 
ster, and in January 1565-0 St. Leger was 
nominated president, apparently by Sir Henry 
Sidney, the lord deputy ; he received in- 
structions dated 1 Feb., and in Llie following 
month was given command of all the levies 
in Munster. Elizabeth, however, refused to 
confirm St. Leger's appointment. The reason 
was that St. Leger was a bitter enemy of 
Ormonde, and correspondingly friendly with 
Desmond; and the queen accused St. Leger 
of lukewarmness in arresting Desmond early 
in 1565 [see FITZGERALD, GERALD, fifteenth 
EARL OP DESMOND]. St. Leger was conse- 
quently recalled, and in November 1568 Sir 
John Perrot [q. v.] became president of 

In 1569 St. Leger returned to England, 
staying either at his house in Southwark or 
Leeds Castle, Kent, where from 1570 to 
1572 he had custody of Desmond and his 
family. He left his wife at Carrigaline, co. 
Cork, a manor he held of Desmond ; during 
his absence it was ravaged by the rebels. 
He remained in England until 1579, when 
his repeated petitions for employment and 
reward were answered by his appointment as 
provost-marshal of Munster, a new office, 
the functions of which seem to have been 
purely military. In this capacity St. Leger 
was actively engaged against the Irish rebels 
for ten years. On 7 April 1583 he was ap- 
pointed an assistant to the court of high 
commission in Ireland, and in the following 
year he visited England. While there he 
accused Ormonde of treason [see BUTLER, 
THOMAS, tenth EARL OF ORMONDE], and laid 
before the queen proposals for the better 
government of Ireland. In November 1589 
he was succeeded, probably on account of 
his old age, as provost-marshal by George 
Thornton, but in 1590 he was governing 
Munster in the absence of the vice-president. 

He was in England again in 1594, and 
died at Cork in 1597. His will is in the 
Heralds' College, London. 

He married: first, Ursula (d. 1575), fifth 
daughter of George Neville, third baron 
Bergavenny [q. v.] His eldest son, Sir An- 
thony St. Leger, succeeded to the estates at 
Ulcombe, Kent, married Mary, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Scott of Scott's Hall, Kent, and 
was father of Warham St. Leger who was 
knighted in 1608, sold Leeds Castle, went 
with Ralegh to Guiana, and died in 1631, 
leaving a son Sir Anthony (d. 1680), who 
was made master of the mint in 1660. Of 
St. Leger's daughters, Anne (1555-1636) 
married Thomas Digges [q. v.] and was 
mother of Sir Dudley Digges [q. v.] St. 

Leger married, secondly, Emmeline Gold- 
well (d. 1628), by whom he had a son Walter, 
who obtained his father's Irish property (cf. 
Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 1598-9, p. 326). 

St. Leger must be distinguished from his 
nephew, SIR WARHAM ST. LEGER (d. 1600), 
eldest son of St. Leger's eldest brother Wil- 
liam. He began service in Ireland, accord- 
ing to his own statement, about 1574, and 
was employed in the defence and govern- 
ment of Leix and Offaly. In August 1584 
Maryborough and Queen's County were com- 
mitted to his charge. He acquired a repu- 
tation for valour and activity. In January 
1588-9 he visited England to cure a wound 
which made him lame. While there Eliza- 
beth directed that he should be sworn of 
the Irish privy council. In 1597 he was 
sent on a mission to Tyrone, was knighted, 
and made governor of Leix. On 22 Sept. 
1599 he was one of the two to whom the 
government of Munster was entrusted pend- 
ing the appointment of a president. On 
18 Feb. 1599-1600 he encountered Hugh 
Maguire [q. v.], and a hand-to-hand engage- 
ment took place between the commanders 
which proved fatal to both (Annals of 
the Four Masters, vi. 2161). By his wife 
Elizabeth Rothe of Kilkenny, widow of 
Henry Da veil and Humphry Mackworth, he 
was father of Sir W r illiam St. Leger [q. v.] 

[There is considerable confusion between the 
various Sir Warham St. Legers, and they can 
only be sarisfactorily differentiated by a careful 
comparison of the numerous references to them 
in the Cal. of Fiants(Rep. of Deputy-keeper of 
Records in Ireland) and Cal. State Papers, 
Ireland ; even in the indexes to these they are 
confused. There is no certain evidence for the 
existence of the Warham St. Leger who, accord- 
ing to Metcalfe, was knighted in 1583. See also 
the St. Leger pedigree in Wykeham-Martin's 
Hist, of Leeds Castle, which is materially cor- 
rected by The Royal Descent of Kingsmill, con- 
tributed by Dr. T. K. Abbott to Miscell. 
Genealog. etHeraldica; Harl. MS. 1425, f. 54; 
CarewMSS.; Cal. HatfieldMSS.; Cox's Hi hernia 
Anglicana ; Fynes Moryson's Itinerary ; Life 
and Letters of Florence McCarthy Reagh ; 
Smith's Hist, of Cork ; Journ. of the Cork Hist, 
and Archseol. Soc. i. 200, 235, ii. 23, 38 ; Bag- 
well's Ireland under the Tudors, vol. iii. ; Pacata 
Hibernia, ed. Standish O'Grady, 1896; O'Sulle- 
van-Beare's Hi^t. Cathol. Ibernise Compendium ; 
Collins's Letters and Memorials of State, i. 32-3, 
ii. 125, 134, 180; Brown's Genesis U.S.A.; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 6, 7, 7th ser. xi. 
386.] W. A. J. A. 

A. F. P. 

ST. LEGER, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1642), 

president of Munster, was son of Sir War- 
ham St. Leger (d. 1600) [see under ST. 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

LEGER, SIR WARHAM]. William was pro- 
bably born in Ireland, but the date is un- 
certain. He appears to have killed a man 
in early life, to have taken refuge with 
the Earl of Tyrone, and to have followed 
him in his flight, only because he did not 
know what else to do. At Brussels he re- 
ported himself to Sir Thomas Edmonds, who 
mentioned the matter to Salisbury in his 
despatch on 4 Nov. 1607. He went from 
Brussels to Holland, and served in the army 
for at least eight years, during which he 
probably received the king's pardon. He was 
knighted on 25 April 1618, and on 3 July 
1619 he had a large grant by patent of 
crown lands in Queen's County and Limerick, 
which was supplemented next year by a 
further grant in the former county. In 1624 
his Dutch wife was made a denizen, and he 
had a company of foot on the Irish establish- 
ment. He was in London on 19 Feb. 1624-5 
on the king's business, and, as he says, 
neglecting his own (Cal. State Papers}. His 
time was not, however, wasted ; for he re- 
turned to Ireland in July 1627 as lord presi- 
dent of Munster and a privy councillor, with 
a company of foot and a troop of horse 
(MORRJN, pp. 197, 236, 270). 

Soon after his appointment St. Leger was 
busy about the fortifications of Youghal, 
which proved useful later on ( Youghal Coun- 
cil Book, p. 135). On 27 June 1628 he was 
sworn a freeman of Cork ( Cork Council Book, 
p. 139). Some years later he ordered the 
discontinuance of football and hurling in the 
streets of Cork, and the corporation carried 
out the order (ib. p. 157). St. Leger was at 
Waterford in June 1630. and published an 
order there against the ( excessive multitude 
of Irish beggars encumbering England.' Con- 
stables were straitly charged to whip vagrants 
and hand them on to the next parish, until 
they came to some settled course of life, and 
shipmasters who took them on board were 
to be imprisoned ( Youghal Council Book, p. 
155). In November 1630 St. Leger claimed 
to have originated the scheme for the planta- 
tion of Ormond, the north part of Tipperary, 
which Wentworth afterwards took up, but 
which was never really carried out. St. 
Leger hoped to profit by the settlement (Lis- 
more Papers, iii. 171; Strafford Letters, ii. 
93, 97 ; CARTE, Ormonde, i. 59). 

When Wentworth went to Ireland in 
1633, he was supported by St. Leger in his 
arbitrary measures for maintaining an army 
(SMITH, Cork, i. 107). St. Leger attended 
the parliament of 1634 as member for the 
county of Cork, his position as lord presi- 
dent of Munster in the opening procession 
being immediately below the peers (Straf- 

ford Letters, i. 283). In the privy council 
he rather favoured delay in asking the House 
of Commons for money, on the ground that 
' the protestants not being well prepared, 
many of them might be against granting the 
supply, and so, joining with the popish 
party, might foil the business ' (ib. p. 277). 
Of his government in Munster there are not 
materials for a detailed account ; but Straf- 
ford, on his trial, called him a ' very noble 
and just man ' (Lismore Papers, iv. 179), 
from which it may be inferred that he gene- 
rally supported the government; and the 
fact that he was not always on the best 
terms with Lord Cork points to the same 
conclusion (ib. p. 217). In 1637, when the 
president was engaged in litigation with 
Lord Antrim, Wentworth took St. Leger's 
part, both on the merits and because, as he 
wrote from Limerick, ' the president carried 
himself so round and affectionately in his 
majesty's service that he passing well de- 
served the gracious regard and favour of the 
crown ' (Strafford Letters, ii. 97). 

In April 1638 St. Leger attended the 
meeting of the privy council at which the 
chancellor, Adam Loftus, first viscount 
Loftus of Ely [q. v.], was unanimously sus- 
pended until the king's pleasure should be 
known (ib. p. 161). He sat again for the 
county of Cork in the parliament of 1639, 
and in the same year he had a confirmation 
of his lands under the commission of grace, 
and Doneraile was erected into a manor 
(ib. ii. 394-8; LODGE, p. 112). He took a 
leading part in levying and drilling the 
army of eight thousand foot and a thou- 
sand horse which Wentworth raised for the 
invasion of Great Britain, and in July 1640 
he was in command at Carrickfergus. He 
kept strict discipline, and after a few weeks 
pronounced the army fit for service (Strafford 
Letters, ii. 403 ; CARTE, i. 99). After the dis- 
missal of this ill-starred host in the spring 
of 1641, he was active in trying to get the 
soldiers out of Ireland and into the service 
of foreign princes (Confederation and War, 
i. 217-44). After Wandesford's death in 
November 1640, Strafford advised the king 
to make Ormonde, Dillon, or St. Leger 
deputy. Had Charles chosen either the first 
or the third, his fate might have been dif- 

St. Leger was at Doneraile when the great 
Irish rebellion broke out on 23 Oct. 1641. 
The army which he had helped to raise had 
been disbanded, and the discharged soldiers 
were ready fuel for the flames. The 
frightened lords justices had only the old 
standing force to rely on, and they withdrew 
all the garrison of Munster to guard Dublin. 

St. Leger 


St. Leger 

St. Leger was left to defend his province 
with a single troop of horse, and with such 
irregular auxiliaries as his loyal neighbours 
could furnish (cf. Lismore Papers, iv. 216- 
227 ; CARTE, Letters 34-9). Lord Cork co- 
operated with him ; but their relations were 
not always quite cordial, though the common 
danger brought them together [see BOYLE, 
RICHARD, first EARL OF CORK]. St. Leger 
wrote to Ormonde that ' in these days Magna 
Charta must not be wholly insisted upon.' The 
great point, he held, was to leave no weapon 
in the hands of men ( Romishly affected.' 
On the other hand he begged for three thou- 
sand stand of arms ; ' for I can find pro- 
testants to wear and fight with them which | 
I had rather have than all those that come 
out of England.' Yet there were some who 
thought him too favourable to the Irish 
(Lismore Papers, iv. 189). For a month 
there was no rising in M'unster ; but Leinster 
was on fire, and the unresisted flames spread 
gradually southwards. 

St. Leger's first expedition was into Tip- 
perary towards the end of November, his 
brother-in-law, William Kingsmill, having 
been plundered by the Irish near Silvermines. 
Many were hanged, and some of these had 
probably nothing to do with the robbery 
(HiCKSON, ii. 241). About the same time 
loose bands began to infest the eastern end of 
county Waterford, and St. Leger made a bold 
raid over the mountains in the neighbour- 
hood of Carrick-on-Suir. According to a 
contemporary account, he ' within a few 
days destroyed about six hundred of the 
rebels without the loss of one man ; ' but the 
gallows did more than the sword, and his 
force was too small to impose permanent 
peace. While praising the lord president, 
Cork described him as * utterly destitute of 
men, money, and munition ' (Orrery Letters, 
p. 3 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. oth Rep. p. 346). 
At the beginning of December St. Leger 
was at Clonmel, and found the Tipperary 
gentlemen ' standing at gaze and suffering 
the rascals to rob and pillage all the English 
about them ' (Lismore Papers, iv. 228). The 
Boyles had soon enough to do to defend 
their own castles and the town of Youghal, 
of which St. Leger appointed Lord Dungar- 
van governor ( Youyhal Council Book, p. 217). 
Unable to keep the field with his handful of 
men, St. Leger returned to Doneraile on 
23 Dec. On 30 Jan. 1641-2 he reported 
that the enemy were at Cashel, ten thousand 
strong and partly well armed, and that their 
horse was equal both in quantity and quality 
to any that he had been able to get together 
(Lismore Papers, iv. 262). Two troops had 
been added to his original one. Early in 

February he vainly endeavoured, with the 
help of Lords Barrymore, Broghill, and 
Dungarvan, to stop Mountgarret's army near 
Killmallock. ' Our foot,' he wrote to^Cork, 
' be of so inconsiderable and wretched com- 
posure and condition of men as that I dare 
not adventure anything upon them. All 
that we have to rely upon are our horse r 
(ib.~) Negotiations were futile, though 
Broghill [see BOYLE,' RICHARD, second EARL 
OF CORK], who was a good judge, admired the 
way in which ' the lord president answered 
like a cunning fox, not having force to do it 
with the sword ' (SMITH, Cork, ii. 117). Before 
the end of February St. Leger had to fall back 
upon Cork, leaving the open country to the 

From the middle of February 1641-2 
until his death St. Leger's quarters were at 
Cork, but he took the field whenever he 
could. To keep his men together at all he 
had to make a forced loan of 4,000/. from 
Sir Robert Tynte, who had refused to lend 
on the public faith (Trite and Happy News}. 
In March Sir Charles Vavasour landed at 
Youghal with one thousand men, and St. 
Leger joined him there. Dungarvan was 
taken, but in the president's absence Mus- 
kerry, in whom he had trusted, threw off 
the mask and threatened Cork with four 
thousand men [see under MACCARTHY, Do- 
Leger marched from Dungarvan in two days, 
and got into the city in spite of the Irish, 
who besieged it until they were dispersed by 
Inchiquin's sally on 23 April (Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 5th Rep. p. 346 ; Confederation and 
War, i. 76). Writing a few days later to con- 
gratulate Ormonde on his victory at Kilrush, 
St. Leger complained of neglect. lie had re- 
ceived no money for twelve months, and the 
Dublin government would not even give 
him a few small field-pieces which were not 
wanted anywhere else. i If they have not 
wholly deserted me, and bestowed the go- 
vernment on my Lord of Cork, persuade 
them to disburthen themselves of so much 
artillery as they cannot themselves employ ' 
(CARTE, Letter 78). Further reinforce- 
ments arriving, St. Leger took the field 
again ; but his illness increased, and he 
died at or near Cork on 2 July, leaving the 
government to Inchiquin, whom he had 
made vice-president some time before, and 
whose appointment had been confirmed under 
the great seal. 

St. Leger, says Carte, l was a brave, gal- 
lant, and honest man, but somewhat too 
rough and fiery in his temper ; and lie did 
not give greater terror to the rebels by his 
activity in pursuing, his intrepidity in at- 

St. Leger 


St. Lo 

tacking, or his severity in executing them 
without mercy when they fell into his hands 
than he did offence to the gentlemen of the 
country by his hasty and rough manner of 
treating them.' As president of Minister St. 
Leger had a commission to execute martial 
law ; but in March 1641 he found it necessary 
or prudent to sue out a pardon under the 
great seal for anything that he had done or 
might have done in that way. Instances are 
given, but it may be doubted whether his 
rough ways had really much to do with the 
spread of civil war. St. Leger hanged rebels 
wholesale, but so did many other officers, and 
the work had been begun by the Ulster in- 

Bellings says St. Leger was 'a man of 
long experience and good conduct in the 
war, who hoped ... to deter the loose 
rovers by the exemplary punishment of some 
among them. Yet this his prudent design 
being executed confusedly in so great a 
distraction of all things, and some innocent 
labourers and husbandmen having suffered 
by martial law for the transgressions of 
others/ many were driven to despair, and the 
evil increased (Confederation and War, i. 
64, 244). In December 1641 Lord Cork de- 
scribed St. Leger as ' a brave, martial man, 
who acts all the parts of a good governor.' 
Rushworth records but misdates his death, 
as that of ' a brave, prudent gentleman, and 
hearty protestant.' It appears, from an 
amusing story told in Borlase's ' Reduction 
of Ireland ' (p. 157), and repeated in Ware's 
account of Chappel, bishop of Cork, that St. 
Leger had some taste for theological con- 
troversy, and also that he was on friendly 
terms with the Roman catholic dean of Cork. 
A portrait of St. Leger, painted by William 
Dobson, belonged in 1866 to Mr.W. H. Blaauw 
(cf. Cat of First Loan Exhibition, No. 734). 

By his first wife, Gertrude de Vries of 
Dort, St. Leger had a daughter Elizabeth, 
who married Murrough O'Brien, first earl of 
Inchiquin [q. v.] The eldest of his four 
sons fell at the second battle of Newbury, 
fighting on the king's side. The Doneraile 
peerage was first granted to Sir William's 
grandson. St. Leger built a church at 
Doneraile, which was rebuilt in 1726. His 
house there, where the presidency court was 
usually held in his time, was burned by the 
Irish in 1645. 

[Calendar of Irish State Papers, James I; 
Stratford's Letters and Despatches ; Lismore 
Papers, ed. Grosart, 2nd ser. ; Morrin's Calendar 
of Patent Rolls, Charles I ; Confederation and 
War in Ireland, ed. Gilbert, vol. i. ; True and 
Happy News from Ireland, b-ing a letter read 
in the House of Commons on Tuesday, 25 April 

1612, Carte's Ormonde; Clarendon's Hist, of 
the Rebellion ; Borlase's Hist, of the Execrable 
Irish Rebellion; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, 
ed. Archdall, vol. vi.; Stemmata Leodegaria, 
by E. F. S. L., pedigree in the British Museum ; 
Council Books of Cork and Youghal, ed. Caul- 
field ; Morrice's Life of Orrery and Letters in 
vol. i. of Orrery State Letters; Ireland in the 
Seventeenth Century, ed. Hickon ; Smith's His- 
tories of Cork and Waterford.] R. B-L. 

(1600-1665), Irish Jesuit, was born in 
the county of Kilkenny in 1600, entered 
the Society of Jesus at Tournai in 1621, 
studied afterwards in Sicily, and was pro- 
fessed of the four vows in 1635. After his 
return to Ireland he became superior of his 
brethren in that country during the time 
of the rebellion, which began in 1641. He 
was rector of the college of Kilkenny in 
1650, and, when the former city was taken 
by Cromwell's army, he removed to Galway. 
At the end of the rebellion he escaped to 
Spain, and succeeded Father John Lombard 
as rector of the residence of Compostella, 
where he died on 9 June 1665. 

He wrote 'De Vita et Morte Illustrissimi 
Domini Thomas Valesii [Walsh] Archiepi- 
scopi Casiliensis in Hibernia,' Antwerp, 
1655, 4to, a work of great rarity. 

[Catholic Miscellany (1828), ix. 40; Dodd's 
Church Hist. iii. 313; Foley's Records, vii. 680; 
Hogan's Chronological Cat. of the Irish Pro- 
vince S. J. p. SO; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 
265 ; Southwell's Bibl. Soc. Jesu, p. 319 ; Ware's 
Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 1 44.] T. C. 


ST. LIFARD, GILBERT OF (d. 1305), 
bishop of Chichester. [See GILBEET.] 

AMPTON (d. 1109). [See SENLIS.] 

ST. LO, EDWARD (1682 P-1729), rear- 
admiral, probably the son of Commissioner 
George St. Lo [q. v.], was born about 1682, 
and entered the navy in March 1695 on 
board the Lichfield with Lord Archibald 
Hamilton. In 1702 he was a lieutenant 
of the Chichester, one of the fleet with 
Sir George Rooke [q. v.] off Cadiz and at 
Vigo. On 9 Sept. 1703 he was promoted 
to be captain of the Pendennis in the fleet 
under Vice-admiral John Graydon [q. v.] in 
the West Indies and at Placentia. In 1704 
he was again in the West Indies in the 
Dolphin, which in 1705 was employed in 
convoy service in the North Sea. In 1706 
he was in command of the Gosport of 32 
guns, appointed to convoy a fleet of merchant 

St. Lo 



ships to Jamaica. On 28 July they fell in 
with two French ships of war, one of which, 
the Jason of 54 guns, engaged and took the 
Gosport after an obstinate defence. On 
19 Oct. following St. Lo was tried for the 
loss of the ship and fully acquitted. He 
was shortly after appointed to the Tartar, 
also of 32 guns, which, during the following 
summer cruised from the Channel, in the 
Soundings, and as far as Lisbon. In 1708- 
1709-10 he commanded the Salisbury prize 
in the North Sea, and in May 1710 was ap- 
pointed to the Defiance, a 64-gun ship, em- 
ployed in the West Indies in 1711-12. On 
Christmas day 1712, on her way home from 
Jamaica, she put into Kinsale in distress, 
being fifty men short of complement and 
having eighty sick. She did not reach the 
Downs till 26 March 1713. In 1720-1 he 
was captain of the Prince Frederick, flag- 
ship of Kear-admiral Francis Hosier [q.v.] 
in the Baltic, and continued in her till 1723. 
In 1726 he went out to the West Indies in 
the Superbe, one of the squadron with 
Hosier, and succeeded temporarily to the 
chief command on Hosier's death on 25 Aug. 
1727. He continued the blockade of Porto 
Bello for some little time longer, till, having 
ascertained that all the Spanish ships were 
laid up, and, for want of stores, quite unable 
to be litted for sea, he returned to Jamaica. 
There he was superseded by Vice-admiral 
Edward Hopsonn on 29 Jan. 1727-8. The 
squadron returned to the Spanish coast in 
February, and on 8 May Hopsonn died, 
leaving the command again to St. Lo, who 
held it for eleven months, when he too died 
on 22 April 1729. He had been promoted 
on 4 March to the rank of rear-admiral, but 
had not received the news. He was un- 
married, but by his will provided for a natural 
son, an infant. 

[List books and official letters in the Public 
Kecord Office ; Charnock's Biogr. Nav. iii. 284.] 

J. K. L. 

ST. LO, GEORGE (d. 1718), commis- 
sioner of the navy, was on 16 Jan. 1677-8 
appointed lieutenant of the Phoenix in the 
Mediterranean. From her he was removed 
to the Hampshire, and on 11 April 1682 he 
was promoted to be captain of the Dart- 
mouth, to which he was recommissioned in 
March 1685. In August 1688 he was ap- 
pointed to the Portsmouth, attached to the 
fleet in the river under Lord Dartmouth [see 
continuing to command her after the revo- 
lution, was in 1690 captured by the French 
and carried, severely wounded, into Brest, 
where, and at Nantes, he remained a pri- 

soner for some time. His wound probably 
disqualified him for further service afloat, 
and in 1692 he was appointed a commis- 
sioner of prizes, in 1693 an extra commis- 
sioner of the navy, and in 1695 resident- 
commissioner at Plymouth, where in 1697 
he was directed to guard and assist the 
workmen employed in the construction of 
the first Eddystone lighthouse. For this 
service the Terrible was appointed ; but in 
June St. Lo took her off to join the fleet, 
without leaving any other ship to take her 
place, whereupon a French privateer made a 
swoop on the rock and carried oft' all the 
workmen and the architect. They were, 
however, presently released, and St. Lo re- 
ceived a sharp reprimand from the navy board 
for his neglect of their orders. In 1703 he 
was moved to Chatham as resident commis- 
sioner, and on 21 Oct. 1712, on abolition of 
the office ' for easing the public charge,' he 
was appointed commander-in-chief of all 
ships in the Medway and at the Nore. On 
the accession of George I he was superseded, 
and was not employed again. His will 
(Somerset House, Tenison, 200), dated 4 Oct. 
1716, and proved 8 Oct. 1718, mentions his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Amphilis Chif- 
finch, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Chif- 
finch; also two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Mary, and a son John. Edward St. Lo 
fq. v.], who appears to have been another 
son, is not mentioned. 

In 1693 St. Lo published an interesting, 
but now rare, pamphlet, under the title of 
' England's Safety, or a Bridle to the French 
King' (sm. 4to). 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. ii. 95 ; Duckett's 
Naval Commissioners ; Hardy's Lighthouses ; 
Commission and Wan ant Books in the Public 
Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 



CATHERINE (1813-1890), violinist, son of 
a merchant, was born at Toulouse on 5 June 
1813, and educated at the college there with 
the idea of ultimately becoming a lawyer. 
His musical taste led to his entering the 
Paris conservatoire on 20 Dec. 1831, where 
he was a pupil of Habeneck, and won second 
and first prizes for violin-playing in 1833 
and 1834 respectively. After quitting the 
conservatoire he was a member of the 
orchestras of the Societe des Concerts and 
the Grand Opera for two years. He then 
made a concert tour on the continent, ulti- 
mately returning to Toulouse in 1840 to fill 



St. Paul 

the post of professor of the violin in the 
conservatoire there. Four years later he 
appeared in England and played at a Phil- 
harmonic concert, under the conductorship 
of Mendelssohn, with whom he was intimate. 
In 1845 he settled in London on being ap- 
pointed on 7 Feb. professor of the violin at 
the Royal Academy of Music, a post he oc- 
cupied till his death. Sainton was one of 
the musicians who took part in the experi- 
mental stages of the Popular Concerts in 
1859 (cf. The Story of Ten Hundred Con- 
certs, London, 1887), and became first violin 
in the orchestras of the Musical Union, the 
Philharmonic Society, the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, the Quartet Association, and the 
Royal Italian Opera, under Costa, for whom 
he frequently acted as deputy in the office of 
conductor. He was well known, too, at the 
chief provincial festivals ; and so busy was 
he as a teacher that it was his proud boast 
that at the last Birmingham festival before 
his death all the violinists had been his pupils 
or had studied under his pupils. Among his 
published compositions are two violin con- 
certos. In 186:2 he conducted the music at 
the opening of the International Exhibition. 
In June 1883 he gave a farewell concert at 
the Albert Hall. He died on 17 Oct. 1890, 
and was buried in his wife's grave at High- 

DOLBY (1821-1885), whom he married in 
1860, was well known as a contralto voca- 
list. Her maiden name was Dolby. Born 
in London on 17 May 1821, she soon showed 
unusual musical ability, and in 1832 entered 
the Royal Academy of Music, where she 
studied under John Bennett, Elliott, and 
Crivelli. Crivelli, who examined her for 
voice on her entrance to the Royal Academy 
of Music, recommended her ' for the present 
not to make it a principal study ' (cf. ' A 
History of the Royal Academy of Music ' in 
the Overture, 1892, p. 127). Five years 
later she was elected to a king's scholar- 
ship. On 14 June 1841 she made her first 
appearance as a singer at a Philharmonic 
concert, and sang under Mendelssohn's au- 
spices at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig on 
25 Oct. 1845 with such success as induced 
her to make a tour abroad. Mendelssohn 
dedicated to her his six songs (Op. 57), 
and wrote the contralto music in * Elijah ' 
with a view to her voice. She appeared in 
the first performance of the revised version 
of that oratorio at Exeter Hall on 16 April 
1847 under the composer's direction, and 
from that date until her retirement from 
professional life in 1870 she occupied the 
foremost place among concert contralti in 

England. In 1872 she opened a vocal aca- 
demy in London. Mme. Sainton-Dolby ex- 
celled chiefly in ballad-singing, but was also 
known as a composer. Among her compo- 
sitions are the cantatas ; The Legend of St. 
Dorothea' (London, 1876), ' The Story of the 
Faithful Soul' (London, 1879), 'Florimer 
(for female voices) (London, 1885), and 
' Thalassa ' (a number of songs and ballads, 
some of which enjoyed an ephemeral popu- 
larity). She also wrote a ' Tutor for English 
Singers ' (London, n.d. 8vo). Her last ap- 
pearance in public took place at her husband's 
farewell concert in June 1883. She died in 
Gloucester Place, Hyde Park, on 18 Feb. 
1885, and was buried in the same grave as 
her mother at Highgate cemetery. A scholar- 
ship in her memory was founded at the 
Royal Academy of Music. 

[Musical Times, 1885 pp. 145-6, 1890 p. 665; 
Hanslick's Geschichte des Concertwesens in 
Wien, 1869, p. 340; Beriihmte Geiger, p. 189 ; 
Mr. F. G-. Edwards' s History of Mendelssohn's 
Elijah, p. 35 ; Grove's Diet, of Music and 
Musicians, passim ; The Overture, 1890, pp. 97, 
104.] E. H. L. 

ST. PAUL, JOHN DE (1295P-1362), 
archbishop of Dublin, was probably a native 
of Owston in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
where he subsequently endowed a chaplain 
to celebrate divine service for himself, his 
brother William, and other members of the 
family. He may have been a son of Thomas 
and brother of Robert de St. Paul, lord of 
Byram in the same Riding, on whose behalf 
he obtained from Edward II the remission 
of fines imposed on Robert for his adherence 
to Thomas of Lancaster (Parl. Writs, II. ii. 
1387). He was possibly connected with 
Mary de St. Paul or St. Pol, daughter of 
the Count de St. Pol, who married Aymer 
de Valence, earl of Pembroke, and frequently 
made John de St. Paul her attorney during 
her absence from England. The family pro- 
bably came originally from Guienne, and it 
had many descendants settled in Yorkshire 
(cf. Testamenta Eboracensia, v. 26, &c.) 
Before 1330 John de St. Paul received a 
papal dispensation from the disabilities at- 
tending illegitimacy, but in 1339 the bishop 
of Winchester was directed by the pope to 
affirm St. Paul's legitimacy, ' his father and 
mother having intermarried in the presence 
of their curate without publication of banns 
and not in the church ' (BLiss, Cal. Papal 
Letters, ii. 312, 546, 556). Born probably 
about 1295, he became a clerk in the chancery 
before 1318 (Cal. Close Rolls, 1318-23, pp. 
106, 683). He was rector of ' Asshebydavid ' 
in the diocese of Lincoln in 1329, and next 
year received a license to hold another bene- 

St. Paul 


St. Quintin 

fice with it. lie was appointed, with two 
other officers, to guard the great seal from 
13 Jan. to 17 Feb. 1334 during the absence 
of John de Stratford, the chancellor (Rot. 
Claus. 7 Edward III, p. 2. ra. 4). On 
18 Oct. 1336 he was made a prebendary of 
Brightling in Chichester Cathedral, and on 
6 Dec. 1337, prebendary of Penkridge (Cat. 
Patent Rolls, 1334-8, pp. 328, 557). On 
28 April 1337 he was created master of the rolls 
(Rot. Claus. 11 Edward III, p. 1. m. 13), and 
two years later received a grant of the house 
of converts in Chancery Lane for life. While 
he was master of the rolls the great seal was 
twice temporarily deposited with him and 
the other clerks, and from 16 Feb. to 28 April 
he was appointed sole lord-keeper (RYMER, 
Fcedera, Record ed., n. ii. 1140 et seq. ; Cal. 
Rot. Pat. in Turri Land. pp. 132, 134, 137, 
146). In 1339 he was rector of Sutton in 
the diocese of Salisbury, and in the same 
year he acted as counsel for the priory of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, which gave him 
a yearly pension of sixty shillings in recog- 
nition of his services (Literce Cantuar. ii. 

In 1340 the indignation of Edward III 
was aroused by the malversations of his 
officials, and, returning hastily from the siege 
of Tournai, he removed several from their 
posts ; John de St. Paul was cast into pri- 
son (MuRiMUTH, Contin., Rolls Ser.,p. 117). 
He was able, however, to obtain his re- 
lease as a priest through the intervention 
of Archbishop Stratford. Although the 
mastership of the rolls had been taken from 
him, he was allowed in a short time to re- 
sume his position as a master of chancery 
In 1346 he was archdeacon of Cornwall (LE 
NEVE, Fasti, i. 398), and shortly after pre- 
bendary of Dunnington in the see of York 
(ib. iii. 181). In 1349 he was advanced by 
a papal provision to the archbishopric of 
Dublin, having previously been a canon of 
the see. In 1351 he received a commis- 
sion from Clement VI to proceed against 
certain heretics who had fled from the per- 
secution of Richard Lederede [q. v.], bishop 
of Ossory, and had been protected by Alex- 
ander Bicknor [q. v.], the previous arch- 
bishop of Dublin. John found himself in- 
volved at his accession in the controversy 
concerning the primacy which was then 
raging between the archbishops of Dublin 
and Richard Fitzralph [q. v.], archbishop 
of Armagh. He succeeded in inducing Ed- 
ward III to revoke his letters in favour of 
Armagh, and in 1353 the cause was removed 
for trial to Rome, where it was not decided 
for many years. 

In 1350 John de St. Paul was appointed 

chancellor of Ireland, and, save for a brief 
period at the end of 1354, held the post for 
six years. In 1358 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the privy council, and the lord-deputy 
was enjoined to pay great deference to his 
advice (RYMER, Fcedera, iii. 432-4). In 
1360 he was placed on a commission of three 
to explore for mines of gold and silver, and 
to direct their management when discovered 
(ib. p. 482). In 1361 he received a special 
summons to a great council held in Dublin. 
On its assembly he laboured to win the 
government to a more conciliatory policy, 
and especially to obtain a general amnesty for 
the English and Irish rebels. He died on 
9 Sept. 1362, and was buried in Christ 
Church, Dublin (Chart, of St. Mary's Abbey, 
Dublin, ii. 282). During his episcopate he 
obtained many privileges for his see. He 
also much enlarged and beautified the church 
of the Holy Trinity. 

[Walsinghara's Hist. Anglicana, i. 221, 236, 
(Rolls Ser.); Cal. Patent and Close Rolls passim ; 
Calend. Inquis. post mortem, ii. 255 ; Foss's 
Judges of England, iii. 487 ; Ware's Bishops 
of Ireland, pp. 76, 332 ; D'Alton's Archbishops 
of DuW'm, p. 134 ; Wadding's Annales Minorum, 
viii. 49 ; Barnes's Edward III, p. 217.1 

E. I. C. 

1723), politician, born about 1660 at Harp- 
ham in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was 
the eldest son of William St. Quintin, who 
died in the lifetime of his father, by Elizabeth, 
youngest daughter of Sir William Strick- 
land, bart., of Boynton, Yorkshire. Having 
succeeded his grandfather, Sir Henry St. 
Quintin, second baronet of Harpham, some 
time before 1698, he entered the House of 
Commons at the general election of 1695 as 
representative of the borough of Kingston- 
upon-Hull, for which he served in eleven 
successive parliaments until his death (Par- 
liamentary Returns ; LUTTRELL, Brief Re- 
lation}. On 24 Dec. 1700 Sir William lay 
'dangerously ill of a feavour' (ib.) He 
was a commissioner of customs with a salary 
of 1,000/. a year from 22 Nov. 1698 to 
18 Dec. 1701 (HAYDtf, Book of Diynities), 
when, in consequence of a clause in an act 
of parliament passed the preceding session 
for disabling the commissioners from sitting 
in parliament, he resigned his office. From 
1706 he was a commissioner of revenue 
in Ireland with the same salary until 4 Feb. 
1713, shortly after which (1714-17) he 
acted as a lord of the treasury in England. 
In July 1717 he became a commissioner of 
the alienation office, and on 16 June 1720 
was appointed to the lucrative office of joint 
vice-treasurer, receiver-general, and pay- 

St. Victor 



master of Ireland, which he enjoyed until 
his death on 30 June 1723. Sir William, 
who was a capable official, was succeeded in 
the title by his nephew, also Sir William, 
on whose son's death in 1795 the baronetcy 
became extinct. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetage ; Liber Hibernise ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities ; Historical Regi- 
ster.] W. R. W. 

ST. VICTOR, RICHARD OP (d. 1173?), 
theologian. [See RICHARD.] 

JOHN, 1735-1823.] 

SAKER, EDWARD (1831-1883), actor 
and theatrical manager, son of W. Saker, a 
well-known low comedian at the London 
minor theatres, was born in London in 1831. 
He was placed with a firm of architects, but 
early showed a strong taste for a theatrical 
career, which he adopted when about twenty- 
five years of age. In 1857 he joined the 
Edinburgh company, then under the manage- 
ment of Robert H. Wyndham, his brother- 
in-law. It was in this excellent school that 
he learnt his profession, and soon became a 
clever member of the company. In addition 
he filled the post of treasurer for several 
years. He made a tour in Scotland with 
Henry Irving, when the latterplayed Robert 
Macaire to Saker's Jacques Strop. With 
Lionel Brough he also gave an entertain- 
ment, under the name of the ' So-Amuse 
Twins/ which is said to have been exceed- 
ingly amusing. He first attempted manage- 
ment during a summer season in 1862, when 
he rented the Edinburgh Royal from W r ynd- 
ham, and opened with the ' Lady of the 
Lake.' In 1865 he removed to Liverpool. 
After remaining as an actor there for two 
years he became manager of the Alexandra 
Theatre in December 1867, and carried on the 
enterprise till his death on 29 March 1 883. 

As an actor Saker had much talent, and 
was most successful in parts requiring drollery 
?nd facial expression. His Shakespearean 
clowns were wonderful exhibitions of low- 
comedy acting. As a manager, however, he 
made his chief reputation. His period of 
management at the Alexandra, Liverpool, 
was rendered notable by a series of splen- 
did revivals of Shakespearean plays, includ- 
ing ' A Winter's Tale,' ' Much Ado about 
Nothing,' ' A Midsummer Night's Dream,' 
and the 'Comedy of Errors.' In all his 
undertakings he was ably assisted by his 
wife, who survived him. 

Saker's elder brother, HORATIO ( fl. 1850), 
joined the Royal, Edinburgh, in 1850, when it 
was under William Henry Murray [q. v.] 

He also played low comedy. His farewell 
Denefit was on 30 Aug. 1852 at the Adelphi, 
Edinburgh, after which he went to the Prin- 
cess's, London, where he remained till his 
death. He never gained the front rank in 
lis profession, but possessed a great fund 
of original humour, and was the father of 
several clever sons, who adopted the stage 
as a profession. 

[J.C.Dibdin's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage ; 
Brereton's Dramatic Notes; playbills and pri- 
vate information.] J. C. D. 


(1828-1896), journalist, born in New Street, 
Manchester Square, London, on 24 Nov. 1828, 
was youngest child of Augustus John James 
Sala (1792-1828). His grandfather, Claudio 
Sebastiano Sala, a citizen of Rome, came to 
England about 1776 to assist his god- 
father, Sir John Gallini [see GALLINI, Gio- 
ballets at the King's Theatre and the Hay- 
market. His mother, Henrietta Catherina 
Florentina Simon (1789-1860), was daughter 
of a well-to-do planter in Demerara. In 
1827 she made her first public appearance as 
a singer at Covent Garden Theatre under 
Charles Campbell's management, as Countess 
Almaviva in Bishop's version of Mozart's 
' Marriage of Figaro.' A crayon portrait of 
her was published in the ' Lady's Museum ' 
in the same year. Subsequently she mainly 
supported herself and five surviving children, 
(four boys and a girl) by teaching singing 
and giving annual concerts, both in London 
and Brighton. Occasionally she diversified 
her labours by accepting a theatrical engage- 
ment. In the autumn season of 1836 and 
1837 she was ' actress of all work ' at the St. 
James's Theatre under Braham. She died 
at Brighton on 10 April 1860, and was 
buried in Kensal Green (cf. Gent. Mag. 1860, 
i. 533). An elder sou, Charles Kerrison Sala 
(1823-1857), who was educated at Christ's 
Hospital, resigned a clerkship in the tithes 
commissioners' office to become an actor; 
he acquired a reputation as a member of 
Macready's company at the Princess'sTheatre, 
and made some efforts as a dramatist (cf. 
Gent. Mag. 1857, i. 375). 

The youngest child, George Augustus, 
displayed unusual precocity. Having learned 
French from his mother, he wrote a French 
tragedy called ' Fredegonde ' before he was 
ten. From 1839 to 1842 he was at a school 
in Paris, where the younger Alexandre 
Dumas was a fellow-pupil. Subsequently 
he spent a few months at a Pestalozzian 
school at Turnham Green. He there showed 
an aptitude for drawing, and his mother trans- 




ferred him, at the age of fourteen, to the 
studio of Carl Schiller, a miniature-painter 
in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. But 
he was soon withdrawn, and at fifteen in 
1843 was finally thrown upon his own 
resources. He was already a capable 
draughtsman and an insatiable reader. Some 
precarious employment as a clerk was fol- 
lowed by an engagement to draw railway 
plans during the railway mania of 1845. His 
mother and brother then introduced him to 
the green-room of the Princess's Theatre, 
where they were professionally engaged, and 
William Roxby Beverley, the scene-painter 
there, gave him occasional work. In 1848 
he followed Beverley to the Lyceum Theatre, 
and painted some scenery for Charles 
Mathews and Madame Vestris. His sociable 
temper and artistic promise recommended 
him to the authors and artists who fre- 
quented the theatre. About 1847 he drew 
the illustrations for Alfred Bunn's ' Word 
with Punch.' In 1848 Albert Smith com- 
missioned him to illustrate his comic volume, 
' The Man in the Moon.' Thus encouraged, 
he taught himself to etch, and afterwards 
took lessons in engraving. He came to 
know George Cruikshank (at whose funeral, 
in 1878, he acted as a pall-bearer) and 
Hablot K. Browne' Phiz.' It was his 
ambition to follow in their footsteps. In 
1850 Ackermann issued for him his first 
publication, a comic illustrated guidebook 
for continental tourists, entitled ' Practical 
Exposition of J. M. W. Turner's Picture, 
Hail, Rain, Steam, and Speed.' It was suc- 
cessful enough to induce the publisher to 
issue later in the year, in view of the agita- 
tion against the so-called papal aggression, 
a panorama by Sala, entitled ' No Popery.' 
Next year Sala drew four large lithographic 
plates dealing with the Great Exhibition. 
In 1852 he prepared, with Alken, views in 
aquatint of the Duke of Wellington's funeral, 
Sala had already made some efforts in 
literature, and their reception encouraged 
him to seek another road to fortune. In 
1848 he sent articles to a struggling weekly 
paper called ' Chat.' They were eagerly 
accepted, and he was appointed editor at a 
beggarly salary. In 1851 a promising oppor- 
tunity offered itself. Charles Dickens ac- 
cepted from him an amusing article, called 
'The Key of the Street,' for 'Household 
Words.' From that year till 1856 he regu- 
larly wrote for that periodical an essay or 
story each week. His contributions exhibited 
unusual powers of observation, familiarity 
with many phases of low life, multifarious 
reading, capacity for genial satire, and at 
times a vein of sentiment imitated from 

Dickens. Thenceforth his energies were ab- 
sorbed in literature or journalism. His con- 
vivial tendencies and 'the attractions that 
bohemian haunts offered him at first some- 
what imperilled his progress, but his ambi- 
tion and powers of work finally enabled him 
j to resist temptation, and he found in ordi- 
I nary club life all the recreation he required. 
He took a chief part in founding the Savage 
Club in 1857, and was soon admitted to 
other clubs of older standing. 

Dickens was the first to test Sala's capacity 
as * a special correspondent.' In April 1856, 
at the close of the Crimean war, Dickens sent 
him to Russia to write descriptive articles 
for ' Household Words.' He remained abroad 
till September, when Dickens's refusal to 
permit the articles to be published in volume 
form temporarily interrupted Sala's good re- 
lations with his editor. In 1858 a reconcilia- 
tion took place, Sala renewed his connection 
with ' Household Words,' and the articles 
on Russia were issued separately as ' A Jour- 
ney Due North.' In the same year Dickens 
inaugurated a new magazine, l All the Year 
Round,' in which Sala was also a frequent 
writer. The papers he contributed to these 
periodicals he collected from time to time in 
volumes with such titles as ' Gaslight and 
Daylight, and the London Scenes they shine 
upon ' (1859) ; ' Lady Chesterfield's Letters 
to her Daughter' (I860); 'Breakfast in 
Bed, or Philosophy between the Sheets ' 
(1863). In 1863 a novel by him, ' Quite 
Alone,' appeared serially in ' All the Year 

Meanwhile other ventures divided his at- 
tention and extended his literary connec- 
tions. Essays which he sent to a short- 
lived serial, called ' The Comic Times,' led to 
a lifelong friendship wit lithe editor and pro- 
prietor, Edmund Yates [q.v.] In January 
1856 the two men projected a new monthly 
magazine, called ' The Train,' which did not 
long survive. To the ' Illustrated Times,' 
which was established by Henry Vizetelly 
[q. v.] in July 1855, Sala contributed his 
earliest attempt at novel-writing ' The 
Baddington Peerage : a story of the best and 
worst society.' This was illustrated by 
' Phiz,' and published in three volumes in 
1 860. Of another periodical, < The Welcome 
Guest,' initiated by Vizetelly in 1858, he 
acted for a short time as editor. In its pages 
appeared the most successful of all his social 
sketches, the series entitled ' Twice round 
the Clock, or the Hours of the Day and 
Night in London,' which was published 
separately in 1859. In 1860 he, in succes- 
sion to Peter Cunningham (1816-1869) [q.v.], 
began to contribute, at a salary of 250/. a 




year, a column of varied gossip and anecdote, 
signed ' G. A. S.' and entitled ' Echoes of the 
Week,' to the 'Illustrated London News.' 
His connection with that newspaper con- 
tinued till 1886, when he transferred his 
weekly ' Echoes ' to the ' Sunday Times ' and 
a syndicate of provincial newspapers. They 
ceased in 1894. Some of these paragraphs 
he collected in the volumes ' Living London, 
or Echoes Reechoed' (1883), and ' Echoes of 
the Year 1883' (1884). A skit by himself, 
entitled ' Egos of the Week ' appeared in 
' Punch ' (SpiELMANN, History of Punch, pp. 
387-8). A more ambitious work, ' William 
Hogarth, Painter, Engraver, and Philo- 
sopher: Essays on the Man, the Work, and 
the Time/ ran through nine numbers of the 
' Cornhill Magazine ' in the second year of 
its existence (March to November 1860). 
Thackeray, who was editor, showed as much 
appreciation of Sala's talents as Dickens, and 
seconded his candidature at the Reform Club, 
to which he was elected on 13 March 1862. 
Revised and amplified, Sala's papers on Ho- 
garth reappeared in volume form in 1866. 
But his most conspicuous achievement in 
connection with periodical literature was his 
establishment of ' Temple Bar.' Designed 
to rival the * Cornhill,' it was financed and 
published by John Maxwell, at the sugges- 
tion of Sala, who was appointed editor with 
Edmund Yates as sub-editor. The first num- 
ber was issued in December 1860. In the 
second number Sala began a serial story, 
' The Seven Sons of Mammon ' (3 vols. 1862), 
and there subsequently appeared in the pages 
of the magazine another novel by him, the 
best that he produced, ' The Strange Adven- 
tures of Captain Dangerous' (3 vols. 1863). 
He resigned the editorship in 1866, when 
Messrs. Bentley took over the magazine. 
In 1869 he wrote ' Wat Tyler, M.P. : an 
operatic extravaganza,' which was performed 
at the Gaiety Theatre and was printed. 

But Sala was about to concentrate his 
energies in fewer channels. In 1857 he was 
invited by Joseph Moses Levy [q. v.], the 
proprietor, to contribute to the ' Daily Tele- 
graph.' He was soon writing two articles a 
day, Saturdays excepted ; and for nearly a 
quarter of a century, whenever he was in 
England, his output suffered no diminution. 
The facility with which he drew upon his 
varied stores of half-digested knowledge, the 
self-confidence with which he approached 
every manner of topic, the egotism and the 
bombastic circumlocutions which rapid pro- 
duction encouraged in him, hit the taste of 
a large section of the public. The proprietor 
of the paper treated him generously; and 
for the twenty years between 1863 and 1883 

VOL. L. 

Sala reckoned that his income as a journalist 
averaged 2,000/. a year. But his prosperity 
was not unalloyed. Careless of money mat- 
ters, he gave too liberal a scope to his tastes 
as a gourmet and as a collector of books and 
china, and was rarely free from pecuniary 
embarrassments. At the same time the 
j tawdry style of writing with which he im- 
! pregnated the ' Daily Telegraph' excited ridi- 
! cule, which tormented him. The ' Saturday 
Review ' for many years denounced it as 
turgid and inflated. In 1867 James Hain 
Friswell repeated this condemnation, amid 
some personalities, in a work called ' Men of 
Letters honestly criticised.' Sala brought an 
action for libel, and recovered 500/. damages. 
Subsequently Matthew Arnold, with good- 
humoured satire, exhibited the pretentious- 
ness of Sala's articles in 'Friendship's Gar- 
land '(1871). 

In 1863 Sala undertook his first tour as a 
' special ' foreign correspondent of the ' Daily 
Telegraph. He was in America from No- 
vember 1863 to December 1864, reporting 
the progress of the civil war. His ' Diary 
in the Midst of the War,' which was after- 
wards issued as a volume, displayed charac- 
teristics similar to those of his home-made 
articles, but his energy in collecting, if not 
in testing, information invested his work 
with genuine interest. A long series of like 
expeditions followed ; and his ' special ' cor- 
respondence, which grew more and more 
egotistic, became a feature of value to the 
' Daily Telegraph.' ' A Trip to Barbary by 
a roundabout Route '(published as a volume 
in 1866) recorded a journey to Algiers in the 
train of the emperor Napoleon III. 'From 
Waterloo to the Peninsula : four Months' 
hard labour in Holland, Belgium, France, 
and Spain' (1867), represented his journal of 
travel bet ween November 1865 and February 
1866. During the rest of the latter year and 
part of the next he was in north Italy, for a 
time with Garibaldi's army, and afterwards 
in Venice during its evacuation by the Aus- 
trians. His letters from Italy formed the 
basis of his ' Rome and Venice, with other 
Wanderings in Italy in 1866-7 ' (a volume 
published in 1869). In 1867 and 1870 
he was in Paris, on the first occasion 
preparing ' Notes and Sketches ' of the ex- 
hibition, and on the second observing the 
opening scenes of the Franco-German war. 
A flying visit to Metz in August 1870 was 
followed by his arrest in Paris as a spy ; but 
he managed to reach Geneva, and on 
20 Sept. was at Rome when the Italian 
troops ended papal rule there. He was 
present at the opening of the German par- 
liament at Berlin in the autumn of 1871, 





and witnessed in Spain in 1875 the acces- 
sion to the throne of Alphonso XII and 
the close of the Carlist war. At the end of 
1876, when war between Russia and Turkey 
was imminent, he was ordered to St. 
Petersburg, whence he made his way to 
Constantinople and Athens, returning home 
in the summer of 1877. He spent much 
time in Paris during the exhibition of 1 878, 
and he described his impressions in 'Paris 
herself again' (1880). Between December 
1879 and the spring of 1880 he was again in 
the United States, and he collected his cor- 
respondence in a volume called ' America Re- 
visited ' (1882). He hurried to St. Peters- 
burg in March 1881, after the murder of the 
emperor Alexander II, and was there in 
May 1883 at the coronation of the emperor 
Alexander III. On 26 Dec. 1884 he started 
on his final journalistic tour an extended 
journey through America and Australia. He 
had undertaken to lecture on his own ac- 
count, chiefly about his journalistic adven- 
tures, as well as to describe for the ' Daily 
Telegraph' the countries and peoples he 
visited. As a lecturer he met with many 
rebuffs, but the result showed a substantial 
profit. He came home by way of India. His 
letters from Australia appeared in the news- 
paper under the heading, l The Land of the 
Golden Fleece,' and formed the subject- 
matter of two volumes ' A Journey due 
South ' (1885) and ' Right round the World ' 

During Sala's last years his energies were 
dulled by frequent illness. While continu- 
ing his articles in the ' Daily Telegraph ' 
and his ' Echoes of the Week,' he resided 
chiefly at Brighton. In May 1892, how- 
ever, he started, with the co-operation of his 
second wife, a weekly newspaper called 
* Sala's Journal;' but despite his voluminous 
contributions, it failed after two years' trial, 
and involved him pecuniarily. In 1894 he 
produced ' Things I have seen and People I 
have known,' and next year not only a candid 
narrative of his * Life and Adventures,' but 
a collection of genial gossip called ' London 
up to Date.' He had always interested him- 
self in culinary literature, and claimed a 
practical acquaintance with the culinary art. 
The last book on which he engaged was an 
elaborate cookery book, ' The Thorough Good 
Cook ' (1895). Owing to his pecuniary em- 
barrassments his large library was sold by 
auction in March 1895, and in May Lord 
Rosebery conferred on him a civil-list pen- 
sion of 100/. a year. He had always vaguely 
ranged himself with the liberal party. He 
died from nervous exhaustion, after a long 
illness, at Brighton on 8 Dec. 1895. Before 

his death he was received into the Roman 
catholic church. 

He was twice married. His first wife, 
Mrs. Harriet Sala, whom he married in 
September 1859, died at Melbourne in De- 
cember 1885. In 1891 he married a second 
wife, Bessie, third daughter of Robert 
Stannard, C.E., who survived him. 

Besides the works already enumerated, 
and a memoir of ' Robson (the Actor) : a 
Sketch' (1864), he edited many works of the 
American humourists for English publica- 
tion, and, without much success, all the 
works of Charles Lamb in 1868. 

[The Life and Adventures of George Augustus 
Sala, written by himself, 2 vols. 1895 (with 
portraits of himself and his mother); Memoirs 
of Edmund Yates ; Memoirs of Henry Vizetelly ; 
Times, 9, 10, and 13 Dee. 1895; Athenseum, 
December 1895; Daily Telegraph, December 
1895.] S. L. 

DE (1778-1829), Canadian soldier, born on 
19 Nov. 1778 at the manor-house of Beau- 
port, near Quebec, was the son of Louis 
Ignace de Salaberry by his wife, Mile. 
Hortel. Charles Michel's grandfather, Mi- 
chel de Salaberry, who settled in Canada in 
1735, was descended from the noble family 
of Irumberry de Salaberry in the Pays des 
Basques. At fourteen years of age Charles 
Michel joined the 60th regiment, and soon 
obtained the rank of lieutenant. He served 
for eleven years in the West Indies under 
General Robert Prescott [q. v.], and was 
present in 1794 at the conquest of Marti- 
nique. In 1809 he was stationed in Ire- 
land, and in the following year took part 
in the unfortunate Walcheren expedition. 
In 1811 he returned to Canada with the 
rank of major as aide-de-camp of Major- 
general Rottenberg. In the following year, 
on the declaration of war against England 
by the United States, he was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and entrusted 
with the organisation of the Canadian volti- 
geurs. In 1812, at the head of these troops, 
he encountered General Dearborn's vanguard, 
numbering fourteen hundred men, at La 
Colle, and drove them back. In the follow- 
ing year the Americans renewed the invasion 
i with larger forces. Two armies, each num- 
; bering seven or eight thousand men, invaded 
j Canada, intending to converge on Montreal. 
One, under Hampton, took the route by Lake 
| Champlain ; the other, under Dearborn and 
j Wilkinson, advanced by Kingston. In Octo- 
ber Salaberry, at the head of four hundred 
voltigeurs, encountered Hampton's outposts 
at Odeltown. He repulsed them, and suc- 
ceeded in striking terror into the whole 




force. After several days' indecision, Hamp- 
ton marched westward to unite his forces 
with Wilkinson's. To prevent the junction, 
Salaberry posted himself at Chateauguay on 
Hampton's route in an exceedingly strong 
position, defended by swamps and woods. 
Although he had little more than three 
hundred men at his disposal, he succeeded 
on '26 Oct. in repulsing the American attack 
and in forcing Hampton to retreat from 
Canada altogether. This action gained for 
Salaberry the name of the ' Canadian Leo- 
nidas.' On learning of it, Wilkinson deemed 
it prudent to abandon offensive operations, 
and Lower Canada was secured from further 
invasion. In recognition of his services, 
Salaberry was made a companion of the 
Bath. After the conclusion of the war he 
turned his attention to politics, and in 1818 
was called to the legislative chamber. He 
died on 26 Feb. 1829 at his residence at 
Chambly, near Montreal. By his wife, 
Mile. Hertel de Rouville, whom he mar- 
ried early in 1812, he had four sons and 
three daughters. His sons were : Alphonse 
Melchior," deputy adjutant- general of militia 
for Lower Canada ; Louis Michel, Maurice, 
and Charles Rene. His portrait was painted 
by Dickinson and engraved by Durand. 

[Morgan's Celebrated Canadians, pp. 496 
200; James's Military Occurrences of the Late 
War, i. 306-18 ; Christie's late War in Canada, 
pp. 90-1, 141-7 ; David's Heros dn Chateauguay, 
2nd edit. 1883; Gent. Mag. 1813 ii. 617, 1814 
i. 169, 276.] E. I. C. 

SALCOT, JOHN (d. 1557), bishop of 
Salisbury. [See CAPON, JOHN.] 

SALE, GEORGE (1697 P-1736), orienta- 
list, son of Samuel Sale, citizen and mer- 
chant of London, was probably born about 
1697. Kent is said to have been his native 
county, but the further statement that he 
was educated at King's School, Canterbury, 
is not corroborated by the school archives. 
On 24 Oct. 1720 he was admitted a student 
of the Inner Temple. He does not seem 
to have been called to the bar, but practised 
as a solicitor. At an early period he turned 
his attention to the study of Arabic, but 
Voltaire's statements in the * Dictionnaire 
Philosophique ' (arts. ' Alcoran,' ' Arot and 
Marot '), that he spent ' twenty-five years 
among the Arabs' or l twenty-four years near 
Arabia,' are quite erroneous. He never left 
his native country. Gibbon was probably 
following Voltaire when (chap, xlvi.) he 
called * our honest and learned translator, 
Sale ... half a Mussulman.' In 1720 the 
Society for the Promotion of Christian 
Knowledge, whose offices were in the Middle 

Temple, undertook to print an Arabic trans- 
lation of the New Testament for the use of 
the Syrian Christians. Solomon Negri of 
Damascus had been sent over by the 
patriarch of Antioch to press the scheme on 
the society's attention, and it is not im- 
probable that Sale engaged Negri as his 
first instructor in Arabic. A learned 
Greek, named Dadichi, of Aleppo, who 
arrived in England in the summer of 1723, 
also gave him tuition. Sale so perfected 
himself in Arabic that on 30 Aug. 1726 he 
consented, at the society's request, to give 
his services as one of the correctors of the 
Arabic New Testament. In November of 
the same year he was elected a correspond- 
ing (i.e. non-subscribing) member, and 
thenceforward, until 1734, took an active part 
in the labours of the society. Not only was 
he the principal worker in the completion 
of the Arabic New Testament, but he acted 
as honorary solicitor, auditor, steward at 
the annual festivals, and general adviser to 
the society. His relations with the associa- 
tion brought him the acquaintance of many 
men of note, including John Wesley and 
Sir Hans Sloane. 

Sale did not apparently relinquish his 

legal work while pursuing his literary 

labours. His biographer, Davenport, seems 

to be in error in asserting the contrary. But 

there is no doubt that, owing to his devotion 

to oriental studies, his legal business declined. 

Disraeli says of him, but on what authority 

does not appear, that he ' pursued his studies 

through a life of want . . . and when he quitted 

j his studies, too often wanted a change of 

j linen, and often wandered in the streets in 

search of some compassionate friend who 

would supply him with the meal of the day ' 

(Miscell. of Lit. ed. 1853, p. 130 n.) This 

, seems an exaggeration. He was, at any rate, 

i able to acquire a small library of ' rare and 

beautiful manuscripts in the Persian, Turkish, 

Arabic, and other languages.' These he doubt - 

' less purchased of the distressed orientals in. 

London, whom he constantly recommended 

for employment or relief to the Society for 

the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 

Sale's chief work, on which his claim to 
remembrance principally rests, is his version 
of the Koran. This first appeared in No- 
vember 1734, in a quarto volume, and was 
dedicated to Lord Carteret. While apolo- 
gising for delay in its publication, he stated 
! that the work ' was carried on at leisure 
times only, amidst the necessary avocations 
of a troublesome profession.' As a transla- 
tor, he had the field almost entirely to him- 
self. The only full translation of the Koran 
in any modern language previously pub- 

N 2 




listed was the despicable French version by 
Andre Du Ryer, issued in 1649. A very poor 
English rendering 1 of Du liver's from French 
was issued by Alexander Ross (1590-1654) 
[q. v.] in London in the same year. Despite 
a few errors, Sale's translation is remarkably 
accurate. Throughout he has made full use 
of native commentators, as regards both the 
interpretation of the text and its illustration 
in the notes. It may perhaps be regretted 
that he did not preserve the division into 
verses, as Savary has since done, instead of 
connecting them into a continuous narrative. 
Some of the poetical spirit is unavoidably 
lost by Sale's method. But his version remains 
the best in any language. His translation 
was reprinted in octavo in 1761, 1795, 1801, 
and frequently afterwards. ' A Comprehen- 
sive Commentary on the Quran, comprising 
Sale's Translation and preliminary Discourse. 
... By E. M. Wherry, 1 4 vols. London, ap- 
peared 'between 1882 and 1886, 8vo. 'Se- 
lections from the Kuran . . . chiefly from 
Sale's edition/ was issued by E. W. Lane in 
1843, 8vo, and a new edition of this was re- 
vised and enlarged with introduction by Mr. 
Stanley Lane-Poole in 1879. A German 
translation of Sale's book, by Tho. Arnold, 
appeared at Lemgo in 1746, 4to. 

Voltaire wrote in the ' Dictionnaire Philo- 
sophique ' that ' the learned Sale had at last 
enlightened us by a faithful translation of 
the Alcoran, and a most instructive preface 
to it.' Sale's preliminary discourse and 
notes display a remarkable acquaintance 
not only with the works of European writers 
upon mohammedanism and its history, but 
also with native Arab literature. The pre- 
face and notes are still reckoned among the 
best sources of information with regard to the 
faith of Islam and the mohammedan peoples. 
' The Preliminary Discourse' was twice trans- 
lated into French. The first version, an 
anonymous one, was published at Geneva in 
1751, and has been reprinted several times; 
the second, by Ch. Solvet, appeared in Paris 
in 1846. An abridged Polish version of 
the preface was published at Warsaw in 

Meanwhile, to the ' General Dictionary,' a 
translation of Bayle (10 vols. fol. 1734), Sale 
contributed the whole of the oriental bio- 
graphies which were published up to the time 
of his death ; and when the ' Universal His- 
tory' was first planned, Sale was one of 
those who were selected to carry it out. His 
coadjutors were the Rev. John Swinton, Dr. 
J. Campbell, Captain Shelvocke, Archibald 
Bower, and the impostor, George Psalma- 
na^ar [q. v.] Sale's part in the work was the 
portion dealing with the history of the world 

from the creation to the flood, which was pub- 
lished in 1739, after his death. 

After the publication of the Koran in 
1734, Sale attended with less regularity 
the meetings of the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Christian Knowledge, and he re- 
ceived payment for work which he had 
formerly done gratuitously. It is possible 
that the society did not view his translation 
of the Koran in a favourable light, and sus- 
pected his orthodoxy. His last recorded 
visit to the society is on 6 Aug. 1734, but 
directions were issued to him about some 
legal matters down to 6 July 1736. At 
this time he was occupied with the founda- 
tion of a publishing society called the So- 
ciety for the Encouragement of Learning, to 
which belonged many noblemen and some of 
the most eminent literary men of the day. 
Sale served on the original committee. The 
meetings were held weekly, and the com- 
mittee decided what works should be printed 
at the expense of the society, or with its 
assistance, and what should be the price of 
them. When the cost of printing had been 
repaid, the property of the work was to re- 
vert to the author [see CARTE, THOMAS, and 

Sale died of fever at his house in Surrey 
Street, Strand, on 13 Nov. 1736, and was 
buried at St. Clement Danes on 16 Nov. No 
stone marks the grave. Sale is described 
by his biographer as having ' a healthy con- 
stitution and a communicative mind in a 
comely person.' On 30 Nov. the Society for 
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge re- 
solved, in recognition of Sale's services, to 
give twenty guineas to his wife and children, 
who were left in necessitous circumstances. 

Sale married Marianne d' Argent, of French 
extraction (possibly related to a Huguenot 
family of this name). By her he had seven 
children. The eldest son, George James Sale 
(1728-1773), fellow of New College, Oxford 
(1748-65), was elected fellow of Winchester 
in 1765, and was rector of Bradford Peverel 
from 1768 to 1773, when he died without issue. 
Like his next brother, William Mitchell, he 
was distinguished for literary talents. Wil- 
liam Mitchell Sale married Martha Penning- 
ton of Canterbury, and had an only daughter, 
who married Thomas Pennington, A.M., rec- 
tor of Thorley. The third son, Samuel Sale, 
perished in the great earthquake at Lisbon. 
A daughter, Marianne Sale, married Edward 
Arkell, by whom she had an only child, Ed- 
ward. Sale's three remaining children died 
young (manuscript notes by Pennington in 
1734 edition of SALE'S Koran, belonging to 
the Rev. H. S. Pennington, rector of St. 
"lenient Danes). 




Sale's manuscripts passed into the posses- 
sion of Hamerton, the administrator of his 
will, who printed a catalogue of them in 
French as well as in English, containing 
eighty-six items. They were eventually 
bought by Professor Thomas Hunt of Oxford 
for the Radcliffe Library, and are now in 
the Bodleian. Some of the manuscripts seem 
to have come from Aleppo, and in the Ma- 
kamat of Hariri and in one or two other 
books Sale's name will be found scribbled in 
Arabic characters. In 1739 Hamerton pub- 
lished ' The Lives and Memorable Actions of 
many Illustrious Persons of the Eastern 
Nations.' In the title it states that the 
work was designed and begun by Sale, and 
completed by a gentleman who resided in 
Turkey nearly twenty years. 

[Davenport's Sketch of the Life of George 
Sale ; Books of the Society for the Promotion of 
Christian Knowledge.] H. T. L. 

SALE, JOHN (1758-1827), vocalist and 
composer, the son of John Sale (1734-1802), 
junior vicar of Lincoln in 1761, and lay 
clerk of Windsor in 1767, was born in Lon- 
don in 1758. From 1767 to 1775 Sale was 
a chorister of Windsor and Eton, and from 
1777 to 1796 lay vicar. In 1788 he was ap- 
pointed gentleman of the Chapel Royal, in 
1795 vicar choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
and in 1796 lay vicar of Westminster Abbey. 
In 1800 he succeeded to the position of 
almoner of St. Paul's and master of the 
choristers, which posts he held until his re- 
signation in 1812. In 1818 he became senior 
gentleman or father of the Chapel Royal, 
and was excused further duty and atten- 

Sale possessed an excellent bass voice and 
sang as soloist and in concerted music at 
many important concerts and cathedral fes- 
tivals. From 1789 to 1814 his name ap- 
peared in the Ancient Concerts programmes, 
where Handel's music occupied the chief 
place. He did not, however, neglect the 
homelier art of glee-singing. He conducted 
the glee club, and was from 1 Feb. 1785 
honorary member, and from 14 Jan. 1812 
secretary, to the Noblemen's Catch Club. 
Henry Phillips, himself a bass soloist, de- 
scribed Sale's basso-secondo as ' mellow and 
beautiful' (Recollections, i. 149). Sale's 
method was that of the best English school, 
careful and pure, and his articulation dis- 
tinct. Possessed of considerable judgment 
and taste, he was much sought after as a 
teacher. He died, aged 69, at Marsham 
Street, Westminster, on 11 Nov. 1827, and 
was buried on the 19th at St. Paul's Cathe- 

Sale published, about 1800, ' A Collection 
of New Glees,' including six original num- 
bers for three and four voices, namely, ' My 
Phillida, adieu,' ' Thyrsis, the music of that 
murmuring spring,' l With an honest old 
friend,' ' No glory I covet,' ' With my jug of 
brown ale,' ' Sometimes a happy rustic 
swain.' He also edited Lord Mornington's 
glees. His son, 

JOHN BERNARD SALE (1779-1856), orga- 
nist, was born at Windsor on 24 June 1779. 
In 1785 he was a chorister of Windsor and 
Eton. In 1792 he belonged to the chorus of 
the Ancient Concerts, and in 1794 he sang 
as a principal soprano at the Hereford Three 
Choirs Festival. In 1800 he became lay 
vicar of Westminster Abbey, obtaining a 
second appointment in 1806 ; in 1803 he was 
admitted gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
and in 1809 succeeded to the post of organist 
to St. Margaret's, Westminster. A similar 
appointment at the Chapel Royal was ac- 
cepted in 1838 by Sale, who in the meantime 
had won a reputation as a teacher, and was 
in 1826 chosen to teach singing to the Prin- 
cess Victoria. While most English basses 
could hardly be distinguished from baritones, 
Sale, like his father, had a true bass voice. 
He sang at the Ancient Concerts from 1821 
to 1838. He died at Millbank, Westminster, 
on 16 Sept. 1856, aged 77. His three 
daughters survived him ; two, Mary Anne 
and Sophia (d. 1869), were musicians; Laura, 
the youngest, married William John Thorns 
[q. v.], the antiquary. 

He published, besides songs, duets, and 
arrangements, the glee l You ask the reason 
why I love,' which gained the king of Han- 
over's prize at the Catch Club, 1844, and 
' Psalms and Hymns,' a collection of church 
music especially adapted for St. Margaret's 
choir and congregation, 1837. John Ber- 
nard's brother, 

GEORGE CHARLES SALE (1796-1869), or- 
ganist, youngest son of John Sale, succeeded 
Dr. Busby in 1817 as organist of St. Mary's, 
Newington, and in 1826 was appointed or- 
ganist of St. George's, Hanover Square. He 
died on 23 Jan. 1869. 

[Grove's Diet. iii. 218; Annual Biogr. xiii. 
466 ; Diet, of Musicians, ii. 406 ; Gent. Mag. 
1856, ii. 652 ; Pohl's Haydn in London, passim; 
Quarterly Musical Mag., 1827 p. 544, 1828 p. 
281 ; Harmonicon, 1827, i. 250; Annals of the 
Three Choirs, pp. 71, 76, 86; Musical World, 
1837-56, passim; Lincoln Archaeological Soc. 
Reports, 1891.] L. M. M. 

1845), major-general, defender of Jalalabad, 
second son of Colonel Sale of the East India 




Company's service, by his wife, daughter of 
Harry B*rine, esq., of Buckden, Huntingdon- 
shire, was born on 19 Sept. 1782. Educated 
with his brother George John (afterwards of 
the 17th and 4th dragoons) at Dr. Nicholas's 
school at Ealing, he obtained an ensign's 
commission in the 36th foot on 19 Jan. 1795. 
He was promoted to be lieutenant on 
12 April 1797, and on 8 Jan. 1798 was trans- 
ferred in the same rank to the 12th foot, 
then quartered at Fort George, Madras. He 
marched with his regiment to Tanjore, arriv- 
ing there on 1 March, and on 22 July pro- 
ceeded with it to join the force assembling 
under Lieutenant-general (afterwards Lord) 
Harris to act against Tipu Sultan. The 
12th foot were in the first infantry brigade 
under Major-general Baird. On 7 March 
1799 they were employed in an attempt to 
surprise the enemy's cavalry camp, and on 
the 8th took possession of Naldrug. Sale 
took part in the operations in the battle of 
Melavelly on 27 March and in the siege and 
storm of Seringapatam, which was carried 
by assault on 4 May. He received the silver 
medal for Seringapatam. He was engaged 
with his regiment under Colonel Stevenson, 
In the subsequent operations directed by 
Colonel the Hon. A. Wellesley (afterwards 
Duke of Wellington), commanding in Maisur, 
against the freebooter Dhundia Wagh, be- 
tween July and September, the troops en- 
gaged receiving the thanks of the governor- 
general in council and of the Madras govern- 
ment. The 12th foot were then encamped 
near Seringapatam till the close of 1800. In 
December Sale served in the expedition into 
the Wainad and Malabar country under 
Colonel Pater against Paichi Kaja. The ser- 
vice was very severe in this hilly and thickly 
wooded country, and was not concluded until 
May 1801, when the troops again received 
the thanks of government. 

Sale returned with his regiment to Serin- 
gapatam, moving in October to Trichinopoly, 
where they remained for nearly four years, 
when they were again sent to Seringapatam. 
On 23 March 1806 Sale was promoted to be 
captain, and in April 1807, after an .epi- 
demic of fever, he accompanied his regiment 
to Cannanore. In December 1808 they em- 
barked for Quilon in Travancore to wage war 
against the rajah of that province, arriving 
there on 29 Dec. On 15 .Tan. 1809 Sale 
served with his regiment, which formed part 
of Colonel Chalmers's force, against the 
de wan of Travancore. After an engagement 
at Quilon which lasted for five hours, the 
enemy were defeated with the loss of four- 
teen guns. Again, on 31 Jan. he was en- 
gaged in another victorious action at Quilon, 

when another gun w r as captured. He took 
part in the storming of the Travancore 
lines and the action of Killianore on 21 Feb., 
when seven guns were captured and five 
thousand of the enemy defeated. 

Sale arrived on 24 July 1809 with his 
regiment at Trichinopoly, where he married 
the same year. In August 1810 the regi- 
ment moved from Walajabad, where it had 
been quartered, to St. Thomas's Mount, and 
thence in September to Madras, where it 
embarked in the fleet to take part in the ex- 
pedition against Mauritius. Sale landed in 
Mapon Bay with the troops on 28 Nov. He 
took part in the storm of the French position 
a few miles from Port Louis, and in the other 
operations resulting in the surrender of the 
island on 3 Dec. 1810. He remained in 
Mauritius until April 1813, when he moved 
with the regiment to Bourbon. He was 
promoted to be regimental major on 30 Dec. 
1813, and served on the staff during 
his stay in Bourbon ; on the restoration of 
that island to France in April 1815 Sale re- 
turned with his battalion to Mauritius. Sale 
sailed from Mauritius with the 1st battalion 
on 25 July for England, and landed at Ports- 
mouth on 10 Nov. The regiment moved to 
Ireland, arriving at Cork on 26 Dec. and at 
Athlone on 9 Jan. 1818. Here the two 
battalions met ; the second was disbanded, on 
reduction of the army, on 16 Jan. ; Sale, as 
a junior major, was placed on half-pay on 
25 March 1818. 

Sale was brought back to full pay as 
major in the 13th foot on 28 June 1821, and 
joined the regiment at Dublin. He accom- 
panied the 13th foot to Edinburgh in August 
1822 to do duty duringthe visit of George IV, 
and proceeded thence to Chatham, and on 
1 Jan. 1823 sailed with it for India, arriving 
at Calcutta in May. 

Towards the end of 1823 Burmese incur- 
sions on British territory led to war with 
Burma, and an expedition was fitted out 
under the command of Major-general Sir 
Archibald Campbell. Lieutenant-colonel 
McCreagh, who commanded the 13th foot, 
having been appointed to command a brigade, 
the command of the regiment devolved upon 
Sale, who embarked with it on 5 April 1824, 
and entered the Irrawaddy on 10 May. llan- 
goon was occupied, and Sale with the 13th 
regiment drove the enemy from the neigh- 
bourhood. On 10 June Sale commanded 
two companies of the 13th foot and two 
companies of the 38th foot in the successful 
attack on the stronghold at Kamandin. 
The stockade was ten feet high, and the 
men, encouraged by Sale, helped one another 
up its face, entering the work simultaneously 




with the party at the breach. Sir A. Camp- 
bell mentioned in his despatch that Sale was 
the first man who appeared on the top of the 
work. The attack on the seven stockades 
at Kamarut on 8 July was led by Sale at 
the head of his regiment. Sale had a per- 
sonal encounter with the Burmese com- 
mander-in-chief, whom he killed in single 
combat, taking from him a valuable gold- 
hilted sword and scabbard. 

At the end of November 1824 Sale com- 
manded one of the two columns of attack 
which were to advance from Rangoon. 
With this column, eight hundred strong, on 

1 Dec. Sale stormed the Burmese lines. On 
the 5th he drove the enemy from all their 
positions. On the 8th he attacked the rear 
of the enemy's lines opposite the Great 
Pagoda, and on the loth stormed the 
enemy's entrenchment at Kokien, where 
he was severely wounded in the head. Sir 
A. Campbell again mentioned Sale in his 
despatch as ' an officer whose gallantry has 
been most conspicuous on every occasion 
since our arrival at Rangoon,' and, alluding 
to his wound, ' I trust his valuable services 
will not long remain unavailable.' 

The Burmese army having retreated to 
Donabyu, the commander-in-chief deter- 
mined on an advance on Prorne, first sending 
Sale with a column to reduce the province 
of Bassein. Embarking on 10 Feb. 1825 at 
Rangoon, Sale arrived off Pagoda Point, 
Great Negrais, on the 14th. On the 26th 
the first stockade on the river was success- 
fully stormed ; others followed ; and when 
the city of Bassein was reached on 3 March, 
it was found to be on fire and abandoned. 
Sale made an expedition up the river 120 
miles, returning' to Bassein on 23 March, 
and, having met with no resistance, he re- 
embarked with the troops under his com- 
mand for Rangoon, where he arrived on 

2 May. He was promoted to be regimental 
lieutenant-colonel on 2 June 1825, and on 
the same day his brother George, in the 4th 
dragoons, was promoted to be lieutenant- 
colonel ; so their names for some years were 
together in the army list. 

On 8 Aug. Sale embarked with his regi- 
ment at Rangoon to join the army at Prome, 
where he arrived on 25 Aug. On 1 Dec. 
1825 he commanded the 1st brigade and re- 
pulsed the Shans and Burmese at Simbike, 
near Prome ; the next day he stormed the 
enemy's position on the Napadi Hills. On 
19 Jan. 1826 he commanded the successful 
assault from boats on the main face of the 
enemy's works at Malown, when he was 
severely wounded. He was again mentioned 
in despatches. The war was concluded the 

following month, and Sale returned with 
his regiment to India, arriving at Calcutta 
in the middle of April 1826. lie was made 
a Companion of the Bath for his services in 

Sale was with his regiment at Barhampur 
until November 1826, when he took it to 
tDanapur for five years and then to Agra for 
four years, and in January 1835 he arrived 
at Karnal. On 28 June 1833 Sale was pro- 
moted to be brevet-colonel. In October he 
was appointed to command the 1st Bengal 
brigade of the army of the Indus, then 
assembling at Karnal. This brigade, which 
formed the advanced brigade throughout 
I the first campaign in Afghanistan, was com- 
I posed of the 13th light infantry and the 16th 
j and 48th native infantry regiments. 

The march from Karnal began on 8 Nov. 
J 1838. Sale reached Rohri at the end of 
: January 1839, crossed the Indus by a bridge 
j of boats, and reached Shakarpur on 20 Feb. 
After a five days' halt at Dadar he entered 
the Bolan pass on 15 March, and reached 
Shalkot or Quetta on 26 March with little 
opposition but great loss of baggage-animals. 
Want of supplies was greatly felt, and the 
force had to be put on reduced rations. 
After a halt of eleven days the Khojak pass 
was traversed, with further loss of animals, 
baggage, and ammunition, but without oppo- 
sition, and Sale entered Kandahar on 26 April. 
Here a halt of two months was made to 
allow crops to ripen and the army to rest 
and refit. In this interval Sale was sent, on 
12 May, with a mixed force of two thousand 
five hundred men, Abbott's battery of artillery, 
t wol 8-pounder guns, and two 5^-inch mortars, 
to reduce Girishk and dislodge the Kandahar 
chiefs from their refuge. After a fatiguing 
march the rive"r Halmand was crossed on 
18 May, and Sale found Girishk deserted, 
the Afghan chiefs having retired towards 
Seistan. Leaving a regiment of the shah's 
contingent to occupy Girishk and other 
abandoned places, Sale hastened back, on 
24 May, to Kandahar, where he arrived on 
29 May. 

On 27 June the march to Kabul was re- 
sumed, and on 21 July the army arrived in 
front of Ghazni. The Kabul gate was blown 
in by the engineers on the morning of 
23 July, and Sale commanded the storming 
column, composed of all the European in- 
fantry in the force ; the advanced section, 
consisting of the light companies under 
Colonel Dennie, made good their entrance, 
and were at once supported by Sale with the 
main column. There was a sturdy conflict 
at the gate, and amid the crumbling masonry 
and the falling timber, Sale was brought to 




the ground by an Afghan sabre-cut in the 
face. After a desperate struggle with his 
assailant, whose skull he clave, he regained 
his feet, and the fortress was soon in posses- 
sion of the British. Ghazni being well pro- 
visioned, the army was able to recruit, and 
after a week's rest the march was resumed 
and Kabul entered without further opposi- 
tion on 7 Aug. 1839, Dost Muhammad hav- 
ing fled to Bokhara. 

On 23 July 1839 Sale was given the local 
rank of major-general while serving in 
Afghanistan. He was made a K.C.B. for 
his services with the army of the Indus, and 
the shah bestowed upon him the order of 
the second class of the Durani Empire. On 
the break-up of the army of the Indus in 
October 1839 and the departure of Lord 
Keane, Major-general Sir Willoughby Cotton 
took command of the troops in Afghanistan, 
and Sale was second in command. He spent 
the winter at Jalalabad, whither Shah Shuja 
had moved his court, and where Lady Sale 
and his daughter joined him and accompanied 
him to Kabul when the shah returned there 
in the spring of 1840. In spite of the sub- 
sidies paid to the hill tribes, the escort was 
attacked on the way. 

In the autumn of 1840 Dost Muhammad 
was again in the field and raising the whole 
country against the British. Sale was sent 
on 24 Sept. to chastise some rebellious chiefs 
in Kohistan, the hill country north of Kabul, 
his brigade consisting of the 13th light in- 
fantry, the 27th and two companies of the 37th 
native infantry, Abbott's 9-pounder battery, 
two of the shah's horse-artillery guns, a 
24-pounder howitzer, two mortars, the 2nd 
Bengal light cavalry, and a regiment of the 
shah's horse. On 29 Sept. the enemy was 
found strongly posted in front of the village 
of Tutandara, six miles north-east of Chari- 
kar, their flanks supported by small detached 
forts. Sale threatened both flanks and at- 
tacked the centre in force with complete 
success. His attack on the fort of Jalgah 
on 3 Oct. was less successful, but, although 
the attacking column was at first beaten off 
with loss, the enemy evacuated the fort in 
the evening and fled. On 18 Oct. an attack 
was made on Babu-Kush-Ghar, when the 
enemy retired. On 19 Oct. Sale was rein- 
forced by the remaining six companies of the 
37th native infantry and two 9-pounders, 
and on the 20th he attacked and captured 
Kardarrah and Baidak. For the remainder 
of the month Sale was engaged in minor 
operations and ineffectual attempts to cap- 
ture Dost Muhammad, who was then in the 
Nijrao country. 

On 29 Oct. Sale was at Bagh-i-Alam 

when he heard that Dost Muhammad was 
in the Kohistan valley. On 2 Nov. he en- 
countered and defeated him near the village 
of Parwan. In the cavalry charge the 
British officers covered themselves with 
glory, but the native troopers fled, and the 
Afghan horsemen, emboldened by this craven 
conduct, charged nearly up to the British 
guns. Broadfbot of the engineers and Dr. 
Lord, political agent, who accompanied the 
cavalry, were, with the adjutant, killed, and 
several of the officers were severely wounded. 
The British infantry, advancing, recovered 
the lost ground, and cleared the Parwandara 
or pass of Parwan, the enemy, completely de- 
feated, flying to the Panjsher valley. Dost 
Muhammad, seeing the hopelessness of fur- 
ther resistance, went to Kabul and surren- 
dered himself to Sir William Macnaghten. 
He accompanied Sir Willoughby Cotton to- 
India, leaving Kabul on 12 Nov., when 
Major-general William George Keith Elphin- 
stone [q. v.] succeeded to the Afghanistan 
command. Sale returned with his force to 

Some reductions and alterations were 
made in the army of occupation, which 
settled down into the quiet life of canton- 
ments. Many of the married officers had 
sent for their wives and families, and, wrapt 
in a false sense of security, were oblivious of 
the coming storm. On 9 Aug. 1841 Sale's 
youngest daughter was married at Kabul to 
Lieutenant J. L. D. Sturt of the engineers. 
Notwithstanding that the inhabitants of the 
country manifested their antipathy to Euro- 
peans by continual insults and occasional 
murders ; that the shah was daily, by his con- 
duct, alienating his subjects ; and that not a 
single month passed without a punitive ex- 
pedition, no suspicion of danger influenced 
the actions of the political and military 
authorities. At an early stage of the occu- 
' pation Sale had protested against placing the 
[ British troops in cantonments in the position 
proposed, and had vainly advocated the occu-^ 
pation of the Bala-Hissar, where a British 
force could have held Kabul against any 
odds. While contemplating a large reduc- 
tion in the not over large army of occupation, 
j the government now determined, for the sake 
I of 4,000/. a year, to reduce the subsidies paid 
i to the hill tribes to keep open the passes 
! and refrain from plunder. TheGhilzaisardars 
I were informed of the decision at the be- 
i ginning of October 1841. The hillmen at 
; once rose and occupied the passes in force, 
cutting the communications between Kabul 
and India. 

Sale, who was about to proceed with hi* 
brigade to India on relief, and with whom Mac- 




naghten, appointed governor of Bombay, was 
to have returned to India, was directed to clear 
the passes to Jalalabad. On 12 Oct. he 
moved from Butkhak into the Khurd Kabul 
pass, his force consisting of the 13th light 
infantry, the 35th native infantry, two field 
guns, some native sappers, and some Jazail- 
chis. Crowning the height on each side of 
the defile, Sale forced the pass, but was 
wounded early in the fight by a bullet in 
the ankle and relinquished the command to 
Lieutenant-colonel Dennie. On reaching 
Khurd Kabul the 13th light infantry re- 
turned to Butkhak, leaving the rest of the 
force under Lieutenant-colonel Monteith at 
Khurd Kabul. In these positions the force 
remained for nine days, Sale refusing to 
move without a sufficient force, transport, 
and ammunition. He moved from Khurd 
Kabul on 22 Oct. with the 13th light in- 
fantry, the 35th and four companies of the 
37th native infantry, No. 6 field (camel) 
battery, the mountain train, the corps of 
sappers and miners, a squadron of the 5th 
light cavalry, and a risala of the shah's 
second cavalry. He made his way cautiously 
through the defiles of the Haft Kotul, 
occupying the heights on each side with 
skirmishers, and on reaching the valley of 
Tezin attacked and captured the fort. The 
loss was slight, the rearguard suffering 
most, but a good deal of baggage and ammu- 
nition was carried off by the enemy. 

Sale halted at Tezin on the night of 
22 Oct. The political officers were all power- 
ful, and as Macnaghten ruled at Kabul, so 
Macgregor controlled Sale at Tezin, and 
precious days were wasted in making a treaty 
with the faithless Afghans instead of, by 
seizing their forts and breaking their power, 
forcing them to keep open the passes. On 
26 Oct. Sale sent back, under command of 
Major Griffiths, the 37th native infantry, 
three companies of Captain Broadfoot's 
sappers, and half the mountain train to 
Kabar Jabar, between Tezin and Khurd 
Kabul, to keep open the route through 
which he had just passed, and to await the 
arrival of a regiment expected from Kabul. 
Being much pressed for baggage animals, he 
appropriated the disposable animals of the 
troops sent back. On the same day he 
marched to Seh-Baba and reached his first 
camping ground with no other opposition I 
than some sharp skirmishing between his j 
baggage and rear guards and the enemy. ' 
On 27 Oct. he moved to Kata Sang through 
a narrow pass, after reaching the summit of 
which it was necessary for the rearguard to 
fight throughout the rest of the march, in- 
flicting severe loss upon the enemy. At 

Kata Sang Sale received information that 
the enemy were massing to resist him in the 
Pari-dara and Jagdalak passes. Captain 
Macgregor, the political officer, assured Sale 
that there was no national feeling of hostility, 
and that after the treaty he had made there 
would be no organised attack. Sale, how-^ 
ever, avoided the Pari-dara route, where the 
enemy were prepare! to resist him, and on 
the 28th took the route to the south over the 
hills, a chord of the arc, a segment of which 
was occupied by the enemy. Here Sale 
missed an opportunity of striking a deadly 
blow, and of crushing the insurrection. 
Had he turned sharply to his left when 
opposite the defile, owing to the peculiar 
configuration of the ground, he would have 
caught the Ghilzais in a hopeless position, 
swarming along the southern margin of the 
pass to overwhelm, as they believed, the 
British column locked amid the winding of 
the defile below would have snared them in 
their own net, and driven them headlong 
over the precipice. It is possible that igno- 
rance of the ground or deference to Mac- 
gregor's treaty may have been the reason of 
the omission, but it was a serious blunder 
having momentous consequences. Sale was 
attacked after passing the outlet of the 
Pari-dara, but held the Afghans in check. 
On account, however, of the jaded condition 
of his camels he had to destroy a good deal 
of camp equipage to prevent it falling into 
the enemy's hands. On the 29th Sale 
marched from Jagdalak to Surkh-ab, and his 
rearguard had some sharp fighting in forcing 
the passage of the Kotal-i- Jagdalak. On 
the 30th Gandamak was reached without 
further molestation. 

On 5 Nov. on the urgent representations 
of Broadfoot and (Sir) Henry Havelock [q. v.], 
Sale sent a force to Mamu Khel, which cap- 
tured the fort of Mir Afzul Khan, who was 
molesting the British camp. On 10 Nov. Sale 
received the news of the outbreak at Kabul, 
and the murder on 2 Nov. of Sir Alexander 
Burnes [q. v.], accompanied by peremptory 
orders from Elphinstone to return at once 
with his whole force to Kabul. Sale called 
a council of war, and, concurring in its ad- 
vice, continued his march the following day 
towards Jalalabad, where, after a successful 
contest at Fatehabad, he arrived on 12 Nov. 
1841, the Afghans hovering about his rear 
all the way, but meeting with severe punish- 
ment. On 15 Nov. he wrote to Elphinstone 
explaining his reasons for taking this course, 
which were briefly that his camp equipage 
had been destroyed ; he had three hundred 
sick and wounded ; there was no longer a 
single depot of provisions on the road to 




Kabul ; his available carriage was insufficient 
to bring on one day's rations with it ; the 
whole country Avas in arms: his ammunition 
was insufficient ; with the means at his dis- 
posal he could force neither the .Tagdalak 
nor the Khurd Kabul pass, and if the debris 
of his force should reach Kabul, it Avould 
be only to find the Kabul garrison without 
the means of subsistence, liegard for the 
honour and interests of the government com- 
pelled him to put Jalalabad into a state of 
defence until the Kabul force should fall 
back on it or succour arrive from Peshawar. 

Considering that Major Griffiths, with the 
37th native infantry and three guns, sent 
back by Sale to Kabar Jabar and recalled to 
Kabul by Elphinstone, made good his way 
through the passes in spite of the Ghilzai 
attack, and reached Kabul on 3 Nov. with- 
out even the loss of any baggage, it is diffi- 
cult to understand why Sale could not have | 
secured his sick and wounded and his baggage 
in one of the defensible forts in his neigh- 
bourhood, and then, unencumbered, made a | 
rapid march to Kabul, where his appearance j 
would have been a blow to the insurrection i 
and new life to the British cause. Even if 
he did not go to Kabul, he would have been 
of much greater use to the Kabul force had 
he remained at Gandamak, where he could 
have maintained himself at least as easily as 
at Jalalabad, and could have held out a help- 
ful hand to the retiring Kabul force. On 
the other hand it must be remembered that 
Sale's decision must have been deliberately 
taken, for he had the strongest personal in- 
ducements to return to Kabul, where his 
wife and daughter and son-in-law shared the 
dangers of the garrison. 

The defences of Jalalabad were in a mise- 
rable condition, and there were no food sup- 
plies. Sale's force numbered about two thou- 
sand men, composed of seven hundred men 
of the 13th light infantry, half of whom were 
recruits who had joined from England during 
the summer ; the 35th native infantry, 750 
men ; Broadfoot's sappers, 150 men ; forty 
men of the shah's infantry ; one squadron 
(130 men) of the 5th Bengal cavalry under 
Captain Oldfield ; one risala of Shah Shuja's 
contingent (ninety sabres); Backhouse's moun- 
tain train (sixty men) ; and Abbott's battery 
(120 men). A successful sortie was made 
by Monteith on 14 Nov., which cleared the 
neighbourhood of Afghans and enabled sup- 
plies to be got in. Abbott and Broadfoot 
were entrusted with the duty of placing the 
town in a state of defence. On the 21st 
Sale heard of the destruction of the Charikar 
garrison, and the following day of the evacua- 
tion of Pesh Bolak, east of the Khaibar 

pass, and by the end of the month Sale was 
surrounded by six thousand Afghans. An- 
other successful sortie was made by Dennie 
on 1 Dec., which left the garrison unmolested 
for some time and enabled the provisional 
defences to be completed. On 2 Jan. 1842 
Sale heard of the murder of Macnaghten, 
and on the 9th he received orders from 
Elphinstone to evacuate Jalalabad and march 
to Peshawar, in accordance with a conven- 
tion made at Kabul. The despatch informed 
Sale that Akbar Khan had given a safe-con- 
duct, and that he would be unmolested on 
his march. It is impossible to account for 
the imbecility which could put faith in the 
Afghans after the events which had occurred. 
Sale at this time intercepted a despatch from 
this very Akbar Khan to a chief near Jalala- 
bad exhorting the faithful to assemble and 
fight the infidels, and he so informed Elphin- 
stone, and declined to move without further 
orders. On 13 Jan. a solitary horseman, Dr. 
Brydon, wounded and exhausted, arrived to 
tell the fearful tale of the annihilation of 
the Kabul force of 4,500 men with its ten 
thousand camp followers. Broadfoot, the 
acting engineer, laid before Sale the con- 
dition of Jalalabad, and advised him, if he 
thought he could not hold out, to march 
that night for Peshawar while retreat was 

On 23 Jan. came news of Colonel Wild's 
attempt to force the Khaibar and the aban- 
donment of Ali Masjid. Every precaution 
was taken by Sale and the Jalalabad garri- 
son to enable them to fight to the last, and 
they prepared for the worst. On 26 Jan., how- 
ever, Macgregor received a letter from Shah 
Shuja referring to the treaty, and asking 
Sale's intentions in remaining in Jalalabad. 
A council of war was called on the follow- 
ing day, which was presided over by Sale 
and attended by Captain Macgregor, politi- 
cal officer, Lieutenant-colonels Dennie and 
Monteith, and Captains Abbott, Broadfoot, 
Oldfield, and Backhouse. Captains Have- 
lock and Wade, Sale's staff officers, were also 
present, but had no vote. Sale arid Mac- 
gregor proposed to negotiate for the evacua- 
tion, which was vehemently opposed by 
Broadfoot and Oldfield, but agreed to by the 
rest ; the meeting was, however, adjourned 
until the following day, when, after a heated 
discussion, the reply to Shah Shuja, agreed 
to by the majority, modified as regards hos- 
tages, was approved and sent. This reply 
was briefly that, if the shah had no further 
need of their services, they would evacuate 
Jalalabad on his giving them formal permis- 
sion to do so, provided Akbar Khan were 
withdrawn, that safe-conduct were guaran- 




teed to the force on their return to India, 
and that hostages were given. 

The decision of Sale and the majority of 
the council was based upon the consideration 
that the governor-general had abandoned them 
by his despatch direct ing that, if Kabul fell, all 
other stations should be evacuated ; and that, 
if they defied the shah, the British captives 
might suffer, while by negotiating time would 
at any rate be gained. On 12 Feb. the 
same council was assembled to hear the 
shah's rejoinder, which was a request that 
the members would affix their signatures 
and seals to Macgregor's letter. In the 
meantime there had been considerable dis- 
cussion as to the situation, and, though Sale 
and Macgregor urged the members to affix 
their seals, the demand of the shah was 
seized upon as an opportunity to withdraw 
from the proposals contained in the letter of 
28 Jan. The shah was accordingly informed 
that the council declined to negotiate further 
until assured that he no longer desired their 

These councils of war have been the sub- 
ject of considerable discussion, not generally 
favourable to Sale and Macgregor. The 
original papers came into the hands of the 
India office only in 1890, and a study of 
them shows that, while Sale was too easily 
influenced by Macgregor to put trust in the 
crafty Afghan, his chief hope seems to have 
been that negotiations would gain time, 
which was all important. The credit of 
withstanding all attempts at evacuation, and 
of almost alone upholding the necessity of 
maintaining the position of Jalalabad to the 
last, belongs to George Broadfoot. The very 
day after the council had been held Sale re- 
ceived intelligence that (Sir) George Pollock 
[q. v.] had arrived at Peshawar to command 
the force for his relief. 

On 19 Feb. severe earthquakes occurred, 
causing great destruction of buildings. They 
undid in an hour all that Sale's force had con- ! 
structed in three months. Nothing daunted, 
however, Sale set to work the next day to 
reconstruct the defences, and Broadfoot was 
again his right hand in the work. Earth- 
quake shocks of a milder form continued to ! 
recur during the next month, but little 
damage was done by them. On 28 Feb. and 
on 2 and 4 March Akbar Khan made attacks 
which Avere repulsed. Provisions began to 
fall short, and the investment was drawn 
closer ; but successful sorties were made on ! 
1 and 24 March, and again on 1 April, when I 
five hundred sheep were captured. When 
Sale proceeded to distribute the sheep among j 
the different regiments and corps of his force, i 
a pleasing incident occurred : the 85th native ' 

infantry desired that their share might be 
given to their friends, the 13th light infantry, 
as animal food was less necessary to them 
than to European troops. 

On 5 April Macgregor's spies brought in 
false news of the defeat of Pollock in the 
Khaibar, and on the 6th Akbar Khan fired 
a salute, as was supposed, in honour of this 
victory. Urged by Broadfoot and Abbott 
and other fiery spirits, Sale, who was eager 
to fight but loth to take the responsibility, 
made arrangements to give battle to Akbar 
on the following day and, if successful, to 
move with all his baggage and stores towards 
the Khaibar. In the evening he learned that 
Pollock had been victorious at the Khaibar, 
and that Akbar's salute was to celebrate the 
murder of Shah Shuja at Kabul. Sale never- 
theless determined to fight on the morrow as 
already arranged. Accordingly, at daybreak 
on 7 April, he formed his troops in three 
columns of attack, under command respec- 
tively of Dennie, Monteith, and Havelock. 
The attack was completely successful, but 
Dennie was killed leading the 13th light in- 
fantry to victory. Akbar Khan's lines were 
carried by 7 A.M., and his camp, baggage, 
artillery, arms, ammunition, and horses fell 
into Sale's hands. Akbar, with the wreck of 
his army, fled towards Kabul, and the chiefs 
of the districts in the Khaibar direction 
hastened to submit to Sale. 

On 16 April Pollock arrived at Jalalabad 
with his relieving column to find that Sale 
had relieved himself. Lord Ellenborough, 
the new governor-general, issued a highly 
complimentary order, in which he alluded to 
the garrison of Jalalabad as that ' illustrious 
garrison.' A silver medal and six months' 
batta was granted to every officer, non-com- 
missioned officer, and man, both European 
and native, which belonged to the garrison 
on 7 April 1842. The order was directed to 
be read to all the troops, and a salute of 
twenty-one guns to be fired at every princi- 
pal station of the army in India. 

A long stay was made by Pollock at 
Jalalabad, partly on account of sickness and 
want of transport, but mainly because of the 
indecision of the government as to the course 
to be pursued. On 16 June 1842 Sale was 
made a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath for 
his defence of Jalalabad. Towards the end 
of July Sale moved his division (the first) to 
Fatehabad, on the road to Kabul, and on 
20 Aug. Pollock marched from Jalalabad 
with the remainder of the army. On 8 Sept. 
Sale encountered the enemy at the Jagdalak 
pass, where they occupied a position of great 
strength, and, after some sharp fighting and 
very fatiguing climbing, dispersed them. 




Sale, always to the front when fighting was 
going on, was wounded leading his men up 
the heights. On 12 and 13 Sept. some twenty 
thousand men had occupied every post of 
vantage in the Tezin pass, but Sale drove 
them from crag to crag, contested at every 
step, until the pass was cleared, but only to 
find numbers assembled in an almost impreg- 
nable position on the Haft Kotal (7,800 
feet). The hill was after much labour scaled, 
and the enemy driven from height to height. 
A decisive victory was gained, and on 15 Sept. 
Sale encamped his division at Kabul. 

On arrival at Kabul, Sir Richmond Camp- 
bell Shakespear [q. v.] had been at once 
despatched with six hundred horsemen to 
rescue the captives at Bamian, and on the 
17th Sale took a brigade of his Jalalabad 
troops and pushed on to Shakespear's sup- 
port. The captives, who had by bribery 
already effected their own release, met Shake- 
spear on 17 Sept. and the following day were 
safe in Sale's camp. 

On 12 Oct. Sale led the advanced guard 
on the return march to India by the Khaibar 
pass, and, having exercised great caution, 
met with no difficulty, and reached AH 
Masjid on 12 Nov. 

On 17 Dec., at the head of the Jalalabad 
garrison, Sale crossed the Satlaj by the bridge 
of boats into Firozpur, and was received with 
great honour and ceremony by the governor- 
general. On 24 Feb. 1843 the thanks of 
parliament were unanimously voted to Sale 

it. His men followed him anywhere. He 
was too much afraid of responsibility to 
make a good general, nor indeed had he the 
special gifts which make a great commander. 
Sir Robert Peel, in the House of Commons, 
paid a graceful tribute to his memory when 
proposing a vote of thanks to the army of 
the Satlaj, and suggested a public monu- 
ment. A portrait of Sale was painted by 
George Clint, A.R.A., and engraved in 
mezzotinto by Thomas Lupton. Another por- 
trait was painted by Scarlet Davis, and in 
1846 was in the possession of John Hinx- 
man, esq. 

Sale married, in 1809, Florentia (born 
13 Aug. 1790 ?), daughter of George Wynch, 
esq. She was at Ludiana at the time of her 
husband's death. On the retreat of the 
British force from Kabul in January 1842, 
and the massacre which ensued, Lady Sale 
had shared the horrors of those cold snowy 
days and nights. She did what she could to 
alleviate the sufferings of the women and 
children, and the wounded. Her clothes 
were riddled with bullets, and she was twice 
wounded and had a bullet in her wrist. 
With her daughter, Mrs. Sturt, she soothed 
the last moments of her mortally wounded 
son-in-law, Lieutenant Sturt of the engineers, 
who died near Khurd Kabul on 9 Jan. 1842, 
and was the only officer who received Chris- 
tian burial. At last, on 10 Jan., Akbar Khan 
had compassion 011 these unfortunate women 
and children, and carried them, with other 

for the skill, intrepidity, and perseverance prisoners and hostages, to a fort in the Khurd 
displayed in the military operations in Af- Kabul. Their baggage was all looted, and 

ghanistan. The resolution was moved in 
the House of Lords by the Duke of Welling- 
ton, and in the House of Commons by Sir 
Robert Peel. On the death of General Ed- 
ward Morrison, colonel of the 13th (Prince 
Albert's) regiment of light infantry, Sale 
received on 15 Dec. 1843, as a special promo- 
tion for distinguished service, the colonelcy 
of his old regiment, a most unusual distinc- 
tion for so junior an officer. In addition to 
the special medal for Jalalabad, Sale received 
medals for Ghazni and Kabul. 

Sale went to England, but returned to 
India on appointment, on 29 March 1844, as 
quartermaster-general of the queen's troops 
in the East Indies. On the outbreak of the 
Sikh war, towards the end of 1845, he served 
as quartermaster-general of the army under 
Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough. His 
left thigh was shattered by a grape-shot at 
the battle of Mudki on 18 Dec., and he died 
from the effects on 21 Dec. 1845. 

Sale was a brave soldier. He was nick- 
named ' Fighting Bob,' and wherever there 
was fighting he was always in the thick of 

they had only the clothes they were wearing. 
Fortunately, before leaving Kabul, Lady Sale 
had taken out her diary to make an entry, 
and then, finding her baggage gone, put it in 
a bag which she tied to her waist. This 
graphic account, begun at Kabul in Septem- 
ber 1841, was continued through her cap- 
tivity, and published in 1843. On 11 Jan. 
1842 the captives were moved from Khurd 
Kabul ; they reached Jagdalak on the 13th, 
on the 15th Tigri, a fortified town in the 
valley of Lughman, twenty-five miles north 
of Jalalabad, and on the 17th Badiabad, 
eight miles higher up the valley, the fort of 
which formed the prison of nine ladies, 
twenty gentlemen, and fourteen children, 
besides seventeen European soldiers, two 
European women, and one child. Crowded 
together, with no spare clothes nor neces- 
saries, except coarse food and shelter, they 
were nevertheless not molested, and Lady 
Sale was even allowed to carry on a corre- 
spondence with her husband in Jalalabad. 
They suffered a good deal from the earth- 
quake of 19 Feb. and frequent earthquakes 




during the following month. On 11 April, 
after the battle of Jalalabad, they were 
moved from Tigri, and reached Tezin on 
the 19th. Here some of the party, including 
General Elphinstone, who died on 23 April, 
were left, but Lady Sale and her daughter, 
with the remainder of the party, went on to 
Zandah on the 22nd, remaining there a whole 
month. On 23 May they left Zandah, and 
the next day arrived at Nur Muhammad, 
Mir Akor's fort near Kabul. On 25 Aug. 
the captives were moved from Nur Muham- 
mad, and reached Bamian on 3 Sept., in 
charge of Saleh Muhammad Khan. Having 
ascertained that this man was open to bribery, 
a paper was drawn up in which the prisoners 
agreed to pay him twenty thousand rupees 
down and a pension of twelve thousand rupees 
per annum to effect their escape. On 18 Sept. 
they heard of the approach of Pollock and 
Nott to Kabul from Maidan and Butkhak re- 
spectively, and that a light force had been sent 
to their aid, so on the 16th they started from 
Bamian, and on the 17th, at the forts at the 
foot of the Kalu pass, met Sir Richmond 
Shakespeare on his way with six hundred 
Kazlbash horsemen to rescue them. They 
continued their march under his protection. 
On the following day they met Sale and his 
brigade, who arrived just in time to prevent 
their recapture by an Afghan force under 
Sultan Jan. On 21 Sept. they arrived at 
Kabul. After her husband's death Lady 
Sale continued to reside in the hills in India 
on a pension of 5007. a year, granted by the 
queen as a mark of approbation of her con- 
duct and of her husband's services. In 1853 
she visited the Cape of Good Hope for the 
benefit of her health, and died at Cape Town 
on 6 July, a few days after her arrival there. 
Lady Sale was par excellence 'a soldier's 
wife.' She was the companion and friend of 
her husband throughout a life of military 
vicissitude, sympathising with him in all 
that concerned his profession, quick in per- 
ception, self-reliant and practical. 

[Despatches; War Office Eecords ; India 
Office Records ; Stocqueler's Memorials of Af- 
ghanistan, Calcutta, 1843; Gleig's Sale's Brigade 
in Afghanistan, London, 1846 : Kaye's History 
of the War in Afghanistan, London, 1851 ; Kaye's 
Lives of Indian Officers, London, 1867 ; Durand's 
First Afghan War and its Causes, London, 
1879 ; Low's First Afghan War, from the Jour- 
nal and Correspondence of Major-general Augus- 
tus Abbott, London, 1879; Forbes's Afghan 
Wars, London, 1892; Eyre's Military Opera- 
tions at Cabul, London, 1843 ; Low's Life and 
Correspondence of Field- Marshal Sir George 
Pollock, London, 1873 ; Malleson's Hist, of Af- 
ghanistan, London, 1878 ; Lady Sale's Journal 
of the Disasters in Afghanistan, London, 1813; 

Welsh's Military Reminiscences, London, 1830 ; 
Hough's Political and Military Events in British 
India from 1756 to 1849, London, 1853 ; Vibart's 
Military History of the Madras Engineers, 
London, 1881 ; Professional Papers of the Corps 
of Royal Engineers, Occasional Papers Series, 
vol. iii. 1879; Hist. Review, January 1893; 
Gent. Mag. 1846 and 1853; The Defence of 
Jalalabad, engravings, with letterpress at the 
end by Colonel W. Sale, fol. London, 1846, with 
portrait of Sir R. Sale as frontispiece; Annual 
Register, 1845; Broadfoot's Career of Major 
G-eorge Broadfoot, C.B., London, 1888; Cannon's 
Historical Record of the Twelfth or the East 
Suffolk Regiment of Foot, London, 1848; Can- 
non's Historical Record of the Thirteenth, First 
Somerset, or the Prince Albert's Regiment of 
Light Infantry, London, 1848 ; English Cyclo- 
paedia, 1872.] R. H. V. 

1892), writer for the young, born in 1841, 
was the third and youngest daughter of 
Francis Henry Davies (1791-1863), regi- 
strar of the court of chancery, and of his 
wife, Lady Lucy Clementina (d. 1879), only 
sister of George Drummond, fourteenth 
earl of Perth and sixth duke of Melfort. 
She was twice married : first, on 25 Aug. 
1858, to Lieutenant-colonel James John 
Villiers, who died in command of the 74th 
highlanders at Belasse, India, on 10 May 
1862, aged 38 ( Gent. Mag. 1862, ii. 233) ; and, 
secondly, on 10 Aug. 1865, to John Sale- 
Barker of Cadogan Place, Chelsea, who died, 
6 Oct. 1884. Mrs. Sale-Barker died on 
6 May 1892. 

Mrs. Sale-Barker began her literary 
career with occasional articles for the maga- 
zines, and about 1872 began to write regularly 
for children. Between 1874 and 1888 she 
published more than forty volumes for 
juvenile readers. Many of the stories she 
had composed for her own children. Some of 
her publications bore such titles as * Little 
Bright Eyes' Picture Book' and 'Little 
Golden Locks' Story Book.' She edited 
' Little Wide- A wake,' a magazine for chil- 
dren, from its commencement in 1874 until 
her death, and wrote the verses for Kate 
Greenaway's popular ' Birthday Book for 
Children ' (1880). 

[Times, -9 May 1892; Burkes Peerage, s.v. 
Perth ; Allibone's Diet. s. v. ' Barker,' Suppl. i. 
93 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] E. L. 


' SALESBY,' ROBERT OF (ft. 1150), 
chancellor of Sicily. [See ROBEKT.] 

SALGADO, JAMES//. 1680), Spanish 
refugee, of a good Spanish family, became 
a Romish priest of the order of the Domini- 




cans. Becoming converted to protestantism, 
he suffered much by the inquisition of 
Spain, and after visiting France, Italy, and 
the United Netherlands, came to England 
shortly before 1678. On 26 Dec. 1678 
Andrew Sail [q, v.] signed a certificate, dated 
from Christ Church, Oxford, testifying to his 
civil behaviour in the university ; Sail re- 
commended him for employment in tuition. 
In his dedication of the ' Description of the 
Plaza ' to Charles II Salgado speaks of his 
pinching poverty. It is possible he left 
England for Holland before 1684. 

Salgado wrote: 1. 'The Romish Priest 
turn'd Protestant, with the Reasons of his 
Conversion, wherein the true Church is ex- 
posed to the view of Christians and derived 
out of the Holy Scriptures,' London, 1679, 
4to (dedicated to the lords and commons in 
parliament). 2. ' A brief Description of the 
Nature of the Basilisk or Cockatrice ' (anon.) 
(1680 ?), 4to. 3. ' 'Sv/jjSiWtr , or the intimate 
converse of Pope and Devil attended by a 
Cardinal and Buffoon. To which is annexed 
the portrait of each with a brief explication 
thereof,' London, 1681 (dedicated to Prince 
Rupert, duke of Cumberland) ; Manchester, 
1823, 8vo ; with ' An Appendix wherein the 
Hellish Machinations of the Pope are further 
searched into on the occasion of the never 
enough to be lamented death of Sir Ed- 
mundbury Godfrey,' London, 1681. 4. ' An 
impartial and brief Description of the Plaza 
or sumptuous Market Place of Madrid and 
the Bull-baiting there, together with the 
History of the famous Placidus,' London, 
1683, 4to (dedicated to Charles II) ; re- 
printed in 'Harleian Miscellany,' vol. vii. 
5. ' Geraldus Lisardo de regimine morali per 
Jacobum Salgado Hispanum,' Amsterdam, 
1684 (date corrected to 1083). 

[Salgado's works ; Harleian Miscellany, vii. 
237 n.] W. A. S. 

SPEE, WILLIAM DE, first earl of the Longe- 
spee family, d. 1226 ; LONGESPEE, WILLIAM 
DE, second earl, 1212P-1250; MONTACUTE, 
WILLIAM DE, first earl of the Montacute 
family, 1301-1344; MONTACUTE, WILLIAM 
DE, second earl, 1328-1397; MONTACUTE, 
JOHN DE, third earl, 1350 ?-l 400 : MONTA- 
CUTE, THOMAS DE, fourth earl, 1388-1428; 
NEVILLE, RICHARD, first earl of the Neville 
family, 1400-1460; NEVILLE, RICHARD, 
second earl, 1428-1471 ; CECIL, ROBERT, first 
earl of the Cecil family, 1563-1612 ; CECIL, 
JAMES, third earl, d. 1683; CECIL, JAMES, 
fourth earl, d. 1693.] 

MARGARET, 1473-1641.] 

GIBBON (1819-1890), barrister, eldest son 
of Joseph Salisbury of Bagillt, Flintshire, 
was born on 7 Nov. 1819. He became a 
student of the Inner Temple, 7 Jan. 1850, 
and was called to the bar, 17 Nov. 1852. He 
went the North Wales circuit, where he 
had a good practice, but his chief success was 
as a parliamentary counsel. He was elected 
in the liberal interest M.P. for Chester in 
1857, but he was unsuccessful in contesting 
the seat in 1859. His knowledge of books 
relating to Wales and the border counties 
was remarkable. Of these he made a 
fine collection, which is now in the posses- 
sion of Cardiff College. He died at his 
house, Glen-aber, Saltney, near Chester, on 

27 Oct. 1890, and was buried at Eccleston, 
near that city. He married, on 28 June 
1842, Sarah, youngest daughter of the Rev. 
Arthur Jones, D.D. She died on 2 March 
1879, leaving a son and five daughters. 

Salisbury published: 1. 'A Letter on 
National Education, suggested by " A Letter 
on State Education in Wales," ' 1849, 16mo. 
2. ' A Catalogue of Cambrian Books at 
Glen-aber, Chester, 1500-1799, not men- 
tioned in Rowlands's Cambrian Bibliography/ 
Carnarvon, 1874, 8vo. 3. ' Border Counties 
Literature, a Catalogue of Border County 
Books in the Glen-aber Library, Chester, 
A.D. 1500-1882,' pt. i. Chester, 12m