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Full text of "Dictionary of national biography"

DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



STANHOPE STOVIN 







DICTIONARY 




OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. LIV. 



STANHOPE STOVIN 



LONDON 
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 



All rights rtsirved] 



12 
D4 



LIST OF WEITEES 



IN THE FIFTY-FOUETH VOLUME. 



J. G. A. 
J. A-N. . . . 
W. A. J. A. . 
R. B-L. . . . 
G. F. E. B. . 

T. B 

T. H. B. . . 
H. L. B. . . 
H. E. D. B. 
G. C. B. . . 
G. S. B. . . 

H. B 

A. B 

E. I. C.. . . 
E. C-E. . . . 
A. M. C. . . 

S. C 

A. M. C-E. . 

T. C 

J. S. C.. . . 
W. P. C. . . 

L. C 

H. D 

A. D. . 



J. A. D. 



E. D. . 
C. L. F. 



J. G. ALGER. 

THE EEV. JOHN ANDERSON. 

W. A. J. ARCHBOLD. 

EICHAKD BAGWELL. 

G. F. EUSSELL BARKER. 

THOMAS BAYNE. 

PROFESSOR T. HUDSON BE ARE. 

THE EEV. CANON LEIGH BENNETT. 

THE EEV. H. E. D. BLAKISTON. 

THE LATE G. C. BOASE. 

G. S. BOCLGEB. 

HENRY BRADLEY. 

ALEXANDER BUCHAN, M.D. 

E. IRVING CARLYLE. 

SIR ERNEST CLARKE, F.S.A. 

Miss A. M. CLERKE. 

SIDNEY COLVIN. 

Miss A. M. COOKE. 

THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. 

J. S. COTTON. 

W. P. COURTNEY. 

LIONEL GUST, F.S.A. 

HENRY DAVEY. 

AUSTIN DOBSON. 

J. A. DOYLE. 

EGBERT DUNLOP. 

C. LITTON FALKINER. 



T. F. 



E. G. . . . 
A. G. . . . 
E. E. G. . 
J. C. H. . 
J. A. H. . 
T. H. . 



C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 

W. G. D. F. THE EEV. W. G. D. FLETCHER. 

W. F THE EEV. WILLIAM FOBSYTH, 

D.D. 

THE EEV. THOMAS FOWLER, D.D., 
PRESIDENT OF CORPUS 
CHRISTI COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

EICHARD GARNETT, LL.D., C.B. 

THE EEV. ALEXANDER GORDON. 

E. E. GRAVES. 

J. CUTHBERT HADDEN. 

J. A. HAMILTON. 

THE EEV. THOMAS HAMILTON, 
D.D. 

C. A. H. . . C. ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
P. J. H. . . P. J. HARTOG. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 

F. C. H.-E. THE EEV. PREBENDARY HINGES- 
TON-EANDOLPH. 

T. E. H. . . PROFESSOR T. E. HOLLAND, D.C.L. 

W. H THE EEV. WILLIAM HUNT. 

W. H. H. . THE EEV. W. H. BUTTON, B.D. 

C. L. E. . . C. L. ElNGSFORD. 

J. E JOSEPH ENIGHT, F.S.A. 

J. E. L. . . PROFESSOR J. E. LAUGHTON. 
T. G. L. . . T. G. LAW. 

E. L Miss ELIZABETH LEE. 

S. L. . . . SIDNEY LEE. 



VI 



List of Writers. 



B, H. L. . . 

E. M. L. . . 
J. B. M. . . 
3. M. 

A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

G. LE G. N. 
K. N 

F. M. O'D. . 

A. F. P. . . 

B. P 

D'A. P. ... 
E. E. P. . . 
J. M. E. . . 

G. W. E. E. 



E. H. LEGGE. 

COLONEL E. M. LLOYD, E.E. 
J. E. MACDONALD. 
SHERIFF MACKAY. 
A. H. MILLAR. 
COSMO MONKHOUSE. 
NORMAN MOORE, M.D. 
G. LE GRYS NORGATE. 
Miss KATE NORGATE. 

F. M. O'DoNOGHUE, F.S.A. 

A. F. POLLARD. 

Miss BERTHA PORTER. 
D'ARCY POWER, F.E.C.S. 

B. E. PHOTHERO. 
J. M. EIGG. 

G. W. E. RUSSELL. 



F. S. . . . 
T. S. . . . 

C. F. S. . 
L. S. . . . 

D. A. S. . 
C. C. S. . 

G. S-H. . . 

C. W. S. . 

J. T-T. . . 

D. LL. T.. 
T. F. T. . 
W. W. T. 

E. H. V. . 
E. T. W. . 
S. W. . . . 
B. B. W. . 



. THE EEV. FRANCIS SANDERS. 

. THOMAS SECCOMBE. 

. Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

. LESLIE STEPHEN. 

. D. A. STEVENSON. 

. MKS. STOPES. 

. GEORGE STRONACH. 

. C. W. SUTTON. 

. JAMES TAIT. 

. D. LLEUFEK THOMAS. 

. PROFESSOR T. F. TOUT. 

. THE REV. W. W. TULLOCH, D.D. 

. COLONEL R. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 

. E. T. WEDMORE. 

. STEPHEN WHEELER. 

. B. B. WOODWARD. 






DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



STANHOPE, LADY, and COUNTESS OF 
CHESTERFIELD (d. 1667). [See KIRKHOVEN 
or KERCKHOVEN, CATHERINE.] 

STANHOPE, CHARLES, third EARL 
STANHOPE (1753-1816), politician and man 
of science, born in London on 3 Aug. 1753, 
was the second but eldest surviving son of 
Philip, second earl Stanhope (d. 7 March 
1786), who married, in 1745,Grizel (d. 1811), 
daughter of Charles Hamilton, (by courtesy) 
lord Binning [q. v.], and sister of Thomas, 
seventh earl of Haddington. 

The father, the second earl Stanhope, was 
son of James Stanhope, first earl Stanhope 
[q. v.] Educated at Utrecht and Geneva, 
he acquired a love for mathematics, for the 
Greek language which was as familiar to 
him as English and for democratic prin- 
ciples. Lalande called him the best English 
mathematician of his day, and he was an 
especial friend and correspondent of Robert 
Simson [q. v.], the professor of mathematics 
at Glasgow. He paid for the posthumous 
impression of Simson's works and for the 
edition of the works of Archimedes that was 
printed at the Clarendon Press, and Priest- 
ley dedicated to him the third volume of his 
' Experiments on Air.' In 1735 he was elected 
F.R.S., and at his death he left SOW. to that 
society (WELD, Royal Society, ii. 196). In 
parliament he spoke, while in England, not 
infrequently, and always with independence 
of thought. Letters of Pitt, Lord Chatham, 
and Franklin to him, and one from him are 
in the ' Chatham Correspondence ' (vol. iv.) 
He transmitted to his son Charles his enthu- 
siasm for science, his devotion to the cause 
of democracy, and his fondness for sim- 
plicity in dress (MAHON, Hist, of England, 
iii. 208-9). 



VOL. LIT. 

' 



Charles was sent to Eton at an early age. 
It is usually said that he went thither at the 
age of eight, but his name is not in the list 
of 1762 (Collect. Oxford Hist. Soc. iii. 367). 
His elder brother Philip died at Geneva on 
6 July 1763 (Gent. Mag. 1763, p. 415), and 
Charles became Lord Mahon and the heir to 
the peerage. In July 1764 the whole family 
went to Geneva (Letters of Lady Hervey, 
pp. 303, 309), where the lad was instructed 
by G. J. Le Sage, who developed his tastes 
for the exacter sciences. He also spent 
much time in experimental philosophy. In 
1765 he had the advantage for two months 
of the society of Adam Smith and of Henry 
Scott, third duke of Buccleuch[q.v.] (DUGALD 
STEWART, Works, x. 45). Lady Mary Coke 
was at Geneva in October 1769, and mar- 
velled at the youth's 'surprising genius; 
his painting wou'd surprise you, and he 
cuts out people in paper as like as others 
can draw them. He has invented a mathe- 
matical instrument . . . better for the pur- 
pose it is intended than any other of the 
kind ; yet he is but seventeen years of age ' 
(Journal, iii. 158). Still he did not neglect 
the amusements of youth. He excelled in 
horsemanship, enrolled himself in the militia 
of the Genevan republic, and was an adept 
in shooting at a mark. 

At the age of eighteen Mahon composed 
a paper in French on the pendulum, which 
the Academy of Stockholm rewarded with 
a prize and printed. He wrote, at Geneva 
in 1773, a volume, printed in 1775, of ' Con- 
siderations on the Means of preventing Frau- 
dulent Practices on the Gold Coin.' The 
coin was to have very little relief, and the 
date was to be sunk in. The dangers to be 
guarded against were false coining, clipping, 
milling, and sweating. Very soon after its 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



composition the Stanhopes returned to Eng- 
land, and Mahon threw himself with ardour 
into politics. 

Early in September 1774 he was presented 
at court, and as his father would not allow him 
to wear powder ' because wheat is so dear,' 
he went in his natural ' coal-black hair ' and 
a white feather. The wits said ' he had been 
tarred and feathered ' (WALPOLE, Letters, 
vi. 114). A few weeks later, when only just 
of age, he contested the city of Westminster, 
but, after the poll had been open for some 
days, withdrew. At this time he was in- 
spired with an ardent friendship for the 
second William Pitt, who was then equally 
ardent for reform, and their alliance was 
cemented by his marriage, on 19 Dec. 1774, 
to his friend's sister, Lady Hester Pitt, 
elder daughter of the first Earl of Chatham. 
Lady Mahon died at the family seat of 
Chevening, Kent, on 18 July 1780, when 
only twenty-five. 

During the Gordon riots of June 1780 
Mahon harangued the people from the bal- 
cony of a coffee-house, and urged them to 
retire to their homes. Walpole said that he 
'chiefly contributed by his harangues to 
conjure down the tempest ' (Letters, vii. 
377-81). On the following 6 Sept. he was 
elected, through the influence of the Earl of 
Shelburne, member for the borough of Chip- 
ping Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, and re- 
presented it until his accession to the peer- 
age. At the opening debate (October 1780) 
on the choice of speaker, he made his maiden 
speech, and in 1781 he was a delegate for 
the county of Kent to advocate the cessation 
of the American war and the promotion of 
parliamentary reform. From 1782 to 1786 
he introduced into the House of Commons 
several bills for the prevention of bribery 
and corruption and for the reduction of ex- 
penses at parliamentary elections. The pro- 
visions of his bill against bribery were de- 
clared by Lord Mansfield on 23 March 1784 
to be already part of the law of the land 
(Gent. Mag. 119^ i. 229). His bill for an- 
nual registration of voters, for increase in 
the number of polling places, and for other 
improvements at elections was taken charge 
of after he had become a peer by Wilber- 
force, and, with Pitt as its friend, passed the 
commons, but was thrown out by the lords 
on o July 1786. 

Mahon had associated himself with the 
whigs in their opposition to the war with 
the American colonies, but he strongly op- 
posed the coalition of Fox and North, and he 
was vehement against Fox's East India Bill. 
He declined office on the formation of Pitt's 
cabinet in 1783, but remained for a short 



time his strenuous supporter. At the general 
election in 1784 he laboured in the interest 
of Pitt. Walpole at the time dubbed him 
' a savage, a republican, a royalist I don't 
know what not ' (Letters, viii. 469). He 
spoke at the meetings of the electors of 
Westminster in February 1784 against Fox 
and the coalition (cf. JEPHSON, The Platform, 
i. 155-6). His first political difference with 
Pitt took place on 22 July 1784 over the 
tax on bricks and tiles. He ridiculed the 
arguments of George Rose (1744-1818) [q.v.J 
in its favour, and Pitt rallied him ironically 
in return. 

On 7 March 1786 he succeeded to the 
peerage as the third Earl Stanhope, and lost 
no time in attacking by speech and pam- 
phlet Pitt's proposals for a sinking fund. 
His pamphlet was entitled ' Observations on 
Mr. Pitt's Plan for the Reduction of the 
National Debt,' and Pitt tried hard to dis- 
suade him from its publication (LORD AUCK- 
LAND, Journal, i. 369). Two bills were in- 
troduced by him into the House of Lords in 
the summer of 1789. One was for relieving 
members of the church of England from 
sundry penalties and disabilities ; the other 
was for preventing vexatious proceedings for 
the recovery of tithes. Both were thrown 
out, the first on 18 May, the second on 
3 July, and on the first date he created much 
amusement by informing the lord chancellor 
that ' on another occasion I shall teach the 
noble and learned lord law, as I have this 
day taught the bench of bishops religion.' 
He was accordingly represented in caricature 
as a schoolmaster, with a rod in his hand. 
His speeches abounded in pithy expressions 
and in illustrative anecdote, although his 
gesture was ungraceful. 

Up to this date Stanhope had remained on 
friendly terms with William Pitt, but diffe- 
rences over the French revolution led to their 
permanent estrangement (STANHOPE, Pitt, 
ii. 180-1). He was chairman of the ' Revo- 
lution Society,' which was founded in 1788 
to commemorate the centenary of the English 
revolution of 1688, and he forwarded to Paris 
the address of congratulation on the capture 
of the Bastille, which had been moved at 
its meeting on 4 Nov. 1789 by Dr. Price. 
To Rochefoucault he sent the resolution of 
congratulation on the establishment of liberty 
in France, which was proposed by Sheridan 
at a meeting held at the Crown and Anchor 
tavern in the Strand on 14 July 1790. It 
was read in the assembly on 21 July, and cir- 
culated in French. Letters sent by him to 
Condorcet were printed at Paris in 1791 and 
1792, the first set arguing against the issue ot 
false assignats, and the second relating to 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



the treatment of negroes. He published in 
1790 ' A Letter to Burke, containing a Short 
Answer to his Late Speech on the French 
Revolution,' which went into a second edi- 
tion and was translated into French in that 
year. Mrs. Macaulay addressed to Stan- 
hope her ' Observations on the Reflections of 
Mr. Burke on the Revolution in France.' 

Stanhope, during 1791 and 1792, sup- 
ported Fox's libel bill for maintaining the 
rights of juries, and published his arguments 
with a catena of legal authorities in their 
support. By letter to Lord Grenville, with 
whom he was still on friendly terms, and by 
speeches in parliament, he consistently op- 
posed the war with France. On 23 Jan. 
1794 he moved to acknowledge the French 
republic, and on 4 April 1794 he brought for- 
ward a motion ' against any interference in 
the internal government of France,' which 
provoked his fellow-peers, at Lord Grenville's 
instance, to order the entry of it to be ex- 
punged from their journals. Both of these 
speeches were printed separately. Next 
month he opposed the Habeas Corpus Sus- 
pension Bill, and on 6 Jan. 1795 he intro- 
duced a second motion against interfering 
with the internal affairs of France. On this 
occasion he was ' in a minority of one,' and 
after entering a protest against the defeat of 
his motion, which he subsequently pub- 
lished, he withdrew from further attendance 
in parliament. A medal was struck in his 
honour with the motto ' The minority of one, 
1795,' and he was long known by that title 
or as ' Citizen ' Stanhope. From 1791 to 
1808 he was a frequent figure in the cari- 
catures of Gillray. One satiric print was 
entitled ' Scientific Researches, New Disco- 
veries in Pneumatics.' When he declared 
himself a sans-culotte, a ballad, with a rough 
caricature of him by another satirist, was 
scattered broadcast. 

Owing to his revolutionary sympathies, 
Stanhope's house in Mansfield Street was 
attacked by rioters and set on fire at different 
times on the night of 11-12 June 1794. He 
believed, and declared in an advertisement, 
that the mob had been paid. The Rev. 
Jeremiah Joyce [q. v.], his private secretary 
and the tutor to his sons, was on 4 May 1794 
arrested at Chevening on a charge of ' trea- 
sonable practices.' To celebrate his acquittal 
Stanhope on 23 Dec. 1794 gave a grand en- 
tertainment at Chevening to his neighbours 
and tenants ( Gent. Mag. 1795, i. 73). At a 
very large meeting at the Crown and Anchor 
tavern on 4 Feb. 1795, in honour of the 
acquittal, he was called to the chair and 
delivered an animated speech, which, when 
published, enjoyed great popularity. In this 






year of 1795 Walter Savage Landor printed 
anonymously ' A Moral Epistle to Earl 
Stanhope,' a poem of twenty pages, which 
contrasted him with Pitt, much to the 
commoner's disadvantage (FOSTER, Landor, 
i. 68-71). 

Stanhope's secession from the House of 
Lords lasted from 6 Jan. 1795 to 20 Feb. 
1800. In the beginning of 1 799 he addressed 
to the people of Great Britain and Ireland a 
pamphlet ' On the Subject of an Union,' 
which was reprinted and circulated by the 
anti-union party of Dublin. His first motion 
on reappearing among the peers was to pro- 
pose a peace with Napoleon ; but he acted 
without concert, and only one peer, Lord 
Camelford, supported him. In 1808 he took 
a very strong part against the Indictment 
Bill, as interfering with the liberty of the 
subject, and at all times spoke strongly 
against the slave trade. He advocated a 
reduction of fiscal duties as tending to an in- 
crease in the revenue, and was earnest for 
education on a comprehensive basis. On 
27 June 1811 he introduced a ' gold coin and 
bank-note ' bill, making it illegal to pay a 
larger sum than 21s. for a guinea, and for 
preventing any note issued by the Bank of 
England from being accepted at a discount. 
It passed through both houses. In the last 
year of his life he carried through the lords 
two motions for the appointment of com- 
mittees one for a revision of the statute- 
book, and the other for the adoption of a 
uniform system of weights and measures. 

Throughout his life Stanhope deservedly 
enjoyed a great reputation for his discoveries 
in science, to the prosecution of which he 
devoted much time and money. He was 
elected F.R.S. on 19 Nov. 1772, but through 
absence from England was not admitted 
until 12 Jan. 1775 (Records of Royal Soc.), 
and he was a member of the Philadelphia 
Philosophical Society. It is believed that 
Richard Varley, father of John Varley 
[q. v.] the artist, was his tutor in mechanics. 
His principal experiments related to the 
safeguarding of buildings against fire by 
means of ' stucco,' in which he endeavoured 
to bring to perfection the plans of David 
Hartley the younger [q. v.] He took out 
patents for steam- vessels in March and August 
1790, and in February 1807. It was an- 
nounced in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 
1792 (ii. 956) that his experiments for pro- 
pelling vessels by the steam-engine without 
masts or sails had been so satisfactory that 
a ship of two hundred tons was being built 
under his direction on this principle. His 
inventions received the approval of the lords 
of the admiralty in 1795 and 1796. An 



Stanhope 

' ambi-navigator ' ship called the Kent was 
constructed for him, but did not turn out a 
success (STANHOPE, Pitt, 11. 397-401). In 
1795 the earl revived the project of Genevois, 
the pastor of Berne, for impelling boats 
with duck-feet oars, but the highest rate of 
speed attained was three miles an hour (cf. 
WHITAKER, Course of Hannibal,I79,ii. 142 ; 
MATHIAS, Shade of Pope, 1799). Stanhope 
declared in the House of Lords on 21 May 
1810 that he had invented ' a vessel 111 feet 
in length which drew only seven feet odd 
inches of water, and outsailed the swiftest 
vessel in the navy.' His specification ' re- 
specting ships and vessels' was printed in 
1807. 

Many printing appliances devised by him- 
self he placed at the public disposal, without 
any advantage to himself, and made solid 
contributions to the art of printing. His 
chief assistant in this department of me- 
chanics was Robert Walker, an ingenious 
mechanician of Vine Street, Piccadilly, and 
Dean Street, Soho. He perfected a process 
of stereotyping which was acquired by the 
delegates of the Clarendon Press at Oxford 
in 1805 on the condition that they paid 
4,000 to the foreman and manager of his 
press, Andrew Wilson, of Wild Court, and 
stereotyping on this system became part of 
the general business of the press. They 
also acquired, but free from any payment, 
his iron hand-press, called the Stanhope press, 
and his system of logotypes and logotype 
cases. This system a few years later was 
introduced into the Oxford press; but his 
logotypes, like those of John Walter [q. v.] of 
the ' Times,' proved a failure. The first book 
printed by his process was ' An Abstract of 
the whole Doctrine of the Christian Religion. 
By J. A. Freylinghausen,' 1804. Long 
after these dates he persevered with his ex- 
periments, either at Wilson's office or at 
Chevening, where he kept a foundry of his 
own. Another invention he called ' panta- 
type printing, by which one hundred thou- 
sand impressions of an engraving could be 
taken, all proofs ; that is to say, the last 
impression will be as perfect as the first ' 
(Collectanea, Oxford Hist. Soc. 1896, iii. 
365-412; HANSARD, Typogmphia, p. 475; 
H. G. Bohn on Printing, Philobiblon Soc. 
iv. 90). 

Stanhope published in 1806 his ' Principles 
of the Science of Tuning Instruments with 
Fixed Tones,' which was reprinted in Til- 
loch's ' Philosophical Magazine ' (xxv. 291- 
312). The invention formed the subject of 
numerous articles by John Farey and Stan- 
hope in that magazine, and of Dr. Callcott's 
'Plain Statement of Earl Stanhope's Tem- 



Stanhope 

perament.' In 1779 he produced his ' Prin- 
ciples of Electricity,' but a second volume 
which he promised, in refutation of the con- 
clusions drawn from the experiments of Ben- 
jamin Wilson, was not published. In the first 
volume and in the 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions '(Ixxvii. 130) he contended that when a 
large cloud is charged with electricity it drives 
out a considerable portion of the electricity 
in its neighbourhood, which often returns 
to its original position with such violence 
and in such quantity as to destroy life. In 
this way he explained the death of a carrier 
and his horses at Berwickshire in 1787, 
though there was no discharge of thunder 
nearer than some miles distance (THOMSON, 
Royal Soc. pp. 449-50). A public trial of 
Franklin's and Stanhope's experiments in 
lighting-conductors is said to have taken 
place at the Pantheon under the superinten- 
dence of Edward Xairne the electrician. 

About 1777 Stanhope constructed two 
calculating machines (1) for working out 
with exactness complicated sums of addi- 
tion and subtraction ; (2) for similar sums 
in multiplication and division. ' The Stan- 
hope Demonstrator, an Instrument for per- 
forming Logical Operations,' employed his 
thoughts at intervals for thirty years. It 
has been fully described by the Rev. Robert 
Harley, F.R.S., in an article in ' Mind ' (iv. 
192-210), which was reprinted separately for 
private circulation. 

Stanhope's other inventions include a mi- 
croscopic lens which, like the printing-press, 
bears his name ; a new manner of producing 
cement more durable than the ordinary mor- 
tar ; an improved method of ' burning chalk, 
marble, and limestone into lime ; ' an artificial 
slate or tile for excluding rain and snow ; and 
a means of curing wounds made in trees. In 
conjunction with Robert Fulton, the Ameri- 
can engineer, he projected a canal from his 
estate at Holsworthy in Devonshire to the 
Bristol Channel, with a novel system of in- 
clined planes and with improved locks. 

Stanhope's life was thus one of unremit- 
ting toil. He died of dropsy at Cheven- 
ing, on lo Dec. 1816, and was buried with 
marked simplicity in the family vault at that 
church on 24 Dec. In person he was tall 
and thin, with a high forehead and a coun- 
tenance expressive of impetuosity. He was 
always very plain in his attire, and of late 
years his looks were pale and wan. A 
powerful voice and a vigorous gesticulation 
heightened the effect of his oratory. His 
sympathies were wide, his generosity was 
unbounded, and his views were much in ad- 
vance of their time. In all that he did, 
whether it was in politics or in science, he 



Stanhope 

worked for the public good. The defects of 
his character were an incapacity to work 
with others and a lack of sympathy towards 
his children, all of Avhom he disinherited 
after subjecting them to much ill-treatment. 
But Stanhope's mother left everything to her 
' dearly beloved son, Charles, Earl Stanhope, 
from my approbation of his private and public 
conduct ' (Gent. Mag. 1812, i. 673). By his 
will, made in 1805, Stanhope left all his 
disposable estate, after payment of a few 
legacies, among ten executors, of whom the 
best known were Lord Holland, Lord Grant- 
ley, Joseph Jekyll, George Dyer, and the 
Rev. Christopher Wyvill. 

Stanhope married as his second wife, on 

12 March 1781, Louisa, only daughter and 
sole heiress of the Hon. Henry Grenville, 
younger brother of Earl Temple and George 
Grenville. She died at Clarges Street, Picca- 
dilly, on 7 March 1829, aged 70. By his first 
wife he had three daughters : (1) Hester 
Lucy Stanhope [q. v.] ; (2) Griselda, who 
married at Marylebone church, on 29 Aug. 
1800, John Tekell, of Hambledon, Hamp- 
shire ; she died without issue, at Bagshot, on 

13 Oct. 1851, aged 73 (Gent. Mag. 1851, ii. 
667) ; and (3) Lucy Rachael, who eloped 
early in 1796 with Thomas Taylor of Seven- 
oaks, the family apothecary. Stanhope's re- 
sentment at this marriage exposed him to 
one of Gillray's most pungent satires, ' Demo- 
cratic Levelling : Alliance a la Francaise ; or 
the Union of the Coronet and Clyster-pipe,' 
4 March 1796. Pitt requested Taylor to 
abandon his business, and made him con- 
troller-general of the customs. Lord Chat- 
ham made Taylor's eldest son, William Stan- 
hope Taylor, one of his executors, and he 
edited with Pringle the volumes of the ' Chat- 
ham Correspondence.' Lady Lucy Taylor 
died at Coldharbour, Surrey, on 1 March 
1814, when a pension of 100/. per annum was 
granted to each of her three sons and four 
daughters. 

By his second wife Stanhope left three 
sons. Philip Henry, the eldest son, suc- 
ceeded to the peerage [see under STANHOPE, 
PHILIP HENRY, fifth EARL], Charles Banks 
(1785-1809), the second son, was killed at 
Cor una. James Hamilton (1788-1825), the 
third son, was captain and lieutenant-colonel 
of the 1st foot-guards. 

A three-quarter length portrait of Stan- 
hope by Gainsborough, left unfinished 
through the death of the artist, is preserved 
at Chevening. The first adequate repro- 
duction is in the third volume of the 'Collec- 
tanea ' of the Oxford Historical Society. A 
portrait of Stanhope by Opie, bequeathed to 
Lord Holland, is in the journal-room atHol- 



; Stanhope 

land House (ROGERS, Opie and his Works, 
p. 165). A profile, drawn from the life 
and engraved by Henry Richter, was pub- 
lished on 4 June 1798. Another likeness, 
drawn and engraved by C. Warren, appeared 
in the 'Senator' in 1792. A number of 
private papers, referring chiefly to his inven- 
tions, are preserved at Chevening. 

[Parliamentary History, 1780 to 1816, passim; 
Stanhope's William Pitt, passim ; Philos. Trans. 
1778, pp. 884-94, reproduced in Annual Regi- 
ster for 1779; Story's John Varley, pp. 200-2 ; 
Wright and Evans's Gillray Caricatures, passim ; 
Works of Gillray, ed. Wright (really by Grego), 
passim, from p. 130 to p. 355; Collectanea, 
vol. iii. (Oxford Hist. Soc.), pp. 365-412; 
Nichols's Illustrations of Literature, iii. 154 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 569; Woodcroft's 
Chronological List of Patents ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. viii. 135, 2nd ser. ii. 50-1, iv. 
265; Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iv. 178-9; 
Gent. Mag. 1774 p. 598, 1780 p. 348, 1800 ii. 
900, 1811 ii. 661, 1814 i. 412. 1816 ii. 563-4, 
625, 1829 i. 283; Chatham Corresp. iv. 55, 373, 
402, 440; Wraxall, ed. Wheatley, ii. 341, iii. 96, 
295, 298, 401-2, v. 334; Annual Biogr. and 
Obituary, 1817, pp. 183-226; S. Fletcher's The 
late Earl Stanhope's Opinions, 1819.] 

W. P. C. 

STANHOPE, CHARLES, third EARL 
OF HARRINGTON (1753-1829), soldier, born 
on 20 March 1753, was the eldest son of 
William Stanhope, second earl of Harring- 
ton, and grandson of William Stanhope, first 
earl of Harrington [q. v.] He entered the 
army as an ensign in the Coldstream guards 
in November 1769, and in August 1773 ob- 
tained a captaincy in the 29th foot. From 
1774 to 1776 he was M.P. for Thetford, and 
in the succeeding parliament sat for West- 
minster till his father's death in 1779. Mean- 
while, he had exchanged his light company 
in the 29th for the grenadier company,his pro- 
motion being obtained, says Walpole, through 
the partiality of the war secretary, William 
AVildman Barrington, second viscount Bar- 
rington (Journal of lieign of George III, ii. 
16). In February 1776 he embarked with 
the regiment for Quebec, and landed in face 
of an American cannonade. He was present 
at the subsequent successful action in the 
plains of Abraham. During the remainder 
of the year he was engaged in operations on 
the St. Lawrence, under Sir Guy Carleton, 
afterwards first lord Dorchester [q. v.] In 
the following year he accompanied General 
John Burgoyne [q. v.] as aide-de-camp on 
the disastrous campaign which ended with 
Saratoga. He was recommended by his 
commander to Lord George Germain [q. v.], 
secretary at war, as deserving of promotion 
on account of his excellent qualities and ser- 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



vices during the campaign. On 24 Dec. 1777 
he reached England with despatches an- 
nouncing the surrender at Saratoga, the news 
of which had already arrived. In the follow- 
ing month, owing to Burgoyne's recommen- 
dation, he 'was suffered to buy' a higher 
commission, and obtained a captaincy in the 
3rd foot-guards (id. 17 Jan. 1778). In April 
1779 he succeeded to the peerage. On 1 June 
of that year Harrington was examined be- 
fore the select committee appointed to inquire 
into the management of Burgoyne's last cam- 
paign. He testified to that general's efforts 
to restrain the excesses of his Indian allies, 
and gave his opinion that a retreat after the 
action at Saratoga was impracticable. Wai- 
pole thought that Harrington ' did himself 
and Burgoyne honour ' (to Conway, 5 June 
1779). Having raised an infantry regiment 
(the 85th) at his own expense, he in 1780 
embarked for Jamaica at the head of it, with 
the rank of brigadier. He assisted the go- 
vernor (John Balling) to put the island into 
an efficient state of defence in view of an 
expected attack by the French, but within 
about a year had to return home with his 
wife on account of bad health. The 85th 
suffered so much from the climate that the 
remnant left by the ravages of disease had to 
be embarked on some of Rodney's prizes 
and sent home. 

On '26 Nov. 1782 Harrington was gazetted 
colonel and aide-de-camp to the king, and 
in the following March received the colonelcy 
of the 65th foot. With that regiment he first 
tried the new tactics introduced by Sir David 
Dundas (1735-1820) [q. v.] On 29 Jan. 
1788 he received the command of his old 
regiment, the 29th. For the next three years 
he was in garrison with it at Windsor, and 
was brought much into contact with the 
royal family. In March 1788 he was offered 
the post of British resident at the court of 
Russia, but declined, apparently because, 
owing to the inferior rank of the tsarina's 
minister at St. James's, he could not bear 
the full title of ambassador (see Corresp. 
with Lord Carmarthen, Add. MS. 28063). 

On 5 Dec. 1792 Harrington was appointed 
colonel of the 1st life-guards and gold stick 
in waiting. The latter appointment pre- 
cluded him from serving (as he desired) with 
the Duke of York in Holland. He attained 
the rank of major-general in October 1793, 
lieutenant-general in January 1798, andgene- 
ral on 25 Sept. 1802 ; and was sworn of the 
privy council on 24 Oct. 1798. From July 
1803 to October 1805 he acted as second in 
command on the staff" of the London dis- 
trict, and on 31 Oct. of the latter year was 
appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland. 



The latter appointment he held till January 
1812. Meanwhile he had been appointed 
to undertake special diplomatic missions to 
Vienna in November 1805, and to Berlin in. 
the following January. 

On his return from Ireland he received 
the retiring appointment of constable and 
governor of Windsor Castle (14 March 1812), 
and in 1816 the grand cross of the Hanove- 
rian order. At the coronation of George IV 
he was bearer of the great standard of Eng- 
land. Harrington was personally popular 
w r ith both that king and his father ; and his 
wife was a lady of the bedchamber and prime 
favourite of Queen Charlotte. Harrington 
died at Brighton on 15 Sept. 1829. Although 
he saw little service except in his earlier 
years, his military knowledge was accounted 
equal to that of any of his contemporaries. 
The new sword adopted by the army in 1792 
was introduced by him. 

Harrington married, in May 1779, Jane 
Seymour, daughter and coheiress of Sir John 
Fleming, bart., of Brompton Park, Middle- 
sex. She was buried in Westminster Abbey 
on 12 Feb. 1824. Six sons and two daugh- 
ters were issue of the marriage. The eldest- 
son, Charles (see below), and the third son, 
Leicester Fitzgerald Charles Stanhope [q.v.], 
each succeeded to the earldom of Harring- 
ton. The second son, Major-general Lincoln 
Edwin Robert Stanhope, C.B., died in 1840. 
The fourth son, Fitzroy Henry Richard (1787- 
1864), was originally in the army, but after- 
wards took holv orders, and was father of 
Charles Wyndtiam (1809-1881), seventh 
earl of Harrington. Of the daughters, Anna 
Maria married the Marquis of Tavistock 
(afterwards Duke of Bedford); and Charlotte 
Augusta the Duke of Leinster. 

A portrait of Harrington was painted by 
Fayram and engraved by Faber ; another 
was engraved by Rawle. A portrait of the 
countess with her children was engraved by 
Bartolozzi from a painting by Sir J. Reynolds. 
Another portrait of her was painted by 
Reynolds and engraved by Val. Green ; and 
one was also engraved by Cooper. 

CHARLES STANHOPE, fourth EARL OF HAR- 
RINGTOX (1780-1851), eldest son of the third 
earl, was born at Harrington House, St. 
James's, on 8 April 1780. He obtained an 
ensigncy in the Coldstream guards in De- 
cember 1795, and in November 1799 became 
captain in the Prince of Wales's light dra- 
goons. In February 1803 he was gazetted 
major in the queen's rangers, and on 25 June 
1807 lieutenant-colonel of the 3rd West India 
regiment. He was placed on half-pay in 
August 1812, and on 4 June 1814 attained 
the rank of colonel in the armv. In March 



Stanhope 



1812 lie was named a lord of the bedchamber? 
and again held that appointment from Janu- 
ary 1820 till November 1829. As Lord 
Petersham he was one of the best known 
figures in society during the regency and 
reign of George IV., and figures frequently in 
contemporary prints. His habits and tastes 
were eccentric. He never went out till 6 P.M., 
and his whole equipage was invariably of a 
certain brownish hue. He designed the 
Petersham overcoat and the Petersham snuff- 
mixture, and mixed his own blacking. In 
common with his family, he was a great con- 
noisseur in tea, and his room was described 
by Captain Gronow as like a shop, full of tea- 
canisters and boxes of snuff' labelled in gilt. 
He had a large and valuable collection of 
snuff-boxes. His hats were also peculiar 
(MELTOST, Hints on Hats, p. 39). In person 
he was tall and handsome, and dressed like 
Henri Quatre, whom he was supposed to 
resemble. In spite of his affectations he 
was personally popular. Moore met him at 
dinner at Horace Twiss's chambers in Chan- 
cery Lane in June 1819 (Diary andCorresp. 
ii. 320). 

Petersham was a great patron of the stage, 
and, after his accession to the peerage as Lord 
Harrington in 1829, married Maria Foote 
[q. v.], the actress, who survived him. Their 
only child, a daughter, married George, second 
marquis Conyngham. Harrington died on 
3 March 1851. He was succeeded in the 
title by his brother, Leicester Fitzgerald 
Charles Stanhope. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Peerages of 
G. E. C. and Burke ; State of the Expedition 
from Canada, 1780, 2nd edit. pp. 64-81, and 
App. ; Gent. Mag. 1829, ii. 365-8; Public 
Characters, 1828, ii. 306 ; Stanhope's Hist, of 
England, vi. 260 n., 286, 313 ; Evans's Cat. 
Engr. Portraits ; Moore's Diary and Corresp. i. 
110, 113, 186, ii. 32, iv. 55, viii. 62,63. For the 
fourth Lord Harrington , see also Captain Gronow's 
Keminiscences, 1892, i. 284-6, where he figures 
in several of the coloured plates. In Ashton's 
Social England under the Eegency (vol. ii.) are 
reproduced a portrait published in January 1812 
by H. Humphrey, and a caricature of Petersham 
in the Cossack trousers in vogue in 1815. A draw- 
ing of Petersham as ' a noble aide-de-camp,' 
given in Timbs's English Eccentrics, probably 
represents his father.] G. LB G. N. 

STANHOPE, SIB EDWARD (1546 P- 
1608), chancellor of the diocese of London, 
born at Hull about 1546, was the fourth son 
of Sir Michael Stanhope [q. v.], by Anne, 
daiighter of Nicholas Rawson of Aveley, 
Essex. John Stanhope, first baron Stan- 
hope [q. v.], was his elder brother. 

An elder brother, also named Edward, re- 



Stanhope 

presented in parliament Nottinghamshire and 
Yorkshire successively, was a surveyor of the 
duchy of Lancaster, treasurer of Gray's Inn, 
recorder of Doncaster, and a member of the 
council of the north. He died in 1603, and 
was buried at Kirby Wharffe. Yorkshire. 

Sir Edward the younger was scholar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1560 to 
1563, minor fellow in 1564, and major fellow 
in 1569. He graduated B.A. in 1563, M.A. 
in 1566, and LL.D. in 1575. He was incor- 
porated M.A. at Oxford in September 1566, 
' when Queen Elizabeth was entertained by 
the Oxonian Muses ' (WooD, fasti Oxon. i. 
174). On 1 Sept. 1578 he supplicated to 
be incorporated D.C.L., but, though it was 
granted simpliciter, ' it appears not that he 
was incorporated ' (ib. p. 211). On 25 Nov. 
1572 he was appointedtothe prebend of Bote- 
vant in York Cathedral. He was admitted as 
advocate at Doctors' Commons in 1576, and 
on 7 June 1577 was sworn as a master in 
chancery. About 1583 he was named vicar- 
general of the province of Canterbury, and, 
having meanwhile (Nov. 1584-Sept. 1585 
and Oct. 1586-March 1587) served in parlia- 
ment as member for Marlborough, was ap- 
pointed a member of the ecclesiastical com- 
mission in 1587. Two years later he obtained, 
through the influence of Lord Burghley, to 
whose second wife he was related, the place of 
commissioner of the fines office. In 1589 he 
was also presented to the rectory of Terring- 
ton in Norfolk by his nephew William Cooper. 
In 1591 he resigned his stall at York on his 
appointment as canon and chancellor of St. 
Paul's Cathedral. Stanhope's name appears 
in the commission of March 1593 ' touching 
Jesuits and other disguised persons,' and also 
in that of oyer and terminer for London in 
February 1594. In the same year he was 
also a member of Whitgift's commission for 
the survey of ecclesiastical courts in the Lon- 
don diocese ; and in April 1601 was a com- 
missioner in the inquiry concerning piracies. 
Together with his brother Michael he re- 
ceived a grant from the crown in June 1600 
of the manor of Hucknall Torkard, Notting- 
hamshire, and was knighted at Whitehall 
on 25 July 1603. In that year Stanhope 
served on the commission under which 
Raleigh and his associates were tried for 
high treason, and was appointed one of the 
four learned civilians who were to examine 
and adjudicate upon all books printed in the 
realm without authority. 

Stanhope died on 16 March 1607-8, and 
was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral ' near to 
the great north door.' His epitaph on the 
monument on the eastern wall, printed in 
Monumenta Sepulchraria Sancti Pauli,' 



Stanhope 

1614, by H. H[olland], was drawn up by 
William Camden [q. v.] During his life- 
time he had given 100/. for the construc- 
tion and fitting up of a library at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, to which he bequeathed 
700/. to buy lands for the maintenance of a 
library-keeper and his man. He also left to 
the college fifteen manuscripts and over three 
hundred books, among which was his poly- 
glot bible, known as King Philip's bible. A 
small benefaction was set apart for the pro- 
vision of a large vellum book ' wherein 
should be fairly written and limned the 
names, titles, arms, and dignities of all the 
founders of the college,' and of the bene- 
factors and masters, with a list of prefer- 
ments. Benefactions were also left by Stan- 
hope to the town of Hull and the poor of 
Kentish Town and Terrington, as well as 
200/. towards the foundation of Whitgift's 
college at Croydon. Having no children, he 
entailed his estates in the Isle of Axholme 
and at Caldecott on his nephews. 

Stanhope wrote the earlier portion of 
' Memoriale Collegio [sic] Sanctae et Indi- 
viduseTrinitatis in Academia Cantabrigiensi,' 
a manuscript inscribed with his name and 
left to Trinity College. It was continued, in 
accordance with his wishes, up to 1700, and 
was known as the Lodge Book from being 
kept in the master's lodge. Several of his 
letters were in the collections of Dawson 
Turner and Richard Almack. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 470-3, "where is 
an exhaustive list of authorities.] G. LE G. N. 

STANHOPE, EDWARD (1840-1893), 
politician, was second son of Philip Henry, 
fifth earl Stanhope [q. v.], the historian, by 
Emily Harriet, second daughter of Sir Ed- 
ward Kerrison, bart. He was born at his 
father's house inGrosvenor Place, London, on 
24 Sept. 1840. After some tuition at a pri- 
vate school at Brighton, he entered Harrow, 
under the headmastership of Dr. Yaughan, 
in September 1852. At Harrow he won 
the Neeld medal for mathematics in 1859. 
Though of slight physique, he more than 
held his own in athletic sports and games. 
Stanhope was a member of the celebrated 
cricket eleven of 1859, when Harrow de- 
feated Eton in one innings, and by his close 
and masterly defence in no small degree con- 
tributed to that result. He was a first-rate 
football player, fast, adroit, and indomitably 
plucky. He shot extremely well, and was 
fond of fishing. Stanhope left Harrow at mid- 
summer 1859, and went up to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in the following October. Pur- 
suing his natural bent towards mathe- 
matics, he obtained a first class in mathema- 



S 



Stanhope 



tical moderations in Michaelmas term 1861. 
Being destined for the bar, he went in for a 
pass in classics in Easter term 1862, and 
the examiners paid him the compliment 
of an ' honorary fourth.' In the following 
November he was elected to a fellowship at 
All Souls'. Thereupon he began his legal 
studies in London, and was called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple on 1 May 1865. He 
joined the home circuit, but his practice was 
mainly at the parliamentary bar, where his 
clear elocution and power of lucid statement 
soon secured him a good position. In 1868 
he was appointed an assistant commissioner 
to inquire into the employment of children, 
! young persons, and women in agriculture. 
In the following year he published an ex- 
haustive report. Some of his strictures on 
i the conditions of cottage life in Dorset gave 
j offence to the landed proprietors ; but it 
would seem that he was right. 

James Banks Stanhope, who, as represen- 
tative of Sir Joseph Banks [q. v.], had in- 
herited Revesby Abbey, Boston, and its 
estate, was first cousin to Edward Stanhope's 
father, and, attracted by the character and 
career of his young kinsman, he made him 
heir to his property in Lincolnshire, and 
brought him forward as one of the conser- 
vative candidates for Mid-Lincolnshire at 
the general election of 1874. Stanhope was 
returned unopposed, and again at the gene- 
ral election of 1880. After the redistribu- 
tion of seats, consequent on the extension of 
the suffrage to the agricultural labourers, he 
was returned for the Horncastle division of 
Lincolnshire at the general election of 1885 
by a majority of 865 over a liberal candi- 
date ; at the general election of 1886 he was 
returned unopposed, and at the general elec- 
tion of 1892 he beat his liberal opponent by 
738. 

At the opening of the session of 1875 
Stanhope was chosen by Mr. Disraeli to 
move the address to the throne ; and he did 
so in a speech of such sustained and stately 
rhetoric that Lord Randolph Churchill (then 
also a new member) likened it to ' a recita- 
tion from Gibbon.' He at once gained the 
ear of the house and the approbation of his 
leaders, and on 18 Xov. 1875 he entered the 
official hierarchy as parliamentary secretary 
to the board of trade. His office had at the 
moment a special importance. In the pre- 
ceding July Mr. Plimsoll, M.P. for Derby, 
had, by some vehement demonstrations in 
the House of Commons, compelled public 
attention to the scandal and dangers con- 
nected with our merchant shipping. So 
much popular excitement was aroused that 
the government thought it expedient to pass 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



the Merchant Shipping Act in 1875. It was 
merely temporary, and was to expire on 
1 Oct. 1876. Stanhope, on his appointment 
to the board of trade, exerted himself to re- 
deem the pledge made by the government to 
deal more thoroughly with the subject in a 
subsequent session, and the act of 1876, 
which was brought in at the beginning of 
that year, was drafted to a very considerable 
extent under Stanhope's direction and control. 
He made an important speech on the second 
reading of the bill (17 Feb. 1876), and took 
great interest in its further progress through 
the house, and in its subsequent administra- 
tion by the board of trade. 

On 6 April 1878 Stanhope was promoted to 
the more important post of under-secret ary of 
state for India, which he held till the down- 
fall of Lord Beaconsfield's administration at 
Easter 1880. At the llndia office he ac- 
quired the reputation of a strong and con- 
scientious administrator. He was specially 
interested in questions of finance and com- 
plicated matters of exchange. He twice in- 
troduced the Indian budget into the House 
of Commons. On the first occasion, 13 Aug. 
1878, he dealt with the new policy of a 
' Famine Insurance Fund,' the abolition of 
the inland customs line, the equalisation of 
the salt duties, the abolition of the transit 
duties on sugar, and the amendment of the 
customs tariff. On the second occasion, 
22 May 1879, he dealt chiefly with the 
measures taken to meet the large charges 
incurred in the Afghan war, and the loss by 
exchange ; and he announced a determined 
effort to reduce Indian expenditure, in part 
by the employment of a larger number of 
natives in the civil service. On 9 Dec. 1878 
he ably defended the policy of the Afghan 
war in the debate in the House of Commons 
on a vote of censure moved by Mr. Whit- 
bread. 

On Mr. Gladstone's accession to office at 
Easter 1880, Stanhope became a leader of 
the opposition, allying himself with the 
decorous tactics of Sir Stafford Northcote 
rather than with the guerilla warfare waged 
by Lord Randolph Churchill and the 'Fourth 
Party.' When Lord Salisbury became prime 
minister, for the first time, in the summer of 
1885, Stanhope was appointed (24 June) 
vice-president of the committee of council on 
education, with a seat in the cabinet. This 
was the first instance in which a vice-presi- 
dent had been admitted to the cabinet at the 
time of his appointment. On the 19th of 
the following August he was appointed pre- 
sident of the board of trade, but resigned 
the office when Lord Salisbury made way 
for Mr. Gladstone's home-rule government 



(3 Feb. 1886). In July 1886, after Mr. 
Gladstone's defeat at the general election, 
Lord Salisbury became prime minister for 
the second time, and he appointed Stanhope 
secretary of state for the colonies. He re- 
ceived the seals of office at Osborne on 
3 Aug. 1886. At the colonial office he was 
thoroughly in his element. He was imbued 
with a zeal for the idea of imperial federa- 
tion, and issued the invitations for the colo- 
nial conference, which was held with success 
in 1888. In the readjustment of offices con- 
sequent on Lord Randolph Churchill's sudden 
resignation at Christmas 1886, Stanhope was 
called, much against his wish, to succeed 
William Henry Smith [q. v.] at the war 
office. He received the seals of his new 
office in January 1887. 

Under Stanhope's auspices the modern 
army system, inaugurated by Lord Cardwell, 
was completed. Specific spheres of action 
were allotted to all regular and auxiliary 
troops on the outbreak of war, and the volun- 
teers for the first time took a definite place 
in the scheme of national defence. The pro- 
cess of decentralising the stores formerly 
concentrated at Woolwich and distributing 
them to the various points of mobilisation 
was set on foot. Sites were chosen for a 
line of earthworks for the defence of London 
in case of invasion, and negotiations for their 
purchase were begun. In order to supply 
modern guns for service by sea and land, 
Stanhope called the private trade of the 
country to his aid by the promise of con- 
tinuity of demand, encouraged great firms 
like Armstrong & Whitworth to lay down 
the necessary plant and tender for orders, 
and thus created a valuable additional source 
of warlike supply. Early in 1887 Stanhope 
also reorganised the manufacturing depart- 
ments, and the system under which warlike 
stores were passed into the service. He 
abolished the office of surveyor-general of 
ordnance; transferred the great departments 
of ordnance, works, and supply to the staff 
of the commander-in-chief, and placed the 
establishment of the ordnance factories under 
a single civilian head. In connection with 
these changes, the services of supply and 
transport were reorganised, and the army 
service corps established. 

In 1888 Stanhope, turning from depart- 
mental reorganisation, introduced and passed 
the Imperial Defence Act. The loan of two 
and a half millions obtained under this act, 
together with more than a million borne on the 
annual estimates, was devoted to strengthen- 
ing the defences of the coaling stations com- 
manding the great sea routes, to improving 
armaments of military ports at home and 



Stanhope 



10 



Stanhope 



abroad, and to constructing barracks at 
ports and coaling stations for the increased 
garrisons, the size of which was now for the 
first time determined by strategical principles. 
In 1889, after a committee of the House 
of Commons had reported on the subject, 
Stanhope revised the conditions of pro- 
motion and retirement of officers. He pro- 
mulgated a scheme for the reform of the 
feneral officers' list, which secured the re- 
uction of the list by a gradual progress 
from 140 to 100, and the establishment of 
the principle that promotion to general's rank 
should only be by selection, and to fill actu- 
ally vacant appointments allotted to that 
rank. At the same time he instituted a 
special rate of retired pay for those colonels 
whose prospects could be shown to be un- 
fairly injured by the operation of the new 
rules. 

During 1889 Stanhope made endeaA^ours to 
improve the material conditions of the soldier's 
life. In 1890 he obtained from parliament 
a loan of over four millions, with which the 
camps at Aldershot, Shorncliffe, Strensall, 
and the Curragh were almost entirely rebuilt, 
while the barracks at Portsmouth, Plymouth, j 
Dublin, Malta, and other large garrisons were 
improved and renewed. He also gave much 
attention to the difficult question of the em- j 
ployment of soldiers on return to civil life. 
He succeeded in persuading the great rail- i 
way companies to meet him in conference, 
and obtained from them certain pledges as to 
the employment of reserve and discharged : 
soldiers. Further, a committee appointed 
by him to consider the question of soldiers' 
diet resulted in considerable improvement. 
Stanhope carried forward the work of or- 
ganising and developing our military re- 
sources under conditions of great difficulty. 
He had the ear of the House of Commons, 
butoutsideheobtainedlittle recognition. His 
sagacious reforms were realised and appre- 
ciated only by the few, while his retrench- 
ments made a bitter enemy of every officer 
whose interests were threatened by them. 
His adoption on 22 Dec. 1888, on the advice 
of technical experts, of a magazine rifle, 
though more than justified by experience, 
was long the subject of bitter opposition in 
press and parliament (Hansard, 3rd ser. 
cccxlix. 1631-83). A growing agitation 
against the administration of the war office 
under the new system of 1887 at length led 
to the appointment of a royal commission 
under Lord Hartington's presidency. The 
commissioners reported in 1891 that suffi- 
cient time had not elapsed to j ustify a ver- 
dict on the system instituted in 1887, but 
recommended a reconstruction of the war 



office on the occurrence of a vacancy in the 
office of commander-in-chief. 

In 1891 Stanhope, to allay alarm caused 
by a temporary failure to meet an abnormal 
demand for recruits, appointed Lord Wan- 
tage's committee to inquire into the terms 
and conditions of service in the army. But 
the momentary difficulty passed away, and 
neither Stanhope nor his successor attempted 
to give effect to the far-reaching and expen- 
sive recommendations of the committee. 

Lord Salisbury's second administration 
was overthrown by the general election of 
July 1892, and Stanhope surrendered the 
seals of the war office. His constitution, 
never very robust, had been completely 
broken by the incessant work and worry of 
his post. In the new parliament of 1892 he 
was a regular attendant and a frequent de- 
bater, and he was elected chairman of the 
' church party ' in the House of Commons. 
In this capacity, Stanhope, in the autumn 
session of 1893, threw himself with great 
ardour into the debates on such parts of the 
Parish Councils Bill as affected the powers 
or property of the establishment. He made 
his last speech on 9 Dec. 1893. On the same 
day he left London and went to Chevening 
to pay a visit to his brother, Lord Stanhope. 
There he was seized with a severe attack of 
gout, and, after a partial rally, he died sud- 
denly from paralysis of the heart on 21 Dec. 
He was buried at Revesby. 

Stanhope married, on 18 May 1870, Lucy 
Constance, youngest daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Egerton, and niece of the first Lord 
Egertou of Tatton. 

[Private information.] G. W. E. R. 

STANHOPE, GEORGE (1660-1728), 
dean of Canterbury, was son of Thomas 
Stanhope (rector of Hertishorn or Hartshorn, 
Derbyshire, vicar of St. Margaret's, Leicester, 
and chaplain to the Earls of Chesterfield and 
Clare), by a lady of good family in Derby- 
shire, named Allestree. His grandfather, 
George Stanhope (d. 1644), was canon and 
precentor of York from 1631, and was rector 
of Wheldrake, Yorkshire, and chaplain to 
James I and Charles I ; he was dispossessed 
during the Commonwealth (AVALKEK, Suffer- 
ings, p. 83). 

George was born on 5 March 1660 at 
Hartshorn, and was successively educated 
at Uppingham school, Leicester, and Eton. 
From Eton he was elected on the foundation 
at King's College, Cambridge, in 1677. Gra- 
duating B.A. in 1681 and M.A. in 1685, he 
entered into holy orders, but remained three 
years longer at Cambridge. In 1688 he was 
appointed rector of Tewin, Hertfordshire 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



(Tewin Register}, and on 3 Aug. 1689 of 
Lewisham, Kent,beingpresented to the latter 
by Lord Dartmouth, to whose son he was 
tutor, both then and apparently for five years 
afterwards (see dedication of CHAKKON'S Wis- 
dom to the young earl). He proceeded D.D. 
in 1697, and about the same time was ap- 
pointed chaplain to William and Mary. In 
1701 he was appointed Boyle lecturer. In 
the year following he was presented to the 
vicarage of Deptford, was reappointed royal 
chaplain by Queen Anne, and on 23 March 
1704 was made dean of Canterbury, still re- 
taining Lewisham and Deptford. At this 
time and until 1708 he also held the Tues- 
day lectureship at St. Lawrence Jewry, a 
post which Tillotson and Sharp had made 
eminent. 

His tenure of the Canterbury deanery 
brought Stanhope into the lower house of 
convocation at a period of bitter conflict 
with the upper house under Atterbury's 
leadership. As a man of peace, in friendship 
with Robert Nelson [q. v.] on one side, and 
with Edward Tenison [q. v.] and Burnet on 
the other (Burnet's son William afterwards 
married Stanhope's daughter Mary), Stan- 
hope was proposed by the moderate party as 
prolocutor in 1705, but was defeated by the 
high churchman, Dr. William Binckes [q. v.] 
After Atterbury's elevation to the see of 
Rochester in 1713 he succeeded him as pro- 
locutor, and was twice afterwards re-elected. 
The most prominent incident of his presi- 
dency was the censure of the Arian doctrine 
of Dr. Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) [q.v.] in 
1714. Early in 1717 the lower house of con- 
vocation also censured a sermon by Bishop 
Benjamin Hoadly [q. v.] which had been 
preached before the king and published by 
royal command. To stop the matter from 
going to the upper house, convocation was 
hastily prorogued (May 1717). It was thence- 
forth formally summoned from time to time, 
only to be instantly prorogued. On the 
occasion of one of these prorogations Stan- 
hope broke up the meeting (14 Feb. 1718) in 
order to prevent Tenison from reading a 
' protestation ' in favour of Hoadly. It was 
probably in consequence of this action that 
he lost the royal chaplaincy which he had 
held in the first year of George I. From this 
date convocation remained in abeyance until 
its revival in the province of Canterbury in 
1852, and in that of York in 1861. 

Stanhope was one of the great preachers of 
his time, and preached before Queen Anne at 
St. Paul's in 1706 and 1710 on two of the great 
services of national thanksgiving for Marl- 
borough's victories. In 1719 he had a friendly 
correspondence with Atterbury, which dealt 



partly with the appointment of Thomas Sher- 
lock [q. v.], afterwards bishop of London, to 
one of his curacies. 

He died at Bath on 18 March 1728, and 
was buried in the church of Lewisham, where 
a monument with a long inscription was 
erected to his memory. In his will he left 
an exhibition of 101. per annum, to be held 
at Cambridge by a scholar of the King's school, 
Canterbury. There are two portraits of him 
in the deanery at Canterbury. 

He married, first. Olivia, d aughter of Charles 
Cotton of Beresford, Staffordshire, and had 
by her a son, who predeceased him, and five 
daughters, of whom Mary married, in 1712, 
William, son of Bishop Burnet, and died two 
years afterwards. After his first wife's death 
in 1707 the dean married, secondly, Ann 
Parker, half-sister of Sir Charles Wager [q.v.]; 
she survived him two years. 

Stanhope's literary works were chiefly 
translations or adaptations. He translated 
Epictetus (1694 ; 2nd ed. 1700, 8vo), Char- 
ron's 'Books on Wisdom ' (1697, 3 vols.), and 
Marcus Aurelius (1697 ; 2nd ed. 1699, 4to). 
He modernised, omitting Romish passages, 
' The Christian Directory ' of Robert Parsons 
[q. v.] the Jesuit (1703, 8vo ; 4th ed. 1716) ; 
dedicated toPrincess Anne a volume of ' Pious 
Meditations' (1701; 2nd ed. 1720, 8vo), 
drawn from St. Augustine, St. Anselm, and 
St. Bernard ; and he translated the Greek 
' Devotions ' of Bishop Lancelot Andrewes 
[q. v.] Hutton, who edited the posthumous 
edition (1730, 8vo) of his translation of An- 
drewes, likened Stanhope's character to that 
of Andrewes. But the style of the transla- 
tion is absolutely unlike the original. In 
place of the barbed point and abruptness of 
the Greek, the English is all smoothed out 
and expanded. Subsequent editions of the 
work appeared in 1808, 1811, 1815, 1818, 
1826, and 1832. Stanhope followed the 
same paraphrastic system in a translation 
of Thomas a. Kempis's 'Imitatio Christi,' 
which appeared in 1698 under the title ' The 
Christian's Pattern, or a Treatise of the Imita- 
tion of Christ,' 2 pts. London, 8vo. A fifth 
edition appeared in 1706, a twelfth in 1733, 
and new editions in 1746, 1751, 1793, 1814, 
and 1865. In 1886 Henry Morley [q. v.j 
edited it for the collection of a hundred books 
chosen by Sir John Lubbock. ' The pithy 
style of the original is lost in flowing sen- 
tences that pleased the reader in Queen 
Anne's reign.' 

Stanhope's principal contribution to di- 
vinity is ' The Paraphrase and Comment on 
the Epistles and Gospels ' (vols. i. and ii. 
1705, vol. iii. 1706, vol. iv. 1708), dedicated 
originally to Queen Anne, and in a new 



Stanhope 



12 



Stanhope 



edition to George I on his accession (1714). 
It was a favourite book in the eighteenth j 
century. Its defect is the neglect of the | 
organic relation of collect, epistle, and gospel ; 
but it contains much that is solid, sensible, 
and practical in clear and easy language, 
quite free from controversial bitterness. In 
the preface Stanhope says that the work was 
planned for the use of the little prince George, 
who died in 1700. 

Besides the works mentioned above Stan- 
hope published : 1. ' Fifteen Sermons,' 1700. 
2. 'The Boyle Lecture,' 1702. 3. 'Twelve 
Sermons,' 1726. Stanhope is credited by 
Todd and Chalmers with the translation of 
Rochefoucauld's ' Maxims,' which appeared 
anonymously in 1706 ; the book seems alien 
to Stanhope's mind. 

[Gent. Mag. 1780, p. 463 ; Todd's Deans of 
Canterbury ; Duncan's Parish Church of St. 
Mary, Le\visham, and Registers of Lewisham.] 

H. L. B. 

STANHOPE, LADY HESTER LUCY 
(1776-1839), eccentric, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Charles, viscount Mahon (afterwards 
third Earl Stanhope) [q. v.], by his first wife, 
Hester (1755-1780), the clever sister of 
"William Pitt and elder daughter of the great 
Earl of Chatham, was born at Chevening, 
Kent, on 12 March 1776. Hester and her 
sisters received a rambling kind of education. 
Their mother was absorbed in her coiffure 
and in the opera, while their father was too 
abstracted to take much notice of his house- 
hold. Hester grew up a beauty of the 
brilliant rather than the handsome order. 
She was early distinguished by invincible 
cheerfulness and force of character, which 
enabled her to exert a complete ascendency 
over her sisters. Her home was not con- 
genial to her, and from 1800 until 1803 she 
lived mainly with her grandmother at Bur- 
ton Pynsent. Her skill in saving her bro- 
thers and sisters from the results of their 
father's experiments first attracted to her 
the attention of her uncle, William Pitt, and 
in August 1803 Pitt asked her to come and 
keep house for him. She soon became his 
most trusted confidant, and when in be- 
wilderment at her dazzling indiscretions the 
minister's friends questioned him as to the 
motives of his niece's conduct, Pitt would 
answer, 'I let her do as she pleases; for 
if she were resolved to cheat the devil she 
could do it,' to which the lady in telling the 
story appended the rider, ' And so I could.' 
She corresponded with Pitt's friends, in- 
cluding Canning and Mulgrave, to whom 
she once retorted a propos of an unfortunate 
remark upon a broken spoon at the table, 
' Have you not yet discovered that Mr. Pitt 



sometimes uses very slight and weak in- 
struments to effect his ends ? ' In 1804, 
upon one historic occasion, she succeeded in 
blacking the premier's face with a burned 
cork, and for the next two years she arranged 
the treasury banquets and dispensed much 
official patronage. On his deathbed, in 
January 1806, Pitt gave her his blessing : 
' Dear soul,' he said, ' I know she loves me.' 
His death involved the extinction of all her 
ambitious prospects and aspirations. 

Pitt desired that 1,500/. a year should be 
settled upon her, but, after certain deduc- 
tions, the amount of the pension was reduced 
to 1,200/., a sum on which Lady Hester de- 
clared her inability to maintain a carriage. 
Her equanimity was further sorely tried in 
1808 by the death at Coruna of her favourite 
brother, Major Stanhope, and of Sir John 
Moore, for whom she is known to have 
cherished an affection. She retired for a 
time to Wales ; but, becoming more and 
more intolerant of the restrictions of ordinary 
society, she left England for the LeA'ant in 
1810, and never again saw her native land. 
She took out with her a Welsh companion, 
Miss Williams, an English physician, Charles 
Lewis Meryon [q. v.], and a small suite, 
which gradually grew in numbers as she 
progressed eastwards. She set sail in the 
Jason frigate on 10 Feb. 1810. After suf- 
fering shipwreck off Rhodes, she made a 
stately pilgrimage to Jerusalem, traversed 
the desert, and presided over a vast Bedouin 
encampment, amid the ruins of Palmyra 
(January 1813). She finally settled down, in 
the summer of 1814, among the half-savage 
tribes on the slopes of Mount Lebanon. The 
pasha of Acre ceded to her the ruins of a con- 
vent and the village of Dahar-June (Djouni 
or Joon), situated on a conical mount and 
peopled by the Druses. She there built 
a group of houses surrounded by a garden 
and an outer wall, like a mediaeval fortress, 
and occupied herself in intriguing against 
the authority of the British consuls in the 
district (for whom as commercial agents she 
had a supreme aristocratic contempt), in 
regulating and counteracting the designs of 
her slaves, in stimulating the Druses to rise 
against Ibrahim Pasha, and in endeavours 
to foster the declining central authority of 
the sultan. Though with the lapse of time 
and the waning of her resources her prestige 
suffered considerably, for a few years she 
exercised almost despotic power in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lebanon, and in time of panic, 
as after the battle of Navarino (20 Oct. 
1827), Europeans fled to her from all sides 
for protection. Her fearlessness and her 
remarkable insight into character, combined 



Stanhope 



with her open-lianded charity in relieving 
the poor and distressed, caused her to be re- 
garded with superstitious veneration as a 
kind of prophetess, and, if she did not share 
the idea, she seems to have done all in her 
power to encourage it. 

As time went on she insensibly adopted 
Eastern manners and customs. Though 
always complaining of neglect, she had up- 
wards of thirty personal attendants, and 
after Miss Williams's death, in 1828, none of 
these were Europeans. Her standard of 
demeanour was rigorous, servants not being 
expected ' to smile, or scratch themselves, or 
appear to notice anything.' Syrians were 
preferred because, though thievish and dirty, 
they were completely obsequious and re- 
quired no definite or stated hours for repose. 
In spite, however, of much vigorous lan- 
guage and frequent blows from a mace, 
which she was in the habit of wielding, the 
household slaves became more and more in- 
corrigible. Her physician, Meryon, in the 
course of his visits, importuned her to send 
' the worst of them away, for they were only 
a torment to her.' ' Yes, but my rank ! ' 
was the characteristic answer. Similarly 
she maintained on the premises enormous 
numbers of cats and other animals. She had 
a strange regard for horses, devising a kind 
of superannuation scheme for those in her 
employ, and she was a devout believer in the 
transmigration of souls and in judicial 
astrology, which she practised upon the least 
provocation. 

Many distinguished Europeans sought in- 
terviews with her. Lamartine visited her 
on 30 Sept. 1832, and described her religious 
belief as a clever though confused mixture 
of the different religions in the midst of 
which she had condemned herself to live. 
Kinglake gives a more commonplace account 
of her when describing his pilgrimage to 
Djouni in 1835. He was struck by her ex- 
traordinary appearance, her penetration and 
power of downright expression. Her talk 
was full of sparkling anecdotes of Pitt and 
his circle. Dr. Madden and Prince Maxi- 
milian of Bavaria were among other person- 
ages to whom she accorded interviews. Pou- 
joulat and Michaud traversed Syria for the 
purpose, and were then refused admittance 
at Djouni upon some trivial pretext. Dr. 
Bowring was another traveller disappointed 
of an audience. 

In haranguing her visitors there is no 
doubt that Lady Hester found the greatest 
happiness of her life. She frequently talked 
for an hour or more without stopping, and 
prolonged her remarks until two or three in 
the morning. She liked her hearer to stand, 



i Stanhope 

while the slaves filled the pipes or knelt 
around in postures of oriental humility. 
' Thus she fancied herself an eastern prin- 
cess.' ' I have known her,' says Meryon, ' lie 
for two hours at a time with a pipe in her 
mouth (from which the sparks fell and 
burned the counterpane into innumerable 
holes) when she was in a lecturing humour, 
and go on in one unbroken discourse, like a 
parson in his pulpit.' She harangued one 
unfortunate Englishman for so many hours, 
without respite, that he fainted away from 
fatigue. On summoning the servants to his 
assistance, she remarked quietly that he had 
been overpowered in listening to the state 
of disgrace to which his country was reduced 
by its ministers (this was in 1819). She 
could not bear to be alone, and scarce an 
evening passed without her summoning the 
worthy physician, who seems to have served 
her at first from self-interest, afterwards 
spellbound by her commanding personality, 
latterly from a chivalrous feeling towards 
an old woman in precarious health, poor, 
saddled with innumerable debts, and preyed 
on by thieves. He became, indeed, almost 
indispensable. She frequently abused him, 
and persistently refused to receive Mrs. 
Meryon. But he stayed with her during the 
spring of 1831 and the summers of 1837 and 
1838, and, with an almost Boswellian power 
of self-effacement, he listened to and recorded 
her views on such themes as the superiority 
of the vices of high-born people to the virtues 
of low-born ones, of the concubine to the. 
wife, the fraudulent attempts of the middle 
classes to disguise their real character by edu- 
cation, and the proper place of doctors as 
the upper servants of noblemen. He himself 
became, indeed, little more than her apothe- 
cary. To the last she insisted on physicking 
and cutting out garments for all those with 
whom she came into close contact (a droll 
reference to this last peculiarity is given by 
Southey in the ' Doctor '). 

Ever since she had settled on Mount 
Lebanon, Lady Hester's profuse prodigality 
had involved her in an accumulating weight 
of debt. Up to 1836 it is a remarkable 
proof of her talents that she prevailed upon 
various Levantine usurers to advance her 
large sums upon her note of hand. But 
finally this resource failed her, the cre- 
ditors became clamorous, and in February 
1838 Lord Palmerston felt himself justified 
in appropriating the bulk of her pension to 
the settlement of their claims. Matters were 
not improved by abusive letters to the foreign 
secretary, or by a presumptuous epistle 
which Lady Hester thought fit to address to 
the queen. Some of the newspapers in 



Stanhope 



England sympathised with her ' grievances,' 
but she failed to obtain any redress, and in 
August 1838 she shut herself up in her 
castle with some five of her retainers, walled 
up the gate, and refused to see any visitors. 
Untamed by the miseries of her later years, 
she died as she had lived, in proud isolation, 
on 23 June 1839, with no European near her. 
On hearing of her illness, Niven Moore, the 
British consul at Beyrout, rode over the 
mountains to see her, accompanied by Wil- 
liam McClure Thomson, the American mis- 
sionary. They arrived just after her death, 
and found the place deserted. All the ser- 
vants had fled as soon as the breath was out 
of the body, taking with them such plunder 
as they could secure. Not a single thing 
was left in the room where their mistress lay 
dead, except the ornaments upon her person. 
At midnight her countryman and the mis- 
sionary carried her body by torchlight to a 
spot in the garden and there buried her. 
Sketches of her fortalice and her grave are 
in Thomson's ' The Land and the Book ' 
(1886). 

A portrait drawn on stone by R. J. Hamer- 
ton is bound up along with some memoranda 
and an autograph letter in ' Collectanea 
Biographica ' (vol. xcv.) in the print-room at 
the British Museum. 

[The chief authorities are Meryon's Travels 
of Lady Hester Stanhope (1846) and his still 
more entertaining Memoirs of Lady Hester 
Stanhope (1845), each in three volumes and 
illustrated by lithograph portraits of Lady 
Hester in costume. See also Gent. Mag. 1839, 
ii. 420 ; Stanhope's Life of Pitt ; Phipps's Me- 
moirs of Robert P. Ward, 1850, i. 143 ; Russell's 
Eccentric Personages, 1864, i. 105-15; Caroline 
Fox's Journals and Letters, ed. Pym, p. 34 ; 
Thomson's The Land and the Book ; Lamar- 
tine's Voyage en Orient ; Michaud et Poujonlat's 
Corresp. d'Orient, 1833, v. 530 sq. ; Madden's 
Travels, 1829, letter xxxv. ; Kinglake's Eothen, 
chap. viii. ; Warburton's Crescent and Cross, chap. 
xix. ; Wolff's Travels in the East, 1860; Quarterly 
Review, Ixxvi. 430 sq.] T. S. 

STANHOPE, JAMES, first EARL STAN- 
HOPE (1673-1721), was eldest son of Alexan- | 
der Stanhope (youngest son of Philip Stan- 1 
hope, first earl of Chesterfield [q. v.]), by i 
Catharine, daughter of Arnold Burghill of 
Thingehill Parva, Herefordshire. His father 
was envoy to the States-General, and died 
in 1707. James was born at Paris in 1673, 
and was naturalised as a British subject by an 
act in 1696. He was educated at Eton and 
matriculated from Trinity College, Oxford, 
'aged 14,' on 25 May 1688, but took no 
degree. When his father went to Madrid 
as British minister in 1690 he accompanied 



t4 Stanhope 

I him, and spent a year there, gaining a know- 
ledge of the Spanish language and character 

j which proved useful to him afterwards. In 
1691 he went to Italy, and served under the 
Duke of Savoy. In 1694-5 he served as a 
volunteer in Flanders. He distinguished 
himself and was severely wounded in one 
of the assaults at Namur, and on 1 Nov. 1695 
he was given a commission as captain and 
lieutenant-colonel in the 1st foot-guards. On 
12 Feb. 1702 he obtained the colonelcy of a 
regiment, afterwards the llth foot. He was 
elected M.P. for Newport (Isle of Wight) 

1 in 1701 and for Cockermouth in 1702. He 
continued to represent the latter place till 
1713. He was a steady whig, and supported 
the act of settlement in 1701. He took part 
in Ormonde's expedition to Cadiz in August 

1702, and acted as Spanish secretary to 
the duke (see his letters in Spain under 
Charles II). He was mentioned in Ormonde's 
despatch as having particularly distinguished 
himself in the storming of the south battery 
at Vigo on 23 Oct. He served with his regi- 
ment under Marlborough on the Me use in 

1703. He went to Portugal with it in 1704, 
and was sent to garrison Portalegre ; but 
an attack of rheumatism and a Portuguese 
doctor, ' who, by bleeding and dieting me, 
had almost done my business,' obliged him 
to go back to Lisbon, and he escaped being 
made prisoner with his men in May, when 
Portalegre was taken by Berwick. He re- 
turned to England, and was made brigadier- 
general on 25 Aug. 1704. 

In June 1705 he went back to the Peninsula 
with Peterborough's expedition [see MOB- 
DATJNT, CHARLES, third EARL OF PETER- 
BOROUGH]. In the councils of war at Barce- 
lona he was less averse to undertaking the 
siege than most of the land officers. In the 
attack on Fort Montjuich, on 13 Sept., he 
commanded the reserve, and helped to secure 
the possession of the captured outworks. 
When Barcelona itself capitulated he was 
sent into the town as a hostage, and his tact 
and knowledge of the language proved use- 
ful in appeasing the outbreak of the inhabi- 
tants, who rose against the garrison. In 
doing this he and Peterborough ran greater 
risk, as he told Burnet, than they had done 
during the siege. He was sent home with 
the despatches, charged by Peterborough to 
look well after his interests. The Archduke 
Charles, in his letter to Queen Anne, made 
particular mention of Stanhope's ' great zeal, 
attention, and most prudent conduct.' 

On 29 Jan. 1706 he was appointed minister 
to Spain in place of (Sir) Paul Methuen 
[q. v.] He left England at the end of Fe- 
bruary with reinforcements, which reached 



Stanhope 



Barcelona on 8 May. The French had been 
besieging it for more than a month, and the 
breaches were ready for assault, but Tesse 
raised the siege, and retreated into France. 
This gave the allies the opportunity to get 
possession of Madrid, on which Galway was 
already advancing from Portugal [seeMASsnE 
DE RTJVIGNY, HENEI DE]. Peterborough 
wished to march on it from Valencia, taking 
the archduke Charles with him ; and Stan- 
hope, whom the archduke had welcomed as 
minister, did his utmost to persuade the 
latter to this course. But Charles, guided 
by his German advisers, to whom Peter- 
borough was odious, decided to go by way 
of Aragon, and Stanhope went with him. 
On 6 Aug., a month too late, they joined Gal- 
way's army at Guadalaxara. Peterborough, 
who arrived at the same time from Valencia, 
to every one's relief soon betook himself to 
Italy. But by this time the Bourbon army 
was stronger than that of the allies, and the 
latter, straitened for supplies, found it neces- 
sary to fall back on Valencia. In January 
1707, when the plans for the coming cam- 
paign were discussed, the majority of the 
officers were in favour of an advance of the 
whole army on Madrid before the Bourbon 
army should receive the reinforcements ex- 
pected from France. But Noyelles, who was 
at the head of the Spanish contingent, the 
archduke Charles, and Peterborough, who 
had come back from Italy, recommended 
purely defensive action. On the other hand, 
Stanhope warmly declared that 'her majesty 
did not spend such vast sums, and send such 
number of forces to garrison towns in Cata- 
lonia and Valencia, but to make King Charles 
master of the Spanish monarchy,' and that he 
should protest in the queen's name against a 
mere defensive line of action. His course 
was cordially approved by the British govern- 
ment, but it displeased the archduke. Noyelles 
carried his point, and marched the Spanish 
troops into Catalonia, Charles and Stan- 
hope accompanying them. Gal way had only 
15,500 men when, on 25 April, he encoun- 
tered Berwick at Almanza, and was defeated. 
Peterborough, who had been peremptorily 
recalled, and was now on his way home, laid 
the blame on Stanhope. He wrote to Marl- 
borough : ' I cannot but think Mr. Stanhope's 
politics have proved very fatal, having pro- 
duced our misfortunes and prevented the 
greatest successes' (CoxE, Marlborough, ii. 
81). But this was mere spite. A year before 
he had written to Stanhope (18 Aug.): 'I 
see no one but yourself that can support this 
business;' but he had learnt that Stanhope's 
secretary had said things against him in 
England, and after his return to Spain from 



Stanhope 

Italy he and Stanhope ceased to be friends. 
When the House of Lords held its inquiry 
into the conduct of the war in Spam in 
January 1711, it pronounced that Peter- 
borough had been right, and Galway and 
Stanhope wrong, in the discussions at Va- 
lencia ; but this was a party resolution, and 
was really aimed at Marlborough and his 
colleagues. 

Disgusted with the lethargy and obstruc- 
tiveness he met with at Charles's court, Stan- 
hope wished to resign, and strongly urged 
that Prince Eugene should be sent to Spain, 
or some other arrangement made which would 
secure unity of command. In September, at 
Galway's request, he joined the army, and 
was put in charge of what remained of the 
English foot. But the army was too weak 
to interfere with the enemy. 

At the end of the year he went to England 
to attend parliament. It was then decided 
that he should succeed Galway, who wished 
to be relieved, in command of the English 
troops, retaining his post as minister with 
Charles. He was made major-general on 
1 Jan. 1708 with the local rank of lieutenant- 
general, and on 26 March was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the British forces in 
Spain. He brought a bill into parliament 
at this time to release the highland clans 
from obedience to their chiefs if the latter 
took up arms against the queen. This was 
prompted by the Jacobite attempt at in- 
vasion, but was allowed to drop after the 
failure of that attempt. 

In April 1708 Stanhope went with Marl- 
borough to The Hague to consult Prince 
Eugene, and in May he rejoined the army in 
Catalonia. The emperor, unwilling to spare 
Eugene, had sent Marshal Stahrenberg to 
take the chief command, and the death of 
Noyelles removed the main cause of friction. 
But the allies were weak, and the Bourbons 
continued to gain ground throughout the 
i campaign. The want of a port in which the 
! British fleet could winter had been much 
! felt, and on 15 July Marlborough wrote to 
Stanhope: 'I conjure you, if possible, to take 
Port Mahon.' In September Stanhope acted 
I on this suggestion with skill and vigour. 
He landed in Minorca on the 14th with 2,600 
men, and Fort St. Philip, which had a garri- 
son of one thousand men, surrendered on the 
29th. He left a garrison there consisting 
wholly of English troops, for, as he wrote to 
Sunderland, 'England ought never to part 
with this island, which will give the law to 
the Mediterranean both in time of war and 
peace.' Sunderland replied that his action was 
approved ' for the reasons you mention, though 
some of them must be kept very secret.' 



Stanhope 



16 



Stanhope 



On 2 Dec. he accompanied Stahrenberg in 
an attempt to surprise Tortosa, -which the 
Bourbons had taken in July. As he wrote, 
' It proved a Cremona business. We got into 
the old town, killed the governor and about 
two hundred men, brought off nine officers 
and fifty soldiers prisoners, but by an un- 
lucky accident missed our aim.' In August 
the Duke of Orleans, with whom Stanhope 
had been intimate at one time in Paris, had 
made secret overtures to him, starting with 
the suggestion that he (Orleans) should be 
made king of Spain, instead of either Philip 
or Charles. Negotiations went on for some 
time, with the knowledge of the British 
government and the archduke, and probably 
of Louis XIV also. In Stanhope's opinion 
they ' very much abated the edge of the Duke 
of Orleans' in the campaign of 1708. But 
they were brought to light by the Princess 
Orsini in the winter, and Orleans did not 
return to Spain. 

Stanhope was promoted lieutenant-general 
on 1 Jan. 1709. The campaign of that year 
was languid, owing to the overtures for I 
peace made by Louis XIV and the expected 
withdrawal of the French troops from Spain. 
In April Stanhope went to the relief of 
Alicant, which had been besieged for more 
than five months. The town had been taken, 
but five hundred men still held out in the 
castle, in spite of the mine which had swal- 
lowed up the governor and all the chief 
officers. But it was found impracticable to 
land troops, and on the 18th Stanhope came 
to terms with the besiegers, and brought the 
garrison away. At the end of August he 
went to Gibraltar to command an expedition 
against Cadiz, which the British government 
had decided on, and for which they had sent 
out five thousand men. But it was found 
that the attempt was hopeless, and he brought 
the troops to Catalonia. 

He spent the winter in England, and was 
a member of the committee which drew up 
articles of impeachment against Sacheverell, 
and one of the managers at his trial in 
February 1710. His speech on the 28th 
against the doctrine of non-resistance is said 
to have discomposed Sacheverell more than 
any of the other speeches. 

At the end of May he rejoined the army 
in Spain. Reinforcements in July raised it to 
a strength of 24,500 men, of whom 4,200 were 
British. The Bourbon army was less in 
number, and consisted wholly of Spanish 
troops. Stahrenberg, a cautious veteran, 
still inclined to the defensive, and Charles 
also; but Stanhope pressed for a bolder 
course, and was supported by the other 
officers. On 26 July the allied army ad- 



vanced towards Aragon, and Stanhope was 
sent forward to secure the passage of the 
Xoguera. The enemy tried to anticipate 
him, and on the 27th the cavalry action of 
Almenara was fought, in which Stanhope, 
with 2,600 men, routed 4,200 supported by 
some battalions of foot. He killed one of 
the Spanish leaders in a personal encounter. 
The Bourbon army retired in some confusion 
to Lerida, and about a fortnight afterwards 
fell back on Saragossa. 

There it offered battle on 20 Aug., and was 
thoroughly beaten, losing twelve thousand 
men out of twenty thousand. The hardest 
fighting was on the left of the allies, where 
Stanhope was in command, and opposite to 
which the bulk of the Bourbon cavalry was 
massed. General (afterwards lord) Carpenter 
wrote that evening to Walpole that the suc- 
cesses of the allies were entirely due to Stan- 
hope, ' both for pressing in council and for 
the execution.' He had ' hectored the court 
and marshal into these marches and actions.' 

He now strongly urged that the allies 
should march on Madrid, and be joined there 
by the army of Portugal. In this opinion 
he was supported by the majority of the 
officers, and it was in accordance with Marl- 
borough's views. Stahrenberg and the arch- 
duke thought it would be better to remain 
in the north, to intercept communication 
between France and Spain, than to enter 
Castile, which had already shown itself so 
hostile. However, they gave way, and on 
28 Sept. Charles entered Madrid, preceded a 
week before by Stanhope. The latter was 
sent forward to Talavera to meet the troops 
from Portugal. 

But meanwhile the Spaniards had rallied 
round Philip at Valladolid with unexpected 
enthusiasm. Vendome arrived from France 
to command his army, which by the middle 
of October numbered nearly twenty-four 
thousand men. Vendome moved southward 
to Almaraz, and interposed between Madrid 
and the slowly advancing army of Portugal, 
which thereupon fell back. Xoailles in- 
vaded Catalonia from Roussillon, and Charles, 
who had left his wife at Barcelona, quitted 
Madrid on 18 Xov. in order to rejoin her. 

By the end of that month it had become 
clear that the allied army could not winter 
in Castile, and on 3 Dec. it began its retreat 
on Aragon. As Stahrenberg explained in 
his report, 'the late season of the year and 
the necessity of getting provisions and forage 
for the troops obliged us to march in columns 
and by different ways ; the English troops, 
believing they might find some provisions 
in Brihuega and subsist better there, took 
that road' {London Gazette, 9-11 Jan.) It 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 






does not appear that he made any objection. 
They arrived there on the 6th, and Stanhope 
sent to Stahrenberg, who was at Cifuentes, 
seventeen miles off, for further orders. He 
also asked him to send some ammunition. 
Meanwhile the Bourbon army had marched 
with astonishing rapidity from Talavera 
(forty-five leagues in seven days), and on 
the morning of the 8th it appeared on the 
hills above Brthuega. Stanhope, who had 
only about 750 horse, was not able to ascer- 
tain the enemy's force, and by evening he 
was surrounded. He had barely time to send 
off an aide-de-camp to Stahrenberg ; and he 
made such arrangements as he could to de- 
fend the town, which was enclosed by an old 
and unflanked wall. He had eight squadrons 
and eight battalions, but they were very 
weak. The British troops numbered little 
more than 2,800 officers and men, and, in 
addition to them, there was one Portuguese 
battalion of about seven hundred (Return 
furnished on 13 Dec. 1710, in Foreign Office 
Papers). 

Having made two breaches, Vendome as- 
saulted them with twenty battalions at 4 P.M. 
on the 9th. They were vigorously defended, 
and the fighting was obstinate for three 
hours. But the streets were searched by 
artillery and musketry fire from the hills 
above ; a fresh breach was made by a mine ; 
and when six hundred of the defenders had 
been killed and wounded, Stanhope capitu- 
lated, seeing ' that the enemy had a consider- 
able body of men in the town, and that in 
our whole garrison we had not five hundred 
men who had any ammunition left.' One of 
his officers, Pepper, wrote afterwards to Marl- 
borough that he might have retired into the 
castle (CoxE, Marlborough, iii. 160) ; but 
the tone of the letter does not entitle it to 
much weight, and there seems no reason to 
question the stoutness of his defence, though 
Stanhope ought not to have let himself be 
surprised in so bad a post and with insuffi- 
cient ammunition. 

Stahrenberg was rather slow in coming to 
his assistance, and halted for the night about 
halfway between Cifuentes and Brihuega 
(London Gazette, 3-6 March). Next morning 
he advanced, found the enemy under Ven- 
dome drawn up to receive' him, and was de- 
feated in the battle of Villa- Viciosa. 

Stanhope's military career ended at Bri- 
huega. He was kept a prisoner at Saragossa 
for more than a year and a half. He had 
been at once authorised to propose his ex- 
change for the Duke of Escalona, but the 
exchange was not accepted so long as there 
was any reason to fear his influence against 
the conclusion of peace. He came home 

VOL. LIV. 



through France, and met Bolingbroke at 
Fontainebleau, but declined to be presented 
by him to Louis XIV. 

Stanhope arrived in England on 16 Aug. 
1712 (0. S.) He was welcomed by the whigs, 
who were now out of favour with both court 
and country, and he became one of the leaders 
of the opposition in the House of Commons. 
In the election of 1710 he had been defeated 
for Westminster, but was again returned for 
Cockermouth ; and when he lost that seat in 
1713, he was elected for Wendover. The 
government bore him no good will, and sent 
a commission into Spain to sift the accounts 
of his expenditure. But instead of esta- 
blishing anything against him, it turned out 
that a balance was due to him. His answer to 
the report of the commissioners was published 
in 1714 (40 pp.) He had been given the 
colonelcy of a regiment of horse in July 1710, 
but the regiment was disbanded at the peace. 

He took an active part in the opposition 
to the treaty of commerce with France in 
May 1713, and spoke forcibly against the 
Schism Act in the following year. Boling- 
broke has described him as ' not apt to 
despair, especially in the execution of his 
own projects '(Letters on History, i. 225) ; and 
he speaks of himself as ' ever inclined to bold 
strokes.' His sanguine and resolute cha- 
racter made him play a leading part in baffling 
the Jacobite intrigues and securing the 
Hanoverian succession. He made arrange- 
ments with Cadogan (acting on behalf of 
Marlborough, who was then at Antwerp) to 
bring over troops from Hanover upon the 
queen's death, but they proved to be needless. 

On 14 Sept. 1714 four days before George I 
landed in England Stanhope was appointed 
secretary of state for the southern depart- 
ment, and on the 24th he was made privy 
councillor. Charles Townshend, second vis- 
count Townshend [q. v.], the principal secre- 
tary of state, being in the lords, Stanhope led 
the House of Commons in concert with Wai- 
pole, who was not at first in the cabinet. In 
the new parliament which met in March 
1715 he represented Newport (I. W.) In 
June, after the impeachment of Bolingbroke 
and Oxford had been carried, he moved and 
carried the impeachment of Ormonde. When 
the Jacobite rising took place in August, he 
had the chief direction of the measures for 
its suppression ; and he employed in this 
work the officers who had served under him 
in Spain Carpenter, WiUs, and Pepper. 
He is said to have afterwards saved the life 
of John Nairne, lordNairne [q. v.],one of the 
six peers condemned. 

He took an active part in the passing of 
the Septennial Act; but the sphere most 





Stanhope 



18 



Stanhope 



congenial to him was foreign affairs. He 
had been sent to The Hague and to Vienna 
in October 1714, to bring the Dutch and the 
imperial government into agreement as to 
the terms of the barrier treaty. He was 
well received by the emperor, Charles VI, 
with whom he had been so closely associated 
in Spain ; but he was not successful, and the 
treaty was not signed till November 1715. 

In July 1716 he accompanied George I to 
Hanover, and remained there with him for 
six months. During this time he was en- 
gaged in a more important negotiation the 
treaty of alliance with France, by which the 
regent was to withdraw all countenance 
from the Pretender in return for a guarantee 
of his own succession if Louis XV died with- 
out issue. Dubois was sent by the regent to 
Hanover. He and Stanhope were old ac- 
quaintances, and they arranged matters to- 
gether, the many difficulties in the way being 
overcome with much dexterity. The treaty 
was to be signed at The Hague, and the 
Dutch were to be invited to be a party to it. 
Both Stanhope and the king were eager for 
its completion, because troubles were brew- 
ing both with Sweden and with the czar 
which might cause it to fall through. They 
were both much annoyed at the delays which 
occurred, and which they attributed to the 
ministers in England. 

The king had other grievances against 
Townshend, who was unwilling to let Great 
Britain be dragged by Hanover into a quarrel 
with the northern courts. George suspected 
him of being in league with the Prince of 
Wales against him. His anger was inflamed 
by Sunderland, who was dissatisfied with 
his own position in the ministry, and had 
gone to Hanover to intrigue. The result 
was that the king decided to dismiss Towns- 
hend ; and Stanhope, though he tried in vain 
to change his purpose, did not feel bound to 
resign. On 15 Dec. he wrote to Townshend, 
by the king's command, to inform him of 
the decision, and to offer him the lord- 
lieutenancy of Ireland. This caused a breach 
not only with Townshend, but with Walpole, 
and Stanhope was unjustly charged with 
treachery (vide correspondence in COXE'S 
Walpole, vol. ii.) 

Townshend eventually accepted the lord- 
lieutenancy, but he and his adherents gave 
so doubtful a support to the government that 
on 9 April 1717 the king deprived him of 
his office. Walpole and others resigned, and 
the ministry was reconstructed, Stanhope 
becoming (on the 15th) first lord of the 
treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. 
He frankly owned his incapacity for these 
duties, which were ' remote from his studies 



and inclination,' and in the following year 
he exchanged places with Sunderland, be- 
coming again secretary of state for the 
southern department on 21 March 1718. 
He had been raised to the peerage on 12 July 
1717, as Baron Stanhope of Elvaston and 
Viscount Stanhope of Mahon in commemora- 
tion of his capture of Port Mahon ; and on 
14 April 1718 he was created Earl Stanhope. 

Alberoni's preparations to recover for Spain 
some of her lost possessions in Italy were 
then threatening the peace of Europe. A 
fleet under Byng was sent to the Mediter- 
ranean in June, and on the 14th Stanhope 
set out on a special mission to Paris and 
Madrid. In Paris he negotiated the qua- 
druple alliance of England, France, Austria, 
and Holland, but in spite of this powerful 
combination he could not persuade Alberoni, 
who had already landed thirty-five thousand 
men in Sicily, to abandon his plans. The 
offer to give up Gibraltar was made in vain, 
and Stanhope left Madrid on 26 Aug. 
But already on the llth the Spanish fleet 
had been destroyed by Byng off Cape Passaro. 
The death of Charles XII a few months 
later was even a heavier blow to Alberoni. 
His expedition to raise the Jacobites in 
Great Britain, in March 1719, miscarried ; 
and at the end of that year Spain purchased 
peace by his dismissal and acceded to the 
quadruple alliance. 

Stanhope's policy was equally vigorous 
and successful in behalf of Sweden, which 
had made peace with England after the 
death of Charles XII. Prussia and Poland 
were detached from the coalition against her ; 
but the czar was bent on taking full advan- 
tage of her weakness, and Denmark acted 
with him. So a fleet was sent to the Baltic 
in 1719 under Norris, who was told by Stan- 
hope to treat the Russian fleet as Byng had 
done the Spanish. The Russian ships sought 
shelter in their own ports, and Denmark 
came to terms. 

In domestic affairs the chief measures with 
which Stanhope had to do were the repeal 
of the Schism Act and the Peerage Bill. 
He had strongly opposed the Schism Act 
when it was passed in 1714, and he brought 
in a bill to repeal it on 13 Dec. 1718. He 
would have liked to repeal the Test Act 
also, and he introduced clauses into his bill 
cancelling some of its provisions ; but the 
opposition was so strong that he had to 
sacrifice those clauses. The ' mischievous ' 
Peerage Bill was brought in on 5 March 
1719, to fix the number of peers and with- 
draw from the crown its unlimited right of 
creation. It was aimed at the Prince of 
Wales, who was very hostile to the ministry, 






Stanhope i 

and it was approved by the king. Sunder- 
land has been generally regarded as mainly 
responsible for it, but Stanhope must at all 
events share the responsibility. It was 
dropped on 14 April, but was reintroduced 
in November, and passed the lords with 
hardly any opposition. In the commons it 
was rejected by a large majority on 8 Dec. 
This was mainly due to Walpole, who saw 
how good an opportunity of harassing the 
government was afforded by a bill which ex- 
tinguished the hopes of many of its usual 
supporters. Stanhope's correspondence with 
the Abbe Vertot about the method of ad- 
mission to the Roman senate (published 
in 1721) was no doubt prompted by this 
question. 

In spite of the failure of the Peerage Bill, 
the government was strong, and it had been 
rejoined by Townshend and Walpole when 
Stanhope accompanied the king to Hanover 
in the summer of 1720. But the South Sea 
Bill had been passed in April, and the 
collapse of the South Sea company in the 
autumn brought a storm upon the ministers 
who had helped to inflate it. Stanhope's 
personal character for disinterestedness stood 
very high, and he had held none of the stock. 
But as chief minister he had to meet his 
share of the attacks which were made as 
soon as parliament met in December. On 
4 Feb. 1721, in the discussion in the lords 
on the examination of one of the directors, 
Wharton compared the ministers to Sejanus. 
Stanhope replied, and ' with so great a vehe- 
mence that, finding himself taken suddenly 
with a violent headache, he went home and 
was cupped, which eased him a little ' (Parl. 
History}. He died at 6 P.M. next day at 
his house in Whitehall, and was buried 
with military honours at Chevening on the 
17th. 

Stanhope was ' a handsome, dark-com- 
plexioned man,' as may be seen in Kneller's 
picture in the National Portrait Gallery. 
High-minded, liberal, and well skilled in the 
higher functions of statecraft, he lacked 
parliamentary ability, and he was ' wholly 
unfit to manage the finances of the country.' 
In debate he was impetuous and apt to lose 
his temper ; but as a diplomatist St. Simon 
contrasts him with Craggs, and says that he 
' ne perdait point de sang-froid, rarement la 
politesse, avait beaucoup d'esprit, de genie 
et de ressources ' (xviii. 129). He was natu- 
rally frank and open, and he used to say that 
he always imposed on the foreign ministers 
by telling them the naked truth (cf. LADY 
WORTLEY- MONTAGU, Letters, iii. 54 ; and 
LECKY, i. 320, quoting a similar saying of 
Lord Palmerston). 



Stanhope 



Stanhope married, on 24 Feb. 1713, Lucy, 
younger daughter of Thomas Pitt [q. v.], 
governor of Madras, and grandfather of Chat- 
ham. His widow died on24Feb. 1723,having 
made provision for the stately monument to 
her husband which is on the south side of the 
west entrance to the choir in Westminster 
Abbey. It was designed by Kent, and exe- 
cuted by Rysbrack. In the inscription the 
year of his death is given as 1720, according 
to the old style. Of his three sons and two 
daughters, the eldest son Philip, second earl 
Stanhope (1717-1786), was father of Charles 
Stanhope, third earl Stanhope [q. v.] 

[Lord Mahon's (afterwards Earl Stanhope) 
War of the Succession in Spain, with an appen- 
dix of 120 pp. of extracts from Stanhope's letters 
in 1706-11, Histories of England, Spain under 
Charles II, from the correspondence of A. Stan- 
hope, Letters from Peterborough to Stanhope in 
Spain (privately printed) ; Memoirs of the Life 
and Actions of James, Earl of Stanhope, published 
in 1721; Parnell's War of the Succession in 
Spain ; Foreign Office Papers, Spain, 1707-10, 
in Public Record Office ; Marlborough Despatches ; 
Coxe's Life of Marlborough, House of Bourbon 
in Spain, Memoirs of Walpole (with several of 
Stanhope's letters in the appendix) ; Boyer's 
Annals of Queen Anne's Reign ; Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Granger, iii. 212 ; Doyle's Official 
Baronage.] E. M. L. 

STANHOPE, JOHN, first BARON STAN- 
HOPE OP HARRINGTON (1545 P-1621), born 
probably about 1545, was third son of Sir 
Michael Stanhope [q. v.] by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Nicholas Rawson of Aveley- 
Bellhouse, Essex. His father's attainder in 
1552 did not affect his estates, and John 
was brought up at Shelford, Nottingham- 
shire, where his mother's household was 
noted for hospitality and piety. He is pro- 
bably the John Stanhope who was returned 
to parliament for Marlborough on 22 April 
1572, for Truro in October 1586, and for 
Rochester on 14 Oct. 1588 ; but he is con- 
fused inFoster's 'Alumni Oxonienses' (1500- 
1714, iv. 1408) with his nephew John (1560- 
1611), father of Philip, first earl of Chester- 
field [q. v.] On 20 June 1590 he was ap- 
pointed master of the posts in succession to 
Thomas Randolph [q. v.] He was also a 
member of the council of the north and 
master of the posts (see Border Papers, 1595- 
1603, passim), and in 1596 he was appointed 
treasurer of the chamber and knighted. He 
appears to have had some influence at court, 
which Bacon sought to enlist in his favour 
(SPEEDING, Letters and Life of Bacon, ii. 50). 
On 16 Oct. 1597 he was elected member of 
parliament for Preston, and in 1600 was 
granted the constableship of Colchester. In 



Stanhope 



20 



Stanhope 



the following year he was placed on a com- 
mission to ' stay from execution all felons 
(except for wilful murder, rape, and burglary) 
and to commit them to serve in the gallies.' 
On 24 Sept. he was elected knight of the 
shire of Nottingham. His offices were re- 
granted him on the accession of James I, and 
he was one of the commissioners appointed 
to treat of a union between England and 
Scotland. On 10 March 1603-4 he was re- 
turned to parliament for JSewtown, Isle of 
"Wight, and by letters patent dated 4 May 
1605 he was created Baron Stanhope of 
Harrington. He was made member of the 
council of the Virginia Company on 23 May 
1609, and in 1615 was one of the privy 
councillors who signed the warrant for the 
application of torture to Edmond Peacham 
[q.v.] He resigned the treasurership of the 
chamber in 1616, and died on 9 March 
1620-1. 

Stanhope was twice married : first to Joan, 
daughter of William Knollys, by whom he 
had no issue; and secondly, on 6 May 1589, to 
Margaret, daughter of Henry MacWilliams, 
one of the queen's gentlemen pensioners. 
By her he had issue one son, Charles, born 
in 1593, who succeeded as second baron, but 
died without issue in 1675, when the title 
became extinct, and two daughters: Eliza- 
beth, who married. Sir Lionel Talmash or 
Tollemache, ancestor of the earls of Dysart : 
and Catherine, who married Robert, viscount 
Cholmondeley (afterwards created Earl of 
Leinster). The later peers of the Stanhope 
family descend from the first baron's brother, 
Thomas. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1581-1620; Hat- 
field MSS. pts. iv-vi.; Winwood's Memorials, ii. 
57, 59 ; Collins's Letters and Mem. of State, 
vols. i. and ii. passim; Off. Ret. of Members 
of Parl. ; Lords' and Commons' Journals ; 
D'Ewes's Journals ; Strype's Works ; Spedding's 
Letters and Life of Bacon, vols. ii. iv. v. and vi. ; 
Thoroton's Nottinghamshire ; Alexander Brown's 
Genesis U.S.A. ; Cornelius Brown's Nottingham- 
shire Worthies ; Peerages by Collins (iii. 308-9) 
and G. E. C[okayne].] A. F. P. 

STANHOPE, LEICESTER FITZ- 
GERALD CHARLES, fifth EARL OF HAR- 
RINGTON (1784-1862), born at Dublin on 
2 Sept. 1784, was the third son of Charles 
Stanhope, third earl of Harrington [q. v.], 
and brother of Charles, fourth earl. He 
entered the army in September 1799 as 
a cornet in the 1st life-guards. In March 
1803 he exchanged into the 9th foot. On 
31 March of the same year he returned to 
the cavalry branch as captain in the 6th 
light dragoons, and exchanged into the 6th 
dragoon guards in November. In 1807 he 



served in South America, and was present 
at the attack on Buenos Ayres. In July 
1816 he attained the rank of major in the 
47th foot, and on 24 April 1817 was ap- 
pointed deputy quartermaster-general in In- 
dia. During the Mahratta war of 1817-18 
he took part in the action at Maheidpore 
and the storming of Talnier. For his ser- 
vices during the campaign he was created 
C.B. on 14 Oct. 1818. In June 1823 he was 
placed on half-pay with the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He became full colonel in 
January 1837. 

Stanhope had other interests than those 
of his profession. He held advanced views 
in politics, and accepted Bentham as his 
master. While in India he took a prominent 
part in support of the Marquis of Hastings's 
administration, and on his return to Eng- 
land warmly defended him before the court 
of proprietors at the India House. In 1823 
he justified Lord Hastings's removal of the 
censorship of the press in British India in 
' A Sketch of the History and Influence of 
the Press in British India,' dedicated to 
Earl Grey. 

In September 1823 Stanhope's offer to go 
to Greece as agent of the English committee 
in aid of the Greek cause was accepted by 
their secretary, John (afterwards Sir John) 
Bowring. On his way he succeeded in dis- 
suading the Greek committees in Germany 
and Switzerland from withdrawing their 
help, and in Italy interviewed many persons 
acquainted with the condition of Greece. In 
November he met Byron in Cefalonia. On 
12 Dec. he had a conference with Mavro- 
cordato at Missolonghi, representing to him 
the fatal effects of disunion among the Greeks. 
At Missolonghi Stanhope set on foot a Greek 
newspaper, and, by means of the funds that 
he at once raised, prevented the Greek fleet 
from dispersing, formed an artillery corps, 
and purchased a house and grounds for a 
laboratory. On 5 Jan. Byron joined him, 
but they did not work well together. Unlike 
Byron, Stanhope was in favour of the esta- 
blishment of a Greek republic, and, although 
he professed neutrality, showed more sym- 
pathy with Odysseus, the leader of the west- 
ern Greeks, than with Byron's friend Mavro- 
cordato and the eastern Greeks. To bring 
the two parties into closer union, Stanhope 
arranged a conference at Salona. It opened 
on the 21st, but neither Byron nor Mavro- 
cordato attended. During Stanhope's stay 
at Salona Byron died, and Stanhope himself 
was ordered home by the English war office, 
owing to complaints of his conduct on the 
part of the Turkish government. After or- 
ganising a postal service between Greece 



Stanhope 



21 



Stanhope 



and England, he sailed in the Florida from 
Zante in June 1824. Byron's body and 
papers were placed in the same ship under 
Stanhope's charge, and he furnished Moore 
with information about Byron's career in 
Greece. He had been nominated a commis- 
sioner of the loan raised in England for the 
Greek cause, but agreed with his colleagues 
that, owing to the defective organisation of 
the Greek government, it was unadvisable 
to issue more money. Stanhope's services to 
Greece are variously estimated (cf. TRE- 
IAWNY, Records of Byron ; FINLAT, Hist, 
of Greece, vols. vi. and vii.) Count Olerino 
Palma (Greece Vindicated, 1826) accused 
him of creating a third faction there, and 
of hindering the progress of the revolt. Per- 
sonal animosities among those with whom 
he had to work rendered his position diffi- 
cult and any conspicuous success impossible. 
But he was thanked by the English com- 
mittee, and in April 1838 received the 
Greek order of the Redeemer. 

Stanhope published in 1824, with a preface 
by Richard Ryan, his correspondence with 
the Greek committee in England in his 
' Greece in 1823 and 1824.' Annexed to it 
was a ' Report on the State of Greece,' and 
a short life of Mustapha Ali (with coloured 
portrait), a young Turk he had brought 
over. An American edition appeared in 
1825. Stanhope also contributed to the 
Paris edition of W. Parry's ' Last Days of 
Lord Byron' many letters to him from 
Finlay, and particulars of Byron's life and 
opinions, drawn from his conversations. 

His elder brothers having died without 
children, Stanhope in March 1851 succeeded 
to the earldom of Harrington. He was 
much interested in the cause of temperance 
reform, and, though not himself a teetotaller, 
was a strong advocate of the Maine prohi- 
bition law. Harrington also advocated chan- 
cery reform and Polish independence. 

He died at Harrington House, Kensington 
Palace Gardens, on 7 Sept. 1862. He mar- 
ried, in 1831, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of William Green, esq., of Trelawney, 
Jamaica. The issue of the marriage was, 
with two daughters, a son Sidney Seymour 
Hide Stanhope, sixth earl of Harrington 
(1845-1866), on whose death the earldom 
passed to his cousin Charles Wyndham 
Stanhope, seventh earl (1809-1881), father 
of the present earl. A portrait of Harrington 
as a child beating a drum, painted by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds and called ' Sprightliness,' 
is at Harrington House. It was engraved 
by Bartolozzi. Another painting by Rey- 
nolds, representing him in military uniform 
on horseback, is at Elvaston. There are 



portraits of the countess by Macpherson and 
F. Stone engraved by Rolls, and by A. E. 
Chalon engraved by H. Robinson. 

[Gent. Mag. 1862, ii. 491 ; Doyle's Official 
ironage ; G. E. C.'s and Foster's Peerages ; 
Moore's Life of Byron, pp. 601, 607, 620, 629, 
632, 639, and Diary, 12 and 14 July 1824; 
Stanhope's "Works, and a Collection of his 
Speeches, 1858 ; Trelawney 's Eecords of Shelley, 
Byron, and himself, 1887, pp. 230-1 ; Finlay's 
Hist, of Greece, ed. Tozer, vi. 327-8, vii. 8-9 ; 
Waagen's Treasures of Art in Great Britain 
(Suppl. pp. 236, 495-6); Boase's Mod. Engl. 
Biogr.] G. LE G. N. 

STANHOPE, SIR MICHAEL (d. 1552), 
partisan of the Protector Somerset, second 
son of Sir Edward Stanhope (d. 1511) by his 
first wife, Avelina, daughter of Sir Gervase 
Clifton of Clifton, Nottinghamshire, was 
descended from an ancient Nottinghamshire 
family, several members of which had been 
knighted and had frequently represented the 
shire in parliament in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. His father was one of 
the leaders of the army that vanquished 
Simnel's adherents at Stoke in 1487 ; he also 
fought against the Cornish rebels at Black- 
heath in 1497, and by his second wife was 
father of Anne, duchess of Somerset [see 
SEYMOUR, EDWARD, first DTJKE OF SOMER- 
SET]. On the death of the elder son, 
Richard, without male issue, on 21 Jan. 
1528-9, Michael succeeded to the family 
estates. Soon afterwards he entered the 
service of Henry VIII, and early in 1537 he 
was placed on the commission of the peace 
for Nottinghamshire. He benefited largely 
by the dissolution of the monasteries, his 
principal grants being Shelford priory, rec- 
tory, and manor and the priory of Lenton, 
both in Nottinghamshire (Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, vols. xii. xiii. passim). On 
17 Feb. 1541-2 he was appointed lieutenant 
of Kingston-upon-Hull (TiCKELL, pp. 186 
sqq.), and from that date till the end of the 
reign he was actively employed in making 
arrangements for the wars on the border and 
various expeditions into Scotland (Hamilton 
Papers, vol. i. passim ; Acts P. C. 1542- 
1547 passim). On 5 Jan. 1544-5 he was 
returned to parliament as knight of the shire 
of Nottingham. Soon after Edward VI's 
accession Stanhope was knighted and ap- 
pointed chief gentleman of the privy chamber 
and deputy to his brother-in-law, the Pro- 
tector, in the governorship of the young king. 
On 10 Oct. 1547 he was again elected to par- 
liament for Nottinghamshire, and he also re- 
ceived a grant of the keepership of Windsor 
Eark and governorship of Hull. Two years 
iter he lost all his appointments on the 



Stanhope 



22 



Stanhope 



Protector's fall, and was sent to the Tower 
(12 Oct. 1549). On 17 Feb. 1549-50, at a 
thin meeting of the council with Warwick 
absent, his release was ordered, but it was 
countermanded on the following day, and he 
was not set at liberty until he acknowledged 
a debt of 3000/. to the king (22 Feb.) Early 
in the following year he was reappointed 
governor of Hull, in which capacity he came 
into frequent collision with the mayor and 
townsmen (TiCKELL, pp. 214 et sqq.) On 
18 May 1551 he was released from his recog- 
nisances, but on 17 Oct. following he was 
again sent to the Tower on a charge of con- 
spiring against Northumberland's life. He 
remained in prison until after Somerset's 
execution, and on 27 Jan. 1551-2 he was 
tried on a charge of felony, apparently under 
the act passed by Northumberland's influence 
in the parliament of 1549-50 (Statutes of 
the Realm, iv. i. 104). Stanhope was no 
doubt implicated in Somerset's endeavours 
to supplant Northumberland, but there is no 
evidence that he aimed at taking the duke's 
life (Baga de Secretis, pouch xx ; cf. Deputy- 
Keeper of the Records, 4th Rep. App. ii. 
230-2). He was condemned and sen- 
tenced to be hanged, but the sentence was 
commuted, and he was beheaded on Tower 
Hill, 26 Feb., stoutly maintaining his inno- 
cence. An act confirming his attainder was 
passed on 12 April following (Lords' Journals, 
i. 425). An anonymous three-quarter-length 
portrait of Stanhope belongs to Mr. Sewallis 
Evelyn Shirley. 

Stanhope's widow, Anne, daughter of 
Nicholas Rawson of Aveley, Essex, was 
allowed to retain the priory of Shelford 
during life. She died on 20 Feb. 1587-8 (see 
Archeeologta, xxxi. 212-4), and was buried 
in Shelford church, where there are monu- 
ments to her and her husband. She left, 
among other issue : (1) Sir Thomas Stanhope 
(d. 1596), father of Sir John Stanhope (1560- 
1611), who was father of Philip Stanhope, 
first earl of Chesterfield [q. v.J ; (2) John, 
first baron Stanhope [q. v.J, and two sons 
named Edward who are confused by Strype 
[see STANHOPE, SIR EDWARD, d. 1608], 
From a daughter, Jane, who married Roger 
Townshend, were descended the viscounts 
Townshend, 

[Authorities quoted ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; 
Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; 
Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; Acts of the 
Privy Council, 1542-53; Cal. Hatfield MSS. 
vol. i. ; Strype's Works ; Holinshed's Chron. ed. 
Hooker, iii. 1081 ; Stow's Annals, p. 607 ; State 
Papers, Henry VIII, vols. i. v. ; Off. Ret. Mem- 
bers of Parl. ; Tytler's Edward VI and Mary ii 
13, 19, 44, 46-7, 50, 74; Collins's Peerage, iii. 



300 et sqq. ; Brown's Nottinghamshire Worthies, 
pp. 108-9; Xotes and Queries, 3rd ser. v. 516, 
vi. 38.1 A. F. P. 

STANHOPE, PHILIP, first EARL OF 
CHESTERFIELD (1584-1656), son of Sir John 
Stanhope of Shelford, Nottinghamshire, by 
Cordell, daughter of Richard Allington, esq., 
was born in 1584, and knighted by James I 
on 16 Dec. 1605 (DoTLE, Official Baronage, 
i. 370; COLLINS, Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 
421). On 7 Nov. 1616 he was raised to the 
peerage by the title of Baron Stanhope of 
Shelford, paying 10,000/. for that dignity 
(Court and Times of James I, i. 426, 436). 
On 4 Aug. 1628 Charles I created him Earl 
of Chesterfield (DOYLE). 

When the civil war broke out Chesterfield 
and his family vigorously supported the 
king's cause. According to Lloyd, he refused 
to sit in the Long parliament after it de- 
clined to suppress the tumults raised in 
support of the popular party (Memoirs of 
Excellent Personages, 1668, p. 651). In No- 
vember 1642 he received a commission to 
raise a regiment of dragoons for Charles I. 
About December his house at Bretby was 
taken and plundered by Sir John Gell 
(GLOVER, Derbyshire, App. pp. 62, 70). Ches- 
terfield, who succeeded in escaping, esta- 
blished himself at Lichfield with about three 
hundred men, but was besieged there by 
Gell and Lord Brooke, and obliged to sur- 
render (RUSHWORTH, V. 143). 

The parliament ordered him to be sent 
to London, but allowed him to remain a 
prisoner on parole in his lodgings in Covent 
Garden, instead of committing him to the 
Tower (Lords' Journals, v. 682, vi. 17, 19, 
84, 511). Chesterfield's estates were se- 
questrated, and in November 1645 he peti- 
tioned the House of Lords for an allowance 
for his maintenance, alleging that his losses 
amounted to 50,0001. (ib. vii. 698, ix. 43). 
Ultimately he was granted 51. per week by 
parliament, and his fine for delinquency fixed 
at 8,698 (Calendar of Committee for Com- 
pounding, p. 1264). Chesterfield died at 
London on 12 Sept. 1656, and was buried 
in the church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. 

Chesterfield married : first, in 1605, Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Francis, lord Hastings, who 
died on 28 Aug. 1636. By her he had six 
sons. Of these John, the eldest, matriculated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, in November 1622, 
and died in July 1625 (FOSTER, A lumni Oxon. 
1500-1714, p. 1408). 

Henry, the second son, matriculated at 
the same time as his brother, was knighted 
on 2 Feb. 1626, represented Nottinghamshire 
in the first two parliaments of Charles I and 
East Retford in the third, and died on 29 Nov. 



Stanhope 






1634. His wife Catherine, eldest daughter 
of Thomas, lord Wotton, is noticed sepa- 
rately [see KIRKHOVEN, CATHERINE] ; by her 
he left a son Philip, second earl of Chester- 
field [q. v.] 

Ferdinando, the fourth son, member for 
Tamworth in 1640, major and subsequently 
colonel of horse in the king's army, was 
killed at Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, in 
1644 (FOSTER, Alumni Oxonienses, i. 1408; 
WOOD, Fasti, ii. 42 ; Life of Colonel Hutch- 
inson, ii. 57, 87). 

Philip, the fifth son, who matriculated 
at Exeter College, Oxford, on 6 Dec. 1637, 
was killed at the storming of Shelford House, 
of which garrison he was commander, on 
27 Oct. 1645 (ib. ii. 81, 376). Arthur, the 
youngest son of the first marriage, repre- 
sented the county of Nottingham in the Con- 
vention parliament and in the first parlia- 
ment of Charles II. From him Philip, fifth 
earl of Chesterfield, is descended [see under 
STANHOPE, PHILIP DORMER, fourth EARL]. 

By his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir 
John Pakington of Westwood, Worcester- 
shire, and widow of Sir Humphrey Ferrars 
of Tamworth Castle, Warwickshire, Chester- 
field had one son, Alexander, father of James, 
first earl Stanhope [q. v.] 

The poems of Sir Aston Cokain, who was 
son of Chesterfield's sister, Anne Stanhope, 
contain a masque acted at Bretby in 1639, 
and verses on Ferdinando Stanhope and other 
members of the family (ed. 1662, pp. 118, 
137, 187, 116*, 144*). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges ; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peer- 
age.] C. H. F. 

STANHOPE, PHILIP, second EARL OF 
CHESTERFIELD (1633-1713), born in 1633, 
was the grandson of Philip, first earl of 
Chesterfield [q. v.], and son of Sir Henry 
Stanhope, by Catherine, eldest daughter of 
Thomas, lord Wotton [see KIRKHOVEN, 
CATHERINE]. His father died before he was 
two years old. At the age of seven he 
accompanied his mother to Holland, where 
he was educated under the tuition of Poli- 
ander, professor of divinity at the university 
of Leyden (whose son married his mother), 
spent a year at the Prince of Orange's 
college at Breda, and completed his educa- 
tion at the court of the Princess of Orange 
and at Paris (Memoirs prefixed to the 
Letters of Philip, second Earl of Chester- 
field, 1835). In 1650 he travelled through 
Italy, and spent nine months at Rome (ib. p. 
10 ; BARGRAVE, Alexander VI and his Cardi- 
nals, ii. 124). About 1652 Stanhope returned 
to England, married Anne Percy, eldest 



5 Stanhope 

daughter of the tenth Earl of Northumber- 
land, and lived for some time in retirement 
at Petworth. On his wife's death in 1654 
he left England again, and paid a second 
visit to Rome, returning to England about 
1656. The Protector, according to Chester- 
field's account, offered him a command in 
the army, and the hand of one of his daugh- 
ters, both of which he declined. A second 
proposed match between Chesterfield and the 
daughter of Lord Fairfax was broken off 
after they ' had been thrice asked in St. 
Martin's Church' (Letters, p. 19; cf. Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1656-7, p. 349). By 
this time he had become notorious for drink- 
ing, gaming, and ' exceeding wildness,' and 
was engaged in love affairs with Barbara 
Villiers (afterwards Duchess of Cleveland) 
[q. v.] and Lady Elizabeth Howard, who 
subsequently married Dryden (Letters, pp. 
86,95,97). 

In February 1658 he was arrested for an 
intended duel with Lord St. John, and on 
8 June the Protector committed him to the 
Tower for dangerously wounding Captain 
John Whalley in a duel (ib. p. 84 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1657-8 p. 290, 1658-9 pp. 52, 
62). At the same time he dabbled in the 
royalist plots against the government, and 
was again committed to the Tower in Sep- 
tember 1659 on suspicion of a share in Sir 
George Booth's rising, but released on giving 
security for 10,000/. (ib. 1659-60, pp. 164, 
240; Cal. of Compounders, p. 1265). On 
17 Jan. 1660 he killed a Mr. Woolly in a 
duel at Kensington, fled to France, obtained 
a pardon from Charles II, and returned in 
his train to England (PEPTS, Diary, ed. 
Wheatley, i. 21 ; CHESTERFIELD, Letters, p. 
110). 

From 24 Feb. 1662 to July 1665 Chester- 
field held the post of chamberlain to Cathe- 
rine of Braganza, and he was after his re- 
signation a member of her council (DOTLE). 
In 1660 he married Lady Elizabeth Butler, 
eldest daughter of James Butler, twelfth earl 
and first duke of Ormonde [q. v.] His neglect 
of his wife did not prevent him from being 
jealous, and in January 1663 he packed her 
off to Derbyshire, in order to put an end 
to the unwelcome attentions of the Duke of 
York (PEPYS, 19 Jan. 1663). Another of her 
admirers was her cousin, James Hamilton, the 
history of whose amour with her is detailed 
in the ' Memoirs ' of Grammont (ed. 1853, pp. 
144, 158, 173-200). The countess died in 
July 1665 (CHESTERFIELD, Letters, pp. 26, 
131). On 13 June 1667 Chesterfield was 
appointed colonel of a foot regiment, but it 
was disbanded on the conclusion of peace 
with Holland (DALTON, Army Lists, i. 79 ; 



Stanhope -< 

cf. PEPYS, 9 June 1667). Towards the close 
of Charles II's reign he was again employed. 
He was a member of the new privy council 
appointed on 26 Jan. 1681. On 6 Nov. 1682 
he became colonel of the Holland regiment 
of foot, but resigned his command two years 
later in consequence of a quarrel about pre- 
cedence (DALTON, i. 298 ; CHESTERFIELD, 
Letters, p. 252). 

On 2 Dec. 1679 Charles appointed Chester- 
field warden and chief justice in eyre of the 
royal forests south of the Trent (DOYLE). 
This office had formerly been held by the 
Duke of Monmouth, and Chesterfield's offer 
to restore it to Monmouth, when the latter 
was restored to favour, earned him the ill 
will of the Duke of York. Nevertheless 
Chesterfield acted as lord sewer at the corona- 
tion of James II (23 April 1685), and held 
the post of chief justice in eyre till the fol- 
lowing October, when he resigned on the 
plea of ill health (Letters, pp. 252, 292). 
He disapproved of the ecclesiastical policy 
of James, and placed his proxy in the hands 
of George Savile, marquis of Halifax [q. v.] ; 
but Halifax found it extremely difficult to 
persuade him to more active measures of 
opposition (ib. pp. 297-310, 325). In like 
manner when the Revolution took place 
Chesterfield got together a hundred horse 
and escorted the Princess Anne from Not- 
tingham to Warwick, but refused to take 
arms against James II, in spite of the solici- 
tations of his old ally, Lord Danby (ib. pp. 
47, 335). In the Convention he both spoke 
and voted against the proposal to declare the 
throne vacant and make the Prince of Orange 
king (Memoirs of Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury, 
p. 233). James sent over a commission ap- 
pointing Chesterfield and three others regents 
of the kingdom, but he refused to accept it. 
He likewise refused William Ill's offers to 
make him privy councillor, gentleman of the 
bedchamber, and ambassador, and declined to 
take the association in support of William's 
title imposed by parliament in 1694. To 
William himself he explained his aversion 
to all such oaths, saying that if the oath of 
allegiance which he had taken could not 
bind him nothing would, and protesting his 
veneration for his majesty's person and his 
resolution not to act against the govern- 
ment. 

Similar scruples and his increasing in- 
firmities debarred Chesterfield from employ- 
ment during the reign of Anne, at whose 
accession he was one of the few who refused 
the oath abjuring the Pretender (Letters, 
pp. 51-63 ; cf. SWIFT, Works, ed. Scott, xii. 
243). He died on 28 Jan. 1713, in his 
eightieth year. Chesterfield was the friend 



Stanhope 



of Charles Cotton and the patron of Dryden ; 
to him Dryden dedicated his translation of 
the Georgics. Grammont describes Chester- 
field thus : ' II avait le visage fort agreable, 
la tete assez belle, peu de taille et moins 
d'air.' 

By his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Butler, 
Chesterfield had a daughter Elizabeth, born 
in 1663, who married John Lyon, earl of 
Strathmore. He took for his third wife Lady 
Elizabeth Dormer, eldest daughter of Charles, 
second earl of Carnarvon. By her he had 
two sons and two daughters : (1) Philip, third 
earl of Chesterfield, who married Elizabeth 
Savile, daughter of the Marquis of Halifax, 
was father of Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth 
earl [q. v.], and died in 1726 ; (2) Charles, 
who inherited the estate of the Wottons, 
changed his surname to Wotton, and died 
without issue; (3) Mary (1664-1703), wife 
to Thomas Coke of Melbourne, Derbyshire ; 
(4) Catherine (1675-1728), wife to Godfrey 
Clarke of Chilcot, Derbyshire (COLLINS, 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 425). 

Chesterfield wrote an account of his own 
life, portions of which are printed in the 
biography prefixed to the collection of his 
letters published in 1835. The original is 
now in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 
19253). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 371 ; Collins's 
Peerage, ed. Brydges, vol. iii. ; Letters of Philip, 
second Earl of Chesterfield, 1835.] C. H. F. 

STANHOPE, PHILIPDORMER, fourth 
EARL OF CHESTERFIELD (1694-1773), poli- 
tician, wit, and letter-writer, was son of 
Philip Stanhope, third earl of Chesterfield, 
by his wife Elizabeth, daughter (by his second 
marriage) of George Savile, marquis of Hali- 
fax [q. v.] Philip Stanhope, second earl of 
Chesterfield [q.v.j, was his grandfather. Of 
his four brothers, two enjoyed much popu- 
larity in the world of fashion, viz. : William 
(1702-1772), who was created K.B. on 
27 May 1725, and was M.P. for Lostwithiel 
for a few months in 1727, and for Bucking- 
hamshire from that year until his death ; 
and John (1705-1748), who was M.P. for 
Nottingham from 1727 and for Derby from 
1736 till his death, and was a lord of the 
admiralty for the last ten months of his life. 

Born in London on 22 Sept. 1694, and bap- 
tised at St. James's, Piccadilly, on 9 Oct., 
Stanhope was educated privately. His father 
neglected him, but his maternal grandmother, 
the Marchioness of Halifax, actively inte- 
rested herself in his early education. A 
French tutor named Jonneau perfected him 
in French in youth, and he spoke and wrote 
it with ease and correctness before he 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



was eighteen. At that age he proceeded to 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he developed , 
according to his own account, a pedantic 
veneration for the Latin classics, and was 
attracted by the mathematical lectures of 
the blind professor, Nicholas Saunderson 
[q. v.] In 1714 he left the university ' an 
absolute pedant' after a stay of little more 
than a year; but a tour in Flanders followed 
immediately, and transmuted him into a 
man of the world, whose interests were to 
outward appearances wholly divided between 
gallantry and gaming. But he found time 
for study, and developed an ambition to 
become an orator. His rank and connec- 
tions secured for him a ready welcome in the 
best society at The Hague. At Antwerp 
he was the guest of the Duke and Duchess 
of Marlborough, and his ease of manner 
especially ingratiated him with the duchess. 
The death of Queen Anne brought his tour, 
which was planned to extend to Italy, to 
an abrupt conclusion. His kinsman, General 
James Stanhope, afterwards first earl Stan- 
hope [q. v.], offered to introduce him to the 
new king, and a political career was thus 
opened to him under promising auspices. 

In 1715 he was appointed gentleman of the 
bedchamber to the king's son, George, prince 
of Wales, and in the same year he entered 
the House of Commons as whig member for 
St. Germans, Cornwall. Some weeks were 
yet needed before he attained his legal ma- 
jority. His political views embodied from 
the first much genuinely liberal sentiment, 
and he was never a staunch partisan. He 
supported, however, with exuberant energy 
the efforts of the whigs, who predominated 
in the new parliament, to push their advan- 
tage over their tory rivals. In his maiden 
speech, which he delivered on 5 Aug. in the 
debate on the articles of impeachment 
against the Duke of Ormonde, he denounced 
as traitors all the promoters of the peace of 
Utrecht. A member of the opposition pri- 
vately warned him that if he voted in ac- 
cordance with his speech the lawfulness of 
his election, owing to his being under age, 
would be called in question. Thereupon 
Stanhope discreetly retired to Paris. French 
manners and morals alike appealed to him 
and he proved an apt pupil in the school o1 
the fashionable demi-monde of the French 
capital. 

Settling within a year or two again in 
London, he found his chances of preferment 
hampered by the quarrel between the prince 
his master, and the king. With characteristic 
caution he took a middle course, and, while 
maintaining good relations with the prince 
avoided all show of hostility to the king 



But it was obviously prudent for him to 
imit his political activity, and he spent his 
enforced leisure in the congenial society of 
men of letters or of fashion. With Pope he 
brmed a close intimacy, and through Ar- 
mthnot he came to know something of 
~wift. He cultivated, too, the acquaint- 
ance of Prince George's mistress, Henrietta 
ioward, afterwards countess of Suffolk, who 
was an accredited patroness of men of letters, 
and long maintained a lively correspondence 
with her. But her favour was a perilous 
>ossession. Although it helped Stanhope 
;o maintain good relations with the court, it 
xposed him to the hostility of the Princess 
of Wales (afterwards Queen Caroline), who 
was an unrelenting foe. But Stanhope's tact 
stood him in good stead. He was elected for 
Lostwithiel in 1722, and in the king's in- 
terest supported a motion for augmenting 
the army by an addition of four thousand 
men. He was rewarded for his complaisance 
3y his appointment on 26 May 1723 to the 
post of captain of the gentlemen-pensioners 
n succession to Lord Townshend. On pre- 
senting himself to his constituents for re- 
ilection he was defeated, and he did not sit in 
the House of Commons again. In the sum- 
mer of 1725 his father's illness recalled him 
to the family seat of Bretby, where the rustic 
seclusion excited his spleen and whetted 
his appetite for active political work. The 
development of the political situation was 
not much to his taste. Sir Robert Walpole 
and Stanhope were constitutionally anti- 
pathetic, and the complete supremacy which 
Walpole maintained in parliament and the 
king's counsels from the date of his accession 
to power in 1721 roused Stanhope's ridicule 
and disgust. An open breach was not de- 
sired by Walpole. But when, in the spring 
of 1725, the minister offered Stanhope the 
ribbon of the newly revived order of the 
Bath, it was contemptuously rejected. Stan- 
hope was displeased, too, with his brother 
William for accepting it; and in some sati- 
rical lines on the accidental loss of the badge 
by one of the new knights, Sir William 
Morgan of Tredegar, he laughed at the dis- 
tinction as ' one of the toys Bob gave his 
boys.' Walpole resented the insult, and in 
May 1725 Stanhope ceased to be captain ot 
the gentlemen-pensioners. 

On 27 Jan. 1726 his father died, and he 
took his seat in the House of Lords. Al- 
though he cynically talked of the upper 
chamber as a hospital for incurables, he lost 
no time in manifesting a resolve to play on 
that platform an active part in the opposi- 
tion to Walpole. His relations with the 
Prince of Wales, combined with his wit and 



Stanhope 



eloquence always carefully premeditated 
gave him at once a commanding position. 
After the king's death, on 11 June 1727, he 
moved the address of condolence, congratu- 
lation, and thanks in reply to the speech of 
George II on his accession to the throne. 
He was confirmed in his post of lord of the 
bedchamber, and on 26 Feb. 1728 George II 
nominated him a privy councillor. But 
Walpole strongly deprecated the bestowal 
of any high office. The king insisted that 
something more must be done for him, and 
Walpole reluctantly offered him the Eng- 
lish embassy at the Hague. It was accepted 
with alacrity. Chesterfield set out on 
23 April 1728, and arrived on 5 May. His 
brother John went with him as secretary ; 
and Richard Chenevix (1698-1779) (after- 
wards bishop of Waterford) was his chap- 
lain. While attending to his official duties, 
and studying the constitution of the Dutch 
republic, he ingratiated himself with its 
ministers by magnificent hospitalities. At 
the same time he did not neglect his plea- 
sures. ' He courted the good opinion of 
the Dutch people,' wrote Horace Walpole, 
' by losing immense sums at play.' The in- 
timacy he formed with a beautiful young 
lady named Mile, du Bouchet had a marked 
influence on his life. By her he became in 
1732 the father of the son whose education 
and progress subsequently became his main 
interest. He kept Mrs. Howard regularly 
informed of his diversions, and he well main- 
tained himself in the king's favour. 

Early in 1730 Chesterfield opened negotia- 
tions for the marriage of William, prince of 
Orange, with Anne, princess royal of England, 
which reached a successful issue. At the 
end of May Boerhaave, the great physician of 
Leyden, attended him for a fever. He cor- 
responded with Lord Townshend, who was 
involved in differences with Walpole, and 
canvassed the possibility of becoming Towns- 
hend's colleague as secretary of state. On 
18 May 1730 he was elected a knight of the 
Garter, and on 18 June he came home to be 
installed at Windsor. Next day the staff of 
the lord steward of the household was given 
him. Walpole's magnanimity in waiving ob- 
jections temporarily overcame Chesterfield's 
dislike. ' Lord Chesterfield,' says Lord Her- 
vey, ' made the warmest professions to Sir 
Robert Walpole, acknowledging that his 
attachment this winter to Lord Townshend 
gave him no right to expect this favour, and 
saying, " I had lost the game, but you have 
taken my cards into your hand and recovered 
it." ' The duties of the office were mainly 
honorary, and Chesterfield returned to The 
Hague, where George II visited him in 



i Stanhope 

August. In October Chesterfield was again 
in England on leave of absence. Early 
next year Chesterfield was busily occupied in 
delicate negotiations which were needed to 
preserve the peace of Europe. George II 
was willing to join Spain and Holland in 
guaranteeing the pragmatic sanction, if by 
so doing he could prevent the emperor from 
disturbing the balance of European ,power. 
The States delayed their adhesion, and taught 
Chesterfield a lesson, he says, in the Chris- 
tian virtues of patience, forbearance, and 
long-suffering. But at length, on 16 March 
1731, Chesterfield signed at The Hague, with 
the pensionary and Count Zinzendorf, the 
second treaty of Vienna (CoxE, Memoirs of 
Walpole, i. 346). Later in the year a per- 
sistent fever compelled him to apply for leave 
of absence. His ill-health rendered him 
reluctant to resume his post at The Hague, 
and on 26 Feb. 1732 he was formally re- 
lieved of it. 

To parliament he now redirected his 
energies. His distrust and dislike of Walpole 
rapidly revived. But on 6 March 1733, in 
the debate on the mutiny bill, he warmly 
supported the government's proposal to main- 
tain the standing army at the number of 
seventeen or eighteen thousand men. The 
unpopularity of Walpole's excise scheme, 
however, drew Chesterfield into the hue and 
cry against the minister. His three brothers 
voted against the bill in the House of Com- 
mons, and on 11 April Walpole, owing to the 
threatening decline of his majority, abandoned 
it before a second reading. Walpole's temper 
was roused. He held Chesterfield respon- 
sible for many defections in the lower house, 
and the king made no resistance to his pro- 
posal that Chesterfield should be dismissed 
from the office of lord steward. Doubtless the 
queen, who regarded Chesterfield with grow- 
ing abhorrence as the confidant of the king's 
mistress, Lady Howard, silenced the king's 
scruples. On 13 April the dismissal was 
effected. Chesterfield's composure was seri- 
ously disturbed. In a letter (now lost) he 
protested to the king against the indig- 
nity. No reply was sent. Thenceforth Ches- 
terfield absented himself from court, and his 
friendly relations with the king came to 
an end. Relieved of official responsibility, 
he vented his pique in anonymous contri- 
butions to the newspapers, and early in 1734 
three amusing essays in ' Fog's Journal/ 
entitled respectively 'An Army in Wax- 
work ' (17 Jan.), ' An Essay upon Ears ' 
(24 Jan.), and ' An Essay upon Eyes ' 
(10 April), caused Walpole and his friends 
much discomfort. 

On 5 Sept. 1733 Chesterfield gave further 



Stanhope 



oft'ence to the king by marrying Petronilla 
Melusina von der Schulenburg, the natural 
daughter of George I by his ' Maypole ' 
mistress, Countess Ehrengard Melusina von 
der Schulenburg, duchess of Kendal [q. v.] 
Born in 1693, Chesterfield's bride, who was 
forty years old and his senior by a year, had 
been created Countess of Walsingham in her 
own right in 1722. Walpole says she had 
been secretly married in youth ; but when 
Chesterfield made her acquaintance she was 
living with her mother, the Duchess of Kendal, 
in Grosvenor Square, in the house adjoining 
his own. In a pecuniary sense the match 
was desirable. The lady's portion was said 
to be a sum of 50,000/., with 3,000/. per 
annum payable out of the civil list revenue 
in Ireland during her life (Hist. Reg.) At 
the same time her expectations from her 
mother were great. The marriage was in 
fact solely a political and financial arrange- 
ment. For many years after the ceremony 
husband and wife continued to reside next 
door to each other. Chesterfield seems to 
have celebrated the union by taking into his 
keeping a new mistress, Lady Frances or 
Fanny Shirley (1702-1778), ' a great beauty,' 
with whom he long maintained relations. 
To her he addressed much sportive verse. 
His friend Pope wrote poems to her, and 
Sir Charles Hanbury-Williams commemo- 
rated her relations with Chesterfield in his 
poem ' Isabella ' (cf. POPE, Works, ed. Court- 
hope and Elwin, iv. 462). At the same 
time he frequently visited his wife at the 
house of her mother, and ' played away all 
his credit ' there. In December 1737 he and 
the countess visited Bath together. Accord- 
ing to Horace Walpole, the countess made 
him ' a most exemplary wife, and he rewarded 
her very ungratefully.' His neglect of her 
was obvious and indefensible, but she does 
not appear to have resented it. All she ex- 
pected from him was an outward show of 
respect, and his considerate references to her 
in his correspondence indicate that he did 
not disappoint her in that regard (EnNST, 
pp. 80-82). He lost no opportunity of pro- 
tecting their joint pecuniary interests. When 
the duchess, his mother-in-law, died on 
10 May 1743, George II is said to have de- 
stroyed her will to prevent Lady Chester- 
field from benefiting by the dispositions of 
the late king in his mistress's favour (cf. 
WALPOLE, Correspondence, ed. Cunningham, 
vii. 141). It was believed that 40,000/. 
had been bequeathed to the duchess by 
George I, and had never been paid her. 
Chesterfield insisted that that sum should 
now be made over to his wife. Resistance 
was threatened, and an action was begun 



7 Stanhope 

against the crown under Chesterfield's direc- 
tion ; but finally Chesterfield agreed to stay 
proceedings on receiving payment of 20,000/. 

Elsewhere Chesterfield gave the king and 
Walpole as little quarter. Through the session 
of 1734 he supported the bill protecting mili- 
tary officers from deprivation of their com- 
missions otherwise than by a court-martial 
or an address from both houses of parliament 
(13 Feb.) On 28 March he vigorously de- 
nounced a message from the king which 
requested parliament to give him authority 
to augment the naval and military forces 
during the parliamentary recess. In society 
and in the journals he made his foes (even 
the king and queen) feel the full force of his 
satiric faculty, and Walpole involuntarily 
offered him during the session of 1737 a 
singularly apt opportunity for its display. 
In view of the frequency of attacks in the 
theatres on the government, Walpole intro- 
duced a bill compelling theatrical managers 
to submit all plays for license to the lord 
chamberlain fourteen days before they were 
to be represented on the stage (10 Geo. II, 
cap. 28). When the bill was introduced into 
the lords, Chesterfield riddled its claim to 
justice or common-sense. He argued that 
ridicule was the natural prerogative of the 
theatre, and that the bill was an encroach- 
ment not merely upon liberty, but upon 
property, ' wit being the property of those 
who have it.' The speech was fully reported 
in ' Parliamentary History ' (x. 319 sq.) ; 
an abstract appeared in ' Common Sense ' 
(4 June 1737), and it was published as a 
pamphlet in 1749. Although the bill be- 
came law, Chesterfield's speech excited even 
the admiration of antagonists. Hervey de- 
scribes it as one of the most lively and in- 
genious speeches that he ever heard in par- 
liament, ' full of wit of the genteelest satire, 
and in the most polished classical style that 
the Petronius of any time ever wrote. It 
was extremely studied, seemingly easy, well 
delivered, and universally admired.' Chester- 
field's unqualified assertion of the right of 
literary satire to immunity from police regu- 
lations roused grateful enthusiasm in the re- 
public of letters. Pope gracefully compli- 
mented him in the 'Dunciad' (bk. 4, v. 43-4). 
Smollett wrote: 'The speech will ever 
endear his character to all the friends of 
genius and literature to all those who are 
warmed with zeal for the liberties of their 
country.' 

The death, on 20 Nov. 1737, of Queen 
Caroline, on whom Chesterfield penned a 
vindictive epitaph, removed a serious obstacle 
to his political advancement. It weakened 
Walpole's influence at court, and the mini- 



Stanhope 2 

st er's resistance of the pop ular cry for war with 
Spain during 1738 stirred all Chesterfield's 
energies in opposition. During the session of 
1739 few speakers enunciated more bellicose 
sentiments. ' Let us,' he said on 31 May, 
' for once speak the sense of the nation, and 
let us regain by our arms what we have lost 
by our councils.' Walpole declared war 
with Spain in obedience to the clamour. 
But the ill-success of the naval operations 
with which it opened gave Chesterfield and 
his friends new ground of attack. On 13 Feb. 
1741 he signed the protest in favour of Car- 
teret's unsuccessful motion for the removal 
of Sir Robert Walpole from the king's coun- 
cils. But, despairing of making immediately 
any effective impression on Walpole's position, 
he afterwards set out on a seven months' 
visit to the continent. 

There is little reason to doubt that the 
ostensible reason of his tour anxiety on 
account of his health was the true one. His 
parliamentary efforts had brought him into 
line with Lord Bolingbroke's following, but 
Horace Walpole's suggestion that he was 
despatched to Avignon by the enemies of the 
minister to obtain Jacobite support ' for Sir 
Robert's destruction' is unsupported. His 
first stopping place was Brussels, where he 
spent a few days with Voltaire, who read to 
him portions of his tragedy' Mahomet.' After 
drinking the waters at Spa he passed to Paris. 
There Cardinal Fleury showed him ' uncom- 
mon distinctions.' He was eagerly welcomed 
in fashionable salons, and spent much time 
with men of letters, especially with Crebillon 
fils, with Fontenelle and Montesquieu, whom 
he thenceforth reckoned among his closest 
friends. Later, in September, he went south, 
and passed three days with Lord Boling- 
broke, whose literary style had long excited 
his warmest admiration ; but, according to 
Chesterfield's own account, they talked no- 
thing but metaphysics. Chesterfield returned 
home in November 1741, and at once resumed 
the war on Walpole. Within a few months 
his triumph was assured. On 11 Feb. 1742 
W 7 alpole resigned office, and was called up to 
the House of Lords as the Earl of Orford. 

Chesterfield's share of responsibility for 
W T alpole's fall was very large. But his cynical 
temper discounted any enthusiasm for him- 
self on the part of those with whom he had 
been acting, and with Pulteney and Carteret, 
two of his chief allies in the strife, he was 
wholly out of sympathy. The king was ill- 
disposed to him. The new ministry, of which 
Spencer Compton, earl of Wilmington, was 
the nominal head, was controlled by Car- 
teret, whose Hanoverian leanings were re- 
pudiated by Chesterfield. Consequently he 



Stanhope 

was not invited to join the government. He 
professed satisfaction, and urged the new go- 
vernment to press their advantage over W 7 al- 
pole to the uttermost. When Walpole took 
his seat in the House of Lords, Chesterfield 
somewhat sardonically wished him joy, but 
at the same time supported the bill indemni- 
fying witnesses who should give evidence 
before the committee of secrecy that had 
been appointed to inquire into Sir Robert 
Walpole's conduct in office. The bill was 
thrown out by the upper house. 

Thenceforth Chesterfield declared himself 
to be ' still in opposition.' In November 
1742, when he attended the king's Iev6e, 
he had ' a long laughing conversation ' with 
Orford, who was not sorry that his successors 
in office should feel the sting of Chesterfield's 
tongue. At the opening of the next session 
(1743) Chesterfield opposed the address to 
the crown. On 1 Feb. he denounced with 
fiery sarcasm the government's proposal to 
take Hanoverian troops into British pay, and 
talked of ' the dirty mercenary schemes of 
pretended patriots and avowed profligates.' 
He expressed himself even more bitingly in 
the newspapers. On 5 Feb. 1743 there ap- 
peared a new periodical, called ' Old Eng- 
land, or the Constitutional Journal.' To the 
first and third numbers Chesterfield contri- 
buted letters signed ' Geffery Broadbottom,* 
and effectively complained that, though the 
men were changed, the measures remained 
the same. A popular anonymous pamphlet, 
' The Case of the Hanover Forces in the Pay 
of Great Britain examined,' which passed 
through three editions in 1743, was attri- 
buted to the joint pens of Chesterfield and 
Edmund Waller. An answer by Sir Robert 
Walpole's eldest brother called forth from 
Chesterfield and his colleague two further 
tracts, ' A Vindication ' and ' A Further 
Vindication' of their position. A sequel, 
' The Interest of Hanover steadily pursued 
since the Accession] ... by Broad-bottom/ 
was assigned to Chesterfield alone. On 
loFeb. Chesterfield attacked Carteret's ' gin ' 
bill, which altered the duties on spirituous 
liquors and imposed licenses on the retailers. 
He argued that the proposed changes would 
encourage drunkenness (the report in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' for November was 
contributed by Johnson, who claimed to 
have invented it). Ten bishops joined Ches- 
terfield in the same lobby, ' and made him 
fear,' he said, ' he was on the wrong side 
of the question. He was unaccustomed to 
divide with so many lawn sleeves.' But the 
opposition was in a minority, and the bills 
were carried. 

On the death of Wilmington, in July 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



1743, Henry Pelham became prime minister ; 
but Carteret remained in the ministry, and 
Chesterfield pursued him with much the 
same rancour as he had pursued Walpole. In 
the House of Lords he was now the acknow- 
ledged leader of the opposition, and played 
much the same role there that Pitt was 
playingin the Houseof Commons. In January 
1744 he supported the proposal to discon- 
tinue the pay to the Hanoverian troops. 

* The crown of three kingdoms,' he said, 
'was shrivelled beneath an electoral cap.' 
To one outside observer Chesterfield's stre- 
nuous hostility to George II and his go- 
vernment had given unalloyed satisfaction. 
The Dowager Duchess of Marlborough had 
watched with enthusiasm the action of 
Chesterfield in the lords and Pitt in the com- 
mons, and when she died, on 17 Oct. 1744, 
she left Chesterfield a legacy of 20,000/. 

* out of the great regard she had for his 
merit, and the infinite obligations she re- 
ceived from him on account of his opposition 
to the ministry.' Pitt, on the same ground, 
received 10,000/. 

In the autumn of 1744 long-pending dis- 
sensions in the cabinet came to a head. 
Pelham and the Duke of Newcastle resolved 
to drive Carteret from office, and approached 
Chesterfield with a view to his co-operation. 
Although Carteret had the king's full confi- 
dence, he felt it useless to resist the com- 
bined attack, and on 24 Nov. 1744 he re- 
signed the seals. His friends followed his 
example. Thereupon, in accordance with 
Chesterfield's known views, a new admini- 
stration was formed of members drawn from 
both the whig and tory parties. It was at 
once christened, after the pseudonym that he 
had invented, the ' Broad-bottom admini- 
stration.' Pelham retained his place as prime 
minister, and the king was reluctantly com- 
pelled to confer on Chesterfield the high office 
of lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Before he took 
up that post the government resolved to send 
him on an important diplomatic mission to 
The Hague, where his name was still favour- 
ably remembered. The king was with diffi- 
culty ' brought to give him a parting audience.' 
It did not last forty-five seconds. 'You 
have received your instructions, my lord,' 
was all that was said. Chesterfield's appoint- 
ment bore date 12 Jan. 1745. His instruc- 
tions were to induce the Dutch to join in 
the war of the Austrian succession, and to 
determine the number of troops they would 
supply. The French envoy, the Abb6 de la 
Ville,was at The Hague before Chesterfield; 
but Chesterfield, while treating him with the 
utmost ease and politeness, successfully com- 
pleted the negotiations in his country's in- 



terest. Their course can be traced in detail in 
Chesterfield's correspondence with the Duke 
of Newcastle and Lord Harrington, the secre- 
tary of state, now in the British Museum 
(ERNST, pp. 219-39). Chesterfield returned 
home at the end of May, prepared to in- 
augurate his reign in Ireland. 

Chesterfield arrived in Dublin in July, 
and, although his viceroyalty lasted only 
eight months, it proved him to be a tactful 
and enlightened statesman. His character 
had affinity to that of the Irish people, and 
he viewed them sympathetically. When he 
arrived the Scottish rebellion of 1745 was 
imminent ; but while urging on the govern- 
ment in London the most rigorous measures 
of repression in England and Scotland, and 
neglecting no precaution to stay the possible 
spread of the contagion to Ireland, he was 
not surprised by panic into one needless act 
of coercion. With happy ridicule he dis- 
couraged the rumours of popish risings. 
Ireland, he said, had much more to fear from 
her poverty than her popery, and Miss Am- 
brose, the reigning beauty in Dublin society, 
to whom he addressed some witty flattery 
in verse, was the only dangerous papist he 
knew of [see PALMEE, ELEANOR, LADY]. He 
firmly refused to follow the precedent of 1715, 
when all the catholic chapels were closed 
during the Jacobite outbreak, and to his 
prudent counsels must be attributed Ire- 
land's tranquillity at a time when England 
and Scotland were torn by civil war (LECKY, 
Hist, of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 
i. 460-1). The main objects of his govern- 
ment were to raise the material prosperity 
of the country and to distribute public 
patronage in the public interest. ' He wished,' 
he wrote, ' to be remembered by the name of 
the Irish lord-lieutenant.' With the land- 
lords he disavowed all sympathy, and ridi- 
culed their improvidence and extravagant 
consumption of claret. He declared that 
' the poor people in Ireland ' were worse 
used than negroes by their lords and mas- 
ters, ' and their deputies of deputies of 
deputies.' He sought to relieve public dis- 
tress by undertaking public works. The 
planting of Phrenix Park was one of his 
projects. 

On 23 April 1746 he left Ireland on leave 
of absence, and a long illness prevented his 
return. He had not entirely recovered in 
September. But the ministry stood in need 
of his active help, and the king was growing 
better disposed towards him. Chesterfield's 
position compelled him outwardly to sup- 
port the court, and in February 1746 a cari- 
caturist represented him along with Pitt as 
receiving a reprimand for his complaisance 



Stanhope 



3 



Stanhope 



from the mouth of the Duchess of Marl- 
borough, who reproached him with her gift 
of 20,000/. The king gave conspicuous 
proof of his reviving confidence by sanc- 
tioning an exchange of offices between Ches- 
terfield and William Stanhope, first earl of 
Harrington [q. v.], who was vacating the 
post of secretary of state for the northern 
department. While lamenting the trans- 
ference from an easy to a laborious employ- 
ment, Chesterfield resigned the lord-lieu- 
tenancy of Ireland to Harrington, and entered 
on the duties of secretary of state on 29 Oct. 
1746. 

The good terms which had hitherto sub- 
sisted between Chesterfield and the Duke of 
Newcastle did not long survive his acceptance 
of the new office. The duke was almost as 
iealous as Walpole of brilliant colleagues, 
and a difference of opinion during 1747 on 
foreign policy led to a breach between 
Chesterfield and himself. Chesterfield was 
anxious to bring the continental war to 
a close, but his efforts were frustrated by 
the duke's secret correspondence in an op- 
posite sense with Lord Sandwich, pleni- 
potentiary at The Hague. Reports of Ches- 
terfield's retirement were soon abroad. On 
26 Jan. 1748 he wrote to his friend Solo- 
mon Dayrolles [q. v.], ' I can no longer con- 
tinue in a post in which it is well known 
that I am but a commis, and in which I have 
not been able to do any one service to any 
one man, though ever so meritorious, lest I 
should be supposed to have any power, and 
my colleague not the whole.' He meant, he 
added, ' no sullen retirement from the world, 
but would indulge his ease and preserve his 
character.' His colleagues entreated him 
to hold on (cf. Bedford Correspondence, 1846, 
i. 206; Marchmont Papers, i. 262). But, 
ignoring their appeals, he resigned the seals 
in February 1748. The king parted with him 
reluctantly. A dukedom was offered him 
and was declined, but on his own initiative 
George II made his brother John a commis- 
sioner of the admiralty. His views of the 
policy of the government were set forth with 
some asperity in ' An Apology for a late Re- 
signation, in a Letter from an English Gen- 
tleman to his Friend at The Hague.' The pam- 
phlet reached a fourth edition before the end 
of the year (1748). According to Walpole, 
the tract was by Lord Marchmont writing 
in concert with Chesterfield. Chesterfield 
protested to Dayrolles, then at The Hague, 
that he could not so much as guess at the 
author ; but his ignorance was perhaps as- 
sumed to anticipate inspection of the letter 
at the post office. There is little doubt that 
it was written under his inspiration. A war 



of pamphlets followed, in which Chesterfield 
was severely handled by the partisans of the 
Pelhams (cf. ' An Answer from a Gentle- 
man at The Hague ... in regard to a late Re- 
signation ; ' ' The Resignation Discussed ; ' 
' An impartial Review of two Pamphlets 
lately published : one intituled An Apology 
for a late Resignation, the other The Resig- 
nation Discussed ; ' and ' An Apologetical 
Discourse for a late celebrated Apology, 
shewing the real end and design of that 
treatise. Written by the real author of the 
Apology,' all 1748). 

With his resignation of the secretaryship 
of state Chesterfield's official life came to an 
end. He had done, he said, with ' the hurry 
and plague of business, either in or out of 
court.' Thenceforth he rarely appeared in 
the political arena, and held severely aloof 
from party strife. But as a serene spectator 
he maintained a lively interest in politics, 
and retained much personal influence in 
political circles. In December 1750, accord- 
ing to Horace Walpole, he was offered the 
presidency of the council. He declined it 
on the score of deafness, but early next year 
he disinterestedly intervened in the business 
of parliament with marked effect. At the 
instance of George Parker, second earl of 
Macclesfield [q. v.],the virtual author of the 
change, he convinced himself of the need of a 
reformation of the calendar. Despite an ap- 
peal from the Duke of Newcastle not to stir 
matters that had long been quiet, he brought 
a bill on the subject into the House of Lords 
(20 Feb. 1751). He spoke by rote some 
astronomical jargon of which he admitted 
he did not understand a word, although he 
felt proud of its harmonious periods. On 
18 March he moved the second reading, and 
Macclesfield explained its objects. The bill, 
which passed through both houses without 
opposition, was received in the country with 
a roar of disapproval. But the popular hos- 
tility was directed chiefly against Maccles- 
field and his family. George II continued to 
treat Chesterfield with consideration, and in 
May 1755 consulted him on the allowance 
to be made his grandson, Prince George, the 
heir-apparent. On 10 Dec. 1755 he made his 
last speech in the House of Lords. In ac- 
cordance with the views of foreign policy he 
had long held, he denounced the main- 
tenance of subsidy treaties with Prussia 
and Hesse-Cassel by which England's in- 
terests were, in his opinion, subordinated to 
those of Hanover. He spoke for nearly an 
hour ; but the effort exhausted him, and as 
soon as his speech ended he left the house, 
never to address it again. 

During the ministerial crisis of 1757 Ches- 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



terfield was called on to play a congenial 
part behind the scenes. The king was pro- 
nouncedly hostile to Pitt, whose presence in 
the ministry was inevitable. Newcastle re- 
fused to serve with Pitt, and the formation 
of a government that would be tolerated by 
the king consequently seemed impossible. 
Chesterfield's good offices were enlisted in 
bringing about a compromise. Lord Bute, 
at the suggestion of the court, privately 
invited him to overcome Newcastle's ob- 
jections to take office with Pitt. The 
difficult task needed all Chesterfield's tact. 
With neither Pitt nor Newcastle had he 
been of late on cordial terms, but on 29 June, 
largely owing to his power of persuasion, 
the difficulties were surmounted, and New- 
castle became nominal prime minister, with 
Pitt as the leading spirit of the government 
(cf. WALPOLE, George II, ii. 224 ; Newcastle 
Papers, Addit. MS. 32871). This proved 
Chesterfield's final incursion into practical 
politics, but he still corresponded with New- 
castle and others on political topics. Sub- 
sequently from the vantage-ground of his 
retirement he viewed with all Chatham's 
disgust the government's attempts to tax 
the American colonies. He hotly condemned 
England's appeal to coercion. ' For my 
part,' he sagaciously wrote in 1765, ' I never 
saw a froward child mended by whipping, 
and I would not have the mother-country 
become a stepmother.' 

But from the date of his resignation of 
office in 1748 till his death twenty-five 
years later, politics was the smallest of 
Chesterfield's interests. The same night on 
which he gave up his seals he resumed his 
practice long interrupted by political pre- 
occupations of gambling at White's Club in 
St. James's Street, of which he and his 
brother William were for many years promi- 
nent members, and where his witticisms 
were long remembered. But he soon aban- 
doned play ; and when, about 1755, he 
learned that George Selwyn gave him at the 
club the nickname of Joe Miller he ceased to 
attend. In 1770 he directed his name to be 
struck off. His chief recreations were less 
exceptionable. ' My horse, my books, and 
my friends will divide my time pretty equally,' 
he told Dayrolles, when he withdrew from 
political office. He desired to enjoy ' the only 
real comforts in the latter end of life quiet, 
liberty, and health.' All the happiness that 
wealth could bring him lay at his disposal. 
He spent time and money in building 
Chesterfield House in South Audley Street, 
Mayfair, which was completed in 1749 from 
the plans of Isaac Ware [cf. WALPOLE, 
Letters, ii. 279). The pillars for the hall 



and staircase were purchased from the 
Duke of Chandos's mansion at Canons, and 
much attention was bestowed on the garden. 
An interesting print of the imposing exterior 
in Palladian style from a drawing by Eyre 
was published in 1750 (cf. reproduction in 
CHESTERFIELD, Letters to his Godson, 1890, 
ed. Carnarvon). The house is still standing, 
and is the residence of Lord Burton, although 
the streets known as Chesterfield Street and 
Chesterfield Gardens have been built over 
parts of the garden and the site of the out- 
buildings (cf. WHEATLEY and CUNNING- 
HAM'S London). The gallery of pictures at 
Chesterfield House, Chesterfield wrote to 
Dayrolles on 4 Nov. 1748, was nearly com- 
plete ; only two or three great masters were 
unrepresented. The death of his brother John 
in December 1748 meanwhile increased his 
resources. He received under the will 30,OOOA 
for life and a villa at Blackheath. There, too, 
he built a gallery, and the fine garden, where 
melons and pineapples throve, inspired him 
with a ' furor hortensis.' Attacks of rheu- 
matic gout rendered visits to Bath, Spa, and 
like resorts often necessary. In May 1752 
a fall from his horse in Hyde Park tem- 
porarily crippled him. But his most serious 
trouble was increasing deafness. After try- 
ing every manner of remedy, he wrote on 
16 Nov. 1753 to Dayrolles that cure was oufe 
of the question. The disability gradually 
withdrew him from society, but he bore his 
isolation cheerfully. ' He did not lose the 
power of hearing,' he wrote, ' till after he 
had very nearly lost the desire of it,' and 
he found consolation in increased devotion 
to literature. He wrote much on literary 
and social topics in the ' World ' newspaper. 
He penned a pungent series of ' characters ' 
of his contemporaries which was published 
posthumously. Walpole believed that he 
made some progress with some 'Memoirs of 
his own Time,' but burnt his notes ' a little 
before his death, being offended at Sir John 
Dalrymple's history, and saying he would 
leave no materials for aspersing great names.' 
He maintained close relations by corre- 
spondence with friends in France, including 
Voltaire, and leaders of intellectual society 
in Paris like Madame du Monconseil and 
Madame du Bocage. In August 1755 he was 
elected, much to his gratification, a member 
of the Academy of Inscriptions at Paris. 
But reading in his own library was his most 
satisfying resource. On 22 Nov. 1757 he 
wrote : ' I read with more pleasure than 
ever, perhaps because it is the only pleasure 
I have left. . . . Solid folios are the people 
of business with whom I converse in the 
morning. Quartos, not quarts pardon the 



Stanhope 2 

quibble are the easier mixed company 
with whom I sit after dinner, and I 
pass my evenings in the light and often 
frivolous chit-chat of small octavos and 
duodecimos.' 

Patronage of literature, another of Chester- 
field's diversions, involved him in greater 
embarrassments. The bricklayer-poet, Henry 
Jones (1721-1770) [q. v.], who ^welcomed 
him with a poem to Ireland in 1745, was a 
typical protege. In 1748 Chesterfield invited 
him to London; interested himself in the 
collection of subscriptions for a volume of 
his poems; induced Colley Cibber to procure 
the production of Jones's ' Earl of Essex ' at 
Covent Garden Theatre ; aided Cibber in a 
thorough revision of the play, with a view 
to making its success a certainty; and 
finally, having rendered the poor man in- 
tolerably vain and self-indulgent, cast him 
off on finding him borrowing money of one of 
his servants. But genuine kindly sentiment 
underlay his relations with men of letters (cf. 
JAMES HAMMOND, Love Elegies, 1743, with 
Chesterfield's preface) . He corresponded on 
equal terms with George Faulkner (1699 ?- 
1775) [q.v.], the Dublin bookseller; and the 
discredit which he incurred in the charac- 
ter of a patron at Dr. Johnson's vigorous 
hand seems ill deserved. In 1747 Johnson, 
at the suggestion of the publisher Dodsley, 
addressed to Chesterfield the prospectus of 
his 'Dictionary.' Apparently Chesterfield, 
who was secretary of state at the time, and 
had long been ' the butt of dedications,' made 
no acknowledgment beyond sending Johnson 
10J. When the ' Dictionary ' was on the eve 
of publication Chesterfield contributed anony- 
mously to the ' World ' two anticipatory eulo- 
gies (28 Nov. and 5 Dec. 1754). The story 
that Dr. Johnson had previously called upon 
Chesterfield, and had been kept waiting 
in the ante- chamber while Cibber was ad- 
mitted without delay, was long current, 
but was denied by Johnson himself. John- 
son had expected encouragement from Ches- 
terfield while the heavy work was in pro- 
gress, and resented conventional compli- 
ments when the labour was successfully ac- 
complished. On 7 Feb. 1755 he addressed 
to the earl the famous letter in which, while 
expressing his resentment, he made a manly 
stand in behalf of literary independence. 
Chesterfield characteristically affected indif- 
ference to the rebuke. When Dodsley called 
on him soon afterwards, Johnson's epistle lay 
upon his table, ' where anybody might see it. 
He read it to me,' wrote Dodsley ; ' said this 
man has great powers, pointed out the 
severest passages, and observed how well 
they were expressed.' Johnson, he added, 



Stanhope 



would be always more than Avelcome, and 
had he ever been denied admission, it was 
solely due to the ignorance of a servant. 
Chesterfield bore Johnson no malice, and 
there is little ground for identifying Johnson 
with the ' respectable Hottentot ' described 
by Chesterfield in his ' Letters ' (iii. 129). 
Chesterfield doubtless there aimed at George, 
first lord Lyttelton [q. v.] 

Literature never wholly absorbed Chester- 
field. Throughout the concluding half of 
his life his most serious interest was the 
education and the advancement in life of his 
natural son Philip. When the boy was 
barely five (in 1737) Chesterfield opened a 
correspondence with him, which he con- 
tinued with scrupulous regularity so long as 
his son lived. At first he sent him elaborate 
essays, often both in French and English, on 
classical history, mythology, and composi- 
tion. He never, when in office, allowed the 
business of state to delay the almost daily 
task. When he was free from political cares, 
and the boy had become a youth, he for- 
warded to him carefully considered instruc- 
tion in all branches of learning on a scheme 
devised to make his pupil a reputable man of 
the world. Chesterfield wished him, he wrote 
(Letters, i. 108), ' as near perfection as pos- 
sible. Never were so much pains taken for 
anybody's education, and never had anybody 
so many opportunities for knowledge and 
improvement.' Michael Maittaire [q. v.] was 
young Philip's Latin tutor in his early years, 
and Maittaire was succeeded in 1745 by 
Walter Harte [q. v.], who accompanied him 
and another youth, Edward Eliot (after- 
wards Lord Eliot) [q. v.], on an extended 
foreign tour through Holland, Germany, and 
Switzerland, winding up in Paris in 1751. 
Although Philip developed into a good- 
natured and sensible man, he was by nature 
incapable of assimilating any graces of man- 
ner. But Chesterfield's genuine affection 
rendered him tolerant of all defects. From 
August to November 1751 the young man 
stayed with his father, who expressed satis- 
faction with the extent of his knowledge 
and goodness of his heart. He believed 
that a further sojourn in Paris was all that 
was needed to give his deportment the polish 
it lacked. Chesterfield exerted all his in- 
fluence to secure for the youth a promising 
start in the career of diplomacy which he 
had designed for him. Already, in 1751, he 
induced Lord Albemarle to give him some 
employment at the embassy in Paris. In 
the spring of 1752, when Philip left Paris 
for Hanover, Chesterfield wrote (15 May) 
to the Duke of Newcastle, secretary of state 
then in attendance on the king, begging, in 



Stanhope 



33 



Stanhope 



the young man's behalf, a post as secretary 
of legation, even without salary. The duke 
was ' excessively kind and friendly,' and 
promised the residency at Venice. But 
when, in October 1752, Philip was Dayrolles's 
guest at Brussels, and it was arranged that 
he should be presented at court to Prince 
Charles of Lorraine, a difficulty was urged 
on the score of his illegitimacy. To Chester- 
field's chagrin, this for a time proved a 
genuine bar. In the spring of 1753 Philip 
came to London to attend the levees, and 
Chesterfield's reminder to Newcastle of the 
promise of the post at Venice was met with 
the rebuff that the king objected on the 
ground of his birth (30 June). Some com- 
pensation was found in his election to par- 
liament for Liskeard by the influence of his 
friends the Eliots in April 1754. Next year, 
under his father's careful coaching, he made 
his maiden speech on the address to the 
throne, but he was too shy to repeat the ex- 
perience. In September 1756 he was ap- 
pointed resident at Hamburg. He performed 
the duties of his office adequately. In Fe- 
bruary 1761 he was re-elected M.P. for St. 
Germans, but resigned the seat in 1765 at 
the earnest request of the patron, Edward 
Eliot, who compensated him with a money 
payment. Meanwhile, in June 1763, he 
was sent as envoy to the diet at Ratisbon, 
and early in 1764 he resigned his post at 
Hamburg to become resident minister at 
Dresden. He still maintained his close rela- 
tions both epistolary and personal with 
his father, whose anxiety for his success was 
as keen as ever. But at the end of 1768 
the long intercourse was closed by death. 
Philip had for some years suffered in health. 
In November 1768 he obtained leave of ab- 
sence from Dresden to visit Avignon. On 
16 Nov. he died there. Severely as Chester- 
field must in any case have felt the blow, 
his sufferings were aggravated by the cir- 
cumstance that the communication which 
brought the sad tidings revealed the fact 
that young Stanhope had been long secretly 
married, and had left on his father's hands a 
widow (Eugenia) and two sons. For nearly 
twenty years had Chesterfield plied his son 
with all the sagacious worldly wisdom that 
his own experience suggested respecting the 
affairs of gallantry and the dubious rela- 
tions with the opposite sex which became a 
man of fashion. Very galling was the irony 
of the revelation that Philip had furtively 
taken refuge from the perils of polite in- 
trigue in matrimony of no brilliant type. 
Chesterfield bore the shock with exemplary 
coolness. Despite the secret marriage with 
an unattractive woman of undistinguished 
VOL. LIV. 



position, the memory of his dead son re- 
mained dear to him, and he gave proofs of the 
strength of his parental affection by sending 
his grandchildren to a good school and corre- 
sponding on amiable terms with the widow. 

Happily for Chesterfield's peace of mind, 
he had already made himself responsible for 
the education of another young kinsman, 
also named Philip Stanhope his godson, 
distant cousin, and the presumptive heir to 
the earldom (see ad fin.) In 1 759, when this 
boy was four, Chesterfield told the father that 
he intended to treat him as a grandson. Be- 
tween 28 July 1761 and 19 June 1770, while 
the youth was passing from his sixth to his 
fifteenth year, Chesterfield addressed to him 
a series of affectionate letters 236 are ex- 
tant in which he offered him, in much the 
same manner as he had written to his natural 
son, all the counsels likely, in his opinion, 
to insure his fitness for the dignities that 
awaited him. 

Ill-health occasionally disturbed Chester- 
field's equanimity during his last ten years, 
when, in his own words, ' he was hobbling 
on to his journey's end.' But his native 
gaiety of temperament was only at times 
overcast. When asked in his dying days 
how his friend and contemporary Lord Ty- 
rawley did, he remarked, ' Tyrawley and I 
have been dead these two years, but we do 
not choose to have it known.' In the au- 
tumn of 1772 he completely broke down. 
At the end of September he left Blackheath 
for London so as to be near his favourite 
physician, Dr. Warren. During the next six 
months life gradually left him, and he died 
at Chesterfield House on 24 March 1773 in 
his seventy-ninth year. Within half an 
hour of the end his friend Dayrolles visited 
the sick chamber, and the earl's dying words 
were ' Give Dayrolles a chair.' His good 
breeding, remarked the physician in atten- 
dance, onlv quitted him with his life. His 
remains were removed to Audley Street 
chapel, and thence to Shelford for burial. 
His widow, with whom he had long been on 
merely formal terms, died on 16 Sept. 1778. 

In Chesterfield's will, dated 4 June 1772, 
and proved April 1773, he admitted that he 
had had an uncommon share of the pompous 
follies of this life, and deprecated a pompous 
funeral. The expenses were not to exceed 
100/., and he was to be buried in the next 
burying-place to where he died. He devised 
practically all his property to his godson 
Philip, and offered him characteristic warn- 
ings. He was by ' no means [to] go into 
Italy ... the foul sink of illiberal manners 
and vices.' He was to forfeit 51. to the dean 
and chapter of Westminster if he ever was 

D 



Stanhope 



34 



Stanhope 



concerned in the keeping of any racehorse 
or pack of hounds, or visited Newmarket 
while the races were in progress there, or lost 
in any one day oOOl. by gambling or betting. 
For Mile, du Bouchet, the mother of his 
son, who survived him, he had already made 
ample provision, but he left her 500/. ' as a 
small reparation for the injury I did her.' 
To such of his servants as had lived with him 
for five years or upwards he left two years' 
full wages, remarking that he regarded them 
as ' unfortunate friends, my equals by nature 
and my inferiors only by the difference of 
our fortunes.' One of Chesterfield's execu- 
tors was his literary protegS, Matthew Maty 
[q. v.], who wrote his biography. 

Chesterfield incurred the dislike of three of 
the most influential writers of his day Dr. 
Johnson, Horace Walpole, and Lord Hervey 
(Queen Caroline's friend). Their hostile esti- 
mates have injured his posthumous reputa- 
tion, and inspired Dickens's ruthless carica- 
ture of him as Sir John Chester in 'Barnaby 
Rudge.' Chesterfield's achievements betray 
a brilliance of intellectual gifts and graces 
which discourages in the critic any desire to 
exaggerate his deficiency in moral principle. 
In matter and manner in delicate raillery 
and in refinement of gesture his speeches 
in parliament were admitted to be admi- 
rable by his foes. Horace Walpole declared 
on 15 Dec. 1743 that the finest speech he 
ever listened to was one from Chesterfield. 
Lord Hervey expressed himself to similar 
effect, although he entered the caveat : ' As 
Lord Chesterfield never could, or at least 
never did, speak, but prepared, and from 
dissertations he had written down in his 
closet and got by heart, he never made any 
figure in a reply, nor was his manner of 
speaking like debating, but declaiming ' 
(HERVEY, ii. 341). His pointed enunciation 
of wise political principles made him a libe- 
ralising influence in English politics. Of his 
political sagacity his prophecy of the coming 
French revolution is a familiar example. On 
15 April 1752 he wrote that he noticed a 
tendency in France ' to what we call here 
revolution principles.' At the end of 1753, 
after describing the condition of French 
society, he added : ' All the symptoms which 
I have ever met with in history previous to 
great changes and revolutions in government 
now exist and daily increase in France ' 
(CHESTERFIELD, Letters, ii. 318, 319). Sainte- 
Beuve notes that Chesterfield's insight into 
French character has rarely been surpassed, 
and that he summarised the whole spirit of 
French political history when he told Mon- 
tesquieu, ' Your parliaments can make barri- 
cades, but can never erect barriers ' (' Vos 



parlements pourront bien faire encore des 
barricades, mais ils ne feront jamais de bar- 
riere,' Suard in Bior/raphie Universelle). His 
apophthegms on English politics were no 
less to the purpose. ' If the people of Eng- 
land wish,' he said, ' to prevent the Pretender 
from obtaining the crown, they should make 
him elector of Hanover, for they would never 
fetch another king from there.' Johnson's 
censure of Chesterfield, that he thought him 
' a lord among wits,' whereas he discovered 
him to be ' a wit among lords,' has no better 
warrant than his sneer in regard to Chester- 
field's letters to his son, that ' they teach the 
morals of a whore and the manners of a 
dancing-master.' 

Chesterfield embodied in rare completeness 
the characteristics of a shrewd man of the 
world of one who had 'been behind the 
scenes both of pleasure and business.' He 
avowed no rule of conduct outside the urbane 
conventions of polite society. The town 
alone had charm for him ; the country and 
country pursuits were graceless superfluities. 
He argued that the real business of life was 
the subordination of natural instincts to 
those external refinements of manner which 
were recognised as good breeding in the 
capitals of civilised Europe, and especially in 
the Parisian salons. But the practice of his 
philosophy did not demand the repression of 
all individual tastes, as his confessed dislike 
of music, the opera, and fashionable field- 
sports abundantly proves. Chesterfield's 
worldliness was in point of fact tempered 
by native common-sense, by genuine parental 
affections, and by keen appreciation of, and 
capacity for, literature. Even in his unedi- 
fying treatment of the relations of the sexes 
his solemn warnings against acts which for- 
feit self-respect or provoke scandal destroyed 
most of the deleterious effect of the cynical 
principles on which he took his stand. No- 
! where did Chesterfield inculcate an incon- 
siderate gratification of selfish desires. Very 
sternly did he rebuke pride of birth or inso- 
lence in the treatment of servants and de- 
pendents. His habitual text was the neces- 
sity from prudential motives of self-control 
and of respect for the feeling of others. As 
a writer he reached the highest levels of 
grace and perspicuity, and as a connoisseur 
of literature he was nearly always admirable. 
His critical taste was seen to best advan- 
tage in his notices of classical writers. 

Despite the ' exquisitely elegant ' manner 
which even Johnson detected in Chesterfield, 
his personal appearance was not attractive. 
In youth he was known from his short 
stature as ' the little Lord Stanhope.' ' He 
was a stunted giant,' wrote Lord Hervey, 



Stanhope 



35 



Stanhope 



doubtless with some spiteful exaggeration ; 
* he had a person as disagreeable as it was 
possible for a human being to be without 
being deformed, and a broad rough-featured 
ugly face with black teeth and a head big 
enough for a Polyphemus.' 

Portraits of Chesterfield are numerous. 
The most interesting from an artistic point 
of view is that by Gainsborough, which was 
painted in 1769, and was presented by Ches- 
terfield to the second Earl Stanhope, whose 
descendant's property it remains at Cheven- 
ing. It represents him wearing the star and 
ribbon of the Garter. The expression is 
cynical. It has often been engraved by 
Edward Bell, by Chambers, and by W. Great- 
bach, and others. A second painting, in the 
robes of a K.G., by William Hoare, R.A., 
now in the National Portrait Gallery, Lon- 
don, has also been frequently engraved by 
Andrew Miller in 1746, by R. Houston, 
J. K. Sherwin, J. Brooks, and others. A 
third by Allan Ramsay, also in the National 
Portrait Gallery, was engraved by J. K. 
Sherwin in 1777. A fourth painting, by 
T. Uwins, was engraved by H. R. Cooke. 
A fifth portrait, by Thomas Hudson, belongs 
to the Duke of Fife. Bartolozzi executed an 
engraving ad viirum. There is a caricature 
by Ryall in which Diogenes shows Chester- 
field ' as an honest man.' A pencil sketch 
by T. Worlidge of Chesterfield seated at a 
table with his friend, Richard Lumley, third 
earl of Scarborough, is reproduced in Ches- 
terfield's ' Letters to his Godson ' (1890, ed. 
Carnarvon). A bust by Joseph Wilton [q.v.l, 
bequeathed by Sir Thomas Robinson [q. v.J, 
stands in the entrance-hall of the British 
Museum. 

In his lifetime Chesterfield authorised the 
publication of only the few political tracts 
and the contributions to the periodical press, 
chiefly in ' Common Sense,' 1737-9, and the 
' World,' 1753-6, which have been already 
mentioned. But unauthorised collections of 
his witticisms in prose and verse were made 
before his death in ' The New Foundling 
Hospital for Wit,' London, 1768-71, 6 pts. 
(3rd edit. 1771), and in 'The Humours of 
the Times,' 1771. Most of these reappeared 
in ' Lord Chesterfield's Witticisms ' (with 
unauthentic ' memoirs of his lordship '), 
12mo, London, 1773; and in 'Wit a-la- 
mode, or, Lord Chesterfield's Witticisms,' 
12mo, London, 1778. 

Chesterfield's 'Letters' to his natural 
son were prepared for publication by the 
son's widow within a year of Chesterfield's 
death. She sold them to Dodsley for 1,500/. 
The earl's surviving representatives vainly 
endeavoured to stop the publication by 



applying for an injunction. The title ran: 
' Letters written by the Earl of Chesterfield 
to his Son, Philip Stanhope, together with 
several other pieces on various subjects, 
published by Mrs. Eugenia Stanhope,' 2 vols. 
4to, London, 1774. The work attained im- 
mediate popularity. A fifth edition in four 
volumes (8vo) appeared within a year. An 
independent Dublin reprint of 1776 embodied 
some important additions. Dodsley issued a 
' Supplement' in 1787, and the original ver- 
sion reached its eleventh edition in 1800. A 
French translation in five volumes (12mo) 
was issued at Paris in 1775, and a German 
translation by J. G. Gellius in six volumes 
(8vo) at Leipzig, 1774-6. An American 
reprint in two 16mo volumes appeared at 
Newbury-Port, Boston, in 1779. 

Severe criticisms of Chesterfield's world- 
liness, of his relations with Johnson or of his 
opinions on the sexual relations, were issued 
by William Crawford and Thomas Hunter 
(both in 1776) ; by Antoine Leonard Tho- 
mas, in defence of F6nelon, in both French 
and English, London, 1777 ; and by Ann 
Berkeley in conjunction with Sir Adam 
Gordon, 2 vols. 1791. More sportive attacks 
figured in ' A Dialogue [in verse] between 

the Earl of C d and Mr. Garrick in the 

Elysian Shades,' 4to, London, 1785 (in praise 
of Dr. Johnson and condemnatory of Ches- 
terfield) ; and in ' Chesterfield Travestie, or 
the School for Modern Manners,' 16mo, Lon- 
don, 1808 (3rd edit. 12mo, London, 1811). 

A collection of other portions of Chester- 
field's correspondence, with authentic me- 
moirs, some of his speeches, and contribu- 
tions to the press, was prepared for publica- 
tion by Maty, but his death intervened, and 
Maty's son-in-law, J. O. Justamond, finally 
issued in 2 vols. in 1777 Chesterfield's ' Mis- 
cellaneous Works, consisting of Letters to 
his Friends, never before printed, and various 
other articles. To which are prefixed Me- 
moirs of his Life,' 2 vols. 4to, London, 1777 ; 
another edit. 3 vols. 8vo, Dublin, 1777. In 
the same year there also appeared ' Letters 
from Lord Chesterfield to Alderman G. 
Faulkner [of Dublin], Dr. Madden, Mr. Sex- 
ton, &c. Being a supplement to his Lord- 
ship's Letters,' 4to, London, 1777 ; and 
' Characters of Eminent Personages of his 
own time [George I, Queen Caroline, Sir 
Robert Walpole. Mr. Pulteney, Lord Hard- 
wicke, Mr. Fox, and Mr. Pitt], written by 
the late Earl of Chester field, and never before 
published,' 8vo, London, 1777; 2nd edit, 
same year. The Faulkner letters with he 
' characters . . . contrasted with characters 
of the same great personages by other re- 
spectable writers ' reappeared together in a 

D 2 



Stanhope 3 

separate volume next year. ' B. W. of the 
Inner Temple' added a third volume to 
Maty's ' Miscellaneous Works ' in the same 
year, which included his political pamphlets 
and poems. All the ' Miscellaneous Works ' 
reappeared in 4 vols. in 1779. 

A further collection of correspondence, 
' Letters written by the Earl of Chesterfield 
to A. C. Stanhope, Esq., relative to the Edu- 
cation of his Lordship's Godson Philip, the 
late Earl,' appeared in London in 1817, 12mo. 
Lord Mahon collected such authentic 
letters and other literary pieces as were 
accessible to him (including many previously 
unpublished) in 5 vols. (1845-53). Another 
collection of like scope was edited by John 
Bradshaw (3 vols.) in 1892. 

Fourteen of Chesterfield's letters to his 
godson were surreptitiously printed in the 
'Edinburgh Magazine and Review' in Fe- 
bruary, March, April, and May 1774. They ' 
were copied into the Dublin edition of the j 
'Letters 'to the earl's natural son in 1776, 
and were there erroneously stated to have 
been addressed to the latter. They reap- 
peared in B. W.'s third volume of Maty's 
' Miscellaneous Works,' 1778 (pp. 1-32), and 
were printed separately, under the title of 
'The Art of Pleasing,' in 1783 (4th edit, 
same year). The originals remained at Bret by 
undisturbed, with more than two hundred 
other letters addressed to the godson, until 
1890. In that year the whole series was 
first edited for publication by Lord Carnar- 
von as 'Chesterfield's Letters to his Godson.' 
There remains a further mass of unpub- 
lished correspondence, chiefly on political 
topics, among the Newcastle papers in the 
British Museum. Extracts are given in 
Mr. Ernst's ' Life ' (1893). Others of Lord 
Chesterfield's letters to Edward Eliot, the 
friend of his natural son, are among Lord 
St. Germans's manuscripts at Port Eliot, 
Cornwall (Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Rep. i. 41). 
Extracts and abridgments of Chesterfield's 
works, chiefly of the ' Letters ' to his son, 
were numerous from the first. They often 
bore fanciful titles, such as ' The Principles 
of Politeness,' 1775 (often reprinted about 
1830 as 'The New Chesterfield') ; 'The Fine 
Gentleman's Etiquette ' (1776) ; ' Some Ad- 
vices on Men and Manners ' (1776) ; ' The 
Elements of a Polite Education, by George 
Gregory, D.D.' (1800) ; and ' Encyclopaedia 
of Manners and Etiquette ' (1850). A useful 
selection, with an admirable critical essay by 
C. A. Sainte-Beuve, appeared, with the title 
of ' Letters and Maxims,' in the ' Bayard 
Series.' The latest selections in English are: 
The Wit and Wisdom of the Earl of Ches- 
terfield: being Selections from his Miscel- 



Stanhope 

laneous Writings in prose and verse,' edited, 
with notes, by W. Ernst Browning, London, 
1875, 8vo ; and ' Lord Chesterfield's Worldly 
Wisdom: Selections from his Letters and 
Characters. Edited by G. Birkbeck Hill,' 
Oxford, 1891, 8vo. A Dutch selection ap- 
peared at Amsterdam in 1786. A German 
epitome was entitled 'Quintessenz der Lebens- 
weisheit und Weltkunst,' Stuttgart, 1885, 
and a Spanish epitome ('cuarta edicion') was 
issued at Caracas, 1841, 16mo. 

The ' Economy of Human Life,' by Robert 
Dodsley [q. v.], was attributed to Chester- 
field in Italian translations by L. Guidelli 
(4th edit, 12mo, Naples, 1780), and by A. G. 
Cairoli (8vo, Milan, 1816) ; in a Portuguese 
translation (8vo, Porto, 1777) ; and in a 
Spanish translation by M. de Junco y Pimen- 
tel (8vo, Madrid, 1755). 

Chesterfield's godson and successor, PHILIP 
STANHOPE, fifth EARL OF CHESTERFIELD 
(1755-1815), baptised on 28 Nov. 1755, was 
only surviving son of Arthur Charles Stan- 
hope (d. 1770) of Mansfield, Nottingham- 
shire, by his second wife, Margaret, daughter 
and coheiress of Charles Headlam of Kirby 
Hall, Yorkshire (his father was son of 
Dr. Michael Stanhope, a great-grandson of 
Philip Stanhope, first earl of Chesterfield 
[q". v.J) His godfather directed his educa- 
tion from the age of four, and took a pro- 
mising view of his abilities. His tutors were 
not selected with much wisdom. When about 
six he went to ' Mr. Robert's boarding house 
in Marylebone.' At eleven he became the 
pupil of the adventurous Dr. William Dodd 
[q. v.] at Whitton, near Isleworth. Dodd 
attracted him, and he subsequently proved 
a generous patron to his tutor ; but that 
worthless schemer forged Chesterfield's name 
in 1777 to a bond for 4,200/., and, on being 
prosecuted, was convicted and hanged. An- 
other of Chesterfield's early tutors was a hack- 
writer, Cuthbert Shaw [q. v.] He came into 
a little property on his father's death in March 
1770, and soon set off on a foreign tour. He 
was studying at Leipzig when his godfather 
! died in 1773, and he inherited the earldom 
and the late earl's large fortune. He had 
then developed characteristics diametrically 
opposed to those which his godfather had 
; hoped to implant in him. If he might be 
! credited with a fair measure of shrewdness 
I and affability, his tastes and manners were 
unaffectedly bucolic. ' How would that 
; quintessence of high ton the late Lord Ches- 
j terfield,' wrote Madame d'Arblay, ' blush to 
j behold his successor, who, with much share of 
humour and good humour, also has as little 
good breeding as any man I ever met with ! ' 
(Diary, \. 92). At court he attracted the 



Stanhope 



37 



Stanhope 



favourable notice of George III, and after- 
wards spent much time with the king at 
Weymouth. His wealth alone and his per- 
sonal relations with the king account for 
the occasional bestowal upon him of political 
office. He was appointed ambassador ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Madrid on 1 Jan. 1784, and was admitted 
to the privy council on 7 Jan. But he 
never went to Madrid, and resigned the 
nominal post in 1787 (Cornwallis Correspon- 
dence, i. 434). On Pitt's nomination he was 
master of the mint from 21 Sept. 1789 to 
20 Jan. 1790, joint postmaster-general from 
12 March 1790, and master of the horse from 
14 Feb. 1798 to 21 July 1804. On 17 Jan. 
1805 he was made K.G. He lived in London 
in some magnificence during the season, and 
had a French cook, Vincent la Chapelle, who 
dedicated to him two manuals of cookery. 
But the country chiefly attracted him. He 
was an enthusiast for hunting, and delighted 
in superintending the operations of his farms. 
But he showed his normal lack of taste in 
pulling down the old mansion of Bretby and 
erecting in its place a modern residence from 
Wyatt's plans. He died at Bretby on 29 Aug. 
1815. Three interesting portraits are at 
Bretby, and are reproduced in Lord Carnar- 
von's ' Letters of the Fourth Earl to his God- 
son,' 1890. One by John Russell (1745-1806) 
[q. v.], painted in 1769, when the earl was 
fourteen, represents him in fancy dress ; the 
second by Gainsborough an admirable pic- 
ture portrays him in hunting dress with a 
dog; in the third, by T. Weaver, he figures 
in a group which consists of his son (after- 
wards the sixth earl), his agent, and a fine 
heifer. Another portrait, by Sir William 
Beechey, was engraved by J. R. Smith (cf. 
BOTJRKE, Hist, of White's, ii. 46). The fifth 
earl was twice married : first, on 16 Sept. 
1777, to Anne, daughter of Thomas Thistle- 
thwaite, D.D., of Norman Court; and se- 
condly, on 2 May 1799, to Henrietta, third 
daughter of Thomas Thynne, first marquis 
of Bath [q. T.] He was succeeded as sixth 
Earl of Chesterfield by his son George Augus- 
tus Frederick (1805-1866) ; the marriage of 
the latter's only daughter, Evelyn (d. 1875), 
with Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 
fourth earl of Carnarvon [q. v.], brought the 
Bretby property on the death of her mother 
in 1885 into the possession of their son, the 
fifth and present Earl of Carnarvon. On the 
death of the sixth earl's only son, George 
Philip Cecil Arthur, seventh earl, unmarried, 
on 1 Dec. 1871, the earldom passed in suc- 
cession to two collateral heirs, George Philip 
Stanhope, eighth earl (1822-1883), and Henry 
E. C. S. Stanhope, ninth earl (1821-1887). 



The latter's son is the tenth and present 
earl. 

[The main authority is Maty's Memoirs pre- 
fixed to Miscellaneous Works, vol. i. 1777. Some 
interesting marginal notes by Horace Walpole 
were printed privately in the Miscellanies of 
the Philobiblon Society, vol. x., 1866. A catch- 
penny 'Life' (1774, 2 vols. 12rao) and three col- 
lections of anecdotes by Samuel Jackson Pratt 
[q. v.], published between 1777 and 1800, are of 
no authenticity. The Memoirs prefixed to Lord 
Mahon's edition of Chesterfield's Works (5 vols. 
1845-53), and to Lord Carnarvon's edition of 
the Letters to his godson, are of value. Some 
further information appears in Abraham Hay- 
ward's short biography (vol. xvii. of the Travel- 
lers' Library), London, 1854, 8vo. But the 
fullest biography is Mr. William Ernst's Memoirs 
. . . with numerous letters, now firbt published 
from the Newcastle Papers (London, 1893, 8vo). 
Other sources, apart from Chesterfield's volu- 
minous correspondence enumerated above, are 
Horace Walpole's Memoirs of the Last Ten Years 
of George II, and his Letters, ed. Cunningham ; 
Suffolk Correspondence, 1824 ; Papers of the 
Earl of Marchmont, 1831 ; Memoirs of George II, 
by Lord Hervey,ed. Croker, 1884 ; Pope's Works, 
ed. Elwin and Conrthope ; Ballantyne's Life of 
Carteret; Jesse's George Selwyn and his Con- 
temporaries ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. Hill ; 
Bedford Correspondence, 1846, ed. Lord John 
Kussell, vol. iii. p. Ixxxii ; Colley Clbber's Apo- 
logy ; Lord Mahon's History of England ; W. P. 
Courtney's Parliamentary Representation of 
Cornwall ; Bourke's History of White's Club. 
A foolish endeavour to place the Letters of 
Junius to the credit of Lord Chesterfield was 
made by William Cramp in several pamphlets 
The Author of Junius discovered in ... Lord 
Chesterfield, 1821 ; Junius and his Works com- 
pared with the Character and Writings of Philip 
Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, 1851 ; 
Fac-simile Autograph Letters of Junius, Lord 
Chesterfield, and Mrs. C. Dayrolles, 1851. 
Cramp's theory was that Chesterfield wrote 
them and Dayrolles's wife copied them. But 
Junius's first letter is dated January 1769, when 
Chesterfield was in his seventy-fifth year, and 
his state of health and habit of mind had, as 
his letters show, long withdrawn him from 
politics (cf. Dilke's Papers of a Critic, 1875, ii. 
140-54).] S. L. 

STANHOPE, PHILIP HENRY, fifth 
EAEL STANHOPE (1805-187-5), historian, born 
at Walmer on 30 Jan. 1805, was the elder 
and only surviving son of Philip Henry 
Stanhope, fourth earl Stanhope, by his wife 
Catherine Lucy, fourth daughter of Robert 
Smith, first baron Carrington [q. v.] Lady 
Hester Lucy Stanhope [q. v.] was his aunt. 
His father, eldest son of Charles Stanhope, 
third earl Stanhope [q. v.1, was born on 
7 Dec. 1781, sat in parliament for Wendover 



Stanhope ; 

in 1806-7, Hull in 1807-12, and Midhurst 
from 1812 till his succession to the peerage 
on 15 Dec. 1816. He was elected F.R.S. on 
8 Jan. 1807, was a president of the Medico- 
Botanical Society, and a vice-president of the 
Society of Arts ; he died on 2 March 1855 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vi. 229, 279, 
295, 417). He inherited his father's eccen- 
tricities, and his adoption of the mysterious 
' wild boy ' of Bavaria, Kaspar Hauser, in 
1832 gave him great notoriety (cf. DUCHESS OF 
CLEVELAND, True Story of Kaspar Hauler, 
1893). His daughter, Catherine Lucy Wil- 
helmina, duchess of Cleveland, is mother of 
the present Earl of Rosebery. 

The son, who was styled Viscount Mahon 
from 1816 till his succession to the peerage, 
was educated privately and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, matriculating on 19 April 1823, and 
graduating B.A. in 1827. In the same year 
he was elected F.R.S. On 30 Aug. 1830 he 
was elected M.P. for Wootton Bassett in the 
conservative interest ; he was re-elected on 
30 April 1831, but by the Reform Act of 
1832 that constituency was disfranchised, 
and on 12 Dec. of that year he was returned j 
for Hertford. He was, however, unseated i 
on petition, but was again successful on i 
7 Jan. 1835. He sat continuously for that I 
borough until 1852, being re-elected in 1837, 
1841, and 1847. On 22 March 1831 he was 
appointed deputy lieutenant of Kent. On 
the same day he delivered his maiden speech 
in parliament, complaining of the misrepre- 
sentation to which the opponents of the 
Reform Bill were subjected, and offering a 
strenuous opposition to the second reading 
of that measure (Hansard, 3rd ser. iii. 719- 
727). Mahon continued his opposition in the 
new parliament which met in June ; on the 
21st of that month he denounced ministers 
for appealing to the country, and on 1 July 
presented a petition of 770 resident bachelors 
and undergraduates at Oxford against the 
bill. On 11 June 1834 he was created D.C.L. 
by the university. During Peel's brief first 
administration December 1834 to April 
1835 Mahon was under-secret ary for foreign 
affairs under the Duke of Wellington, and 
in this capacity he had to face the attacks 
of Palmerston in the House of Commons. 
The fall of the ministry in April left Mahon 
once more at liberty to pursue his literary 
and historical work. On 28 Jan. 1841 he 
was elected F.S.A., of which he served as 
president from 23 April 1846 until his death. 

When Peel returned to office in 1841 
Mahon was not included in the ministry, 
and he now took up with energy Serjeant 
Talfourd's scheme for amending the law of 
copyright [seeTALFouBD, SIR THOMAS NOON]. 



5 Stanhope 

The law then protected an author's work 
either during his lifetime or during a period 
of twenty-eight years. In 1841 Talfourd 
proposed to extend the period to sixty years, 
but Macaulay procured the rejection of this 
proposal by forty-five to thirty-eight votes. 
After Talfourd's death Mahon, on 6 April 
1842, in a speech rich in literary illustration 
(Hansard, 3rd ser. Ixi. 1348-63), introduced 
a bill extending the period to twenty-five 
years after the author's death. Macaulay, 
who followed him, proposed a period of forty- 
two years, or the time of the author's life, 
whichever should prove the longer. Even- 
tually a compromise was arranged, by which 
protection was given either for forty-two 
years or for seven years after the author's 
death, whichever period might prove the 
longer. With this proviso the bill became 
law in the same session (5 & 6 Viet. ch. xlv. ; 
see Annual Register, 1842, pp. 399-404). 

On 4 May 1844 Mahon was appointed a 
commissioner for promoting the fine arts, 
and on 5 Aug. 1845 he became secretary to 
the board of control for India. He followed 
Peel, with whom he was on intimate terms 
privately, in his conversion to free-trade 
principles, voted for the repeal of the corn 
laws, and left office on Peel's overthrow in 
July 1846. Nevertheless he voted with the 
protectionists against the repeal of the navi- 
gation laws in June 1849, and was perhaps- 
in consequence defeated when he sought re- 
election for Hertford in 1852. 

From this time Mahon took little part in 
politics. On 23 April 1846 he had been ap- 
pointed a trustee of the British Museum, 
and from July 1850 he was occupied with 
Cardwell in arranging the papers of Sir 
Robert Peel, who had made them his literary 
executors. On 2 March 1855 he succeeded 
his father as fifth Earl Stanhope ; in the 
same year he became honorary antiquary of 
the Royal Academy of Arts, acted as ex- 
aminer in the new school of jurisprudence 
and modern history at Oxford, and founded 
there the Stanhope prize for undergraduates 
who have not completed sixteen terms from 
matriculation. It is of the annual value of 
20/., to be given in books for an essay on 
some point of modern history, English or 
foreign, within the period 1300-1815 ; in 
the award 'merit of style was to be con- 
sidered, no less than the clearness of the 
reasoning and the accuracy of the facts' 
(Oxford Univ. Cal. 1896, p/63). 

A more important scheme occupied him 
during the following year. On 26 Feb. 1856 
he gave notice of a motion in the House of 
Lords, inviting public attention to the im- 
portance of forming a British national por- 



Stanhope 



39 



Stanhope 



trait gallery. On the following day he wrote 
to the prince consort, who heartily endorsed 
the project. The motion came on on 4 March, 
and was carried through both houses of par- 
liament. On 6 June following a grant of 
2,0001. was voted for the purpose. On 2 Dec. 
a board of trustees was formed, of which 
Stanhope was elected chairman on 9 Feb. 
following. Temporary premises were pro- 
Tided at 29 Great George Street, Westmin- 
ster, and opened on 15 Jan. 1859. In 1869, 
when the collection numbered 288 pictures, 
it was removed to the eastern portion of the 
long building at South Kensington. A fire 
in the neighbouring exhibition in 1885 caused 
its removal to Bethnal Green Museum on 
loan. In May 1889 Mr. "William Alexander 
of Shipton, Andover, offered to build a gallery 
at his own expense, if the government would 
provide a site. This was found at the back 
of the National Gallery, where the present 
National Portrait Gallery, erected at a cost 
of 96,000^., was opened on 4 April 1896. Sir 
George Scharf [q. v.] was first keeper, and 
the collection now (1898) includes over a 
thousand pictures, exclusive of engravings 
(Cat. Nat. Portrait Gallery, 1897, pref. pp. 
iii. et seq.) 

On 1 March 1858 Stanhope was elected 
lord rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen 
University, and in the same year he carried 
a motion through parliament removing from 
the prayer-book the three state services. On 
3 June 1864 he was created LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge, and on 30 Oct. 1867 he was appointed 
first commissioner to inquire into the state 
of the established church in Ireland. In 
1869 it was mainly due to his exertions that 
the historical manuscripts commission was 
formed, and he was one of the first commis- 
sioners. He also, at the instance of the 
Society of Antiquaries, proposed a parlia- 
mentary grant for excavations on the site of 
Troy. This laid him open to Robert Lowe's 
sarcasm, but Schliemann's discoveries gave 
Stanhope ample revenge. Another of his 
proposals was that an order of merit should 
be established for men of letters. On 11 May 
1872 Stanhope was made foreign associate 
of the Institute of France, and on 22 Sept. 
1875 he was appointed chairman of the royal 
copyright commission ; he was also president 
of the royal literary fund from 1863 till his 
death. He died on 24 Dec. 1875 from an 
attack of pleurisy, at his eldest son's house, 
Merivale, Bournemouth. A marble bust of 
Stanhope was executed at Home in 1854 by 
Lawrence Macdonald ; the original is at the 
family seat, Chevening, Kent. A copy was 
presented to the National Portrait Gallery 
in 1878 by the present Earl Stanhope, and a 



medallion in plaster, on a reduced scale, pre- 
sented by Sir George Scharf, was placed over 
the entrance doorway. An engraving of a 
portrait painted by Lucas in 1836 is given in 
Doyle's ' Official Baronage.' 

Stanhope married, on 10 July 1834, Emily 
Harriet, second daughter of General Sir Ed- 
ward Kerrison, bart., and by her, who died on 
31 Dec. 1873, had issue one daughter Mary 
Catherine, who married, on 18 Feb. 1868, 
Frederick Lygon, sixth earl Beauchamp 
and four sons, of whom Arthur Philip is the 
present Earl Stanhope; Edward Stanhope, 
the second son, is separately noticed. 

Few men have deserved better of the 
world of letters and art than Stanhope. The 
Copyright Act, the National Portrait Gallery, 
and the historical manuscripts commission 
bear witness alike to the culture and libe- 
rality of his tastes, and to the energy and 
success with which he gave them effect. As 
a speaker he was clear, but not eloquent, 
and his literary and critical tastes probably 
militated against his success in politics. But 
he possessed great tact, and on committees 
generally got his way without provoking 
opposition. 

As an historian the capacity in which he 
was best known he was honest and indus- 
trious, and, though without any pretensions 
to genius, he wrote in a clear and read- 
able style. The value of his works consists 
largely in the use he made of valuable manu- 
script sources inaccessible to others. His 
first important contribution to English his- 
tory was 'The History of the War of Suc- 
cession in Spain, 1702-1714,' 1832, 8vo; 2nd 
edit. 1836. It is based largely on the papers 
of Mahon's ancestor, James Stanhope, first 
earl Stanhope [q. v.] Macaulay reviewed it 
in the ' Edinburgh,' Ivi. 499-542, and praised 
Mahon's ' great diligence in examining autho- 
rities, great j udgment in weighing testimony, 
and great impartiality in estimating charac- 
ters.' This was followed by 'The History 
of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the 
Peace of Versailles, 1713-1783' (7 vols. 1836- 
1853 ; an American edition of vols. i.-iv. ap- 
peared in 1849, and the portions in the early 
volumes relating to India were separately 
issued in 1838 as 'The Rise of our Indian 
Empire '). The work was praised by Sismondi 
(Hist, des Franqais, xxviii. 385), and still re- 
mains the best narrative of English history 
during the eighteenth century. In it Mahon 
develops the somewhat far-fetched theory 
that the whigs and tories interchanged prin- 
ciples and policy between the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries (cf. LECKY, Hist, of 
England, vol. i.) Mahon's remarks on Wash- 
ington involved him in a prolonged contro- 



Stanhope t 

versy with Jared Sparks, Palfrey, and other 
American writers (cf. his Letter to Jared 
Sparks, 1852, and replies to it in Brit. Mus. 
Library}. Perhaps his most important work 
was ' The Life of the Right Hon. William 
Pitt, with Extracts from his unpublished 
Correspondence and Manuscript Papers' 
(4 vols. 1861-2 ; 2nd edit. 1862-3 ; 4th edit. 
1867 ; new edit. 3 vols. 1879 ; translated into 
French 1862-3, and Italian, 1863). This still 
remains the standard life of Pitt, and an in- 
dispensable authority on the history of the 
period. Stanhope's last considerable work 
was ' The History of England, comprising 
the Reign of Queen Anne until the Peace of 
Utrecht' (1870; 2nd edit, same year; 4th 
edit. 1872). This was intended to cover the 
period between the close of Macaulay's ' His- 
tory' and the commencement oi Stanhope's 
own ' History of England, 1713-83.' It is 
careful, but its style compares unfavourably 
with Macaulay's. 

Stanhope's other works are : 1. ' The Life 
of Belisarius/ 1829, 8vo, 2nd edit. 1848 : one 
of the most noticeable contributions made 
by Englishmen to the history of the Byzan- 
tine Empire. 2. ' Lord John Russell and 
Mr. Macaulay on the French Revolution,' 
1833, 8vo. 3. ' Spain under Charles II ; or 
Extracts from the Correspondence of the Hon. 
Alexander Stanhope, British Minister at 
Madrid, 1690-1700 ; selected from Originals 
at Chevening/ 1840, 8vo; 2nd edit. 1845. 
4. ' Essai sur la vie du grand Conde,' Lon- 
don, 1842, 8vo, written in French, and only 
one hundred copies printed for private cir- 
culation (cf. J. W. Croker in Quarterly Rev. 
Ixxi. 106-69) ; an English edition was pub- 
lished in 1845, and reprinted in 1847 and 
1848. 5. ' Historical Essays contributed to 
the "Quarterly Review,'" 1849. 6. 'The 
Forty -five ; being a Narrative of the Rebellion 
in Scotland of 1745,' 1851, 8vo. 7. ' Essay 
on Joan of Arc,' 1853, 12mo. 8. ' Lord 
Chatham at Chevening, 1769,' 1855, 8vo. 
9. ' Memoirs of Sir Robert Peel, bart., M.P., 
published by the Trustees of his Papers,' in 
2 vols. and 3 parts, 1856-7, 8vo [cf. art. 
PEEL, SIR ROBERT, 1788-1850]. 10. 'Ad- 
dresses delivered at Manchester, Leeds, and 
Birmingham,' 1856, 8vo. 11 'Miscellanies,' 
1863, 2nd ed. same year. 12. ' Miscellanies, 
2nd ser./ 1872. 13. ' The French Retreat 
from Moscow and other Historical Essays, 
collected from the "Quarterly Review" and 
" Eraser's Magazine," ' 1876, 8vo. 14. ' Notes 
of Conversations with Wellington,' 1888, 8vo. 
Stanhope also edited 'Letters to General 
Stanhope in Spain/ 1834 ; ' Correspondence | 
between William Pitt and Charles, Duke of 
Rutland/ 1842 ; ' Extracts from Despatches 



Stanhope 



of the British Envoy at Florence, relative to 
the Motions and Behaviour of Charles Ed- 
ward' (1843, Roxburghe Club) ; < Letters of 
Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield ' (4 vols. 
1845, vol. v. 1853) ; and ' Secret Correspon- 
dence connected with Mr. Pitt's return to 
office in 1804' (1852). 

[Works in British Mus. Library; Hansard's 
Parl. Debates ; Official Eeturn of Members of 
Parl. ; Journals of the House of Lords and 
Commons; Times, 25 Dec. 1875; Athenseum, 
1876, i. 24; Academy, 1876, i. 9-10; Spectator, 
1876, i. 3; Annual '.Register, 1875, pp. 156-7; 
Greville's Journals ; Trevelyan's Life of Mac- 
aulay; Doyle, Burke, and Gr. E. C[okayne]'s 
Peerages ; Allibone's Diet, of English Lit., s.vv. 
' Mahon ' and ' Stanhope.'] A. F. P. 

STANHOPE, WILLIAM, first EARL OP 
HARRINGTON (1690 P-1756), diplomatist and 
statesman, born about 1690, was the fourth 
son of John Stanhope of Elvaston, Derby- 
shire, by Dorothy, daughter and coheiress 
of Charles Agard of Foston in the same 
county. His great-grandfather, Sir John 
Stanhope (d. 1638), was half-brother of Philip 
Stanhope, first earl of Chesterfield [q. v.] 

Of his three elder brothers, the third, 
CHARLES STANHOPE (1673-1760), succeeded 
to the family estates on the second brother's 
death in 1730. He represented MilbornePort 
from 1717 to 1722, Aldborough (Yorkshire) 
from 1722 to 1734, and Harwich from 1734 
to 1741. He was under-secretary for the 
southern department from 1714 to 1717, and 
in 1720-1 was secretary to the treasury. He 
was charged with making use of his position 
to gain a profit of 250,000/. by dealings in 
South Sea stock, and, though the accusation 
rested on insufficient evidence, the support of 
the Walpoles only gained his acquittal in 
the House of Commons (28 Feb. 1721) by 
three votes. George I in 1722 made him 
treasurer of the chamber, but George H 
refused him office on acqount of a memorial 
found among his father's papers relating to 
himself when Prince of Wales, which was 
in Stanhope's writing, though its real author 
was Sunderland. Charles Stanhope's name 
is frequently mentioned in Horace Walpole's 
' Correspondence.' An ode to him ' drinking 
tar water ' is among Sir C. Hanbury-Wil- 
liams's works, and he is also introduced as 
a character in that writer's ' Isabella, or the 
Morning.' He died unmarried on 17 March 
1760, aged 87. 

According to ' Harlequin Horace,'an anony- 
mous satirical epistle in verse, addressed to 
him in 1738, William Stanhope was educated 
at Eton and ' half a colledge education got.' 
He obtained a captaincy in the 3rd foot- 
guards in 1710, and served under his kinsman, 



Stanhope < 

General James Stanhope, in Spain. In 1715 
he was made colonel of a dragoon regiment, 
and in the same year entered parliament as 
whig member for Derby. On 19 Aug. 1717 
he was sent on a special mission to Madrid, the 
object of which was to arrange the differences 
between Philip V and the emperor Charles VI. 
On 1 July 1718 he announced to Alberoni 
the determination of England to force Spain 
to agree to the terms of pacification settled 
by the quadruple alliance, and had a very 
stormy interview with him. He was assiduous 
in urging the grievances of British merchants 
and gave them timely warning of the out- 
break of war. On 17 Nov. 1718 he was ap- 
pointed envoy at Turin, where he remained 
during the greater part of the war with 
Spain. Before returning to Madrid he saw 
military service as a volunteer with the 
French army while in Berwick's camp before 
Fontarabia. Stanhope concerted an attack 
upon some Spanish ships and stores in the 
port of St. Andero, and himself commanded 
the troops which were detached to co-operate 
with the English fleet. The operation was 
completely successful. This exploit closed 
his active military career, but he attained the 
rank of lieutenant-general in 1739 and gene- 
ral in 1747. 

On the conclusion of peace Stanhope re- 
turned to Madrid as British ambassador. He 
remained there for the next seven years, and 
made for himself a high reputation as a 
diplomatist. In a series of able despatches 
he described the abdication of Philip V, his 
resumption of power after his son's death, 
the separation of France and Spain resulting 
from the failure of the match between the 
infanta and Louis XV, the intrigues between 
Spain and the emperor, and the rise and fall 
of their projector, the Baron Ripperda. The 
latter, when disgraced in 1726, fled to Stan- 
hope's house, and was induced by him to 
reveal the articles of the recent secret treaty 
of Vienna. The information was taken down 
in cipher and sent by special messenger to 
London. During his second embassy in 
Spain Stanhope was also engaged in nego- 
tiations for the cession of Gibraltar. George I 
and some of his ministers were not averse 
to it, and even gave a conditional promise, 
but dared not propose it to parliament. In 
an interview with Philip V at the end of 
1720, Stanhope denied the king's assertion 
that an absolute promise to cede Gibraltar 
had been given as a condition of Philip's 
accession to the quadruple alliance. Stan- 
hope claimed an equivalent for the surrender 
of the fortress. He was persuaded that it 
would be to the advantage of England to 
yield Gibraltar in exchange for increased 



i Stanhope 

facilities for commercial intercourse with 
Spain and her colonies. To his regret the 
Spaniards declined to come to terms (letter 
to Sir Luke Schaub, 18 Jan. 1721, in COXE, 
Bourbon Kings of Spain, iii. 22). On a fresh 
rupture with Spain in March 1727, Stanhope 
left Madrid and returned to England. On 
the previous 26 Sept. he had addressed a 
memorial to the king of Spain justifying the 
despatch of a British fleet to his coasts on 
the ground of the intrigues of his court with 
the emperor, Russia, and the Pretender 
(TiXDAL, Hist, of Engl. iv. 698-9). His 
correspondence with the Marquis de la Paz 
was published by an opponent of the ministry 
to show the impolicy of the war (Letters of 
the Marquis de la Paz and Colonell Stanhope 
. . . with Remarks, 1726 ; A Continuation of 
the Letters, 1727). An answer entitled 
' Gibraltar or the Pretender,' by Kichard 
Newyear, appeared in 1727. 

In 1727 Stanhope was named by George II 
vice-chamberlain and a privy councillor. 
He did not remain long in England, being 
appointed in August one of the British 
plenipotentiaries at the congress of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, which subsequently removed to 
Soissons. Here he seems to have been in 
favour of the cession of Gibraltar, then under- 
going a siege (Lord Townshend to Stephen 
Poyntz, 14 June 1728). Newcastle, with 
whom he was in constant correspondence, 
showed some of his letters to Queen Caroline, 
who approved their tenor (CoxE, Mem. of 
Sir R. Walpole, ii. 631). Little way being 
made with the negotiations at the congress, 
in the autumn of 1729 Stanhope was sent to 
negotiate directly with the court of Spain. 
Horatio Walpole engaged the interest of the 
queen in his favour, and a peerage was pro- 
mised as the reward of his mission. Poyntz, 
one of his colleagues at Soissons, testifies to 
Stanhope's ' most universal and deserved 
credit with the whole Spanish court and 
nation,' and remarks that the fact of his 
never having taken formal leave at Madrid 
facilitated the English advances (ib. ii. 
653). With the help of France the treaty of 
Seville was concluded on 9 Nov. 1729 be- 
tween England, France, and Spain, Holland 
subsequently acceding. The claim to Gibral- 
tar was passed over in silence, and important 
advantages were secured to British trade in 
return for the forwarding of Elizabeth Far- 
nese's wishes with regard to the succession 
in Tuscany and Parma. Newcastle, a few 
days later, assured Stanhope that he had 
never seen the king better satisfied with any 
one than he was with him, and conveyed him 
the special thanks of Walpole and Townshend 
(ib. ii. 665). The administration was much 



Stanhope 



Stanhope 



strengthened by the settlement of Spanish 
affairs, which had left the emperor their single 
isolated opponent. On 6 Jan. 1730 Stanhope 
was created Baron Harrington of Harring- 
ton, Northamptonshire. On 21 Feb. he was 
reappointed a plenipotentiary at Soissons, 
where negotiations with the emperor were 
still going on ; but in May he was declared 
successor to Townshend as secretary of state 
for the northern department. His colleague 
was the Duke of Newcastle, who had done 
much to forward his promotion. He remained 
secretary during the remaining years of the 
Walpole administration. He never cordially 
coalesced with Sir Robert, but made himself 
acceptable to George II by favouring his 
German interests. The British ambassador 
at Vienna had to officially affirm that Har- 
rington was acting in concert with the Wai- 
poles so early as February 1731 (Thomas 
Robinson to Horatio Walpole, 3 Feb. 1731). 
In March a treaty was signed with the em- 
peror, who obtained a guarantee of the prag- 
matic sanction in exchange for his accession 
to the treaty of Seville ; but Harrington was 
obliged to instruct Thomas Robinson (after- 
wards first Baron Grantham) [q. v.] to leave 
the question of Hanoverian interests for 
future consideration. On the outbreak of 
the war of the Polish succession in 1733, 
he was in favour of supporting the emperor 
against France, but was overruled by the 
Walpoles ; and in the following year he ar- 
ranged with George II the sending to Eng- 
land of Thomas Strickland [q. v.], bishop of 
Namur, as a secret envoy from Charles VI 
(Horatio Walpole to Sir Robert, 22 Oct. 
1734). Harrington had a long and secret 
conference with Strickland, which gave great 
uneasiness to the Walpoles ; but the mis- 
sion was discredited by the influence of 
Horatio Walpole with the queen (ib. pp. 
442-4). 

The cabinet was much divided on ques- 
tions of foreign policy, and contradictory 
instructions were sent to the ambassadors, 
according as the war policy of Harrington 
and the king or the peace policy of the 
Walpoles and the queen predominated. 
Harrington thought that England had no 
excuse for not supporting the emperor, and 
propounded to Horatio Walpole a plan for a 
joint ultimatum from England and Holland 
to France (ib. i. 465-6). In the end he was 
obliged to carry out the peace policy of the 
premier, and to accept as a basis of negotia- 
tion the secret arrangement between France 
and the emperor. The preliminaries arranged 
at the end of 1735 won the approbation 
even of Bolingbroke (ib. i. 470; cf. HERVEY, 
Memoirs, ii. 174). 



Soon after this the king became dissatisfied 
with Harrington, and even proposed to dis- 
miss him. When he went to Hanover in 
the summer of 1736, he insisted on taking 
Horatio Walpole with him to act as secretary 
(CoxE, Walpole, i. 480). This Hervey attri- 
butes to the influence of the queen and Wal- 
pole, who had been annoyed at Harrington's 
conduct in the previous year, when he had 
sent over from Hanover despatches arraigning 
all the acts and measures of the queen's 
regency, and had even been suspected of 
advising the king to sign military commis- 
sions which, having delegated his powers > 
he was incapacitated from doing. 

According to Hervey, many thought that 
at this time Harrington had been worked 
upon by Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth 
earl of Chesterfield, to form a plan of be- 
coming first minister. But George II dis- 
liked him, although not constantly, as did 
Queen Caroline. On 1 Aug. 1737 Harring- 
ton accompanied Sir R. Walpole to St. 
James's to attend the accouchement of the 
Princess of Wales. On this occasion the 
queen, who always disguised her dislike, 
joked with him upon his gallantry. Walpole 
and Harrington also had a conversation with 
Frederick, prince of Wales, at the bedside, 
of which they were requested by the king to 
draw up an account (see Minutes in HERVEY'S 
Memoirs, iii. 192-4). In talking of this 
scandalous incident with the Prince of 
Wales. Alexander, lord Marchmont, de- 
scribed Harrington as a good-natured honest 
man, but not of very great reach, adding 
that he ' did nothing but as directed.' 

In the closing years of Walpole's ministry 
Harrington again opposed him by acting 
with the party of Newcastle and Hardwicke, 
who were in favour of war with Spain. In 
1741 he negotiated behind the premier's back 
a treaty with France for the neutrality of 
Hanover, and was careful not to commit 
himself to any opinion displeasing to the 
king (CoxE, Memoirs of Lord Walpole, ii. 
27, 35). Nevertheless, it was by Walpole's 
influence that he retained office on the re- 
arrangement of the ministry on that mini- 
ster's fall. But he had to give up the secre- 
taryship of state to Carteret, receiving in 
its place the presidency of the council. He 
was so dependent on his official salary that 
in 1740 he had applied both to the king and 
to Walpole for a tellership of the exchequer, 
alleging the ' extreme streightness ' of his 
circumstances (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. 
ii. 274-5). On 9 Feb. 1742 he was advanced 
to an earldom. In the following year he 
acted as one of the lords justices. He now 
joined with the Pelhams in opposing Car- 



Stanhope 



43 



Stanhope 



teret's foreign policy, and in the summer of 
1744 signed Hardwicke's memorial to the 
king, proposing that an envoy should be sent 
to Holland declaring that England would 
withdraw from the war should they refuse 
to enter into it. Harrington himself seems 
to have been asked to undertake the mission 
but to have declined, presumably from the 
fear of not being well supported (March- 
monfs Diary, 28 Oct. 1744;. On 23 Nov. 
the Pelhams succeeded in driving out Car- 
teret and replacing him by Harrington. 

In the summer of 1745 he accompanied 
George II to Hanover, but continued, in con- 
cert with the Pelhams, to oppose his desire 
for more extensive operations against France, 
and especially Carteret's project of a grand 
alliance. In January 174(5 Harrington again 
urged the Dutch to declare war against 
France. He announced that, in consequence 
of the rebellion, England would have to 
limit her financial assistance, and would be 
unable to contribute to the defence of the 
German empire. The king now tried by 
means of Pulteney (Bath) to detach Har- 
rington from the Pelhams, and on 7 Feb. 
1746 had a personal interview with him. 
Harrington not only remained loyal to his 
colleagues, but took the lead in resigning 
office three days later. According to Ches- 
terfield, he flung the purse and seals down 
upon the table and provoked the king be- ! 
yond expression (Marchmont's Diary, 30 Aug. 
1747). He had told Bath previously his 
opinion ' that those who dictated in private 
should be employed in public ' (CoxE, Pel- \ 
ham Admin, i. 289). When, after a few 
days, the king was obliged to recall Henry 
Pelham, ' the chief resentment was shown 
to Lord Harrington ' (Newcastle to Chester- 
field, 18 Feb. 1746 ; cf. Marchmonts Diary, 
30 Aug. 1747). 

Harrington had now irretrievably lost the 
king's favour, and retained the seals only till 
the following October. His wish to accept 
the French proposals as a basis for peace 
was opposed by Newcastle and Hardwicke, 
and a warm debate took place between him 
and Newcastle in the king's presence. Har- 
rington made use of the fact of Newcastle's 
having carried on a separate correspondence 
with Lord Sandwich, British envoy at 
Breda, as a pretext for his resignation, which 
he really gave because of his treatment by 
the king. Hardwicke tried to avert this 
extreme course, and Henry Pelham greatly 
regretted it, and even hoped that after a 
time Harrington would be enabled to resume 
the seals. Both Pelhams concurred in urging 
on the king Harrington's request for the lord- 
lieutenancy of Ireland, which office, after 



some difficulty, they obtained for him. Har- 
rington exchanged offices with his kinsman, 
Lord Chesterfield. He retained the vice- 
royalty till 1751. In the previous year, 
when the Pelhams tried to get him a pension 
or a sinecure, the king said ' Lord Harring- 
ton deserves nothing and shall have nothing ' 
(CoxE, Pelham Admin, ii. 134). Harring- 
ton's viceroy alty was disturbed by the agi- 
tation headed by Charles Lucas (1731-1771) 
[q. v.], and saw the beginning of an organised 
opposition in the Irish parliament. ' Bonfires 
were made and a thousand insults offered 
him ' on his departure in the spring of 1751 
(Chesterfield to S. Dayrolles,27 April 1751). 
Horace Walpole says that the Pelhams sacri- 
ficed him to the king. But this account is 
unfair, at least to Henry Pelham, who had a 
high regard for Harrington. In Sir Charles 
Hanbury-Williams's 'The Duke of New- 
castle : a Fable,' Harrington is represented, 
with more justice, as the duke's cast-off 
favourite and friend. But it is difficult to 
see what the brothers could have done for 
their friend in face of the implacable resent- 
ment of the king. 

Harrington took no further part in public 
affairs, and died on 8 Dec. 1756 at his house 
in the Stable Yard, St. James's. 

Harrington shone rather as a diplomatist 
than as a statesman. Though he never 
spoke in debate, his advice as a strategist 
was listened to with respect. Horace Wal- 
pole does justice to his career, but Lord 
Hervey's estimate of his character was pro- 
bably infl uenced by a private motive (Memoirs f 
i. 336, Croker's note). When he was at the 
court of Spain Hervey says that 'people 
talked, heard, and read of nothing but Lord 
Harrington,' who was rapidly forgotten as 
soon as he returned. In Hervey's ' Political 
Epistle to the Queen ' (1736), Harrington is 
described as 

An exile made by an uncommon doom 
From foreign countries to his own ; 

and the statesman's fortune is compared to 
a piece of old china, bought at an enormous 
price, never used, and laid by and forgotten. 
In the satirical piece called ' The Death of 
Lord Hervey ; or a Morning at Court,' ex- 
treme indolence is imputed to Harrington 
by Queen Caroline in words which she ap- 
pears actually to have used (cf. Memoirs, ii. 
42). Hervey, however, admits that he was 
' well bred, a man of honour, and fortunate.' 
Of foreign observers Saint-Simon, who met 
Harrington in Spain, writes of his taciturn 
and somewhat repellent demeanour, but 
credits him with ' beaucoup d'esprit, de con- 
duite et de sens' (Memoires, xix. 419). 



Stanhope 



44 



Stanley 



Campo Raso says he united the greatest 
vivacity with a by no means lively exterior 
(Memorias Politicas y Militares, p. 35) ; 
and Philip V of Spain asserted that he was 
the only minister who had never deceived 
him. 

Two portraits of Harrington one engraved 
by Ford, from a painting by Du Pare, the 
other painted by Fayram and engraved by 
Faber are at Elvaston. 

Harrington married Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Colonel Edward Griffiths, one of 
the clerk comptrollers of the Green Cloth. 
He was succeeded in the title by the sur- 
vivor of twin sons, WILLIAM STANHOPE, 
second EAEL OF HARRINGTON (1719-1779). 
Born on 18 Dec. 1719, he entered the army in 
0741, and became general} of the 2nd troop 
of horse grenadier guarcTsin June 1745. He 
distinguished himself at Fontenoy, where he 
was slightly wounded (Walpole to Mann, 
11 May 1745). He became major-general 
in February 1755, lieutenant-general in 
January 1758, and general on 30 April 1770. 
As Viscount Petersham he represented Bury 
St. Edmunds from 1747 to 1756. In 1748 
he was made customer of the port of Dublin. 
He was a somewhat eccentric personage, and 
from a peculiarity in his gait was nicknamed 
' Peter Shambles.' He died on 1 April 1779. 
He married, on 11 Aug. 1746, Caroline, 
eldest daughter of Charles Fitzroy, second 
duke of Grafton. She was one of the reigning 
beauties of the day. Horace Walpole, who 
was one of her intimates, relates many of 
her wild doings. She and her friend, Miss 
Ashe, went to comfort and weep over James 
Maclaine or Maclean [q. v.], the gentleman 
highwayman (to Mann, 2 Aug. 1750). At 
the coronation of George III Lady Harring- 
ton appeared ' covered with all the diamonds 
she could borrow, hire, or seize,' and was 
' the finest figure at a distance.' Walpole's 
friend, Conway, had been in love with her, 
and a chanson by W T alpole, with English 
translation, on the subject of their affection 
has been printed from the Manchester papers 
(in Hist. MSS. Comm.Sih Rep. App. ii. 111- 
112). One of Lady Harrington's last ex- 
ploits was an application to Johnson in favour 
of Dr. Dodd, which produced a considerable 
effect upon him (BOSWELL, Johnson, ed. Hill, 
iii. 141). She died in 1784, and was buried 
at Kensington on 6 July. Two characteris- 
tic portraits of her are at Elvaston. One, 
by Hudson, depicts her in middle life ; the 
other, by Cotes, represents her in old age 
with her daughter, the Duchess of New- 
castle. She had five daughters and two 
sons. The eldest daughter, Lady Caroline, 
who married Kenneth Mackenzie, viscount 



Fortrose, died in her twentieth year in Fe- 
bruary 1767, ' killed, like Lady Coventry and 
others, by white lead ' (Walpole to Montagu, 
12 Dec. 1766 ; to Mann, 13 Feb. 1767) ; Isa- 
bella, married Richard Molyneux, first earl of 
Sefton ; Emilia, Richard, sixth earl of Barry- 
more ; Henrietta, Thomas, second lord Foley 
(the last two inherited a full share of their 
mother's beauty) ; the youngest, Lady Anna 
Maria (1760-1821), married, first, Thomas 
Pelham-Clinton, earl of Lincoln (afterwards 
Duke of Newcastle), and, secondly, Colonel 
(afterwards Sir Charles Cregan) Craufurd, 
G.C.B. The second son, Henry Fitzroy, 
served in the army. The elder, Charles 
Stanhope, third earl of Harrington, is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Collins's Peerage, ed. Brydges, iv. 284-90 ; 
Doyle's Official Baronage ; G. E. C.'s and Burke's 
Peerages ; Coxe's Memoirs of Sir R. Walpole, of 
the Pelham Administration, of Horatio Lord Wal- 
pole, his Bourbon Kings of Spain, vols. ii. iii., 
and House of Austria, vol. ii. ; Lord Hervey's 
Memoirs of George II, 1884, passim ; H. Walpole's 
Memoirs of George II, i. 3-5, and Letters, ed. 
Cunningham, passim ; Marchmont Papers, i. 44 - 
45, 69, 70, 88, 97 ., 124, 181-5, ii. 88, 416 ; Tin- 
dal's Continuation of Rapin ; Ballantine's Life 
of Carteret, pp. 74-5, 154 ; Works of Sir C. 
Hanbury-Williams ; Chesterfield's Corresp. ed. 
Lord Mahon ; Evans's Cat. Engr. Portraits ; 
Bedford Corresp. i. 171-3, 178-9. Among Har- 
rington's papers in the British Museum the most 
important are his correspondence with Sir Luke 
Schaub, 1721 (Addit. MSS. 22520-1), with Sir 
Thomas Robinson, 1730-46 (Addit. MSS. 23780- 
23823). with W. Titley (Egerton MSS. 2683-9), 
with Newcastle (Addit. MSS. 32686 et seq.), 
and with Newcastle, Townshend, and Alberoni 
(Stowe MSS. 252-6). These collections have 
been used by Mr. E. Armstrong in his Elizabeth 
Farnese, 1892. Many letters to and from him 
are among the Weston papers at Somerby Hall, 
Lincolnshire (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. i.).] 

G. LE G. N. 

STANIHURST, RICHARD (1547- 
1618), translator of Virgil. [See STANY- 
HTJKST.] 

STANLEY, MRS. (1796P-1861), actress. 
[See FLEMING.] 

STANLEY, ARTHUR PENRHYN 

(1815-1881), dean of Westminster, born at 
Alderley Rectory on 13 Dec. 1815, was the 
second son and third child of Edward Stan- 
ley [q. v.], bishop of Norwich, and Catherine 
Leycester, his wife. In September 1824 he 
went to a private school at Seaforth. There 
he was distinguished by an insatiable love 
of reading, and by gifts as a raconteur which 
kept his schoolfellows entranced by stories 
from Southey's poems and Scott's novels. 



Stanley 



45 



Stanley 



He was also a fluent writer of English verse. 
Already an indefatigable sightseer, he showed 
signs of those powers of picturesque descrip- 
tion in which he was, in later life, unsur- 
passed. His diary of a visit paid to the 
Pyrenees in 1828 contains passages which 
are not only precocious in their promise, but 
striking in themselves. 

On 31 Jan. 1829 he entered Rugby school, 
where Dr. Arnold had been installed as 
headmaster in the previous summer. His 
progress up the school was rapid. In August 
1831 his promotion into the sixth form 
brought him into close contact with Dr. Ar- 
nold, whose influence was the 'lodestar of 
his life.' His respect for his headmaster 
quickly ripened into affection, and rose to 
veneration. ' Most sincerely,' he writes in 
May 1834, ' must I thank God for His good- 
ness in placing me here to live with Arnold. 
Yet I always feel that the happiness is a 
dangerous one, and that loving him and ad- 
miring him as I do to the very verge of all 
love and admiration that can be paid to man, 
I fear I have passed the limit and made him 
my idol, and that in all I may be but serv- 
ing God for man's sake ' (PKOTHERO, Life of 
Dean Stanley, i. 102). At Rugby, where 
Stanley won all the five school distinctions, 
he held a position which was almost unique 
at a public school. In spite of his incapacity 
for games, he so impressed the roughest of 
his contemporaries that they recognised in 
him a being of a higher order than them- 
selves, not to be judged by their conventional 
standards (see the character of ' Arthur ' in 
HUGHES'S Tom Browns Schooldays}. 

In November 1833 Stanley gained a 
scholarship at Balliol, and in the following 
October went into residence at Oxford. There 
he was plunged into the midst of influences 
hostile on religious, political, and social 
questions to those of his ' oracle and idol,' 
Dr. Arnold. Even at this stage of his career 
his chivalry in defending friends, detachment 
from party ties, and power of criticising 
those whom he most reverenced were con- 
spicuous. Though the names of Faber, 
W. G. Ward, Marriott, and Keble often 
occur in his letters, and though for a time 
he felt 'the strong attraction of Newmanism,' 
he remained staunch to the views which he 
brought with him from Rugby. At Oxford 
he won the Ireland scholarship in 1837, and 
in the same year the Newdegate prize for 
English verse (' The Gypsies : ' see Letters 
and Verses of Dean Stanley, pp. 29-38), and 
a first class in the final classical schools. In 
July 1838 he was elected a fellow of Uni- 
versity College, finding that his views on 
church and state would probably prevent 



his election at Balliol. He also gained in 

1839 the chancellor's Latin essay, and in 

1840 the chancellor's English essay and the 
Ellerton theological essay. 

In December 1839 he was, after prolonged 
hesitation, ordained by the bishop of Oxford. 
His reluctance to take orders proceeded not 
from any doubts respecting the central doc- 
trines of Christianity, but from the stringent 
subscription to the damnatory clauses of the 
Athanasian creed which was then exacted 
from candidates for ordination. So great 
was his difficulty in this respect that he did 
not expect to take priest's orders. In the 
hope of procuring some relaxation in the 
stringency of the terms of subscription, he 
helped to promote a petition for the relief of 
the clergy, which was presented to the House 
of Lords in 1840. The petition was rejected, 
but Stanley adhered to his point with his 
usual tenacity. In 1863, when Lord Ebury's 
bill was before the House of Lords, his bril- 
liant ' Letter to the Bishop of London' (pub- 
lished in 1863) effectively supported the pro- 
posal. The bill was lost. But a royal com- 
mission reported in favour of relaxation, and 
in 1865 effect was given to their recom- 
mendations by an act of parliament (28 & 29 
Victoria, c. 122), and by the corresponding 
alterations which convocation made in the 
canons. 

In July 1840 Stanley left England for a 
prolonged tour through Switzerland, Italy, 
Greece, and Sicily. The tour was memorable. 
It confirmed his love of foreign travel ; it 
also revealed to himself and his friends his 
descriptive powers. Henceforward scarcely 
a year passed without his making some more 
or less lengthy tour in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
or America. External nature scarcely at- 
tracted him, except as the background of 
history or human interest. But no one ever 
experienced a keener delight in seeing places 
which were connected with famous people, 
striking events, impressive legends, or scenes 
in the works of poets and novelists. Few 
persons have rivalled him in his powers of 
communicating his own enthusiasms to his 
readers, of peopling every spot with living 
actors, of seizing the natural features which 
coloured local occurrences and modified 
events, of noting analogies in apparent oppo- 
sites, or detecting resemblances beneath 
superficial differences. It is from the exer- 
cise of these gifts that his letters derive their 
charm and his historical writings their value. 

After his return to England in May 1841, 
Stanley found Oxford divided into two 
hostile camps, with neither of which could he 
ally himself. So uncongenial was the atmo- 
sphere of religious animosity that he con- 



Stanley 



4 6 



Stanley 



templated retiring from the university. But 
the appointment of Dr. Arnold in 1841 to 
the chair of modern history reconciled him 
to his position. To his lectures Stanley 
looked for the infusion of new life into a 
decaying professorial system, the restoration 
of a healthier tone in university life, the 
destruction of the barriers which then sepa- 
rated religious from secular learning. His 
hopes were disappointed by the sudden death 
of Arnold on 12 June 1842. The event was 
described by Stanley as the greatest cala- 
mity that had happened to him, and almost 
the greatest that could befall him. To the 
task of writing Arnold's life he devoted his 
utmost energies. His ' Life and Corre- 
spondence of Dr. Arnold' (published on 
31 May 1844) was in some respects the work 
of Stanley's life. It gave him an assured 
position not only in Oxford, but in the 
wider world of letters. 

In 1843 he had been ordained priest and 
appointed a college tutor. The university j 
was still convulsed by a series of religious 
struggles, towards which he took up a con- i 
sistent position. He advocated the tolera- i 
tion of divergent views, and opposed alike 
the degradation of W. G. Ward in 1845 and i 
the agitation against Dr. Hampden, who was j 
appointed to the bishopric of Hereford in 
1847. "Without sympathising with the views i 
of either, he insisted on the injustice of the 
indiscriminating clamour with which evan- 
gelicals assailed the one and high churchmen j 
the other. Meanwhile, in the midst of 
literary labours and ecclesiastical conflicts, 
he steadily pursued his tutorial duties. His 
efforts met with unprecedented success. 
Giving his time and his best self to the 
undergraduates, he fired his pupils with his 
own enthusiasms ; his colleagues were stimu- 
lated by his example, and the college rapidly 
rose to a high position in the university. 
In October 1845 he was appointed select 
preacher, and preached a course of four 
sermons, beginning in February 1846 and < 
ending on 31 Jan. 1847. The sermons were j 
published in November 1847, with additions 
and appendices, under the title of ' Sermons 
on the Apostolical Age.' They were preached 
at a crisis in Stanley's career, and at a point 
of transition between the old and the new ( 
Oxford. They marked his divergence from j 
the views of both ecclesiastical parties ; they 
acknowledged obligations to Arnold and 
German theologians ; they championed the 
cause of free inquiry as applied to Biblical 
studies. From this time he was an object 
of suspicion to both evangelicals and high 
churchmen, who politically identified him 
with the party of reform, theologically with 



the German rationalists. On 6 Sept. 1849 
Stanley's father, the bishop of Norwich, died ; 
on 13 Aug. of the same year his younger 
brother, Captain Charles Stanley, R.E., and 
on 13 March 1850 his elder brother, Captain 
Owen Stanley, R.N., also died. He was 
now the sole prop and stay of his mother 
and his two sisters, and by his succession to 
a small estate was obliged to resign his 
fellowship at the university. Immediately 
after his father's death he had been offered 
the deanery of Carlisle, vacated by the 
appointment of Dr. Hinds to the see of Nor- 
wich. This offer he refused : but now, de- 
prived of his home at Oxford, and desirous 
of providing one for his mother and sisters, 
he was not prepared to refuse any indepen- 
dent post. In July 1851 Stanley accepted 
a canonry at Canterbury, and left Oxford. 
The five succeeding years were a period of 
great literary activity. Before accepting the 
canonry Stanley had been appointed secre- 
tary of the Oxford University commission 
(July 1850). The report of the commission, 
which was mainly his work, was issued in 
May 1852. Thereupon he started on a 
tour in Egypt and the Holy Land, which 
produced his ' Sinai and Palestine ' (pub- 
lished March 1856), perhaps the most widely 
popular of his writings. His ' Commen- 
tary on the Epistles to the Corinthians' 
(published June 1855) was a companion 
work to Jowett's ' Commentary on the 
Epistles to the Thessalonians, Galatians, and 
Romans.' On the picturesque, historical, 
and personal side it is valuable ; but doctri- 
nally it is weak, and in scholarship and accu- 
racy it is deficient. Stanley wisely accepted 
the criticism of Dr. Lightfoot, afterwards 
bishop of Durham, in the ' Journal of Classi- 
cal and Sacred Philology ' (iii. 81-121), that 
critical notes were not his vocation. In his 
' Memorials of Canterbury ' (published De- 
cember 1854) he found full scope for his 
gifts of dramatic, pictorial narrative. To 
make others share in his enthusiasms for the 
historical associations of the cathedral and 
the city was one side of his ideal of the 
duties of a canon. Another side of that 
ideal is illustrated in his ' Canterbury Ser- 
mons ' (published March 1859), in which he 
endeavours to enforce the practical side of 
religion ; to make it a life rather than a creed ; 
to set forth its truths, not to attack its errors. 
In December 1856 Stanley was appointed 
professor of ecclesiastical history at Oxford. 
To the chair was attached a canonry at 
Christ Church ; the appointment, therefore, 
though he was not installed as canon till 
March 1858, required his removal from Can- 
terbury and return to the university. At 



Stanley 



47 



Stanley 



the same time he accepted the post of 
examining chaplain to Dr. Archibald Camp- 
bell (afterwards archbishop) Tait [q. v.], 
who in September 1856 had been appointed 
bishop of London. His 'Three Introduc- 
tory Lectures on the Study of Ecclesiasti- 
cal History ' (published in 1857) were de- 
livered in February 1857. His ' Lectures 
on the History of the Eastern Church (pub- 
lished in 1861) and his ' Lectures on the His- 
tory of the Jewish Church ' (part i. 1803 ; 
part ii. 1865 ; part iii. 1876) were also based 
upon lectures delivered as professor of eccle- 
siastical history. Through the lecture-room, 
the pulpit, and social life, he exercised a 
remarkable influence over young men at 
Oxford. To Stanley, for example, John 
Richard Green attributed his devotion to 
historical studies ; from him also he learned 
the ' principle of fairness ' (PROTHERO, Life 
of Dean Stanley, ii. 13-15). Among older 
men he was not an intellectual leader, though 
always a stimulating force. He could not 
join himself unreservedly to any party, and 
hated the spirit of combination for party 
purposes. His passion for justice plunged 
him continually into ecclesiastical conflicts. 
It was this feeling, even more than personal 
friendship, which stirred him to support 
Professor Jowett's claims to the endowments 
of the Greek chair against those who, on 
theological grounds, withheld his salary 
while they accepted his services. Though 
he regretted the publication of the first 
volume of Dr. Colenso's work on the Penta- 
teuch (October 1862), he championed the 
writer's cause, because he could not 'join in 
the indiscriminate outcry against an evi- 
dently honest and single-minded religious 
man.' He disapproved of some of the con- 
tents of ' Essays and Reviews ' (1860) ; but 
he pleaded that each essay should be judged 
by itself, and urged the unfairness of involv- 
ing the different writers in the same sweep- 
ing censure (see his article on ' Essays and 
Reviews ' in the Edinburgh Review for April 
1861). 

In January 1862 he was asked to accom- 
pany the Prince of Wales on a tour in the 
east. Leaving England in February, he re- 
turned home in the following June. The 
' Sermons in the East ' (published in 1863) 
were preached on this tour. During his 
absence abroad his mother died (Ash-Wednes- 
day, 7 March 1862). This second tour in 
the Holy Land produced two results which 
were important in his career : it connected 
Mm closely with the court ; it also made 
him better known to Lady Augusta Bruce 
(1822-1876), fifth daughter of the seventh 
Earl of Elgin, whom he had first met in 



Paris in 1857, and whose brother, General 
Bruce, his fellow-traveller throughout the 
prince's tour, died in 1862 of a fever caught 
in the marshes of the Upper Jordan. 

On 23 Dec. 1863 he was married to Lady 
Augusta in Westminster Abbey, and on 
9 Jan. 1864 was installed as dean of the 
abbey in succession to Richard Chenevix 
Trench [q. v.]. who was promoted to the 
archbishopric of Dublin. 

Stanley at once made his mark in his 
new position. In convocation, in literature, 
in society, in his official duties as dean, and 
in the pulpit, his work was rich in results 
and his influence grew in extent. By the 
ancient instrument to which he declared 
his assent at his installation as dean, he 
held his office for ' the enlargement of the 
Christian church.' To obtain recognition 
for the comprehensiveness which was, in 
his opinion, secured to the church by its 
union with the state, and, within the 
limits of the law, to widen its borders so 
that it might more worthily fulfil its mission 
as a national church, were the objects to 
which he devoted himself. In this double 
meaning of the enlargement of the church 
lies the key to his sermons, speeches, and 
writings. The sacrifices which he was pre- 
pared to make for the attainment of his 
ideal repelled numbers of the best men in 
his own church, whether their views were 
high or low. On the other hand, the 
breadth of his charity attracted thousands 
of the members of other communions. Out- 
side the pale of his own church no ecclesi- 
astic commanded more respect or personal 
affection. Within its limits no one was 
more fiercely assailed. In the controver- 
sies in which he took part or provoked, such 
as those which centred round Dr. John 
William Colenso [q. v.] or Dr. Vance Smith, 
his attitude was at least consistent. He 
opposed every effort to loosen the tie be- 
tween church and state, to resist or evade 
the existing law, or to contract the freedom 
which the widest interpretation of the for- 
mularies of the church would permit. In 
his ' Essays, chiefly on Questions of Church 
and State, from 1850 to 1870 ' (published 
in 1870), as wellas in the 'Journals of Convo- 
cation,' are preserved the memories of many 
forgotten controversies. 

In Westminster Abbey he found the 
material embodiment of his ideal of a com- 
prehensive national church, an outward 
symbol of harmonious unity in diversity, a 
temple of silence and reconciliation which 
gathered under one consecrated roof every 
variety of creed and every form of national ac- 
tivity, whether lay or ecclesiastical, religious 



Stanley 



4 8 



Stanley 



or secular. It was one of the objects of his 
life to open the abbey pulpit to churchmen 
of every shade of opinion, to give to lay- 
men and ministers of other communions 
opportunities of speaking witin its walls, to 
make its services attractive to all classes 
and all ages, to communicate to the public 
generally his own enthusiasm for its his- 
torical associations by conducting parties 
over the building, as well as by compiling 
his ' Memorials of "Westminster Abbey ' 
(published in 1868). 

As a preacher he pursued the same ob- 
jects. He insisted that the essence of 
Christianity lay not in doctrine, but in a 
Christian character. He tried to penetrate 
to the moral and spiritual substance, which 
gave vitality to forms, institutions, and 
dogmas, and underlay different and ap- 
parently hostile views of religion. On this 
bed-rock, as it were, of Christianity he 
founded his teaching, because here he found 
the common ground on which Anglican, 
Roman catholic, presbyterian, and noncon- 
formist might meet (see his Lectures on the 
Church of Scotland, 1872 ; Addresses and 
Sermons delivered at St. Andrews, 1877 ; 
Addresses and Sermons delivered in the 
United States and Canada, 1879; Christian 
Institutions, 1881. 

In the midst of multifarious activities, 
social, political, literary, and official, he con- 
tinued his annual tours, on the continent, 
in Scotland, or in America, the record of 
which is preserved in some of his published 
letters. In January 1874 he performed at St. 
Petersburg the marriage service between the 
Duke of Edinburgh and the Grand Duchess 
Marie of Russia. Later in the same year 
Lady Augusta Stanley, who had represented 
the queen at the wedding, fell ill, and, after 
months of suffering, died on Ash Wednesday, 
1 March 1876. Her portrait, painted by 
George Richmond, R. A., belongs to the Lady 
Frances Baillie. By her bedside the third 
part of her husband's* Lectures on the Jewish 
Church ' was mainly written (1876). Stan- 
ley never recovered the shock of his wife's 
death, though his life to the last was full of 
activity. In the summer of 1881 he was 
preaching a course of sermons on the Beati- 
tudes on Saturday afternoons in Westmin- 
ster. At the service on Saturday, 9 July 
1881, he spoke his last words in the abbey. 
He left the pulpit for his bed. His illness 
proved to be erysipelas, of which he died 
on Monday, 18 July 1881. On Monday, 
25 July, he was buried in Westminster 
Abbey by the side of his wife. 

Stanley's principal works have been 
already mentioned. None of them, with 



the possible exception of the ' Life of Dr. 
Arnold,' belong to the highest or most 
permanent class of literature. His personal 
charm was a stronger influence than his 
books. Of the fascination that he exercised 
over his friends, a vivid picture will be found 
in Dean Bradley's ' Recollections of Arthur 
Penrhyn Stanley ' (1883). 

A full-length recumbent figure of Stanley, 
modelled by Sir Edgar Boehm, is in the 
National Portrait Gallery, London, of which 
Stanley had been appointed a trustee in 
1 866. A portrait by G. F. Watts is in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

[Prothero's Life and Correspondence of Dean 
Stanley (1893) and Letters and Verses of Dean 
Stanley (1895) contain the fullest information 
respecting the life and works of Stanley. Other 
books which also illustrate the subject are Dean 
Bradley's Recollections (1883), My Confidences, 
by F. Locker-Lampson (1896), and the Life and 
Letters of Benjamin Jowett, by Messrs. Camp- 
bell and Abbott, 1897.] E. E. P. 

STANLEY, CHARLOTTE, COTTNTESS 
OF DERBY (1599-1664), born at Thouars 
early in December 1599 (LOUISE DE COLIGNY, 
Corresp. ed. 1887, p. 166), was the second 
child but eldest daughter of Claude de la 
Tremoille, due de Thouars, by his wife Char- 
lotte (1580-1626), third daughter of William 
the Silent, prince of Orange, by his third 
wife, Charlotte de Bourbon ('Chartrier de 
Thouars,' 1877, pp. 153, 162, 272-9, apud 
Documents Historiques et Genealogiques ; 
SAINT-MARTHE, Hist. Genealogique de la 
Maison de la Trtmoille, 1668, p. 260; Les 
La Tremoille pendant Cinq Siecles, Nantes, 
1890-6). Louisa, Avife of the elector pala- 
tine Frederick IV, was her aunt ; the Due 
de Bouillon, head of the French protestants, 
and Prince Maurice of Nassau were her 
uncles. Her father died in 1604, and Char- 
lotte spent most of her early days at Thouars, 
occasionally paying visits to her relatives at 
The Hague. Her mother came to England 
in 1625 in the train of Charles I's queen, 
Henrietta Maria, and during her visit ar- 
ranged a marriage between Charlotte and 
James Stanley, lord Strange (afterwards 
seventh Earl of Derby) fq. v.] Charlotte 
was then staying at The Hague with Eliza- 
beth, the daughter of James I and fugitive 
queen of Bohemia, whose husband, Fre- 
derick V, was Charlotte's cousin. There 
the marriage took place on 26 June 1626 
(BELLI, Osservazion, p. 95), the ceremony 
being disturbed by a contest for precedence 
between the English and French ambassadors. 
The statement that she was of the same age 
as her husband was a polite fiction to cover 
the fact that she was seven vears his senior. 



Stanley 



49 



Stanley 



For sixteen years after her marriage Lady 
Strange lived quietly with her husband at 
Knowsley or Lathom House, and during 
this period she bore him nine children (Stan- 
ley Papers, in. ii. pp. cclxxxviii-ccxcii). 
She remained at Lathom House when, on 
the outbreak of the civil war, her husband 
joined the king. Lancashire, however, fa- 
voured the parliamentary cause, and by May 
1643 Lathom House was the only place 
held by the king's adherents. No serious 
steps, however, were taken for its reduction 
until February 1643-4. On the 25th of that 
month Sir William Fairfax [q. v.] encamped 
between Wigan and Bolton, and on the 
28th Lathom House was invested. The 
garrison consisted of three hundred men 
under six captains and six lieutenants (ib. 
pp. xciii-iv), but the Countess of Derby (as 
she had become in the preceding year) re- 
served all important decisions to herself. 
A week was occupied in parleys, but the 
countess rejected with scorn all proposals 
for surrender, declaring that she and her 
children would fire the castle and perish in 
the flames rather than yield. These words 
were backed by spirited sorties of the garri- 
son on 17-18 and 20 March. On the latter 
occasion two messengers broke through the 
enemy's lines, conveying urgent appeals for 
aid to Prince Rupert and the Earl of Derby. 
Fairfax now left the command to Alexander 
Rigby [q. v.] On 10 April the parliamenta- 
rians opened a destructive fire with a new 
mortar, which threatened to put a speedy 
end to the defence ; but about four A.M. on 
26 April the garrison made a brilliant sortie 
and captured the mortar. This exploit dis- 
heartened the besiegers, and on 26 May they 
received news of Rupert's approach from 
Newark. They retired to Bolton, which 
Rupert stormed on the 28th, sending the 
countess as a present twenty-two banners 
that had lately waved over the heads of 
her besiegers. The parliamentarians spread 
a report that the countess, being a better 
soldier than her husband, dressed herself in 
man's clothes and in this disguise conducted 
the defence of Lathom House. 

The respite was not of long duration. 
The battle of Marston Moor (2 July) ruined 
the royalist cause in Lancashire, and before 
the end of the month Lathom House was 
again besieged. The earl, however, had re- 
m^ved with his wife and children to the 
Isle of Man, and on 8 Dec. following Lathom 
House surrendered. The countess remained 
in the Isle of Man until after her husband's 
execution in 1651. The island was then 
surrendered by William Christian [q. v.], 
the deputy-governor, to the parliamentarians, 

VOL. LIV. 



and the countess removed to Knowsley, 
where she lived until the Restoration, occa- 
sionally visiting London. On 9 June 1660 
she petitioned that her husband's ' murderers 
might be brought to condign punishment.' 
But the obloquy cast upon her because of 
her alleged persecution of Christian is said 
to have been unmerited (Stanley Papers, in. 
ii. pp. cclxxiv et seq.) She died at Knows- 
ley on 21 March 1663-4, and was buried 
near her husband in Ormskirk church. 

Vandyck's group of the Earl and Countess 
of Derby and child in the Clarendon Gallery 
is one of his finest pictures. The sketch of 
Lady Derby's figure for this picture is among 
the original Vandyck drawings in the Bri- 
tish Museum (LADY THERESA LEWIS, Friends 
of Clarendon, iii. 338). A portrait by Janssen 
formerly belonged to the Earl of Liverpool, 
and two others belong to Earl Fitzwilliam. 
A portrait belonging to the Earl of Derby, 
engraved by C. H. Jeens, is prefixed to 
Madame de Witt's ' Lady of Latham.' 

[The large collection of letters from the 
Countess of Derby to her French relatives, in the 
possession of the Due de la Tremoille, were 
used by Madame de Witt in her Lady of Latham, 
London, 1869, 8vo, and by M. Marlet in his 
Charlotte de la Tremoille, Paris, 1895. The 
latter is the best biography of the countess. 
Other lives of her are given in Cummings's The 
Great Stanley, 1847, and the Stanley Papers 
(Chetham Soc.) For the siege of Lathom House 
see two anonymous manuscripts, one of which, 
extant in Ashmolean MS. A. Wood, D. 16, is 
printed as a sequel to the Memoirs of Colonel 
Hutchinson, 1846 ; the other, extant in Harl. 
MS. 2043, was published in 1823, 12mo, and in 
Ormerod's Civil War Tracts in Lancashire 
(Chetham Soc.), 1844. The countess is portrayed 
in Scott's Peveril of the Peak and in Harrison 
Ainsworth's Leaguer of Lathom. See also Cor- 
respondance de Louise de Coligny, ed. MM. 
Marchegay et Marlet, 1887, passim ; Chartrier 
de Thouars, 1877 ; Warburton's Prince Eupert; 
Thurloe and Rushworth's Collections; Gardi- 
ner's Civil War ; Collins's and G. E. C.'s Peer- 
ages ; Intermediate des Chercheurs et Curieux, 
xxiv. 588 ; authorities quoted in Marlet's Char- 
lotte de la Tremoille, pp. xiv-xv, and in art. 
STANLEY, JAMES, seventh EAHL OF DERBY.] 

A. F. P. 

STANLEY, EDWARD, first BARON 
MONTEAGLE (1460 P-1523), born probably 
about 1460, was fifth son of Thomas Stanley, 
first earl of Derby [q. v.], by his first wife 
Eleanor, daughter of Richard Neville, earl 
of Salisbury (1400-1460) [q. v.], and sister 
of the ' king-maker.' He was knighted during 
Edward IVs reign, and on 17 April 1483 
officiated as one of the pall-bearers at that 
king's funeral. His father's marriage with 



Stanley 



5 



Stanley 



Henry of Richmond's mother and services at 
Bosworth secured Henry's favour for the 
family when he became king. Edward be- 
came sheriff of Lancashire in the autumn of 
1485 ; on 15 Oct. he was directed to provide 
for the safety of the shire against Scottish 
attacks, and on 1 Dec. he was granted the 
office of keeper of New Park, Langley; he also 
became knight of the body to the king. On 
4 March 1488-9 he was granted the manors of 
Farleton in Lonsdale, Farleton in Westmore- 
land, and Brierley in Yorkshire. He took 
part in the ceremonies at the creation of 
Prince Henry as Duke of York in November 
1494, and at the reception of Catherine of 
Arragon in October 1501. On 5 Nov. 1509 
he was granted a license to import seventy 
tuns of Burgundy wine, and in 1511 he served 
as commissioner of array in Yorkshire and 
Westmoreland. He received further grants 
of land in June 1513, and on 9 Sept. follow- 
ing he took a prominent part in the battle 
of Flodden Field. Popular ballads (see 
Flodden Field, ed. Weber, pp. 37-40, 50-9 
et seq.) represent the English army as beg- 
ging Surrey to put Stanley in command of 
the van; Surrey, out of jealousy, placed him 
in the rear, where nevertheless he greatly 
distinguished himself, forcing the Scots to 
evacuate their position of vantage on the hill, 
and killing James IV of Scotland with his 
own hand (his name occurs in the well- 
known line of Scott's ' Marmion,' ' Charge, 
Chester, charge on, Stanley, on'). These 
details receive no confirmation from the 
official version (Letters and Papers, i. 1441) ; 
but Thomas Ruthall [q. v.], bishop of Durham, 
reported that Stanley behaved well, and re- 
commended his elevation to the peerage for 
his services. On 8 May 1514 he was in- 
stalled K.G., and six days later he is said to 
have landed at Calais with Sir Thomas Lovell 
[q. v.] Various deeds of valour during the 
French war are assigned to him by the peer- 
age historians. On 9 Oct. in the same year 
he was present at the marriage of the princess 
Mary to Louis XII of France, and on 23 Nov. 
he was summoned to the House of Lords as 
Baron Monteagle (cf. ib. ii. 1464). He was 
present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 
June 1520. He died on 6 April 1523, and 
was buried at Hornby, Lancashire, where he 
had commenced a religious foundation in 
commemoration of his success at Flodden 
(cf. Letters and Papers, iii. 2834). Monteagle 
married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Vaughan of Tretower, Brecknock- 
shire, and widow of John, lord Grey de 
Wilton, by whom he had no issue; and 
secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir John Har- 
rington, by whom he had apparently two 



sons, both named Thomas. The elder suc- 
ceeded to the peerage, and died in 1560; his 
son William, third baron Monteagle, died 
without male issue in 1581, leaving a daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, who married Edward Parker, 
tenth baron Morley, and was mother of 
William Parker [q. v.], who succeeded as 
fourth baron Monteagle ande leventh baron 
Morley. 

THOMAS STANLEY (d. 1570), bishop of Sodor 
and Man, the first lord Monteagle's second 
son, was educated at Oxford, and then be- 
came rector of Winwick and Wigan, Lanca- 
shire, and Bardsworth, Yorkshire. In 1530 
he was appointed bishop of Sodor and Man, 
but was deprived by Henry VIII in 1545. 
He was restored by Queen Mary in 1556, 
and died in 1570. He was author of a me- 
trical chronicle of the Stanleys of Lathom, 
several copies of which are extant in manu- 
script (cf. Stanley Papers, i. 16-17). It was 
printed in Halliwell's ' Palatine Anthology ' 
[1850], but is of little authority (WOOD, 
Athena Oxon. ii. 807 ; LE NEVE, Fasti, iii. 
326). 

[Campbell's Materials for the Eeign of 
Henry VII, and Gairdner's Letters and Papers 
of Henry VII (Rolls Ser.) ; Brewer's Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, vols. i-iii. ; Stanley 
Papers (ChethamSoc.),vol.i. ; Stanley's Metrical 
Chron. in Halliwell's Palatine Anthology; 
Weber's Flodden Field, pp. 2, 5, 37-40, 50-7, 
72, 112, 116, 118, 132-3,263-4; La Rotta de 
Scocese (Roxburghe Club) ; Seacome's Mem. of 
the Stanleys, ed. 1840, pp. 93-4 ; Pollard's 
Stanleys of Knowsley, pp. 31-2; Baines's Lan- 
cashire ; Gregson's Portfolio of Fragments ; Peer- 
ages by Collins, Burke (Extinct), and G. E. C.] 

A. F. P. 

STANLEY, EDWARD, third EARL OF 
DERBY (1508-1572), second but eldest sur- 
viving son of Thomas Stanley, second earl 
of Derby, by his wife Anne, daughter of 
Thomas, lord Hungerford, was born in 1508 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, iii. 2820). 
His father, eldest son of George, lord Strange 
(d. 1497), and grandson of Thomas, first earl 
of Derby [q. v.], born before 1485, was made 
K.B. on 31 Oct. 1494, succeeded his grand- 
father as second Earl of Derby on 29 July 
1504, and his mother in the barony of 
Strange on 20 March 1513-14. He attended 
Henry VIII on the French expedition in 
1513, and was present at the battle of Spurs 
(18 Aug.) In 1520 he was in attendance on 
Charles V at Dover, and in the same year he 
was sworn of the privy council. He died on 
23 May 1521, and was buried at Sion 
monastery, Middlesex. An anonymous por- 
trait belongs to the present Earl of Derby 
(Cat. First Loan Exhib. No. 70). 



Stanley 



The third earl was a minor at his father's 
death, and became a ward of Cardinal Wol- 
sey. He took his seat in the House of Lords 
in the parliament that met on 3 Nov. 1529, 
and on 13 July 1530 he was one of the peers 
who signed the letter to the pope petitioning 
him to grant Henry VIII's divorce. In 1532 
he was present with Henry at his interview 
with Francis I at Boulogne. He was made 
a knight of the Bath on 30 May 1533, and 
on 1 June following he officiated as cup- 
bearer at the coronation of Anne Boleyn. 
He took a prominent part in suppressing the 
northern rebellions in 1536 and 1537 {Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Gairdner, 
vols. xi. and xii. passim). In 1542 he accom- 
panied Thomas Howard, third duke of Nor- 
folk, on his raid into Scotland. He was 
elected K.G. on 17 Feb. 1546-7, and three 
days later bore the sword ' curtana ' at the 
coronation of Edward VI. He was, however, 
strongly opposed to religious change, and 
protested in the House of Lords against the 
bills confirming the new liturgy (10 Dec. 
1548), for the destruction of the old service 
books (December 1549), compelling atten- 
dance at divine service (January 1552-3), 
and legalising the marriage of priests (March 
1552-3). In June 1551 it was reported 
that he had been commanded to ' renounce 
his title of the Isle of Man,' but refused, 
and was preparing to resist by force (Cal. 
State Papers, For. i. 119-20). Never- 
theless, he was on 9 Aug. 1551 sworn a privy 
councillor on condition of attending only 
when specially summoned, and in the same 
year he was one of the parties to the peace 
with Scotland. He took little part in the 
proceedings of the council, but in December 
1551 he was one of the peers who tried 
Somerset, while his eldest son was one of the 
principal witnesses against the duke. On 
16 May 1552 he was appointed lord lieu- 
tenant of Lancashire. 

Derby naturally welcomed the accession 
of Queen Mary, and was one of her earliest 
adherents. On 17 Aug. 1553 he was made 
a regular member of the privy council, 
which he frequently attended, and in the 
same month was placed on a commission to 
investigate Bonner's deprivation of the 
bishopric of London. He was created lord 
high steward for the coronation of Mary on 
1 Oct. and bore the sword ' curtana ' at that 
ceremony. On 1 1 Nov. following he was made 
a special commissioner for the trial of Lady 
Jane Grey and others, and during Mary's reign 
he frequently took part in the proceedings 
against heretics, John Bradford (1510 P-1555) 
[q. v.] being one of the victims of his activity 
(FoxE, Actes and Mon. vol. vii. passim ; 



i Stanley 

MAITLAND, Essays on the Reformation). He 
attended Philip of Spain at his landing on 
19 July 1554, and on 30 May 1557 he was ap- 
pointed captain of the vanguard to serve 
against the Scots. He was one of those sum- 
moned to attend Queen Elizabeth on her entry 
into London in November 1558, and before 
the end of the year became a member of 
Gray's Inn. He was retained as a member 
of the privy council, was appointed chamber- 
lain of Chester on 16 April 1559, visitor of 
the churches in the province of York on 
24 June 1559, commissioner for ecclesiastical 
causes in the diocese of Chester on 20 July 
1562, and lord lieutenant of Cheshire and 
Lancashire on 18 Nov. 1569. But though he 
often took part in proceedings against recu- 
sants and gave the government timely warn- 
ingof the insurrection of 1569,his sympathies 
and connections rendered him an object of 
suspicion to Elizabeth. The queen's enemies 
counted on his support (cf. Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Addenda, 1566-79, pp. 371-2), and 
his sons, Edward and Thomas, were in 1571 
implicated in an attempt to release Mary 
Queen of Scots from Tutbury (Hatfield 
MSS. i. 505-76). Derby died at Lathom 
House on 24 Oct. 1572 ; he had been noted 
for his splendid hospitality, and his funeral 
at Ormskirk on 4 Dec. 1572 was one of the 
most magnificent on record (cf. The Derby 
Household Books, Chetham Soc. ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1547-81, p. 455; COLLINS, 
Peerage, iii. 55-62). His will, dated 24 Aug., 
was proved on 21 Nov. 1572. An engraving 
of an anonymous portrait of Derby be- 
longing to the present Earl Derby is given 
by Doyle. 

Derby was thrice married. His first wife 
was Katherine (her name is given in the 
peerages as Dorothy), daughter of Thomas 
Howard I, second duke of Norfolk, who on 
21 Feb. 1529-30 received a pardon ' for the 
abduction of Edward, earl of Derby, and 
marriage of the said Edward to Katherine, 
daughter of the said Thomas, without royal 
license ' (Letters and Papers, iv. 6248, art. 
21). By her Derby had issue Henry Stanley, 
fourth earl [q. v.], Sir Thomas Stanley (d. 
1576), and Sir Edward (d. 1609) ; and four 
daughters. His second wife was Margaret, 
daughter of Ellis Barlow of Barlow, Essex, 
by whom he had one son and two daughters. 
She died on 23 Feb. 1558-9, and^ an epi- 
logue on her death, by Richard Sheale, is 
printed in the 'British Bibliographer/ vol. 
iv. (cf. Stanley Papers, i. 14). His third 
wife was Mary, daughter of Sir George Cot- 
ton of Combermere Abbey, Cheshire, who 
afterwards married Henry Grey, earl of Kent, 
and died without issue on 16 Nov. 1580. 

E2 



Stanley 



Stanley 



[Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. 
Brewer and Gairdner, vols. iv-xv. passim; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-81, and Addenda, 
1547-65, 1565-79; Stanley Papers, (5 pts.) 
and Lancashire Lieutenancy under the Tudors 
(Chetham Soc.); Cal. Hatfield MSS. pt. i. ; 
Acts of the Privy Council, 1542-75; Lit. 
Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; 
Machyn's Diary, Chron. of Queen Jane, and 
Narr. of the Reformation (Camden Soc.) ; Corr. 
Pol. de Odet de Selve; Camden's Elizabeth; 
Foxe's Actes and Mon.; Burnet's Hist. Re- 
formation, ed. Pocock ; Strype's Works ; Lords' 
Journals ; Froude's Hist. ; Baines's Lancashire ; 
Hibbert Ware's Manchester ; Collins's, Doyle's, 
and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerages.] A. F. P. 

STANLEY, EDWARD (1779-1849), 
bishop of Norwich., second son and seventh 
child of Sir John Thomas Stanley, sixth 
baronet, of Alderley Park, Cheshire, and of 
Margaret Owen, of Penrhos, Anglesey, was 
born in London on 1 Jan. 1779. His elder 
brother, John Thomas, was first Baron Stan- 
ley of Alderley, and father of Edward John 
Stanley, second baron Stanley of Alderley 
[q. v.] Edward's natural inclination was for 
the sea ; but he was not allowed to enter the 
navy. Educated partly at private schools, 
partly by tutors, he was sent in 1798 to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, knowing 
nothing of Greek, almost equally ignorant 
of Latin, and possessing only a smattering 
of mathematics. His industry to some ex- 
tent remedied these deficiencies. In 1802 
his name appears in the mathematical tripos 
as sixteenth wrangler. 

Ordained in 1802, he was for three years 
curate of Windlesham in Surrey. In 1805 
he was presented by his father to the family 
living of Alderley, where he remained for 
thirty-two years. An excellent parish priest 
at a time when the standard of parochial 
duty was low, he devoted himself earnestly 
to his work. In education he was keenly 
interested, introducing into his schools 
gymnastic exercises, and such subjects as 
elementary botany, English history, and 
geography. Infant schools, temperance so- 
cieties, mechanics' institutes, and statisti- 
cal societies found in him a zealous patron. 
He was also instrumental in founding a 
clerical society among the neighbouring 
clergy. A natural aptitude for science, and 
a conviction of its intimate connection with 
religion, made him a student of such sub- 
jects as ornithology, entomology, mineralogy, 
and geology. His ornithological observa- 
tions were embodied in his ' Familiar His- 
tory of Birds, their Nature, Habits, and 
Instincts ' (2 vols. published in 1836). He 
was one of the first clergymen who ven- 
tured to lecture on the then suspected 



science of geology. A whig in politics, 
and by nature a reformer, he took up a 
position towards questions of the day which 
was rare in his profession. He endeavoured 
by pamphlets, published in 1829 and 1836, 
to allay the animosities between Roman 
catholics and protestants. In 1831, in the 
midst of the Reform Bill agitation, he pro- 
moted a petition for church reform. When 
the new and unpopular poor law came into 
operation in 1834, he offered his services as 
chairman of the board of guardians called 
on to administer the act in his union. 

In 1837 Dr. Bathurst, bishop of Norwich, 
died at the age of ninety-three. The vacant 
see was offered by Lord Melbourne to 
Stanley, and was accepted by him. He 
had previously declined overtures of a 
similar kind with regard to the bishopric of 
Manchester, the immediate creation of 
which was then contemplated. He now 
entered upon episcopal work in a diocese 
which was a by-word for laxity and irregu- 
larity. Non-residence, pluralities, scarcity 
of services, neglect of schools, carelessness in 
admission to holy orders, were some of the 
abuses by which he was confronted. By 
vigorous enforcement of the Plurality and 
Non-residence Act, he added during his 
episcopate 173 parsonage-houses. During 
the same period he increased the number of 
Sunday services by 347. He doubled the 
number of schools and rendered them more 
efficient. The examinations for ordination 
were carefully conducted, and the bishop 
made himself personally acquainted with 
the previous career of every candidate. At 
great personal expense he prosecuted and 
removed those clergymen whose lives had 
brought them within the reach of the law. 
By the appointment of seventy rural deans, 
each of whom was every year entertained at 
the palace, he made himself acquainted 
with what passed in every part of his 
diocese. Instead of the old septennial con- 
firmations at a few large centres, he con- 
firmed annually at convenient stations. He 
assisted all the charitable institutions of 
the county, especially in Norwich, interested 
himself in the working of the poor laws, 
and personally inspected the efficiency of 
the local schools. In the House of Lords 
he was a regular attendant, and a staunch 
supporter of whig principles. His most 
telling speeches were delivered in defence 
of the government scheme of education in 
1839, on behalf of relaxing the stringent 
terms of clerical subscription in 1840, and 
on the endowment of Maynooth in 1842. 
He took part, with especial pleasure, in 
such movements as bible societies, city 



Stanley 



53 



Stanley 



missions, British and foreign schools, which 
brought together on neutral ground church- 
men and nonconformists. The same feeling 
led him to support in the National Society 
in 1839 such changes as would open the doors 
of schools to the children of nonconformists. 
He was also the first bishop who interested 
himself in the movement for ragged schools. 
Always an eager advocate of temperance, he 
appeared on the platform with Father 
Mathew, who in 1843 was his guest at 
Norwich. 

Stanley's liberal views, fearlessness of ob- 
loquy, and vigorous reforms at first created 
ill-feeling in the diocese. Before the close 
of his episcopate, however, he not only 
changed the whole atmosphere of religious 
life throughout his see, but won the affec- 
tionate esteem of all classes, whether lay or 
clerical. In August 1849 he started for a 
tour in Scotland with his wife and daugh- 
ters. At Brahan Castle in Ross-shire he 
was taken ill, and, after a few days, died 
from congestion of the brain on 6 Sept. 1849. 
His body was brought by sea from Invergor- 
don to Yarmouth, and on 21 Sept. was 
buried in the centre of the nave of Norwich 
Cathedral. 

By his wife Catherine (1792-1862), daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Oswald Leycester, rector of 
Stoke-upon-Terne,whomhe married in 1810, 
Stanley had, besides other issue, Arthur 
Penrhyn Stanley [q. v.] and a daughter Mary 
(1813-1879), who in 1854 was entrusted by 
Sydney Herbert, secretary of state for war, 
with the charge of fifty nurses during the 
Crimean war. Subsequently she assisted 
her brother in charitable work at West- 
minster, and in 1861 was active in relieving 
the distress in Lancashire due to the cotton 
famine. She became a Roman catholic in 
1856, and died on 26 Nov. 1879. She was 
author of 'True to Life: a simple Story,' 
1873, 8vo. 

[Addresses and Charges of Edward Stanley, 
D.D., late bishop of Norwich, with a Memoir 
by his son, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, London, 
1851. The Memoir is reprinted, with some 
additions, in the Memoirs of Edward and Cathe- 
rine Stanley, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Lon- 
don, 1879.] E. E. P. 

STANLEY, EDWARD (1793-1862) 
surgeon, son of Edward Stanley, who was 
in business in the city of London, was born 
on 3 July 1793, his mother being the sister 
of Thomas Blizard [q. v.], surgeon to the Lon- 
don Hospital. He was entered at Merchant 
Taylors' School in April 1802, and remained 
there until 1808, when he was apprenticed 
to Thomas Ramsden, one of the surgeons at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Ramsden diec 



in 1810, and Stanley was turned over to 
John Abernethy to serve the remainder of 
lis time. He was admitted a member of the 
College of Surgeons in 1814, and gained 
;he Jacksonian prize in 1815. He was 
lected assistant surgeon to St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital on 29 Jan. 1816, at the 
sarly age of 24. Even during his appren- 
iceship he had rendered important services 
o the medical school of the hospital, for his 
Love of morbid anatomy led him, with Aber- 
nethy's assistance and approval, to enlarge 
;he museum so greatly that he practically 
created it. He acted for a time as demon- 
strator of anatomy, but in 1826 he was 
appointed to lecture upon this subject on 
Abernethy'sresignation. Hecontinued to lec- 
ture until 1848, when he was succeeded by 
Frederic Carpenter Skey [q. v.] Stanley 
was elected to the post of full surgeon in 
1838, and he then rapidly became famous as 
a clinical teacher of great power. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1830. 

At the Royal College of Surgeons he held 
in succession the most important offices. He 
was elected a life member of the council in 
1832, Arris and Gale professor of human 
anatomy and physiology in 1835, Hunterian 
orator in 1839, a member of the court of ex- 
aminers in 1844, and president in 1848 and 
again in 1857. He was appointed surgeon- 
extraordinary to the queen in 1858, and he 
was president of the Royal Medical and 
Chirurgical Society as early as 1843. 

Stanley resigned his post of surgeon to 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital in 1861, but he 
regularly attended the weekly operations on 
Saturdays until 24 May 1862, when he was 
attacked by cerebral haemorrhage while 
watching an operation, and died an hour 
later. Stanley was one of the most saga- 
cious teachers and judicious practitioners of 
his day. He was a blunt, kindly, humorous, 
straightforward, and honest man. 

He published : 1. ' Illustrations of the 
Effects of Disease and Injury of the Bones,' 
with descriptive and explanatory statements, 
plates, London, folio, 1849. "A series of 
coloured plates splendidly executed, drawn 
from original preparations, most of which 
are still extant. 2. 'A Treatise on Diseases 
of the Bones,' 8vo, London, 1849. An edition 
was also published in the same year at Phila- 
delphia. These two classical works repre- 
sented for many years all that was known of 
the pathology of the subject of bone disease. 
8. ' A Manual of Practical Anatomy,' Lon- 
don, 12mo, 1818 ; 2nd edit. 1822 ; 3rd edit. 
1826. 4. ' An Account of the Mode of per- 
forming the Lateral Operation of Lithotomy,' 



Stanley 



54 



Stanley 



plates, 4to, 1829. 5. i Hunterian Oration/ 
London, 1839. 

[Alfred Willett's account of Edward Stanley, 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital Journal, 1894,i. 147 ; 
Robinson's Registerof Merchant Taylors' School.] 

D'A. P. 

STANLEY, EDWARD GEORGE 
GEOFFREY SMITH, fourteenth EAKL OF 
DERBY (1799-1869), son of Edward Smith 
Stanley, thirteenth earl [q.v.], by Charlotte 
Margaret, his cousin, second daughter of the 
Rev. Geoffrey Hornby, was born at Knowsley 
Park, Lancashire, on 29 March 1799. He 
was sent to Eton, where he was in the fifth 
form in lower division in 1811 and upper 
division in 1814 (EtonSchool Lists,-pp. 69, 77). 
Proceeding to Christ Church, Oxford, and 
matriculating on 17 Oct. 1817, he won the 
Chancellor's Latin verse prize in 1819 with 
a spirited poem on ' Syracuse ; ' he took no 
degree, but on 19 Oct. 1852 was created 
D.C.L. On leaving Oxford he was brought 
into parliament for Stockbridge in the whig 
interest on 6 March 1820. The borough had 
been in the hands of a tory, a West Indian 
proprietor named Joseph Foster Barham, 
who, being in difficulties, sold it to a whig 
peer, and, on a successor being found by the 
purchaser in the person of young Stanley, at 
once vacated the seat himself, introducing 
him to the electors. Stanley made no speech 
in the House of Commons till 30 March 1824, 
when he spoke with considerable success on 
the Manchester Gas-light Bill, having in the 
previous year been appointed a member of 
the committee on the subject. On 6 May he 
answered Joseph Hume in the debate on the 
latter's motion for an inquiry into the Irish 
church establishment. He opposed any design 
to interfere with church property, and proved 
himself to be by instinct a powerful debater. 
He did not, however, follow up this success 
for some time. In the autumn of 1824 he 
travelled in Canada and the United States, 
and, in May 1825, married Emma Caroline, 
second daughter of Edward Bootle Wilbra- 
ham (afterwards Lord Skelmersdale). Du- 
ring that session he was silent in the House 
of Commons, and hardly spoke at all in 1826. 
He ceased to be member for Stockbridge, 
and was elected for Preston on 26 June 1826, 
where the local franchise was a popular one, 
and the representation had long been divided 
between a nominee of the Derby family and 
a nominee of the corporation. Though op- 
posed by Cobbett and others, he was returned 
at the head of the poll by a very large ma- 
jority. 

The views of Canning approximated so 
closely to the opinions that Stanley then 
held that he, with other whigs, gave his 



support to Canning's ministry in 1827, and 
accepted the under-secretaryship of the colo- 
nies. He retained it under Lord Goderich, 
[see ROBINSON, FREDERICK JOHN, first EARL 
OF RIPON], but declined to be a member of 
the Duke of Wellington's administration, 
pointing to the divergence of the old tories 
from the freer spirit of the Canningites, and 
hinting that the older toryism was a thing 
of the past. Still he foresaw as little as 
others the near triumph of the whigs. In 
1828 he supported the transference to Bir- 
mingham of the East Retford seat, in oppo- 
sition to the government ; he voted in silence 
for the Catholic Emancipation Bill in 1829, 
and spoke guardedly in favour of parliamen- 
tary reform in 1830. At the general election 
on the death of George IV he was re-elected 
for Preston on 30 July, but, having accepted 
office in Lord Grey's administration as chief 
secretary for Ireland and having been sworn 
of the privy council, he was defeated in 
August by ' Orator ' Hunt at the by-election 
for Preston in December, and was mobbed 
and ran some risk of his life [see HUNT, 
HENRY, 1773-1835]. Eventually a vacancy 
was made at Windsor, and Stanley was 
elected there on 10 Feb. 1831. 

O'Connell's indignation when the new 
ministry refused the silk gown he had had 
reason to expect at their hands vented itself 
particularly in attacks on the new chief 
secretary. Stanley was not slow to retaliate, 
and eventually allowed himself to be irri- 
tated into challenging O'Connell ; the chal- 
lenge was refused, but the attacks continued. 
O'Connell was then prosecuted in January 
1831 for a breach of the Association Act ; 
he pleaded guilty, and was bound over to 
come up for judgment in the following term ; 
but before he was in fact required to come 
up parliament was dissolved. The Associa- 
tion Act expired with the dissolution, and 
further proceedings were impossible. It 
was currently believed that the ministry had 
arranged for this abortive result in order to 
secure O'Connell's support at the approach- 
ing election, and that Stanley had been 
active in carrying out the plan. Fortunate, 
however, as the issue was for the ministry 
at the moment, it seems that the result was 
purely accidental (see State Trials, new ser. 
ii. 629-58) ; at any rate, Stanley point blank 
denied that there had been any arrangement 
(HANSARD, 13 Feb. 1831, p. 610), and O'Con- 
nell's antagonism towards him continued 
unabated. 

During the reform struggle Stanley's 
speeches, though brilliant (RussELL, Recol- 
lections, p. 92), showed that he scarcely ap- 
preciated how great a constitutional change 



Stanley 



55 



Stanley 



the ministerial proposals made. At heart 
he was no friend to extreme reform ; he 
vigorously supported the bill in debate, an- 
swering Peel, for example, on 4 March 1831 
very effectively ; but when attempts at com- 
promise were made, after the House of 
Lords had rejected the bill in October, and 
riots had occurred in various parts of the 
country, he was among the most active in 
promoting an agreement. With Lord Grey's 
approval, he visited Lord Sandon [see RYDER, 
DUDLEY, second EARL OF HARROWBY], to 
discuss terms of compromise, and was re- 
garded as the leader of the moderate re- 
formers in the cabinet. Thus, on the one 
hand, he delivered a brilliant and crushing 
speech in reply to Croker during the second 
reading debate of the third bill on 17 Dec. 

1831 (HANSARD, 3rd ser. ix. 521), and, on the 
other, was pressing Lord Grey for conces- 
sions with regard to duplicate voting and to 
the number of the proposed metropolitan 
constituencies. By May 1832 these conces- 
sions had almost been obtained, when the 
ministry was compelled to resign by the 
lords' acceptance of Lyndhurst's motion to 
postpone consideration of the disfranchising 
clauses to that of the enfranchising clauses. 
The failure of negotiations so nearly com- 
pleted was keenly resented by Stanley, and 
in an after-supper speech at Brooke's he used 
language of extreme bitterness towards the 
Duke of Wellington. From this time he 
vigorously supported the full reform scheme, 
and no doubt the success of the bill was 
materially aided by his speeches. On 19 Jan. 

1832 he also introduced the ministerial Re- 
form Bill for Ireland ; but it excited little 
interest, though he proposed an increase in 
the number of Irish members. He suc- 
ceeded his father as member for North Lan- 
cashire on 17 Dec. 1832, and held the seat 
till he was raised to the peerage. 

During the debates and dissolutions on re- 
form, Stanley had been incessantly occupied 
not only with the fortunes of the bill, but with 
the administrative duties of his office. He 
had to ' adjust the state of Ireland to that 
first retreat from the Ascendency position 
which was involved in the granting of catho- 
lic emancipation.' He instituted the Irish 
board of works and the Shannon navigation 
improvements. In 1831 he brought in the 
Irish Education Act, which was remarkable 
for the creation of the Irish board of national 
education and for the compromise by which, 
while children of all denominations were to 
be admitted to the schools receiving the 
government grant, the education given was 
not to be wholly secular, but was to include 
religious teaching of an undogmatic and 



neutral character. The bill was favoured 
by the Roman catholic priesthood, and was 
probably as successful as any measure on 
such a subject could be in Ireland. In De- 
cember of the same year he was chairman 
of a committee on Irish tithes, and in the 
following spring, in spite of the most de- 
termined and violent opposition from the 
Irish Roman catholic members, he passed 
a temporary palliative act, followed in July 
by the first of three bills to apply a more 
permanent remedy by making tithe compo- 
sition compulsory. The act, with the addi- 
tion of Littleton's Tithe Act in the following 
year, continued in force till 1838. During 
these debates Stanley's relations with O'Con- 
nell and his followers had become gravely 
embittered. Matters became worse in No- 
vember, after he had declared in the strongest 
terms in an election speech in North Lanca- 
shire that he would resist repeal to the 
death. His measures in 1833 were a very 
strong Peace Preservation Act and an Irish 
Church Temporalities Act, and his first 
battle on the former was in the cabinet. 
Althorp wished to resign rather than be re- 
sponsible for such a proposal. Stanley 
insisted; and as it was apparent that the 
resignation of either must break up the 
ministry, Lord Althorp gave way. The 
conduct of the bill was placed in Althorp's 
hands, but he introduced it in a speech so 
half-hearted that many of the ministerialists 
wavered, and a defeat became dangerously 
probable. Stanley took the papers, shut 
himself up for a couple of hours, mastered 
the complicated facts and figures, and, re- 
turning, made a speech so convincing, so 
uncompromising, and so hostile to the Irish 
party that he silenced O'Connell, and, thanks 
to his sole exertions, passed the bill by huge 
majorities (for the description of this inci- 
dent see RUSSELL, Recollections, pp. 112, 
113; LE MARCHANT, Life of Lord Althorp, 
p. 455). The Church Temporalities Bill 
also, though introduced by Althorp, was 
Stanley's bill. 

Having achieved so much Irish legislation 
during a comparatively short tenure of the 
chief secretaryship and shown himself a 
masterful and drastic administrator, he was 
on 28 March transferred to the colonial 
office. Greville states (Memoirs, 1st ser. ii. 
366) that a positive promise of a secretary- 
ship of state had been made him in 1832, 
and that it was only on his threats of resig- 
nation and the strongest pressure onGoderich 
that room was made for him in the latter's 
place. In his new office he attacked the 
question of the abolition of slavery, at first 
by resolutions (HANSARD, Par/. Deb. 3rd ser. 






Stanley 



Stanley 



xvii. 1230), proposing a limited period of 
apprenticeship for the slave and compensa- 
tion for the owners, and afterwards by bill, 
which reduced the apprenticeship and in- 
creased the compensation. His introductory 
speech of 14 May was published. In the 
conduct of this bill he showed himself less 
the orator of the Irish debates than a hard- 
headed man of business. The bill became 
law in August 1833, but before it came into 
force in 1834 Stanley had resigned. On 
6 May 1834 Russell, speaking on Littleton's 
Tithe Bill, declared in favour of the aliena- 
tion to secular purposes of a portion of the 
Irish church revenues. The question was 
one on which two parties existed in the 
cabinet, and no collective declaration had 
been hitherto made by the ministry. Stanley 
has been accused of having actually intro- 
duced an appropriation clause into the Church 
Temporalities Bill in 1833 ; but his speeches 
during its progress show that he was opposed 
to any secularisation of church property, and 
did not think or desire, that by Clause 147 
any such object would be effected. At any 
rate he saw that Russell's declaration meant 
the break up of the ministry. ' Johnny has up- 
set the coach,' he whispered to his neighbour 
Graham. Henry George Ward [q. v.], mem- 
ber for St. Albans, followed up Russell's an- 
nouncement with his ' Appropriation Resolu- 
tion 'for the redistribution of the Irish church 
revenues ; it was to come on on 27 May, 
and the ministry, hesitating between their 
radical and whig followers, resolved to meet 
it with a proposal fora commission of inquiry. 
Stanley instantly tendered his resignation, 
and had ceased to be a minister before Ward 
had finished introducing his motion. He 
never afterwards rejoined the whigs ; for a 
time he spoke and voted as an independent 
member, but he inevitably drifted towards 
the conservative party. In him the whigs 
lost one of their ablest men of business, and 
incomparably their best debater. Earl Rus- 
sell (Recollections, p. 114) speaks of 1833 as 
the most distinguished and memorable of 
Derby's whole career, and says that, had 
Althorp then resigned, Stanley's ' infinite 
skill, readiness, and ability ' would have 
qualified him for the succession to the leader- 
ship of the House of Commons. 

During the rest of the session of 1 834 Stanley 
spoke sometimes for and sometimes against 
the government : for them on the bill to admit 
dissenters to the universities and on Althorp's 
plan for the abolition of church rates ; against 
them in the speech on 2 July, in which he 
compared their conduct on the Tithe Bill 
to the sleight of hand of thimbleriggers at a 
fair. In general his speeches at this time 



were too full of bitterness and invective 
against his former colleagues. When Mel- 
bourne was dismissed, and Peel's return from 
Rome was anxiously awaited, his position 
was commanding. United with Stanley, Peel 
might well form and maintain an admini- 
stration. Opposed by him, his premiership 
must be short-lived. Stanley, while willing 
to serve under Peel as far as personal feel- 
ing was concerned, thought it best to decline 
to take office. He had too frequently been 
Peel's antagonist while in office himself to 
become so soon afterwards his colleague. 
He promised, however, an independent sup- 
port, and no doubt his decision was wise. 
Between Peel's conservatism and the opinions 
of Stanley and his friends, nominally some 
fifty strong, there was perhaps no great dis- 
crepancy ; but until Peel had asserted him- 
self over the older section of the tory party, 
Stanley could not tell, if he joined such a 
ministry, how soon he might not be com- 
pelled to leave it. Whether he hoped to form 
and keep alive a party of his own cannot 
now be determined. He certainly spoke in 
a very whiggish tone at Glasgow in Decem- 
ber. He assembled his followers when par- 
liament met, and O'Connell, quoting from 
Canning's ' Loves of the Triangles,' nick- 
named them the ' Derby Dilly, carrying six 
insides.' The idea of an independent party 
was soon abandoned, for Peel's administra- 
tion, short-lived as it was, soon proved that 
he might well now unite himself with so 
progressive a party. On 1 July 1835 he, 
Graham, and others formally took their seats 
with the followers of Peel, and in 1838, at 
the banquet to Peel in the Merchant Taylors' 
Hall, he figured as one of Peel's chief lieu- 
tenants. 

Stanlev was now, by his grandfather's 
death on 21 Oct. 1834, Lord Stanley. Till 1 841 
he remained in vigorous opposition, criti- 
cising especially the government's Irish and 
ecclesiastical proposals, its Jamaica Bill, and 
its policy with regard to Canada ; and his 
continual attacks on the whig tithe settle- 
ment at length compelled the government 
seriously to modify the disendowment por- 
tion of their proposals. He joined Peel's 
administration in 1841 as colonial secretary, 
and in 1843 supported the Canadian Corn 
Bill. His language with regard to it showed 
that he was for free trade, or practically for 
free trade with the colonies generally, but 
did not propose to apply the same rule to 
foreign powers. He demonstrated his great 
value to the government in the House of 
Commons by the part which he took in de- 
fending its Irish policy ; but it was in 
urgent need of debating assistance in the 



Stanley 



57 



Stanley 



House of Lords, and lie was accordingly in 
October 1844 called up by the title of Lord 
Stanley of Bickerstaffe. He explained that 
he was tired of the life of the House of 
Commons, and was afraid that his health 
was breaking down ; but the change was pro- 
bably due to the fact that he did not get on 
well with Peel. At any rate dissensions be- 
tween them became visible. Stanley com- 
bated the arguments in favour of immediate 
free trade, which Peel drew from the condi- 
tion of Ireland, and though he eventually 
agreed to the suspension of the corn laws, 
still, on Peel's declaration in favour of their 
complete and immediate repeal, he resigned. 
Even if Peel's course had seemed sound to 
him as a stroke of policy, which it did not, it 
involved in his eyes an intolerable sacrifice of 
personal consistency and principle. "When 
Peel resigned in December 1845 and Rus- 
sell failed to form a ministry, Stanley 
was applied to and declined, after such a 
break-up of his party, to attempt the task 
of carrying on the government as a protec- 
tionist. As he put it himself, if he took 
office he would have no colleagues. To pro- 
tection as an economic system he was by no 
means indissolubly wedded, but, as he de- 
clared in a speech, which is perhaps his best, 
(see GREVILLE, 2nd ser. ii. 395) on 25 May 
1846 in the House of Lords, protection was, 
in his opinion, necessary for the maintenance 
of the landed interest and the colonial sys- 
tem, the two pillars on which lie conceived 
the British empire to rest. Naturally, there- 
fore, it was round Stanley that there gathered 
that body of conservatives which revolted 
from Peel after the fall of his administration. 
Lord George Bentinck was Stanley's inti- 
mate friend, and Disraeli now entered into 
close relations with him ; but Stanley ac- 
cepted the leadership of the Protectionist 
party with reluctance, and for a while seems 
to have thought now of forming a new party 
by a union with the Palmerstonian whigs, 
and now of shaking himself free of all party 
ties and in a great measure withdrawing 
from public life. He spoke frequently and 
brilliantly in the House of Lords, particu- 
larly on the conduct of the Spanish govern- 
ment in summarily directing Sir Henry 
Bulwer, the British ambassador, to quit 
Madrid in 1848; on his amendment to the 
address in 1849 ; on the Navigation Bill, on 
Lord Roden's removal from the commission 
of the peace, for his conduct in regard to 
the Dolly's Brae affair (18 Feb. 1850) ; and 
on the question of Don Pacifico, when he ob- 
tained a majority of 37 against the ministry 
on 17 June 1850. 

"When Russell resigned in 1851, Stanley 



was sent for by the queen on 22 Feb. and 
gave a qualified refusal to form a ministry, 
first recommending that Lord John Russell 
should again make an attempt. Russell 
failed, and Stanley was sent for again on 
the 25th ; he now endeavoured to obtain the 
adhesion of the Peelites, but without success. 
He then applied to his own supporters, but 
eventually, according to Lord Malmesbury 
(Memoirs, i. 278), he was baulked by the 
hostility of Henley and Herries, and resigned 
his commission again to the queen on the 
27th. He explained his position in the 
House of Lords on 28 Feb., not without ex- 
pressing some bitterness at his followers' 
want of courage. As yet, however, his party 
had hardly a sufficiently definite policy to 
have justified their taking office. Stanley 
himself was still in favour of moderate pro- 
tection, though prepared to abandon any 
return to it, if the next verdict of the con- 
stituencies should prove to be unmistakably 
against it. In June his father died, and he 
succeeded to the earldom. On 21 Feb. 1852 
Russell again resigned, and Lord Derby 
formed a ministry; but it was untried, and 
some of the members of it were not even 
personally known to their chief. He made 
his first declaration of policy on 27 Feb., 
carried on the government till the beginning 
of July, and then dissolved. In spite of the 
speech when he declared in the House of 
Lords that the mission of a conservative 
government was ' to stem the tide of demo- 
cracy,' Lord Derby was not now himself dis- 
posed to reaction, but he was compelled to 
come before the country as advocating pro- 
tection, without the power or perhaps the 
wish to restore it, and in the result was out- 
numbered, though not very heavily, by a 
combination of all the parties opposed to 
him. The general election of July resulted 
in the return of 299 conservatives, 315 
liberals, and 40 Peelites. Negotiations began 
for the admission of Palmerston and some 
of the Peelites to the ministry, but they came 
to nothing. Instead of accepting the position 
frankly, Derby continued in office ; the in- 
evitable defeat came on the budget on the 
night of 16 Dec., and next day he resigned, 
Lord Aberdeen forming a ministry. Whether 
he gained anything by not resigning upon 
the conclusion of the general election may 
well be doubted, but he was bitterly ac- 
cused of having betrayed the protectionists 
in not attempting the impossible on their 
behalf during this brief prolongation of 
office. In opposition he continued to follow 
in the Elouse of Lords the same course as 
in 1850 and 1851. He opposed the policy 
of the government with regard to the Canada 



Stanley 5 

clergy reserves, and in 1853 came into acute 
collision with Bishop Wilberforce upon this 
subject (see LORD ALBEMAKLE, Fifty Years 
of my Life ; Life of Bishop Wilberforce, ed. 
1888, p. 142). 

When, in January 1854, parliament re- 
assembled on the eve of the Crimean war, 
Derby criticised Lord Aberdeen's policy in 
regard to the eastern question. As it was 
his government which had recognised Louis 
Napoleon as emperor in December 1852, he 
might well claim, as he did, that in the go- 
vernment's place he would have shown such 
unquestionable cordiality towards France 
as would have persuaded the Emperor Nicho- 
las of the unanimity of Great Britain and 
France while there was yet time for him to 
draw back. Disraeli used to declare that he 
knew of his own knowledge there would 
have been no Crimean war if Derby had been 
in office. Later on, however, when war ap- 
peared to be inevitable, Lord Derby gave the 
ministry an assurance of his general support. 

W T hen Aberdeen's government was de- 
feated on Roebuck's motion for an inquiry 
into the conduct of the war, on 29 Jan. 
1855, and resigned, Derby was sent for and 
endeavoured to form a ministry ; but he 
told the queen that the assistance both of 
Palmerston and of the Peelites would be 
indispensable to him ; and when, for reasons 
still obscure, he failed to secure them, he 
resigned the attempt. Russell was equally 
unsuccessful, and accordingly Palmerston 
became prime minister. Had Derby formed 
an administration exclusively among his own 
supporters, he would, as he explained to the 
House of Lords on 7 Feb. 1855, have found 
himself overthrown by the coalition against 
him of the divided sections of radicals, whigs, 
Palmerstonians, and Peelites. He forgot, 
however, or so conservatives have since main- 
tained, that in that case he had still the 
resource of a dissolution, with the high pro- 
bability of wide electoral support as the 
minister who was seeking to repair the 
blunders of the Aberdeen government. He 
attributed undue importance to the Peelites, 
and he thought the rout of the protectionists 
more complete than it really was ; perhaps, 
too, he was personally not very anxious to 
again assume the burden of office. But 
though he was content with opposition his 
party was not, and it was greatly disheartened 
and disorganised for some years. Lord Derby 
resumed his old attitude towards the govern- 
ment in the House of Lords. He supported 
Lord Ellenborough's resolutions condemna- 
tory of the conduct of the war ; he attacked 
the terms of the peace of Paris in the debate 
on the address in 1856 ; he opposed the life 



\ Stanley 

peerage of Lord Wensleydale ; he criticised 
severely Lord Palmerston's management of 
the lorcha Arrow question, and the govern- 
ment's conduct of the war of the mutiny in 
1857 ; but during a great part of the year 
he appeared little in parliament. His health 
was impaired, his party was insubordinate, 
and on the whole he kept to his sports and 
his private life as much as he could. 

When Lord Palmerston resigned in 1858, 
the queen again sent for Lord Derby on 
21 Feb., who, after another ineffectual applica- 
tion to the Peelites, formed, with Mr. Disraeli, 
a purely conservative administration. ' No 
one,' says Count Vitzthum von Eckstadt 
(Residence at St. Petersburg, p. 276), ' enter- 
tained fewer illusions than Lord Derby him- 
self as to the possibility of forming a lasting 
government with the forces at his disposal,' 
though Lord John Russell's support was 
secretly assured to him ; but he saw that he 
could now do his party a service by accus- 
toming its leading members to official busi- 
ness, and the nation to seeing once more an 
actual conservative ministry. He promised 
some kind of franchise measure, but he found 
himself in the first instance confronted with 
the disputes with France arising out of the 
Orsini plot ; with Naples regarding the 
seizure of the Cagliari; with the United 
States in connection with the right of search 
in the course of the suppression of the slave 
trade ; and with the difficulties connected 
with the Indian mutiny and the government 
of India. These questions were fairly satis- 
factorily concluded. Lord Derby's eldest 
son, Lord Stanley, succeeded to the India 
office when Lord Ellenborough resigned. 
The India Bill was passed. The disabilities 
of Jews in regard to the parliamentary oath 
were removed [see ROTHSCHILD, LIONEL 
NATHAN DE], the various international dis- 
putes adjusted, and the colony of British 
Columbia founded. In 1859 Lord Derby 
introduced a Reform Bill, since the question 
of reform had already been mooted by Lord 
John Russell, and he did not wish the con- 
servative party to appear as stubborn oppo- 
nents of all reform. Accordingly he intro- 
duced a bill to equalise the town and county 
franchise, but on the clause disfranchising 
the forty-shilling freeholders his ministry 
was in March placed by Russell in a minority 
of thirty-nine, and accordingly he dissolved 
parliament (April). Though he gained seats, 
he was still in a minority when the new par- 
liament met. He was much attacked for his 
supposed support of Austria against France 
on the eve of the war of 1859 : though the 
complaint of Count Beust, the Austrian am- 
bassador, was (Memoirs, i. 178) that he had 



Stanley 



59 



been too loth to commit himself, had even 
tried to go heyond the popular anti-Austrian 
feeling, and at the Guildhall banquet on 
25 April had spoken of the ' criminal step 
which had been taken by Austria.' A vote 
of want of confidence was carried on the 
motion of the Marquis of Hartington (the 
present Duke of Devonshire) in June, and 
Lord Derby gladly resigned, Palmerstononce 
more becoming prime minister. The queen 
thereupon made him an extra knight of the 
Garter. He was also a G.C.M.G. 

He had now to consider how best to deal 
with the existing political situation. The 
attempt to reunite the party which had 
followed Peel had been tried and had failed. 
A union with Lord Palmerston had been 
suggested and had failed also. His own 
followers were numerous, but insufficient in 
themselves to support a stable ministry. 
He therefore endeavoured to come to an 
understanding with Palmerston by which, 
in. return for support against the radicals, 
the whig government was to promise the 
conservatives to govern on substantially 
conservative lines. In the main this under- 
standing was successful ; Lord Derby, as he 
put it, ' kept the cripples on their legs.' 
Accordingly, except for criticism on Lord 
John Russell's foreign policy, he had little 
to say to the ministerial policy for several 
years. This state of peace was grateful 
to him. His health was failing and he was 
more and more incapacitated by gout. Know- 
ing that, although he might upset the liberal 
government, he was not strong enough to 
take and keep their place, he was content to 
exercise occasional authority through the 
House of Lords, and to leave to Disraeli the 
task of maturing combinations for the next 
election. One of these, the understanding 
with the Roman catholics, he himself im- 
perilled by one of his characteristically rash 
pleasantries in a speech on the Roman Catho- 
lic Oaths Bill on 26 June 1805. On the 
other hand, in 1864, when leading liberals 
and many conservatives were strongly for 
intervention in the German-Danish war, it 
was due to Lord Derby's influence, and to a 
great speech, lasting three hours, which he 
delivered in the House of Lords on 4 Feb., 
that the government took no active step. 

When he was sent for by the queen on 
the resignation of Russell's administration 
in June 1866, Derby exchanged a position of 
power without office for one in which he 
was much less able to support the causes 
with which his career had identified him. 
He again endeavoured to obtain the support 
of others than his own regular followers, 
notably of Robert Lowe (afterwards Lord 



Sherbrooke) [q. v.l, but failed, and took 
office as before as the head of a purely con- 
servative ministry. But in his impaired state 
of health most of the impulse of legislation 
lay with Disraeli. Derby spoke on the Par- 
liamentary Oaths Bill, and though he de- 
scribed the ministerial reform bill in his 
speech on the third reading as a ' leap in the 
dark,' 6 Aug. 1867, and would have pre- 
ferred, if he could, to let the question alone, 
he felt that something must be done, and 
nothing better was open than household 
suffrage. To this view he had been steadily 
coming for some time, and the bill was pro- 
bably quite as much his own measure as 
Disraeli's. Whatever else may be said of it, 
two things are true that it changed the cur- 
rent of English history quite as much as the 
Reform Bill of 1832, and that its conse- 
quences were probably as little desired as fore- 
seen by one half of those who voted for it. 

Almost his last appearance in parliament 
was in the debate on the address at the 
beginning of the autumn session of 1867. 
In January 1868 he was again attacked by 
gout ; in February his life was in danger, and 
on 24 Feb. he retired, and Disraeli became 
prime minister. He at the same time gave 
up the formal leadership of his party in the 
House of Lords, though he continued to 
take part in debate. He spoke repeatedly 
and with great force against the disestablish- 
ment of the Irish church, both before and 
after the general election. His last speech 
was on 17 June 1869. At the end of the 
session he returned to Knowsley, was again 
attacked by gout, and, after a lingering and 
hopeless illness, died on 23 Oct., and was 
buried in the Knowsley village church. He 
left three children : Edward Henry, fifteenth 
earl of Derby [q. v.] ; Frederick, afterwards 
baron Stanley of Preston and sixteenth and 
present earl of Derby; and Emma Charlotte, 
who married the Hon. W. Talbot. 

There are several portraits of Derby at 
Knowsley : one, by Harlowe, representing him 
as a boy of eighteen, of which a replica is at 
Eton and an engraving was published in 
Baines's ' History of Lancashire,' vol. iv. A 
full-length by W. Derby was painted about 
1841, and another by Sir F. Grant, P.R.A., 
engraved and published in 1860. There is a 
statue of him in Miller Square, Preston; and 
another, in Parliament Square, Westminster, 
was unveiled by Disraeli in July 1874, when 
he summed up Derby's achievements in the 
sentence, ' He abolished slavery, he educated 
Ireland, he reformed parliament.' 

Derby's reputation as a statesman suffers 
from the fact that he changed front so often. 
A whig, a Canningite, a strenuous whig 



Stanley 



Stanley 



leader, a strenuous conservative leader, the 
head of the protectionists, the opponent of 
democracy, and the author of the change 
which upset his own policy of 1832 and 
committed power to democracy in 1867, all 
these parts he filled in turn. He was not a 
statesman of profoundly settled convictions 
or of widely constructive views. He was 
a man rather of intense vitality than of 
great intellect, a brilliant combatant rather 
than a cautious or philosophic statesman. 
The work with which he was most identified, 
the re-creation of the conservative party 
after its disintegration on the fall of Peel, 
was Disraeli's rather than his own ; and the 
charge of a timid reluctance to assume the 
responsibilities and toil of office is one that 
may fairly be made against him. 

Derby's personality was full of charm. 
He was handsome in person, with striking 
aquiline features; in manner he was some- 
what familiar and off-hand, but beneath 
this facility lay an aloofness from all but 
social equals and intimates which stood con- 
siderably in his way as a party leader. This 
disadvantage operated less in his earlier years. 
' Although he gave offence now and then,' 
says Stratford Canning in 1835 (PooLE, Life 
of Stratford Canning, ii. 37), ' by a sort of 
schoolboy recklessness of expression, some- 
times even of conduct, his cheerful temper 
bore him out and made him more popular 
than others who were always considerate but 
less frank.' Twenty years later, however, 
there is no doubt that his party had reason 
to complain of the way in which their leader 
stood apart from their rank and file. He had 
a beautiful tenor voice, though he knew and 
cared nothing about music ; his delivery was 
stately and animated, and he was always a 
luminous and impressive speaker. He was 
one of those orators who feel most nervous ' 
when about to be most successful. ' My 
throat and lips,' he told Macaulay, ' when I 
am going to speak are as dry as those of a man 
who is going to be hanged.' ' Nothing can 
be more composed and cool,' adds Macaulay, 
' than Stanley's manner ; his fault is on that 
side. Stanley speaks like a man who never 
knew what fear or even modesty was ' (TRE- 
VELYAN, Life of Macaulay, i. 242). Bulwer- 
Lytton, in the ' New Timon ' (1845), de- 
scribed him as ' frank, haughty, rash, the 
Rupert of debate.' 

Derby was a rapid and shrewd man of 
business and a great Lancashire magnate. 
In 1862 he succeeded the Earl of Ellesmere 
as chairman of the central relief committee 
at Manchester during the cot ton famine, and 
it was to the impetus which he gave to the 
movement both before and after this change, 



especially by his great speeches at Bridge- 
water House and at the county meeting on 
2 Dec. 1862 (separately published), and to his 
conduct of its business, that the success of 
the relief movement was due (see A. ARNOLD, 
History of the Cotton Famine). 

All his life he was keenly interested in 
scholarship and passionately devoted to 
sport. His latinity was easy and excellent, 
and as chancellor of the university of Oxford, 
in which office he succeeded the Duke of 
Wellington in 1852, he made Latin speeches, 
especially in 1853 at his installation, and in 
1863, when the Prince and Princess of Wales 
visited Oxford, which were the envy of many 
professional scholars (for the latter speech 
see Ann. Reg. cv. 98). The Derby (classi- 
cal) scholarship, tenable for a year, and of 
the annual value of about 150^, was founded 
in 1870 to commemorate his connection 
with Oxford University. His blank-verse 
translation of the ' Iliad,' which had occu- 
pied him for some years, appeared first 
privately in 1862, then was formally pub- 
lished in 1864, and had reached a sixth 
edition by 1867, to which were added other 
translations of miscellaneous poetry, classical, 
French, and German, chiefly written before 
he was thirty. His ' Iliad ' is spirited and 
polished, and, though often rather a para- 
phrase than a translation, is always more 
truly poetic than most of the best transla- 
tions. He had a strong literary faculty, and 
his English prose for example, in his report 
on the cotton famine in 1862 was nervous 
and admirable. He also wrote some ' Con- 
versations on the Parables for the Use of 
Children,' 1837; other editions 1849 and 
1866. To shooting and racing he was equally 
devoted. He constantly said, perhaps with 
some affectation, that he had been too 
busy with pheasants to attend to politics, 
and his ready indulgence in sporting slang, 
even on the gravest occasions, occasioned 
some misgiving to his respectable middle- 
class supporters. Greville, who knew him 
well on the turf, but neither liked nor 
trusted him, dwells on his boisterous and 
undignified manners and on the sharpness of 
his practices (e.g. Memoirs, 1st ser. ii. 374, 
iii. 35; 2nd ser. iii. 403, 463). He never 
won the Derby, Oaks, or St. Leger, though 
he had begun training when, as quite a 
young man, he managed his grandfather's 
racing stud, and made many efforts with 
many racehorses. He owned Toxopholite, 
which was favourite for the Derby in 1858; 
Ithuriel, which was got at and lamed ; Der- 
vish, and Canezou. He trained with John 
Scott (1794-1871) [q. v.], and would often 
leave the House of Lords to catch the night 



Stanley 



61 



Stanley 



mail train and see his horses' gallops next 
morning. Still he was not unsuccessful on 
the turf. In the twenty-two years of his 
racing career, down to 1863, when he sold 
his stud and quitted the turf, he won in 
stakes alone 94,OOOA, and the letter which 
he wrote to the Jockey Club in 1857, giving 
notice of a resolution that a sharper named 
Adkins should be warned off Newmarket 
Heath, has always been considered a com- 
pendium of the principles that should guide 
the conduct of race meetings. 

[Two lives of Lord Derby have appeared, by 
T. E. Kebbel and G. Saintsbury. Derby is also 
elaborately criticised in Kebbel's History of 
Toryism. See, too, Greville Memoirs; Malmes- 
bury's Memoirs of an ex-Minister ; Disraeli's 
Lord George Bentinck ; Watpole's Life of Lord 
John Russell ; Dalling and Ashley's Life of 
Palmerston ; Martin's Life of the Prince Con- 
sort; Memoirs of J. C. Herries; McCullagh 
Torrens's Lord Melbourne ; Roebuck's History of 
theWhigMinistry; Scharf's Catalogue of Pictures 
at Knowsley ; Trevelyan's Life of Lord Macaulay ; 
"Walpole's History of England ; Count Vitzthum 
von Eckstadt's A Residence at the Courts of St. 
Petersburg and London ; Fitzpatrick's Correspon- 
dence of O'Connell ; Hansard's Parliamentary 
Debates.] J. A. H. 

STANLEY, EDWARD HENRY, fif- 
teenth EAEL OF DERBY (1826-1893), eldest 
son of Edward George Geoffrey Smith, 
fourteenth earl of Derby [q. v.], by his wife, 
Emma Caroline, second daughter of Edward, 
first lord Skelmersdale, was born on 21 July 
1826. He was at school at Rugby, under 
Arnold, though not much influenced by him, 
and then went to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where, besides taking college prizes, he was 
tenth in the first class of the classical tripos, 
and fourteenth junior optime in the mathe- 
matical tripos of 1848. Down to the time 
of his leaving Cambridge, he was a member 
of the undergraduate society known as ' The 
Apostles,' most of whose members became 
eminent in after life (LESLIE STEPHEN, Life 
of Sir James Stephen, p. 102). He graduated 
M.A. in 1848, and was made LL.D. on 
9 June 1862, and D.C.L. of Oxford on 
7 June 1853. In March 1848 he contested the 
borough of Lancaster as a protectionist, but 
was beaten by six votes, and then made a 
prolonged tour in the West Indies, Canada, 
and the United States. During his absence 
he was elected, on 22 Dec. 1848, to fill the 
vacancy at King's Lynn caused by the death 
of Lord George Bentinck. Often afterwards 
he was asked to contest other seats for ex- 
ample, Edinburgh in 1868 but only once, 
in 1859, when he stood for Marylebone, with- 
out success, against Edwin James and Sir 



Benjamin Brodie, was he tempted to leave 
King's Lynn. He represented the con- 
stituency continuously till he succeeded his 
father in the earldom in October 1869. 

As the result of his tour he published a 
pamphlet on the West Indian colonies in 

1849, followed by a second in 1851, which 
stated the planters' case very clearly and to 
their entire satisfaction. His maiden speech, 
too, in the House of Commons, which Peel 
praised highly and Greville (Memoirs, 2nd 
ser. iii. 337) mentions as giving promise of 
great debating power, was made, on 31 May 

1850, on Buxton's motion on the sugar duties. 
He took his place in the ranks of the con- 
servatives, now led by his father ; but he was 
not naturally a party man, and in opinion 
approximated to the moderate whigs. He 
travelled widely, and was when young an 
ardent mountaineer. He again visited Jamaica 
and Ecuador in the winter of 1849 and 1850, 
publishing privately on his return a book 
called ' Six Weeks in America,' and it was 
while absent on a tour in Bengal in March 
1852 that he received the post of under-se- 
cretary for foreign affairs in his father's first 
administration. He held office till its fall 
in December, when he went with his party 
into opposition. In 1855, on the death of Sir 
William Molesworth[q.v.], Lord Palmerston, 
knowing him to be at heart more of a liberal 
than anything else, and struck by the ability 
displayed in his speech on the Government 
of India Bill in 1853, made him the offer of 
the colonial secretaryship. But this proposal 
Stanley, at his father's instance, declined. He 
spoke during these years principally on In- 
dian and colonial questions, and on such 
social matters as education, factory legisla- 
tion, and competitive examinations. In 1835 
he was ' suspected of coquetting with the 
Manchester party ; ' and, with an antagonism 
to war which clung to him through life, he 
joined Bright and Cobden in 1854 in resist- 
ing the policy of drifting into war, and sup- 
ported ' The Press,' a weekly journal which 
was energetically anti-ministerial. He served 
on the commission on purchase in the army, 
which he strongly condemned, and supported 
such movements as those in favour of me- 
chanics' institutes and free libraries, the 
amendment of the law as to the property of 
married women, the removal of Jewish dis- 
abilities, the abolition of church rates, and 
the creation of the divorce court. 

When the second Derby administration 
was formed in February 1858, Stanley joined 
it as colonial secretary, and subsequently, 
on the resignation of Lord Ellenborough, 
took his place as president of the board 
of control. The conduct of the India Bill 



Stanley 



Stanley 



was accordingly in his hands, and when 
it passed he became the first secretary of 
state for India. In this office he came on 
several occasions into collision with the 
policy of the governor-general, Lord Can- 
ning ; in parliament, though not a prominent 
debater, he showed talents for business, and 
the general success of his Indian admini- 
stration added to the reputation of the govern- 
ment. In the discussions in the cabinet on 
the Reform Bill of 1859 Stanley supported 
the disfranchising clauses, even threatening 
resignation unless the measures were made 
more liberal (MALMESBTJRY, Memoirsofan ex- 
Minister, ii. 157). Going out of office again 
in June, he continued active in support of 
reforms of a moderate liberal character. He 
served on the Cambridge University com- 
mission, and supported the admission of non- 
conformists to fellowships. He presided over 
commissions on the sanitary state of the 
Indian army and on patent law. 

A curious episode followed in 1862-3. On 
the revolution which expelled King Otho, the 
throne of Greece was offered to and refused 
by Queen Victoria's second son, Prince Alfred 
(afterwards DukeofSaxe-Coburg and Gotha). 
Thereupon the idea was seriously entertained 
by the authorities in Greece of making the 
offer to Stanley. ' The Greeks really want 
to make our friend Lord Stanley their king,' 
wrote Disraeli on 7 Feb. 1863. Stanley de- 
clined the suggestion (FROIJDE, Earl of Bea- 
consfield, p. 184). He increasedhis reputation 
in the House of Commons when he seconded 
Lord Grosvenor's amendment to the Reform 
Bill of 1866, which proposed the postpone- 
ment of the discussion of any reduction of 
the franchise until the whole of the govern- 
ment scheme had been placed before the 
House of Commons ; this speech was con- 
sidered ' the finest and most statesmanlike he 
had ever made.' Just before and at the time 
of the fall of Lord John Russell's ministry 
(June 1866), serious suggestions were made 
that he should form the succeeding admini- 
stration ; it was anticipated that he would 
command the support of the Adullamites [see 
LOWE, ROBERT, and HORSMAN, EDWARD]. 
Such a plan, though supported by so shrewd 
an observer as Delane, proved impracticable, 
and Stanley's father was again sent for on 
Lord John's resignation. In Lord Derby's 
third administration Stanley took the foreign 
office. Here his policy was as far as possible 
to maintain neutrality with regard to con- 
tinental disputes, and by all means to avoid 
war. In spite of the Abyssinian expedition 
in 1868 he was fairly successful ; he avoided 
war without too great concessions, and 
although, especially at that juncture, he, as 



an untried man, found it a difficult task 
to follow a statesman of Lord Clarendon's 
experience, he filled the office of foreign 
minister in the main with credit. He held 
aloof from the war of Prussia, Italy, and Aus- 
tria, mediated between France and Prussia 
on the Luxemburg question, and postponed 
a Franco-German war for a time by de- 
vising the 'collective guarantee 'of Luxem- 
burg's neutrality at the conference of London 
in May 1867. Somewhat, as was thought, 
at the cost of his reputation for humanity, 
he avoided interfering in the Cretan re- 
bellion, and refused to take sides in the 
disputes between Turkey and Greece. He 
declined the Emperor Napoleon's proposal 
for a conference on the Roman question, 
and of his attitude when the French troops 
occupied Rome Lord Augustus Loftus says 
(Diplomatic Reminiscences, 2nd ser. i. 203) : 
' I cannot sufficiently extol the wise states- 
manship and prudent course taken by Lord 
Stanley during this critical time. He was 
calm in judgment and free from any en- 
thusiastic impulse, and when his opinion was 
formed he never deviated from it.' With 
regard to the disputes with the United States 
arising out of the depredations of the Ala- 
bama, he admitted the principle of refer- 
ing the question to arbitration which Russell 
had declined to recognise (RUSSELL, Speeches 
and Despatches, ii. 259), and he negotiated 
a convention which the United States refused 
to ratify. In domestic affairs he was not pro- 
minent. What share he had in the Reform 
Bill of 1867 is uncertain. Lord Malmes- 
bury attributes to him the form into which 
the bill was hastily recast on 25 Feb., just 
before the introduction in the House of Com- 
mons, when the tender of Lord Cranborne's 
resignation involved alterations in it. At 
any rate he cannot be altogether acquitted 
of inconsistency in supporting the bill after 
the declarations unfavourable to democracy 
which he had made in previous years. Stanley 
continued at the foreign office when Disraeli 
succeeded, on Lord Derby's retirement,to the 
post of prime minister in February 1868. He 
resigned with the rest of the ministry after 
the general election (November 1868). 

Stanley was selected to lead the opposition 
to Mr. Gladstone's Irish church resolutions 
in 1869. Throughout his life, however, his 
leanings towards liberalism had been more 
marked on ecclesiastical matters than else- 
where. He had published a pamphlet as 
eajly as 1853 in favour of exempting non- 
conformists from the payment of church 
rates, and accordingly the defence he made 
on this occasion was somewhat ambiguous. 
A little later he incurred the suspicion of 



Stanley 



his party by declining to vote against the 
Irish Land Bill of 1870. In fact his general 
tendency at this time was towards projects 
of administrative reform. He thought that, 
until it had a substantial majority, the con- 
servative party should avoid office, and seek 
to check the extremer measures of its oppo- 
nents and support their moderate bills. He 
had long been conspicuous for his knowledge 
of and interest in such non-party matters 
as sanitary reform, technical education, the 
regulation of mines, the acquisition of people's 
parks, and the growth of co-operative so- 
cieties, and he was surpassed only by 
Lord Shaftesbury in the time, thought, and 
trouble that he gave to them. His in- 
fluence in the country generally was in con- 
sequence perhaps higher than in his own 
party, though even there he was much es- 
teemed, and, had he chosen, might have led 
his party in the House of Lords from 1869, 
when his father's death conferred on him 
the earldom of Derby. 

Disraeli took office in February 1874, and 
Derby again became foreign secretary. The 
eastern question was once more the disturb- 
ing factor in European politics. Between 
his conviction that the integrity of Turkey 
was a most important British interest and 
his passion for peace Lord Derby soon found 
himself in a position of perplexity from 
which it was difficult for him in office to 
emerge satisfactorily. At first he was san- 
guine of success in his efforts to preserve 
England from the risk of war, and, ignoring 
the possibilities of failure, was perhaps more 
tolerant of diplomatic rebuffs than the situa- 
tion warranted. He was a party, but not 
very willingly, to the purchase of the Suez 
Canal shares; he accepted the Andrassy note 
urging reforms on the sultan of Turkey, but 
only after considerable delay. Count Beust, 
the Austrian ambassador to the court of 
St. James, pursued him to Knowsley, and 
there and in London spent three weeks in a 
siege of persuasion before obtaining the 
despatch of 25 Jan. 1876 to Sir Henry Elliot, 
the British ambassador to Vienna, which se- 
cured the adhesion of Great Britain to the 
Austrian proposals for the reorganisation of 
the Turkish government. Suspecting secret 
arrangements between Russia and Austria, 
he declined to join in May 1876 in the Berlin 
memorandum, which urged upon Turkey 
the necessity of fulfilling her promises of 
reform. In September he wrote to Elliot, 
then ambassador at Constantinople, ordering 
him to demand of the Porte the punishment 
of those responsible for the Bulgarian atro- 
cities. The Constantinople conference of 
December 1876, which was intended to 



! Stanley 

compel reforms in the government of the 
Porte, was due to his initiative, and he sought 
in general to assist and encourage the Porte 
to carry out reforms, while giving it warn- 
ing that military protection from England 
was not to be looked for should Turkey 
be attacked by other powers. In April 1877 
Russia invaded Turkey. Public opinion was 
divided as to the part that England should 
play in the struggle. The Bulgarian out- 
rages, on the one hand, excited in one half of 
the population an hostility to Turkey which 
diplomacy could not control, while, on the 
other hand, an equally large party in Eng- 
land, suspicious of Russia, urged an armed 
defence of Turkey, and was the more power- 
ful in the ministry and among the influential 
classes of society. Derby's efforts to bring 
the Russo-Turkish war to a close failed, and 
in a despatch of 6 May 1877 he defined the 
conditions in which England must intervene 
and take the offensive against the enemies 
of Turkey. Russia's continued successes 
seemed to make war for England inevitable, 
and Derby, unready to face that possibility, 
found himself increasingly in disagreement 
with the prime minister. The result was the 
appearance of vacillation in the government 
policy. When the order was given, at the 
prime minister's instance, for the fleet to 
pass the Dardanelles on 23 Jan. 1878, Derby 
felt that the die had been cast for war, and 
tendered his resignation ; but when this 
advance was countermanded, he returned to 
office. He concurred in the policy of refusing 
to recognise the treaty of San Stefano, by 
which Russia imposed her own terms on 
Turkey (March 1878), but disapproved of the 
vigorous menaces of war with Russia which 
Beaconsfield made thereon. Accordingly, 
having reluctantly supported the credit of 
6,000,000/., he suddenly resigned again on 
28 March 1878, ostensibly, but far from solely, 
upon the policy of calling out the reserves 
(HANSAKD, ccxli. 1793). It was asked why, 
if he was only to resign at last, he had con- 
sented to resume office after his recent resig- 
nation. His attitude failed to become clearer 
when on 11 July his statements, in an- 
nouncing his resignation in the House of 
Lords, and those of Lord Salisbury, who suc- 
ceeded him at the foreign office, were in flat 
contradiction of each other. His actions cer- 
tainly bore an appearance of indecision, owing 
doubtless to his natural disposition, in mat- 
ters of emergency, to temporise rather than to 
strike. But his main object was at all hazards 
to keep England out' of a European war, 
and it was at any rate in part owing to his 
efforts that that result was achieved. After 
quitting office, he drifted further and further 



Stanley < 

from his old party ties ; he opposed the ac- 
quisition of Cyprus and the first Afghan war 
(1879), and eventually, in a letter to Lord 
Sefton, 12 March 1880, he announced his 
severance from the conservative party, 
avowedly in consequence of its foreign policy. 

Derby was soon accepted as a leader of 
the liberal party. From December 1882 to 
1885 he was colonial secretary in Mr. Glad- 
stone's second administration, and in 1884 
he was made a knight of the Garter. His 
policy as colonial secretary was sensible, but 
not impressive. ' We don't want any more 
black men,' was one of his favourite expres- 
sions, and he therefore resisted further an- 
nexation of tropical colonies. He favoured 
withdrawal from the Soudan ; he declined to 
seize New Guinea, and he supported the 
policy of contraction in South Africa by con- 
cluding the convention with the Boers of 
1884. Though he accepted Australian aid for 
the Soudan, he discouraged any plan of Aus- 
tralian federation. He left the colonial office 
in the summer of 1885, when Mr. Gladstone 
and his colleagues resigned. 

In 1886 the home-rule question led to a 
furtherchange in Derby's political allegiance. 
From the first he disapproved of Mr. Glad- 
stone's policy of giving home rule to Ireland, 
and he joined the new party of liberal 
unionists on its formation early in 1886. 
Until the Marquis of Hartington succeeded 
to his father's peerage in 1891 he led the 
liberal unionist peers in the House of Lords. 
Thenceforward he retired practically from 
active public life, and occupied himself with 
social questions. His last public speech was 
on the occasion of the unveiling of the statue 
of John Bright at Manchester in October 
1891. In 1892 he presided over the labour 
commission. In the previous year, when 
he was severely attacked by influenza, his 
usually robust health had broken down, and 
he died at Knowsley of an affection of the 
heart on 21 April 1893. He was buried at 
Knowsley church on 27 April. 

Derby held many dignified offices outside 
politics. He was chancellor of the university 
of London from 1891 till his death, was 
lord rector of the university of Glasgow from 
1868 to 1871, and of Edinburgh from 1875 to 
1880, and was a trustee of the British 
Museum. He was for eighteen years from 
1875 to 1893 an active president of the 
Royal Literary Fund, and was one of the 
founders of University College, Liverpool. 

In his habits Derby was simple and unas- 
suming, in manner somewhat awkward and 
shy. In character he was singularly cool, 
fair, and critical, but he was too diffident of 
his own powers, and perhaps too undecided. 



Stanley 



to become a great man of action. He was 
unambitious and disinterested, as indeed he 
conclusively showed when, by leaving Lord 
Beaconsfield in 1878, he sacrificed the almost 
certain reversion of the leadership of the con- 
servative party. His memory and his reading 
were alike great. He was unrhetorical in 
mind or speech. Though his enunciation 
was imperfect, he spoke impressively, and 
had a great gift ' of making speeches with 
which every one must agree, and which at 
the same time were never commonplace.' He 
was an industrious and excellent man of 
business, and managed his great estates very 
successfully. For years he showed himself 
in Lancashire a model chairman of quarter 
sessions, an active and a hopeful agricul- 
turist, and a benevolent promoter of institu- 
tions for the benefit of the working classes. 
On such matters his opinions were almost 
those of an old-fashioned radical, for he 
strongly believed in self-help, and was con- 
tinuously active in attacking fads and urging 
the views of J. S. Mill, whom he greatly ad- 
mired. He lived much in his own county, 
spoke, like his father, with a Lancashire 
accent, and was on the whole popular among 
Lancashire men. 

He married, on 5 July 1870, Mary Cathe- 
rine, second daughter of George, fifth earl 
De LaWarr, and widow of James, second mar- 
quis of Salisbury, but had no issue, and was 
succeeded in the title by his brother Frede- 
rick, baron Stanley of Preston. There are 
at Knowsley pictures of him by W. Derby 
as a boy, by George Richmond in 1864, and 
by Sir Francis Grant. The photograph pre- 
fixed to the edition of his speeches, which 
was taken in 1894 by Messrs. Sanderson and 
Roscoe, is a very good likeness. 

[Mr. W. E. H. Lecky's Prefatory Memoir to 
Speeches of Lord Derby, ed. Sanderson and Ros- 
coe, 1894; Times, 22 April 1893; Macmillan's 
Mag. xl. 180 ; Westminster Review, Ixxvii. 498 ; 
Martin's Life of Lord Sherbrooke, ii. 61, 281; 
Malmesbury's Memoirs; Life of Sir S. North- 
cote ; Memoirs of Count Beust ; Pollard's Stan- 
leys of Knowsley ; Scharf s Cat. of Pictures at 
Knowsley. See, too, Lord Derby's Address to the 
Co-operative Congress at Leeds, 1881 ; Speech 
on the Irish Question, 29 June 1886; Speech 
on Indian Finance, 13 Feb. 1859.] J. A. H. 

STANLEY, EDWARD JOHN, second 
BAKOX STAUXEY OF ALDERLEY (1802-1869), 
was the son of Sir John Thomas Stanley, 
seventh baronet, and nephew of Edward 
Stanley [q. v.], bishop of Norwich. Sir John, 
born in 1766, was a considerable magnate in 
Cheshire, where he was for more than twenty 
years chairman of quarter sessions. He was 
elected F.R.S. on 29 April 1790, and in the 



Stanley 

following year, having paid a visit to Iceland, 
wrote a short ' Account of the Hot Spring ' 
(Edinburgh, 1791, 8vo). His only other 
literary effort was a translation of Burger's 
' Leonora' (1796). On 9 May 1839 he was 
created Baron Stanley of Alderley. Lord 
Stanley died at Alderley Park, Cheshire, on 
23 Oct. 1850. He married, on 11 Oct. 1796, 
at Fletching, Sussex, Maria Josepha (1771- 
1863), daughter of John Baker Holroyd, first 
earl of Sheffield [q. v.], the friend and corre- 
spondent of Gibbon. Her early letters, some 
of them addressed from abroad, to her girlish 
friends and her aunt, ' Serena ' Holroyd, were 
printed in 1896, under the editorship of 
Miss J. H. Adeane (London, 8vo, with por- 
traits of her and her husband). They refer 
to the period 1786-96, and contain some 
highly interesting glimpses of Gibbon, the 
Comte Lally Tollendal, and the French 
exiles. Several of Lady Maria's vivacious 
letters to the great historian are printed in 
Gibbon's ' Correspondence' (ed. 1896, vol. ii. 
passim). After his death, of which in her 
' Letters ' she gives graphic details, she as- 
sisted her father and William Hayley in 
editing Gibbon's ' Synoptic Memoirs ' for 
publication in 1796 {Autobiographies of Ed- 
ward Gibbon, 1896, Introduction). 

Edward John, the eldest son, born on 
13, and baptised 14, Nov. 1802, at Alderley, 
was educated at Eton and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he matriculated on 18 Jan. 
1822, and graduated B.A. in 1825. He en- 
tered parliament as whig member for Hindon, 
Wiltshire, in 1831, and, when that borough 
\vas disfranchised, he represented North 
Cheshire from 1832 until 1841, when he lost 
the seat, to regain it in 1847. For a short 
time Stanley held the post of secretary to 
Lord Durham, one of the drafters of the 
Reform Bill; and he was under-secretary 
for the colonies 1833-4, and to the home 
department from July to November 1834. 
In Lord Melbourne's second administration 
he was patronage secretary to the treasury 
from 1835 to 1841, when he was admitted 
to the privy council ; and from June to 
September held the lucrative office of pay- 
master-general. During this period ' Mr. 
E. J. Stanley ' was best known as the prin- 
cipal whip of the whig party, or, it' we 
may believe Lord Palmerston, 'joint-whip 
with Mrs. Stanley.' Palmerston indeed gave 
the lady priority when he described her to 
Guizot as 'notre chef-d'etat major.' There 
is no doubt, however, that Stanley was a 
most efficient whip, warmly liked by his 
friends, in spite of the caustic tongue which 
gained from some of his opponents the 
sobriquet of 'Ben'fjamin Backbite]. Mel- 

VOL. LIV. 



Stanley 



bourne handed over the seals to Sir Robert 
Peel at the close of 1841, but on the return of 
the whigsto office in 1846 Stanley was under- 
secretary for foreign affairs from that year to 
1852, when Palmerston was his chief. On 
12 May 1848 he was created Baron Eddis- 
bury of Winnington ; two years later he 
succeeded to the barony of Stanley. He was 
president of the board of trade 1855 to 1858, 
and Palmerston appointed him postmaster- 
general in 1 860. He was subsequently offered 
a seat in the cabinet by Mr. Gladstone on 
the formation of his first ministry (Decem- 
ber 1868), but refused it on the score of 
health. He died at his London house, 
40 Dover Street, on 16 June 1869. 

Stanley married, at Florence, on 7 Oct. 
1826, Henrietta Maria, eldest daughter of 
Henry Augustus Dillon-Lee, thirteenth vis- 
count Dillon. 

HENRIETTA MARIA STANLEY, LADY STAN- 
LEY OF ALDERLEY (1807-1895), born at 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 21 Dec. 1807, first 
came to England in 1814, and soon proceeded 
with her family to Florence, where she at- 
tended the weekly receptions of the Countess 
of Albany, widow of the young Pretender. 
She obtained popularity with the natives by 
refusing to dance with the Austrian officers, 
' though they danced much better than the 
Italians ; ' but she admits that her own nat ive 
Jacobinism was in some danger from the 
violent republicanism of her gouvernante. 
After her marriage in 1826 'Mrs. Stanley' 
soon became a personage. In conversation 
she invariably expressed herself with un- 
compromising frankness, but, gifted with 
rare social qualities, and possessed with an 
ardent faith in the doctrines of liberalism 
as then understood, she rendered very real 
service to her husband's party. Though a 
warm admirer of Mr. Gladstone, she was un- 
able to follow him in 1886 on the question 
of home rule, and was the moving spirit of 
the Woman's Liberal Unionist Association. 

A friend of Carlyle from 1830, of F. 
Denison Maurice, and in later years of Jowett 
(who paid his first visit to Alderley in 1861), 
Lady Stanley of Alderley, as she was known 
from 1850, was no less prominent as a pro- 
moter of women's education. She was one 
of the original ' lady visitors ' of Queen's 
College, London, in 1848; she was an active 
member of the committee for obtaining the 
admission of girls to the university local 
examinations, founded in October 1862; 
she was a promoter of Girton College in 
1865, and was an active supporter of the 
Girls'Public Day-school Company, originated 
in the summer of 1872; she was, finally, a 
promoter of the ' Medical College for Women,' 



Stanley 



66 



Stanley 



which was initiated in October 1874, to pro- 
mote the opening of the medical profession 
to women (see Lady Stanley's 'Personal 
Recollections of Women's Education ' in 
Nineteenth Century, August 1879). 

Lady Stanley retained her faculties until 
her death, at the age of eighty-seven, at 
Dover Street on 16 Feb. 1895. 

She left issue : Henry Edward John, the 
present peer; John Constantine, colonel of 
the grenadier guards, who died in 1878 ; Mr. 
Edward Lyulph Stanley ; and the Rev. Alger- 
non Charles, domestic prelate to the pope. Of 
her six daughters, Henrietta Blanche married, 
in 1851, the Earl of Airlie ; Katharine Louisa 
married, in 1864, Viscount Amberley ; and 
Rosalind Frances married, in 1864, George 
James Howard, ninth earl of Carlisle. 

[G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Ann. Reg. 
1869 and 1895; Greville's Diary, iii. 112; 
Cooper's Register and Mag. of Biography, 1 869 ; 
Abbott and Campbell's Life of Jowett ; Times, 
19 Feb. 1895; Guardian, 20 Feb. 1895; Spec- 
tator, 20 Feb. 1895.] T. S. 

STANLEY, EDWARD SMITH, thir- 
teenth EARL OP DERBY (1775-1851), eldest son 
of Edward, twelfth earl of Derby, by his first 
wife, Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, only daugh- 
ter of James, sixth duke of Hamilton, was 
born on 21 April 1775. His great-grand- 
father, Edward, eleventh earl of Derby, was 
descended from a brother of Thomas, second 
earl of Derby, and succeeded to the earldom 
on the extinction of the direct line in 1736 
[see under STANLEY, JAMES, seventh EARL 
OF DERBY], His grandfather, James, lord 
Strange, took the additional name of Smith 
in accordance with the will of his wife's 
father, Hugh Smith (d. 1745) of Weald 
Hall, Essex. 

The thirteenth earl, after spending some 
years at Eton, went to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 
1795. He was at once brought into parlia- 
ment for one of the two Preston seats at the 
general election of 1796 as a member of the 
whig party. For the previous half-century 
a standing dispute had existed between the 
earls of Derby and the corporation of Pres- 
ton as to the right to nominate the repre- 
sentatives of the borough. From 1768 to 
1795 nominees of the Derby family had held 
both seats. In 1796 local feeling ran high. 
The corporation prepared to make a vigorous 
effort to secure one seat, and nominated, in 
the growing manufacturing interest, John 
Horrocks, head of the well-known Lancashire 
firm of Horrocks, Miller, & Co., local mill- 
owners. The poll was kept open for eleven 



days, and eventually Stanley and Horrocks 
were elected, the former leading by a majority 
of thirty. Scarlett (afterwards Lord Abinger) 
acted on this occasion as 'assistant' to the 
mayor, and received a fee of two hundred 
guineas (WILLIAM DOBSOX, History of the 
Parliamentary Representation of Preston). 
At the next election in 1802 a compromise, 
much attacked at the time, was negotiated 
by T. B. Bayley of Hope, by which each 
party obtained one seat. Stanley and Hor- 
rocks were elected, and in 1806 Stanley and 
Horrocks the younger. In 1807, though op- 
posed in politics, they had a joint committee, 
made a joint canvas, and were elected to- 
gether. In spite of opposition by other can- 
didates, this arrangement lasted even after 
Stanley had ceased to sit for Preston, and 
down to 1826, when his son successfully 
contested the seat. In 1812 Stanley ceased 
to sit for Preston, and was elected one of 
the members for the county of Lancaster. 
He continued to hold that seat till the pass- 
ing of the Reform Bill in 1832. Through- 
out his parliamentary career he supported 
the whig party without ever taking a promi- 
nent place in it, and in the House of Com- 
mons spoke little. 

In 1832 Lord Grey's ministry required 
further strength in the House of Lords, and 
Stanley was called up in his father's lifetime 
by the title of Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe. 
Two years afterwards, on the death of his father 
on 21 Oct. 1834, he succeeded to the earldom, 
and on 17 April 1839 was created a knight 
of the Garter. From this time forward he 
made no figure in public life. 

Lord Stanley early displayed great interest 
in the science of zoology. From 1828 to 1833 
he was president of the Linnsean Society, and 
at the time of his death had for some years 
been president of the Zoological Society. Be- 
tween 1834 and 1847 he contributed many 
papers to its proceed ings and many specimens 
to its collections. He formed at Knowsley a 
private menagerie of a very extensive kind, 
and had also a fine museum of various classes 
of specimens. The maintenance of the mena- 
gerie alone cost 10,OOOZ. to 15,000/. per 
annum ; it occupied one hundred acres of land 
and seventy of water, and his agents collected 
specimens all over the world. He gave his 
own daily care to it, made copious notes 
and observations, and successfully crossed 
Brahmin with shorthorn cattle. The grace- 
ful Scops Paradisea was named by Dr. La- 
thom the ' Stanley Crane ' after him. He 
had at his death 94 species and 345 head of 
mammalia, principally antelopes, 318 species 
and 1272 head of birds, not counting poul- 
try, and his museum contained twenty thou- 



Stanley 67 

sand specimens of quadrupeds, birds, eggs, 
reptiles, and fishes. The collection was dis- 
persed on his death ; the museum was given 
to the city of Liverpool, where the corpora- 
tion now maintains it as the Derby Museum. 
Some of the living animals were given to 
the Zoological Society in Regent's Park, and 
the remainder were sold in October 1851, 
but realised only 7,OOOJ. 

Lord Derby was lord lieutenant of Lanca- 
shire, and passed much of his time at 
Knowsley, where he devoted himself to 
public charity and to private hospitality. 
He died there on 30 June 1851, and was 
buried in the family vault at Ormskirk on 
8 July. He married, on 30 June 1798, his 
cousin, Charlotte Margaret, second daughter 
of his aunt, the Hon. Lucy Stanley, by her 
marriage with the Rev. Geoffrey Hornby. She 
predeceased him on 16 June 1817. By her 
he had a family of three sons and four daugh- 
ters, the eldest of whom, Edward George 
Geoffrey Smith Stanley [q.v.], succeeded him 
in the title. There are portraits of him at 
Knowsley, viz. by Romney as a boy, by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, and by William Derby. 

[Gent. Mag. 1851, ii. 190, 644 ; Pollard's 
Stanleys of Knowsley; Times, 3 July 1851; 
Gray's Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knows- 
ley; Scharfs Cat. of Pictures at Knowsley; 
Barnes's Hist, of Lancashire ; Eton School Lists ; 
Grad. Cantabr. 1656-1823.] J. A. H. 

STANLEY, FERDINANDO, fifth EAEL 
OF DERBY (1559 P-1594), son of Henry, fourth 
earl [q. v.], was born in London about 1559. 
He matriculated in 1572, at the age of 
twelve, at St. John's College, Oxford, and 
graduated M.A. on 17 Sept. 1589. As a boy 
of fourteen he was called to Windsor by 
Queen Elizabeth, though he does not appear 
to have held any office. In 1585 and after- 
wards he acted as deputy lieutenant of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire on behalf of his father, 
and during the time of the alarm of the 
Spanish invasion in 1588 he was mayor of 
Liverpool, and raised a troop of horsemen. 
He was summoned to parliament as Lord 
Strange on 28 Jan. 1588-9. He was a patron 
and friend of many of the poets of the time, 
and was himself a writer of verses. Some of 
his pieces are contained in ' Belvedere, or the 
Garden of the Muses,' edited by John Boden- 
ham, 1600, but they are without signature 
and difficult to identify. The only piece 
with which his name is positively associated 
is a pastoral poem, of no great merit, contri- 
buted by Sir John Hawkins to Grose's ' Anti- 
quarian Repertory,' and reprinted in Wai- 
pole's ' Royal and Noble Authors' (ed. Park, 
1806, ii. 45). Spenser celebrates him, under 



Stanley 



the name of 'Amyntas/ in 'Colin Clout's 
come Home again:' 

He, whilst he lived, was the noblest swain 
That ever piped upon an oaten quill. 

Both did he other, which could pipe, maintain, 
And eke could pipe himself with passing skill. 

Robert Greene dedicatedhis ' Ciceronis Amor,' 
1589, to Stanley; Nash, in his ' Piers Penni- 
lesse,' 1592, has a panegyric on him, and 
Chapman in 1594, in the dedication of the 
' Shadow of the Night,' speaks of ' that most 
ingenious Darbie.' For several years, from 
1589 to 1594, he was patron of the company 
of actors which had formerly been under the 
patronage of the Earl of Leicester. While 
Stanley was its patron it was known as ' Lord 
Strange's company.' After his death it passed 
to the patronage of Henry Carey, first lord 
Hunsdon, the lord chamberlain, and became 
known as the ' Lord Chamberlain's company ' 
(cf. FLEAY, History of the Stage, p. 41). 

On the death of his father, on 25 Sept. 
1593, he succeeded to the earldom of Derby 
and the sovereignty of the Isle of Man, with 
other titles and dignities, including the lieu- 
tenancy of Lancashire and Cheshire. From 
1591 some of the catholics cast their eyes on 
him as successor to the crown in right of his 
mother, Margaret Clifford [see STANLEY, SIB 
WILLIAM, 1548-1630]. In 1593 catholic 
conspirators abroad sent Richard Hesketh 
[q.v.] to persuade him to set up his claim, 
promising Spanish assistance, and threaten- 
ing him with death if the design was 
divulged. Stanley, however, delivered Hes- 
keth to justice, and he was executed at St. 
Albans on 29 Nov. 1593. 

Stanley died on 16 April 1594 at Lathom 
House, Lancashire, and was buried at the 
neighbouring church of Ormskirk. He had 
been ill for sixteen days. He appears to 
have died from natural causes, though there 
were rumours afloat that he met his end by 
witchcraft (Siow, Chronicle, pp. 767-8, giving 
a curious account of his illness and death). 
A ballad in his memory is entered in the 
' Stationers' Register ' (ARBEB, ii. 619). 

He married, in 1579, Alice, daughter of 
Sir John Spencer of Althorp, Northampton- 
shire, and left three daughters : Anne, who 
married in succession Grey, baron Chandos, 
and the notorious Earl of Castlehaven; 
Frances, countess of Bridgewater; and Eliza- 
beth, countess of Huntingdon. In default of 
male issue he was succeeded in the earldom 
by his brother William [see under STANLEY, 
JAMES, seventh EARL]. 

His widow marrie'd secondly, in 1600, 
Thomas Egerton, viscount Brackley, better 
known as Lord-chancellor Ellesmere [q. v.] 



Stanley 



68 



Stanley 



She, like her husband, patronised and was 
praised by the poets of her day. Milton's 
' Arcades was written in compliment to her. 
She died at Harefield, Middlesex, on 26 Jan. 
1636-7. 

There are portraits of Lord and Lady 
Derby at Knowsley Hall (ScHAEF, Cata- 
logue, 1875, p. 79), and of the former in the 
possession of Lord Gerard and at Worden 
Hall, the residence of the ffaringtons. The 
last named is engraved in the ' Derby House- 
hold Books' (Chetham Soc.) 

[The best account of Stanley is that by Canon 
Eainesin Lancashire Funeral Certificates, p. 63. 
Hey wood's Earls of Derby and the Verse Writers, 
Allen's Defence of Sir W. Stanley, ed. T. Hey- 
wood, p.xlii, Derby Household Books, ed. Raines, 
passim, Farington Papers, pp. 130, 136, Lanca- 
shire Lieutenancy, Corser's Collectanea Anglo- 
Poetica (the foregoing are all published by the 
Chetham Soc.); Camden's Hist, of Elizabeth, 4th 
edit. 1688, p. 491 ; Lodge's Illustr. of British 
Hist. 1791, iii. 47 ; Sir E. Sadler's SUte Papers, 
iii. 20; Calendars of State Papers, Dom. 1591- 
1594, 1595-7; Masson's Life of Milton, i. 
(1881 edit.) 590; Manchester Court Leet Ee- 
cords, ed. Earwaker, ii. 92 ; Collins's Peerage, 
ed. Brydges, iii. 80 ; Cokayne's Complete Peer- 
age, iii. 72 ; Doyle's Official Peerage, i. 557, 
with portrait; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss) i. 
250 ; Eegister of Univ. of Oxford (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.) ; Brydges's British Bibliographer, i. 281 ; 
Evans's Cat. of Portraits, i. 96, mentions a por- 
trait engraved by Stow ; Cat. of Exhibition of 
National Portraits, 1866, p. 51 ; Collier's Mem. 
of Edward Alleyn ; Henslowe's Diary ; Simpson's 
School of Shakespeare; Manchester Quarterly, 
April 1896, p. 113.] C. W. S. 

STANLEY, HANS (1720?- 1780), poli- 
tician, was the only son of George Stanley 
of Paultons, near Owre, in the new parish 
of Copythorne, formerly North Eling, and 
close to liomsey in Hampshire. His father 
married in 1719 Sarah, elder daughter and 
coheiress of Sir Hans Sloane [q. v.] ; he com- 
mitted suicide on 31 Jan. 1733-4; his wife 
survived until 19 April 1764. A monument 
by Rysbrach, ' in the bad taste of the time, 
with weeping Cup id, urn, and inverted torch,' 
was erected by her in the chancel of Holy 
Rood church, Southampton, to her daughter, 
Elizabeth Stanley (d. 1738, aged 18), who is 
panegyrised in Thomson's 'Seasons' (Sum- 
mer, 11. 564 sq.) 

Hans Stanley is believed to have been 
born in 1720, and to have been baptised at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, London. He 
was returned as member for St. Albans at a 
by-election on 11 Feb. 1742-3, and sat for it 
until the dissolution in 1747. He had no 
place in the next parliament, and for a time 
meditated abandoning parliamentary life for 



diplomacy. He travelled frequently in 
France, resided for two years at Paris, and 
studied the law of nations. At the general 
election of 1754 he was elected in the tory 
interest by the borough of Southampton, and 
represented it continuously until his death 
(cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. pt. v. 
pp. 364-5 ; OLDFIELD, Representative Hist. 
iii. 551; cf. DAVIES, Hist, of Southampton, 
pp. 113, 206). 

From 13 Sept. 1757 to August 1765 Stanley 
was a lord of the admiralty (cf. Letters of 
Lady Hervey, p. 265). Hearing from Lord 
Temple of Pitt's good opinion of him, he 
recounted in a letter to Pitt, 18 April 1761, 
his claims to employment should it be 
desired to open negotiations with France 
(Chatham Correspondence, ii. 116-19). He 
was at that time a follower of the Duke of 
Newcastle, but Pitt enlisted his services, 
'from opinion of his abilities.' Stanley set 
out for Calais to meet the French agent on 
24 May 1761, and early in the next month 
arrived at Paris as chargS d'affaires. There 
he remained until 20 Sept., when it became 
clear that the mission had ended in failure, 
and he demanded his passports (cf. Chatham 
Correspondence, ii. 124-42 ; THACKERAY, Life 
of the Earl of Chatham, i. 505-79, ii. 519-626; 
Grenville Papers, i. 362-85 ; and Bedford 
Correspondence, iii. 11-46). Though his des- 
patches did not please Charles Jenkinson, 
first earl of Liverpool [q. v.], they are de- 
scribed by Carlyle as 'the liveliest reading 
one almost anywhere meets with in that 
kind.' Stanley, adds Carlyle, was ' a lively, 
clear-sighted person, of whom I could never 
hear else where ' (Frederick the Great, vi.204). 
He was disappointed at not being trusted 
with the conduct of the negotiations when 
they were renewed in 1762, but he wrote the 
Duke of Bedford a handsome letter on their 
success, and, though numbered at this time 
among Pitt's followers, defended the peace 
in the House of Commons with ' spirit, sense, 
and cleverness ' (9 Dec. 1762). Pitt paid him 
'the highest compliments imaginable ' (Bed- 
ford Correspondence, iii. 150-68). 

Stanley was created a privy councillor on 
26 Nov. 1762. On 7 April 1763 he sent a 
spirited letter to George Grenville, who was 
then in office, and to whom he was then 
attached, declining a seat at the treasury, 
and setting out how his claims had been 
neglected. Next August he was at Com- 
piegne. He solicited and obtained in July 
1764 the post of governor of the Isle of Wight 
and constable of Carisbrook Castle. Lady 
Hervey described the governorship as ' a 
very honourable, very convenient employ- 
ment for him, and also very lucrative/ 



Stanley 



Stanley 



Steephill Cottage, on the site of the present 
castle, near Ventnor, was built by him in 
1770 at considerable expense, and he enter- 
tained there several foreign ambassadors 
(HASSELL, Isle of Wight, i. 212-19; Guide 
to Southampton, 4th edit. p. 87). 

In July 1766 Pitt made Stanley ambas- 
sador-extraordinary to Eussia. lie was in- 
structed to proceed to St. Petersburg by 
way of Berlin, with credentials to the king 
of Prussia. The object of the mission was 
to make a ' triple defensive alliance' of Great 
Britain, Russia, and Prussia. The appoint- 
ment was hastily made without the know- 
ledge of Conway, then leading the House of 
Commons, without any intimation to Mac- 
artney, our ambassador at St. Petersburg, 
and without consultation with Sir Andrew 
Mitchell, the British representative at Ber- 
lin. Stanley himself said that he had been 
offered the choice of embassies to Madrid or 
St. Petersburg, and that he had accepted the 
latter ' as a temporary retreat from the pre- 
sent confusion.' Before Stanley left Eng- 
land the government's overtures were coldly 
received by Frederick of Prussia, and Stanley 
never took up the appointment (Chatham 
Corresp. iii. 15-174). On 24 March 1767 
Grenville made a severe attack on Chatham 
for his magnificent plans for special em- 
bassies, and mentioned this case. Stanley, 
' a very warm man, retorted with vigour,' as 
he had acted ' with singular honour' in waiv- 
ing his right to the appointment (WALPOLE, 
George III, ii. 438^39). 

On 4 Dec. 1766 Stanley was appointed 
cofferer of the household, an office which he 
temporarily vacated in 1774, but resumed in 
1776 and held till his death. He had mean- 
while resigned his post of governor of the 
Isle of Wight, but was reappointed to that 
office also in 1776. Afterwards the post was 
conferred upon him for life, an act without 
precedent at the time, and ' it was said with 
an additional pension' (WALPOLE, Last Jour- 
nals, i. 327, ii. 362). In November 1768 he 
seconded the address to the king (cf. CAVEN- 
DISH, Debates). 

Early in January 1780 Stanley paid a visit 
to Earl Spencer at Althorp. tin the morn- 
ing of 13 Jan. he cut his throat with a pen- 
knife in the woods, and died before assistance 
could be obtained. 

Stanley's abilities were unquestioned, and 
his character stood high. Lady Hervey, who 
knew him well, called him ' a very ingenious, 
sensible, knowing, conversable, and, what is 
still better, a worthy, honest, valuable man' 
(Letters, 1821, pp. 204-332). He was awk- 
ward in appearance, ungracious in manners, 
and eccentric inhis habits. He never laughed, 



and his speech is described by Madame Du 
Deffand as slow and cold without action, and 
as pompous without weight (Letters, 1810 
edit. ii. 244-5). A bachelor, with ' a large 
house in Privy Gardens, joining to Lord 
Loudoun's,' and with the country residences 
of Paultons, which he inherited from his 
father, and Steephill, which he built at 
Ventnor, he spent most of his time away from 
them, ' and when at home in town commonly 
dined at an hotel.' He left a natural son at 
Winchester school. From his mother he in- 
herited her share in the Sloane property at 
Chelsea. Paultons Square and Paultons 
Terrace at Chelsea perpetuate his connection 
with the parish. The estate of Paultons 
passed, subject to the life interest of Stanley's 
sisters, to a cousin, Hans Sloane, nephew of 
Sir Hans Sloane. Stanley was one of the 
trustees for the collection of Sir Hans, and 
was until death a family trustee of the 
British Museum. 

Stanley left in manuscript various works, 
including a defence, written in Ciceronian 
Latin, of the English seizure of the French 
ships previous to the declaration of war. A 
poem of his in three cantos was imitated 
from Dryden's ' Fables,' and at the time of 
his death he was engaged in translating 
Pindar. Dr. Joseph Warton praised his 
knowledge of modern and ancient Greek 
(POPE, Works, 1797, ed. ii. 58-9), stating 
that he maintained a learned correspondence 
with the Abbe Barthelemy of Paris on the 
origin of Chaucer's ' Palamon and Arcite.' 
Many of his manuscript letters are in the 
British Museum Additional MSS. (22359 
and 32734-33068), and most of his corre- 
spondence with Chatham is preserved at 
Paultons. Printed communications are in 
Belsham's ' Life of Theophilus Lindsey' (pp. 
497-500) and 'Life of Viscount Keppel' (ii. 
237). He was an intimate friend of Helvetius, 
much to the discontent of Gibbon, who com- 
plained in February 1763 of the excessive ad- 
miration enjoyed by Stanley in French so- 
ciety ; and he was a pall-bearer at Garrick's 
funeral (LESLIE and TATLOK, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, ii. 247). 

His portrait as a young man, with long 
face and dark hair, was painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, and is at Paultons. In 1765 there 
was published a profile engraving of ' Hans de 
Stanley, dessinS par C.N. Cochin, le fils, grave 
par S. C. Miger.' 

[Gent. Mag. 1761 pp. 236, 475, 1764 p. 199, 
1780 p.51 ; Corresp. of George III and North, i. 
213; Thomas Hutchinson's Diary, ii. 325-9; 
Albemarle's Rockingham, i. 21-76; Walpole's 
George III (ed. Le Marchant), i. 58-9, ii. 363-5 ; 
Walpole's Letters, ii. 443, iv. 352, 361-2, vi. 1 13, 



Stanley 



Stanley 



vii. 312-21 ; Grenville Papers, passim ; Barrow's 
Earl Macartney, i. 31-3, 413-27; Gibbon's Let- 
ters, ed. 1896, i. 29 ; Faulkner's Chelsea, i. 368, 
373-4 ; James's Letters on Isle of Wight, ii. 
531-9.] W. P. C. 

STANLEY, HENRY, fourth EARL OF 
DERBY (1531-1593), eldest son of Edward 
Stanley, third earl of Derby [q. v.], by his 
first wife, Katherine, daughter of Thomas 
Howard I, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.], 
was born in September 1531, and was 
christened on 4 Oct. (Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, v. 576). He was styled 
Lord Strange until his succession to the 
peerage. He was knighted on 20 Feb. 
1546-7, at the coronation of Edward VI, to 
whom he became gentleman of the privy 
chamber. In April 1550 he was sent as a 
hostage to France, in company with the Earl 
of Hertford and other noblemen's sons, and 
about the same time a project was formed 
for marrying him to Margaret, daughter of 
the Duke of Somerset. According to his 
own statement, he was employed by Somerset 
to induce Edward VI to marry the duke's 
third daughter (Jane), to keep a watch on 
the young king's words and deeds, and to 
report any secret conferences he might have 
with his councillors. These proceedings 
formed one of the principal charges on which 
Somerset was condemned, though he denied 
them on oath at his trial (TTTLER, England 
under Edward VI and Mary, ii. 15-25). In 
July 1554 Strange was appointed gentleman 
of the privy chamber to Philip of Spain, and 
on 7 Feb. following he married at the royal 
chapel, Whitehall, Margaret, eldest daughter 
of Henry de Clifford, second earl of Cumber- 
land [q. v.] The ceremony was marked by 
the introduction of a Spanish game, ' Juego 
de canas,' which has been misinterpreted as 
a masque, with the title ' Jube the Cane ' or 
' Jube the Sane ' (cf. COLLIER, i. 146 ; Stanley 
Papers, i. 12 ; MACHYN, Diary, pp. 82, 342). 
His wife was granddaughter of Henry VIII's 
younger sister, Mary, duchess of Brandon, 
and thus had some claim to the crown 
(BAILEY, Succession to the English Crown, 
pp. 171 et seq. ; cf. art. CLIFFORD, HENRY, 
second EARL OF CUMBERLAND). But Strange 
himself kept these claims in the background, 
and never suffered any molestation on their 
account. 

Soon after Elizabeth's accession he was, 
on 23 Jan. 1558-9, summoned to parliament 
as Baron Strange. In 1562 he became a 
member of Gray's Inn, and on 6 Sept. 1566 
he was created M. A. of Oxford. On 26 Oct. 
1572 he succeeded his father as fourth Earl 
of Derby and lord lieutenant of Lancashire. 
He frequently served as commissioner for 



ecclesiastical causes, and was an active 
member of the council of the north. He 
did not share his father's Roman catholic 
tendencies, and was a vigorous enemy to 
recusants in Lancashire. On 24 April 1574 
he was elected K.G., and on 20 Jan. 1579-80 
he was appointed ambassador-extraordinary 
to confer the insignia of the order of the 
Garter on Henry III of France ( Col. Hat- 
field MSS. iii. 39, 75, 90, 94, 96 ; Tanner 
MSS. Ixxviii. ff. 22-36, 78-9, 234). On 
20 May 1585 he was sworn of the privy 
council, and on 6 Oct. 1586 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners to try Mary Queen 
of Scots. In January 1587-8 he was made 
chief commissioner to treat for peace with 
Spain at Ostend, and on 23 March 1588-9 
he was appointed lord high steward. On 
14 April following he was lord high steward 
for the trial of Philip Howard, first earl of 
Arundel [q. v.] He died on 25 Sept. 1593, 
and was buried at Ormskirk. An engraving 
of an anonymous portrait of Derby, belonging 
to the present Earl Derby, is given in Doyle. 
He was patron of a company of actors who 
performed before the queen on 14 Feb. 1579- 
1580 ; it became more famous under the 
patronage of his son Ferdinando. 

By his wife Margaret (1540-1596), with 
whom he had frequent quarrels, leading to 
their separation (cf. Cal. State Papers, Doin. 
Addenda, 1566-79, pp. 33-4, 42-3), he had 
four sons Edward, who died young ; Ferdi- 
nando Stanley, fifth earl of Derby [q. v.] ; 
William, sixth earl [see under STANLEY, 
JAMES, seventh EARL OF DERBY] ; and Fran- 
cis, who died young. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547-93, and Ad- 
denda, passim ; Hatfield MSS. pts. i.-iv. ; Acts 
of the Privy Council, 1550-88 ; Stanley Papers 
and Lancashire Lieutenancy (Chetham Soc.) ; 
Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.) ; Lit. Eemains 
of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; Lords' 
Journals ; Strype's Works, passim ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Froude's History; 
Collins's, Do} T le's, and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peer- 
ages.] A. F. P. 

STANLEY, JAMES (1465P-1515), 
bishop of Ely, born probably about 1465, 
was sixth son of Thomas Stanley, first earl 
Derby [q. v.], by his first wife, Eleanor, 
daughter of Richard Neville, earl of Salis- 
bury [q. v.] Edward Stanley, first baron 
Monteagle [q. v.], was his brother. He is said 
to have studied both at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and to have graduated at the latter 
university, but he was certainly M.A. of 
Oxford (Reg. Univ. Oxon. i. 46). He has 
been confused by Newcourt, Le Neve, and 
Cooper with his uncle James, who became 
prebendary of Holy well, London, on 26 Aug. 



Stanley 



1458, prebendary of Driffield on 11 Nov. 
1460, archdeacon of Chester in 1478, pre- 
bendary of Dunham in Southwell Cathe- 
dral, warden of the collegiate church of 
Manchester in 1481, and died in 1485 or 
1486. The nephew's first preferment was 
the deanery of St. Martin-le-Grand, London, 
which he was given on 20 Sept. 1485, pro- 
bably through the influence of his father's 
second wife, Margaret Beaufort, countess of 
Richmond and Derby [q. v.], the mother 
of Henry VII (CAMPBELL, Materials, i. 19, 
125-6). In the same year he succeeded his 
uncle as warden of the collegiate church of 
Manchester, the buildings of which were 
considerably extended during his tenure of 
office (HiBBERT-WARE, Hist. Collegiate 
Church Manchester, i. 48-55). In June 
1492 he received a dispensation from the 
pope to study at Oxford, although he held a 
benefice with cure of souls. In 1496 he was 
at Paris, and is stated to have been the rich 
young priest who had declined a bishopric 
and was living in Erasmus's house at Paris. 
He made tempting offers to Erasmus to 
induce him to become his tutor, but Erasmus 
refused (KNIGHT, Erasmus, p. 19 ; BXTDINZ- 
SKY, Die Universitdt Paris, p. 85). On 
19 Nov. 1500 he became archdeacon of Rich- 
mond, and on 10 Sept, 1505 he was collated 
toaprebend in Salisbury Cathedral (LE NEVE, 
ii. 643). Early in the following year he was 
appointed by papal bull to the bishopric of 
Ely, and the temporalities were restored to 
him on 5 Nov. following. On 18 June in 
the same year the university of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degree of D.Can.L. During 
his tenure of the see he took part in his step- 
mother's foundation of St. John's and Christ's 
colleges, Cambridge (BAKER, Hist. St. John's 
College, i. 66, 68, 71 ; WILLIS AND CLARK, 
Architectural Hist, of Cambridge, ii. 194, 
iii. 301, 516). He also compiled statutes for 
Jesus College, Cambridge, to which he appro- 
priated the rectory of Great Shelford, and 
improved his episcopal residence at Somers- 
ham. He resigned the wardenship of Man- 
chester in 1509, and died on 22 March 1514-15. 
He was buried in the collegiate church at 
Manchester, where there is an inscription to 
his memory. His will, dated 20 March and 
proved 23 May 1515, is printed in Nicolas's 
' Testamenta Vetusta/ ii. 535-6. Stanley's 
loose morals afforded an easy mark for pro- 
testant invective (cf. GODWIN, De Prcesulibus, 
ed. Richardson, p. 271). By a lady who 
shared his episcopal residence at Somersham 
he had at least two sons, John and Thomas, 
and a daughter, Margaret, who married Sir 
Henry Halsall of Halsall. The elder son, 
John, fought at Floddeu Field on 9 Sept. 



r Stanley 

1513, was knighted, and founded the family 
of Stanleys of Hanford, Cheshire. 

[Authorities quoted ; Campbell's Materials for 
the Keign of Henry VII (Rolls Ser.) ; Andreas's 
Historia, pp. 108, 125 (Rolls Ser.) ; Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, ed. Brewer, vols. i. and 
ii.; Rymer's Fcedera ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, passim; Collins's Peerage, iii. 48; 
Fuller's Worthies ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ii. 
704-5 ; Dodd's Church Hist. ; Hibbert-Ware's 
Collegiate Church of Manchester, i. 48-64 ; 
Hollingworth's Mancuniensis ; Churtou's Lives 
of W. Smyth, &c., pp. 13, 548-9 ; Seacome's 
Memoirs of the House of Stanley, edit. 1840, 
pp. 70-1 ; Ormerod's Cheshire ; Bentham's Elv ; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 16, 525; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Chambers's Book of 
Days.] A. F. P. 

STANLEY, JAMES, seventh EARL OF 
DERBY (1607-1651), born at Knowsley on 
31 Jan. 1606-7, was the eldest son of Wil- 
liam, sixth earl of Derby, by his wife, Eliza- 
beth' (1575-1627), daughter of Edward de 
Vere, seventeenth earl of Oxford [q. v.J The 
father, younger son of Henry Stanley, fourth 
earl of Derby [q. v.], passed much of the 
early part of his life abroad (Stanley Papers, 
in. i. 47), succeeded as sixth earl on the 
death of his brother Ferdinando, fifth earl of 
Derby [q. v.], on 16 April 1594, was elected 
K.G. on 23 April 1601, and served as privy 
councillor extraordinary from March to May 
1603. For many years he was involved in 
ruinous litigation over his estates with his 
nieces, the coheiresses of his brother. On 
22 Dec. 1607 he was appointed lord lieu- 
tenant of Lancashire and Cheshire, and died 
on 29 Sept. 1642. His portrait, engraved from 
a drawing in the Sutherland collection, is 
given by Doyle; another, also anonymous, 
belongs to the present Earl of Derby (Cat. 
First Loan Exhib. No. 497). 

His son, who was styled Lord Strange 
during his father's lifetime, is erroneously 
said to have been educated at Bolton 
grammar school and at Oxford. After some 
private education he was sent abroad, visiting 
France and Italy, and learning the lan- 
guages of those countries. In 1625 he was 
returned to parliament as member for Liver- 
pool, where the Stanley interest had com- 
pletely superseded that of the earls of Sefton. 
He was created K.B. at the coronation of 
Charles I on 1 Feb. 1625-6, and on 26 June 
following married, at The Hague, Charlotte 
de la Tremoille, daughter of Claude, due de 
Thouars [see STANLEY, CHARLOTTE, COUNTESS 
OF DERBY]. On 27 Dec. following he was 
associated with his father in the lieutenancy 
of Lancashire and Cheshire, and on 23 Oct. 
in the chamberlain ship of Chester. He also 



Stanley 



took part in the government of the Isle of 
Man, of which the earls of Derby were here- 
ditary sovereign lords. On 7 March 1627- 
1628 he was summoned as Baron Strange to 
the House of Lords, and about the same time 
he was made lord lieutenant of North Wales. 
Lord Strange's tastes were those of a 
gentleman farmer ; but he was fond of the 
good library he possessed, and gave en- 
couragement to minor authors. He made 
Peter du Moulin (1601-1684) [q. v.], who 
had been introduced to him through his 
wife's family, his chaplain, and was patron 
of a company of players. He was a con- 
stitutional royalist and moderate Anglican, 
but his aversion to court life and non- 
attendance at parliament occasioned some ill- 
founded aspersions on his loyalty. When war 
broke out with the Scots in 1639, he joined 
Charles at York ; he was again at York in 
1640, but saw no active service against the 
Scots. He took no part in the proceedings 
of the Long parliament, and vainly en- 
deavoured to arrange a compromise between 
the two parties in Lancashire (Stanley Papers, 
vol. i. p. Ixix ; ffarington Papers, pp. 80, 
85). But when war was inevitable he threw 
himself ardently into the royalist cause, and 
urged that the king's standard should first 
be raised in Lancashire. Warrington was 
selected as the rendezvous, and Strange is 
said to have mustered over sixty thousand 
men in Lancashire and Cheshire. Charles 
unwisely vetoed his plan, and summoned 
Strange to join him at Nottingham. His 
first commission was to recover Manchester, 
which was strongly fortified and favoured 
the parliamentary cause [cf. art. ROSWORME 
or ROSWORM, JOHN]. He began by utilising 
his friendly relations with the leading citi- 
zens, and attended a banquet in Manchester 
on 15 July. The roundheads, however, 
suspected his intentions, and he narrowly 
escaped being shot in retiring to Ordsall 
(Manchesters Resolution againstLord Strange, 
1642, 4to ; POINTZ, A True Relation . . . of 
the sudden rising of the Lord Strange in 
Lancashire, 1642, 4to ; JESLAND, A Full and 
True Relation of the Troubles in Lancashire 
between the Lord Strange . . . and the well 
affected of thatcountie, 1642, 4to). He suc- 
ceeded, however, in seizing magazines in 
several towns, which he was ordered to 
restore by parliament. He was deprived 
of his lord-lieutenancy, and on 16 Sept. 
was impeached of high treason and pro- 
claimed a traitor by the House of Commons. 
On 24 Sept. he laid siege, with four thousand 
troops, to Manchester, but the vigorous de- 
fence compelled him to raise it on 1 Oct. 
By his father's death on 29 Sept. he suc- 



ceeded as seventh Earl of Derby. He now 
entrenched himself at Warrington, but 
towards the end of November his troops 
suffered two defeats at Chowbent and Low- 
ton Moor (ORMEROD, Civil War Tracts in 
Lancashire). On 16 Feb. 1642-3 Derby, 
having taken Preston, made an unsuccessful 
assault on Bolton. He then (18 Feb.) went 
on to Lancaster, which he occupied and set 
fire to, but he failed to capture the castle, 
and similar ill-success attended a second at- 
tempt to capture Bolton on his return. 
Early in April he repelled an attack on 
Warrington by Sir William Brereton, but a 
fortnight later he was defeated at Whalley 
by Captain Ashton, and retreated to York. 
Warrington surrendered in consequence (cf. 
Manchesters Joy for Derbies Overthrow, 
1643, 4to). 

Meanwhile disturbances had broken out 
in the Isle of Man, and Derby arrived there 
on 15 June to restore order. He remained 
till November (Stanley Papers, vol. i. pp. 
Ixxxviii-xcliii), but is said to have attended 
the parliament at Oxford during the winter. 
In February 1643-4 he was with Rupert in 
Cheshire, and he also accompanied Rupert 
in the following May when he beat the 
roundheads at Stockport, relieved Lathom 
House, and captured Bolton, where Derby is 
said to have led the last assault, and other- 
wise distinguished himself [see STANLEY, 
CHARLOTTE]. Thence he accompanied Rupert 
to Marston Moor (2 July), and after the ruin 
of the royalist cause in the north he with- 
drew (30 July) with his family to the Isle 
of Man. He was present, however, during 
part of the second siege of Lathom House in 
the autumn. 

In the Isle of Man Derby established him- 
self at Castle Rushen, and there he remained 
six years, entertaining fugitive royalists and 
resolutely refusing to make his peace with 
parliament. He was summoned to surrender 
a second time in July 1649, and was oflered 
terms which he rejected in an indignant 
letter to Cromwell (printed in COLLINS, 
Peerage, iii. 67 ; cf. A Declaration of the . . . 
Earl of Derby . . . concerning his resolution 
to keep the Isle of Man for his Majesties 
service against all force whatsoever, 1649, 4to). 
On 12 Jan. 1649-50 he was elected K.G. at 
Jersey, and in the same year he was selected 
by Charles II to command the forces of 
Cheshire and Lancashire in the projected 
royalist insurrection. In August 1651, 
though he disliked Charles IPs agreement 
with the Scots, he made preparations for 
joining him on his march through England. 
He landed at Wyre Water in Lancashire on 
15 Aug. with 250 foot and 60 horse, and 



Stanley 



73 



Stanley 



had an interview with Charles II on the 
17th (GARDINER, Commonwealth, i. 434). 
He then proceeded to Warrington, where 
his endeavour to enlist presbyterian support 
failed through his refusal to take the cove- 
nant (ib. pp. 435-6). On the 25th he was 
routed by Robert Lilburne [q. v.] at Wigan 
(CART, Memorials, ii. 338 ; LILBTJRNE, Two 
Letters . . . containing particulars of the 
totall rout and overthrow of the Earl of 
Derby, 1651, 4to). He had two horses shot 
under him and was severely wounded, but 
he escaped and joined Charles at Worcester 
on 2 Sept. After the battle (3 Sept.) he 
conducted Charles to Boscobel, but then 
proceeding northward alone he was captured 
near Nantwich, being given quarter by Cap- 
tain Oliver Edge. He was arraigned on 
29 Sept. at Chester before a court-martial, 
commissioned by Cromwell on the authority 
of an act of parliament passed in the pre- 
vious August, declaring all who corresponded 
with Charles guilty of high treason. Colonel 
Humphry Mackworth presided. Derby 
pleaded the quarter granted him, but it was 
overruled on the ground that he was not a 
prisoner of war but a traitor, and he was 
condemned to death ( The Perfect Tryall and 
Confession of the Earl of Derby, 1651). His 
petition to parliament, which was strongly 
supported by Cromwell (GARDINER, Common- 
wealth, i. 462), and his open recommenda- 
tion to the countess to surrender Man, proved 
of no avail. He then attempted to escape 
from Chester Castle, but was recaptured on 
Dee bank. On 13 Oct. he was removed to 
Bolton, where he was executed on the 15th. 
' Among the sufferers for King Charles the 
First none cast greater lustre on the cause ' 
(WALPOLE, Royal and Noble Authors, iii. 
37). He was buried in Ormskirk church, and 
became known as the ' martyr Earl of Derby.' 

Two portraits of Derby, painted by Van- 
dyck, belong to the present Earl of Derby 
(Cat. First Loan Exhib. 1866, Nos. 689, 
691). A copy of the first, painted while he 
was Lord Strange, was presented in 1860 to 
the National Portrait Gallery, London, by 
the fourteenth Earl of Derby. They were 
engraved by Loggan and Vertue, and copies 
are given in "Walpole's ' Royal and Noble 
Authors' (iii. 37) and in the 'Stanley 
Papers' (Chetham Soc.) (BROMLEY, Cat. 
Engr. Portraits). 

By his wife, Charlotte, Derby had issue 
five sons and four daughters (Stanley Papers, 
vol. ii. pp. cclxxxviii-ccxcii). Charles, the 
eldest, born 19 Jan. 1627-8, took part in Sir 
George Booth's abortive rising in 1658, and 
was restored as eighth Earl of Derby on the 
reversal of his father's attainder at the Re- 



storation. He was author of ' The Protestant 
Religion is a sure Foundation of a True 
Christian,' 1668, 4to (2nd ed. 1671), and 
' Truth Triumphant,' 1669, 4to. He died in 
December 1672, and was buried at Ormskirk, 
being succeeded as ninth and tenth earls by 
his sons, William George Richard (1658 P- 
1702) and James (d. 1736). On the death 
of the latter, in 1736, the earldom passed to 
a distant cousin, Edward Stanley (1689- 
1776), whose great-grandson was Edward 
Smith Stanley, thirteenth earl of Derby 
[q. v.] At the same time the sovereignty of 
the Isle of Man and the barony of Strange 
passed to James Murray, second duke of 
Atholl [q. v.], whose grandfather, John 
Murray, second earl and first marquis of 
Atholl [q.v.], had married the seventh Earl of 
Derby's third daughter, Amelia Anna Sophia. 
The seventh earl was author of several 
works extant in manuscript at Knowsley, 
comprising three books of devotions, printed in 
' Stanley Papers ' (Chetham Soc.), pt. iii. 
vol. iii. ; ' A Discourse concerning the Go- 
vernment of the Isle of Man,' printed in 
Peck's ' Desiderata Curiosa,' 1732, vol. ii., in 
the ' Stanley Papers,' pt. iii. vol. iii., and by 
the Manx Society, vol. iii. 1859 ; a book of 
observations, a commonplace book, a book 
of prayers, and a volume of historical col- 
lections (Stanley Papers, pt. iii. vol. ii. pp. 
cccvii-cccxi). Some of his correspondence 
is among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library. 

[The elaborate memoir of Derby prefixed by 
Francis Robert Raines [q. v.] to his edition of 
Derby's Devotions (Chetham Soc.) is based on 
the earl's manuscripts, but is biassed and glosses 
over his defeats and military incompetence ; 
other memoirs of him are contained in Seacorae's 
House of Stanley ; The Earl of Derby and his 
Family, 1843; Cummings's The Great Stanley, 
1847, and in the Lives of his wife [see art. 
STANLEY, CHARLOTTE, COUNTESS OF DERBY]. 
See also the numerous tracts catalogued under 
his name in the Brit. Mus. Cat., and those 
printed in Ormerod's Civil War Tracts iu Lan- 
cashire (Chetham Soc. vol. ii.); The First Blood 
drawn in the Civil War, Manchester, 1878 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. ; Clarendon State Papers ; 
Journals of the Lords and Commons ; White- 
locke's Memorials ; Nalson's, Kushworth's, and 
Thurloe's Collections ; Cobbett's State Trials, v. 
293-324 ; Dugdale's Baronage, Collins's, Doyle's, 
and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerages; Clarendons 
Great Rebellion, ed. Macray: Heath's Royal 
Martyrs; Lloyd's Loyalist ; Walpole's Royal and 
Noble Authors ; Warburton's Prince Rupert, i. 
299 et passim ; Lady Theresa Lewis's Friends 
of Clarendon, iii. 338 ; Gary's Memorials of the 
Civil War; Gardiner's Civil War and Hist, of 
Commonwealth and Protectorate.] A. F. P. 



Stanley 



74 



Stanley 



STANLEY, JOHN (1714-1786), musi- 
cian, was born in London on 17 Jan. 1713-14. 
When two years old he was completely 
blinded by falling on a marble hearth while 
holding a china basin in his hand. Soon 
afterwards his musicaltastes attracted notice. 
At the age of seven he was placed under 
John Reading (1677-1764) [see under READ- 
ING, JOHN, d. 1692], and some time later 
under Maurice Greene. In November 1723 
the boy of eleven was entrusted with the 
post of organist of All Hallows, Bread 
Street. This post he left in 1726 for St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, where Daniel Purcell 
and John Isham had recently officiated, 
and where counsel's opinion was taken at 
the time regarding the right of electing an 
organist (Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. p. 
6896) : in 1734 he was also elected organist 
to the Society of the Inner Temple. He held 
both posts till his death, and at the Temple 
it was not uncommon to see forty or fifty 
other organists, with Handel himself, as- 
sembled to hear the last voluntary. Stanley 
had graduated Mus. Bac. Oxon. on 19 July 
1729, at the age of sixteen ; this is the 
youngest recorded age for an Oxford musical 
graduate, and has been surpassed at Cam- 
bridge only by Thomas Ravenscroft. Stan- 
ley married the daughter of Captain Arlond, 
in the East India Company's service, but 
had no issue. 

Despite the loss of his sight, Stanley was 
a good player at skittles, shovel-board, and 
billiards, and also of whist, using perforated 
cards. He invented an apparatus for teach- 
ing music to the blind, and bis own ear and 
memory were trained to an extent quite in- 
credible except to those familiar with the 
powers of blind musicians. He could re- 
member and perform any piece after hearing 
it once ; even when he had to accompany a 
new oratorio, his sister-in-law, Miss Arlond, 
played it through to him once only. Musi- 
cians at this period were unaccustomed to 
the extreme keys: but Stanley, having once 
to accompany a Te Deum of Handel's in 
D (probably the Dettingen), and finding the 
organ a semitone above concert pitch, imme- 
diately transposed the entire composition 
without hesitation, a feat which seems to 
have specially impressed his contemporaries. 
He was usually engaged (BURNEY) to perform 
whenever a charity sermon was preached or 
a new organ was opened. He frequently 
played organ concertos at Vauxhall, and was 
also in much request as a teacher, among 
his earliest pupils being John Alcock, only 
two years his junior. He led the subscrip- 
tion concerts at the Swan tavern in Cornhill 
and the Castle in Paternoster Row, using a 



Stainer violin for orchestral playing, and a 
Cremona for solos ; both were lost when the 
Swan was burnt. In 1752, when Handel 
became blind and could not accompany his 
oratorio performances, Stanley was recom- 
mended to him as a substitute ; but Handel 
preferred John Christopher Smith [q. v.], ob- 
jecting, he said, to the blind leading the 
blind. An oratorio by Stanley, entitled 
' Jephthah,' was performed in 1757. 

After Handel's death in 1760 Smith and 
Stanley entered into partnership, and con- 
tinued the Lenten oratorio performances at 
Covent Garden. For their first season (1760) 
Stanley composed ' Zimri ; ' this was pub- 
lished in full score, but without the choruses. 
He played a concerto in the interval of every 
oratorio performance, and accompanied 
throughout. In the same year he set an ode, 
performed at Drury Lane, intended as an 
elegy on George II and a homage to 
George III. On the occasion of the royal 
wedding, in 1762, he composed a dramatic 
pastoral, ' Arcadia.' From 1769 to 1777 he 
gave annual performances in aid of the 
Foundling Hospital. In 1774 Smith re- 
tired. Stanley then associated the elder 
j Linley with himself in the speculation, and 
j produced another oratorio, ' The Fall of 
Egypt ' (the manuscripts of this and of ' Jeph- 
: thah ' are at the Royal College of Music; see 
I Catalogue of Sacred Harmonic Society's Li- 
brary, Nos. 1833-4). In February 1779, on 
the death of Dr. Boyce, Stanley was ap- 
| pointed master of the king's band ; and after 
I Weideman's sudden death, in 1782, he led it 
I himself. His last composition was probably 
I the ode written by "Warton for the king's 
I birthday, 4 June 1786. It was duly per- 
formed, but Stanley had died at his house in 
Hatton Garden on 19 May. He was buried 
on the evening of the 27th in the new ground 
attached to St. Andrew's, Holborn. On the 
following Sunday an appropriate selection 
was performed ' on that organ on which Mr. 
Stanley had with much eminence displayed 
his musical abilities near sixty years.' 

Stanley published a set of six cantatas in 
1742, to words mostly by Sir John Hawkins 
(1719-1789) [q. v.]; they were so well re- 
! ceived that a second set followed in the same 
year. He also published, besides ' Zimri,' 
! three sets of organ voluntaries, and concertos 
for organ or strings, with the direction that 
the same accompaniments would serve for 
j either. They are among the best English 
j instrumental compositions of the eighteenth 
century. His works are occasionally repre- 
sented in the programmes of organ recitals, 
and three of the voluntaries, arranged for 
the modern instrument with pedal keyboard, 



Stanley 



75 



Stanley 



were reprinted in A. H. Brown's ' Organ Ar- 
rangements,' 1886. Six of Stanley's preludes 
and fugues are included in Pittmans 'Pro- 
gressive Studies for Pianoforte, Organ, or 
Harmonium,' 1882. One hymn tune is used 
in the Temple church. 

Stanley's portrait by Gainsborough, a half- 
length, was finely engraved by Mary Ann 
Bigg (Scott), and published in 1781. An- 
other portrait, representing him at the organ, 
was engraved by Mac Ardell, and appeared 
in the ' European Magazine.' 

[European Mag. 1784, ii. 171 ; Gent. Mag. 
1760 p. 218, 1779 pp. 103, 317, 1780 p. 37, 
1786 pp. 442, 512; Georgian Era, iv. 313; 
C. F. Pohl's Mozart in London, p. 179 ; Morn- 
ing Post, June 22, 1786 ; Courtney's English 
Whist, p. 313 ; Marpurg's Trait6 de la Fugue 
et du Contrepoint, Berlin, 1756, 2, p. xxv; 
Burney's General Hist, of Music, iii. 621, iv. 587, 
654, 663; Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, 
iii. 690 ; C. F. Abdy Williams's Degrees in 
Music, p. 85 ; Ouseley's Contributions to Nau- 
mann's Illustrirte Geschichte der Musik, English 
edit. p. 920; Musical News, 16 Oct. 1897.1 

H. D. 

STANLEY, MONTAGUE (1809-1844), 
actor and painter, was born at Dundee on 
5 Jan. 1809. His father, who was in the 
royal navy, was ordered to New York in 
March 1810, and took his family thither. 
By the death of his father in 1812 Stanley 
was left entirely to the care of his mother. 
She married again in 1816, and removed 
with her son to Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 
1817 the family went to Kingston, Jamaica. 
Two years afterwards Stanley sailed for 
England with his mother and a young bro- 
ther and sister, and settled with friends in 
Lancashire. It was about this time that 
he first evinced a taste for drawing, but he 
had already shown a predilection for the 
stage, and in 1824 he took a theatrical en- 
gagement at York, under the assumed name 
of Manby. In the summer season of 1826, 
resuming his own name, he joined W. H. 
Murray's company at Edinburgh. ' He was 
a very handsome young man, well suited for 
the parts he played, and was useful as well 
as a singer, being often cast for vocal parts 
such as Don Ferdinand in " The Duenna " ' 
(DiBDiN, Annals of the Edinburgh Staye, 
p. 319). Although he acted at Dublin in 1830 
and London in 1832-3, he remained at 
Edinburgh twelve years, taking his farewell 
benefit on 26 Feb. 1838, when he played 
Richard III. He appeared for the last 
time on 28 April, when he played Laertes to 
Charles Kean's Hamlet. ' One of his best 
parts was Robert Macaire, in which the mix- 
ture of broad farce and melodrama seemed 



to suit him exactly ' (ib. p. 373). His with- 
drawal from the stage was due to religious 
scruples. 

On quitting the stage in 1838 he mainly 
devoted himself to painting, which he had 
practised while an actor. At the same time 
he taught drawing, elocution, and fencing, in 
which he was an expert, and wrote serious 
verse, some of which was printed in the 
' Christian Treasury.' There is no record 
of his having had any regular art education. 
It is stated that he took lessons from John W. 
Ewbank [q. v.] in Edinburgh at a compara- 
tively late period in his career. When not 
confined by theatrical or tutorial duties to 
Edinburgh, he visited Wales, England, and 
the west of Scotland, making sketches, which 
he afterwards completed as pictures for the 
Scottish Academy. From 1828 till 1844 
(save in 1831-32-33) he was a regular ex- 
hibitor there, mainly of Scottish landscapes. 
The only picture shown by Stanley in the 
Royal Academy of London, ' Wreck on the 
Lancashire Sands,' was exhibited in 1833, 
while he was in London. He was elected 
an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy 
in 1839. 

He secured a house at Ascog in Bute early 
in 1844, but died there on 4 May in that 
year, being buried in the churchyard. He 
married in 1833 an Edinburgh lady of good 
position ; she survived him with seven chil- 
dren. 

Stanley made his reputation as a landscape- 
painter, and many of his pictures have been 
engraved as book illustrations. Sir T. Dick 
Lauder's edition of Uvedale Price's ' On the 
Picturesque ' (1842) was illustrated by sixty 
wood engravings from Stanley's designs. 
Others were engraved for his published bio- 

fraphy by the Rev. D. T. K. Drummond. 
lany of them were burnt while being con- 
veyed by railway to Edinburgh to be sold by 
auction, a spark from the engine having 
ignited the truck in which they were packed. 
[Brydall's Art in Scotland, p. 469 ; Drum- 
mond's Memoir of Montague Stanley, Edin- 
burgh, 1848; Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dib- 
din's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage, passim ; 
Catalogues of the Koyal Academy and Koyal 
Scottish Academy.] A. H. M. 

STANLEY, THOMAS, first EARL OP 
DERBY (1435 P-1504), was son of Thomas 
Stanley, first lord Stanley (1406P-1459), 
and his wife, Joan, daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Robert Goushill of Hoveringham, 
Nottinghamshire, by Elizabeth Fitzalan, 
dowager duchess of Norfolk (d. 14_'~>). 

SIR JOHN STANLEY, K.G. (1350P-1414), 
the founder of the family fortunes, was his 
great-grandfather. He came of a younger 



Stanley 



76 



Stanley 



branch of a famous Staffordshire house, the 
Audleys of Healey, near Newcastle-under- 
Lyme ; the cadet line took its name from 
the manor of Stanlegh, close to Cheddleton, 
but settled in Cheshire under Edward II on 
acquiring, by marriage, the manor of Storeton 
and the hereditary forestership of "Wirral. 
The nephew of Sir John (who was a younger 
son) removed the chief seat of the elder line 
of Stanley to Hooton in Wirral by marriage 
with its heiress (DuGDALE, ii. 247 ; OEMEEOD, 
ii. 411). A still more fortunate alliance (be- 
fore October 1385) with Isabel, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Latham, made Sir John Stanley 
himself lord of great part of the hundred 
of West Derby in south-west Lancashire, 
including Knowsley and Lathom (Rot. Parl. 
iii. 205; cf. WTLIE, ii. 290). The famous 
Stanley crest of the eagle and child, which 
gave rise to a family legend, no doubt came 
from the Lathams (BAINES, i. 49, iv. 248 ; 
SEACOME, p. 22 ; GEEGSON, pp. 244, 250). 
Their badge in the fifteenth century was an 
eagle's (or griffin's) leg (DOYLE, Official Baro- 
nage, i. 553: GAIEDNER, p. 412; OEJIEROD, 
iii. 641). Sir John, who in his youth had 
served in Aquitaine, went to Ireland as 
deputy for Richard II's favourite, De Vere, 
in 1386, and subsequently held important 
posts both there (lieutenant, 1389-91) and 
on the Welsh and Scottish borders. Henry IV 
rewarded his speedy adhesion with Hope 
and Mold castles and a regrant (10 Dec. 
1399) of his old office in Ireland. But he 
became officially bankrupt, and in 1401 was 
superseded. Steward of the household to 
Henry, prince of Wales, from 1403, he en- 
tered the order of the Garter in 1405. The 
king rewarded his services during the 
northern revolt of that year by a grant, first 
for life and then in perpetuity, by the ser- 
vice of a cast of falcons at coronations, of 
the Isle of Man, which had been forfeited 
by the rebellion of the Earl of Northum- 
berland (Fcudera, viii. 419 ; BAINES, i. 370). 
In 1409 Stanley was made constable of 
Windsor. Henry V once more sent him to 
govern Ireland, and it was at Ardee, in that 
island, that he died on 18 Jan. 1414 (DiJG- 
DALE, ii. 248; SEACOME, p. 20). The Irish 
writers ascribed his death to irritation caused 
by the virulent lampoons of the plundered 
bard Niall O'Higgin (GiLBEET, Viceroys, p. 
301). Stanley built the tower in Water 
Street, Liverpool, which survived till 1821 
(GEEGSON, p. 172). His third son, Thomas, 
was the ancestor of the Stanleys of Aldford 
and Elford. The eldest, John, the Manx- 
legislator, married Isabel, sister of Sir Wil- 
liam and daughter of Sir John Harrington of 
Hornby Castle, Lancashire, and died in 1437 



(OEMEEOD, ii. 412 ; cf. COLLINS, ed. Brydges, 
iii, 54). 

Their eldest son, THOMAS STANLEY (1406?- 
1459), born about 1406, first appears in 1424, 
when an armed affray between ' Thomas 
Stanley, the younger of the Tower, esquire,' 
and Sir Richard Molyneux (d. 1439) [see 
under MOLYXEUX, SIE RICHAED, d. 1459], 
constable of Liverpool Castle, at the oppo- 
site end of the town, was prevented only by 
the arrest of both (GEEGSON, p. 171). He 
was knighted before 1431, when Henry VI 
made him lieutenant-governor of Ireland for 
six years. In 1446 Eleanor Cobham [see 
under HUMPHBEY, DUKE OF GLOTTCESTEE] 
was entrusted to his keeping in the Isle of 
Man. From that year to 1455 Stanley re- 
presented Lancashire in parliament ; he took 
part in more than one negotiation with 
Scotland, and by March 1447 became comp- 
troller of the royal household (Fcedera, xi. 
169). The parliament of 1450-1 demanded 
his dismissal from court with others of 
Suffolk's party (Rot. Parl. v. 216), but on 
the triumph of the Yorkists in 1455 he was 
made, or remained, lord-chamberlain and a 
privy councillor, and 15 Jan. 1456 received 
a summons to the house of peers as Lord 
Stanley. He became K.G. before May 1457, 
and died on 20 Feb. 1459 (Complete Peerage, 
iii. 68 ; cf. OEMEEOD, iii. 337). By his wife, 
Joan Goushill, he had four sons and three 
daughters ; the second son, Sir William 
Stanley of Holt (d. 1495), is separately 
noticed ; the third, John, was the ancestor 
of the Stanleys of Alderley; the fourth, 
James, was archdeacon of Carlisle [see under 
STANLEY, JAMES, 1465 P-1515]. 

The eldest, Thomas, who succeeded as 
second Baron Stanley, was born about 1435, 
and in 1454 had been one of Henry VI's 
esquires (Ord. Privy Council, vi. 223). His 
political attitude was from the first ambi- 
guous. When Richard Neville, earl of Salis- 
bury [q. v.], who was perhaps already his 
father-in-law, encountered the royal forces 
at Blore Heath in August 1459, Stanley, 
though not more than six miles away, kept 
the two thousand men he had raised at the 
queen's call out of the fight. His brother 
William fought openly on the Yorkist side, 
and was attainted in the subsequent par- 
liament. Stanley himself, though he came 
in and took the oath of allegiance, was im- 
peached as a traitor by the commons, who 
alleged that he had given Salisbury a con- 
ditional promise of support. The queen, 
however, thought it better to overlook his 
suspicious conduct (Rot. Parl. v. 348, 369). 
He was with Henry at the battle of North- 
ampton in the following summer, but the 



Stanley 



77 



triumphant Yorkists made him (January 
1461) chief justice of Chester and Flint 
(DOYLE). Edward IV's accession was the 
signal for the reassertion of the Scrope claim 
to the lordship of Man, which William le 
Scrope, earl of Wiltshire [q. v.~|, had held 
under Richard II, and Stanley's title was 
still disputed in 1475. When his brother- 
in-law, Warwick, fleeing before Edward IV 
in 1470, made his way to Manchester in the 
hope of support from him, Stanley cau- 
tiously held aloof, but on the king-maker's suc- 
ceeding in restoring Henry VI, he turned to 
the rising sun, and in March 1471 we find 
him besieging Hornby Castle on behalf of 
the Lancastrian government (Paston Letters, 
ii. 396 ; Fcedera, xi. 699). Nevertheless, 
after Warwick's defeat and death, Edward 
made Stanley lord steward of his house- 
hold and privy councillor. He took part 
in the king's French expedition of 1475, 
when he characteristically seized a private 
opportunity of recommending himself to the 
favour of Louis XI (CoMiNES, i. 340, 347), 
and held a high command in Gloucester's 
invasion of Scotland seven years later. His 
services there were specially brought to the 
attention of parliament (Rot. Parl. vi. 197). 
Polydore Vergil credits him, perhaps rather 
partially, with the capture of Berwick. Not 
long after he married Margaret Beaufort, 
countess of Richmond, whose second hus- 
band, Henry Stafford, younger son of the 
second Duke of Buckingham, died in the 
same year. 

After Edward's death Stanley remained 
loyal to his son, but though wounded in the 
head with a halbert during the scuffle in the 
council chamber (13 June 1483), when 
Gloucester arrested Hastings, his good for- 
tune did not desert him, and he escaped with 
a short imprisonment. Gloucester is said to 
have feared that Stanley's son would raise 
Lancashire and Cheshire (FABYAN, p. 668 ; 
MOKE, pp. 45-8 ; POLYDORE VERGIL, p. 689). 
With his accustomed pliancy he carried the 
mace at Richard's coronation, his wife bear- 
ing the queen's train (Excerpta Historica, 
pp. 380, 384). He remained steward of the 
household, and succeeded Hastings as knight 
of the Garter. His wife was deeply en- 
gaged in Buckingham's rising [see STAFFORD, 
HENRY, second DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM] on 
behalf of her son, Henry Tudor, earl of Rich- 
mond ; but the wary Stanley avoided com- 
mitting himself, and actually improved his 
position by thecollapseof therevolt. Richard 
must have known him well enough to feel 
sure that he would not turn traitor until he 
could do so with the minimum of risk. He 
accepted his assurances of loyalty, and ap- 



Stanley 

pointed him (16 Dec. 1483) constable of Eng- 
land in Buckingham's place. Stanley under- 
took to put a stop to his wife's intrigues, 
' keeping her in some secret place at home, 
without having any servant or company,' 
and her estates were transferred to him for 
life (HALL, p. 398 ; Hot. Parl. vi. 250). In 
1484 Richard employed him in a Scottish 
mission. No one except the Dukes of Nor- 
folk and Northumberland profited more by 
Richard's bounty (RAMSAY, ii. 534). But 
Stanley could not but feel that Richard's 
throne was insecure, and that in any case his 
own position would be much safer with his 
stepson wearing the crown. Not long before 
Richmond's landing, the ' wily fox ' (HALL) 
asked and obtained leave to go home to Lan- 
cashire on private affairs. Richard appa- 
rently suspected nothing at first, for on hear- 
ing that Richmond was likely to land in 
Wales, he ordered Stanley and his brother 
to be prepared to take the field against the 
rebels (GAIRDNER, p. 287). But his prolonged 
absence at last roused suspicion, and he re- 
ceived peremptory orders either to come to 
the king at Nottingham himself or send his 
son, Lord Strange. He sent his son, but when 
news reached Richard that Richmond was 
marching unhindered through North Wales, 
of which Sir William Stanley (d. 1495) [q.v.] 
was justiciar, he ordered the father impera- 
tively to join him at once. Stanley excused 
himself, however, on the plea that he was 
ill of the sweating sickness. Strange's futile 
attempt to escape from court, and his ad- 
mission that he and his uncle were in league 
with Richmond, made Stanley's position 
still more delicate, though his son offered to 
guarantee his fidelity if his own life were 
spared (Cont. Croyl. Chron. p. 573). Rich- 
mond reckoned on the support of both 
Stanleys, but the elder was obliged to tem- 
porise, if only to save his son. The two 
brothers were playing much the same game 
as they had done at Blore Heath a quarter of 
a century before. Richmond was pretty 
sure of Sir William, who had been pro- 
claimed a traitor. But Lord Stanley, who 
had thrown himself with five thousand men 
between the two approaching armies, eva- 
cuated Lichfield before Henry, and after a 
secret interview with him at Atherstone 
(20 Aug.) he marched on ahead to Bosworth. 
He selected an ambiguous position and re- 
turned an evasive answer when Richmond 
begged him to join forces before the battle 
began. He took no part in the action, 
hanging between the two armies, and it was 
his brother's intervention which gave Henry 
the victory. It was he, however, who placed 
the crown, taken from Richard's corpse, upon 



Stanley 

the victor's head. Richard had given orders 
for his son's execution, but they had been 
ignored (POLYDORE VERGIL, p. 563; cf. 
BAINES, i. 436). 

Stanley's services were duly rewarded. 
The forfeited estates of the Pilkingtons (be- 
tween Manchester and Bury) and several 
other Lancashire families swelled his pos- 
sessions, and on 27 Oct. following he was 
created Earl of Derby ; the title was taken 
from the county in which he had no lands, 
and not from the hundred of West Derby, 
in which the bulk of his estates lay (Com- 
plete Peerage, iii. 69). He purchased the 
Yorkshire and Axholme estates of the Mow- 
brays from William, marquis of Berkeley, 
for whose soul he provided for prayers at 
Burscough Priory in his will (STOREHOUSE, 
Isle of Axholme, p. 140 ; DUGDALE, ii. 249). 

Stanley figured in the coronations of Henry 
and Elizabeth of York as one of the commis- 
sioners for executing the office of lord high 
steward (LELAND, Collectanea, iv. 225). 
Henry confirmed him in his posts of con- 
stable of England (5 March 1486), high 
steward of the duchy of Lancaster, and high 
forester north of Trent, adding the constable- 
ship of Halton Castle, Cheshire, the re- 
ceivership of the county palatine of Lancas- 
ter, and other lucrative positions ( Rot. Parl. 
vi. 373). He was godfather to Prince Ar- 
thur, and in July 1495 the king and queen 
paid him a visit of nearly a month's dura- 
tion at Knowsley and Lathom (Excerpta 
Historica, p. 104). He enlarged Knowsley 
House and built a bridge at Warrington for 
the occasion (GREGSON, p. 230). Henry 
probably intended the honour as an as- 
surance that he dissociated Derby from the 
treason of his brother, who had perished on 
the scaffold in the previous February. He 
died at Lathom on 29 July 1504, and was 
buried with his ancestors in the neighbour- 
ing priory of Burscough. 

His portrait at Knowsley, engraved in 
Baines's ' History of Lancashire,' shows a 
long thin face, with a full beard. 

Derby married twice : his first wife was 
Eleanor Neville, daughter of Richard Ne- 
ville, earl of Salisbury [q.v.]; they were 
married before 1460, and she died between 
1464 and 1473 (Rot. Parl. v. 545, vi. 46). 
By her he had six sons, several of whom 
died young, and four daughters. George, 
the eldest surviving son, married Joan, only 
child of Lord Strange (d. 1477) of Knockin 
in the march of Wales, and in her right was 
summoned to the House of Lords under that 
title from 1482 ; Henry VII made him a 
knight of the Garter (1487) and a privy 
councillor. He died on 5 Dec. 1497 (' at an 



Stanley 



ungodly banquet, alas ! he was poisoned,' 
SEACOME, p. 36) at Derby House, St. Paul's 
Wharf, London, whose site is now occu- 
pied by the Heralds' College, and was buried 
with his mother at St. James's, Garlick- 
hithe. His widow died on 20 March 1514. 
Thomas, eldest of four sons, became second 
earl of Derby [see under STANLEY, EDWARD, 
third EARL OF DERBY]. Two younger sons 
of Derby Edward, lord Monteagle, and 
James, bishop of Ely are separately noticed, 

Derby's second wife (c. 1482) was Mar- 
garet Beaufort, countess of Richmond [q.v.], 
then widow of Sir Henry Stafford (d. 1481). 

Derby was a benefactor of Burscough 
priory, in which he erected a tomb with 
effigies of himself and his two wives, and 
placed images of his ancestors up to his 
great-grandfather in the arches of the chancel 
(DUGDALE, ii. 249). 

[The early history of the Stanleys received a 
romantic colouring in the ' Song of the Lady 
Bessy' by Humphrey Brereton, a retainer of the 
first Earl of Derby, and the metrical family 
chronicle said to have been written about 1562 
by Thomas Stanley, bishop of Sodor and Man 
[see under STANLEY, EDWARD, 1460?-1523]. 
The metrical history supplied Seacome (Memoirs 
of the House of Stanley, 1741 ; 7th ed. 1 840) with 
the romantic details in the early life of the first 
Sir John Stanley which passed into the short his- 
tories of the family by Ross (1 848), Draper ( 1 864), 
and others. See also Rotuli Parliamentorum ; 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; 
Rymer's Foedera, orig. edit. ; Polydore Vergil's 
AnglicaHistoria ; More's Richard III, ed. Lumby; 
Fabyan and Hall's Chronicles, ed. Ellis; Con- 
tinuation of the Croyland Chronicle, ed. Gale, 
1691; Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner ; Comines's 
Memoirs, ed. Dupont; Dugdale's Baronage; 
G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; Ormerod's 
History of Cheshire, ed. Helsby ; Baines's His- 
tory of Lancashire ; Gregson's Portfolio of Frag- 
ments relating to the History of Lancashire, 
1817; Leland's Collectanea, ed. Hearne ; Bent- 
ley's Excerpta Historica, 1831 ; Gairdner's Ri- 
chard III ; Ramsay's Lancaster and York ; 
Wylie's History of Henry IV ; Palatine Note 
Book, iii. 161 ; Stanley Papers (Chetham Soc.); 
Button's Bosworth Field, 1813.] J. T-T. 

STANLEY, THOMAS (1625-1678), 
author, born at Cumberlow, Hertfordshire, 
in 1625, was only son of Sir Thomas Stanley, 
knt., of that place, and of Leytonstone, Essex, 
by his second wife, Mary, daughter of Sir 
William Hammond of St. Albans, near 
Dover (cf. CARTER, Analysis of Honour, 1660 ; 
Visitation of Essex, 1634, Harl. Soc. p. 493). 
His father was grandson of Thomas Stanley, a 
natural son of Edward Stanley, third earl of 
Derby [q. v.] His mother's family brought 
him into lineal relations with many accom- 



Stanley 



79 



Stanley 



plished writers of verse. Her brother was 
William Hammond [q. v.], and through her 
grandmother, Elizabeth Aucher of Bishops- 
bourne, Kent, she was cousin to the poet 
Richard Lovelace [q.v.] WilliamFairfax, son 
of Edward Fairfax, the translator of Tasso, di- 
rected his early education in his father's house, 
and he soon became not merely an excellent 
classical scholar, but an enthusiastic student 
of French, Spanish, and Italian poetry. On 
22 June 1639,at theage of thirteen, he entered 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, as a gentle- 
man commoner ( College ReyJ), matriculating 
13 Dec. He graduated M.A. in 1641, and 
was incorporated in the same degree at Ox- 
ford on 14 July 1640. An early and prosperous 
marriage did not interrupt his devotion to 
study. After some years spent in foreign 
travel (mainly in France), he retired, to wards 
the close of the civil war, to lodgings in the 
Middle Temple, and engaged in literary work. 
He cultivated literary society, and his 
wealth enabled him to aid many less fortu- 
nate men of letters. His closest literary 
friends were Sir Edward Sherburne [q. v.], 
John Hall (1627-1656) [q. v.] of Durham, 
and James Shirley [q.v.], the dramatist, all 
of whom he relieved in their necessity. Sher- 
burne dedicated to him his ' Salmacis ' (1651). 
To him and Sherburne conjointly, Edward 
Phillips (1630-1696?) [q.v.] dedicated his 
'Theatrum Poetarum ' (1675). Hall dedi- 
cated to him as 'his dearest friend' his 

* Poems ' in 1646, and inserted in the volume 
three pieces addressed to his friend and 
patron. Other intimate associates were his 
mother's brother William Hammond [q. v.], 
and his cousins Richard Lovelace [q. v.] and 
Dudley Posthumus Lovelace, the latter's 
brother; Hammond and Richard Lovelace 
each wrote a poem in honour of his wedding, 
while another appeared in Jordan's ' Forest of 
Fancie ' (cf. GAMBLE, Second Book of Ay res, 
1659). 

Stanley's linguistic faculty and lyric gifts 
were shown to advantage in his initial vo- 
lume, ' Poems'by Thomas Stanley, esq., 1647, 
dedicated to Love. Many of the verses cele- 
brate Chariessa, Celia, Doris, and other ima- 
ginary mistresses. Succeeding pieces eulo- 
gise Hammond, Shirley the dramatist, and 
Sir Edward Sherburne. Among the foreign 
writers, translations of whose verse were 
included in the volume, are Guarini, Marino, 
Tasso, Lope de Vega, and Petrarch. One 
poem (p. 42) is in the metre of Tennyson's 

* In Memoriam.' There followed in 1649 
another volume of translations, entitled ' Eu- 
ropa : Cupid Crucified [by Ausonius] : Venus 
Vigils ' (London, by W. W., for Humphrey 
Moseley, 1649). At the same date there 



appeared in yet a third volume two trans- 
lations in prose interspersed with verse : 
' Aurora, Ismenia, and the Prince,' by Don 
Juan Perez de Montalvan, and ' Oronta, the 
Cyprian Virgin,' by Signor Girolamo Preti ; 
a second edition, with additions, was dated 
1650. Finally, in 1651, Stanley reissued, in 
a fourth volume, all his previously published 
verse, with the addition of his classical ren- 
dering of Anacreon's odes and other trans- 
lations. This charming volume was divided 
into five sections, each introduced by a 
new title-page. It opens with the title 
' Poems, by Thomas Stanley, esq. : printed 
in the year 1651 ' a reprint of the vo- 
lume of 1647- The second title-page runs : 
' Anacreon ; Bion ; Moschus ; Kisses by 
Johannes Secundus ; Cupid Crucified by 
Ausonius ; Venus' Vigil Incerto Authore.' 
The third title-page introduces 'Excitations,' 
a learned appendix of notes, chiefly textual, 
on the preceding translations, which Stan- 
ley avers ' were never further intended but 
as private exercises of the languages from 
which they are deduced.' The fourth title- 
page runs : ' Sylvia's Park, by Theophil ; 
Acanthus Complaint by Tristran ; Oronta 
by Preti ; Echo by Marino ; Love's Embassy 
by Boscan: The Solitude by Gongara. 
The fifth and last title-page introduces 'A 
Platonick Discourse upon Love written in 
Italian by John Picus Mirandola in ex- 
planation of a Sonnet by Hieronimo Beni- 
vieni.' To some copies is appended a sixth 
title-page, introducing the prose novel of 
Montalvan which had been already pub- 
lished with Preti's ' Oronta ' in 1649 and 
1650. 

Stanley subsequently wrote verses which 
were set to music by John Gamble (d. 1687), 
and published by him in his ' Ayres and 
Dialogues' (1656). A commendatory poem 
by Richard Lovelace was there inscribed to 
' My noble kinsman, Thomas Stanley, esq., 
on his lyrick poems,' and another poem by 
Dudley Lovelace, Richard's youngest brother, 
' to my much honoured cozen Mr. Stanley.' 
A song by Stanley, ' O turn away those cruel 
eyes,' figures in ' The Second Book of Ayres ' 
by Henry Lawes, 1665. In 1657 Stanley 
prepared for publication extracts from the 
EtKo>i/ Bao-tXtK//, under the title of ' Psal- 
terium Carolinum : the Devotions of his 
Sacred Majestie in his Solitude and Suffer- 
ings, rendered in Verse.' 

Stanley's original poems and translations 
from the Latin and Greek were collected 
and edited by Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges 
in two volumes, published respectively in 
1814 and 1815. His translations of ' Venus' 
Vigil ' and Johannes Secundus's ' Kisses ' 



Stanley 8 

were reissued in Bohn's ' Classical Library.' 
Stanley's translation of 'Anacreon ' with the 
Greek text, was reprinted by Mr. A. H. 
Bullen in 1893. 

But Stanley soon turned from poetry to 
a serious study of Greek philosophy. At 
the suggestion of Sir John Marsham [q. v/], 
the chronologer, who married his mother s 
sister, he produced his 'History of Philo- 
sophy,' of which the first volume appeared 
in 1655 (dedicated to Marsham), the second 
in 1656, a third in 1660, and a fourth, en- 
titled 'The History of Chaldaick Philosophy,' 
in 1662. The work consisted of a long series 
of biographies, chiefly of the Greek philo- 
sophers from Thales to Carneades. The greater 
part was derived from Diogenes Laertius ; 
but the analysis of the Platonic philosophy 
was from Alcinous, and the account of the 
Peripatetic system was derived directly from 
Aristotle. The doctrine of the Stoics was 
elaborately worked up from various autho- 
rities. Stanley on the whole brought a good 
deal from an almost untrodden field ; but he 
was an historian rather than a critic of philo- 
sophy (HALLAM). The compilation long 
ranked as a standard authority. It was re- 
published in one volume in 1687 (3rd ed. 
1700, and 4th ed. with memoir of author, 
1743). Portions of the work were printed 
in French at Paris in 1660. Vols. i-iii. of 
the first edition were translated into Latin 
with additions, by Godfrey Olearius (Leipzig, 
1711, 4to). Vol. iv. was rendered into Latin 
by John Le Clerc and issued at Amsterdam, 
with Le Clerc's notes and a dedication to 
Bishop Burnet (1690, 8vo) ; it reappeared in 
Le Clerc's ' Opera Philosophica,' vol. ii. 

Stanley, after completing his ' History of 
Philosophy,' worked with no less success 
on an edition of ./Eschylus. This appeared 
in 1663 in folio with Latin translation and 
notes, and was dedicated to Sir Henry New- 
ton [q. v.] The date 1664 appears in some 
copies. Stanley's edition of jEschylus was 
superior to any that had preceded it ; it was 
long regarded at home and abroad as the 
standard edition, and remains ' a great monu- 
ment of critical learning.' It was republished 
in De Pauw's edition (2 vols. 4to, 1745). 
The text and Latin translation reappeared at 
Glasgow in 1746, and the text was twice 
corrected by Person, for reissue in 1795 and 
1806 respectively. The Latin version was re- 
issued separately in 1819. The whole edition 
was revised and enlarged (1809-16 in 4 vols.) 
by Samuel Butler (1774-1839) [q.v.], and 
elicited some adverse criticism from Charles 
James Blomfield [q. v.], who charged Stanley 
with borrowing at least three hundred of 
his many emendations of the text from notes 



which he had derived from Casaubon, Dorat, 
and Scaliger. A controversy followed on this 
and other points connected with Butler's re- 
vision of Stanley's text, and in it J. H. Monk, 
as well as Blomfield and Butler, took part 
(cf. Blomfield in Edinburgh Review, 1809, 
1812, and in HfuseumCriticum, ii. 498 ; Monk's 
letterto the Rev. S. Butler ; Quarterly Review, 
1821). Stanley's reputation was not appre- 
ciably injured. 

Stanley died at his lodgings in Suffolk 
Street, Strand, on 12 April 1678, and 
was buried in the church of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields. His wife Dorothy was daughter 
and coheiress of Sir James Enyon, baronet, of 
Flower, Northamptonshire. By her he had a 
son Thomas, born in 1650, who was admitted 
a fellow-commoner at Pembroke College, 
Cane bridge, on 6 April 1665, and published 
in the same year a translation of ' Claudius 
^Elianus Various Histories,' London, 1665, 
8vo; this was dedicated, like his father's 
edition of ^Eschylus, to Sir Henry (Pucker- 
ing) Newton [q. v.] Sir Edward Sherburne 
prefixed verses. 

Stanley's genuine literary gifts and his 
versatile employment of them procured him 
a wide contemporary reputation. Win- 
stanley calls him ' the glory and admira- 
tion of his time.' Pope invariably spoke 
of him with respect (SPEXCE, Anecdotes, 
p. 198). William Wotton [q. v.] eulogised 
him at the end of his edition of Scsevola St. 
Marthe's ' Elogia Gallorum ' (1722). His 
classical scholarship was of a high order. 
His translation of 'Anacreon 'satisfies almost 
every requirement. It is as agreeable reading 
as the version of Thomas Moore, and adheres 
far more closely to the original. 

Stanley left in manuscript many volumes 
of notes on classical authors, which were 
acquired by Bishop Moore, and are now in 
the University Library at Cambridge. These 
include eight folio volumes of 'Commen- 
taries on ^Eschylus ; ' adversaria on passages 
in Sophocles, Euripides, Callimachus, Hesy- 
chius, Juvenal, Persius, and others ; prelec- 
tions in Theophrastus's characters, and an 
essay on the first-fruits and tenths of the 
spoil said in the Epistle to the Hebrews to 
have been given by Abraham to Melchisedek. 
He obviously was especially interested in 
Callimachus. In the British Museum there 
is a copy of Callimachus's ' Cyrensei Hymni ' 
(1577), with manuscript notes by Stanley. 
Bentley was accused of using without ac- 
knowledgment Stanley's comments on Calli- 
machus (see A Short 'Account of Dr. Bent- 
ley's Humanity and Justice to those Authors 
who have written before him, with an honest 
Vindication of Thomas Stanley, Esq., and his 



Stanley 



81 



Stanley 



Notes on Callimachos, London, 1699, 8vo ; 
addressed to Boyle). 

Stanley's portrait, painted by Sir Peter 
Lely, is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
and an engraving by William Faithorne 
forms the frontispiece of the ' History of 
Philosophy.' 

[Sir S. E. Brydges's Memoir prefixed to his 
reprint of Stanley's Poems and Translations in 
1814; Memoir prefixed to Stanley's History 
of Philosophy, 1743; Anacreon, with Thomas 
Stanley's translation edited by Mr. A. H. Bullen, 
1893 ; Park's British Bibliographer, iii. 360 
seq. ; Lovelace's Poems, ed. W. C. Hazlitt, pp. 
227, 247 ; Hallam's Literature of Europe, iii. 
250, 304.] S. L. 

STANLEY, VENETIA (1600-1633), 
afterwards wife of Sir Kenelm Digby. [See 
under DIGBT, SIR KENELM.] 

STANLEY, SIK WILLIAM (d. 1495), 
lord chamberlain to Henry VII, was the 
second son of Thomas Stanley, first lord 
Stanley, by Joan, daughter of Sir Robert 
Goushill of Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, 
and his wife, Elizabeth Fitzalan, dowager 
duchess of Norfolk. Thomas Stanley, first 
Earl of Derby [q. v.], was his elder brother. 
Stanley was born after 1435, and made his 
first known public appearance while still a 
squire in 1459 as a Yorkist partisan, taking 
part in ' the distressing of King Henry's true 
liege people at Bloreheath,' where two of his 
brothers-in-law, Sir William Troutbeck and 
Sir Richard Molyneux [q. v.] of Sefton, fell 
on the opposite side. In the ensuing parlia- 
ment Stanley was attainted with other 
Yorkists (Rot. Parl. v. 348, 369). As he did 
not fall into the hands of the government, 
we may perhaps assume that he escaped 
abroad, like the rest, after the rout of Lud- 
ford. The accession of Edward IV brought 
him his reward ; the office of chamberlain of 
Chester was at once conferred upon him, 
and he apparently retained it until his 
death (ORMEKOB, i. 60). At York, after 
the battle of Hexham in 1464, the king 
made him a further grant under the great 
seal, and in November 1465 bestowed upon 
him the castle and lordship of Skipton and 
other lands in Craven forfeited by Lord 
Clifford, who fell on the Lancastrian side at 
Towton (Rot. Parl. v. 530, 582). When 
Edward returned from his temporary exile 
in 1471, Stanley joined him with three 
hundred men at Nottingham (WARKWORTH, 

614, but cf. Arrival of Edward IV, p. 7). 
e was subsequently steward of the Prince 
of Wales's household (RAMSAY, ii. 482). 
Richard III did his best to retain Stanley's 
support; he gave him Buckingham's for- 

VOL. LIV. 



feited office of justiciar of North Wales (the 
' Croyland Continuator ' says chamberlain) 
and a great landed position there by the 
grant of the castle and lordship of ' Lione 
otherwise called the Holte,' i.e. Holt Castle 
on the Dee, with a moiety of Bromfield, 
Yale, and four other marcher lordships, 
three whole manors, and a moiety of seven- 
teen others, among them Wrexham and 
Ruabon (Rot. Parl. vi. 316). He seems also 
to have had an interest in the lordship of 
Chirk, whose castle he repaired (LELAND, 
Itinerary, v. 36 ; GAIRDNER, p. 402). These 
lands, which comprised a great part of what 
is now East Denbighshire, he claimed in the 
next reign to have obtained by exchange for 
others of ' great value.' This vagueness and 
the obvious motive for such a statement 
render it rather doubtful, but he may pos- 
sibly have surrendered Skipton in return for 
these Welsh grants. Henry VII, as soon as 
he gained the throne, certainly restored 
Skipton to Lord Clifford, ' the shepherd lord.' 
At Ridley, a few miles north, under the 
shadow of the Peckforton Hills, Stanley 
built himself ' the fairest gentleman's house 
in al Chestreshyre ' (LELAND, v. 81, vol. vii. 
pt. i. p. 43). From here one September he 
wrote to his 'cousin' Piers Warburton of 
Arley, excusing himself from a promise to 
kill a buck in his park, ' beyng so besy with 
olde Dyk I can have no layf thereunto ' 
(ORMEROD, ii. 301). He did not hesitate 
to betray ' olde Dyk ' when the time came. 
Early in August 1485 Henry of Richmond 
crossed a corner of North Wales unmolested, 
and at Stafford Stanley, who had three thou- 
sand ' red coats ' with his livery of the hart's 
head not far away, came to an understand- 
ing with the invader. Henry had a further 
interview with him and his brother, Lord 
Stanley, at Atherstone two days before the 
decisive battle of Bosworth (POLYDORE VER- 
GIL, p. 224 ; GAIRDNER, p. 414). Though 
already denounced to Richard by his nephew, 
Lord Strange, and proclaimed a traitor at 
Coventry and elsewhere, Stanley would not 
unite his force with Richmond's, and on 
22 Aug. pitched his camp on Hanging Hill, 
between Bosworth and Shenton, some dis- 
tance from both the main bodies (HuTTOK, 
App. p. 245 ; cf. HALL, p. 414). Yet he 
can hardly have hoped to recover Richard's 
favour had the day gone against Henry, 
and it was when the king's desperate charge 
seemed to make this likely that Stanley 
brought his three thousand men into action 
and so decided the battle (ib. pp. 418-19). 
If his real object was to place Henry more 
clearly and deeply in his debt, it was cer- 
tainly attained. He became lord chamber- 

G 



Stanley 



Stanley 



lain and knight of the Garter, and was con- 
firmed in possession of his Welsh estates. 

Stanley's fall ten years after came no 
doubt as a surprise to most people, but 
Henry long before entertained suspicions 
of the man who had in turn betrayed Lan- 
caster and York (BREWER, Letters and 
Papers, iii. 490). It is a curious coinci- 
dence, if no more, that the informer who 
denounced him at the end of 1494 as an 
accomplice of Perkin Warbeck should have 
been Sir Robert Clifford, uncle of the young 
lord whose property at Skipton he had for a 
time usurped (DUGDALE, i. 342). How deeply 
he involved himself with Warbeck we do not 
know ; he must surely have done more than 
declare that ' if he knew certainly that the 
young man [Warbeck] was the undoubted 
heir of King Edward IV, he would never 
fight or bear armour against him.' On 6 Feb. 
1495 he was ' found guilty of treason by a 
quest of divers knights and worshipful 
gentlemen,' and on the 16th beheaded on 
Tower Hill (Cott. MS. Vitellius, A. xvi. 
152-3; FABYAH", p. 685; POLYDORE VERGIL ; 
HALL, p. 469; BUSCH, p. 95). The more 
cruel part of an execution for treason was 
dispensed with. Henry defrayed the cost 
of his burial at Sion (Excerpta Historica, 
pp. 101-2). It was afterwards believed 
that forty thousand marks in ready money, 
plate, and jewels were found in Holt Castle, 
and Bacon, in his ' Life of Henry VII,' esti- 
mates Stanley's income at three thousand a 
year. 

Stanley was at least twice married. In 
1465 he married Joan, daughter of the first 
Viscount Beaumont, and widow of John, 
lord Lovel (Rot. Parl. v. 582; Complete 
Peerage, v. 165). He subsequently (after 
1470) married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Hopton of Hopton, Shropshire, who had 
already survived two husbands, Sir Roger 
Corbet of Moreton-Corbet, Shropshire, and 
John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester [q.v.] (ib. 
vii. 402). The pedigrees following Sir Peter 
Leycester are in error respecting his mar- 
riage (cf. B. VINES, Hist, of Lancashire, iv. 10; 
OEMEKOD, i. 442). Stanley left three chil- 
dren a son and two daughters. The son, 
Sir William Stanley, married Joan, heiress 
of the Masseys of Tatton in Cheshire, and 
died in or about 1498 ; one daughter, Joan, 
married Sir John Warburton of Arley, and 
the other, Catherine, Thomas Cocat of Holt. 

A three-quarter-length portrait of Stanley 
in richly ornamented armour is preserved at 
Wentworth House, Yorkshire, and was en- 
graved in Baines's 'Lancashire' (iv. 19). 
He is represented with a thinnish face and 
short beard. 



[See Kot. Parl. ; Hall and Fabyan's Chro- 
nicles, ed. Ellis ; Polydore Vergil, Warkworth's 
Chronicle and Arrival of Edward IV (Camden 
Soc.) ; Bentley's Excerpta Historica, 1831 ; 
Stanley Papers (Chetham Soc.* vol. xxix.) ; 
Ormerod's Hist, of Cheshire, 1876 ; Dugdale's 
Baronage; Complete Peerage by G. E. C[okayne] ; 
Gairdner's Richard III ; Ramsay's Lancaster 
and York ; Busch's England under the Tudors, 
Engl. tr. ; other authorities in the text. Stanley 
is one of the heroes of the contemporary 'Song 
of Lady Bessy ' (Elizabeth of York) written by 
a Stanley retainer, Humphrey Brereton, and 
edited by Halliwell for the Percy Society in 
1847.] ' J. T-T. 

STANLEY, SIB WILLIAM (1548- 
1630), adventurer, was eldest son of Sir 
Rowland Stanley of Hooton and Storeton, 
Cheshire, the head of the senior branch of 
the house of Stanley. Sir Rowland for many 
years took a prominent place in his native 
county, of which he was sheriff in 1576 ; he 
died in 1612, aged 96, the oldest knight in 
England. William Stanley, born in 1548 r 
in all probability at Hooton, was brought up 
as a Roman catholic. At the age of twelve 
he was married to Ann Dutton, a bride of 
ten, but the union was dissolved in 1565 
(FuRXiVALL, Child Marriages in the Diocese 
of Chester, pp. 47-9). After this marriage 
the youth was sent to school with 'Dr. Stan- 
dish at Lathom,' whence he entered the 
'service' of his kinsman, Edward Stanley, 
third earl of Derby [q. v.] Soon afterwards 
he crossed to the Netherlands and embarked 
on his adventurous career. He took service 
as a volunteer under Alva, the Spanish gene- 
ral, in 1567. Stanley quitted the Spanish 
service about 1570, and joined Elizabeth's 
forces in Ireland, where he served for fifteen 
years (cf. Cal. HatfieldMSS. i. 567). In 1579, 
as one of Sir William Drury's captains in the 
campaign against the followers of the Earl 
of Desmond, he assisted in an inroad into 
Limerick, and for his gallantry was knighted 
by Drury at Waterford. He took part in the 
battle of Monasternenagh, and distinguished 
himself in the defence of Adare. In 1580 he 
was sent to England to enlist troops, which he 
led to Munster ; but he was speedily recalled 
by Lord-deputy Grey to assist in putting down 
the rebellion which had broken out in the 
Pale [see GREY, ARTHUR, fourteenth LORD 
GREY DE WILTON]. Through the greater part 
of 1581 he was engaged in Wicklow, doing 
great execution against the OTooles and the 
Kavanaghs. Stanley received a commission 
from Grey, 30 Aug. 1581, to follow the latter, 
and his ' courage and toilsome travail ' 
throughout the whole campaign won the 
highest commendation (ib. ii. 427). On the 



Stanley 



Stanley 



discharge of his troops at the end of the 

Esar, he repaired to England, and prayed 
urghley for fresh employment. At the 
beginning of 1583 he was sent back to Ire- 
land, where the Geraldines were again giving 
trouble. He was appointed by Ormonde to 
the command of a garrison at Lismore, and at 
the same time made constable of Castlemaine, 
which he intended ' to make a town of Eng- 
lish.' He took part in hunting down Desmond 
and Fitzgerald of Imokelly and in thoroughly 
subduing Munster. As a reward for his ser- 
vices he supplicated Burghley and Walsing- 
ham (15 March 1584) to make him president 
of Connaught. This request was refused ; but 
in August he was appointed sheriff of Cork, 
and the government of Munster was left in 
his hands during the absence of the president, 
Sir John Norris (1547 P-1597) [q. v.] In a 
letter to Walsingham he reported that he had 
hanged three hundred rebels, and so terrified 
the rest that ' a man might now travel the 
whole country and none molest him.' To- 
wards the end of the year he was sent north- 
ward with Bagenal by Lord-deputy Perrot to 
act against the Ulster chiefs and their allies, 
the Scottish highlanders [see PERROT, SIR 
JOHN]. In this campaign he showed his cus- 
tomary vigour, receiving some severe wounds, 
which invalided him several months. In 
October 1585 he returned to England. 

Stanley's service in Ireland had been long 
and brilliant. Though the war, as Burghley 
admitted, was a religious one, and Sir Wil- 
liam was a Roman catholic, he had served 
with fidelity. ' Qui singulari fide et forti- 
tudine in Hibernico bello meruerat ' is Cam- 
den's testimony (Annals, p. 471). But there 
can be no doubt that he left Ireland a dis- 
appointed man. In the partition of the 
great Desmond estates, which he had con- 
tributed to win, he had been passed over, 
while others, who had done little or nothing, 
received enormous grants. His resentment 
at his treatment, together with strong reli- 
gious feelings, explains his future treachery. 
In December 1585 Stanley accompanied 
Leicester in the expedition sent by Eliza- 
beth to the assistance of the united provinces 
against Spain. The need of more troops 
was speedily felt, and Sir William was des- 
patched to Ireland to levy recruits among 
the disbanded troops and native kernes. He 
raised about fourteen hundred men, the 
greater part of whom were Irish. While in 
England, on his way back to the Nether- 
lands, he was probably guilty of traitorous 
conduct. ' While in London he was in the 
confidence of the Jesuits. He knew part, if 
not the whole, of the Babington conspiracy. 
He corresponded with Mendoza, and con- 



trived to communicate with Lord Arundel 
in the Tower. When ordered to the Low 
Countries he made pretexts for delaying in 
London, in the hope that the queen might 
be killed, or that the Spanish fleet might 
arrive from Cadiz. When excuses would 
serve no longer and he was obliged to sail, 
he undertook to watch his moment, and, 
when he could do most injury, revolt with 
his regiment to Parma ' (FROUDE, Hist, of 
EngL chap. 68; cf. Cal. Simancas MSS. iii. 
604, 607). 

Stanley's forces joined Leicester on 12 Aug. 
1586, and in September he assisted Sir 
John Norris in taking possession of Does- 
borg, where his men ' committed frightful 
disorders and thoroughly rifled the town ' 
(Norris to Wilkes in MOTLEY, United Nether- 
lands, ii. 44). At the action by Zutphen on 
22 Sept., in which Philip Sidney received 
his death wound, Stanley displayed great 
prowess, and was declared by Leicester to be 
worth his weight in pearl. He assisted at the 
capture of the Zutphen sconce, which was 
committed by Leicester to the charge of Sir 
Rowland York [q. v.] In October Sir William 
Pelham [q. v.] and Stanley took possession of 
the important city of Deventer, deposed the 
magistracy, which inclined to the Spanish 
side, and installed a patriotic body in its place. 
In spite of the remonstrances of the States- 
General (ib. ii. 155-8), Stanley was appointed 
governor of the city, with a garrison of twelve 
hundred men, mostly Irish catholics ; and, to 
give him additional authority, he was com- 
missioned by Leicester to act independently 
of Norris (his bitter enemy), who, on the earl's 
departure to England, held the chief com- 
mand. Stanley saw that his opportunity was 
come. Having acquired a full mastery of the 
city and made all the necessary arrangements, 
he put himself into communication, by means 
of his fellow-traitor York, with Tassis, the 
Spanish governor of Zutphen. To him he 
surrendered the place on '29 Jan. 1587. The 
garrison, with a few exceptions, entered the 
Spanish service (ib. ii. 159-64, 169-77). 

From his new master Stanley received but 
slight rewards for his action, nor does he 
appear to have sought them. Parma de- 
clared his conduct to have been ' singularly 
disinterested.' There can be no doubt that at 
this period of his life he was almost entirely 
under the influence of the Jesuits, of which 
order his brother John was a member. His 
conduct was loudly applauded by his Jesuit 
friends. The society urged his claims for 
reward and countenance on the pope, Philip, 
and Parma, while Cardinal Allen published 
a letter at Antwerp in which he laboured 
to justify the treason. Almost at the moment 



Stanley 



8 4 



Stanley 



of the surrender of Deventer, Elizabeth had 
it in contemplation to reward Stanley's ser- 
vices by honours and titles, and by appoint- 
ing him viceroy of Ireland (cf. Acts P. C. 
1586-7, p. 62). 

Soon after leaving Deventer, Stanley, upon 
whose head the States-General had put a 
price of three thousand florins, proceeded to 
Spain to advise on the proposed invasion of 
England. He recommended that Ireland 
should be made the basis of operations, and 
that the troops should disembark at Milford 
Haven rather than at Portsmouth. Sir Wil- 
liam was disappointed at his reception and 
entertainment, ' which was far colder than 
he expected ; ' but the Spanish government 
awarded him a pension (Cal. Hatfield MSS. 
ii. 335). Returning to the Netherlands, he 
was at Nieuwpoort in July 1588, at the head 
of seven hundred men, called the English 
legion, ready to join the armada. But on the 
overthrow of that expedition he withdrew to 
Antwerp. In 1590 he was again at Madrid, 
urging a design for the invasion of England, 
inspecting the seaports, and perhaps taking 
part in the preparations to resist Drake. 
He was now thoroughly identified with the 
Jesuits and their adherents (cf. Sadler Papers, 
ii. 509), and eager to embark in any scheme 
against Elizabeth. He paid a visit to Rome 
in 1591 to consult with Allen and other 
enemies of the queen. In the event of her 
death he urged that the Lady Arabella Stuart 
or Lord Strange [see STANLEY, FERDINANDO, 
fifth EARL OP DERBY] should be recognised 
as her successor. While keeping his regiment 
in the Netherlands, Stanley made almost 
yearly journeys to Spain. In 1595 he was 
described as half desperate, and was reproved 
by a Spanish governor for his violent lan- 
guage against the queen. In 1596 he took part 
in the invasion of France by the Spaniards, 
and appears to have been in Amiens at its 
recapture by the French in 1597. In 1598 
he engaged in the attempt to raise the siege 
of Geldern, besieged by Maurice of Nassau, 
and in 1600 he was with the Spaniards when 
that prince defeated them at Nieuwpoort. 

On Elizabeth's death Stanley, who had 
previously sent Thomas AVright to Madrid, 
now despatched his subaltern officer, Guy 
Fawkes, with an emissary of Catesby, to warn 
Philip against James, and again to recom- 
mend Milford Haven for disembarkation of 
a Spanish army. Soon afterwards Sir Wil- 
liam appears to have been negotiating with 
the English government for his own pardon. 
There is no evidence to connect him with 
complicity in the gunpowder plot, though he, 
together with Hugh Owen and Baldwin, was 
placed under arrest at Brussels on suspicion 



of having been concerned in it. Cecil, how- 
ever (30 Jan. 1606), altogether exonerated 
him from the charge. 

The remainder of Stanley's life was spent 
in comparative obscurity. He took a great 
interest in the establishment of a Jesuit 
novitiate at Liege in 1614, and contributed 
largely to it. He appears to have been ap- 
pointed governor of Mechlin. James Wads- 
worth, the author of ' The English Spanish 
Pilgrim,' met him at Madrid in 1624, when 
he complained of being compelled at his ad- 
vanced age to go to seek the pension which 
had not been paid him for six years. He 
quarrelled with the Jesuits, and spent much 
of his time latterly with the English Car- 
thusians near Ostend, having sought in vain 
for permission to return to England. He 
died at Ghent on 3 March 1630, and was 
honoured with a magnificent public funeral 
in the church of Our Lady over the Dyle at 
Mechlin. By his wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Egerton of Egerton, who was buried 
in Mechlin Cathedral in 1614, Stanley left 
two sons and three daughters. His grandson 
William succeeded to the family estates, and 
his son, of the same name, was created a 
baronet in 1661. The male line of the 
Stanleys of Hooton became extinct by the 
death of the twelfth baronet, Sir John Stanley- 
Errington, in 1893. 

[Ormerod's Cheshire ; Meteren's Historia 
Belgica ; Strada's De Bello Belsrico ; Cal. Papers 
preserved at Simancas, vol. iii. ; Whitney's Choice 
of Emblems ; Murdin's Burghley Papers ; Acts 
of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, vols. xii-xiv. ; 
Cal. Hatfield MSS. vols. i-vi. ; Motley's United 
Netherlands, vol. ii. ; Leycester Correspondence 
(Camden Soc.) ; Irish State Papers ; Hard~wick 
StatePapers; Cabala; Stow's Chronicle ; Allen's 
Defence of Stanley, ed. Heywood ; Tierney's 
Dodd ; Strype's Annals ; Winwood's Memorials ; 
information supplied by AV. H. J. Weale and by 
the Eev. Ethelred L. Taunton.] F. S. 

STANLEY, WILLIAM, D.D. (1647- 
1731), dean of St. Asaph, son of William 
Stanley, gentleman, of Hinckley, Leicester- 
shire, by his wife Lucy, daughter of William 
Beveridge, D.D., vicar of Barrow-upon-Soar, 
and sister to Bishop William Beveridge 
[q. v.], was born at Hinckley in 1647, and 
baptised there on 22 Aug. the same year. 
He was educated in a school kept at Ashley, 
Lancashire, by Jeremy Crompton, and was 
on 4 July 1663 admitted a sizar of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1666 (MAYOR, Admissions to St. 
John's College, i. 160). He was elected a 
fellow of Corpus Christi College in 1669, and 
commenced M.A. in 1670. After being or- 
dained priest in 1672, he became a uni- 



Stanley 






versity preacher in 1676, and graduated B.D. 
in 1678. He became curate of Hadham 
Magna, Hertfordshire, and chaplain to the 
Earl of Essex, who presented him to the 
rectory of Ilaine Parva, Essex, on 20 Oct. 
1681. This he voided by cession for the rec- 
tory of St. Mary Magdalen in Old Fish Street, 
London. He was preferred to the prebend 
of Codington Major in the church of St. 
Paul, 18 Sept. 1684. At this time he was 
engaged in a scheme for printing an edition 
of the English bible, with a plain practical 
and protestant commentary, the portion 
assigned to him being the minor prophets ; 
but the design was eventually abandoned. 

He was appointed chaplain to the Princess 
of Orange on the dismissal of Dr. John Covel 
[q. v.] in 1685, and before he proceeded to 
Holland the archbishop of Canterbury con- 
ferred upon him the Lambeth degree of 
D.D., 12 Nov. 1685 (Gent. Mag. May 1864, 
p. 636). As soon as Mary was seated upon 
the throne of England, he was advanced 
to the post of clerk of the closet with a 
salary of 200/. a year settled upon him for 
life. In 1689 he became canon residen- 
tiary of St. Paul's; on 13 Aug. 1690 he 
was collated by Bishop Compton to the 
rectory of Hadham Magna ; and on 5 March 
1691-2 he was appointed archdeacon of 
London. The natural tone of his voice was 
so loud that when taking part in the cathe- 
dral services he was heard above all the other 
singers. A humorous account was given of 
him by Sir Richard Steele in the ' Tatler/ 
tinder the name and character of Stentor. 
He was unanimously chosen master of Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, 13 July 1693, in 
succession to Dr. John Spencer [q. v.], and 
served the office of vice-chancellor of the uni- 
versity in the same year. On 18 Jan. 1694 
he was created D.D. at Cambridge. He 
resigned the mastership in 1698, and he ac- 
cepted the deanery of St. Asaph on 7 Dec. 
1706, at the request of Bishop Beveridge. 
He defrayed the whole cost of procuring the 
act of parliament which annexed prebends 
and sinecures to the four Welsh sees in order 
to relieve the widows and children of the 
Welsh clergy from the distress of paying 
mortuaries to the bishops upon the death of 
every incumbent. He died on 9 Oct. 1731, 
and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.^. 

He married Mary, second daughter of Sir 
Francis Pemberton [q. v.], lord chief justice 
of England, and had three sons Thomas, 
William, and Francis. His widow died on 
28 April 1758, aged 85 (CLTJTTERBUCK, Hert- 
fordshire, iii. 403). 

Besides some occasional sermons, Stanley 
published : 1. 'A Discourse concerning the 

Stanley, William, xviii. 972/7, 1. 9 from 
>t. After ' Cathedral.' add * A portrait 



5 Stannard 

Devotions of the Church of Rome, especially 
as compared with those of the Church of Eng- 
land ' (anon.), London, 1685, 4to ; reprinted 
in Gibson's 'Preservative against Popery' 
(1738), vol. ii., and in Cardwell's ' Enchiridion 
Theologicum ' (1837), vol. iii. 2. ' The 
Faith and Practice of a Church of England- 
Man' (anon.), London (3 editions), 1688, 
12mo; 1700, 12mo ; 1702, 8vo; 1707, 12mo ; 
Boston, U.S. 1815, 12mo ; 1841, 12mo ; 1848, 
8vo ; reprinted in the ' Churchman's Re- 
membrancer ' (1807), vol. ii. and in ' Trac- 
tarianism no Novelty,' 1854. 3. ' Catalogus 
Librorum Manuscriptorum in Bibliotheca 
Collegii Corporis Christi in Cantabrigia, 
quos legavit Matthaeus Parkerus Archi- 
episcopus Cantuariensis,' London, 1722, fol. 
[Addit. MSS. 5807 p. 40, 5880 f. 27; 
Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, iii. 402 ; Graduati 
Cantabr. ; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 
iii. 368 n.; Gutch's Collect. Curiosa (1781), 
vol. i. p. Ixiv, contents, pp. x, xi, 299, 300, 302 ; 
Jones's Popery Tracts, i. 11, ii. 327; Masters's 
Hist, of C.C.C.C. p. 171, and Lambs edit. p. 
202 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 243 ; Nichols's 
Leicestershire, iv. 742-4 ; Richardson's manu- 
script Athense Cantabr. p. 318 ; Salmon's Hert- 
fordshire, p. 279 ; Memoirs of Dr. Stukeley 
(Surtees Soc.), i. 60; Willis's Survey of Cathe- 
drals.] T. C. 

STANNARD, JOSEPH (1797-1830), 
painter, was born at Norwich on 13 Sept. 
1797. He was for a short time a pupil of 
Robert Ladbrooke [q. v.], and became an 
eminent member of the Norwich school. He 
painted chiefly river and coast scenes and 
shipping with much of the feeling of the 
Dutch artists, whose works he studied and 
copied during a visit to Holland in 1821. 
Stannard first exhibited with the Norwich 
Society in 1811, and he was one of the mem- 
bers who seceded from it in 1816 ; he contri- 
buted to the Royal Academy and British 
Institution between 1820 and 1829. His 
best known picture is the ' Water Frolic at 
Thorpe/ now in the Norwich Castle museum. 
He practised etching, and published a set of 
plates of Norfolk scenery. He had always 
delicate health, and died at Norwich on 
7 Dec. 1830. A portrait of him, painted by 
George Clint, is in the Norwich Museum, and 
another, by Sir W. Beechey, belongs to Mr. 
J. J. Colman. Stannard married Emily 
Coppin, an excellent painter of fruit, flowers, 
and still-life, for works of which class she 
received three gold medals from the Society 
of Arts; she died at Norwich on 6 Jan. 1885, 
at the age of eighty-two. 

ALFRED STANNARD (1806-1889), younger 
brother of Joseph, painted landscapes in the 
style characteristic of the Norwich school. 



Stannus 



86 



Stanwix 



A ' River Scene with Mill ' by him is in the 
Norwich Museum. He died in 1889. He had 
a son, Alfred George, who painted landscapes, 
and died in 1885; and a daughter, who was 
a painter of fruit and flowers. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Catalogue of the 
Norwich Castle Museum ; Wodderspoon's John 
Crome and his Works; Norfolk Chronicle, 1830 
and 1885 ; information from Mr. James Keeve.] 

F. M. O'D. 

STANNUS, SiKEPHRAIM GERRISH 
(1784-1850), major-general, born in 1784, 
was second son of Ephraim Stannus of 
Comus, co. Tyrone, by Susannah, daughter 
of Joseph Gerrish of Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
He went out to India as a cadet in 1799, 
was commissioned as an ensign in the Bom- 
bay army on 6 March 1800, became lieu- 
tenant on 26 May, and was appointed to the 
European regiment (now 2nd battalion royal 
Dublin fusiliers) in 1803. He served in the 
Kathiawar campaign in 1807, and became 
captain on 6 July 1811. 

He distinguished himself in the Pindari 
war of 1817-18, was promoted major on 
8 Oct. 1818, and was private secretary to 
Mountstuart Elphinstone while governor 
of Madras (1819-27). He was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 9th native infantry on 
31 Oct. 1822, C.B. on 23 July 1823, and 
colonel of the 10th native infantry on 5 June 
1829. From 1823 to 1826 he was first 
British resident in the Persian Gulf. From 
this he was transferred to the 2nd European 
regiment (now 2nd battalion Durham light 
infantry). On 13 March 1834 he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of the East India 
College, Addiscombe, and he was knighted 
in 1837. He was promoted major-general 
(local) on 28 June 1838. Though just and 
kindly, he was no administrator, and was 
systematically irritated by the cadets into 
extraordinary explosions of wrath and violent 
language. During the latter years of his 
rule at Addiscombe the discipline seems to 
have got very slack (cf. ' Addiscombe ' in 
Blackwood's Mag.^i&j 1893); he remained 
there until his death on 21 Oct. 1850. On 
16 Oct. 1829 he married Mary Louisa, widow 
of James Gordon. He had no children. 

[Gent. Mag. 1850, ii. 659; Vibart's Addis- 
combe, 1894, chap. iv. (with portrait) ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry ; Royal Engineers' Journal, 
January 1893.] E. M. L. 

STANWIX, JOHN (1690 P-1766), lieu- 
tenant-general, born about 1690, was nephew 
and heir to Brigadier-general Thomas Stan- 
wix. Thomas Stanwix was a captain in 
Colonel Tidcomb's foot in 1693, served in 
Flanders under Marlborough, and in Spain, 



and was appointed governor of Gibraltar on 
13 Jan. 1711. He was colonel of the 12th 
foot from 25 Aug. 1717 until his death ; he 
was also governor of Kingston-upon-Hull, 
and sat in parliament as member for Car- 
lisle from 1705 to 1715 ; for Newport, Isle 
of Wight, in 1721 ; and for Yarmouth, Isle 
of Wight, in 1722 ; he died on 14 March 
1724-5. 

The nephew, John, entered the army in 
1706, became adjutant of his regiment, and 
captain of the grenadier company, and in 
January 1741 he was given a majority in one 
of the new marine regiments. On 4 Oct. 
1745 he was made lieutenant-colonel of a 
regiment raised by Lord Granby on account 
of the Jacobite insurrection, and disbanded 
in 1746. In 1749 he was appointed equerry 
to the Prince of Wales, in 1752 governor of 
Carlisle (for which city he had been elected 
M.P. in December 1746), and in 1754 deputy 
quartermaster-general. 

At the beginning of 1756, in consequence 
of Braddock's defeat, the royal American regi- 
ment (62nd foot, afterwards 60th, and now 
the king's royal rifle corps) was raised, and 
Stanwix was made colonel-commandant of 
the 1st battalion from 1 Jan. and was sent 
to America. In 1757 he was employed in 
Pennsylvania. In January 1758 he was 
made brigadier, and was sent up the Hudson 
to Albany, and thence to Oneida portage, 
where he built Fort Stanwix. A plan of this 
fort is given in vol. iv. of the ' Documentary 
History of New York.' In 1759, while 
Wolfe was taking Quebec, Stanwix waa 
guarding the western border of Penn- 
sylvania, and repairing Fort Duquesne, re- 
named Pittsburg. He was promoted major- 
general on 25 June 1759. 

He returned to England in August 1760. 
On 19 Jan. 1761 he became lieutenant- 
general, and on 14 Dec. he was made colonel 
of the 49th foot, from which he was trans- 
ferred on 11 April 1764 to the 8th foot. 
He was appointed governor of the Isle of 
Wight in May 1763. His first wife having 
died in 1754, Stanwix married, on 20 April 
1763, a daughter of Marmaduke Sowle, com- 
missioner of appeals in the excise in Dublin, 
but had no children by her. On 29 Oct. 1766, 
after making some military inspections in 
Ireland, he left Dublin for Holyhead with 
his wife and daughter. The vessel, the 
Eagle, was leaky when she started, and was 
lost at sea. He was on his way to London 
to attend parliament, having been elected 
M.P. for Appleby on 8 April 1761. 

[Dalton's English Army Lists, iii. 195 ; Hist. 
Reg. 1725 (Chron. Diary), p. 13; Beatson's 
Political Index, ii. 212; Gent. Mag. 1767, p. 



Stanwix * 

16-1 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Bio- 
graphy ; Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe ; Wal- 
lace's Chronicle and Hist, of the 60th or King's 
Eoyal Kifle Corps.] E. M. L. 

STANWIX, RICHARD (1608-1656), 
divine, born in 1608, was son of James Stan- 
wix of Carlisle, who was fourth son of James 
Stanwix, head of an ancient family which 
had their origin at Stanwix, near Carlisle. 
Richard was educated at the free school in 
Carlisle under Thomas Robson, formerly of 
Queen's College, Oxford. He was admitted 
a servitor of the college under the tuition of 
Charles Robson [q. v.], son of his old school- 
master, and matriculated on 21 Nov. 1628, 
according to Foster. He afterwards became 
a tabarder, graduating B.A. on 12 May 1629, 
and proceeding M.A. on 24 Jan. 1631-2. 
He was made a fellow about the same time, 
and on 4 July 1639 obtained the degree of 
B.D. In 1640 he was incorporated at Cam- 
bridge. Entering into holy orders, he was 
appointed chaplain to the lord keeper, Tho- 
mas Coventry [q. v.], through the recom- 
mendation of the provost, Christopher Potter 
q.v.],and, after Coventry's death, to his suc- 
cessor, Sir John Finch, baron Finch of Ford- 
wich [q. v.] When Finch was impeached by 
the Long parliament in 1640, and took refuge 
in Holland, Stanwix returned to Oxford, and 
was appointed rector of Chipping Warden, 
Northamptonshire, in 1643, by Sir Richard 
Saltonstall, of Queen's College. He remained 
undisturbed in his living during the Com- 
monwealth, and died at Chipping Warden 
on 8 April 1656. 

He was the author of ' A Holy Life here 
the only Way to Eternal Life hereafter. 
Wherein this truth is especially asserted, 
that a Holy Life, or the Habitual Observing 
of the Laws of Christ, is indispensably ne- 
cessary to Salvation,' London, 1652, 8vo. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 427 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Bridges's 
Northamptonshire, ed. Whalley, i. 116 ; Foster's 
Visitations of Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
p. 128.] . I. C. 

STANYAN, ABRAHAM (1669 P-1732), 
diplomatist, elder son of Laurence Stanyan 
of Headley, Middlesex, was born about 1669, 
and entered as a student of the Middle 
Temple in 1690. He is to be distinguished 
from the Abraham Stanyan (probably a 
cousin) who was admitted from Winchester 
as a scholar of New College, Oxford, on 
14 July 1691, and who died of smallpox 
when a fellow of New College in 1696. 
Stanyan's ability met with early recognition, 
and in 1698 he was offered the post of secre- 
tary to Sir William Norris [q. v.], who was 



r Stanyan 

despatched in that year as king's commis- 
sioner to obtain certain privileges from the 
Mogul emperor, Aurangzib. After much 
hesitation he declined the offer, and his re- 
fusal was justified in the following year, 
when he was appointed one of the clerks to 
the council extraordinary. Some four years 
later, on 6 Jan. 1702, he was appointed 
secretary to the Earl of Manchester at 
Paris, a post which had been recently held 
by Matthew Prior. He cannot have re- 
mained there long, as the war broke out 
almost immediately; but he was despatched 
on 8 May 1705, in the place of 'Mr. 
Aglionby,' as envoy to the Swiss cantons, 
taking with him bills of exchange upon the 
bankers of Genoa for the allied forces in 
Italy. His instructions were also to detect 
and neutralise the artifices of the French 
minister at Geneva, and to endeavour to 
obtain a free passage for the allied troops 
through the Swiss mountain passes. With 
these objects he caused to be published in 
1707, ' MSmoire de M. de Stanian, envoy6 
extraordinaire de S. M. la Reine dela Grande 
Bretagne vers les Louables Cantons R6- 
formes, presente 25 Juillet.' Another 
' M6moire ' printed by Stanyan about the 
same time had an object of more imme- 
diate importance. On 16 June 1607 died at 
Paris the Duchesse de Nemours, princess 
of Neufchatel and Valangin. No less than 
thirteen competitors laid claim to the prin- 
cipality, to rescue which from French in- 
fluence became a paramount object with the 
allies. Stanyan at once hastened to Neuf- 
chatel, and, joining his influence to that of 
the Dutch envoy (Runkel), succeeded in ob- 
taining the investiture for the king of Prus- 
sia. Louis XIV moved a large force up to 
the frontier as if with the purpose of in- 
vading the territory, but Stanyan's vigilance 
obtained from the sovereign council at Berne 
a prompt resolution to defend the princi- 
pality with all their forces, ' whereupon the 
French thought it advisable to lie quiet 
under their disappointment ' (BoYER, pp. 
30G-7 ; State Papers, Dutch, in Add. MS. 
5132). In 1708 he found it necessary to 
issue a letter contradicting a rumour which 
had been circulated by Louis to the effect 
that in North Britain the natives were ready 
to sacrifice everything for ' James VIII.' 
Stanyan returned home in February 1709, 
but was soon back again in Switzerland, and 
was in February 1710 entrusted with a secret 
mission to Piedmont. During the summer 
of 1712 he was very busy at Milan endea- 
vouring to adjust the differences between the 
emperor and the Duke of Savoy, and to ob- 
tain the adherence of both to the proposed 






Stanyan 



88 



Stanyhurst 



terms of the treaty of Utrecht, upon the con- 
clusion of which in the following year 
Stanyan returned to England (cf. Stowe MS. 
246, ff. 25-8). He now compiled his brochure 
entitled 'An Account of Switzerland written 
in the year 1714,' destined to enlighten the 
profound darkness which he found prevailing 
as to the constitution, religion, and manners 
of the federated cantons (the original edi- 
tion, London, 1714, 8vo, with a dedication 
to Somers, is extremely rare ; it bears no 
name, and the copy at the Bodleian Library 
is wrongly attributed to Temple Stanyan ; 
2nd ed. 1756 ; in French, Amsterdam, 1714 
and 1757, 8vo ; and translated by Besset de 
la Chapelle, Fribourg and Paris, 1766, 12mo. 
A paraphrase entitled ' L'Etat de la Suisse ' 
was added, as a supplementary dissertation, 
to the second and later editions of Ruchat's 
well-known ' Delices de la Suisse ' (ed. 1730, 
vol. ii.) Stanyan's book was used by William 
Coxe in his ' Sketches of the Natural, Civil, 
and Political State of Swisserland ' (1779). 
It was commended by Lord Chesterfield to 
his son (Letters, ed. Mahon, i. 68). The 
Swiss bibliographer G. E. von Haller de- 
scribes its information as astonishingly accu- 
rate (Bibliothek der Schweizer-Geschichte, 
1785). 

After the accession of George I, Stanyan 
was on 16 July 1716 appointed envoy extra- 
ordinary to the emperor. To enable him to 
support his diplomatic expenses he was 
added to the admiralty board, and held office 
there until April 1717. He had been re- 
turned to parliament for Buckingham in 
1715, and on his return from Vienna he 
was in November 1717 appointed one of the 
clerks in ordinary to the privy council, a 
post which he resigned in 1719 upon his 
appointment as ambassador extraordinary to 
the Porte. At Constantinople he succeeded 
Edward Wortley Montagu [see MONTAGU, 
LADY MARY WORTLEY]. He seems to have 
returned to England early in 1720, when he 
was succeeded by Sir Everard Fawkener [q. v.], 
and was soon appointed to one of the clerk- 
ships in the privy seal office. Though a whig 
of old standing and a member of the Kit-Cat 
Club, Stanyan was on friendly terms with 
Pope and his circle. He was a subscriber 
to Pope's ' Iliad,' and when he went out to 
Vienna in the autumn of 1716 he bore a 
letter from the poet to Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu. He died at his seat near Buck- 
ingham on 11 Sept. 1732. The fine Kit-Cat 
by Kneller was engraved by Faber in 1733 
and by Cook in 1786 (prefixed to vol. v. of 
the ' Tatter,' ed. Nichols). 

Abraham's younger brother, TEMPLE STAN- 
YAN (d. 1752), entered Westminster School 



as a queen's scholar in 1691, and was elected 
in 1695 to Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
matriculated on 18 June, aged eighteen, 
but, like his brother, he does not appear to 
have taken a degree. He was appointed 
secretary under Viscount Townshend 'in 
the room of Horace Walpole, esq.,' on 
15 Oct. 1715, and continued in his under- 
secretaryship by Addison on 20 April 1717. 
On 5 Feb. 1719 he was appointed clerk in 
ordinary to the privy council in the room of 
his brother (Hist. Reg. Chronol. Diary, p. 8). 
Numerous diplomatic letters addressed to- 
him from Paris during the embassy of Sir 
Luke Schaub [q. v.] are in Add. MS. 22521 
passim. He was a good scholar, and in 1735 
wrote the Latin inscriptions for the statue 
of George II at Greenwich Hospital (LysoNS, 
Environs, iv. 441) ; but he is best known for 
' The Grecian History ' down to the death of 
Philip of Macedon (London, 1739, 2 vols. 
8vo ; several editions, and a French trans- 
lation by Diderot, Paris, 1743, 3 vols. 12mo)^ 
a compilation which held the field for edu- 
cational purposes until the appearance of 
the much larger history by William Mitford 
the younger [q. v.] Temple Stanyan died at 
his seat of Rawlins, Oxfordshire, on 25 March 
1752. He married as his second wife, on. 
28 April 1726, a ' Mrs. Pauncefort.' He left 
an only daughter Catherine (she died on, 
19 Feb. 1801, aged 75), who married Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Hardy the younger [q. v.] 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 (the two 
Abraham Stanyans are here confused) ; note 
from the Warden of New College, Oxford ; Gent. 
Mag. 1732 p. 979, 1752 p. 144; Hist. E.eg. 
1732, Chronol. Diary, p. 37; Welch's Alumni 
Westmon. p. 229 ; Luttrell's Brief Hist. Eela- 
tion, iv. 454, 518, 524; Boyer's Queen Anne, 
1735, pp. 179, 306, 336, 400, 602; Add. MSS. 
31130, 31134 (letters to Lord Eaby, 1700- 
1706); Memoirs of Celebrated Persons com- 
posing the Kit-Cat Club, 1821, p. 207; Marl- 
borough's Despatches, ed. Murray, vol. iv. ; 
Noble's Contin. of Granger, iii. 180-1 ; Lady 
M. W. Montagu's Works ; Coolidge's Swiss 
Travel and Guide Books, 1889, pp. 169-71 ; 
Pope's Works, ed. Elwin, iv. 488, ix. 357, 364 ; 
Querard's France Litteraire, ix. 256 ; Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. TO!, i. passim ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. i. 299.] T. S. 

STANYHURST, RICHARD (1547- 
1618), translator of Virgil, was born in 
Dublin in 1547. From the fourteenth to the 
eighteenth century his family was settled 
at Corduff, co. Dublin. In 1489 one Richard 
Stanyhurst was lord mayor of Dublin. 
Nicholas Stanyhurst (d. 1554), the trans- 
lator's grandfather, held the same office in 
1542 ; he was interested in medicine, wrote 



Stanyhurst 



8 9 



Stanyhurst 



in Latin ' Dieta Medicorum, lib. i.,' and was 
reputed ' a great and good householder.' 

JAMES STAKI-HTJKST (d. 1573), the trans- 
lator's father, long held a prominent position 
in Dublin. He was recorder of the city and 
speaker of the Irish House of Commons in 
the parliaments of 1557, 1560, and 1568. At 
the opening of each session he delivered an 
oration. Although he presided over a par- 
liament in Queen Mary's reign, he proved 
himself a zealous supporter of protestantism 
under Elizabeth, and contrived to secure the 
passing through the house of the statute of 
uniformity in 1560, by putting the question 
when its chief opponents were absent from 
the chamber. In 1570 he recommended to 
parliament, in a speech which he delivered 
at the prorogation, a system of national edu- 
cation for Ireland, proposing the establish- 
ment of grammar schools throughout the 
country. At the same time he suggested the 
formation of a university at Dublin such as 
was inaugurated a few years later. The 
speech is said to have been printed. Stany- 
hurst's educational policy was not accepted 
by the government, although Sir Henry Sid- 
ney, with whom he was on intimate terms, 
strongly supported it. Edmund Campion 
[q. v.] was also a close friend, and often en- 
joyed his hospitality. From the elder Stany- 
hurst's conversation, and from his collection 
of books and manuscripts, Campion acknow- 
ledged much assistance in writing his history 
of Ireland. His son Richard, while crediting 
his father with an exact knowledge of the 
common law, described him as ' a good orator 
and proper divine,' and attributed to him, 
besides parliamentary ' orations,' a series of 
' Pise orationes' and several letters to Thomas 
O'Heirnan or O'Hiffernan, dean of Cork. 
James Stanyhurst died at Dublin on 27 Dec. 
1573, aged 51. A Latin elegy by his son 
Richard was printed in the latter's description 
of Ireland, as well as in the appendix to his 
translation of Virgil. Besides Richard, James 
Stanyhurst left another son, Walter, who 
translated into English ' Innocent, de Con- 
temptu Mundi.' A daughter Margaret mar- 
ried Arnold Ussher, one of the six clerks of 
the Irish court of chancery, and was mother 
of Archbishop James Ussher [q. v.] The 
latter was thus Richard Stanyhurst's nephew 
(cf. Stanyhurst's 'Description of Ireland' in 
"IOLINSHED'S Chronicles, 1577, cap. vii. p. 27 ; 
W. B. WRIGHT, The Ussher Memoirs, 1889). 

Richard was first educated under Peter 
White, who kept a school at Waterford, and 
proceeded in 1563 to University College, Ox- 
ford. He was admitted B. A. in 1568. While 
an undergraduate he came to know Edmund 
Campion. He gave notable proofs of his 



precocity by writing Latin commentaries on 
Porphyry which amazed Campion by their 
learning. They were published in 1570 a& 
' Harmonia sive Catena Dialectica in For- 
phyrianas Constitutiones.' After graduating, 
Stanyhurst studied law first at Furnivall's 
Inn, and afterwards at Lincoln's Inn. But 
history and literature diverted his atten- 
tion, and, accompanied by Campion as his 
tutor, he returned to Ireland, where the 
combined influence of his father and of Cam- 
pion led him to devote himself to Irish his- 
tory and geography. Campion had under- 
taken to contribute the history of Ireland 
to the great collection of chronicles which 
Raphael Holinshed was preparing between 
1573 and 1577. Under Campion's guidance, 
Stanyhurst contributed to the same work 
a general description of Ireland, after the 
manner of Harrison's ' Description of Eng- 
land.' For Holinshed's undertaking Stany- 
hurst also compiled a history of Ireland 
during Henry VIII's reign, in continuation 
of Campion's work on earlier periods. Stany- 
hurst's ' Description of Ireland,' and his share 
in the ' History of Ireland ' forming the third 
book, both appeared in the first volume of 
Holinshed's Chronicles,' 1577. The 'De- 
scription 'was dedicated to Sir Henry Sidney, 
the lord deputy, his father's friend. Stany- 
hurst's English prose is remarkable for its 
bombastic redundancy and unintentional 
burlesque effects. 

Meanwhile Stanyhurst had married, and 
had removed to Knightsbridge. His wife, 
Janet, daughter of Sir Christopher Barne- 
wall, died there in childbed on 26 Aug. 1579, 
aged 19. She was buried at Chelsea. A 
Latin elegy on her by Stanyhurst is ap- 
pended to his translation of Virgil. After his 
wife's death Stanyhurst left England for the 
Low Countries, and he never returned to 
England or his native country. There can 
be little doubt that under Campion's influence 
his religious views had undergone a change. 
Although the date of his con version to Roman 
Catholicism is undetermined, it probably took 
place soon after he arrived on the continent. 
At first he resided at Ley den, and there he 
worked at a translation of Virgil's ' yEneid ' 
into English. It was originally published 
at Leyden in 1582, with the title ' The first 
foure Bookes of Virgil his ^Eneis, intoo 
English Heroicall Verse, by Richard Stany- 
hurst. Wyth oother Poeticall deuisestheretoo 
annexed. Imprinted at Leiden in Holland 
by John Pates, Anno MDLXXXII.' Only two 
copies of the Leyden edition are known. 
One is the property of Mr. Christy Miller 
at Britwell, the other belonged to the Earl of 
Ashburnham. Both are slightly imperfect. 



Stanyhurst g 

The work was dedicated from Leyden on 
30 June 1582 to Stanyhurst's brother-in-law, 
Patrick Plunket, lord Dunsany, who had 
married a sister of his late wife. In the 
dedication he warmly deprecates the sus- 
picion that he had plagiarised the work of 
Thomas Phaer [q. v.], whose translation of 
nine books of the '^Eneid' appeared in 1562. 
The first three books, he affirms, he compiled 
at his leisure; the fourth he 'huddled up' 
in ten days. In an address to the learned 
reader he developed that theory of English 
prosody of which Gabriel Harvey was the 
champion, maintaining that quantity rather 
than accent ought to be the guiding prin- 
ciple of English as of Latin metre. Stany- 
hurst rendered 'Virgil' into hexameters by 
way of proving that position. The result 
was a literary monstrosity. The Latin was 
recklessly paraphrased in a grotesquely pro- 
saic vocabulary, which abounded in barely 
intelligible words invented by the trans- 
lator to meet metrical exigencies. Frequent 
inversions of phrase heightened the ludicrous 
effect. Gabriel Harvey, who proudly boasted 
that he was the inventor of the English hexa- 
meter, wrote of Stanyhurst as a worthy dis- 
ciple ( Four Letters, 1592, pp. 19, 48). But, 
at the hands of all other critics of his own 
and later days, Stanyhurst has been de- 
servedly ridiculed. In his preface to Greene's 
'Arcadia' (1589), Nash justly parodied his 
effort when he wrote of him : 

Then did he make heaven's vault to rebound 

with rounce, robble, bobble, 
Of ruff, raffe, roaring, with thwicke, thwack, 

thurlerie, bouncing. 

Subsequently Nash wrote : ' Master Stany- 
hurst (though otherwise learned) trod a foule, 
lumbring, boystrous, wallowing measure in 
his translation of " Virgil." He had never 
been praised by Gabriel for his labour if 
therein he had not bin so famously absurd' 
(NASH, Pierce Pennilesse, 1593). The transla- 
tion could ' hardly be digested' by Putten- 
ham. Bishop Hall was equally contemptuous. 
More recently Southey, in ' Omniana, or 
Horse Otiosiores' (i. 193, ed. 1812), wrote 
in reference to ' the incomparable oddity' of 
Stanyhurst's translation: 'As Chaucer has 
been called the well of English undefiled, 
so might Stanyhurst be denominated the 
common sewer of the language. He is, how- 
ever, a very entertaining and, to a philo- 
logist, a very instructive writer. ... It seems 
impossible that a man could have written in 
such a style without intending to burlesque 
what he was about, and yet it is certain 
that Stanyhurst seriously meant to write 
heroic poetry.' 



> Stanyhurst 

Stanyhurst appended to the translation of 
Virgil a rendering into English of certain 
psalms of David, i-iv., in classical metres, 
with a few lumbering original poems and epi- 
taphs, some in Latin, others in English. The 
Leyden volume was reissued, with a slight 
revision, in London in 1583, by Henry Bynne- 
man, and this was reprinted in an edition 
limited to fifty copies at Edinburgh in 1836, 
under the direction of James Maidment. The 
Leyden edition was reprinted by Mr. Arber 
in his ' English Scholars' Library' in 1880 
(with new title-page, 1895). A careful philo- 
logical study of Stanyhurst's 'Virgil' was 
the subject of a thesis by Heinrich Schmidt, 
issued at Breslau in 1887. 

Stanyhurst was not encouraged to repeat 
his incursion into pure literature, or indeed 
to publish anything further in English. He 
thenceforth wrote solely in Latin prose, and 
confined himself to historical or theological 
topics. Removing to Antwerp, he published 
there in 1584, at the press of Christopher 
Plantin, a treatise on the early history of 
Ireland down to the time of Henry II, with an 
annotated appendix of extracts by Giraldus 
Cambrensis. The title of the volume ran 
' De rebus in Hibernia gestis ' (in four books), 
and it was dedicated, like the ' Virgil,' to 
his brother-in-law, Baron Dunsany. Com- 
bining legendary history with theology in a 
very credulous spirit, Stanyhurst produced 
in 1587, again with Plantin at Antwerp, a 
life of St. Patrick. This was entitled ' De 
Vita S. Patricii Hyberniae Apostoli,' and was 
dedicated to Alexander Farnese, archduke 
of Parma and Placentia. The volume marked 
the close of Stanyhurst's researches in Irish 
history and legend. 

In all his works on Ireland Stanyhurst 
wrote from an English point of view. Bar- 
naby Rich, who often met him at Antwerp, 
criticised adversely, in his ' New Description 
of Ireland ' (1610, p. 2), his want of sym- 
pathy with the native Irish and his pre- 
judiced misrepresentations. Keating, in his 
' General History of Ireland ' (1723, p. xii), 
condemns Stanyhurst on the three grounds 
that he was too young when he wrote, that he 
was ignorant of the Irish language, and that 
he was bribed by large gifts and promises 
of advancement to blacken the character 
of the Irish nation. The last charge is 
unsubstantiated. Keating adds, on equally 
doubtful authority, that Stanyhurst lived to 
repent of ' the injustice he had been guilty 
of,' and, after formally promising to re- 
voke all his falsehoods, prepared a paper in 
that sense to be printed in Ireland ; of this 
nothing further is known. Sir James Ware 
likewise asserts that Stanvhurst's books on 



Stanyhurst 



Stanyhurst 



Irish history abound in ' malicious repre- 
sentations.' 

According to Barnahy Rich, Stanyhurst, 
while pursuing his historical researches at 
Antwerp, also ' professed alchemy, and took 
upon him to make gold ' (RiCH, Irish Hub- 
bub). At the same time politics attracted 
his attention. Under the influence of the 
Jesuits he embarked in conspiracy with other 
catholic exiles in Flanders against the Eng- 
lish government, and he became an object of 
suspicion to English spies. His relations 
with the catholics grew more equivocal after 
a second marriage (before 1585) with Helen, 
daughter of William Copley of Gatton, 
Surrey, and granddaughter of Sir Thomas 
Copley [q. v.] (cf. COPLEY, Letters, ed. 
Christie, Roxburghe Club, 1897, p. xlviii). 
Like other members of her family, she was 
a fervent Roman catholic, and her sister 
Mary became in 1637 superioress of the 
abbey of Louvain. About 1590 Stanyhurst 
visited Spain and, it was stated, professed 
medicine there ; but his chief occupation 
was the offering of political advice to the 
Spanish government in regard to the posi- 
tion of affairs in England, fie was at Toledo 
in 1591. Writing from Madrid to Justus 
Lipsius on 1 Feb. 1592, he refers to an in- 
terview with Philip II, and speaks with 
enthusiasm of the king's kindness and affa- 
bility. About 1595 it was reported that he 
I had left the Spanish ' court with a good pro- 
vision in Flanders, and is not likely to deal 
more in matters of state or physic' (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1595-7, p. 157; cf. Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. Eliz. ccxlvii. 3, 44). His 
(second) wife died about 1602, soon after 
the birth of a second son. Thereupon Stany- 
hurst took holy orders. Rich asserts that 
the became ' a massing priest.' Archduke 
Albert, the ruler of the Netherlands, ap- 
pointed him chaplain to himself and to his 
wife Isabella (Philip II's daughter), and to 
these patrons Stanyhurst dedicated a devo- 
tional treatise : ' Hebdomada Mariana ex Or- 
thodoxis Catholicse Romanee Ecclesise Patri- 
bus collecta ; in memoriam septem festorum 
Beatissianae Virginis Marise,' Antwerp, 1609, 
8vo. He also appears to have acted as 
chaplain to the English Benedictine convent 
at Brussels. In 1605 he wrote commen- 
datory verses for his friend and co-reli- 
gionist Richard Verstegan's ' Restitution of 
Decayed Intelligence,' which was published at 
Antwerp in 1605 [see ROWLANDS, RICHARD]. 
In 1614 he brought out another devotional 
treatise, ' Hebdomada Eucharistica,' Douay, 
1614, 8vo. 

Despite differences in religion, Stanyhurst 
seems to have maintained an affectionate 



correspondence with his kinsfolk in Ireland. 
His nephew, James Ussher, writing to him 
' at the English College in Louvain' about 
1610, asked for a copy of his ' Margarita,' 
'presuming on that natural bond of love 
which is knit betwixt us.' Ussher sent his 
mother's 'most kind remembrance,' and 
signed himself ' your most loving nephew.' 
Ussher's biographers represent Stanyhurst 
as making vain efforts to convert his nephew 
to his own faith, but there is no hint of this 
in the many respectful references which 
Ussher made in his published works to 
Stanyhurst's ' Life of St. Patrick ' and others 
of his uncle's writings (cf. USSHER, Works, 
ed. Elrington, iv. 550, 562, vi. 374, 380, 447). 
When Ussher brought out in 1613 his trea- 
tise ' De Successione et Statu Christianas 
Ecclesise,' in which he attempted to identify 
the pope with Antichrist, Stanyhurst re- 
plied in 'Brevis praemunitio pro futura con- 
certatione cum Jacobo Usserio Hiberno Dub- 
linensi,' Douay, 1615, 8vo. According to 
Wood, Stanyhurst died at Brussels in 1618. 
His nephew wrote at the time to Lydiat 
that ' my late uncle's answer ' was to come 
out at Paris (ib. xv. 148). 

Two of Stanyhurst's sons by his second 
wife became Jesuits. The elder, Peter, born 
in the Netherlands, studied humanities under 
the Jesuit fathers at Brussels, entered- the 
society at Mechlin on 18 Sept. 1616, and died 
in Spain on 27 May 1627 (FoLEY, Records, 
vii. 731, Chron. Cat. p. 26). The younger 
son, WILLIAM STANYHURST (1602-1663), 
born at Brussels in 1602, after studying 
there, entered the Society of Jesus at Ma- 
lines on 25 Sept. 1617 (DE BACKER). He 
chiefly resided at Brussels, and preached in 
both English and Flemish. W r ood describes 
him as ' a comely person endowed with rare 
parts.' He died in Belgium on 10 Jan. 
1663. He was a voluminous writer of re- 
ligious works, many of which enjoyed a 
European vogue. His ' Dei Immortalis in 
corpore mortali patientis Historia,' which 
appeared at Antwerp in 1660, has been re- 
peatedly reprinted down to the present day, 
both in the original Latin and in French, 
Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, German, Polish, 
and Hungarian translations. His ' Veteris 
Hominis . . . quatuor novissima metamor- 
phosis et novi genesis,' dedicated to James 
van Baerlant, Antwerp, 1661 (Prague, 1700 ; 
Vienna, 1766), was translated into French, 
German, Italian, and Spanish. Others of his 
works, all of which passed through many 
editions, are: 1. 'Album Marianum,' de- 
scribing God's beneficence to Austria (Lou- 
vain, 1641, fol.) 2. ' Regio mortis sive 
Domus infelicis aeternitatis,' Antwerp, 1652, 



Stapeldon 



Stapeldon 



12mo. 3. 'Quotidiana Christian! Militis 
tessera,' Antwerp, 1661, 4to (portions of 
this reappeared in ' Selectissima moralis 
Christianse prsecepta harmonicis metris ac 
rythmis expressa,' Antwerp, 1662, 8vo). 
4. ' Ecclesia Militans,' Antwerp, 4to (FoLEY ; 
DE BACKER, Biblioth. des Ecrivains S. J., 
1876, iii. 880 ; SOUTHWELL, ib. Soc. Jem, 
1676, p. 320). 

[Arber's admirable introduction to his reprint 
of Stanyhurst's Translation- of Virgil, 1895 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 252-8; 
Foley's Kecords, vii. 732 ; Simpson's Life of 
Campion, chap. ii. ; Wright's Ussher Memoirs, 
1889 ; information kindly supplied by the Rev. 
Ethel bert Taunton.] S. L. 

STAPELDON, WALTER DE (1261- 
1326), bishop of Exeter, and virtual founder 
of Exeter College, Oxford, a younger son of 
William and Mabilla de Stapeldon, was 
born at Annery in the parish of Monkleigh, 
Devonshire, on 1 Feb. 1260-1. His eldest 
brother, Sir Richard, was a puisne judge of 
the king's bench, and resided at Stapeldon, 
near Holsworthy. Walter was a man of 
learning, and a distinguished member of the 
university of Oxford, where he became pro- 
fessor of canon law. Before 1294 he was 
parson of Aveton Gifford, Devonshire (Cal. 
Patent Rolls, 1292-1301, pp. 93, 271). He 
was also chaplain to Clement V and precentor 
of Exeter. The king's license to elect a suc- 
cessor to Thomas de Bytton, bishop of Exeter, 
was granted on 6 Oct. 1307, and Stapeldon 
was unanimously chosen on 13 Nov., all the 
canons but one being present or represented. 
Much delay arose through the vexatious op- 
position of Richard de Plympstoke, rector of 
Exminster and Uffculme, who in an appeal 
to the pope contested the right of nine of the 
canons to vote. The king's assent to Stapel- 
don's election was notified on 3 Dec. (ib. 
1307-13, p. 20), but the archbishop, Robert 
Winchelsey [q. v.], also raised difficulties 
which can only be described as frivolous. The 
election was confirmed at last on 13 March, 
and three days later the temporalities were 
restored (cf. RTMEE, Fcedera, iii. 36-7). 
Plympstoke, however, renewed his vindic- 
tive persecution of Stapeldon; the result 
being a further postponement of his conse- 
cration, which took place at Canterbury on 
13 Oct. 1308, nearly a year after his election. 
The cost of these proceedings was very heavy, 
and the revenues of the see were appro- 
priated by the king during the long vacancy. 
Stapeldon tells us in pathetic terms that he 
was penniless, and was even compelled to 
ask Walter Reynolds [q. v.], the elect of 
Worcester, who was consecrated with him, to 
pay their joint expenses. He entered, how- 



ever, with undaunted spirit on his episcopal 
duties ; and his register shows that he was 
indefatigable in fulfilling them. His cathe- 
dral, the rebuilding of which had been but 
half accomplished, became the object of his 
special care, and as soon as money came in 
he spent it lavishly on internal decorations 
and improvements, and on the accumulation 
of materials for the rebuilding of the nave, 
which were utilised after his death by Bishop 
Grandisson. The fabrick-rolls show that he 
contributed no less than 1,800/., an immense 
sum for those days, equivalent, according to 
the calculations of Hallam and other com- 
petent authorities, to 40,000/. of our money. 
He was a generous patron of learning, and 
in 1314, in conjunction with his brother, Sir 
Richard, he founded Stapeldon Hall in Ox- 
ford (now known as Exeter College) for poor 
scholars from his diocese, and established 
there four scholarships for natives of Corn- 
wall. 

Stapeldon's political career had begun in 
1306 with a mission to France. He was 
summoned to serve against the Scots on 
22 Aug. 1308, and to a council held at 
Westminster in the following February. 
From that time he was summoned to all the 
councils and parliaments held in Edward II's 
reign (Parl. Writs, Alphabetical Digest of 
Persons, pp. 828-31). In March 1310 Stapel- 
don joined the lords ordainers against Gaves- 
ton, though he protested that the ordainers' 
proceedings should not prejudice the royal 
authority (Chron, of Edw. I and Edw. II, 
Rolls Ser. i. 170). In February 1312-13 he 
was sent on a mission to the king of France 
with Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke 
[q. v.] (RYMER, iii. 381-2), and in May 1319 
he was again sent to do homage for Aqui- 
taine (ib. iii. 772-3). In 1314 he was 
accused in parliament of maintenance (Rot. 
Parl. i. 292 a), but in the following year he 
was sworn of the privy council (ib. i. 350 b) 
and appointed to hold a parliament in Ed- 
ward's absence. On 18 Feb. 1319-20 he 
was appointed lord high treasurer of Eng- 
land (ib. i. 287), and in the following June 
accompanied Edward to Amiens, where he 
did homage to the French king for Ponthieu. 
In July 1321 he vainly attempted to mediate 
between Edward II and Thomas of Lan- 
caster. In 1325 he was sent to aid Queen 
Isabella and the young Prince Edward in 
Gascony. But he was one of the four who 
were described as especially unpopular there 
because of their being Edward II's favourites, 
and he was forced to flee to England by 
night in disguise (ib. ii. 285-6, 307 ; cf. 
RYMER, iv. 62, 69, 77, 79, 96, 117, 161, 
180-2). On 2 May 1326 he was directed to 



Staples 



93 



Staples 



prepare for the defence of the realm against 
Isabella's threatened invasion. Stapeldon 
had been closely identified with the later 
policy of Edward II, and was therefore 
exceedingly obnoxious to the people (see 
RYHER, Fasdera, Record ed., vol. ii. pt. i. 
passim). On the king's flight he was left in 
charge of London, and was murdered by 
the mob in Cheapside on 15 Oct. 1326. His 
remains were buried in St. Clement Danes 
(Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, Rolls Ser. i. 
316-17; MURIMUTH, pp. 44-8, 59, 282); 
but on 28 March 1327 they were transferred 
to Exeter, where they rest under a beautiful 
tomb on the north side of the high altar. 
His head was sent to Queen Isabella at 
Gloucester (MATT. WEST. Flares Hist. iii. 
234), and his murderers were excommuni- 
cated. In the parliament that met at the 
end of the year the ' forcible acts done by 
him as an adherent of the Spencers were 
annulled ' (Rot. Parl. ii. 5 b). 

[Cal. Patent and Close Rolls, Edw. I and 
Edw. II, ed. 1890-6, passim ; Parl. Writs ; 
Eotuli Parliamentorum, vols. i. and ii. ; Kymer's 
Foedera, original and Record editions, vol. ii. 
pt. i. ; Matthew of Westminster's Flores His- 
toriarum, Chronicles of Edw. I and Edw. IT, 
Murimuth's and Walsingham's Hist. Angl. (all 
in Rolls Ser.); Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ed. 
Hardy; Dublin Review, July 1895; Godwin, 
De Prsesulibus, ed. Richardson ; Stubbs's Const. 
Hist, ii. 375, 383, &c. ; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. ii.684; Prince's Worthies of Devon, 
pp. 722-6 ; Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of 
Exeter, pp. 55-61 ; Register of Bishop Stapeldon, 
ed. Hingeston-Randolph, pp. viii-xxxiv ; Boase's 
Hist, of Exeter College, pp. iii-v.] F. C. H. R. 

STAPLES or STAPLE, EDWARD 

(1490P-1560?), bishop of Meath, born pro- 
bably about 1490, is said to have been a 
native of Lincolnshire or Lancashire. He 
was educated first at Oxford and then at 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. in 1511, 
and M.A. in 1514. In 1525 he was made 
canon of Cardinal College, Oxford, and on 
9 March 1525-6 he supplicated for incor- 
poration in Oxford University, and for the 
degrees B.D. and D.D. (Reg. Univ. Oxon. 
i. 142). About the same time he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to Henry VIII. On 7 March 
1527-8 he was presented to the prebend of 
Wigginton in the collegiate church of Tarn- 
worth, but resigned it in the following July, 
and was appointed master of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, London (Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII, iv. 4124, 4489, 4594). He 
resigned the latter post in July 1532 on 
being instituted to the vicarage of Thaxted, 
Essex. 

Meanwhile, in 1530, at Henry's request, 



the pope provided Staples to the bishopric 
of Meath. In that capacity he took a pro- 
minent part in the government of Ireland, 
and in the strife between the various factions 
of the official class. In 1534 he was com- 
pelled to flee to England before the rebellion 
of Thomas Fitzgerald, tenth earl of Kildare 
[q. v.] He returned in the following year, 
when he and Archbishop George Browne (d . 
1556) [q. v.] became Henry VIIFs principal 
instruments in introducing the Reformation 
into Ireland. His relations with Browne., 
however, were always hostile. Staples was not 
so advanced as the archbishop, and clung to 
the mass, though he was ' as zealous as any ' 
for the royal supremacy, and it was partly 
owing to his urgent advice that Henry as- 
sumed the title of king of Ireland. His 
quarrel with Browne became such a scandal 
that on 31 July 1537 Henry wrote to Browne 
threatening to remove him for his lightness 
of behaviour and pride, and to Staples cen- 
suring his neglect of his ecclesiastical duties 
(Cal. State Papers, Irish, 1509-71, p. 28). 
Little effect seems to have been produced, 
and on one occasion in 1538, while preach- 
ing before Browne in Kilmainham church, 
Staples denounced him as a heretic. This 
sermon was examined by the Irish council, 
and both Staples and Browne complained to 
Cromwell, but the quarrel was patched up. 
In 1544, as a reward for his zeal, Staples 
was allowed to annex the archdeaconry of 
Kells. 

After Edward VI's accession Staples's 

Srotestant opinions became more pronounced, 
n 7 April 1547 he was granted the parson- 
age of Ardbraccan, and soon after was made 
judge of faculties. About this time he 
married, and preached a strong sermon 
against the mass, which rendered him in- 
tensely unpopular in his diocese. Jn Juno 
leSQ.'m a diacuooion at St. Mary'o Abboy, 



Dublin, lu 



-ffie* 



[c 



Oiiuii ufl 



; ii 207 11). In August 1553 he took 
part in the proclamation of Queen Mary, but 
on 29 June 1554 he was deprived on account 
of his marriage. He remained in his diocese, 
destitute and disliked, and on 16 Dec. 1558, 
after Elizabeth's accession, he wrote to Cecil 
relating his woes and seeking preferment. 
He was not, however, restored to his see, 
and, as no subsequent mention of him occurs, 
he is believed to have died soon after. 

[State Papers, Henry VIII, vols. i-iii. passim ; 
Cal. Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, ed. 
Brewer and G-airdner ; Cal. State Papers, Irish 
Ser. ; Cal. Cnrew MSS. ; Cotton's Fasti Eccl. 
Hib. iii. 115, 131, v. 221; Lascelles's Liber 



Stapleton 



94 



Stapleton 



Munerum Hib. ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ; Cooper's 
Athenae Cantabr. i. 190 ; Ware's Bishops of Ire- 
land ed. Harris ; Mant's Hist. Church of Ire- 
land, i. 127, 149, 198,206, 208, 234-5 ; Uixon's 
Hist. Church of England ; Cogan's Diocese of 
Meath, i. 84-104, ii. 258; Bagwell's Ireland 
under the Tudors, vols. i-ii. passim; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] A. F. P. 

STAPLETON, AUGUSTUS GRAN- 
VILLE (1800-1880), biographer of George 
Canning and political pamphleteer, was bora 
in 1800. He was entered on 18 Sept. 1814 
in the register of Rugby school as ' son of 
John Stapleton, esq., and ward of the Rev. 
T. Yeoman, Barnstaple, Devon, aged 13' 
(Register, i. 120). It has, however, been 
said that he was ' a natural son of Lord Mor- 
ley ' (JEKYLL, Letters, p. 226), i.e. of the 
first Earl Morley, the intimate friend of Can- 
ning. He was entered at Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, on 22 Feb. 1817, but did not take up 
his residence there, and on 14 Oct. 1818 he 
was admitted pensioner at St. John's College. 
He graduated B.A. in 1823. 

On leaving the university Stapleton be- 
came the private secretary of Canning, and 
was admitted into his closest confidence. 
He walked side by side with his chief at 
the funeral of the Duke of York in St. 
George's Chapel at Windsor, when Canning 
caught his fatal cold, and was with him at 
Chiswick shortly before his death. By the 
special desire of George IV, and as a tribute 
to Canning's memory, he was appointed a 
commissioner of customs on 31 Aug. 1827. 
This appointment he vacated in a few years, 
and in 1837, at the request of his political 
leaders, he contested Birmingham in the 
conservative interest, and, though possessed 
of much oratorical power, was badly beaten. 

In 1830 Stapleton caused to be printed 
two volumes of his ' Political Life of George 
Canning, 1822-1827.' But at the instance 
of the Duke of Wellington, intimations in- 
duced him to defer their publication (JEKYLL, 
Letters, p. 226). When tracts appeared with 
reflections on Canning, Stapleton issued the 
work in 1831 (3 vols.) A second edition, 
which came out in the same year, included 
additional matter. In 1859 he published 
' George Canning and his Time,' which was 
deficient in system, but, like the previous 
work, contained much information. In con- 
tinuance of the subject, Stapleton subse- 
quently contributed to ' Macmillan's Maga- 
zine ' (xxvi. 26-32) an article on ' A Month 
at Seaford in 1825 with Canning and Hook- 
ham Frere,' and three more of his papers ap- 
peared in the same periodical (vol. xxxi.), 
including one entitled 'Political Reminis- 
cences.' Stapleton died at Warbrook, Evers- 



ley,near Winchfield, Hampshire, on 26 Feb. 
1880. He married, in 1825, Catherine, second 
daughter of John Bulteel of Flete, Devon- 
shire. She died at Kensington on 18 June 
1856, having had issue three sons and two 
daughters. His youngest son, Edward J. 
Stapleton, of the home office (d. 27 Jan. 
1896, aged 56), edited in 1887 two volumes 
of ' Official Correspondence of George Can- 
ning,' the second of which contained nume- 
rous letters to and from his father in 1826 
and 1827. 

From 1836 Stapleton was a constant contri- 
butor to the newspapers and a prolific pam- 
phleteer. The chief of these were: 1. 'Ob- 
servations on the Report of the Bullion 
Committee in 1810,' 1837. 2. 'The Real 
Monster Evil of Ireland,' 1843. 3. 'Se- 
quel to the real Monster Evil of Ireland,' 
1843 ; the evil was over-population, and he ad- 
vocated a large expenditure, say 16,000,000/., 
in that country on works of public improve- 
ment. 4. ' The Claims of the Irish Priest. 
The Duty of the British People,' 1847; 
against the endowment of popery.' 5. ' Sug- 
gestions for a Conservative and Popular 
Reform in the Commons,' 1850 ; a plea for 
a direct representation of the professional 
classes and of the arts and sciences. A 
petition to this effect drawn up by Staple- 
ton and George Harris, LL.D., F.S.A., was 
presented by Lord Harrowby to the House 
of Lords on 27 May 1852, and produced a 
long speech from Lord Derby (HANSARD, 
cxxi. 1181-92 ; cf. HARRIS, Autobiogr. pp. 
184-91). 6. 'The Irish Education Question: 
a Letter to the Earl of Eglinton,' 1853. 
7. ' Oath of Supremacy and the " Oaths 
Bill," ' 1854 ; in favour of the maintenance 
of the oath of supremacy. 8. ' Hostilities at 
Canton,' 1857 : against the proceedings of 
Sir John Bowring and Admiral Sir Michael 
Seymour over the Arrow lorcha ; a concen- 
trated statement of the case against Lord 
Palmerston's government, which led, in the 
author's opinion, to the defeat of the mini- 
stry. 9. ' A Letter to the Bradford Foreign 
Affairs Committee,' also on the China ques- 
tion. 10. ' Affair at Greytown, 1 1857, argu- 
ing that England should have demanded 
satisfaction from the American government 
for the outrages at Grey Town, Nicaragua. 
11. 'Intervention and Non-intervention; or 
the Foreign Policy of Great Britain, 1790- 
1865' (1866), a volume summing up his 
arguments in former pamphlets on foreign 
affairs, and the substance of his letters in 
the ' Morning Herald ' (1850-5), signed 'Lex 
Publica.' 12. ' Origin of Fenianism,' 1868, 
13. 'The French Case truly stated,' 1871, an 
argument that France was not the aggressor 



Stapleton 



95 



Stapleton 






in the Franco-Prussian Avar ; a translation 
was published at Brussels. 

[Men of the Time, 10th ed. ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 6th ed. p. 1513; Academy, 6 March 
1880; Standard, 30 Jan. 1896; Morning Post, 
12 April 1880; Gent. Mag. 1856, ii. 127 ; infor- 
mation from Mr. K. F. Scott of St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge.] W. P. C. 

STAPLETON, BRIAN DE (1321P-1394) 
of Wighill, knight, was the second son 
of Sir Gilbert de Stapleton, and younger 
brother of Miles de Stapleton (d. 1364) 
[q. v.J His father died in 1321, and the 
length of his life makes it unlikely that he 
was born much earlier. In 1385 he de- 
scribes himself as ' sixty years of age and 
more' and 'fifty years inarms' (Scrope and 
Grosvenor Roll). This would make his active 
career begin with Edward Ill's first wars 
against France, in which he won consider- 
able distinction. He was at the siege of 
Tournay in 1340, and again in 1347 at the 
siege of Calais, having probably therefore 
served in the Crecy campaign. He attached 
himself to "William de Montacute, second 
earl of Salisbury [q. v.], serving under him 
for example in the campaign of 1359, and 
for many subsequent years. In 1369 he was 
one of the knights sent to help the Black 
Prince in Aquitaine, under Edmund, earl of 
Cambridge. In 1373 he served under Salis- 
bury at sea, and again when Salisbury had 
custody of Calais, where he did him such 
faithful service that he received two manors 
from him as a reward. In 1378 he was 
exempted from serving on juries or being 
forced to hold offices against his will (Cal. 
Sot. Pat. 1377-81, p. 288). The subsidy 
roll of 1378-9 gives an interesting list of 
his household at Helaugh ( Yorkshire Arch. 
Journ. vii. 176, 181). On 20 Feb. 1380 
Stapleton was himself made captain and 
warden of the castle of Calais (F&dera, iv. 
77), and a little later of Guisnes. On 
11 March 1381 he was also warden of the 
castle of Guisnes (ib. iv. 107). In April 
1380 he was associated with others in nego- 
tiations with the French. In 1382 he be- 
came knight of the Garter, remaining in 
office at Guisnes till 1383, and holding in 
that year a muster of Bishop Despenser's 
crusading force (ib. iv. 70). He was em- 
ployed in various negotiations with France 
and Flanders, including those which led to 
the truce of Leulinghen (ib. iv. 122, 172). 
In 1386 and 1388 he was similarly employed 
in Scotland (ib. old edit. vii. 572). He gave 
evidence in the Scrope-Grosvenor contro- 
versy, and was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed to examine witnesses. As late as 
1390 he appeared in arms among the knights 



of the Garter at a tournament at Smithfield. 
He is the hero of several famous legends of 
the later genealogists. There is a sixteenth- 
century story of his slaying a Moor in single 
combat, and therefore bearing as his crest a 
Saracen's head. He is also said to have 
brought from France the right hand of St. 
Mary Magdalen, which he placed in the 
house of the friars preachers at York, and 
where, according to the legend, he himself 
was buried. 

Before 1360 Stapleton married Alice, 
widow of Sir Stephen Waleys of Helaugh 
and daughter and coheiress of Sir John de 
St. Philibert. He inherited Carlton and 
Kentmere from a cousin, and in 1376 bought 
Wighill, where he died on 25 July 1394. 
His will, written in French, was dated 
16 May the same year, and is published in 
' Testamenta Eboracensia ' (i. 198 sq.) He 
directed that his body should be buried at 
Helaugh priory, beside his wife, who had 
died before him ; he left directions for a sump- 
tuous burial, and made many legacies to 
friends and kinsfolk. He left two sons, of 
whom, the elder, Brian, who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir William Aldeburgh, 
and was the ancestor of the Stapletons of 
Carlton (now represented by Lord Beau- 
mont), died before him ; the younger, Sir 
Miles (d. 1400), was the ancestor of the 
Stapletons of Wighill. 

[Chetwynd-Stapylton's Stapeltons of York- 
shire, pp. 110-38, collects practically all that is 
known ; other authorities quoted in the text.] 

T. F. T. 

STAPLETON, GREGORY, D.D. (1748- 
1802), catholic prelate, born at Carlton, 
Yorkshire, in 1748, was seventh son of 
Nicholas Stapleton, by his third wife, Wini- 
fred, daughter of John White of Dover 
Street, London. He proceeded to the Eng- 
lish College, Douay, in 1762. Ten years 
later, being then a deacon, he was appointed 
professor of music. On his ordination, a 
year later, he became procurator of the col- 
lege, and he retained that post for more than 
twelve years. After this he travelled abroad 
with a pupil ; and on his return from Italy, 
in 1787, he was appointed president of the 
English College at St. Omer, in succession 
to Alban Butler [q. v.] Some three years 
after the outbreak of the French revolu- 
tion he and the students of the English 
colleges at St. Omer and Douay were im- 
prisoned in the citadel of Dourlens. In 
1795 he obtained leave to go to Paris, and 
after many repulses he procured from the 
directory an order for the release of all the 
students, ninety-four in number, who were 
conveyed to England in an American vessel, 



Stapleton 



9 6 



Stapleton 



and landed at Dover on 2 March 1795. 
Soon afterwards Stapleton, in company with 
Bishop Douglass, waited upon the Duke of 
Portland and Mr. Pitt to solicit their ap- 
proval of a plan for converting the school at 
Old Hall Green, near Ware, Hertfordshire, 
into a catholic college. The duke had pre- 
viously known Stapleton, and he and Pitt 
gave them encouragement. Stapleton ac- 
cordingly conducted his students to Old 
Hall Green, and on 19 Aug. 1795 the first 
stone was laid of the college of St. Edmund. 
Stapleton presided over it till the autumn 
of 1800, when, having accompanied the 
Rev. John Nassau to Rome on an important 
secret mission, he was raised to the episco- 
pate. His appointment to be bishop of 
Hierocsesarea in partibus and vicar-apostolic 
of the Midland district, in succession to 
Dr. Charles Berington [q. v.], was approved 
by the pope on 29 May 1800, and he was 
consecrated on 8 March 1801. He took up 
his residence at Long Birch, near Wolver- 
hampton, and employed Dr. John Milner 
[q. v.l as his secretary. He died at St. Omer 
on 23 May 1802, and was succeeded in his 
vicariate by Dr. Milner. 

[Brady's Episcopal Succession ; Evans's Cat. 
of Engraved Portraits, No. 21652 ; Husenbeth's 
Colleges on the Continent, pp. 15-16 ; Husen- 
beth's Life of Milner, p. 84 ; Michel, Les Ecossais 
en France, ii. 330 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. 
x. 43 ; Smith's Brewood, 2nd edit. 1874, p. 49 ; 
Ward's Hist, of St. Edmund's College, Old Hall, 
1893, p. 343, -with portrait.] T. C. 

STAPLETON, MILES DE (d. 1314), 
baron, was the son of Nicholas de Stapleton 
(III) and his wife Margaret, daughter of 
Miles Basset. Nicholas belonged to a Rich- 
mondshire family that took its name from the 
township of Stapleton, on the south bank 
of the Tees, about two miles south-west of 
Darlington, in which it possessed a small 
estate. The first member of the family to 
attain any position was Nicholas de Staple- 
ton I, who was custos of Middleham Castle 
in the reign of King John, and was the 
father of Nicholas de Stapleton II, the 
father of the first-mentioned Nicholas (III). 
Nicholas III served as a judge of the king's 
bench between 1272 and 1290, held sixteen 
carucates of land scattered throughout York- 
shire, besides some Berkshire lands that he 
obtained from his wife, and died in 1290. 

Miles de Stapleton was the eldest surviv- 
ing son, and at his father's death was already 
married to Sybil (also called Isabel), daugh- 
ter and coheiress to John de Bellew. Through 
her mother Laderana, Sybil inherited a 
share of the possessions of the elder line of 
the Bruces, which were divided among four 



sisters and coheiresses at the death of her 
uncle, Peter de Bruce of Skelton, in 1271. 
In memory of this connection with a great 
house, Miles de Stapleton assumed the lion 
rampant of the Bruces as his arms. Miles 
served in the Gascon and Scottish wars of 
Edward I. In 1291 he was engaged on the 
king's business, under Roger de Mowbray, 
in Scotland (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1281-92, p. 
434). In 1295 he was in Gascony. In 
1298 he was in the Falkirk campaign, serv- 
ing under his patron Henry de Lacy, third 
earl of Lincoln [q. v.] (GouGH, Scotland 
in 1298, p. 43). In 1300 he was summoned 
to the siege of Carlaverock, but he was not 
mentioned in the famous French poem on 
the siege. In the same year he accom- 
panied the Earl of Lincoln, on a mission 
to the court of Rome, receiving on 9 Oct. 
letters of protection for one year ( Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1292-1301, p. 538). He was entrusted 
by the king with the direction of the house- 
hold of Edward, prince of Wales, served in 
the siege of Stirling, in attendance on the 
prince (PALGKAVE, Doc. illustrative of Scot- 
tish History, p. 271) ; and in October 1305, 
when the Earl of Lincoln wished to appoint 
Stapleton to manage his household during 
his absence at the papal court, the prince in- 
formed the earl that he had no power to give 
Stapleton leave to hold this post without 
the express command of the king (Deputy- 
Keeper Public Rec. 9th Rep. p. 249). Staple- 
ton was one of the experienced men of affairs 
to whom Edward I entrusted the difficult 
task of bringing up his son in businesslike 
and soldierly ways. Meanwhile his estates 
and influence in Yorkshire were steadily in- 
creasing. The betrothal of his eldest son to 
a daughter of John of Brittany, earl of Rich- 
mond, and a grand-niece of the king, and his 
second son's betrothal to one of the daugh- 
ters of Brian Fitzalan, lord of Bedale [q. v.], 
connected him with two branches of the 
greatest family of his district, and increased 
the importance of the house. After the 
death of Edmund of Cornwall had led to the 
lapse of his vast property to the crown, Ed- 
ward I made Stapleton seneschal of Knares- 
borough Castle, and steward and joint con- 
stable of Knaresborough forest. In 1305 he 
was, jointly with John de Byron, appointed 
commissioner to suppress the clubmen or 
trail-bastons of Lancashire, but they were 
shortly afterwards superseded. 

With Edward II's accession Stapleton's 
importance was for the moment increased. 
He became steward to the king's household, 
and went abroad in January 1308 on the 
occasion of the king's marriage at Boulogne. 
In a few months, however, he lost his 



Stapleton 



97 



Stapleton 



stewardship, and was forced to surrender 
the royal manor of Brustwick in Holderness, 
of which he had had custody, to Gaveston 
(Faedera, ii. 48). In 1311 he was summoned 
to serve against the Scots (ib. ii. 139). His 
losses in the interests of the Gascon favourite 
made Stapleton hostile to his old master Ed- 
ward, and attached him to Earl Thomas of 
Lancaster. He was in October 1313 included, 
with his wife and three sons, in a long list 
of adherents of Lancaster, who were then 
pardoned for the murder of Gaveston (ib. ii. 
230). Previously to this, however, he had 
received back the custody of Brustwick, and 
in the same year he was thrice summoned as 
a baron to parliament. In 1314 he obeyed the 
summons to muster for the relief of Stir- 
ling. On 24 June he was slain, along with 
two of his sons, at Bannockburn. 

By his first wife, Sybil, Stapleton left 
several children. The eldest, Nicholas, born 
in 1286 (ROBEETS, Cal. Genealogicum,^. 608), 
was also summoned to parliament, and died 
in 1343. His son and successor, Miles, died 
in 1372. Miles's only son, Thomas, died in 
1373, whereupon the barony fell into abey- 
ance, and the estates of the elder branch 
passed to his sister Elizabeth, and remained 
with the Metham family, her husband's kin. 

(A younger son of Miles and Sybil, Gilbert 
(d. 1321), became royal escheator beyond 
Trent, and by his wife Agnes, daughter of 
Brian Fitzalan, lord of Bedale, was the father 
of Miles de Stapleton (d. 1364) [q. v.] and 
Brian de Stapleton (d. 1394) [q. v.] After 
Sybil's death Stapleton married, as his 
second wife, Joan (wrongly called Cecily), 
daughter of Peter of Tynedale, who survived 
him (Cal. Close Rolls, 1313-18, p. 231) ; by 
her he had a daughter named Joan. 

Among Stapleton's pious benefactions the 
most important was the establishment of a 
chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas in North 
Moreton church, near Wallingford in Berk- 
shire, where he had an outlying estate. This 
building, described as a ' gem of decorated 
architecture,' still survives, with the con- 
temporary stained glass in the east window, 
now much spoilt through successive stages 
of neglect and restoration. The license to 
alienate lands in mortmain to endow two 
chaplains to celebrate divine service in the 
chapel is dated 28 March 1299 (Cal. Patent 
Rolls, 1292-1301, p. 401). 

[Roberta's Calendarium Genealogicum ; Cal. 
of Patent Rolls, 1282-91 and 1292-1301; Cal. 
of Close Rolls 1307-13 and 1318 ; Ann. Londin. 
in Stubbs's Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II (Rolls 
Ser.) ; Parl. Writs; Rymer's Fcedera ; Dugdale's 
Baronage, ii. 70 ; Foss's Judges of England and 
Biographia Juridica, p. 629. Chetwynd-Stapyl- 

YOL. LIV. 



ton's Stapeltons of Yorkshire (a very careful 
family history) collects on pp. 1-52 nearly all 
that is known of Stapleton and his ancestors.] 

T. F. T. 

STAPLETON, MILES DE (d. 1364), of 
Bedale andlngham, knight of the Garter, was 
the eldest son of Gilbert de Stapleton, knt. (d. 
1321), and the grandson of Miles de Stapleton 
(d. 1314) [q. v.] His mother was Matilda (b. 
1298), also called Agnes, elder daughter and 
coheiress of Brian Fitzalan, lord of Bedale 
[q. v.], from whom he inherited a moiety of 
Fitzalan's estates, including half Bedale, 
Askham Brian, and Cotherstone in Yorkshire. 
Brian de Stapleton [q. v.] was his younger 
brother. At his father's death Stapleton 
was only a child. In early life he is often 
called Miles de Stapleton of Cotherstone. 
He afterwards obtained considerable fame as 
a warrior during the French wars of Ed- 
ward III. It is, however, very difficult to 
distinguish him from his cousin and name- 
sake, Sir Miles de Stapleton of Hathelsay 
(d. 1373), who was sheriff of Yorkshire in 
1353, served in the French and Scottish wars 
from 1355 to 1360, and in 1356 conducted the 
captive David Bruce from Newcastle to Lon- 
don; was summoned to parliament in 1358, 
but never received a subsequent writ, and 
died in 1373, leaving a son and heir Thomas, 
whose widow ultimately took the estate to 
her near kin the Fitzwilliams. Dugdale in 
his ' Baronage ' (ii.70) has woven the exploits 
of Miles of Bedale into the history of Miles 
of Hathelsay. He was probably in the 
Breton expedition of 1342, and at the siege 
of Calais in 1347. Either he or his cousin 
was the Miles de Stapleton who on 19 Jan. 

1344 obtained the chief credit on the first 
day of a famous Windsor tournament, and 
afterwards took part in the foundation of a 
' round table ' (MTTRIMTTTH, p. 155). In June 

1345 he received, as Miles de Stapleton of 
Cotherstone, letters of protection on going 
beyond sea with the king (Fcedera, iii. 48, 
cf. p. 39). In 1347 and 1348 he was again 
prominent in the tournaments that preceded 
the foundation of the order of the Garter, 
becoming one of the original knights of the 
Garter, standing seventeenth in the list, and 
occupying the ninth stall in St. George's 
Chapel on the 'king's side.' In 1349 and 1354 
he was again serving in France, and in the 
latter year was one of the magnates who signed 
a procuration referring the disputes of Eng- 
land and France to the pope (ib. iii. 285). 
He took part in the raid of Lancaster to- 
wards Paris in 1356 (G. LE BAKER, p. 139, cf. 
p. 298). In January 1358 he went on a mis- 
sion from Edward III to Philip of Na- 
varre, receiving 50/. as his wages as king's 



Stapleton 



9 8 



Stapleton 



messenger (Fcedera, iii. 387). In July 1359 
he was again going abroad on the king's 
service (ib. iii. 439), and was one of the nego- 
tiators of the treaty of Bretigny in 1360 
(ib. iii. 494), being afterwards ordered with 
two others to see to its faithful execution. In 
June 1361 he received an annuity of 100J. 
from the exchequer for his ' unwearied labours 
and laudable services.' In January 1364 he 
again obtained letters of attorney for three 
years, and went to France to support John 
de Montfort's candidature for the Breton 
succession. He died in December of the 
same year, possibly, as the family historian 
conjectures, of wounds received in the battle 
of Auray. 

Stapleton is celebrated by Geoffrey le 
Baker (p. 139) as a good and experienced 
soldier, a man of great probity and singular 
devotion to the Blessed Virgin. He was 
twice married. By his first wife he had a 
son John, who died in 1355. He married 
his second wife in 1350. This lady was 
Joan, daughter and coheiress of Oliver de 
Ingham, baron of Ingham [q. v.] in Norfolk, 
and widow of Roger Lestrange of Knockin. 
Henceforward Stapleton is as often described 
as 'of Ingham ' as of ' Bedale,'and became a 
considerable proprietor in Norfolk. In 1360 
he obtained royal license to dispense with 
the statute of mortmain, and, in conjunction 
with his wife, began to found a college of 
Mathurins or Trinitarians at Ingham, an 
order of canons established to pray for and 
redeem Christian captives from the Turks. 
He rebuilt the parish church of Ingham on 
a grand scale, and obtained from Bishop 
Thomas Percy of Norwich an ordinance for 
a foundation for a prior (or warden), sacrist, 
and s4x canons (Monasticon, vi. 1458-9), in 
which the rectory of the parish was absorbed. 
At first only the warden and two chaplains 
were appointed. The building is still the 
parish church, and parts are of this date. 
Stapleton was buried at Ingham : a sump- 
tuous brass placed over his tomb is engraved 
in Gough's ' Sepulchral Monuments ' (vol. i. 
pt. ii. p. 120), and in Mr. Chetwynd-Stapyl- 
ton's ' Stapeltons of Yorkshire ' (p. 100), who 
also gives the inscription from Blomefield's 
'Norfolk' (ix. 324, 8vo). The brass was 
dilapidated in Blomefield's time, and has 
since disappeared. Stapleton's eldest son 
John died before him, and he was succeeded 
at Ingham as well as Bedale by Miles, his 
son by the heiress of Ingham. Their only 
other issue was a daughter Joan, married to 
Sir John Plays. Another three generations 
in the male line succeeded Stapleton at Ing- 
ham, after which the property was divided 
among coheiresses. A remarkable series 



of brasses, also destroyed, preserved their 
memory in Ingham church. 

[Rymer's Fcedera ; Geoffrey le Baker, ed. 
E. M. Thompson ; Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. 
vi. ; Dugdale's Baronage, vol. ii. ; Blomefield's 
Norfolk, ix. 320-9, 8vo ; Norfolk Archaeological 
Journal, 1 878 ; Chetwynd-Stapylton's Stapeltons 
of Yorkshire, pp. 87-101, and for Miles of Hathel- 
say, pp. 71-3.] T. F. T. 

STAPLETON or STAPILTON, SIR 
PHILIP (1603-1647), soldier, born in 1603, 
was the second son of Henry Stapleton of 
Wighill, Yorkshire, and Mary, daughter of 
Sir John Foster of Barnborough. Stapleton 
was admitted a fellow-commoner of Queens' 
College, Cambridge, on 16 May 1617. In 
1627 he married the widow of John Gee of 
Bishop Burton (eldest daughter of Sir John 
Hot ham), and shortly after bought the estate 
of Warter Priory in Yorkshire (CHETWYND- 
STAPYLTON, The Stapletons of Yorkshire, p. 
253). He was knighted on 25 May 1630 
(METCALFE, Book of Knights, p. 190). Cla- 
rendon describes Stapleton as ' a proper man 
of fair extraction ; but being a branch of a 
younger family inherited but a moderate 
estate, about five hundred pounds the year 
in Yorkshire, and, according to the education 
of that country, spent his time in those 
delights which horses and dogs administer ' 
(Rebellion, iv. 19). In June 1640 Stapleton 
was one of the signatories of the petition of 
the Yorkshire gentlemen against free quarter 
(RTJSHWORTH, iii. 1214). In November he 
was returned to the Long parliament as 
member for Boroughbridge, and joined Sir 
John Hotham [q. v.] and other ' northern 
men' in the prosecution of Strafford (ib. ; 
Trial of Stra/ord, pp. 14, 33, 601, 604). 
The popular leaders noted him as ' a man of 
vigour in body and mind,' and he 'quickly 
outgrew his friends and countrymen in the 
confidence of those who governed.' On 
20 Aug. 1641 he was selected as one of the 
two commissioners whom the House of Com- 
mons appointed to attend the king to Scot- 
land, and was joined with John Hampden 
that he might be ' initiated under so great a 
master ' (CLARENDON, iv. 19; Lords' Journals, 
iv. 372, 401, v. 398). 

In the second session of the Long parlia- 
ment Stapleton was one of the four persons 
selected by the commons to bear their answer 
to the king's demand for the arrest of the 
five members (3 Jan. 1642), and one of the 
committee of twenty-five appointed to sit in 
the Guildhall during the adjournment of the 
house (FORSTER, Arrest of the Five Members, 
ed. 1860, pp. 126, 280). A week later he 
made a vigorous speech against Colonel 
Thomas Lunsford [q. v.], Lord Digby, and 



Stapleton 



99 



Stapleton 



other delinquents (Old Parliamentary His- 
tory, x. 210). When Charles went to York 
and attempted to possess himself of Hull, 
Stapleton was one of the five parliamentary 
commissioners sent down to report and resist 
his movements a difficult task, and one 
which exposed the commissioners to many 
insults from the king's followers (ib. x. 493, 
511, 518 ; RUSHWORTH, iv. 620). 

At the opening of the civil war Stapleton 
became commander of the hundred gentle- 
men who formed Essex's life-guard and 
colonel of his regiment of horse (LuDLOW, 
Memoirs, ed. 1894, p. 39). At Edgehill he 
did excellent service, and the rout of the 
king's foot was due specially to him and to 
Sir William Balfour (ib. p. 42 ; RUSHWOKTH, 
v. 36). At Chalgrove Field he rallied the 
defeated parliamentary horse (A Letter from 
His Excellency the Earl of Essex, 19 June 
1643, p. 3). In the march to Gloucester 
and in the first battle of Newbury no man's 
services were more conspicuous (Bibliotheca 
Gloucestrensis, pp. 237-44; MAY, History 
of the Long Parliament, p. 348). White- 
locke quotes from the newspapers of the 
day anecdotes of his courage (Memorials, 
i. 217). 

Stapleton marched with Essex on his 
western campaign, but was not with it at 
the disaster in Cornwall ; for Essex, about 
the end of July, sent him to London to give 
an account of the state of his army and of 
the condition of the western counties (DfiVE- 
REUX, Lives of the Earls of Essex, p. 423 ; 
Tanner MSS. Ixi. 32). It was to Stapleton 
that Essex addressed his narrative of the 
defeat, and his complaints of the government 
which had left them unsuccoured (RUSH- 
WORTH, vi. 701). As the bosom friend of 
Essex, Stapleton enjoyed considerable influ- 
ence in the House of Commons, where he 
was held to represent the general's opinions 
on questions of war and negotiations (SAN- 
FORD, Studies and Illustrations of the Great 
Rebellion, pp. 541-4, 571). He was also 
a member of the committee of safety (4 July 
1642) and of the committee of both king- 
doms (16 Feb. 1644). The self-denying 
ordinance, which deprived him of his mili- 
tary position, he strongly opposed, and he 
was one of the originators of the plan for 
accusing Cromwell as an incendiary which 
the partisans of Essex projected (WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, i. 349). He was generally 
coupled with Denzil Holies as a leader of the 
English presbyterians. ' What a sway,' said 
Cromwell in 1647, 'Stapleton and Holies 
had heretofore in the kingdom,' adding, ac- 
cording to Major Huntington, that 'he was 
as able to govern the kingdom as either of 



them ' (MASERES, Select Tracts, i. 405). The 
value at which the parliament estimated his 
services was shown by their vote on 1 Dec. 
1645, when they asked the king to make 
Stapleton a baron and endow him with 2,0001. 
a year (Commons' Journals, iv. 361). 

As a staunch presbyterian' Stapleton en- 
joyed great influence with the Scottish com- 
missioners. They relied upon him and his 
friends to counterwork the independents 
and the army. ' Stapleton and Holies, and 
some others of the eleven members,' wrote 
Baillie in September 1647, ' had been the 
main persuaders of us to remove out of 
England and leave the king to them, 
upon assurance, which was most likely, that 
this was the only means to get the evil 
army disbanded, the king and peace settled 
according to our minds ' (Letters, iii. 16). 
Just before the disbanding of the army was 
attempted, Stapleton incurred the special 
animosity of the soldiers by assaulting a 
certain Major Tulidah, who was one of the 
presenters of a petition the circulation of 
which parliament wished to prevent. 
Tulidah was imprisoned for a week by 
order of the commons, and Stapleton was 
denounced as seeking to destroy the right of 
petition. When the eleven presbyterian 
leaders in the commons were impeached by 
the army (16 June 1647), he was accused, 
like the rest, of endeavouring to overthrow 
the liberties of the subject and to cause 
another civil war, to which the charge of 
obstructing the relief of Ireland was added 
((TARDINER, Great Civil War, iii. 256, 298 ; 
LTLBURNE, Rash Oaths Unwarrantable, 
1647, pp. 36-42). On 6 July more detailed 
articles were presented, to which a lengthy 
answer was drawn up by William Prynne on 
behalf of the eleven (Old Parliamentary His- 
tory, xvi. 69, 116). The accused members 
preferred to withdraw from the house rather 
than to let the impeachment take its course, 
and on 20 July the house gave them leave 
to absent themselves and passes to go be- 
yond seas if they desired (Commons' Journals, 
v. 251). After the riots of 26 July, how- 
ever, Stapleton and the accused members re- 
turned to the house, and he was one of the 
committee of safety originally appointed on 
11 June, and revived 30 July 1647 (RUSH- 
WORTH, vi. 653). When the resistance of 
the city collapsed, he and five others of the 
accused obtained passes from the speaker 
and took ship off Essex for Calais (14 Aug.) 
The partisans of the army were eager to pre- 
vent their escape, and a certain Captain 
Lamming overtook the fugitives a few miles 
from Calais, and forced them to return. 
Vice-admiral Batten, commander of the 

H2 



Stapleton 



100 



Stapleton 



fleet in the Downs, at once dismissed them 
(RrsHWORTH. vii. 785), and they landed at 
Calais on 17 Aug. Stapleton was ill, and 
the hardships of the journey increased his 
fever to such an extent that he died on the 
following day, at an inn called the Three 
Silver Lions, and, as his illness was sus- 
pected to be the plague, he was buried imme- 
diately in the protestant burying-ground at 
Calais (A True Relation of Captain Batten, 
&c., 1647, 4to ; A Short and True Narrative 
of the Sickness and Death of Sir Philip Staple- 
ton, 1647, 4to). 

A friendly biographer, supposed to be 
Denzil Holies, describes Stapleton as a man 
'of a thin body and a weak constitution, 
but full of spirit,' adding that he was ' quick 
of apprehension, sound of judgment, of 
clear and good elocution' (ib. pp. 3, 5). 
Robert Baillie styles him, ' after Holies, the j 
second gentleman for all gallantry in Eng- 
land' (Letters, iii. 19). The Sutherland 
Clarendon in the Bodleian Library contains 
four engraved portraits of Stapleton. 

Stapleton married twice : first, the widow 
of John Gee, of Bishop Burton, Yorkshire, 
1627. By her he left four children: (1) 
John Stapleton of Warter ; (2) Robert 
Stapleton of Wighill (d. 1675) ; (3) Kathe- 
rine, married George Leeson of Dublin ; 
(4) Mary, married first one Bigges of Gray's 
Inn ; secondly, Thomas,fourth viscount Fitz- 
william, of Merrion in Ireland. By his second 
wife, Barbara, daughter of Henry Lennard, 
twelfth lord Dacre of Hurstmonceaux, whom 
he married at St. Anne's, Blackfriars, 6 Feb. 
1638 (MALCOLM, Londinium Redivivum,, ii. 
376), he had two sons Henry and Philip 
and a daughter Frances, who married Sir 
Nathaniel Powell of Ewhurst Place, Sussex, 
besides other children who died young. 

[The only biography of Stapleton is contained 
in a series of articles by H.E. Chetwynd-Stapyl- 
ton, printed in the Journal of the Yorkshire 
Archaeological Society, 1883-4, vol. viii., and re- 
printed in 1896 under the title of The Stapel- 
tons of Yorkshire.] C. H. F. 

STAPLETON or STAPYLTON, SIB 
ROBERT (d. 1669), dramatic poet and trans- 
lator, was the third son of Richard Staple- 
ton of Carlton by Snaith, Yorkshire, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Pierre- 
point of Holm Pierrepoint (DUGDALE, Visi- 
tation of Yorkshire, ed. Davies, p. 265). 
He was educated in the Benedictine convent 
of St. Gregory at Douay, where he became 
a professed monk of the order on 30 March 
1625 (WELDON, Chronicle, Appendix, p. 9). 
But being, as Wood observes, 'too gay and 
poetical to be confined within a cloyster,' he 
left the Benedictines, turned protestant, and 



was appointed one of the gentlemen in 
ordinary of the privy chamber to Prince 
Charles. He followed the king when his 
majesty left London, and was knighted at 
Nottingham on 13 Sept. 1642 (METCALFE, 
Book of Knights, p. 199). After the battle 
of Edgehill he accompanied the king to Ox- 
ford, where he was created D.C.L. in Novem- 
ber 1642. He remained at Oxford until its 
surrender to Fairfax in May 1645. Under 
the Commonwealth he lived a studious life, 
and at the Restoration he was made one of 
the gentlemen ushers to the privy chamber. 
Stapleton died on 10 or 11 July 1669, and 
was buried on the 15th near the vestry door 
of Westminster Abbey (CHESTEE, Registers 
of Westminster Abbey, p. 170). His will, 
dated 11 June 1669, was proved on 29 July by 
Elizabeth Simpson of Westminster, widow, 
to whom he left the bulk of his estate 
(although he had a wife living, whom he 
barely mentioned) in consideration, as he 
alleged, of the great care she had taken of 
him during his long illness. His wife was a 
Mrs. Hammond, widow (born Mainwaring). 
For the stage he wrote: 1. 'The Royal 
Choice,' a play entered in the register of the 
Stationers' Company, 29 Nov. 1653. No copy 
of this appears to have been preserved. 
2. 'The Slighted Maid,' London, 1663, 4to, a 
comedy, in five acts and in verse, which 
Pepys saw acted at the Duke's House, Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, on coronation day, 20 May 
1603. The cast included the Bettertons, 
Cave Underhill [q. v.], and other well- 
known actors. Genest styles it ' a pretty 
food comedy ' (History of the Stage, i. 46). 
. 'The Step-Mother,' London, 1664, a 
tragi-comedy, in five acts and in verse, 
acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields by the Duke 
of York's servants on 28 May 1663. The 
cast was much the same as for the preceding 
play, but Genest savs ' the serious scenes of 
it are bad ' (ib. i. 46-7). 4. ' The Tragedie 
of Hero and Leander,' London, 1669, 8vo, in 
five acts and in verse. ' This is an indifferent 
tragedy it is founded on the poem of 
Musseus the original story being very 
simple, Stapylton was obliged to make large 
additions to it in order to form 5 acts 
he has not been happy in these additions ' 
(ib. x. 142). It was never acted. 

Stapleton published the following trans- 
lations : 5. ' Pliny's Panegyricke : a Speech 
in the Senate, wherein publick Thanks are 
presented to the Emperor Trajan,' Oxford, 
1644, 4to, from theLatin of Pliny the younger, 
illustrated with annotations. 6. ' The first 
Six Satyrs of Juvenal . . . with annota- 
tions clearing the obscure places out of His- 
tory, Laws, and Ceremonies of the Romans,' 



Stapleton 



101 



Stapleton 



Oxford, 1644, 8vo. Dr. Bartholomew Holy- 
day used to say that Stapleton made use of 
his translation of Juvenal, having borrowed 
it in manuscript. 7. ' The Loves of Hero and 
Leander: a Greek poem [by Musaeus] trans- 
lated into English verse, with annotations 
upon the original,' Oxford, 1645, 4to ; Lon- 
don, 1647, 8vo. 8. ' Juvenal's Sixteen Satyrs 
[translated in verse]. Or, a Survey of the 
Manners and Actions of Mankind. With 
arguments, marginall notes, and annota- 
tions,' London, 1647, 8vo ; 1660, fol. 1673, 
8vo. 9. Translation of Faminius Strada's 
' De Bello Belgico,' or ' The History of the 
Low-Countrey Warres,' London, 1650 and 
1667, fol. 

He has verses (a) before Harding's ' Sicily 
and Naples,' a play, 1640; (6) before the 
Earl of Monmouth's ' Romulus and Tar- 
quine,' 1648; (c) before Cartwright's 'Come- 
dies,' 1651 ; (d) before Gayton's ; Case of 
Longevity,' 1659; (e) in Ashmolean MS. 36. 

Langbaine states that Stapleton executed 
the translations of De Marmet's ' Entertain- 
ments of the Cours ; or Academical Conver- 
sations,' 1658, and of Cyrano de Bergerac's 
1 2e\r)vapxia, or the Government of the 
World in the Moon,' 1659, both published 
under the name of Thomas Saint Serf. It 
appears, however, that the real translator 
was Thomas Sydserf or Saint Serfe, son of 
Thomas Sydserf [q. v.], bishop of Galloway 
and afterwards of Orkney (Miscellany of the 
Abbotsford Club, i. 85). 

There are three engraved portraits of 
Stapleton. One is by William Marshall. 

SIR MILES STAPLETON (1628-1707), third 
son of Sir Robert's eldest brother Gilbert 
(<Z. 1634), by his wife Eleanor, daughter 
of Sir John Gascoigne of Barnbow, first 
baronet, was born in 1628, and created a 
baronet on 20 March 1661-2. Being charged 
by the informer Bolron with being concerned 
in the plot of Sir Thomas Gascoigne [q. v.], 
in June 1680 he was sent from London to be 
tried at York (LTJTTKELL, Historical Relation 
of State Affairs, i. 48). He was brought to 
the bar in the following month, but he chal- 
lenged so many jurors that the trial was 
postponed. It came off on 18 July 1681, 
and there were three witnesses against him, 
viz. Bolron, Mowbray, and John Smith of 
Wai worth, Durham. Sir Miles defended 
himself energetically, and brought many 
persons to throw discredit on the testimony 
of the informers. The jury immediately 
acquitted him ; but, as Dodd observes, it is 
very surprising that when Thomas Thwing 
was afterwards tried upon the same evi- 
dence, he was condemned and executed 
{Church Hist. iii. 254). Sir Miles was a 



gentleman of great honour, position, and 
ability. On his death in 1707 the baronetcy 
became extinct. His first wife was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Robert Bertie, earl of 
Lindsey [q. v.], by whom he had three sons, 
all dying in infancy ; his second wife was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 'Thomas Langue- 
ville. 

[Chetwynd-Stapylton's Stapeltons of York- 
shire, 1897, pp. 165, 169; Addit. MS. 24489, 
pp. 81, 366; Ashmolean MS. 788, art. 27; 
Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, 1812, i. 682, ii. 298, 
iii. 228, 283, 300 ; Briiggemann's English Edi- 
tions of Greek and Latin Authors, pp. 13, 679, 
699 ; Burke's Extinct Baronetage, p. 506 ; Gib- 
ber's Lives of the Poets, ii. 102 ; Courthope's 
Synopsis, p. 188 ; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 252, 
253; Foster's Alumni Oxon. (1500-1714), iv. 
1413; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 5th 
edit. iii. 134, ir. 53 ; Hazlitt's Manual of Old 
English Plays ; Langbaine's Dramatick Poets, 
p. 491 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn, p. 2495 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 39; Depositions 
from the Castle of York, 1861.] T. C. 

STAPLETON, THEOBALD (fi. 1636), 
Irish writer, who called himself in Irish 
Teaboid Gallduf, was a native of Kilkenny 
of English descent, but does not seem to 
have been related to the Stapleton? of York- 
shire (CHETWYND-STAPYLTON, Stapeltons of 
Yorkshire, 1897). He was ordained priest 
and lived for some time in Flanders. In 
1639 he published in Brussels, ' Catechismus 
seu Doctrina Christiana Latino-Hibernica,' 
dedicated to Ferdinand, infant of Spain. He 
says that his motive in making the transla- 
tion was that Irish was too much considered 
the exclusive property of poets and secular 
authors, so that the Irish themselves often 
said prayers in Latin, though knowing no 
language but Irish. The book, which is a 
quarto, was printed by Hubert Anthony 
Velpius at the Golden Eagle near the palace 
in Brussels, and is remarkable as the first 
book in which the Irish language was 
printed in Roman type. The title-page has 
a vignette copied with slight differences 
from that of the Sgathan an Chrabhaidh 
printed at Louvain in 1616. At the end is 
printed ' Modh ro vras na teanghan Ghaoi- 
laige do leagh,' directions for reading Irish. 
The Irish letters, diphthongs, tripthongs, 
aspiration, eclipsis, and some contractions are 
explained in nineteen sections. 

[Works ; Anderson's Historical Sketches of 
the Native Irish, 2nd ed. 1830; Kev. C. P. 
Meehan's Rise and Fall of the Irish Franciscan 
Monasteries, 6th ed.] N. M. 

STAPLETON, THOMAS, D.D. (1535- 
1598), catholic controversialist, born at 
Hentield, Sussex, in July 1535, was son of 



Stapleton 



102 



Stapleton 



William Stapleton, steward to the bishop 
of Winchester, and a member of the Carlton 
family of Stapleton (CHETWYND-STAPYL- 
TON, Stapeltons of Yorkshire, 1897, p. 161). 
Thomas acquired the rudiments of grammar 
in the free school at Canterbury under John 
Twyne [q. v.] In 1550 he was admitted a 
scholar at Winchester, where the entry in 
the register states that he was then twelve 
years of age and that he was a native of, or 
a resident at, Oving, Sussex (KtRBY, Win- 
chester Scholars, p. 129). He was elected to a 
fellowship at New College, Oxford, 18 Jan. 
1552-3, and graduated B.A. on 2 Dec. 1556 
(Oxford Univ. Register, i. 233). Shortly 
before the death of Queen s Mary he was 
collated by Bishop Christopherson to the 
prebend of Woodhorne in Chichester Cathe- 
dral. Being attached to the ancient form 
of religion, he left the country soon after 
Queen Elizabeth's accession, and settled at 
Louvain, where he applied himself to the 
study of theology. Subsequently he pro- 
ceeded to the university of Paris in order to 
complete his knowledge of the sacred 
tongues, and then ' for devotion sake ' paid 
a visit to Rome. On his return to Louvain 
he found letters from his father desiring his 
immediate attendance in England. He com- 
plied with the request, and was required by 
his diocesan Bishop Barlow to abjure the 
authority of the pope, and to acknowledge 
the spiritual supremacy of the queen. In 
consequence of his refusal he was deprived 
of his prebend early in 1563, and he again 
retired to Louvain, taking with him his 
father and some other members of his family 
(Records of the English Catholics, i. 306 ; 
CARTWRIGHT, Rape of Bramber, p. 275). 

In 1569 William (afterwards Cardinal) 
Allen [q. v.] invited him to the newly 
founded English College in the university 
of Douay, where he rendered signal service 
both as a teacher and a benefactor ; he was 
appointed lecturer in divinity at Anchin 
College with a considerable salary. One of 
his pupils at Douay was John Pits [q. v.] 
When the university of Douay became aware 
of his extraordinary qualifications, he was 
unanimously chosen public professor of di- 
vinity, and he and Allen completed the 
degree of D.D. on 10 July 1571. He also 
obtained a canonry in the collegiate church 
of St. Amatus at Douay. In consequence 
of the political disturbances in Belgium, 
Stapleton, Gregory Martin [q. v.], and Dr. 
Richard White [q. v.] proceeded to Rome on 
9 Nov. 1576. Stapleton returned to the col- 
lege on 14 June 1577. 

Having resolved to join a religious order, 
he resigned his canonry and professorship, 



and entered the Society of Jesus in the Bel- 
gian province in 1584, but he left the novi- 
tiate before pronouncing the vows (MoRE, 
Hist. Prov. Anglicantv Soc. Jesu, p. 29). 
Dodd says it was by Allen's persuasion that 
he forsook the noviceship, but the 'Douay 
Diary ' and Stapletou's metrical autobio- 
graphy concur in stating that ill-health 
was the cause of his not continuing in it 
(CONSTABLE, Specimen of Amendments to- 
\ Dodd's Church Hist. pp. 119-22; DODD, 
; Apology for the Church Hist, p. 129). 
I Stapleton now returned to his canonry of St. 
Amatus, which he retained until 1590. 
Philip II, by letters patent dated 13 July 
1590, conferred upon him the chair of holy 
scripture at Louvain, vacant by the death of 
Michael Baius, together with the canonry 
j of St. Peter, which was annexed to the pro- 
fessorship. Shortly afterwards the king pre- 
j sented him to the deanery of Hilveren- 
j beeck, in the diocese of Bois-le-Duc. The 
latter benefice was worth a thousand florins 
a year, and that sum, added to what he 
already possessed, and to the fees which he 
obtained as a private tutor to youths of 
good family, enabled him to render pecu- 
niary assistance to his exiled fellow-country- 
men (PAQTJOT, Hist. Litteraire des Pays- 
Bus, ii. 526). 

Stapleton's fame as a controversialist 
had spread all over Europe, and Pope Cle- 
ment VIII esteemed his writings so highly 
that he ordered portions of them to be read 
publicly at his table. In 1596 the pontiff 
twice invited him to Rome: first, with an 
offer of residence in the household of Car- 
dinal Aldobrandino, the pope's nephew ; and 
the second time with the promise of a chair 
in the Sapienza. Stapleton declined both 
invitations ; but in January 1596-7 he ac- 
cepted from his holiness a third offer of an 
appointment as prothonotary apostolic. His 
friends believed that he would be created a 
cardinal. Father Agazzari, rector of the 
English College at Rome, was alarmed at 
the prospect of Stapleton's promotion to the 
purple, and suggested on 25 Sept. 1596 to 
Parsons, who was at Madrid, the promotion 
of an ecclesiastic of whose fidelity to the 
crown of Spain there could be no doubt. 
Stapleton wrote from Louvain to Parsons at 
Madrid in 1597 that he was, and sincerely 
intended to remain, a true and trusty servant 
to the king of Spain ' though I hap to live, 
and perhaps to continue, in the court of 
Rome.' Stapleton intended to set out for 
Rome in August 1597, but, either from ill- 
ness or some other cause, remained at Lou- 
vain. Dr. Humphrey Ely implies that there 
was some other reason, for he writes : ' The 



Stapleton 



103 



Stapleton 



first man you [i.e. Father Parsons] name is 
M. D. Stapleton " whom his Holiness pur- 
posed to prefer to higher dignity." It' he 
were now alive, he would tell another tale 
against those that hindered him from that 
higher dignity, and that told him a tale in 
his ear when he was ready to put his foot 
into his litter, and made him stay at home 
and lose that " higher dignity " ' (ELY, Cer- 
taine Briefe Notes, &c., 1603, p. 254). Sta- 
pleton died at Louvain on 12 Oct. (N.S.) 
1598, and was buried in the church of St. 
Peter, where a monument was erected to his 
memory with a long Latin inscription, which 
has been printed by Pits (De Anglice Scrip- 
toribus, p. 797). He left all his books and 
manuscripts to the English College at Douay ; 
but Dodd, after a diligent search, was unable 
to find any of the manuscripts. 

Wood calls Stapleton 'the most learned 
Roman catholic of all his time,' and it is 
generally admitted that he was a most skil- 
ful controversialist. -Even his chief adver- 
sary, William Whitaker [q.v.j, paid a willing 
tribute to his powers and erudition. Staple- 
ton attempted to introduce some moderation 
at least into the theory of the relations 
between the papal authority and civil go- 
vernments. He disclaimed any suzerainty 
of the pope over princes, and he denied that 
the pope had any right to dethrone them 
for any merely civil cause. At the same time 
he held that the pope could justly interfere 
with temporal governments when they were 
hostile or detrimental to the catholic reli- 
gion, and that the pope might excite the 
people to throw olf the authority of their 
prince and to dethrone him ; and if this did 
not succeed, the prince might give the 
throne to some catholic prince. Stapleton 
was one of the English writers on whose 
information Pius V mainly relied when he 
issued his famous bull against Queen Eliza- 
beth . His principal polemical opponents were 
Dr. William Fulke, Dr. William Whitaker, 
Dr. John Rainolds, Bishop Jewell, and Dr. 
John Bridges, bishop of Oxford. 

His portrait, engraved by L. Gualtier and 
representing him in a doctor of divinity's 
habit, forms the frontispiece of his collected 
works (GRANGER, Biogr. Hist. i. 224). It is 
reproduced in Richardson's collection of ' En- 
gravings illustrating Granger's Biographical 
History of England' (vol. iii.) 

Stapleton's principal works are: 1. 'The 
History of the Church of Englande. Com- 
piled by Venerable Bede, Englishman. Trans- 
lated out of Latin into English,' Antwerp, 
1565, 4to ; St. Omer, 1622, 8vo. 2. A trans- 
lation from the Latin of Frederic Staphylus's 
' Apologie, intreating of the true and right 



vnderstanding of holy Scripture,' Antwerp, 
1565, 4to. To this is appended a ' Dis- 
cours of the Translatour vppon the doc- 
trine of the protestants, which he trieth by 
the three first founders and fathers thereof, 
Martin Luther, Philip Melancthon, and 
especially lohn Caluin.' 3. ' A Fortresse of 
the Faith first planted amonge vs english- 
men, and continued hitherto in the vniuer- 
sall Church of Christ. The faith of which 
time Protestants call Papistry,' Antwerp, 
1565, 4to. 4. ' A returne of vntruthes vpon 
M. lewels Replie,' Antwerp, 1566, 4to. 5. 'A 
Counterblast to M. Homes vayne blaste 
against M. Fekenham,' Louvain, 1567, 4to. 
The substance of the ' Counterblast ' was 
in reality penned by Fekenham, who was 
in custody in England, and who requested 
Stapleton to revise the manuscript and to 
publish the work in his own name. 6. ' Of 
the express Word of God,' Louvain, 1567, 
from the Latin of Cardinal Hosius. 7. ' In 
Laudem Franc. Richardoti Atrebat. Episc. 
Oratio Funebris, Duaci habita MDLXXIIII 
mense Augusto,' Douay, 1608, 4to. 8. ' Ora- 
tiones Funebres,' Antwerp, 1577. 9. 'Prin- 
cipiorum Fidei doctrinalium Demonstratio 
methodica, per controuersias septem in libris 
duodecim tradita,' Paris, 1578, 1579, and 
1582, with a thirteenth book. 10. ' Speculum 
pravitatis hsereticae per orationes quasi ad 
oculum demonstrate/ Douay, 1580. 11. 'Da 
Universa Justificationis Doctrina, hodie con- 
troversa, lib. xii.,' Paris, 1581. 12. ' Tres 
Thomse ; seu res gestse S. Thomse apostoli, 
S. Thomse archiepisc. Cantuar. et martyris, 
et Thomse Mori Anglise quondam cancel- 
larii/ Douay, 1588, 8vo ; Cologne, 1612, 8vo. 
The ' Life of More ' was in 1689 printed both 
separately (Gratz [1689], 12mo), and as a 
preface to More's collected Latin works [see 
under MORE, SIR THOMAS] ; and a French 
translation, by A. Martin, appeared at Paris 
(1849, 8vo), 'avec une introduction, des 
notes et commentaires par M. Audin.' 
13. ' Promptuarium Morale super Evangelia 
Dominicalia totius anni. Pars Hyemalis,' 
Antwerp, 1591 ; Cologne, 1615 ; Paris, 1617, 
8vo. ' Pars ^Estivalis,' Venice, 1593, 1594 ; 
Mayence, 1610 ; Cologne, 1620 ; both parts, 
2 vols. Antwerp, 1613, 8vo; Paris, 1 vol. 
1627, 8vo. 14. 'Promptuarium Catholi- 
cum in Evangelia Dominicalia totius Anni,' 
Cologne, 1592, 1602; Paris, 1617, 8vo. 
15. ' Promptuarium Catholicum in Evange- 
lia Ferialia totius Quadragesimse,' reprinted 
Paris, 1617, 8vo. 16. ' Promptuarium Catho- 
licum in Evangelia Festorum totius Anni,' 
Cologne, 1592 ; Antwerp, 1608. 17. Re- 
lectio Scholastica et Compendiaria Principio- 
rum Fidei Doctrinalium,' Antwerp, 1592 ; 



Stapleton 



104 



Stapley 



Louvain, 1596. 18. ' Authoritatis Eccle- 
siasticae circa S. Scripturarum approbationem 
. . . Defensio . . . contra Disputationem de 
Scriptura Sacra G. Whitakeri,' Antwerp, 
1592, 8vo (cf. Lambeth MS. 182 : ' De eccle- 
siae autoritate ex dictatis eximii viri Thomae 
Stapletoni '). 19. ' Apologia pro rege catho- 
lico Philippe II Hispaniae rege, contra varias 
et falsas accusationes Elizabethse Anglise 
reginae, per edictum suum publicatas et ex- 
cusas, authore Didymo Veridico Henfildano,' 
Constance, 1592, 8vo (Letters and Memorials 
of Cardinal Allen, p. 339). The quaint 
pseudonym, being interpreted, seems to mean 
'Thomas the Stable-toned (or truth-speak- 
ing) Henfieldite.' 20. ' Antidota Evangelica 
in quatuor Evangelia,' Antwerp, 1595. 
21. 'Antidota Apostolica in Acta Aposto- 
lorum,' Antwerp, 1595. 22. ' Antidota 
Apostolica in Epist. Pauli ad Romanes,' Ant- 
werp, 1595. 23. 'Antidota Apostolica in duas 
Epistolas ad Corinthios,' Antwerp, 1598, 
1600. 24. ' Orationes Catecheticse, sive 
Manuale Peccatorum, de Septem Peccatis 
Capitalibus,' Antwerp, 1598; Lyons, 1599. 
25. ' Vere admiranda : seu de Magnitudine 
Romanae Ecclesiae Libri duo ' (edited by 
Christopher ab Assonvilla, lord of Alteville), 
Antwerp, 1599, 4to; Rome, 1600, 8vo ; 
Bruges, 1881, 8vo. 26. ' Orationes Aca- 
demicse Miscellanese ; ' some of these were 
published in 1602. 27. ' Oratio Academica ; 
an politic! horum temporum in numero Chris- 
tianorum sint habendi?' Munich, 1608, 8vo. 

His collected writings were published in 
four huge folio volumes under the title of 
' Opera omnia ; nonnulla auctius et emenda- 
tius, quaedam jam antea Anglice scripta, 
nunc primum studio et diligentia doctorum 
virorum Anglorum Latine reddita ' (Paris, 
1620). Prefixed to the first volume is a 
curious autobiography of Stapleton in Latin 
hexameter verse, and a brief sketch of his 
life by Henry Holland, licentiate of theology 
at Douay. 

[Metrical autobiography ; Life by Holland ; 
Ames's Typogrr. Autiq. ed. Herbert ; Dodd's 
Church Hist. ii. 84 ; Douay Diaries, pp. Ixxiii, 
civ, 441 ; Duthillceul's Bibl. Douaisieune, 2nd 
edit. pp. 36, 371 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714, iv. 1413 ; Fuller's Worthies; Laity's Direc- 
tory, 1812, with portrait; Lansdowne MS. 982, 
f. 209 ; Lower's Worthies of Sussex, p. 275 ; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn ; Molanus, Hist, 
de Louvain, 1861, i. 481 ; Parker Society Pub- 
lications (G-ough's gen. index) ; Simpson's Bio- 
graphy of Campion, pp. 59, 368 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Eliz. 1547-80 p. 150, 1598-1601 
p. 488 ; Strype's Works (gen. index) ; Tablet, 
1888, pt. ii. pp. 657, 705, 745, 785, 826 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 
669.] T. C. 



STAPLETON, THOMAS (1805-1849), 
antiquary, born in 1805, was the second 
son of Thomas Stapleton of Carlton Hall, 
Yorkshire, by his first wife, Maria Juliana, 
daughter of Sir Robert Gerard, bart. On 
the death of his father in 1839 he succeeded 
to some landed property near Richmond, 
Yorkshire. He was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries on 15 Jan. 1839, and, 
being the intimate friend of John Gage Roke- 
wode [q. v.], the director of that body, he 
took a zealous interest in its operations. 
He was appointed one of its vice-presi- 
dents in 1846. His most valuable literary 
production was the prefatory exposition of 
the rolls of the Norman exchequer, printed 
at the expense of the Society of Antiquaries 
under the title of ' Magni Rotuli Scaccarii 
Normannise sub Regibus Angliae,' 2 vols. 
1841-4. He also contributed several learned 
papers to the ' Archseologia.' At the meet- 
ing of the Archaeological Institute at York 
in 1846 he read a long memoir (pp. 230) 
entitled ' Historical Details of the Ancient 
Religious Community of Secular Canons in 
Y ork prior to the Conquest of England, having 
the name of the Church of the Holy Trinity, 
otherwise Christ Church, showing its subse- 
quent conversion into a Priory of Benedic- 
tine Monks . . . with Biographical Notices 
of the Founder, Ralph Paynell, and of his 
Descendants.' Stapleton became a fellow of 
the Royal Society. He was also one of the 
founders of the Camden Society, and under- 
took one of its earliest works, ' The Plumpton 
Correspondence,' 1839, which, as a collection 
of fifteenth-century letters, is inferior only 
to that of the Pastons. He afterwards edited, 
for the same society in 1846, the chronicle 
of London, extending from 1178 to 1274, 
entitled ' De Antiquis Legibus Liber.' His 
last work for the Camden Society was the edi- 
tion of the 'Chronicon Petroburgense,' 1849. 
He died at Cromwell Cottage, Old Bromp- 
ton, on 4 Dec. 1849. His ' Historical Me- 
moirs of the House of Vernon' (pp. 115), an 
incomplete work, was privately printed in 
London about 1855, 4to. 

[Index to the Archseologia ; Brace's Pref. to 
Chronicon Petroburgense, 1849; Gent. Mag. 
1850, i. 180, 322 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), 
Suppl. pp. 39, 42, 43 ; H. E. Chetwynd-Stapyl- 
ton's Stapeltons of Yorkshire, p. 105 n. ; Nichols's 
Cat. of the Works of the Camden Soc. pp. 3, 27, 
37.] T. C. 

STAPLEY, ANTHONY (1590-1655), 
regicide, baptised at Framfield on 30 Aug. 
1590, was the son of Anthony Stapley of 
Framfield, Sussex, by his third wife, Ann, 
daughter of John Thatcher of Priesthawes, 



Stapley 



Stapley 



Sussex. The Stapley family removed about 
1615 from Framfield to Patcham. Anthony 
represented the borough of New Shoreham in 
the parliaments of 1624 (elected 21 Jan. 
1623-4) and of 1625 (elected 2 May), and 
the borough of Lewes in that of 1628 (elected 
26 Feb. 1627-8), having unseated Sir George 
Rivers by petition. He was returned both 
for the county of Sussex and for the borough 
of Lewes to the Short parliament in March 
1639-40, when he elected to sit for the county. 
He was again chosen by the county on 22 Oct. 
1640 (Long parliament), and continued to 
represent it in the parliaments of 1653 and 
of 1654. 

In January 1639-40 Stapley, then a justice 
of the peace, was reported to Dr. William 
Bray (d. 1644) [q. v.J, Laud's chaplain, as 
causing trouble to the churches by his puri- 
tan leanings. On the outbreak of the civil 
war he received a colonel's commission in 
the parliamentary army, and was present at 
the siege of Chichester in December 1642 
under Sir William "Waller [q. v.J He was 
left as governor of the town and garrison 
when Waller moved on to the siege of Arun- 
del. On 22 Sept. 1643 he took the covenant. 
At the beginning of 1644 he raised objections 
to the quartering in the town of some of 
Waller's horse. The dispute was referred to 
a committee of the House of Commons, and 
finally to the committee of both kingdoms 
on 26 Feb. He was ordered by both bodies 
to observe Waller's commands. While de- 
tained in London he was exonerated from 
all blame in the event of disaster at Chi- 
chester. He resumed the command of the 
town and garrison at the termination of the 
proceedings early in March. He retained 
his governorship till 1645, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Algernon Sidney [q. v.] 
In January 1644 he was deputy lieutenant 
of the county of Sussex. 

Stapley was one of the judges of Charles I. 
He was present at Westminster Hall on 
27 Jan. 1648-9 when sentence was pro- 
nounced, and signed the death-warrant on 
29 Jan. He was elected a member of the 
first council of state of the Commonwealth 
on 17 Feb. 1648-9 (when he signed the en- 
gagement), and re-elected on 17 Feb. 1649- 
1650, 25 Nov. 1651, 30 Nov. 1652, and 
9 July 1653. He was one of Cromwell's 
interim council of thirteen (29 April to 
14 July 1653), and of the supreme assembly 
called on 6 June 1653. He had joined the 
admiralty committee of the committee of 
both kingdoms on 6 June 1649, was nomi- 
nated vice-admiral for the county of Sussex 
on 22 Feb. 1650, and took the oath of 
secrecy the following day. He died early 



in 1655, and was buried at Patcham on 
31 Jan. At the Restoration he was one of 
the regicides notified as dead, and excepted 
from the act of pardon and oblivion of 
6 June 1660. 

Stapley married Ann, daughter of George 
Goring of Danny, and sister of George, lord 
Goring [q. v.] She was buried at Patcham 
on 11 JNov. 1637. By her Stapley had three 
sons and one daughter. Stapley married a 
second wife, ' Dame Anne Clarke,' who pre- 
deceased him on 15 Jan. 1654. 

SIR JOHN STAPLEY (1628-1701), the second 
but eldest surviving son, was baptised at 
Patcham on 29 June 1628. He represented 
the county of Sussex in the parliaments of 
1654 and 1656 (elected 20 Aug.), and the 
borough of Lewes in the first Restoration 
parliament of 1661 (elected 23 March 
1660-1). In January 1655-6 he was ap- 
pointed deputy lieutenant of the county. 
In 1657 Stapley, abandoning the political 
views of his father, became entangled in a 
plot for the return of Charles II. At the 
house of his grandmother, Lady Champion, 
he had come under the influence of Dr. John 
Hewit [q. v.] and John Mordaunt, baron 
Mordaunt (1627-1675) [q. v.] Ostensibly 
with a view to ' the expiation of his father's 
crime,' he professed himself anxious to ' ven- 
ture his life and his fortune for his majesty's 
restoration.' In June 1657, through the in- 
strumentality of Hewit, he had received from 
the exiled king a commission for the raising 
of a troop of horse and six colonels' com- 
missions, to be distributed at his discretion. 
His interest in the county was considered 
to be great, and his promises of support to 
the royalist party were confident. Doubts 
were, however, thrown upon his ability to 
carry out all his plans (CAETB, Collections, 
ii. 123, 130). Through the treachery of a 
subordinate he fell into the hands of Crom- 
well in the spring of 1658, when he disclosed 
such particulars of the plot as led to the 
arrest of Hewit, Mordaunt, and Sir Henry 
Slingsby [q.v.] Cromwell, however, dismissed 
him with a reproof, presumably on account 
of his friendship with his father. Stapley 
appeared as a witness against Mordaunt 
at his trial on 2 July 1658, but, according 
to Clarendon, answered ' in so disorderly and 
confused a manner that it appeared that he 
had much rather not have said it.' His 
younger brother Anthony was also concerned 
in the plot, and made full disclosures when 
examined by Colonel William Gofte [q. v.] 
and Henry Scobell [q. v.] in April 1658. 
Many of the informations are among the 
Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library. 
At the Restoration Stapley contrived to 



Stark 



106 



Stark 



win the king's favour, and was created a 
baronet on 28 July 1660. Subsequently he 
appears to have retired into private life in 
Sussex. He died in 1701, when the baro- 
netcy became extinct. He married Mary 
(b. 1634), eldest daughter and coheiress of 
Sir Herbert Springett of Broyle Place, Ring- 
wood, Sussex, by whom he had two sons, 
who predeceased him, and several daugh- 
ters. His widow lived till 1708. 

[Berry's County Genealogy Sussex, p. 85 ; 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, i. 36, iv. 300, 
v. 88-91, xvi. 78, 108-9, 113, 116, 119-20; 
Masson's Milton, iv. 13, 224, 354, 446, 501, 505, 
523; Commons' Journals, i. 878, iii. 362, 401, 
403, 616, vi. 146, vii. 37, 42, 303, viii. 61 ; Official 
List of Members of Parliament ; Cal. of State 
Papers, Dom. 1639 to 1654 passim; Vicars's 
Jehovah- Jireh, pp. 234-40; Dallaway's Western 
Sussex, vol. i. pp. 14, 20, vol. n. pt. i. p. 28 ; Rush- 
worth's Memorials, in. ii. 480 ; Nalson's Trial of 
Charles I ; Noble's Lives of the Regicides, pp. 
240-6 ; Horsfield's Sussex, ii. app. pp. 49, 55 ; 
Thurlow State Papers (Birch), passim ; Macrae's 
Cal. of Clarendon State Papers, iii. 281, 312, 
358, 374, 388-9, 405; Clarendon's Hist, of the 
Rebellion (Macrae), vi. 58-9, 63 ; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Baronetage; P. C. C. 189 (Aylett) ; Regi- 
sters of Patcham, Addit. MS. 5698, f. 118.] 

B. P. 

STARK, ADAM (1784-1867), antiquary, 
was born in Edinburgh on 24 Feb. 1784. In 
1804, in connection with his cousin, John 
Stark, he became a printer, but the partner- 
ship was dissolved in 1810. In conjunction 
with J. Richardson he published the 'Hull 
and Lincoln Chronicle ' for some time ; it 
afterwards was known as the ' Lincoln and 
Hull Chronicle.' In 1810 he became a book- 
seller at Gainsborough, and continued that 
business until his retirement in 1844. He died 
at Gainsborough on 31 Dec. 1867, having 
married, first, Ann Trotter of Lincoln; 
secondly, Harriet, daughter of Henry Mozley 
of Gainsborough, and sister of Anne Mozley 
[q. v.], James Bowling Mozley [q. v.}, and 
of Thomas Mozley [q. v.] ; and, thirdly, 
Sarah Wooton of Newington, near Rams- 
gate. 

Stark was the author of: 1. 'The History 
and Antiquities of Gainsborough, with a 
Topographical and Descriptive Account of 
Stow,' 1817; another edit. 1841. 2. 'An 
Account of the Parish of Lea, Lincolnshire,' 
1841. 3. 'The Visitors' Pocket Guide to 
Gainsborough and its Neighbourhood,' 1849. 
4. ' History of the Bishopric of Lincoln,' 1852. 
5. ' Printing : its Antecedents, Origin, His- 
tory, and Results,' 1855. 

[The Travellers' Library, No. 82 in vol. xxv.; 
Gent. Mag. 1868, ii. 250.] G. C. B. 



STARK, JAMES (1794-1859), land- 
scape-painter, was the son of Michael Stark, 
a native of Scotland, who settled as a dyer 
in Norwich, where his son was born on 19 Nov. 
1794. The boy showed an early fondness 
for drawing, and in 1811 was articled for 
three years to John Crome [q. v.], the land- 
scape-painter, whose son, the younger Crome, 
had been his schoolfellow and companion. 
In the same year he sent five landscapes to 
the exhibition of the Norwich Society of 
Artists, of which he was elected a member 
in 1812. In 1811 also he exhibited for the 
first time in London, sending to the Royal 
Academy a 'View on King-Street River, 
Norwich.' In 1814 he came to London, and 
sent to the British Institution a ' Village 
Scene near Norwich,' and in 1815 ' The 
Bathing Place : Morning.' These were fol- 
lowed in 1817 by 'Fishing,' and in 1818 by 
' Penning the Flock ' and ' Lambeth, looking 
towards Westminster Bridge,' and he was 
awarded by the directors a premium of 501. 
In 1817 he was admitted a student of the 
Royal Academy. He began to receive com- 
missions from several leading connoisseurs, 
but before long he was compelled by illness 
to return home, and for three years he did 
no work. In 1830, after an absence of 
twelve years, he came back to London, and 
took up his residence in Chelsea, sending his 
works to the exhibitions of the Royal Aca- 
demy and the Society of British Artists, and 
still more frequently to that of the British 
Institution. In 1834 was completed the 
' Scenery of the Rivers of Norfolk,' engraved 
from Stark's pictures by Edward Goodall, 
William Miller, George Cooke, and others, 
with text by J. W. Robberds. The publi- 
cation of this fine and costly work had been 
commenced in 1827, and the artist narrowly 
escaped serious pecuniary loss. About 1839 
he removed to Windsor, where he painted 
many pictures of the scenery of the Thames, 
but in 1849 he returned again to London, 
for the sake of his son's education in art. 

Stark's style was based on that of Crome, 
but it was much influenced by study of the 
Dutch masters. It was very truthful and 
thoroughly English, but it lacked the rich- 
ness and power of his master. An exhibi- 
tion of his works was held by the Norwich 
Art Circle in 1887. The National Gallery 
possesses his ' Valley of the Yare, near 
Thorpe,' of which there is an etching by 
Francis S. Walker, and the National Gallery 
of Scotland a view in ' Gowbarrow Park.' 
Three views at Hastings, a distant view of 
Windsor, and two other landscapes are in 
the Sheepshanks collection in the South 
Kensington Museum, and a 'Landscape with 



Stark 



107 



Star key 



Cattle' is in the Mappin Art Gallery at 
Sheffield. His picture of ' Sheep- washing, 
Postwick Grove, Norwich,' has been engraved 
in mezzotint by Alfred Skrimshire. 

Stark died at Mornington Place, Hamp- 
stead Road, London, on 24 March 1859. His 
son, Arthur James Stark, is a landscape- 

giinter of merit, who has exhibited at the 
oyal Academy and elsewhere since 1848. 

[Art Journal, 1850 p. 182 with portrait, 1859 
p. 1 35 ; Redgrave's Century of Painters of the Eng- 
lish School, 1866, ii. 372-4; Bryan's Dictionaryof 
Painters and Engravers, eel. Graves and Arm- 
strong, 1886-9, ii. 526; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists of the English School, 1878; Exhibition 
Catalogues of the Royal Academy, British In- 
stitution (Living Artists), and Society of British 
Artists, 1811-59; Exhibition Catalogues of the 
Norwich Society of Artists, 1811-25.] 

R. E. G. 

STARK, WILLIAM (1740-1770), phy- 
sician, born in Birmingham in July 1740, 
was of Irish parentage on his father's side, 
though his mother was a native of Scot- 
land. He studied philosophy at Glasgow 
University, and then proceeded to Edin- 
burgh, where he acquired the friendship of 
William Cullen [q. v.] Thence he came to 
London in 1765, and devoted himself to the 
pursuit of medicine, entering as a pupil at 
St. George's Hospital. He studied anatomy 
under John Hunter (1728-1773) [q. v.], and 
employed himself in making experiments 
on the blood and other animal fluids. On 
2 Sept. 1766 he graduated M.D. at Leyden, 
publishing his thesis, ' Specimen Med. Inaug. 
septem Historias et Dissectiones Dysenteri- 
corum exhibens,' Leyden, 1766, 4to. In June 

1769 he began a series of experiments on 
diet, in which he was greatly encouraged 
by Sir John Pringle [q. v.] The zeal with 
which he tried these experiments on his own 
person ruined his health, and on 23 Feb. 

1770 he fell a victim to his enthusiasm. 
'The Works of the late William Stark . . . 

consisting of clinical and anatomical observa- 
tions, with experiments dietetical and stati- 
cal,' were edited by James Carmichael Smyth 
[q. v.], London, 1788, 4to. 

[Smyth's Introduction to Stark's Works ; ac- 
count of Stark's illness and death appended to 
his Works; Georgian Era, iii. 491; Allibone's 
Diet, of Engl. Lit.] E. I. C. 

STARKE, MARIANA (1762 P-1838), 
writer of guide-books, born about 1762, was 
daughter of Richard Starke by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Isaac Hughes of Banstead, 
Surrey. The father was for some time go- 
vernor of Fort St. George in Madras, and 
later a resident at Epsom, Surrey. Mariana's 
early years were passed in India, where her 



keen observation of Anglo-Indian life after- 
wards afforded material for ' The Sword of 
Peace, or a Voyage of Love,' a comedy which 
was acted at the Haymarket Theatre on 
9 Aug. 1788, with Miss Farren in the cast. 
It was published, Dublin, 1789, 8vo, and it 
was again played at Bath on 23 March 1809. 
Indian colour is also introduced into ' The 
Widow of Malabar,' a tragedy in three acts 
(Dublin, 1791, 8vo; London, 1791, 8vo; 
3rd edit. 1791, 8vo). The epilogue was 
written by Miss Starke's nephew, R. J. 
Hughes Starke (d. at Dinard, Brittany, 
1838). The tragedy was produced at Mrs. 
Crespigny's private theatre, Camberwell, and 
at Covent Garden Theatre in 1798. A third 
dramatic effort was ' The Tournament,' a 
tragedy, London, 1800. All were of slight 
interest. 

A seven years' residence in Italy in atten- 
dance on a consumptive relative led Miss 
Starke to write ' Letters from Italy ' (2 vols. 
London, 1800 ; 2nd edit. 1815 ; translated 
into German, 1802). While in Italy she be- 
came acquainted with the Dowager-countess 
Spencer, at whose suggestion she published 
' The Beauties of Carlo Maria Maggi Para- 
phrased,' with sonnets of her own, Exeter, 
1811, 8vo. Miss Starke had by that date 
removed to Exmouth, but she revisited Italy 
in 1817-19, and published ' Travels on the 
Continent,' London, 1820, 8vo, which was 
followed by her ' Information and Directions 
for Travellers on the Continent ' (5th edit. 
London, 1824, 8vo ; 6th edit. 1828 ; 7th edit. 
1829 ; translated into French, Paris, 1826, 
8vo). It was enlarged and republished as 
' Travels in Europe for the use of Travellers 
on the Continent and likewise in the Island 
of Sicily, to which is added an account of the 
Remains of Ancient Italy ' (8th edit. London, 
1832, 8vo). These guide-books are carefully 
compiled, and proved useful forerunners of 
the labours of Murray and Baedeker. Miss 
Starke died at Milan, on a journey from 
Naples to England, in the spring of 1838, 
aged 76. 

[Genest's Hist, of the Stage, vi. 510, vii. 369, 
viii. 157,x 219; Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, ii. 
345, 405, 813; Gent. Mag. 1838, ii. Ill; Lit. 
Mem. of Living Authors, ii. 276 ; Reuss's Reg. 
of Living Authors, p. 350; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. iii. 87 ; Querard's La France Litteraire, 
ix. 257.] C. F. S. 

STARKEY, GEOFFREY (^.1440), 
compiler of the ' Promptorium Parvulorum.' 
[See GEOFFREY THE GRAMMARIAN.] 

STARKEY, GEORGE (d. 1666), em- 
piric, may be identical with George Starkey, 
born in 1606, son of John Starkey of Leicester- 



Starkey 



108 



Starkey 



shire by his wife Katherine, daughter of 
John Dartneill of Rutland (NICHOLS, Lei- 
cestershire, iii. 728). 

Starkey asserts that he obtained a medical 
degree after a regular course at a university. 
Crossing to America, he practised as a doctor 
in the English settlements. There he met 
the mysterious ' Eirenseus Philalethes ' (see 
below), who initiated him into some of the 
secret methods of transmuting the precious 
metals. In 1646 Starkey returned to Eng- 
land, and from 1650 onwards he rendered 
himself conspicuous by vending quack medi- 
cines, styling himself 'a Philosopher made 
by the fire, and a Professor of that Medicine 
that is real, not Histrionical.' On the 
Restoration he posed as an enthusiastic 
royalist, and addressed a fervent memorial 
to Charles II and the Duke of York, entitled 
' Royal and other Innocent Bloud crying aloud 
to Heaven for due vengeance. By George 
Starkey, a true honourer and faithfull friend 
of his country,' London, 1660, 4to, in which 
he urged the necessity of retaliation on the 
puritan party. In 1666 he ventured to dis- 
sect a plague patient, and fell a victim to his 
zeal. 

He was the author of: 1. 'Nature's Ex- 
plication and Helmont's Vindication; or a 
short and sure Way to a long and sound 
life,' London, 1657, 8vo. 2. 'Pyrotechny 
asserted and illustrated,' London, 1658, 8vo ; 
1696, 8vo. 3. ' The admirable efficacy of oyl 
which is made of Sulphur- Vive,' 1660, 12mo. 

4. ' George Starkey's Pill vindicated,' 4to. 

5. 'A brief Examination and Censure of 
several Medicines,' London, 1664, 12mo. 

6. ' A smart Scourge for a silly, sawcy Fool, 
an answer to letter at the end of a pamphlet 
of Lionell Lockyer,' London, 1665, 4to. 

7. ' An Epistolar Discourse to the author of 
Galeno-Pale' [George Thomson (fi. 1620- 
1680), q. v.], London, 1665, 8vo. 8. ' Liquor 
Alchahest, or a Discourse of that Immortal 
Dissolvent of Paracelsus and Helmont,' Lon- 
don, 1675, 8vo. He has some verses in Hey- 
don's 'Idea of the Law,' London, 1660, 8vo, 
and in his ' Theomagia,' London, 1664, 8vo, 
and wrote two prefaces for ' The Marrow of 
Alchemy, by Eirenseus Philoponus Phila- 
lethes/ London, 1654, 8vo. 

Starkey has been erroneously confused 
with the last-named writer, whose identity 
has not been determined, although it has 
been suggested that his real name was 
Childe. He is at any rate to be distinguished 
not merely from Starkey, his disciple, but 
from both ' Alazonomastix Philalethes,' a 
pseudonym adopted by Henry More (1614- 
1687) [q.v.], and from ' Eugenius Philalethes,' 
the customary signature of Thomas Vaughan 



[q. v.], but, in one case at least, adopted also 
by Eirenaeus Philalethes. Born in England of 
good family about 1622, ' Eirenaeus ' led a 
mysterious life, wandering under various 
names from country to country. According 
to his own statements and those of Starkey, 
he discovered the philosopher's stone in 1645, 
in his twenty-third year, and was a friend 
of Robert Boyle. He was author of: 
1 . ' The Marrow of Alchemy, being an Ex- 
perimental Treatise discovering the secret 
and most hidden mystery of the Philosophers 
Elixer,' London, 1654, 8vo. 2. 'Introitus 
apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium,' Am- 
sterdam, 1667, 8vo (Brit. Mus. Libr.), a 
treatise on practical alchemy which had a 
European reputation, being translated into 
English, French, and Spanish. 3. 'Trac- 
tatus tres : (i.) Metallorum Metamorphosis ; 
(ii.) Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum Coeles- 
tem ; (iii.) Fons Chymicse Veritatis,' Am- 
sterdam, 1668, 8vo ; reprinted in the ' Mu- 
sseum Hermeticum,' Frankfort, 1678, 4to ; 
translated into English ' by a Lover of Art 
and Them,' London, 1694, 8vo. 4. ' Ripley 
Reviv'd ; or an Exposition upon Sir George 
Ripley's Hermetico-Poetical Works,' in five 
parts, London, 1677-8, 8vo. 5. ' Opus Tri- 
partitum de Philosophorum Arcanis. Vi- 
delicet : (i.) Enarratio methodica trium 
Gebri medicinarum ; (ii.) Experimenta de 
prseparatione Mercurii Sophici ; (iii.) Vade 
Mecum philosophicum, sive breve manu- 
ductorium ad Campum Sophiae,' London, 
1678, 8vo ; Amsterdam, 1678, 8vo. 6. The 
Secret of the Immortal Liquor Alchahest, or 
Ignis- Aqua,' published in ' Collectanea Chy- 
mica,' London, 1684, 8vo ; reprinted in ' Col- 
lectanea Chemica,' London, 1893, 8vo. This 
tract is distinct from Starkey's ' Liquor 
Alchahest,' though probably Starkey pos- 
sessed ' Philalethes ' manuscript when he 
wrote his treatise ( Works of Philalethes 
and Starkey ; WAITE, Lives of Alchemical 
Philosophers, 1888, pp. 187-200; WAITE, 
Real Hist, of the Rosicrucians, 1887, pp. 
308-14 ; Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers, 
1815, pp. 88-94, 160-75). 

[Starkey's Works ; Lenglet du Fresnoy's His- 
toire de la Philosophic Hermetique, i. 404, 480, 
iii. 302 ; Gray's Index to Hazlitt.] . I. C. 

STARKEY, SIE HUMPHREY (d. 1486), 
chief baron of the exchequer, was descended 
from the Starkeys of Oulton and Wrenbury, 
Cheshire. He was a member of the Inner 
Temple, and is first mentioned as a lawyer 
in the year-books in Hilary term 1454. 
There are references to him as counsel for 
John Paston in lawsuits in 1464 and 1466 
(Paston Letters, ii. 144, 258). In 1471 he 



Starkey 



109 



Starkey 



was elected recorder of London, and in 
Trinity term 1478 became a serjeant. He 
resigned the recordership on being appointed 
chief baron of the exchequer during the 
short reign of Edward V, on 15 June 1483. 
On the accession of Richard III he was 
knighted, and was continued in his office. 
He also acted as a justice of the common 
pleas during the reign of Richard III (Rot. 
Parl. vi. 332, 341), and was continued in 
both his offices by Henry VII. The last 
fine levied before him was at midsummer 
1486, and he died before 29 Oct. of that 
year. He was buried at St. Leonard's, 
Shoreditch, with his wife Isabella, by whom 
he left four daughters. Starkey purchased 
the manor of Littlehall in Woldham, Kent, 
to which he gave his own name, and where 
he built a house. 

[Hasted's Kent, iv. 404 ; Foss's Judges of 
England; Dugdale's Orig. Jurid. et Chron. 
Series ; Archseologia Cantiana, x. 256 ; autho- 
rities quoted.] C. L. K. 

STARKEY, RALPH (d. 1628),archivist, 
was the second but eldest surviving son of 
John Starkey (d. 1613?) of Barley Hall, 
Cheshire, by his wife Alice (d. 1620), 
daughter of Ralph Button. His family was 
distantly related to that of Thomas Starkey 
[q. v.] On his father's death, about 1613, 
Ralph is said to have been defrauded of his 
estates by his younger brother Henry (d. 
1653), who destroyed their father's will 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1623-5, p. 313), 
and Ralph became a merchant in London. 
His energies were, however, chiefly devoted 
to the collection and transcription of state 
papers and other manuscripts. Before 1619 
he had acquired many important and confi- 
dential papers that had formerly belonged 
to William Davison [q. v.], Queen Eliza- 
beth's secretary of state. The government 
obviously had reason for keeping these papers 
secret, and on 10 Aug. 1619 a warrant was 
issued to Sir Thomas "Wilson authorising 
him to search Starkey's house and seize all 
Davison's papers. This was done on the 
14th, and Wilson delivered to the govern- 
ment a sack of papers containing forty-five 
parcels (Harl MS.28Q, f. 286). Starkey died 
in October 1628 at his residence in Blooms- 
bury. He married Winifred, daughter of 
Richard Poynter of Whitchurch, Shropshire, 
and had issue one son and two daughters. 
D'Ewes describes him as ' an ignorant, mer- 
cenary, indigent man. . . . He had gathered 
together many old deeds and some old manu- 
scripts and coins. But he had great plenty 
of new written collections and divers original 
letters of great moment, and other auto- 



graphs of later time, besides divers old parch- 
ments and other particulars' (Autobigr. i. 
391-2). There was some competition for 
the purchase of these documents, and finally 
D'Ewes secured the best part for 140, to 
be paid in five years (ib. pp. 392-3, 399). The 
agreement made on 22 Oct. 1628 between 
Arthur Barnardiston, Sir Simonds D'Ewes 
[q. v.], Ambrose Scudamore, and Nicholas 
Bragge is in Harleian MS. 97, art. 14. 
D'Ewes's grandson sold them to Sir Robert 
Harley, and they are now in the Harleian 
collection in the British Museum. 

The following are the more important : 
collections relative to the laws, customs, and 
constitution of England in Harleian MSS. 
88, 90, 168, 169, 250; collections and lists 
of papers relative to British history in Har- 
leian MSS. 286, 298, 352, 353. Of these, 
vol. 286 contains many valuable letters from 
Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, Sir Philip 
Sidney, and Sir Francis Walsingham ; and 
vol. 353 is an equally important collection 
of state papers relating to the reign of Ed- 
ward VI, which are not included among 
those calendared in the various calendars 
of state papers. Harleian MS. 253 is a 
volume devoted to ships and shipbuilding in 
the time of Elizabeth ; No. 90 in the same; 
collection comprises the ' contents ' of the 
patent rolls of Edward III, and No. 81 
the acts of the privy council, 20-24 Henry VI. 
Another work of Starkey relating to the 
privy council is a transcript of the council's 
letter-book for 1547-8; the original is lost, 
and Starkey's transcript is printed as an 
appendix to the second volume of the ' Acts 
of the Privy Council,' ed. Dasent. 

Starkey was an author as well as a 
transcriber and collector. A poem entitled 
' Infortunio,' consisting of 581 stanzas, said 
to be written in imitation of Edmund Spen- 
ser, is extant in Harleian MS. 558. A treatise 
on the ' Privilege and Practice of the High 
Court of Parliament ' is extant in Harleian 
MS. 37, and a collection made by Starkey of 
the pedigrees of the Starkey family formerly 
belonged to William RadclyfFe, rouge croix. 

[Harl. MSS. 306 art. 22, 506 arts. 44, 104' 
112, 2012 art. 13; Acts of the Privy Council, 
ed. Dasent, vol. ii. pref. pp. x-xii; Ormerod's 
Cheshire, ii. 103-4.] A. F. P. 

STARKEY, THOMAS (1499?-! 538), 
writer, born about 1499, was the elder son of 
Thomas Starkey (d. 3 May 1529) of Wren- 
bury, Cheshire, by his wife Maud, daughter 
of Sir John Mainwaring of Peover in the 
same county. He was educated at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, graduating B.A. on 30 June 
1516, and proceeding M.A. on 18 March 






Starkey 



no 



Stark ie 



1520-1. At Oxford he learnt both Latin 
and Greek, and after graduating was lecturer 
in natural philosophy at Magdalen. From 
May to Michaelmas 1522 he served as proctor 
on Wolsey's nomination. He was also fellow 
of Magdalen from 1522 to 1524. On 31 July 
1530 Warham, on the resignation of Thomas 
Lupset [q. v.], presented Starkey to the living 
of Great Mongeham, Kent. He was in 
London in November 1531, but soon after- 
wards appears to have accepted some office 
in Reginald Pole's household at Venice and 
Padua. While abroad he graduated LL.D., 
possibly at the latter city. In 1533 he wrote 
to the king, suggesting that the divorce 
should be referred to a general council. He 
returned to London at the end of 1534, when 
he became chaplain to Pole's mother, the 
Countess of Salisbury, and was made, no 
doubt by the intervention of Cromwell, to 
whom he had written (Harl. MS. 283, art. 
60), one of the king's chaplains. He was 
sent to visit the Carthusian Richard Rey- 
nolds (d. 1535) [q. v.] before his execution. 
That Henry thought well of him may be 
gathered from the fact that he commissioned 
him to write to Pole and get his opinion on 
the divorce and the pope's authority. This 
he did on 15 Feb. 1535 (ib. art. 61). Pole 
replied shortly, and important correspondence 
followed, with the result that Pole sent to 
Henry his ' Pro Ecclesiastic* Unitatis De- 
fensione ' in 1536 (cf. DIXON, History of the 
Church of England, i. 433, 434, 442, 482). 
Starkey was now in some danger. He had 
raised hopes which were not satisfied, and he 
seems to have incurred suspicion through his 
somewhat wavering attitude towards the 
question of the royal supremacy. In a letter 
to the king, written in 1536, he gives a very 
fair statement of the wishes of the sincere 
but moderate reformers of the day. 

In his troubles in 1536 he retired to 
Bosham, a little benefice which he held near 
Chichester ; but there, owing to the neigh- 
bourhood of the Poles, he had no peace. He 
remained, however, chaplain to the king, 
who, on 14 Dec. 1536, appointed him master 
of the college of Corpus Christ!, connected 
with the church of St. Lawrence, Candle- 
wick Street, London. He was formally in- 
stituted on 26 Jan. 1536-7. On 24 March 
following the king summoned him to a con- 
ference with the bishops on the invocation 
of saints, purgatory, and other burning ques- 
tions. On 7 Jan. 1537-8 he was placed on 
a commission to inquire into a case of witch- 
craft, and on 24 March preached for the last 
time before the king. He died in the last 
week in August 1538, his will being dated 
the 25th of that month, but not proved until 



2 May 1544 (printed with his works, 
E. E. T. S. 1878). 

Starkey wrote in 1535 'An Essay on Preach- 
ing,' which is in manuscript in the Record 
Office. But his fame rests on two other works. 
His ' Exhortation to Christian Unity,' other- 
wise called ' A Treatise against the Papal 
Supremacy,' was written about 1534, and 
published by Berthelet (n. d.) ; it is extremely 
rare, but a copy was sold at Sotheby's on 

1 July 1885. More celebrated is his ' Dia- 
logue between Pole and Lupset,' which was 
found in manuscript by J. S. Brewer, and 
edited with notes by J. M. Cowper for the 
Early English Text Society in 1871. This 
dialogue gives a detailed account of many 
evils from which England suffered at the 
time it was written, and compares with the 
' Commonweal of this Realm of England ' 
[see under STAFFORD, WILLIAM, 1554-1612]. 
But Starkey's ' Dialogue ' also has an im- 
portant place in the history of the science 
of politics as an attempt to define the con- 
ditions of a true commonwealth. Many of 
Starkey's letters were edited by S. J. Herr- 
tage in 1878 for the same society. Further 
letters are described in Macray's ' Register 
of Magdalen CoUege ' (i. 159-63). 

[Edition of the Dialogue, by Cowper; Zim- 
mermann's Kardinal Pole, sein Leben und seine 
Schriften, pp. 72, &c. ; Ormerod's Cheshire, iii. 
205 ; Macray's Reg. Magdalen Coll. i. 156-63 ; 
Registers of the Univ. of Oxford (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.), i. 99 ; Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd ser. 
vol. ii. passim ; Strype's Memorials, i. i. 266, &c., 
ii. 279, &c. ; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII ; 
Cunningham's Growth of English Industry and 
Commerce, ii. 526 ; art. POLE, REGINALD ; 
The Commonweal of this Realm of England, ed. 
Lamond, 1893, pp. xxiv, &c.] W. A. J. A. 

STARKIE, THOMAS (1782-1849), legal 
writer, eldest son of the Rev. Thomas 
Starkie, vicar of Blackburn, Lancashire, was 
born at Blackburn vicarage on 12 April 
1782, and educated at Clitheroe grammar 
school and St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he was entered as a pensioner on 

2 Jan. 1799. He was senior wrangler and 
first Smith's prizeman in 1803, in which year 
he graduated B.A., proceeding M. A. in 1806. 
He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 
23 May 1810, and immediately joined the 
northern circuit. He also practised as a 
special pleader as well as in the common- 
law courts, and was K.C. at Lancaster 
previously to his obtaining the rank of Q.C. 
at Westminster Hall. As a member of the 
commission for the amendment of the law 
he rendered most important services, but 
was less successful as a lecturer on common 
law and equity in the Inner Temple. In 



Starley 



Starley 






1823 he was elected Downing professor of 
law at Cambridge. Originally a tory in 
politics, Starkie afterwards became a liberal, 
and in that interest unsuccessfully contested 
the representation of the borough of Cam- 
bridge in 1840. In 1847 he became judge 
of the Clerkenwell county court, which had 
jurisdiction over the greater part of Middle- 
sex. He died at his rooms in Downing 
College, Cambridge, on 15 April 1849. 

He married Lucy, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Dunham Whitaker [q. v.], the his- 
torian of Whalley, and had five children, of 
whom two daughters survived him. 

Starkie was author of : 1. ' Practical 
Treatise on the Law of Slander, Libel, and 
incidentally of Malicious Prosecutions,' 1812. 
Later editions were published in 1827, 1830, 
and 1869, and American editions were 
brought out in 1832, 1843, 1852, and 1853, 
edited by T. Huntington and J. L. Wendell. 
2. ' Treatise on Special Pleading, with Pre- 
cedents of Indictments,' 1814, 2 vols. ; later 
editions 1819, 1822, 1828, and an American 
edition, 1824. 3. ' Reports at Nisi Prius, 
K.B. and C.P.,' 1817-23, 3 vols. 4. Prac- 
tical Treatise on the Law of Evidence,' 1824, 
3 vols. Of this, Starkie's chief work, revised 
editions were issued in 1833, 1842, and 1853. 
It was often reprinted in America. 

[Law Review, May 1849, p. 201 ; G-ent. Mag. 
1849, ii. 208; Graduati Cantabr.] C. W. S. 

STARLEY, JAMES (1831-1881), im- 
prover of bicycles and inventor of the Coven- 
try tricycle, born at Albourne, Sussex, on 
21 April 1831, was son of Daniel Starley 
(d. 1856), a farmer. At the age of nine he 
commenced working on his father's farm ; 
but, not liking the place, about 1846 he 
walked to London and became gardener to 
John Penn at Lewisham in Kent. While 
there he invented the adjustable candle- 
stick, the one-stringed window blind, and 
the mechanical bassinette. About 1855 
he entered the employment of Newton 
Wilson, 144 High Holborn, London, and 
made improvements in sewing machines. 
In 1857 he went to Coventry, bringing 
with him a sewing machine of his own 
invention, which he called ' The European.' 
The Coventry Machinists' Company was 
formed for manufacturing this machine, and 
Starley was engaged as managing foreman. 
In the succeeding years he invented and 
patented many kinds of sewing machines, 
and most of the modern machines now em- 
body the results of his inventions. After 
seeing a French bicycle, in 1868, he imme- 
diately turned his attention to improving 
these vehicles. His first invention was the 



bicycle known as ' The C spring and step 
machine, or the Coventry Model.' The supe- 
riority of this was at once evident, the 
curved spring, the small hind wheel, and 
the step for mounting being the principal 
improvements. The ' Ariel ' bicycle, which 
became widely popular, speedily followed. 
This machine was fitted with pivot-centre 
steering, being the first bicycle to which this 
improvement was applied. From that time 
his inventions and improvements followed 
each other in rapid succession. He left the 
Machinists' Company and started for himself 
in St. John Street, where he made ' Ariel ' 
bicycles and sewing machines, and brought 
out the well-known ' Europa ' sewing ma- 
chine. Subsequently he went into partner- 
ship with Borthwick Smith, and the firm of 
Smith, Starley, & Co. commenced business 
at the St. Agnes Works, St. Agnes Lane, 
Coventry. Later on they sold the ' Ariel ' 
patents. Starley dissolved the partnership 
with Smith after five years. 

Still endeavouring to improve the bicycle, 
he finally introduced the ' Tangent ' bicycle, 
and was fully employed in making 'Tan- 
gent' wheels. In 1876 he brought out the 
' Coventry ' tricycle. No similar machine is 
known to have existed before, and Starley 
may be regarded as its inventor. He in- 
vented the double-throw crank and the chain 
and chain-wheels to obtain rotary motion in 
tricycles, and the rack, and he first applied 
the pinion steering-gear to the same ma- 
chine. Subsequently he produced his master- 
piece, the ' Salvo ' quadricycle. 

Starley, by his many improvements, ren- 
dered bicycles and tricycles machines capable 
of general use, To his perseverance and 
energy Coventry owes its position as the 
centre of industry for the manufacture of 
cycles. Starley's ingenuity was as remark- 
ably displayed in inventions which he failed 
to patent. These included the chain-wheels 
of the tricycle. 

He died at Upper Well Street, Coventry, 
on 17 June 1881, and was buried in Coventry 
cemetery on 21 June. On 8 Nov. 1884 a 
granite memorial monument, having on it 
a portrait in profile of Starley, and on the 
sides representations of the ' Rotatory ' tri- 
cycle and the ' Royal Salvo,' was unveiled 
in the Queen's Road, Coventry. 

Starley married, on 22 Sept. 1853, Jane, 
daughter of William Todd. His three sons 
James, John Marshall, and William are 
members of the firm of Starley Brothers, 
cycle manufacturers, Coventry. 

[Pall Mall Gazette, 23 June 1881, p. 10; 
Coventry Standard, 24 June 1881 pp. 3, 5, 
1 July p. 5, 8 July p. 5, 14 Nov. 1884 p. 3; 



Statham 



112 



Staunton 



Cycling (Badminton Library), 1887, pp. 67, 
492; Cyclist, 24 Jan. 1883; information from 
Messrs. Starley Brothers.] Gr. C. B. 

STATHAM, NICHOLAS (fi. 1467), law- 
yer, is stated to have been born at Morley, 
Derbyshire (Ashmolean MS. 816, where he 
is called John). He was reader of Lincoln's 
Inn in Lent term 1471. On 30 Oct. 1467 he 
received a patent for the reversion as second 
baron of the exchequer on the death of John 
Clerke. Clerke was certainly alive in 1471, 
but there is no mention of either him or 
Statham between that date and 3 Feb. 1481, 
when Thomas Whittington was made second 
baron. Consequently it is not known 
whether Statham ever obtained the office. 
Statham's name is never mentioned in !the 
year-books, but he is credited with an 
abridgment of the cases reported in them in 
the reign of Henry VI, which is the earliest 
work of the kind now extant. Statham's 
abridgment was printed by R. Pynson as 
' Epitome Annalium Librorum tempore 
Henrici Sexti,' London [1495 ?], 4to ; other 
editions appeared in 1585 and 1679 (Brit. 
Mus. Cat.} 

[Dugdale's Orig. pp. 58, 247, 257 ; Fuller's 
Worthies; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 690; 
Foss's Judges of England.] C. L. K. 

STAUNFORD, SIR WILLIAM (1509- 
1558), judge. [See STANFORD.] 

STAUNTON, EDMUND (1600-1671), 
president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
a younger son of Francis (afterwards Sir 
Francis) Staunton, was born at Woburn, 
Bedfordshire, on 20 Oct. 1600. He ma- 
triculated from Wadham College, Oxford, 
on 9 June 1615, and on 4 Oct. following 
was admitted scholar of Corpus Christi. 
While still an undergraduate, on 22 March 
1616-17, he was transferred from the Bed- 
fordshire scholarship to the Bedfordshire fel- 
lowship. After a dangerous illness when he 
was about eighteen, and a narrow escape 
from drowning in the river, whither he had 
repaired ' alone, to wash himself,' he had, 
about 1620, to use his own words, ' many 
sad and serious thoughts concerning my 
spiritual and eternal state.' On proceeding 
M.A. in 1623, he selected the ministry as 
his profession, and commenced his clerical 
life as afternoon lecturer at Witney, where 
he was very acceptable to the people, but 
obnoxious to the rector of the parish. But 
he soon left Witney for the valuable living 
of Bushey in Hertfordshire, and this living 
he shortly afterwards exchanged for that of 
Kingston-on-Thames, where he remained for 
about twenty years, being known by the 



name of ' the searching preacher.' J There he 
devoted himself to constant preaching and 
catechising, taught from house to house, and 
set up a weekly lecture, supplied, in turn, 
by the most eminent preachers in that part 
of England. While at Kingston he proceeded 
B.D.and D.D. at Oxford in 1634, and he was 
chosen to be not only one of the assembly of 
divines which met at Westminster in 1643, 
but also one of the six preachers in the abbey. 

When Dr. Robert Newlyn was ejected 
from the presidency of Corpus by the ' com- 
mittee of Lords and Commons for Reforma- 
tion of the University of Oxford' (22 May 
1648), Staunton, a former fellow and a 
leading puritan divine, was appointed in his 
place. But the actual ejection of Dr. Newlyn 
and assumption of the office by Dr. Staunton 
did not take place till 11 July following. 
Staunton was a great improvement upon his 
predecessor, who was remarkable solely for 
the extreme old age to which he lived, and 
for the shameless nepotism which he prac- 
tised after his restitution at the Restoration. 
Staunton was a good disciplinarian, and as 
a presbyterian divine was earnest in preach- 
ing, prayer, and catechising. He thereby 
incurred the ridicule of the royalist party 
(for some macaronic verses on his style of 
preaching, see FOWLER, History of Corpus 
Christi College, pp. 221-2). 

On 15 June 1652 Staunton, who had 
submitted to the ' engagement,' was nomi- 
nated by the committee of parliament to be 
on the new board of visitors, which was 
limited to ten. On the third board, nomi- 
nated by the lord protector about two years 
afterwards, Staunton's name does not appear. 

Staunton was, in his turn, ejected from the 
president's lodgings on 3 Aug. 1660, his 
predecessor, Newlyn, having been already re- 
instated in his office. Withdrawing from 
Oxford, he retired, in the first instance, to 
Rickmansworth in Hertfordshire, whence he 
ministered in various parishes around. On 
St. Bartholomew's day 1 662 he was silenced, 
like other nonconformists, but he seems, 
after remaining at Rickmansworth about two 
years longer, to have lived in various private 
families, and to have exercised his mini- 
sterial functions in a private manner possibly, 
but in defiance of the law. ' His great suf- 
ferings and often imprisonments/ alluded to- 
by the author of the ' Brief Relation ' (see 
below), may probably be referred to this 
period of his life. According to the Rev. 
Robert Watts (d. 1726), ' after preaching in 
several conventicles at London, Staunton 
became pastor of a celebrated meeting- 
house at Salters' Hall, which was built on 
purpose for him ' (WooD, Athena, ed. Bliss). 



Staunton 



Staunton 



His last remove was to Bovingdon, Hert- 
fordshire, where, and at the neighbouring 
towns, such as St. Albans, ' seeing he could 
not preach in a church to many, he would 
preach in a chamber to a few.' He died at 
Bovingdon on 14 July 1671, and was buried 
in the parish church, where there still exists 
' a fair stone ' bearing an inscription with a 
quaint Latin epitaph to his memory. Ten 
of Staunton's children lie buried in Kingston 
church, where a brass over their grave com- 
memorates the fact in doggerel rhyme. 

Though so constant a preacher, and occu- 
pying so prominent a position among those 
of his own beliefs, Staunton wrote only 
a few occasional sermons and two puritanic 
tracts, entitled respectively ' A Dialogue 
between a Minister and a Stranger about 
Soul Affairs,' and 'A Treatise of Christian 
Conference.' These were published at the 
end of Mayo's biography in 1671. Staun- 
ton's literary unproductiveness affords a con- 
firmation of the character given of him by 
a junior contemporary : namely, that he was 
reckoned by his friends ' a man that had 
parts, but idle, and would instruct but not 
study for what he did.' 

[Fowler's Hist, of Corpus Christ! College, pp. 
208-9, 211-12, 217-25, 363; Wood's Athene 
Oxon., University and Coll. Eegisters ; The 
Life and Death of Edmund Staunton, D.D., pub- 
lished by Richard Mayo (or Mayow), of Kings- 
ton, London, 1671, to -which is added A Brief 
Eelation, &c., by Mr. J. M. A short Appendix 
to the life of Edmund Staunton, D.D., London, 
1673, published anonymously, but written by 
Fulman, was a series of sarcastic strictures on 
the former book.] T. F. 

STAUNTON, FRANCIS FRENCH 

(1779 P-1825), lieutenant-colonel, born about 
1779, went to India as a cadet in 1797, 
and was commissioned as ensign in the 
Bombay army on 21 Sept. 1798. He be- 
came lieutenant on 6 March 1800, and cap- 
tain on 18 June 1807. He served in the 
Mysore war, including the storming of Se- 
ringapatam, and in the campaign of 1801 
in Egypt, receiving medals for both. But 
his claim to remembrance is his conduct in 
the action of Korigaum, in which he repulsed 
the army of the peshwa, Baji Rao, on 1 Jan. 
1818. He was ordered from Seroor to Poona 
to reinforce Colonel Burr with five hundred 
men of the 2nd battalion 1st Bombay native 
infantry his own regiment three hundred 
irregular horse, and twenty-four men of the 
Madras artillery, with two 6-pounders. After 
a night march of twenty-seven miles he 
reached the Bhima at 10 A.M., and found 
the army of the peshwa drawn up on the 
opposite side. It consisted of five thousand 

VOL. LIV. 



foot and twenty-five thousand horse. He 
threw his men into the village of Korigaum, 
and there they fought all day without food 
or water. Many of the houses were set on 
fire by the enemy, who had guns and rockets, 
and succeeded in gaining possession of part 
of the village. The British troops (all native 
except the artillery) lost nearly two hun- 
dred men in killed and wounded, including 
six out of the seven English officers, but 
they held out till night. Next morning 
they found that the peshwa had retreated 
upon news of the approach of reinforcements. 
A stone obelisk still marks the spot. The 
battalion was made a grenadier battalion, 
and Staunton was nominated C.B. and aide- 
de-camp to the governor-general. He was 
promoted major on 15 April 1819, and lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 28 Sept. 18,23. He died on 
board the Florentia on 25 June 1825. 

[Grant Duff's History of the Mahrattas, iii. 
432 ; Colebrooke's Life of Mountstuart Elphin- 
stone, iii. 17 ; Gent. Mag. 1825, ii. 286 ; Geor- 
gian Era, vol. ii.] E. M. L. 

STAUNTON, SiBGEORGE LEONARD 

(1737-1801), diplomatist, born at Cargin, co. 
Galway, on 19 April 1737, was the son 
of George Staunton (1700-1780), colonel of 
militia, of Cargin, and Margaret (d. 1784), 
daughter of John Leonard of Carra, co. 
Galway. In 1753 he was sent to France to 
complete his education. After studying 
about a twelvemonth at the Jesuit College, 
Toulouse, he joined the school of medicine at 
Montpellier, where he graduated M.D. in 
1758. In October 1759 he arrived in London, 
and he attained some reputation as a writer 
on medical subjects. Among his friends at 
this time was Dr. Johnson, one of whose 
letters to him is quoted by Boswell. In 
1762 he went to the West Indies, where he 
practised as a physician and held several 
official appointments, being at one time secre- 
tary to the governor of Dominica. Having 
acquired a large fortune, he purchased an 
estate in Grenada, and in 1770 returned to 
England. His interests being neglected by 
agents, he was obliged in 1772 to proceed 
again to the West Indies, where he re- 
mained till 1779, being for some time member 
of the legislative council and attorney- 
general for Grenada. In 1774 began his life- 
long friendship with George Macartney (after- 
wards Earl Macartney) fq. v.], appointed in 
that year governor of the Caribee Islands. 
When Grenada was attacked by the French 
in 1779, Staunton, as colonel of militia and 
aide-de-camp to the governor, took an active 
part in the defence, and after the capitula- 
tion was one of the hostages sent to Paris. 



Staunton 



114 



Staunton 



His plantations had been pillaged by the 
enemy, and he left the West Indies a ruined 
man. During his detention in France he 
negotiated an exchange of prisoners which 
released Lord Macartney from his parole ; 
and when in 1781 that nobleman went out 
to Madras as governor, Staunton accompanied 
him as secretary. 

The first important service he performed 
in India was a mission in 1782 to Calcutta, 
to confer with Warren Hastings, whose 
temper he found ' somewhat affected by the 
long opposition he had met in council.' In 
the following year, private information 
having been received from England of the 
near conclusion of peace with France, he was 
appointed to negotiate with the Marquis de 
Bussy and Admiral Suffren for a suspension 
of hostilities. In September 1783 he was 
charged with the duty of arresting General 
James Stuart [q. v.], in command of the 
Madras troops, who had defied the gover- 
nor's authority (THORNTON, India, ii. 279). 
Later in the year he was appointed, with 
two other envoys, to treat with Tippu Sultan. 
After protracted negotiations, a treaty of 
peace with the ruler of Mysore was signed 
on 11 March 1784 (THORNTON, ii. 285). Lord 
Macartney's appreciation of his secretary's 
services was conveyed in a letter to the 
court of directors dated Fort St. George, 
28 July 1784, and in a private letter of the 
same date to Charles James Fox, in which 
the governor wrote : ' His sagacity and 
singular talents for public business, his ex- 
tensive knowledge of most parts of the 
world, his spirit, integrity, and fidelity, so 
fully experienced by myself, give me a right 
to speak of him in high terms.' 

In 1784 Staunton returned to England 
with despatches. The court of directors on 
11 April 1785 awarded him a pension of 
500/. a year for life, while from the crown he 
received the honour of an Irish baronetcy 
(created 31 Oct. 1785). In the same year he 
entered into possession of his father's estate 
at Cargin, on paying the balance of the sum 
for which it had been conveyed for a term 
of years to Robert French. 

Sir George Staunton remained in England 
without public employment till 1792. He 
was intimate with Edmund Burke, who 
sought his advice when threatened, as he 
wrote, by the malice of ' the villains who in 
the India Office and in India have been 
labouring for the destruction of so large a 
part of mankind ' (Burke to Staunton, June 
1785). In February 1787 Staunton was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
on 16 June 1790 was made an honorary 
D.C.L. at Oxford. 



In 1 792 he was sent with Lord Macartney 
on a mission to China, being appointed 
secretary to the embassy and, provisionally, 
minister plenipotentiary in the event of the 
ambassador's death. It was also intended 
that he should eventually take up his re- 
sidence at Pekin as British minister, but ill- 
health, on his return to England, prevented 
his acceptance of the post. In 1797 he 
published ' An authentic account of the Earl 
of Macartney's Embassy from the King of 
Great Britain to the Emperor of China/ 
London, 8vo. 

The remainder of his life was saddened by 
prolonged ill-health, and he died at his Lon- 
don house in Devonshire Street, Portman 
Square, on 14 Jan. 1801. He was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, where a monument by 
Chantrey is erected to his memory. He 
married, 22 July 1771, Jane, daughter of 
Benjamin Collins, banker of Salisbury, and 
M.P. for that city. By her he had two sons : 
George, born 1775, died in infancy; and Sir 
George Thomas Staunton [q.v.] 

A portrait of Staunton in conference with 
his chief, Macartney, by Lemuel Abbott 
[q.v.j, is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London ; an engraving from Engleheart's 
portrait painted in 1792 appears in the 'Me- 
moir ' mentioned below. 

[Memoir of the Life and Family of the late 
Sir George Leonard Staunton, bart., edited by 
his son, Havant, 1823 (for private circulation) ; 
Gent. Mag. 1801, i. 183, 189.] S. W. 

STAUNTON, SIR GEORGE THOMAS 
(1781-1859), writer on China, only surviving 
child of Sir George Leonard Staunton [q. v.], 
Indian administrator, was born at Milford 
House, near Salisbury, on 26 May 1781. He 
was educated privately, and became a good 
classical scholar. In 1792 he accompanied 
his father to China, under the nominal de- 
signation of page to the ambassador. Before 
embarking, and during the voyage, he studied 
Chinese under two native Chinese mis- 
sionaries from the Propaganda College at 
Naples, and was soon able to speak with 
fluency and to write in the native character. 
In an interview with the emperor of China 
he was the only member of the embassy able 
to converse in Chinese. During a visit to 
England in 1797 he kept two terms as a 
fellow-commoner at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. On 10 April 1798 he was appointed 
a writer in the East India Company's factory 
at Canton. On 14 Jan. 1801 he succeeded 
his father as second baronet. In 1804 he 
was promoted to be a supercargo, and in 
the following year he was the means of in- 
troducing vaccination into China by making 



Staunton 



Staunton 



a translation of George Pearson's treatise on 
that subject. In 1808 he was appointed in- 
terpreter to the factory, and in January 
1816 became chief of the factory. In July 
1816, in conjunction with William, earl Am- 
herst [q. v.], and Sir Henry Ellis (1777-1855) 
[q. v.], he was appointed a ' king's commis- 
sioner of embassy ' to proceed to Pekin to 
make representations on the conduct of the 
mandarins towards the merchants at Canton. 
The exaction of the ceremony of the ' Kotoo ' 
was, after much discussion, waived, chiefly 
through objections made by Staunton; but 
other complications arose, and the embassy 
returned to Canton in January 1817 without 
obtaining an interview with the emperor. 
This was only the second time that any party 
of Englishmen had been permitted to ad- 
vance so far into the interior of China (SiR 
HENRY ELLIS, Journal of the late Embassy 
to China, 1817, pp. 38 et seq.) 

In the same year Staunton returned to 
England, and did not again hold any public 
appointment, but his advice was often sought 
privately by the East India Company and by 
the government. As a ' liberal tory ' he sat 
for the borough of St. Michael's in Cornwall 
from 1818 to 1826 ; for Heytesbury, Wilt- 
shire, from 1830 to 1831; and for South 
Hampshire from 1832 to 1835. He un- 
successfully contested the last-named con- 
stituency in 1835 and 1837, and finally sat 
for Portsmouth from 1838 to 1852. In 1829 
he gave evidence before a committee upon 
Chinese affairs, and in 1830 he became a 
member of the East India committee and a 
strong supporter of the East India Company. 
In the commons he was a frequent speaker 
on colonial subjects, and his opinions carried 
some weight. 

In 1823 he co-operated with Henry Thomas 
Colebrooke [q. v.] in founding the Royal 
Asiatic Society, and, as a commencement 
for the library, gave three thousand volumes 
of Chinese works. He became F.R.S. on 
28 April 1803, and D.C.L. of Oxford in 
1818. 

He died, unmarried, at 17 Devonshire 
Street, Portland Place, London, on 10 Aug. 
1859. 

Staunton published : 1. ' Miscellaneous 
Notices relating to China and our Commercial 
Intercourse with that Country,' 1822 ; 2nd 
edit., two parts, 1822-8; 3rd edit, 1850. 
2. ' Memoirs of the Life and Family of the late 
Sir G. L. Staunton,' 1823. 3. ' Notes of Pro- 
ceedings and Occurrences during the British 
Embassy to Pekin,' 1824. 4. ' The Lamenta- 
tion of Sir G. Stan-Ching-quot, Mandarin 
of the Celestial Empire ' [i.e. Sir G. T. Staun- 
ton], in verse, 1834, 4to. 5. ' Remarks on the 






British Relations with China and the pro- 
posed Plan for removing them,' 1836. 
6. ' An Inquiry into the proper Mode of 
rendering the word God in translating the 
Sacred Scriptures into the Chinese Language,' 
1849. 7. ' Observations on our Chinese 
Commerce,' 1850. 8. 'Memoir of Sir J. 
Barrow, Bart.,' 1852. For the Hakluyt So- 
ciety he edited ' The History of the Great 
and Mighty Kingdom of China,' by J. 
Gonzalez de Mendoza ; reprinted from the 
translation of R. Parke, 1853. He trans- 
lated from the Chinese 'Ta Tsing leu lee, 
being the Fundamental Laws of China,' 
1810 ; this was the first book translated 
from Chinese into English, and is useful as 
a law-book. Staunton also translated from 
the Chinese the ' Narrative of the Chinese 
Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tar- 
tars,' by Too-le-Shin, 1821, and revised ' The 
Life of Taou-Kwang,' by C. F. A. Guetzlaff, 
1852. 

[Memoirs of Sir G. T. Stannton, bart., 1856, 
with a portrait; Select Letters written on the 
occasion of the publication of the Memoirs of 
Sir G. T. Staunton, 1857; Proceedings of the 
Eoyal Society, 1860, x. pp. xxvi-xxix ; Foreign 
Office List, 1860, p. 140 ; Dodd's Peerage, 1859 
p. 518.] G. C. B. 

STAUNTON, HERVEY DE (d. 1327), 
judge, was son of Sir William de Staunton 
of Staunton, Nottinghamshire, by Athelina, 
daughter and coheiress of John de Masters 
of Bosingham, Lincolnshire (THOROTOX, Not- 
tinghamshire, i. 305). He seems to have held 
the living of Soham, Norfolk, as early as 
1289; afterwards he held the livings of 
Thurston and Werbeton, and about 1306, on 
being ordained priest, received the living of 
East Derham (BLISS, Cal. Pap. Reg. ii. 19). 
In November 1300 there is mention of him as 
going to the court of Rome (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edward I, 1292-1301, p. 556). He was a 
justice itinerant in Cornwall in 1302 and in 
Durham in 1303. In the parliament of Sep- 
tember 1305 he was a receiver of petitions 
from Ireland and Guernsey (Rolls of Par- 
liament, i. 159), and on 20 April 1306 was 
appointed one of the judges of the common 
pleas. On the accession of Edward II, Staun- 
ton was reappointed to the common pleas, 
and is frequently mentioned in judicial com- 
missions (Calendars of Close Rollsand Patent 
Rolls'). On 28 Sept. 1314 he was appointed 
one of the barons of the exchequer, and on 
22 June 1316 chancellor of the exchequer, 
but continued to act as a judge, and was 
regularly summoned to parliament with the 
other judges (Par I. Writs, ii. 1457). In 
1323 he was made chief justice of the king's 
bench, and directed to discharge his duties 

12 



Staunton 



116 



Staunton 



at the exchequer by a substitute (DUGDALE, 
Oriff. p. 38 ; MADOX, Hist. Exchequer, ii. 53). 
On 27March 1324 Staunton resigned the chief- 
justiceship, and on 26 March was reappointed 
chancellor of the exchequer. He resigned 
the latter post on 18 July 1326, when he 
was appointed chief justice of the common 
pleas (Par/. Writs, ii. pp. ii, 1458). Staun- 
ton seems to have sided with Edward II, 
and in September Queen Isabella seized eight 
hundred marks which he had deposited at 
Bury St. Edmunds (Chr. Edw. I and Edw. 
II, i. 314). He was not reappointed on the 
accession of Edward III, and the proceedings 
of an iter he had held at London were 
reversed (ib. i. 328; Cal. Pat. Rolls, Ed- 
ward III, i. 2). As prebend of Husthwaite, 
York, and parson of East Derham, he is 
mentioned as receiving protection on 30 Jan. 
and 11 Feb. 1327 (ib. i. 1, 10). On 2 March 
he had license to alienate in mortmain the 
manor and advowson of Barenton to the 
masters and scholars of St. Michael, Cam- 
bridge (ib. i. 25). Staunton died in 1327, 
before he could give effect to his foundation, 
and the license was renewed to his execiitors 
(ib. i. 232, 319, 366, ii. 146). He was buried 
in the church of St. Michael, Cambridge. 
His foundation of Michael House was even- 
tually absorbed in Trinity College, where 
Staunton is still commemorated as a bene- 
factor. 

[Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Calendars of Close and Patent 
Rolls, Edward II and Edward III ; Foss's 
Judges of England; Mullinger's Hist. Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, i. 234-6.] C. L. K. 

STAUNTON, HOWARD (1810-1874), 
chess-player and editor of Shakespeare, born 
in 1810, was reputed to be the natural son 
of Frederick Howard, fifth earl of Carlisle 
[q. v.] He was neglected in youth, and re- 
ceived little or no education. He is said to 
have spent some time at Oxford, but was 
never a member of the university. On 
coming of age he received a few thousand 
pounds under his father's will. This money he 
rapidly spent. He was devoted to the stage, 
and claimed to have acted in his early days 
Lorenzo to the Shylock of Edmund Kean. 
When thrown upon his own resources, he 
sought a livelihood from his pen. The main 
subjects of his literary labours were ches? 
and the Shakespearean drama. 

Staunton played chess from an early age, 
and soon acquired a skill in the game which 
has not been equalled by any British-born 
player. Alexander Macdonnell (1798-1835" 
[q. v.], who could alone be regarded as hi 
rival, is now regarded as his inferior by com- 
petent critics. For some twenty years a great 



Dart of Staunton's time was spent in playing 
;he game and in writing upon it. From 1836 
frequented the Divan, Huttmann's, and 
other public chess resorts. Four years later 
ae first became known as a player of dis- 
tinction, and between 1840 and 1851 he 
made his reputation. During 1841 and 1842 
h.e engaged in a long series of matches with 
Cochrane, and in the majority was victorious. 
A match at Paris with the champion of 
Europe, St. Amant, followed in 1843, and 
Staunton's victory gave him a world-wide 
fame as a chess-player. Carl Meier, among 
others, published an account of this engage- 
ment (Zurich, 1843). In 1846 Staunton 
defeated the German players Horwitz and 
Harrwitz. An account of his match with 
Mr. Lowe in 1848 was published by T. Beeby. 
In 1851 his powers showed signs of decay, 
and in the great international tournament 
of that year he was beaten by Anderssen 
and by Williams ; to the latter he had given 
odds not long before. In 1852 he met one 
of the greatest players of any period, Baron 
von Heydebrand und der Lasa of Berlin, 
and was defeated by a small number of 
games. He rarely played in public matches 
again. George Walker, a rigorous critic, cre- 
dited Staunton's play with 'brilliancy of 
imagination, thirst for invention, judgment 
for position, eminent view of the board, and 
untiring patience.' 

Meanwhile Staunton was energetically 
turning his knowledge of the game to ac- 
count as a journalist. In 1840, the year 
in which his supremacy as a player was 
first recognised, he projected the monthly 
periodical, 'The Chess Player's Chronicle,' 
which he owned and edited till he sold 
it in August 1854. About 1844 he took 
charge of the chess column in the 'Illus- 
trated London News,' which had been com- 
menced two years earlier, and he conducted 
it till his death. For some time he also 
edited a chess column in the ' Era ' news- 
paper. 

Staunton compiled for Bohn's ' Scientific 
Series ' some valuable manuals on the game. 
Of these 'The Chess Player's Handbook' 
(1847 ; 2nd edit. 1848) long deserved, and still 
longer retained, the reputation of being the 
best English treatise on its subject. ' The 
Chess Player's Companion ' (1849) included 
a treatise on games at odds, and so far was 
supplementary to the ' Handbook,' but it 
was mainly devoted to the record of his own 
games. ' This still remains a work of the 
highest interest, and a noble monument for 
any chess-player to have raised for himself. 
The notes are in general as much dis- 
tinguished by their good taste as by their 



Staunton i 

literary talent and critical value.' ' The 
Chess Tournament' (1852) contains the 
games of the international tournament of 
1851 and some others; of this a German 
rendering appeared at Berlin. A defence of 
the London Chess Club (by 'a member') 
from the strictures passed on it by Staunton 
in this volume was issued in 1852. ' The 
Chess Praxis ' (1860) was another supple- 
ment to the 'Handbook,' carrying on chess 
theory for some twelve years later, and con- 
taining many well-selected games. 

Staunton's name was conferred on the 
set of chessmen which are recognised as 
the standard type among English-speaking 
peoples. His ' Chess Player's Text-book ' 
was issued in 1849, without date, to be sold 
with the Staunton chessmen. 

Staunton's ' Chess : Theory and Practice ' 
was left in manuscript at his death, and was 
edited in 1876 by R. B. Wormald, who suc- 
ceeded him as editor of the chess column 
of the ' Illustrated London News.' 

From 1854 Staunton largely devoted his 
attention to the study of Shakespeare, of 
whose works he had been from youth an 
enthusiastic admirer. Between November 
1857 and May 1860 he issued, with Messrs. 
Routledge, a new edition of Shakespeare in 
monthly parts, with 824 illustrations by Sir 
John Gilbert. The parts were bound up in 
three volumes. A reissue without the illus- 
trations followed in 1864 in 4 vols. Staun- 
ton's text was based on a collation of the 
folio editions with the early quartos and 
with the texts of modern editors from Rowe 
to Dyce. The conjectural emendations, which 
were usually sensible, were kept within 
narrow limits, and showed much familiarity 
with Elizabethan literature and modes of 
speech. The general notes combined com- 
mon-sense with exhaustive research. In 
1864 Staunton issued a photo-lithographic 
facsimile of the 1600 quarto of ' Much Ado 
about Nothing ' from the copy in the Elles- 
mere collection. In 1866 he edited a photo- 
lithographic facsimile of the first folio edition 
of Shakespeare's works of 1623. Subse- 
quently, between October 1872 and his death, 
he contributed a series of nineteen articles on 
'Unsuspected Corruptions of Shakespeare's 
Text' to the 'Athenaeum' (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 6th ser. iv. 264). His only other 
literary undertaking was a carefully com- 
piled account of the ' Great Schools of Eng- 
land ' (1865 ; 2nd edit. 1869). 

Staunton was a brilliant talker in con- 
genial society, prolific in anecdote and in 
apt quotation from Shakespeare. He died 
suddenly from heart disease at his house in 
London on 22 June 1874. He married, about 



Staveley 



1854, Frances, widow of VV. D. Nethersole, 
a solicitor, who was some years his senior. 
She died about 1882. 

The St. George's Chess Club possesses a 
medallion-portrait, as well as a lithograph 
depicting the match in 1843 between Staun- 
ton and St. Amant. 

[Information kindly furnished by the Eev. 
W. Wayte; Chess Player's Chronicle, 1874-5, 
pp. 117, 161-2 ; Athenaeum, 1874, i. 862 ; Illus- 
trated London News, 4 July 1874, with por- 
trait.] s. L. 

STAVELEY, SIR CHARLES WIL- 
LIAM DUNBAR (1817-1896), general, was 
the eldest son of Lieutenant-general Wil- 
liam Staveley [q. v.J, by Sarah, daughter of 
Thomas Mather. He was born at Boulogne 
on 18 Dec. 1817, was educated at the Scot- 
tish military and naval academy, Edinburgh, 
and was commissioned as second lieutenant 
in the 87th (royal Irish fusiliers) on 6 March 
1835. He became lieutenant on 4 Oct. 1839, 
and captain on 6 Sept. 1844. From July 
1840 till June 1843 he was aide-de-camp to 
the governor of Mauritius, where his regi- 
ment was stationed, and where his father 
was acting-governor for part of the time. 
On his return home he was quartered at 
Glasgow, and saved a boy from drowning in 
the Clyde at imminent risk of his own life, 
as he was not fully recovered from a severe 
attack of measles. 

He exchanged to the 18th foot on 31 Jan. 
1845, and to the 44th on 9 May. From 
15 June to 11 May 1847 he was aide-de- 
camp to the governor-general of British 
North America. An admirable draughts- 
man, his sketches proved very useful during 
the settlement of the Oregon boundary ques- 
tion in 1846. He was assistant military 
secretary at Hongkong, where his father was 
in command, from 20 March 1848 to 27 Feb. 
1851. 

He had become major in the 44th on 
7 Dec. 1850, and went with it to Turkey in 
1854. When the regiment embarked for the 
Crimea he was to have been left behind on 
account of illness, but he hid himself on 
board till the vessel sailed. He was present 
at Alma and at Balaclava, where he acted 
as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cambridge. 
On 12 Dec. 1854 he became lieutenant-colo- 
nel in his regiment. The 44th belonged to 
Sir William Eyre's brigade of the third 
division, and took part in the attempt on 
the dockyard creek on 18 June 1855, and in 
the capture of the cemetery the sole success 
achieved. Staveley was mentioned in des- 
patches (London Gazette, 4 July) and was 
made C.B. He also received the Crimean 



Staveley 



nS 



Staveley 



medal with three clasps, the Sardinian and 
Turkish medals, and the Medjidie (fifth 
class). 

He commanded the regiment from 30 June 
1855. It returned to England in July 1856, 
embarked for Madras in August 1857, and 
went on to China in March 1860. He had 
become colonel in the army on 9 March 
1858, and on 28 April 1860 he was made 
brigadier-general, and was given command 
of a brigade in Michel's division during 
the Anglo-French expedition to Peking. 
He was present at the capture of the 
Taku forts, was mentioned in despatches 
(ib. 4 Nov. 1860), and received the medal 
with clasp. On 18 Jan. 1861 he was 
given one of the rewards for distinguished 
service. 

He was left in command of the British 
troops remaining in China in 1862. The 
Taeping insurrection was then in full career. 
The rebels had broken their promise not to 
come within thirty miles of Shanghai, and 
were threatening that city itself. In April 
Staveley marched against them with a force 
of about two thousand men, of which about 
one-third consisted of French and English 
seamen and marines. He shelled them out 
of their entrenched camp at Wongkadze, and 
stormed Tsipu, Kahding, Tsingpu, Nanjao, 
and Cholin in the course of April and May. 
But the Chinese imperial troops were unable 
to hold all the towns recovered, and he had 
to withdraw the British garrison from Kah- 
ding (ib. 18 July and 5 Aug. 1862). In the 
autumn Kahding and Tsingpu were again 
taken, and the thirty-mile radius cleared of 
the rebels. 

In December he was asked by Li Hung 
Chang to name a British officer to replace 
the American Burgevine as commander of 
the disciplined Chinese force which had been 
formed by Frederick Townsend Ward. Stave- 
ley named Charles George Gordon [q. v.], 
who had been chief engineer under him in 
the recent operations, and had surveyed all 
the country round Shanghai. They had 
served together before Sebastopol, and Stave- 
ley's sister was the wife of Gordon's brother. 
The appointment had to be approved from 
England, and was not taken up till the end 
of March 1863. At that time ill-health 
obliged Staveley to resign his command and 
go home. 

In March 1865 he was made K.C.B. and 
was appointed to the command of the first 
division of the Bombay army. On 25 Sept. 
1867 he was promoted major-general, and in 
November, by Sir Robert Napier's desire, he 
was given command of the first division of 
the force sent to Abyssinia. He showed his 



energy to good purpose in the organisation 
of the base at Annesley Bay, and he con- 
ducted the fight on the Arogye plain, which 
immediately preceded the capture of Mag- 
dala. Napier said in his despatch that 
Staveley had afforded him most valuable sup- 
port and assistance throughout the campaign 
(ib. 16 and 30 June 1868). He received 
the thanks of parliament and the medal. 

Staveley commanded the troops in the 
western district for five years from 1 Jan. 
1869, and in the autumn manoeuvres of 1871 
round Aldershot one of the three divisions 
was under him. He was commander-in-chief 
at Bombay from 7 Oct. 1874 to 7 Oct. 1878, 
with the local rank of lieutenant-general, 
which became his substantive rank on 29 April 
1875. On 1 Oct. 1877 he became general. 
He was given the colonelcy of the 36th foot 
on 2 Feb. 1876, and transferred to his old 
regiment, the 44th (which had become the 
first battalion of the Essex regiment), on 
25 July 1883. He received the G.C.B. on 
24 May 1884. He had been placed on the 
retired list on 8 Oct. in the previous year. 

He died at Aban Court, Cheltenham, on 
23 Nov. 1896, and was buried at Brompton 
cemetery on the 27th. In 1864 he married 
Susan Millicent, daughter of Charles William 
Minet of Baldwyns, Kent. She survived 
him with several children. 

[Times, 24 Nov. 1896; Carter's Historical 
Record of 44th Regt. ; Royal Engineers' Papers, 
new ser. xix. 109; Boulger's Life of Gordon; 
Markham's History of the Abvssinian Expedi- 
tion.] E. M. L. 

STAVELEY, THOMAS (1626-1684), 
antiquary, son of William Staveley, rector 
of Cossington, Leicestershire, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Thomas Babington of 
Rothley, was born at East Langton, Leices- 
tershire, in 1626. He was educated at Peter- 
house, Cambridge, admitted of the Inner 
Temple on 2 July 1647, and called to the 
bar on 12 June 1654. He resided the greatest 
part of his life at Belgrave, but a few years 
before his death removed to Leicester ; he 
there held the office of steward of the court 
of records, to which he was appointed in 
1672, probably by the Earl of Huntingdon. 
The stimulus given to protestant opinion 
by the conversion of James, duke of York, 
to Romanism (avowed in 1669), the Declara- 
tion of Indulgence (1672), and the counter- 
move of the Test Act of 1673, elicited from 
Staveley in 1674 the work by which he is best 
known, ' The Romish Horseleech : or an Im- 
partial Account of the Intolerable Charge 
of Popery to this Nation' (London, 8vo). 
To the 1769 edition of this work is annexed 



Staveley 



119 



Staveley 



an essay by Staveley ' of the supremacy of 
the king of England.' 

During the later years of his life Staveley 
studied English history and the antiquities 
of his native county. He left some valuable 
collections for the history and antiquities of 
Leicester, which were printed by Nichols, 
first in his ' Bibliotheca Topographica Britan- 
nica,' and afterwards, with a curious histori- 
cal pedigree of Staveley's family drawn up 
in 1682, in his 'History of Leicestershire.' 
He was a j ustice of the peace for Leicester- 
shire, and was reputed to be ' strictly just, 
abhorring bribery. 

Staveley died at Leicester on 2 Jan. 1683-4, 
at the age of fifty-seven, and was buried in 
St. Mary's Church, Leicester, on the 8th. 
His monumental inscription is given in 
Nichols's ' History ' (i. 318), as well as an 
engraved portrait (ii. 678). He married, at 
Cossington, Leicestershire, on 31 Dec. 1656, 
Mary, daughter of John Onebye of Hinckley, 
by whom he had three sons and four daugh- 
ters. His wife died on 12 Oct. 1669. 

After his death were published : 1. ' Three 
Historical Essays,' published by his youngest 
son in 1703. 2. ' The History of Churches 
in England ; wherein is shown the time, 
means, and manner of founding, building, 
and endowing of churches, both cathedral 
and rural, with their furniture and appen- 
dages,' 1712 (a second edition, with improve- 
ments, in 1773) ; a work of research and 
learning. Manuscript copies of ' The History 
and Antiquities of the Ancient Town, and 
once City, of Leicester,' are in the British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 15917) and in the 
Leicester Free Library. 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, i. 3, 318, 469, &c., 
ii. 677, 685, &c ; Hill's History of Langton, p. 
23 ; Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, xxviii. 
350.] W. G. D; F. 

STAVELEY, WILLIAM (1784-1854), 
lieutenant-general, born at York on 29 July 
1784, was the son of William Staveley of 
York, by Henrietta, born Henderson, a 
native of Caithness. He was commis- 
sioned as ensign in the Caithness legion in 
1798, served with it in Ireland during the 
rebellion of that year, and when it was dis- 
banded obtained a commission in the royal 
staff corps on 14 July 1804. He became 
lieutenant on 21 April 1808, and joined 
Wellesley's army at Oporto in May 1809. 
He served on the staff of the quartermaster- 
general throughout the Peninsular war, and 
was present at Talavera, Fuentes de Onoro, 
Vittoria, the battle of the Pyrenees, and 
Toulouse, besides the sieges of Ciudad Ro- 
drigo and Badajos, and many minor actions. 



At Ciudad llodrigo he volunteered to act as 
guide to the stormers of the light division, 
and was one of the first men to reach the 
top of the smaller breach. He was stunned 
by the explosion which took place as the 
troops made their way along the ramparts, 
and he was picked up for dead. On 6 May 
1813 he was given a company in the royal 
African corps, and on 15 Dec. 1814 a brevet 
majority. 

He returned to the royal staff corps on 
12 Jan. 1815, and went with a detachment 
of it to the Netherlands in April. He was 
on the headquarter staff at Waterloo. In a 
letter of 22 June he wrote : ' Blucher sent 
word at one o'clock that he would attack in 
half an hour. At four Lord Wellington sent 
me to him to see what he was about, and 
tell him how well we were getting on. I 
rode all along our line at full gallop, and, 
after crossing the country about two miles 
to our left, found him. He told me to tell 
Lord Wellington that he would attack as 
soon as he could form his men, which would 
probably be in an hour or less, but he did 
not come up with the enemy until they were 
fairly driven from the field.' He was made 
brevet lieutenant-colonel and C.B., and sub- 
sequently received the Peninsular war medal 
with eight clasps, the Waterloo medal, and 
one of the rewards for distinguished ser- 
vice. 

He was one of two officers sent into Paris 
to carry out the terms of the convention of 
3 July, and was severely wounded by some 
French soldiers in the suburbs of the city. 
He remained in France during the occupa- 
tion of the allies, returned to England in 
1818, and was sent with his company to 
Mauritius in 1821. He remained there 
twenty-six years, being appointed deputy 
quartermaster-general and commandant of 
Port Louis on 29 Sept. 1825, and acting as 
governor for several months in 1842. When 
he left the colony he received an address 
from the inhabitants, to whom he had always 
shown himself 'juste, impartial, affable, 
bienveillant envers chacun.' 

Staveley was promoted colonel on 10 Jan. 
1837, and major-general on 9 Nov. 1846. A 
year afterwards he left Mauritius for Hong- 
kong, where he commanded the troops for 
three years. In March 1851 he took up the 
command of a division of the Bombay army, 
and in the following year held the command- 
in-chief for several months. In August 1853 
he was given the colonelcy of the 94th foot, 
and was appointed commander-in-chief at 
Madras with the local rank of lieutenant- 
general. He took up this command on 27 Oct. 
He died suddenly on 4 April 1854 on his 



Stawell 



Stawell 



way to the Nilgiri Hills, and was buried at 
Utakamand. He married, on 23 Jan. 1817, 
Sarah, daughter of Thomas Mather, and left, 
with other issue, Sir Charles William Dun- 
bar Staveley [q. v.] The inhabitants of 
Mauritius put up a tablet to his memory in 
the protestant church at Port Louis, and a 
duplicate was erected in the cathedral at 
Madras. 

[Gent. Mag. 1854, ii. 390 ; Reminiscences of 
Lieutenant-general Staveley, printed for private 
circulation in 1866 ; private information.] 

E. M. L. 

STAWELL or STOWELL, SIR JOHN 
(1599-1662), royalist, born between February 
and October 1599, was second but eldest 
surviving son of Sir John Stawell of Cothol- 
stone, Somerset, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Touchet, earl of Castle- 
haven, who afterwards married Sir Thomas 
Griffin of Dingley, Northamptonshire. The 
family had long been settled in Somerset, 
and the elder Sir John had been created 
K.B. at the coronation of James I. A rela- 
tive, Sir Edward Stawell, distinguished him- 
self at the battle of Cheriton Wood on 
29 March 1644 (GARDINER, Civil War, i. 
325-6). 

The royalist matriculated as a gentleman- 
commoner from Queen's College, Oxford, on 
25 Oct. 1616, aged 17, but left the univer- 
sity without a degree. He was elected knight 
of the shire for Somerset to the parliament 
which met on 17 May 1625, and on 2 Feb. 
following he was made K.B. at the corona- 
tion of Charles I. In 1628 he served as 
sheriff of Somerset, and on 12 Oct. 1640 he 
was again returned to the Long parliament 
for Somerset. He ' was a gentleman of very 
great estate in those parts, and who from 
the beginning had heartily and personally 
engaged himself and his children for the 
king, and was in the first form of those who 
had made themselves obnoxious to parlia- 
ment ' (CLARENDON, Rebellion, vii. 98). 

On the outbreak of the civil war Stawell 
' raised three regiments of horse and two of 
dragoons and of foot upon his sole charge ' for 
the king's service. He was in consequence, 
on 8 Aug. 1642,disabled from sitting in parlia- 
ment. In the autumn of that and spring of 
the following year he accompanied Hertford 
through his successful campaign in the west 
[see SEYMOUR, WILLIAM, first MARQUIS OF 
HERTFORD and second DUKE OF SOMERSET], 
during which Taunton was captured. Being 
a man 'of notorious courage and fidelity,' 
Stawell was appointed governor of that town. 
On 16 Jan. 1642-3 he was created M. A., and 
on the 31st M.D., as a member of Wadham 



College, by the university of Oxford. In 1645 
he was one of the chief advocates of the scheme 
for associating the four western counties 
under Prince Charles, and in the same year 
he took part against Goring by supporting 
the petitions of the Somerset men against 
the depredations of Goring's army. At the 
same time his personal differences with 
Coventry ' drew the whole country into fac- 
tions ' (CLARENDON, vii. 177, ix. 50). 

Stawell continued fighting in the west till 
the close of the war. He was at Exeter when 
it surrendered to Fairfax on 9 April 1646 upon, 
the ' Exeter articles.' These stipulated that 
the prisoners should be allowed to com- 
pound on promising not to bear arms against 
parliament, and on 15 July Stawell came to 
London to arrange his composition. On 
4 Aug. he was brought before the committee 
for compounding ; but on his refusal to take 
the national covenant and negative oath he 
was committed a prisoner to Ely House. 
On 18 Aug. he was brought before the 
House of Commons. He declined to kneel 
when ordered to do so, and again refused 
the covenant. He was accordingly com- 
mitted to Newgate for high treason in levy- 
ing war on parliament, and a committee of 
the house was appointed to draw up the in- 
dictment for his trial before the next Somer- 
set assizes. The order for his trial was re- 
peated on various occasions, but nothing 
was done ; on 14 March 1648-9 it was re- 
solved to proceed against him before the 
upper bench. On 28 June 1650 he was. 
selected as one of the six prisoners of war 
who were to be tried on a capital charge, 
and in the following month, by order of the 
high court, he was removed from Newgate 
to the Tower. Finally, on 17 Dec. 1650, he 
was brought to trial ; but the high court 
preferred not to sentence him, and referred 
him to parliament. There his case was 
much discussed but not determined (BURTON, 
Parl. Diary, vol. i. pp. Ixi, 165, 202, iii. 41). 

Meanwhile his estates had been sold, and 
various judgments given against him for 
act ion s during the war, involving the pay ment 
of 7,000/. damages. His wife and children 
were allowed a fifth of his estate, amounting 
to 5001. a year, for their support, and Stawell 
himself received a pension of 6/. a week. 
He frequently petitioned against the ille- 
gality of these proceedings, but no attention 
was paid to them, and parliament passed an 
act confirming the purchasers of his estates 
in their possession. Stawell remained in 
the Tower until May 1660, but in March his 
pension, which had been discontinued, was 
renewed, and after the Restoration he re- 
ceived back his estates in full. He was re- 



Stawell 



121 



Stay ley 



turned to parliament as knight of the shire 
for Somerset on 1 April 1661, and died, 
aged 62, at Nether Ham, Somerset, on 
21 Feb. 1661-2. He was buried on 23 April 
in Cotholstone parish church. 

By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Edward Hext (d. 1624), and widow of Sir 
Joseph Killigrew, whom he married before 
1623, he had, besides other issue, a son 
Ralph, who, in consideration of his father's 
services, was on 15 Jan. 1682-3 created 
Baron Stawell of Somerton, Somerset. The 
barony became extinct on the death of 
Ralph's grandson Edward, fourth baron, in 
1735. 

[Many of Stawell's petitions were printed at 
the time see Brit. Mus. Cat, s.v. ' Stawell, Sir 
John;' Lords' Journals, xi. 23, 137 ; Commons' 
Journals, vols. iv-vii. passim ; Cal. Committee 
for Compounding, pp. ] 425-30, 3280 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. ; Cal. Clarendon State Papers, ed. 
Macray ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. App. and 
7th Eep. App. passim ; Official Returns of Mem- 
bers of Parliament ; Clarendon's Hist, of the 
Rebellion, ed. Macray ; S. R. Gardiner's Common- 
wealth and Protectorate, vol. i. (s.v. ' Stowell ') ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ii. 48; Visitations of Somerset 
(Harl. Soc.); Collinson's Somerset, vol. i. pp. 
xxxii, xxxviii, vol. iii. pp. 251, 431, 445 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714 ; R. B. Gardiner's Reg. 
Wadham Coll. Oxford, i. 153 ; Reg. Univ. Oxon. 
n. ii. 354 ; Burke's Extinct and G. E. C[okayne]'s 
Peerages.] A. F. P. 

STAWELL, SIK WILLIAM FOSTER 

(1815-1889), first chief justice of Victoria, 
son of Jonas Stawell of Old Court, Cork, and 
Anna, daughter of William Foster, bishop of 
Clogher,was born on 27 June 1815. Educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, he graduated B.A. 
in 1837. After studying law both at King's 
Inn, Dublin, and Lincoln's Inn, he was called 
to the Irish bar in 1839. 

In 1842 Stawell emigrated to Melbourne, 
and was admitted to practice at the bar ; but 
for a time gave almost as much attention 
to squatting, in which he joined a cousin, 
Foster Fitzgerald. His reputation in the 
courts, however, rapidly grew, and he was 
drawn into active political life, becoming one 
of the great advocates for the separation of 
Port Phillip from New South Wales. In 
1851 he became the first attorney-general 
of the newly erected colony and held this 
office till 28 Nov. 1855, drafting and con- 
ducting through the council the early laws 
of the colony. He also took an active part 
in the preparation of the new Constitution 
Act in 1854-5. To him are due the names 
' House of Representatives ' and ' Legislative 
Assembly ' for the two chambers. He met with 
much opposition and obloquy, but great re- 



serve force and patience triumphed over at- 
tacks. Henry Samuel Chapman [q. v.] called 
him ' almost the only efficient man connected 
with the government.' 

When in November 1855 the new constitu- 
tion came into operation, Stawell was elected 
for Melbourne to the House of Representa- 
tives. He took office at once as attorney- 
general ; but on 25 Feb. 1857 retired from 
political life on becoming chief justice of 
Victoria. In 1858 he was knighted. Apart 
from his judicial duties, his time was chiefly 
devoted during the following years to fur- 
thering the progress of the church of England 
and of education in the colony. He was a 
staunch supporter of Bishop Charles Perry 
[q. v.], and framed the act establishing the 
synod of the church. In 1873 he went on 
leave to England for nearly two years. In 
1875, and again in 1877, he acted as governor 
of the colony, on the second occasion bearing 
the brunt of the crisis which arose on the 
defeat of Graham Berry's ministry and the 
accession to power of Sir James McCulloch 
[q. v.] He again acted as governor from 
March to July 1884. In August 1886 he 
resigned his office as chief justice, and in the 
following year was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Victoria. In January 1889 he 
left for Europe in order to recruit his health, 
and died at Naples on 12 March. 

Stawell was a masterful but an upright and 
strong judge ; for many years he was one of 
the most prominent figures in the political life 
of Victoria. He was an enthusiastic pro- 
moter of exploration. He was president of 
the Philosophical Institute (afterwards the 
Royal Society) of Victoria in 1858-9, and 
later was chancellor of Melbourne University, 
trustee of the public library, and president of 
the Melbourne hospital. He became LL.D. 
of Dublin in 1874 and K.C.M.G. in 1886. 

Stawell married, in 1856, Mary Frances 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Pomeroy 
Greene, R.N., of Woodlands, Victoria 
(BuRKE, Colonial Gentry, i. 42), and left six 
sons and four daughters. 

[Melbourne Argus, 14 March 1889 ; Mennell's 
Diet, of Australian Biography.] C. A. H. 

STAYLEY, GEORGE (1727-1779?), 
actor and playwright, was born at Burton- 
on-Trent on 1 March 1727. In 1745 he was 
adopted by his mother's brother, an attorney 
named Monk, who wished him to study law ; 
but after five years his kinsman, perceiving 
he had no aptitude in that direction, left 
him to his own devices. After two years 
of idleness he landed in Ireland on 29 May 
1752, and obtained employment at the theatre 
in Smock Alley as an actor. In 1760 Henry 



Stayley i 

Mossop [q. v.] discharged him for giving 
political toasts while acting the part of Lovel 
in the farce of ' High Life.' The remainder 
of his life was spent in broils with theatrical 
managers and fellow-actors. Though a good 
actor he was inordinately vain, and had an 
unfortunate knack of irritating those with 
whom he came in contact. In the beginning 
of 1766 he proceeded to Edinburgh and ap- 
peared at the Canongate Music Hall, after- 
wards the Canongate Theatre lioyal. Next 
year he was not re-engaged, but he was more 
appreciated by the public than by the manage- 
ment. A riot ensued in consequence on 
24 Jan., and the theatre was wrecked. 
Stay ley afterwards taught elocution, and died 
in obscurity before 1780. 

Stayley published : 1. ' The Court of Nas- 
sau,' a comedy, Dublin, 1753, 4to. 2. ' The 
Rival Theatres,' a farce, Dublin, 1759, 12mo, 
a skit on the rivalry between Sheridan at 
Smock Alley and Barry and Woodward at 
Crow Street. 3. ' The Chocolate Makers, or 
Mimickry Exposed,' printed with the pre- 
ceding. 4. ' The Life and Opinions of an 
Actor,' Dublin, 1762, 12mo, which contains 
also a number of short pieces in prose and 
verse. 5. ' An Enquiry into the Natural 
Worth and Dignity of Man,' Edinburgh, 
1766, 12mo. 

[Stayley 's Life and Opinions of an Actor; 
Baker's Biogr. Dramatica, i. 683 ; Lowe's English 
Theatrical Literature, p. 321 ; Dibdin's Annals 
of the Edinburgh Stage, 1888, pp. 135-43; 
Hitchcock's History of the Irish Stage, 1788-94, 
passim ; Jackson's History of the Scottish Stage, 
1793, pp. 60-6.] E. I. C. 

STAYLEY, WILLIAM (d. 1 678), victim 
of the popish plot. [See STALEY.] 

STAYNER, SIE RICHARD (d. 1662), 
admiral, described by Le Neve (Pedigrees of 
the Knights, p. 112) as ' of Greenwich ' 
which may, however, only mean that he was 
living there in 1660 had probably served 
in a subordinate rank in the parliamentary 
navy during the civil war (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 21 Dec. 1653). On 22 June 1649 he 
was appointed commander of the Elizabeth 
prize, 'now a State's ship,' though a very 
small one, her principal armament being two 
sakers, that is, six-pounders. She was 
specially fitted out ' for surprising small 
pickaroons that lurk among the sands ' on 
the Essex coast, and for convoy service in 
the North Sea. In August he captured the 
Robert, a small frigate, apparently one of 
Prince Rupert's vessels, for which and other 
good services he was awarded 20/. and 51. for a 

fold medal (ib. 13 April 1650). In November 
652 he commanded the Mermaid, fitting out 



Stayner 



at Chatham ; but seems to have been moved 
from her in January to command the Fore- 
sight, which was one of the fleet with Blake 
in the battle off Portland on 18 Feb. 1652-3. 
He was certainly with the fleet in the follow- 
ing April, when he signed the declaration of 
the sea-officers on the dissolution of the 
parliament by Cromwell, which was, in fact, 
a resolution ' not to meddle with state affairs, 
but to keep foreigners from fooling us ' (cf. 
GARDINER, Hist, of the Commonwealth and 
Protectorate, ii. 218). 

In the battle off the Gabbard on 2-3 June 
1653, Stayner commanded the Foresight in 
the white squadron under the immediate 
command of Penn, and was afterwards sent 
into the river in convoy of twelve disabled 
ships, eleven Dutch prizes, with 1,350 pri- 
soners, and the body of Admiral Richard 
Deane [q. v.], which he was ordered to take to 
Woolwich (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 9 June 
1653). He rejoined the fleet in time to take 
part in the decisive battle of 29-31 July, and 
continued with it till the end of the season. 
In December he was strongly recommended 
by Monck for a larger ship, and in the 
following January was appointed to the 
Plymouth, in which during the spring, till 
the peace with the Dutch, he was employed 
in active cruising in the North Sea, during 
which he made several captures, including 
one rich East Indiaman. In July he was 
appointed by Blake to the Catherine, and 
in September sailed for the Mediterranean 
with Blake, returning to England with 
him in October 1655 [see BLAKE, ROBERT]. 
In the following February he was in com- 
mand of the Bridgwater and sailed again 
with Blake for Cadiz, which was kept closely 
blockaded. 

In September, when the generals with the 
greater part of the fleet went to Aveiro, 
Stayner, then in the Speaker, was left off 
Cadiz in command of a small squadron/ of 
some six or seven ships. On 8 Sept. he fell 
in with the Spanish treasure fleet which, 
having information from a prize that the 
English had left the coast, was pushing on 
for Cadiz in such perfect confidence that, it 
is said, the Spaniards supposed Stayner's 
ships to be fishing-vessels ; yet three of 
Stayner's ships at least, the Speaker, Bridg- 
water, and Plymouth, were each of more 
than nine hundred tons. Nothing could 
be done that night, and the next morning 
several of Stayner's ships had fallen to lee- 
ward. He had only three with him, but 
these were the powerful ships just named; 
and as they were now within twelve miles 
of Cadiz, he judged that delay was unadvis- 
able, and attacked the Spaniards about nine 



Stayner 



123 



Stebbing 



o'clock in the forenoon. Of the four capital 
ships in the Spanish fleet, one escaped and 
ran for Cadiz, but struck on a rock and went 
to the bottom. The three others were cap- 
tured, but two of them caught fire and were 
burnt with all their cargo and a great part 
of their men. The fourth remained in the 
possession of the English ; some of the other 
ships also were taken. The value of the 
prize to the captors was estimated at about 
600,000/. ; but it was stated by the Spaniards 
that their loss was not less than nine million 
dollars, or nearly two millions sterling. The 
news of this tremendous blow reached Eng- 
land early in October. An official narrative 
of it was published on 4 Oct., and a thanks- 
giving service ordered to be held on the 8th 
in all the churches in London and West- 
minster (A true Narrative of the late Success 
. . . against the King of Spain 's West India 
Fleet in its Return to Cadiz). 

Shortly after this Stayner returned to 
England with Mountagu [see MONTAGU, ED- 
WARD, first EARL OF SANDWICH]; but re- 
joined Blake early the next year, and took a 
brilliant part in the destruction of the Spanish 
ships at Santa Cruz on 20 April. For his 
conduct on this occasion he was knighted by 
Cromwell on his return to England in the 
following August. During the rest of the 
year and during 1658 he commanded in the 
Downs, nominally as second to Mountagu, 
who was most of the time in London, and 
really as commander-in-chief, with his flag 
as rear-admiral sometimes in the Essex, 
sometimes in the London, and towards the 
end of the time in the Speaker. His work 
was entirely administrative, and he had 
no active share in the operations against 
Mardyke and Dunkirk, though he was in 
constant communication with Goodsonn, by 
whom they were entirely conducted. In the 
summer of 1659 he was rear-admiral of the 
fleet with Mountagu in the Sound, and on 
16 April 1660 was appointed by Mountagu 
to be rear-admiral of the fleet which went 
over to bring the king to England. For this 
service he was knighted on 24 Sept., his 
earlier knighthood, conferred by Cromwell, 
not being recognised by the royalists. 

In the early summer of 1661 Stayner was 
again commander-in-chief in the Downs, and 
in June sailed for Lisbon and the Medi- 
terranean as rear-admiral of the fleet under 
the Earl of Sandwich. When Sandwich 
went home in April 1662, Stayner, with his 
flag in the Mary, remained as vice-admiral 
of the fleet, under Sir John Lawson [q. v.] 
On 2 July it was reported from Lisbon that 
he had just arrived fromTangiers; on 20 July 
that he was dangerously ill ; on 9 Oct. that 



he had died apparently a few days before. 
In pursuance of his wish to be buried beside 
his wife, who seems to have died in 1658, 
his body was embalmed and brought home 
in the Mary, which arrived at Spithead on 
3 Nov. He left a son Richard, who on 
30 May 1663 was petitioning for repayment 
of 300/. which his father had advanced for 
the king's service. The claim was approved 
by Sandwich, but there is no mention of the 
money having been paid. 

[Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-63 ; Char- 
nock's Biogr. Nav. i. 45.] J. K. L. 

STEARNE. [See also STERN and 
STERNE.] 

STEBBING, HENRY (1687-1763), di- 
vine, baptised at Malton in Suffolk on 19 Aug. 
1687, was the fourth son of John Stebbing, 
(1647-1728), a grocer of Malton by his wife 
Mary"(<#- 1821), daughter and coheiress of Ri- 
chard Kenington. Henry entered St. Catha- 
rine Hall, Cambridge, as a sizar on 24 Feb. 
1704-5, graduating B.A. in 1708, M.A. in 
1712, and D.D. in 1730. On 19 Oct. 1710 he 
was elected a fellow, and on 27 June 1738 was 
incorporated at Oxford. On Lady-day 1713 
he resigned his fellowship on being presented 
to the parish of Lower Rickinghall in Suffolk, 
and on 31 May 1726 he was instituted rector 
of Garboldisham in Norfolk. On 14 July 1731 
he was elected preacher to the Society of 
Gray's Inn, and in the following year was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to the king. 
On 19 July 1735 he was installed archdeacon 
of Wiltshire, and in 1739 became chancellor 
of Sarum. In 1748 he became rector of 
Redenhall in Norfolk, and retained the 
charge for the rest of his life. He died at 
Gray's Inn on 2 Jan. 1763, and was buried 
in Salisbury Cathedral, where a monument 
was erected to his memory. His portrait, 
painted in 1757 by Joseph Highmore, hangs 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London. An 
engraving by James Roberts is prefixed to 
the edition of his ' Tracts ' published in 
1766. 

Stebbing was well known among his con- 
temporaries as a controversial champion of 
Church of England orthodoxy. Among 
others he wrote against George Whitefield 
[q. v.] and Benjamin Hoadly [q.v.], bishop 
of Bangor. His chief antagonist, however, 
was AVarburton, with whom he carried on a 
voluminous warfare for many years. Its origin 
was Stebbing's attack on Warburton's ' Divine 
Legation of Moses.' Stebbing's most im- 
portant wdjks were : 1 . ' A Rational Enquiry 
into the proper methods of supporting Chris- 
tianitv, so far as it concerns the Governors 
of the" Church, 1 London, 1720, 8vo. 2. ' An 



Stebbing 



124 



Stebbing 



Essay concerning Civil Government, con- 
sidered as it stands related to Religion,' 
London, 1724, 8vo ; reprinted in ' The 
Churchman armed against the Errors of 
the Times,' vol. iii., London, 1814, 8vo. 
3. ' An Apology for the Clergy of the Church 
of England,' London, 1734, 8vo. 4. 'A 
Brief Account of Prayer and the Sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper, and other religious duties 
appertaining to Christian Worship,' London, 
1739, 8vo; 4th edit. 1771, 12mo. 5. 'A 
Caution against Religious Delusion,' London, 
1739, 8vo; this work, directed against the 
methodists, ran through six editions within 
a year. 6. 'Christianity justified upon the 
Scripture Foundation,' London, 1750, 8vo. 
7. ' Sermons on Practical Christianity,' Lon- 
don, 1759-60, 8vo. A collected edition of 
his earlier writings appeared in 1737, en- 
titled 'The Works of Henry Stebbing,' 
London, fol. He has also been credited 
with an anonymous satire entitled ' The 
Fragment,' published at Cambridge in 1751, 
which assailed several leading statesmen 
and ecclesiastics of the time. 

By his wife, a daughter of Robert Camel 
of Eye, Suffolk, Stebbing had a son, HENRY 
STEBBING (1716-1787), a fellow of St. Catha- 
rine Hall, who became in 1749 rector of 
Gimingham and Trunch in Norfolk, and, on 
the resignation of his father in 1750, was 
appointed preacher to the Society of Gray's 
Inn. He died at Gray's Inn on 13 Nov. 
1787. He was the author of a collection of 
' Sermons on Practical Subjects,' London, 
1788-90, 8vo, published by his son, Henry 
Stebbing, a barrister, with a memoir (Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS. 19170, f. 196 : Gent. Mag. 
1787, ii. 1032). 

[Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 5880 ff. 144, 167, 
19150 f. 100, 19166 ff. 283-93, 19169 f. 17, 
19174 f. 659; Foster's Kegister of Gray's Inn ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. passim; Gent. Mag. 1731 
p. 309, 1735 passim, 1737 pp. 82, 208, 210, 
1739 pp. 384, 415, 554, 1748 p. 240,1763 p. 
46, 1802 ii. 631 ; information kindly given by the 
master of St. Catharine College, Cambridge.] 

E. I. C. 

STEBBING, HENRY (1799-1883), poet, 
preacher, and historian, born at Great Yar- 
mouth, Norfolk, on 26 Aug. 1799, was the 
son of John Stebbing (d. 11 Dec. 1826), who 
married Mary Rede (d. 24 May 1843) of the 
Suffolk family of that name, both of whom 
were buried in the cemetery of St. James, 
Piccadilly. He ' penned a stanza ' when he 
was a schoolboy, and his first poem, 'The 
Wanderers,' was printed at the close of 1817 
and circulated among his friends. In the 
following August he published ' Minstrel of 
the Glen and other Poems,' which included 



The Wanderers,' and in October 1818 he 
proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge r 
where he had been admitted a sizar on 
4 July 1818. He graduated B.A. 1823, 
M.A. 1827, and D.D. 1839, and on 3 July 
1857 was admitted ad eundem at Oxford. 
On 3 April 1845 he was elected F.R.S. 

Stebbing was ordained deacon by Bishop 
Bathurst of Norwich in 1822, and priest in 
1823. Within a few months he was in 
charge of three parishes for absentee incum- 
bents, and rode forty miles each Sunday to 
do the duty. In 1825 he was appointed 
evening lecturer at St. Mary's, Bungay, and 
about 1824 he became perpetual curate of 
Ilketshall St. Lawrence, Norfolk. He mar- 
ried, at Calton church, near Norwich, on 
21 Dec. 1824, Mary, daughter of William 
Griffin of Norwich, and sister of Vice- 
admiral William Griffin, and in order to 
increase his income he became, in January 
1826, second master, under Dr. Valpy, of 
Norwich grammar school. Henry Reeve 
(1813-1895) [q. v.] was one of his pupils 
there. 

In 1827 Stebbing moved to London, and 
was soon ' working for the booksellers from 
morning to night and sometimes from night 
to morning.' His connection with the 
' Athenaeum ' from its foundation was what 
he most valued. He was engaged by Silk 
Buckingham 'in the very first planning of 
the new journal, and in shaping the mode of 
its publication.' A notice by him of Dr. 
Hampden's work on ' Butler's Analogy, or 
Philosophical Evidences of Christianity,' was 
the opening review in the first number of 
2 Jan. 1828, and his article on Whately's 
' Rhetoric ' led the second number. After 
three or four issues he became the working 
editor (cf. his letter on The Athen&um in. 
1828-30, which appeared in that paper on 
19 Jan. 1878). 

From 1834 to 1836 he edited, with the 
Rev. R. Cattermole, thirty volumes of the 
' Sacred Classics ' of England. He was 
editor of the ' Diamond Bible ' (1834, 1840, 
and 1857), ' Diamond New Testament ' 
(1835), ' Charles Knight's Pictorial Edition 
of the Book of Common Prayer' (1838- 
1840), Tate and Brady's ' Psalms ' (1840), 
' Psalms and Hymns, with some original 
Hymns ' (1841), and many modern theo- 
logical works. He also edited the works 
of Josephus (1842) and of Bunyan, Milton's 
' Poems' (1839 and 1851), Defoe's ' Plague ' 
(1830), and ' Robinson Crusoe ' (1859). 

Stebbing wrote a continuation to the 
'Death of William IV,' of Hume and 
Smollett's ' History of England.' His ' Essay 
on the Study of History,' which appeared as 



Stebbing 



125 



Stedman 



an addition to Hume, was published sepa- 
rately in 1841. In 1848 he owned and edited 
the ' Christian Enquirer and the Literary 
Companion,' but only seven numbers of it 
were published. 

A life of literary activity brought Stebbing 
the acquaintance of many distinguished men. 
He breakfasted with Rogers, and was intro- 
duced by Basil Montagu to Coleridge's set 
at Highgate. He conversed with Scott, cor- 
responded with Southey, heard Tom Moore 
sing his Irish ballads, and knew Thomas 
Campbell and Charles Dickens. 

"With his literary drudgery Stebbing com- 
bined much clerical work. From 1829 he 
was alternate morning preacher, and from 
1836 to 1857 perpetual curate, of St. 
James, Hampstead Road, London. He offi- 
ciated during the same period at the large 
cemetery of St. James, Piccadilly, which was 
situated behind his church, and from 1834 to 
December 1879 he acted as chaplain to Uni- 
versity College hospital. For a few months, 
from 21 Nov. 1835 to the following spring, 
he held, on the presentation of John Norris, 
the vicarage of Hughenden in Buckingham- 
shire. In 1841 he was chaplain to the lord 
mayor, Thomas Johnson. 

These appointments brought with them 
small pecuniary reward ; but in 1857 Dr. Tait, 
then bishop of London, conferred upon him 
the more lucrative rectory of St. Mary So- 
merset, with St. Mary Mounthaw in the 
city of London. Under the Union of Bene- 
fices Act the parishes of St. Nicholas Cole- 
Abbey and St. Nicholas Olave were united 
with them in November 1866, and those of 
St. Benet and St. Peter, Paul's Wharf, in 
June 1879. At this composite living Dr. 
Stebbing did duty for the rest of his days. 
He was a moderate churchman, inclining to 
evangelicalism. In 1847 he published 'A 
Letter to Lord John Russell on the Esta- 
blished Church,' in which he argued for a re- 
form of the system of patronage. He died at 
St. James's parsonage. Hampstead Road, Lon- 
don, on 22 Sept. 1883, and was buried on 
27 Sept. in Kensal Green cemetery. 

His wife (born at Norwich on 22 Feb. 1805) 
died on 3 Feb. 1882, and was buried in the 
same cemetery. Five sons and four daugh- 
ters survived. Two of his sons, Mr. William 
Stebbing and Mr. Thomas Roscoe Rede 
Stebbing, F.R.S., have distinguished them- 
selves respectively in literature and science ; 
while two daughters, Beatrice (now Mrs. 
Batty) and Miss Grace Stebbing, are also 
well known as authors. The eldest son, 
John (d. 1885), translated Humboldt's ' Let- 
ters to a Lady ' and Thiers's ' History of 
France under Napoleon.' 



Stebbing's portrait was painted at least 
four times, the artists being Harland,Wivell, 
Baugniet, and Riviere. There were published 
an engraving by S. W. Reynolds of the por- 
trait byT.W. Harland, and a large lithograph 
by C. Baugniet. A portrait, from a photo- 
graph, appeared in the ' Illustrated London 
News ' (6 Oct. 1883). 

Stebbing's chief works, excluding sermons 
and those already noticed, were: 1. 'His- 
tory of Chivalry and the Crusades ' in Con- 
stable's ' Miscellany,' vols. 1. and li., 1830 ; 
much praised by Professor Wilson for its 
clearness of style and picturesque descrip- 
tions. 2. ' Lives of the Italian Poets,' 1831, 
3 vols. ; 2nd edit, with numerous additions, 
1832, 3 vols. ; new edition in one volume, 
with omissions and alterations, 1860. 3. ' His- 
tory of the Christian Church' in Lard- 
ner's 'Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' 1833, 2 vols. 

4. ' History of the Reformation ' in Lard- 
ner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia/ 1836, 2 vols. 

5. ' History of Church of Christ from Diet of 
Augsburg, 1530, to the Eighteenth Century; ' 
originally intended as a continuation of 
Milner's ' History,' 1842, 3 vols. 6. ' The 
Church and its Ministers,' 1844. 7. ' His- 
tory of the Universal Church in Primitive 
Times,' 1845 ; prefixed is his portrait with 
autograph signature. 8. ' The Christian in 
Palestine, or Scenes of Sacred History ; ' to 
illustrate sketches on the spot by W. H. 
Bartlett, 1847. 9. ' Short Readings on Sub- 
jects for Long Reflection,' 1849. 10. ' History 
of Christ's Universal Church prior to the 
Reformation,' 1850, 2 vols. 11. < The long 
Railway Journey and other Poems,' 1851. 

12. ' Jesus : a poem in six Books,' 1851. 

13. 'Christian Graces in Olden Time: Poetical 
Illustrations,' 1852. 14. ' Near the Cloisters,' 
1868, 2 vols. ; descriptive of life at Norwich 
early in this century. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Lipscomb's Buck- 
inghamshire, iii. 587 ; Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. v. 424-5, vi. 11 ; Athenaeum, 29 Sept. 1883, 
pp. 400-1; Academy, 29 Sept. 1883, p. 214; 
Annual Eeg. 1883, p. 171; Men of the Time, 
8th ed. ; Times, 7 Feb. 1882, p. 1, 24 Sept. 1883, 
p. 7 ; information from Mr. E. F. Scott, St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and Mr. William 
Stebbing.] W. P. C. 

STEDMAN, CHARLES (1753-1812), 
military historian, was of a family that 
claims descent from Andrew Barton [q. v.] 
According to the Stedman tradition, Andrew 
Barton left an only son, Charles, who married 
Susan Stedman of Leith and took his wife's 
name. His descendants acquired land in 
Kinross-shire, and supplied many ministers 
to the kirk. Alexander (1703-1794), the 
father of the military historian, became an 



Stedman 



126 



Stedman 



advocate and a Jacobite, but was compelled j 
to fly the country after Culloden, together j 
with two of his brothers. He found refuge I 
at Philadelphia, where he was ultimately ap- 
pointed a judge of the supreme court. On 
the declaration of independence he withdrew i 
to England and died at Swansea in 1794 (cf. j 
APPLETON, American Biogr.} He married 
Elizabeth Chancellor, the daughter of an 
immigrant to America from Somerset, who 
had been captured during the Spanish war 
and brought up in a convent. 

Charles, their second- son, was born at 
Philadelphia in 1753, and educated for the 
law at William and Mary College in Vir- 
ginia. Like his father, he remained loyal 
to the British crown, and, on the outbreak 
of hostilities, he was appointed commissary 
to the troops under the command of Sir 
"William Howe. His knowledge of the Ger- 
man language, presumably acquired from 
early intercourse with the numerous German 
settlers in Pennsylvania, stood him in good 
stead, both as interpreter with the Hessian 
auxiliaries, and afterwards as commander of 
a rifle corps of colonists from the Palatinate. 
He was twice taken prisoner, and sentenced 
to be hanged as a rebel ; but on each occa- 
sion he managed to escape, once from the 
same prison that held the ill-fated Major 
Andre. He was also twice severely wounded. 
On the conclusion of peace in 1783 he retired 
to England on the half-pay of a colonel. He 
was one of those appointed to examine and 
settle the claims of the American loyalists. 
In 1794 appeared his ' History of the Origin, 
Progress, and Termination of the American 
War' (2 vols. London, 4to, with folding maps 
and plans; and in the same year 2 vols., 
Dublin, 8vo), which still remains the stan- 
dard work on the subject. It is dedicated to 
Lord Rawdon,earlof Moira, his former com- 
mander-in-chief. Shortly after it appeared 
Sir Henry Clinton printed ' Some Observa- 
tions upon Mr. Stedman's History' (4to, 
1794), which impugn the author's accuracy 
on minor points ; but these strictures appear 
to have been prompted mainly by personal 
feeling. Through the influence of the Mar- 
quis of Cornwallis, Lord Rawdon's prede- 
cessor in the command, Stedman was in 1797 
appointed to the office of deputy controller 
and accountant-general of the revenue of 
stamps, with reversion to the chief control- 
lership, which, however, never fell in. He 
died on 26 June 1812, and was buried at 
Paddington. He married Mary Bowen, by 
whom he had one son, John, who became 
judge of the court of admiralty at Gibraltar, 
and compiled a genealogical memoir of the 
family (1857). 



[John Stedman's Memoir of the Family of 
Barton, continued through that of Stedman, 
privately printed, 1857 ; Gent. Mas*. 1812, 
ii. 91.] J. S. C. 

STEDMAN, JOHN ANDREW (1778- 
1833), general in the Dutch army, was the 
son of William George Stedman. Both his 
father and grandfather, who belonged to the 
same family as Charles Stedman [q. v.] and 
John Gabriel Stedman [q. v.], were officers in 
the Scots brigade in the service of the States- 
General of Holland a corps whose history ex- 
tends from 1570 to 1783. Both of them married 
Dutch wives of noble blood. In 1783, when 
the Scots brigade was formed into Dutch 
regiments, and most of the officers resigned 
their commissions, Captain William George 
Stedman elected to be naturalised in the 
country of his adoption. John Andrew, his 
only son, was born at Zutphen in 1778, and 
received a commission in the Dutch army 
when only a child. At the early age of 
sixteen he first saw service with the allied 
forces, under the Duke of York and the 
Prince of Orange, which were employed in 
1794 on the northern frontier of France. 
His next service was in 1799, when the 
Batavian republic was in alliance with 
France, and the Duke of York commanded 
the opposing army at Bergen. At a later 
date he again served against the English at 
Walcheren. Meanwhile he had held im- 
portant staff appointments, and, on the in- 
corporation of Holland with France, he be- 
came general of brigade in the French army. 
In this capacity he served for two years in 
Italy, and was present at the battles of 
Bautzen and Dresden. In 1814 he attached 
himself to the Prince of Orange, afterwards 
King William of Holland, and commanded 
the Dutch troops in reserve at Waterloo, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general. He 
died at Nimeguen in 1833. He married 
Nicola Gertrude van de Poll, granddaughter 
of the last reigning burgomaster of Amster- 
dam. Their only son, Charles John William 
Stedman, became a Prussian subject, settling 
at Besselich Abbey, near Coblentz. He was 
a member of the national assemblies of Frank- 
fort and Erfurt, and received the title of 
freiherr or baron. He had a large family, 
of which nearly all the sons entered the 
Queen Augusta regiment of guards ; they 
have reverted to the original family name 
of Barton. 

[John Stedman's Memoir of the Family of 
Barton, 1857.] J. S. C. 

STEDMAN, JOHN GABRIEL (1744- 
1797), lieutenant-colonel and author, was 
grandson of John Stedman (1678-1713), 



Stedman 



127 



Stedman 



minister of Dalmeuy and afterwards of the 
Tron Church, Edinburgh (cf. HEW SCOTT, 
Faxti, I. i. 59, 182), who was a great-uncle 
of Charles Stedman [q. v.] His father, Ro- 
bert, was an officer in the Scots brigade in 
the service of the States-General of Holland, 
and fought atFontenoy and Bergen-op-Zoom. 
He died at Breda in 1770. 

John Gabriel, the elder son of Robert by 
his wife, Antoinetta Christina van Ceulen, 
was born in Holland in 1744. According 
to his own account, his ambition was to 
enter the British navy, to which he was 
well recommended. But, the paternal estate 
having been lost by accidental misfortunes, 
he was glad to accept a commission in 
General John Stuart's regiment in the Scots 
brigade in 1760, as a preliminary to which 
he had to take the oaths of abjuration and 
allegiance to King George. In 1772 he 
volunteered to accompany an expedition sent 
out by the States-General to subdue the re- 
volted negroes in Surinam, or Dutch Guiana. 
This service, in which he was employed for 
five years, gave him the opportunity of his 
life. His narrative of it is a model of what 
such a book should be. Its rules for march- 
ing and fighting amid tropical swamps an- 
ticipate those laid down for the Ashanti 
expedition. The field of his curiosity em- 
braced not only all branches of natural his- 
tory, but also economical and social con- 
ditions. His description of the cruelties 
practised on the negroes, and of the moral 
deterioration resulting to their masters,forms 
one of the most vivid indictments of slavery 
that have been penned. While he did his 
duty as a soldier in the pay of Holland, he 
does not disguise his sympathy with the 
rebels. Not the least curious thing in the 
book is the story of his relations with Joanna, 
a beautiful mulatto, who nursed him when 
sick, and bore him a son. The freedom of 
the son was granted to the father by the 
government of Surinam in recognition of 
' his humanity and gallantry ; ' but the boy 
died at sea as a midshipman in the British 
navy. 

Stedman, immediately on his return to 
Holland, although Joanna was still alive (she 
died in November 1782), married a Dutch 
wife, Adriana Wiertzvan Coehorn, a grand- 
daughter of the famous military engineer. He 
was restored to his rank in Stuart's regiment, 
with which he continued to serve until the 
Scots brigade ceased to exist in 1783. On 
the outbreak of war with England in that 
year the privates, who now belonged to all 
nationalities, were naturalised as Dutchmen, 
while the great majority of the officers re- 
signed their commissions and came over to 



England. Parliament forthwith voted to 
them the half-pay of their rank, and later on 
they were re-embodied under General Fran- 
cis Dundas, and sent to garrison Gibraltar. 
Stedman's commission as major in the se- 
cond battalion of the Scots brigade is dated 
5 July 1793, and on 3 May 1796 he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel. Oddly enough, 
on the title-page of his book, dated 1796, he 
uses the style of captain; and, still more 
oddly, his name continues to appear in the 
' Army List' until 1805, when he had been 
eight years dead. He seems to have lived 
latterly at Tiverton in Devonshire. This 
is the place from which the dedication of his 
book to the Prince of Wales is dated, 1 Jan. 
1796 ; and according to family tradition, he 
retired here on meeting with a severe acci- 
dent which prevented him from taking up 
the command of his regiment at Gibraltar. 
At Tiverton he died on 7 March 1797. He 
had left instructions to be buried in the 
neighbouring parish of Bickleigh, at mid- 
night and by torchlight, by the side of 
Bamfylde Moore Carew [q. v.], the king of 
the gipsies, whom he apparently regarded as 
a kindred spirit. As a matter of fact, the 
two lie on opposite sides of the church, Sted- 
man directly in front of the vestry door. 
By his wife Adriana he left three sons, two 
of whom were killed in action, while the 
third died at sea, after forty years' service 
in India, a lieutenant-colonel in the Ben- 
gal cavalry and C.B. The male line is now 
extinct. 

The full title of Stedman's book is ' Nar- 
rative of a Five Years' Expedition against 
the Revolted Negroes of Surinam, in Guiana, 
on the Wild Coast of South America, from 
the year 1772 to 1777 : elucidating the His- 
tory of that Country, and describing its Pro- 
ductions, viz. Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, 
Reptiles, Trees, Shrubs, Fruits and Roots ; 
with an Account of the Indians of Guiana 
and Negroes of Guinea,' London, 1 796. It is 
in 2 vols. 4to, illustrated with eighty plates 
from drawings by the author, many of which 
are engraved by Bartolozzi and Blake. Large- 
paper copies have the plates handsomely 
coloured by hand. A second edition ' with 
an Account of the Indians of Guiana and 
Negroes of Guinea,' appeared in 1806 (Lon- 
don, 2 vols. 4to ; reprinted 1813). A French 
translation by P. F. Heury appeared in 1799, 
and a German translation by Sprengel shortly 
afterwards. A romance founded upon Sted- 
man's narrative, and called 'Joanna,' was 
issued in 1824 (London, 12mo). 

[Stedman's Memoir, 1857; Stedman's Narra- 
tive ; Appleton's Cyclop, of American Biogr. v. 
658 ; European Mag. 1797, i. passim.] J. S. C. 



Stedman 



128 



Steele 



STEDMAN, ROWLAND (1630 ?-1673)i 
nonconformist divine, son of Henry and 
Mary Stedman, was born about 1630 at 
Corfton, in the parish of Diddlebury in Shrop- 
shire (there is a gap in the registers from 
1598 until 1683). He matriculated at Balliol 
College, Oxford, as 'plebeian,' on 12 March 
1648-9, but migrated to University College 
on obtaining a scholarship there in 1649. 
He graduated B. A. on 16 Oct. 1651, and pro- 
ceeded M.A. on 22 March 1655-6. 

Stedman was appointed to the rectory of 
Hanwell, Middlesex, in 1657, and remained 
there for three years. In 1660 he was made 
rector of Wokingham in Berkshire, and held 
that living until 1662, when he refused epi- 
scopal ordination and was ejected for non- 
conformity. After his ejection Stedman re- 
sided at Neasdon in the parish of Willesden 
in Middlesex, but presently became chaplain 
at Wooburn in Buckinghamshire to Philip, 
fourth lord Wharton [q. v.], who, dying on 
5 Feb. 1694-5, was described on his monu- 
ment in Wooburn church as opening his 
mansions for ' an asylum for the suffering 
ministers of the word of God.' Stedman 
remained at W 7 ooburn until his death, on 
14 Sept. 1673, and was buried on the 16th 
at Wooburn church, ' leaving behind him the 
character of a zealous nonconformist ' (W T OOD). 
His will, dated 24 Oct. 1667, was proved 
8 Oct. 1673 (P. C. C., 132 Pye). He married 
Margaret, daughter of William and Anne 
Jemmatt, who survived him. 

His works are : 1. ' The Sure Way to 
Salvation ; or, a Treatise of the Mystical 
Union of Believers with Christ ; wherein 
that great mystery and privilege of the 
Saints' union with the Son of God is opened 
in the nature, property, and necessity of it,' 
1668. 2. ' Sober Singularity, or an Anti- 
dote against Infection by the example of a 
multitude ; being practical reflections on 
Exod. xxiii. verse 2,' 1668. 

[Wood's Atbenae Oxon. iii. 998 ; Calamy's 
Nonconformist's Memorial, ed. Palmer, i. 294 ; 
Burrows' s Register of Visitors of the University 
of Oxford in 1647-8, pp. 480, 558; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; and private infor- 
mation.] W. G. D. F. 

STEEL, SIR SCUDAMORE WINDE 
(1789-1865), lieutenant-general, born in 
1789, was appointed a cadet in the East 
India Company's service in 1805, and became 
lieutenant in the Madras army on 11 Sept. 
1806. In 1808-9 he served under Colonel 
Doveton in Berar against the Pindaris. He 
took part in the Mahratta war of 1817-18 as 
assistant quartermaster, and was slightly 
wounded in the capture of one of the hill 
forts. He became captain in the army on 



27 March 1821, and in the 51st native infan- 
try on 1 May 1824. He was employed on the 
quartermaster-general's staff at Nagpur, and 
in the first Burmese war in 1826. He was 
promoted major in his regiment on 15 Dec. 
1832, and was secretary in the military de- 
partment at Madras from 1832 to 1845. He 
planned and took part in the operations for 
the reduction of Coorg in 1834. He was 
made lieutenant-colonel in the army on 

28 July 1835, and of the 24th native in- 
fantry on 9 April 1838. On 20 July in 
that year he was made C.B. 

In 1845 he was appointed military auditor- 
general ; on 13 Sept. 1847 colonel of the 
Madras fusiliers ; and on 8 March ] 849 
colonel of the 18th native infantry. He 
commanded the Madras division of the army 
engaged in the second Burmese war in 1852- 
1853, was mentioned in General Godwin's 
despatch of 24 Dec. 1852, and directed the 
column sent to Martaban in January to 
operate on the Salwin. He was made 
K.C.B. on 9 Dec. 1853, and was appointed 
to the command of the Pegu division and 
the Martaban provinces, being promoted 
major-general on 28 Nov. 1854. Steel re- 
turned to England in 1856, became lieu- 
tenant-general on 2 Sept. 1861, and died at 
Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, London, on 
11 March 1865. 

[Gent. Mag. 1865, i. 533; Times, 13 March 
1 865 ; Blacker's Operations during the Mahratta 
War of 1817-19 ; Laurie's Pegu : a Narrative of 
the second Burmese War ; East India Registers.] 

. M. L. 

STEELE, ANNE (1717-1778), hymn- 
writer, daughter of William Steele (1689- 
1769), timber merchant and lay baptist 
preacher, was born at Broughton, Hamp- 
shire, in 1717. Her otherwise uneventful 
life was deeply affected by the drowning of 
her affianced lover a few hours before the 
time fixed for the wedding. She died on 
11 Nov. 1778, ' aged 61 years and 6 months ' 
(inscription on tombstone at Broughton). 

Miss Steele wrote very many original 
hymns. In 1760 she published ' Poems on 
Subjects chiefly devotional,' under the signa- 
ture of ' Theodosia,' and after her death this 
was reissued in three volumes (Bristol, 1780), 
with numerous additions and with a preface 
by Dr. Caleb Evans. Her complete works 
were published in one volume by Daniel 
Sedgwick [q. v.] (London, 1863), under the 
title of ' Hymns, Psalms, and Poems by Anne 
Steele, with memoir by John Sheppard.' 
They include 144 hymns, 34 metrical psalms, 
and about 50 poems on moral subjects. Few 
of the hymns can be placed in the first rank, 
but one or two, such as ' Father, whate'er 



Steele 



129 



Steele 



of earthly bliss,' ' Dear Refuge of my weary 
soul,' and ' Far from these narrow scenes of 
night,' are constantly sung. Miss Steele's 
personal sufferings are reflected in her verse. 
Her manuscripts, including many unpub- 
lished pieces, are in the hands of a collateral 
descendant, Miss Bompas, at Broughton. 
Her poems were reprinted in America in 
1808. Her hymns enjoy an extended vogue 
in America and among the baptists else- 
where. 

[Memoir by Caleb Evans as above; Miller's 
Our Hymns, their Authors and Origin; Julian's 
Diet, of Hymnology ; Christophers's Hymn 
Writers and their Hymns ; Quiver, June 1879 
(with facsimiles of handwriting) ; information 
from Miss Bompas.] J. G. H. 

STEELE, CHRISTOPHER (fl. 1756), 
portrait-painter, was born at Egremont, 
Cumberland, about 1730. He resided for a 
year in Paris, where he was instructed by 
' Carle ' Vanloo, and on his return practised 
portrait-painting in the north of England 
with some success. By his foreign manners 
and expensive tastes he acquired the title of 
' Count ' Steele. In 1755, while residing at 
Kendal, he received George Romney [q. v.] as 
a pupil, and shortly afterwards, with Rom- 
ney's assistance, he eloped with and married 
a young lady of some fortune. He then re- 
moved to York, where he had Laurence 
Sterne among his sitters. In 1757 Steele 
went to Ireland, where he is supposed to 
have died. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Hayley's Life 
of Romney, 1809; J. Romney's Memoirs of (r. 
Romney, 1820.] F. M. O'D. 

STEELE, JOSHUA (1700-1791), writer 
on prosody, was born in Ireland in 1700. 
He resided many years in London, and in 
1756 was elected a member of the Society of 
Arts. He possessed great knowledge of the 
theory of music, and in 1775 published ' An 
Essay towards establishing the Melody and 
Measure of Speech to be expressed and per- 
petuated by certain Symbols,' London, 4to, 
in which he proposed to extend to speech 
the symbolic method by which the modula- 
tions of musical sounds are expressed. His 
essay excited considerable interest, and was 
discussed, among others, by James Burnett, 
lord Monboddo [q. v.], author of the ' Origin 
and Progress of Language,' and by David 
Garrick. A second edition, entitled <Pro- 
sodia Rationalis,' appeared in 1779. He also 
contributed two papers on musical instru- 
ments to the 'Philosophical Transactions' 
in 1775. 

Steele possessed estates in Barbados, and, 
being dissatisfied with their management, 

VOL. LIV. 



he resolved in 1780 to look after them him- 
self. In the following year he founded a 
society in Bridgetown similar to the London 
Society of Arts, with a view to amending 
the government of the slave population, and 
soon after became a member of his majesty's 
council for the island. On his own estates 
he abolished arbitrary punishment, and 
erected courts among the negroes themselves 
for the punishment of offences. He also 
promoted voluntary labour by offering small 
wages, and succeeded in this manner in ob- 
taining much better work from his slaves. 
In 1789 he proceeded further, by erecting his 
estates into manors, and making his negroes 
copyholders bound to their tenements, and 
owing rent and personal service which they 
paid in labour on the demesne lands. Steele 
encountered considerable opposition, and the 
Bridgetown Society of Arts was broken up 
by his opponents ; but on his own estates 
his system was completely successful, and 
furnished a strong argument in favour of 
liberal treatment of slaves. He was also 
indefatigable in his efforts to employ the 
poor white population, encouraging native 
industries and introducing several new manu- 
factures from England. He died in the be- 
ginning of 1791. His letters to Thomas 
Clarkson [q.v.], describing the management 
of his estates, were published in 1814 in 
Dickson's ' Mitigation of Slavery.' Rich 
attributes to Steele a pamphlet entitled ' An 
Account of a late Conference on the Occur- 
rences in America,' published at London in 
1766 (JBibl. Amer. Nova, i. 154). 

[Dicksons Mitigation of Slavery; Clarkson's 
Thoughts on the Necessity of improving the 
Condition of Slaves, 1823, pp. 31-44; Aitken's 
Life of Richard Steele, ii. 355 ; Boswell's John- 
son, ed. Croker, p. 439 ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. 
ii. 358, iii 208-9, 670.] E. I. C. 

STEELE or STEEL, RICHARD (1629- 
1692), nonconformist divine, son of Robert 
Steele, farmer, was born at Barthomley, 
Cheshire, on 10 May 1629. He was edu- 
cated at Northwich grammar school, ad- 
mitted sizar at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
on 1 April 1642, and incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford on 5 July 1656. He succeeded 
Thomas Porter as rector of Hanmer, Flint- 
shire, probably in 1650. Henry Newcome 
[q. v.] visited him there on 10 June 1654. 
He was a member of the fourth Shropshire 
classis (constituted by parliament in April 
1647), and, as such, was one of the ordainers 
of Philip Henry [q. v.] on 16 Sept. 1657. 
Thirty years later (9 May 1687) he was one 
of the ordainers, at his own house in Lon- 
don, of Philip Henry's son, Matthew Henry 
[q. v.] In September 1660 he was presented 



Steele 



130 



Steele 



at Flint assizes for not reading the common 
prayer ; the prosecution fell through, owing 
to Charles II's declaration in October. He 
was again presented at the spring assizes on 
28 March 1661 at Hawarden. He resigned 
his living in consequence of the Uniformity 
Act of 1662, preaching a farewell sermon 
(17 Aug.), in which he said he was ejected 
for not subscribing his assent to the new 
prayer-book, which he had not yet seen. 
He continued to communicate at Hanmer, 
where he received ' sitting ' on 19 April 
1663. On 25 July he was presented for 
baptising his own children, and in October 
was arrested on suspicion of treason. Early 
in 1665 he was made collector for Han- 
mer of the ' royal aid,' the point being to 
treat him as a layman. In April 1665 he 
was again arrested, as he was setting out 
for London ; his pocket diary was taken 
from him, and passages were misconstrued. 
An entry of an appointment ' on a carnal 
account ' was ' interpreted to be some woman 
design.' Philip Henry records ' a great 
noise in the country concerning Mr. Steel's 
almanack.' The Five Miles Act, coming 
into force on 25 March 1666, compelled him 
to leave Hanmer, and he took up his resi- 
dence in London. Urwick conjectures (Non- 
conformity in Cheshire, 1864, p. xlix) that 
his was the license granted on 10 June 1672 
for presbyterian preaching in ' the house of 
Rob. Steele ' at Barthomley, Cheshire ; he 
certainly contributed to the building of a 
school at Barthomley in 1675. Though he 
may have made occasional visits to the north, 
Philip Henry's diary shows that he was 
constantly exercising his ministry in London 
from 1671. He gathered a morning congre- 
gation at Armourers' Hall, Coleman Street ; 
in the afternoon he preached at Hoxton. He 
died on 16 Nov. 1692. George Hamond 
[<j. v.], his colleague and successor, preached 
his funeral sermon. He had ten sons, five 
of whom were dead in 1672. His portrait 
is in Dr. Williams's Library ; an engraving 
from it by Hopwood is given in Wilson. 

Steele published: 1.' An Antidote against 
Distractions ... in the Worship of God,' 
1667, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1673, 8vo ; 4th edit, 
1695, 12mo ; last edit. 1834, 12mo. 2. < The 
Husbandman's Calling,' 1668, 8vo ; 1670, 
8vo. 3. ' A Plain Discourse upon Upright- 
ness,' 1670, 8vo ; 1671, 8vo. 4. ' The Trades- 
man's Calling,' 1684, 8vo ; a revision of this 
by Isaac Watts passed through many editions 
with title ' The Religious Tradesman ; ' last 
edit. Edinburgh, 1821, 12mo. 5. 'A Dis- 
course concerning Old Age,' 1688, 8vo. Also 
four sermons in the ' Morning Exercises,' 
1660-90, and a biographical preface to the 



posthumous sermons (1678) of Thomas Froy- 
sell (1622-1672). 

[Funeral Sermon by Hamond, 1693 : Calamy's 
Account, 1713, p. 708; Calamy's Continuation, 
1727, ii. 835 ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches of 
London 1808, ii. 448 sq. ; Williams's Life of 
Philip Henry, 1825, passim; Lee's Diaries and 
Letters of Philip Henry, 1882, passim ; Mayor's 
Admissions to St. John's, Cambridge, 1882, i. 
63.] A. G. 

STEELE, SIR RICHARD (1672-1729), 

essayist, dramatist, and politician, was born 
in Dublin in March 1672 (N. S.), and was 
baptised at St. Bridget's Church on the 12th 
of that month. He was consequently some 
weeks older than Joseph Addison [q. v.l 
who was born on 1 May following. Steele s 
father, also Richard Steele, was a well-to-do 
Dublin attorney, who had a country house at 
Mountain (Monkstown), and was at one time 
sub-sheriff of Tipperary. He married, in 
1670, an Irish widow named Elinor Symes 
(or Sims), born Sheyles. When his son was 
'not quite five years of age' (Tatler,l$o. 181), 
the elder Steele died, and of Mrs. Steele we 
know nothing but what the same authority 
tells us, namely, that she was ' a very beau- 
tiful woman, of a noble spirit.' She cannot 
have long survived her husband, since 
Steele seems to have passed early into the 
care of an uncle, Henry Gascoigne, private 
secretary to James Butler, first duke of 
Ormonde [q. v.], by whose influence the boy 
in November 1684 obtained a nomination to 
the Charterhouse, of which the duke was a 
governor. Two years later Addison entered 
the same school, and a lifelong friendship 
began between the pair. 

In November 1689 Steele was ' elected to 
the university ' of Oxford, whither Addison 
had already preceded him. On 13 March 
1690 he matriculated at Christ Church, and 
on 27 Aug. 1691 he became a postmaster of 
Merton, his college tutor being Dr. Welbore 
Ellis [q. vj, afterwards mentioned in the 
' Christian Hero.' He continued his friend- 
ship with Addison, then a demy at Magdalen, 
and appears to have visited him in his home 
at Lichfield (Preface to the Drummer, 1722, 
and' Tatler, No. 235). While at college he 
enjoyed some reputation as a scholar. He 
dabbled also in letters, composing a comedy 
which, by the advice of a friend, Mr. Parker 
of Merton, he burned. Then suddenly, in 
1694, much to the regret of ' the whole 
Society,' he left Merton without taking a 
degree, and entered the army as a cadet or 
gentleman-volunteer in the second troop of 
life-guards, at that time under the command 
of the second Duke of Ormonde, thereby 
losing, as he tells us in the ' Theatre,' Xo. 11, 



Steele 



Steele 









' the succession to a very good estate in the 
county of Wexford in Ireland.' What this 
estate was his biographers have failed to 
discover, although it has been conjectured 
that, if it existed at all, it belonged to a 
relative of his mother. 

On 28 Dec. 1694 Queen Mary died, find 
among the mourning bards who, in biack- 
framedfolio, celebrated her funeral was Steele, 
whose verses, described as ' by a Gentleman 
of the Army,' and entitled ' The Procession,' 
were, doubtless from motives of policy, dedi- 
cated to John, lord Cutts [q. v.], who had just 
become colonel of the 2nd or Coldstream 
regiment of foot-guards. Lord Cutts took 
Steele into his household, and in 1696-7 em- 
ployed him as his confidential agent or secre- 
tary (cf. CARLETON, Memoirs, 1728, ch. iii.) 
Ultimately he gave him a standard in his 
own regiment. By 1700 Steele is referred to 
as ' Captain,' and there is also evidence that 
he was in friendly relations with Sedley, Con- 
greve. Vanbrugh, Garth, and other contem- 
porary wits. In the same year (16 June), 
' one or two of his acquaintance ' having 
1 thought fit to misuse him and try their 
valour upon him ' (Apology for himself and 
his Writings, 1714, p. 80), he fought a duel 
in Hyde Park with a Captain Kelly, whom 
he wounded dangerously, but not mortally 
(LUTTKELL, Diary, iv. 657). This occur- 
rence made a serious impression upon him, 
and laid the foundation of that dislike of 
duelling which he ever afterwards exhibited. 
In all probability it is connected with his 
next literary effort, the treatise called ' The 
Christian Hero : an Argument proving that 
no Principles but those of Religion are 
sufficient to make a great Man.' This 
(which was also dedicated to Lord Cutts) 
was published by Tonson in April 1701, a 
second and enlarged edition following on 
19 July. Steele's own account of this work 
in his ' Apology,' p. 80, is that, finding the 
military life ' exposed to much irregularity,' 
he wrote it ' to fix upon his own mind a 
strong impression of virtue and religion, in 
opposition to a stronger propensity towards 
unwarrantable pleasures,' which admission 
has probably been construed too literally 
(cf. Biogr. Brit. 1763, vol. vi. pt. i. p. 3823). 
The ' Christian Hero ' was at first designed 
solely for his private use, but finding ' that 
this secret admonition was too weak,' he 
ultimately ' printed the book with his name,' 
as a ' standing testimony against himself.' It 
differs considerably both in style and teach- 
ing from the ordinary devotional manual, 
and without much straining may be said to 
exhibit definite indications of that faculty 
for essay-writing which was to be so signally 



developed in the ' Spectator,' in which 
indeed certain portions of it were after- 
wards embodied. Upon his colleagues at 
the Tower Guard (whence its Preface is 
dated) its effect was what might have been 
anticipated. ' From being thought no un- 
delightful companion, he was soon reckoned 
a disagreeable fellow. . . . Thus he found 
himself slighted, instead of being encouraged, 
for his declarations as to Religion, and it was 
now incumbent upon him to enliven his 
character, for which reason he writ the 
comedy called " The Funeral," in which 
(tho' full of incidents that move laughter) 
virtue and vice appear as they ought to do ' 
(Apology, p. 80). 

' The Funeral ; or, Grief a-la-Mode,' was 
acted at Drury Lane late in 1701, and was 
published in book form in December of that 
year, with a dedication to the Countess of 
Albemarle. The principal parts were taken 
by Gibber, Wilks, and Mrs. Verbruggen, and 
the championship of the author's military 
friends helped to secure its success. ' With 
some particulars enlarged upon to his 
advantage ' (by which must probably be 
understood certain politic references to 
William III in the ' Christian Hero'), it also 
obtained for him the notice of the king. 
' His [Steele's] name, to be provided for, was 
in the last table-book ever worn by the 
glorious and immortal William the Third ' 
(ib. p. 81). His majesty, however, died on 
8 March 1702, and Steele's fortunes were 
yet to make. In the preceding month he 
had become a captain in Lord Lucas's newly 
formed regiment of foot (AiTKEX, Life, i. 79); 
and in December 1703 he produced at Drury 
Lane a second comedy, ' The Lying Lover ; 
or, the Ladies Friendship,' which was pub- 
lished on 26 Jan. 1704. This piece was 
based upon the ' Menteur ' of Corneille, and 
differed from its predecessor, ' The Funeral,' 
in that it was a more deliberate attempt to 
carry out upon the stage those precepts 
which, a few years earlier, Jeremy Collier 
[q. v.] had advocated in his ' Short View of 
the Profaneness and Immorality of the 
English Stage.' Among other things it con- 
tained an indictment of duelling. Upon its 
first appearance it ran but six nights. Its 
author described it years afterwards as 
' damned for its piety ' (Apology, p. 48), but 
it was also inferior to its predecessor. Steele 
nevertheless set to work upon a third effort, 
' The Tender Husband ; or, the Accomplished 
Fools.' This, a frank imitation of Moliere's 
' Sicilien,' was brought out at Drury Lane 
in April 1703. It was better than the 
' Lying Lover,' but scarcely more successful, 
though Addison (now back from Italy) wrote 

K2 



Steele 



132 



Steele 



its prologue, and added ' many applauded 
[though now undistinguishable] strokes ' to 
the piece itself (Spectator, No. 555). In 
May, when the play was printed, it was 
dedicated to Addison ' as no improper memo- 
rial of an inviolable friendship.' 

Soon after the production of the ' Tender 
Husband,' which, for several years, closed 
Steele's career as a playwright, he married. 
His wife (for particulars respecting whom 
we are indebted to the researches of Mr. 
Aitken) was a widow named Margaret 
Stretch, nee Ford, the possessor of more or 
less extensive estates in Barbados, which 
she had inherited from a brother then recently 
dead. It has been also hinted that she was 
elderly, and that her fortune was the main 
attraction to her suitor, whose indefinite 
means had about this time been impaired 
by futile researches for the philosopher's 
stone ( New Atalantis and Town Talk, No. 4). 
The marriage must have taken place not 
long after March 1705, when Mrs. Stretch 
took out letters of administration to her 
West Indian property, which is said to have 
been worth 850/. per annum. It was, how- 
ever, encumbered with a debt of 3,000/., be- 
sides legacies, &c. In December 1706 Mrs. 
Steele died, and Steele, in his turn, admini- 
stered to her estate in January 1707. Dur- 
ing the brief period of his married life in 
August 1706 he had become a gentleman 
waiter to Prince George of Denmark (salary 
100/. yearly, ' not subject to taxes'), and in 
April or May 1707, on the recommendation of 
Arthur Mainwaring [q. v.], he was appointed 
by Harley gazetteer, at a further annual 
salary of 300/., which was, however, liable 
to a tax of 45 ' The writer of the " Gazette " 
now,' says Hearne in May 1707, ' is Captain 
Steel, who is the author of several romantic 
things, and is accounted an ingenious man.' 
Steele seems to have honestly endeavoured 
to comply with ' the rule observed by all 
ministries, to keep the paper very innocent 
and very insipid ' (Apology, p. 81 ); but the 
rule was by no means an easy one to abide 
by. His inclinations still leaned towards 
the stage. Already, in March 1703, he had 
received from Rich of Drury Lane part pay- 
ment for an unfinished comedy called ' The 
Election of Goatham '( AITKEN, i. 11 2), a sub- 
ject also essayed by Gay and Mrs. Centlivre ; 
and in January 1707 he was evidently medi- 
tating the completion of this or some other 
piece when his wife's death interrupted his 
work (Muses Mercui-y, January 1707). But 
his only definite literary production between 
May 1705 and 1707 was a 'Prologue' to 
the university of Oxford, published in July 
1706. 



Before he had held the post of gazetteer 
many months he married again. The lady, 
whose acquaintance he had made at his 
first wife's funeral, was a Miss, or Mistress, 
Mary Scurlock, the daughter and heiress of 
Jonathan Scurlock, deceased, of Llangunnor 
in Carmarthen, and, according to Mrs. Man- 
ley (New Atalantis, 6th ed. vol. iv.), 'a 
cry'd up beauty.' For reasons now obscure,, 
the marriage was kept a secret, but it is 
supposed to have taken place on 9 Sept. 1707 r 
soon after which time Steele set up house in 
Bury Street, or (as his letters give it) ' third 1 
door,righthand, turning out of Jermyn Street/ 
This was a locality described by contem- 
porary advertisements as in convenient proxi- 
mity 'to St. James's Church, Chapel, Park,. 
Palace, Coffee and Chocolate Houses,' and was 
obviously within easy distance of the court 
and Steele's office, the Cockpit at White- 
hall. Both before and after marriage Steele- 
kept up an active correspondence with his 
' Charmer ' and ' Inspirer,' names which,, 
later on, are exchanged, not inappropriately, 
for ' Ruler ' and ' Absolute Governess/ 
Mrs. Steele preserved all her husband's 
letters, over four hundred of which John 
Nichols the antiquary presented in 1787 
to the British Museum (Add. MSS. 5145, 
A, B, and C), where they afford a curious 
and an instructive study to the inquirer. 
The lady, though genuinely attached to her 
husband, was imperious and exacting ; the 
gentleman ardent and devoted, but incu- 
rably erratic and impulsive. His corre- 
spondence reflects these characteristics in 
all their variations, and, if it often does 
credit to his heart and understanding, it as 
often suggests that his easy geniality and 
irregular good nature must have made him 
' gey ill to live with.' It was a part of his 
sanguine temperament to overestimate his 
means (AiTKEN, passim). Hence he is per- 
petually in debt and difficulties (he borrowed 
1,000/. of Addison, which he repaid; letter 
of 20 Aug. 1708) ; hence always (like Gay) 
on the alert for advancement. In October 
1708 the death of Prince George deprived 
him of his post as gentleman waiter, and r 
though he had previously been seeking an 
appointment as usher of the privy chamber,, 
and almost immediately afterwards tried 
for the under-secretaryship rendered vacant 
by Addison's departure for Ireland as se- 
cretary of state to Lord Wharton, the lord- 
lieutenant, he was successful in neither 
attempt. All these things were but un- 
promising accompaniments to a chariot and 
pair for his ' dear Prue,' with a country box 
(in the shadow of the palace) at Hampton 
Wick ; and it seems certain that towards- 



Steele 



133 



Steele 



the close of 1708 an execution for arrears of 
rent was put into the Bury Street house. 
In the following March his daughter Eliza- 
beth was born, having for godfathers Addi- 
son and VVortley Montagu. A month later, 
without premonition of any kind, Steele in- 
augurated his career as an essayist by esta- 
blishing the ' Tatler.' 

The first number of the ' Tatler,' a single 
folio sheet, was issued on 12 April 1709, and 
it came out three times a week. The first 
four numbers were given away gratis ; after 
this the price was a penny. The supposed 
author was one ' Isaac Bickerstaff,' the pseu- 
donym borrowed by Swift from a shopdoor 
to demolish John Partridge [q. v.] the astro- 
loger. The paper's name, said Steele ironi- 
cally, was invented in honour of the fair 
sex (No. 1), and it professed in general to 
treat, as its motto for many numbers indi- 
cated, of ' Quicquid agunt homines,' dating 
its accounts of gallantry, pleasure, and 
entertainment from White's coffee-house, its 
poetry from Wills's, its learning from the 
Grecian, and its foreign and domestic intelli- 
gence (which Steele hoped to supplement 
out of his own official gazette) from the 
St. James's. Whatever came under none 
of these heads was dated from 'My own 
apartment.' As time went on the project 
developed, and when the first volume was 
dedicated to Mainwaring (who, as already 
stated, had helped Steele to his gazetteership), 
it was already claimed for the new venture 
that it had aimed at ' exposing the false arts 
of life, pulling off the disguises of cunning, 
vanity, and affectation, and recommending a 
general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, 
and our behaviour ' (see also Tatler, No. 89). 
In this larger task Steele was no doubt aided 
by Addison, who, playing but an incon- 
spicuous part in the first volume (his earliest 
contribution was to No. 18), gave very sub- 
stantial aid in its successors ; and from a 
hotch-pot of news and town gossip the 
* Tatler ' became a collection of individual 
essays on social and general topics. In the 
preface to the fourth and final volume, Steele, 
with a generosity which never failed him, 
tendered grateful testimony to his anony- 
mous coadjutor's assistance. In thanking 
Addison for his services as ' a gentleman 
who will be nameless,' he goes on to say : 
' This good office [of contributing] he per- 
formed with such force of genius, humour, 
wit, and learning, that I fared like a dis- 
tressed Prince who calls in a powerful 
neighbour to his aid ; I was undone by my 
auxiliary ; when I had once called him in, 
I could not subsist without dependence on 
him.' 



After a career, prolonged to 271 numbers, 
about 188 of which were from Steele's own 
pen, the ' Tatler ' came to a sudden end on 
2 Jan. 1711. The ostensible reason for this 
was that the public had penetrated the 
editor's disguise, and that the edifying pre- 
cepts of the fictitious ' Mr. Bickerstaff' were 
less efficacious when they came to be habi- 
tually identified in the public mind with the 
fallible personality of Steele himself ( Tatler, 
No. 271). But it has been shrewdly sur- 
mised that there were other and more pressing 
reasons (which Steele also hints at) for its 
abrupt cessation. In addition to his office 
of gazetteer, he had been made in January 
1710 a commissioner of stamps, an office 
which increased his income by 300/. per 
annum. When in August of the same year 
Harley became head of the government, 
certain papers satirising him had recently 
made their appearance in the ' Tatler ; ' and 
in the following October Steele lost his 
gazetteership. That he was not deprived of 
his commissionership of stamps as well has 
been ascribed to the intervention of Swift, 
whose friends were in power (Journal to 
Stella, 15 Dec. 1710), and with this for- 
bearance of the ministry the termination of 
the ' Tatler ' is also supposed to be obscurely 
connected. ' What I find is the least ex- 
cusable part of this work,' says Steele in the 
final number quoted above, ' is that I have in 
some places in it touched upon matters which 
concern both the church and state.' But 
however this may be, the ' Tatler ' was not 
long without a successor. Two months later 
(1 March) began the ' Spectator,' professing 
in its first number ' an exact neutrality be- 
tween the whigs and tories,' and setting in 
motion almost from the first that famous 
club of which Sir Koger de Coverley is the 
most prominent member. The first sketch 
(in No. 2) of this immortal friendly gather- 
ing was undoubtedly due to Steele's inventive 
alertness. But Addison, working at leisure 
upon his friend's rapid and hasty outline, 
gradually filled in the features of the figure 
whose fortunes to-day constitute the chief 
interest of the periodical. Diversified in addi- 
tion by the critical essays of Addison and the 
domestic sketches of Steele, the ' Spectator ' 
proceeded with unabated vivacity to its five 
hundred and fifty-fifth number and seventh 
volume, surviving even that baleful Stamp 
Act of August 1712 (10 Anne, cap. 19) which 
nipped so many of its contemporaries. Out 
of the whole of the papers Addison wrote 
274 and Steele 236. As before, no satisfac- 
tory explanation is forthcoming for the ter- 
mination of the enterprise, the success of 
which is admitted. Towards the end of its 



Steele 



134 



Steele 



career, the ' Spectator ' was selling ten thou- 
sand per week, and Steele himself says that 
the first four volumes had obtained it a fur- 
ther sale of nine thousand copies in book 
form (No. 555). What is clear is that 
Addison's assistance was still anonymous, 
and Steele's gratitude to him as strong as 
ever. ' I am indeed,' he wrote, ' much more 
proud of his long-continued friendship than 
I should be of the fame cf being thought 
the author of any writings he is capable of 
producing. ... I heartily wish that what 
I have done here were as honorary to that 
sacred name [of friendship] as learning, wit, 
and humanity render those pieces which I 
have taught the reader now to distinguish 
for his' i.e. by the letters C, L, I, O. 

During the progress of the 'Spectator,' 
Steele had made his first definite plunge as 
a politician by ' The Englishman's Thanks 
to the Duke of Marlborough.' This appeared 
in January 1712, just after the duke had 
been deprived of all his offices, a catastrophe 
which also prompted Swift's opposition 
'Fable of Midas.' There were other signs 
of political disquiet in some of Steele's sub- 
sequent contributions to the ' Spectator ' 
(' he has been mighty impertinent of late,' 
wrote Swift to Stella in July 171 2); and 
although in the new periodical, which he 
began in March 1713, he made profession of 
abstinence from matters of state, only seven 
days before he had put forth a ' Letter to Sir 
Miles Wharton concerning Occasional Peers.' 
In the ' Guardian ' he philosophically de- 
clared himself to be, with regard to govern- 
ment of the church, a tory ; and with regard 
to the state, a whig. But he was, in John- 
son's phrase, ' too hot for neutral topics ; ' 
and before the middle of 1713 he was ac- 
tively embroiled with the 'Examiner,' the 
casus belli being an attack that tory paper 
(behind which was the formidable figure of 
Swift) had made in its No. 41 upon Lord 
Nottingham's daughter, Lady Charlotte 
Finch, the Nottinghams having deserted to 
the whigs. On 4 June he resigned his com- 
missionership of stamps, and his pension as 
Prince George's gentleman-in-waiting, and 
entered the lists of faction with an indict- 
ment of the government upon the A'exed 
question of the postponed demolition, under 
the treaty of Utrecht, of the Dunkirk forti- 
fications. ' The British nation,' he declared, 
'expects the demolition of Dunkirk' (Guar- 
dian, No. 128). The ' Examiner ' retorted 
by charging him with disloyalty. Steele re- 
joined (22 Sept.) by a pamphlet entitled 
' The Importance of Dunkirk consider'd,' 
addressed to the bailiff of Stockbridge, Hamp- 
shire, for which town in August he had been 



elected M.P. Swift answered by a bitterly 
contemptuous 'Importance of the Guardian 
consider'd.' Before this came out, however, 
on 31 Oct. the ' Guardian ' had been dead for 
a month, and had been succeeded on 6 Oct. 
by the ' Englishman,' ' a sequel ' of freer 
political scope. 

By this time Steele was in the thick 
of party strife. In November a scurri- 
lous 'Character' of him 'by Toby Abel's 
kinsman' (i.e. Edward King, nephew of 
Abel Roper of the 'Postboy') was issued 
by some of Swift's ' under spur-leathers,' 
and early in January 1714 Swift himself 
followed suit with a paraphrase of Horace 
(ii. 1), in which it was suggested that when he 
(Steele) had settled the affairs of Europe, he 
might iind time to finish his long-threatened 
(but unidentified) play. Shortly afterwards 
(19 Jan.) Steele put forth another widely 
circulated pamphlet, ' The Crisis,' in which, 
aided by the counsels of Addison, Hoadly, 
William Moore of the Inner Temple, and 
others, he reviewed the whole question of the 
Hanoverian succession. Swift was promptly 
in the field (23 Feb.) with the ' Public Spirit 
of the Whigs,' one of his most masterly 
efforts in this way ; and when Steele took 
his seat in parliament he found that his doom 
was sealed, and on 12 March he was formally 
accused of uttering seditious libels. Sup- 
ported by Walpole, Addison, General Stan- 
hope, and others of his party, he spoke in his 
own defence for some three hours, and spoke 
well ; but what he afterwards called, with 
pardonable energy, ' the insolent and un- 
manly sanction of a majority ' (Apology, p. 
xvi) prevailed, and on 18 March 1714 he was 
expelled the House of Commons. 

In these circumstances he turned once 
more to his proper vocation letters. Even 
at the end of 1714 he had contrived to issue 
a volume of ',Poetical Miscellanies,' dedicated 
to Congreve, and numbering Pope, Gay, and 
Parnell among its contributors. In this he 
reprinted his own ' Procession ' of 1695. The 
short-lived ' Englishman ' came to an end in 
February 1714, and was immediately suc- 
ceeded by the ' Lover ' (25 Feb.) In April 
came the 'Reader.' Both of these were 
dropped in May. In No. 6 of the latter 
Steele announced that he was preparing a 
' History of the War in Flanders,' a subject 
for which he was not without qualifications. 
But the project came to nothing. He pro- 
duced, however, several pamphlets : the ' Ro- 
mish Ecclesiastical History of late Years ' 
(25 May), a ' Letter concerning the Bill for 
preventing the Growth of Schism ' (3 June), 
and another on Dunkirk (2 July). Then, 
on 1 Aug., Queen Anne died. On 18 Sept. 



Steele 



135 



Steele 






George I landed at Greenwich, and the tide 
turned. The champion of the Hanoverian 
succession was speedily appointed J.P., de- 
puty-lieutenant for the county of Middlesex, 
and surveyor of the royal stables at Hamp- 
ton Court. What was better still (and more 
definitely lucrative), he obtained the position 
of supervisor of the Theatre Royal of Drury 
Lane, the license of which had expired with 
the queen's death. The license was shortly 
afterwards converted into a patent, and 
Steele in this manner came into receipt of 
1,0001. per annum. 

Henceforward his life grows more and 
more barren of notable incident. In the 
same month in which his honours came 
upon him he published the compilation 
known as ' The Ladies' Library,' volume iii. 
of which was dedicated, with much grace 
and tenderness, to his wife. He also vindi- 
cated his past proceedings with considerable 
spirit in the pamphlet entitled ' Mr. Steele's 
Apology for himself and his Writings ' 
(22 Oct.), citations from which have already 
been made. On 2 Feb. 1715 he was elected 
M.P. for Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, and two 
months later (8 April) the presentation of 
an address to the king procured him a knight- 
hood. During the next few years he con- 
tinued as of old to busy himself with pro- 
jects, literary and otherwise. He established 
in Villiers Street, York Buildings, Strand, a 
kind of periodical conversazione called the 
' Censorium,' which he inaugurated on his 
majesty's birthday (28 May) by a grand 
banquet and entertainment, to which Tickell 
supplied the prologue and Addison the epi- 
logue (Town Talk, No. 4). He wrote 
another overgrown pamphlet on the Roman 
catholic religion (13 May), began a new 
volume of the 'Englishman' (11 July to 
21 Nov.), and established and abandoned 
three more periodicals, ' Town Talk ' (17 Dec.), 
'The Tea-Table '(2 Feb. 1716), and 'Chit 
Chat ' (6 March). In June he was appointed 
one of the thirteen commissioners for for- 
feited estates in Scotland, the salary being 
1,000/. per annum. Two years later, in June 
1718, he obtained a patent for a project 
called the ' Fish pool,' a plan (which proved 
unsuccessful) for bringing salmon alive from 
Ireland in a well-boat. Then, in December 
1718, he lost his 'dear and honoured wife.' 
Lady Steele died on the 26th, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. Early in the suc- 
ceeding year Steele's evil star 'involved him 
in a painful controversy with his lifelong 
friend Addison. He started a periodical 
called the 'Plebeian' (14 March) to de- 
nounce Lord Sunderland's bill for limiting 
the power of creating new peers. Addison 



replied acrimoniously in the ' Old Whig,' 
and, what was worse, died so soon after- 
wards (17 June) that the breach thus 
created was never healed, while Steele's op- 
position to the measure (which was dropped) 
led indirectly to the withdrawal by the 
Duke of Newcastle in January 1720 of the 
Drury Lane patent. With this last occur- 
rence is connected the establishment of 
another, and perhaps the most interesting, 
of his later periodical efforts, as it was also 
the last, 'The Theatre' (2 Jan. to April 
1720). 

His next publications were two pamphlets, 
'The Crisis of Property' (1 Feb.) and its 
sequel 'A Nation a Family' (27 Feb.), in 
which he warmly combated the South Sea 
mania. In 1721 his former ally, Walpole, 
became chancellor of the exchequer, and the 
Drury Lane patent was restored (2 May). 
In December of the same year he published 
a second edition of Addison's ' Drummer,' in 
the preface to which, addressed to Congreve, 
he vindicated himself against the aspersions 
cast upon him in the edition of Addison's 
works, which Tickell had put forth in the 
preceding October. In March 1722 he be- 
came member for Wendover, Buckingham- 
shire. Then, in November of the same year, 
he produced at Drury Lane his last comedy, 
' The Conscious Lovers,' which, notwith- 
standing that (in Parson Adams's words) it 
contained ' some things almost solemn 
enough for a sermon,' proved a hit, and 
brought its writer five hundred guineas from 
George I, to whom it was dedicated. Its 
groundwork was the ' Andria ' of Terence, 
and it attacked duelling. Besides the ' Con- 
scious Lovers,' Steele began, but did not 
finish, two other pieces, ' The School of Ac- 
tion ' and ' The Gentleman,' fragments of 
which were printed by Nichols in 1809. 
Lawsuits and money difficulties thickened 
upon him in his later days, and in 1724, in 
pursuance of an honourable arrangement 
with his creditors, and not, as Swift wrote, 
' from perils of a hundred gaols,' he retired 
first to Hereford, and finally to Carmarthen, 
where he lived chiefly at Tygwyn, a farmhouse 
overlooking the Towy. In Victor's ' Original 
Letters ' (1776, i. 330) there is a pretty pic- 
tureof his stillunabated kindliness of nature. 
Broken and paralytic, he is shown delightedly 
watching from his invalid's chair the country 
folk at their sports on a summer evening, and 
writing an order upon his agent for a prize 
of a new gown to the best dancer. He died 
at a house in King Street, Carmarthen, 
on 1 Sept. 1729, aged 58, and was buried in 
St. Peter's Church, where in 1876 a mural 
tablet was erected to him. There is also an 



Steele 



136 



Steele 



earlier memorial to him at his old estate of 
Llangunnor. Two only of his four children 
survived him : Mary, who died in the year 
following his death ; and Elizabeth, the eldest 
daughter, who ultimately married a Welsh 
judge (afterwards the third Lord Trevor of 
Bromham). His two sons, Richard and Eu- 
gene, died in 1716 and 1723 respectively. 
He had also a natural daughter, known as 
Miss Ousley, who married a Welsh gentle- 
man named Stynston, About 1718 it seems 
to have been proposed to marry her to 
Richard Savage [q. v.] the poet. 

There are three principal portraits of 
Steele, all mentioned by himself (Theatre, 
No. 2) in answer to an attack made upon 
him by John Dennis the critic. The first, 
by Jonathan Richardson, now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, was executed in 
1712, and gives us the Steele of the 
' Spectator.' It was engraved in the follow- 
ing year by J. Smith, and later by Bar- 
tolozzi and Meadows. The second, by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, was painted shortly after- 
wards for the Kit-Cat Club (of which Steele 
was among the earlier members), and ex- 
hibits him in one of the fine full-bottomed 
black periwigs he wore when he rode 
abroad (DRAKE, Essays, 1814, i. 179). This 
belongs to Mr. Baker of Bayfordbury, and 
has been engraved by Vertue, Simon, Faber, j 
Houbraken, and others. The third, by j 
Thornhill, is at Cobham Hall, and was re- 
produced in copper by Vertue in 1713, and 
By James Basire. In this Steele appears in 
a dressing-gown and a tasselled cap. The 
Richardson, he tells us, makes him ' indo- 
lent,' the Kneller ' resolute,' the Thornhill 
' thoughtful.' There is another reputed 
Kneller at Stationers' Hall; and there is 
said to be a portrait of him when he was 
a commissioner in Scotland, by Michael 
Dahl. The Thornhill is the best known : 
the Kneller Kit-Cat is probably the best 
likeness. Sir Godfrey also executed a 
picture of Lady Steele, which does full 
justice to her good looks. It belongs to 
Mrs. Thomas of Moreb, Llandilo, Carmar- 
thenshire, and figures as the frontispiece to 
vol. ii. of Mr. Aitken's ' Life.' 

As regards the written portraits of his 
character, Macaulay in his famous essay on 
Addison sought by deeply drawn lines to 
heighten the contrast between Steele and his 
colleague. Thackeray softened the asperity 
of the likeness in his lecture (in the ' Eng- 
lish Humorists '). Forster's vindicatory 
study in the ' Quarterly ' is not entirely sym- 
pathetic. That Steele was an undetected 
hypocrite and a sentimental debauchee is now 
no longer maintained, although it cannot be 



denied that his will was often weaker than 
his purpose ; that he was constitutionally 
improvident and impecunious ; and that, 
like many of his contemporaries in that 
hard-drinking century, he was far too 
easily seduced by his compliant good- 
fellowship into excess in wine. ' I shall 
not carry my humility so far as to call my- 
self a vicious man,' he wrote in 'Tatler' 
No. 271, ' but must confess my life is at best 
but pardonable.' When so much is ad- 
mitted, it is needless to charge the picture, 
though it may be added that, with all his 
faults,.allowed and imputed, there is abun- 
dant evidence to prove that he was not 
only a doting husband and an affectionate 
father, but also a loyal friend and an earnest 
and unselfish patriot. As a literary man 
his claim upon posterity is readily stated. 
As a poet even in that indulgent age of 
Anne he cannot be classed ; as a pam- 
phleteer he is plain-spoken and well-meaning, 
but straggling and ineffectual ; as a drama- 
tist, despite his shrewd perceptive faculty 
and his laudable desire to purify the stage, 
his success is no more than respectable. In 
the brief species of essay, however, which he 
originated and developed the essay of the 
'Tatler ' and its immediate successors he is 
at home. Without ranking as a great 
stylist his hand was too hasty for laboured 
form or finish, and he claimed and freely 
used the license of ' compnon speech ' he 
was a master of that unembarrassed manner 
which (it has been well said) is the out- 
come of unembarrassed matter. He writes, 
as a rule, less from his head than from his 
heart, to the warmth of which organ his 
rapid pen gives eager and emphatic expres- 
sion. His humour is delightfully kindly 
and genial, his sympathies quick-springing 
and compassionate, his instincts uniformly 
on the side of what is generous, honest, 
manly, and of good report. ' He had a 
love and reverence of virtue,' said Pope ; 
and many of his lay sermons are unrivalled 
in their kind. As the first painter of 
domesticity the modern novel owes him 
much, but the women of his own day owe 
him more. Not only did he pay them col- 
lectively a magnificent compliment when he 
wrote of Lady Elizabeth Hastings, that ' to 
love her was a liberal education' (Tatler 
No. 49) ; but in a time when they were 
treated by the wits with contemptuous 
flattery or cynical irreverence, he sought to 
offer them a reasonable service of genuine 
respect which was immeasurably superior to 
those ' fulsome raptures, guilty impressions, 
senseless deifications and pretended deaths ' 
with which (as he himself wrote in the 



Steele 



137 



Steele 



' Christian Hero ') it was the custom of his 
contemporaries to insult their understand- 
ings. 

[Biographia Britannica ; Drake's Essays, 
1805; Hazlitt's English Comic Writers, 1819; 
Macaulay's Essay upon Addison, 1843 ; Leigh 
Hunt's Book for a Corner, 1849 ; Thackeray's 
English Humorists, 1853 ; Forster's Essay on 
Steele, 1855 ; Montgomery's Memoirs of Steele, 
1865 ; All the Year Bound, 5 Dec. 1868 ; 
Clarendon Press Selections from Steele, 1885, 
1896 ; Richard Steele (English Worthies), 1886; 
Aitkeri's Life of Richard Steele, 1889 (a work, of 
extraordinary patience in research, which prac- 
tically exhausts the facts of the subject, besides 
including an elaborate bibliography) ; Contem- 
porary Review, October 1889 ; Aitken's Steele's 
Plays, 1894, and contributions to the Athenaeum, 
27 Dec. 1890, 16 June 1891, 5 Dec. 1891, and 
19 Nov. 1892 ; an excellent selection from Steele's 
entire works has also been published (1897) bj r 
Prof. Carpenter of Columbia University.] 

A. D. 

STEELE, THOMAS (1788-1848), Irish 
politician, was born at Derrymore, co. Clare, 
3 Nov. 1788. He belonged to an old Somer- 
set family which had settled in Ireland in the 
seventeenth century. His father, William 
Steele, who died while he was an infant, was 
the younger brother of Thomas Steele of Cul- 
lane, the owner of a very considerable pro- 
perty in co. Clare, to which Steele succeeded 
at an early age. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1810, and subsequently at Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
M.A. in 1820, after being incorporated B.A. 
in the same year. A man of ardent and 
even quixotic disposition, his whole life was 
one of action and adventure. In the Spanish 
war of 1823 against Ferdinand VII, he 
joined the patriot army, and impoverished 
nis estate by raising 10,OOOJ. on mortgages 
to provide military stores for the insurgents. 
He was present at the battle of the Troca- 
dero, and it was not until the evacuation of 
Cadiz by the French that he abandoned a 
hopeless contest. In 1824 he published an 
account of his share in the struggle entitled 
' Notes of the War in Spain ' (London, 8vo). 

On his return to Ireland Steele threw 
himself with fervour into the agitation for 
catholic emancipation. Although a protes- 
tant, he was one of the earliest members of 
the revived Catholic Association. He se- 
conded O'Connell's nomination for Clare in 
1828, and it was largely by his advice that 
the great agitator was induced to stand on 
that occasion (WrsE, History of the Catho- 
lic Association, i. 373). Steele opened the 
electoral campaign in Clare by expressing his 
readiness to fight any landlord who should 



conceive himself aggrieved by his inter- 
ference with his tenants. His position as a 
protestant landlord made him peculiarly 
valuable to O'Connell, and Sheil considered 
that he contributed more largely than any 
other individual to the return of O'Connell 
on 5 July (SHEIL, Sketches, ii. 108). He 
was appointed by his leader to the position 
of ' head pacificator,' an odd post for a man 
of his character ; and was often instrumental 
in preventing outrages among his followers. 
John O'Connell, being asked ' Why did Dan 
make a semi-lunatic his head pacificator ? ' 
is said to have replied ' Why, indeed ! 
Pray, who the devil else would take such a 
position ? ' (DuTFT, Four Years of Irish 
History, p. 399). At O'Connell's second 
election for Clare, Steele challenged and 
fought William Smith O'Brien q. v.], who 
had not then embraced popular principles, for 
asserting that O'Connell was not supported 
by any of the gentry of Clare. 

After the passing of catholic emancipa- 
tion Steele took a less prominent part in 
politics, though he remained a staunch ad- 
herent of O'Connell, to whom he was per- 
sonally devoted, declaring that if the latter 
ordered him to sit on a mine he would obey 
the mandate. He was one of those arrested 
and tried with O'Connell in 1843. In the 
dissensions between O'Connell and the 
Young Irelanders, he took the side of his old 
chief. Shortly after O'Connell's death Steele, 
who was much distressed by that event, and 
whose fortune had been completely wasted 
by his sacrifices for the causes with which 
he was associated, attempted suicide by 
throwing himself into the Thames off Water- 
loo Bridge. Though rescued from drown- 
ing, he died at Peele's coffee-house, Fleet 
Street, a few days later, on 15 June 1848. 
Lord Brougham was among those who at- 
tended his deathbed. His remains were 
brought to Ireland, and buried beside O'Con- 
nell's in Glasnevin cemetery. 

Steele's is one of the most picturesque 
figures in the history of Irish popular move- 
ments. Though his actions were often wild 
and his principles extreme, he appears to 
have been a man of absolute sincerity, and 
was known through his career as ' Honest 
Tom Steele.' He took much interest in his 
property and in the condition of the people, 
and in 1828 published a book entitled ' Prac- 
tical Suggestions for the Improvement of the 
Navigation of the Shannon,' in which there 
are passages of vivid, if florid, description. 
It marks the oddity of Steele's character 
that in the same volume he published an 
animated essay on the widely different sub- 
ject of the treatment of the Irish catholics 



Steele 



138 



Steele 



after the treaty of Limerick. He was also 
the author of ' An Analytical Exposition of 
the Absurdity and Iniquity of the Oaths, 
when taken by Protestants, that the Sacri- 
fice of the Mass and the Invocation of Saints 
are superstitious, idolatrous, and damnable,' 
London, 1829, 8vo. 

[O'Neill Daunt's Ireland and her Agitators; 
Fitzpatrick's Correspondence of Daniel O'Con- 
nell ; Torrens's Memoirs of Sheil ; Webb's Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography ; Gent. Mag. 1848, 
ii. 207.] C. L. F. 

STEELE, SIR THOMAS MONTAGUE 
(1820-1890), general, born on 11 May 1820, 
was eldest son of Major-general Thomas 
Steele of Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, 
by Elizabeth, second daughter of the fifth 
Duke of Manchester. After passing through 
Sandhurst he was commissioned as ensign in 
the 64th foot on 10 Jan. 1838. He ex- 
changed into the Coldstream guards on 
20 July, became lieutenant and captain on 
29 March 1844, and captain and lieu- 
tenant-colonel on 31 Oct. 1851. From 
25 July 1842 to 23 Feb. 1848 he was 
aide-de-camp to the governor of Madras. 
He was appointed military secretary to 
Lord Raglan on 23 Feb. 1854, and (with 
the exception of one month, 5 July to 
6 Aug. 1855, during which he was assistant 
adjutant-general) he occupied that position 
under Raglan and his successor up to 
16 Nov. 1855. He was at the Alma, 
Balaclava, Inkerman, and at the fall of 
Sebastopol, and was specially mentioned in 
Raglan's despatches of 23 Sept. (for Alma) 
and 11 Nov. (for Inkerman). At the Alma 
he took a message from Sir De Lacy Evans 
to the Duke of Cambridge, urging the im- 
mediate advance of the 1st division to sup- 
port the light division ; and this was fortu- 
nately acted upon at once, the duke inferring 
from the messenger that it was Raglan's 
order. Steele accompanied his own regi- 
ment, the Coldstreams, in their advance. He 
was made brevet colonel on 28 Nov. 1854, 
and C.B. on 5 July 1855 ; and he received 
the Crimean medal with four clasps, the 
Turkish medal/ the Medjidie (third class), 
the Legion of Honour (fifth class), and the 
order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus (second 
class). He was also made aide-de-camp to 
the queen 29 June 1855. 

He became major in his regiment on 
13 Dec. 1860, and lieutenant-colonel on 
8 Nov. 1862. He retired from it to half- 
pay on 24 Nov. 1863, and was promoted major- 
general on 17 Aug. 1865. He commanded 
the troops in the Dublin district from 1 April 
1872 to 31 March 1874. On 7 Jan. 1874 he 
became lieutenant-general, and on 23 Sept. 



he was given the colonelcy of the Glouces- 
tershire regiment. He commanded the di- 
vision at Aldershot from 14 April 1875 to 
30 June 1880, becoming full general on 
1 Oct. 1877; and from 1 Oct. 1880 he 
held the command of the forces in Ireland 
for five years. On 11 May 1887 he was 
placed on the retired list. He had been 
made K.C.B. on 20 May 1871, and received 
the G.C.B. on 21 June 1887. He was made 
colonel of his old regiment, the Coldstream 
guards, on 7 Aug. 1884. Steele died at Farn- 
borough, Hampshire, on 25 Feb. 1890. He 
was twice married : first, in 1856, to Isabel, 
daughter of E. M. Fitzgerald, who died in 
1858; and secondly, in 1865, to Rosalie, 
daughter of T. McCarthy of New York. 

[Times, 26 Feb. 1890; Kinglake's Invasion of 
the Crimea; official despatches.] E. M. L. 

STEELE, WILLIAM (d. 1680), lord 
chancellor of Ireland, son of Richard Steele 
of Sandbach, Cheshire, Avas admitted to 
Gray's Inn on 13 June 1631, and was called 
to the bar on 23 June 1637 (Foss, Judges, 
vi. 490). On 17 Aug. 1644 he was one of 
the commissioners appointed by parliament 
for the execution of martial law, and in 
January 1647 he conducted the prosecution 
of Captain Burley for his attempt to rescue 
Charles I in the Isle of Wight (HUSBANDS, 
Ordinances, folio, 1646, p. 535 ; HILLIEE, 
King Charles in the Isle of Wight, 1852, p. 
67). On 29 Jan. 1648 the House of Com- 
mons recommended him to the lords to suc- 
ceed Serjeant Glynne as recorder of London, 
but he did not obtain the post till 25 Aug. 
1649 (Foss, vi. 490 ; Commons 1 Journals, v. 
450). On 10 Jan. 1649 the court which tried 
Charles I appointed four counsel to manage 
the case on behalf of the Commonwealth, one 
of them being Steele, who was selected to act 
as attorney. Steele was ill and could not act. 
' The said Mr. Steele,' ran the report, ' no way 
declineth the service of the said court out 
of any disaffection to it, but professeth him- 
self to be so clear in the business that if it 
should please God to restore him, he should 
manifest his good affection to the said cause, 
and that it is an addition to his affliction 
that he cannot attend this court to do that 
service that they have expected from him, 
and as he desires to perform ' (NALSON , 
Trial of Charles I, pp. 9, 21). On 9 Feb. 
following he was sufficiently recovered to 
take the leading part in the prosecution of 
the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, 
and other royalists before another high 
court of justice (State Trials, iv. 1064, 1167, 
1209). He published his argument on 
Hamilton's case under the title of ' Duke 



Steele 



139 



Steell 






Hamilton, Earl of Cambridge, his Case' 
(4to. 1649). 

As recorder of London, Steele took part in 
the trial of John Lilburne [q. v.] in July 

1653, and in May 1654 he was one of the 
commissioners for the trial of Don Pantaleon 
Sa for murder. On 17 Jan. 1652 he was ap- 
pointed one of the committee for the refor- 
mation of the law (Commons' Journals, vii. 
74). He became serjeant-at-law on 25 Jan. 

1654, and on 8 Feb. 1654, when Cromwell 
was entertained by the city, welcomed him 
with a long speech on the origin of govern- 
ment and the duties of rulers (Mercurius 
Politicus, 9-16 Feb. 1654; Foss, vi. 491). 
In the parliament of 1654 he was one of the 
members for London. He was sent on circuit 
as commissioner with Judge Aske in March 

1655, and on 28 May of the same year was 
made chief baron of the exchequer (Mercurius 
Politicus, 24-31 May 1655 ; THTJRLOE, iii. 
244, 305, 540). 

Steele had been appointed a member of 
the council for the government of Ireland 
on 27 Aug. 1654, but he had never entered 
on the duties of his office ; on 26 Aug. 1656 
he was promoted to the post of lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, and in September follow- 
ing he landed at Dublin (Deputy Keeper 
of Irish Records, 14th Rep. p. 28; Foss, 
vi. 491 ; THTJKLOE, i. 731, v. 215, 398, 405, 
558 ; SHAKPE, London and the Kingdom, 
ii. 348). His letters to Thurloe on the offer 
of the crown to Cromwell and the pro- 
clamation of the second protectorate in 
Ireland breathed great devotion to the Pro- 
tector, and in December 1657 he received a 
summons to Cromwell's House of Lords (ib. 
vi. 294, 416). As he could not be spared 
from Ireland, this was a mere compliment. 

When Cromwell died, Steele took part in 
the proclamation of Richard Cromwell in 
Ireland, and, while lamenting the old Pro- 
tector, wrote cheerfully of the prospects of 
the cause (ib. vii. 383, 388). Meanwhile, 
however, he had quarrelled with Henry 
Cromwell, who complained that Steele, 
while professing the greatest desire to be 
serviceable to him, was secretly intriguing to 
gain partisans among the opponents of the 
lord deputy in the hope of ruling the roast 
himself (ib. vii. 199). Thurloe, however, dis- 
believed this account of Steele's intrigues, 
thinking it not in accordance with his cha- 
racter to endeavour to set up for himself 
(ib. vii. 243, 269). After the fall of Richard 
Cromwell and the recall of Henry, Steele 
was one of the five commissioners ap- 
pointed by the restored Long parliament to 
govern Ireland on 7 June 1659 (Commons' 
Journals, vii. 074. The instructions of the 



commissioners are Carte MS. Ixvii. 307). 
On 26 Oct. 1659 the army in England, having 
a second time expelled the Long parliament, 
erected a committee of safety, of which 
body they named Steele a member. Steele 
took the opportunity to return to England, 
' by whose departure,' comments Ludlow, 
' the affairs of Ireland suffered much, he 
being generally esteemed to be a man of 
great prudence and uncorrupted integrity.' 
When he came to London, however, he 
refused to act on the committee of safety, 
and advised Fleetwood and the officers to 
leave constitutional questions to the parlia- 
ment (LuDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 125, 131, 153). 
At the Restoration, thanks to the fact that 
he had no hand in the king's death, Steele 
was not in any way excluded from the act 
of indemnity. It has been said that he 
' secured his personal safety ... by betray- 
ing the secrets of Henry Cromwell to Cla- 
rendon and Ormonde,' but the statement rests 
on no evidence and is opposed to probability 
(Dumas, History of the King's Inns, 1806, 
p. 190). Steele took shelter in Holland for 
some time after the Restoration (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1663-4, pp. 498, 505, 507). 
He returned to England later, and died in 
1680. His will, proved on 19 Oct. 1680, 
describes him as of Hatton Garden, Middle- 
sex. 

Steele married first, on 15 March 1638, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Godfrey of 
Wye, Kent ; secondly, Mary Mellish, widow 
of Michael Harvey. He left three sons: 
Richard, William, and Benjamin (AiTKEN, 
Life of Richard Steele, ii. 350-3). 

[Noble's House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, i. 396 ; 
Foss's Judges of England, vi. 489-92 ; Aitken's 
Life of Kichard Steele, ii. 349-53, gives a pedi- 
gree of this branch of the Steele family. O'Flana- 
gan's Lives of the Lord Chancellors and 
Keepers of the Great Seal of Ireland, 1870, 
i. 351-7 ; Burke's History of the Lord Chan- 
cellors of Ireland, 1879, pp. 86-7.] C. H. F. 

STEELL, GOURLAY (1819-1894), 
animal-painter, son of John Steell, a well- 
known wood-carver, by his wife, Margaret 
Gourlay of Dundee, was born in Edinburgh 
on 22 March 1819. Like his elder brother, 
Sir John Steell [q. v.], the sculptor, he 
began his art studies under the guidance 
of his father, and continued them in the 
school of the board of manufactures under 
Sir William Allan [q. v.], and in the studio 
of Robert Scott Lauder [q. v.] At the 
early age of thirteen, in 1832, he exhibited 
at the Royal Scottish Academy a model of a 
greyhound, and in 1835 a life-sized study of 
a bloodhound, and from that time forward 
works by him were seldom, if ever, absent from- 



Steell 



140 



Steell 



the annual exhibitions of that body, of which 
lie was elected an associate in 1846 and an 
academician in 1859. In his earlier years 
he was much employed as a draughtsman on 
wood for book illustration, and he devoted 
himself a good deal to modelling, of which 
he was for some years teacher in the "Watt 
Institute, Adam Square, in succession to his 
father. He also modelled many groups of 
horses, dogs, and cattle, which were after- 
wards cast in silver. In 1857 he exhibited at 
the Royal Scottish Academy ' Llewellyn and 
Gelert,' a picture which attracted much atten- 
tion, as did also, a few years later, a ' Highland 
Raid,' representing the Macgregors defending 
the cattle which they had raided against an 
attack of the royal troops. The latter was pur- 
chased for their prize distribution by the 
Royal Association for the Promotion of the 
Fine Arts, and a replica of the former was 
painted for the queen, who possesses also ' The 
Pass of Leny : Cattle going to Falkirk Tryst.' 
In 1865 he exhibited ' A Cottage Bedside at 
Osborne,' the queen reading the Bible to a 
sick fisherman, which became very popular 
through the engraving of it by William Henry 
Simmons [q. v.] ' A Challenge,' exhibited at 
the Royal Scottish Academy, and also at the 
Royal Academy in London in 1877, still 
further increased his reputation. 'Dandie 
Dinmont and his Terriers,' engraved by James 
Stephenson, was one of many pictures sug- 
gested by incidents in the ' Waverley Novels.' 

Steell painted two large hunt pictures : 
one, in 1863, of the Earl of Wemyss, and 
another, in 1871, of Colonel Carrick Bucha- 
nan of Drumpellier. The latter was exhi- 
bited at the Royal Academy in London, and 
both have been engraved. He painted also 
several equestrian portraits, including those 
of the Earl of Eglinton and Winton and of 
Andrew Gillon of Wallhouse, and in 1868 
that of the Lord-president Inglis with a 
shooting party at Glencorse. Many of his 
later works were large studies of animals 
executed in oil, tempera, and charcoal, chiefly 
for the decoration of highland mansions. 
His last picture, entitled ' Lochaber no more,' 
which he left nearly finished, was rendered 
doubly pathetic by the artist's death. In 
1872 he was appointed animal-painter to the 
queen for Scotland, and he held a similar 
office in connection with the Highland and 
Agricultural Society. He succeeded Sir 
"William Fettes Douglas, P.R.S.A., as cura- 
tor of the jSational Gallery of Scotland in 
1882. 

Steell died at 23 Minto Street, Edinburgh, 
on 31 Jan. 1894, and was interred in the 
cemetery at Morningside. He was an ad- 
mirable draughtsman of horses and dogs, and 



especially of highland cattle. He was a good 
shot and a keen angler, and throughout his 
life was fond of outdoor amusements. One 
of his sons, David George Steell, A.R.S.A., is 
a painter of animals and sporting subjects. 

[Scotsman, 1 Feb. 1894; Academy, 1894, i. 
133 ; Art Journal, 1894, p. 125 ; Annual Report 
of the Royal Scottish Academy, 1 894 ; Exhibi- 
tion Catalogues of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
1832-1894; Royal Academy Exhibition Cata- 
logues, 1865-80.] R. E. G. 

STEELL, SIR JOHN" (1804-1891), 
sculptor, son of John Steell, a carver and 
gilder, by his wife, Margaret Gourlay of 
Dundee, and elder brother of Gourlay Steell 
[q. v.l, was born at Aberdeen on 18 Sept. 
1804. W 7 hen he was about a year old his 
father removed to Edinburgh, and he was 
in due course apprenticed to him as a wood- 
carver, and placed also under the tuition of 
John Graham in the Trustees' Academy. On 
the expiration of his apprenticeship he adopted 
the profession of sculpture, studying at Rome 
for several years. On his return to Edin- 
burgh in 1833 he modelled the group of 'Alex- 
ander taming Bucephalus,' which has since 
been cast in bronze and placed in St. Andrew 
Square. This work, which was often repro- 
duced, brought him at once into notice, and 
he received from the board of manufactures 
a special reward of 50/. Sir Francis Legatt 
Chantrey [q. v.] urged the rising artist to 
remove his studio to London, but his desire 
to devote himself to the improvement of art 
in his native country led him to decline the 
prospects of fame and fortune offered to him. 
His success, however, led to a commission 
for the colossal statue of the queen which 
surmounts the Royal Institution, and this 
was followed by the competition for the 
statue of Sir Walter Scott which adorns 
Kemp's Gothic monument in Prince's Street, 
in which Steell won the first place. This 
seated figure of Sir Walter Scott is stated 
to have been the first marble statue com- 
missioned in Scotland from a native artist, 
although that by Steell of Professor Blaikie 
at Aberdeen was the first finished. It has 
frequently been reproduced in various sizes 
and materials. Among other commissions 
which followed was that for the colossal 
equestrian statue in bronze of the Duke of 
Wellington which stands in front of the 
General Register House in Edinburgh. 

Steell's principal work, however, is the 
Scottish memorial to the prince consort 
erected in Charlotte Square, which was 
inaugurated by the queen in August 1876, 
when the sculptor was knighted. 

Other notable statues by him are those of 



Steere 



141 



Steere 



Lord De Saumarez for Greenwich Hospital, 
Lord Jeffrey, Lord Melville, Lord-president 
Boyle, Allan Ramsay, George Kinloch of 
Dundee, Dr. Chalmers, the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, and that in bronze of Professor Wilson 
(* Christopher North ') in Prince's Street 
Gardens, Edinburgh. He also executed 
statues of Lord Dalhousie and of James 
Wilson for Calcutta, of the Countess of 
Elgin for Jamaica, and a colossal statue 
of Burns for New York, for which city he 
made also a replica of that of Sir Walter 
Scott. Many of his busts are distinguished 
by great dignity and refinement, and among 
them may be especially named those of the 
queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of 
Edinburgh, Sir Robert Peel, Thomas De 
Quincey, Florence Nightingale, Professor 
Edward Forbes, Lord Cockburn, Lord Ful- 
lerton, Lord Colonsay, David Scott, R.S.A., 
and a bust in bronze of Dr. Guthrie. He 
executed likewise several regimental and 
other monuments, as well as the figures 
illustrating the parable of the ten virgins 
which decorate the Standard Assurance 
office ; these he repeated and enlarged for 
the office in Dublin. He prepared for the 
bank at Montreal figures descriptive of the 
history of commerce. 

In 1829 Steell became a Royal Scottish 
academician, and in 1838 he was appointed 
sculptor to the queen for Scotland. He first 
introduced artistic bronze casting into Scot- 
land, and built at his own expense a foundry 
in which not only his own works but also 
those of other artists could be reproduced in 
metal. 

Steell, who on account of ill-health had 
lived for several years in complete retire- 
ment, died at 24 Greenhill Gardens, Edin- 
burgh, on 15 Sept. 1891, and was interred in 
the Old Calton burying-ground. On 30 Nov. 
1826 he married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Graham, a merchant of Edinburgh. She 
died in 1885. Latterly he was in receipt of 
a civil list pension of 100/. Busts by him 
of David Scott, R.S.A., James Wilson, the 
Duke of Wellington, and others, are in the 
National Gallery of Scotland. A plaster 
bust of Thomas De Quincey is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London. 

[Scotsman, 16 Sept. 1891 ; Academy, 1891, 
ii. 270; Annual Report of the Royal Scottish 
Academy, 1891; Exhibition Catalogues of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, 1830-89; Royal Aca- 
demy Exhibition Catalogues, 1837-76 ; Men and 
Women of the Time, 1891.] R. E. G. 

STEERE, EDWARD (1828-1882), mis- 
sionary bishop in Africa, son of William 
Steere of the chancery bar, and Esther (Ball) 
his wife, was born in London on 4 May 1828, 



and educated, first under Alexander Allen, at 
Hackney, then at University College school,. 
London. Proceeding to University College, her 
graduated B. A. of the university of Londora 
in 1847, LL.B. in 1848, and LL.D., with gold 
medal for law, in 1850. The same year he 
was called to the bar at the Inner Temple, 
but showed a preference for philosophy and 
theology, and came under the influence of the 
tractarian revival. Living chiefly in Lon- 
don, Steere was deeply impressed by the need 
of earnest work among the poor, and in May 
1854 joined a small society, known as the- 
Guild of St. Alban. He had already learned 
the art of printing, and set up a private press, 
from which he issued the monthly magazine- 
of the guild. Before the end of the year, on 
receiving a small legacy from an uncle, he- 
gave up his chambers, and in May 1855 he- 
founded in connection with the guild a sort 
of brotherhood at ' The Spital,' near Tarn- 
worth. The scheme did not answer his ex- 
pectations, and in response to the appeals of 
friends to carry out an earlier intention, he- 
was ordained at Exeter Cathedral on 21 Sept. 
1856. 

Steere's first curacy was at King's Kers- 
well, Newton Abbot, Devonshire. In the- 
summer of 1858 he was invited to undertake 
the sole charge of Skegness and curacy of Win- 
thorpe, Lincolnshire, by the vicar of Burgh- 
cum-Winthorpe, William George Tozer. He- 
was admitted priest at Lincoln Cathedral.. 
Skegness was then a straggling village which 
had long been without parochial care, but 
Steere made his reputation among the fisher- 
men as a ' downright shirt-sleeve man and a 
real Bible parson ;' while the Wesleyans- 
' came to church in the morning to please- 
him.' In the autumn of 1859 he became- 
rector of Little Steeping, at the foot of the 
Wolds. Towards the close of 1862 he ob- 
tained leave of absence in order to accompany 
his friend Tozer, the new missionary bishop 
of the universities mission to Central Africa,, 
to the ShirS. On 19 May 1863, after nar- 
rowly escaping being drowned in a storm, he 
landed at the mouth of the Zambesi. For 
many months the newcomers failed to make- 
much progress, until in August 1864 they 
fixed their headquarters at Zanzibar, then 
the centre of the slave traffic. Here the- 
missionary work was begun with a few slave 
boys, and by the middle of 1866 had so weDr 
advanced that Steere was about to return 
home, when the bishop fell ill, and was- 
ordered to England, leaving him in charge 
of the mission. Steere liad already compiled' 
a handbook to the Swahili language, reduced' 
to writ ing the dialect of the Usambara coun- 
try, and produced a Shambala grammar, 



Steere 



142 



Steere 



which he printed with the aid of native 
boys. Having thus overcome the linguistic 
difficulties, Steere inaugurated a mission on 
the mainland, arriving in August 1867 at 
Vuga, the capital of the Usambara country. 
A year later he set sail for England. 

On settling down again in Lincolnshire 
his spare time was at first entirely occupied 
with the Swahili translations for the Bible 
Society. At the church congress at Not- 
tingham in 1871 he delivered an important 
address upon the duty of the country as re- 
gards the slave trade. When news came in 
1872 of Bishop Tozer's ill-health, he volun- 
teered to return to Zanzibar. He went out 
in the same ship as the Livingstone search 
expedition, the members of which he in- 
structed in the native language on the voyage. 
By April 1872 he was left almost alone to 
face the work of the mission. Yet before the 
end of 1873 he had made good progress to- 
wards erecting an English cathedral on the 
site of what had formerly been the Zanzi- 
bar slave-market. 

Only after several refusals did Steere ac- 
cept the nomination as bishop of Central 
Africa ; returning to England, he was con- 
secrated at Westminster Abbey on 24 Aug. 
1874. The rest of the year was spent in 
gathering new workers and rousing fresh in- 
terest ; his headquarters were in Euston 
Square, but he constantly lectured or preached 
in provincial towns. He left England on 
11 Feb. 1875. One of his earliest efforts 
was to bring the Nyassa district within his 
scope ; he started with a party, but was com- 
pelled to continue his journey alone from 
the coast inland to Mwembe, the residence 
of the chief Mataka. The journey occupied 
him from August 1875 to February 1876. 
Later in this year he visited one of the main- 
land missions, and towards its close started 
on the expedition for founding the Masasi 
station, from which he returned in ill-health 
in January 1877. In February he sailed for 
England, and, as soon as he was recovered, 
devoted himself to preaching and lecturing 
for the mission. At Oxford he was made 
D.D. ; at Cambridge he was appointed 
Ramsden preacher. Returning to Zanzibar 
in November, he found the mission work 
steadily growing ; but his own health was im- 
paired, and he was worried by pecuniary 
difficulties. In 1879 he issued his complete 
translation of the New Testament andprayer- 
book in Swahili, while on Christmas day of 
the same year he presided at the opening of 
the cathedral church at Zanzibar. In 1880 
and 1881 he pressed on, though not in person, 
the establishment of the mission settlement 
toAvards Lake Nyassa. Early in 1882 his 



health obliged him to return to England. He 
got back to work in August, but died at 
Zanzibar on 28 Aug. He was buried in 
Christ Church, Zanzibar. Steere married, 
in 1858, Mary Bridget, daughter of Henry 
Langford Brown of Barton Hall, King's 
Kerswell. She died in 1883, leaving no 
issue. 

Steere was a consistent high churchman, 
but by his width of view he won the esteem 
of men of every persuasion. His manner 
and appearance did not suggest the typical 
divine, nor was the work he was called upon 
to do purely spiritual. His success as a 
missionary was due in great measure to his 
versatility in throwing himself into all kinds 
of occupation, manual or mental, the ' archi- 
tect ' bishop scorning none of the industrial 
occupations he was anxious to teach the 
Africans. His linguistic power was great ; 
he carefully studied the Swahili and Yao 
dialects, each of which he first made practi- 
cable as a' written language, and devoted much 
attention to other native dialects (see below) ; 
he spoke French, German, and Portuguese, 
and had some acquaintance with Italian, 
Spanish, Arabic, and Hebrew, besides Latin 
and Greek. 

Besides editing Bishop Butler's 'Analogy' 
(1857) and ' Sermons and Remains ' (1862), 
Steere published an ' Essay on the Existence 
and Attributes of God' (1856), written origi- 
nally for the Burnett treatise competition; an 
' Historical Sketch of English Brotherhoods ' 
(1856) ; and an 'Account of the Persecutions 
of the Church under the Roman Empire' 
(1859 ; 2nd edit. 1880). Steere's works re- 
lating to the mission in Central Africa in- 
clude an 'Account of Zanzibar' (1870), a 
sketch of the ' Central African Mission ' in 
1873, ' Walks in the Nyassa Country ' (1876), 
and ' Walks in the Zaramo Country ' (1880). 
His laborious study of East African dialects 
resulted in ' Vocabularies of Gindo, Zaramo, 
and Angazidja' (1869), 'Collections for 
Handbooks ' to the Shainbala language (1867), 
to the Yao language (1871), to Nyamwezi 
(1871), and to Makonde (1876). But his 
chief attention was directed to the Swahili 
language. His ' Handbook of Swahili ' (1870 ; 
3rd ed. rev. by A. C. Madan, 1884) was fol- 
lowed by 'Swahili Tales' (1871, 2nd ed. 
1889), and he also translated or revised the 
translation into this tongue of the New Tes- 
tament, a large portion of the Old Testament, 
the prayer-book, and a number of hymns and 
primers. 

[Heanley's Memoir of Bishop Steere, 1889, 
2nd ed. 1891; Brit. Mus. Cat.; rotes kindly 
supplied by the bishop's brother, Francis W. 
Steere, esq.] C. A. H. 



Steevens 



143 



Steevens 



STEEVENS. [See also STEPHENS and 
STEVENS.] 

STEEVENS, CHARLES (d. 1761), 
rear-admiral, was promoted to be a lieu- 
tenant in the navy on 19 March 17:29. 
For the next two years he was on half-pay, 
and in February 1730-1 he was appointed 
to the Salisbury, in which he served for 
upwards of five years, part of the time on 
the home station with Captain the Hon. 
George Clinton, and afterwards in the 
Mediterranean with Captain Edward Falk- 
ingham, afterwards comptroller of the navy. 
In December 1737 Steevens was appointed 
first lieutenant of the Falmouth, commanded 
by Captain William Douglas, which sailed 
for the coast of Guinea with Captain George 
(afterwards Lord) Anson [q. v.] At St. 
lago of the Cape Verd Islands, on 28 May 
1738, the Falmouth was detached to go to 
Jamaica, Anson, for some reason never ex- 
plained, giving Steevens a copy of Douglas's 
orders. The next day Steevens, after hold- 
ing a council of the commissioned and 
warrant officers of the ship, and in ' con- 
junction' with them, confined Captain 
Douglas in his cabin ' for the preservation 
of their lives,' he being ' disordered in his 
senses ' {Log of the Falmouth^ 29 May). On 
arriving at Jamaica on 20 June Steevens 
reported the circumstance to Commodore 
Brown, the commander-in-chief. The next 
day Brown went on board the Falmouth, 
and, judging that Douglas was not mad, 
released him from confinement. Douglas 
then demanded that Steevens and the 
other officers should be tried for mutiny ; 
but there were many difficulties in the way 
of holding a court-martial, and especially 
the absence of Anson. Brown, too, was 
convinced that Steevens had acted in good 
faith ; and finally Douglas consented to re- 
ceive an apology, which was formally given 
on 6 July on the Falmouth's quarterdeck, 
in presence of Brown and all the captains 
then in port (Brown to Burchett, 8 July ; 
Admirals' Despatches, Jamaica). The next 
day Steevens was moved into the Sheerness, 
and within a few days all the other officers, 
some of the midshipmen, and even of the 
seamen, were moved into other ships (Pay- 
book of the Falmouth}, Douglas remaining in 
command of the Falmouth till his death in 
May 1741. 

In May 1740 Steevens was moved into 
the Princess Louisa, and on 25 March 1741 
he was promoted by the admiral, Edward 
Vernon [q. v.], to the command of the Cum- 
berland fireship, in which he was present at 
the unsuccessful attack on Cartagena. On 
12 June he was moved into the Phaeton fire- 



ship, and on 14 Oct. received an order to com- 
mand the Ludlow Castle, to which he was 
formally commissioned on 11 Jan. 1741-2. 
He returned to England in the spring of 
1744, and in October was appointed to the 
50-gun ship Portland, in which, on 9 Feb. 
1745-6, he captured the French 50-gun ship 
Auguste, in the entrance of the Channel; on 
14 Oct. 1747 took part, under Hawke, in the 
defeat of M. de 1'Etenduere, and on 31 Jan. 
1747-8, in company with Captain (afterwards 
Sir Robert) Harland[q.v.], captured the very 
fine 74-gun ship Magnanime. After the peace 
he commanded the Tiger guardship for three 
years; and in January 1755 he was ap- 
pointed to the Lichfield, in which in March 
he was sent out to the Leeward Islands as 
commodore and commander-in-chief. It 
was only for a short time, and, on his re- 
turn, he was appointed to the Oxford, one of 
the Channel squadron under the command 
of Vice-admiral John Byng, and on 14 Nov. 
captured the French Esperance, a 74-gun 
ship, but. old and worn out, so that Byng 
ordered her to destroyed. 

In January 1757 Steevens was appointed 
to the Elizabeth, in which he went out to 
the East Indies with a commodore's broad 
pennant, in command of a small reinforce- 
ment. Having gone in the first instance to 
Bombay, he did not join Vice-admiral (after- 
wards Sir) George Pocock [q. v.] at Madras 
till the end of March 1758. In the actions 
of 29 April and 3 Aug. Steevens commanded 
in the second post ; in the latter, he was 
wounded by a musket-ball in the shoulder. 
On 6 July he was promoted to be rear- 
admiral of the blue, but he did not receive 
the news till the end of the year. In the 
spring of 1759 he moved his flag into the 
Grafton, having as his flag-captain Richard 
Kempenfelt [q. v.], and in her commanded 
in the second post, under Pocock, in the 
action of 10 Sept. When, early in the fol- 
lowing year, Pocock left the station, Steevens 
remained as commander-in-chief, and in 
September undertook the blockade of Pon- 
dicherry, in co-operation with the land 
forces under the command of Colonel (after- 
wards Sir) Eyre Coote (1726-1783) [q. v.] 
On 15 Jan. 1761 the place surrendered. A 
few months later, being, it is said, extremely 
corpulent, he died from the effects of the 
heat on 17 May 1761. He seems to have 
been unmarried. A brother George, an at- 
torney, was probably the Mr. Stevens, whose 
death is recorded on 19 May 1762 (Gent. 
Mag.1762, p. 242), mentioned in the several 
paybooks as receiving his pay. 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. v. 229 ; official docu- 
ments in the Public Kecord Office.] J. K. L. 



Steevens 



144 



Steevens 



STEEVENS, GEORGE (1736-1800), 
commentator on Shakespeare, was born at 
Poplar on 10 May 1736, and was baptised 
at Stepney parish church nine days later. 
He was only son of George Steevens and his 
wife Mary. The father, although he was 
described as 'mariner' in the baptismal 
register, was a well-to-do captain in the 
East India Company's fleet, who on retire- 
ment from active service occupied a substan- 
tial residence at Poplar, was elected a vestry- 
man in 1746, obtained a seat as director of the 
East India Company, and died in January 
1768 (cf. Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 93, where he 
apparently figures in the obituary as 
1 Thomas Stevens, esq., formerly an East 
India captain '). In early years George at- 
tended a school at Kingston-on-Thames, 
whence he passed to Eton. He was admitted 
a fellow-commoner of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, on 29 March 1753, matriculating on 
14 April following. He resided in the col- 
lege till the summer of 1756. Although he 
read the classics and English literature 
assiduously, he left the university without a 
degree. He showed some interest in his 
college at later periods, and paid a visit to 
friends at Cambridge almost every autumn 
until his death. But his perversity of temper 
never rendered him a very welcome guest. 

Steevens inherited from his father a com- 
petence and some real property in the neigh- 
bourhood of Poplar. When his student days 
closed he settled in London, at first appa- 
rently in chambers in the Temple. But he 
soon secured a house (formerly a tavern) at 
Hampstead, called the Upper Flask, near the 
summit of the Heath. A cousin, Mrs. Mary 
Collinson (born Steevens), with her daugh- 
ters, kept house for him there for the rest of 
his life. Very methodical in his habits, he 
walked into London before seven each morn- 
ing and paid visits to literary friends, book- 
shops, and publishing offices, returning on 
foot early in the afternoon. At his Hamp- 
stead residence he brought together a valu- 
able library, mainly consisting of Elizabethan 
literature, and a fine collection of the en- 
gravings of Hogarth. ' Mr. Steevens,' wrote 
Malone to Lord Charlemont on 18 June 
1781, ' has gone so far as not only to collect a 
complete set of the first and best impressions 
of all his [i.e. Hogarth's] plates, but also 
the last and worst of the retouched ones, 
by way of contrast, to show at the same time 
all the varieties, and to set the value of the 
former in a more conspicuous light ' (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. x. 383). In 
June 1781 he 'ransacked' Mrs. Hogarth's 
house for obsolete and unfinished plates 
(WALPOLE, Corresp. \m. 55). In the same 



year he made contributions to Nichols's 
'Biographical Anecdotes of Mr. Hogarth,' 
and his accumulated notes on the subject 
were incorporated after his death in ' The 
Genuine Works of Hogarth ' (1808-17) ; on 
the title-page his name figured in conjunction 
with Nichols's. Steevens was himself a 
capable draughtsman, and he made many 
clever sketches of churches or copies of old 
pictures and engravings. An etching by him 
of an old woman named Mary Keighley is in 
the print-room of the British Museum. 

But the main business of Steevens's life 
was the systematic study and annotation of 
Shakespeare's works. With a view to the 
formation on sound principles of a correct 
text, he directed his earliest labours to a 
careful reprint of twenty of the quarto edi- 
tions of Shakespeare's plays, many of which 
he borrowed for the purpose from Garrick's 
library. Steevens inaccurately claimed that 
this reprint, which appeared in four octavo 
volumes in 1766 and included the sonnets, 
dealt with ' the whole number ' of Shake- 
speare's plays ' printed in quarto in his 
lifetime.' Dr. Johnson, whose edition of 
Shakespeare had appeared a year earlier, 
was impressed by the intelligence that Stee- 
vens's useful venture displayed. The two 
men met in the Temple, and Johnson readily 
accepted Steevens's offer to prepare a more 
fully annotated version of his edition of 
Shakespeare. Steevens sent to the news- 
papers a prospectus describing his design, 
and appealed to the reading public for sug- 
gestions. He promised that his publisher 
(Tonson) should make payment on his 
behalf to ' those whose situation in life 
will not admit of their making presents of 
their labours,' and he undertook to treat re- 
spectfully the efforts of earlier commentators. 
But that counsel of perfection he was con- 
stitutionally incapable of observing. John- 
son's share in the enterprise was confined to 
advice. On 21 March 1770 he invited his 
friend Farmer to supplement ' an account of 
all the translations that Shakespeare might 
have seen, by Mr. Steevens, a very ingenious 
gentleman, lately of King's College.' The 
edition appeared, with both Johnson's and 
Steevens's names on the title-page, in ten 
volumes in 1773. The younger man brought 
to his task exceptional diligence, method, 
and antiquarian knowledge of literature. 
His illustrative quotations from rare contem- 
porary literature were apter and more abun- 
dant than any to be met with elsewhere. 
But his achievement exhibited ingrained 
defects of taste and temper. He spoke scorn- 
fully of the labours of many predecessors, 
and especially of those of Edward Capell, 



Steevens 



Steevens 



one of the most capable. In Capell's defence 
a clergyman, John Collins(174i-1797)[q.v.], 
charged Steevens with plagiarism in 'A 
Letter ... to George Hardinge ' (1777), which 
Steevens never forgave. Another commen- 
tator, Charles Jennens [q. v.], whom Stee- 
vens ridiculed with better justification, also 
retaliated in like fashion. Despite contro- 
versy, Steevens's edition was well received, 
and he ' revised and augmented ' a reissue in 
1778. Next year he prepared for the printer, 
John Nichols, a useful volume called ' Six 
Old Plays on which Shakespeare founded 
his "Measure for Measure," "Comedy of 
Errors," " Taming the Shrew," " King John," 
Henry IV,"" Henry V," and " King Lear." ' 
In' 1783 Joseph Ritson [q. v.], who proved 
Steevens's match in the employment of viru- 
lent abuse, opened attack on his edition of 
Shakespeare in a pamphlet of ' Remarks.' 
About the same date a third issue of the 
Shakespeare was called for, but Steevens 
declared that he had joined the ranks of 

* dowager-editors ' and committed the task 
to a friend, Isaac Reed [q. v.] To Reed's 
revised edition of Baker's ' Biographia Dra- 
matica ' (1782) Steevens had already made 
valuable contributions. Reed completed his 
editorial labours on Steevens's ' Shakespeare ' 
in 1785. Two years later Steevens was in- 
duced to act as literary adviser in Boydell's 
scheme of a fully illustrated edition of the 
plays (Charlemont MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm. 
12th Rep. App. x.383). But he affected to 
regard his labours in Shakespearean exegesis 
as at an end. 

Steevens obtained admission to much lite- 
rary society, and was rarely unready to aid 
others in literary research, although he was 
more at home in adverse criticism of their 
work. He sedulously cultivated his intimacy 
with Dr. Johnson, attending his morning 
levees and delighting ' in the roarings of 
the old lion.' In 1781 he supplied the doc- 
tor with anecdotes and quotations for the 

* Lives of the Poets,' and bowdlerised for the 
work Rochester's poems ; he contributed to 
Hawkins's edition of Johnson's ' Works ' in 
1787 a not very trustworthy collection of 
anecdotes. Johnson was not blind to his 
congenital faults, but took so charitable a 
view of them as to nominate him for mem- 
bership of ' The Club ' in February 1774, and 
of the Essex Head Club in 1783. Steevens 
had already joined both the Society of Anti- 
quaries and the Royal Society in 1767. With 
a few of the men of letters whose acquaint- 
ance he thus had opportunities of making 
with John Nichols, Bishop Percy, Dr. Parr, 
Isaac Reed, Thomas Tyrwhitt, and Dr. Farmer 
he lived in amity. On occasion, too, he 

VOL, L1V. 



was amiable to strangers. William Cole, 
no lenient judge, met him at dinner at Dr. 
Lort's rooms in Trinity College, Cambridge, 
on 9 Aug. 1780, and found him 'much of 
a gentleman, well bred, civil, and obliging ' 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, ix. 803). When 
Cole introduced him to Horace Walpole, he 
made a similar impression (WALPOLE, viii. 
146, 157). That he was generous in relief of 
genuine distress is well attested, and he 
heartily joined Johnson and others in making 
provision for an impoverished relative of 
Oliver Goldsmith. 

But Steevens's irrepressible saturnine 
humour overshadowed his virtues. In con- 
versation, even with intimates, he recklessly 
sacrificed truth to cynicism. Dr. Parr, who 
was well disposed towards him, said he was 
one of the wisest, most learned, but most 
spiteful of men (JOHNSTONE, Parr, viii. 128). 
Johnson, the most indulgent of his friends, ad- 
mitted that he was mischievous, but argued 
that he would do no man an essential injury. 
When Lord Mansfield remarked that one 
could only believe half of what Steevens 
said, the doctor sagely retorted that no one 
could tell which half deserved credence. 
The main motive of his sarcasms was doubt- 
less, as Johnson suggested, a love of making 
'sport of people by vexing their vanity.' 
Broils with literary associates were conse- 
quently the chief result of the widening of 
his social circle. ' He came to . live,' wrote 
Dr. Johnson, ' the life of an outlaw. The 
warmth of his temper put him at variance 
with so many of his acquaintance and 
he wished to avoid them' (BoswELL, ii. 
375). The sentiment was doubtless reci- 
procal. 

Throughout the controversy over the au- 
thenticity of the poems which Chatterton 
pretended to have derived from the manu- 
scripts of the supposititious monk Rowley, 
Steevens's acrid taunts embittered the fray. 
He gave some assistance to Tyrwhitt in pre- 
paring his edition of the so-called Rowley 
poems in 1777, and had not then detected 
that they were forgeries ; but as soon as he 
reached that conclusion he directed all his 
armoury against the champions of Chatter- 
ton's honesty. To the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine' (1782, pp. 276, 288) he contributed 
humorous drawings, with appropriately satiri- 
cal letterpress, of the supposititious poets, 
Chedder and Turgot, to whom Chatterton's 
dupes claimed that the fictitious Rowley 
stood indebted. Dean Milles and Dr. Robert 
Glynn (afterwards Clobery), two of the most 
strenuous advocates of the Rowley myth, 
were assailed by Steevens with so much 
rancour that Glynn invited a heated personal 



Steevens 



146 



Steevens 



altercation with him when they chanced to 
meet at Cambridge in the autumn of 1785 
(Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 282-3). 

Some of the uses to which he was charged 
with putting his satiric talents entitled him 
to no quarter if the facts alleged against him 
can be proved. He received much attention 
from Garrick, who aided him in his Shake- 
spearean researches. Garrick showed his 
confidence in Steevens in 177G by adopting 
his barbarous proposal to play ' Hamlet ' 
with ' all the rubbish of the fifth act omitted.' 
Steevens somewhat ironically suggested at 
the time that the omitted scenes might 
follow the tragedy in the guise of a farce, 
to be entitled ' The Gravediggers, with the 
pleasant humours of Osric the Danish maca- 
roni' (Garrick Correspondence, i. 451). A 
little later, according to Garrick, Steevens 
slandered him in the press, and, when taxed 
with the offence, denied it on his word of 
honour, but afterwards bragged that ' it was 
fun to vex Garrick.' Garrick declined further 
intercourse with him, and denounced him 
to common acquaintances as ' a pest to so- 
ciety ' (ib. ii. 361). Johnson's friend Beau- 
clerk Topham, whose hospitality Steevens 
often enjoyed, similarly represented to John- 
son that Steevens deserved 'to be kicked' 
for attacking in the newspapers ' those with 
whom he lives on the best terms.' Another 
of Johnson's friends, Sir John Hawkins of 
whose ' History of Music ' he always spoke 
with bitter scorn thoroughly mistrusted 
him (BoswELL, iv. 406). One of the Chat- 
terton advocates, Jacob Bryant [q. v.], sent 
to Horace Walpole some ironical verses in 
the same sense in 1789 : 
His slaver so subtle no med'cine allays, 
It kills by kind paragraphs, poisons with praise. 
Thy ' Chronicle,' James, but too truly can tell 
How the malice of man can fetch poison from 

Hell 
(NiCHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, viii. 532, 540). 

The proofs that Steevens was guilty of 
publishing anonymous libels on his boon 
companions are happily incomplete. In the 
case of Garrick some allowance must be made 
for the vanity which detects slander in all 
criticism that is not unmitigated eulogy. 
He contributed an appreciative notice of 
Garrick to Baker's ' Biographia Dramatica,' 
and the charge made against him by Gar- 
rick's biographer, Tom Davies, that he un- 
fairly denounced Garrick's avarice after his 
death, is untrue ; the offender was George 
Ashby (1724-1808) [q. v.] (NICHOLS, Anec- 
dotes, vi. 633). Seward declared that the 
offensive paragraphs about literary persons 
that appeared from time to time in the ' St. 
James's Chronicle,' and were assigned to 



Steevens, were by an insignificant journalist, 
Alexander Bicknell [q. v.] 

The suspicion had a ^>nmayacze justification 
in the fact that Steevens at one time owned 
a share in the ' St. James's Chronicle,' and 
was an occasional contributor to it, as well as 
to other journals (the ' Critical Review,' the 
'Morning Post,' and the 'General Evening 
Post '). But many of his contributions have 
been identified, and, although biting enough, 
do not transgress the bounds of social decency. 
His journalistic achievements mainly con- 
sisted of epigrams and parodies suggested by 
contemporary literary crazes, or of burlesque 
accounts of alleged antiquarian discoveries. 
The former were often smart and pointed. 
The latter, conceived in a spirit of mere mis- 
chief, caused inevitable irritation. His skits 
included ' The Frantic Lover ' (reprinted from 
Dodsley's ' Annual Register ' in ALMON'S 
New Foundling Hospital for Wit, 1771, iv. 
89) ; ' A Song in the Character of a Sta- 
tioner ' (in the St. James's Chronicle, 11 Jan. 
1774); 'The Insensible Lover' (ib); a 
satiric account of the installation of John 
Rivington as master of the Stationers' Com- 
pany (ib. 8 July 1775 ; NICHOLS, Illustra- 
tions, vi. 433-4) ; ' Elinor Rummin,' an epi- 
gram on the ' grangerising ' craze, suggested 
by the excitement among collectors caused 
by the discovery of an illustrated copy of 
the so-named poem by Skelton in Lincoln 
Cathedral Library (NICHOLS, Anecdotes, ii. 
660) ; and laughably stinging verses on the 
birthday odes of the poet laureate, Henry 
James Pye [q.v.] 'Reasons why it is probable 
' that the coffin [usually alleged to] contain 
the body of Milton' should really contain 
that of Mrs. Smith (St. James's Chronicle, 
7 Sept. 1790 ; reprinted in European Maga- 
zine, September 1790, p. 206) was a pardon- 
able skit on a dry antiquarian pamphlet on 
the subject of Milton's burial by Philip Le 
Neve [q. v.] Steevens's pretended descrip- 
tion of the upas tree of Java in the ' London 
Magazine,' on the authority of a fictitious 
Dutch traveller, was conceived in a like 
vein. 

Less can be urged in defence of others of 
his journalistic diversions. He contributed to 
the ' Theatrical Mirror ' a forged letter pur- 
porting to be a description by George Peele 
of a meeting at the Globe with Shakespeare 
and others. This was unsuspectingly trans- 
ferred to Birkenhout's 'Biographia Literaria,' 
and has led later investigators into needless 
perplexity. A practical joke of a more 
laboured kind, which does Steevens even less 
credit, was devised to play off a trivial 
score against Richard Gough, director of 
the Society of Antiquaries, who declined 



Steevens 



147 



Steevens 



Steevens's proposal to make over four rare 
plates by Hogarth in exchange for books 
Steevens, in 1789, having procured a block 
of marble, and having engraved upon it by 
means of aquafortis some Anglo-Saxon 
letters, placed it in the window of a shop in 
Southwark, and caused it to be represented 
to the Society of Antiquaries that it had 
been dug up in Kennington Lane, and 
was the tombstone of Hardecanute. Jacob 
Schnebbelie [q. v.] produced in good faith a 
drawing, which was engraved by Basire 
and published in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine' (1790, i. 217). Samuel Pegge, falling 
into the trap, read a paper on the inscrip- 
tion before the Society of Antiquaries on 
10 Dec. 1789 ; but the deception was dis- 
covered before the disquisition was printed 
in the ' Archseologia.' An acrimonious cor- 
respondence between Steevens and those he 
hoped to dupe followed in the daily and 
monthly journals (Gent. Mag. 1790, i. 217, 
290-92 ; General Evening Post, 25 Oct. 1790 ; 
NICHOLS, Lit. Illustrations, v. 430-32). 
Steevens finally committed the stone to the 
custody of Sir Joseph Banks, and it was 
regularly exhibited at his assemblies in Soho 
Square. 

The resumption of his Shakespearean work 
diverted him from such mischievous sport. It 
was a needless dispute which he forced on a 
rival editor, Edmund Malone [q. v.], that led 
him to resume his editorial functions. Malone 
had contributed to Reed's edition of 1785 a 
few notes in which he differed from Steevens. 
Steevens demanded that Malone should 
transfer these notes without alteration to the 
edition of Shakespeare on which Malone was 
engaged between 1783 and 1790. Malone 
declined, and when his edition appeared in 
1790 Steevens concentrated his energies on 
an effort to displace it. A new edition 
was set on foot. Reed aided with sug- 
gestions, and Steevens walked daily, late at 
night or in the early morning, from Hamp- 
stead to Reed's rooms in Staple Inn to correct 
the sheets. Reed was usually in bed. The 
edition was published in 1793 in fifteen 
volumes, and is the definitive contribution 
to Shakespearean exegesis that Steevens pub- 

Ilished in his lifetime. There were some 
twenty-five large-paper copies. ' Pericles ' 
was added, at Farmer's suggestion, to the 
Shakespearean canon, but the sonnets and 
poems were excluded, for Steevens asserted 
that ' the strongest act of parliament that 
could be framed would fail to compel readers 
into their service' (p. vii). The illustrative 
notes were throughout replete in recondite 
learning, but the text was often recklessly 
altered in order to convict the cautious Ma- 



lone of ineptitude. Malone was not the only 
personal foe on whom Steevens avenged him- 
self. With a malignity that was not without 
humour he supplied many obscene notes to 
coarse expressions in the text, and he pre- 
tended that he owed his indecencies to one or 
other of two highly respectable clergymen, 
Richard Amner [q. v.] and John Collins 
(1741-1797) [q.v.J, whose surnames were in 
each instance appended. He had known and 
quarrelled with both. Such proofs of his 
confirmed perversity justified the title which 
Gifford applied to him of ' the Puck of Com- 
mentators.' 

Steevens's fantastic acrimony provoked 
much retaliation. Tom Davies and Arthur 
Murphy both published repulsive sketches 
of him. But the denunciation that he felt 
most acutely was that in Mathias's 'Pursuits 
of Literature,' which appeared anonymously 
in 1794. "When Steevens met Mathias, who 
was reported to deny the authorship of the 
' Pursuits,' he remarked that the work could 
only be from the pen of ' a liar and a black- 
guard' (CLAYDEST, Samuel Rogers, p. 384). 
Steevens further retorted in a coarse poem in 
the 'St. James's Chronicle' (1-3 May 1798) 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 212). In the 
controversy respecting the authenticity of the 
Shakespearean manuscripts forged by young 
William Henry Ireland [q. v.] he intervened 
with characteristic asperity. He had pre- 
viously distrusted the elder Ireland as a rival 
collector of Hogarth's prints. From 1795 
to 1797 he assailed him and his friends with 
unrelaxingfury (cf. Gent. Mag. 1797, ii. 931) ; 
and when Gillray published a caricature of 
Ireland, Steevens prepared the inscription, 
parodying Dryden's verses on Milton, and 
crediting Ireland with the combined impu- 
dence of Lauder, Macpherson, and Chat- 
terton. 

In his last years Steevens was a frequent 
visitor at the house in Soho Square of Sir 
Joseph Banks, one of the few acquaintances 
familiarity with whom did not breed con- 
tempt. It is said that he used to present 
Banks daily with a nosegay which he carried 
with him from Hampstead, attached to his 
;ane. In 1795 he joined with Bishop Percy 
in editing Surrey's poems, and those of other 
arlier practisers of blank verse ; a first 
volume was printed, and Percy sent a second 
volume to press in 1807, but the whole im- 
Dression excepting four copies, one of which 
.s in the British Museum, was destroyed in 
the fire at Nichols's printing office in 1808. 
The work was not reprinted. In 1796 Stee- 
vens subscribed 1,000/. to Pitt's loyalty loan, 
and he held a commission in the Essex 
militia. 

I 2 



Steevens 



148 



Steevens 



Steevens died unmarried at his house at 
Hampstead on 22 Jan. 1800. ' The outlaw 
is at last dead in his den,' wrote Samuel 
Rogers four days later (CLA.YDEN, Early Life 
of Rogers, p. 393). He was buried in the 
chapel at Poplar, beside other members of his 
family. A fine monument by Flaxman,with 
full-length portrait in bas-relief, still stands 
in the north aisle. The inscription describes 
Steevens as having cheerfully employed a con- 
siderable portion of his life and fortune in 
the illustration of Shakespeare. There follow 
some eulogistic verses by William Hayley 
(cf. engraving in NICHOLS'S Illustrations, v. 
427 ; LTSONS, Environs, Suppl.) Steevens be- 
queathed Zoffany's portrait-group of Gar- 
rick and Mrs. Gibber to George Keate ; his 
fine collection of Hogarth's prints to the 
statesman, William Windham; his edition 
of Shakespeare, illustrated with fifteen hun- 
dred drawings or engravings of persons and 
places mentioned in the text, to Earl Spencer 
(it is now in the John Rylands Library at 
Manchester); and a corrected copy of his 
edition of Shakespeare, with many unprinted 
notes in manuscript, to his friend Isaac 
Reed, with two hundred guineas. 

Apart from pecuniary bequests of 500A to 
Charlotte Collins of Graffham Midhurst, and 
of 300/. ' for a ring' to his housekeeper, Mrs. 
Mary Collinson, all the rest of his property, 
including his library, passed to his sister, 
Elizabeth Steevens of Poplar (see will in 
Monthly Mirror, 1800 ; cf. copy, dated 1788, 
in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 20082, f. 126) ; 
she died at his house at Hampstead in March 
1801, aged 'about 52' (NICHOLS, Illustra- 
tions, vii. 53). Her brother's books were 
sold by the auctioneer King some months 
before, in May 1800. The 1943 lots brought 
2,740Z. 15*. A copy of the second folio of 
Shakespeare, which had belonged to Charles I, 
was purchasedfor 181. on behalf of George III, 
and it is now in the king's library at the 
British Museum. Two copies of Langbaine's 
' Dramatick Poets,' into which he had tran- 
scribed Oldys's and others' notes, are also 
in the British Museum (cf. Addit. MSS. 
22592-5 and c. 45 d. 14-15). A copy of 
Fuller's ' Worthies,' with his manuscript 
additions, formed lot 1799 (cf. Bibliotheca 
Steevensiana : a Catalogue of the curious and 
valuable Library of George Steevens, esq., 
1800, with names of purchasers and prices 
in manuscript in British Museum ; CLARKE, 
Hepertorium Bibliographicum, p. 543). Some 
of Steevens's letters to Thomas Hill, William 
Cole, and others are among the additional 
manuscripts at the British Museum. His 
handwriting was small, neat, and clear. 

Isaac Reed [q. v.] brought out in 1803 a 



new issue of Steevens's edition of Shake- 
speare in twenty-one volumes, in which he 
embodied Steevens's unpublished notes. 
This is usually quoted as 'the first variorum,' 
The 'second variorum' of 1813 was mainly 
a reprint. The third and best ' variorum,' 
which was begun by Malone, was completed 
by James Boswell the younger in 1821. It 
was the last edition in which Steevens's 
valuable and suggestive notes were repro- 
duced in their entirety, but every recent edi- 
tion of Shakespeare draws from them the 
aptest of their illustrative extracts from con- 
temporary literature. 

According to Cole's account of Steevens 
in 1780, he was ' well made, black, and tall.' 
A portrait by Zoffany was engraved at the 
expense of Sylvester Harding. Another 
portrait by George Dance, R.A., was en- 
graved by W. Daniell. A reduced copy 
forms the frontispiece of Nichols's ' Illustra- 
tions,' vol. vii. Steevens, with character- 
istic perversity, destroyed two portraits of 
himself a miniature by Meyer, and a paint- 
ing of him in the character of Barbarossa, 
a character he assumed in some private 
theatricals. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 650-63, and Illus- 
trations, v. 440 seq. (Correspondence with 
Nichols and Gough), vii. 1-3 (Correspondence 
with Percy) ; Gent. Mag. 1800, i. 178 ; Thespian 
Diet. 1805 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; Lysons's 
Environs, Suppl. 1811, pp. 293-5 ; Park's 
Hampstead ; D'Israeli's Curiosities of Lit. ; 
Walpole's Letters, ed. Cunningham ; Boswell's 
Life of Johnson, ed. Hill.] S. L. 

STEEVENS, RICHARD (1653-1710), 
Irish physician, and Grizell his sister (1653- 
1746), were the twin children of John Stee- 
vens, an English royalist clergyman who 
settled in Ireland in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, and was rector of Athlone 
from 1660 to 1682. Richard Steevens re- 
ceived his education at the Latin school in 
Athlone and subsequently at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, where he obtained a scholar- 
ship in 1674, graduated B.A. in 1675, and 
M.A. in 1678. Being intended by his father 
for the church, he took deacon's orders, but 
proceeded no further in the ministry, and 
devoted himself to the medical profession. 
In 1687 he received the degree of M.D. from 
his university, and thenceforward practised 
as a physician in Dublin, where he amassed 
a large^ fortune. He was a fellow of the 
Irish College of Physicians, and in 1710 was 
elected president of that body. He died be- 
fore the close of his year of office, on 15 Dec. 
1710. 

By his will Steevens bequeathed the bulk 
of his property to his sister Grizell for her 



Stenhouse 



149 



Stenhouse 



life, and directed that upon her death it 
should vest in trustees to be applied in 
building, and subsequently in maintaining, 
a hospital in Dublin, ' for maintaining and 
curing from time to time such sick and 
wounded persons whose distempers and 
wounds are curable.' Grizell Steevens, being 
' desirous that the said charitable bequest of 
her dear brother should begin to take effect 
in her lifetime,' surrendered her estate to the 
trustees in 1717, reserving only 100 a year, 
out of a rental of 600/., together with apart- 
ments in the hospital when built. She also 
gave 2,0001. towards the cost of building. 
The hospital, thus founded, and since known 
as Steevens's hospital, was completed in 
1733 at a cost of 16,000/., and was the 
first public hospital established in Dub- 
lin, where it is still one of the foremost in- 
stitutions of its kind. Dean Swift was one 
of its earliest governors, and 'Stella' (Esther 
Johnson) in her will bequeathed 1,000/. to- 
wards the maintenance of a chaplain of the 
hospital, so long as the church of Ireland 
should remain established. Another bene- 
factor was John Sterne [q.v.], bishop of 
Clogher. Grizell Steevens survived till 
18 March 1746. By her will she bequeathed 
the residue of her property to the governors 
of the hospital. Her remains are interred 
in the hospital chapel. Portraits of Steevens 
and his sister are in the board-room of the 
institution. 

[Short History of Steevens's Hospital, by 
Samuel Croker King, 1785; History of Steevens's 
Hospital, by Cheyne Brady, 1865 ; Athlone in 
the Seventeenth Century, by Rev. G. T. Stokes, 
D.D.; Journal of the Royal Society of Irish 
Antiquarians ; Todd's Graduates of Dublin Uni- 
versity.] C. L. F. 

STENHOUSE, JOHN (1809-1880), che- 
mist, was the eldest son of William Sten- 
house, calico-printer, Barrhead, Glasgow, and 
Elizabeth Currie. He was born at Glasgow 
on 21 Oct. 1809, and was educated at Glas- 
gow grammar school and university, where 
he devoted himself to chemistry under Dr. 
Thomas Thomson [q. v.] He continued his 
studies at Anderson's College under Professor 
Graham, and at Giessen from 1837 to 1839 
under Liebig with Mr. Lyon (now Lord) 
Playfair and Robert Angus Smith [q. v.J 
In 1839 he returned to Glasgow, where, by 
the failure of the Commercial Exchange, he 
lost the fortune left him by his father. In 
1850 Aberdeen University made him LL.D. 
In 1851 he went to London as lecturer on 
chemistry at St. Bartholomew's, but resigned 
his post in 1857, owing to an attack of para- 
lysis. He then proceeded to Nice, where 
he resided with his mother till her death in 



1860. Returning to London, he fitted up a 
laboratory and started scientific investiga- 
tion with great energy. In 1865 he suc- 
ceeded Dr. A. W. Hofmann as non-resident 
assayer to the royal mint. That post he 
held till 1870, when it was abolished by the 
chancellor of the exchequer, Robert Lowe 
(afterwards Viscount Sherbrooke) [q.v.] In 
November 1871 a royal medal was awarded 
him by the Royal Society for his chemical 
researches. He was one of the founders of 
the Chemical Society in 1841, was elected 
fellow of the Royal Society in 1848, and 
became a fellow of the Institute of Chemistry 
in 1877. During the last four years of his 
life Stenhouse suffered acutely from rheu- 
matism in the eyelids, which compelled 
him to live in a darkened room. He died 
on 31 Dec. 1880, and was buried in the 
High church new cemetery, Glasgow. 

Stenhouse, either alone or in conjunction 
with Mr. C. E. Groves, wrote more than a 
hundred papers on chemical subjects for the 
Royal Society, the Chemical Society, 'Philo- 
sophical Magazine,' and Liebig's ' Annalen ' 
(cf. Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers). Organic chemistry and the lichens 
occupied a large share of his attention. He 
was the discoverer of betorcinol, a homo- 
logue of orcinol. He was the author of 
many ingenious and useful inventions in dye- 
ing (patents 13 Oct. 1855 and 12 June 1856), 
waterproofing (patents 8 Jan. 1861 and 
21 Jan. 1862), sugar manufacture, and tan- 
ning ; but he will always be known for his 
application of the absorbent properties of 
wood charcoal to disinfecting and deodoris- 
ing purposes in the form of charcoal air- 
filters and charcoal respirators, which have 
proved of great value (patents 19 July 1860 
and 21 May 1867). Among other patents 
which he took out was one for the manu- 
facture of glue (7 May 1857) and another 
for the manufacture or preparation of mate- 
rials for sizing or dressing yarns and textile 
fabrics (29 April 1868). 

[Chemical Society's Journal, 1881, pp. 185- 
188; Proceedings of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don, vol. xxxi. pp. xix-xxi ; Index to Specifi- 
cations for Patents, 1854-80.] G. S-H. 

STENHOUSE, WILLIAM (1778?- 

1827), Scottish antiquary, was a native of 
Roxburghshire, and was born about 1773 
(LAING). He became an accountant in 
Edinburgh. He published ' Tables of Simple 
Interest and of Commission Brokerage or 
Exchange' (Edinburgh, 1806). He died 
in Edinburgh on 10 Nov. 1827, and was 
buried in St. Cuthbert's churchyard. 

Stenhouse was an antiquary with strong 
musical leanings. He is best known by his 



Stennett 



150 



Stephanoff 



notes in the 1839 (Edinburgh) reprint of 
Johnson's ' Musical Museum,' which he edited. 
These notes, valuable yet inaccurate in many 
particulars, have been extensively quoted by 
biographers of the poet Burns and by editors 
of Scottish songs. They were reprinted, with 
additions, in David Laing's edition of the 
'Museum' (Edinburgh, 1853). 

[Laing's edition of the Museum as above ; 
Scott Douglas's Burns, i. 255, ii. 135 ; Rogers's 
Book of Robert Burns i. 347-8 ; Baptie's Musi- 
cal Scotland.] J. C. H. 

STENNETT, JOSEPH (1663-1713), 
seventh-day baptist, second son of Edward 
Stennett (d. 1690 ?) by his wife Mary Quelch, 
was born at Abingdon, Berkshire, in 1663. 
His father, a Lincolnshire man, was a chap- 
lain in the parliamentary army, and appears 
to have held a sequestered rectory at Wal- 
lingford, Berkshire, where, after the Restora- 
tion, he had a seventh-day baptist congrega- 
tion, and supported himself by the practice 
of medicine. He published ' The Royal Law ' 
(1658, 4to) and' The Seventh Day ' (1664, 4to). 
Joseph was educated at Wallingford gram- 
mar school, and by his father and elder bro- 
ther, Jehudah, both of whom wrote Hebrew 
grammars. In 1685 he settled in London as 
a schoolmaster, and joined (28 Sept. 1686) in 
reviving a seventh-day baptist congregation 
[see BAMPFIELD, FBANCIS] at Pinners' Hall, 
Old Broad Street, his father undertaking 
the pastorate. He was sometime evening 
lecturer to a seventh-day baptist congrega- 
tion at Devonshire Square, and on 4 March 
1690-1 was ordained pastor at Pinners' Hall 
by Hanserd Knollys [q. v.] and others. He 
was also Sunday lecturer (before 1695) to the 
general baptist congregation, Paul's Alley, 
Barbican, where his hearers in 1700 remon- 
strated against his preaching Calvinism. On 
several public occasions he was the trusted 
representative of the whole body of baptists. 
The general baptist association, in 1704, de- 
puted him to write a history of baptism; he 
collected materials, but his health gave way. 
He was a fluent preacher with a silvery 
voice. One of his printed sermons gained 
him a mark of favour from Queen Anne. He 
is now best known as a hymn-writer, and is 
the earliest English baptist whose hymns are 
still sung. Dr. Julian specifies eight of his 
hymns as now in common use. Stennett 
died at Knaphill, near Hughenden, Buck- 
inghamshire, on 11 July 1713, and was buried 
in Hughenden churchyard. His tombstone 
bears a Latin inscription by John Ward 
(1679-1740) [q. v.] His portrait was en- 
graved by Vertue. He married in 1688 
Susanna, younger daughter of George Guill, 



a Huguenot refugee of distinction, and was 
thus the brother-in-law of Daniel Williams, 
D.D. [q. v.], founder of dissenting trusts. 
He left four children. 

Stennett's works, consisting mainly of ser- 
mons (nine published separately), were col- 
lected, with a Life ' (1732, 8vo, 4 vols.) 
The fourth volume contains his hymns (ori- 
ginally published 1697-1712) and his version 
of Solomon's Song (1700). Not included in 
his ' Works ' are ' An Answer to Mr. David 
Russen's . . . Picture of the Anabaptists/ 
1704, and several translations from the 
French. He printed anonymously political 
satires in verse ; some are said to be in the 
' Poems on State Affairs.' 

JOSEPH STENXETT, D.D. (1692-1758), 
eldest son of the above, born in London in 
1692, was baptist minister at Exeter, and 
(from 1737) at Little Wild Street, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, London. He died at Bath, 7 Feb. 
1758. He published several single sermons 
(1738-54). 

SAMUEL STEIWETT, D.D. (1728-1795), 
grandson of the elder Joseph Stennett, was 
born at Exeter in 1728, and educated by 
Hubbard of Stepney. In 1748 he became 
his father's assistant at Little Wild Street, 
succeeding as pastor in 1758. In 1763 he 
received the diploma of D.D. from Aberdeen. 
He was a man of broad views and con- 
siderable public influence. John Howard 
(1726 P-1790) [q. v.] the philanthropist was 
a member of his congregation. He was 
assisted by his son Joseph, the fifth in a 
succession of ministers from father to son. 
He died at Muswell Hill on 25 (not 24) 
Aug. 1795, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
His works, chiefly sermons, were collected 
in 1824, 3 vols. 8vo, with 'Memoir' by 
William Jones (a few tracts are not in- 
cluded) ; his hymns are in vol. iii. (the 
earliest were printed in 1778), and thirty- 
eight are in the collection (1787) of John 
Rippon [q. v.] ; they are not equal in merit 
to those of his grandfather. 

[Life of J. Stennett, 1732 ; Memoir of S. Sten- 
nett, 1824; Protestant Dissenter's Mag. 1794, 
pp. 89 sq., 129 sq., 1795 pp. 352, 367; Uni- 
versal Theological Mag. Jan. 1803, pp. 3 sq. ; 
Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1808 
ii. 592 sq., 1810 iii. 236 sq.; Jones's Bunhill 
Memorials, 1849, pp. 262 sq. ; Evans's Early 
English Baptists, 1864, ii. 295; Cox's Literature 
of the Sabbath Question, 1865, i. 267 sq., ii. 10, 
60; Sabbath Memorial, January 1883, pp. 
382 sq. ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology, 1892, 
pp. 1091 sq.] A. G. 

STEPHANOFF, FRANCIS PHILIP 
(1790 P-1860), painter, was born in Bromp- 
ton Row, London, about 1790. His father, 






Stephanoff 

Fileter N. Stephanoff, was a Russian who 
settled in England and found employment in 
painting ceilings, stage scenery, &c., until 
he died by his own hand about 1790 ; his 
mother, Gertrude Stephanoff, was an ac- 
complished flower-painter, much patronised 
by Sir Joseph Banks, and died on 7 Jan. 1808. 
Francis became a popular painter of historical 
and domestic subjects, working both in oils 
and watercolours ; he exhibited largely at 
the Royal Academy and British Institu- 
tion from 1807 to 1845, and with the ' Old 
Watercolour' Society from 1815 to 1820. 
His best works were : ' The Trial of Alger- 
non Sidney,' ' Cranmer revoking his Recan- 
tation,' ' Poor Relations,' and ' The Recon- 
ciliation,' which were well engraved ; he also 
furnished many graceful designs for the 
' Keepsake ' and other annuals. For Sir George 
Nayler's sumptuous work on the coronation 
of George IV he drew in watercolours a 
series of costume portraits, which is now in 
the South Kensington Museum. At the 
Westminster Hall competition in 1843 
Stephanoff gained a prize of 100/. for a scene 
from Milton's ' Comus.' The sudden death of 
his wife, Selina Roland, seriously affected 
his health, and he ceased the practice of his 
art many years before his death, which oc- 
curred at West Hanham, near Bristol, on 
15 May 1860. 

JAMES STEPHANOFF (1788 P-1874), elder 
brother of Francis, was born in Brompton 
Row about 1788. He worked exclusively in 
watercolours, and excelled in the represen- 
tation of public ceremonies and historical in- 
cidents which required the skilful grouping 
of large numbers of figures ; among his works 
of this class were ' The Fair held in Hyde 
Park in 1814,' 'The Interior of the House of 
Lords during the important Investigation of 
1820' (engraved) ; 'Interior of the House of 
Commons during the Reform Era,' and ' Re- 
ception of the Queen by the Lord Mayor on 
9 Nov. 1837.' He was elected an associate 
of the ' Old Watercolour' Society in 1819, and 
contributed constantly to its exhibitions up 
to 1859, sending chiefly subjects from the 
poets and novelists, some of which were en- 
graved for the annuals. He executed some 
of the drawings for Pyne's 'Royal Resi- 
dences ' and Nayler's ' Coronation of George 
IV,' and in 1830 was appointed historical 
painter in watercolours to William IV. 
Stephanoff was one of the founders of the 
Sketching Society. He was much interested 
in antiquarian matters, and made drawings 
of St. Cuthbert's stole at Durham for the 
Society of Antiquaries. He resigned his mem- 
bership of the ' Old Watercolour ' Society in 
1861 and retired to Bristol, where he died in 



51 Stephen 

1874. By his wife, Lucy Allen, he had two 
sons and two daughters. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Ottley's Diet, of 
Painters and Engravers ; Graves's Diet, of Ar- 
tists, 1760-1893; Art Journal, 1860; Roget's 
Hist, of the ' Old Watercolour ' Society.] 

F. M. O'D. 

STEPHEN (1097 P-1154), king of Eng- 
land, was the third son of Stephen Henry, 
count of Blois and Chartres, and his wife 
Adela [q. v.], daughter of William the Con- 
queror. As he had at least one younger bro- 
ther, he must, from the dates of his father's 
two crusades and death, have been born either 
in 1099-1100, or, more probably, not later 
than the spring of 1097. His uncle, Henry I 
of England [q. v.], undertook to ' bring him 
up and promote him,' educated him with his 
own son, knighted him with his own hand, 
and granted him broad lands in England, 
and the county of Mortain in Normandy. 
In 1118 Henry gave the lordship of Alenfon 
to Stephen's brother Theobald, and Theo- 
bald made it over to Stephen in exchange 
for the latter's share of their patrimony. Ste- 
phen treated the townsfolk, whose loyalty he 
doubted, with a harshness which drove them 
to the verge of rebellion ; then he demanded 
hostages for their fidelity. In his absence one 
at least of the hostages was shamefully ill- 
treated; their relatives laid the blame on 
Stephen, and avenged themselves by ad- 
mitting the Count of Anjou into the town 
and joining him in an attack on the castle. 
Stephen and his brother hurried to its relief, 
but were defeated in a battle beneath its 
walls. Stephen was with King Henry at the 
siege of Evreux in 1119. A passing attack 
of illness prevented him from embarking, on 
25 Nov. 1120, with his cousin William, 
Henry's son, in the White Ship, and thus 
saved him from sharing in its wreck, in 
which William was drowned. Thenceforth 
Henry adopted him, as far as he could, into 
William's place. He kept him constantly 
at his side, and married him to the heiress 
of Boulogne, a niece of his queen [see MA- 
TILDA OF BOULOGNE]. At Christmas 1126 
Stephen took precedence of all the other 
lay barons in swearing that on Henry's death 
they would acknowledge his daughter, the 
Empress Matilda [q. v.], as lady of England 
and Normandy. In 1127 Henry sent him to 
Flanders to negotiate a league with the 
Flemish nobles for preventing William 'the 
Clito,' the son of Henry's brother and rival, 
Duke Robert of Normandy, from obtain- 
ing possession of the duchy (WALTER OF 
TfcROUANNE, c. xlv.) Stephen again stood 
at the head of the English barons when, in 
1133, they repeated their oath to Matilda. 



Stephen 



152 



Stephen 



and also swore fealty to her infant son, 
whom his grandfather ' appointed to be king 
after him ' (cf. RALPH DE DJCETO, i. 247, 
and Eos. Hov. i. 187). 

Three years later one great baron, at least, 
asserted that Henry had afterwards absolved 
his subjects from both these engagements 
and designated Stephen as his heir. How- 
ever this may have been, no sooner was 
Henry dead (1 Dec. 1135) than Stephen 
sailed from Wissant for England to claim 
the crown. Repulsed from Dover and Can- 
terbury, he was warmly welcomed in Lon- 
don, and chosen king by its ' aldermen and 
wise folk.' Winchester, and with it the 
treasury, was secured for him by his brother, 
Bishop Henry [see HENBY OF BLOIS], who 
also, by pledging his own word for the new 
king's fulfilment of a promise to maintain 
the liberties of the church, induced Arch- 
bishop William of Canterbury to crown him 
at Westminster, seemingly on 22 or 25 Dec. 
Stephen then issued a brief charter confirm- 
ing to his subjects, in general terms, ' all the 
liberties and good laws which they had under 
King Henry and King Edward.' On 6 Jan. 
1136 he attended his predecessor's funeral at 
Reading. Normandy had now acknowledged 
him as its duke, while Matilda had lodged an 
appeal against him at Rome for his per- 
jury towards her. The appeal was heard early 
in 1136 (ROUND, Mandeville, app. B). Pope 
Innocent II gave no formal judgment on 
it, but practically he decided in Stephen's 
favour by sending him a letter in which he 
recognised him as lawful sovereign of Eng- 
land and Normandy. Meanwhile the king 
of Scots [see DAVID I] had invaded North- 
umberland in Matilda's behalf. Stephen 
bought him off by a grant of three English 
earldoms to his son [see HENRY OF SCOT- 
LAND]. Soon after Easter, at Oxford, all the 
barons swore fealty to Stephen, and he issued 
a second charter, dealing chiefly with the 
rights of the church, but containing also a 
pledge to surrender all lands afforested since 
the time of William Rufus, and a general 
promise to abolish unjust exactions and 
maintain the good old customs of the realm. 
A few weeks later, on a report of the king's 
death, Hugh Bigod [see BIGOD, HUGH, first 
EAKL OF NOBFOLK] seized Norwich Castle, 
Baldwin of Redvers [q. v.] threw himself into 
Exeter, and Robert of Bampton revolted in 
Devon. Stephen first dislodged Hugh, then 
he besieged and took the castle of Bampton, 
blockaded that of Exeter till thirst drove 
its garrison to surrender, pursued Baldwin 
to Southampton, and frightened him into 
doing the like. He spent 1137 chiefly in 
Normandy, which its overlord, Louis VI of 



France, agreed to let him hold on the same- 
terms as his predecessor had held it, viz. his 
eldest son did homage for it in his stead. 
Stephen also made a truce with Matilda's 
husband, Geoffrey of Anjou, who was 
threatening to invade the duchy. On the 
king's return to England in December, he 
was met by a demand from David of the 
earldom of Northumberland for his son 
Henry. Its refusal was followed by another 
Scottish invasion. In February 1138 Ste- 
phen drove the Scots back across the Tweed. 
David retreated upon Roxburgh, and en- 
deavoured to lure the English king after 
him, hoping to surround him and bring him. 
to ruin. But Stephen turned aside and 
harried south-western Scotland, till lack of 
provisions compelled him to retire to his 
own realm. 

By this time Englishmen were finding out 
how greatly they had been mistaken when,, 
at Stephen's accession, ' they weened that 
he should be even so as his uncle was.' 
Brave, generous, high-spirited,warm-hearted, 
open-handed, courteous and affable towards 
all classes, Stephen was a man to attract 
affection, but not to inspire awe or command 
obedience. Haunted, as he naturally was r 
by a feeling of insecurity, he had begun by 
surrounding himself with a host of Flemish 
mercenaries, whose violence and greed made 
them an abomination to the people, and 
taking for his chief counsellor a Flemish ad- 
venturer, William of Ypres [q. v.], whose in- 
fluence over him excited the jealousy of the 
barons and the old ministers of King Henry.. 
Next, he had ' broken his vow to God and 
his pledge to the people ' by holding, in 
autumn 1136, a forest court at Brampton 
(Huntingdonshire),evidently one of the places 
which he had promised to disafforest. He 
sought to form a party devoted to himself 
by creating new earldoms and alienating 
crown lands to men whose attachment he 
was anxious to secure. A statement said 
by William of Malmesbury to have been 
current a few years later, that Stephen de- 
based the coinage, is not borne out by his 
extant coins (HOWLETT, preface to Chron. of 
Stephen, vol. iii. p. lii) ; but he ' dealt out 
and scattered soothly' the treasure which 
Henry had left ; and when nothing of his 
own remained for him to give, he did not 
scruple to despoil those whom he mistrusted 
for the benefit of his favourites. For in- 
stance, on Christmas eve 1137, without any 
apparent provocation, he laid siege to Bed- 
ford Castle, in order to take it from its com- 
mandant, Miles Beauchamp, and transfer it 
to Hugh le Poor, whom he had created Earl 
of Bedford (cf. Gesta Steph. pp. 30-32 and 



Stephen 



153 



Stephen 






73, with ORD. VIT. v. 103-4, and HEN. HUNT. 
1. viii. c. 6, who gives the true date). Dur- 
ing the year then closing he had quarrelled 
with the most influential of all the barons, 
Matilda's half-brother Robert, earl of Glou- 
cester [q. v.] ; and in the spring of 1138 
Robert sent him a formal defiance, which 
proved the signal for a rising of the barons 
in the south and west of England. Geoffrey 
Talbot had already seized Hereford Castle, 
which he held against the king in person 
for nearly five weeks (May-June). While 
Stephen was in London collecting fresh 
forces, Talbot was made prisoner by the 
bishop of Bath, and the bishop was captured 
in his turn by the garrison of Earl Robert's 
castle of Bristol, from whom he bought his 
release by giving Talbot up. At this Ste- 
phen was so angry that he marched upon 
Bath, and was with difficulty restrained 
from deposing the bishop. He went on to 
Bristol ; but the nature of its site made a 
siege appear so hopeless that he was per- 
suaded to abandon the idea, and, after a re- 
connoitring expedition to Castle Gary and 
Harptree (Somerset), he moved northward 
to Dudley and Shrewsbury. He ' smoked 
out ' the occupants of Shrewsbury Castle by 
firing some brushwood in the ditch, captured 
its commandant's uncle and hanged him with 
(it is said) over ninety comrades, made a 
truce with the rebel lord of Dudley, and re- 
turned to the south to besiege Robert's for- 
tress of Wareham. There he had no success ; 
but early next year (1139) he took another of 
Robert's castles Leeds in Kent while the 
queen negotiated a treaty with the Scottish 
king, which Stephen ratified at Nottingham 
shortly before Easter. Thence Henry of 
Scotland accompanied him to an unsuccess- 
ful siege of Ludlow, where the rebels nearly 
captured the Scottish prince by means of an 
iron hook, but he was ' splendidly rescued ' 
by the king. At midsummer Stephen sum- 
moned the justiciar, Bishop Roger of Salis- 
bury [q. v.J, to a meeting at Oxford. Thoufh 
the new king had showered gifts and favours 
upon the old minister of his predecessor, 
they had been from the outset suspicious of 
each other. Both went to the meeting with 
a train of armed followers ; a fray broke out 
between the latter, and the king made it an 
excuse for arresting the justiciar, his son 
Roger the chancellor, and his nephew Alex- 
ander, bishop of Lincoln. He then went to 
besiege the justiciar's castle of Devizes, 
dragging the two Rogers with him; the 
elder he lodged in a cowshed, the younger 
he threatened to hang if the place were not 
given up ; and the chancellor's mother, who 
held the keep, was thus terrified into sur- 



render. After securing Bishop Roger's other 
castles Sherborne and Malmesbury Ste- 
phen marched against those of the bishop of 
Lincoln Newark and Sleaford and won 
them by keeping their owner starving at 
the gates of each in turn till he bade his 
people yield. For these outrages upon two 
bishops the king was cited by his brother 
Henry, now papal legate, to answer before 
a church council at Winchester on 29 Aug. 
Stephen's defence was that he had arrested 
Roger and Alexander as traitors, and that 
the castles which he had taken from them 
were not parts of their episcopal baronies, 
but private possessions, which by canon law 
they had no right to hold. On this latter 
point the council decided in his favour ; but 
it compelled him to do public penance for 
his violence to the persons of the bishops. 

Meanwhile, William of Mohun had re- 
volted at Dunster, and Baldwin of Redvers 
had seized Corfe. Stephen formed a hurried 
blockade of the former place, and was be- 
sieging the latter when he learned that the 
empress had landed at Arundel. He hastened 
to blockade her there, till his brother ad- 
vised him to let her join Earl Robert, where- 
upon he gave her a safe-conduct and an 
escort to Bristol. In a few months she was 
practically mistress of the western shires. 
Early in 1140 the bishop of Ely raised the 
standard of revolt in the east ; the king at- 
tacked his island fortress with equal skill 
and energy, and drove him out. At Whit- 
suntide Stephen held his court in London, 
but in the Tower instead of at Westminster, 
and only one bishop, a Norman, attended it. 
Stephen next marched against Hugh Bigod 
and took his castle of Bungay ; in August he 
had to make another expedition against the 
same offender, and came to an agreement 
with him ' which did not last long ' (Ann. 
Waverley, an. 1140). He also wrested Corn- 
wall from its earl, who had joined Matilda ; 
but this was only a temporary success. 
Shortly before Christmas he went into Lin- 
colnshire to meet Earl Randulf of Chester 
[see BLTTNDEVILLE, RANTJLF or RANDTJLPH, 
EARL OF CHESTER] and his brother, William 
of Roumare [q. v.] Scarcely had he returned 
to London when he learned that they had 
seized Lincoln Castle. He at once went and 
laid siege to it ; Randulf slipped out alone, to 
reappear on Candlemas day (1141), not only 
followed by the men of his own earldom, but 
accompanied by the whole force of the An- 
gevin party, with the Earl of Gloucester at 
its head. In the battle that ensued the bulk 
of Stephen's men ' betrayed him and fled,' 
and he was left with a mere handful of com- 
rades in the midst of a host of enemies. The 



Stephen 



154 



Stephen 



little band, all on foot, stood firm against 
charge after charge of the horsemen ; and 
the life and soul of their resistance was the 
king himself, who ' stood like a lion,' cutting 
down every man who came within reach of 
his sword, or, when that was broken, of a 
battle-axe which a citizen of Lincoln gave 
him in its stead. When only four (or three) 
of his companions were left, he still fought 
on, with ' the fury of a wild boar ' and the 
courage of a hero, till the axe too broke in 
his hands, probably from the force of a blow 
which had laid Randulf of Chester in the 
mire at his feet (cf. JOHN OF HEXHAM, p. 
308, with HEX. HUNT. 1. viii. c. 18, OKD. VIT. 
v. 128, and ROBERT OF TORIGNI, an. 1141). 
At last he fell, struck on the head by a stone; 
but even then he shook off a knight who 
sought to capture him, and would surrender \ 
to no one but Earl Robert. He was sent to j 
Matilda at Gloucester, and thence to prison 
at Bristol. A church council summoned by 
the legate, 7-10 April, declared him deposed 
by the manifest judgment of God, and ac- j 
knowledged Matilda as sovereign in his stead, j 
Stephen himself, as if in despair, had already 
sanctioned the transfer of the primate's alle- 
giance to his rival. 

Matilda's harsh government, however, soon 
turned the tide against her. In November 
she released Stephen in exchange for Robert, 
who had been captured by Stephen's par- 
tisans ; and on 7 Dec. another legatine council 
reversed the proceedings of the April one, 
acknowledged the justice of a plaint which 
Stephen laid before it against the vassals 
who had betrayed and imprisoned him, and 
declared him lawful sovereign of England. 
On Christmas day, in Canterbury Cathedral, 
Archbishop Theobald again set the crown on 
the head of the restored king (&ERV. CANT. 
i. 123 ; cf. ROUND, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
pp. 137-8). It seems to have been during 
the same winter that Stephen joined with 
the abbot and convent of Westminster and 
the legate in a request to the pope for the 
canonisation of Edward the Confessor (Ry- 
MER, i. 18 ; for date see CLARE, OSBERT DE). 
In the spring of 1142 he was for many weeks 
sick at Northampton ; either before or after 
this he went into Yorkshire to break up a 
tournament which the earls of York and 
Richmond had arranged between them, and 
which he apparently suspected to be a pre- 
text for an armed gathering with a more 
serious purpose. This was a danger which 
he had brought upon himself, for he was the 
first king \vho allowed tournaments in Eng- 
land. Shortly before midsummer he profited 
by Earl Robert's departure for Anjou to 
swoop down upon Wareham, so suddenly 



that its garrison, taken at unawares, sur- 
rendered at once. Thence he moved north- 
ward and eastward to break one by one the 
links of a chain of forts Cirencester, Bamp- 
ton, Ratcot which the empress had been 
constructing to protect the line of communi- 
cation between her brother's territories in the 
west and her own headquarters at Oxford. 
On 27 Sept. he reached Oxford itself, forded 
the river at the head of his men in the teeth 
of a volley of arrows from Matilda's troops, 
took the city by storm, and drove Matilda 
into the castle. There he blockaded her 
till near Christmas, when she escaped, and 
the castle surrendered. Robert meanwhile 
had come back and recovered Wareham ; 
Stephen attacked it again, but in vain. 
On 1 July 1143 he was routed in a battle 
near Wilton, and nothing but headlong 
flight saved him from being made prisoner a 
second time. After Michaelmas (Liber de 
Antiq. Legibus, p. 197) he held a court at 
St. Albans : there he arrested the worst of 
all the troublers of the land, Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, earl of Essex [q. v.], and forced 
him to purchase his release by the surrender 
of all his castles. Geoffrey resumed his law- 
less ways as soon as he was free ; a vain effort 
to reduce him to order, another fruitless siege 
of Lincoln Castle, and a more successful 
campaign in the west against Earl Robert, 
occupied the king during 1144. In 1145 his 
successes against Hugh Bigod in Norfolk and 
Turgis of Avranches in Essex, following on 
the death of Mandeville, which had occurred 
in the preceding August, brought eastern 
England for a while under subjection to 
Stephen, who moreover besieged and took a 
castle which Earl Robert had just built at 
Farringdon. Deserters from the Angevin 
ranks now began to join the king, among 
them Randulf of Chester, who in 1146 helped 
him to regain Bedford and to build a fortress 
at Crowmarsh to hold Wallingford in check. 
Negotiations were begun between the empress 
and the king, but they came to nothing. 
Earl Randulf now asked Stephen for his help 
against the Welsh, who were making raids 
into Cheshire. The barons persuaded Stephen 
to let them answer in his name that he 
would grant the request only if Randulf 
would surrender Lincoln and some other 
royal castles, which he still held without 
licence. Randulf refused ; whereupon, as the 
English chronicler says, ' the king took him 
in Hampton' (i.e. Northampton) 'through 
wicked rede, and did him in prison ; and soon 
after, he let him out again through worse 
rede, with the precaution that he swore to 
give up all his castles ; and some gave he up 
and some gave he not up.' Among those 



Stephen 



155 



Stephen 



which he did give up was Lincoln, and 
there Stephen kept Christmas (1146) with 
a splendour unexampled for many years 
past. 

In spring 1148 Matilda withdrew over- 
sea, and her husband proposed another trial 
of the claims of the rival sovereigns in the 
papal court, and called upon Stephen to lay 
down his regal authority pending its decision. 
This Stephen refused to do, unless Geoffrey 
would likewise surrender the Norman duchy 
which he had conquered four years before. 
Hereupon Geoffrey and Matilda transferred 
to their son Henry [see HENRY II] the task 
of vindicating his claim to his grandfather's 
throne ; and in spring 1149 Henry came 
with a small force to England. According 
to one contemporary writer, finding himself 
short of money to pay his troops, he appealed 
to the generosity of his royal cousin and 
rival, and Stephen sent him the needed sum. 
The story fits well enough with Stephen's 
character, but scarcely with that of Henry ; 
and its details require somewhat violent 
handling to bring them into harmony with 
ascertained facts (see HOWLETT, Pref. to 
Chron. of Stephen, vol. iii. pp. xvi-xx, and 
Round in Engl. Hist. Rev. v. 747-50). Ste- 
phen had just put down a new revolt of the 
earls of Chester and Pembroke when Henry 
was knighted by the Scottish king at Car- 
lisle on 22 May. Stephen hurried with all 
his forces to York ; but Henry and David 
retreated to Scotland, and Henry soon re- 
turned to Normandy. Next year (1150) 
Stephen attacked Worcester, which was held 
by the Count of Meulan, one of Henry's chief 
partisans. He burned and plundered the 
town, but failed to win the castle. In 1151 
he tried again, but lacked leisure or perse- 
verance to maintain the siege in person ; on 
his withdrawal his siege-works were de- 
stroyed by the Earl of Leicester, Meulan's. 
brother, and ' so the king's care and labour 
perished and came to nought.' 

Stephen had now been for four years at 
strife with the church. First, he had refused 
to recognise the papal deposition (1147) of his 
nephew William [see FITZ HERBERT, WIL- 
LIAM] from the see of York, and to acknowledge 
Henry Murdac [q. v.], whom Eugenius III 
had consecrated as archbishop in William's 
stead. Next, he had forbidden Theobald of 
Canterbury to obey the pope's summons to 
a council at Reims in Lent 1148, and vowed 
that if the primate did go he should not be 
allowed to come home again. Theobald went 
nevertheless ; and, although his intercession 
saved the king from the excommunication 
with which Eugenius proposed to punish 
these insults to the church, Stephen banished 



him on his return. An interdict soon com- 
pelled him to withdraw the sentence ; but so 
strongly did he suspect both primate and 
pope of being in league with the Angevins 
against him that in 1149 he forbade the 
great lawyer Vacarius [q. v.], who had come 
to England at Theobald s invitation, to lec- 
ture at Oxford on the Roman law ( JOHN OF 
SALISBURY, Polycraticus, 1. viii. c. 22 ; date 
from ROBERT OF TORIGNT, an. 1149), and in 
1150 he refused a safe-conduct to a papal 
legate who wanted to pass through England 
to Ireland. Early in 1152, however, he re- 
versed his policy. He was now anxious to 
secure the succession to the throne for his 
eldest son Eustace ; so he made his peace 
with Archbishop Henry of York, and sent 
him to Rome to plead with Eugenius for per- 
mission to have the youth crowned. This the 
pope would not grant. On 6 April (' Ann. 
Winton. Contin.' in LIEBERMANN'S Unge- 
druckte anglo-normann. Geschichtsquellen, p. 
82) Eustace was acknowledged in a council 
at London as heir to the throne ; but the 
bishops refused to crown him in face of the 
papal prohibition. Stephen shut them all up 
together and tried to frighten them into 
submission ; but the archbishop of Canter- 
bury escaped oversea, and without him no 
coronation was possible. At the opening 
of 1153 Stephen was called away from the 
siege of Wallingford by tidings that Henry 
of Anjou had returned and was blockading 
Malmesbury. Beneath the walls of Malmes- 
bury the rivals fronted each other for a 
moment, with only the Avon between them, 
and both at the head of their troops drawn 
up in battle array; but a storm blew up 
from the west and beat in the faces of the 
king and his men with such violence that 
they were compelled to retreat. Henry next 
besieged Crowmarsh ; Stephen followed to 
relieve it ; the barons persuaded them to 
hold, across a narrow reach of the Thames, a 
parley, which ended in a truce and a promise 
on Stephen's part that Crowmarsh should be 
razed. Within a few months his spirit was 
broken by the deaths of his wife and his son, 
and the barons' reluctance to agree to a settle- 
ment was overcome by the successes of Henry 
and the diplomacy of the primate. On 6 Nov. 
Stephen and Henry made a treaty at Wal- 
lingford (date from ROBERT OF TORIGNI, 
an. 1153 ; place from Roe. WEND. ed. Coxe, 
ii. 255), whereby it was agreed that Stephen 
should remain king for life, that Henry 
should succeed him, and that meanwhile 
the actual work of government should be 
done in his name by Henry as his adop- 
tive son (cf. Engl. Chron. an. 1140, RALPH 
DE DICETO, i. 296, and Roe. Hov. i. 212). 



Stephen 



156 



Stephen 



The treaty was ratified in a great council 
at Winchester, and proclaimed by Stephen 
from London (RYMER, i. 18), which he 
and Henry entered together. On 13 Jan. 
1154 they met again at Oxford, and Stephen 
made the barons do homage to Henry as 
their future sovereign. At their next meet- 
ing, at Dunstable, Henry complained that 
the king was conniving at the maintenance 
of some ' adulterine castles ' whose demoli- 
tion had been stipulated in the treaty. 
Stephen put him otf with an excuse, and 
soon after went with him to Canterbury, and 
thence to meet the Count of Flanders at 
Dover. There the king's already shattered 
nerves received a double shock, from an acci- 
dent which befell his only surviving son Wil- 
liam, and from the discovery of a plot among 
his own Flemish mercenaries against Henry's 
life. He hurried the young duke out of the 
country; then he bravely girded up his 
failing strength to carry on the work which 
Henry had begun of bringing the barons 
to order and reducing the adulterine castles ; 
and in this he met with considerable suc- 
cess. His last exploit was the capture of 
Drax (Yorkshire). At Michaelmas he was 
at a council in London ; thence he went to 
Dover for another meeting with the Count of 
Flanders ; here a sudden illness seized him, 
and he died in St. Martin's priory on 25 Oct. 
He was buried beside his wife and son in 
Feversham Abbey, which he had founded. 
[For his children see MATILDA OF BOU- 
LOGNE.] 

Stephen's reputation has suffered from his 
position in the series of English sovereigns 
between two much greater men. He lacked 
the gifts of character and intellect which spe- 
cially fitted both Henry I, his predecessor, 
and Henry II, his successor, for the task of 
governing a country in the transitional stage 
of development which England was passing 
through in the twelfth century ; but he was 
in some ways a better man than either of 
them, and under circumstances less unfavour- 
able than those in which he was placed, he 
might not have been a worse king. His 
failure as a ruler was in great part due to 
causes beyond his control ; moreover, the 
failure itself has been considerably exagge- 
rated. The fairest summary of his character 
is that given incidentally by the English 
chronicler : ' He was a mild man, soft and 
good, and did no justice ' in other words, he 
was neither strong enough nor stern enough 
to crush the anarchic tendencies of a feudalism 
which it had taxed the utmost energies of 
Henry I to keep in check, and which, twenty 
years after Stephen's death, even Henry II 
was hardly able to subdue. 



[Ordericus Vitalis, ed. Le Provost (Soc. de 
1'Hist. de France) ; William of Newburgh, lib. i., 
Gesta Stephani, Richard of Hexham, Robert of 
Torigni (Chronicles of Stephen and Henry II, 
vols. i. iii. and iv.), with Mr. Hewlett's prefaces ; 
William of Malmesbury's Historia Novella, the 
English Chronicle, Henry of Huntingdon, 
John of Hexham (in Sym. Dunelm. vol. ii.), 
Gervase of Canterbury, vol. i. (all in Rolls 
Ser.) ; Continuation of Florence of Worcester 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.); Historia Pontificalis (Pertz's 
Monum. Germ. Hist. vol. xx.) ; Stubbs's Select 
Charters, Constitutional History, vol. i., and 
Early Plantagenets ; Round's Geoffrey de Man- 
deville. See also J. R. Green's paper on Lon- 
don and her Election of Stephen, in Old London 
(Roy. Archgeolog. Institute, London Congress, 
1866).] K. N. 

STEPHEN, usually known as STEPHEN OF 
WHITBY (<2. 1112), abbot of St. Mary's, York, 
took the monastic habit at Whitby in 1078. 
The Whitby monastery had been ruined by 
the Danes, but it had been partly restored 
by William de Percy, first baron Percy 
[q. v.], and there were a few monks living 
there when Stephen entered the house. The 
monks soon chose him as their prior. Percy's 
former friendship for the foundation, how- 
ever, had changed to enmity, and his oppres- 
sion, together with the depredations of pirates 
and robbers, reduced the house to such sore 
straits that Stephen had to appeal to the 
king. William I gave them land at Lasting- 
ham, not far off, and thither they removed. 
Still Percy's ill-will pursued them, and, 
though Stephen followed the king into Nor- 
mandy, he obtained no redress. But Alan, 
earl of Brittany, an old friend of Stephen, 
now came to his aid, and persuaded him and 
his monks to remove once more to the 
neighbourhood of York. Here he gave them 
the church of St. Olave's and four acres of 
land upon which to build offices. This land 
was, however, claimed by Thomas I [q. v.l, 
archbishop of York. Again Stephen, through 
Alan, appealed to the king, and the latter 
promised to make good the loss to the see of 
York. William Rufus visited the new foun- 
dation at York which was named St. Mary's 
Abbey, and made a fresh grant of land and 
himself assisted in laying the foundations of 
a new church. When the prosperity of the 
house seemed secure, Archbishop Thomas 
renewed his suit for the original four acres, 
and Stephen appeased him only by obtain- 
ing for the see of York the grant of St. 
Stephen's Church in the city from the king, 
and by himself adding a voluntary gift of 
land. Stephen died in 1112. 

Stephen wrote : ' De fundatione Abbatise 
Sanctse Marise Virginis Eboraci anno ab 
Incarnatione Domini 1088,' which gives an 



Stephen 



'57 



Stephen 



account of his own life also. It was printed 
from Bodleian MS. 39 in Dugdale's ' Monas- 
ticon Anglicanum,' iii. 544 seq., but is there 
ascribed to Simon of Warwick. 

Stephen is also said to have left a record 
of the difficulties which attended monastic 
reform in England in the eleventh century 
in a treatise (which Bale saw at Westminster) 
called ' De Reparato Monachatu.' There 
seems, however, good reason to doubt whether 
this work was distinct from that already 
mentioned. 

[The chief authority for the life of Stephen 
is his own -work (as above), printed in Dug- 
dale's Monast. Angl. iii. 544 seq. See also 
Pits, De Illustr. Angl. Scriptt. p. 189 : Bale's 
Scriptt. Illustr. Cat. i. 167 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.- 
Hib. p. 691 ; Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue, ii. 
49 seq.] A. M. C-B. 

STEPHEN, SAINT (d. 1134), abbot of 
Citeaux. [See HARDING.] 

STEPHEN OP EXETER (fi. 1265) is the 
supposed author of the ' Annales Domus 
Montis Fernandi ab anno XLV usque ad an- 
num MCCLXXIV,' which is contained in 
a manuscript in the archiepiscopal library at 
Armagh. He was apparently born in 1246, 
and entered the Franciscan order at Multy- 
farnham, Westmeath, in 1263. Other ac- 
counts connect him with Strade in Mayo, 
where there was a house of the Franciscan 
order, which Jordan of Exeter, lord of 
Athlethan, or his son Stephen gave to the 
Dominicans in 1252 (ARCHDALE, Monasticon 
Hibernicum, p. 509). Stephen of Exeter 
may have been a member of the family of 
the lords of Athlethan. The uncertainty as 
to his identity has caused him to be claimed 
both by Dominican and Franciscan biblio- 
graphers. He is also called Stephen Hiber- 
nicus, and, by an obvious error, Stephen of 
Oxford. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 692 ; Hardy's 
Descript. Cat. Brit. Hist. iii. 207 ; Quetif and 
Echard's Scriptt. Ord. Prsed. i. 348 ; Wadding's 
Scriptt. Ord. Min. p. 218 ; Sbaralea's Supple- 
mcntum in Wadding, p. 666.] C. L. K. 

STEPHEN DE GRAVESEND (d. 1338), 
bishop of London. [See GRAVESEND.] 

STEPHEN LANGTON (d. 1228), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. [See LANGTON.] 

STEPHEN, SIR ALFRED (1802-1894), 
chief justice of New South Wales, born at 
Basseterre, St. Christopher's, on 20 Aug. 
1802, was the fourth son of John Stephen 
(1771-1834), youngest brother of James 
Stephen (1758-1832) [q. v.] His mother 
was the daughter of a Mr. Passmore, who 



lived to the age of ninety-six, and when 
above ninety could write the Lord's prayer 
within the compass of a shilling. John 
Stephen practised law at St. Christopher's, 
and came to England about 1808 with a for- 
tune, which he lost by buying land at high 
prices. He returned to St. Christopher's in 
1815, and was in 1824 appointed solicitor- 
general, and in 1825 judge, in New South 
Wales, and died in 1834. 

Alfred was sent to England in 1804 by 
his mother. He was fora year (1810) at the 
Charterhouse, and afterwards at schools in 
Somerset and Devon. He returned with 
his father to St. Christopher's, where he 
was a lieutenant in the militia, and read 
a little law. In 1818 he was sent to 
London, entered Lincoln's Inn, and became 
a pupil successively of his cousins Henry 
John and James Stephen. He was remark- 
able for vivacity and good humour, which 
led him into adventures at Vauxhall and 
elsewhere, but stuck to his law, and was 
called to the bar 20 Nov. 1823. On 22 June 
1824 he married Virginia, daughter of 
Matthew Consett, and in August sailed for 
Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania). He 
had been appointed solicitor-general in the 
colony, which in 1825 was separated from 
New South Wales. Up to that time it had 
been mainly a convict settlement under 
military rule. It was now provided with a 
legislature, and Stephen took part in framing 
the new laws and organising courts. The 
introduction of trial by jury, which he sup- 
ported, involved a long struggle, but was 
ultimately effected in 1834. During a visit 
to England in January 1833 Stephen was 
appointed attorney-general, and afterwards 
framed and passed over a hundred statutes, 
some of which were adopted in other colonies. 
He was thanked by the lieutenant-governor, 
(Sir) George Arthur [q. v.], and recom- 
mended for advancement. The loss of his 
wife and a brother in 1837 caused a severe 
illness, and he resigned his position. He 
married, in 1838, the daughter of the Rev. 
W. Bedford, and practised at the bar till in 
1839 he was appointed judge of the supreme 
court of New South Wales. In 1844 he was 
made chief justice, and held that position 
until 1873. As a judge he is said to have 
been distinguished for courtesy and firmness. 
Though a man of marked humanity, he had 
a reputation for a severity not undesirable 
in a population so largely supplied with 
convicts. He had a main share in impress- 
ing a high standard of judicial conduct 
upon the Australian courts. His retirement 
was received with strong expressions of 
sympathy; his colleagues addressed him 



Stephen 



158 



Stephen 



warmly ; lie was presented with a purse of a visit to Stephen. He kept up a close 
one thousand guineas, raised by public sub- correspondence to the last with his English 
scription, and his bust was placed in the , relations. He led a retired life in later 
chamber of the legislative council. He was i years, but was still interested in many chari- 
lieutenant-governor from November 1875 ties, and especially in an institution for the 
til!1891. In this capacity he had on four occa- blind. His strength gradually failed in the 
sions to discharge the functions of governor i last few weeks before his death at Sydney on 
in the absence of the incumbent. He was ! 15 Oct. 1894. He was buried at St. Jude's 
also president of the first legislative council, churchyard amid many demonstrations of 
1856-7, and again a member of the council respect. 

from 1875 to 1890. He was on the council of Stephen had by his first wife five sons 
education from November 1873 till its sup- and four daughters, and by his second wife, 
pression in 1882, and on the senate of the who died before him, four sons and five 
university and the councils of many other , daughters. His descendants at the time of 
public institutions. He received a knight- | his death were over a hundred. One of his 
hood in 1846, was made C.B. in 1862, i sons, Alfred, was a canon of the Anglican 
K.C.M.G. in 1874, G.C.M.G. in 1884, and i Cathedral in Sydney, and another, Matthew 



a privy councillor in 1893, being the second 
Australian upon whom that honour was 
conferred. He took a very important part 
in colonial legislation. In 1870 he was 
president of a commission for revising the 
statute law of the colony. It recommended 
three measures, one of which, drafted by the 
commissioners, was for a consolidation of the 
criminal law. After various delays, this was 
finally passed into law in 1883, and a 
' Manual ' comprising the act was published 
by Sir Alfred and Mr. A. Oliver in the same 
year. In 1879 he opposed a divorce bill in- 
troduced in the legislature ; but observation 



Henry, is now a judge of the supreme court 
in the colony. 

[Information from the family ; Stephen's 
Jottings from Memory (see above) ; Obituary 
notices in the Sydney papers of 1894, and the 
' Times,' 16 Oct. 1894; there is also a full notice 
in the ' Cosmos ' for September 1894 ; Heaton's 
Australian Dates.] L. S. 

STEPHEN, EDWARD (1822-1885), 
Welsh musician, generally known as ' Tany- 
marian,' was the son of Robert and Jane 
Stephen of Rhydysarn, near Llan Ffestiniog, 
Merionethshire, where he was born in No- 
vember 1822. After a few vears' attendance 



of the numerous cases of hardship caused | at the local national school, he was appren- 



by the desertion of wives led him to alter 
his opinion, and in 1886 he introduced a bill 
permitting divorce under certain conditions. 
He replied to Mr. Gladstone upon this ques- 
tion in the ' Contemporary Review ' for June 
1891. In spite of a strong opposition, espe- 
cially from the clergy, he finally carried the 
measure through the legislature in 1890, 
when beginning his eighty-ninth year. 

Stephen visited England in 1860, but 
otherwise never left the colony, where the 
vigour of intellect which he retained till the 
end and his charm of character gave him 
the position of a venerated patriarch. His 
frame was spare and very active. It is stated 
that he would on occasion sit in court till 



ticed to a tailor, but about 1841 he com- 
menced to preach, and some three years later 
entered the Independent College" at Bala, 
where he remained three years. In 1847 he 
was ordained pastor of Horeb (independent) 
church at Dwygyfylchi, near Penmaenmawr ; 
but in November 1856 he removed to take 
charge of another pastorate at Llanllechid, 
Bangor, where he lived at a house called 
' Tanymarian/ by which name he was there- 
after chiefly known. He died on 10 May 
1885, leaving behind him a widow and 
several children. 

In music, Stephen was entirely self-taught. 
A series of articles on music which he con- 
tributed to ' Y CronicP in 1848-9 raised 



6 A.M. and begin a summing-up at 4 A.M. with \ him into sudden popularity, which he further 
a perfectly fresh memory. In his last years ! increased by delivering lectures on the sub- 

m * ' ' - I ~\ f\\- + 1T1 Cfa Ptr\TV 1On+- lTI+*i1"OT\iVIa/l/l Trri4-Vl -T*-vrtrt 1 ill ir. +*- /-win .-* 



he wrote some interesting ' Jottings from 
Memory ' (privately printed, 1889 and 1891) 
describing his early life. He kept up his 
reading, was full of intellectual interests, 
and welcomed many distinguished visitors 
to Australia. Robert Lowe (Lord Sher- 



ject, interspersed with vocal illustrations of 
his own rendering. In 1851-2 he composed 
his first important work, which was also the 
masterpiece of his life,' namely, an oratorio 
entitled ' Ystorm Tiberias' ('The Storm of 
Tiberias '), which was published at Bethesda 



brooke), when a barrister in Australia, was t in seven parts, the last appearing in 1855. 
a friend of Stephen, who afterwards allowed j This was the first work of the kind by a 



some letters written to him by Lowe from 
England to appear in the National Re view ' 
(July 1894). Froude, in ' Oceana.' describes 



Welsh composer, whence Stephen has been 
styled ' the father of the oratorio in Wales,' 
but it has no distinctivelv Welsh charac- 



Stephen 



159 



Stephen 



teristic, and chiefly bears the impress of 
Handel's influence. Its strength lies in its 
choruses, some of which, especially ' Dyma'r 
gwyntoedd yn ymosod ' (' How the giant 
winds do wrestle'), are deservedly popular 
with Welsh choirs. The airs had numerous 
defects, which Stephen more or less remedied 
in a revised score ; this was published 
posthumously under the editorship of Mr. 
D. Emlyn Evans, with improved English 
words by the Rev. J. H. Johnes (Dolgelly, 
1887). 

Apart from his oratorio, Stephen's fame 
chiefly rests on the services he rendered to 
congregational singing among the indepen- 
dents of Wales, as John Roberts (1822-1877) 
[q. v.] did among the methodists. He edited, 
with the exception of the first two or three 
metres, the musical portion of a Welsh 
hymnal entitled ' Cerddor y Cyssegr ' 
(Bethesda, 1860, 8 vo), which contains several 
melodies harmonised by himself, but no tunes 
of his own composition. This was superseded 
by the publication in 1868 of a new hymnal, 
'Llyfr Tonau ac Emynau' (Wrexham, 4to), 
under the joint editorship of Stephen and 
Joseph David Jones [q. v.] of Ruthin, the 
chief burden of the work falling on the 
latter. This was followed in 1879 by a 
supplement (' Attodiad '), edited by Stephen 
alone, containing six tunes of his own, the 
best known of which bears the title of Tany- 
marian.' The completed hymnal contains 
over three hundred tunes and nine hundred 
hymns, and until recently was in universal 
use among Welsh congregationalists. 

He also composed a number of fugitive 
pieces, none of them being of the first import- 
ance, except perhaps a requiem (Bethesda, 
1858), on the death of John Jones (1796- 
1857) [q. v.] of Talsarn. Stephen, who was 
a fair geologist, wrote several papers in 
Welsh on geology, and his collection of spe- 
cimens was presented to the university col- 
lege of North Wales, Bangor. 

The Welsh memoir of Stephen, edited by 
Mr. W. J. Parry (1886), contains two por- 
traits of Stephen. There is appended a se- 
lection of his prose and poetical composi- 
tions, together with several anthems and 
part-songs, the greater number published for 
the first time. 

[A Welsh biography of Stephen, Cofiant Tany- 
marian (Dolgelly, 1886, 8vo), tinder the editor- 
torship of Mr. W. J. Parry of Bethesda, with 
an account and criticism of Stephen's musical 
work by Mr. Emlyn Evans ; Jones's Cerddorion 
Cymreig, pp. 123-7, 135, 160 ; Hanes Eglwysi 
Annibynol Cymru, by Rees and Thomas, v. 
304-7 ; Y Geninen, July 1885 ; Byegones, 1889, 
p. 102.] D. LL. T. 



STEPHEN, SIB GEORGE (1794-1879), 
miscellaneous author, born in 1794, was the 
fourth son of James Stephen (1758-1832) 
[q. v.] He was placed under a surgeon at 
an early age, with a view to an appointment 
in the medical department of the army ; but 
upon the peace was sent to Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He showed more taste for 
hunting than for study, and was therefore 
removed, after two years' residence, by his 
father, and placed in the office of Mr. Fresh- 
field, solicitor to the bank of England. During 
the trial of Queen Caroline he was sent to 
the continent to collect evidence. Having 
completed his five years' appenticeship, he 
set up in business for himself. In 1826 Sir 
Fowell Buxton applied for an inquiry into 
the report that a slave trade was being carried 
on at Mauritius with the connivance of the 
governor. Stephen was employed to collect 
evidence. The inquiry was dropped in con- 
sequence of the governor's death. Stephen 
was led by his investigations to form a plan 
for stimulating the anti- slavery agitation. 
He applied to O'Connell, who gave him ad- 
vice as to the proposed organisation, and 
drew up a scheme, which was rejected by 
the committee of the Anti-Slavery Society. 
It was then taken up by James Cropper 
[q. v.] and others. The ' Agency Com- 
mittee,' formed in consequence, arranged for 
public meetings, and for the promotion of 
petitions throughout the country, and played 
an important part in the final agitation (a 
full account in the Anti-Slavery Recollections). 
About the same time Stephen was requested 
by Lord Lyndhurst to act as solicitor under 
a measure for the relief of pauper prisoners 
for debt. He had no salary, and advanced 
sums for the repayment of which there was 
no provision. In recognition of this service 
or of his anti-slavery labours he received a 
knighthood upon the queen's accession. 
Stephen also wrote pamphlets upon the 
police and the poor laws. He published in 
1835 the ' Adventures of a Gentleman in 
search of a Horse,' which became very popu- 
lar ; and in 1839 the ' Adventures of an At- 
torney in search of Practice,' an amusing 
work, which, though no names were given, 
was supposed to contain indiscreet revela- 
tions. He had at an early period started a 
society for the purchase of reversions, to 
which he acted as solicitor. A quarrel with 
the directors led to his dismissal, and in- 
volved a considerable loss of money. He 
then gave up his profession in 1847, and was 
called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1849. He 
settled at Liverpool, where for some time he 
had a fair practice in bankruptcy cases. His 
business, however, declined upon a change 



Stephen 



160 



Stephen 



in the system, and in 1855 he emigrated to 
Melbourne, where two of his sons had ob- 
tained appointments. He formed an ex- 
tremely unfavourable opinion of his fellow- 
colonists, which he did not conceal. He led 
a retired life, but obtained some practice at 
the bar. He died at Melbourne on 20 June 
1879. His wife died in 1869. They had 
seven children, of whom the eldest son, James 
Wilberforce, who had been fourth wrangler 
in 1844, and a fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, emigrated about the same time, 
and became a judge in the colony. 

Stephen was a man of very considerable 
abilities and force of character. He was up- 
right and outspoken ; but a hot temper and 
an unfortunate talent for seeing the worst 
aide of his profession and his fellow-crea- 
tures involved him in many disputes, and 
injured his career. 

Stephen's works are : 1. ' Practical Sug- 
gestions for the Improvement of the Police,' 
1829. 2. ' Letter ... on System of Bread- 
money in Aid of Wages,' 1833. 3. ' Adven- 
tures of a Gentleman in search of a Horse,' 
by ' Caveat Emptor,' 1835 ; 5th edit., with 
name, 1841. 4. 'Letter on the probable 
Increase of Rural Crime,' &c.[1836]. 5. 'The 
Juryman's Guide,' 1845. 6. 'The Jesuit at 
Cambridge,' 1847, 2 vols. (a novel). 7. ' The 
Niger Trade and the African Blockade,' 
1849. 8. ' Letter to Sir F. Buxton on the 
Revival of the English Slave Trade,' 1849. 
9. ' The Royal Pardon vindicated in the 
Case of W. H. Barber,' &c. 1851. 10. < Bank- 
ruptcy and the Credit Trade,' 1852. 11. 'The 
Principles of Commercial Law explained in 
a Course of Lectures,' 1853. 12. ' Digest of 
County Court Cases,' &c. 1853. 13. ' Anti- 
Slavery Recollections, in a Series of Letters 
to Mrs. Beecher Stowe, written at her re- 
quest,' 1854. 14. ' Magisterial Reform,' 1854. 
15. 'Insolvency Reform,' 1863. 16. 'Life 
of Christ,' 1871. 17. 'Memoir of the late 
James Stephen,' 1875. Stephen wrote some 
other pamphlets, and contributed the 'Clerk,' 
the ' Governess,' and the ' Groom' to Knight's 
series of ' Guides to Trade ' in 1838. 

[The above Memoir of James Stephen ; family 
papers ; Stephen's Life of Sir J. F. Stephen.] 

L. S. 

STEPHEN, HENRY JOHN (1787- 
1864), serjeant-at-law, born at St. Christo- 
pher's in the West Indies on 18 Jan. 1787, 
was the second son of James Stephen (1758- 
1832) [q. v.] He was for a time at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, but did not graduate. 
He was called to the bar on 24 Nov. 1815. 
He had in 1814 married his cousin, Mary 
Morison, and, after his stepmother's death, 



from 1815 till 1832, kept house for his father 
in Kensington Gore. He was a man of ner- 
vous and retiring disposition, and, though an 
accomplished lawyer, obtained no great pro- 
fessional success. He became known, how- 
ever, by a treatise on pleading, published in 
1824. There was no want of practical trea- 
tises on the subject. The aim of Stephen's 
book was to develop systematically the 
principles of the ' science ' and exhibit them 
as part of a general scheme (Preface). ' Ste- 
phen,' says Professor Dicey, ' by a stroke of 
something like genius, at once and precisely 
accomplished his aim ; he exhibited the whole 
theory in scientific form, arranged the prin- 
ciples in logical order, and expressed them 
in a series of rules of unequalled clearness 
and brevity. Though the law has become 
obsolete, the book is still interesting as a 
model of lucid exposition. The attempt to 
reduce an intricate branch of law to a series 
of well-digested principles was then to a 
great extent a novelty. Stephen founded a 
school, but none of his many followers have 
surpassed him in mastery of the subject, 
logical power, and terseness of expression.' 
The merits of the treatise were recognised 
both in England and America, and gave him 
a claim to promotion. Stephen became a 
serjeant-at-law in 1828, and was a member 
of the common-law commission appointed 
in that year. His fellow-commissioners all 
became judges ; and it is said, upon doubtful 
authority, that a judgeship was offered to 
Stephen by Lyndhurst, and declined upon 
the ground that he could never bear to pass 
a capital sentence (SiE G. STEPHEN, Life 
of James Stephen, p. 46). In 1834 he pub- 
lished a 'Summary of the Criminal Law,' 
which was translated into German. In 1841 
appeared the first edition of his ' Commen- 
taries.' It was described on the title-page 
as ' partly founded upon Blackstone,' and con- 
tains much of his predecessor's work, with 
large interpolations and additions of his own, 
the distinction being clearly indicated in the 
text. 

' In reality,' says Professor Dicey, ' it was 
an original production, differing essentially in 
character and in merit from his predecessor. 
Blackstone was a consummate man of letters. 
Stephen showed the qualities in which Black- 
stone was comparatively deficient consum- 
mate logical power and singular precision 
and accuracy of style. Had the work been 
published as an original treatise, it would 
have stood upon a level with Blackstone's 
work.' In later editions the name of Black- 
stone is dropped, as larger additions became 
necessary in order to keep up with the 
alterations in the law. The book enjoyed a 



Stephen 



161 



Stephen 



high reputation from the first, and became, 
as it still is, the standard work of the kind ; 
new editions have been published at regular 
intervals. In 1842 Stephen was placed on 
a commission for inquiring into the forgery 
of exchequer bills, and in the same year be- 
came commissioner of bankruptcy at Bristol ; 
Matthew Davenport Hill [q. v.] was his col- 
league. He lived at Cleevewood, near Bris- 
tol, till his retirement from this post in 1854, 
and afterwards lived at Clifton until his death 
on28Xov. 1864. He amused his later years by 
speculating on the prophecies and the theory 
of music, and, though courteous and kindly, 
saw little at any time of society. His diffi- 
dence prevented him from obtaining the re- 
putation as a writer or the position in his 
profession which he might have fairly 
claimed. 

His wife and a daughter died before him. 
He left two children. His daughter Sarah, 
born 28 June 1816, was author of a religious 
etory called ' Anna ; or the Daughter at 
Home,' which went through several editions, 
and one of the founders of the Metropolitan 
Association for befriending Young Servants. 
She died, aged 79, on 5 Jan. 1895. His son 
James, born 16 Sept. 1820, was recorder of 
Poole, professor of law in King's College, 
London, and afterwards judge of the county 
court at Lincoln. He edited later editions 
of the ' Commentaries ' and ' Questions for 
Law Students ' upon the same. He died 
25 Nov. 1894. 

Stephen's works are: 1. 'A Treatise on 
the Principles of Pleading in Civil Actions : 
comprising a Summary of the whole Pro- 
ceedings in a Suit of Law,' 1824, 1827, 
1834, 1838, 1843, 1860 (by J. Stephen and 
F. F. Fender) ; and 1866 (by F. F. Fender) ; 
eight American editions from 1824 to 1859. 
2. ' Summary of the Criminal Law,' 1834 ; 
translated as ' Handbuch des englischen 
Strafrechts,'&c.,by E. Miihry,1843. 3. 'New 
Commentaries on the Laws of England' 
(partly founded on Blackstone), 1841-5, 
4 vols. 8vo ; later editions, edited by his son, 
James Stephen, and his grandson, H. St. 
James Stephen ; the tenth appeared in 1895. 
The book was reprinted in America in 1843- 
1846. 

[Life of Sir J. F. Stephen, by L. Stephen; 
family papers.] L. S. 

STEPHEN, JAMES (1758-1832), master 
in chancery, born on 30 June 1758 at Poole 
in Dorset, was the son of James Stephen, 
born about 1733. The elder Stephen came 
from Aberdeenshire, and was supercargo of 
a ship wrecked about 1752 on Purbeck Is- 
land. Stephen was hospitably received by 

VOL. LIV. 



Mr. Milner, collector of customs at Poole, 
and soon afterwards privately married to 
Milner's youngest daughter, Sibella. He 
was reconciled to her family and taken into 
partnership by her brother, but, after some 
unfortunate speculations at Poole, got into 
the king's bench prison. He there obtained 
some notoriety by writing pamphlets to show 
that imprisonment for debt was contrary to 
Magna Charta and by organising an agitation 
in the prison. The benchers of the Middle 
Temple refused afterwards to call him to 
the bar, and he was employed in the business 
of a solicitor. He fell into difficulties, lost 
his wife in 1775, and died in poverty in 
1779. 

The younger James had a desultory edu- 
cation during his father's struggles. He 
was a precocious lad, and when fourteen fell 
in love with Anne Stent, sister of a school- 
fellow. Their correspondence was forbidden, 
and, with the help of an uncle, he was in 
1773 sent for a short time to Winchester 
school. The help of other relatives enabled 
him to pass two sessions, in 1775-6 and 
1777-8, at Marischal College, Aberdeen. 
He returned to London, helped his father's 
last struggles, and supported himself for a 
time as reporter to the ' Morning Post.' He 
now persuaded Miss Stent to accept him 
and throw over another engagement, in spite 
of her father's disapproval. A simultaneous 
love affair with another girl brought him 
into serious perplexities, which caused a 
breach with Miss Stent. Meanwhile a bro- 
ther of his father, who was settled as a phy- 
sician and planter at St. Christopher's, had 
taken his elder brother, William, into part- 
nership. The uncle died in 1781, leaving all 
his property to William. William here- 
upon sent funds which enabled James to be 
called to the bar (26 Jan. 1782), and next 
year to sail for St. Christopher's. Miss Stent 
had finally relented, in spite of the other 
young woman, and married him before his 
departure. 

Stephen touched at Barbados on his way 
out, and was shocked at the brutality shown 
to some negroes on their trial for murder. 
He made and kept a vow that he would have 
nothing to do with slavery. Later incidents 
strengthened the impression. At St. Chris- 
topher's he practised at the bar. There was 
a good deal of legal business arising from 
the regulation of the trade between the 
West Indies and the United States. He 
earned enough to be able to visit England 
in the winter of 1788-9. He put himself in 
communication with Wilberforce, who was 
starting the agitation against the slave trade, 
and, after returning to the West Indies, sent 



Stephen 



162 



Stephen 



Private information to support the cause. 
n 1794 he returned to England and obtained 
practice at the prize appeal court of the 
privy council, where for some years he had a 
large share of the leading business. 

Stephen had upon his return openly iden- 
tified himself with the agitation against 
the slave trade. His wife died in 1796; 
and Wilberforce's kindness upon the occa- 
sion brought the two into closer familiarity, 
which was increased by Stephen's marriage 
in 1800 to Wilberforce's sister, widow of the 
Rev. Dr. Clarke of Hull. Stephen had also 
accepted the religious views of his allies, 
and was henceforward one of the most active 
of Wilberforce's supporters. His ardent 
temperament led him to regard the abolition 
of the slave trade as the one great aim of his 
life, and he was inclined to reproach his 
leader for attending to anything else. He 
made his chief mark, however, by a pamphlet 
called ' War in Disguise,' published in 1805, 
to denounce the evasions of our regulations 
by neutral traders. His experience at the 
English and colonial bar had made him 
familiar with the facts. The pamphlet pro- 
duced a great effect, and was supposed to 
have suggested the orders in council, the first 
of which were made in 1807. Brougham 
calls him the ' father ' of the system thus 
adopted. Perceval, with whom he sympa- 
thised on religious and political grounds, 
wished to bring him into parliament to sup- 
port the government policy. He was elected 
for Tralee on 21 Feb. 1808, and in the par- 
liament of 1812 sat for East Grinstead. 

In parliament Stephen was chiefly known 
as defender of the orders in council. His 
want of education and his fiery temper pre- 
vented him from doing justice to consider- 
able natural powers of eloquence. He spoke, 
however, occasionally with much effect, espe- 
cially (12 March 1810) upon a proposal 
which had been made by the benchers of 
Lincoln's Inn to exclude from the bar any 
one who had written in a newspaper. Stephen 
excited admiration by frankly confessing 
that he had himself been guilty of journalism, 
and the rule was withdrawn. He steadily 
defended the government against Brougham's 
attack in the matter of the orders in council. 
He never lost sight of the slavery question, 
and spoke with great energy upon various 
points which arose after the abolition of the 
slave trade. The refusal of government to 
take up a measure for the registration of 
slaves induced him to retire from parlia- 
ment; and, in spite of many entreaties, he 
accepted the Chiltern Hundreds on 14 April 
1815. 

Stephen had been appointed master in 



chancery in 1811, having, it was said, a claim 
in consequence of the diminution of his prac- 
tice due to the orders in council. He lived 
for many years in Kensington Gore, where 
Wilberforce was his neighbour ; and from 
1819 had a small house at Missenden, Buck- 
inghamshire, where the name ' Wilberforce's 
Walk ' commemorates the visits of his bro- 
ther-in-law. The second Mrs. Stephen died 
in 1816. Her widower and brother kept up 
their intimacy to the end ; and Stephen to 
the last took a prominent part in the agita- 
tion for the abolition of slavery. He wrote 
an elaborate treatise upon West Indian laws 
and practice, and was a leading member of 
the society which carried on the agitation. 
Failure of health forced him to resign his 
mastership in 1831, and he died at Bath on 
10 Oct. 1832. He was buried at Newington 
Green, by the side of his parents and his first 
wife. Wilberforce had promised to be buried 
there too, but was claimed by Westminster 
Abbey. 

Stephen was a handsome man, and a very 
active worker till his last years. In early 
years he had been a liberal, and thought of 
joining Washington. In later life he became 
a tory and an evangelical ; and he was one 
of the most ardent and devoted adherents 
of the party which became known as the 
' Clapham Sect.' He left six children by his 
first wife : William, for nearly sixty years 
vicar of Bledlow, Buckinghamshire, who 
died on 8 Jan. 1867 : Henry John [q. v.] ; 
Sir James (1789-1859) [q.v.]; Sibella (1792- 
1869), who married W. A. Garratt, barri- 
ster ; Sir George [q. v.] ; and Anne Mary 
(1796-1878), who married Thomas Edward 
Dicey, and was mother of Mr. Edward Dicey 
and Professor Albert Venn Dicey. 

James Stephen's chief works are ' War 
in Disguise ' (1805, several editions) and 
' Slavery in the British West India Colo- 
nies delineated' (vol. i. 1824, and vol. ii. 
1830). He wrote also a number of pam- 
phlets, the first of which, called ' The Crisis 
of the Sug'ar Colonies,' appeared in 1802. 
In 1815 he published ' Reasons for establish- 
ing a Registry of Slaves . . .,' a report drawn 
by him of a committee of the African Insti- 
tution, and, it is said, three other pamphlets. 
A series of letters addressed to the allied 
sovereigns at Aix-la-Chapelle, and pub- 
lished in the ' New Times,' was translated 
into French and published in 1818. Another 
pamphlet (n.d.) about 1821 is ' Strictures on 
the Charge of Cannibalism on the African 
Race,' and in 1826 he published ' England 
enslaved by her own Slave Colonies.' Others 
were apparently anonymous, and cannot now 
be identified. 



Stephen 



163 



Stephen 



[Family papers ; L. Stephen's Life of Sir J. F. 
Stephen, pp. 1-24 ; Life of the late James 
Stephen, by his son, Sir George Stephen, 
1875; Jottings from Memory, by Sir Alfred 
Stephen (privately printed, 1889 and 1891); 
Wilberforce's Life and Letters, and Colquhoun's 
Wilberforce: his Friends and his Times, 1886, 
pp. 180-96; Kobert's Hannah More (letters); 
Brougham's Speeches, 1838, i. 402-14, quoted 
also iti Sir J. Stephen's essay 'The Clapham 
Sect ; ' Henry Adams's History of the United 
States, 1891, iii. 50-2, &c.; Walpole's Life of 
Perceval.] L. S. 

STEPHEN, SIR JAMES (1789-1859), 
colonial under-secretary, born at Lambeth 
on 3 Jan. 1789, was third son of James 
Stephen (1758-1 832) [q. v.] An attack of 
small-pox during his infancy caused a per- 
manent weakness of eyesight. He was under 
various schoolmasters, including John Prior 
Estlin [q. v.] and the Rev. Henry Jowett of 
Little Dunham, Norfolk. In 1806 he entered 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he learnt as 
little as if he had passed the time ' at the 
Clarendon Hotel in Bond Street.' He took the 
LL.B. degree in 1812, having been called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 11 Nov. 1811. His 
father, who was just leaving the bar, trans- 

Pferred some practice to his son, who also 
began to make a digest of colonial laws. The 
third Lord Bathurst, who was in sympathy 
with the ' Clapham Sect,' allowed him to in- 
spect official records for the digest, and in 
1813 appointed him counsel to the colonial 
department. His duty was to report upon 
all acts of the colonial legislatures. The 
work increased, but he was also allowed to 
practise privately, and in a few years was 
making 3,000/. a year, and in a fair way to 
the honours of the profession. 

On 22 Dec. 1814 he married Jane Cathe- 
rine, daughter of John Venn, rector of Clap- 
ham, one of the founders of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. In 1 822 Stephen had a severe 
illness caused by overwork. As he was now a 
father, he decided in 1825 to accept the offer 
of the post of permanent counsel to the colo- 
nial office and to the board of trade, aban- 
doning his private practice. In 1834 he was 
appointed assistant under-secretary of state 
for the colonies, and in 1836 under-secre- 
tary, giving up his position in the board of 
trade. The duties became exceedingly 
onerous, and he devoted himself to them 
unstintedly. For many years he never left 
London for a month, and, though afterwards 
forced to make longer absences, he took a 
clerk into the country and did business as 
regularly as in town. He had a very high 
reputation for his wide knowledge of con- 
stitutional law, and was a rapid and decided 



administrator. His energy gave him great 
influence with his superiors, and his col- 
league, Sir Henry Taylor, says that for many 
years he ' literally ruled the colonial empire.' 
The impression of his influence gained him 
the nicknames of ' King Stephen ' and ' Mr. 
Over-secretary Stephen ; ' and he was fre- 
quently made the scapegoat for real and sup- 
posed errors of the colonial office. He had 
accepted his position partly with a hope of 
influencing the slavery question. His success 
in this endeavour raised, according to Taylor, 
the ' first outcry ' against him. When abo- 
lition became inevitable, he was called upon 
to prepare the measure passed in 1833. Un- 
less it could be drawn at once the abolition 
might be postponed for a year. He there- 
fore on this occasion (and on one other only) 
broke the Sabbath ; and between the noons 
of Saturday and Monday dictated an elabo- 
rate bill of sixty-six sections. At this time 
he would often dictate as much as ten pages 
of the ' Edinburgh Review ' before breakfast. 
This effort, however, cost him a severe ner- 
vous illness. In later years he was especially 
concerned in the establishment of responsible 
government in Canada; and his views are 
said to have been more liberal than those of 
the government. He was highly esteemed by 
his official superiors, but incurred unpopu- 
larity in other quarters. A hard worker, he 
tried to exact hard work from others. He 
covered a sensitive nature by a formality 
which kept others at a distance. He was as 
shy, says Taylor, ' as a wild duck,' but often 
showed it oddly by talking so continuously 
as to leave no opening for an answer. In 
private, as Taylor testifies, his conversation 
was equally abundant and singularly rich 
and forcible. Though living in London for 
many years, he went little into society. The 
delicacy of his youngest son induced him in 
1840 to take a house at Brighton for his 
family, to which he could make only weekly 
visits. From 1842 to 1846 he lived at Wind- 
sor, in order to send his sons to Eton. The 
daily journeys to his office made an addi- 
tional strain. In 1846 he was summoned 
to Dresden by the illness of his eldest son, 
who died before his parents could reach him. 
The shock had serious effects upon his health ; 
and a bad attack in 1847 induced him to re- 
sign his office. He was made a K.C.B. and 
a privy councillor. 

Stephen had meanwhile become known as 
a writer by a series of articles in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review,' the first of which (upon 
Wilberforce) appeared in April 1838. They 
were written in the intervals of his official 
work, generally in the early morning. He 
carefully disavowed any pretence to profound 

M2 



Stephen 



164 



Stephen 



research. The articles had, however, shown 
considerable historical knowledge as well as 
literary power. He had partly recovered 
strength, and was anxious for employment. 
In June 1849 he was appointed to the regius 
professorship of modern historyat Cambridge, 
vacant by the death of William Smyth 
(1765-1849) [q. v.] He delivered a course 
of lectures upon the history of France dur- 
ing the summers of 1850 and 1851, which 
were published in 1852, and were warmly 
praised by De Tocqueville and other compe- 
tent persons. Another severe illness in the 
summer of 1850 had forced him to spend a 
winter abroad ; and these lectures were the 
last work to which he could apply his full 
power. From 1855 to 1857 he held a pro- 
fessorship at the East India College, Hailey- 
bury, which had been sentenced to extinc- 
tion. He continued to lecture at Cambridge, 
but the history school then held a very low 
position ; and residence was superfluous. 
He passed the last years of his life chiefly in 
London. In 1859 his health showed serious 
symptoms, and he was ordered to Homburg. 
Becoming worse, he started homewards, but 
died at Coblentz on 14 Sept. 1859. He was 
buried at Kensal Green. Sir James Stephen's 
widow died in 1875. They had five children : 
Herbert Venn (1822-1846), Frances Wil- 
berforce (1824-1825), Sir James Fitzjames 
[q. v.], Leslie, and Caroline Emelia. 

Stephen spent his best years and highest 
powers in work of which it is impossible that 
any estimate should be formed. He was a 
most conscientious and energetic official, but 
the credit or discredit of the policy which he 
carried out belongs to those whom he ad- 
vised. In domestic life he impressed all who 
knew him by his loftiness of principle. He 
was a man of the strongest family affections. 
He sacrificed his own comforts for the bene- 
fit of his children, and set before them a con- 
stant example of absolute devotion to duty. 
He began life as a strong evangelical, and 
never avowedly changed ; but his experience 
of the world, his sympathy with other forms 
of belief, and his interest in the great church- 
men of the middle ages led to his holding 
the inherited doctrine in a latitudinarian 
sense. He was accused of heresy, when ap- 
pointed professor at Cambridge, for an ' Epi- 
logue ' to his ' Essays,' in which he suggested 
doubts as to the eternity of hell-fire. The 
' Essays ' are the work by which he is best 
known, and show a literary faculty to which 
he could never give full play. The autobio- 
graphy of Sir Henry Taylor gives an inte- 
resting account of his personal character. 
Taylor, James Spedding, Mr. Aubrey de Vere, 
and Nassau Senior were his most intimate 



friends ; but he led a recluse and rather 
ascetic life, and seldom went into society, 
A bust by Marochetti is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

His works are : 1. ' Essays in Ecclesiastical 
Biography,' 1849, 2 vols. 8vo ; 5th edit, in 
1 vol. 1867 (with life, by his son, J. F. 
Stephen). 2. ' Lectures on the History of 
France,' 1852, 2 vols. 8vo. 

[Family papers ; Life by James Fitzjames- 
Stephen prefixed to later editions of Essays ; Life- 
of Sir J. F. Stephen, by Leslie Stephen. See also- 
Sir H. Taylor's Autobiography, 1 885 ; Taylor's 
Correspondence, 1888, ed. Dowden ; Macvey 
Napier's Correspondence, 1879.] L. S. 

STEPHEN, SIR JAMES FITZJAMES 

(1829-1894), judge, born at Kensington on 
3 March 1829, was the second son of Sir James 
Stephen (1789-1859) [q.v.] He was sent in 
November 1836 to the school of the Rev. 
Benjamin Guest at Brighton, and in April 
1842 to Eton, which he attended from hia 
father's house in Windsor. He showed from 
infancy remarkable thoughtfulness and inde- 
pendence of character, though he was not 
brilliant as a scholar. At Eton he was much 
bullied and learnt the lesson of taking his own 
part and resenting injustice. His dislike to the 
place led to his being entered at King's 
College, London. He lived with his uncle, 
Henry Venn (1796-1873) [q. v.], did well 
in examinations, spoke at a debating society, 
and was interested by F. D. Maurice's lec- 
tures. In 1847 he entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Want of accurate scholarship 
and of mathematical aptitude made his aca- 
demical career unsuccessful. He became, 
however, well known at the Union, where 
his great rival was the present Sir W. Har- 
court, and where his downright oratory 
earned him the nickname of the ' British 
Lion.' He was also a member of the 
' Apostles,' where he read many papers and 
formed a close friendship with (Sir) Henry 
James Sumner Maine [q. v.], then professor 
of civil law. Failing to win a scholarship, 
he went abroad with his father in October 
1850, abandoning the honours competition. 
At Paris he attended law courts and became 
interested in the contrast between French 
and English procedure. He took an ordinary 
B.A. degree in the summer of 1851. He 
now decided to go to the bar, in spite of his 
father's preference for a clerical career. He 
entered the Inner Temple, and was called 
to the bar on 26 Jan. 1854. He found the 
more technical part of his legal studies un- 
congenial, but was deeply interested in 
general principles of jurisprudence. At this 
time he formed a close friendship with 



Stephen 



165 



Stephen 



Henry John Stephen Smith [q. v.], the ma- 
thematician, and (Sir) M. E. Grant Duff. 

On 19 April 1855 he married Mary 
Richenda, daughter of the Rev. John William 
Cunningham [q. v.] Stephen had grown to 
great physical strength, though he cared 
little for any athletic exercise except walk- 
ing, and in mind as in body showed much 
more strength than flexibility. He had 
accused himself of sluggishness, and, though 
he had been a steady worker, had not liked 
liis studies enough to reconcile him to 
drudgery. From the time of his marriage, 
however, he became a most energetic worker. 
He had no connections at the bar when he 
joined the midland circuit. Business came 
slowly, though he was engaged in some con- 
spicuous criminal cases. Meanwhile he 
found it desirable to earn money by jour- 
nalism. Earlier attempts had brought little 
success, but at the end of 1855 he began to 
write for the ' Saturday Review,' then just 
started. There he found a thoroughly con- 
genial employment in writing social and 
moral articles, and became very intimate 
with other contributors, especially George 
StovinVenables and Thomas Collett Sandars 
fq. v.] While occupied with this and other 
literary work, he was appointed in 1858 secre- 
tary to the education commission of that 
year. The Rev. William Rogers, one of the 
commissioners, says (Reminiscences, 1888, pp. 
129-56) that the success of the commission 
in ' laying down the future lines of popular 
education ' was due more to their secretary 
than to any one else. The commission lasted 
till 1861. In August 1859 his improved 
position on circuit was shown by his ap- 
pointment as recorder of Newark. He held 
the position, worth only 40/. a year, till 
1869. In December 1861 he was employed 
as counsel for Dr. Rowland Williams [q. v.], 
charged in the court of arches with express- 
ing heretical opinions in one of the ' Essays 
and Reviews.' His client was convicted 
upon two counts, but acquitted upon them 
on appeal to the privy council. On the 
appeal Williams defended himself. Stephen 
published his argument in' 1862. The case 
was out of the regular way of business, and 
his employment was due to his sympathy 
with the general position of the 'Broad- 
church party.' He was a friend of Jowett 
and Dean Stanley, and at this time had much 
sympathy for their opinions. He wrote 
some articles in ' Fraser ' upon theological 
controversies at this time, and sharply 
criticised Newman's 'Grammar of Assent.' 
Froude, who was the editor, was a very in- 
timate friend, and Stephen, after Froude, was 
also one of the warmest friends of Carl vie. 



Carlyle's respect was afterwards shown by 
his appointment of Stephen as his executor. 
Stephen had also during this period (1860- 
1863) contributed many articles to the 
' Cornhill Magazine,' under Thackeray's 
editorship. In 1863 Stephen returned to 
more professional work by publishing his 
' General View of the Criminal Law.' He 
had been long greatly interested in the sub- 
ject, and published the germ of his book in 
the ' Cambridge Essays ' for 1857. 

In 1865 the 'Pall Mall Gazette' was 
started, and Stephen was invited to become 
a contributor. For five years he was the 
chief writer. He wrote sometimes as many 
as six articles in a week, and in 1868 wrote 
two-thirds of the articles published. His 
services were highly valued by the editor, 
Mr. Frederick Greenwood, and he had a freer 
hand than elsewhere for the expression of his 
strongest convictions. Few journalists have 
succeeded in stamping a paper more dis- 
tinctly with their personal characteristics, 
and the paper held a very high and inde- 
pendent position. He was at the same time 
writing a series of articles upon standard 
authors in the 'Saturday Review.' His 
labours were interrupted, though less often 
than he could have wished, by some im- 
portant professional employment. His most 
conspicuous case was in 1867, when he was 
employed by the ' Jamaica Committee ' to 
apply for the committal of Governor Eyre 
and other officers charged with excessive 
severity. He took silk in 1868. In 1869 
he received the offer of succeeding Maine as 
legal member of council in India. He ac- 
cepted it after some hesitation, caused by his 
reluctance to leave his family, and the 
danger to improving prospects at the bar. 

Stephen was in India from December 1869 
till April 1872. He spent the time in ex- 
ceedingly hard work, interrupted only by a 
short illness. His chief duty was to carry 
on the work of codification, which had been 
taken up after the suppression of the mutiny. 
The penal code, drawn by Macaulay in 1834, 
had been finally enacted in 1860; and other 
measures had been passed during Maine's 
tenure of office (1862-9). Several measures 
of great importance were passed by Stephen, 
with the co-operation of his colleagues, that 
which was most exclusively his own being 
the Evidence Act (passed 12 March 1872). 
He had, however, to take the chief part in 
preparing many other acts, some of them of 
great complexity and involving delicate ques- 
tions of policy. He had done in two years 
and a half work which might well have filled 
five, and thought that the process of codi- 
fication had been pushed within measurable 



Stephen 



166 



Stephen 



distance of completion. Some critics held 
that the work thus rapidly done might be 
improved in elegance and accuracy, but its 
value on the whole has been generally ad- 
mitted. Stephen was profoundly impressed 
by the great work achieved by the English 
in India, and the comparatively slovenly 
nature of English administration and legis- 
lation at home. He began during the home 
voyage to write a series of letters, expressing 
these conclusions, which appeared in the 'Pall 
Mall Gazette ' in the winter of 1872-3, and 
were collected as ' Liberty, Equality, Fra- 
ternity,' a very forcible protest against some 
popular opinions. The book shows that in 
philosophy he was a disciple of Mill and the 
utilitarians, but in the application to poli- 
tical questions rather followed Hobbes, and 
was in sympathy with Carlyle's approval of 
strong government. He agreed, too, with 
Carlyle in retaining much of the old puritan 
sentiment, while abandoning the dogmas as 
indefensible. In spite of this he considered 
himself to be still on the liberal side, and in 
the summer of 1873 stood for Dundee as a 
supporter of Mr. Gladstone's government. 
He was defeated by a large majority, and 
his want of sympathy for the popular senti- 
ment led him to see that, although differing 
on many important points, he was less 
averse to the conservatives. He had been 
strongly opposed to democracy since the 
impression made upon him in 1848. 

After his return from India he was much 
employed in attempts to carry out codifica- 
tion in England. He prepared an Evidence 
Act with the approval of Sir John Duke 
(afterwards Lord Coleridge), and a homicide 
bill with Russell Gurney [q. v.] These, and 
a bill consolidating the acts relating to the 
government of India, cost much labour in 
1873-4, but never passed into law. He was 
appointed professor of common law at the 
inns of court in December 1875, and lectured 
upon the law of evidence, which led to a 
' digest ' of that law, published in 1876. In 
1877 he published a digest of the criminal 
law, to which he had been led when pre- 
paring a new edition of his ' General View.' 
His suggestion that this might be converted 
into a code was favourably received by 
government, and he was instructed to pre- 
pare a measure, which was in 1878 carefully 
considered by a commission including him- 
self and three judges. A bill to give effect 
to the code was dropped on a change of 
government, but again announced in the 
Queen's speech in 1882. It was never 
brought before parliament. 

Stephen had been employed in some im- 
portant cases before the judicial committee 



of the privy council, though his practice was 
always irregular. He was a member of a 
commission upon fugitive slaves (1876), a 
commission upon extradition (1878), and & 
copyright commission (1878). When he 
undertook the criminal code he received a 
virtual promise of a judgeship, and he was 
accordingly appointed on the first vacancy 
(3 Jan. 1879). He had been elected a 
member of the ' Metaphysical Society ' on 
his return from India, and published a few 
articles which were partly the result of 
debates in that body upon theological ques- 
tions. He had by this time entirely aban- 
doned his belief in the orthodox dogmas, 
though he felt strongly the impracticability 
of dispensing with the old ' sanctions.' Some 
letters which he wrote to the ' Times ' in 
1877-8 in defence of Lord Lytton's policy 
in India against Lord Lawrence and others 
also attracted some notice. Lord Lytton, 
on the eve of his departure as governor- 
general (March 1876), had made Stephen's 
acquaintance ; they became exceedingly 
warm friends, maintained a close corre- 
spondence, and Stephen heartily admired 
his friend's general conduct of Indian affairs. 
Soon after his return from India he took a 
house at Anaverna, near Ravensdale in Ire- 
land, where he spent his vacations till near 
the end of his life, and employed much of 
his leisure upon literary labours. 

On becoming a judge Stephen set himself 
to work upon the new edition of his 
' General View,' which gradually developed 
into the ' History of the Criminal Law,' 
a much larger book, in which very little of 
the original remains. It was published in 
1883, and represents a great amount of ori- 
ginal inquiry. The labour superadded to 
his judicial duties sensibly tried his strength. 
He turned for relief to an historical inquiry, 
and his interest in India led him to con- 
template an account of Warren Hastings's 
impeachment. He began, by way of experi- 
ment, to write upon the Nuncomar incident, 
and in 1885 published an investigation 
which involves a very searching criticism of 
Macaulay's famous article. The publication 
was followed by a serious illness (April 
1885), which had to be met by careful regi- 
men and by limited indulgence in hard 
work. He was, however, fully up to his 
regular work, and in the autumn of 1886 
became chairman of a commission to inquire 
into the ordnance department. A disease 
which had been slowly developing began to 
affect his mental powers. Upon hearing 
that public notice had been taken of sup- 
posed failure, he consulted his physician, 
and by his advice at once resigned in April 






Stephen 



167 



Stephen 



1891. He received a baronetcy in recogni- 
tion of his services. From this period he 
gradually declined, though he was still able 
to collect some of his old ' Saturday Review ' 
articles for publication. He died at the 
Red House Park, Ipswich, on 11 March 
1894. 

In Januaryl877 Stephen was made K.C.S.I. 
He received the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
at Oxford in 1878, and of LL.D. at Edin- 
burgh in 1884. He was made an honorary 
fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1885, and corresponding member of the 
French Institute in 1888. 

Stephen was pre-eminently a man of mas- 
culine or, as his friends often said, John- 
sonian power of mind. His massive com- 
mon-sense implied some want of subtlety. 
His energy enabled him to turn out an 
immense quantity of valuable work, marred 
in some ways by want of finish and done 
at high pressure. In codifying he was carry- 
ing out the theories of his teachers, Austin 
and Bentham, and his failure to get his 
schemes adopted in England strengthened 
his predilection for strong government. His 
position, both in political and theological 
matters, made him an assailant of popular 
views, and he always expressed himself as 
vigorously and frankly as possible. As a 
judge his dislike of technicalities and 
subtleties was some disqualification in the 
nicer matters of the law, but he was re- 
spected for his downright force, and in 
criminal cases had the highest authority from 
his wide knowledge and unmistakable love 
of fairplay. A hatred of brutality gave him 
the reputation for severity ; but no one was 
more anxious to avoid every chance of hasty 
and unjust judgments. In private life he 
was conspicuous not only for domestic affec- 
tion, but for the warmth of his friendships 
and his generous support of the unfortunate. 
Sir James Fitzjames Stephen's works are : 
1. ' Essays by a Barrister ' (anon, from the 
' Saturday Review '), 1862, 8vo. 2. ' Defence 
of the Rev. Rowland Williams,' 1862, 8vo. 
3. ' A general View of the Criminal Law of 
England,' 1863, 8vo. A so-called second 
edition of this published in 1890 is really a 
distinct book. 4. ' Liberty, Equality, Fra- 
ternity,' 1873 ; 2nd edit, (with additions), 
1874, 8vo. 5. ' A Digest of the Law of Evi- 
dence,' 1 876 ; reprinted with alterations in 
1876 (twice) and 1877; 2nd edit. 1881; 3rd 
edit. 1887 ; 4th edit, 1893. 6. < A Digest of 
the Criminal Law (Crimes and Punish- 
ments),' 1877, 1879, 1883, 1887 and 1896, 
8vo. 7. ' A Digest of the Law of Criminal 
Procedure in Indictable Offences,' 1 883, 8vo, 
by Sir J. F. Stephen and Herbert (now Sir 



Herbert) Stephen. 8. ' A History of the 
Criminal Law of England,' 1883, 3 vols. 8vo. 
9. ' The Story of Nuncomar and Sir Elijah 
Impey,' 1885, 2 vols. 8vo. 10. ' Hone Sab- 
baticae : a reprint of articles contributed to 
the " Saturday Review," ' 1892, three series. 
Stephen contributed many articles to maga- 
zines, of which a list is given in the life by 
Mr. Leslie Stephen (pp. 484-6). 

Stephen left a wife, two sons, and four 
daughters. His eldest son is now Sir Her- 
bert Stephen. His second son, JAMES KEN- 
NETH STEPHEN (1859-1892), was born 
25 Feb. 1859. He showed great promise 
and won a foundation scholarship at Eton 
in 1871. He did well in examinations, but 
was better known for the intellectual ability 
displayed in a school periodical, the ' Etonian. 
He was famous at the game of football ' at 
the wall,' and always retained the warmest 
affection for his school. He became a scholar 
of King's College, Cambridge, in 1878, won 
prizes and the Whewell scholarship (1881), 
and was in the first class of the historical 
tripos, and the second class of the law tripos, 
in 1881. He was elected fellow of his col- 
lege in 1885. A dissertation upon ' Inter- 
national Law,' written as an exercise for 
this, was published in 1884. At Cambridge 
he was known as an ' apostle,' and was presi- 
dent of the Union (1882), where he won an 
unusual reputation for oratory. He appeared 
as Ajax in a Greek play, a part for which he 
was fitted by a massive frame and striking 
face. In 1883 he was for a short time at 
Sandringham as tutor to the future Duke of 
Clarence, who died in 1892. He was called 
to the bar in 1884, but devoted most of his 
energy to journalism. His high reputation 
as a speaker led his friends to anticipate 
for him a career of parliamentary success, and 
his singular sweetness and frankness gained 
him innumerable friends. An accidental 
blow upon the head at the end of 1886 in- 
flicted injuries not perceived for some time. 
In the early part of 1888 he brought out a 
weekly paper called ' The Reflector,' chiefly 
written by himself. He now wished to de- 
vote himself chiefly to literature, and was 
appointed by his father to a clerkship of 
assize on the South Wales circuit. Mean- 
while it became evident that the accident 
was affecting his brain. He gave up his 
place, and resolved in October 1890 to settle 
at Cambridge. He gave lectures, spoke at 
the Union, and was much beloved by many 
companions. In 1891 he wrote an able 
pamphlet, ' Living Languages,' in defence of 
the compulsory study of Greek at the uni- 
versities. In the same year he published 
two little volumes of verse, ' Lapsus Calami,' 



Stephens 



168 



Stephens 



and ' Quo Musa tendis,' chiefly collections of 
previous essays. The first went through 
five editions, and both were republished as 
'Lapsus Calami, and other verses,' with a 
life by his brother Herbert, and one or two 
additions in 1896. In November 1891 his 
disease suddenly took a dangerous form, and 
he died 3 Feb. 1892. He was buried at 
Kensal Green, where his father and his grand- 
parents, Sir James and Lady Stephen, are 
also buried. A brass has been placed in 
King's College Chapel to his memory ; an- 
other is in the ante-chapel at Eton. 

[Family papers ; Leslie Stephen's Life of Sir 
James Fitzjames Stephen, 1895, 8vo.] L. S. 

STEPHENS. [See also STEEVENS and 

STEVENS.] 

STEPHENS, ALEXANDER (1757- 
1821), biographical writer, born in 1757, was 
son of Thomas Stephens, provost of Elgin. 
His mother's maiden name was Fordyce. At 
the age of eighteen he left Aberdeen Uni- 
versity for the West Indies, and stayed some 
time in Jamaica. On his return to England 
he bought a commission in the 84th regiment, 
but never joined it. At twenty-one he en- 
tered the Middle Temple, but gave more 
time to literature than to law, though he for 
some time conducted a legal journal called 
' The Templar,' and is said to have pleaded 
successfully before the House of Lords the 
claim of the Duke of Roxburgh (a distant 
relative) to the title [see KEK, JAMES INNES-, 
fifth DTJKE OF ROXBURGH]. Stephens's first 
essay in literature was a poem on Jamaica. 
In 1803 he published in two quarto volumes, 
with maps and appendices, a ' History of the 
Wars which arose out of the French Revolu- 
tion.' The narrative is clear and impartial, 
but somewhat diffuse. In 1813 appeared his 
chief work, the 'Memoirs of John Home 
Tooke,' 2 vols. 8vo, founded on original letters 
and papers, as well as upon an acquaintance 
of several years. The quarrel between Tooke 
and Wilkesandthe controversy with ' Junius' 
are dealt with in great detail, and the latter 
part of the book contains reports of conversa- 
tions with Tooke at Wimbledon. Stephens's 
book had been preceded only by the wretched 
compilation of W. Hamilton Reid. It re- 
mains the best life of Home Tooke. 

Stephens was a frequent contributor to 
the 'Analytical Review' and the ' Monthly 
Magazine' of literary and biographical ar- 
ticles. The ' Monthly Magazine ' published 
after his death (October 1821-August 1824) 
' Stephensiana,' a series of articles consisting 
of anecdotes of his contemporaries collected 
by him. Stephens edited the first five volumes 
of the ' Annual Biography and Obituary,' 



and contributed most of the contents of the 
first nine volumes of ' Public Characters' 
issued by Sir Richard Phillips in 1823. He 
published numerous anonymous pamphlets, 
including a brief memoir of Curran (1817). 
As a biographer he was painstaking, accu- 
rate, and scrupulously fair. This is the more 
to his credit inasmuch as he was a strong 
whig. He lived at first near Primrose Hill, 
but afterwards built for himself Park House 
in LTpper Church Lane, Chelsea. Stephens 
died at his house in Chelsea on 24 Feb. 1821, 
and was buried ' in the new burial-ground 
south of the new church.' By his marriage 
in 1792 with Miss Lewin, daughter of Samuel 
Lewin of Broadfield House, Hertfordshire, 
he had three children. One of his sons, 
Thomas Algernon, was wounded at Water- 
loo, where he carried the colours of the 3rd 
battalion of royal Scots. 

[Ann. Biogr. and Obituary, 1822, pp. 412-22 
(with list of works) ; Faulkner's Chelsea, i. 151, 
254, 273-4; Ann. Eeg. 1821 (App. to Chron.), 
p. 231; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xii. 71; 
Allibone'sDict.of Engl.Lit.ii. 2237 ; Brit.Mus. 
Cat. ; Diet, of Living Authors.] G. LE G. N. 

STEPHENS, CATHERINE, COTJNTESS 
OF ESSEX (1794-1882), vocalist and actress, 
the daughter of Edward Stephens, a carver 
and gilder in Park Street, Grosvenor Square, 
was born on 18 Sept. 1794. Having shown, 
like her elder sisters (for one of whom see 
below), musical capacity, she was placed in 
1807 under the charge of Gesualdo Lanza 
[q. v.], with whom she remained five years. 
Under his care she sang in Bath, Bristol, 
Southampton, Ramsgate, Margate, and other 
places, appearing early in 1812 in subordinate 
parts at the Pantheon as member of an Italian 
opera company, headed by Madame Bertinotti 
Radicati. At the close, in 1812, of her en- 
gagement with Lanza, her father placed her 
under Thomas Welsh [q. v.], as whose pupil 
she sang anonymously on 17 and 19 Nov. 
in Manchester. On 23 Sept, 1813 she ap- 
peared at Covent Garden as Mandane in 
' Artaxerxes,' obtaininga conspicuous success, 
especially in the airs ' Checked by duty, 
racked by love,' and ' The soldier tired of 
war's alarms,' and being compared toCatalani 
and Mrs. Billington (cf. Theatrical Inquisitor, 
23 Sept.) She was depicted as rather above 
middle size, and ' inclinable to the embon- 
point,' looking older and graver than her 
years, and was credited with pathos, tender- 
ness, and sweetness. On 22 Oct. she sang 
as Polly in the ' Beggar's Opera,' and on 
12 Nov. as Clara in the 'Duenna.' Rosetta 
in ' Love in a Village ' was also taken. Her 
marked success evoked a fierce polemic 
between Lanza and Welsh, who both claimed 



Stephens 



169 



Stephens 



the honour of instructing her. At the con- 
cert of ancient music in March 1814 she was 
assigned the principal soprano songs, and 
she sang later in the year in the festivals 
in Norwich and Birmingham. 

At Covent Garden, where she remained 
with but few interruptions from her first 
appearance in 1813 down to 1822, she at 
first received 12/. a week ; this was succes- 
sively advanced to 201. and 251. a week. On 
1 Feb. 1814 she was the original Mrs. Corn- 
flower in the ' Farmer's Wife ' of Charles 
Dibdin, jun. She played Ophelia to the 
Hamlet of Young and that of Kemble, and 
was injudicious enough on the first occasion 
(21 March) to introduce into the character 
the song of ' Mad Bess,' for which she was 
hissed. She played Matilda in ' Richard 
Cosur de Lion,' and on 31 May, as Desdemona 
to Young's Othello, sang the original air of 
' My mother had a maid called Barbara.' On 
1 Feb. 1815 she was the original Donna 
Isidora in Dimond's ' Brother and Sister ; ; 
on 7 April Donna Orynthia in the ' Noble 
Outlaw/ founded on the ' Pilgrim ' of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher ; and on 7 June Eucharis 
in ' Telemachus.' Next season she was Sylvia 
in 'Cymon,' Hennia in 'Midsummer Night's 
Dream,' Imogen, Cora in ' Columbus,' and on 
12 March 1816 the first Lucy Bertram in 
Terry's adaptation ' Guy Mannering.' On 
23 Sept. she was the original Sophia Fidget 
in Tobin's posthumous ' Yours or Mine,' on 
12 Nov. the first Zelinda in Morton's ' Slave,' 
on 27 Feb. 1817 Laurina in the 'Heir of 
Vironi,' on 15 April Rosalind in Dimond's 
' Conquest of Taranto,' on 20 May Zerlina in 
the ' Libertine ' of Pocock, and she played 
Eudocia in the 'Humorous Lieutenant' and 
Peggy in the ' Gentle Shepherd.' Among 
many original parts of no importance in the 
next season stands conspicuous Diana Vernon 
in Pocock's ' Rob Roy Macgregor.' She also 
played Cowslip in the ' Agreeable Surprise.' 
On the first production of the ' Marriage of 
Figaro ' on 6 March 1819 she was Susanna 
to the Figaro of Liston, and in that of the 
' Heart of Midlothian,' by Terry, on 17 April, 
she was Effie Deans. On 14 Dec. she played 
Adriana in the ' Comedy of Errors,' con- 
verted by Reynolds into an opera. In Terry's 
' Antiquary ' on 25 Jan. 1820 she was the 
first Isabella Wardour, and in an adaptation 
of ' Ivanhoe,' which followed on 2 March, 
she was Rowena. Morton's ' Henri Quatre, 
or Paris in the Olden Time,' on 22 April, fur- 
nished her with a part as Florence St. Leon. 
In ' Don John, or the Two Violettas,' 20 Feb. 
1821, an opera founded by Reynolds on the 
'Chances,' altered from Fletcher by the 
Duke of Buckingham, she was the second 



Violetta. She also played Dorinda in Dry- 
den's ' Tempest.' On 14 Feb. 1822 she was 
the first Annot Lyle in Pocock's adaptation 
' Montrose or the Children of the Mist,' and 
on 11 May Nourjadee on the production of 
Colman's ' Law of Java.' 

The following season she joined Elliston 
at Drury Lane, and was purposely, it is said, 
kept in the background. Curious alleged 
instances of Elliston's behaviour are pre- 
served, such as his fining her for not coming 
to the rehearsal of the pantomime, not in 
order to play, which was outside her contract, 
but to swell with her voice the chorus. For 
her benefit on 27 April 1823 she played 
Annette in the ' Lord of the Manor.' In 
Beazley's ' Philandering,' on 13 Jan. 1824, 
she was the first Emile, and in Reynolds's 
operatic version of the ' Merry Wives of 
Windsor,' on 20 Feb., Mrs. Ford. On the 
production of an anonymous version of 
' Faustus ' on 16 May 1825 she was the 
Adine (Margaret). Malvina in Macfarren's 
' Malvina ' was seen on 28 Jan. 1826 ; Edith 
Plantagenet in ' Knights of the Cross ' fol- 
lowed on 29 May. Gulnare in Dimond's 
' Englishmen in India ' was seen on 27 Jan. 
1827. In the following season she was again 
at Covent Garden, where she played Blanch 
Mackay in ' Carron Side, or the Fete Cham- 
petre,' on 27 May 1828. High as was the 
reputation Miss Stephens had made in opera, 
it was still higher as a concert singer. She 
was playing with Duruset in Dublin in July 
1821 and again in 1825, and in Edinburgh 
in 1814. She also visited Liverpool and other 
places. Until her retirement in 1835 she 
occupied the highest position at the best 
concerts and festivals. On 19 April 1838 
Miss Stephens married, at 9 Belgrave Square, 
George Capell Coningsby, fifth earl of 
Essex, an octogenarian widower, who died 
on 23 April 1839. Lady Essex survived him 
forty-three years, taking until near the end 
an interest in theatrical matters. She died 
on 22 Feb. 1882 in the house in which she 
was married, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. 

Miss Stephens was held to have the sweetest 
soprano voice of her time ' full, rich, round, 
lovely ' a natural manner, a simple style, 
disfigured by no affectation. In oratorio 
she lacked passion, but was always pure,- 
sensible, and graceful. As a ballad singer 
she was unequalled, and her rendering of 
' Auld Robin Gray,' ' Savourneen Deelish,' 
1 ' Ware a' Noddin',' ' A Highland Lad,' and 
a hundred others, and of songs such as ' Angels 
ever bright and fair ' and ' If guiltless blood,' 
has not been surpassed. Hazlitt, who spoke 
of her and Kean as the only theatrical 



Stephens 



170 



Stephens 



favourites he had, wrote his first theatrical 
criticism on her in the ' Morning Chronicle.' 
Mrs. Billington told him his idol would never 
make a singer, but, after hearing her as Polly 
and as Mandane, arrived at the conclusion 
that she sang some things as they could never 
be sung again. Of the same performances 
Leigh Hunt said that they ' are like nothing 
else on the stage, and leave all competition far 
behind ; ' adding that ' the graceful awkward- 
ness and naivete of her manner, more capti- 
vating than the most finished elegance, com- 
plete the charm.' Talfourd recalled the days 
when he heard her send forth ' a stream of 
such delicious sound as he had never found 
proceeding from human lips.' That first im- 
pression was never changed. Oxberry bestows 
more unmixed eulogy upon her than upon 
any other actress with whom he deals. On 
her retirement from professional life she car- 
ried with her a character for virtue, kind- 
ness, and generosity such as few actresses 
have enjoyed. 

A portrait painted by John Jackson hangs 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London ; 
another by Dewilde, as Mandane in 'Ar- 
taxerxes,' is in the Mathews collection of the 
Garrick Club, which contains also an anony- 
mous portrait. A portrait of her as Rosetta 
in ' Love in a Village,' showing a bright, 
sparkling, intelligent face, accompanies the 
memoir in Oxberry's ' Dramatic Biography.' 
Other portraits of her were painted by Lin- 
nell and Sir William John Newton (cf. Cat. 
Victorian Exhib. Nos. 414, 427). 

A Miss Stephens, possibly an elder sister, 
made, as Polly in the ' Beggar's Opera,' a 
very successful first appearance on the stage 
on 29 Nov. 1799, and played in 1800 and 1801 
Sophia in ' Of Age To-morrow,' Violetta in 
the 'Egyptian Festival,' Blanche in Mrs. 
Plowden's ' Virginia,' Rosetta in ' Love in 
a Village,' and other parts. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Ox- 
berry's Dramatic Biography, vol. ii. ; Dramatic 
Essays by Hazlitt; Clark Kussell's Represen- 
tative Actors; Theatrical Inquisitor, various 
years ; Grove's Diet, of Music ; Georgian Era ; 
Dibdin's Edinburgh Stage ; Biography of the 
British Stage, 1824; New Monthly Mag. various 
years ; History of the Theatre Royal, Dublin ; 
Liverpool Dramatic Censor ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. xii. 329, 357, 417.1 

J. K. 

STEPHENS, CHARLES EDWARD 

(1821-1892), musician, who was born at 
12 Portman Place (now Edgware Road) on 
18 March 1821, was nephew to Catherine 
Stephens, countess of Essex [q. v.] He 
studied the pianoforte and violin under J. M. 
Rost, Cipriani Potter, F. Smith, and H. 



Blagrove, and theory under James Alexander 
Hamilton [q. v.] After the completion of 
his school career, he was organist succes- 
sively to St. Mark's, Myddelton Square; 
Holy Trinity, Paddington ; St. John's, 
Hampstead; St. Clement Danes and St. 
Saviour's, Paddington. The last-named post 
he resigned in 1875. Stephens was a fellow 
or member of most of the English musical 
institutions, an original member of the Mu- 
sical Association in 1874 and treasurer of 
the Philharmonic in 1880, and of the South- 
Eastern Section of the National Society of 
Professional Musicians. He died in London 
on 13 July 1892, and was buried at Kensal 
Green. 

Stephens was an accomplished musician, 
a good teacher, an excellent pianist, and in 
his younger days a capable violinist. His 
compositions, which are numerous, include 
a symphony in G minor, played at the Phil- 
harmonic in 1891, and a quantity of piano- 
forte and chamber music. In 1880 Stephens 
gained both the first and second prizes for 
string quartets offered by Trinity College, 
London . He was a clever speaker and writer, 
as his papers read before the Musical Associa- 
tion bear witness. 

[Overture, iii. 86 ; Brown's Diet, of Musicians 
furnishes a list of Stephens's compositions ; 
British Musical Biography ; Musical Times ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians.] 

T> TT T 

STEPHENS, EDWARD (d. 1706), 'pam- 
phleteer, was son of Edward Stephens of 
Norton and Cherington, Gloucestershire, by 
Mary, daughter of John Raynerford of Staver- 
ton, Northamptonshire. He practised for 
some time at the common-law bar, but after- 
wards took holy orders. Probably he held 
no benefice. He published a great number 
of pamphlets on political and theological 
subjects, displaying great candour and em- 
bodying much valuable research. His friend, 
Thomas Barlow [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, 
considered him an honest and learned lawyer, 
an Thomas Hearne, the antiquary, says 
tha he was ' a good common lawyer, great 
With Judge Hale.' The only record of 
Stephens's legal ability is a pamphlet pub- 
lished in 1687, with dedication to Jeffreys, 
entitled ' Relief of Apprentices wronged by 
their Masters, how by our law it may effec- 
tually be given and obtained.' He welcomed 
the Revolution in ' The True English Go- 
vernment and Misgovernment of the four 
last Kings, with the ill consequence thereof 
briefly noted in two little Tracts,' 1689, 4to 
(the first of which appeared under the pseu- 
donym Socrates Christianus). But Stephens 
1 animadverted upon the early conduct of the 



Stephens 



171 



Stephens 



new government in ' Reflections upon the Oc- 
currences of the last Year ' (1689), attribut- 
ing the want of success in Ireland to division 
of counsel ; complaining that James II's ad- 
visers remained unpunished ; and denounc- 
ing the ' scuffling for preferments in the 
church.' A Dutch version of the ' Reflec- 
tions' appeared in 1690. It produced a 
reply, to which Stephens rejoined in 'Autho- 
rity abused in the Vindication of the last 
Year's Transactions, and the Abuses detected' 
(1690). In the last-named brochure Stephens 
says that he had joined King William at 
Sherborne, and assures him of the devotion 
of himself and his five sons. In 1690 he 
also published ' A plain Relation of the 
late Action at Sea between the English and 
French Fleets from 22 June to 5 July . . . 
with Reflections.' This was drawn up from 
information given by ' an honest volunteer 
seaman ' on board the English fleet, and has 
subjoined to it a copy of a letter written 
by a Frenchman serving in De Tourville's 
squadron. It was translated into Dutch the 
same year, and was followed by ' Reasons for 
the Tryal of the Earl of Torrington by Im- 
peachment/ an account of his conduct in the 
battle described. 

Stephens devoted most of his later years 
to theological controversy. As early as 1674 
he had written against the Romanists a 
tract entitled ' Popish Policies and Practices. 
. . . Translated out of the famous Thuanus 
and other writers of the Roman Communion.' 
In the year of his death he says he has been 
engaged more than twelve years in contests 
with the papists, who were ' so gravell'd with 
one or two little papers ' as to be obliged to 
fall back upon ' little tricks, feigned ex- 
cuses, forgeries, needless charges at law, 
bribing and corrupting witnesses, &c., and 
at last forfeiture of no less than 3,000/.' 
The ' little papers ' referred to are probably 
' A True Account of the unaccountable 
Dealings of some Roman Catholic Missioners 
of this Nation,' 1703, and some other pam- 
phlets on the same subject, one of which 
was addressed to the Right Rev. Bishop 
G[ifford], and the rest of the English bishops 
of the Roman communion.' Stephens also 
attacked the quakers. George Keith and 
other leaders had a friendly conference with 
him, and consented to circulate one of his 
tracts at their annual meeting, but declined 
further controversy. ' Achan and Elymas ; 
or the Troublers of Israel . . . detected 
among the leaders and managers of three 
dangerous Sects,' 1704, is mainly directed 
against the quakers, though ' Roman Catholic 
Missioners ' and ' Church and State Deists ' 
are coupled with them. In spite of his con- 



troversial publications, Stephens himself pro- 
pounded plans for conciliating both Ro- 
manists and dissenters. His own religious 
views appear to have been eclectic. He dis- 
liked Erastianism even more than Romanism 
or the quakers, and assailed it in ' The Spirit 
of the Church Faction detected,' 1691, and 
other writings. Hearne says that he ' was 
for the Greek rather than the Western church,' 
and thinks he died a member of the former. 

Stephens's ' The Liturgy of the Ancients 
represented ' was originally published in 1696. 
It was reprinted in 1848 in Peter Hall's ' Frag- 
menta Liturgica.' His repute as a theolo- 
gian is indicated by the appellation ' Father 
Stephens' or 'Abbat Stephens,' and by his 
correspondence with Johann Ernst Grabe. 

Stephens died in April 1706, and was 
buried at Enfield by the care of his son-in- 
law, Dr. Udall, who lived there. He married 
Mary, daughter of Lord-chief-justice Sir 
Matthew Hale [q. v.] In 1676 he wrote pre- 
faces to Hale's ' Contemplations, Moral and 
Divine.' 

Besides the works mentioned Stephens 
published : 1. ' Observations upon a Treatise 
of Humane Reason,' 1675, 12mo. 2. ' The Apo- 
logy of Socrates Christianus,' 1700. 3. 'A 
Collection of Modern Relations concerning 
Witches and Witchcraft,' prefaced by Hale's 
' Meditations concerning the Mercy of God 
in preserving us from the Malice and Power 
of Evil Angels,' and ' Questions concerning 
Witchcraft,' 1693, 4to. 4. A Choice Col- 
lection of Papers relating to State Affairs 
during the late Revolution,' 1703, 8vo; a 
second volume was promised, but not issued. 
5. ' A Wonder of the Bishop of Meaux 
[Bossuet] upon the Perusal of Dr. Bull's 
Books considered and answered,' 1704. In 
1702 he printed a general title and a preface 
to be bound up with a selection from his tracts 
(of which very few copies were printed), and 
gave a copy to the Bodleian. 

[Reliquiae Hearnianse, ed. Bliss, i. 63 n. (com- 
plete list of works), iii. 36, 37 ; Fosbroke's 
Gloucestershire, i. 320 ; Stephens's Works; Brit. 
Mus. Cat.] G. LE G. N. 

STEPHENS, EDWARD BOWRING 

(1815-1882), sculptor, son of James Stephens, 
a statuary, was born at Exeter on 10 Dec. 
1815. His artistic training was begun under 
the guidance of John Gendall [q. v.], a local 
draughtsman and landscape-painter, but in 
1835 he was sent to London and became a 
pupil of Edward Hodges Baily [q. v.], the 
sculptor. He was admitted a student of the 
Royal Academy in 1836, and in 1837 he 
gained a silver medal at the Society of Arts 
for a small original model of ' Ajax defying 



Stephens 



172 



Stephens 



the Gods.' His earliest exhibited works were 
at the Royal Academy in 1838, when he sent 
' Narcissus,' ' An Arcadian Nymph,' ' Ma- 
ternal Love,' and a bust, and these were fol- 
lowed in 1839 by ' Diana ' and another bust. 
Early in the latter year he went to Italy, 
and worked for some time in Rome. After 
an absence of nearly three years he returned 
to England, and lived for a time in Exeter, 
where he executed a life-size statue in marble 
of Lord Rolle. He removed to London in 
1842, and in 1843 was awarded the gold 
medal of the Royal Academy for a small 
relievo representing ' The Battle of the Cen- 
taurs and Lapithae.' In 1845 he assisted 
in the decoration of the summer pavilion at 
Buckingham Palace. Two groups, ' Satan 
Vanquished ' and ' Satan tempting Eve,' at- 
tracted some notice in the Great Exhibition 
of 1851. Apart from his busts, among which 
were those of Lord Palmerston, Bishop 
Phillpotts, the Earl of Devon, EarlFortescue, 
Viscount Ebrington, and other persons of 
note, he contributed to the exhibitions of the 
Royal Academy many groups and statues 
' Eve contemplating Death ' in 1853 ; ' The 
Angel,' and ' Evening : Going to the Bath,' 
in 1861 ; the Earl of Lonsdale (now at 
Lowt her Castle) in 1863; 'Euphrosyne and 
Cupid' in 1865; 'Cupid's Cruise' in 1867; 
' Blackberry Picking : the Thorn ' in 1870 ; 
' Zingari 'in 1871 ; ' Eve's Dream ' in 1873; 
* The Bathers ' in 1877 ; statuettes of ' Ophe- 
lia' and 'Lady Godiva' in 1879; and 
< Shielding the Helpless ' in 1883. 

Besides these works he executed in 1862 
a colossal marble statue of Sir Thomas Dyke 
Acland, placed on Northernhay, Exeter, 
where is also a seated statue in marble 
of John Dinham. His native city further 
possesses by him a colossal marble statue of 
Earl Fortescue, erected in the Castle Yard ; a 
statue of the Earl of Devon in Bedford Circus, 
and one of the prince consort in the Albert 
Memorial Museum. His group in bronze 
of ' The Deerstalker.' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1876, and generally regarded 
as his finest work, was purchased by public 
subscription and placed at the entrance to 
Northernhay. He produced also statues of 
Alfred the Great, for the Egyptian Hall of 
the Mansion House, London ; the Duke of 
Bedford, for Tavistock ; General Lord Sal- 
toun, for Fraserburgh ; Alfred Rooker, for 
Guildhall Square, Plymouth : Sir John Cordy 
Burrows, for Brighton; and a recumbent 
figure of Elizabeth, countess of Devon , for her 
monument in Powderham church, Devon- 
shire. These were very successful works, 
and greatly increased his reputation. 

Stephens was elected an associate of the 



Royal Academy in 1864, but it was gene- 
rally believed that his election was due to 
his having been confounded with Alfred 
Stevens [q. v.], the sculptor of the Welling- 
ton monument in St. Paul's Cathedral. He 
died at 110 Buckingham Palace Road, Lon- 
don, on 10 Nov. 1882. 

[Architect, 1882, ii. 315; Builder, 1882, ii. 
669; Art Journal, 1882, p. 379; Pycroft's Art 
in Devonshire, 1883 ; Men of the Time, 1879 ; 
Koyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1838-83.] 

K. E. G. 

STEPHENS, GEORGE (1800-1851), 
dramatist, was born at Chelsea on 8 March 
1800. In 1835 he published ' The Manuscript 
of Erdely,' a romance, 3 vols. This was 
followed by ' The Voice of the Pulpit, being 
Sermons on various subjects,' 1839 (preface 
dated Bromley Hall, Herts, 28 Nov. 1838); 
' Gertrude and Beatrice, or the Queen of Hun- 
gary : a tragedy in five acts,' 1839 ; and ' Pere 
La Chaise, or the Confessor,' 1840, 3 vols. 

On 26 Aug. 1841 his tragedy ' Martinuzzi, 
or the Hungarian Daughter,' was produced 
at the English Opera House (now the 
Lyceum Theatre). By the introduction of 
songs it was speciously converted into a 
musical drama, and brought out in evasion 
of the law which limited the performance 
of five-act dramas to the patent houses and 
the Haymarket. Samuel Phelps and Mrs. 
Warner took the chief roles, and the piece 
kept the stage for a month, although the 
critics thought little of its merits. In 1846 
he wrote ' Dramas for the Stage,' two pri- 
vately printed volumes containing ' Nero,' 
' Forgery,' ' Sensibility,' and ' Philip Basil, 
or a Poet's Fate,' four tragedies ; ' Self- 
Glorification,' a Chinese play ; and ' Rebecca 
and her Daughter,' a comedy. He also 
wrote the introduction to the ' Church of 
England Quarterly Review,' 1837 (i. 1-34), 
besides an article, ' The Slumber of the 
Pulpit.' His further works were 'The Patriot, 
a tragedy,' 1849 ; and ' The Justification of 
War as the Medium of Civilisation,' 1850. 
In later life he suffered reverses of fortune, 
! He died at Pratt Terrace, Camden Town, 
' London, on 15 Oct. 1851. His widow Ellen 
died on 11 Aug. 1866, aged 56. By her he 
had a son and daughter. 

To Stephens have been attributed three 

i works published under the pseudonym of 

! ' St. John Dorset.' Two of them, however, 

i ' The Vampire : a tragedy,' 1821, and ' Monte- 

I zuma : a tragedy,' 1822, appear to have been 

written by Hugo John Belfour [q. v.] ; while 

the third, a volume of poems, was the joint 

production of Belfour and Stephens. 

[Tallis's Dramatic Mag. May 1851, p. 197; 
I Gent. Mag. 1851 ii. 661, 1852 i. 2.] G. C. B. 



Stephens 



173 



Stephens 



STEPHENS, GEORGE (1813-1895), 
runic archaeologist, son of John Stephens of 
Ongar, Wesleyan minister, by his wife, Re- 
becca Eliza Rayner, was born at Liverpool 
on 13 Dec. 1813. Joseph Rayner Stephens 
[q. v.] was his brother. George was edu- 
cated at private schools and at University 
College, London, of which he was one of 
the earliest students. At an early age he 
became deeply interested in the study of 
English dialects. His brother settled at 
Stockholm in 1826, and directed his atten- 
tion to Scandinavian languages and litera- 
ture. Finding that the Scandinavian lan- 
guages afforded valuable aid in the elucida- 
tion of dialectal etymology, he was led to the 
erroneous conclusion that English was essen- j 
tially a Scandinavian and not a German lan- 
guage. This paradox he never abandoned, 
and in his later years he maintained it with 
a zeal which owed something of its inten- 
sity to^his anti-German political prejudices. 
He contributed several articles on church 
establishments and similar questions to the 
' Christian Advocate ' in 1832 and 1833. In 
1834 he married Maria, daughter of Edward 
Bennett of Brentwood, and in the same year 
took up his residence in Stockholm, where 
he found employment as a teacher of Eng- 
lish. His first separate publication, ' An 
Outline Sketch of Shakspere's " Tempest," 
with Remarks,' appeared in 1836, and was 
followed in 1837 by ' Conversational Out- 
lines of English Grammar,' and an edition 
of Washington Irving's ' Voyages and Dis- 
coveries of the Companions of Columbus,' 
intended as a reading-book for Swedish stu- 
dents of English. In 1841 he published an 
English poetical version of Tegner's ' Fri- 
thiof,' a translation of Mellin's' Guide-book to 
Stockholm/ and a pocket dictionary of Eng- 
lish and Swedish. He was one of the 
founders of the Society for the Publication 
of Ancient Swedish Texts (Svenska Forn- 
skriftsallskapet), established in 1843, for 
which in succeeding years he edited from 
the manuscripts several important works of 
early Swedish literature. In 1844 he was 
associated with G. O. Hylten-Cavallius in the 
publication of a valuable work on Swedish 
popular tales. His translation of the Anglo- 
Saxon poem on ' The Phoenix,' in the alli- 
terative metre of the original, published in 
the thirtieth volume of the ' Archseologia ' 
(1844), attracted attention by its extreme 
ingenuity, though in other respects it is de- 
serving of little commendation, being writ- 
ten in a pseudo-archaic dialect almost unin- 
telligible to ordinary English readers. The 
jargon adopted in this translation was still 
further developed in Stephens's later Eng- 



lish writings, which abound in anglicised 
Scandinavian words such as ' mole ' for lan- 
guage, and in foreign idioms. His last con- 
siderable publication before leaving Sweden 
was a catalogue of the most important Eng- 
lish and French manuscripts in the royal 
library at Stockholm (' Forteckning b'fver 
de fornamsta Brittiska och Fransyska hand- 
skrifterna uti Kongl. Biblioteket i Stock- 
holm.' Stockholm, 1847, 8vo), which is a 
work of great merit and usefulness, though 
disfigured by some curious mistakes. An 
admirable scheme which he drew up for an 
organised investigation into the popular 
antiquities of Iceland was adopted by the 
Northern Antiquarian Society of Copenhagen 
in 1845, and printed in the ' Antiquarisk 
Tidsskrift,' 1843-5, pp. 191-2. 

In 1851 Stephens was appointed lector in 
English language and literature at the uni- 
versity of Copenhagen, and in the following 
year he was in addition appointed lector in 
Anglo-Saxon. A collection of the historical 
and legendary ballads of Sweden, prepared 
by him in collaboration with G. 0. Hylten- 
Cavallius, appeared in 1853. In 1855, having" 
previously become naturalised as a Danish 
subject, he was made professor of English 
and Anglo-Saxon in the university. During 
the next few years he published several 
poetical works, including a ' melodrama ' in 
five acts, entitled ' Revenge, or Woman's 
Love ' (1857), which was accompanied by a 
volume containing the music to the songs 
introduced in the piece, most of the airs 
being composed by himself. In 1860 he 
published, for the first time, a fragment of 
the Anglo-Saxon poem of 'Waldere,' dis- 
covered by Professor E. C. Werlauff in the 
university library. 

In 1866 appeared the first volume of the 
work on which Stephens's claim to remem- 
brance principally rests, ' The Old Northern 
Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and Eng- 
land, now first collected and deciphered.' 
The second volume was published in 1868, 
and the third in 1884. A fourth volume is 
stated to have been in an advanced state of 
preparation at the time of his death, but has 
not yet (1898) appeared. An abridgment of 
the first three volumes, containing copies of 
the most important inscriptions,was published 
in 1884, under the title of ' A Handbook to 
the Old Northern Runic Monuments.' The 
conscientious labour which Stephens devoted 
to securing accurate copies of the inscrip- 
tions is deserving of the highest praise, and 
as a storehouse of materials for runic studies, 
his work is invaluable. On the other hand, 
his own contributions to the interpretation 
of the inscriptions are almost worthless, 



Stephens 



174 



Stephens 



owing to his want of accurate philological 
knowledge. His method of translation con- 
sisted in identifying the words of the in- 
scriptions with any words of similar appear- 
ance that he could discover in the dic- 
tionaries of ancient or modern Scandinavian 
languages, and then forcing them into some 
plausible meaning without regard to gram- 
mar. Even with respect to the translitera- 
tion of the characters, he rejected some of 
the most securely established results of 
former investigations, assigning, for instance, 
the value of A to the rune which is well 
known to have represented the R sound de- 
rived from an earlier Z. His unscientific 
procedure was criticised with severity by 
philologists trained in a more rigorous school, 
and for some years after the publication of 
the first volume of his work he was engaged 
in a fierce controversy with one of the ablest 
runic scholars of the time, Professor L. "VS im- 
mer. Although at a later period he showed 
more respect for sound scholarship, he never 
abandoned his loose and arbitrary methods 
of translation. A ludicrous illustration of 
the worthlessness of his principles of de- 
cipherment is afforded by his treatment of 
the inscription found at Brough in West- 
moreland, which he declared to be written 
in Anglian runes, and translated in accord- 
ance with that supposition. When it was 
pointed out that the inscription consisted of 
five Greek hexameters, Stephens frankly 
acknowledged his blunder, though the ac- 
knowledgment involved the condemnation 
of nearly all that he had done in the decipher- 
ment of the inscriptions. 

The bibliography of Stephens's writings in 
Erslev's ' Forfatterlexicon,' which extends 
only to the year 1868, fills eight closely 
printed pages. He was a constant contri- 
butor to many periodicals, both Scandina- 
vian and English, including the 'Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' and ' Notes and Queries.' 
Many of his articles and pamphlets relate 
to questions of political controversy, in which 
he was passionately interested, his antipathy 
to English radicalism being extremely vio- 
lent. He furnished a large number of quo- 
tations, principally from the literature of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, to the 
materials for the ' New English Dictionary.' 
It is stated that during the last years of his 
life he was engaged on a glossary to the 
old Northumbrian gospels, which has not ' 
yet (1898) been published. 

Stephens was a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and a member of many learned ; 
societies in Scandinavia and England. In 
1877 he received the degree of Ph.D. from 
the university of Upsala, and he was a 



knight of the orders of the Northern Star, 
the Dannebrog, and St. Olaf. He resigned 
his professorship in 1893, and died at 
Copenhagen on 9 Aug. 1895. 

[Erslev's Forfatterlexicon, 3rd Suppl. ; Nor- 
disk Familjebok, vol. xv. ; Hofberg's Srenskt 
Biogr. Handlexicon ; Hodgkin in Archseologia 
-Slinna, xviii. 50 ff. ; Times 10 and 12 Aug. 
1895 ; Gent. Mag. 1852, i 162-3.] H. B. 

STEPHENS, HENRY (1795-1 874), agri- 
cultural writer, born at Keerpoy in Bengal 
on 25 July 1795, was the son of Andrew 
Stephens, a surgeon in the service of the 
East India Company, who died at Calcutta 
on 26 Aug. 1806. Henry returned to Scot- 
land at an early age, and was educated at the 
parochial and grammar schools of Dundee 
and at the academy there, under Thomas 
Duncan, subsequently professor of mathe- 
matics at St. Andrews. After spending some 
time at the university of Edinburgh, he in 
> 1815 boarded himself with a Berwickshire 
' agriculturist, 'one of the best farmers of 
that well-farmed county,' George Brown of 
Whitsome Hill. Here' he gained that tho- 
rough and practical knowledge of agriculture 
which characterises his writings. After 
three years at Whitsome Hill, Stephens made 
for about a year (1818-19) an agricultural 
tour of the continent. In many places, he 
says, he was the first Briton to visit the 
district since the outbreak of the revolu- 
tionary wars. Shortly after his return home, 
in 1820, he came into possession of a farm 
of three hundred acres at Balmadies in For- 
farshire. It was in a dilapidated condition, 
with no dwelling-house, and only a ruined 
steading. Stephens thoroughly put it in 
order, and introduced several improvements 
hitherto unknown in the district ; the feed- 
ing of cattle, in small numbers, in separate 
hammels, and from troughs ; the enclosing 
of sheep upon turnips by means of nets 
instead of hurdles; and the growing of 
Swedish turnips in larger proportion than 
other varieties. He also made use of furrow 
drains, filled with small stones, several years 
before the Deanston plan was made public 
by James Smith (1789-1850) [q. v.] 

After managing the farm at Balmadies for 
some ten years, Stephens removed to the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, ultimately 
settling at Redbraes Cottage, Bonnington. 
Here at first alone, and afterwards in con- 
junction with other writers, James Slight, 
Robert Scott Burn, and William Seller, he 
produced that series of agricultural works of 
which the 'Book of the Farm' (Stephens's 
unaided work) is the best known. These 
books soon became popular abroad ; they 
were translated into manv continental Ian- 



Stephens 



175 



Stephens 



guages and pirated in American editions. 
Stephens received a gold medal from the 
emperor of Russia. 

In 1832 Stephens became editor of the 
' Quarterly Journal of Agriculture,' and he 
continued till 1852 to edit the 'Transactions 
of the Highland and Agricultural Society of 
Scotland,' of which he had been a member 
since 1820. In his later years he sat for a 
long period on the society's council. He was 
a corresponding member of the Societe Cen- 
trale et Imperiale d'Agriculture de France 
and of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
Galicia. Stephens died on 5 July 1874 at 
Bonnington. 

He wrote: 1. 'The Book of the Farm,' 
3 vols. 1842-4, which soon achieved a recog- 
nised position as the standard work on prac- 
tical agriculture. Several editions of it have 
appeared, the fourth edition, by Mr. James 
Macdonald, being published at Edinburgh in 
3 vols., 1889-91. It was reprinted in Ame- 
rica (New York, 1846-7, 1851), and again 
in 1858, under the title of ' The Farmer's 
Guide to Scientific and Practical Agricul- 
ture,' with an appendix by John Pitkin Nor- 
ton, the first professor of agricultural che- 
mistry in Yale College. 2. 'A Manual of 
Practical Draining,' 1846 (3rd edit. 1848), in 
which the views of thorough draining, first 
popularised by James Smith of Deanston, 
were explained at length, and other systems, 
including that of Elkington, discussed. 
3. 'The Yester deep Land-culture,' 1855, 
giving an account of the improvements which 
had been carried on since 1832 by the Mar- 
quis of Tweeddale on his estates at Yester, 
by means of thorough draining, subsoil, and 
steam ploughing. 4. ' A Catechism of Prac- 
tical Agriculture,' 1856, written for the in- 
struction of children, and founded on the 
Book of the Farm.' 5. ' The Book of Farm 
Implements and Machines,' 1858, by Ste- 
phens, in conjunction with Scott Burn and 
James Slight. 6. ' The Book of Farm Build- 
ings,' 1861, in conjunction with Scott Burn. 

7. 'Physiology at the Farm,' 1867, the 
general plan and arrangement of which rested 
with Stephens, though ' the execution of 
that plan in all its details, with the excep- 
tion of such as were of a purely practical 
nature,' was performed by Dr. William Seller. 

8. ' On Non-nitrogenised Food, in a physio- 
logical point of view,' 1867 ; a small pam- 
phlet, the joint work of Seller and Stephens, 
defending from an attack in the ' Field' cer- 
tain statements which had been made in 
' Physiology at the Farm ' concerning the 
nutritive powers of nitrogen. 

[Autobiographical preface to the second edi- 
tion (1849-51) of the Book of the Farm; Va- 



pereau's Dictionnaire Univ. des Contemp. 6th 
edit. 1880; Obituaries in Agricultural Gazette, 
11 July 1874; Mark Lane Express, 13 July 
1874; Bell's Weekly Messenger, 13 July 1874; 
Edinburgh Courant, 5 July 1874. See also 
Gardeners' Chron. 6 Jan. 1872 ; Allibone's Diet. 
1870, vol. ii. For reviews and notices of his 
works, &c. see Quarterly Eeview, March 1849, p. 
389 ; Blackwood, Iviii. (1845), 769,lxix. (1851), 
590; Athenaeum (1861), ii. 405-6.] E. G-E. 

STEPHENS, JAMES FRANCIS (1792- 
1852), entomologist, the only son of Captain 
William James Stephens, R.N. (d. August 
1799), and his wife, Mary Peck Stephens 
(afterwards Mrs. Dallinger), was born at 
Shoreham, Sussex, on 16 Sept. 1792. He 
was educated at the Bluecoat school at 
Hertford and at Christ's Hospital, to which 
he was presented by Shute Barrington [q.v.], 
bishop of Durham. He entered the school 
on 15 May 1800, and quitted it on 16 Sept. 
1807, when he was placed by his uncle, Ad- 
miral Stephens, at the admiralty office, So- 
merset House. His love for entomology 
showed itself in his schooldays, his attention 
being divided between it and natural phi- 
losophy and electricity until the winter of 
1809. At that date he began a ' Catalogue 
of British Animals,' that was carried up to 
1812 in manuscript. From 1815 to 1825 his 
spare time was mainly given to ornithology, 
and vols. ix. to xiv. of the ' General Zoology,' 
which had been begun by Dr. George Shaw 
[q. v.], or the greater part of the class Aves, 
were written by him. 

In 1818, at the request of the trustees of 
the British Museum, Stephens was granted 
leave from his office to assist Dr. William 
Elford Leach [q. v.] in arranging the insect 
collection. From that time forth he devoted 
himself more especially to British insects, 
and prepared a catalogue and a descriptive 
account of them. In May 1827 the first 
part of his ' Illustrations of British Ento- 
mology' (4to, London) appeared, followed 
in August 1829 by ' A systematic Catalogue 
of British Insects' (8vo, London). In 1832 
he was induced to take proceedings in chan- 
cery for the protection of his copyright 
against James Rennie [q. v.], whose ' Con- 
spectus of British Butterflies and Moths' was 
to a great extent an abstract of his volumes 
on Lepidoptera ; but he lost his case. The 
feeling, however, of his scientific friends was 
so strongly in his favour that a subscription 
was raised towards defraying his legal ex- 
penses. The ' Illustrations ' were persevered 
with up to 1837, when eleven volumes had 
been completed, and a supplement was issued 
in 1846. After his retirement from the ad- 
miralty in 1845 Stephens busied himself at 



Stephens 



176 



Stephens 



the British Museum, and was engaged to 
catalogue the British Lepidoptera. He had 
been elected a fellow of the Linnean Society 
on 17 Feb. 1815, and of the Zoological So- 
ciety in 1826. He was also a member of 
the entomological societies of London and of 
France. 

He died at Kennington on 22 Dec. 1852. 
Stephens married in 1822 Sarah, daughter of 
Captain Roberts, who survived him : all their 
children died young. 

Besides the works already named, and 
twenty-three papers on entomological sub- 
jects published in various scientific journals, 
Stephens was author of: 1. 'The Nomen- 
clature of British Insects,' 12mo, London, 
1829 ; 2nd edit. 1833. 2. ' An Abstract of 
the indigenous Lepidoptera contained in the 
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmetterlinge, by 
Hiibner,' 8vo, London, 1 835. 3. ' A Manual 
of British Coleoptera,' 8vo, London, 1839. 
4. ' Catalogue of British Lepidoptera' [in the 
British Museum], 12mo, London, 1850-2 ; 
2nd edit. 1856. He also wrote the entomo- 
logical articles in the ' Encyclopaedia Metro- 
politana.' His library was purchased by 
Henry Tibbats Stainton [q. v.], who published 
a catalogue of it. 

[Proc. Entom. Soc. London, new ser. ii. 46- 
50 ; Stainton's Bibliotheca Stephensiana ; in- 
formation kindly supplied by R. L. Franks, clerk 
of the Bluecoat School, an 1 ! by the secretaries 
of the Linnean and Zoological Societies; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Cat. ; Royal 
Soc. Cat.] B. B. W. 

STEPHENS, JANE (1813 P-1896), 
actress, born about 1813, seems to have kept 
a tobacconist's shop at 39 Liverpool Road, 
Islington, previous to her ' first appearance,' 
which took place on 8 Feb. 1840 at the 
Olympic Theatre, then under the manage- 
ment of Samuel Butler, as Betty in ' Mr. and 
Mrs. Grubb.' After playing other soubrette 
parts she went into the country for three 
years, and on her return to London was 
engaged for ' boys and walking ladies ' by 
Phelps at Sadler's Wells. Here, with the 
exception of one season with Mrs. Warner 
at the Marylebone, she remained until 1852. 
In 1853. as Miss Stephens, she joined the 
company of Charles Mathews at the Lyceum, 
then in 1858, as Mrs. Stephens, that of Alfred 
Wigan at the Olympic, where under four 
different managements she remained many 
years. Not until she began to assume grand- 
motherly parts did she make any great hit. 
In June 1854 in a revival of ' Hush Money ' 
she was Mrs. Crab, and in March 1857 
supported Robson as a country servant in 
' Daddy Hardacre,' Palgrave Simpson's 
rendering of 'La Fille de 1'Avare.' On 



27 May 1863 she won her first great success 
as Mrs. Willoughby in the ' Ticket of 
Leave,' Taylor's adaptation of ' Leonard.' 
On 31 Aug. 1867 she played, at the Adelphi, 
the Nurse in ' Romeo and Juliet,' on the 
occasion of Miss Kate Terry's retirement. 
At the Holborn in October 1867 she enacted 
a part in Robertson's unsuccessful 'For 
Love.' On the opening of the Globe 
Theatre on 28 Nov. 1865 she was the 
original Miss Pamela Grannet (a school- 
mistress) in Byron's ' Cyril's Success.' On 
23 Oct. 1869 she was, at the same house, 
Mrs. Mould in Byron's 'Not such a Fool as 
he looks.' On the opening of the Court 
Theatre on 25 Jan. 1871 she was the 
original Mrs. Scantlebury in Mr. Gilbert's 
' Randall's Thumb.' Here also on 27 March 
1872 she was Madame Valamour in 'Broken 
Spelling,' by West-land Marston and William 
G. Wills. Returning to the Olympic, she 
was on 4 Oct. 1875 Mrs. Daw in Albery's 
' Scrivener's Daughter.' In Mr. Burnand's 
' Betsy ' (' Beb '), at the Criterion on 6 Aug. 
1879, she was Mrs. Dirkett. At the Prin- 
cess's on 10 Sept. 1881 she was Mrs. Jarvis in 
Mr. Sims's ' Lights of London,' and at the 
Prince's Theatre on 29 March 1884 was Miss 
Ashford in the ' Private Secretary,' Mr. C. H. 
Hawtrey's adaptation of ' Der Bibliothekar ' 
of Von Moser. She played many other 
parts mostly of a similar nature. Her fare- 
well to the stage was taken on 9 July 1889, 
at an afternoon performance at the Shaftes- 
bury Theatre, in which she appeared as Mrs. 
Stonehenge Tattle in ' Truth.' She died of 
bronchitis at her residence on Clapham 
Common on 15 Jan. 1896, and was cremated 
on the following Monday at Woking. She 
was in her latter days a bright, cheery, 
amiable old lady, who seemed born to play 
the class of parts into which she drifted. 

[Personal knowledge ; Pascoe's Dramatic 
List; Scott and Howard's Blanchard; Era, 
18 Jan. 1896 ; Daily Telegraph, 18 Jan. 1896 ; 
Daily News, 20 Jan. 1896; Dramatic Notes; 
Sunday Times, various years ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. vol. x. passim.] J. K. 

STEPHENS, JEREMIAH (1591-1665), 
coadjutor of Sir Henry Spelman [q. v.], was 
son of Walter Stephens, vicar of Bishop's 
Castle, Shropshire, where he was born, and 
baptised 17 Oct. 1591. He entered Brase- 
nose College, Oxford, on 29 March 1609-10, 
and matriculated 19 June 1610; graduated 
B. A. 1 July 1612, proceeded M. A. 3 May 1615, 
and B.D. 11 Nov. 1628. In December 1615 
he was ordained deacon, and on 26 May 1616 
priest, being appointed about the same time 
chaplain of All Souls' College. On 11 Oct. 
1624 he was made clerk of the market, Ox- 



Stephens 



177 



Stephens 



ford, and 17 Dec. 1628 was licensed to preach. 
He was presented to the rectory of Quinton, 
Northamptonshire, on 25 Jan. 1621-2 by 
Charles I, and to that of Wootton in the 
same county on 13 July 1626, also by the 
king. 

Stephens is best known as the literary 
coadjutor of Sir Henry Spelman, to whom 
he rendered very great assistance in the 
compilation of the first volume of his ' Con- 
cilia, Decreta, Leges, Constitutiones in re 
Ecclesiarum orbis Britannici,' which was 
published in 1639. Spelman and Stephens 
were seven years engaged in preparing this 
volume. In the preface Spelman acknow- 
ledges the help rendered to him by Stephens, 
' a man born for the public good, by whose 
assistance this my first volume comes out, 
and on whom the hope of the rest is founded.' 
As a reward for the assistance he had given 
to Spelman, he was nominated by Laud 
to the prebend of Biggleswade in Lincoln 
Cathedral on 29 June 1639, and installed 
on 10 July following, vice Lambert Osbal- 
deston, who had been deprived ; but Osbal- 
deston seems to have been collated a second 
time in 1641, so that Stephens could not have 
held this preferment for long. During the 
Commonwealth he was deprived of his liv- 
ings by a parliamentary committee sitting 
at Northampton in 1644, and was 'plundered, 
imprisoned, barbarously used, and silenced ' 
(WOOD). On the accession of Charles II he 
was reinstated in his livings, and was made 
prebendary of Ilfracombe in the church of 
Sarum on 20 Aug. 1660, and again collated 
to the same prebend on 8 Oct. 1662. He 
died at Wootton on 9 Jan. 1664-5, and was 
buried in the chancel of Wootton church. 

Besides the help given to Spelman in the 
' Councils,' Stephens edited Spelman's ' Apo- 
logia pro tractatu de non temerandis ec- 
clesiis ' (1647) and ' Tithes too hot to be 
touched,' 3 parts, 1646, which subsequently 
appeared as ' The Larger Treatise on Tithes ' 
(1647). He also published on his own ac- 
count : 1. ' B. Gregorii Magni, episcopi Ro- 
mani, de Cura Pastorali liber vere aureus, 
accurate emendatus, et restitutus e vet. 
MSS. cum Romana editione collatis,' 1629. 
2. ' NotseinD. Cyprian, de Unitate Ecclesise,' 
1632. 3. 'Notae in D. Cyprian, de Bono 
Patientiae,' 1633. 4. ' An Apology for the 
Ancient Right and Power of the Bishops 
to sit and vote in Parliaments,' 1661. 

He wrote some polemical tracts, which 
were not published owing to the Restoration, 
including 'A Comparison between the Belgic, 
Gallic, Bohemian, and Scotch with the Eng- 
lish Covenant ; ' ' Account of the Principles 
and Practices of the Presbyterians:' 'The 

VOL. LIV. 



Sequestration of the Clergy, by Joh. Pym 
and Joh. White.' 

Stephens also wrote two works, the pub- 
lication of which was prevented by his death, 
'Treatise of the Laws of England,' and 
'The Design of the Cormorants upon the 
Church Lands defeated in the Time of King 
Henry V, effected in the Days of King 
Henry VIII.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 670 ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy, pp. 45-6 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Clark's Register of 
the Univ. of Oxford, passim ; Le Neve's Fasti, 
ii. 112, 656-7; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet, xxviii. 
385 ; Hook's Eccl. Biogr. viii. 478. The notices 
in Chalmers and Hook are mainly taken from 
Wood.] W. G. D. F. 

STEPHENS, JOHN (fi. 1615), satirist, 
son and heir of John Stephens of Gloucester, 
came of a numerous Gloucester family, which 
took an active part in municipal politics 
during the seventeenth century, James Ste- 
phens being its mayor in 1650-1, and mem- 
ber of parliament 1659-60 (FosBROOKE, 
Gloucester, pp. 200, 205, 209 ; WASHBOFRN, 
Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, passim). He must 
be distinguished from John Stephens (d. 
1613), who was attorney-general to Henry, 
prince of Wales, an ancestor of the Stephens 
of Over Lypiat, Gloucestershire ( Visit. Glou- 
cestershire; ATKTNS, Gloucestershire; BURKE, 
Landed Gentry), and also from John Ste- 
phens of Minsterley, Herefordshire ( Visit. 
Herefordshire, 1623). On 11 Nov. 1611 
he was admitted member of Lincoln's Inn, 
where he practised common law ; but he held 
no office there (DTTGDALE, Origines Jurid. 
and Chronica Ser.), and attained to no emi- 
nence in his profession (ci.Cal. State Papers, 
Dom.) His sole claim to remembrance is his 
authorship of ' Satyrical Essayes, Characters, 
and Others, or accurate and quick descrip- 
tions fitted to the life of their subjects,' 
London 1615, 8vo. A second edition, en- 
titled ' Essayes and Characters . . . with a 
new Satyre in defence of Common Law and 
Lawyers,' appeared in the same year, and in 
1631 appeared a third, which is a reprint of 
the second edition with the exception of the 
title ' New Essayes and Characters ' (BRTDGES, 
Restituta,iv.5Q3 et seq.) Some of these were 
reprinted by Halliwell-Phillipps in his ' Books 
of Characters,' 1857, 4to, and the 'Essay on 
a Worthy Poet ' has been considered, on no 
very conclusive grounds, to be a sketch of 
Shakespeare (Notes and Queries, 4th ser. iii. 
550). Stephens was also author of ' Cynthia's 
Revenge, or Menander's Extasy,' London, 
1613, which was not entered in the ' Sta- 
tioners' Register,' but was published surrep- 
titiously, with commendatory verses by Jon- 
is 



Stephens 



178 



Stephens 



son. It is a long and tedious play, founded 
on Lucan's ' Pharsalia ' and Ovid's ' Meta- 
morphoses ' (FLEAY, Biogr. Hist. ii. 252-3). 
Stephens has three copies of commendatory 
verses in ' Certaine Elegies,' 1617, by Henry 
Fitzgeffrey [q. v.], also a member of Lincoln's 
Inn. 

[Authorities cited ; "Works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; 
Lincoln's Inn Keg. ; Baker's Biogr. Dram.; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ed. Bohn.] A. F. P. 

STEPHENS, JOSEPH RAYXER(1805- 

1879), social reformer, sixth child of John 
Stephens (1772-1841), by his wife, Rebecca 
Eliza Rayner, of Wethersfield, Essex, was 
born at Edinburgh on 8 March 1805. His 
father, a native of St. Dennis, Cornwall, 
became a methodist preacher in 1792, and 
was president of the Wesleyan conference in 
1827. George Stephens (1813-1895) [q.v.] 
was his brother. Joseph entered Manchester 
grammar school in 1819, where he made 
friends with William Harrison Ainsworth 
[q.v.] and Samuel Warren (1807-1877) [q.v.] 
He was also at the methodist school, Wood- 
house Grove, near Leeds, and in 1823 taught 
in a school at Cottingham, East Riding. In 
July 1825 he became a methodist preacher, 
and was appointed in 1826 to a mission sta- 
tion at Stockholm. He was soon able to 
preach in Swedish, and acquired a taste for 
Scandinavian literature, which he communi- 
cated to his younger brother, George. He 
attracted the notice of Benjamin Bloomfield, 
first baron Bloomfield [q. v.], then pleni- 
potentiary at Stockholm, who made him his 
domestic chaplain. He also enjoyed a brief 
but ardent friendship with Montalembert, 
who spent some time at Stockholm in 1829. 
Stephens was ordained as a Wesleyan mini- 
ster in 1829, and stationed at Cheltenham in 
1830. 

His Wesleyan career ended in 1834, Avhen 
he resigned under suspension for attending 
disestablishment meetings in Ashton-under- 
Lyne circuit. He had joined, xinder Richard 
Oastler [q. v.], the movement for improving 
the conditions of factory labour, and thought 
establishment checked the popular sym- 
pathies of the clergy. Francis Place (1771- 
1854) [q.v.] says of Stephens that he 'pro- 
fessed himself a tory, but acted the part of a 
democrat.' The opposition of leading liberals 
to the ' Ten Hours Bill ' confirmed him as a 
' tory radical,' a name first given by O'Con- 
nell to Feargus O'Connor [q. v.] He threw 
himself with more zeal than discretion into 
the agitation for the ' people's charter ' (8 May 
1838), drafted by William Lovett [q. v.] 
Lovett reckoned O'Connor and Stephens 
among the 'physical force chartists' with 



James [Bronterre] O Brien [q. v.], and though 
Stephens repudiated even the name of ' char- 
tist,' and maintained that his views were 
' strictly constitutional,' his impassioned lan- 
guage gave colour to another interpretation. 
As an orator he possessed unusual gifts ; he 
was distinctly heard by twenty thousand 
people in the open air ; his energy of expres- 
sion and his mastery of homely sentiment 
were alike remarkable. His brother George 
designates him (1839) ' the tribune of the 
poor ; ' but his sympathy with popular needs 
was in excess of his political sagacity. His 
weekly sermons were for some time published 
as ' The Political Pulpit.' He contributed to 
the ' Christian Advocate,' edited by his 
brother John. 

On 27 Dec. 1838 he was arrested at Ash- 
ton-under-Lyne on the charge of ' attending- 
an unlawful meeting at Hyde' on 14 Nov. 
He was tried at Chester on 15 Aug. 1839, 
the attorney-general, Sir John Campbell, pro- 
secuting. Stephens defended himself, and 
was sentenced by Mr. Justice Pattison to 
find sureties for good behaviour for five years, 
after suffering imprisonment for eighteen 
months in the house of correction at Knuts- 
ford ; for this Chester Castle was substituted. 
He writes that his confinement was made 
' as little irksome and unpleasant as possible,' 
adding, 'To a man who has slept soundly 
with a sod for his bed, and a portmanteau 
for his pillow, within a stone's throw of the 
North Cape, and Avho has made himself quite 
at home among Laplanders and Russians, 
there is nothing so very, very frightful in a 
moderately good gaol, as gaols now go' (un- 
! published letter, 9 Sept. 1839). On the ex- 
piration of his five years' bail a presentation 
of plate was made to him (10 Feb. 1846). 

He settled in 1840 at Ashton-under-Lyne, 
where he preached at a chapel in Wellington 
Road, and conducted several journalistic 
efforts : ' Stephens's Monthly Magazine '(1840), 
the ' Ashton Chronicle ' (1848-9), the ' Cham- 
pion' (1850-1). In 1852 he removed to Staly- 
bridge. In 1856 he sold his Ashton chapel 
to Roman catholics (opened as St. Mary's, 
April 1856, rebuilt 1868), but still continued 
to preach at a chapel which he rented in 
King Street, Stalybridge, till 1875. He took 
part in various local agitations, retaining his 
power and popularity as a speaker, and being 
the recipient of various testimonials from his 
friends. For some time he was a member of 
the Stalybridge school board. He took no 
lead in politics, and claimed to stand aloof 
from parties. During his long career he pub- 
lished many pamphlets, not equal to his 
speeches, though he was an admirable letter- 
writer. In his later years he suffered from 



Stephens 



i 79 



Stephens 



gout and bronchitis. He died at Stalybridge 
on 18 Feb. 1879, and was buried on 22 Feb. 
in the churchyard of St. John's, Dukinfield, 
where his tombstone is the font from his 
King Street chapel. He married, first, in 
1835, Elizabeth Hen wood (d. 1852) ; secondly, 
in May 1857, Susanna, daughter of Samuel 
Shaw of Derby, and had issue by both mar- 
riages. On 19 May 1888 a granite obelisk 
to his memory was unveiled in Stamford 
Park, Stalybridge. 

[Life, by Holyoake (1881), portrait ; Glover 
andAndrews'sHist.of Ashton-under-Lyne, 1884, 
pp. 317 sq. (portrait), 342; Stalybridge Herald, 
24 May 1888; unpublished letters.] A. Gr. 

STEPHENS, NATHANIEL (1606?- 
1678), nonconformist divine, son of Richard 
Stephens, vicar from 1604 of Stanton St. 
Bernard, Wiltshire, was born in Wiltshire 
about 1606. On 14 March 1623, at the age 
of sixteen, he entered Magdalen Hall, Ox- 
ford, as a batler, graduating B.A. 14 Feb. 
1626, M.A. 25 June 1628. He was a hard 
student, giving sixteen hours a day to study. 
On leaving the university he appears to have 
become curate at Fenny Drayton, Leicester- 
shire, of which Robert Mason was rector. 
He probably was in sole charge from 1638. 
Driven from Drayton by the outbreak of the 
war in 1642, he took refuge in Coventry, 
where he subscribed the ' league and cove- 
nant ' and became morning preacher at St. 
Michael's. He returned to Drayton in 1645, 
and had among his hearers George Fox 
(1624-1691) [q. v.], who was then at a 
critical stage in his religious history. 
Stephens thought highly of Fox, discussed 
religion with him, and preached on the 
topics of their discourse, a proceeding which, 
in Fox's sensitive state, made him conceive 
a dislike to his pastor. In 1649, while 
Stephens was conducting a lecture at Market 
Bosworth, Fox interposed, Stephens cried 
out that he was mad, and Fox, stoned out 
of the town by a rabble, set down the ' deceit- 
ful priest ' as his ' great persecutor.' A 
discussion between them at Drayton in 1654 
is graphically narrated in Fox's 'Journal.' 
' Neighbours,' said Stephens, ' this is the 
business : George Fox is come to the light 
of the sun, and now he thinks to put out 
my starlight.' With anabaptists, and with 
Gerard Winstanley [q. v.] the universalist, 
Stephens had similar discussions, when they 
invaded his parish. His allusions in print 
to his various antagonists are marked by 

food sense and good feeling. In controversy 
e was moderate and fair, aiming neither 
'to please nor to displease any party;' even 
of the Roman church he writes without 
bitterness. His chief work (1656), on the 



Apocalypse, is notable for its rejection of 
fanciful speculations ; his exegesis is highly 
praised and generally followed by Matthew 
Poole or Pole [q. v.] in the filth volume 
(1676) of his ' Synopsis Criticorum.' 

In 1659 Stephens was presented by Colonel 
Purefey to the rectory of Drayton, which he 
held till 1662, when he resigned under the 
Uniformity Act. He continued to preach 
privately, but his services were often inter- 
rupted. Having seven times been driven 
from Drayton, he at length removed to 
Stoke Golding, three miles off, and preached 
there till lameness confined him to his chair. 
His studies made him absent-minded, but 
he was not wanting in a playful humour. 
He was buried on 24 Feb. 1678 in the 
churchyard of Stoke Golding. 

He published : 1. 'A Precept for the 
Baptisme of Infants . . . vindicated . . . from . . . 
Mr. Robert Everard,' 1651, 4to (preface by 
John Bryan, D.D. [q. v.], and Obadiah Grew 
[q. v.]) 2. ' A Plain and Easie Calculation 
of the Name ... of the Beast,' 1656, 4to 
(preface by Edmund Calamy the elder [q.v.]) 
3. t.' Vindicise Fundamenti, or a threefold 
defence of the Doctrine of Original Sin,' 
1658, 4to (against the Arminian positions of 
Everard, Jeremy Taylor, and others). Calamy 
gives a specimen of his unpublished notes on 
the Apocalypse, used by Poole, and after- 
wards in the possession of Sir Charles 
Wolseley (d. 1714) [q. v.] 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1148 sq. ; 
Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 422, 439 ; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iv. 1419; Calamy's 
Account, 1713, pp. 419 sq.; Calamy's Continua- 
tion, 1727, ii. 1 sq. ; Theological Review, 1874, 
pp. 51 sq. ; extracts taken in 1873 from the 
parish registers of Stanton St. Bernard, Fenny 
Drayton. and Stoke Golding.] A. G-. 

STEPHENS, SIR PHILIP (1725-1809), 
secretary of the admiralty, one of a family 
settled for many generations at Eastington 
in Gloucestershire, was the youngest son of 
Nathaniel Stephens, rector of Alphamstone 
in Essex, and was born there. He was 
educated at the free school at Harwich (Gent. 
Mag. 1810, i. 128), and at an early age ob- 
tained an appointment as clerk in the navy 
victualling office, as his eldest brother, 
Tyringham Stephens, had previously done. 
After his return from his voyage round the 
world, Rear-admiral George Anson (after- 
wards Lord Anson) [q. v.] took notice of 
young Stephens, and had him moved to the 
admiralty. Stephens afterwards served as 
Anson's secretary, and was appointed as- 
sistant secretary of the admiralty. In 1763 
he became secretary, and so continued for 
upwards of thirty years. He was elected 

N 2 



Stephens 



1 80 



Stephens 



F.R.S. on 6 June 1771, and from 1768 to 
1806 he represented Sandwich in the House 
of Commons. In 1795 he applied for per- 
mission to resign his office at the admiralty, 
and was then, 17 March, created a baronet and 
appointed one of the lords of the admiralty. 
By a special recommendation on 15 Oct. 1806 
(Orders in Council, vol. Ixvi.) Stephens, at 
the age of eighty-one, was granted a pension 
of 1,500/., which he enjoyed till his death on 
20 Nov. 1809. He was buried in Fulham 
church. His only son, Captain Thomas Ste- 
phens, was killed in a duel at Margate in 1790 ; 
and his nephew, Colonel Stephens Howe, who 
was included in the patent of baronetcy, 
predeceased him. The baronetcy thus be- 
came extinct. An elder brother, Nathaniel 
Stephens, died a captain in the navy in 
1747 ; and two nephews, also captains in 
the navy, William and Tyringham Howe, 
died in 1760 and 1783 respectively. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetcies and Landed 
Gentry; Gent. Mag. 1809, ii. 1180, 1234; 
Faulkner's Fulham, pp. 272-3 ; Thomson's 
Royal Society; Official Returns of Members of 
Parliament. Stephens's name is very prominent 
in the admiralty correspondence of the last half 
of the eighteenth century.] J. K. L. 

STEPHENS, ROBERT (1665-1732), 
historiographer-royal, born in 1665, was the 
fourth son of Richard Stephens of the 
elder house of that name at Eastington, 
Gloucestershire, by his wife Anne, eldest 
daughter of Sir Hugh Cholmeley, bart. His 
first education was at Wotton school, whence 
he removed to Lincoln College, Oxford, ma- 
triculating on 19 May 1681, but he left the 
university without taking a degree (FosTEK, 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iv. 1420). He was 
called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 
1689, and was one of the founders of the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1717 (Archceologia, 
vol. i. p. xxxvii). Being a relative of Robert 
Harley, earl of Oxford, whose mother, Abi- 
gail, was daughter of Nathaniel Stephens of 
Eastington, he was preferred by him to be 
chief solicitor of the customs, in which em- 
ployment he continued till 1726, when he was 
appointed to succeed Thomas Madox [q. v.] 
in the place of historiographer-royal. He 
died at Gravesend, near Thornbury, Glouces- 
tershire, on 9 Nov. 1732 (Gent. Mag. 1732, 
p. 1082), and was buried at Eastington, where 
a monument with an English inscription was 
erected to his memory by his widow, Mary 
Stephens, daughter of Sir Hugh Cholmeley, 
bart. (BiGLAND, Gloucestershire, i. 541). 

Stephens began about 1690 to transcribe 
and collect unpublished 'letters and me- 
moirs ' of Francis Bacon, chiefly in private 
collections. The first result of his labours 



was ' Letters of S r Francis Bacon . . . written 
during the Reign of King James the First. 
Now collected and augmented with several 
Letters and Memoires . . . never before pub- 
lished. The whole being illustrated by an 
Historical Introduction,' London, 1702, 4to. 
After this volume had appeared Harley ' was 
pleased to put into my hands some neglected 
manuscripts and loose papers, to see whether 
any of the Lord Bacon's compositions lay 
concealed there that were fit to be pub- 
lished.' His investigation induced Stephens 
to prepare another volume, the ' Letters and 
Remains of the Lord Chancellor Bacon,' Lon- 
don, 1734, 4to. The first 231 pages of this 
volume (it consists of 515), with a preface and 
introductory memoir, were sent to press by 
Stephens. The rest were selected from his 
papers by his friend John Locker, and the 
whole volume was edited by Stephens's 
widow. This work was reissued in 1736 
as : ' Letters, Memoirs, Parliamentary Affairs, 
State Papers, &c., with some Curious Pieces 
in Law and Philosophy. Published from 
the Originals. . . . With an Account of the 
Life of Lord Bacon.' 

Among Stephens's collection in the British 
Museum (Addit. MS. 4259) is a catalogue 
of letters and papers connected with Bacon. 
Many of these documents cannot now be 
found, and a list of the missing papers is 
printed in Spedding, Ellis, and Heath's edi- 
tion of Bacon's ' Works,' 1874, xiv. 590. It 
is possible that they are still in existence, 
and may yet be recovered. All the letters 
and papers described in Stephens's ' Cata- 
logue ' were most probably in the hands of 
Archbishop Tenison at Lambeth as late as 
December 1682. 

[Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn) i. 96, 97 ; 
Spedding's Bacon, viii. 16, 119, ix. 2, 3, 18, xi. 
3, xii. 349, 356, 372, xiii. and xiv. passim; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 51, 700, iii. 616, v. 373; 
Ayscough's Cat. of MSS. p. 784 ; Watt's Bibl. 
Brit.] T. C. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS (1821-1875), 
Welsh historian and critic, born at Pont 
Nedd Fechan, Glamorganshire, on 21 April 
1821, was the son of Evan Stephens, shoe- 
maker, by Margaret, daughter of William 
Williams, minister of the Unitarian church 
at Blaengwrach. Stephens was educated at 
a grammar school at Neath. About the com- 
mencement of 1835 he was apprenticed to 
a chemist at Merthyr Tydfil, where subse- 
quently, on his own account, he successfully 
carried on the business until his death. 

From his earliest days Stephens devoted 
himself to the study of Welsh history. His 
taste was first stimulated by Eisteddfod com- 
petitions, in which, from 1840 onwards, he 



Stephens 



181 



Stephens 



was awarded prizes for historical essays. In 
1848 he produced ' An Essay on the Litera- 
ture of Wales during the Twelfth and Suc- 
ceeding Centuries,' which won him the prize 
offered in the name of the Prince of Wales at 
the Abergavenny Eisteddfod, thereby defeat- 
ing Thomas Price (1787-1848) [q.v.j, a Welsh 
historian of repute. The essay was published 
at the expense of Sir John Guest, under the 
title of 'The Literature of the Kyrnry ' (Llan- 
dovery, 1849, 8vo), and was enthusiastically 
received by the best Celtic scholars, including 
Count Villemarqu6, Henri Martin, and Pro- 
fessor Schulz, who thereafter corresponded 
regularly with Stephens. In later years 
Matthew Arnold praised this ' excellent book' 
(Celtic Literature, p. vi). Schulz, under his 
nom de guerre of San Marte, brought out in 
1864 a German translation of the work, en- 
titled ' Geschichte der walschen Literatur 
vom xii bis zum xiv Jahrhundert ' (Halle, 
8vo). A second edition, with the author's 
additions and corrections, so far as they could 
be utilised, was posthumously published, 
under the editorship of the Kev. D. Silvan 
Evans, in 1876 (London, 8vo), with a bio- 
graphy by B. T. Williams, and a portrait 
from a bust executed by Joseph Edwards for 
presentation to Stephens on behalf of the 
committee of the Merthyr library. 

After 1848 Stephens won prizes for his- 
torical essays at every Eisteddfod at which 
he chose to compete, being, for example, 
awarded three prizes at the Abergavenny 
Eisteddfod in 1853. One of these was for an 
essay on ' The History of Trial by Jury in 
Wales,' which received the encomiums of 
the Chevalier Bunsen, who acted as adjudi- 
cator. For the Eisteddfod held at Llan- 
gollen in 1858 he wrote an essay in which he 
proved the unhistorical character of the 
Welsh claim to the discovery of America 
by Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd ; but the 
Eisteddfod committee, influenced by John 
Williams ab Ithel, withheld the prize from 
Stephens on the quibbling pretext that he 
had written on the non-discovery instead of 
the discovery by Madoc. This essay was 
published in 1893 under the title ' Madoc : 
an Essay on the Discovery of America by 
Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd in the Twelfth 
Century,' edited by Mr. Llywarch Reynolds 
(London, 8vo). Stephens did not again 
compete at the Eisteddfod, though, at the 
request of that institution, he subsequently 
drew up a report, along with R. J. Pryse 
(Gweirydd ab Rhys), on a standard of Welsh 
orthography, ' Orgraff yr laith Gymraeg ' 
(1859, 12mo). Stephens contributed a series 
of valuable articles in Welsh on the Triads 
to ' Y Beirniad ' for 1861-3, in which he 



established their mediaeval as opposed to 
their prehistoric origin ; and in the course of 
seven articles in ' Archaeologia Cambrensis ' 
for 1851-3 he critically examined the poems 
traditionally ascribed to Taliesin. He left 
unpublished at his death a large number of 
manuscript essays, one of which, probably 
the most important, was edited by Professor 
Thomas Powel of Cardiff for the Cymmrodo- 
rion Society, and published in 1888 under the 
title ' The Gododin of Aneurin Gwawdrydd : 
an English Translation, with copious Ex- 
planatory Notes, a Life of Aneurin, and 
several lengthy Dissertations illustrative of 
the Gododin and the Battle of Cattraeth' 
(London, 8vo). 

Stephens was almost the first native 
Welsh scholar of this century to apply a 
rigidly scientific method to the study of 
Welsh history and literature. His tendency 
was sceptical and iconoclastic, on which 
account he became highly unpopular with 
Welsh enthusiasts, though he enjoyed the 
confidence of competent critics. His opinions 
in other respects were also often unpopular. 
He evoked the hostility of dissenters by ad- 
vocating, from 1847 onwards, a state-aided 
system of secular education. In politics he 
was a philosophical reformer. Among other 
institutions at Merthyr which largely owed 
their origin to him was the public library, 
of which he acted for twenty-five years as 
honorary secretary, and to which he be- 
queathed a valuable collection of books. He 
was high constable of the town for 1858, 
and in 1864 undertook the management of 
the ' Merthyr Express.' 

In 1870 overwork brought on paralysis, 
which, after repeated attacks, ended in his 
death on 4 Jan. 1875, when he was buried 
at the Cefn cemetery. He married, on 
11 Sept. 1866, his cousin, Margaret Davis, 
a granddaughter of William Williams of 
Penrheolgerrig, who survives him (1898), 
but there was no issue. A bust by Joseph 
Edwards is at the University College of 
W T ales, Aberystwyth. 

[The chief authority is the Life by B. T. 
Williams, Q.C., prefixed to the second edition of 
the Literature of the Kymry. To this is added 
a list of the manuscript essays and writings 
which Stephens left unpublished at his death. 
See also Archaeologia Cambrensis, 4th ser. vi. 
87, 196; Academy, January, 1875, vii. 62; Ked 
Dragon, 1882, i. 3-18 (with portrait); Yr 
Ymofynydd, June 1895 (with portrait); Wil- 
kins's History of Merthyr Tydfil, pp. 258-60.] 

D. LtT. 

STEPHENS, WILLIAM (1647P-1718), 
divine, eldest son of Richard Stephens, a 
' dealer,' of Worcester, was born probably on 



Stephens 



182 



Stephens 



27 March 1647, in the parish of All Hallows, 
Lombard Street. From Merchant Taylors' 
school he matriculated at St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, as a batler on 1 July 1664. He gra- 
duated B.A. in 1668, M.A. in 1671, being 
incorporated at Cambridge the same year, 
and B.D. in 1678. He was for some time 
preacher at St. Lawrence, Hincksey, near 
Oxford, ' where, by his sedulous endeavours, 
he caused the tower to be re-edified,' says 
Wood, and at St. Martin's, Carfax. On 
26 July 1690 he became rector of Sutton, 
Surrey, and archdeacon. He soon became 
known for his strong whig principles. 

Being appointed to preach before the 
House of Commons on 30 Jan. 1700, Stephens 
not only omitted the prayer for the king and 
royal family, but suggested the propriety of 
discontinuing the observance of the anniver- 
sary of the execution of Charles I ; while he 
further offended a tory house by insisting 
upon the whig doctrine of the foundation of 
government on consent (cf. EVELYN, Diary, 
25 Jan. 1699-1700). The result was that 
not only was the usual vote of thanks with- 
held, but a resolution was passed that for 
the future ' no one be recommended to preach 
before the house who is under the degree of 
a dean or hath not taken his degree of doctor 
of divinity' (Journals of the House of Com- 
mons). The sermon was published in 1700, 
with an apologetic advertisement, stating 
that ' since it had stolen incorrectly into the 
world without his privity,' the author ' hoped 
it would not be imputed as a crime that he 
amended the errata of the press.' A reply 
by 'H. E.' (probably Edward Hawarden), 
entitled ' A Sermon vindicating King Charles 
the Martyr,' appeared the same year. Ste- 
phens's sermon was reprinted in vol. ii. of 
K. Barren's ' Pillars of Priestcraft shaken,' 
1752. 

On 6 May 1706, chiefly on the ground that 
he refused to give evidence against Thomas 
Rawlins, the reputed author of a libellous 
'Letter to the Author of the Memorial of 
the State of England' (in reality by Toland), 
Stephens was himself indicted as the writer. 
He was sentenced to a fine of one hundred 
marks, to stand twice in the pillory, and to 
find sureties for his good behaviour for twelve 
months. Though the more ignominious part 
of the sentence was remitted, Stephens had 
to go to a public-house at Charing Cross 
and see the scaffold and the gathering specta- 
tors (BoYER). Stephens's reticence also led 
to his being coupled with the leading deists 
in the satirical ' Apparition ' of Abel Evans 
[q. v.] He died on 30 Jan. 1717-18. 

Stephens also published, besides sermons : 
1. ' An Account of the Growth of Deism in 



England,' 1696, 4to. 2. A Letter to King 
William III, snowing (1) the original foun- 
dation of the English Monarchy; (2) the 
means by which it was removed from that 
foundation ; (3) the expedients by which it 
has been supported since that removal; 
(4) its present constitution; (5) the best 
means by which its grandeur may be for 
ever maintained ' (in Collection of State Tracts, 
1705-7, vol. ii.) 3. 'Bishop Hacket's Me- 
moirs of the Life of Archbishop Williams, 
abridged,' 1715, 8vo. 

[C.J.Robinson's Register of Merchant Taylors' 
School, i. 252; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
iv. 790 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. i. 46, viii. 301 ; Wilson's Memoirs of 
Defoe, i. 311-12, ii. 377-80, 425; Brit. Mus. 
Cat.; Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit. ii. 2241 ; J. 
Hunt's Relig. Thought in England, iii. 98n. ; 
Manning and Bray's Surrev, ii. 487.] 

G. LE G. N. 

STEPHENS, WILLIAM (1671-1753), 
colonist, son of Sir William Stephens (d. 
1697), lieutenant-governor of the Isle of 
Wight (where his family, originally of 
Cornish origin, had settled), by his wife 
Elizabeth, was born at Bowcombe, Isle of 
Wight, on 28 Jan. 1671, and educated at 
Winchester and King's College, Cambridge, 
graduating B.A. in 1684 and M.A. in 1688. 
Upon leaving Cambridge he was admitted 
at the Middle Temple. He entered par- 
liament for Newport, Isle of Wight, in 1702, 
became an officer in the island militia, and 
before 1706 rose to the rank of colonel; in 
1712 he was appointed a commissioner for 
the victualling of the force. His lavish 
expenditure made him popular, and he re- 
presented Newport down to 1722, when he 
was unseated, and had promptly to quit his 
seat at Barton, near Cowes, and seek refuge 
from his creditors. 

In 1728 Stephens found employment in 
Scotland as agent for the York Building 
Company, with a salary of 2001. a year. 
Arriving at Findhorn on 28 March 1729, he 
devoted himself to the timber trade, in which 
the company was interested, and declined 
an invitation to stand again for Newport in 
1732. Three years later he had to quit 
Scotland, leaving the company's affairs in 
confusion. 

After a short residence in Penrith, Ste- 
phens was asked by one Colonel Horsey in 
1736 to execute a survey in South Carolina. 
There he made the acquaintance of James 
Edward Oglethorpe [q. v.], and returned 
with him to England. In August 1737, 
taking one of his sons with him, he went 
back to Georgia in the Mary Anne via 
Charlestown, and arrived on 1 Nov. 1737. 



Stephenson 



183 



Stephenson 



He found the settlement distracted by social 
quarrels and jealousies, in which he acted 
the part of a mediator. He met with suc- 
cess, at first as a planter and fruit cul- 
tivator, and he was appointed secretary to 
the trustees in Georgia in April 1741. He 
was shortly afterwards made president of 
the county of Savannah, and of the entire 
colony in 1743. He held this post until 
1750, when he gave such evidence of mental 
and physical decline that he was requested 
to resign. He was voted a pension of 80/., 
but appears to have sunk into poverty before 
his death, upon his plantation of Bewlie 
(named after Beaulieu in the New Forest), 
at the mouth of the Vernon River, in August 
1753. 

He married, in 1697, Mary, second daughter 
of Sir Richard Newdigate, bart., of Arbury, 
by Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Bagot. 
They had issue seven sons and two daughters. 
The eldest son, Thomas, was the author of 
a curious memoir of his father, entitled 
* The Castle-builder ; or, the History of Wil- 
liam Stephens of the Isle of Wight, Esq.' 
(2nd ed. London, 1759, 8vo). 

William Stephens was author of ' A Jour- 
nal of the Proceedings in Georgia, beginning 
October 20, 1737 : to which is added a State 
of that Province, as attested upon Oath in 
the Court of Savannah, Nov. 10, 1740,' 
3 vols. London, 1742, 8vo. Of this work a 
limited edition was published by the trustees, 
and complete copies are very rare (the Bri- 
tish Museum copy lacks the third volume). 
While encumbered with many trivial and 
irrelevant matters, the ' Journal ' is remark- 
able for accuracy and minuteness of detail. 
Stephens also possessed some manuscript 
records of the colony, accumulated during 
his tenure of office as secretary, and these, 
having passed to his family, formed part of 
Sir Thomas Phillipps's library at Thirlestane 
House, Cheltenham (cf. H. Stevens, in Col- 
lections of the Georgia Hist. Society, i. 34). 

[Graduati Cantabr. ; Official Ret. of Members 
of Parliament ; Winsor's History of America, v. 
386, 395-7, 400 ; Appleton's Cyclop, of Amer. 
Biography ; Woodward's Hampshire, vol. iii. 
Suppl. p. 56 ; Collins's English Baronetage, 
vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 626 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

C. A. H. 

STEPHENSON, GEORGE (1781-1848), 
inventor and founder of railways, second son 
of Robert Stephenson, fireman at the Wylam 
colliery, was born at Wylam, eight miles from 
Newcastle, on 9 June 1781. His mother, 
Mabel, was the daughter of Richard Carr, 
a dyer of Ovingham, and his paternal grand- 
father is said to have come from Scotland as 
a gentleman's servant. His father was a 



steady, honest workman, very fond of chil- 
dren, and with a great love for birds, a trait 
of his character inherited by his famous son. 

Stephenson's first employment was herding 
cows ; then he became a driver to the horses 
working the colliery gin, and at the age of 
fourteen was an assistant fireman to his 
father at the Dewley colliery. At fifteen he 
became fireman, and at seventeen ' plug- 
man,' at the colliery where his father was 
fireman. While in this post, during his 
eighteenth year, he began to learn to read 
and write at a night school. In 1801 he be- 
came a brakesman at Black Callerton, lodging 
at a farmhouse close by. Anxious to increase 
his earnings, as he had formed an attachment 
for Frances Henderson, a servant at the farm, 
he took to mending boots in his leisure hours, 
and became very expert at the work 

On 28 Nov. 1802, when twenty-one years 
of age, he married Frances Henderson at 
Newburn church, and became engineman at 
Willington Ballast Hill. Here, owing to 
the experience gained in repairing his own 
clock, which had been damaged by a fire, he 
took up the work of cleaning and repairing 
clocks and watches, acquiring great skill at 
it. William (afterwards Sir W.) Fairbairn 
[q. v.], who was then working as an en- 
gineer's apprentice in the neighbourhood, 
became his intimate friend at this time. 

On 16 Oct. 1803 his only son Robert was 
born, and in 1804 he removed to Killing- 
worth, where his wife died of consumption 
on 14 May 1806. The greater part of the 
next year he spent at Montrose, looking after 
one of Boulton & Watt's engines. After his 
return his prospects seemed so gloomy that 
he seriously considered the wisdom of emi- 
grating. During this period his father be- 
came incapable of active work ; his parents 
therefore became a charge on his limited 
resources ; he was also drawn for the militia, 
and had to find the money to pay for a sub- 
stitute. In 1808 he took, with two other 
men, a contract to work the engines of the 
Killingworth pit. While there he took his 
engine to pieces every Saturday in order that 
he might become a thorough master of its 
construction. In consequence of the great 
skill he showed in putting in order a New- 
comen engine which failed to do the pumping 
work it was designed for, he was in 1812 
appointed engine- wright to the colliery at a 
salary of 100/. a year. 

Meanwhile he again devoted much of his 
leisure to improving his scientific knowledge. 
He also converted his home at Killingworth 
into a comfortable four-roomed house, putting 
up a sundial in front of it, with the aid of 
his son. 



Stephenson 



184 



Stephenson 



Stephenson's inventive genius was first 
applied to a safety lamp for miners. The 
constant accidents in the pits at which he 
was working painfully forced the danger of 
naked lights on his attention. He made 
numerous experiments on the combustion of 
the escaping inflammable gases at Killing- 
worth colliery, and eventually designed a 
safety lamp, by controlling the entry of the 
air to support combustion, and the escape 
of the products of combustion by the use of 
small tubes for the gases to pass through. 
On 21 Oct. 1815 the first lamp was actually 
tried, on 4 Nov. a second improved form, 
and on 30 Nov. a third still better were 
tested. On this last occasion he entered with 
his lamp with perfect safety into parts of 
the working which were full of gas. 

Sir Humphry l)avy [q. v.] had, unknown 
to Stephenson, been working on the same sub- 
ject, and practically at the same time that 
Stephenson's long experiments bore fruit in 
his lamp, Davy brought out his well-known 
safety lamp. A fierce controversy raged 
for several years on the question to whom 
was due the credit of this solution of a 
problem fraught with life and death to so 
many thousands of miners. A national tes- 
timonial to Davy produced a testimonial 
to Stephenson, and he was presented with 
1,000/. and an address (12 Jan. 1818). There 
can be little doubt that the two inventions 
were quite independent of each other, and 
that both men practically reached the same 
solution by different methods at the same 
time (cf. A Description of the Safety Lamp 
invented by George Stephenson, 1817). 

Meanwhile Stephenson had turned his 
attention to the question of steam loco- 
motion, with which his name is permanently 
associated. Steam locomotion on common 
roads had been an idea of William Murdock 
[q. v.], one of Watt's most trusty assistants, 
and he made a working model of a steam 
carriage in 1784. Richard Trevithick [q.v.] 
took up the question in 1802, constructing a 
carriage which ran in Cornwall, and was 
shown in London for a few days. In 1811 
John Blenkinsop constructed a locomotive 
for hauling loaded coal wagons at a colliery 
near Leeds, which ran on rack-rails, but 
was very cumbersome and unwieldy. Mr. 
Blacket of Wylam colliery was very anxious 
to introduce steam-power on his horse tram- 
ways. He had two engines made, copies 
of Blenkinsop's locomotive, but they were 
failures ; then he constructed a third, assisted 
in the design by William Hedley [q. v.], his 
viewer. 

Stephenson saw these attempts at Wylam 
in progress ; his interest, always keen in the 



matter of improving the steam-power in 
colliery working, was aroused, and he set 
himself to deal with this problem of coal 
haulage. He eventually, in 1813, brought 
the matter before the owners of his own 
colliery, and, receiving financial support from 
them, his first locomotive was built in the - 
engine-shops at West Moor. It had smooth 
wheels, an improvement at which Hedley 
had already arrived by experiments very 
similar to Stephenson's, and a cylindrical 
barrel to the boiler thirty-four inches in 
diameter and eight feet long. It was tried 
on 25 July 1814, and successfully drew a 
load of thirty tons up an incline of 1 in 450 
at four miles an hour. Stephenson soon 
recognised means of improving his engine, 
and in February 1815 he took out a patent 
for a greatly improved engine, with steam 
springs for the boiler to rest on. In this 
locomotive the steam-blast was used by him 
for the first time. 

Trevithick had used the steam-blast in 
his road engines, but without any notion of 
its real importance. Davies Gilbert [q. v.], 
however, who saw it at work, recognised its 
great value, and wrote a letter to ' Nichol- 
son's Journal ' on the subject. William 
Nicholson (1753-1815) [q. v.] himself took 
out a patent for its use in 1806, but nothing 
came of it. Undoubtedly Stephenson was 
the first to use it practically with a full 
knowledge of its important influence on the 
working of the locomotive. Meanwhile he 
was making experiments on the traction 
of vehicles on smooth roads, and these ex- 
periments materially influenced his develop- 
ment of the crude locomotive of 1814 into the 
' Eocket ' of 1829. He found that a gradient 
of 1 in 200, common enough on roads, at once 
reduced the hauling power of a locomotive 
50 per cent., since on a smooth, level road 
a tractive force of ten pounds would move 
a ton. Moreover, he found that the friction 
was practically independent of speed. He 
came to the decision, therefore, that steam 
carriages on ordinary roads were of no value, 
and that railways must be specially designed 
with the object of avoiding as much as 
possible changes of gradient. Cuttings, tun- 
nels, and embankments were essential. In 
1819 the proprietors of Hetton colliery laid 
down, under Stephenson's direction, a rail- 
road eight miles in length. It was opened 
for traffic on 18 Nov. 1822. The traction 
was carried out partly by fixed engines, 
partly by locomotives. 

On 19 April 1821 the project of connecting 
Stockton and Darlington by a tramroad was, 
after many years of discussion, approved by 
act of parliament. Stephenson offered his 



Stephenson 



185 



Stephenson 



services to Edward Pease [q. v.J, the chief 
promoter, and strongly urged the advantages 
of steam locomotives over horse traction. 
He was at length appointed engineer to the 
line at a salary of 300/. a year. He sur- 
veyed the whole line himself, and early in 
1823 a fresh act of parliament was obtained 
for a new route (Ann. Reg. 1823, p. 241). On 
23 May 1823 the first rail was laid. Stephen- 
son strongly advocated the use of malleable- 
iron rails, instead of the cast-iron which had 
always been used up to that time, and the 
suggestion was in part adopted. But the 
character of the locomotives to be used on 
the line occupied his chief attention. He 
saw the necessity of getting together a trained 
staff of workmen if the mechanical construc- 
tion of his locomotives was to be improved. 
He induced Pease and his cousin Thomas 
Richardson (1771-1853) [q. v.] to join him 
in establishing works at Newcastle. They 
were started in August 1823, and at these 
works the engines for the Stockton line were 
made. The line was opened for traffic, amid 
a scene of great enthusiasm, on 27 Sept. 1825. 
The first locomotive that passed over it 
weighed eight tons and attained a speed of 
twelve to sixteen miles an hour. It now 
occupies a pedestal at Darlington station. 

Stephenson's next undertaking was the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The 
enormous and rapidly increasing trade be- 
tween these two towns had completely out- 
grown the canal accommodation, and as 
early as 1821 schemes were mooted for con- 
necting them by a railroad. In 1824 a com- 
pany was organised, and Stephenson, after 
several visits of the chief promoters to the 
Stockton and Darlington line, then in con- 
struction, was employed to make the neces- 
sary surveys for the preparation of the plans. 
The surveyors encountered the fiercest oppo- 
sition from the farmers and proprietors of 
the great estates through which the proposed 
line was to run, and were often subjected 
to actual personal violence ; hence, proper 
surveys could hardly be made. A bill was 
introduced into parliament in 1825, and, after 
a most stubborn fight, was eventually re- 
jected, the rejection being greatly facilitated 
by the admitted inefficiency of the plans. 
Stephenson was subjected to the most search- 
ing cross-examination by the counsel for the 
opposers, mainly as to his method of crossing 
the Chat Moss, and as to the speed he pro- 
posed his engines should attain. In 1826, 
urged by Huskisson, the promoters again in- 
troduced a bill. The new plans were drawn 
on surveys made by the Kennies [see RENNIE, 
GEORGE, 1791-1866, and RENNIE, SIR JOHN, 
1794-1874]. Another long struggle ended 



in their victory. Stephenson was appointed' 
engineer, and work was at once begun. The 
most important constructional works on the 
line were the crossing of Chat Moss and the 
execution of the great Olive Mount cutting. 
By distributing the load over a considerable 
surface of the Moss, Stephenson was en- 
abled, as it were, to float his line over this 
treacherous bog, and thus overcome the chief 
difficulty. While the line was being con- 
structed long and anxious consideration was 
given to the question of motive power ; and 
for a time, influenced by a report given by 
outside engineering experts, the directors 
were in favour of haulage by the use of fixed 
engines distributed along the line. Stephen- 
son fought strenuously for the locomotive, 
and eventually the directors decided to test 
the possibility of Stephenson's ideas by 
means of an open competition, the prize 
offered being 500/. The chief condition in- 
sisted on was that a mean speed of ten miles 
an hour was to be obtained with a steam pres- 
sure not exceeding fifty pounds per square 
inch. There were also certain restrictions as 
to weight of engine in comparison with the 
load it hauled, the price of engine, and other 
details. The trial was fixed for 1 Oct. 1829. 
Stephenson saw that, if he was to be suc- 
cessful, he must find some means of increasing 
the heating surface of the boilers of his loco- 
motives. On the advice of Henry Booth 
[q. v.], the secretary of the company, he 
adopted tubes passing through the cylin- 
drical barrel and connecting the fire-box 
with the smoke-box. Several tubular boilers 
had been previously made by Trevithick, 
Sir Goldsworthy Gurney [q. v.], and others ; 
and Seguin in France, in 1828, had applied 
the tube principle to a locomotive. Stephen- 
son's engine for the great trial, called ' The 
Rocket,' was built at the Newcastle works 
under the direct supervision of Stephenson's 
son, and, after many failures, the problem of 
securing the tubes to the tube-plates was 
mastered. The boiler was a cylinder six feet 
long and forty inches in diameter, with 
twenty-five three-inch copper tubes, the fire- 
box being two feet by three feet, secured 
to the front and surrounded by water ; the 
cylinders were two, and were placed ob- 
liquely to the axis ; its weight was four and 
a quarter tons. Three other engines entered 
for the competition besides the Rocket the 
Novelty (the only real competitor) by John 
Braithwaite (1797-1870) [q.v.] andEricson, 
the Sanspareil by Hackworth, and the Per- 
severance by Burstall. The place of trial, 
Raiuhill, near Liverpool, was a two-mile 
level piece of line, and each engine was to 
run at least seventy miles in a day, back- 



Stephenson 



186 



Stephenson 



wards and forwards on this course, at a mean 
speed of at least ten miles per hour. The 
contest, which created extraordinary interest 
and excitement, began on 6 Oct. 1829. On 
the opening day the Rocket, the only engine 
ready to time, ran twelve miles in fifty- 
three , minutes, and was eventually awarded 
the prize, the Novelty meeting with many 
mishaps during the various tests. 

Stephenson's triumph was complete; his 
former opponents became his warmest sup- 
porters, and the railway system of the world 
may be said to date from 6 Oct. 1829, when 
the Rocket, in her trials, showed that genius 
and mechanical ability of the highest order 
had swept aside all the difficulties which 
had hitherto hampered progress in the de- 
velopment of steam locomotion on land. The 
* Scotsman,' in commenting on the trials, 
said : ' The experiments at Liverpool have 
established principles which will give a 
greater impulse to civilisation than it has 
ever received from any single cause since 
the press first opened the gates of knowledge 
to the human species at large.' 

On 1 Jan. 1830 a trial trip with the Rocket 
was made over most of the Liverpool and 
Manchester railway, and on 15 Sept. 1830 the 
line was officially opened in great state, a 
procession of eight locomotives, with their 
attendant carriages, passing over it. The 
Duke of Wellington, then prime minister, and 
most of the distinguished men of the day 
were present. The opening ceremonies were, 
however, marred by the fatal accident to 
Huskisson [see HTJSKISSON, WILLIAM]. 

From this time forward till 1845, when 
he arrived at the decision that he ought to 
retire completely from active work, Stephen- 
son's life is a history of the railway progress 
of the country. The locomotive underwent 
further improvements. When Gurney's 
steam-jet was applied to the Rocket, that 
engine attained a speed of twenty-nine miles 
an hour. Stephenson was chief engineer to 
the Grand Junction line connecting Bir- 
mingham with Liverpool and Manchester, 
begun in 1833 and finished by Joseph Locke 
[q. v.], his pupil. Stephenson was also chief 
engineer to the following railways : Man- 
chester to Leeds, Birmingham to Derby, 
Normanton to York, and Sheffield to Rother- 
ham, and others, all begun in 1836. The 
Derby to Leeds railway (afterwards called 
the North Midland line) was commenced 
under his supervision in 1837. In fact there 
was hardly a railway scheme in which he 
was not consulted, or an important line con- 
structed without his help and advice. 

After the completion of the Liverpool and 
Manchester railway Stephenson removed his 



home to Alton Grange, near Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch. He had married again, on 29 March 
1820, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Hind- 
marsh, a prosperous farmer at Black Caller- 
ton (he had no children by her). He opened 
large coal-pits in this neighbourhood, and 
spent much time and energy in developing 
its mineral resources. During the construc- 
tion of the Midland line he took a lease of 
Tapton House, near Chesterfield, and lived 
there till his death. 

In 1838 Stephenson was vice-president of 
the mechanical science section of the British 
Association at its Newcastle meeting. He 
took a keen interest in the foundation and 
support of mechanics' institutes. During 
the great railway mania of 1844 he kept 
aloof from the mad schemes then brought 
forward, and used all his influence to check 
the mania. The remarkable development of 
railways and the locomotive in the fourteen 
years which elapsed since the Rainhill com- 
petition is shown by the fact that he travelled 
from London to Newcastle in 1844 to attend 
a railway banquet in the then remarkably 
short time of nine hours. His last great par- 
liamentary struggle was in 1845 in the battle 
between the supporters of the locomotive and 
the upholders of the atmospheric railway 
system, led by Brunei, which arose in connec- 
tion with the extension of the railway from 
Newcastle to Berwick. Though the board of 
trade were inclined to support Brunei in his 
heresy, Stephenson's party won a great parlia- 
mentary victorj-, and settled the matter for 
ever. This was the final attempt to dispute 
the supremacy of the locomotive. In 1847 
Stephenson became president of the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers, which was 
founded by him that year in Birmingham. He 
paid several visits to Belgium in connection 
with railway work, and received in 1835 the 
honour of knighthood from Leopold I. In 
1845 he also visited North Spain in connec- 
tion with a proposed railway. He steadfastly 
refused all proffered honours in England, 
and also declined to enter public life as a 
member of parliament. 

His last years were devoted to horticul- 
tural pursuits at Tapton House, in which he 
developed great enthusiasm, making many ex- 
periments on the values of various manures. 
His second wife died in 1845, and on 11 Jan. 
1848 he married the daughter of a farmer of 
Bakewell, named Gregory. But his strength 
was failing, and he died of intermittent fever 
at Tapton House 011 12 Aug. 1848, in his 
sixty-seventh year. He was buried at Trinity 
Church, Chesterfield. The foundation-stone 
of a fine memorial hall was laid at Chesterfield 
by Lord Hartington on 17 Oct. 1877, and 



Stephenson 



187 



Stephenson 



the building was opened in July 1879. A 
festival in celebration of the centenary of 
Stephenson's birth was held at Newcastle on 
9 June 1881, when a medal was struck in 
his honour (W. DUNCAN, The Stephenson 
Centenary). 

Several statues have been erected in Ste- 
phenson's honour. A fine one by Bailey 
stands in the great hall of Euston Station. 
Another by Gibson was placed in St. George's 
Hall, Liverpool, in 1844, and a third by 
Lough is at Newcastle near the High Level 
Bridge. There are two oil paintings of him 
by John Lucas at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers ; in one he is painted along with 
his son. A third portrait by Pickersgill is 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 
Schools were built by way of memorial at 
Willington, where his son Robert, who is 
separately noticed, was born. 

With his high mental attainments Ste- 
phenson possessed great physical strength and 
powers of endurance. In his younger days 
he was fond of showing his muscular deve- 
lopment by feats of strength, and even when 
very advanced in life he was a good wrestler. 
His courage and perfect confidence in his 
work and judgment were shown by his ven- 
turing with his trial safety lamps into parts 
of the mine purposely rendered dangerous. 
The services that he rendered to the well- 
being of mankind by his invention of steam 
locomotion and railways place him among 
the world's greatest benefactors. 

[The Life of George Stephenson, by Mr. 
Samuel Smiles, appeared in 1857, and, in a 
revised shape, formed the third volume of the 
same writer's Lives of the Engineers. In this 
form it constitutes the standard authority. 
See also notice of life and character by J. 
Scott Eussell, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 1849; 
obituary notice by J. Field, Pres. Inst. Civ. Eng., 
Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. viii. 49 ; Memoir by Hyde 
Clarke in Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, 
1848, pp. 297, 329, 361 ; Tredgold's Steam En- 
gine ; R. L. Galloway's Steam Engine and its 
Inventors ; Summersicle's Eeminiscences of George 
Stephenson, 1878 ; cf. Nature, xxiv. 121-3, an 
article on the centenary of Stephenson's birth.] 

T. H. B. 

STEPHENSON, HENRY PALFREY 

(1826-1890), civil engineer, son of Major 
John Stephenson of the 6th dragoon guards, 
was born at Portobello, near Edinburgh, 
on 27 March 1826. He was educated at a 
private school at Twickenham, and in 1842 
became a student at the college of civil en- 
gineers, Putney. The then principal was 
Dean Cowie of Exeter ; Sir Guilford Moles- 
worth, and several other well-known en- 
gineers were his fellow students. He founded 



the Putney Club, which was afterwards con- 
verted into the Society of Engineers. His 
early professional work consisted mainly of 
the design of iron railway bridges, and of 
arbitration work. In 1858 he turned his 
attention to gas lighting for towns ; he de- 
signed and carried out several important gas 
undertakings on the continent, and was con- 
nected as a director with a large number of 
similar undertakings both in England and 
abroad. He was elected an associate of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers in 1853, and a 
full member in 1864. About 1882 his health 
began to fail, and he gradually retired from 
active professional pursuits ; he died on 
30 April 1890. 

[Obituary Notices in Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 
ci. 303.] T. H. B. 

STEPHENSON, JAMES (1808-1886), 
engraver, born at Manchester on 26 Nov. 
1808, was the son of Thomas Stephenson, 
boot and shoe maker, of Stable Street, near 
Oldham Street, in that town. James was 
educated at a school kept by Thomas Rain, 
adjoining Oldham Street chapel, and before 
the end of his schooldays was apprenticed 
to John Fothergill, an engraver, of Prince's 
Court, Market Street. While there he made 
the acquaintance of the artist, Henry Liver- 
seege [q. v.], and, probably by his advice, he 
came to London at the expiry of his appren- 
ticeship and entered the studio of William 
Finden [q. v.] While there he gained the 
silver medal of the Society of Arts for an 
original design of a figure engraved in line. 

About 1838 he returned to Manchester 
and established himself as an historical and 
landscape engraver in Ridgefield, and after- 
wards in a studio in St. Ann Street. Besides 
furnishing illustrations for ' Manchester as 
it is ' (1839), for Charles Swain's ' Mind and 
other Poems,' and for other books, he en- 
graved the members' card for the Anti-Corn- 
law League, and executed for Agnew & Sons 
portraits of prominent members, among others 
of Sir John Bowring [q. v.], Edward Baines 
[q. v.l, and John Heyworth. During this 
period he also engraved Du Val's portrait of 
Richard Cobden, George Putten's portrait of 
John Frederick Foster, and John Boston's 
portrait of Daniel Grant, one of the original 
' Cheery ble Brothers.' In 1842, for the British 
Association, which met in that year in Man- 
chester, he executed a portrait of JohnDalton 
(1766-1844) [q. v.], the chemist. 

About 1847 Stephenson took up his per- 
manent abode in London, and from 1856 
exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy. 
Among his later engravings were ' The Day 
of Wrath,' ' The Last Judgment,' and < The 



Stephenson 



188 



Stephenson 



Plains of Heaven/ after John Morton; 'The 
Highland Whiskey Still,' the 'Taming of 
the Shrew,' and 'The Queen at Osborne,' 
after Landseer ; ' Ophelia,' after Millais ; 
and the ' Portrait of Lord Tennyson,' after 
George Frederick Watts. He also engraved 
pictures by Maclise, Gilbert Stuart Newton, 
Thomas Faed, and Sir John Watson Gordon. 
Stephenson died at his residence in Dart- 
mouth Park Road, London, on 28 May 1886. 
Among his contemporaries he was regarded 
as one of the finest line engravers in the 
country, and in vignette engraving he was 
probably unsurpassed. 

[Manchester, Guardian, 4 June 1886 ; Times, 
5 June 1886 ; Athenseum, 1886, i. 787 ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Engravers, supplement.] E. I. C. 

STEPHENSON, ROBERT (1803-1859), 
civil engineer, only son of George Stephen- 
son [q. v.], was born at Willington Quay, 
near Newcastle, on 16 Oct. (not November) 
1803 (cf. Register). The following year his 
father removed to Killingworth, where on 
14 May 1806 his mother died of consump- 
tion. His first elements of education were 
acquired in the village school of Long Ben- 
ton. In 1814 his father, whose circumstances 
were now improving, and who felt keenly 
his own want of a sound education, sent 
him to Bruce's academy at Newcastle, and 
made him a member of the Newcastle Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society. Leaving 
school in 1819, he was apprenticed to 
Nicholas Wood (M.I.C.E.), viewer of Kil- 
lingworth colliery. In 1821 he assisted his 
father in the survey of Stockton and Dar- 
lington Railway, and then in 1822 spent 
six months studying at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity. There he met, as a fellow student, his 
lifelong friend, George Parker Bidder [q. v.], 
with whom he afterwards carried on much 
of his professional work. On leaving the 
university he settled down in Newcastle to 
manage the locomotive factory which his 
father established there in 1823, but his 
health soon broke down, and he accepted an 
offer to go abroad to Columbia in South 
America to superintend the working of some 
gold and silver mines. He left England in 
June 1824, and was absent three years. 
Difficulties in the working of the locomotive 
factory led to a request for him to return ; 
on the return journey he met Richard 
Trevithick [q. v.], then on his way back to 
England, a penniless, broken man. Stephen- 
son reached England in 1827, in the thick 
of the controversy as to the most suitable 
system of traction for use on the Liverpool 
and Manchester line. The famous Rocket 
was eventually built under his direction at 



the Newcastle works, the securing of the 
tubes in their plates giving him great trouble 
before the difficulty was overcome. Most of 
the subsequent improvements in the details 
of the locomotive were due to his skill. From 
1827 to 1833 besides this work he assisted 
his father generally in the Liverpool and 
Manchester line, in the Leicester and Swan- 
nington line, and in other minor lines. 

In 1833 the act for the London and Bir- 
mingham line was passed ; Stephenson be- 
came engineer, and was solely responsible for 
its success. The work is a memorable one, 
not only from the great difficulties encoun- 
tered in its construction as, for example, in 
the Blisworth cutting and in the long Kilsby 
tunnel but also because it was the first 
railway into London. It was completed in 
1838. He took an active part in the great 
' battle of the gauges ' which was fought out 
in parliament, and also in the great struggle 
bet ween the rival advocates of the locomotive 
and of the atmospheric system, in both con- 
tests supporting with all the strength of his 
powerful and clear intellect the causes which 
the judgment of experience has shown to be 
the right ones. From 1838 till the close of 
his life he was engaged on railway work, not 
only in Great Britain, but all over the 
world: railways were constructed either 
under his own direct supervision or under 
his advice which have since become the trunk 
lines of the countries in which they were 
laid down. 

The greatest works he carried out, or at 
any rate those by which he will be best 
known to posterity, were his bridges. The 
splendid high-level bridge over the Tyne at 
Newcastle and the Victoria bridge at Ber- 
wick were two of his earliest and most 
successful examples of this branch of en- 
gineering. When the act was passed in 
1844 for the Chester and Holyhead line, 
Stephenson gave long and anxious considera- 
tion to the best type of bridge for crossing 
the Conway and the Menai Straits. Even- 
tually he decided upon the tubular girder 
form, the type of railway bridge which will 
always remain inseparably connected with 
his name. Assisted by Hodgkinson, Fair- 
bairn, and Clarke, his schemes were care- 
fully worked out, every step being tested by 
experiment, and his labours were eventually 
crowned with success when the Menai 
bridge was opened for traffic on 5 March 
1850. He constructed on similar lines the 
great Victoria bridge over the St. Lawrence 
at Montreal, which was begun in 1854 and 
completed in 1859, and was for many years 
the longest bridge in the world, and also 
two others in Egypt. For his invention of 



Stephenson 



189 



Stephenson 



the system of tubular-plate railway bridges 
he was awarded by the council of the French 
Exhibition of 1855 their great gold medal 
of honour. 

On 30 July 1847 Stephenson was returned 
to parliament as member for Whitby, which 
town he represented till his death, being 
re-elected on 10 July 1852, 27 March 1857, 
and 29 April 1859. He was a conservative 
and protectionist. He rarely spoke except 
on engineering matters ; he was an opponent 
in the house of the Suez Canal scheme. In 
1830 he became a member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and eventually became 
president, occupying the chair during 1856 
and 1857. He received numerous dis- 
tinctions the Order of Leopold from the 
King of the Belgians in 1841, the grand 
cross of St. Olaff of Norway in 1848, he was 
elected F.R.S. on 7 June 1849, and on 
24 June 1857 he was created a D.C.L. of 
Oxford University. He married, on 17 June 
1829, Frances, daughter of John Sanderson of 
London. She died without issue at Hamp- 
stead on 4 Oct. 1842, aged thirty-nine ( Gent. 
Mag. 1842, ii. 553). His health had long 
been very unsatisfactory, and early in 1859 
he was advised to stop all work and take a 
yachting cruise (the only recreation he in- 
dulged in). Eventually, in September 1859, 
he left for Norway ; but after a temporary 
rally he rapidly grew worse, and was brought 
back in great haste to die at his own home, 
No. 34 Gloucester Square on 12 Oct. 1859. 
He was buried on 22 Oct. in Westminster 
Abbey, by the side of Telford, amid signs 
of general mourning throughout the en- 
gineering world. 

Apart from his numerous reports on pro- 
fessional matters, Stephenson undertook little 
literary work, his only important work being 
the article on ' Iron Bridges ' he wrote for 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (8th ed.) 

There are three portraits at the Institution 
of Civil Engineers one by H. Phillips, one 
by J. Lucas, and a third, with his father, 
also by Lucas. A portrait by George Rich- 
mond (1849) was engraved for Mr. Jeaffre- 
son's ' Life.' There is also a bronze statue 
by Marochetti, and a memorial brass in 
Westminster Abbey. 

[Smiles's Life of George and Kobert Stephen- 
son; Obituary Notices in Proc. Inst. Civil Eng 
xix. 176; The Life of Robert Stephenson, F.R.S. 
by J. C. Jeaffreson, with descriptive chapters on 
his professional works by William Pole, F.R.S. 
London, 1864, 2 vols., with two portraits.] 

T. H. B. 

STEPHENSON, SAMUEL MARTIN 
M.D. (1742-1833), Irish presbyterian divine 
and physician, youngest son of James Ste 



)henson, by his wife Margaret (Martin), was 
jorn in 1742 at Straidbally morris, parish of 
['emplepatrick, co. Antrim. From the school 
of John Rankin, presbyterian minister at 
Antrim, he went to Glasgow University, 
where he was a pupil of William Leechman 
"q. v.] After being licensed in 1767 by 
Demplepatrick presbytery he became master 
n the diocesan school at Monaghan, where 
or two years he lodged with Braddock, an 
apothecary. This gave him a taste for medi- 
ine, which he studied in Dublin and in Edin- 
>urgh (1773-6). Meanwhile he received a 
call in August 1773 from the congregation 
of Greyabbey, co. Down. His trial sermon, 
preached on 19 April 1774, was of doubtful 
>rthodoxy, and he declined to subscribe the 
Westminster confession of faith. By a ma- 
ority of one he was admitted on 31 May to 
ordination, and ordained by Bangor pres- 
bytery on 21 June (the date, 20 June, in 
report to synod, is wrong) 1774, reading a 
written declaration of his faith. On 12 June 
1776 he graduated M.D. at Edinburgh, and 
practised gratuitously at Greyabbey, where 
his salary was 501. besides regium donum. 
On 1 Aug. 1785 he resigned his charge, 
and was succeeded by James Porter [q. v.] 
Settling as a physician in Belfast, he ob- 
tained great distinction in his profession, 
revolutionising the treatment of fever cases. 
He founded, in conjunction with James 
McDonnell, M.D., the dispensary in 1792 
and the fever hospital in 1797. He was 
also a zealous promoter of the (now Royal) 
Academical Institution which was opened 
1 Feb. 1814. In recognition of his high 
character for public spirit and private charity, 
the general synod of Ulster in 1818 replaced 
his name on the ministerial roll, though he 
had exercised no clerical duties for over 
thirty years. In 1821 he resigned his public 
appointments in favour of his son, Robert 
Stephenson, M.D. (d. 1869). Latterly he 
amused himself with farming. He died on 
13 Jan. 1833. He married Mary, daughter 
of James Armstrong, presbyterian minister 
of Portaferry, co. Down, and had a numerous 
family. 

He published: 1. 'The Declaration of Faith,' 
Belfast, 1774, 8vo ; 2 edits, same year ; re- 
printed, with title 'Of Articles of Faith,' 
[1822 ?], 8vo. 2. A Review of the Reasons 
. . . and . . . Remarks upon a late Declara- 
tion of Faith,' Belfast, 1775, 8vo. 3. ' De 
Typho,' Edinburgh, 1776, 8vo (graduation 
thesis). 4. ' On the Linen and Hempen 
Manufactures of ... Ulster,' Belfast, 1808, 
4to. 5. ' An Historical Essay on the Parish 
... of Templepatrick,' Belfast, 1825, 8vo. 
6. ' An Historical Essay on the Parish . . . 



Stephenson 



190 



Stepney 



of Greyabbey,' Belfast, 1828, 8vo. The last 
two works are somewhat miscellaneous in 
character, but deserve credit as early examples 
of attention to Irish local antiquities. 

[Bible Christian (Belfast), 1833, pp. 46 sq. ; 
Irish Unitarian Mag. 1847, pp. 288 sq. ; Reid's 
Hist, of Presbyterian Church in Ireland (Killen), 
1867, iii. 337 sq. ; Killen's Hist, of Congrega- 
tional Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 1880, 
pp. 157, 215; Benn's Hist, of Belfast, 1880, ii. 
161 sq. ; Witherow's Hist, and Lit. Memorials 
of Presbyterianism in Ireland, 1886, ii. 187 sq.; 
Eecords of Gen. Synod of Ulster, 1897, ii. 507, 
561.] A. G. 

STEPHENSpN, THOMAS (1552-1624), 
Jesuit, was born in 1552 of catholic parents 
at Windlestone in the parish of St. An- 
drews, Auckland, Durham. He studied his 
humanities in England, and went through 
the higher course at the English College of 
Douay, then temporarily settled at Rheims, 
where he arrived on 22 June 1581. He was 
ordained priest there on 21 Dec. 1581, and 
was sent to the English mission on 13 April 
1583. He was arrested on 13 Feb. 1583-4, 
committed to the Tower of London, and 
tried for high treason, but made so bold a 
defence that his life was spared, and after a 
year's confinement in the Tower he was sent 
into banishment, arriving at Rheims with 
seventy-one fellow-priests on 3 March 1584- 
1585. On seeking admission to the Society 
of Jesus he was sent to the novitiate at 
Briinn in Moravia on 11 Dec. 1585, and he 
was made a spiritual coadjutor on 3 June 
1597. He spent twelve years at Prague and 
Olmiitz as professor of Hebrew and Greek, 
and then became secretary to Robert Parsons 
[q. v.] in Rome. He was again sent to the 
English mission in 1605, being stationed for 
some time in the Suffolk district. He re- 
tired to Liege in 1621, and died at Watten 
on 23 March 1624. 

He has been credited with the authorship 
of translations into Latin of several of Father 
Parsons's works, as well as of: 1. 'A large | 
Catechism for the Instruction of the Igno- } 
rant.' 2. ' Historia Sacra ab Orbe Condito ] 
usque ad Christi Salvatoris Adventum,' St. I 
Omer,1622. 3. 'The Life of Thomas Pounde.' 
None of his works are in either the British 
Museum or the Bodleian library. 

[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Com- 
pagnie de Jesus (1876), iii. 940 ; Dodd's Church 
History, ii. 418; Douay Diaries; Foley's Re- 
cords, i. 471, vii. 739 ; More's Hist. Prov. Angli- 
can. Soc. Jesu, p. 19; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, 
p. 198 ; Sochero's Hist. Prov. Austriae Soc. Jesu, 
viii. 355 ; Southwell's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. 
Jesu, p. 768 ; Tanner's Societas Jesu Aposto- 
lorum Imitatrix.] T. C. 



STEPNEY, CATHERINE, LADY (d. 

1845), novelist, daughter of Thomas Pollok, 
LL.D. (d. 1801), rector of Grittleton, Wilt- 
shire, by his wife Susannah (d. 1802), daugh- 
ter of Charlton Palmer of London, was first 
married to Russell Manners, and under 
that name published two novels, 'Castle 
Nuovier, or Henry and Adelina,' 1806, and 
' The Lords of Erith,' 1809. On 8 June 
1813 she married, at Edinburgh, SirThomas 
Stepney, ninth and last baronet, groom of 
the bedchamber to H.R.H. the Duke of 
York. He had succeeded his brother, Sir 
John Stepney, in the baronetcy in October 
1811. Sir Thomas died on 12 Sept. 1825 
(Gent. Mag. 1825, ii. 277). His widow, who 
was pretty, accomplished, and fashionable, 
and made her house the rendezvous of authors 
and artists, died at Henrietta Street, Caven- 
dish Square, London, on 14 April 1845. 

She wrote in later life four novels : ' The 
New Road to Ruin,' 1833 ; < The Heir Pre- 
sumptive, 1835 ; ' The Courtier's Daughter,' 
1838, 1841 ; and 'The Three Peers,' 1841, all 
in 3 vols. They show careful observation of 
London society. Lady Stepney also contri- 
buted to the fashionable annuals ; but Miss 
Mitford declared that everything under Lady 
Stepney's name was rewritten by Miss Lan- 
don, ' or the grammar and spelling would 
have disgraced a lady's maid ' (L'EsiKANGE, 
Life of M. R. Mitford, iii. 94). 

[Allibone's Diet. iii. 1214, 2241 ; Gent. Mag. 
1845, ii. 86; Literary Gazette, 1845, pt. cclvii. ; 
Jackson's History of Grittleton (Wiltshire Topo- 
graphical Soc.), 1843, p. 22 ; Burke's Extinct 
Baronetage, p. 508.] E. L. 

STEPNEY, GEORGE (1663-1707), poet 
and envoy, descended from the Stepneys of 
Prendergast in Pembrokeshire, was the son 
of George Stepney, groom of the chamber 
to Charles II, and grandson of Sir Thomas 
Stepney, knt., cupbearer to Charles I, by his 
wife, Mary, eldest daughter and coheiress of 
Sir Bernard Whetstone, knt., of Woodford, 
Essex. He was born at Westminster in 
1663, and was educated at Westminster 
School, where he was admitted on the foun- 
dation at Whitsuntide 1676, and formed his 
lifelong friendship with Charles Montagu 
(afterwards Earl of Halifax) [q. v.] After 
passing the unusual time of six years as a 
king's scholar at Westminster, he was elected 
a scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, at 
Whitsuntide 1682. At Cambridge Stepney 
appears to have acquired a great reputation 
as a writer of Latin verse, and his ode on 
the marriage of the Princess Anne to Prince 
George of Denmark was published in the 
' Hymenseus Cantabrigiensis ' (Cambridge, 
1683, 4to). He graduated B.A. in 1685, 



Stepney 



191 



Stepney 



M.A. in 1689, and on 12 Sept. 1687 was 
elected a major fellow of his college without 
passing through the intermediate step of a 
minor fellowship. Though Stepney wrote 
some fulsome lines on the death of Charles II, 
in which he compared James II to Hercules, 
he joined the winning side at the Revolu- 
tion, and, with the aid of his friend Montagu, 
entered upon a successful diplomatic career. 
He became secretary to Sir Cyril Wych at 
Hamburg, and subsequently to Mr. John- 
son at Vienna (Addit. MS. 5881, f. 24). In 
1692 he was sent as envoy to the elector of 
Brandenburg, in 1693 to the emperor of 
Germany, in 1695 to the elector of Saxony, 
and in 1696-7 to the electors of Mayence, 
Treves, and Cologne, the elector palatine, 
the landgrave of Hesse, and the congress at 
Frankfort. In June 1697 he was appointed 
a commissioner of trade and plantations, a 
post which, in spite of his diplomatic work, 
he retained until his death. In 1698 he was 
again sent to Brandenburg, and subsequently 
to Warsaw. In March 1702 he went a second 
time as envoy to Vienna. In 1705 a mis- 
understanding arose between him and Count 
Wratislaw, the imperial minister, which be- 
came so serious that Prince Eugene insisted 
upon Stepney's recall, and presented a formal 
complaint from the emperor against Stepney's 
supposed partiality to the cause of the Hunga- 
rian insurgents. The Duke of Marlborough, 
who placed the fullest confidence in Stepney, 
succeeded in persuading Eugene to withdraw 
the demand, though he afterwards ' privately 
engaged to remove Mr. Stepney from the 
embassy ' (Coxs, Memoirs of John, Duke of 
Marlborough, 1818-19, i. 382-3, 498). In 
May 1706 Stepney was sent to take possession 
of the lordship of Mindelheim,which had been 
conferred on Marlborough by the emperor (ib. 
pp. 529-42). In October following he was 
transferred from Vienna to The Hague, where 
he succeeded Stanhope as envoy. He was 
taken seriously ill ' of the bloody flux ' in 
August 1707, and returned to England in 
the vain hope that the change might benefit 
him (LtriTEELL, A Brief Historical Relation 
of State A/airs, 1857, vi. 206). He died 
unmarried in Paradise Row, Chelsea, on 
15 Sept. 1707, and was buried in great state 
on the 22nd in Westminster Abbey, the pall 
being carried by two dukes, two earls, and 
two barons (ib. vi. 215). An elaborate 
monument, with a long and complimentary 
epitaph, surmounted by his bust, was subse- 
quently erected to his memory in the south 
aisle of the Abbey. 

Stepney was more successful as a diplo- 
matist than as a poet. Though his juvenile 
compositions are said to have made ' grey 



authors blush ' ( Works of Samuel Johnson, 
1810-11, ix. 293), his poems are few and of 
little merit. He was 'a very licentious 
translator,' and did not, as Johnson remarks, 
' recompense his neglect of the author by 
beauties of his own ' (z'6.) Macky declares 
that ' no Englishman ever understood the 
affairs of Germany so well, and few Ger- 
mans better.' According to the same au- 
thority, Stepney spoke 'all the modern 
languages, as well as antient, perfectly well,' 
was ' a thorough statesman,' and ' of very 
good, diverting conversation ' (Secret Ser- 
vices of John Macky, 1733, p. 142). Stepney 
was also a bright and perspicuous letter- 
writer. Extensive collections of his corre- 
spondence are preserved in the British Mu- 
seum and in the Public Record Office. 
Another large and important collection is in 
the possession of the Earl of Macclesfield 
(Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Rep. p. ix, app. pp. 
o4 0). 

Stepney was a member of the Kit-Cat 
Club. His portrait, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
was engraved in mezzotint by Faber. 

Stepney contributed a translation of Ovid's 
elegy on the death of Tibullus to Dryden's 
1 Miscellany Poems ' (1684), and of the 
eighth satire of Juvenal to ' The Satires 
of Decimus Junius Juvenalis translated into 
English verse by Mr. Dryden and several 
other eminent hands' (1693). His poems 
have been reprinted in Chalmers's ' English 
Poets ' and similar collections. He pub- 
lished: 1. 'An Epistle to Charles Montagu, 
esq., on his Majesty's Voyage to Holland,' 
London, 1691, fol. 2. ' A Poem dedicated 
to the Blessed Memory of her late Gracious 
Majesty Queen Mary,' London, 1695, fol. 
3. ' An Essay upon the Present Interest of 
England. To which are added the Proceed- 
ings of the House of Commons in 1677 upon 
the French King's Progress in Flanders' 
(anon.), London, 1701, 4to; reprinted in 
the ' Somers Collection of Tracts,' 2nd edit, 
xi. 195-227. 

[Authorities quoted in text ; Harrison's No- 
tices of the Stepney Family, 1870, pp. 9, 22-8 ; 
Memoir of the Celebrated Persons comprising 
the Kit-Cat Club, 1821, pp. 205-6 (with por- 
trait); Alumni Westmon. 1852; Chester's West- 
minster Abbey Registers (Harl. Soc.), 1875, x. 
259-60, 299 n., 311 n., 385 n.- Addit. MSS. 
(Brit. Mus.) 5881 f. 24, 5846 ff. 123, 167, 
9387; Dart's Westmonasterium, 1742, ii. 82, 
83-4 ; Cantabr. Grad. 1800, p. 400 ; Gibber's 
Lives of the Poets, 1 753, iv. 72-6 ; Nichols's 
Select Collection of Poems, 1780-2, iv. 133; 
Burnet's History of his Own Time, 1833, iv. 
501, v. 239, vi. 293; Swift's Works, 1814, x. 
313; Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 1804, 
ii. 396 n. ; Noble's Continuation of Granger, 



Sterling 



192 



Sterling 



1806, ii. 174-5; Faulkner's Chelsea, 1829, ii. 
201-2, 321 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 
225 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Some of his correspon- 
dence has been printed in Abraham Hill's Fa- 
miliar Letters (1767), Lord Hardwicke's Miscel- 
laneous State Papers (1778), Eebecca Ward's 
Epistolary Curiosities, 2nd ser. (1818), Coxe's 
Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough (1818-19), 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1837 (ii. 362-5), 
James's Letters illustrative of the Eeign of 
William III (1841), The Lexington Papers 
(1851), Kemble's State Papers(1851), and Angol 
Diplomatiai Iratok II. Rakoczi Ferencz Korara: 
Angol Leveltarakbol Kozli Simonyi Erno in 
the Archivum Rakoczianum published by the 
Hungarian Academy of Sciences.] 

G. F. R. B. 

STERLING. [See also STIRLING.] 

STERLING, SIR ANTHONY CONING- 
HAM (1805-1871), author of 'The High- 
land Brigade in the Crimea,' eldest son of 
Captain Edward Sterling, by Hester, daugh- 
ter of John Coningham of Londonderry, was 
born at Dundalk in 1805. John Sterling 
[q. v.] was a younger brother. After keeping 
some terms at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
he was on 18 Feb. 1826 gazetted an ensign 
in the 24th foot. From 21 March 1834 to 
5 Dec. 1843 he was a captain in the 73rd 
foot, and was then placed on half-pay. He 
was on active service during the Crimean 
campaign of 1854-5, first as brigade major 
and afterwards as assistant adjutant-general 
to the Highland division, including the 
battles of the Alma, Balaklava, and Inker- 
man, and the siege of Sebastopol. He re- 
ceived the medal with four clasps, the order 
of the Legion of Honour, the Turkish medal, 
and the fourth class of the Medjidie. On 
17 Oct. 1857 he sold his commission, retiring 
with the rank of colonel ; but during 1858-9 
he was again employed as military secretary 
to Sir Colin Campbell, lord Clyde [q. v.j, 
in the suppression of the Indian mutiny, 
and received a medal with clasp. In 1861 
Lord Clyde accused Sterling of wilfully 
neglecting to insert the name of Colonel 
Pakenham in a list of persons recommended 
for reward by the bestowal of the K.C.B. 
at the close of the mutiny. This led to 
many letters, which are given in 'Corre- 
spondence concerning Charges made by Lord 
Clyde against Sir Anthony Sterling,' March 
1861 (privately printed 1863). He was 
gazetted C.B. on 5 July 1855, and K.C.B. on 
21 July 1860. He died at 3 South Place, 
Knightsbridge, London, on 1 March 1871, 
having married in 1829 Charlotte, daughter 
of Major-general Joseph Baird ; she died on 
10 April 1863. 

Sterling was the author of ' Russia under 



Nicholas I,' a translation, 1841 ; ' Letters from 
the Army in the Crimea, written by a Staff 
Officer,' 1857 ; The Story of the Highland 
Brigade in the Crimea, founded on Letters 
written during 1854, 1855, and 1856 by 
Lieut.-Col. A. Sterling, a Staff Officer who 
was there,' 1895. 

[Hart's Annual Army List, 1870, pp. 96, 106; 
Dodd's Peerage, 1871, p. 585; Ann. Reg. 1871, 
p. 147; Illustrated London News, 1871, Iviii. 
267, 315 ; Carlyle's Life of John Sterling.] 

G. C. B. 

STERLING, JAMES (fl. 1718-1755), 
playwright, a native of Ireland, son of 
James Sterling, entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, as a scholar in 1718, and graduated 
B.A. in 1720 and M.A. in 1733. In that 
year he came to London with his friend 
Matthew Concanen [q. v.], and it is stated 
that on their arrival, having come to the 
conclusion that political writing alone would 
prove remunerative, they settled by the toss 
of a halfpenny that Concanen should defend 
and Sterling abuse the ministry. Sterling 
caused to be printed in London his weak 
tragedy ' The Rival Generals, as it was acted 
at the Theatre Royal, Dublin' (five acts, 
verse, London, 8vo and 12mo), but he failed 
to get it accepted by a London manager. 
In 1724 he made three contributions to Con- 
canen's ' Poems,' signed ' J. S.' In 1728 he 
issued a version of ' The Loves of Hero and 
Leander' from the Greek of Musaeus, and 
this was reissued with a few minor pieces as 
' Poetical Works of the Rev. James Sterling ' 
(Dublin, 1734, 8vo); and in 1736 he pub- 
lished ' The Parricide : a tragedy ' (London, 
8vo, five acts, verse). This wretched pro- 
duction was given five times at Goodman's 
Fields in December 1735. Sterling's work 
as a journalist and pamphleteer seems to 
have likewise proved a failure, and about 
1740 he migrated to Maryland, where he 
settled as a preacher in Kent County. One 
of his sermons on ' Zeal against the enemies 
of our country ' was printed at the Annapolis 
press in 1755, small 4to. 

[Gibber's Lives of the Poets, v. 27 ; Trinity 
College (Dublin) Register ; O'Donoghue's Poets 
of Ireland, p. 236 ; Baker's Biogr. Dram. 1812, 
i. 687 ; Genest's Hist, of the Stage, iii. 484 ; 
Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ix. 23, 195, 286.] 

T. S. 

STERLING, JOHN (1806-1844), author, 
born at Kames Castle in the island of Bute, 
20 July 1806, was the son of Edward Ster- 
ling by his wife Hester, only daughter of 
John Coningham, merchant, of Londonderry. 
He was consequently Irish on both sides of 
the house, although his father's family was 
originally Scottish. 



Sterling 



193 



Sterling 



The father, EDWARD STERLING (1773- 
1847), traced descent from William, younger 
brother of Sir Robert Sterling, who had 
served under Gustavus Adolphus, and, sub- 
sequently attaching himself to James Butler, 
first duke of Ormonde [q. v.], was knighted 
in 1649 and exiled until 1660, when he re- 
turned and settled in Munster. Edward, 
born at Waterford on 27 Feb. 1773, was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was 
called to the Irish bar. He fought as a loyal 
volunteer at Vinegar Hill, and, having at- 
tained the rank of a captain of militia, con- 
templated a military career, and was for a 
short time attached to the ' eighth batallion 
of reserve.' Shortly after his marriage, on 
5 April 1804, his regiment was ' broke,' and 
he migrated to Kames Castle and then to 
Llanblethian, near Cowbridge, Glamorgan- 
shire. In 1811 he issued a pamphlet on 
' Military Reform,' which led to his becom- 
ing a regular correspondent of the ' Times ' 
newspaper, under the signature ' Vetus,' later 
exchanged for ' Magus.' Some of his letters 
were reprinted. During the peace interval 
in 1814-15 he was at Paris, and on his return 
to England he became a regular and impor- 
tant member of the 'Times' staff. Between 
1830 and 1840 the paper became, says Carlyle, 
his ' express emblem,' and his opinions were 
specially identified with 'The Thunderer's' 
admiration for Wellington and Peel and de- 
testation of O'Connell. He retired from 
active journalism soon after 1840, and died 
on 3 Sept. 1847 at South Place, Knights- 
bridge, at the house of his elder son, Sir 
Anthony Coningham Sterling [q. v.l (Gent. 
Mag. 1847, ii. 440). 

John's infancy owed much to Wales, some 
of his most abiding impressions having been 
formed when his family were domiciled at 
Llanblethian. After his father's return 
from Paris in 1814, he permanently settled 
in England. He received most of his school- 
ing at Dr. Burney's establishment at Green- 
wich, and, after a short trial of the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, proceeded to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in October 1824. Here 
his tutor was Julius Charles Hare [q. v.], 
a circumstance which may be said to have 
determined his intellectual course for life, not 
so much from Hare's immediate influence 
upon him. as from the acquaintances, lite- 
rary and personal, which he was thus led 
to form. His opinions had hitherto been 
radical and utilitarian, but the study of 
Niebuhr, to which Hare must have intro- 
duced him, effected a complete revolution : 
he became a leading member of the 'Apostles ' ' 
club ; he was the most distinguished speaker 
at the Union ; and formed friendships with 

VOL. LIV. 



Frederick Denison Maurice [q. v.l and Ri- 
chard Chenevix Trench [q. v.J which had 
the most powerful effect upon his mind and 
character. It was most probably through 
Hare that he became acquainted with Cole- 
ridge, at whose feet he sat whenever possible, 
and through whom he came to know Words- 
worth and Edward Irving. He migrated 
along with Maurice to Trinity Hall, with 
the intention of taking a legal degree, but 
left the university in 1827 without any, and 
disappointed his family by declining to study 
for the bar, ' because,' as he afterwards told 
Caroline Fox, ' he knew how specially dan- 
gerous to his temperament would be the 
snare of it/ A secretaryship to a political 
association was found for him. The object 
of the society was believed by Carlyle to have 
been the abolition of the East India Com- 
pany's trading monopoly, a reform eagerly 
promoted at the time. If so, it would ac- 
count for Sterling's acquaintance with James 
Silk Buckingham [q. v.], from whom in July 
1828 he, with other friends, purchased the 
'Athenaeum.' This journal for a half-year was 
principally conducted by him and Maurice. 
Both had been regular writers while it was 
under Buckingham's management, and Gene- 
ral Maurice shows in his life of his father 
that ignorance of the fact that they were not 
then its conductors has led Carlyle to mistake 
their sentiments, which were by no means 
ultra-liberal in politics, although daringly 
original in literature. Maurice's essay on 
Shelley, for instance, is a perfect dithyrambic, 
and either he or his colleague is found seriously 
exhorting University College to make the 
opium-eater its professor of logic. With 
much crudity there was a right spirit in the 
journal. Some of the little fanciful tales 
and sketches contributed by Sterling were 
especially charming. Financial considera- 
tions, however, soon made it imperative to 
transfer the paper to more practical and ex- 
perienced hands. Sterling occupied the 
leisure thus gained in trying to fathom 
Coleridge, whose ' Confessions of an In- 
quiring Spirit' he transcribed, and in the 
composition of his suggestive but unsatis- 
fying novel of ' Arthur Coningsby,' though 
this did not appear until 1833 (London, 
3 vols. 8vo, published anonymously). The 
best thing in it is the beautiful ballad ' A 
maiden came gliding over the sea,' which 
alone would prove Sterling a poet. Another 
novel, ' Fitzgeorge,' brought out by the pub- 
lisher of ' Arthur Coningsby ' in 1832, has 
been attributed to Sterling, but it is impos- 
sible that he should have written it. 

In 1830 Sterling married under romantic 
circumstances. He had become connected 

o 



Sterling 



i 94 



Sterling 



with General Torrijos and other Spanish 
refugees who were planning an expedition 
to Spain to overthrow the tyranny of Fer- 
dinand VII, and it was at his suggestion 
that an Irish cousin, Lieutenant Boyd, for- 
merly of the East India service (' My 
victim,' he remorsefully says in a letter to 
Trench), found funds, a ship, and arms, for 
this generous but wild undertaking. Ster- 
ling himself was to have accompanied it, hut 
upon the point of departure discovered that 
he had inspired a strong interest in Susannah, 
eldest daughter of Lieutenant-general Bar- 
ton of the life-guards, and that the ' stately 
blooming black-eyed young woman, full of 
gay softness ' (CARLYLE), would by no means 
let him go. He therefore stayed behind and 
married her, 2 Nov. 1830, thus escaping the 
disastrous fate which overtook Boyd, Tor- 
rijos himself, and most of the other associates 
in the unfortunate enterprise. Trench and 
Mitchell Kemble, who had actually accom- 
panied the expedition, fortunately returned 
before its catastrophe. Almost immediately 
after his marriage he had a dangerous pul- 
monary attack, which decided him to accept 
a proposal to go out to St. Vincent, and 
undertake the management of a sugar estate 
which had belonged to a deceased uncle of 
his mother's, and in which he himself had 
an interest. Sugar-planting in the "West 
Indies failed to prove congenial to a man 
born for the intellectual life, and as the state 
of his own health had sent him out, the 
state of his wife's served to send him back in I 
August 1832. A son had been born to him j 
in St. Vincent in October 1831, and in the 
previous August he had had experience of a 
tremendous hurricane, graphically described 
in a letter printed by Carlyle. 

His return to England seems to have been 
vaguely connected in his own mind with 
a project for the government education of 
the negroes, now on the eve of emancipa- 
tion. This was promptly extinguished by 
the colonial office, and Sterling had for 
the time nothing else to do than to resume 
the train of thought into which he had 
been directed by Coleridge. This led him 
to Germany to study German philosophy 
at its source, and at Bonn, in July 1833, an 
encounter with his former tutor, Julius 
Hare, now rector of Hurstmonceaux in Sus- 
sex, gave definite shape to an idea which had 
been dimly growing up in his mind of the 
church as a possible sphere for him. Hare's 
cordial encouragement clenched the matter, 
and on Trinity Sunday 1834 Sterling received 
deacon's orders and became Hare's curate at 
Hurstmonceaux, where he remained, fulfilling 
his professional duties in the most exemplary 



manner, until ill-health compelled, or was 
supposed to compel, his retirement in Fe- 
bruary 1835. Carlyle is no doubt correct in 
deeming the real reason to have been Ster- 
ling's perception that he was out of place, 
and his ordination was without question an 
ill-judged and precipitate step. 

Yet Sterling certainly did not meditate 
forsaking the clerical profession when he 
resigned his curacy. He wished to edit 
Coleridge's theological works, and would 
have taken the English chaplaincy at Rome 
if he could have got it. He continued to 
reside at Hurstmonceaux until the autumn, 
when he settled at Bayswater, and constant 
intercourse with Carlyle, whose acquaintance 
he had made in the previous February, 
greatly influenced him. He nevertheless re- 
mained constant to the study of German 
divinity as long as he was in England. Not 
until his arrival in Bordeaux, whither ill- 
health drove him in the autumn of 1836, 
are there indications of his conviction that 
literature was his vocation. 

Upon his return in 1837 he wrote his poem 
of 'The Sexton's Daughter,' much in the style 
of Wordsworth, which was published in 1839 
with miscellaneous ' Poems ' (London, 12mo; 
Philadelphia, 1842). At the same time he 
formed a connection with ' Blackwood,' in 
which appeared prose pieces more distinc- 
tively original. Chief among them in merit 
is ' The Palace of Morgana,' one of the most 
beautiful of prose poems. The most elabo- 
rate is ' The Onyx Ring ' (Blackwood, vols. 
xliv. xlv. ; separately published, Boston, 1856, 
16mo), a romance showing decided German 
influence, and perhaps on this account accept- 
able to Carlyle, who is apparently idealised 
in it as ' Collins,' while Hare figures as ' Mus- 
grave.' The connection with ' Blackwood ' 
continued during 1837-8, despite friction 
caused by the neglect of the contributors' 
notes and the mislaying of his manuscripts by 
the erratic ' Christopher North ' (MRS. OLI- 
PHASTT, William Blackwood and his Sons, ii. 
186-92). During these years appeared in 
' Maga' the detached thoughts entitled 
' Crystals from a Cavern.' To the ' London and 
Westminster Review,' conducted by Stuart 
Mill, now a very intimate friend, Sterling 
contributed an essay on Montaigne, evincing 
more clearly than heretofore his detachment 
from theology ; and another on Simonides, 
with translations exhibiting his poetical 
talent at its best. 

In the autumn of 1837 Sterling, again 
driven abroad by ill-health, repaired to 
Madeira, 'where he made the acquaintance 
of Dr. Calvert, another invalid exile. On 
his return in 1838 the Sterling Club was in- 



Sterling 



195 



Stern 



stituted, and named after him. A list of the 
members signed ' James Spedding, secretary,' 
and dated 8 Aug. 1838, is printed in Car- 
lyle's ' Life of Sterling ' (pt. ii. chap, vi.) 
The winter of 1838-9 was spent at Rome, a 
pilgrimage disparaged by Carlyle, but justly 
considered by Hare as momentous in its effect 
on Sterling's mental development. It was 
now hoped that he might be able to reside 
entirely in England, and with this view he 
took a house at Clifton, where he gained the 
friendship of Francis Newman, to whom he 
afterwards bequeathed the guardianship of 
his son. Here Sterling wrote his article on 
Carlyle in the ' Westminster,' which went far 
to complete his intellectual estrangement 
(there never was any other) from his old 
friends. This was further promoted by the 
assent which he found himself no longer able 
to refuse to some of the propositions of 
Strauss. He was beginning his tragedy of 
' Strafford,' when, in November, a violent 
attack of haemorrhage drove him to Fal- 
mouth, where he was introduced by his 
friend Calvert to the amiable and accom- 
plished quaker family of Fox. Stuart Mill 
was also there, tending his dying brother 
Henry, and the social intercourse of the 
visitors and their Cornish entertainers is de- 
lightfully depicted in the diary of Caroline 
Fox [q. v.l, which entirely confirms the tes- 
timony of Sterling's older friends to his 
amiability and charm. 

The rest of Sterling's life was a hopeless 
struggle against consumption. On 18 April 
1843 his mother and his wife both died within 
a few hours of each other, but he pursued 
his literary work in the face of every dis- 
couragement. ' The Election : a Poem in 
seven books ' (London, 12mo), analysed and 
on the whole not dispraised by Carlyle, ap- 
peared in 1841 ; it is a pleasant exhibition of 
the humours of an election, somewhat in the 
manner of Crabbe, comic but not farcical, and 
linked to a pretty story. ' Strafford : a Tra- 
gedy ' (London, 8vo), published in 1843, with 
a graceful dedication to Emerson, has much 
beautiful writing, but is undramatic. Of the 
eight cantos of ' Richard Cceur de Lion,' an 
' Orlandish or Odyssean