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G. A. A. . 
J. G. A. . 
W. A. . . . 
R. B-L. . . 
G. F. E. B. 
M. B. . . . 

B. B. . . . 
T. B. . . . 
T. H. B. . 
H. L. B. . 
G. C. B. . , 
T. G. B. . . 

G. S. B. . . 

E. I. C. . . , 

W. C-B. . . 

J. L. C. . . 

S. C-M. . . 

M. C-Y.. . 
E. C-E. . . 
A. M. C. . , 
T. C. 

W. P. C. . , 
G. M. G. C. 
L. C. . . . 
H. D. . . . 

C. D. . 

. G. A. AITKEN. 

. J. G. ALGEB. 




, Miss BATESON. 





. J. L. CAW. 




. Miss A. M. CLERKE. 






F. G. E. . . F. G. EDWARDS. 




C. H. F. . . C. H. FIRTH. 



W. H. F. . . THE VERY REV. W. H. FRE- 







A. H-N. . . . ARTHUR HARDEN, D.Sc. 
T. F. H. . . T. F. HENDERSON. 



C. L. K. . . C. L. KINGSFORD. 




List of Writers. 

I. S. L. . . 
E. L. . . . 
S. L. . . . 
E. M. L. . 
J. E. L. . 
J. H. L. . 
J. E. M. . 
M. MAcD. 

E. C. M. . 
P. E. M. . 
L. M. M. . 
A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

A. N 

G. LE G. N. . 

D. J. O'D. . 

F. M. O'D. . 

G. W. T. 0. 

E. G. P. . . 
J. F. P. 

A. F. P. 
D'A. P. . . . 
W. E. K. . . 
T. K. E. . . 
J. M. E. . 

. I. S. LEADAM. 




. J. E. LLOYD. 







. A. H. MILLAR. 



G. W. T. OMOND. 
J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

J. M. EIGG. 



W. A. S. . . W. A. SHAW. 

C. F. S. . . Miss C. FELL SMITH. 

G. W. S. . THE EEV. G. W. SPROTT, D.D. 




C. W. S. . . C. W. SUTTON. 
E. B. S. . . E. B. SWINTON. 
J. T-T. . . . JAMES TAIT. 


A. E. U. . . A. E. URQUHART, M.D. 

B. H. V. . . COLONEL E. H. VETCH, E.E., C.B. 

A. W. W. . A. W. WARD, LITT.D., LL.D. 

J. M. W. . . J. M. WHEELER. 



B. B. W. . . B. B. WOODWARD. 







STOW, DAVID (1793-1864), educational 
writer and founder of the Glasgow Normal 
School, was born at Paisley on 17 May 1793, 
and was the son of William Stow, by his wife, 
Agnes Smith. His father was a substantial 
merchant and magistrate in the town. David 
was educated at the Paisley grammar school, 
and was in 1811 employed in business in 
Glasgow. Very early in life he developed 
\ a deep interest in the state of the poor in 
that great city, and especially in the children 
of the Saltmarket, a squalid region through 
which he passed daily. For these he esta- 
blished in 1816 a Sunday evening school, 
in which he gathered for conversation and 
biblical instruction the poorest and most 
neglected of the children. He became an 
elder of Dr. Chalmers's church, and was en- 
couraged by him in his efforts. The experi- 
ence gained in visiting the children's homes 
impressed him with the need of moral train- 
ing as distinguished from simple instruction, 
and gradually shaped in his mind the prin- 
ciples which he afterwards elucidated in his 
principal book, < The Training System ' (1836). 
He was much influenced by what he learned 
of the work effected at the same time by Bell 
and Lancaster in England, and especially by 
Samuel Wilderspin [q. v.], the author of 
the ' Infant System.' At Stow's invitation 
Wilderspin gave some lectures on infant 
training in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and an 
association was formed under the name of 
the Glasgow Educational Society. In ] 824 
this society established at Stow's instance a 
week-day training school in Drygate. This 
school by 1827 developed into a seminary 
for the training of teachers, which was in 
effect the first normal college in the king- 
dom, although both the National Society 
and the Lancasterian societies in England 

had several years earlier admitted young 
persons who intended to become school- 
masters into their model schools in London 
to study for a few weeks the methods and 
organisation of those schools. By 1836 Stow 
was able to transfer the establishment to 
new premises on a larger scale in Dundas 
Vale, Glasgow. 

In 1832, 20,000 having been voted in 
parliament for the erection of schoolhouses, 
Stow's enterprise was aided by a grant, and 
he was invited in 1838 to become the first 
government inspector of Scottish schools. 
He declined this offer, preferring to develop 
his own system in the institution which he 
had founded. The success of the college 
attracted the special attention and sym- 
pathy of Dr. J. P. Kay (afterwards Sir James 
Phillips Kay-Shuttleworth[q.v.]), who visited 
it, and recommended in 1841 the further 
award of a government grant of 5,000/. on 
condition that the institution should be made 
over to the general assembly of the church of 
Scotland. This condition was fulfilled ; but 
in 1845, when the disruption of the Scottish 
church took place, a change became inevi- 
table. Stow and the directors and teachers 
of the institution were all in sympathy with 
Chalmers and the free-church leaders ; with 
the whole body of students, as well as the 
pupils of the schools, they seceded, and were 
housed in temporary premises until the new 
seminary, known to this day as the Free 
Church Normal College, was erected. Of this 
institution Stow remained the guiding spirit 
until his death on 6 Nov. 1864. He mar- 
ried, in 1822, Marion Freebairn, by whom he 
had four children ; she died in 1831. He mar- 
ried, secondly, in 1841, Elizabeth Me Arthur ; 
she died in 1847. 

The influence of Stow's normal college 




was not confined to Scotland. The Wes- 
leyan education committee from 1840 to 
1851 availed themselves of Stow's institu- 
tion, and encouraged their students to go 
to Glasgow for their professional preparation. 
When the Wesleyan Training College was 
established in Westminster, Stow's methods 
were largely adopted, two of the principal 
officers of that college having been trained 
at Glasgow under his superintendence. 

Stow placed religious and moral training 
before him as the principal objects to be 
attained in education. The playground or 
' uncovered schoolroom ' he especially valued 
as a place where, under right supervision, 
good physical and moral training might be 
secured. As to direct teaching, he made bibli- 
cal lessons and instruction both in common 
things and in elementary science prominent 
in his system; and he attached special im- 
portance to what he called ' picturing out,' 
by means of oral description and illustra- 
tions, those geographical and historical scenes 
which appeal to the imagination rather than 
to the verbal memory. He sought to incor- 
porate into his practice much of the best 
experience of Bell, Lancaster, arid Pesta- 
lozzi ; but the monitorial system appeared 
to him very defective from the point of 
view of moral influence, and the parrot-like 
enumeration of the qualities of objects which 
was so often to be found in schools profess- 
ing to be Pestalozzian he regarded as often 
unfruitful. He was one of the first of our 
educational reformers to recognise fully the 
value of infant schools, and the importance 
of what he called the ' sympathy of numbers' 
and of collective teaching as a means of 
quickening the intelligence of young children. 
In the training of teachers he was one of the 
earliest and most effective workers, and the 
method of requiring all candidates for the 
teacher's office to give public lessons which 
were afterwards made the subject of private 
criticism by the fellow-students and by him- 
self a method now universally adopted in 
all good training colleges may be said to 
have originated with him. His experience 
led him also to advocate the teaching of boys 
and girls together in the primary school, and 
to attach great value to this association 
on moral grounds. From the first he deter- 
mined to employ no corporal punishment, 
no prizes, no place-taking, and he always re- 
garded these as wholly unnecessary expe- 
dients for any teacher who was properly 
qualified for his work. He was not a great 
educational philosopher, and he never, like 
Rousseau, Comenius, Locke, or Pestalozzi, 
formulated a scientific theory of education. 

His system was the result of experience guided 
by a loving insight into child-nature. 

In the light of later experience some of 
his methods have been superseded. The 
enormous gallery on which he delighted to 
see 150 or more children gathered to receive 
a stirring moral or pictorial lesson was found 
to be an ineffective instrument for serious 
intellectual work. Later teachers have also 
found that it is not safe to rely too much on 
oral instruction, or to relegate, as he did, the 
study of language to a rank so far inferior 
to the study of material things. 

His chief publications were : 1. ' Physical 
and Moral Training,' 1832. 2. ' The train- 
ing System,' first published in 1836, which 
reached a ninth edition, revised and expanded, 
in 1853. 3. 'National Education: the Duty 
of England in regard to the Moral and In- 
tellectual Elevation of the Poor and Work- 
ing Classes Teaching or Training,' 1847. 
4. ' Bible Emblems,' 1855. 5. 'Bible Train- 
ing for Sabbath Schools/ 1857. 

[The best account of his H f e will be found in 
the Memoir by the Rev. W. Fraser, a member of 
the Glasgow College staff, London, 1868 ;Leitch's 
Practical Educationists ; J. Gr. Thomson's Cen- 
tenary Address before the Educational Institute 
of Scotland, 1893.] J. G. F-H. 

STOW, JAMES (Jl. 1790-1820), en- 
graver, born near Maidstone about 1770, was 
son of a labourer. At the age of thirteen 
he engraved a plate from Murillo's ' St. John 
and the Lamb,' which showed such preco- 
cious talent that, with funds provided by 
gentlemen in the neighbourhood, he was 
articled to William Woollett [q. v.] After 
Woollett's death in 1785 he completed his 
apprenticeship with William Sharp [q. v.] 
Stow worked entirely in the line manner, 
and engraved many of the plates for Boy dell's 
' Shakespeare ' (small series), Bowyer's edi- 
tion of Hume's k History of England,' Mack- 
lin's ' Bible,' DuRoveray's edition of 'Pope's 
Homer,' George Perfect Harding's series of 
portraits of the 'Deans of Westminster/ and 
other fine publications. His most important 
single plates were ' The Three Women at the 
Sepulchre,' after Benjamin West, which he 
issued himself; and a portrait of Lord Frede- 
rick Campbell, after Edridge. His latest 
employment was upon the illustrations to 
Wilkinson's i Londina Illustrata,' 1811-23. 
Falling into intemperate habits, Stow died 
in obscurity and poverty. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Dodd's maim 
script History of Engravers in Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 33405 ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iv. 427, 
521.] F. M. O'D. 



STOW, JOHN (1525P-1605), chronicler 
and antiquary, was born about 1525 in the 
parish of St. Michael, Cornhill, London, of 
which his father and grandfather were pa- 
rishioners (cf. AUBKEY, Lives, ii. 541). Tho- 
mas Cromwell deprived his father by force 
of a part of the garden of his house in Throg- 
morton Street (cf. Survey, ed. Thorns, p. 67). 
He describes himself in his youth as fetching 
milk ' hot from the kine ' from a farm in the 
Minories. In early life he followed the trade 
of a tailor, which was doubtless his father's 
occupation. In 1544 a false charge, which 
is not defined, was brought against him by a ! 
priest, and he had the satisfaction of convict- ! 
ing his accuser of perjury in the Star-chamber 
(STRYPE). On 25 Xov. 1547 he was ad- 
mitted to the freedom of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, but was never called into 
the livery nor held any office (CLODE, Hist, 
of Merchant Taylors' Company, p. 183). I 
In 1549 he was living near the well in | 
Aldgate, between Leadenhall Street and | 
Fenchurch Street, and there witnessed the | 
execution in front of his house of the bailiff 
of Horn ford, who seems to have been judi- : 
cially murdered as a reputed rebel. Soon ! 
afterwards Stow removed to Lime Street 
ward, where he resided till his death. 

Stow does not seem to have abandoned 
his trade altogether till near the close of his 
career, and he was until his death an 
honoured member of the Merchant Taylors' 
Company. But he left in middle life ' his 
own peculiar gains,' and consecrated himself 
' to the search of our famous antiquities.' 
From 1560 onwards his time was mainly 
spent in the collection of printed books, 
legal and literary documents, and charters, 
in the transcription of ancient manuscripts, 
inscriptions, and the like, all dealing with 
English history, archaeology, and literature. 
His zeal as a collector increased with his 
years, and he ultimately spent as much as 
200/. annually on his library. Some time 
after the death, in 1573, of Reginald or 
Reyner Wolfe [q. v.],the projector of Holm- 
shed's ' Chronicles,' Stow purchased Wolfe's 
collections. He came to know all the lead- 
ing antiquaries of his day, including Wil- 
liam Lambarde, Camden, and Fleetwood. 
He supplied manuscripts of mediaeval chro- 
nicles to Archbishop Parker, who proved a 
stimulating patron, and he edited some of 
them for publication under the archbishop's 
direction. He joined the Society of Anti- 
quaries formed by the archbishop, but of his 
contributions to the society's proceedings 
only a fragment on the origin of ' sterling 
money ' is known to survive (HEARNE, 
Curious Discourses, ii. 318). 


Stow's first publication was an edition of 
'The woorkes of Geffrey Chaucer, newly 
printed, with divers addicions whiche were 
never in printe before ' (London, 1561, fol.) 
Lydgate's ' Siege of Thebes ' was appended. 
Stow worked on William Thynne's edition 
of 1532, but { corrected ' and * increased ' it. 
For many years subsequently he ' beautified ' 
Chaucer's text with notes ' collected out of 
divers records and monuments.' These he 
made over to his friend Thomas Speght [q.v.], 
who printed them in his edition of 1598 
(cf. Survey, 1603, p. 465). Speght included 
a valuable listof Lydgate's works, which he 
owed to Stow. Harl. MS. 2255, which con- 
tains transcripts by Shirley of poems by Lyd- 
gate and Chaucer, was once Stow's property; 
In 1562 Stow acquired a manuscript of 
the 'Tree of the Commonwealth,' by Ed- 
mund Dudley [q.v.], grandfather of Robert 
Dudley (afterwards Earl of Leicester), the 
queen's favourite. He made a copy with 
his own hands, and presented it to the au- 
thor's grandson. The latter, in acknow- 
ledging the gift, suggested that Stow ought 
to undertake original historical writing. 
Stow took the advice, and planned a chro- 
nicle on a generous scale, but before he had 
gone far with it he turned aside to produce 
a chronological epitome of English history, 
with lists of the officers of the corporation 
of London. Such works were not uncommon 
at the time, and an undated reissue, assigned 
to 1561, of * A breviat Chronicle contaynynge 
all the Kynges [of England],' which was 
originally published many years before by .T. 
Mychell of Canterbury, was long regarded in 
error as the first edition of Stow's l Epitome.' 
It was not until 1565 that Stow produced his 
' Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles con- 
teynyng the true accompt of yeres, wherein 
every Kyng of this Realme . . . began theyr 
reigne, howe long they reigned : and what 
notable thynges hath bene doone durynge 
theyr Reygnes. Wyth also the names and 
yeares of all the Bylyffes, custos, maiors, 
and sheriffes of the Citie of London sens 
the Conqueste, dyligentely collected by J. 
Stow. In aadibus T. Marshi ' (London, 1565, 
8vo). The work was well received, and was 
frequently reissued until the year preceding 
Stow's death,with successive additions bring- 
ing the information up to date. An account 
of the universities of England was added 
to the issue of 1567. Others bear the dates 
1570, 1573% 1575, 1579, 1584, 1587, 1590*, 
1598*, and 1604* (those marked with an 
asterisk are in the British Museum). The 
work was dedicated to successive lord 
mayors with the aldermen and commonalty 
of London. From the first Stow's accuracy 



was impugned by an interested rival chroni- 
cler, Richard Grafton [q.v.], whohad antici- 
pated him in bringing out a somewhat similar 
4 Abridgment of the Chronicles of England ' 
in 1562. This was dedicated to Lord Robert 
Dudley, and was often reprinted. In the 
1566 edition Grafton sneered 'at the memo- 
ries of superstitious foundacions, fables, and 
lyes foolishly Stowed together.' In the de- 
dication to the edition of 1567 Stow pun- 
ningly, by way of retort, deplored the 
4 thundering noice of empty tonnes and un- 
fruitful graftes of Momus offspring' by 
which his work was menaced. The war- 
fare was long pursued in prefaces to succes- 
sive editions of the two men's handbooks 
Stow finally denounced with asperity al 
Grafton's historical work (cp. Address to thi 
Reader, 1573). There seems little doubt tha 
his capacity as an historian was greater than 
Grafton's, and that the victory finally reste 
with him (AMES, Typogr. Antiq. ed. Dibdin 
iii. 422-7). 

But Stow had other troubles. His studies 
inclined him to conservatism in religion, anc 
he never accepted the reformed doctrine with 
much enthusiasm. His zeal as a collector 
of documents laid him open to the suspicion 
of Elizabeth's ministers. In 1568 he was 
charged with being in possession of a copy oJ 
the Duke of Alva's manifesto against Eliza- 
beth which the Spanish ambassador had dis- 
seminated in London. He was examined by 
the council, but was not punished (CLODE, p. 
651). Soon afterwards in February 1568-9 
his house was searched for recently pub- 
lished papistical books, and a list was made 
of those found. The officials of the ecclesias- 
tical commission who made the search re- 
ported that they found, in addition to the 
forbidden literature, ' foolish fabulous books 
of old print as of Sir Degory Triamour,' ' old 
written English chronicles/ ' miscellanea of 
divers sorts both touching physic, surgery, 
and herbs, with medicines of experience/ and 
'old fantastical books' of popish tendencies 
(cf. STRYPE, Grindal,$p. 184, 506). In 1570 
a brother gave information which led to 
another summons before the ecclesiastical 
commission, but the unspecified charge, 
which apparently again impugned Stow's 
religious orthodoxy, was satisfactorily con- 
futed. In the same year Stow accused a 
fellow-tailor named Holmes of slandering his 
wife, and Holmes was ordered to pay Stow 
twenty shillings. Thenceforth he was un- 
molested, and inspired his fellow citizens 
with so much confidence that in 1585 he was 
one of the collectors in the city of the money 
required to furnish the government with four 
thousand armed men. 

Stow pursued his historical and antiquarian 
work with undiminished vigour throughout 
the period of his persecution by the council 
and his bitter controversy with Grafton. 
Archbishop Parker's favour was not alienated 
by the allegations of romanism made against 
him. With Parker's aid Stow saw through 
the press for the first time Matthew of West- 
minster's ' Flores Historiarum ' in 1567, 
Matthew Paris's 'Chronicle' in 1571, and 
Thomas Walsingham's ' Chronicle ' in 1574. 
In 1580 he dedicated to Leicester the first 
edition of his original contribution to Eng- 
lish history entitled 'The Chronicles of Eng- 
land from Brute unto this present yeare of 
Christ, 1580. Collected by J. Stow, citizen 
of London,' London, by ' R. Newberie at the- 
assignement of II. Bynneman/ 4to. The 
useful work, in a new edition four years later, 
first bore 'the more familiar title of ' The- 
Annales of England faithfully collected out 
of the most authenticall Authors, Records, 
and other Monuments of Antiquitie from 
the first inhabitation untill . . . 1592,' Lon- 
don (by Ralph Newbery), 1592, 4to. The 
dedication was now addressed to Archbishop 
Whitgift. The text consists of more than 
thirteen hundred pages, and concludes with 
an appendix ' of the universities of England.' 
The ' Annales' were reissued by Stow within 
a few days of his death in 1605 still in quarto, 
4 encreased and continued . . . untill this pre- 
sent yeare 1605.' It was re-edited, continued, 
and considerably altered in 1615 by Edmund 
Howes [q. v.], with an appended account of 
the universities, to which Sir George Buc 
supplied a description of ' the university of 
London ' (i.e. of the Inns of Court and other 
educational establishments of the metropolis). 
A new edition by Howes appeared in 1631. 
Meanwhile Stow was employed in revising 
the second edition of Holinshed's 'Chronicle/ 
which was published in January 1585-7. 
His final work was ' A Survay of London 
contayning the originall antiquity and in- 
crease, moderne estates, and description of 
:hat citie . . . also an apologie (or defence) 
against the opinion of some men concerning- 
;he citie, the greatnesse thereof. . . . With 
an appendix containing in Latine, Libellum 
de situ et nobilitate Londini, by W T . Fitz- 
tephen in the Raigne of Henry the Second, 
>. 1., J.Wolfe/ London, 1598, 4to. It was dedi- 
3ated to Robert Lee, lord mayor, and to the 
citizens of London, and is an exhaustive and 
nvaluable record of Elizabethan London. ' In- 
reased with divers notes of antiquity/ it was 
epublished by Stow in 1603. A reprint of the 
603 edition, edited by William J. Thorns, ap- 
>eared in 1876 with modernised orthography,, 
nd edited by Henry Morley [q. v.] in the 


Carisbrooke Library in 1890. Stow's autho- 
rised text is to be found alone in the edition 
of 1603. After his death the work was liber- 
ally revised and altered. An enlarged edition 
by Anthony Munday appeared in 1618, and 
by Munday, Henry or Humphry Dyson, and 
others in 1633. Strype re-edited and ex- 
panded it in 1720 (2 vols. fol.), and again 
in 1754. John Mottley [q. v.] 'published an 
edition in 1734, under the pseudonym of 
Kobert Seymour. 

Stow's reputation grew steadily in his 
closing years. He was of lively tempera- 
ment, and his society was sought by men of 
letters. Henry Holland, in his 'Monumenta 
Sancti Pauli ' (1614), called Stow ' the merry 
old man.' But he was always pecuniarily 
embarrassed ; his expenses always exceeded 
his income, and his researches were pursued 
under many difficulties. ' He could never 
ride, but travelled on foote unto divers cathe- 
dral churches and other chiefe places of the 
land to search records ' (HOWES). He told 
Manningham the diarist, when they met 
on 17 Dec. 1602, that he * made no gains 
by his travails' (Diary). He bore his 
poverty cheerfully. Ben Jonson related 
that when he and Stow were walking alone 
together, they happened to meet two crippled 
beggars, and Stow ' asked them what they 
would have to take him to their order ' ( JON- 
SON, Conversations with Drummond, Shake- 
speare Soc.) He long depended for much 
of his subsistence on charity. As early as 
1579 the Merchant Taylors' Company seems 
to have allowed him a pension of 4/. a year, 
which Robert Do we, a master of the company, 
liberally supplemented. At Dowe's sugges- 
tion the company increased Stow's pension 
by 21. in 1600. From money left by Do we 
at his death to the company, Stow after 
1602 received an annual sum of ol. 2s. in addi- 
tion to his old pension. On 5 July 1592 he 
acknowledged his obligation to the company 
by presenting a copy of his ' Annales.' Cam- 
den is said to have allowed Stow an annuity 
of 8/. in exchange for a copy in Stow's auto- 
graph of Leland's ' Itinerary.' But his pecu- 
niary difficulties grew with his years and 
were at length brought to the notice of the 
government. On 8 March 1603-4 letters 
patent were issued authorising Stow and his 
deputies to ' collect voluntary contributions 
and kind gratuities.' He was described as 
'a very aged and worthy member of our 
city of London, who had for forty-five years 
to his great charge and with neglect of his 
ordinary means of maintenance, for the 
general good as well of posterity as of the 
present age, compiled and published divers 
necessary books and chronicles.' An epi- 

5 StOW 

tome of the letters patent was circulated 
in print. A copy survives in Harleian MS. 
367, f. 10. Apparently Stow set up basins 
for alms in the streets, but the citizens were 
chary of contributions. In 1605 William 
Warner, in a new edition of his ' Albion's 
England,' illustrated the neglect of literary 
merit by the story of Stow's poverty. 

He died on 6 April 1605, and was buried 
in the church of St. Andrew Undershaft in 
Leadenhall Street, where Elizabeth, his 
widow, erected to his memory a monument 
in terra-cotta. The effigy, which still sur- 
vives, was formerly coloured. He is re- 
presented as seated in a chair and reading. 
Besides the sculptured portrait on the tomb, 
a contemporary engraving of Stow was pre- 
pared for his' 'Survey' (ed. 1603). The 
original painting belonged to Serjeant Fleet- 
wood (cf. MANNING HAM, Diary). Most extant 
copies of the ' Survey ' lack the portrait. It is 
reproduced in the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ 
1837, i. 48. The inscription on the engraving 
entitles Stow 'Antiquarius Anglire.' His 
friend Howes described him as 'tall of stature, 
leane of body and face, his eyes small and 
crystalline, of a pleasant and cheerful coun- 

Stow was the most accurate and business- 
like of English annalists or chroniclers of 
the sixteenth century. ' He always protested 
never to have written anything either for 
malice, fear, or favour, nor to seek his own 
particular gain or vainglory, and that his 
only pains and care was to write truth' 
(HOWES). Sir Roger Lesfcrange is reported 
by Hearne to have said ' that it was always 
a wonder to him that the very best that had 
penn'd our history in English should be a 
poor taylour, honest John Stow' (ROBERT 
OF GLOUCESTER, ed. Hearne, p. Ixi). Hearne 
described Stow as an ' honest and knowing 
man,' ' but an indifferent scholar ' (Letters 
from the Bodleian, i. 288, ii. 98). 

Much reluctance was shown by Stow's 
friends in preparing any of his numerous 
manuscripts for publication after his death 
(cf. STRYPE, Cranmer, vol. i. p. xvii). But 
Edmund Howes [q. v.] at length revised his 
' Annales,' and Munday his ' Survey of Lon- 
don.' In his ' Annales ' (ed. 1592, p. 1295) 
Stow wrote that he had a larger volume, 'An 
History of this Island,' ready for the press. 
In 1605, a few days before his death, he asked 
the reader of his ' Annales ' to encourage him 
to publish or to leave to posterity a far larger 
volume. He had long since laboured at it, 
he wrote, at the request and command of 
Archbishop Parker, but the archbishop's death 
and the issue of Holinshed's ' Chronicle ' had 
led to delay in the publication. Howes in 


S towel 

his continuation of Stow wrote that Stow 
purposed if he had lived one year longer to 
have put the undertaking in print, but, being 
prevented by death, left the same in his study 
orderly written ready for the press. The fate 
of this manuscript is unknown, but it is sug- 
gested that portions were embodied in the 
' Successions of the History of England, from 
the beginning of Edward IV to the end of 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth/ together with 
a list 'of peers of the present time, by 
John Stow/ 1638, fol. 

Many of Stow's manuscripts passed into 
the collection of Sir Symonds D'Ewes, and 
some of them are now in the British Mu 
seum. Autograph translations by him of 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Florence of Worcester, 
Alured of Rievaulx, and Nicholas Trivet, are 
among the Harleian manuscripts (Nos. 551, 
563). Harleian MS. 543 consists of transcripts 
made by Stow from historical papers, now 
lost, formerly in Fleetwood's library ; one 
piece, ' History of the Arrival of Edward IV 
in England/ formed the first volume of the 
Camden Society's publications in 1838. Har- 
leian MS. 367 consists of private papers be- 
longing to Stow r . A valuable but imperfect 
transcript by Stow of Leland's ' Itinerary ' is 
in Bodleian Library, Tanner MS. 464. 

[Howes inserted an account of Stow into the 
1615 edition of his Annales. Strype contri- 
buted an interesting memoir to his edition of 
the Survey of London (1720). There is a good 
biography in Clode's History of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company, pp. 183-7. See also Gent. 
Mag. 1837, i. 48 seq. ; Thoms's introduction 
to his reprint in 1876 of the 1603 edition 
of the Survey of London ; D'Israeli's Curiosities 
of Literature ; Boiton Corney's Curiosities of 
^Literature illustrated; Strype's Works.] S. L. 

1855), scholar and journalist, eldest son of 
William and Mary Stowe, was born at Buck- 
ingham on 1 Jan. 1825. After attending a 
school at ItHey, near Oxford, he spent six 
months at King Edward's school, Birming- 
ham. Leaving at Easter 1840, he studied 
medicine for three years at Buckingham, but, 
finding the pursuit uncongenial, entered at 
Wadham College, Oxford, in January 1844. 
At Oxford he was intimately associated with 
G. G. Bradley (afterwards dean of Westmin- 
ster), John Conington, and other members 
of the Rugby set. In 1848 he was placed 
in the first class in the final classical school 
with Edward Parry (afterwards bishop suf- 
fragan of Dover) and William Stubbs (after- 
wards bishop of Oxford). After occupying 
himself for two years in private tuition at 
Oxford, he began in 1851 a connection with 
the ' Times ' by contributing literary articles, 

among them a comparison of the characteris- 
tics of Thackeray and Dickens. In March 
1852 he obtained an open fellowship at Oriel 
College, and afterwards entered at Lincoln's 

In May 1852 John Walter, the proprietor, 
gave him a permanent post on the staff of 
the 'Times.' His work for the paper was 
mainly confined to literary subjects, although 
he wrote many leading articles on miscel- 
laneous topics. His reviews of Kaye's 
' Afghanistan' and of Dickens's 'David Cop- 
perfield' were reissued in ' Essays from the 
Times' (2nd ser. 1854), edited by Samuel 
Phillips [q. v.] Other literary notices by 
him of interest were on 'Niebuhr's Letters' 
(1853) and on ' The Mechanical Inventions 
of James Watt' (1855). An admirable me- 
moir which he wrote of Lord Brougham ap- 
peared in the ' Times' of 11 May 1868, after 
Stowe's death. 

In 1855 the ' Times' organised a ' sick and 
wounded fund' for the relief of the British 
army in the Crimea, and Stowe was selected 
to proceed to the east as the fund's almoner. 
He reached Constantinople before the end of 
February, and was soon at Scutari, whence 
he moved to Balaklava. There he visited 
the hospitals and camp, and reported on the 
defects of the sanitary situation. 'Others 
talked, Mr. Stowe acted,' wrote the author of 
' Eastern Hospitals ' (pp. 90-2). On 16 March 
his first letter from the Crimea appeared in the 
' Times/ and described the Balaklava hospitals 
and the health of the army. Many further 
despatches on like subjects followed up to 
midsummer 1855. Two of Stowe's letters 
(Nos. 80 and 81) described the third bom- 
bardment of Sebastopol, and were embodied in 
' The War/ 1855, by (Sir) W. H. Russell, the 
' Times ' correspondent. But Stowe's health 
was unable to resist the fatigue and exposure 
to an unhealthy climate which were incident 
to his labours. He died of camp fever at 
Balaklava on 22 June 1855, and was buried 
in the cemetery there (see Illustrated London 
News, 22 Nov. 1855). A cenotaph to his 
memory was erected by friends in the chapel 
of Oriel College. John Walter, in a leading 
article from his own pen in the ' Times ' of 
6 July 1855, recounted Stowe's experiences in 
the Crimea, and characterised his despatches 
as ' an astonishing effort of intellectual and 
descriptive talent.' 

[Times, 6 July 1855 ; Sir W. H. Russell's The 
War, 1855; private information.] A. S. 

STOWEL, JOHN (d. 1799), Manx poet, 
a member of a family well known in the 
island, was born at Peel in the Isle of Man, 
and became master of the Latin school at 



Peel, lie published in 1790 < The Retro- 
spect, or a Review of the Memorable Events 
of Mona,' a satire on the Manx parliament 
and on the town of Douglas. The poem is 
of considerable length, but lacks literary 
merit. In the same year he published in 
Liverpool ' A Sallad for the young Ladies 
and Gentlemen of Douglas raised by Tom 
the Gardener/ and in 1791 'The Literary 
Quixote,' a satire on the ' Journal of Richard 
Townley,' a book on the Isle of Man. In 
1792 he printed an elegy in verse on Mrs. 
Callow and Miss M. Bacon, and in 1793 
' An Elegiac Invocation of the Muses.' His 
last work is dated 27 April 1796, and is an 
address in verse to the Duchess of Atholl. 
He died at Peel in 1799. 

[Samuel Burcly's Ardglass, Dublin, 1802 ; Har- 
rison's Bibliotheca Monensis, Douglas, 1861 ; 
Hugh Stowell's Memoirs of the Rev. Joseph 
Stowell, 1821.] N. M. 

WILLIAM, 1745-1836.] 

STOWELL, HUGH (1799-1865), divine, 
elder son of the Rev. Hugh Stowell, author 
of a ' Life of Bishop Thomas Wilson,' was 
born at Douglas, Isle of Man, on 3 Dec. 1799. 
William Hendry Stowell [q. v.] was his 
cousin. Hugh was educated at home and 
afterwards by the Rev. John Cawood, at 
Bewdley, Worcestershire, whence he pro- 
ceeded in 1819 to St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. 
His college career was undistinguished except 
for his poetical productions and for achieve- 
ments in the university debating society. 
He graduated B.A. on 5 Dec. 1822 and 
M.A. on 25 May 1826. He was ordained 
in 1823 by Bishop Ryder to the curacy of 
Shepscombe, Gloucestershire. This he ex- 
changed in the course of a few months for 
that of Trinity Church, Huddersfield. He re- 
mained there until 1828, when he accepted 
the sole charge of St. Stephen's, Salford. 
Here he became popular as a preacher. His 
friends built for him Christ Church, Acton 
Square, Salford, of which he was appointed 
the first incumbent in 1831. For many years 
he was one of the most prominent leaders 
of the evangelical party in England, and 
was widely known as a vigorous and effective 
platform orator. He was ever denouncing 
the f errors of popery,' and some remarks of 
his as to an alleged penance inflicted on a 
poor Roman catholic led to an action for 
libel in 1840, when the verdict went against 
him, with forty shillings damages ; but on 
appeal this judgment was reversed by Lord- 
chief-justice Denman. A few years later he 
took a leading part in an agitation in favour 
of religious education. 

He was appointed honorary canon of 
Chester Cathedral in 1845, chaplain to Dr. 
Lee, bishop of Manchester, in 1851, and rural 
dean of Eccles at a later date. He died at 
his residence, Barr Hill, Pendleton, near 
Manchester, 011 5 Oct. 1865, and was buried 
in the church of which he had been minister 
for thirty-four years. His portrait, painted 
by Charles Mercier, was placed during his 
lifetime in the Salford town-hall. There 
was an earlier portrait by William Bradley. 
Both portraits were engraved. 

By his wife, Anne Susannah, eldest daugh- 
ter of Richard Johnson Daventry Ashworth 
of Strawberry Hill, Pendleton, whom he 
married in 1828, he had, besides other issue, 
the Rev. Hugh Ashworth Stowell (1830- 
1886), rector of Breadsall, Derby, and author 
of ' Flora of Faversharn' (in the ' Phytologist,' 
1855-6), of ' Entomology of the Isle of Man ' 
(in the ' Zoologist,' 1862), and of other con- 
tributions (BRITTEN and BODXGER, Biogra- 
phical Index of Botanists, 1893, p. 163) ; and 
the Rev. Thomas Alfred Stowell, M. A., now 
hon. canon of Manchester and rector of Chor- 
ley, Lancashire. 

Among his numerous works are the fol- 
lowing: 1. 'The Peaceful Valley, or the 
Influence of Religion,' 1825. 2. ' Pleasures 
of Religion, and other Poems,' 1832; enlarged 
edition, 1860. 3. ' Tractarianism tested by 
Holy Scripture and the Church of England,' 
2 vols., 1845. 4. ' A Model for Men of Busi- 
ness, or Lectures on the Character of Nehe- 
miah,' 1854. 5. l Sermons for the Sick and 
Afflicted,' 1866. 6. < Hymns,' edited by his 

son, 1868. 

Sermons preached in Christ 

Church, Salford,' 1869. 

[Marsden's Memoirs of Stowell, 1868, with 
portrait ; Evans's Lancashire Authors and Ora- 
tors, 1850, Life of William McKerrow, D.D., 
1881 ; Manchester Guardian, 6 Oct. 1865; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886; Gent. Mag. 
1865, ii. 789 ; Julian's Diet, of Hymnology ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] C. W. S. 

STOWELL, Sra JOHN (1599-1662), 

royalist. [See STAWELL.] 


(1800-1858), dissenting divine, born at 
Douglas, Isle of Man, on 19 June 1800, 
was son of William Stowell and his wife, 
Susan Hilton. Hugh Stowell [q. v.] was 
his cousin. He was one of the first stu- 
dents at the Blackburn Academy, opened in 
1816, under Dr. Joseph Fletcher. His first 
ministerial charge, at St. Andrew's Chapel, 
North Shields, extended from February 1821 
to 1834, when he was appointed head of the 
Independent College at Rotherham, and 
pastor of Masborough congregational church. 




The latter post he resigned in 1849, and the 
former in October 1850, on his appointmen 
as president of Cheshunt College. In 1848 
he was the pioneer of the ' missions to work- 
ing men,' and took the most prominent part 
in rendering successful the concert-hall lec- 
tures established by Nathaniel Caine at Liver- 
pool in 1850. The university of Glasgow 
conferred on him the degree of D.D. in 1849, 
in recognition of the value of his theological 
works. He resigned Cheshunt College in 
1856, and died at his residence, Roman Eoad, 
Barnsbury, London, on 2 Jan. 1858. He 
married Sarah Hilton in July 1821, and left 
several children. 

Rewrote: 1. 'The Ten Commandments 
illustrated/ 1824, 8vo. 2. ' The Missionary 
Church,' 1832. 3. ' The Miraculous Gifts con- 
sidered,' 1834. 4. History of the Puritans,' 
1847. 5. < The Work of the Spirit, 1849. 
6. Memoir of R. W. Hamilton, D.D,' 1850. 
He also published several discourses and 
charges, edited the works of Thomas Adams 
(fl. 1612-1653) [q. v.], the puritan divine, 
1847 ; and, for the monthly series of the Re- 
ligious Tract Society, wrote : 1. * History of 
Greece,' 1848. 2. 'Lives of Illustrious Greeks,' 
1849. 3. ' Life of Mohammed.' 4. ' Julius 
Csesar.' 5. ' Life of Isaac Newton.' He was 
joint editor of the fifth series of the ' Eclectic 
Review/ and a contributor to the ' British 
Quarterly Review ' and other periodicals of 
the denomination to which he belonged. A 
posthumous volume of sermons appeared in 
1859,'edited by his eldest son, William Stowell 
(d. 1877). 

An unsatisfactory portrait, painted by 
Parker, was presented by subscribers to 
Rotherham College in 1844 ; it is engraved 
in the ' Memoir ' by Stowell's son. 

[William Stowell's Memoir of the Life and 
Labours of W. H. Stowell, 1859 ; Congregational 
Year Book, 1859, p. 222; Guest's History of 
Kotherham, 1879; Athenaeum, 1859, ii. 237; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.; Hugh Stowell Brown's Auto- 
biography, 1887, p. 20; private information.] 

C. W. S. 

(1290 P-1372 ?), judge, is stated to have been 
born at Stowford in the parish of West Down, 
Devonshire, about 1290 (PRINCE, Worthies 
of Devon, p. 559). He was perhaps a son 
of John de Stoford, who was manucaptor in 
1307 for a burgess returned to parliament 
for Plympton (Parl. Writs, ii. 5). Stowford 
was an attorney for Hugh d'Audeley on 
12 April 1329 and 17 June 1331 (CaL Pat. 
Rolls, Edward III, i. 381, ii. 42). During 
1331 he appears on commissions of oyer and 
terminer in the counties of Kent, Devon, 
and Pembroke, and on 12 Feb. 1332 was on 

the commission of peace for Devonshire (ib. 
ii. 57, 131, 199, 286). His name occasionally 
appears in judicial commissions in subsequent 
years, and in 1340 he is mentioned as one 
of the keepers of the coast of Devonshire 
(Fosdera, ii. 1112). In the same year he was 
made one of the king's Serjeants, and on 
23 April 1342 was appointed one of the judges 
of the court of common pleas. From 10 Nov. 
to 8 Dec. 1345 he acted temporarily as chief 
baron of the exchequer. Afterwards he re- 
sumed his place in the court of common pleas, 
where he continued to sit till midsummer 
1372 (DTJGDALE, Orig. p. 45). He probably 
died soon after, and is said to have been 
buried in the church of West Down. Stow- 
ford made a benefaction to the convent of 
St. John at Wells in 1336 (CaL Pat. Rolls, 
Edward III, iii. 334). He is said to have 
built the bridge over the Taw, near Barn- 
staple, and also a bridge between that town 
and Pilton. He married Joan, coheiress of 
the Tracys of Woollocombe. He and his 
wife held lands at South Petherton and 
Drayton, Somerset (ib. ii. 489). 

[Prince's Worthies of Devon; Foss's Judges 
of England.] C. L. K. 


colonel, is first mentioned as serving under 
Cromwell at Preston in 1648, with the rank 
of major. According to Baillie, his former 
life had been l very lewd/ but he had 
reformed, l inclined much in opinion to- 
wards the sectaries/ and remained with 
Cromwell till the death of Charles I. He 
was employed in the negotiations between 
Argyll and Cromwell in September 1648 
(CARLYLE, Letter 75). He brought the 
news of Charles's execution to Edinburgh, 
and, after much discussion on account of the 
scandals of his past conduct, the commission 
of the kirk on 14 March 1649 allowed him 
to sign the covenant. 

He was given a troop of horse, and helped 
to disperse the levies of Mackenzie of Plus- 
cardine at Balveny on 8 May. The levies 
numbered 1,200, but they were routed by 
120 horsemen. Alexander Leslie, first earl 
of Leven [q. v.], wished to get rid of him 
as a ' sectary,' but the kirk supported him, 
and he for his part was eager to clear the 
army of malignants (see MURDOCH and SIMP- 
SON, p. 302. The date of this letter, as 
Dr. Gardiner has shown, should probably 
je 3 June 1649). As to any danger from 
Montrose, he says, ' If James Grahame land 
neir this quarters [Inverness], he will 
suddenly be de . . ed. And ther shalbe no 
need of the levy of knavis to the work tho 
hey should be willing.' 



When Montrose did land, in April 1650, 
Strachan made good his words. By Leslie's 
orders he advanced with two troops to Tain, > 
and was there joined by three other troops, 
making 230 horse in all, and by thirty-six 
musketeers and four hundred men of the 
Ross and Monro clans. On 27 April he 
moved west, along the south side of the Kyle 
of Sutherland, near the head of which Mont- 
rose was encamped, in Carbisdale, with 
1,200 foot (of which 450 men were Danes 
or Germans), but only forty horse. By the 
advice of Andrew Monro, Strachan, when 
he was near the enemy, hid the bulk of his 
force, and showed only a single troop. This 
confirmed the statement made by Robert 
Monro to Montrose, that there was only one ; 
troop of horse in Ross-shire, and Montrose ! 
drew up his men on open ground south of 
the Culrain burn, instead of seeking shelter 
on the wooded heights behind. About 
5 P.M. Strachan burst upon him with two i 
troops, the rest following close in support and 
reserve. Montrose's men were routed and 
vtwo-thirds of them killed or taken, and he 
himself hardly escaped for the time. After 
giving thanks to God on the field, the victors 
returned with their prisoners to Tain, and 
.Strachan went south to receive his reward. 
He and Halkett (the second in command) 
each received 1000/. sterling and a gold 
chain, with the thanks of the parliament. 
He had been hit by a bullet in the fight, 
but it was stopped by his belt and buft- 

He was in such favour with the kirk that 
they contributed one hundred thousand 
marks to raise a regiment for him, the best 
in the army which Leslie led against Crom- 
well. He was in the action at Musselburgh 
on 30 July, and in the battle of Dunbar, the 
loss of which he attributed to Leslie. He 
tendered his resignation rather than serve 
under Leslie any longer, and, to get over 
the difficulty, he was sent with Ker and 
Halkett to command the horse newly raised 
in the western counties. He corresponded 
with Cromwell, to whom he was much less 
hostile than he was to the king and the 
malignants : and it was the fear that 
Strachan would seize him and hand him 
over to the English that led Charles II to 
make his temporary flight from Perth in 

Strachan joined in the remonstrance drawn 
up at Dumfries on 17 Oct. against fighting 
'for the king unless he abandoned the 
malignants; and he and his associates sent a 
.set of queries to Cromwell, to which the 
latter replied (CAELYLE, Letter 151). On 
1 Dec. the western troops under Ker en- 

countered Lambert at Hamilton, and were 
beaten ; but before this Strachan had sepa- 
rated himself from them, and after it he 
joined Cromwell, and is said to have helped 
to bring about the surrender of Edinburgh 
Castle. He was excommunicated at Perth 
on 12 Jan. 1651 ; in April he was declared a 
traitor and his goods were forfeited. Wod- 
row says (on the authority of his wife's 
uncle, who had married Strachan's sister) 
that he took the excommunication so much 
to heart that * he sickened and died within 
a while.' He adds that Cromwell offered 
Strachan the command of the forces to be 
left in Scotland, but he declined it (Analecta, 
ii. 86). 

[Gardiner's Commonwealth and Protectorate, 
vol. i. ; Murdoch and Simpson's edition of 
Wishart's Memoirs of Montrose ; Balfour's His- 
torical Works, vol. iv. ; Baillie's Letters, ii. 349, 
&c. ; Carlyle's Cromwell Letters, &c. ; Nicholl's 
Diary of Public Transactions in Scotland; Kow's 
Life of Eobert Blair.] E. M. L. 

STRACHAN, SIB JOHN (d. 1777), cap- 
tain in the navy, was the descendant of a 
younger branch of the family of Strachan of 
Thornton in Kincardineshire. His uncle, 
Thomas Strachan, having served with dis- 
tinction in the armies of the Emperor Leo- 
pold I, was created a baronet by James II in 
May 1685. Dying without issue, he was 
succeeded by his younger brother, Patrick 
Strachan, M.D., physician to Greenwich 
Hospital. John, the elder son of this Pa- 
trick, by his wife, a daughter of Captain 
Gregory, R.N., entered the navy, and was 
promoted lieutenant in January 1746-7. In 
1755 he was appointed second lieutenant of 
the St. George, then Lord Hawke's flagship, 
and in the following year, when the Antelope 
took out her l cargo of courage ' to Gibraltar, 
Strachan, with the other officers of the St. 
George, accompanied Hawke. At Gibraltar 
he was appointed to command the Fortune 
sloop, and on 9 Sept. 1756 was posted into 
the Experiment, of 20 guns and 160 men, in 
which, on 8 July 1757, off Alicante, he cap- 
tured the French privateer Telemaque, of 20 
guns and 460 men [see LOCKER, WILLIAM]. 
| After the action the Experiment and her 
| prize anchored near a Spanish fort, the 
1 governor of which claimed the French ship 
as having been in Spanish waters when she 
struck. Strachan, however, took the Tele- 
maque to Gibraltar, and was shortly after- 
wards moved to the Sapphire, of 32 guns, in 
which, in the following year, he was sent to 
England, and in 1759 was attached to the 
grand fleet under Sir Edward (afterwards 
Lord) Hawke [q. v.], and was with Com- 




modore Robert DurF in the light squadron 
in Quiberon Bay. He continued in the 
Sapphire till 1762. In November 1770 he 
was appointed to the Orford, one of the 
squadron which went to the East Indies 
with Rear-admiral (afterwards Sir Robert) 
Harland. In 1765, by the death of his father, 
he succeeded to the baronetcy. On account 
of ill-health he returned to England in 1772, 
and had no further service. He died at 
Bath on 26 Dec. 1777. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Robert Lovelace of Batter- 
sea, but had no male issue, the baronetcy 
passing to his nephew, Richard John Stra- 
chan [q. v.] 

[Charnock's Biogr. Nav. vi. 202 ; Gent. Mag. 
1 778, p. 45 ; Rogers's Memorials of the Strachans, 
pp. 91-3.] J. K. L. 

STRACHAN, JOHN (1778-1867), first 
bishop of Toronto, son of John Strachan, 
overseer in the granite quarries near Aber- 
deen, andElizabeth Findlayson, his wife, was 
born at Aberdeen on 12 April 1778, and edu- 
cated first at the grammar school and then 
in 1793 and the following years at King's 
College, Aberdeen. In 1794 he took charge 
of a school at Carmyllie, and in 1796 re- 
ceived a better appointment at Dunino, all 
the while continuing his studies at the 
university, and taking his M.A. degree in 
1797. In 1798 he became master of the 
parish school of Kettle, near St. Andrews, 
joining the university in order to study 
theology. He acquired a solid reputation 
and made friends with some notable men in 
the two universities. On the recommenda- 
tion of Dr. Chalmers he was invited to go 
out to Canada in 1799 to take charge of 
the new college which had been projected 
by Govenor John Graves Simcoe [q. v.] at 
York (now Toronto). 

On his arrival in Canada on 31 Dec. 1799, 
Strachan found that the project of the college 
had fallen through, and he was without an 
appointment. Again he began life as a private 
tutor, and. subsequently opening a school at 
Kingston, he soon began to prosper. Having 
decided to leave the free church and enter 
the ministry of the church of England, 
Strachan was ordained in May 1803, and 
became curate at Cornwall, where he also 
opened a grammar school. In 1807 he be- 
came LL.D. of St. Andrews, and in 1811 
D.D. of Aberdeen. In 1812 he was made 
rector of York, chaplain to the troops, and 
master of the grammar school. He warmly 
advocated the establishment of district gram- 
mar schools throughout Canada. During the 
war with the United States he was active in 
the work of alleviating suffering. In 1815 

he was made an executive councillor, and in 
1818 nominated to the legislative council. 

In 1825 Strachan became archdeacon of 
York. A description of his visitation in 1828 
is in Hawkins's l Annals of the Church of 
Toronto.' In 1830 he revisited Great Britain. 
In 1833 Strachan gave up his active school 
work, and in 1839 he became first bishop of 
Toronto. In 1841 he made his first visitation, 
going by way of the southern missions and 
Niagara westward through what was then a 
new country, holding services in log school- 
houses or in the open air. In the succeeding 
years these journeys were constantly re- 
peated. In five years the number of churches 
had more than doubled. He established 
common schools throughout the province, 
and through his exertions a statute was 
passed establishing twenty grammar schools 
where a classical education might be obtained. 
In 1827 he succeeded in obtaining five hun- 
dred thousand acres to endow a university 
of Toronto, and after many struggles suc- 
ceeded in founding it. When in 1850 it 
was deprived of its Anglican character and 
was made unsectarian, he issued a stirring 
appeal to the laity, and, obtaining a royal 
charter for the purpose, formed a second 
university under the name of Trinity Col- 
lege. Strachan died at Toronto on 1 Nov. 

His admirers speak with enthusiasm of 
his capacity, wisdom, and worthiness. He 
did ' more to build up the church of England 
in Canada by his zeal, devotion, diplomatic 
talent, and business energy, than all the 
other bishops and priests of that church put 
together ' (ROGERS). There is a memorial 
to him in the cathedral at Toronto. 

Strachan married, in 1807, Ann, daughter 
of Thompson Wood, and widow of Andrew 
McGill of Montreal, and had four sons and 
five daughters. 

[Scudding's First Bishop of Toronto, and 
Toronto of Old, pp. 155 sqq.; Chad wick's On- 
tarian Families, pt. xvi. ; Morgan's Sketches of 
Celebrated Canadians; Bethune's Memoir of 
Bishop Strachan, 1870; Taylor's Last Three 
Bishops of the Anglican Church of Canada, 1870, 
pp. 187-281 ; Melville's Rise and Progress of 
Trinity College, Toronto, 1852, pp. 25 sqq.; 
Rogers's Hist, of Canada, i. 105-6; Colonial 
Church Chronicle, vol. i. sqq. passim.] 

C. A. H. 


(1760-1828), admiral, eldest son of Lieu- 
tenant Patrick Strachan of the navy, and 
nephew of Sir John Strachan [q. v.], was 
born on 27 Oct. 1760. He entered the navy 
in 1772 on board the Intrepid, in which he 
went out to the East Indies, where he was 



moved into the Orford, then commanded by 
his uncle. He was afterwards on the North 
American station in the Preston with Com- 
modore William (afterwards Lord) Hot ham 
[q.v.] ; in the Eagle, flagship of Lord Howe; 
and in the Actseon on the coast of Africa and 
in the West Indies. On the death of his 
uncle on 26 Dec. 1777, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy. He was made a lieutenant on 
5 April 1779. Early in 1781 he was ap- 
pointed to the Hero with Captain James 
Hawker [q. v.], one of the squadron which 
sailed under the command of Commodore 
George Johnstone and fought the abortive 
action in Porto Praya. The Hero afterwards 
went on to the East Indies, where Strachan 
was moved into the Magnanime, and after- 
wards into the Superb, in w r hich he was 
present in the first four of the actions be- 
tween SufFren and Sir Edward Hughes 
[q. v.], who in January 1783 promoted him 
to the command of the Lizard, cutter, and 
to be captain of the Naiad, frigate, on 26 April 

In 1787 Strachan was appointed to the 
Vestal, which in the spring of 1788 sailed for 
China, carrying out the ambassador, the Hon. 
Charles Alan Cathcart. Cathcart died in the 
Straits of Banca, and the Vestal returned to 
England. The following year she was again 
sent to the East Indies, to join the squadron 
under Commodore William Cornwallis [q. v. 1 
Strachan was moved into the Phoenix, an 
in November 1791, when he was in com- 
pany with the commodore in Tellicherry 
roads, he was ordered to visit and search 
the French frigate Resolue, which, with a 
convoy of merchant vessels, was understood 
to be carrying military stores for the support 
of Tippoo. The Resolue resisted, and a sharp 
action ensued, but after a loss of sixty-five 
men killed and w T ounded the frigate struck 
her colours and was taken to Cornwallis. As 
the French captain insisted on considering his 
ship a prize to the English, Cornwallis ordered 
Strachan to tow her round to Mahe, where 
the French commodore then was. In 1793 
Strachan returned to England, and was ap- 
pointed to the Concorde, frigate, which in 
the spring of 1794 was one of the squadron 
off Brest under Sir John Borlase Warren 
[q. v.] On 23 April 1794 Warren's squadron 
engaged a squadron of four French frigates, 
three of which were captured, one, L'En- 
gageante, striking to the Concorde (JAMES, 
i. 223-4). In the following July Strachan 
was appointed to the Melampus, of 42 guns, 
attached during the summer to the grand 
fleet ; and in the spring of 1795 he was sent 
in command of a small frigate squadron 
which cruised with distinguished success on 

| the coast of Normandy and Brittany, cap- 
turing or destroying a very large number 
of the enemy's coasting craft, many of them 
laden with military stores and convoyed by 
armed vessels. 

In 1796 Strachan was moved into the 
Diamond, and remained on the same ser- 
vice till 1799, when he was appointed to 
the 74-gun ship Captain, and employed on 
the west coast of France, either alone or in 
command of a detached squadron. In 1802 
he was appointed to the Donegal of eighty 
guns, in which during 1803-4 he was senior 
officer at Gibraltar, and in charge of the 
watch on Cadiz under the orders of Nelson. 
In March 1805 he returned to England in 
the Renown, but was almost immediately 
appointed to the Caesar, in which he com- 
manded a detached squadron of three other 
I line-of-battle ships and four frigates in the 
j Bay of Biscay. On 2 Nov. 1805, off Cape 
Finisterre, he fell in with the four French 
' ships of the line which had escaped from 
j Trafalgar under the command of Rear-admi- 
ral Dunianoir. On the 4th he succeeded in 
; bringing them to action, and after a short en- 
I gagement, in which the French ships suffered 
great loss, captured the whole of them, thus- 
rounding off the destruction of the French 
fleet. By the promotion of 9 Nov. 180> 
i Strachan became a rear-admiral. On 28 Jan. 
1806, when the thanks of both houses of 
parliament were voted to Collingwood and 
the other officers and seamen engaged at 
Trafalgar, Strachan and the officers and sea- 
men with him on 4 Nov. were specially 
included, and a pension of 1,000/. a year was 
| settled on Strachan. On 29 Jan. he was 
| nominated a knight of the Bath ; the city of 
London also voted him the freedom of the 
city and a sword of honour. 

Early in 1806 Strachan was despatched 
in search of a French squadron reported to 
have sailed for America, but, not finding it, 
he returned off Rochefort, where he continued 
till January 1808, when, in thick weather, 
| the French succeeded in escaping and entered 
I the Mediterranean. Strachan followed, and 
joined Lord Collingwood [see COLLINGWOOD, 
i CUTHBERT, LORD] ; but on the enemy retiring- 
! into Toulon Strachan was ordered home, and 
Avas appointed to the naval command of the 
expedition against the island of Walcheren, 
and for the destruction of the French arsenals 
in the Scheldt. The expedition, fitted out 
at enormous cost, effected nothing beyond 
the capture of Flushing, and its return home 
was the signal for an outbreak of angry 
recriminations [see PITT, JOHN, second EARL 
or CHATHAM]. In a narrative which he pre- 
sented to the king, the Earl of Chatham by 




implication accused Straclian of being the 
principal cause of the miscarriage, which 
becoming known to Strachan, he wrote a 
o-eply, arguing with apparent justice that the 
ships had done all that they had been asked 
to do, all that from the nature of things they 
could do (RALFE, ii. 468). Strachan had no 
further employment ; he became a vice-ad- 
miral on 31 July 1810, admiral on 19. July 
1821, and died at his house in Bryanston 
Square on 3 Feb. 1828. He married in 1812, 
but died without male issue, and the baro- 
netcy became extinct. 

[Ralfe's Nav. Biogr. ii. 456 ; Marshall's Roy. 
Nav.Biogr.i.281 ; James's Nav. Hist. ; Nichols's 
Herald and Genealogist, vol. viii. ; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Baronetcies.] J. K. L. 

1618), colonist and writer on Virginia, has 
been somewhat doubtfully identified with a 
William Strachey of Saffron Walden, who 
married in 1588 and was alive in 1620, and 
whose grandson was a citizen of the colony 
-of Virginia (he was living in 1625 on Hog 
Island, aged 17). A William Strachey had 
verses before Ben Jonson's ' Sejanus ' (1603). 
The colonist sailed on 15 May 1609 for Vir- 
ginia in a fleet of nine small vessels. His 
ship, the Sea Venture, having on board the 
commanders Sir Thomas Gates [q. v.] and 
Sir George Somers [q. v.], was wrecked on 
the Bermudas during the great storm of 
.July 1609. Strachey wrote an account of 
the circumstances in a letter dated 15 July 
1610, and addressed to a lady of rank in 
England. This letter was published fifteen 
years later in ' Purchas his Pilgrimes,' 1625 
<(iv. 1734), under the title ' A true Report ory 
of the wrack and redemption of Sir Thomas 
Gates, knight, upon and from the ilands of 
.'the Bermudas his coming to Virginia, and 
the estate of that colony ; ' it gives an ani- 
mated account of the flora and fauna of the 
islands, disclaiming, however, the popula- 
tion of l divels ' with which they had been 
credited (a large portion of the 'Repertory ' 
is reprinted in Lefroy's ' Memorials of the 
Bermudas,' 1877, i. 25-51 ; cf. TYLEK, Hist, 
of American Literature, i. 41-5). The writer 
: implies that he had seen service on the coast 
of Barbary and Algiers. 

Somers and his party, including Strachey, 
spent the winter of 1609 upon the Bermudas 
in constructing two small vessels, in which 
they succeeded in reaching James Town, 
Virginia, on 23 May 1610. In the following 
month the hopes of the desponding colony 
were revived by the advent of Thomas West, 
third lord De la Warr [q. v.], an account 
vof whose opportune arrival was written by 

Strachey, and printed in Purchas (iv. 1754). 
An account of the adventures and the ulti- 
mate safety of Somers and his party was 
forwarded by De La Warr during the sum- 
mer of 1610, in the form of a despatch, 
to the Virginia patentees in England (the 
original, signed in autograph by Thomas La 
Warre, Thomas Gates, Wenman, Percy, and 
Strachey, is in Harl. MS. 7009, f. 58, and 
it is printed in Major's volume, see below). 
This account was probably written mainly 
by Gates and Strachey, whom De la Warr 
had formally appointed secretary and ' re- 
corder ' of the colony, and it appears to be 
in Strachey's handwriting. The patentees 
caused to be drawn up from the material 
afforded by this despatch their f True Decla- 
ration of the Estate of the Colonie in Virginia,' 
London, 1610, 4to (conjectured to have been 
written mainly by Sir Edwin Sandys). The 
official version was, however, anticipated by 
a ' Discovery of the Barmudas,' an unautho- 
rised work hurried through the press by Sil- 
vester Jourdain [q. v.], who returned in the 
same ship with De La Warr's despatch. The 
appearance of these two works at a short inter- 
val during the autumn of 1610 probably occa- 
sioned Shakespeare's allusion in the ' Tem- 
pest ' to the ' still-vex'd Bermoothes ' [see 
Strachey returned to England at the close of 
1611, bearing with him the stern code of 
laws promulgated for the use of Virginia by 
Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Thomas Dale dur- 
ing 1610-11, and based upon the l Lawes for 
governing the Armye in the Lowe Contreyes.' 
Having been revised by Sir Edward Cecil, 
afterwards Viscount Wimbledon, they were 
edited, with a preliminary address to the 
council for Virginia, by Strachey under the 
title ' For the Colony in Virginea Britannia 
Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall. Alget 
qui non ardet,' London, 1612, 4to (reprinted 
in Force's ' Tracts,' 1844, vol. iii.) Strachey 
wrote from his lodging i in the Blacke Friars.' 
In the same year he took part in editing the 
' Map of Virginia,' with descriptions by the 
famous Captain John Smith (1580-1631) [q.v.] 
and others. He seems at the same time to 
have planned an extensive work on Virginia, 
and of this he completed before the close of 
1612 a considerable portion, to which he 
gave the title * The Historie of Travaile into 
Virginia Britannia expressing the Cosmo- 
graphie and Comodities of the Country. To- 
gither with the Manners And Customes of 
the People. Gathered and Observed As 
Well by those who went First Thither, As 
Collected by William Strachey, gent. Three 
yeares thither Imployed Secretarie of State/ 
&c. He inscribed the manuscript to Sir Allen 



Apsley (1569?-! 630) [q. v.], but he seems to 
have met with no encouragement to publish, 
either from him or from the Virginia Com- 
mittee (the manuscript is now in the Bod- 
leian Library, Ashmole MS. 1754 ; a copy 
with a few necessary verbal alterations was 
made in 1618 and inscribed to Bacon, and 
this second manuscript is in the British Mu- 
seum, Sloane MS. 1622). The fragment was 
not printed until 1849, when it was edited 
by Richard Henry Major [q. v.] for the 
Hakluyt Society. Of the numerous accounts 
of the early settlement of Virginia it is pro- 
bably the most ably written. To the ori- 
ginal manuscript, but not in the copy, is 
appended a brief ' Dictionary of the Indian 
Language,' which is printed as an appendix 
to the Hakluyt volume. Strachey's sub- 
scription to the Virginia Company was 25/. 
Nothing appears to be known of him subse- 
quent to his attempt in 1618 to interest 
Bacon in his * History.' 

[Strachey's History of Travaile into Virginia, 
ed. Major (Hakluyt Soc.), 1849; Brown's Genesis 
of United .States, ii. 1024; Winsor's Hist, of 
America, iii. 156; New England Hist, and 
Geneal. Regist. 1866, p. 36; Massachusetts 
Hist. Soc. publications, 4th ser. i. 219 ; Stith's 
Hist, of Virginia, 1747, pp. 113 sq. ; Brit. Mus. 
Cat. For the controversy upon the connection, 
or want of connection, between the literature 
relating to the casting away of the Sea Venture 
upon the Bermudas and Shakespeare's ' Tempest,' 
see Prior's Life of Malone, p. 294 ; Boswell's 
Malone, 1821, vol. xv.; Douce's Illustrations of 
Shakespeare, 1807, i. 5-7 ; Hunter's Disquisition 
... on the 'Tempest' (1839); Shakespeare, ed. 
Dyce, i. 172; and art. SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM.] 

1609), scholar and patron of literature, born 
in 1529, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Stradling [q. v.] He studied at Oxford, but 
left without graduating, and travelled on 
the continent, spending some time at Rome. 
Owing to an old family connection with the 
Arundels, he was elected in April 1554 
M.P. for Steyning. and in 1557-8 for Arun- 
del. He succeeded to the estates in 1573, 
was knighted in 1575, was sheriff of Gla- 
morganshire for 1573, 1581, and 1593, and 
was appointed in 1578 one of the county 
commissioners for the suppression of piracy 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom., under 19 Sept. 
1578; cf. CLARK, Cartes de Glamorgan, ii. 
347). Stradling and three other Glamorgan- 
shire gentlemen were deputy lieutenants of 
Pembrokeshire from 1590 to 1595, owing 
to the then disturbed state of that country 
(CowEisr, Pembrokeshire, p. 167). According 
to Wood (Athence Oxon. ii. 50), Stradling 
was ' at the charge of such Herculean works 

for the public good that no man in his time- 
went beyond him for his singular knowledge 
in the British language and antiquities, for 
his eminent encouragement of learning and 
learned men, and for his great expense and 
indefatigable industry in collecting together 
several ancient manuscripts of learning and 
antiquity, all which, with other books, were 
reduc'd into a well-ordered library at St. 

In 1572 he compiled an account of ' The 
Winning of the Lordship of Glamorgan out 
of the Welshmen's Hands,' a copy of which 
he sent by the hand of his kinswoman, Blanch 
Parry, who was maid of honour to Queen 
Elizabeth, to David Powell [q. v.] Powell 
incorporated it (at pp. 122-41) in his edition 
of Humphrey Llwyd's ' Historie of Cambria ' 
(London, 1584, 4to). In the introduction 
Powel also says that he was * greatlie fur- 
thered ' in the compilation of the pedigrees by 
Stradling's ' painefull and studious travell/ 
Stradling is also mentioned by Lewys Dwnn 
(Her. Vis. i. 331, ii. 87) among those who 
had written on the history or genealogies of 
the whole of Britain, and his name is placed 
first among the ' aristocracy,' by whom he 
was permitted to see i old records and books 
from religious houses that had been written 
and their materials collected by abbots and 
priors ' (ib. i. 8). These must have included 
the register of Neath Abbey, which was in 
Stradling's possession in 1574, but is now 
lost (MERRICK, Morganiee Archaiographia, 
ed. 1887, p. iv). In 1645-6 Archbishop 
Ussher sojourned for almost a year at St. 
Donat's, where ' he spent his time chiefly in 
the library, which had been collected by Sir 
Edward Stradling, a great antiquary and 
friend of Mr. Cambden's ; and out of some of 
these MSS. the L. Primate made many choice 
collections of the British or Welch anti- 
quity,' which in 1686 were in the custody of 
Ussher's biographer, Richard Parr (Life of 
Ussher, p. 60). 

Stradling's best known service to litera- 
ture was that of bearing the whole expense 
of the publication of Dr. John Dafydd Rhys's 
Welsh grammar or ' Cambrobrytannicae 
Linguas Institutiones ' (London, 1592, fol.) 
[see under RHYS, IOAIST DAFYDD]. Meurig 
Dafydd, a Glamorgan poet, addressed an ode 
or cywydd to Stradling and Rhys on the 
publication of the grammar, and refers to 
the former as a master of seven languages 
( T Cymmrodor, iv. 221-4, where the cywydd 
is printed). 

Stradling also spent large sums on public 
improvements. To check the encroachments 
of the sea on the Glamorganshire coast he 
built in 1606 a sea-wall at Aberthaw, which 



was, however, completely destroyed by a 
great storm a few months later. At Merthyr- 
mawr he constructed an aqueduct, and seems 
to have attempted a harbour at the mouth 
of the Ogmore. He had also a vineyard on 
his estate. Death intervened before he had 
arranged the endowment of a grammar 
school which he established at Cowbridge, 
but his intentions were carried out by his 
heir (Arch. Cambr. 2nd ser. v. 182-6). 

He died without issue on 15 May 1609, 
leaving his estate to his adopted son and 
great-nephew, Sir John Stradling [q. v.], 
who had married his wife's niece. He was 
buried in the private chapel at St. Donat's, 
where his heir and his widow Agnes, second 
daughter of Sir Edward Gage of Hengrave, 
Suffolk, whom he married in 1566, placed 
an inscription to his memory ; she died 
1 Feb. 1624, and was buried ^in the same 

Many letters addressed to Stradling by 
Walsingham, Sir Henry Sidney, Oliver, first 
lord St. John of Bletsoe, and others were 
published in 1840, from transcripts preserved 
at Margam, under the title of ' Stradling 
Correspondence,' edited, by J. Montgomery 
Traherne (London, 8vo). 

[In addition to the authorities cited, see Col- 
lins's Baronetage, ed. 1720, i. 32-4, which has 
also been closely followed in G. T. Clark's Limbus 
Patrum Morganise, p. 437. Many details are 
also gleaned from Sir John Stradling's Epi- 
grams and the Stradling Correspondence. See 
also Williams's Eminent Welshmen, p. 474.] 

D. LL. T. 

royalist captain, was fourth son of Sir John 
Stradling [q.v.] of St. Donat's, Glamorgan- 
shire, whel'e he was born probably not later 
than 1610. He was nominated by the king 
on 6 May 1631 to be captain of the Tenth 
Whelp, under the general command of Cap- 
tain John Pennington [q. v.], who, as admiral 
of the Narrow Seas, was specially charged 
with the regulation of the trawling at the 
Downs and the suppression of piracy and 
smuggling in the English Channel. In this 
service Stradling was engaged for the next 
ten years, and is frequently mentioned in j 
reports and letters to the admiralty. He was 
in charge of the Swallow on 30 March 1635, 
and in October captured a small Dunkirk 
man-of-war off Falmouth. In March 1636-7 
he is mentioned as captain of the Dread- ; 
nought, but in November was sent in charge j 
of another ship to the Groyne to bring the 
Duchess of Chevreuse to England. He was 
then described as a ' stout able gentleman, j 
but speaks little French.' In November 1641 [ 
it was decided that he should go in the Bona- ' 

| venture, a ship of 160 men and 557 tons, to 

I the Irish Sea (CaL State Papers,T)om. 1641- 

I 1643, pp. 179, 285 ; cf. PEACOCK, Army List, 

p. 60) ; but his appointment was challenged 

in the House of Commons on 10 March 

1641-2, though on a division it was approved 

j (Comm. Journals, ii. 474). Soon after this 

j Stradling appears to have been knighted (it 

j is erroneously stated in NICHOLS'S Progresses 

\ of James I, iii. 628, that he was knighted 

| on 5 Nov. 1620). On 24 Aug. 1642 the 

| Earl of Warwick was ordered to seize Strad- 

I ling and Captain Kettleby (Comm. Journals, 
ii. 735), who were known to be 'entirely 
devoted to the king's service,' and whom 
parliament, it was said, failed to corrupt. 
Meanwhile ' they no sooner endeavoured to 
bring off their ships to the king, but they 
were seized upon by the seamen and kept 
prisoners till they could be sent to land ' 
(CLAKENDON, History, v. 377 n., 381 : cf. 
Commons' 1 Journals, i'i. 723 ; and Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 12th Rep. App. ii. 321, under 22 Aug. 

Stradling next appears at Carlisle, of which 
Sir Thomas Glemham [q.v.] became go- 
vernor in July 1644. The town was shortly 
afterwards closely besieged, and on 26 June 
1645 its surrender was agreed upon (A 
True Copie of the Articles whereupon Car- 
lisle was delivered June [2] 8, 1645). The re- 
mains of the garrison, about two hundred 
foot, with Glemham and Stradling at their 
head, proceeded to Cardiff, where they joined 
the king towards the end of July ; and, having 
soon after been converted into dragoons, be- 
came the king's lifeguards in his subsequent 
marches that autumn (SXMOJSTDS. Diani. pp. 
219, 223, 242). At Rowton Heath on 
24 Sept. Stradling was taken prisoner (PHIL- 
LIPS, Civil War in Wales, ii. 272). On 
10 Dec. 1646 Stradling begged to be allowed 
to compound for his delinquency, but no 
order was made (CaL Comm. for Compound- 
ing, y. 1597). In June 1647 he, with his 
brother Thomas and nephew John, the major- 
general, took a part in an abortive rising 
among the Glamorganshire gentry (PHIL- 
LIPS, ii. 335-9 ; cf. CaL State Papers, Dom., 
1645-7, p. 592), and they also joined Foyer's 
revolt in South Wales in 1648, all three 
being probably present at the battle of 
St. Pagan's on 8 May 1648. The two bro- 
thers were also with Poyer in Pembroke 
Castle when it was taken by Cromwell on 

II July 1648, and by the articles of surren- 
der it was stipulated that they should both 
quit the kingdom within six weeks (PHIL- 
LIPS, ii. 397-8). 

Stradling is said to have died at Cork, and 
to have been buried in Trinity Church there. 



[Many details as to Stradling's naval career 
may be found in the Calendars of State Papers, 
Dom., between 1631 and 1612. Other authori- 
ties are : Jefferson's History of Carlisle, pp. 51- 
55; Collins's Baronetage, 1720, p. 37; G. T. 
Clark's Limbus Patrum Morganiae, p. 438 ; Phil- 
lips' s Civil War in Wales.] D. LL. T. 

STRADLING, SIR JOHN (1563-1637), 
scholar and poet, was the son of Francis 
and Elizabeth Stradling of St. George's, 
near Bristol, where he was born in 1563. 
His great-uncle, Sir Edward Stradling 
[q. v.J, being childless, adopted John and 
bequeathed him his estate. Stradling was 
educated under Edward Green, a canon of 
Bristol, and at Oxford, where he matricu- 
lated from Brasenose College on 18 July 
1580, and graduated B.A. from Magdalen 
Hall on 7 Feb. 1583-4, being then accounted 
' a miracle for his forwardness in learning 
and pregnancy of parts ' (WOOD). He 
studied for a time at one of the inns of 
court, and then travelled abroad. He was 
sheriff of Glamorganshire for 1607 and 
1620, and was knighted on 15 May 1608, 
being then described as of Shropshire 
(NiCHOLS, Progresses of James I, ii. 196, 
422). In 1609 he succeeded to the castle 
and estate of St. Donat's in Glamorgan- 
shire, and was created a baronet on 22 May 
1611, standing fifth on the first list of 
baronets. He was elected M.P. for St. 
Germans, Cornwall, on 15 Jan. 1624-5, for 
Old Sarum on 23 April 1625, his colleague 
there being Michael Oldisworth fq. v.], who 
married one of his daughters (Preface to 
GEORGE STRADLING'S Sermons, 1692), and for 
Glamorganshire on 6 Feb. 1625-6, in which 
year he was also a commissioner for raising 
a crown loan in that county. Stradling 
appears to have enjoyed a great reputation 
for learning, and ( was courted and ad- 
mired ' by Camden, who quotes him as ' vir 
doctissimus ' in his ' Britannia ' (ed. 1607, 

L498), by Sir John Harington, Thomas 
yson, and loan David Rhys, to all of 
whom he wrote epigrams ( Jame's Harrington 
in his Preface to GEORGE STRADLING'S Ser- 
mons^). To carry out the wishes of his pre- 
decessor in the title, he built, equipped, and 
endowed a grammar school at Cowbridge, but 
the endowment seems to have subsequently 
lapsed until the school was refounded by 
Sir Leoline Jenkins [q.v.] (Arch. Cambr. 
2nd ser. y. 182-6). He died in 1637. 

Stradling was the author of: 1. ' A Direc- 
tion for Trauailers. Taken out of Ivstvs 
Lipsius, and enlarged for the behoofe of 
the Right Honorable Lord, the yong Earle 
of Bedford, being now ready to trauell,' 
London, 1592, 4to ; a translation of Lip- 

sius's 'Epistola de Peregrinatione Italica.' 
2. ' Two Bookes of Constancie ; written in 
Latine by lustus Lipsius ; containing, prin- 
cipallie,a comfortable Conference in common 
Calamities,' London, 1595, 4to ; a translation 
of Lipsius's ' De Constantia libri duo,' which 
had been published at Antwerp in 1584. 
Stradling also mentions Lipsius's 'Politickes' 
among those ' bookes wherein I had done 
mine endeuor by translating to pleasure you,' 
but this does not appear to have been pub- 
lished, possibly because another translation 
of the work by one William Jones appeared 
in the same year. 3. ' De Vita et Morte 
contemnenda libri duo,' Frankfort, 1597, 8vo 
(Bodleian Libr. Cat. ; cf. WOOD, Athena 
Oxon. ii. 397 ; STRADLING, Epigrams, p. 26). 
4. ' Epigrammatum libri quatuor,' London, 
1607, 8vo. 5. 'Beati Pacifici : a Divine 
Poem written to the Kings Most Excellent 
Maiestie . . . Perused by his Maiesty, and 
printed by Authority ' (London, 1623, 4to), 
with a portrait of James I engraved by R. 
Vaughan. 6. ' Divine Poems : in seven 
severall Classes, written to his Most Ex- 
cellent Maiestie, Charles [the First] . . . ' 
London, 1625, 4to. The poetry is of a 
didactic character; the work was described 
by Theophilus Field [q. v.], bishop of Llan- 
daff, in commendatory verses, as ' A Sus- 
taeme Theologicall, a paraphrase upon the 
holy Bible ' (cf. ROBERT HAYMAN, Quod- 
libets . . . from Newfoundland, London, 
1628, p. 62). A 'Poetical Description of 
Glamorganshire ' by Stradling is also men- 
tioned (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iii. 448), 
but of this nothing is known. 

Stradling married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Gage of Firle, Sussex. By her he 
had eight sons, two of whom are noticed 
below, and one, Sir Henry, is noticed sepa- 
rately, and three daughters, of whom the 
eldest, Jane, married William Thomas of 
Wenvoe, and had a daughter Elizabeth, 
who became wife of Edmund Ludlow, the 
regicide [q. v.] 

(1601-1644), the second baronet, born in 
1601, matriculated from Brasenose College, 
Oxford, on 16 June 1615, and was elected 
M.P. for Glamorganshire in 1640. He was 
concerned in several important business 
undertakings ; he was a shareholder in a soap- 
making monopoly (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1635, p. 474), and was summoned on 14 Oct. 
1641 before the House of Commons to account 
for some of its acts (Commons' Journals, ii. 
299). On 15 June 1637 he and Sir Lewis 
Dives and another were summoned before the 
Star-chamber ' for transportinggold and silver 
out of the kingdom ' (Cal. State Papers, s. a. 




p. 218), but they subsequently received a full 
pardon (id. under 23 March 1638-9). Stradling 
was also the chief promoter of a scheme for 
bringing a supply of water to London from 
Hoddesdon, which engaged much public at- 
tention between 1630 and 1640 (ib. under 
11 Feb. 1631 p. 555, for 1638-9 pp. 304, 314, 
1639 p. 481 ; Commons' Journals, ii.585 ; the 
deed between Charles I and the promoters is 
printed in RYMER'S Fcedera, vol. viii. pt. iii. p. 

At the outbreak of the civil war Stradling 
was the leading royalist in Glamorganshire, 
and led a regiment' of foot to Edgehill in Oc- 
tober 1642, where he was taken prisoner (CLA- 
RENDON, Hist. vi. 94) and sent to Warwick 
Castle ; but the king obtained his release on 
an exchange of prisoners (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1644, p. 117), and, proceeding to Ox- 
ford, Stradling died there in June 1644, and 
was buried on 21 June in the chapel of Jesus 
College (WOOD, Athence Oxon. ii. 51, Coll. 
and Halls, ed. Gutch, p. 590). He married 
Mary, only daughter (by the second wife) 
of Sir Thomas Mansel of Margam, who sur- 
vived him. In July 1645 she extended 
hospitable protection to Bishop Ussher, who 
stayed almost a year at St. Donat's (PAKE, 


Life of Ussher, pp. 58-63). Of his sons, Ed- 
ward, the eldest, succeeded as third baronet ; 
John and Thomas served on the royalist side 
throughout the civil war, both being im- 
plicated in the Glamorganshire risings in 
1647 and 1648 ; John died in prison at Windsor 
Castle in 1648. The title became extinct 
by the death, unmarried, of Sir Thomas 
Stradling, the sixth baronet, who was killed 
in a duel at Montpelier on 27 Sept. 1738. 
His disposition of the property gave rise 
to prolonged litigation, which was finally 
closed and the partition of the estates con- 
firmed under an act of parliament (cf. Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. xi. 153). 

Sir John's eighth but fourth surviving 
son, GEORGE STRADLING (1621-1688), after 
travelling in France and Italy, matriculated 
from Jesus College, Oxford, on 27 April 
1638, graduated B.A. 16 Nov. 1640, M.A. 
26 Jan. 1646-7, and D.D. 6 Nov. 1661. In 
1642, as ' founder's kinsman,' he was elected 
fellow of All Souls'. He served on the 
royalist side during the civil war, but the 
influence of Oldisworth and Ludlow pre- 
vented his ejection from his fellowship. In 
December 1660 he was made canon of St. 
Paul's and chaplain to Bishop (afterwards 
Archbishop) Gilbert Sheldon [q. v.] He 
declined election as president of Jesus on 
the resignation of Francis Mansel [q. v.] in 
March 1660-1, but became rector of Han- 
well (1662-4), vicar of Cliffe-at-Hoo (1663), 

of Sutton-at-Hone (1666), both in Kent ; of 
St. Bride's, London' (1673), canon of West- 
minster (1663), chantor (1671) and dean of 
Chichester (1672). He died 18 April 1688, 
and was buried with his wife Margaret (d. 
1681), daughter of Sir William Salter of 
Iver, Buckinghamshire, in Westminster 
Abbey. A volume of Stradling's ( Sermons' 
was edited (London, 1692, 8vo) by James 
Harrington [q. v.], who prefixed an account 
of Stradling's life (WOOD, Athence Oxon. iv. 
237, Fasti, ii. 33, 91; Reg. of Visit, of 
Oxford Univ. pp. 42, 475; NEALE, West- 
minster Abbey, ii. 244; CHESTER, West- 
minster Abbey Reg. pp. 70, 203, 220-1). 

[ Authori ties quoted i n the text ; Wood's Athense- 
Oxon. ii. 395-7 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Brit. 
Mus. Cat. ; Traherne's Stradling Correspondence \ 
James Harrington's Preface to Dr. George Strad- 
ling's Sermons (1692); Williams's Eminent 
Welshmen, p. 475, and W. K. Williams's Par! 1 . 
Hist, of Wales, p. 97, cf. also p. 108. The genea- 
logical particulars are based upon Collins's Baro- 
netage, ed. 1720, pp. 32 et seq.,andG. T. Clark's 
Limbus Patrum Morganiae, p. 439.] D. LL. T. 

1571), knight, born about 1498, was the 
eldest son of Sir Edward Stradling (d. 1535) 
of St. Donat's, Glamorganshire, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Arundel 
of Lanherne, Cornwall. 

The family traced its descent from Sir 
William de Esterlinge, an alleged Norman 
companion of Robert Fitzhamon in his con- 
quest of Glamorgan (cf. CLARK, Land of Mor- 
gan, p. 18 ; and FREEMAN, Norman Conquest, 
v. 110, 820). This story is the basis of the 
earliest known pedigree which was compiled 
in 1572 by Sir Edward Stradling [q. v.] 
(see POWEL, Historie of Cambria, London, 
1584, p. 137 ; MERRICK, Morganice Archaio- 
graphia pedigree written in 1578 edit. 
1887, pp. 78-82). More probably the family 
came from Warwickshire (Dr/GDALE, War- 
wickshire', ed. Thomas, i. 572, 576; CLARK, 
Cartce et Munimenta de Glamorgan, iv. 67). 
Sir Harry Stradling, Sir Thomas's great- 
grandfather, married Elizabeth, sister of Wil- 
liam Herbert, first earl of Pembroke [q. v.] 
In 1477 he went to Jerusalem, where he 
received the order of the Sepulchre, but 
died, on his way home, at Cyprus (DwNN, 
Her. Vis. i. 158 ; CLARK, Views of the Castle 
of St. Donat's, pp. 7-11 ; MERRICK, op. cit. 
p. 80). 

Sir Thomas Stradling was the eldest of 
some dozen brothers, ' most of them bastards/ 
who had < no living but by extortion and 
pilling of the king's subjects' {Cal. Letters 
Papers and Henry VIII, v. 140, vi. 300). He 
was sheriff of Glamorganshire in 1547-8, 



was knighted 17 Feb. 1549, and was ap- 
pointed with others a muster-master of the 
queen's army and a commissioner for the 
marches of Wales in 1553. He was M.P. 
for East Grinstead 1553, and for Arundel 
1554, and on 8 Feb. 1557-8 he was joined 
with Sir Thomas Pope [q. v.] and others in 
a commission then issued for the suppression 
of heresy (BuKtfET, Reformation, ii. 536, v. 

Stradling was a staunch Roman catholic, 
and was arrested early in 1561 on the charge 
that in 1560 he had caused four pictures to 
be made of the likeness of a cross as it ap- 
peared in the grain of a tree blown down in 
his park at St. Donat's. He was released, 
after he had been kept l of a long time ' a 
prisoner in the Tower, on his giving a bond 
for a thousand marks, dated 15 Oct. 1563, 
for his personal appearance when called upon 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 176, 
Addenda, 1547-65, pp. 510, 512 ; FROUDE, 
Hist. vii. 339 ; NICHOLAS HAEPSFIELD, Dia- 
logi Sex, Antwerp, 1566, 4to, pp. 504 et seq. ; 
cf. Archceologia Cambrensis, 3rd ser. xi. 33- 
48 ; and CLARK, Castle of St. Donat's, pp. 
14-17). In 1569 Stradling refused to sub- 
scribe the declaration for observance of the 
Act of Uniformity, pleading that his bond 
was a sufficient guarantee of his conformity 
(CaL State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 361). 
He died in 1571, and was buried in the 
private chapel added by him to the parish 
church of St. Donat's. His will, dated 
19 Dec. 1566, was proved in the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury in May 1571. 

By his wife Catherine, eldest daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity, Glamorgan- 
shire, Stradling had, besides other children, 
Edward [q. v.] and a daughter Damascin, 
who died in the spring of 1567 at Cafra in 
Spain, whither she had gone as companion 
to Jane Dormer, duchess of Feria [q. v.] 
(Stradling Correspondence, pp. 342-7; SIR 
J. STRADLINQ, Epigrams, p. 25). 

[In addition to the authorities cited, see 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 50 n. ; Col- 
lins's Baronetage, ed. 1720, pp. 32-4, which is 
followed in G. T. Clark's Limbus Patrum Mor- 
ganise, p. 436 ; Taliesin Williams's Doom of 
Colyn Dolphyn. For genealogical particulars 
of the earlier Stradlings, see also the manu- 
script collections of Glamorgan pedigrees at the 
Cardiff Free Library, including an autograph 
volume by John Aubrey in which the Stradling 
coat of arms is emblazoned.] D. LL. T. 

THOMAS, 1674P-1739; SSa, SIR JOHN, 



STRAHAN, WILLIAM (1715-1785), 
printer and publisher, was born in April 
1715 at Edinburgh, where his father, Alex- 
ander Strahan, had a small post in the cus- 
toms. After serving an apprenticeship in 
Edinburgh as a journeyman printer, he 
' took the high road to England ' and found 
a place in a London firm, probably that of 
Andrew Millar [q. v.] He married, about 
1742, Miss Elphinston, daughter of William 
Elphinston, an episcopalian clergyman of 
Edinburgh, and sister of James Elphinston 
[q. v.] He seems to have become a junior 
partner of Millar, with whom he was re- 
sponsible for the production of Johnson's 
' Dictionary,' and upon his death in 1768 he 
continued in partnership with Thomas 
Cadell the elder [q. v.] In 1769 he was able 
to purchase from George Eyre a share of the 
patent as king's printer, and immediately 
afterwards, in February 1770, the king's 
printing-house was removed from Blackfriars 
to New Street, near Gough Square, Fleet 
Street. Strahan was progressively pro- 
sperous, and his dealings with his authors 
were marked by more amenity than had 
hitherto characterised such relations. Dr. 
Thomas Somerville (1741-1830) [q. v.] went 
to dine with him in New Street in 1769, 
and met at his house David Hume, Sir John 
Pringle, Benjamin Franklin, and Mrs.Thrale. 
The publisher recommended him to stay in 
London, and gave him 300Z. for his ' History 
of William III/ Besides Hume, Strahan 
was publisher, and either banker and agent 
or confidential adviser, to Adam Smith, Dr. 
Johnson, Gibbon, Robertson, Blackstone, 
Blair, and many other writers. In the 
case of Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall,' which 
had been refused elsewhere, when Gibbon 
and Cadell thought that five hundred would 
probably be enough for a first impression, 
1 the number was doubled by the prophetic 
taste of Mr. Strahan.' Other notable ven- 
tures of the firm were Cook's 'Voyages' 
and Mackenzie's t Man of Feeling.' Strahan 
made large sums out of the histories of 
Robertson and Hume, and set up a coach, 
which Johnson denominated ' a credit to 

At Strahan's house the unsuccessful 
meeting between Dr. Johnson and Adam 
Smith took place. In 1776 Adam Smith ad- 
dressed to Strahan the famous ' Letter,' dated 
9 Dec., in which he describes the death of 
David Hume ' in such a happy composure of 
mind that nothing could exceed it,' and 
which provoked a long reverberation of angry 
criticisms. Strahan was Hume's literary 
executor, and on 26 Nov. 1776 he wrote to 
Adam Smith proposing that the series of 




letters from Hume to himself should be 
published along with Hume's letters to 
Smith, Robertson, and some others. But 
Smith put his foot down on this proposal de- 
cisively, on the ground that it was most im- 
proper to publish anything his friend had 
written without express permission either by 
will or otherwise. These highly interesting 
letters were purchased by Lord Rosebery in 
1887, and edited by Dr. Birkbeck Hill in 
1888 (Letters of David Hume to William 
Strahan, Oxford, 8vo). 

Strahan was rather an advanced whig, and 
was extremely fond, says Boswell, of ' politi- 
cal negotiation.' He tried on one occasion to 
approach Lord North with the idea of pro- 
curing a seat in parliament for Johnson. 
The attempt happily failed; but Strahan 
himself was successful in entering parlia- 
ment for Malmesbury at the general election 
of 1774, when he had Charles James Fox 
for his colleague. He sat for Wootton- 
Bassett in the next parliament, but sup- 
ported the coalition and lost his seat in 

1784. Johnson was disposed to gibe at 
Strahan's political ambition. ' I employ 
Strahan,' he said, ' to frank my letters that 
he may have the consequence of appearing 
as a parliament man.' A difference of two 
months was healed by a letter from John- 
son and a friendly call from Strahan. John- 
son was gratified at being able to get a 
young man he wished to befriend into 
Strahan's printing-house, ( the best in Lon- 
don;' he once in Strahan's company fell 
into a passion over a proof and sent for the 
compositor, but on being convinced that he 
himself was to blame made a handsome 
apology. Towards the end of his life 
Strahan's old friend Franklin wrote him 
from Passy (August 1784), ' I remember 
your observing to me that no two journey- 
men printers had met with such success in 
the world as ourselves.' He died at New 
Street, aged 70, on 9 July 1785. Like his 
old friend Bowyer, he bequeathed 1,000/. 
to the Stationers' Company, of which he 
had been master in 1774. His widow sur- 
vived him barely a month, dying on 7 Aug. 

1785, aged 66. 

A portrait of William Strahan by Rey- 
nolds was in the possession of his son An- 
drew, and a copy by Sir William Beechey 
is in the Company of Stationers' court- 
room, where is also a portrait of Andrew 
Strahan by William Owen (see LESLIE and 
TAYLOE, Reynolds, 1865, ii. 302 ; cf. Guelph 
Exhibition, No. 195). 

Strahan had five children, three sons and 
two daughters. The eldest son, William, 
carried on a printing business for some years 

at Snow Hill, but died, aged 41, on 19 April 
1781 ; the youngest son, Andrew (1749- 
1831), carried on his father's business with 
success, became one of the joint patentees 
as printer to his majesty, sat in parliament 
successively for Newport, Wareham, Car- 
low, Aldeburgh, and New Romney (1796- 
1818), and died on 25 Aug. 1831, having pre- 
sented 1,000^. to the Literary Fund, and be- 
queathed 1,225/. to the Stationers' Company. 
One of the daughters married John Spottis- 
woode of Spottiswoode, one of whose sons, 
Andrew, entered the printing firm, and. was- 
father of William. Spottiswoode [q. v.] 

The second son, GEORGE STRAHAIST (1744- 
1824), matriculated from University College, 
Oxford, on 13 Nov. 1764, and graduated 
B.A. 1768, M.A. 1771, B.D. and D.D. 
1807. He was presented to the vicarage 
of St. Mary's, Islington, in 1773, was made 
a prebendary of Rochester in 1805, and 1 
rector of Kingsdown, Kent, from 1820 until 
his death on 18 May 1824. Strahan was 
buried in Islington church on 24 May. He 
married, on 25 June 1778, Margaret Robert- 
son of Richmond ; his widow died on 2 April 
1831, aged 80. Johnson in later life used 
to go and stay at Islington, and became much 
attached to the vicar. Strahan attended him 
upon his deathbed. Johnson left him by a 
codicil to his will his Greek Testament, 
Latin Bibles, and Greek Bible by Weche- 
lius. Johnson also confided to him a manu- 
script, which Strahan published in its indis- 
creet entirety under the title ' Prayers and 
Meditations composed by Samuel Johnson, 
LL.D. ' (London, 1785, 8vo ; many editions ; 
the manuscript was deposited in the library 
of Pembroke College, Oxford). The publi- 
cation was attacked by Dr. Adams (Gent. 
Mag. 1785, ii. 755), and by John Courte- 
nay (Poetical Revieiv, 1786, p. 7). 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 390 sq. ; Hume's 
Letters to Strahan, passim; Boswell's Life of 
Johnson, ed. Hill, passim; Timperley's Ency- 
clopaedia, pp. 754-5 ; Chambers's Biogr. Diet, of 
Eminent Scotsmen ; Gibbon's MiriC. Works, 
1816, i. 222; Somerville's Life and Times; 
Forbes's Life of Beattie, ii. 185; Rae's Life of 
Adam Smith ; Prior's Life of Malone ; Lounger, 
20 Aug. 1785; Lewis's Hist, of Islington, 1842, 
pp. Ill, 218; Gent. Mag. 1785 ii. 574, 639, 
1824 i. 473, 1831 i. 324; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1715-1886.] T. S. 

STRANG, JOHN (1584-1654), princi- 
pal of Glasgow University, was born at Ir- 
vine in the county of Ayr in 1584. His 
father, William Strang (1547-1588), mini- 
ster of Irvine, belonged to the ancient family 
of Strang of Balcaskie in Fife ; and his mother 
Agnes was sister of Alexander Borthwick, 



' portioner ' of Nether Lenagher, Midlothian. 
On William's death in 1588 she married Ro- 
bert Wilkie (d. 1601), minister of Kilmarnock, 
and young Strang received his early education 
at the grammar school of that town, Zachary 
Boyd [q. v.] being one of his schoolfellows. 
About the age of twelve he was sent to the 
university of St. Andrews, and placed under 
the care of Principal R. Wilkie, a relative 
of his stepfather. He graduated M.A. four 
years afterwards, and subsequently became 
one of the regents of St. Leonard's College. 
In 1614 he was ordained and on 10 April 
was inducted to the parish of Errol in the 
county of Perth, being recommended by the 
professors of St. Andrews and Alexander 
Henderson [q. v.], then minister of Leuchars. 
On 29 July 1616 he was made doctor of 
divinity by his alma mater, being one of the 
first on whom that honour was conferred, 
after its revival, by order of the king ; and 
in the following year, in a disputation held in 
the royal presence at St. Andrews, he greatly 
distinguished himself. He was a member of 
the general assembly held at Perth in 1618, 
and was the only D.D. who voted against the 
five articles. On 15 June 1619 he was made a 
member of the high commission, and in 1620 
he refused the offer of an Edinburgh church. 
During his incumbency at Errol he fre- 
quently a^cted as moderator of the presbytery 
of Perth in the absence of the bishop, and 
he was the means of converting several 
members of the Earl of Errol's family to 
protestantism and of strengthening the re- 
formed church in that part of the country. 
In 1626 he accepted, after repeated solicita- 
tions by the professors and magistrates, the 
principalship of Glasgow University. In 
addition to the charge of the business affairs 
and discipline of the university, he lectured 
twice a week on divinity, presided at the 
weekly theological disputations, taught He- 
brew, and preached frequently. 

When in 1637 the covenanting struggle 
began, both parties were anxious to secure 
his support ; but he took a middle course, 
which pleased neither. He resisted the im- 
position of the new liturgy, and Baillie says 
that his opposition ' did a great deal to 
further the rejection of that book ; ' but, with 
other Glasgow professors, he disapproved 
of the national covenant, though he after- 
wards subscribed it in so far as it was not 
prejudicial to the royal authority and epi- 
scopacy. When the king withdrew the 
liturgy and canons, Strang wrote a paper 
giving reasons why those 'who had sub- 
mitted to the late covenant should thank- 
fully acquiesce in his majesty's late declara- 
tion.' Shortly before the Glasgow assembly of 

1638 he and others drew up a protest against 
lay elders sitting in that court or voting in 
presbyteries at the election of the clerical 
members ; but his supporters fell from it, and 
the covenanting leaders threatened to treat 
him as an open enemy unless he also with- 
drew his name. Their threats, backed by 
the tears of his wife, prevailed, and the pro- 
test was suppressed. Baillie tells us that his 
position as principal was greatly jeopardised 
by his protesting against elders, signing the 
covenant with limitations, and deserting the 
assembly after sitting in it several days. Re- 
peated attempts were made to bring his case 
before the assembly, but they were defeated 
by the skilful management of Baillie and 
other friends. 

After this Strang submitted to the mea- 
sures of the covenanters ; but his enemies 
soon accused him of heresy because in his 
dictates to the students he had expressed 
opinions as to God's providence about sin 
which conflicted with the hyper-Calvinism 
of Samuel Rutherford [q. v.] and others of 
that school. The subject came before the 
general assembly, and was referred to a com- 
mittee of the most learned men in the church. 
After conferring with Strang and examining 
his dictates, they reported that they were 
satisfied as to his orthodoxy. This report 
was given in to the assembly in August 1647, 
and an act was passed exonerating him from 
the charge (cf. WODROW, Collections}. Soon 
afterwards the charge of heresy was re- 
newed, and, as the church was now com- 
pletely dominated by the rigid covenanters, 
Strang thought it the safest course to re- 
sign his office, which he did, says Baillie, the 
more readily ' that in his old age he might 
have leisure, with a safe reputation, to revise 
his writings.' His resignation, which was 
greatly regretted by the professors, was ac- 
cepted by the visitors in April 1650, and 
they at the same time granted him a pen- 
sion and gave him a testimonial of ortho- 
doxy. His tenure of office had been marked 
by additions to the university buildings, to 
the cost of which he was himself a munifi- 
cent contributor out of his ample private 
means, and the income of the bishopric of 
Galloway was added to the revenue. In philo- 
sophy he had no superior among his con- 
temporaries, and Balcanquhal, in a letter to 
Laud, pays a high tribute to his learning. 
Wodrow tells us, however, that ' he had 
little of a preaching gift.' He died on 20 June 
1654, when on a visit to Edinburgh, and was 
buried there in the Grey friars churchyard. 
Many Latin epitaphs were composed in his 
honour, including one by Andrew Ramsay 
(1574-1659) [q. v.] 





Strang was thrice married and had nume- 
rous children, many of whom died young. 
His daughter Helen married, first, one Wilkie ; 
and, secondly, Robert Baillie (1599-1662) 
[q. v.] in 1656. 

The following works which Strang had 
prepared for the press were published after 
his death: 1. ' De Voluntate et Actionibus 
Dei circa Peccatum,' Amsterdam, 1657, which 
he submitted to the Dutch divines for their 
opinion. 2. ' De Interpretatione et Perfec- 
tione Scriptures, una cum opusculis de Sab- 
bato,' Rotterdam, 1663. 

[Life by Baillie prefixed to De Interpreta- 
tione ; Baillie's Letters ; manuscript life by 
"Wodrow (Glasgow University) ; Declaration by 
Charles I; Account of Glasgow University, 
1891; Records of Commission of General As- 
sembly; Crichton's Life of Blackadder; Hew 
Scott's Fasti, iii. 152-3, iv. 635.] G. W. S. 

STRANG, JOHN (1795-1863), author 
of ' Glasgow and its Clubs,' was the son of a 
wine merchant in Glasgow, where he was 
born in 1795. He received a liberal educa- 
tion, and had special training in French and 
German. His father died when he was 
fourteen, leaving him a competency. In due 
time he succeeded to the business, for which 
he had but small liking. In 1817 he spent 
some time in France and Italy, which begot 
in him a deep love of continental travel. 
Presently, when at home, he began to contri- 
bute to periodicals tales and poems translated 
from French and German. His youthful 
translations from the German of Hoffmann 
and others, when collected into a volume, 
introduced him to men of letters in London 
and in France and Germany. 

Having artistic as well as literary tastes, 
Strang sketched some of the outstanding 
features of Old Glasgow, and he detected 
the site which his zeal and advocacy ulti- 
mately secured for what became the pic- 
turesque Glasgow necropolis. In 1831 Strang 
made a long tour in Germany, writing thence 
many letters subsequently published. For 
the first six months of 1832 he edited the 
1 Day,' a literary paper, to which he con- 
tributed original articles and translations. 
In 1834 he was appointed city chamberlain 
of Glasgow, holding the office worthily for 
thirty years. He regulated the finances of 
the city, and helped to improve its architec- 
tural features. In recognition of his literary 
merit and public services, Glasgow Univer- 
sity conferred on him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He spent his last summer in 
France and Germany, contributing to the 
' Glasgow Herald ' a series of letters from 
' an invalid in search of health.' He died 
in Glasgow on 8 Dec. 1863. In December 

1842 Strang married Elizabeth Anderson, 
daughter of a distinguished Glasgow phy- 
sician, Dr. William Anderson. She survived 


As ' Geoffrey Crayon/ Strang published in 
1830 ' A Glance at the Exhibition of Works 
of Living Artists, under the Patronage of 
the Glasgow Dilettante Society.' In 1831 
appeared his pamphlet, ' Necropolis Glas- 

ensis/ advocating the site of the new 
garden cemetery. In 1836 he published, in 
two octavo volumes, his acute and observant 
' Germany in 1831,' which soon reached a 
second edition. Besides reading before the 
British Association at various meetings 
papers on the city and harbour of Glasgow, 
he prepared for the corporation elaborate 
and accurate reports on the ' Vital Statistics 
of Glasgow,' and on the census of the city 
as shown in 1841, 1851, and 1861; and 
he wrote the article ' Glasgow ' for the eighth 
edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' 
His most important work is ' Glasgow and 
its Clubs,' 1855. This is a valuable record of 
the society and manners of western Scot- 
land in the second half of the eighteenth 
century. It speedily ran through several 
editions. In 1863 appeared ' Travelling 
Notes of an Invalid in Search of Health/ 
the preface to which Strang wrote ten days 
before his death. 

[Glasgow Herald, 9 Dec. 1863; Irving's Diet, 
of Eminent Scotsmen.] T. B. 


1876), lieutenant-colonel and man of science, 
fifth son of Sir Thomas Andrew Lumisden 
Strange [q. v.], by his second wife, Louisa, 
daughter of Sir William Burroughs, bart., was 
born in London on 27 April 1818. He was edu- 
cated at Harrow school, which he entered in 
September 1831, but left in 1834 at sixteen 
years of age for India, on receiving a com- 
mission in the 7th Madras light cavalry 
(22 June 1834). He was promoted lieu- 
tenant on 10 May 1837. In India his natural 
bent for mechanical science and his rare in- 
ventive faculty soon declared themselves. 
After studying at the Simla observatory he 
.was appointed in 1847 second assistant to 
the great trigonometrical survey of India. 
He was employed on the ' Karachi longitu- 
dinal series/ extending from the Sironj base 
in Central India to Karachi, and crossing 
the formidable Tharr or desert north of the 
Rann of Kach. When the work was begun 
in 1850 Strange acted as first assistant to 
Captain Renny Tailyour, but after the first 
season Tailyour withdrew and Strange took 
chief command. While at work in the 



desert of Tharr the absence of materials for 
building the necessary platforms, besides 
the need of providing a commissariat for two 
hundred men, taxed all the leader's re- 
sources. The triangulation of the section 
was completed on 22 April 1853. The 
series was 668 miles long, consisting of 173 
principal triangles, and covering an area of 
20,323 miles. After this work was ended, 
Strange joined the surveyor-general (Sir 
Andrew Scott Waugh [q. v.]) at his camp 
at Attock, and took part in measuring a 
verificatory base-line. He then bore the 
designation of ' astronomical assistant.' In 
1855 he joined the surveyor-general's head- 
quarters office, and in 1856 was placed in 
charge of the triangulation southwards from 
Calcutta to Madras, along the east coast. 
In 1859 he was promoted to the rank of 
major, and, in accordance with the regu- 
lations, retired from the survey. He re- 
ceived the special thanks of the government 
of India. 

Returning home in January 1861, Strange 
retired from the army in December of the 
same year with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. As soon as he settled in England 
he persuaded the Indian government to esta- 
blish a department for the inspection of 
scientific instruments for use in India, and 
was appointed to organise it, and to the office 
of inspector in 1862. Hitherto the system 
followed by the government in supervising 
the construction of scientific instruments 
for official use had been to keep a stock of 
patterns, invite tenders for copying them, and 
accept the lowest, thus preventing any chance 
of improvement in the type of instrument, 
and affording no guarantee for good work- 
manship or material. Strange abolished 
the patterns, encouraged invention, insured 
competition as to price by employing at least 
two makers for each class of instrument, 
and enforced strict supervision ; a marked 
improvement in design and workmanship was 
soon evident, and the cost of the establish- 
ment was shown in his first decennial re- 
port to be only about '028 of one per cent, of 
the outlay on the works which the instruments 
were employed in designing or executing. 
For the trigonometrical survey he himself 
designed and superintended the construction 
of a set of massive standard instruments of 
the highest geodetic importance, viz. a great 
theodolite with a horizontal circle of three 
feet diameter, and a vertical circle of two 
feet diameter (these circles were read by 
means of micrometer microscopes); two 
zenith-sectors with arc of eighteen inch 
radius and telescope of four feet focal length ; 
two five-feet transit instruments for the 


determination of longitude, with special 
arrangements for detecting flexure of the 
telescope ; with others, which all exhibited 
very ingenious and important developments 
from previously accepted types. 

Strange was elected a fellow of the Roy&l 
Geographical and Astronomical societies in 
1861, and of the Royal Society on 2 June 
1864. He took an active part in their pro- 
ceedings. He served on the council of the 
Astronomical Society from 1863 to 1867, 
and as foreign secretary from 1868 to 1873. 
He contributed several papers to the so- 
ciety's ' Memoirs ' (vol. xxxi.) and ' Monthly 
Notices.' In 1862 (Monthly Notices of 
Royal Astronomical Society, vol. xxiii.), he 
recommended the use of aluminium bronze 
in the construction of philosophical instru- 
ments. He was on the council of the 
Royal Society from 1867 to 1869. A 
lover of science for its own sake, he 
long preached the duty of government to 
support scientific research, especially indirec- 
tions where discovery, though enriching the 
community, brings no benefit to the inventor. 
To this advocacy was mainly due the appoint- 
ment in 1870 of the royal commission on 
this question (presided over by the Duke 
of Devonshire), which adopted and recom- 
mended many of his suggestions. 

At the British Association at Belfast in 
1874 he read a paper, which attracted much 
attention, on the desirability of daily syste- 
matic observations, preferably in India, of 
the sun as the chief source of cosmical 
meteorological phenomena. 

Strange died in London on 9 March 1876. 
He married Adelaide, daughter of the Rev. 
William Davies, and left issue. 

[Nature, xiii. 408-9 ; Times, 20 March 1876 ; 
Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society, 
vol. xxxvii. No. 4 ; Markham's Memoirs on the 
Indian Surveys, 2nd ed. 1878.] C. T. 

STRANGE, SIB JOHN (1696-1754), 
master of the rolls, son and heir of John 
Strange of Fleet Street, London, was born 
in 1696, and was for some time a pupil of 
Mr. Salkeld of Brooke Street, Holborn, the 
attorney, in whose office Robert, viscount 
Jocelyn (lord chancellor of Ireland), Philip, 
earl of Hardwicke (lord chancellor of Eng- 
land), and Sir Thomas Parker (lord chief 
baron) all received their legal education. 
Strange used to carry his master's bag down 
to Westminster, and he witnessed Sir Joseph 
Jekyll's first appearance as master of the 
rolls in 1717, little dreaming 'that he should 
have the option of being Sir Joseph Jekyll's 
immediate successor, and should actually fill 
the office eventually ' (HARRIS, Life of Lord 




Chancellor Hardwicke, 1847, i. 33). He was 
admitted a member of the Middle Temple in 
1712, and was called to the bar in 1718. 
Though he was ' pretty diligent and exact 
in taking and transcribing notes ' during the 
first years of his attendance at Westminster 
Hall, his 'Reports,' which were not pub- 
lished until after his death, do not commence 
before Trinity term 1729 (Preface to the first 
edition of STRANGE'S Reports). In May 1725 
Strange was one of the counsel who de- 
fended Lord-chancellor Macclesfield upon 
his impeachment [see PARKER, THOMAS, first 
EARL]. He became a king's counsel on 
9 Feb. 1736, and was shortly afterwards 
elected a bencher of the Middle Temple. On 
28 Jan. 1737 he was appointed solicitor- 
general in Walpole's administration, and at 
a by-election in the following month was 
returned to the House of Commons for the 
borough of West Looe, which he continued 
to represent until the dissolution of parlia- 
ment in April 1741. In June 1737 he took 
part in the debate on the murder of Captain 
Porteous, and spoke in favour of the bill 
which had been passed through the House 
of Lords for the punishment of the provost 
and the abolition of the town guard of Edin- 
burgh (Par/. Hist. x. 275-82). On Sir Joseph 
Jekyll's death in August 1738 the office of 
master of the rolls was offered by Lord Hard- 
wicke to Strange, who, however, declined it 
(HARRIS, Life of Lord Chancellor Hardioicke, 
i. 419). He was elected recorder of the 
city of London in the place of Sir William 
Thomson [q. v.], ~ baron of the exchequer, 
on 13 Nov. 1739, and was knighted on 
12 May 1740. At a by-election in January 
1742 Strange obtained a seat in the House 
of Commons for Totnes, and continued to 
sit for that borough until his death. In 
March 1742 he was elected a member of the 
secret committee appointed to inquire into 
the conduct of Sir Robert Walpole (Parl. 
Hist. xii. 588). In spite of his friendship 
with the fallen minister, Strange appears to 
have voted in favour of the Indemnity Bill 
(HORACE WALPOLE, Letters, 1861, i. 165). 
In Michaelmas term 1742 Strange, to the 
surprise of the profession, resigned his 
' offices of solicitor-general, king's counsel, 
and recorder of the city of London,' and left 
his 'practice at the House of Lords, council 
table, delegates, and all the courts in W r est- 
minster Hall except the king's bench, a : d 
there also at the afternoon sittings' (STRANGE, 
Reports, 1st edit.ii. 1176). According to his 
own account, ' the reasons for his retirement 
were that he had received a considerable 
addition to his fortune,' and that ' some de- 
gree of ease and retirement ' was judged 

proper for his health; but other reasons 
are hinted at in the ' Causidecade, a Pane- 
gyri-Satiri-Serio-Comic-Dramatical Poem on 
the Strange Resignation and Stranger Pro- 
motion' (London, 1743, 4to). On taking 
leave of the king, Strange was granted a 
patent of precedence next after the attor- 

In July 1746 Strange was one of the 

counsel for the crown at the trial of Francis 

Townley for high treason before a special 

! commission at the court-house at St. Mar- 

! garet's Hill, Southwark (COBBETT, State 

j Trials, xviii. 329-47), and at the trial of 

! Lord Balmerino, for the same offence, before 

I the House of Lords (ib. xviii. 448-88). In 

March 1747 he acted as one of the managers 

of the impeachment of Simon, lord Lovat, 

i before the House of Lords for high treason 

i (ib. xviii. 540-841). 

Pie was appointed master of the rolls, in 

I the place of William Fortescue, on 11 Jan. 

I 1750, and was sworn a member of the privy 

I council on the 17th of the same month. 

i After sitting on the bench for little more 

than three years, he died on 18 May 1754, 

aged 57. He was buried in the churchyard 

I at Leyton in Essex, and a monument was 

erected in the church to his memory (Lysoisrs, 

Environs of London, 1792-1811, iv. 168-9). 

Strange married Susan, daughter and co- 

; heiress of Edward Strong of Greenwich, by 

I whom he had John Strange (1732-1799) [q. v!] 

! and several other children. His wife died 

on 21 Jan. 1747, aged 45, and was buried at 

Leyton. He appears to have purchased the 

manor-house of Leyton from the Gansells 

(ib. iv. 162). 

Strange was the author of * Reports of Ad- 
judged Cases in the Courts of Chancery, King's 
Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, from 
Trinity Term in the Second Year of King- 
George I to Trinity Term in the Twenty- 
i first Year of King George II ... published 
I by his son John Strange of the Middle 
Temple, Esquire,' London, 1755, fol. 2 vols. ; 
I 2nd edit, with additional references, Lon- 
j don, 1782, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 3rd edit, with notes 
I and additional references, by Michael Nolan, 
London, 1795, 8vo, 2 vols. A less correct 
edition, of inferior size and double paging, 
was also published in 1782 (8vo, 2 vols.), and 
a Dublin edition in two volumes appeared in 

His clerk is said to have stolen his notes 
of the 'Reports,' and to have published 
from them l A Collection of Select Cases 
relating to Evidence. By a late Barrister- 
at-Law,' London, 1 754, 8 vo. An injunction in 
chancery having been obtained by Strange's 
executors, most of the copies were subse- 



quently destroyed. A copy of this scarce 
book, which is sometimes quoted as the 
* octavo Strange,' is in the Lincoln's Inn 
Library, having formerly belonged to Charles 
Purton Cooper [q. v.] About seventy cases 
in this f Collection ' are not to be found in 
' Strange's Reports.' 

A portrait of Strange, engraved by Hou- 
braken, is prefixed to the first edition of the 
' Reports.' 

[Foss's Judges of England, 1864, viii. 166-9; 
Georgian Era, 1833, ii. 535-6 ; Gent. Mag. 1754, 
pp. 95, 243 ; Bridgman's View of Legal Biblio- 
graphy, 1807, pp. 335-6 ; Marvin's Legal Bi- 
bliography, 1847, p. 675 ; Wallace's Reporters, 
1882, pp. 420-3; Soule's Lawyer's Reference 
Manual, 1883, pp. 87, 97, 122 ; Official Return 
of Lists of Members of Parliament, ii. 73, 87, 
100, 111 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. x. 412, 
453,496, 3rd ser. i. 271, 353, 396, ii. 75, 8th 
ser. i. 450, ix. 327, 394, 513 ; Townsend's Cata- 
logue of Knights, 1833, p. 64; Cat. of Lincoln's 
Inn Library; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Addit. MS. 32693, 
if. 33, 394 (two letters from Strange to the Duke 
of Newcastle).] G. F. R. B. 

STRANGE, JOHN (1732-1799), diplo- 
matist and author, the second and only 
surviving son of Sir John Strange [q. v.], by 
his wife Susan, eldest daughter of Edward 
Strong of Greenwich, was born, at Barnet in 
1732, and educated privately and at Clare 
Hall, Cambridge (he was admitted a fellow- 
commoner 11 Oct. 1753), whence he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1753, and M.A. in 1755. On 
his father's death he saw through the press 
the volume of ' Reports ' published in 1755. 
He was left very well off, and upon leaving 
Cambridge travelled extensively in the south 
of France and Italy. Developing a taste 
for science and archaeology, he was elected 
F.R.S on 10 April, and admitted to the 
society on 24 April 1766. Shortly after- 
wards he was elected F.S.A., and as the 
result of a summer spent in South Wales in 
1768, he contributed to the first number of 
the ' Archseologia ' ' An Account of Roman 
Remains in and near the City of Brecknock.' 
In 1771 he made an archaeological tour in 
the north of Italy. At Padua he formed the 
acquaintance of the Abbe Fortis, who had re- 
cently returned from an exploration of Zara, 
Spalatro, and other towns upon the Dalmatian 
coast, and from information supplied by him he 
made several communications to the Society of 
Antiquaries upon the Roman inscriptions and 
antiquities of JJalrnatia and Istria (see Archceo- 
loffia, iii. v. and vi.), a district then little 
known to Western Europe. In addition to 
further communications to the 'Archgeologia,' 
Strange contributed a number of papers to 
the 'Philosophical Transactions,' the most 

important being ' An Account of the Origin 
of Natural Paper found near Cortona in 
Tuscany' (vol. lix.) This was translated 
into Italian, and considerably expanded in 
'Lettera sopra 1' origine della carta naturale 
di Cortona ' (Pisa, 1764, and again, enlarged, 
1765) ; ' An Account of some Specimens of 
Sponges from Italy ' (March 1770, Ix. 177, 
with several plates from his drawings). This 
appeared in Italian as ' Lettera del Signor 
Giovanni Strange, contenente la descrizione 
di alcune spugne ' (ap. OLIVI, Zooloyica 
Adriatica, 1792, 4to) ; ' An Account of a 
Curious Giant's Causeway newly discovered 
in the Euganean Hills, near Padua ' (1775, 
Ixv. 4, 418) ; an Italian version appeared at 
Milan, 1778, 4to ; and ' An Account of the 
Tides in the Adriatic ' (vol. Ixvii.) Several 
of his papers were also printed in the i Opus- 
coli scelti sulle scienze ' (1778, &c.) ; .and 
his geological papers appeared in Weber's 
' Mineralogische Beschreibungen ' (Berne, 

Meanwhile, in November 1773 he was 
appointed British resident at Venice, where 
his official duties left leisure for the pursuit 
of his antiquarian studies. He resigned his 
diplomatic post in 1788, and settled at Ridge, 
near Barnet. But he paid several further 
visits to Italy in connection with the trans- 
portation of the valuable collections that he 
had formed there, not only of books, manu- 
scripts, and antiquities, but also of pictures, 
chiefly by Bellini and other Venetian masters. 
On 4 July 1793 he was created an honorary 
D.C.L. at Oxford. He died at Ridge on 
19 March 1799, and by his will directed the 
whole of his collections to be sold the pic- 
tures by private contract; the prints, draw- 
ings, busts, coins, medals, bronzes, and 
antiquities by Christie ; the natural history 
cabinets by King, and the library by Leigh 
& Sotheby. The sale of the library alone 
occupied twenty-nine days in March and 
April 1801. A valuable catalogue was com- 
piled by Samuel Paterson [q. v.] (DiBDiN, 
Bibliomania, p. 590). 

About 1760 Strange married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Davidge Gould of Sharpham Park, 
Somerset, and sister of Sir Henry Gould 
the younger [q. v.] ; she died at Venice in 
April 1783. They seem to have had no 

[Gent. Mag. 1783 i. 540, 1799 i. 348; Clare 
College Register; European Mag. 1799, i. 412 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 438, 735, viii. 9, 10, 
ix. 673, 720, and Lit. Illustr. vi. 774; Graduati 
Cantabrigienses; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 171 o-. 
1886; Foss's Judges of England, iv. 266; 
Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Society ; Lysons's 
Environs, iv. 291.] T. S. 



STRANGE, RICHARD (1611-1682), 
Jesuit, born in Northumberland in 1611, en- 
tered the Society of Jesus in 1631, and was 
professed of the four vows on 21 Nov. 1646. 
After teaching classics in the college of the 
English Jesuits at St. Omer, he was sent to 
Durham district in 1644, and about 1651 
was removed to the London mission, in which 
he laboured for many years. In 1671 he was 
appointed rector of the house of tertians at 
Ghent. He was in 1674 declared provincial 
of his order in this country, and he held that 
office for three years. His name figures in 
Titus Oates's list of Jesuits, and also in the 
narrative of Father Peter Hamerton . Having 
escaped to the continent in 1679, he became 
one of the consultors of father John Warner, 
the provincial, and died at St. Omer on 
7 April 1682. 

His principal work is ' The Life and Gests 
of S. Thomas Cantilvpe, Bishop of Hereford, 
and some time before L. Chancellor of Eng- 
land. Extracted out of the authentique 
Records of his Canonization as to the maine 
part, Anonymous, Matt. Paris, Capgrave, 
Harpsfeld, and others. Collected by 
R.S.S.l.,' Ghent, 1674, 8vo, pp. 333. A re- 
print forms vol. xxx. of the ' Quarterly Series,' 
London, 1879, 8vo. Strange translated one 
of Nieremberg's works, ' Of Adoration in 
Spirit and Truth,' Antwerp, 1673, 8vo ; and 
left in manuscript ' Tractatus de septem 
gladiis, seu doloribus, Beatse Virginis Marise. 

[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Com- 
pagnie de Jesus (1876), iii. 960 ; Dodd's Church 
Hist. iii. 313 ; Foley's Kecords, v. 623, vii. 743 ; 
Oliver's Collections S. J., p. 199; Southwells 
Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 719.] T. C. 

STRANGE, SIR ROBERT (1721-1792), 
engraver, eldest son of David Strang of 
Kirkwall in the Orkneys, by his second wife, 
Jean, daughter of Malcolm Scollay of Hun- 
ton, was born at Kirkwall on 14 July 1721. 
He was the lineal representative of the 
ancient family of Strang of Balcaskie in 
Fife, which property was alienated in 1615, 
the family migrating to Orkney, where two 
members of it, George and Magnus, had 
held clerical office in the previous century. 
Robert entered the office of an elder brother, 
a lawyer in Edinburgh ; but his heart was 
not in the work, and he was constantly occu- 
pied in secret in drawing and copying any- 
thing which came in his way. His brother 
one day, when looking for some missing 
papers, found a batch of these drawings and 
submitted them privately to the engraver, 
Richard Cooper the elder [q. v.], who had 
settled in Edinburgh, and was almost the 
sole judge and teacher of art in Scotland. 

Cooper estimated Strange's sketches very 
highly, and Strange was bound as apprentice 
to him for six years. 

Shortly before the Jacobite rising of 1745 
Strange fell in love with Isabella, daughter 
of William Lumisden (son of the bishop of 
Edinburgh and a descendant of the Lumis- 
dens of Cushnie in Aberdeenshire), and sister 
of Andrew Lumisden [q. v.], a fervent J acobite. 
The lady, sharing her brother's predilec- 
tions, made it a condition of her favour that 
Strange should fight for her prince. Already 
of some repute as an engraver, he published 
a portrait of Charles Edward, which was 
not without merit, and made the artist very 
popular. While with the army at Inver- 
ness he also contrived, amid the confusion, 
to engrave a plate for the bank-notes of the 
coming dynasty. This plate, in eight com- 
partments, for notes of different value from 
a penny upwards, was found about 1835 in 
Loch Laggan, and is now in the possession 
of Cluny Macpherson. Strange fought at 
Prestonpans and Falkirk in the prince's life- 
guards, and, finally, took part in the abortive 
night march and doubtful strategy which 
led to the disaster of Culloden, of all which 
he left a graphic account. 

While in hiding for some months after- 
wards he found a ready sale for pencil por- 
traits of the proscribed leaders and small 
engravings of the prince. It is recorded that 
at this time, while he was at the house of 
his lady-love, Isabella Lumisden, soldiers 
came in to search for him, whereupon Isa- 
bella lifted up her hooped skirt, and he took 
refuge under it, the lady steadily carolling a 
Jacobite song over her needlework while the 
baffled soldiers searched the room. In 1747 
they were married clandestinely ; and after 
the amnesty Strange proceeded to London 
and thence carrying with him the prince's 
seal, which had been left behind in Scotland 
to Rouen, a centre of the exiled Jacobites. 
Here he studied anatomy under Lecat, and 
drawing under Descamps ; and, after carry- 
ing away the highest prize in Descamps's 
academy, went in 1749 to Paris and placed 
himself under the engraver Le Bas. There 
he made rapid strides, and learned especially 
the use of the dry-point, much employed by 
that master (who introduced it in France) 
in the preparatory parts of his work. Le 
Bas would gladly have engaged his pupil's 
services, but Strange's face was already set 
towards the great Italian masters. Having 
therefore first executed (along with Van- 
loo's ' Cupid,' for he always brought out his 
prints in pairs) Wouverman's * Return from 
Market/ the only genre picture among his 
principal works (they were issued at 2s. 6$. 



each), he returned in 1750 to London, an 
artist of the first rank. 

Here for ten years, besides producing 
several of his best-known works, as the 
' Magdalen ' and ' Cleopatra ' of Guido (is- 
sued at 4s. each) and the 'Apollo and 
Marsyas ' of Andrea Sacchi (at 7s. 6d.), he 
continued to import collections of the best 
classical prints from Italy in the hope of 
gradually educating the popular taste. He 
issued them at a cost hardly greater than 
that of the commonest prints of the day. 

But in 1759 events occurred which for 
many years tended to embitter his life. 
Allan Ham say had painted portraits of the 
Prince of Wales and of the favourite, Lord 
Bute, and wished Strange to engrave them. 
The pictures were not in his line of work. 
He represented to Ramsay that his arrange- 
ments were already made for going to Italy, 
and he had work unfinished which would 
occupy all his remaining time. The prince, 
however, sent a request to him to undertake 
the work, offering a remuneration (100/.) so 
inadequate that he clearly did not know the 
amount of time such engraving would take. 
Strange again declined, but his explanations 
were distrusted. Subsequent intrigues against 
him in Italy, in which Dalton, the king's 
librarian, and Bartolozzi, the engraver, were 
concerned, were attributed by Strange to 
royal resentment at his refusal. 

In 1760 he left England. The cordiality 
of his reception in France and Italy con- 
trasted with his treatment at home. At 
Rome his portrait was painted by Toffanelli 
on a ceiling in the print-room of the Vati- 
can. No other British artist was similarly 

During four years in Italy he was en- 
gaged in making careful copies of pictures 
to be engraved on his return, for he would 
never engrave from any drawings but his 
own. Of these drawings most of the water- 
colours belong to Lord Zetland, and the chalks 
to Lord Wemyss. Many of the engravings 
were executed and published at Paris. 

Strange returned to England in 1765. 
Subsequently he publicly exhibited pictures 
which he had collected, and prepared critical 
and descriptive catalogues. Such ventures, 
which involved him in pecuniary risk, were 
undertaken with a view to improving public 
taste. In 1769 appeared a descriptive cata- 
logue of pictures, &c., collected and engraved 
by Robert Strange (London, 8vo). In 1768, 
dissensions arose in the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, of which Strange was a member. 
Several of the directors were dismissed and 
the rest resigned, and, adroitly gaining the 
king's ear, obtained his sanction to the esta- 

blishment of the Royal Academy. Strange' 
had opposed the directors, and he believed 
that the exclusion from the newly formed 
academy's ranks of all engravers was levelled 
against himself. The election soon after- 
wards of his rival, Bartolozzi, ostensibly as* 
a painter, lent some colour to his suspicions.. 
The inferior degree of ' associate ' was soon 
after thrown open to engravers ; but the lead- 
ing men in the profession, Sharp, Hall, and 
Woollett, with Strange, declined it. His 
own conception of an academy was a much 
less exclusive body, with a widely extended 
artist membership, capable of mutual help- 
and support, and exhibiting their own work 

In 1775 he published a formal statement 
of his grievances against the Royal Academy 
in ' An Inquiry into the Rise and Establish- 
ment of the Royal Academy of Arts,' pre- 
faced by a letter to Lord Bute. But the 
gauntlet was not taken up, and Strange, ap- 
parently in dudgeon, carried his family over- 
to Paris, where they remained (in the Rue- 
d'Enfer, the house looking on the Luxem- 
bourg gardens) till 1780. 

At last the tide of royal favour began to 
turn. Strange desired to engrave Vandyck's 
Queen Henrietta Maria, which belonged to 
George III. Free access to the picture was- 
given to Strange on the introduction of Ben- 
jamin West, then president of the Royal 
Academy, who had long been his friend, and 
who had strongly opposed the exclusion of 
the engravers from the academy. The en- 
graving was published in Paris in 1784, along 
with the great Vandyck of Charles I on his 
horse. On this occasion he had a very 
flattering reception by the French king and; 
queen, and in a lively letter to his son he 
describes their admiration of his works, and 
the excitement of the crowds besieging hi& 
hotel to obtain the earliest copies ; while the 
printing press was working from morn till 
night. The attention and courtesy which,, 
owing to West's interposition, Strange had 
met with from the English royal family led 
him to offer to engrave West's picture of 
'The Apotheosis of the Royal Children' a 
unique compliment from Strange to a living 
artist. The plate was finished in 1786, and 
on 5 Jan. 1787 the artist was knighted. The 
king, in announcing his intention to confer 
the honour, slyly added, ' Unless, Mr 
Strange, you object to be knighted by the 
Elector of Hanover!' His last work was- 
on his own portrait by Greuze, which was 
finished in 1791. It was considered a good 
though not a striking likeness. Sir Robert 
died at his house, No. 52 Great Queen Street,. 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, on 5 July 1792, and -was ; 

Strange 2 

buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Besides 
*Strange's portrait by Greuze, there is a fine 
portrait by Romney and one by Raebum in 
the possession of the family. 

Strange's devotion to his art was carried 
out at the cost both of domestic happiness 
and of fortune. It involved long absences 
from his family, and he declined to undertake 
really remunerative work of a commonplace 
character, such as book-plates and book illus- 
trations. These he rarely executed except to 
serve a friend. From some very interesting 
correspondence bet ween Strange and his friend 
Bruce of Kinnaird, the African traveller, we 
learn that he engraved the illustrations for 
Bruce's work on 'Paestum,' but this was 
never published. Probably only three book- 
plates and half a dozen small portrait illus- 
trations, of an early date, are genuine. The 
classical portraits in Blackwell's ' History of 
the Court of Augustus,' assumed to be his, 
are unsigned and not otherwise authenti- 
cated. His title to fame rests as much on 
the large share he had in the amelioration 
of the national taste as on the works which 
testify to his genius. Advanced modern 
taste may regret that his choice fell so fre- 
quently on paintings of the eclectic school 
on Carlo Dolci, Carlo Maratti, or even on 
Guercino and Guido. His chief achieve- 
ments are the two splendid series of the Van- 
dycks, ' Charles I with the Horse ' (issued at 
31s. 6d.} and in his robes (issued at 13s., 
and sold fifty-five years later for 5 11. 9s.), 
and the portraits of the royal children ; and of 
the Titians, e.g. the ' Venus ' of the Florence 
Tribune, the ' Danae,' and the ' Venus blind- 
ing Cupid ' (issued at 13s.} In the repro- 
duction of Titian he is probably unequalled. 
Raffaelle, too, is well represented by his ' St. 
Cecilia ' and by his ' Justice ' and ' Meekness.' 
His ' Madonna della Seggiola,' of which a 
careful drawing was made, was never en- 
graved. Correggio is represented by his 
* Day,' which Strange describes as * the first 
picture in Italy, if not in the world,' and in 
which the dazzling lights are probably repre- 
sented as effectually as could be done by those 
processes to which Strange always strictly 
confined himself. Guercino, a favourite 
painter with Strange, is represented by his 
4 Death of Dido,' and by his ' Christ appearing 
to the Madonna,' where the draperies are 
thought by some to be Strange's chef d'ceuvre. 

His own portrait by Greuze fitly prefaces 
the series of fifty of his principal works on 
which he desired his fame to rest, and which 
he had very early in his career begun to set 
aside for the purpose. Eighty sets of selected 
impressions of these were accordingly bound 
in atlas folio, with a dedication to the king 


(composed mainly by Blair), and were pub- 
lished in 1790. An introduction treats 
shortly of the progress of engraving and of 
the author's share in its promotion, with 
notes on the character of the paintings 
engraved. He concludes, with characteristic 
conviction of the merits of his work : ' Nor 
can he fear to be charged with vanity, if, in 
the eve of a life consumed in the study of 
the arts, he indulges the pride to think that 
he may, by this monument of his works, se- 
cure to his name, while engraving shall last, 
the praise of having contributed to its credit 
and advancement.' 

Strange, it seems, was the first who habi- 
| tually employed the dry-point in continua- 
tion of iiis preparation by etching, and in 
certain modifications of the process he was 
I followed by Morghen, Woollett, and Sharp. 
I He condemns, as having retarded the pro- 
gress of engraving in England, the process of 
' stippling ' or 'dotting' introduced into Eng- 
land by Bartolozzi. He had an equal com- 
mand of all the methods he practised. His 
own chief distinguishing characteristics as 
an engraver are perhaps a certain distinction 
of style and a pervading harmony of treat- 
ment. His lines, pure, firm, and definite, 
but essentially flowing, lend themselves to 
the most delicate and rounded contours, 
from which all outline disappears, and the 
richness and transparency of his flesh tints, 
produced without any special appearance of 
effort, are well shown in his treatment of 
Guido, and more signally of Titian. On 
the other hand, he does not perhaps always 
differentiate the special characteristics of the 
masters he reproduces. His treatment of 
skies and clouds a relic of Le Bas's influ- 
ence and of the textures of his draperies 
is often faulty. He is accused by some 
critics of inaccurate drawing. His early 
education in this department was probably 
defective and unsystematic, but he worked 
hard at it in later years, and prepared his 
drawings for engraving with the greatest 
care. He was a perfect master of the burin, 
while the extent to which he carried his 
etched preparation gave great freedom to 
his style and aided in rendering colour. 

As a pure historical line engraver, Strange 

I stands in the very first European rank. 

! Critics so different as Horace Walpole, Smith 

j (Nollekens's biographer), and Leigh Hunt 

j consider him the foremost of his day in Eng- 

| land. Some foreign critics, as Longhi, Fer- 

rerio, and Duplessis, are almost equally 

emphatic ; though others, as Le Blanc and 

still more Beraldi, find much less to admire. 

His works are to-day more popular in 

France than in England. 


Strange's wife had much originality and 
strength of character. Her letters, printed 
by Dennistoun, are rich in humour and 
pathos. During Strange's prolonged absences 
she managed the family, sold his prints, 
fought his battles, and read poetry, philo- 
sophy, and ' physico-theology.' Faithful to 
the Stuart cause, even in its . later and dis- 
credited days, her open sympathy for it may 
have sometimes prejudiced her husband's 
interests in high places. She died in 1806. 

Of Strange's children, his eldest daughter 
Mary Bruce Strange (1748-1784) alone in- 
herited somewhat of her father's gift, and 
he was very proud of her. His eldest son, 
James Charles Stuart Strange (1753-1840), 
a godson of the titular king James III, rose 
high in the Madras civil service. When 
the news reached India of Captain Cook's 
discoveries on the north-west coast of Ame- 
rica, he fitted ont an expedition to Nootka 
Sound. The expected trade in furs was a 
failure, but he left a curious account of his 
voyage and of the natives. Strange's second 
son, Sir Thomas Andrew Lumisden Strange, 
is separately noticed. A third son, Robert 
Montagu, was major-general in the Madras 

[Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange, Knight, and 
of Andrew Lumisden, ed. James Dennistoun of 
Dennistoun; Chalmers's General Biographical 
Dictionary ; Le Blanc's Le G-ra^eur en taille 
douce in Catalogue Raisonne, Leipzig, 1848; 
Niigler's Kiinstler-Lexikon ; Dodd's manuscript 
History of English Engravers, Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS. 33405; Pye's Patronage of British Art, 
1845; Magasin Encyclopedique, torn. i. -1795, 
art. signed ' St. L . . ' (probably Mercier, Abbe 
de St. Leger) ; Bryan ; Redgrave.] C. T. 

STRANGE, ROGER LE (d. 1311), judge, 
was a descendant of Guy Le Strange, who is 
thought to have been a younger son of 
Hoel II, duke of Brittany (1066-1084). He 
was sheriff of Yorkshire during the last two 
years of the reign of Henry III, and the 
first two of that of Edward I. In the last 
of these years he Avas prosecuted for various 
extortions committed while he was bailiff of 
the honour of Pec in Derbyshire. In 1279- 
1280 he was appointed steward of the king's 
household, and in 1282 captain of the king's 
forces in the fortresses of Whitchurch in 
Shropshire, Oswestry, and Montgomery 
(Part. Writs, i. 243), In the latter capacity 
in December he is said to have slain Llewelyn 
near Builth (' Opus Chronicorum ' in TROKE- 
LOWE'S Chronica, Rolls Ser. p. 40); the 
honour is, however, claimed by others [cf. 
1283 he became justice of the forest on this 
side of Trent, and on lAug. 1285 justice in 


eyre of the forest for the county of Derby. 
In 1287 he was despatched into Wales at 
the head of an expedition against Rhys ab 
Mereduc or Maredudd, and was ordered to 
reside in his lordships situated on the Welsh 
border until the rebellion was suppressed. 
He was summoned to a council held by 
Edmund, earl of Cornwall, who was acting 
as regent in the king's absence, on 13 Oct. 
1288. In 1290 he is referred to as late bailiff 
of Builth. Towards the end of October or 
beginning of November 1291 he was sent 
with Lewis de la Pole to the court of Rome 
as the king's messenger. He was still stay- 
ing abroad on the king's service on 18 April 
1292. He was summoned to parliament in 
1295, 1296, and 1297. In this latter year he 

1 surrendered the office of j ustice of the forest 
on account of ill-health, and on 11 May 1298 

; he nominated attorneys for two years for the 
same reason. He is, however, spoken of on 
10 July 1301 as lately appointed to assess 
the king's wastes in his forests beyond Trent, 
and he joined in the letter of the barons on 
12 Feb. 1301 respecting Scotland. He died 
between 8 July and 7 Aug. 1311 (Cal. Close 
Rolls Edw. II, 1318-23, p. 70; Abbreviatio 
Rotulorum Originalium, i. 182). He was 
lord of the manors of Ellesmere and Ches- 
worthine in Shropshire, held for life by the 
gift of the king the manor of Shotwick in 
Cheshire, and was tenant by courtesy of a 
third part of the barony of Beauchamp. 

[Fo^s's Judges of England, iii. 157 ; Calen- 
dar of Patent Rolls, Edw. I, 1281-92 pp. 84, 
187, 401, 443, 447, 485, 1292-1301 pp. 350, 526 ; 
Annales Londonienses, in Stubbs's Chronicles of 
Edw. I and Edw. II, i. 123 ; Parl. Writs, i. 18, 

; 195, 222, 234, 243, 251, 253; authorities cited 
in text.] - W. E. R. 

LUMISDEN (1756-1841), Indian jurist, 
second son of Sir Robert Strange [q. v.], 
was born on 30 Nov. 1756, and was ad- 
mitted to a king's scholarship at Westminster 
in 1770. He was elected to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1774, matriculating on 1 June, 

. and graduated B. A. in 1778, and M.A. in 
1782. At both school and college his chief 

\ competitor was Charles Abbot (afterwards 
first Lord Colchester) [q.v.] Adopting a legal 
career, he entered Lincoln's Inn in 1776, 
and as a law student received much friendly 

j help from his mother's friend, Lord Mans- 

j field. He was called to the bar in 1785, and 
in 1789 was appointed chief justice of Nova 

In 1798 he was placed in a position re- 
quiring exceptional tact and firmness. The 
administration of justice at Madras by the 
court of the mayor and aldermen was noto- 



riously corrupt, and Strange was sent out 
as recorder and president of the court. Be- 
fore leaving England he was knighted on 
14 March 1798. Arrived in Madras, he met 
with much factious opposition, which he 
overcame by arranging (as at the Old Bailey) 
that only one representative of the aldermen 
should sit with him. 

In 1800, owing to the growth in extent 
and wealth of the presidency , a supreme court 
of three judges was established by charter 
dated 26 Dec., with Strange as chief justice. 
In 1801, under the apprehension of a French 
attack from Egypt, two volunteer battalions 
were organised, one commanded by the go- 
vernor, Lord Olive, the other by the chief 
justice. Strange drilled his men regularly 
each morning before his court met. In 1809 
a mutiny of the company's officers, origina- 
ting in the abolition of certain privileges, 
called out all his energies. The disaffected 
had many sympathisers in civilian society. 
Sir Thomas delivered a charge to the grand 
jury explaining the criminality of the officers, 
and their responsibility for any bloodshed 
that might occur. His action had a whole- 
some effect, and both the governor, Sir George 
Hilaro Barlow [q. v.], and subsequently Lord 
Minto, recommended Strange to the home 
government for a baronetcy ; but, apparently 
owing to a change of government on Mr. 
Perceval's death, the recommendation was 
not carried out. In 1816 Strange com- 
pleted, and printed at Madras for the use of 
his court, a selection of ' Notes of Cases ' de- 
cided during his administration of the re- 
corder's and of the supreme court, prefaced 
by a history of the two successive judica- 

Strange resigned his post on 7 June 1817, 
and returned to England. In 1818 he was 
created D.C.L. at Oxford. For some years 
he devoted his leisure to the completion of 
his ' Elements of Hindu Law.' The work 
was first published in London in 1825 (2 
vols. 8vo). The only native authorities on 
the old text-books were commentaries and 
digests, mostly of no great authority, of only 
local validity, or otherwise irrelevant. Doubt- 
ful points had accordingly been habitually 
referred to native pundits. Many of their 
replies, which Sir Thomas had diligently col- 
lected, he recorded in his great book in a 
form available for reference, with comments 
on them throughout by such authorities as 
Colebrooke and Ellis. A fourth edition of 
the ' Elements ' was published in 1864 with 
an introduction by John Dawson Mayne 
testifying to the great value of Strange's 
work. For many years it remained the great 
authority on Hindu law. 

Strange died at St. Leonard's on 16 July 
1841. His portrait was painted for Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia, by Benjamin West, and for 
Madras by Sir Thomas Lawrence. Subse- 
quently a portrait by Sir Martin Archer- 
Shee was placed in the hall at Christ Church,. 

Sir Thomas married, first, Cecilia, daugh^ 
ter of Sir Robert Anstruther, bart., of Bal- 
caskie; and secondly, Louisa, daughter of 
Sir William Burroughs, bart., by whom he 
left a numerous family ; his eldest son was 
Thomas Lumisden Strange [q. v.] Another- 
son, James Newburgh Strange, born on 2 Oct. 
1812, became an admiral on 9 Jan. 1880. His 
fifth son, Alexander Strange, is separately- 

[Welch's Alumni Westmonast. p. 400 ; Annual. 
Register, 1841 ; Barker and Stenning's Register 
of Westminster School, p. 221 ; The Elizabethan,. 
vii. 14; Higginbotham's Men whom India has 
known; manuscript autobiography of Sir T.. 
Strange and other private information.] C. T. 

(1808-1884), judge and writer, born on 4 Jan. 
1808, was eldest son of Sir Thomas Andrew 
Lumisden Strange [q. v.] He was educated* 
at Westminster school, and on leaving in> 
1823 went out to his father in India, becom- 
ing a writer in the East India Company's 
civil service at Madras in 1825. He was ap- 
pointed an assistant-judge and joint criminal 
judge on 24 June 1831, became sub-judge at 
Calicut in 1843 and civil and sessions judge- 
at Tellicherry in 1845, was a special com- 
missioner for investigating the Molpah dis- 
turbances in Malabar in 1852, and for in- 
quiring into the system of judicature in the- 
presidency of Madras in 1859, and was made 
judge of the high court of judicature in 1862. 
He resigned on 2 May 1863. He compiled a< 
' Manual of Hindoo Law,' 1856, taking his* 
father's work as a basis. This reached a 
second edition in 1863. He also published 
1 A Letter to the Governor of Fort St. George 
on Judicial Reform' (1860). 

While in India he was much interested in- 
religious subjects. In 1852 he published 
' The Light of Prophecy ' and ' Observations 
on Mr. Elliott's " Horge Apocalyptic^." J1 
Subsequently he was so impressed by ob- 
serving a supposed convert at the gallows 
proclaim his faith to be in Rama, not in 
Christ, that, on examining Christian evidence, 
his own faith in Christianity broke down. 
He never ceased to be a pious theist. He 
explained his position in 'How I became 
and ceased to be a Christian,' and many other- 
pamphlets for the series published in 1872- 
1875 by Thomas Scott (1808-1878) [q.v.]; 
these publications were afterwards collected* 



and issued as ' Contributions to a Series of 
Controversial Writings' (1881). Larger 
works by Strange were : 1. ' The Bible : is it 
the Word of God ? ' 1871. 2. < The Speaker's 
Commentary reviewed/ 1871. 3. 'The Le- 
gends of the Old Testament traced to their 
apparent Primitive Sources,' 1874. 4. ' The 
Development of Creation on the Earth,' 1874. 
5. ' The Sources and Development of Chris- 
tianity,' 1875. 6. ' What is Christianity ? ' 
1880. Though far from a brilliant writer, 
he was a diligent student, and was always an 
earnest advocate of practical piety in life and 
conduct. Strange died at Norwood on 4 Sept. 

[Barker and Stenning's Westminster School 
Register, p. 221 ; Wheeler's Dictionary of Free- 
thinkers ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] J. M. W. 


1516), speaker of the House of Commons, 
was the son of Sir James Strangeways of 
Whorlton, Yorkshire, by his wife Joan, 
daughter of Nicholas Orrell. The elder Sir 
James was appointed judge of the common 
pleas in 1426. The younger was high sheriff 
of Yorkshire in 1446, 1453, and 1469. He 
was returned for the county to the parlia- 
ments of 1449 and 1460, and, on account of 
his devotion to the house of York, was ap- 
pointed speaker of the House of Commons in 
the first parliament of Edward IV, which 
met in November 1461. For the first time 
in English history the speaker addressed the 
king, immediately after his presentation and 
allowance, in a long speech reviewing the 
state of affairs and recapitulating the history 
of the civil war. The parliament transacted 
hardly any business beyond numerous acts 
of attainder against various Lancastrians. It 
was prorogued to 6 May 1462, and then dis- 
solved. He served on various commissions 
for the defence of the kingdom and suppression 
of rebellions, and sat regularly on the com- 
missions of the peace for the North and West 
Ridings of Yorkshire (Cal.Pat. Rolls, 1461-7, 
passim). On 11 Dec. 1485, among other 
grants, Sir James received from Henry VII 
the manor of Dighton in Yorkshire, from 
which it would appear that he was one of 
those who early espoused the Tudor cause 
(CAMPBELL, Materials for a History of the 
Reign of Henry VII, Rolls Ser., i. 212, 530) 
He was appointed a knight of the body by 
Henry VIII, and in 1514 was one of the 
sheriffs for Yorkshire. He seems to have 
received several fresh grants of land, but 
it is difficult to distinguish him from another 
James Strangeways, residing in Berkshire 
who also enjoyed the royal favour (BREWER 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. i 

and ii. indexes). Sir James died in 1516, and 
was buried in the abbey church of St. Mary 
Overy's, Southwark. His will was proved 
on 9 Jan. 1516-17 (ib. ii. 752, 1380). He 
married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Philip, lord Darcy, by whom he had 
seventeen children. His eldest son, Sir 
Richard Strangeways, died before him in 
1488, and he was succeeded by his grandson, 
Sir James Strangeways. 

[Manning's Speakers of the House of Com- 
mons, pp. 112-16 ; Stubbs's Constitutional His- 
tory of England, iii. 195; Foster's Yorkshire 
Pedigrees, vol. ii. ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 6th 
edit. ; Members of Parliament, i. 340,356, App. 
p. xxiv; Journals of the House of Lords, i. 253, 
259, 263.] E. I C. 

count, 1780-1855 ; SMYTHE, GEOEGE AUGUS- 
viscount, 1818-1857; SMYTHE, PERCY ELLEN 
FREDERICK WILLIAM, eighth viscount, 1826- 

MUND, D.D. (d. 1640?), catholic divine, 
descended from an ancient family in Worces- 
tershire (cf. NASH, Worcestershire, i. 560 et 
passim). He was educated in the English 
College at Douay, where he finished the 
whole course of divinity under Dr. Matthew 
Kellison [q. v.], and in 1617 was made pro- 
fessor of philosophy. Subsequently he studied 
at Paris under Gamache, and, after graduating 
B.D. there, he returned to Douay, where he 
taught divinity for about eight years. He 
was created D.D. at Rheims on 25 Oct. 1633, 
and died at Douay ' in the prime of his years ' 
about 1640. 

His works are : 1. ' A Disputation of the 
Church, wherein the old religion is main- 
tained. ByF. E.,' Douay, 1632, 8vo ; 'by 
E. S. F.,' 2 pts., Douay, 1640, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Relection of Transubstantiation ; in defence 
of Dr. Smith's Conference with Dr. Featley,' 
1632, 8vo [see SMITH, RICHARD, 1566-1655]. 
This was answered by 'An Apologie for 
Daniel Featley . . . against the Calumnies 
of one S. E. in respect of his Conference had 
with Doctor Smith. . . . Made by Myrth. 
Waferer, M r . of Artes of Albane Hall in 
Oxon.,' London, 1634, 4to. 3. 'A Relection 
of certain Authors, that are pretended to 
disown the Church's Infallibility,' Douay, 
1635. Some theological and philosophical 
treatises by him were formerly preserved in 
manuscript in the library of the English 
College at Douay. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 92; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. ed. Bohn, p. 2530.] T. C. 



OF ALDBOEOUGH (d. 1801), was the eldest 
son of John Stratford of Baltinglass, by his 
wife Martha, daughter and coheiress of Ben- 
jamin O'Neal, archdeacon of Leighlin, co. 
Carlo w. John Stratford was the grandson of 
Robert Stratford who came to Ireland be- 
fore 1660, and is said to have sprung from 
a younger branch of the Stratfords of War- 
wickshire (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 
376,424). John Stratford was created Baron 
ofBaltinglass in 1763, Viscount Aldborough 
in 1776, and Viscount Amiens and Earl of 
Aldborough, shortly before his death on 
29 June 1777. 

Edward Stratford was widely known for 
his ability and ecqentricity, which caused him 
to be termed the ' Irish Stanhope.' He was 
an ardent whig, and was elected member for 
Taunton to the British parliament in 1774, 
but was unseated with his colleague, Na- 
thaniel Webb, on petition, on 16 March 1775, 
for bribery and corrupt practices. After that 
he represented Baltinglass in the Irish par- 
liament until his father's death (Members of 
Parliament, ii. 154, App. p. xli; Commons' 
Journals, xxxv. 18, 146, 200). On 29 May 
1777, while still Viscount Amiens, he was 
elected a member of the Royal Society. On 
3 July 1777 the university of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
He built Stratford Place and Aldborough 
House in London, and in Ireland he founded 
the town of Stratford-upon-Slaney, besides 
greatly improving the borough ofBaltinglass. 
He voted in favour of the union with Eng- 
land in 1800, and received compensation for 
the disfranchisement of Baltinglass (Corn- 
wallis Correspondence, iii. 322). He died on 
2 Jan. 1801 at Belan in Wicklow, and was 
buried in the vault of St. Thomas's Church, 
Dublin. He was twice married. His first 
wife, Barbara, daughter of Nicholas Her- 
bert of Great Glemham, Suffolk, son of 
Thomas Herbert, eighth earl of Pembroke 
[q. v.], died on 11 April 1785, and on 
24 March 1788 he married Anne Elizabeth, 
only daughter of Sir John Henniker, bart. 
(afterwards Lord Henniker). She brought 
him a fortune of 50,000/., which enabled him 
to free his estates from encumbrances. After 
his death his widow married George Powell 
in December 1801, and died on 14 July 
1802. As Lord Aldborough died without chil- 
dren, his title and estates descended to his 
brother, John Stratford. Lord Aldborough 
was the author of ' An Essay on the True 
Interests of the Empire,' Dublin, 1783, 8vo. 

[Gent Mag. 1801, i. 90, 104; Ann. Reg. 1801, 
p. 63; Walker's Hibernian Magazine, 1801, p. 
155; G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage, i. 68; Lodge's 

Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall, iii. 338 ; 
Thomson's Hist, of theRoyal Society, App. p. Ivi ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886.] E. I. C. 

STRATFORD, JOHN DE (d. 1348), 
archbishop of Canterbury, was born at 
Stratford-on-Avon, where he and his brother 
Robert de Stratford [q. v.] held property. 
His parents were called Robert and Isabella. 
Ralph de Stratford [q. v.], bishop of London, 
was his kinsman, possibly his nephew 
(Anglia Sacra, i. 374). To the elder Robert 
de Stratford is attributed the foundation in 
1296 of the chapel of the guild at Stratford 
and of the almshouses in connection there- 
with. John de Stratford was educated at 
Merton College, Oxford. He graduated as 
doctor of civil and canon law before 1311, 
when he was a proctor for the university in 
a suit against the Dominicans at the Roman 
court. Afterwards he received some position 
in the royal service, perhaps as a clerk in the 
chancery, for in 1317 and subsequent years he 
was summoned to give advice in parliament 
(Parl. Writs, n. ii. 1471). He was also 
official of the bishop of Lincoln before 
20 Dec. 1317, when he received the prebend 
of Castor at Lincoln. He was likewise par- 
son of Stratford-on-Avon, which preferment 
he exchanged on 13 Sept. 1319 for the arch- 
deaconry of Lincoln. At York he held a 
canonry, and Edward II granted him the 
prebend of Bere and Charminster at Salis- 
bury, to which, however, he was never ad- 
mitted. Archbishop Walter Reynolds [q.v.] 
made him dean of the court of arches, and 
from December 1321 to April 1323 he was 
employed on the business of Scotland at the 
papal curia (Fcedera, ii. 462-515). His 
colleague, Reginald de Asser, bishop of Win- 
chester, died at Avignon on 12 April 1323, 
and, though the king directed him to use his 
influence on behalf of Robert Baldock, Strat- 
ford contrived to obtain a papal bull in his 
own favour, and he was consecrated bishop 
of Winchester by the cardinal bishop of 
Albano on 22 June ( Chron. Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 305 ; MFBIMUTH, p. 39 ; 
BIRCHINGTON, p. 19 ; Fcedera, ii. 518, 525, 
531-3). Edward II in wrath dismissed Strat- 
ford from his office, and on his return to 
England refused to recognise him as bishop 
and withheld the temporalities of his see till 
28 June 1324 (id. ii. 557). Even then he had 
to purchase favour by a bond for 10,000/. 
(Parl. Writs, IT. ii. 258) ; payment was, how- 
ever, not exacted, and Stratford was soon 
restored to favour. On 15 Nov. 1324, and 
again on 5 May 1325, Stratford was com- 
missioned to treat with France, and it was 
by his advice that Edward permitted Queen 
Isabella to go to the French court (Fcedera, 



ii. 575, 595, 597). On 6 Nov. 1325 he was 
appointed lieutenant of the treasurer for 
William de Melton [q. v.], and on 30 Sept, 
1326 joined with the archbishop of Canter- 
bury in publishing an old bull against in- 
vaders of the realm (Chron. Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 315). 

Stratford was willing to take the risk of j 
offering his mediation between the king and 
queen, but could get no one to support him 
(DENE, Hist. Roffensis, p.- 366). He then 
yielded to necessity, and on 15 Nov., as 
treasurer, swore at the Guildhall to observe 
the liberties of London (Chron. Edward I 
and Edward 21, i. 318). When parliament 
met in January 1327 Stratford acquiesced 
in the election of Edward III, preaching on 
the text, 'Cujus caput infirmum csetera 
membra dolent' (DENE, p. 367). He drew 
up the six articles giving the reasons for the 
king's deposition, and was one of the three 
bishops sent to obtain from the king his for- 
mal abdication (Chron. Lanercost,^. 257-8; 
BAKEE, pp. 27-8). 

Stratford was a member of the council for 
the young king's guidance, and on 22 Feb. 
was appointed to go on a mission to France 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, i. 16). But 
his own sympathies were constitutional, and 
he could not join cordially with the new 
government, by whom he was himself re- 
garded with suspicion. He withdrew with- 
out permission from the parliament of 
Salisbury in October 1328 (Fcedera, ii. 753), 
and at Christmas attended the conference of 
Henry of Lancaster and his friends at 
London (Chron. Edward I and Edward II, 
i. 343-4). Like others of Lancaster's sup- 
porters, Stratford incurred the enmity of 
Mortimer, and Birchington (Anglia Sacra, 
i. 19) relates that during the Salisbury par- 
liament Mortimer's supporters counselled 
that he should be put to death, and that the 
bishop owed his safety to a timely warning 
and had for a while to remain in hiding. 

Immediately after the overthrow of Mor- 
timer, Stratford was appointed chancellor 
on 30 Nov. 1330, and for the next ten years 
was the young king's principal adviser. In 
April 1331 he accompanied Edward abroad, 
both assuming the disguise of merchants to 
conceal the real purpose of the expedition. 
Stratford attended the parliament in Sep- 
tember, but in November again crossed over 
to the continent to treat with Philip of 
France concerning the proposed crusade, and 
to negotiate a marriage between the king's 
sister Eleanor and the Count of Gueldres 
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, ii. 188, 218, 
223, 250). He returned for the parliament 
in March 1332, but was soon afterwards again 

commissioned to treat with France (ib. ii. 273). 
In the autumn of 1333 the archbishopric ot 
Canterbury fell vacant, and, Stratford being 
favoured by king and pope, the prior and 
chapter postulated him on 3 Nov. The 
royal assent was given on 18 Nov., and on 

26 Nov. (BlECHINGTON, p. 19 ; MUEIMUTH, 

p. 70, says 1 Dec.) the pope, disregarding the 
postulation by the chapter, provided Strat- 
ford to the archbishopric. Stratford received 
the bull at Chertsey on 1 Feb. 1334, and on 
5 Feb. the temporalities were restored to him. 
In April he went abroad on the business of 
Ponthieu (Cal. Pat. Rolls, ii. 532, 534), and 
the pall was delivered to him by Bishop Heath 
of Rochester at Rue in Ponthieu on 23 April. 
He returned to England for the summer, and 
on 28 Sept. resigned the chancellorship. 
During September he held a convocation at 
St. Paul's, and on 9 Oct. he was enthroned 
at Canterbury. Almost immediately after- 
wards he crossed over to treat with Philip 
of France concerning- Aquitaine and the 
proposed crusade (ib. iii. 30). He returned 
to England in January 1335, and visited his 
diocese in February. Stratford was made 
chancellor for the second time on 6 June 
1335, and during almost the whole of the 
next two years was engaged with the king 
in the north of England and in Scotland 
(MUEIMFTH, pp. 75-6 ; cf. Litt. Cant. ii. 
76, 96-100, 140). He came 'south for the 
funeral of John of Eltham on 13 Jan. 1337. 
On 24 March he resigned the great seal. 
About the end of November the cardinals 
whom the pope had sent to negotiate peace 
between England and France arrived in 
England, and were received by the arch- 
bishop. Their mission proved fruitless, and 
on 16 July 1338 Stratford accompanied the 
king to Flanders. He remained abroad till 
September 1339, taking part in the negotia- 
tions with France (MTJEIMUTH, pp. 83, 85, 
90). On 28 April 1340 Stratford was for 
the third time made chancellor, but, when 
the king refused to accept his advice against 
the proposed naval expedition, he finally 
resigned the seal on 20 June (Fcedera, ii. 
1126; AVESBUEY, p. 311, where the king is 
said to have restored the archbishop to 

Up to this time Stratford had been fore- 
most among the king's advisers, and even 
now he was left as president of the council 
in Edward's absence. But there was a strong* 
party hostile to his influence. Stratford had 
perhaps opposed the French war, and this 
circumstance, combined with the king's ill- 
success, gave his enemies their opportunity. 
Under their advice, Edward returned from 
Flanders suddenly on 30 Nov. 1340, and on 



rthe following day removed Robert Stratford, 
<the archbishop's brother, from his office as 
chancellor, and had a number of prominent 
judges and merchants arrested. The arch- 
bishop himself was at Charing, and on 
receipt of the news took refuge with the 
monks of Christchurch at Canterbury. On 
2 Dec. the king summoned him to attend at 
court ; the archbishop excused himself from 
compliance, and made his defence in a series 
of sermons and letters. On 29 Dec. he 
.preached on the text 'In diebus suis non 
'timuit principem' (Ecclesiasticus, xlviii. 12), 
comparing himself to St. Thomas of Can- 
terbury, and denouncing all who broke the 
.great charter. On 1 Jan. 1341 he addressed 
a long letter of remonstrance to the king. 
On 28 Jan. he wrote to the new chancellor, 
begging him to stay execution of the collec- 
ftion of the clerical grant, and on the follow- 
ing day directed the bishops to forbid it. 
Edward and his advisers replied on 10 Feb. 
in a long letter of violent abuse, called a 
* libellus famosus ; ' Stratford had kept him 
without funds and so caused the failure^of the 
late expedition, and was responsible for all 
the rash policy of the last eight years. On 
18 Feb. William Kildesby, keeper of the 
privy seal, and certain Brabant merchants 
appeared at Canterbury, summoning Strat- 
ford to go to Flanders as security for the 
king's debts. Stratford replied in a sermon 
on Ash Wednesday and in a long letter to 
the king, in which he claimed to be tried 
before his peers. On 23 April parliament 
met. Stratford was ordered to appear in 
the court of exchequer and hear the charges 
against him. The king refused to meet the 
archbishop, and Stratford on his part insisted 
on taking his place in parliament. On 
27 April the chamberlain refused him ad- 
mission to the Painted Chamber, where the 
bishops were sitting, but Stratford, with a 
conscious imitation of Thomas Becket, forced 
his way in. On 1 May he offered to clear 
himself before parliament, and on 3 May a 
committee of lords was appointed to advise 
the king whether the peers were liable to be 
tried out of parliament. The committee 
reported adversely, and Edward, finding 
himself compelled to yield, consented on 
7 May to a formal reconciliation (see prin- 
cipally BlECHINGTON, pp. 22-41 ; HEMINa- 

BTJKGH, ii. 363-88). 

Though Stratford never resumed his old 
position in politics, his friendly relations 
with the king were after a time restored. 
In October 1341, while Stratford was hold- 
ing a provincial synod at St. Paul's, a more 
complete reconciliation was effected between 
him and the king (MFRIMTJTH, p. 122). He 

was the king's adviser in refusing to receive 
the two cardinals whom the pope sent to 
negotiate for peace in August 1342 (ib. p. 125), 
and in the parliament of April 1343 his 
full restoration to favour was marked by the 
annulment of the proceedings against him 
as contrary to reason and truth (Feeder a, ii. 

During the last years of his life Stratford, 
though occasionally consulted by the king, 
was occupied mainly with ecclesiastical 
affairs. In October 1343 he proposed to 
visit the diocese of Norwich, and, being 
resisted by the bishop and clergy, laid both 
bishop and prior under excommunication. 
Edward acted under Stratford's advice in 
his negotiations with the pope as to papal 
privileges in England during 1344 and 1345, 
and the legates who came to England in 
the latter year were long entertained by 
Stratford (MTJRIMTJTH, pp. 157-62, 176-7). 
Stratford was head of the council during the 
king's absence abroad in July 1345 and 
during the campaign of Crecy in 1346 
(Fceflem, iii. 50, 85). Perhaps his last 
public appearance of note was on 16 Aug. 
1346, when he read the convention of the 
French king for a Norman invasion of Eng- 
land at St. Paul's (MuEiMUTH, p. 211). In 
1348 he fell ill at Maidstone. Thence he 
was taken to Mayfield in Sussex, where he 
died on 23 Aug. He was buried in Can- 
terbury Cathedral near the high altar. His 
tomb bears a sculptured effigy (engraved in 
Longman's ' Edward III,' i. 179). 

Stratford is described as a man of great 
wisdom and a notable doctor of canon and 
civil law (BAKER, p. 55). He was rather 
a politician than an ecclesiastic, and Bir- 
chington speaks of him as being in the early 
years of his archiepiscopate too much ab- 
sorbed in worldly affairs (Anglia Sacra, i. 
20). But he was more than a capable ad- 
ministrator, and was ' somewhat of a states- 
man ' (STUBBS). He was * the most powerful 
adviser of the constitutional party' ($.), 
and his sympathies kept him from supporting 
Isabella and Mortimer, and governed his 
administration of affairs for the ten years 
that followed their fall. By his resistance 
to Edward III in 1341 he established the 
great principle that peers should only be 
tried before their own order in full parli a- 

Stratford spent much money on the parish 
church of his native town ; he widened the 
north aisle and built the south aisle, in 
which he established a chantry in honour 
of Thomas Becket. He endowed a college 
of priests in connection with the chantry, 
and purchased the advowson of the church 




for them (DUGDALE, Warwickshire, pp. 683-4, 
692 ; LEE, Straff ord-on- Avon, pp. 35-41 ; 
Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward III, ii. 79, 399). 
He was also a benefactor of the hospitals of 
St. Thomas the Martyr at Southwark and 
Eastbridge, Canterbury (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edward III, i. 366 ; Litter & Cantuarienses, 
pp. 251-3, 267). Of his writings, besides the 
letters written by him during the contro- 
versy of 1341, some constitutions published 
in 1342 and 1343 are printed in Wilkins's 
* Concilia,' ii. 696, 702. Many of his letters 
are printed in the ( Litterae Cantuarienses,' 
vol. ii. ; in one he rebukes prior Oxenden 
for his ' inutilis verbositas ' (ii. 155). A 
number of sermons by Stratford are con- 
tained in a fourteenth-century manuscript 
in Hereford Cathedral Library. Among 
them are included those which he delivered 
at Canterbury during his dispute with Ed- 
ward III in 1340-1. Some extracts were 
printed in the ( English Historical Review ' 
(viii. 85-91). 

[Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II, 
Chronica Murimuth et Avesbury, Blaneford's 
Chronicle, Litterse Cantuarienses (all these in 
Kolls Ser.); Hemingburgh's Chronicle (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.); Chron. Galfridi le Baker, ed. 
'Thompson ; Rolls of Parliament ; Rymer's 
Foedera; Calendars of Patent Rolls, Ed ward Til; 
Birchington's Vitae Archiepiscoporum Cantua- 
riensium and Dene's Historia Roffensis in Whar- 
ton's Anglia Sacra; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 
p. 696 ; Foss's Judges of England ; Hook's Lives 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury, iv. 1-79 ; 
Barnes's Hist, of Edward III ; Longman's Life 
and Times of Edward III ; Stubbs's Constitu- 
tional Hist.] C. L. K. 

1707), bishop of Chester, was born at Hemel 
Hempstead, Hertfordshire, and baptised there 
on 8 Sept. 1633, his father (of the same name) 
being variously described as a tailor and a shoe- 
maker. He matriculated at Oxford 29 July 
1651 as a commoner of Trinity College, of 
which he became a scholar on 17 June 1652. 
He graduated B.A. 25 Jan. 1653-4 and M.A. 
20 June 1656. He became a probationer- 
fellow of his college 4 June 1656, and a fellow 
20 June 1657. Having taken holy orders, 
he soon made a reputation as a preacher, 
and in August 1667, by the interest of John 
Dolben (1625-1686) [q. v.], bishop of Ro- 
chester, with whom he was connected by 
marriage, he was appointed by the king 
warden of the collegiate church of Man- 
chester, which was also the parish church of 
the town. Succeeding in this position the 
puritan Richard Heyrick [q. v.], Stratford 
had a difficult task to accomplish in restoring 
the former Anglican mode of worship. By 


his prudence and conciliatory conduct, how- 
ever, he achieved his object without losing 
the respect and affection of his chapter and 
parishioners. He proved in all respects an 
excellent warden, revising the statutes, vin- 
dicating the rights and increasing the revenue 
of his college, while by his influence and 
personal example he induced several rich 
parishioners to bequeath large benefactions 
to the poor of the town. While still re- 
taining his wardenship Stratford was made 
in 1670 a prebendary of Lincoln, in 1672 
rector of Llansantffraid-yn-Mechain, in 1673 
chaplain-in-ordinary to the king, and in 
1674 dean of St. Asaph. He also held the 
donative of Llanrwst. He had by this time 
taken his divinity degrees, graduating B.D. 
in 1664 and D.D. in 1673. 

Towards the close of Charles II's reign 
political and religious feeling ran high in 
Manchester. Though a high-churchman and 
a tory, Stratford was unable to support the 
policy of the court party, and this, together 
with his forbearing conduct towards the dis- 
senters, exposed him to fierce attack. Find- 
ing his position intolerable, he resigned his 
wardenship in 1684 and withdrew to Lon- 
don, where he had been nominated to the 
vicarage of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, by the 
parishioners. Here he remained till the Re- 
volution, when he was appointed to the 
vacant see of Chester. He was consecrated 
at Fulham on 15 Sept. 1689, and was allowed 
to hold the rich rectory of Wigan in com- 
mendam with his bishopric. 

Stratford was one of the prelates to whom 
was committed in 1689 the abortive scheme 
of revising the prayer-book. In 1700 he 
founded a hospital in Chester for the main- 
tenance, instruction, and apprenticeship of 
thirty-five poor boys. He was one of the 
first and most zealous supporters of the 
societies established in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century for the l reformation of 
manners.' He was appointed one of the 
governors of Queen Anne's bounty in the first 
charter, dated 3 Nov. 1704. As a bishop he 
merits high commendation. He was a con- 
stant resident in his diocese, which he ruled 
with gentle firmness ; he looked after the in- 
terests and well-being of his clergy ; he re- 
paired his cathedral ; and he acquitted him- 
self with zeal and learning in the Roman 

Stratford died at Westminster on 12 Feb. 
1707, and was buried at Chester on the 20th 
of the same month. By his wife, the daugh- 
ter of Dr. Stephen Luddington, archdeacon 
of Stow, he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters. His only surviving son, William, was 
archdeacon of Richmond ( 1 703-29) and canon 




of Christ Church, Oxford (1703-29), and, 
dying unmarried, 7 May 1729, bequeathed 
large estates to trustees for augmenting poor 
livings in the north and for other pious uses. 

There is a fine portrait of the bishop at 
Foxholes, which was engraved by Thomson 
for Hibbert- Ware's ' Foundations of Man- 
chester.' Another original portrait is at the 
episcopal palace at Chester. The bishop's 
printed works consist of a charge (1692), 
sermons, and tracts on points of the Roman 

[Raine's Rectors of Manchester and Wardens 
of the Collegiate Church (Chatham Soc.) ; 
Bridgeman's Church and Manor of Wigan ; Hib- 
bert- Ware's Foundations of Manchester; Ear- 
waker's Local Gleanings relating to Lancashire 
and Cheshire; Ormerod's Cheshire; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's Fasti ; infor- 
mation supplied by President of Trinity College, 
Oxford.] F. S. 

bishop of London, was probably the son of a 
sister of John de Stratford [q. v.], archbishop 
of Canterbury, and of Robert de Stratford 
[q. v.], bishop of Chichester (cf. Anglia Sacra, 
i. 374 ; but elsewhere he is called simply a 
1 kinsman ' of the archbishop, Annales Paulini, 
i. 360). His father's name was perhaps Hatton, 
for he is sometimes called Ralph Hatton de 
Stratford. He was perhaps educated, like 
his uncles, at Oxford, and had graduated as 
M.A. and B.C.L. (BLISS, Cal. Pap. Reg. ii. 
534). Under his uncles' influence he entered 
the royal service, and as one of the king's 
clerks received the prebend of Banbury, Lin- 
coln, on 2 April 1332 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edward III, ii. 275). On 15 Dec. 1333 he 
received the prebend of Erchesfont, Win- 
chester, which on 25 Sept. 1335 he exchanged 
for the prebend of Blibury at Salisbury 
(WHARTON). On 11 April 1336 he also re- 
ceived the treasurership of Salisbury (BLISS, 
Cal. Pap. Reg. ii. 534). Stratford held a 
canonry at St. Paul's previously to 26 Jan. 
1340, when he was elected bishop of London. 
The royal assent was given three days later, 
and he was consecrated by the archbishop at 
Canterbury on 12 March (LB NEVE, ii. 291). 
He was present in the parliament held in 
April 1341, when he supported John Strat- 
ford in his assertion of his rights, and on 
3 May was one of the twelve lords appointed 
to advise the king whether the peers were 
liable to be tried out of parliament (Anglia 
Sacra, i. 38-40 ; Rot. Parl. ii. 127). Strat- 
ford was one of the two candidates whom 
the king recommended to the pope for pro- 
motion to thecardinalate in 1350 (GEOFFREY 
LE BAKER, p. 112, ed. Thompson). 

Stratford died at Stepney on 7 April 1354. 

During the prevalence of the plague in 1348 
he purchased a piece of ground called No 
Man's Land for a cemetery, which was after- 
wards known as Pardon churchyard, and 
adjoined the ground purchased by Sir Walter 
Manny [q. v.] at the same time (ib. pp. 99 r 
270-1). He also joined with his uncles in 
their benefactions to their native town of 
Stratford-on-Avon, and built a residence for 
the priests of John Stratford's chantry. Ralph 
Stratford himself had a house in Bridge 
Street, Stratford (LEE, Stratford-on-Avon, 
pp. 34, 41). 

[Authorities quoted ; Wharton's De Episcopis 
Londonensibus, pp. 129-30; Murimuth's Chro- 
nicle, pp. 103, 122.] C. L. K. 

bishop of Chichester and chancellor, was 
son of Robert and Isabella de Stratford, and 
younger brother of John de Stratford [q. v.] r 
archbishop of Canterbury. He seems to 
have been educated at Oxford, perhaps at 
Merton College, like his brother. He held 
the living of Overbury in 1319, which he 
exchanged for the rectory of his native town, 
Stratford-on-Avon, on 27 Oct. of that year ; 
he resigned the rectory on 11 March 1333 
(DUGDALE, Warwickshire, p. 684). Stratford 
became a clerk in the royal service, and before 
1328 had obtained a canonry at Wells, besides 
the prebends of Wrottesley, in Tettenhall 
free chapel, and Middleton at Wherwell. To 
these he added the prebends of Aylesbury, 
Lincolnshire, on 11 Oct. 1328, Bere and 
Charminster, Salisbury, on 8 Dec. 1330, and 
Edynden, Romsey, on 18 Jan. 1331 (Cal. 
Pat. Rolls, Edward III, i. 28, ii. 23, 53, iii. 8 ; 
Cal. Papal Registers, ii. 283, 325). In April 
and November 1331 he was keeper of the 
great seal in his brother's absence, and on 
16 Oct. of that year was made chancellor 
of the exchequer. On 26 Jan. 1332 he was 
made a papal chaplain (ib. ii. 368). In 
June 1332 he was appointed his brother's 
lieutenant in the chancery, and in December 
was one of the commissioners to open parlia- 
ment at York. He again had charge of the 
seal in April 1334. On 12 June of that 
year he had reservation of the archdeaconry 
of Canterbury, and on 6 Aug. a reservation 
of the deanery of Wells, conditional on the 
cession of his archdeaconry (ib. ii. 401-2), 
which, however, he appears to have re- 
tained. In 1335 Stratford became chan- 
cellor of the university of Oxford, and it 
was chiefly through his firmness and pru- 
dence that the projected secession to Stam- 
ford was defeated. Afterwards he had 
leave of absence from the university, and at 
the special request of the masters retained his 




office till 1340 (MAXWELL-LYTE, Hist. Univ. 
Oxford, p. 170). He had resigned the chan- 
cellorship of the exchequer on 22 Oct. 1334, 
and when John de Stratford became chancel- 
lor for the second time in June 1335, Robert 
once more became his lieutenant. Probably 
he continued to act in this capacity till 
24 March 1337, when he was himself made 

In August 1337 Robert de Stratford was 
elected bishop of Chichester ; the royal as- 
sent was given on 24 Aug., the temporalities 
were restored on 21 Sept. (Gal. Pat. Rolls, 
Edward III, iii. 494, 520), and he was con- 
secrated by John Stratford at Canterbury on 
30 Nov. (STUBBS, Reg. Sacr. Angl. p. 54). 
On 6 July 1338 he was allowed to resign 
the chancellorship, but again accepted office 
on his brother's final resignation on 20 June 
1340. In September he accompanied the 
king to Flanders, and was with him for a 
time in the camp before Tournay. He came 
back to England before the king, and when 
Edward suddenly returned to England was 
one of the officials who were dismissed 
from office on 1 Dec. He escaped from 
threatened imprisonment out of regard to 
his position as a bishop, and does not seem 
to have been included in the proceedings 
against his brother. He was present in his 
place in parliament during the stormy 
sesssion in April-May 1341, when John 
de Stratford asserted his position (Anqlia 
Sacra, i. 20, 38-9). Robert de Stratford 
no doubt recovered the king's favour at the 
same time as his brother. In May 1343 he 
was sent on a mission to the pope (Fcedera, 
ii. 1223), and in July 1345 was one of the 
council during the king's absence (ib. iii. 
50). He died at Aldingbourne on 9 April 
1362 (Anglia Sacra, i. 45), and was buried 
in Chichester Cathedral. He was an honest 
if not brilliant administrator, like his 
brother, to whom no doubt he chiefly owed 
his advancement. He was a benefactor of 
his native town, where he procured a grant 
of a toll for paving the streets in 1332, which 
was renewed in 1335 and 1337. 

[Murimuth's Chron. (Rolls Ser.) ; Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra ; Rolls of Parliament ; Lee's 
Stratford-on-Avon, pp. 34-5 ; Foss's Judges of 
England ; authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 


(1791-1853), lieutenant R.X. and astrono- 
mer, born in 1791, entered the navy in Fe- 
bruary 1806 on board the Pompee, flagship 
first of Sir William Sidney Smith [q. v.] and 
afterwards of Vice-admiral Stanhope, and was 
in her at the defence of Claeta, the reduction 
of Capri, the passage of the Dardanelles, the 

destruction of a Turkish squadron off Point 
Pesquies, and later in the bombardment of 
Copenhagen. In March 1808 he was again 
with Smith in the Foudroyant. From 1809 
to 1815 he was serving in the North Sea, 
and on 14 March 1815 was promoted to be 
lieutenant. On the reduction consequent on 
the peace he was placed on half-pay and had 
no further service afloat. He devoted him- 
self to the study of astronomy, and on the 
foundation of the Astronomical Society in 
1820 was appointed its first secretary. On 
11 April 1827 he received the silver medal 
of the society for his co-operation with Fran- 
cis Baily [q. v.] in the compilation of a 
catalogue of 2,881 fixed stars, printed as an 
appendix to vol ii. of the 'Memoirs of the 
Royal Astronomical Society.' On 22 April 
1831 he was appointed superintendent of 
the ' Nautical Almanac,' and on 7 June 1832 
he was elected F.R.S. He died on 29 March 
1853. He was married and left issue. 

Besides various shorter papers read before, 
or published by, the Astronomical Society 
(Monthly Notices, ii. 167, xi. 222, &c.), he 
was the author of: 1. ' An Index to the 
Stars in the Catalogue of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society,' presented to the society 
on 13 May 183L 2. ' On the Elements of 
the Orbit of Halley's Comet at its appear- 
ance in the years 1835-6,' 1835, London, 8vo. 

3. 'Supplement to the Nautical Almanac of 

1837, containing the Meridian Ephemeris of 
the Sun and Planets,' 1836, London, 8vo. 

4. 'Ephemeris of Encke's Comet, 1838,' 

1838, London, 8vo. 5. ' Ephemeris of Encke's 
Comet, 1839,' 1838, London, 8vo. 6. ' Path 
of the Moon's Shadow over the Southern 
Part of France, the North of Italy, and Part 
of Germany, during the total Eclipse of the 
Sun on 7 July 1842 ' (R.A.S. Monthly No- 
tices, v. 173). 7. ' Ephemeris of Fay e's Comet ' 
(' Astr. Nachr.' xxxi. 1851). 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Bior. Diet. ; Gent. Mag. 
1853, i. 656 ; Royal Society's Cat. Scient. Papers; 
K. A. S. Monthly Notices, &c.] J. K. L. 



DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, first viscount, 1617?- 
1688 ; DRUMMOND, WILLIAM, fourth viscount, 

STRATHEARN, 1745-1790.] 

OF (fl. 1281-1315), was descended from a 
supposed Celtic family of whom Malise, earl 

D 2 



of Strathearn, was witness of the founda- 
tion of the priory of Scone in 1114, and 
another, or the same Malise, was present at 
the battle of the Standard on 22 Aug. 1138. 
Ferquard, son of Malise, was one of six 
nobles who in 1160 revolted against Mal- 
colm IV. Gilbert, the son of Ferquard, 
founded the monastery of Inchaffray in 1198. 
His son Robert, fourth earl, was a witness 
to the treaty between Alexander II and 
Henry III in 1237, and, dying in 1244, left 
a son Malise, fifth earl of " Strathearn, who 
in 1244 was named by Alexander II as party 
to an oath not to make war against Henry III 
(Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, i. 
No. 1654) ; on 30 Oct. 1250 he gave in his 
homage to Henry III (ib. No. 1792) ; on 
10 Aug. 1255 he was, with other nobles, re- 
ceived into the protection of Henry III 
against the enemies of the king of Scots, or 
gainsayers of the queen of Scots (ib. No. 198); 
and on 4 May 1259 received a protection 
'going beyond seas' (ib. No. 2156). This 
Malise, according to Fordun, died in 1271, 
and was buried in Dunblane. His first wife 
was Margery, daughter and heiress of Robert 
de Muscampis, who is mentioned as his wife 
30 Oct. 1250 (ib. No. 1792), although by 
some writers she is supposed to have been 
the wife of his grandson. By this wife he 
had, probably with several sons, two daugh- 
ters, Murielda (Muriel) and Mariora (Mar- 
gery or Maria), who became heirs of Isabella 
de Forde (ib. No. 1978). Another wife, 
Emma, is mentioned, 13 Oct. 1267. Fordun 
also states that the relict of Magnus, king 
of Man (d. 1269), who was daughter of 
Eugene of Argyll, married Malise, earl of 
Strathearn. This is abundantly corroborated 
by documentary references to Maria, queen 
of Man and countess of Strathearn, and 
the only question is whether she married 
the fifth earl or his son Malise. W. F. 
Skene argued that she was the wife of the 
sixth earl on the ground that, while this 
Malise did homage to Edward I at Stirling 
in 1291, twelve days later ' Maria regina de 
Man et comitissa de Stratherne ' did homage 
in presence of Earl Malise. But had they 
been husband and wife they would probably 
have done homage on the same day. They 
were doubtless son and stepmother. The 
latter, Maria, regina de Man, retained her 
title of countess, after she became, as she un- 
doubtedly did become, the wife of William 
Fitzwarren (Cal. Documents relating to Scot- 
land, ii. No. 1117). 

Malise, sixth earl of Strathearn, the son 
of the fifth earl, probably by his first wife, 
was one of the guarantors of the marriage 
treaty of Margaret of Scotland with Eric of 

Norway in 1281 ; was present at the parlia- 
ment of Scone on 5 Feb. 1284, when the 
Scots became bound in the event of the 
death of Alexander III to acknowledge 
Margaret, the ' maid of Norway/ as their 
sovereign ; and he also attended the parlia- 
ment of Brigham, 14 March 1290. On the 
supposition that he was married to that 
Maria, countess of Strathearn, who was also 
queen of Man, he must have died before 
February 1292, for mention is then made of 
a ' Maria comitissa de Stratherne, quae fuit 
uxor Hugonis de Abernethyn,' and the 
former Maria, countess of Strathearn, was 
still alive, but, as has already been seen, the 
former alternative is not necessary ; and the 
second Maria, not the first, was probably the 
wife of the sixth earl. Supposing the sixth 
earl then to have survived 1292, he was in 
that year one of the nominees on the part of 
John Baliol in the contest for the crown, 
and in November of the following year was 
present at Berwick, when the claim to the 
crown was decided in Baliol's favour. He 
attended Edward I into Gascony, 1 Sept. 
1294. As among the widows who were 
secured in their possessions to the king of 
England in 1296, mention is made of ' Maria 
quse fuit uxor Malisii comitis de Stratherne/ 
W. F. Skene again argues that this Malise 
died at least before 1296, but the argument 
of course holds good only on the supposition 
that he had married the first Maria. In the 
spring of 1296 Malise took part in an inva- 
sion of England. On 25 March he, how- 
ever, came to peace with the king at Stir- 
ling (Documents illustrative of the History 
of Scotland, ii. 28), and on 7 July gave him 
his oath of fidelity (ib. No. 66). On 4 March 
1303-4 he was commanded to see that the 
fords of the Forth and the neighbouring 
districts were guarded with horse and foot 
to prevent the enemy crossing south (Calen- 
dar of Documents relating to Scotland, ii. 
No. 1471), and on 1 Sept. 1305 he is 
mentioned as lieutenant or warden north 
of the Forth (ib. No. 1689) ; but after the 
slaughter of Comyn by Robert Bruce, he 
joined the Bruce's standard, and was taken 
prisoner by the English, probably in June 
1306. At all events, he was sent in No- 
vember a prisoner to Rochester, for a man- 
date of Edward on 10 Nov. 1306 commands 
the constable of Rochester Castle to imprison 
Malise of Strathearn in the keep there, but 
without iron chains, and to allow him to hear 
mass and to watch him at night (ib. No. 
1854). Shortly afterwards he presented a me- 
morial to the king, stating that he had been 
compelled to join Robert the Bruce through 
fear of his life (ib. No. 1862). In November 




1307 he was taken by the Earl of Pem- 
broke from Rochester to York Castle (ib. iii. 
No. 22), and in 1309 he was acquitted of 
male fame and discharged (ib. No. 118). 
In 1310-1 2 Earl Malise, his wife, Lady Agnes, 
and his son Malise were in the English pay 
(ib. Nos. 192, 208, 299), a fact inconsistent 
with the statement of Barbour that the 
father, while at the siege of Perth on the 
English side, was taken prisoner. This earl, 
as shown by W. F. Skene, who, however, 
holds him to have been the seventh earl, 
died some time before 1320. By his first 
wife, Maria, he had a daughter Matilda, 
married to Robert de Thony, the marriage 
settlement being dated 26 April 1293 (Docu- 
ments illustrative of the History of Scotland, 
i. No. 396). He had another daughter, 
Mary, married to Sir John Moray of Drum- 
sargad. Of his wife mentioned in the Eng- 
lish state papers as Lady Agnes nothing 
is known, but his last wife was Johanna, 
daughter of Sir John Monteith, afterwards 
married to John, earl of Atholl.' By her he 
had a daughter married to John de Warren, 
earl of Warren and Surrey. 

1320-1345), must have succeeded his father 
before 1320, for in that year Maria, his coun- 
tess, referred to in his father's lifetime as wife 
of Malise of Strathearn, was imprisoned for 
implication in a conspiracy against Robert 
the Bruce. He signed the letter to the pope 
in 1320 asserting the independence of Scot- 
land. Along with the Earls of Ross and 
Sutherland he commanded the third division 
of the Scots army at the battle of Halidon 
Hill, 19 July 1333, and is erroneously stated 
to have been slain there. In the following 
year he resigned the earldom of Strathearn 
to John de Warren, his brother-in-law, appa- 
rently by some arrangement with the king 
of England, and in 1345 he was forfeited and 
attainted for having done so. In a charter 
of 1334, in which he styles himself earl of 
the earldom of Strathearn, Caithness, and 
Orkney, he granted William, earl of Ross, 
the marriage of his daughter Isabel by Mar- 
jory his wife ; and the daughter was by the 
Earl of Ross married to William St. Clair, 
who obtained with her the earldom of Caith- 
ness. Mention is further made of another 
wife, either of this Malise, or his father, by 
Lady Egidia Cumyn, daughter of Alexander, 
second earl of Buchan. The earldom of 
Strathearn was bestowed by David II in 
1343 on Sir Maurice Moray of Drumsa- 
gard, nephew of Earl Malise ; and after his 
death at the battle of Durham on 17 Oct. 
1346, it passed into the possession of the 

[Documents illustrative of the History of 
Scotland, ed. Stevenson, vols. i. and ii. ; Calendar 
of Documents relating to Scotland, ed. Bain, 
vols. i.-iv. ; Chronicles of Fordun and Wyntoun; 
Barbour's Bruce ; the Earldom of Caithness, by 
W. F. Skene, in Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, xii. 571-6 ; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 557-8.] 

T. F. H. 

STRATHMORE, first EARL or. [See 
LYON, PATRICK, 1642-1695.] 

BOWES, MARY ELEANOR, 1749-1800.] 

HUGH HENRY, 1801-1885.] 

STRATTON, ADAM DE (fl. 1265-1290), 
clerk and chamberlain of the exchequer, is 
first mentioned as being in the service of 
Isabella de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, 
one of the two hereditary chamberlains of 
the exchequer. Hence it is probable that his 
name was derived from Stratton, Wiltshire, 
one of the manors held by the countess as 
pertaining to the chamberlainship. He had 
three brothers, Henry, Ralph, and William, 
for all of whom employment was found at 
the exchequer in connection with his own 
office of chamberlain. He was certainly 
a clerk, being styled ' dominus Adam 
clericus de Strattune/ and, if he indeed sur- 
vived till 1327, he may be the clerk of that 
name described as ' Magister Artium ' in a 
papal letter. Possibly he was educated at 
the monastery of Quarr in the Isle of Wight, 
founded by the family of his patroness. With 
this monastery he had close relations, having 
even been reckoned, though quite erroneously, 
as one of its abbots (Annales Mon. Rolls Ser. 
iv. 319, v. 333). 

Adam de Stratton's first appearance at the 
exchequer seems to have been made in the 
forty-sixth year of Henry III (1261-2), when 
he was retained in the king's service there by 
a special writ. It is probable that he owed 
his advancement to the Countess of Albe- 
marle, for whom he acted as attorney in the 
upper exchequer during the rest of the reign. 
At this time he was specially engaged as 
clerk of the works at the palace of West- 
minster, and in this connection his name 
frequently occurs in the rolls of chancery 
as the recipient of divers robes, and bucks 
and casks of wine, besides more substantial 
presents in the shape of debts and fines due 
to the crown, together with land and houses 
at Westminster attached to his office in the 

He had already acquired the interest of 
the Windsor family in the hereditary ser- 

St rat ton 


ieantry of weigher (ponderator) in the receipt 
of the exchequer, which he handed over to 
his brother William as his deputy. Another 
brother, Henry, was apparently keeping warm 
for him the lucrative office of deputy-cham- 
berlain, to which he was formally presented 
by the Countess of Albemarle in person in 
the first year of Edward I's reign (1272-3). 
"With the new king Adam de Stratton 
found such favour that he was not only re- 
tained and confirmed with larger powers in 
his office of the works at Westminster, but 
he was even allowed to obtain from his 
patroness a grant in perpetuity of the cham- 
berlainship of the exchequer, together with 
all the lands pertaining thereto. This was 
in 1276, and Stratton had now reached the 
turning-point of his career. So far all had 
prospered with him. From private deeds 
and bonds still preserved among the exchequer 
records, it appears that, thanks to official per- 
quisites and extortions and usurious con- 
tracts, he had become one of the richest men 
in England. Just as the crown connived at 
the malpractices of Jews and Lombards with 
the intent to squeeze their ill-gotten gains 
into the coffers of the state, so the unscrupu- 
lous official of the period enjoyed a certain 
protection as long as his wealth and abilities 
were of service to his employers. 

In 1279 Stratton was dismissed from his 
office of clerk of the works, and proclamation 
was made for all persons defrauded by him to 
appear and give evidence. He was also sus- 
pended in his offices at the exchequer, while 
he was at the same time convicted at the 
suit of the abbot and monastery of Quarrfor 
forgery and fraud in connection with their 
litigation with the Countess of Albemarle. 
In spite of this exposure, Adam de Stratton 
found the usual means to make his peace with 
the crown, and his exchequer offices were re- 
sumed by him in the same year. Ten years 
later a fresh scandal provoked a more search- 
ing inquiry, which resulted in his complete 
disgrace. On this occasion it was the monas- 
tery of Bermondsey that was victimised by 
his favourite device of tampering with the 
seals of deeds executed by his clients. At 
the same time he figured as the chief delin- 
quent in the famous state trials of 1290, 
which led to the disgrace of the two chief 
justices and several justices, barons, and 
other high officials. The charges brought 
against the accused, and particularly against 
Stratton, re veal an almost incredible audacity 
and callousness in their career of force and 
fraud. Stratton at least defended himself 
with courage, but he was convicted on a 
charge of sorcery, and his ruin was com- 
plete. It is said that the treasure which 

he had amassed, with his other property in 
lands and goods, exceeded the whole treasure 
of the crown, and he had besides valuable 
advowsons in almost every diocese. 

Even after this final disgrace Stratton 
was still secretly employed by the crown on 
confidential business, and it was whispered 
that he was engaged to tamper with the 
deeds executed by the Countess of Albe- 
marle on her deathbed, in order to obtain 
for the crown a grant of the Isle of Wight 
to the disinheritance of the countess's law- 
ful heirs. However this may be, after 1290 
Stratton is mentioned in public documents 
only as an attainted person whose estates 
were administered in the exchequer. His 
name does indeed occur as sheriff of Flint, 
a distant employment that might denote his 
continued disgrace. A beneficed clerk of his 
name is referred to in a papal letter of 1327, 
and there is some reason for supposing that 
he was still alive at this date. 

[The authorities for Adam de Stratton's life 
and times are set out in detail in the Red Book 
of the Exchequer (Rolls Series), pt. iii. pp. cccxv- 
cccxxx, including a ]arge number of references 
to contemporary records and chronicles. The few 
printed notices that have appeared are inaccu- 
rate.] H. H. 


(1830-1890), surgeon, son of David Stratton, 
a solicitor in practice at Perth, was born 
in the parish of Caputh, near Dunkeld, on 
2 July 1830. He was educated in his native 
town and afterwards at North Shields, where 
he was apprenticed about 1840 to Dr. Ing- 
ham. He was admitted a licentiate of the 
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 
1851, bachelor of medicine of the university 
of Aberdeen in 1852, and M.D. in 1855. At 
Aberdeen University he gained the medal or 
a first-class in every subject of study. 

In May 1852 he gained, by competitive 
examination, a nomination offered to the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen by the chairman of the 
East India Company. After holding various 
posts in the Indian medical service (Bombay) 
from 1852 onwards, he was appointed in 
December 1854 residency surgeon in Baroda, 
where he took an active part in founding 
the gaekwar's hospital and in vaccinating 
the native population. In May 1857 he was, 
in addition to the medical charge, appointed 
to act as assistant resident. He performed the 
duties with ability during the trying years 
of the mutiny, and received the thanks of 
the resident, Sir Eichmond Campbell Shake- 
spear [q. v.] On the latter's departure for 
England, Stratton acted as resident until the 
arrival of Col. (Sir) R. Wallace. In 1859 
he was selected to take political charge of 




Bundelkhand, a district embracing several 
minor states at that time disordered by bands 
of mutineers and rebels. His services were 
again acknowledged by the government, 
while the company marked its sense of their 
importance by a special grant of extra pay. 
He was appointed in 1862 commissioner and 
sessions judge for Bundelkhand and Baghel- 
khand, and he was promoted in June 1864 
from political assistant to be political agent ; 
while from May to July 1876 he was offi- 
ciating resident. On 4 March 1881 he was 
appointed officiating resident in Mewar. In 
July he was posted to the western states of 
Rajputana, and on 27 Jan. 1882 to Jeypur in 
the eastern states. He retired from the ser- 
vice under the fifty-five years age rule in 
1885 with the rank of brigade-surgeon. He 
died at 51 Nevern Square, South Kensing- 
ton, on 8 Aug. 1895, and is buried in Brook- 
wood cemetery. He married, 011 12 April 
1859, Georgina Anderson, by whom he had 
six children. 

Stratton did excellent service in his capa- 
city of political agent. He obtained from 
the native chiefs free remission of transit 
duties ; he personally laid out hill roads ; he 
established the Bundelkhand Raj kumar Col- 
lege for sons of chiefs, and instituted vac- 
cination in Central India. 

[Obituary notice in the Times, 16 Aug. 1895, 
p. 10, col. f. ; additional information kindly 
given by Mrs. Stratton, and by Deputy surgeon- 
general E. M. Sinclair, M.D.] D'A. P. 


(1812-1892), general. [See VAX STRATT- 


MAURICE (1807P-1887), miscellaneous 
writer, was born at Trois Rivieres in Lower 
Canada about 1807. Although a British 
subject, he asserts that he had ' a strange 
mixture of Italian, French, German, and 
Sarmatian blood' in his veins. In 1812 
his father removed to Europe, and about 
1816 settled at Linden, near Hanover. 
Gustave was educated at the Kloster- 
schule in Magdeburg, at the university of 
Berlin (where he took the degree of doctor 
of philosophy), and at the Montpellier 
school of medicine. In 1832 he visited 
Great Britain in the company of Legros, a 
wealthy Marseillais, who wished to inspect 
the industrial establishments of the country. 
He returned to Germany in 1833 to share 
in the liberal demonstrations against the 
government, and took part in the rising of 
the students at Frankfort-on-the-Maine on 
3 April. On its suppression he succeeded 
in escaping to France, but the Prussian 

government sequestrated his property, which 
was not returned to him until 1840. In 
1833 he went to Algiers as assistant surgeon 
to the French army. At first he was at- 
tached to the foreign legion, but in 1834 his 
connection with it was severed. After 
some years' service his health broke down, 
and he returned to France, only to be 
banished in 1839 for supposed complicity in 
a revolutionary plot. He then came to 
London, where he turned his hand to a 
variety of callings, including those of author, 
linguist, chemist, politician, cook, journalist, 
tutor, dramatist, and surgeon. He was well 
known in London as ' the Old Bohemian/ 
and was one of the founders of the Savage 
Club in 1857. 

In 1865 he published ' The Old Ledger : a 
Novel,' which was described by the ' Athe- 
neeum ' as ' vulgar, profane, and indelicate.' 
In consequence he brought an action against 
that journal at the Kingston assizes, which 
was settled by mutual consent. The 'Athe- 
naeum,' however, justified the original criti- 
cism on 7 April 1866, and Strauss brought 
a second action. In this his plea for free 
literary expression was met by a demand for 
equal latitude in criticism. The defendants' 
contention was supported by Lord-chief- 
justice Cockburn, and the jury returned a 
verdict in their favour. 

In later life his circumstances became 
straitened, and through Mr. Gladstone's in- 
tervention he received a bounty from the 
civil list. In 1879 he was admitted into 
the Charterhouse, but after a short residence 
he applied for an outdoor pension, which 
Avas granted by the governors. Strauss 
died unmarried, on 2 Sept. 1887, at Ted- 

Besides the novel mentioned and several 
unimportant translations, Strauss was the 
author of: 1. ' The German Reader,' London, 
1852, 12mo. 2. ' A German Grammar,' 
London, 1852, 12mo. 3. 'A French Gram- 
mar,' London, 1853, 12mo. 4. ' Moslem and 
Frank,' London, 1854, 12mo. 5. ' Maho- 
metism : an Historical Sketch,' 2nd edit. 
London, 1857, 12mo. 6. 'Men who have 
made the new German Empire,' London, 
1875, Svo. 7. ' Reminiscences of an Old 
Bohemian,' London, 1882, Svo. 8. ' Stories 
by an Old Bohemian,' London, 1883, Svo. 
9. 'Philosophy in the Kitchen,' London, 
1885, Svo. 10. ' Dishes and Drinks,' London, 

1887, Svo. 11. 'Emperor William: the 
Life of a great King and good Man,' London, 

1888, Svo. 

[Strauss's Works ; Athenaeum, 17 Sept. 1887; 
Times, 14 Sept. 1887; Sala's Life and Adven- 
tures, 1896, pp. 123-4, 223, 227.] E. I. C. 




divine, born in Devonshire about 1600, 
' became either a batler or a sojourner of 
Exeter College ' in the beginning of 1617. 
He matriculated on 8 May 1621, graduated 
B.A. on 31 Jan. 1621-2, and proceeded 
M.A. on 10 June 1624. He took holy 
orders and became rector of St. Edmund- 
on-the-Bridge, Exeter, in 1630, and in 1632 
rector of South Pool, Devonshire. After 
1641 he inclined to presbyterianism and, 
according to Wood, preached bitterly against 
Charles and his followers, styling them 
' bloody papists.' After the Eestoration he 
appears to have modified his opinions, for 
lie contrived to keep his rectory until his 
death at South Pool in 1666. He was 
buried in the church. The neighbouring 
ministers, says Wood, agreed ' that he was 
as infinite a rogue and as great a sinner 
that could be, and that 'twas pity that he 
did escape punishment in this life.' 

He was the author of ' The Dividing of 
the Hooff : or Seeming-Contradictions 
throughout Sacred Scriptures, Distinguish'd, 
Resolv'd, and Apply'd. Helpfull to every 
Household of Faith. By William Streat, 
Master of Arts, Preacher of the Word, in 
the County of Devon,' London, 1654, 4to. 
This work is prefaced by a dedication to 
God {Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 266), 
and an epistle to God's people, signed ' W. S.' 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, Hi. 728; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714.] E. I. C. 

(fl. 1650-1670), soldier and pamphleteer, was 
from 1650 to 1653 quartermaster-general of 
the foot in the army of the Commonwealth in 
Ireland, and was also employed as engineer 
in sieges and fortifications. In April 1653 
he came over to England on leave just 
before Cromwell dissolved the Long parlia- 
ment, and, disapproving of that act, circulated 
among the officers a pamphlet of his own 
consisting of ' Ten Queries ' respecting the 
consequences of the change. For this he 
was arrested, tried by court-martial, and 
cashiered. Six weeks later he was again 
arrested for publishing a book called ' The 
Grand Politic Informer,' showing the danger 
of trusting the military forces of the nation 
to the control of a single person. The 
council of state committed him to the Gate- 
house (11 Sept. 1653), and the Little parlia- 
ment also made an order for his confinement 
(21 Nov. 1653). Streater obtained a writ 
of habeas corpus, and his case was heard on 
23 Nov. 1653; he pleaded his cause ex- 
tremely well, but was remanded to prison 
again. At last, on 11 Feb. 1654, Chief- 

justice Rolle and Judge Aske ordered his 
discharge (Clavis ad Aperiendum Carceris 
Ostia, or the High Point of the Writ of Habeas 
Corpus discussed, by T. V., 1653, 4to ; Secret 
Reasons of State discovered . . . in John 
Streater's case, fyc. 1659 ; Commons 1 Journals, 
vii. 353). After Streater's discharge the 
Protector made various attempts to arrest 
him, but Major-general Desborough stood 
his friend, and on engaging not to write any 
more against the government (18 Oct. 1654) 
he was allowed to keep his freedom (Raw- 
linson MSS. A xix. 309 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1654). 

Streater now seems to have gone into 
business as a printer (ib. 1655-6 p. 289 r 
1656-7 p. 159, 1659-60 p. 596; Commons' 
Journals, vii. 878). In 1659, as a soldier 
who had suffered for the republic, he was- 
once more employed. On 30 July the 
council of state voted him the command of. 
the artillery train (ib. vii. 714 ; Cal. State- 
Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 52). In October, 
when Lambert interrupted the sittings of 
the Long parliament, Streater was again one- 
of the officers who took the side of the- 
parliament, and signed an expostulatory 
letter to Fleetwood (THTJRLOE, vii. 771). 
After the restoration of the parliament he- 
was given the command of the regiment of 
foot late Colonel Hewson's (13 Jan. 1660), 
was recommissioned by Monck, and was 
stationed by him at Coventry (Commons r 
Journals, vii. 810). To the situation of his 
regiment and to Monck's confidence in his 
fidelity Streater owed the very prominent 
part which he played in the suppression of 
Lambert's attempted rising 1 (BAKER, Chro- 
nicle, ed. 1670, pp. 702, 720). But in July 
1660 the command of the regiment was 
given to Lord Bellasis, though Streater was 
continued as major until its disbanding in 
the autumn (Clarke MSS.} 

Streater was arrested on suspicion about 
November 1661, but immediately discharged. 
About the same time he petitioned for 528/. 
due to him ( for printing several things 
tending to the king's service at the Restora- 
tion' (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, 
pp. 137, 151). In March 1663 he was again 
arrested, but released on signing an engage- 
ment to print nothing seditious and to 
inform against any one who did (ib. 1663-4, 
pp. 82, 86, cf. 1665-6, p. 409). Nevertheless 
he was again in trouble in 1670 for writing 
a seditious libel called * The Character oi 
a true and a false Shepherd' (ib. 1670, p. 
332). Streater during the Dutch war made 
experiments in artillery, inventing a new 
kind of ' fire-shot ' or granado (ib. 1667-8 r 
p. 135 ; Raidinson MS. A cxcv. 114). 



Streater wrote, besides the ' Ten -Queries ' 
published in 1653: 1. < The Grand Politic 
Informer/ 1653. 2. 'A Glimpse of that 
Jewel precious, just, preserving Liberty,' 
1654, 4to. 3. l Observations upon Aristotle's 
Politics/ 1654. 4. Secret Reasons of State 
discovered/ 1659, and probably, 5. 'The 
Continuation of the Session of Parliament 
justified, and the action of this army touching 
that affair defended/ by J. S., ] 659. 

[Authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

STREATER, ROBERT (1624-1680), 
painter, born in Covent Garden, London, in 
1624, is said to have been the son of a 
painter, and to have received his instruc- 
tion in painting and drawing from an artist 
called Du Moulin. He was very indus- 
trious, and attained considerable ability in 
.his art, which was highly extolled by his 
contemporaries. His style was founded on 
that of the late Italian painters. He ex- 
celled in architectural and decorative paint- 
ings on a large scale, especially those in 
which perspective and a knowledge of fore- 
shortening were required. He painted land- 
scapes, especially topographical, with skill, 
and also still life. A view of 'Boscobel 
with the Royal Oak' is in the royal collec- 
tion at Windsor Castle. Sanderson, in his 
'Graphice' (1658), speaks of 'Streter, who 
indeed is a compleat Master therein, as 
also in other Arts of Etching, Graving, 
and his works of Architecture and Perspec- 
tive, not a line but is true to the Rules 
of Art and Symmetry.' In 1664 both Pepys 
and Evelyn mention, and the latter de- 
scribes, ; Mr. Povey's elegant house in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields [see POVEY, THOMAS], where 
the perspective in his court, painted by 
Streeter, is indeede excellent, with the vasas 
in imitation of porphyrie and fountains.' 
Pepys, in 1669, writes that he ' went to Mr. 
Streater, the famous history-painter, where 
I found Dr. Wren and other virtuosos look- 
ing upon the paintings he is making of the 
new theatre at Oxford/ and describes Streater 
as ' a very civil little man and lame, but lives 
very handsomely.' Evelyn, in 1672, notes 
at Sir Robert Clayton's house * the cedar 
dining-room painted with the history of the 
Gyants War, incomparably done by Mr. 
Streeter, but the figures are too near the eye' 
(the paintings were afterwards removed to 
Marden, near Godstone) ; and again in 1679 
some of Streater's best paintings at Mr. 
Boone's (or Bohun's) house, Lee Place, Black- 
heath (pulled down in 1825). Streater's 
paintings in the roof of the Sheldonian 
Theatre at Oxford were eulogised by Robert 

Whitehall [q. v.] in a poem called ' Urania,^ 
in which it is said 

That future ages must confess they owe 
To Streater more than Michael Angelo ! 

Streater also painted part of the chapel at 
All Souls', Oxford, ceilings at Whitehall, and 
St. Michael's, Cornhill. Little of his deco- 
rative work remains, except in the theatre 
at Oxford. Besides landscape, history, and 
still life, Streater also painted portraits. He 
etched a view of the battle of Naseby, and 
designed some of the plates for Stapleton's 
' Juvenal.' Seven pictures by him, including 
five landscapes, are mentioned in the cata- 
logue of James II's collection. Streater was 
a special favourite with Charles II, who made 
him serjeant-painter on his restoration to the 
throne. When Streater in his later years 
was suffering from the stone, Charles II sent 
for a special surgeon from Paris to perform 
the necessary operation. Streater, however,, 
died not long after, in 1680. He was suc- 
ceeded as serjeant-painter by his son, at whose 
death, in 1711, Streater's books, prints, draw- 
ings, and pictures were sold by auction. He 
had a brother, Thomas Streater, who mar- 
ried a daughter of Remigius Van Leemput 
[q. v.], herself an artist. A portrait of Streater 
by himself was engraved for Walpole's 
'Anecdotes of Painting.' Streater was the 
first native artist to practise his line of art. 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. Worrmm ; 
.Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Seguier's Diet, of 
Painters ; De Piles's Lives of the Painters ; 
Plot's Hist, of Oxfordshire (for a description of" 
the Sheldonian Theatre) ; Diaries of Evelyn and 
Pepys, passim ] L. C. 

1848), topographer, genealogist, and artist, 
born in 1777, was the eldest son of Sande- 
forth Streatfeild, of London and Wands- 
worth, first a partner in the house of Bran- 
dram & Co., and then in that of Sir Samuel 
Fludyer & Co. His mother was Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Hussey, of Ashford, 
Kent. He matriculated from Oriel College,. 
Oxford, on 19 May 1795, and graduated B.A. 
in 1799 (FoBTBK, Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, 
iv. 1365). In early life he was curate at 
Long Ditton to the Rev. William Pennicott 
(d. 1811), whose funeral sermon he preached 
and afterwards published. At that time he 
was also chaplain to the Duke of Kent. He 
was subsequently for some years curate of 
Tatsfield, Surrey. There he continued to 
officiate till, in 1842, ill-health compelled him 
to relinquish the duty. In 1822 he went to 
reside at Chart's Edge, Westerham, Kent, not 
far from Tatsfield, on an estate of forty 



acres, where he built a house from his own 
designs. In 1823 he published ' The Bridal 
of Armagnac,' a tragedy in five acts and in 
verse; and he composed other tragedies 
which still remain in manuscript. He had 
been elected a fellow of the Society of Aiiti- 
tiquaries on 4 June 1812, and for many years 
he was employed in forming collections, 
chiefly genealogical and biographical, in 
illustration of the history of Kent. On 
drawings and engravings for this projected 
work he is supposed to have expended nearly 
3,000/., having several artists in his constant 
employment, while the armorial drawings 
were made on the wood blocks by himself. 
Many copper-plates of portraits and monu- 
mental sculpture were also prepared, but 
during Streatfeild's lifetime the public de- 
rived no further benefit from the undertaking 
than the gratuitous circulation of ' Excerpta 
Cantiana, being the Prospectus of a History 
of Kent, preparing for publication ' [London, 
1836], fol. pp. 24. Subsequently he brought 
out ' Lympsfield and its Environs, and the 
Old Oak Chair,' Westerham, 1839, 8vo, 
being a series of views of interesting objects 
in the vicinity of a Kentish village, accom- 
panied with brie,f descriptions. He died at 
Chart's Edge, Westerham, on 17 May 1848, 
and was buried at Chiddingstone. 

His first wife, with whom he acquired a 
considerable fortune (8 Oct. 1800), was Har- 
riet, daughter and coheiress of Alexander 
Champion, of Wandsworth ; his second, to 
whom he was married in 1823, was Clare, 
widow of Henry Woodgate, of Spring Grove, 
and daughter of the Rev. Thomas Harvey, 
rector of Cowden. He left several chil- 

His extensive manuscript materials for a 
history of Kent were left at the disposal of 
Lambert Blackwell Larking [q. v.] They in- 
cluded a large number of exquisitely beauti- 
ful drawings, which show that he was not 
merely a faithful copyist, but a masterly 
artist. Some specimens of his wood-engrav- 
ing are given in the 'Archaeologia Cantiana,' 
vol. iii. The first instalment of the pro] ected 
county history has been published under the 
title of ' Hasted's History of Kent, cor- 
rected, enlarged, and continued to the pre- 
sent time, from the manuscripts of the late 
Rev. T. Streatfeild, and the late Rev. L. B. 
Larking . . . Edited by Henry H. Drake 
. . . Part I. The Hundred of Blackheath,' 
London, 1886, fol. An excellent portrait of 
Streatfeild was painted by Herbert Smith, 
and an engraving is prefixed to the volume 
just mentioned. 

Streatfeild's collections for the history of 
Kent, forming fifty-two volumes, are now 

in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 33878- 

[Memoir by J. B. Larking in Archseologia 
Cantiana, iii. 137, also printed separately, Lon- 
lon, 1860; Register, i. 122, 123; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 380 ; Gent. Mag. 1836 ii. 
57, 1838 ii. 70, 1848 ii. 99; Introd. to new 
edit, of Hasted's Kent.] T. C. 

1881), architect, born at AVoodford, Essex, 
on 20 June 1824, was the third son of Thomas 
Street, solicitor, by his second wife, Mary 
Anne Millington. The father, Thomas Street, 
whose business was in Philpot Lane, was 
the descendant of a Worcestershire family to 
which belonged also the judge, Sir Thomas 
Street [q. v.] About 1830, when his father 
moved to Camberwell, George was sent to a 
school at Mitcham, and subsequently to the 
Camberwell collegiate school, which he left 
in 1839. In 1840 Street was placed in the 
office in Philpot Lane, but the employment 
was uncongenial, and his father's death, after 
a few months, released him from it. For 
a short period he lived with his mother and 
sister at Exeter, where probably he first 
turned his thoughts to architecture, led by 
the example of his elder brother Thomas, an 
ardent sketcher. Street improved his drawing 
by taking lessons in perspective from Thomas 
Haseler, a painter, who was a connection by 
marriage. In 1841 his mother, through the 
influence of Haseler, secured for her son the 
position of pupil with Owen Browne Carter 
an architect of Winchester. He made 

Q . V. j 11.1. dl (JU-ltClJU Ul T T ULLUliCOLJCl- -t-LC 1X-ICLU.O 

use of his local opportunities to such purpose 
that in 1844 he was an enthusiastic and even 
accomplished ecclesiologist, and was readily 
accepted as an assistant in the office of Scott 
Here he worked for five years, and spent his 
leisure inecclesiological excursions in various 
parts of England, often accompanied by his 
elder brother. He was a valuable coadjutor 
to Scott, who apparently gave him the oppor- 
tunity of starting an independent practice 
even while he nominally remained an assist- 
ant. A chance acquaintance obtained for 
Street his first commission the designing of 
Biscovey church, Cornwall. Before 1849, 
when he first took an office on his own 
account, he had been engaged on about 
a score of buildings, the most important 
being a new church at Bracknell ; another, 
with parsonage and schools, at Treverbyn, 
and the restoration of St. Peter's, Plymouth, 
and of the churches of She viocke, Lostwithiel, 
Sticker, St. Mewan, Gilbert, St. Austell, 
East and West Looe, Little Petherick, Pro- 
bus, Lanreath, Enfield, Heston, Hawes, 




Sundridge, and Hadleigh. During the re- 
storation of Sundridge lie made the acquain- 
tance of Benjamin Webb [q. v.], secretary 
of the Ecclesiological Society, who was then 
curate of the adjoining parish of Brasted. 

Webb recommended Street to William 
Butler (afterwards dean of Lincoln), who 
employed him on the vicarage and other 
works at Wantage, and introduced him to 
Samuel Wilberforce [q. v.], bishop of Oxford, 
who appointed him honorary diocesan archi- 
tect. In 1850 he took up his residence at 
Wantage, making Oxfordshire the centre 
of his architectural activity. During two 
foreign tours in 1850 and 1851 he studied 
the greater churches of France and Ger- 
many. Acting 011 the advice of his friend, 
John William Parker [q. v.], he settled in 
May 1852 in Beaumont Street, Oxford, and 
shortly afterwards took two pupils, Edmund 
Sedding and Philip Webb, his first regular 
assistants. In 1853 Street's practice was 
augmented by the inception of two impor- 
tant works the theological college at Cud- 
desdon, and the buildings of the East Grin- 
stead Sisterhood, an institution with the foun- 
dation of which Street showed such prac- 
tical sympathy as to refuse remuneration. 
The commission to design the important and 
beautiful church of St. Peter at Bourne- 
mouth, completed some twenty years later, 
belongs to the same year. In 1853 also he 
visited Northern Italy, and obtained mate- 
rial for l Brick and Marble Architecture' 
(published 1855), his first important publi- 
cation. In 1854 he followed up his studies 
of continental brick architecture by a tour 
in North Germany, which bore fruit in more 
than one paper on the churches of the dis- 
trict communicated to the ' Ecclesiologist ' 
(1855). In all these tours, as indeed in all 
his leisure moments, he was occupied in the 
masterly sketches which, though only means 
to his ends, were in themselves enough to 
make a reputation. 

In 1855 Street secured a house and office 
in London at 33 Montague Place, Russell 
Square, from which he removed to 51 Russell 
Square, and subsequently in 1870 to 14 Caven- 
dish Place. 

In 1855, in an open competition for a cathe- 
dral at Lille in the French Gothic style, 
Street's design was placed second to that of | 
Glutton and Burges. To the last-named ; 
architect Street was shortly afterwards again 
placed second in a competition (among forty- 
six rivals) for the Crimean memorial church 
at Constantinople. In 1857 the sultan gave 
a site to which Burges's design could not be 
adapted, and the commission was transferred 
to Street. The church, which was designed 

with special reference to the requirements 
of oriental climate, was begun in 1864 and 
completed in 1869. 

Meanwhile it was recognised that Street 
stood side by side with his former master, 
Scott, as one of the great champions of 
Gothic architecture, and it was natural that 
he should engage on the Gothic side as one of 
the competitors in the competition for the new 
government offices in 1856. He was one of 
the seventeen out of 219 competitors to whom 
premiums were awarded, and it was gene- 
rally considered that he divided with Scott 
and Woodward the credit of sending in the 
best of the Gothic designs. Other important 
works on which he was engaged at this date 
were the new nave of Bristol Cathedral ; the 
church and schools of St. James the Less, 
Westminster; St. Mary Magdalene, Pad- 
dington; All Saints, Clifton; St. John's, 
Torquay ; schoolrooms and chapel at Upping- 
ham ; Longmead House, Bishopstoke : and 
the restoration of Hedon church, Yorkshire. 
These were followed shortly afterwards by St. 
Saviour's, Eastbourne ; St. Margaret's, Liver- 
pool; a church for Lord Sudeley at Todding- 
ton ; Dun Echt House (with chapel) for Lord 
Crawford ; and a number of school and church 
buildings for Sir Tatton Sykes. 

In spite of great pressure of work, Street 
made three tours in Spain in 1861-2-3, col- 
lecting materials for his book entitled ' Gothic 
Architecture in Spain,' which appeared in 
1865, all the illustrations being drawn 011 the 
wood by himself. In 1866 he was elected 
an associate of the Royal Academy, and he 
became a full member in 1871. 

In 1866 Street was invited by the govern- 
ment to compete for the designs both of the 
National Gallery and the law courts. For the 
National Gallery competition, which ended 
abortively in the appointment of Edward Mid- 
dleton Barry [q. v.] to rearrange the existing 
building, Street prepared himself by a tour 
of the galleries of Mid-Europe, and produced 
a design of dignified simplicity and conve- 
nience a long arcaded front with a con- 
tinuous roof broken only by a central dome 
and by the projecting entrance. 

Street's successful competition for the law 
courts in the Strand marks the culmination 
of his career, though as the invitation was 
issued in 1866, and the work was still un- 
finished when Street died in 1881, the under- 
taking was coincident with much other prac- 
tice. Originally five architects were invited 
as well as Street, viz. (Sir) G. G. Scott and 
Messrs. T. H. Wyatt, Alfred Waterhouse, Ed- 
ward M. Barry, and P. C. Hardwick, junior. 
Wyatt and Hardwick afterwards retired. 
The number of competitors was subsequently 




raised to twelve, and in January 1867 designs 
were finally sent in by eleven architects. The 
judges recommended Street for the external 
and Barry for the internal arrangements, 
while a special committee of the legal pro- 
fession inclined to the designs of Mr. Water- 
house. Controversy raged for a year, but at 
last, in June 1868, Street was nominated 
sole architect. The inevitable vexations of 
so large an undertaking were greatly increased 
from the start by the policy of parsimony 
pursued by A. S. Ay^rton, the first commis- 
sioner of works, which went the length of 
cutting down the architect's remuneration. 
Street met these false economies with the 
generosity of a true artist. Each of the 
courts was worked out on a separate design. 
Three thousand drawings were prepared by 
his own hand, and so loyally did he obey 
his instructions as to expense that when 
the east wing was completed the accounts 
showed an expenditure of 2,000/. less than 
the authorised amount. The completed work 
evoked adverse criticism from many points 
of view, but it enhanced Street's reputation 
in the public eye. 

It was, however, as an ecclesiastical archi- 
tect that he won his highest artistic successes. 
Street was diocesan architect to York, Win- 
chester, and Kipon, as well as to Oxford. 
During the progress of the work at the law 
courts, which was interrupted by many for- 
midable strikes and by the contractor's finan- 
cial dime alt ies, Street was employed in re- 
storing many cathedrals. His work at Bristol, 
which consisted mainly of the rebuilding of 
the nave, showed a power of combining origi- 
nality with archaeology, and was marked at 
its close by an acrid controversy over the 
statues placed in the north porch, resulting 
eventually in the banishment of the figures. 
In 1871 Street was engaged in restoration 
at York Minster, and about the same time 
at Salisbury and Carlisle, at Christchurch 
Dublin, and St. Brigid's, Kildare. At Car- 
lisle his most important undertaking in con- 
nection with the cathedral was the rehabili- 
tation of the fratry, a building of the fifteenth 
century much concealed by later accretions. 
The removal of these accretions met with 
warm reprobation from certain archaeologists, 
and Street defended his action in a reply to 
the Society for the Protection of Antient 
Buildings (Building News, 27 Feb. 1880). 

In 1874 he received the gold medal of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. Next 
year he took part by writing letters to news- 
papers, and subsequently as a witness before 
the House of Lords, in the agitation which 
saved London Bridge from a hideous iron 
addition ; and in 1876 he was consulted on 

the rehabilitation of Southwell Minster for 
purposes of modern worship. In 1879, when 
fears were aroused that St. Mark's at Venice 
was suffering from injudicious restoration r 
Street was the first to express, if not to con- 
ceive, the idea that the undulations of the 
pavement, which the restorers threatened to 
level, were due to design. 

In 1878, in recognition of his drawings- 
sent to the Paris Exhibition, Street received 
the knighthood of the Legion of Honour. 
Another foreign distinction which he received, 
was the membership of the Royal Academy 
of Vienna. His appointment as professor of 
architecture at the Royal Academy (where 
he also held the office of treasurer) and his 
election to the presidency of the Royal In- 
stitute of British Architects both took place 
in 1881, the last year of his life. His ener- 
getic though short presidency of the insti- 
tute was a turning point in its history. 
His wish that the council of that body 
should come to be regarded as an arbiter 
in architectural matters of national and me- 
tropolitan importance has since his death 
been partly realised. 

In 1873 he built himself a house on a site 
he had purchased at Holmbury, Surrey, and 
a few years later he took a leading part in 
the formation of the parish of Holmbury St. 
Mary. He built the church at his own ex- 
pense. In 1881 his health, which was im- 
paired by the great responsibilities of his 
work for the government, showed signs of 
failure. Visits to foreign watering places 
proved of no a\*ail, and he died in London, 
after two strokes of paralysis, on 18 Dec. 
1881. He was honoured on 29 Dec. with a 
public funeral in Westminster Abbey. He 
married, first, on 17 June 1852, Mariquita, 
second daughter of Robert Proctor, and niece 
of Robert Proctor, vicar of Hadleigh, whose- 
church he restored. She died in 1874, and 
was buried at Boyne Hill, near Maidenhead, 
a church designed by Street himself and 
decorated by his own hand with copies of 
Overbeck's designs. He married, secondly, 
on 11 Jan. 1876, Jessie, second daughter of" 
William Holland of Harley Street ; she died 
in the same year. 

The works left incomplete on his death 
were in most cases completed by his only 
son, Mr. Arthur Edmund Street, with whom 
(Sir) Arthur W.Blomfield, A.R. A., was asso- 
ciated in the task of bringing the courts of 
justice to completion. 

The principal memorial to his honour is 
the full-length sculpture by H. H. Armstead, 
R.A., in the central hall of the courts. The 
same artist executed a bust which is pre- 
served in the rooms of the Royal Institute- 




of British Architects. Two photographic 
portraits are given in the memoir by his son. 
He was strongly built, and his capacity for 
work was inexhaustible. Throughout life he 
took an active interest in the affairs of the 
chief high-church organisations, and was 
devoted to classical music. He lived in per- 
sonal contact and sympathy with the pre- 
Raphaelite and kindred artists. TheRossettis, 
W. Holman Hunt, George P. Boyce, Ford 
Madox-Brown, William Morris (at one time 
Street's pupil), W. Bell Scott, and (Sir) E. 
Burne-Jones were among his friends, and 
even in his early years he began, as his means 
^allowed, to purchase examples of the works 
of the school. 

Though never exhibiting any animosity 
towards the practice of classic architecture, 
Street had always looked upon Gothic work 
.as his mission, and was consistently true to 
the style of his choice. In his earlier career 
he had leanings towards an Italian type of 
the style, and the special study which bore 
literary fruit in his ' Brick and Marble 
Architecture' was turned to practical ac- 
count in the church of St. James the Less, 
Westminster. His later and more character- 
istic work was, however, based on English, 
or occasionally, as at St. Philip and 
St. James's, Oxford, on French, models of 
the thirteenth century ; and although his 
work as a restorer led him more than once 
to practise in the methods of the late Eng- 
lish Gothic or Perpendicular manner, this 
style was hardly ever adopted by him in 
original design. Street was no slavish 
imitator ; he gave full play to his inventive 
faculties, and his special invention of the 
broad nave with suppressed aisles, a device 
for accommodating large congregations, is 
well exemplified in the church of All Saints, 
Clifton. One of Street's favourite designs was 
that of Kingstone church, Dorset, carried out 
for Lord Eldon. It is a cruciform building 
with an apse, central tower, and narthex 
built throughout of Purbeck stone with 
shafts of Purbeck marble, all from quarries 
on the estate. The mouldings are rich, and, 
owing to the character of the material, the 
building has a model-like perfection and 
neatness which age will probably improve. 
The American churches at Paris and Rome, 
and those for the English community at 
Rome, Vevay, Genoa, Lausanne, and Miirren 
are also notable examples of Street's work. 
It was in the parish church, large or small, 
that his genius was realised to best effect. 

Besides the literary works already noticed, 
Street was the author of various occasional 

pers and addresses, and of the article on 

othic architecture in the ' Encyclopaedia 



Britannica' (9th edit.) His academy lec- 
tures six treatises on the art, styles, and 
practice of achitecture are appended to the 
memoir by his son. 

[Memoir of George Edmund Street, R.A., by 
his son, Arthur Edmund Street, London, 1888, 
with complete list of works ; Builder, vol. xli. 
24 Dec. 1881, with list of works illustrated in 
the Builder; Architect, vol.xxvi. 24 Dec. 1881, 
including a list of works exhibited in the Aca- 
demy (Street first exhibited in 1848); Building 
News, vol. xli. 23 Dec. 1881.] P. W. 

STREET, SIR THOMAS (1626-1696), 
judge, son of George Street of Worcester, 
born in 1626, matriculated at Oxford, from 
Lincoln College, on 22 April 1642, but left 
the university without a degree in February 
1644-5. He was admitted on 22 Nov. 1646 
a student at the Inner Temple, where he was 
called to the bar on 24 Nov. 1653, and elected 
a bencher on 7 Nov. 1669. Returned to 
parliament for Worcester on 18 Jan. 1658-9, 
he kept the seat, notwithstanding an attempt 
to exclude him on the ground that he had 
borne arms for the king and used profane 
language ; and he continued to represent the 
same constituency until the general election 
of February 1680-1. He was subsecretary 
to the dean and chapter of Worcester Cathe- 
dral from 1661 to 1687, was appointed one 
of their counsel in 1663, and elected praetor 
of the city in 1667. In 1677 he was ap- 
pointed justice for South Wales (February), 
and called to the degree of serjeant-at-law 
(23 Oct.) ; on 23 Oct. of the following year 
he was advanced to the rank of king's 
serjeant ; on 23 April 1681 he was raised to 
the exchequer bench, and on 8 June follow- 
ing he was knighted at Whitehall. The 
same year, at the Derby assizes, he passed 
sentence of death as for high treason on 
George Busby, a catholic priest convicted of 
saying mass, but reprieved him by order of 
the king. In 1683 he sat with Sir Francis 
Pemberton [q. v.] at the Old Bailey on the 
trial of the Rye-house conspirators. On 
29 Nov. 1684 he was removed to the common 
pleas. His patent was renewed on the ac- 
cession of James II, who suffered him to 
retain hisplace notwithstanding his judgment 
against the dispensing power in the case of 
Godden v. Hales. Sir John Bramston (Auto- 
biogr. Camden Soc. p. 224) insinuates what 
became the general belief that his judgment 
was inspired by the king with the view of 
giving an air of independence to that of the 

On the accession of William III Street was 
ignored, and retired to his house at Worcester, 
where he died on 8 March 1695-6. His 
remains were interred in the south cloister 


4 6 


of Worcester Cathedral, in the north transept 
of which is a monument by Joseph Wilton 
[q. v.] By his wife Penelope, daughter of 
Sir Rowland Berkeley of Cotheridge, Wor- 
cestershire, he left an only daughter. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Inner Temple Books ; 
Nash's Worcestershire, Introd. p. xxx, vol. ii. 
App. p. clvi ; Green's Worcester, i. 160, ii. 37, 
App. p. xxviii ; Burton's Diary, iii. 70, 253, 425 ; 
Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, iv. 314 ; Le 
Neve's Pedigrees of Knights (Harl. Soc.); Sir 
Thomas Raymond's Rep. pp. 238, 431 ; Wynne's 
Serjeant-at-Law ; Official Returns of Members 
of Parliament ; Cobbett's State Trials, viii. 526, 
ix. 536, 593, xi. 1198; Keble's Rep. iii. 806; 
Cal. State Papers, 1659-60 p. 121, 1660-1 pp. 
47, 64, 144 ; Luttrell's Relation of State Affairs, 
i. 77, 318, 382, 386 ; Notes and Queries, 3rdser. 
iii. 27 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 1st Rep. App. p. 53 ; 
1 1th Rep. App. ii. 83, 291, vii. 9 ; Britton's Hist, 
and Antiq. of the Cathedral Church of Worcester, 
App. p. 94 ; Foss's Lives of the Judges.] 

J. M. R. 

STREETER, JOHN (fi. 1650-1670), 
soldier and pamphleteer. [See STBEA.TEB.] 

GUILLIM or WILLIAM (fl. 1546-1556), 
portrait-painter, is always described as a 
Dutchman, and may possibly have been re- 
lated to the Giles van Straet, a burgher of 
Ghent, who was implicated in the resistance 
offered by that city to Charles V in 1540, 
and sought English protection at Calais 
(State Papers, Henry VIII, viii. 345). A 
William Street was in the employ of the 
English government at Calais in 1539 (Let- 
ters and Papers, xiv. ii 10), but the William 
Streate who was steward of the courts of 
St. Paul's Cathedral in 1535 (ib. vol. ix. 
App. No. 12) was no doubt an Englishman, 
and the name was not uncommon in Eng- 

The painter may have been a pupil of 
Holbein, but there is no evidence to sup- 
port the conjecture. In December 1546, 
however, he was engaged in painting a por- 
trait of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey [q.v.], 
when the earl was arrested. The picture 
remained in Stretes's possession until March 
1551-2, when it was fetched from his house 
by order of the council. It was probably 
obnoxious, as portraying the royal arms of 
England which Surrey had quartered with 
his own, an offence which formed the prin- 
cipal count in his indictment. This portrait, 
which is highly finished, is now at Arundel 
Castle (cf. Cat. Tudor Exhib. No. 51), and 
was engraved for Lodge's t Portraits ; ' a re- 
plica, also said to be very fine, is at Knole 
(but cf. Archceologia, xxxix. 51, where Sir 
George Scharf considers these portraits to be 

the work of an Italian). Another portrait 
of Surrey and one of Henry VIII and his 
family, at Hampton Court, are conjecturally 
assigned to Stretes (LAW, Cat . of Pictures 
at Hampton Court, pp. 114, 120; Cat. Tudor 
Exhib. No. 101 ; WOKNUM, Life and Works 
of Holbein, p. 337). Another portrait, said to 
have been painted by Stretes during Henry's 
reign, is that of Margaret Wotton, second 
wife of Thomas Grey, second marquis of 
Dorset [q. v.], which now belongs to the 
Duke of Portland (Archceologia, xxxix. 44). 
He is also said to have painted on board a 
monumental effigy of the Wingfield family 
now belonging to the Duke of Buccleuch 
(Proc. Archccol Institute, 1848, p. Ix ; 
STTTKELEY, Diaries, Surtees Soc. i. 336). 

During the reign of Edward VI Stretes 
became ' the most esteemed and best paid 
painter ' in England, receiving from the king 
a salary of 62/. 10s. He painted several 
portraits of Edward, some of them to be sent 
to English ambassadors abroad. In March 
1551-2 two were sent to Hoby and Mason, 
the respective ambassadors at the courts of 
Charles V and Henry II ; for these, with 
Surrey's portrait, Stretes was paid fifty 
marks. Seven extant portraits of Edward VI 
are conjecturally ascribed to Stretes : (1) A 
three-quarter length, which belonged to 
James Maitland Hog, and was exhibited at 
Manchester in 1857 (it was engraved by Ro- 
bert C. Bell for the 'Catalogue' of the 
Archaeological Institute, 1859) ; (2) a full- 
length portrait, which was at Southam, 
near Cheltenham, in 1819; (3) a portrait in 
the treasurer's house at Christ's Hospital, de- 
scribed as very similar to that at Southam ; 

(4) a portrait of Edward VI presenting 
the charter to Bridewell in 1553, now be- 
longing to the governors of Bridewell 
Hospital (Cat. Tudor Exhib. No. 181); 

(5) a portrait of Edward VI, aged 10, 
painted in 1547, now at Losely Park in the 
possession of Mr. W. More-Molyneux (ib. 
No. 175) ; (6) a duplicate of the last, be- 
longing to Lord Leconfield at Petworth, 
(WoRNFM, Life and Times of Holbein, 
p. 326 ; Sir George Scharf in Archceologia, 
xxxix. 50) ; (7) the portrait of Edward at 
Windsor Castle (ib.) These portraits have 
been inaccurately assigned to Holbein, with 
whose later portraits Stretes's work ' shows 
much affinity' (Cat. Tudor Exhib. p. 60), 
though, on the other hand, his style of 
colouring was ' peculiarly pale and cold, and 
very different from that of Holbein ' (Archceo- 
logia, xxxix. 42). 

Stretes retained his position under Mary, 
and in 1556 presented to her as a new year's 
gift * a table of her majesty's marriage/ 




which seems to be lost (NICHOLS, Illustra- 
tions of Ancient Times, p. 14). 

[Most of the facts about Stretes are collected 
by John G-ough. Nichols in Archseologia, xxxix. 
41-5 ; see also the same writer in Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 340, and in the preface to the 
Literary Kemains of Edward VI (Koxburghe 
Club), pp. cccxliv, cccli-ii ; Strype's Ecclcs. 
Mem. it. ii. 217,285; Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, ed, Wornum, i. 138-9; Wornum's Life 
and Works of Holbein, pp. 102, 205, 326, 337; 
Sir G-eorge Scharf in Archseologia, xxxix. 50-1 ; 
Waagen's Treasures of Art, iii. 3 ; Tierney 's A run- 
del Castle, 1834; Nott's Works of Surrey ; Wheat- 
ley's Historical Portraits, 1897 ; Law's Cat. of 
Pictures at Hampton Court; Cat. Tudor Exhib. 
1890 ; authorities cited.] A. F. P. 

bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, son of 
Robert Eyryk or de Stretton by his wife 
Johanna, was born at Stretton Magna, Leices- 
tershire, from which place he and his elder 
brother, Sir William Eyryk, knight (ancestor 
of the Heyricks of Leicestershire), derived 
their surnames. After taking holy orders he 
became chaplain to Edward the Black Prince, 
whose favour he enjoyed, and he is said to 
have become doctor of laws and one of the 
auditors of the rota in the court of Rome. 
Before 1343 he was rector of Wykyngeston 
or Wilkington, and in that year obtained a 
canonry in Chichester Cathedral. He was 
also collated to prebends or canonries in St. 
Paul's and Lichfield Cathedrals. In 1349, 
at the request of the Black Prince, he ob- 
tained a canonry at Salisbury. Before Oc- 
tober 1351 he had become a king's clerk, 
and in 1353 he was collated to the canonry 
of St. Cross in Lincoln Cathedral. In 1354 
he was rector of Llanpadern Vawr in the 
diocese of St. Davids, and in the following 
year was directed by the pope to assist the 
nuncio in preventing hostilities between the 
Black Prince and the Count of Ponthieu 
(Cal. Papal Registers, passim). On 14 Dec. 
1358 he was collated to the prebend of Pipe 
Parva in the church of Lichfield, and on 
1 Jan. following was chosen bishop of Co- 
ventry and Lichfield, on the death of Bishop 
Northburgh [q. v.], by Edward III at the 
request of the Black Prince. Stretton was 
so illiterate that a complaint was made to 
Innocent VI of his want of learning and 
consequent unfitness for the bishopric. Ac- 
cordingly the pope sent a special injunction 
to Archbishop Islip not to consecrate him, 
and Islip and his assessor, John de Sheppey 
[q. v.], bishop of Rochester, rejected him for 
insufficiency. Stretton, however, either at 
the suggestion of the Black Prince or be- 
cause he was cited by the pope, hastened to 

Avignon, and submitted himself to the ex- 
amination of the pope's examiners, who re- 
jected him 'propter defectum literaturge/ 
But the king insisted on Stretton's appoint- 
ment, and kept the see of Lichfield vacant 
for two years, himself enjoying the tempo- 
ralities during that period. The Black Prince 
now besought the pope to put an end to the 
scandal by appointing a commission to ex- 
amine Stretton again, and Innocent referred 
the matter to the archbishop of Canterbury. 
The archbishop, on re-examining him, still 
found him insufficient, and refused to con- 
secrate him. At length the pope gave way. 
He issued his bull of provision on 22 April 
1360, presently confirmed Stretton's election, 
and directed the archbishop to consecrate 
him without examination. This, however, 
the archbishop refused to do in person, though 
he confirm'ed his election on 26 Sept. 1360, 
and commissioned two of his suffragans, 
Northburgh, bishop of London, and Sheppey, 
bishop of Rochester, to consecrate Stretton,. 
which they did reluctantly on 27 Sept. 1360. 
The temporalities of the see had been restored 
on 19 Sept. On 6 Feb. following Stretton 
made the usual profession of canonical obe- 
dience in the archbishop's presence at Lam- 
beth, ' alio professionem legente, quod ipse 
legere non posset.' It is difficult to conceive 
such a degree of ignorance in a prelate, but 
the words of the register are conclusive. 

Stretton presided over the diocese of Co- 
ventry and Lichfield for a period of twenty- 
five years, and his acts are preserved in two 
volumes of his registers which are extant 
at Lichfield. Much of his episcopal work 
in the diocese was done by suffragans. He 
founded and endowed a chantry in the 
chapel of his native place, Stretton Magna, 
on 4 Sept. 1378, and he ordained that the 
chaplain should pray for the founder, and for 
the souls of Edward III, the Prince of Wales 
and Isabella his wife, as also of his father 
and mother, brothers and sister. In the 
same year he also endowed a chantry at 
Stretton-super-Dunsmore in Warwickshire 
I (patent 2 Rich. II, pars. 1, m. 33). At 
I some period during his episcopate he appears 
to have restored or renovated the shrine of 
St. Chad, which stood in the lady-chapel 
of Lichfield Cathedral. On 7 Sept, 1381, 
having become infirm and blind, he was 
ordered by the chapter of Canterbury to ap- 
point a coadjutor within ten days. He 
died at his manor-house at Haywood in 
Staffordshire on 28 March 1385, and was 
interred in St. Andrew's Chapel in Lichfield 
Cathedral, on the north side of the shrine of 
St. Chad. An altar-tomb, depicted in Shaw's 
' History of Staffordshire ' (vol. i. plate 23), 


4 8 


.and there erroneously described as that of 
Bishop Blith, is in all probability the monu- 
ment of Bishop Stretton. It was standing 
in Dugdale's time, but has long since been 
destroyed. Stretton's will, dated 19 March 
1384-5, and proved on 10 April 1385, is 
.preserved at Lambeth Palace (Reg. Courte- 
sy, f. 21 la). 

[Kobert de Stretton, bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, 1360-85, in the Associated Architec- 
tural Society's Keports and Papers, xix. 198- 
208; Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. ii. passim; 
Shaw's Staffordshire, i. 247, 269, sq. ; S.P.C.K. 
Diocesan History of Lichfield, pp. 155-7; Mo- 
berly's William of Wykeham, pp. 40-'2 ; Godwin, 
de Prsesulibus, pp. 262, 321 ; Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra, i. 44 and 449 ; Hook's Lives of the Arch 
bishops, i. 448-9 ; Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 
41 ; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 550-1, 620 ; Gal. Papal 
Registers and Cal. Pat. Kolls, 1377-81.] 

W. G. D. F. 

STRICKLAND, AGNES (1796-1874), 
Tiistorian, second surviving daughter of Tho- 
mas Strickland of Reydon Hall, near South- 
wold, Suffolk, and of his second wife, Eliza- 
beth Homer, was born in London on 19 Aug. 
1796. There were nine children of the 
marriage. Five of them besides Agnes dis- 
tinguished themselves (though in a less 
degree) by their literary talent. These were 
Elizabeth (1794-1875), Jane Margaret ( 1800- 
1888), Samuel (1809-1867) [see below], Mrs. 
Susanna Moodie (1803-1885) [see MOODIE, 
DONALD], and Mrs. Catherine Parr Traill (b. 
1802), who is still living (1898). The father, 
Thomas Strickland, was descended from a 
family of yeomen settled in the Furness dis- 
trict of North Lancashire. The connection, 
if any, with the Stricklands of Sizergh, to 
which Miss Strickland constantly referred, is. 
remote, and is unsupported by documentary 
evidence (Davy's ' Suffolk Pedigrees,' Addit. 
MS. 19150). Thomas Strickland was in the 
employment of Messrs. Hallett & Wells, 
shipowners, and became manager of the 
Greenland docks. He resided first at the 
Laurels, Thorpe, near Norwich, then at Stowe 
House, near Bungay, and finally, in 1808, 
bought Reydon Hall, Suffolk. He also pos- 
sessed a house at Norwich, where in later 
life he lived during the winter. He took 
entire charge of the education of his elder 
daughters, Elizabeth and Agnes, and they 
early showed a taste for the study of history. 
He died of gout at Norwich on 18 May 1818, 
the disease being aggravated by anxiety 
consequent on the loss of the larger part of 
his fortune. He was buried at Lakenham. 

The pecuniary situation of the family 
made it desirable that the sisters, who had 
already commenced to write, should regard 

their literary talents as a part of their means 
of livelihood. Agnes's first publication was 
' Monody upon the Death of the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales,' which appeared anony- 
mously in the 'Norwich Mercury ' in 1817. 
In 1827 she published by subscription ' Wor- 
cester Field, or the Cavalier,' a metrical ro- 
mance, written long before. l The Seven 
Ages of Woman, and other Poems,' followed 
in the same year (another edition in 1847). 
About 1827, too, she paid a first visit to Lon- 
don and stayed with a cousin, in whose house 
she met Campbell and Sir Walter Scott. 
With her cousin she studied Italian, and she 
sent some translations of Petrarch's sonnets 
to the ' New Monthly Magazine.' She now 
turned her attention to prose, and, in conjunc- 
tion with her sister Elizabeth, wrote several 
books for children. The most important 
were : ' Historical Tales of Illustrious British 
Children' (1833; there were other editions 
in 1847 and 1858) ; < Tales and Stories from 
History ' (2 vols. 1836 ; the eighth edition 
appeared in 1860, and the latest in 1870). 
In addition Agnes contributed to the annuals ; 
published at her own expense in 1833 ' De- 
metrius,' a poem inspired by sympathy with 
the Greeks ; and in 1835 a series of tales 
in two volumes entitled ' The Pilgrims of 

At this time Elizabeth was editing the 
'Court Magazine,' and had written for it 
some biographies of female sovereigns. It 
occurred to Agnes that historical biographies 
of the queens of England might prove useful. 
The two sisters planned a book together, 
under the title of ' Memoirs of the Queens 
of England from the Norman Conquest,' and 
obtained permission from the young queen, 
who had just ascended the throne, to dedi- 
cate it to her. But before the first volume 
was published the title was appropriated 
by another author, Miss Hannah Lawrance 
(1795-1895), whose ' Historical Memoirs of 
the Queens of England' appeared in 1839. 
The Stricklands then changed their title to 
' Lives of the Queens of England,' and the 
first and second volumes duly appeared in 
1840. Agnes's name was alone given as 
author on the title-page, Elizabeth having 
an invincible objection to publicity. Owing 
to an unbusiness-like agreement with Henry 
Colburn [q. v.], the publisher, the authors 
gained little remuneration, although the book 
sold well. Agnes fell ill, and wished to stop 
the work. But Colburn insisted on its com- 
pletion, and finally agreed to pay the joint 
authors 150/. a volume. As the prosecution 
of the work necessitated frequent visits to 
London, Elizabeth leased a cottage at Bays- 
water. There Agnes resided when in town. 




She witnessed the queen's coronation in 1838, 
and was presented at court in 1840. In that 
year she wrote at Colburn's request ' Queen 
Victoria from Birth to Bridal ' (2 vols.) The 
book, which was founded on scanty and un- 
trustworthy material supplied to the author 
by Colburn, did not find favour with the 

Miss Strickland based her f Lives of the 
Queens ' wherever possible on unpublished 
official records, on contemporary letters and 
other private documents. When preparing 
the biographies of the consorts of Henry VIII 
she found it necessary to consult state papers, 
and applied to Lord John Russell for the 
required permission, which he refused. How- 
ever, through the influence of Lord Nor- 
manby, the difficulty was overcome, and both 
sisters were permitted to work at the state 
paper office whenever they liked. The 
Stricklands also visited many of the historic 
houses of England in order to examine 
documents. In 1844 Miss Strickland visited 
Paris, and Guizot, who much admired her 
work, enabled her to make researches in the 
French archives. The last of the twelve 
volumes of the first edition of the ' Lives of 
the Queens ' appeared in 1848. 

But this great \indertaking did not absorb 
Miss Strickland's energies. During 1842-3 
she edited and published the l Letters of Mary 
Queen of Scots' in three volumes. The third 
volume was dedicated to Jane Porter [q. v.] 
as a tribute of friendship, and in the dedica- 
tion Miss Strickland acknowledges the assis- 
tance rendered by Sir Robert Ker Porter 
[q. v.] in obtaining transcripts from the royal 
autograph collection in the Imperial Library 
of St. Petersburg. A new edition in two 
volumes appeared in 1844, and a complete 
edition in five volumes in 1864. From 1850 
to 1859 Miss Strickland was engaged in the 
writing and publication of the ' Lives of the 
Queens of Scotland and English Princesses 
connected with the Royal Succession of Great 
Britain/ which had a good sale. In 1861 she 
published ' Lives of the Bachelor Kings of 
England,' i.e. William Rufus, Edward V, 
Edward VI. Elizabeth contributed the me- 
moir of Edward V. 

After her mother's death, on 3 Sept. 1864, 
Rey don Hall, which had always been her chief 
home, was sold, and Agnes removed to Park 
Lane Cottage, Southwold. She had just 
finished revising the proofs of a new edition 
of the 'Queens,' which appeared in six 
volumes in 1864-5. In the latter year she 
published a novel in three volume's, ' How 
will it end ? ' for which Bentley paid her 250/. 
It reached a second edition in the same year. 
In 1869 she visited Holland in order to collect 


materials for her 'Lives of the last Four Prin- 
cesses of the Royal House of Stuart ' (pub- 
lished 1872), her last work. At The Hague 
she had an interview with the queen of the 

On 3 Aug. 1870 she was granted a pension 
of lOO/.from the civil list (cf. COLLES, Litera- 
ture and the Pension List, p. 54). In 1872 her 
health gave way ; she broke an ankle through 
a fall, partial paralysis supervened, and she 
died at Southwold on 13 July 1874. She 
was buried in the churchyard of Southwold. 

Miss Strickland's fame as author and 
historian rests on the ' Lives of the Queens 
of England/ which was the joint work 
of herself and her sister Elizabeth. The 
lives contributed by Elizabeth, whose style 
is more masculine than that of Agnes, were 
those of Adelicia of Louvain, Eleanora of 
Aquitaine, Isabella of France, Isabella of 
Valois, Katherine of Valois, Elizabeth Wood- 
ville, Anne of Warwick, Elizabeth of York, 
Katharine of Arragon, Jane Seymour, Mary 
Tudor, Anne of Denmark, Henrietta Maria, 
Mary II, and Anne. To the ' Queens of Scot- 
land and English Princesses connected with 
the Royal Succession of Great Britain ' Eliza 
beth contributed Elizabeth Stuart, queen of 
Bohemia, and Sophia, electress of Hanover. 
Elizabeth Strickland also wrote the lives of 
the Duchess of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey, 
Lady Katharine Grey, and Lady Mary Grey 
in the ' Tudor Princesses' (1868), and those of 
Lloyd and Trelawney in the ' Seven Bishops ' 
(1866), both books, as usual, being given to 
the public as the sole work of Agnes. Eliza- 
beth conducted the greater part of the busi- 
ness arrangements connected with their joint 
literary work. She died at Abbot's Lodge, 
Tilford, Surrey, 30 April 1875. 

' The Lives of the Queens of England ' 
was very successful and popular. By 1854 
it was in a fourth edition, which was em- 
bellished by portraits of each queen. In 
1863 Miss Strickland bought from Mrs. 
John Forster (the sole executrix of Mr. Col- 
burn) the copyright of the book for 1,862/. 
15s. Qd. The statement (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 458) that the copyright 
fetched 6,90W. at Colburn's sale in 1857 
appears to be incorrect. Miss Strickland be- 
queathed the property to her sister, Mrs. 
Catherine Parr Traill, who sold it to Messrs. 
Bell & Daldy in 1877 for 7351. (cf. MKS. 
TEAILL, Pearls and Pebbles, 1894). Of the 
edition in six volumes published in 1864-5 
over eleven thousand copies were sold. The 
work has still a small though steady sale. An 
abridged edition, intended for use in schools, 
appeared in 1867. 

Miss Strickland was laborious and pains* 





taking, but she lacked tlie judicial temper 
and critical mind necessary for dealing in 
the right spirit with original authorities. 
This, in conjunction with her extraordinary 
devotion to Mary Queen of Scots and her 
strong tory prejudices, detract, from the value 
of her conclusions. Her literary style is 
weak, and the popularity of her books is in 
great measure due to their trivial gossip and 
domestic details. Yet in her extracts from 
contemporary authorities she amassed much 
valuable material, and her works contain pic- 
tures of the court, of society, and of domestic 
life not to be found elsewhere (cf. Letters 
of Mary Russell Mitford, ed. Chorley, 2nd 
ser. ii. 25-6). 

Miss Strickland took her work and her 
reputation very seriously. On one occasion 
she wrote to the ' Times ' to complain of the 
plagiarisms of Lord Campbell in his ' Lives 
of the Chancellors/ and on another gave 
emphatic expression, also in the 'Times,' 
to her indignation at Froude's description of 
the death of Mary Queen of Scots. She was 
a welcome guest in the houses of many dis- 
tinguished persons, and her warm heart and 
conversational powers won for her many 
friends. With the exception of Jane Porter, 
whom she visited at Bristol, and with whom 
she carried on a frequent correspondence, 
and a casual meeting with Macaulay, whom 
she found uncongenial, she came little in 
contact with the authors of her day. 

Miss Strickland's portrait was painted in 
June 1846 by J. Hayes. By her will she 
bequeathed the picture to the nation, and it 
is now in the National Portrait Gallery. It is 
a three-quarter length representing a woman 
of handsome appearance and intelligent ex- 
pression, with pale complexion and black 
hair and eyes. The painting was engraved 
by S. C. Lewis, and forms the frontispiece to 
* Historic Scenes and Poetic Fancies ' (1850), 
and to the 1851 edition of the ' Lives of the 
Queens of England.' It was again engraved 
in 1857 by John Sartain of Philadelphia for 
the New York 'Eclectic Magazine' (vol. 
xlii.) There is another engraved portrait 
in the ' Life ' by her sister, Jane Margaret 
Strickland (1887), which may be from the 
half-length in watercolour by Cruikshank 
mentioned in that book. A miniature painted 
by her cousin and a bust by Bailey are also 
referred to there. 

Other works by Agnes Strickland are : 
1. Floral Sketches, Fables, and other Poems,' 
1836 ; 2nd edit. 1861. 2. ' Old Friends and 
New Acquaintances,' 1860; 2nd ser. 1861. 
She also edited Fisher's ' Juvenile Scrap-- 
Book/ in conjunction with Bernard Barton, 
from 1837 to 1839, and contributed two tales 

to the 'Pic-nic Papers/ edited by Charles 
Dickens (1841). 

Miss Strickland's brother, SAMUEL STEICK- 
LAND (1809-1 867), born in England in 1809. 
emigrated in 1825 to Canada, where he be- 
came connected with the Canada Company 
and obtained the commission of major in 
the militia. His experiences are recorded 
in ' Twenty-seven Years in Canada ' (2 vols. 
1853), edited by Agnes. He died at Lake- 
field in Canada on 3 Jan. 1867. He was 
thrice married, and left many children. 

Another sister, JANE MAKGAKET STRICK- 
LAND (1800-1888), was born 18 April 1800. 
She died at Park Lane Cottage, Southwold, 
14 June 1888, and was buried in the church- 
yard there beside her sister Agnes. Her chief 
work was 'Rome, Republican and Regal: a 
Family History of Rome.' It was edited by 
Agnes, and published in two volumes in 
1854. She wrote some insignificant books 
for children, and a biography of her sister 
Agnes, published in 1887. 

[Allibone's Dictionary, ii. 2284-5; supplement, 
ii. 1401 ; Life by her sister, Jane Margaret 
Strickland (1887); Mrs. Traill's Pearls and 
Pebbles, 1894 ; private information.] E. L. 


1853), naturalist, second son of Henry Eusta- 
sius Strickland of Apperley, Gloucestershire, 
by his wife Mary, daughter of Edmund Cart- 
wright, D.D. [q. v.], inventor of the power- 
loom, and grandson of Sir George Strickland, 
bart.. of Boynton, was born at Righton in the 
East' Riding of Yorkshire on 2 March 1811. 
In 1827 he was sent as a pupil to Dr. Thomas 
Arnold (1795-1842) [q. v.], a family connec- 
tion, then living at Laleham. He began to 
collect fossils when about fifteen, and soon 
afterwards shells, about the same time writing 
his first paper, a letter to the 'Mechanics' 
Magazine ' (vii. 264) describing a combined 
wind-gauge and weathercock, with two dials 
of his own invention. On 29 May 1828 he ma- 
triculated from Oriel College, Oxford, enter- 
ing in February 1829, and at once attend- 
ing Buckland's lectures on geology. During 
vacation visits to Paris and the Isle of Wight, 
and at home in the Vale of Evesham, where 
railways were then being begun, he showed 
a remarkable power of rapidly seizing the 
main geological features of a clistrict. He 
graduated B.A. in 1832, proceeding M.A. in 
1835. He furnished geological information 
to George Bellas Greenough [q. v.] on the 
map of Worcestershire ; and, in conjunction 
with Edwin Lees, made the first geological 
map of the county for Sir Charles Hastings's 
' Illustrations of the Natural History of 
Worcestershire/ 1 834. Hastings introduced 



him to Sir Roderick Murchison, who asked 
him to lay down the boundary line between 
the lias and the new red sandstone on the 
ordnance map, then in preparation. 

In April 1835 Murchison visited Cracombe 
House, Evesham, where Strickland was living 
with his parents, bringing with him Wil- 
liam John Hamilton [q. v.], who was then 
arranging his tour through Asia Minor, 
Strickland at once agreed to go with him, 
and they left London on 4 July. Together 
they traversed Greece, Constantinople, and 
the western coast of Asia Minor, Strickland 
returning alone through Greece and visiting 
Italy and Switzerland. During the two fol- 
lowing years Strickland was mainly engaged 
in preparing the results of his journeys for 
the Geological Society, reading six papers 
on the geology of the countries visited. In 
1837, in company with his father, he visited 
the north of Scotland, Orkney, Skye, and the 
Great Glen, meeting Hugh Miller at Cro- 
marty. Murchison then urged Strickland 
to work out the new red sandstone in the 
neighbourhood of his home, and the result 
was a joint paper on that formation in 
Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, and War- 
wickshire, in the ' Transactions of the Geo- 
logical Society ' (vol. v.), which is of interest 
as containing the earliest mention of fossil 
footprints in English triassic rocks. At the 
British Association meeting at Glasgow in 
1840 Strickland read his first paper on classi- 
fication, ' On the true method of discovering 
the Natural System in Zoology and Botany,' 
attacking such f binary' and ' quinary' me- 
thods as those of Macleay and Swainson 
(Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 
vol. vi.) With Lindley and Babington, he 
was appointed on a committee on the vitality 
of seeds, to which Daubeny and Henslow 
were afterwards co-opted, and the fifteen 
years' work of which was summarised by 
Daubeny in his presidential address at the 
Cheltenham meeting in 1856. 

Soon afterwards Strickland's attention was 
directed to the need of reform in zoological 
nomenclature : a plan with suggested rules 
was drawn up by him in 1841, and circulated 
among many naturalists at home and abroad ; 
it was discussed at the Plymouth meeting of 
the British Association in that year; and in 
February 1842 a committee was appointed, 
consisting of Darwin, Henslow, , Jenyns (after- 
wards Blomefield), John Phillips, Dr. (after- 
wards Sir John) Richardson, W. Ogilby, and 
J. 0. Westwood, with Strickland as reporter. 
To this committee Yarrell, Owen, W. J. 
Broderip, W. E. Shuckard, and G. R. Water- 
house were afterwards added. The ' rules ' 
drawn up by them, which were chiefly 

j Strickland's work, were approved at the 
I Manchester meeting of the association in 
1842, and were first printed in the report 
for that year. They were reprinted with 
some modification by Sir William Jardine 
in 1863, and in the ' Report ' for 1865 ; and, 
having been recognised as authoritative by 
naturalists generally, were re-edited, at the 
request of the association, by Dr. P. L. 
Sclater in 1878. It was at the Manchester 
meeting in 1842 that Strickland broached 
the idea of a natural history publishing so- 
ciety, which he at first proposed to call 
the Montagu Society. Dr. George John- 
ston of Berwick, however, took the first 
active steps to realise the scheme, which 
resulted in the Ray Society. For one of 
the first volumes issued by the society Strick- 
land translated Prince Charles Lucien Bona- 
parte's ' Report on the State of Zoology in 

On his marriage, in 1845, Strickland made 
a tour through Holland, Bremen, and Ham- 
burg to Copenhagen, Malmo, Lund, and Stral- 
sund, returning by Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, 
the Saxon Switzerland, Frankfort, and Brus- 
sels, visiting most of the museums on the way. 
His attention was now, under the influence 
of Sir William Jardine, his father-in-law, 
mainly directed to ornithology, and on this 
journey he was much interested in the pic- 
tures and remains of the dodo. Taking a 
house in Beaumont Street, Oxford, he devoted 
some hours daily to his work on ' Ornitho- 
logical Synonyms,' one volume of which was 
issued after his death by his widow and her 
father (London, 1855). " He also carried on 
an extensive ornithological correspondence 
with Edward Blyth in India, and with Sir 
William Jardine, and began a ' Synonymy of 
Reptiles.' At the Oxford meeting of the 
British Association in 1847 he was chairman 
of Section D, and gave an evening lecture on 
the dodo. With the assistance in the ana- 
tomical part of Dr. A. G. Melville, after- 
wards professor of zoology at Galway, Strick- 
land in 1848 produced his monograph on 
' The Dodo and its Kindred ; or the History 
and Affinities of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other 
Extinct Birds,' London, fol. The preparation 
of the illustrations for this work and for Sir 
William Jardine's ' Contributions to Orni- 
thology ' directed Strickland's notice to De 
la Motte's process of '-anastatic ' printing. 
He and his wife drew birds on paper with 
lithographic chalk, and De la Motte, who 
was then living in Oxford, printed from these 
drawings. Strickland wrote two letters to 
the ' Athenaeum ' (1848, pp.- 172, 276) on 
this process, which he styled papyrography. 
He arranged the publication by the Ray 


5 2 


Society of Agassiz's ' Bibliographia Zoologies 
et Geologise,' undertaking to edit it himself, 
and adding in the process more than a third 
as much material as was in the original 
manuscript. He published three volumes 
in 1848, and had practically completed the 
fourth at the time of his death. It was issued 
by Sir William Jardine in 1854. 

In 1849 Strickland moved to Apperley 
Green, near Worcester ; but, on its becom- 
ing necessary to appoint a successor to Dr. 
Buckland, he consented to act as deputy 
reader in geology at Oxford. He acted as 
president of the Ashmolean Society, was one 
of the witnesses before the Oxford Univer- 
sity commission, and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society in 1852. In May 1853 he 
made a yachting excursion to the Isle of Man 
and Belfast Lough with his friend T. C. Eyton, 
the ornithologist, who afterwards published 
an account of it (HTJETT, Yachting Magazine, 
iii. 233). After the meeting of the British 
Association at Hull in the same year, he visited 
Flamborough Head with John Phillips, and 
parted with him on 13 Sept. to visit a new 
section on the Sheffield, Manchester, and Lin- 
colnshire railway at Clarborough, between 
Retford and Gainsborough. While examin- 
ing the cutting on the following day he was 
knocked down by an express train and instan- 
taneously killed. A stained-glass window 
was erected to his memory by his family in 
Deerhurst church, and another by his friends 
at Watermoor, near Cirencester. A genus 
of brachiopoda and a fossil plant both bear 
the name Stricklandia. 

Strickland married, on 23 July 1845, Cathe- 
rine Dorcas Maule, second daughter of Sir 
William Jardine, who survived him. His 
collection of birds begun in his boyhood, 
including 130 brought from Asia Minor and 
Greece, of which three were new to science, 
twelve hundred purchased in 1838 from his 
cousin Nathaniel Strickland, and five hun- 
dred acquired from his cousin Arthur in 
1850, and comprising in all over six thousand 
skins was presented by his widow to the 
university of Cambridge in 1867, and a cata- 
logue of them was published in 1882 by Mr. 
O. Salvin. Sir William Jardine, in his ' Me- 
moirs ' of Strickland, published in 1858, enu- 
merates 125 papers or other publications by 
him, and reprints fifty of his papers as a 
' Selection from his Scientific Writings.' The 
volume contains, besides various other illus- 
trations, two lithographic portraits of Strick- 
land by T. H. Maguire one from a painting 
by F. W. Wilkins in 1837, the other from a 
photograph by De la Motte in 1853. 

[Memoirs by Sir W. Jardine, 1858; Athenaeum, 
1853, pp. 1094, 1125.] Gr. S. B. 

1717), admiral, born in 1640, was second son 
of Walter Strickland of Nateby Hall, Gar- 
stang, Lancashire (a cadet of the Stricklands 
of Sizergh, Westmoreland), by Anne, daugh- 
ter of Roger Croft of East Appleton and Catte- 
rick, Yorkshire. His elder brother, Robert, 
was attached to the household of James, duke 
of York, and was afterwards vice-chamberlain 
to Queen Mary Beatrice. In 1661 Roger was- 
appointed to be lieutenant of the Sapphire ;. 
in the following year he served in the Crown, 
in 1663 in the Providence, and in 1665 was 
appointed to the command of the Hamburg 
Merchant, from which he was moved into 
the Rainbow. Early in 1666 he was ap- 
pointed to the Santa Maria, of 48 guns, which 
ship he commanded in the four days' iight 
(1-4 June), and again on 25 July 1666. In 
1668 he was in command of the Success and 
in 1671 of the Kent (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1671). On 16 Jan. 1672 he was com- 
missioned to the Antelope, and was trans- 
ferred on 29 Feb. following to the Plymouth, 
a 58-gun vessel (ib. 1671-2), in which he 
took part in the battle of Solebay on 28 May 
1672 as one of the blue squadron, and re- 
covered the Henry , which had been captured 
by the Dutch ; and again in the three actions 
of 1673, his services in which were rewarded 
with the honour of knighthood, and he was- 
also appointed, 1 Oct. 1672, captain in the 
marine regiment, and in the following year 
in Lord Widdrington's regiment (DALTOF, 
English Army List). In 1674 he was ap- 
pointed to the Dragon, in which he continued 
in the Mediterranean for three years under 
the command of Sir John Narbrough [q. v.] ; 
and on his return in 1677 was again sent 
out in the Mary as rear-admiral and third in 
command with Narbrough, and later with- 
Admiral Arthur Herbert (afterwards Earl of 
Torrington) [q. v.] On 1 April 1678 he was 
in company with Herbert in the Rupert 
when they captured a large Algerine cruiser 
of 40 guns after an obstinate fight. He re- 
turned to England in the Bristol, and seems 
to have been then employed for some months 
as a captain cruising in the Channel, after 
which he resided principally at Thornton 
Bridge, near Aldborough in Yorkshire, a 
property which he had acquired from his 
cousin, Sir Thomas Strickland of Sizergh; 
he was elected M.P. for Aldborough in 
March 1684-5. He had inherited in 1681 
an estate near Catterick, under the will of 
his aunt Mary, widow of Richard Brathwaite 
[q. v.] 

In August 1681 the Duke of York was 
seeking to find employment for him (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. v. App. p. 66), and 




on 12 Dec. 1681 he was appointed deputy 
governor of Southsea Castle (CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 1689-90) ; but it was not till 
after the duke's accession as James II that 
Strickland was again appointed captain of 
the Bristol. In August 1686 he was sent 
in command of a small squadron off Algiers ; 
in July 1687 as vice-admiral of a fleet under 
the Duke of Grafton to convoy the queen 
of Portugal to Lisbon ; and on his return 
home was appointed on 30 Oct. rear-admiral 
of England and admiral of the blue squadron. 
In the summer of 1688 he was appointed to 
command the fleet in the Narrow Seas, but 
in September, the seamen of the flagship hav- 
ing broken out into violent mutiny in con- 
sequence of his ill-judged attempt to have 
mass publicly said on board, he was super- 
seded by Lord Dartmouth [see LEGGE, 
GEORGE, LOED DARTMOUTH]. Strickland re- 
mained as vice-admiral till after the revolu- 
tion, when (13 Dec. 1688) he, with other 
Eoman catholic officers, resigned his com- 
mission and went to France, where he re- 
ceived James on his landing. In the follow- 
ing year he accompanied James to Ireland, 
though he seems to have held no command. 
In the English parliament his name was at 
first included in a projected bill of attainder, 
and, though it was struck out on the ground of 
want of evidence, he was none the less after- 
wards officially described as attainted and 
outlawed, and his estates were confiscated 
1 for high treason committed on 1 May 1689 ' 
(Report of Attorney- General, CaL Treasury 
Papers, 1708-14). He passed the rest of 
his life at St. Germain, and in 1710 was 
mentioned by Nathaniel Hooke [q. v.] as 
likely to be useful to the Jacobites, being a 
man that knew the Channel (Correspon- 
dence of Colonel Hooke, Roxburghe Club, 
ii. 556). He had, however, no part in the 
insurrection of 1715, died unmarried on 
8 Aug. 1717, and was buried at St. Ger- 

[Information from W. Gr. Strickland, esq. ; 
Charnock'sBiogr. Nav. i. 179; Hist. MSS. Comm. 
5th Rep. App., 7th Rep. App., 10th Rep. App. i., 
llth Rep. App. v., 15th Rep. App. i. ; Lediard's 
Nav. Hist. ; Burchett's Transactions at Sea ; 
other authorities cited in text.] J. K. L. 

(1679 P-1740), bishop of Namur and doctor 
of the Sorbonne, born about 1679, was fourth 
son of the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Strick- 
land, knight-banneret, of Sizergh, Westmore- 
land, by his wife Winifred, eldest daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Sir Christopher Trent- 
ham. He was brought up in France, his 
parents living at St. Germain, whither they 

had repaired in 1689. He studied divinity 
for four years at Douay, and returned to 
England after his graduation in 1712. It 
appears that he subsequently entered the 
English seminary of St. Gregory at Paris. 
In 1716 he was proposed as a coadjutor to 
Bishop Gifford of the London district, but 
was rejected on the score of his youth and 
unfamiliarity with England (BRADY, Episco- 
pal Succession, iii. 154). For some time he 
resided at Bar in Lorraine, at the court of 
Stanislas Leszczynski, the exiled king of Po- 
land, from whom, according to Berington, 
he 'obtained the honour of the Roman 
purple, which he afterwards resigned.' At 
Rome he gained the esteem of Clement XI 
and of the college of cardinals ; and at 
Vienna, which capital he thrice visited, he 
was honoured by the emperor Charles VI 
(CoxE, Walpole, ii. 309 n.) Though his 
family had always been adherents of the 
Pretender, Strickland incurred the resent- 
ment of the court of St. Germain by his ne- 
gotiations to induce the English catholics to 
acknowledge the de facto government, and 
Queen Mary Beatrice personally interfered 
to prevent his preferment. An anonymous 
pamphlet, ' A Letter from a gentleman at 
R[ome] to a friend at L[ondon],' printed in 
1718, further exasperated the Jacobites by 
its frank criticism of the Pretender's bigotry. 
It was attributed to Strickland, and the 
Earl of Mar, whom it especially attacked, 
speaks of the author as ' a little conceited, 
empty, meddling prigg.' But Jacobite oppo- 
sition could scarcely retard Strickland's ad- 
vancement, and on 23 Nov. 1718, writes 
Dangeau, ' the Abbe Strickland, to whom 
the Duke of Orleans had promised the abbey 
of Saint Pierre de Preaux in Normandy, on 
the recommendation of the ministers of King 
George, was presented this morning to his 
royal highness, to whom he tendered his 
thanks.' The presentation doubtless took 
place at the Palais Royal, Paris. The abbey 
was worth 12,000 or 15,000 ' livres de renteV 
His promotion was effected mainly through 
the efforts of Lord Stair (GRAHAM, Corre- 
spondence of the Earls of Stair, 1875, ii. 63). 
Strickland now proceeded to England, 
where, settled in London, and in close connec- 
tion with the British court, he exerted all his 
influence in the cause of his catholic brethren 
with a view to reconcile them to their de 
facto sovereign after the disastrous events 
of the recent rebellion of 1715. In 1719 a 
proj ect was formed for favouring the catholics, 
to which, it is related, the ministers of the 
crown cordially acceded. A committee of 
catholics therefore met, and some progress 
appeared to be made ; but the spirit of jaco- 




bitism ultimately prevailed, and the scheme 
was abandoned. The principal agent in 
this affair was the Abbe Strickland. It was 
alleged ' that he was an enemy to his religion 
and inclined to Jansenism,' but he indignantly 
repelled the accusation. 

It is asserted that in the latter part of the 
reign of George I he maintained a correspon- 
dence with the opposition, through whose 
interest with the emperor he was raised to 
the see of Namur. He was consecrated on 
28 Sept. 1727 (GAMS, Series Episcoporum, p. 
250). Subsequently he became an informa- 
tion agent in the service of the English 
ministry, and rendered himself so useful that 
he was considered a proper person of confi- 
dence to reside at Rome for the purpose of 
giving information with regard to the Pre- 
tender. With this view William Stanhope 
(afterwards first Earl of Harrington) [q. v.J 
went so far as to apply to the emperor for 
his interest to obtain for Strickland a car- 
dinal's hat. 

A few years later, in the autumn of 1734, 
Strickland was at Vienna, and the emperor, 
catching at a last straw in his endeavour to 
secure England as an ally in his war with 
France, resolved to employ him upon a 
delicate mission. Strickland represented 
that he could either force the British ad- 
ministration to enter into a war with France, 
or else drive Sir Eobert Walpole from office 
by detaching Harrington and others from 
the majority. The emperor accordingly fur- 
nished Strickland with private credentials to 
the king and queen of England. The bishop 
came to England in 1734 under the assumed 
name of Mr. Mosley, was graciously received 
by their majesties, and held conferences with 
Lord Harrington, who, though Walpole's 
colleague as secretary of state for the northern 
^department, was anxious to support the em- 
peror against France in the war of Polish 
succession (1733-5). But the equilibrium 
of Walpole and his peace policy were not so 
easily disturbed. Walpole was soon in- 
formed of Strickland's negotiation, and 
Strickland was civilly dismissed (CoxE, Hist, 
of the House of Austria, ii. 145). He died 
at Namur on 12 Jan. 1739-40, and was 
buried in his cathedral. 

Strickland made additions to his cathedral, 
founded and endowed the seminary at Namur, 
and built the episcopal palace, which is now 
the seat of the provincial administration and 
the residence of the governors. Lord Hervey 
gives a most unfavourable picture of Strick- 
land, who was famed, he says, for dissolute 
conduct wherever he went. Walpole, who 
was no less hostile to him, denounces his 
1 artful and intriguing turn/ but admits his 

reputation for good management and dis- 
interestedness within his diocese. M. Jules 
Borgnet, state archivist at Namur, who 
perused Strickland's correspondence (1736- 
1740), describes him as a man of heart and 
intelligence, a friend of religion and of the 
arts (Annales de la Societe Archeologique de 
Namur, ii. 383-95, iv. 2, v. 403, xvi. 14, seqq.) 
There are two portraits of the Abbe Strick- 
land at Sizergh, and a third is at Namur. 
His portrait has been engraved in mezzotint 
by J. Faber, from a picture by Van der Bank, 
painted for the first Viscount Bateman, and 
now in the possession of Mr. W. G. Strick- 
land (cf. J. CHALONER SMITH, Mezzotinto 
Port. i. 428 ; a fine impression is in the 
British Museum print-room) ; and also by 
Thomassin (NOBLE, Continuation of Granger, 
iii. 169). 

[Butler's Hist. Memoirs of English Catholics 
(1822), iii. 170-8; Catholic Magazine and Ke- 
view, iii. 104 ; Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmoreland Antiquarian Soc. (1889), x. 
91 and pedigree ; Journal x du Marquis de Dan- 
geau, xvii. 420 ; Michel's Ecossais en France, ii. 
398 n. ; Castlereagh Corresp. vol. iv. app. ; Her- 
vey's Memoirs, ii. 56 ; Addit. MSS. 20311 if. 291 
sq., and 20313 f. 149; Stowe MS. 121 ; Notes 
and Queries, 1st ser. ii. 198, 237, 270 ; Panzani's 
Memoirs, p. 408 ; Stanhope's Hist, of England, 
ii, 274 ; private information.] ; T. C. 

1660), politician, a younger son of Walter 
Strickland (d. 1636) of Boynton, Yorkshire, 
by his wife Frances, daughter of Peter Wen t- 
worth of Lillingstone Lovel, Oxfordshire, and 
niece of Sir Francis Walsingham, was ad- 
mitted to Gray's Inn on 18 Aug. 1618 (FOSTER, 
Gray's Inn Reg. p. 152). In August 1642 the 
Long parliament chose him as their agent to 
the States-General of the United Provinces 
to complain of the assistance given by the 
Prince of Orange to Charles I (GREEN, Let- 
ters of Henrietta Maria, p. 102 ; CLAREN- 
DON, Rebellion, vi. 176, 204). He remained 
in Holland until 1648, and was given a salary 
of 400/. per annum (Commons' Journals, iv. 
225, v. 494). Strickland's instructions and 
his letters to parliament are printed in the 
' Journals of the House of Lords ' (vi. 331, 
452, 619, viii. 15, 205, &c. ; see also CART, 
Memorials of the Civil War, i. 165, 226 ? 
303, 309, 340 ; Report on the Duke of Port- 
land's Manuscripts, i. 112, 117, 253). In July 
1648 he was ordered to accompany the Earl 
of Warwick to sea, and in September follow- 
ing to return to his post in Holland (Lords 1 
Journals, x. 397 ; Commons' Journals, vi. 
21). His salary was raised by the Common- 
wealth to 600/. per annum ($.vi. 123). Strick- 
land's post was by no means free from peril, 




as the fate of his colleague, Dr. Dorislaus, 
proved, and he was frequently threatened 
with a similar death (CART, ii. 104, 131, 
155). He was recalled from Holland on 
21 June 1650, and thanked by parliament 
for his services on 2 Aug. On 23 Jan. 1651 
parliament selected Strickland to accompany 
Oliver St. John (1598P-1673) [q. v.] in his 
famous embassy to Holland to negotiate a 
close alliance, and, if possible, a political union 
between the two commonwealths (WHITE- 
LOCKE, Memorials, iii. 287 ; GARDINER, His- 
tory of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 
i. 357-65). Their mission was a failure, and 
on 20 June the two ambassadors took leave of 
the States-General ; they received the thanks 
of parliament, and gave the house a narrative 
of their proceedings on 2 July 1651 (Com- 
mons' Journals, vi. 527, 595 ; for the letters 
of the ambassadors see Thurloe Papers, i. 
174-93 ; Report on the Duke of Portland's 
MSS. i. 557-608). 

Strickland's career in domestic politics, 
which now begins, opened with his election 
as member for Minehead about 1645. On 
10 Feb. 1651 he was elected a member of 
the third council of state of the Common- 
wealth ; in the fourth council he did not 
sit, but he was elected to the fifth on 25 Nov. 
1652 (Commons' Journals, vi. 533, vii. 220). 
When Cromwell expelled the Long parlia- 
ment, Strickland was one of the four civilians 
who sat in the council of thirteen elected by 
the army; he was also a member of the 
Little parliament and of the two councils of 
state which it appointed. He was in both 
the councils of state appointed during the 
Protectorate, and consequently was popu- 
larly described as Lord Strickland. In 1654 
he was made captain of the grey-coated foot- 
guards, who waited upon the Protector at 
Whitehall (Cromivelliana, pp. 141, 143; 
Harleian Miscellany, iii. 477). He sat in the 
parliament of 1654 as member for the East 
Riding of Yorkshire, and for Newcastle in 
that of 1656. In December 1657 the Pro- 
tector summoned him to his House of Lords. 

There is very little evidence to determine 
Strickland's political views. Two speeches 
delivered in the parliament of 1655 show that, 
while he detested the views of James Nayler 
[q. v.], the quaker, he had juster views of 
the power of the house to punish such of- 
fences than most of his colleagues (BURTON, 
Parliamentary Diary, i. 56, 87). Ludlow 
records an argument which he had with 
Strickland on the power of the sword and on 
the difference between the Long parliament 
and the Protectorate (Memoirs, ii. 13, " 
1894). In February 1657 he opposed the 
introduction of the petition and advice, but 

le was not generally considered hostile to 
;he offer of the crown to Cromwell (Com- 
nons' Journals, vii. 496). 

Strickland was one of the council of Ri- 
chard Cromwell, but this did not prevent 
iim from taking his seat in the restored Long 
parliament and accepting the republic. He 
was a member of the committee of safety 
appointed by the army on 26 Oct. 1659, and 
when the Long parliament was again rein- 
stated, it summoned him to answer for his 
conduct (LUDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 131, 173, 
201 ; Commons 1 Journals, vii. 820). He was 
not held dangerous, and at the restoration of 

harles II escaped without any penalty. 

Strickland married Dame Anne Morgan, 
who is said to have been a daughter of Sir 
"harles Morgan, governor of Bergen-op- 
Zoom. She was naturalised by act of par- 
liament on 18 Feb. 1651 (CLARENDON, Rebel- 
lion, xii. 3, ed. Macray ; Commons' Journals, 
vi. 535). 

politician, elder brother of the above, was 
born about 1596 (FOSTER, Yorkshire Pedi- 
grees, vol.ii. ' Strickland of Boynton '). He 
was admitted to Gray's Inn on 21 May 1617 
(FOSTER, Gray's Inn Register, p. 145). He was 
knighted by Charles I on 24 June 1630, and 
created a baronet on 29 July 1641 (METCALFE, 
Book of Knights, p. 191 ; Deputy-keeper of 
Public Records, 47th Rep. p. 135). In the 
Long parliament he represented the borough 
of Hedon, and vigorously supported the par- 
liamentary cause in Yorkshire. Sir John 
Hotham wrote to the speaker in March 
1643 saying that Strickland had been plun- 
dered by the royalists of goods to the value 
of 4,000/. (Report on the Duke of Port- 
land's MSS. i. 41, 101). In July 1648, 
when Scarborough declared for the king, 
Strickland tookrefuge in Hull (ib. i. 491). 
He representt^FYorkshire in the two parlia- 
ments of 1654 and 1656, and was summoned 
by Cromwell to his House of Lords (BEAN, 
Parliamentary' Representation of Yorkshire, 
pp. 709, 835). His speeches in 1656 show 
that he was a strict puritan ; he spoke often 
for the punishment of James Nayler, and 
was eager to assert the privileges of the 
house against the Protector's intervention 
(BURTON, Parliamentary Diary, i.35, 51, 75, 
79, 131, 169, 252, 275). An opposition pam- 
phlet stigmatises him as ' of good compliance 
with the new court, and for settling the 
Protector anew in all those things for which 
the king was cut off' (' Second Narrative of 
the Late Parliament,' Harleian Miscellany, 
iii. 486). Strickland sat in the restored Long 
parliament in 1659, but took very little part 
in its proceedings (MASSON, Life of Milton, 



v. 455, 544). At the Kestoration lie was not 
molested, and after it he retired altogether 
from public affairs. He died in 1673. 

Strickland married twice : first, on 18 June 
1622, Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard 
Cholmley of Whitby (she died in 1629) 
(Memoirs of Sir Hugh Cholmley, pp. 22, 29 ; 
FOSTER, London Marriage Licences, 1298) ; 
secondly, Frances Finch, eldest daughter of 
Thomas, first earl of Winchilsea. 

[Foster's Yorkshire Pedigrees ; Foster's 
Baronetage; Burke's Baronetage; Dugdale's 
Visitation of Yorkshire (Surtees Soc.) xxxvi. 
112; Masson's Milton, passim.] C. H. F. 

bishop of Carlisle, is perhaps the William de 
Strickland who was rector of Ousby in Cum- 
berland in 1366 and parson of Rothbury, 
Northumberland, in 1380 (cf. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 9th Rep. App. p. 195 ; Cal Pat. Rolls, 
Richard II, i. 589 ; Cal. Doc. relating to Scot- 
land, iv. 77). He was undoubtedly a member 
of the Strickland family of Sizergh. In 1388 
he was chaplain to Thomas Appleby, bishop 
of Carlisle, by whom he was presented to the 
ehurch of Horncastle. He was elected to the 
bishopric of Carlisle in 1396, but the pope 
quashed the election in favour of Robert Reade 
[q. v.] In 1400, after Henry IV had deprived 
Thomas Merke [q. v.] of the see, Strickland's 
promotion was favoured both by the king 
and chapter. The pope on his part, without 
waiting for election or the royal assent, pro- 
vided Strickland to the bishopric. Though 
custody of the temporalities had been granted 
to Strickland on 18 Feb., Henry was very 
indignant (NICOLAS, Proc. Privy Council, i. 
115-17), and would not acknowledge Strick- 
land as bishop until he had been elected 
by the chapter and confirmed by himself. 
Strickland was consecrated by the arch- 
bishop of York at Cawood of* 24 Aug. 1400, 
but he did not receive formal restitution of 
the temporalities till 15 Nov. following 
(Fo3dera, viii. 106, misdated 1399). Strick- 
land was a commissioner to negotiate peace 
with Scotland on 20 Sept. 1401 (NICOLAS, 
Proc. Privy Council, i. 168), and on 9 May 
1402 was directed to arrest persons sus- 
pected of asserting that Richard II was still 
alive (Fcedera, viii. 255). On 9 May 1404 he 
was present at the translation of St. John 
of Bridlington (WALSISTGHAM, Hist. Angl. 
ii. 262). In the same year he had a grant 
of the office of constable of Rose Castle. 
Strickland was one of the witnesses of the 
act declaring the succession to the crown in 
1406. He is said to have built the tower 
and belfry of the cathedral at Carlisle, and 
the tower at Rose Castle which bears his 

name. He provided the town of Penrith 
with water, and founded the chantry of St. 
Andrew at that place. Strickland died on 
30 Aug. 1419, and was buried in the north 
aisle of Carlisle Cathedral as desired in his 
will, dated 25 May 1419 and proved 7 Sept. 
following. The monument shown as his ap- 
pears, however, to be of much earlier date. 

It would seem that before he took orders 
Strickland was married, for Robert de Lou- 
ther (d. 1430) married a Margaret Strickland 
whom the visitations of Yorkshire, 1612, and 
of Cumberland, 1615, style ( daughter and 
heir of William Strickland, bishop of Car- 
lisle.' The descendants of this marriage (the 
Earl of Lonsdale and others) quarter Mar- 
garet Strickland's arms, which are the same 
as those of the Sizergh Stricklands, with the 
addition of a border engrailed. 

Strickland appears to have had lands in 
and about Penrith. In 20 Richard II he had 
a license to crenellate ' quamdam cameram 
suam in villa dePenreth,' and in 22 Richard II 
like license for l unam mantellatam suam 
in Penreth ' (TAYLOR, Manorial Halls, &c.) 
Margaret also had lands in Penrith, and 
Robert de Louther was one of the executors 
of the bishop's will. 

[Walsingham's Hist. Angl. ii. 247, 262; An- 
nalesHenrici Quarti, pp. 334, 388, ap. Trokelowe, 
Blaneforde, &c. (Rolls Ser.) ; Le Neve's Fasti 
Eccl. Angl. iii. 236-7 ; Jefferson's Carlisle, pp. 
200-2, and History of Leath Ward; Todd's 
Notitia ; Stubbs's Reg. Sacrum ; Nicolson and 
Burn's Hist. Cumberland, ii. 270-2; see also 
art. THOMAS MERKE.] C. L. K. 

[See CLARE, RICHARD DE, d. 1176.] 

STRODE, SIR GEORGE (1583-1663), 
author and royalist,born in 1583, was younger 
son of William Strode, of Shepton Mallet, 
Somerset, by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Geoffrey Upton of Warminster in the 
same county. William Strode was grand- 
nephew of Richard Whiting, the last abbot 
of Glastonbury [q. v.] His son George came 
to London and entered trade, and on 11 Feb. 
1615 married, at All Hallows Church, Lom- 
bard Street, Rebecca, one of the daughters 
and coheiresses of Alderman Nicholas Crisp, 
first cousin to Sir Nicholas Crisp [q. v.] He 
thus became brother-in-law to Sir Abra- 
ham Reynardson [q. v.], lord mayor of Lon- 
don in 1648, and Sir Thomas Cullum [q. v.], 
sheriff' of London in 1646. He shared the 
royalist opinions of his connections, and, like 
them, suffered in the cause. At the out- 
break of hostilities Strode took service in 
the infantry, was knighted on 30 July 1641, 
and, together with Sir Jacob Astley, Sir 




Nicholas Byron, and Colonel Charles Gerrard, 
was badly wounded at the battle of Edgehill 
-on 23 Oct. 1642, a fact alluded to in his 
epitaph. By 1636 he was already in pos- 
session of the estate of Squeries in Kent, 
which he purchased from the Beresfords, and 
later had to compound for it with the parlia- 
mentary commissioners. In 1646 Marylebone 
Park, a demesne of the crown, was granted 
by letters patent of Charles I, dated Oxford, 
>6 May, to Strode and John Wandesford as 
security for a debt of 2,318/. Us. 9d., due 
to them for supplying arms and ammunition 
-during the troubles. These claims were natu- 
rally disregarded by the parliamentary party 
when in power, and the park was sold on 
behalf of Colonel Thomas Harrison's dragoons, 
on whom it was settled for their pay. At 
the Restoration Strode and Wandesford were 
reinstated, and held the park, with the ex- 
ception of one portion, till their debt was 

Meanwhile, after the defeat of Charles I, 
Strode had gone abroad, and there ' in these 
sad distracted times, when I was inforced to 
eat my bread in forein parts,' as he tells us, 
he solaced himself by translating a work 
by Cristofero da Fonseca, which appeared in 
1652, under the title of ' A Discourse of Holy 
Love, written in Spanish by the learned 
Christopher de Fonseca, done into English 
with much Variation and some Addition by 
S r George Strode, Knight, London, printed 
iby J. Flesher for Richard Royston at the 
Angel in Ivy Lane.' His portrait, by G. 
Glover, and arms appear on the title-page. 
At the Restoration, Squeries having been 
sold in 1650, he settled once more in London. 
His will, in which he left a legacy to Charles I's 
faithful attendant, John Ashburnham, dated 
24 Aug. 1661, and confirmed on 5 Feb. fol- 
lowing, was proved on 3 June 1663. Strode 
was buried in St. James's Church, Clerken- 
well, on the preceding day; the entry in the 
registers of the church describes him as 'that 
worthy Benefactour to Church and Poore.' 
Of his many children, one son, Sir Nicholas 
Strode, knighted on 27 June 1660, was an 
examiner in chancery ; and another, Colonel 
John Strode, who was in personal attendance 
on Charles II in 1661, was appointed by that 
king governor of Dover Castle. Of this son 
there is a portrait at Hardwick House, Suf- 
folk. One of the daughters, Anne, married 
successively Ellis, eldest son of Sir Nicholas 
'Crisp, and Nicholas, eldest son of Abraham 

Besides the engraved portrait of Strode 
which appeared in his book, there are two 
adaptations of it : one, a small oval in a square 
frame by W. Richardson : and another, quarto, 

in stipple, engraved by Bocquet, and pub- 
lished by W, Scott, King Street, 1810. The 
original drawing for the latter engraving is 
in the Sutherland collection at the Bodleian 

Granger (Biogr. Diet. iii. 110, ed. 1779) 
erroneously claims Strode as the author of 
'The Anatomie of Mortalitie, written by 
George Strode, utter Barrister of the Middle 
Temple, for his own private comfort,' of 
which a first edition appeared in 1618, and 
a second in 1632. The same confusion is 
made in the British Museum catalogue. 
This book is the work of another George 
Strode who was entered of the Middle Tem- 
ple on 22 Oct. 1585 as < late of New Inn, 
Gentleman, 4th son of John Stroode of Par- 
ham, co. Dorset, esqre.' 

[Preface to his own work, 1652 ; Misc. Geneal. 
et Herald. 2nd ser. iv. 184 ; Somerset and Dorset 
Notes and Queries, i. vii. 237, and i. viii. 252; 
Stow's Survey of London, 1755, ii. 64; Lysons's 
Environs of London, iii. 245-6 ; Collinson's 
Somerset, ii. 210 ; Clarendon's Hist, of the Ke- 
bellion, Oxford, 1703, ii. 42; Parochial Hist, of 
Westerham, Kent, by G-. Leveson-Gower, F.S.A. 
1883, p. 15.] G. M. G. C. 

STRODE, RALPH (Jl. 1350-1400), 
schoolman, was perhaps born, like most of 
the name, in the west of England. The 
Scottish origin with which he is often 
credited is an invention of Dempster. He 
was educated at Merton College, Oxford, of 
which he became a fellow before 1360, and 
where John Wycliffe was his colleague. 
Strode acquired a high reputation as a 
teacher of formal logic and scholastic philo- 
sophy, and wrote educational treatises which 
had a wide vogue. His tendencies seem to 
have been realistic, but he followed in the 
footsteps of Albert the Great, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Bonaventura, the inaugurators 
of that ' school of the middle ' whose mem- 
bers were called nominalists by extreme 
realists, and realists by extreme nominalists. 
An important work by him called ' Logica ' 
seems to have perished, but fragments of his 
logical system have been preserved in his 
treatises ' Consequently ' and ' Obligationes,' 
which were printed in 1477 and 1507, with 
the commentaries of Sermoneta and other 
logicians. The ' Consequentise ' explored 
' with appalling thoroughness ' certain de- 
partments of logic (PKANTL), and provided 
an almost interminable series of rules for 
syllogistic reasoning. The * Obligationes,' 
called by Strode himself ' Scholastica 
Militia,' consisted of formal exercises in 
scholastic dialectics. Strode at the same 
time took part in theological controversy, 
and stoutly contested Wycliffe's doctrine of 



predestination as destroying all hope among 
men and denying free-will. He argued that, 
though apostolic poverty was better than 
wealth, the possession of wealth by the 
clergy was not sinful, and it was capable in 
their hands of beneficial application. Wy- 
cliffe's scheme for changing the church's con- 
stitution he considered foolish and wrong 
because impracticable. Strode took his stand 
with Jerome and St. Augustine in insisting 
that the peace of the church must be main- 
tained even at the risk of tolerating abuses. 
None of Strode's theological writings sur- 
vive, but they evoked a reply from Wycliffe. 
This is extant in 'Responsiones ad Rodol- 
phum Strodum/ a manuscript as yet im- 
printed in the Imperial Library of Vienna 
(No. 3926). Wycliffe's ' Responsiones ' de- 
fine Strode's theological position. The tone of 
the discussion was, it is clear from Wycliff'e's 
contribution, unusually friendly and cour- 
teous. The reformer reminds Strode that 
he was ' homo quern novistis in scholis ' (i.e. 
at Merton College). 

Wycliffe was not the only distinguished 
writer of the time with whom Strode was 
acquainted. At the end of Chaucer's 
' Troylus and Cryseyde.' written between 
1372' and 1386, the poet penned a dedication 
of his work to the poet John Gower and the 
' philosophical Strode' conjointly. Chaucer's 
lines run : 

moral G-ower, this booke I directe 
To thee, and to the philosophical Strode, 
To vouchensauf ther nede is to correcte, 
Of youre benignetes and zeles gode. 

There is every reason to doubt the accuracy 
of the oft-repeated statement that Strode 
was tutor to the poet's son Lewis while the 
latter was a student at Merton College in 
1391. For this son Chaucer wrote his ' Trea- 
tise on the Astrolabe ' in that year, and in 
one manuscript of the work (Dd. 5, 3, in Cam- 
bridge University Library) the colophon at 
the end of pt. ii. 40 recites : ' Explicit trac- 
tatus de conclusionibus Astrolabi compilatus 
per Galfridium Chaucier ad Filium suum Lo- 
dewicum Scholarem tune temporis Oxonie, 
ac sub tutela illius nobilissimi philosophi 
Magistri N. Strode.' These words were evi- 
dently added towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, long after the manuscript was 
written. The script is ornate, and, although 
the initial before Strode's name is usually 
read * N,' it might stand for ' R.' In any 
case it seems probable that the reference, 
though a mere erroneous guess, was to Ralph 
the logician, and may be explained as an 
attempt to throw light on the ' Troylus ' 

Lydgate and others of Chaucer's disciples, 
as though merely following Chaucer's prece- 
dent in the dedication to ' Troylus,' often 
linked Strode's name with Gower's, but 
Strode himself seems to have essayed poetic 
composition. The ' Vetus Catalogue ' of the 
fellows of Merton College, written in the 
fifteenth century, adds to Strode's name the 
gloss : f Nobilis poeta f uit et versifica vit librum 
elegiacumvocatum Phantasma Radulphi.' No 
mention is made in the catalogue of Strode's 
logical or theological work. John Leland 
(1506-1552) [q. v.], who had access to the 
Merton ' Vetus Catalogue,' expands, in his 
; Commentarii ' (Oxford, 1709), its descrip- 
tion of Strode into an elaborate statement 
of Strode's skill in elegiac poetry, but does 
not pretend that he personally had access to 
his work, and makes no mention of Strode 
in any other capacity then that of an 
amatory poet. Bale, in the first edition of 
his 'Britannia Scriptores' (1548), treats 
Strode exclusively as a logician and a de- 
praved adversary of Wycliffe. Incidentally 
he notes that Strode was an Englishman, 
though John Major had erroneously intro- 
duced his name into his 'History of the Scots' 
in 1521. In the next edition of Bale's ' Scrip- 
tores ' (1557), where Strode's biography was 
liberally expanded, he was described as a 
poet of eminence. Chaucer was credited 
with having designated him as an English 
poet at the close of ' Troylus.' To Strode 
Bale now allotted, in addition to his logical 
and theological tracts, two new literary works, 
viz. the ' Phantasma Radulphi ' and (on the 
authority of Nicholas Brigham [q. v.], in a 
lost work, ' De Venatione rerum Memora- 
biliuin ') an ' Itinerarium Terrse Sanctse ' 
(BALE, Scriptores, edited by R. L. Poole 
from Selden MS. Sup. 64, f. 107). Pits and 
Dempster recklessly amplified, after their 
wont, Bale's list of Strode's compositions. 
Neither of the literary works assigned to 
Strode by Bale is known to be extant. The 
present writer has suggested as possible 
that the fine fourteenth-century elegiac poem 
'The Pearl' (printed in 1891) may be iden- 
tical with the ' Phantasma Radulphi.' The 
author of ' The Pearl ' was also responsible for 
three other poems 'Cleanness,' 'Patience/ 
and the romance of ' Sir Gawayne and the 
Green Knight.' The poet was clearly from a 
west midland district, and, although Strode's 
birthplace is not determined, he doubtless 
belonged to one of the Strode families near 
that part of the country. 

It is noteworthy that soon after the refer- 
ences to Strode cease in the Merton records, 
a ' Radulphus Strode ' obtained a reputation 
as a lawyer in London. He was common 




Serjeant of the city between 1375 and 1385, 
and was granted the gate of Aldrich-gate, i.e. 
Aldersgate. He died in 1387, when his will 
was proved in the archdeaconry court of 
London; but, though duly indexed in the 
archives of the archdeaconry now at Somer- 
set House, the document itself is missing. 
The will of his widow Emma was proved in 
May 1394 in the commissary court of Lon- 
don (cf. Liber Aldus Letter-book, H, 11). 
Her executors were her son Ralph and Mar- 
gery, wife of Thomas Lucas, citizen and 
mercer of London. The fact that Chaucer 
was in possession of Aldgate, and resided 
,'there at the same date as the Common-ser- 
'jeant Strode occupied Aldersgate, suggests 
the possibility of friendly intercourse be- 
'tween the two. 

[The Merton College Register, the mentions 
of Strode in Chaucer's works, and the accounts 
of Leland and Bale are the sole authorities of any 
historical value. John Pits, in his amplification 
of Bale, adds gratuitously that Strode travelled 
in France and Italy and was a jocular conver- 
sationalist. Dempster, in his Hist. Eccl. Gentis 
Scotorum, characteristically described Strode as 
a Scottish monk who received his early educa- 
tion at Dry burgh Abbey, adducing as his 
authority a lost work by Gilbert Brown [q. v.] 
Dempster also extends his alleged travels to 
Germany and the Holy Land, and includes in 
his literary work Fabulse Lepidse Versu and 
Panegyrici Versu Patrio. Simler and Possevino 
vaguely describe Strode as a monk, but Quetif 
and Echard, the historians of the Dominican 
order, claim him ' ex fide Dempsteri ' as a dis- 
tinguished member of their order. Dempster's 
story of Strode's Scottish origin hns been widely 
adopted, but may safely be rejected as apocry- 
phal. An ingenious endeavour has been made 
by Mr. J. T. T. Brown in the Scottish Antiquary, 
vol. xi i. 1897, to differentiate Strode the school- 
man from Strode the poet. Mr. Brown argues 
that the titles of the poetic works associated 
with Strode's name by Dempster and others 
were confused descriptions of the works of a 
Scottish poet, David Rate, confessor of James I 
of Scotland, vicar of the Dominican order in 
Scotland, whose Scottish poems in Cambridge 
Univ. Libr. MSS. Kk. i. 5 attest his literary 
skill, his nimble wit, and a knowledge of foreign 
literature. Mr. Brown is of opmion that 
the compiler of the Vetus Catalogus of Merton 
read ' Ratis Raving ' (cf. Early English Text 
Soc. ed. Lumby) as ' Rafs Raving,' and rendered 
the latter by Phantasma Radulphi ; claims that 
Fabulse Lepidse Versu exactly describes at least 
four poems ascribed to Rate in Ashmole MS. 
61 namely, The Romance of Ysombras, The 
Romance of the Erie of Tolous, The Romance 
Lybeaus Dysconius, and A Quarrel among the 
Carpenter's Tools ; that Panegyrici Versu Patrio 
describes poems by Rate found in both the 
Ashmole and Cambr. MSS., like A. Father's In- 

struction to his Son, A Mother's Instruction 
to her Daughter, The Thewis of Wysmen, The- 
Thewis of Gud Women. . . . Next there is 
Itinerarium Terree Sanctse, and again we have a 
poem by David Rate in Ashmole MS. 61, The- 
Stasyons of Jerusalem. That the author of that 
poem himself visited the places he describes is 
not doubtful. He says he was there. Prantl's- 
Geschichte der Logik gives a summary account 
of ^ Strode's philosophy; Mr. H. Dziewicki, the 
editor of Wycliffe, .has kindly given the writer 
the benefit of his views on certain points. The- 
various editions of Strode's Consequentise and 
Obligations are catalogued in Hain's Reper- 
torium Bibliographicum, vol. ii. Nos. 15093- 
15100; cf. Copinger's Supplement, pt. i. p. 451.}: 

I. G. 

STRODE, THOMAS (fl. 1642-1688), 
mathematician, son of Thomas Strode of 
Shepton-Mallet, Somerset, was born about 
1626. He matriculated from University 
College, Oxford, on 1 July 1642. After 
remaining there about two years, he travelled 
for a time in France with his tutor, Abraham 
Woodhead [q. v.], and then returning settled 
at Maperton, Somerset. Strode was the- 
author of : 1. ' A Short Treatise of the Com- 
binations, Elections, Permutations, and Com- 
position of Quantities,' London, 1678, 4to, in 
which, besides dealing with permutations and 
combinations, he treats of some cases of pro- 
bability. 2. < A New and Easie Method to 
the Art of Dyalling, containing: (1) all 
Horizontal Dyals, all Upright Dyals, &c. ; 
(2) the most Natural and 'Easie Way of 
describing the Curve-Lines of the Sun's De- 
clination on any Plane,' London, 1688, 4to. 

Another Thomas Strode (1628-1699), ser- 
jeant-at-law, born at Shepton-Malletinl628 r 
was son of Sir John Strode of that place by 
his second wife, Anne, daughter of Sir John 
Wyndham of Orchard. He was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple in 1657, became- 
serjeant-at-law in 1677, and, dying without 
male issue on 4 Feb. 1698-9, was buried at 
Beaminster (HuTCHiNS, Dorset. 1864, ii. 

[Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 448 ;. 
Foster's Ahimni Oxon. 1500-1714.] E. I. C. 


politician, born about 1599, was the second 
son of Sir William Strode, knt.. of Newnham, 
Devonshire, by Mary, daughter of Thomas- 
Southcote of BoveyTracey in the same county 
(CHESTEK, Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 
522). Strode matriculated at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, 9 May 1617, at the age of 
eighteen, and graduated B.A. 20 June 1619. 
In 1614 he was admitted a student of the 
Inner Temple (FOSTEE, Alumni Oxon. 1500- 
1714, p. 1438). In the last parliament of 



.James I and in the earliest three parlia- 
ments called by Charles I, Strode represented 
Beeralston. On 2 March 1629, when the 
speaker tried to adjourn the house and re- 
fused to put Eliot's resolutions to the vote, 
Strode played a great part in the disorderly 
; scene which followed. He did not content 
himself with pointedly reminding the speaker 
that he was only the servant of the house, 
but called on all those who desired Eliot's 
-declaration to be read to signify their assent 
by standing up. ' I desire the same,' he ex- 
plained, ' that we may not be turned off like 
.scattered sheep, as we were at the end of 
the last session, and have a scorn put on us 
in print; but that we may leave something 
behind us' (GARDINER, History of England, 
vii. 69). The next day Strode was sum- 
moned before the council. As he declined 
to come, he was arrested in the country, and 
committed first to the king's bench prison, 
then to the Tower, and thence to the Mar- 
.shalsea. When he was proceeded against 
in the Star-chamber he repudiated the juris- 
diction of that court, and refused to answer 
outside parliament for words spoken within 
it. As he also refused to be bound over to 
good behaviour, he remained a prisoner until 
.January 1640 (ib. vii. 90, 115; FORSTER, 
Life of Eliot, ii. 460, 521, 544, 563 ; GREEN, 
William Strode, p. 11). The Long parlia- 
ment voted the proceedings against him a 
breach of privilege, and ordered him 500/. 
compensation for his sufferings (VERNEY, 
Notes of the Long Parliament, p. 102 ; Com- 
mons' Journals, ii. 203, iv. 189). 

Strode was returned for Beeralston to the 
two parliaments elected in 1640. His suf- 
rferings gave him a position in the popular 
party which his abilities would not have 
entitled him to claim, and his boldness and 
freedom of speech soon made him notorious. 
'Clarendon terms him ' one of the fiercest 
men of the party/ and ' one of those Ephori 
who most avowed the curbing and suppress- 
ing of majesty ' (Rebellion, ii. 86, iv. 32). 
D'Ewes describes him as a 'firebrand,' a 
** notable profaner of the scriptures/ and one 
with ' too hot a tongue' (FORSTER, Arrest 
of the Five Members, p. 220). Strode was 
one of the managers of Strafford's impeach- 
ment, and was so bitter that he proposed 
"that the earl should not be allowed counsel 
to speak for him (BAILLIE, Letters, i. 309, 
330, 339). He spoke against Lord-keeper 
Finch, and was zealous for the protestation, 
"but his most important act was the intro- 
duction of the bill for annual parliaments 
(Notebook of Sir John Northcote, ed. II. A. 
Hamilton, 1877, pp. 95, 112 ; VERNEY, Notes, 
p. 67). In the second session of the Long 

parliament he was still bolder. On 28 Oct. 
1641 he demanded that parliament should 
have a negative voice in all ministerial ap- 
pointments, and a month later moved that 
the kingdom should be put in a posture of 
defence, thus foreshadowing the militia bill 
(GARDINER, ix. 253, x. 41, 86; cf. SANFORD, 
Studies of the Great Rebellion, pip. 446,453). 
To his activity rather than his influence 
with the popular party Strode's inclusion 
among the five members impeached by 
Charles I was due : Clarendon describes both 
him and Hesilrige as ' persons of too low an 
account and esteem ' to be joined with Pym 
and Hampden (Rebellion, iv. 192). the 
articles of impeachment were presented on 
3 June 1642, and on the following day the 
king came to the house in person to arrest 
the members. A pamphlet printed at the 
time gives a speech which Strode is said to 
have delivered in his vindication on 3 Jan., 
but there can be little doubt that it is a 
forgery (Old Parliamentary History, x. 157, 
163, 182; GARDINER, x. 135). According 
to D'Ewes, it was difficult to persuade him 
to leave the house even when the king's 
approach was announced. ' Mr. William 
Strode, the last of the five, being a young 
man and unmarried, could not be persuaded 
by his friends for a pretty while to go out ; 
but said that, knowing himself to be inno- 
cent, he would stay in the house, though he 
sealed his innocency with his blood at the 
door . . . nay when no persuasions could 
prevail with the said Mr. Strode, Sir Walter 
Erie, his entire friend, was fain to take him 
by the cloak and pull him out of his place 
and so get him out of the House ' (SANFORD, 
p. 464). 

After his impeachment Strode was natu- 
rally the more embittered against the king, 
and when the civil war began became one 
of the chief opponents of attempts at accom- 
modation with Charles (ib. pp. 497, 529, 540, 
544, 562, 567). He was present at the 
battle of Edgehill, and was sent up by Essex 
to give a narrative of it to parliament. In 
the speech which he made to the corporation 
of the city on 27 Oct. 1642, Strode gave a 
short account of the fight, specially praising 
the regiments ' that were ignominously re- 
proached by the name of Roundheads/ 
whose courage had restored the fortune of 
the day (Old Parliamentary History, xi. 
479; CLARENDON, vi. 101). In 1643 his 
house in Devonshire was plundered by Sir 
Ralph Hopton's troops, and the commons 
introduced an ordinance for indemnifying him 
out of Hopton's estate (Commons' Journals, 
ii. 977). When Pym was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, Strode was one of his bearers 




(13 Dec. 1643). Strode was active against 
Archbishop Laud, and on 28 Nov. 1644 was 
employed by the commons to press the 
lords to agree to the ordinance for the arch- 
bishop's execution. He is said to have 
threatened the peers that the mob of the 
city would force them to pass it if they de- 
layed (LAUD, Works, v. 414, 427). ' Mer- 
curius Aulicus,' commenting on the incident, 
terms Strode 'he that makes all the bloody 
motions' (GEEEN, p. 16). On 31 Jan. 1645 
he was added to the assembly of divines 
(Commons' Journals, iv. 38). 

Strode died of a fever at Tottenham early 
in September 1645. On 10 Sept. the house 
ordered that he should have a public funeral 
and be buried in Westminster Abbey (ib. 
iv. 268). Whitelocke, who attended the 
funeral, describes him as a constant servant 
to the parliament, just and courteous (Me- 
morials, i. 513, ed. 1853). Gaspar Hickes, 
who preached the funeral sermon, dwells 
on the disinterestedness of Strode, states that 
he spent or lost all he had in the public 
service, and asserts that his speeches were 
characterised by a ' solid vehemence and a 
piercing acuteness ' (The Life and Death of 
David, a sermon preached at the funeral of 

William Strode, $c., 1645, 4to). At the 
Restoration his remains were disinterred by 
a warrant dated 9 Sept. 1661 (CHESTEE, 

Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 522). 

The identity of the Strode who was im- 
prisoned in 1629 with the Strode who was 
impeached in 1642 has been denied (FOESTEE, 
Arrest of the Five Members,^. 198 ; Grand Re- 
monstrance,^. 175 ; Life of Sir John Eliot, ii. 
445). It is satisfactorily established by Mr. 
Sanford (Studies and Illustrations of the 
Great Rebellion, p. 397) and by Mr. Gar- 
diner (History of England, ix. 223). Strode 
is also sometimes confused with William 
Strode (1589P-1666) of Barrington, near 
Ilchester, who distinguished himself by his 
opposition to the king's commission of array 
in Somerset, was one of the parliamentary 
deputy-lieutenants of that county in 1642, 
and became a colonel in the parliament's 
service. In 1646 he was returned to the 
Long parliament for Ilchester, and, being a 
strong presbyterian, was expelled from the 
house by l Pride's purge ' in 1648. In 1661 
he was imprisoned and obliged to make a 
humble submission for disobeying the orders 
of the king's deputy-lieutenants in Somerset. 
He died in 1666, aged 77. His portrait, by 
William Dobson, which was in 1866 exhi- 
bited at South Kensington (No. 597) as that 
of the other William Strode, was acquired 
by the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
in December 1897. 

[An Historic Doubt solved : William Strode- 
one of the Five Members, William Strode- 
colonel in the Parliament Army. By Em- 
manuel Green, Taunton, 1885, reprinted from 
the Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological 
Society for 1884; other authorities mentioned 
in the article.] C. H. F. 

STRODE, WILLIAM (1602-1645), poet 
and dramatist, born, according to the entry in 
the Oxford matriculation register, in 1602, was- 
only son of Philip Strode, who lived near 
Plympton, Devonshire, by his wife, Wilmot 
Hanton. Sir Richard Strode of Newnham r 
Devonshire, seems to have been his uncle. 
He gained a king's scholarship at Westmin- 
ster, and was elected to Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1617, but he did not matriculate 
in the university till 1 June 1621, when he' 
was stated to be nineteen years old. He 
graduated B.A. on 6 Dec. 1621, M.A. on 
17 June 1624, and B.D. on 10 Dec. 1631. 
Taking holy orders, he gained a reputation 
as ' a most florid preacher,' and became chap- 
lain to Richard Corbet [q. v.], bishop of 
Oxford. Like the bishop, he amused his 
leisure by writing facile verse. In 1629 he 
was appointed public orator in the university, 
and served as proctor during the same year. 
In 1633 he was instituted to the rectory of 
East Bradenham, Norfolk, but apparently 
continued to reside in Oxford. When 
Charles I and Queen Henrietta visited the 
university in 1636, Strode welcomed them at 
the gate of Christ Church with a Latin ora- 
tion, and on 29 Aug. 1636 a tragi-comedy by 
him, called l The Floating Island,' was acted 
by the students of his college in the royal 
presence. The songs were set to music by 
Henry Lawes. The play was reported to be 
too full of morality to please the court, but 
the king commended it, and preferment fol- 
lowed. In 1638 Strode was made a canon of 
Christ Church, and vicar of Blackbourton, 
Oxfordshire, and he proceeded to the degree 
of D.D. (6 July 1638). From 1639 to 1642 
he was vicar of Badby, Northamptonshire. 
He died at Christ Church on 11 March 1644- 
1645, and was buried in the divinity chapel 
of Christ Church Cathedral, but no memorial 
marked his grave. 

Wood describes Strode as ' a person of 
great parts, a pithy ostentatious preacher, an 
exquisite orator, and an eminent poet.' He 
is referred to as ( this renowned wit ' in an ad- 
vertisement of his play in Phillips's ' World 
of Words,' 1658. Three sermons by him were- 
published in his last years. His ' Floating 
Island ' was first printed in 1655, with 
a dedication addressed by the writer to Sir 
John Hele. But his fame, like that of 
his Oxford friends, Bishop Corbet and Jas- 




er Mayne, who were also divines, rests on 
is occasional verse, which shows a genuine 
lyrical faculty and sportive temperament. 
Specimens were included in many seven- 
teenth-century anthologies and song-books, 
but much remains in manuscript, and well 
deserves printing. Two of his poems are in 
Henry Lawes's ' Ayres for Three Voices,' of 
which one, ' To a Lady taking off her Veil,' 
was reprinted in Beloe's 'Anecdotes' (vi. 
207-8). Others, including ' Melancholy Op- 
posed,' are in 'Wit Restored' (1658), in 'Par- 
nassus Biceps ' (1658), and in ' Poems written 
by William, Earl of Pembroke ' (1660). An 
anthem by him was set to music by Richard 
Gibbs, organist at Norwich. A poem on 
kisses, in the manner of Lyly's ' Cupid and 
Campaspe,' appeared in ' New Court Songs 
and Poems, by R. V. Gent.' (1672), and in 
Dryden's 'Miscellany Poems ' (pt. iv. 1716, p. 
131) ; it was reprinted in ' Notes and Queries' 
(1st ser. i. 302), 'Gentleman's Magazine' 
(1823, ii. 7-8), and ' Contemporary Review' 
(July 1870). Six poems by him from ' an 
old manuscript volume ' are in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine,' 1823, ii. 7-8 ; two of these 
are in Ellis's ' Specimens,' iii. 173. A song 
in Devonshire dialect, recounting a country- 
man's visit to Plymouth, is assigned to 
Strode; it was printed from a Harleian 
manuscript in ' Notes and Queries,' 2nd &er. 
x. 462. Some unpublished pieces are among 
Rawlinson MS. 142 and the Sancroft manu- 
scripts at the Bodleian Library, and the Har- 
leian manuscripts at the British Museum. 

("Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 562-6; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 151-3; 
Langbaine's Dramatick Poets ; Fleay's Biogra- 
phical Chronicle of the English Drama; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. ; Welch's Alumni Westmonast. 
p. 86; cf. Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Eep. p. 464.] 

S. L. 

STRONG, WILLIAM (d. 1654), inde- 
pendent divine, was born in Durham. He 
was educated at Cambridge, graduating B. A. 
from St. Catharine Hall, of which he was 
elected a fellow on 30 Dec. 1631. In 1640 
he became rector of Moore Critchell in 
Dorsetshire, but he was driven out in 1643, 
when the royalists obtained the ascendency 
in the county. He fled to London, where 
he met a cordial reception, and frequently 
preached before parliament (Journal of House 
of Commons, v. vi. vii. passim). On 31 Dec. 
1645 the commons appointed him as suc- 
cessor to Edward Peale in the Westminster 
assembly (ib. iv. 392, 395), and on 14 Oct. 
1647 he became minister of St. Dunstan's-in- 
the-West, Fleet Street (ib. v. 454). On 
9 Dec. 1650 he was chosen pastor to a con- 
gregation of independents, which comprised 

many members of parliament, and to which 
he preached in Westminster Abbey. On 
29 July 1652 he was appointed to a commit- 
tee for selecting ' godly persons to go into 
Ireland and preach the gospel' (Cal. State 
Papers, 1651-2, p. 351). A sermon preached 
at Westminster in July 1653 ' against the 
liberty of the times as introducing popery,' 
attracted some attention (Cal. Clarendon 
Papers, iii. 236). He died in middle life in 
June 1654, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey on 4 July ; but on the Restoration 
his remains, with those of several others, 
were dug up and thrown into a pit in St. 
Margaret's churchyard. His widow Damaris 
survived him. 

Strong was the author of: 1. 'Clavis 
Apocalyptica ad incudem revocata,' Lon- 
don, 1653, 8vo. 2. 'The Saints Communion 
with God, and Gods Communion with them 
in Ordinances,' ed. Hering, London, 1656, 
12mo. 3. 'Heavenly Treasure, or Man's 
Chiefest Good,' ed. Howe, London 1656,12mo. 
4. ' Thirty-one Select Sermons/London, 1656, 
4to. 5. ' A Treatise showing the Subordina- 
tion of the Will of Man to the Will of God,' 
ed. Rowe, London, 1657, 8vo. 6. ' A Dis- 
course on the Two Covenants,' published by 
Theophilus Gale [q. v.], London, 1678, fol. 
Strong also published several sermons, and 
wrote prefatory remarks to Dingley's ' Spiri- 
tual Taste Described,' London, 1649, 8vo. 

[Funeral Sermon : Elisha, his Lamentation, 
by Obadiah Sedgwick, 1654 ; Prefaces to Strong's 
posthumous publications ; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, iii. 196-200 ; Wilson's Dissenting 
Churches, iii. 151-6 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. iii. 
173, 443 ; Hutchins's Hist, of Dorset, ed. Shipp 
and Hodson, iii. 132.] E. I. C. 

RICHARD DE, d. 1176.] 

STROTHER, EDWARD (d. 1737), medi- 
cal writer, born in Northumberland, was 
perhaps son of Edward Strother, who was 
admitted an extra-licentiate of the College 
of Physicians on 1 Oct. 1700, and afterwards 
practised at Alnwick in Northumberland. 
On 8 May 1720 he graduated M.D. at the 
university of Utrecht, and on 3 April 1721 
he was admitted a licentiate of the College 
of Physicians. He died on 14 April 1737 at 
his house near Soho Square. 

He was the author of : 1. 'A Critical Essay 
on Fevers,' London, 1716, 8vo. 2. ' Evodia, 
or a Discourse of Causes and Cures,' London, 
1718, 8vo. 3. ' Pharmacopoeia Practica,' Lon- 
don, 1719, 12mo. 4. ' D. M. I. de Vi Cordis 
Motrice,' Utrecht, 1 720, 4to. 5. ' Experienced 
Measures how to manage the Small-pox,' 
London, 1721, 8vo. 6. 'Syllabus Praelec- 



tionum Pharmaco-logicarum et Medico-prac- 
ticarum,' London, 1724, 4to. 7. ' An Essay 
on Sickness and Health/ London, 1725, Svo. 
8. e Practical Observations on the Epidemi- 
cal Fever,' London, 1729, Svo. Some ob- 
servations by Strother are also prefixed to 
Radcliffe's ' Pharmacopoeia,' London, 1716, 
12mo; and he translated Harman's ' Materia 
Medica,' London, 1727, Svo. 

[Munk's Roll of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, i. 520, ii. 77 ; Gent. Mag. 1737, p. 253 ; 
Album Studiosorum Academise Rheno-Trajec- 
tanse (Utrecht), col. 121 ; Political State of 
Great Britain, 1737, i. 432.] E. I. C. 

STRUTHERS, JOHN (1776-1853), 
Scottish poet, son of William Struthers, 
shoemaker, and his wife, Elizabeth Scott, 
was born at Longcalderwood, East Kilbride, 
Lanarkshire, on 18 July 1776. Joanna 
Baillie and her mother and her sister, then 
resident at Longcalderwood, were interested 
in the child, read and played to him, and 
heard him reading in turn. After acting as 
cowherd and farm-servant till the age of 
fifteen, he learned the trade of shoemaking 
in Glasgow, and settled at Longcalderwood 
in 1793 to work for Glasgow employers. He 
married on 24 July 1798, and in 1801 settled 
in Glasgow, working at his trade till 1819. 
Reading widely and writing considerably, 
he soon gained a high literary reputation, 
and reluctantly abandoned shoemaking to 
become editorial reader successively for the 
firms of Khull, Blackie, & Co. and Archi- 
bald Fullarton & Co., Glasgow. Through 
Joanna Baillie, Scott came to know Struthers, 
who happily depicts his brilliant friend as 
1 possessed of a frank and open heart, an un- 
clouded understanding, and a benevolence 
that embraced the world ' (STRTTTHERS, My 
own Life, p. cii). Scott aided Struthers in 
negotiations with Constable the publisher 
(Scott's Life, ii. 175, ed. 1837). In 1833 he 
was appointed librarian of Stirling's public 
library, Glasgow (cf. LOCKHART, Life of Scott, 
ii. 177, ed. 1837). He filled this situation 
for about fifteen years. Pie died in Glasgow 
on 30 July 1853. 

Struthers was twice married, in 1798 and 
in 1819, and had families by both wives. 

Struthers early printed a small volume of 
poems, but, straightway repenting, burnt the 
whole impression, ' with the exception of a 
few copies recklessly given into the hands of 
his acquaintances.'' In 1803 he published 
' Anticipation,' a vigorous and successful 
war ode, prompted by rumours of Napoleon's 
impending invasion. In 1804 appeared the 
author's most popular poem, * The Poor 
Man's Sabbath,' of which the fourth edition, 
with a characteristic preface, was published 

in 1824. Somewhat digressive and diffuse, the 
poem is written in fluent Spenserian stanza, 
and shows an ardent love of nature and 
rural life, and an enthusiasm for the impres- 
sive simplicity of Scottish church services. 
Soon after appeared ' The Sabbath, a poem,' 
by James Grahame (1765-1811) [q.v.], whom 
the * Dramatic Mirror ' unjustifiably charged 
with plagiarism from ' The Poor Man's Sab- 
bath.' 'The Peasant's Death,' 1806, is a 
realistic and touching pendant to ' The Poor 
Man's Sabbath.' In 1811 appeared 'The 
Winter Day,' a fairly successful delineation 
of nature's sterner moods, followed in 1814 
by t Poems, Moral and Religious.' In 1816 
Struthers published anonymously a discrimi- 
nating and suggestive ' Essay on the State 
of the Labouring Poor, with some Hints for 
its Improvement.' About the same date he 
edited, with biographical preface, ' Selections 
from the Poems of William Muir.' A pam- 
phlet entitled * Tekel,' sharply criticising 
voluntaryism, is another undated product of 
this time. ' The Plough,' 1818, written in 
Spenserian stanza, is too ambitiously con- 
ceived, but has notable idyllic passages. In 
1819 appeared 'The Harp of Caledonia' 
(3 vols. 18mo), a good collection of Scottish 
songs, with an appended essay on Scottish 
song-writers. For this work 'the editor re- 
ceived aid from Scott, Joanna Baillie, and 
Mrs. John Hunter. Two years later appeared 
a similar anthology called l The British Min- 
strel' (Glasgow, 1821, 2 vols. 12mo). During 
his career as publishers' reader Struthers 
annotated a new edition of Wodrow's ' His- 
tory of the Church of Scotland,' and produced 
in two volumes, in 1827, a ' History of Scot- 
land from the Union.' He was engaged on 
a third volume at his death. In 1836 ap- 
peared his fine descriptive poem ' Dychmont,' 
begun in youth and completed in later life. 
Besides miscellaneous, ecclesiastical, and 
other pamphlets, Struthers wrote many of 
the lives in Chainbers's 'Biographical Dic- 
tionary of Eminent Scotsmen,' and also con- 
tributed to the ' Christian Instructor.' His 
collected poems in two volumes, with a 
somewhat discursive but valuable autobio- 
graphy appeared in 1850 and again in 1854. 

[Struthers's My own Life, prefixed to Poems ; 
Lockhart's Life of Scott ; Semple's Poems and 
Songs of Robert Tannahill, p. 383 ; Gent. Mag. 
1852, ii. 318; Chainbers's Biogr. Diet, of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen.] T. B. 

PER (1801-1880), born at Derby on 26 Oct. 
1801, was only son of William Strutt of St. 
Helen's House, Derby, by his wife Barbara, 
daughter of Thomas Evans of that town [see 
under STRUTT, JEDEDIAH]. He was edu- 


6 4 


cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1823 and M.A. in 1826. 
While at Cambridge he filled the office of 
president of the Union Society. On leaving 
the university he settled in London in order 
to study law. He never took an active part 
in the affairs of the family firm (W. G. and 
J. Strutt), of which he was a partner. On 
10 May 1823 he was admitted a student at 
Lincoln's Inn, and on 13 June 1825 at the 
Inner Temple. He was not called to the bar. 

As a boy Strutt shared his father's in- 
terest in science, but he mainly devoted his 
leisure, while a law-student in London, to a 
study of social and economic questions. He 
became intimate with Jeremy Bentham (a 
friend of his father) and James and John 
Stuart Mill, and under their influence framed 
his political views, identifying himself with 
the philosophical radicals. On 31 July 1830 
he was returned in the liberal interest mem- 
ber of parliament for the borough of Derby. 
He retained his seat until 1847, when his 
election, with that of his fellow member, 
the Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower, was de- 
clared void on petition on account of bribery 
Sactised by their agents (HANSAKD, Parl. 
ebates, xcviii. 402-14), On 16 July 1851 
he was returned for Arundel in Sussex. 
That seat he exchanged in July 1852 for 
Nottingham, which he continued to repre- 
sent until his elevation to the peerage. From 
1846 to 1848 he filled the post of chief com- 
missioner of railways, in 1850 he became 
high sheriff for Nottinghamshire, and in 
December 1852, when Lord Aberdeen's coali- 
tion government w r as formed, he received 
the office of chancellor of the duchy of Lan- 
caster, but resigned it in June 1854 in favour 
of Earl Granville. On 26 Aug. 1856 he was 
created Baron Belper of Belper in Derby- 
shire, and in 1862 he received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from Cambridge University. 
In 1864 he was nominated lord lieutenant of 
Nottinghamshire, and in 1871 he succeeded 
George Grote [q.v,] as president of University 
College, London. He was also chairman of 
quarter sessions for the county of Nottingham 
for many years, and was highly esteemed in 
that capacity, particularly by the legal pro- 

Belper was in middle life a recognised 
authority on questions of free trade, law 
reform, and education. Through life he en- 
joyed the regard of his ablest contemporaries, 
among others of Macaulay, John Romilly, 
McCulloch, John and Charles Austen, George 
Grote, and Charles Buller. His interest in 
science and literature proved a solace to his 
later years. He was elected a fellow of the 
Eoyal Society on 22 March 1860, and was 

also a fellow of the Geological and Zoologi- 
cal societies. He died on 30 June 1880 at 
his house, 75 Eaton Square, London. His- 
portrait, painted by George Richmond, R.A., 
is in possession of the present Lord Belper. 
Belper married, on 28 March 1837, Amelia 
Harriet, youngest daughter of William Otter 
[q. v.], bishop of Chichester. By her he had 
four sons William, who died in 1856, Henry r 
his successor, Arthur, and Frederick and 
four daughters : Sophia, married to Sir Henry 
Denis Le Marchant, bart. ; Caroline, married 
to Mr. Kenelm Edward Digby ; Mary, married 
first to Mr. Henry Mark Gale, secondly to 
Henry Handford, M.D. ; and Ellen, married 
to Mr. George Murray Smith. 

[G-. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Men of the Time, 1879 ; Times, 1 July 1880 ; 
Walford's County Families, 1880 ; Proc. of Royal 
Soc. xxxi. 75 ; Index to Admissions at Inner 
Temple.] E. I. C. 

1850), painter and etcher, studied in London, 
and was a contributor to the Royal Academy 
and British Institution at intervals between 
1819 and 1858. For a few years he practised 
portrait-painting, but from 1824 to 1831 ex- 
hibited studies of forest scenery, and he is- 
now best known by two sets of etchings 
which he published at this period ' Sylva 
Britannica, or portraits of Forest Trees dis- 
tinguished for their Antiquity,' &c., 1822 (re- 
issued in 1838), and ' Delicise Sylvarum, or 
grand and romantic Forest Scenery in Eng- 
land and Scotland,' 1828. About 1831 
Strutt went abroad, and, after residing for a 
time at Lausanne, settled in Rome, whence 
he sent to the academy in 1845 ' The An- 
cient Forum, Rome,' and in 1851 ' Tasso's 
Oak, Rome.' In the latter year he returned 
to England, and in 1858 exhibited a view in 
the Roman Campagna ; his name then dis- 
appears. Strutt's portraits of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Marsh and Philander Chase, D.D., were 
engraved by J. Young and C. Turner. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1893 ; Universal Cat. of Books 
on Art.] F. M. O'D. 

STRUTT, JEDEDIAH (1726-1797) y 
cotton-spinner and improver of the stock- 
ing-frame, born at BlaQkwell in Derbyshire 
in 1726, was the second son of William 
Strutt of Black well. In 1740 he was articled 
for seven years to Ralph Massey, a wheel- 
wright at Findern, near Derby. After serving 
his apprenticeship he became a farmer, but 
about 1755 his brother-in-law, William Wool- 
latt, a native of Findern, who became a 
hosier at Derby, called his attention to some 
unsuccessful attempts that had been made 


,6 5 


to manufacture ribbed stockings upon the 
stocking-frame [see LEE, WILLIAM, d.1610?]. 
Strutt had a natural inclination towards 
mechanics, and, in con] unction with Woollatt, 
he took out two patents, on 19 April 1758 
{No. 722) and on 10 Jan. 1759 (No. 734), for 
a ' machine furnished with a set of turning- 
needles, and to be fixed to a stocking-frame 
for making turned ribbed stockings, pieces, 
and other goods usually manufactured upon 
stocking-frames.' This machine could be used 
or not as ribbed or plain work was desired. 
The principle of Strutt's invention became the 
basis of numerous later modifications of the 
apparatus and of other machines. To him- 
self and his partner the invention proved ex- 
tremely lucrative ; they commenced to manu- 
facture at Derby, where the * Derby Patent 
Rib ' quickly became popular. 

About 1768 Messrs. Wright, bankers of 
Nottingham, refused to continue their ad- 
Tances to Richard Arkwright (1732-1792) 
[q. v.], then engaged in contrivinghis spinning- 
frame. The bankers were doubtful of the pos- 
sibility of Arkwright's experiment reaching a 
successful termination, and they advised him 
to consult on this point a stocking manufac- 
turer named Need, who had entered into part- 
nership with Strutt. The latter immediately 
saw the importance of Arkwright's inven- 
tion, and Arkwright was admitted into 
partnership with himself and Need. 

On 3 July 1769 Arkwright took out a 
patent for his frame, after incorporating 
several improvements suggested by Strutt. 
Works were erected at Cromford and after- 
wards at Belper, and when the partnership 
was dissolved in 1782 Strutt retained the 
Belper works in his own hands. 

On 19 July 1770 Jedediah and his brother 
Joseph Strutt took out a patent (No. 964) 
for a ' machine for roasting, boiling, and 
baking, consisting of a portable fire-stove, 
an air-jack, and a meat-screen.' Jedediah 
died at Exeter House in Derby on 6 May 
1797 after a lingering illness. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Woollatt of 
Findern, near Derby, in 1755. By her he had 
three sons William, George Benson of Bel- 
per, and Joseph and two daughters : Eliza- 
beth, who married William Evans of Darley, 
Derbyshire ; and Martha, who married Samuel 
Fox of Derby. 

Strutt's portrait, painted by Joseph Wright 
of Derby, is in the possession of Lord Belper. 
It was engraved by Henry Meyer. 

His eldest son, WILLIAM STKTJTT (1756- j 
1830), born in 1756, inherited much of his 
father's mechanical genius. He devised a 
system of thoroughly ventilating and warm- 
ing large buildings, which was carried out 


with great success at the Derbyshire general 
infirmary. He made considerable improve- 
ments in the method of constructing stoves, 
and ultimately, in 1806, invented the Belper 
stove which possessed greatly augmented 
heating powers. He also invented a form of 
self-acting spinning-mule. He was an inti- 
mate friend of Erasmus Darwin, took a warm, 
interest in scientific questions, and was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society, though he had 
not sought the honour. Among his friends 
he also numbered Robert Owen, Richard 
Lovell Edgeworth, Samuel Bentham, and 
his brother Jeremy. He died at Derby on 
29 Dec. 1830. By his wife Barbara, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Evans of Derby, he had one 
son Edward, first lord Belper [q. v.], and 
three daughters (BAINES, History of the 
Cotton Manufacture, 1835, p. 205 ; BERNAST,. 
History and Art of Warming and Ventilating) 
1845, ii. 77, 87, 208-11 ; SYLVESTER, Philo- 
sophy of Domestic Economy, 1819 ; Gent. Mag. 
1830, ii. 647). 

The third son, JOSEPH STRTJTT (1765-1844), 
was well known for his benefactions to his 
native town. His gift of the l arboretum,' or 
public garden, to Derby is worthy of notice 
as one of the earliest instances of the bestowal 
of land for such a purpose. In 1835 he was 
the first mayor of Derby under the Municipal 
Corporations Act. The poet Thomas Moore 
was on intimate terms with Joseph Strutt 
and with other members of the family (cf. 
RUSSELL, Life of Moore, passim). Strutt was 
also the friend and correspondent of Maria 
Edgeworth, who visited him in the company 
of her father and stepmother, and in 1823 
submitted to his criticism an account of 
spinning jennies written for the sequel to 
'Harry and Lucy' (MRS. RITCHIE, Intro- 
ductions to Popular Tales, 1895, Helen, 
1896, and The Parents' Assistant, 1896). 
Joseph Strutt died at Derby on 13 Jan. 
1844. His house, in the town was long 
noted for its museum and valuable collec- 
tion of pictures. 

[Private information ; Button's Nottingham 
Date Book, pp. 34-5 ; Gent. Mag. 1797, i. 446 ; 
Felkin's History of Machine-wrought Hosiery 
and Lace Manufactures, 1867. pp. 84-101 ; EncycJ. 
Brit. 9th ed. ii. 541, xii. 299 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 6th edit.] E. I. C. 

STRUTT, JOSEPH (1749-1802), author, 
artist, antiquary, and engraver, youngest son 
of Thomas Strutt by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Younge of Halstead, 
Essex, was born on 27 Oct. 1749 at Spring- 
field Mill, Chelmsford, which then belonged 
to his father, a wealthy miller. When Joseph 
was little more than a year old, his father 
died. His upbringing and that of another son, 





John, born a year or two earlier, and after- 
wards a fashionable physician in Westmin- 
ster, devolved upon his mother. He was 
educated at King Edward's school, Chelms- 
ford, and at the age of fourteen was ap- 
prenticed to the engraver, William Wynne 
Ryland [q. v.] In 1770, when he had been 
less than a year a student at the Royal Aca- 
demy, Strutt carried off one of the first silver 
medals awarded, and in the following year 
he took one of the first gold medals. In 1771 
he became a student in the reading-room of 
the British Museum, whence he drew the 
materials for most of his antiquarian works. 
His first book, ' The Regal and Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of England,' appeared in 1773. 
For it he drew and engraved from ancient 
manuscripts representations of kings, cos- 
tumes, armour, seals, and other objects of in- 
terest, this being the first work of the kind 
published in England. He spent the greater 
part of his life in similar labours, his art be- 
coming little more than a handmaid to his 
antiquarian and literary researches. Be- 
tween 1774 and 1776 he published the three 
volumes of his ' Manners, Customs, Arms, 
Habits, &c., of the People of England/ and 
in 1777-8 the two volumes of his l Chronicle 
of England,' both large quarto works, pro- 
fusely illustrated, and involving a vast amount 
of research. Of the former a French edition 
appeared in 1789. The latter Strutt origi- 
nally intended to extend to six volumes, but 
he failed to obtain adequate support. At this 
period he resided partly in London, partly at 
Chelmsford, but made frequent expeditions 
for purposes of antiquarian study. In 1774, 
on his marriage, he took a house in Duke 
Street, Portland Place. For seven years after 
the death of his wife in 1778 he devoted his 
attention to painting, and exhibited nine pic- 
tures, mostly classical subjects, in the Royal 
Academy. From this period date several of 
his best engravings, executed in the ' chalk ' 
or dotted style which had been introduced 
from the Continent by his master, Ryland. 

After 1785 Strutt resumed his antiquarian 
and literary researches, and brought out his 
' Biographical Dictionary of Engravers ' (2 vols. 
1785-6), the basis of all later works of the 

In 1790, his health having failed and his 
affairs having become involved, mainly 
through the dishonesty of a relative, Strutt 
took up his residence at Bacon's Farm, 
Bramfield, Hertfordshire, where he lived in 
the greatest seclusion, carrying on his work 
as an engraver, and devoting his spare time 
with great success to the establishment of a 
Sunday and evening school, which still exists. 
At Bramfield he executed several engravings 

of exceptional merit, including those thir- 
teen in number, after designs by Stotha'rd 
which adorn Bradford's edition (London, 8vo, 
1792) of the Pilgrim's Progress.' He also 
gathered the materials for more than one pos- 
thumously published work of fiction, besides 
writing a satirical romance relating to the 
French revolution, which exists in manu- 

In 1795, having paid his debts and his 
health having improved, Strutt returned to 
London and resumed his researches. Almost 
immediately he brought out his ' Dresses and 
Habits of the English People ' (2 vols. 1796- 
1799), probably the most valuable of his 
works. This was followed by his well-known 
' Sports and Pastimes of the People of Eng- 
land' (1801), which has been frequently re- 

After this Strutt (now in his fifty-second 
year) commenced a romance, entitled ' Queen- 
hoo Hall,' after an ancient manor-house at 
Tewin, near Bramfield. It was intended to 
illustrate the manners, customs, and habits of 
the people of England in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Strutt did not live to finish it. After 
his death the incomplete manuscript was 
placed by the first John Murray in the hands- 
of Walter Scott, who added a final chapter, 
bringing the narrative to a somewhat pre- 
mature and inartistic conclusion. It was 
published in 1808 in four small volumes. 
Scott admits in the general preface to the 
later editions of ' Waverley ' that his asso- 
ciation with Strutt's romance largely sug- 
p-ested to him the publication of his own 

Strutt died on 16 Oct. 1802 at his house 
in Charles Street, Hatton Garden, and was 
buried in St. Andrew's churchyard, Holborn. 
On 16 Aug. 1774 he married Anne, daughter 
of Barwell Blower, dyer, of Booking, Essex. 
On her death in September 1778 he wrote 
an elegiac poem to her memory, published 
anonymously in 1779. Strutt's portrait in 
crayon by Ozias Humphrey, R. A., is preserved 
in the National Portrait Gallery (No. 323). 

Although the amount of Strutt's work as an 
engraver is small, apart from that appearing 
in his books, it is of exceptional merit and is 
still highly esteemed. In the study of those 
branches of archaeology which he followed 
he was a pioneer, and all later work on the 
same lines has been built on the foundations 
he laid. Besides the works mentioned, two 
incomplete poems by him, entitled ' The Test 
of Guilt ' and l The Bumpkin's Disaster/ were 
publishedin one volume in 1808. All his illus- 
trated antiquarian works now fetch higher 
prices than when published. 

Strutt left two sons. The elder, JOSEPH 

Strutt < 

STRUTT (1775-1833), was born on 28 May 
1775. He was educated at Christ's Hospital 
and afterwards trained in Nichols's printing 
office, but eventually became librarian to the 
Duke of Newcastle. Besides editing some of 
his father's posthumous works, he wrote two 
' Commentaries ' on the Holy Scriptures, 
which ran to several editions. He also con- 
tributed a brief sketch of his father's life to 
Nichols's ' Literary Anecdotes' (1812, v. 665- 
686). He died at Isleworth, aged 58, on 
12 Nov. 1833 (Gent. Mag. 1833, ii. 474), 
leaving a widow and a large family. 

Strutt's younger son, WILLIAM: THOMAS 
STRUTT (1777-1850), was born on 7 March 
1777. He held a position in the bank of 
England, but won a reputation as a minia- 
ture-painter. He died at Writtle, Essex, on 
22 Feb. 1850, aged 73, leaving several sons, 
one being Mr. William Strutt of Wadhurst, 
Sussex, who, with his son, Mr. Alfred W. 
Strutt, carries on the artistic profession in this 
family to the third and fourth generations. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes (as above) ; private 
information.] M. C-Y. 


1848), governor of Quebec, baptised at 
Springfield, Essex, on 26 Feb. 1762, was 
second son of John Strutt, of Terling Place, 
Essex, by Anne, daughter of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Goodday of Maldon. Entering the army 
in 1778, he joined his regiment, the 61st, 
at Minorca. Later he was appointed to a 
company in the 91st, and took part in the 
defence of St. Lucia. In 1782, having ex- 
changed into the 97th, he served at the siege 
of Gibraltar. On the signing of the pre- 
liminaries of peace he purchased a majority 
in the 60th regiment, and, being placed on 
half-pay, visited several German courts. In 
1787 he was sent with his regiment to the 
West Indies, where he took an active part 
in military affairs. Succeeding to a lieu- 
tenant-colonelcy by special command of 
George III, he was removed to the 54th, 
and went with the army of Lord Moira to 
Flanders. In 1794 he bore a very distin- 
guished part against the French at Tiel, 
going through much hard fighting. On his 
return he was sent to St. Vincent, where he 
was raised to the rank of brigadier-general. 
In January 1796, with two hundred men, 
he attacked a force of twelve hundred, being 
himself thrice wounded, and losing his right 
leg. On his return to England he was re- 
ceived with marked favour by the king, and 
on 23 Feb. 1796 was made deputy governor 
of Stirling Castle, afterwards serving upon 
the staff in Ireland. On 23 June 1798 he 
was raised to the rank of major-general, and 

7 Strype 

on 13 May 1800 he was, as a reward for his 
services, appointed to the sinecure office of 
governor of Quebec, and he held that post 
until his death. He died at Tofts, Little 
Baddow, Essex, on 5 Feb. 1848, having seen 
an exceptional amount of military service, 
both at home and abroad. 

[G-ent. Mag. 1848, i. 661 ; Essex Herald, 8 Feb. 
1848 ; Ann. Reg. 1848, p. xc.] M. C-Y. 

STRYPE, JOHN (1643-1737), eccle- 
siastical historian and biographer, born in 
Houndsditch on 1 Nov. 1643, was youngest 
child of John Strype or van Strijp (d. 1648), 
by his wife Hester (d. 1665), daughter of 
Daniel Bonnell of Norwich. Her sister 
Abigail was mother of Captain Robert Knox 
(1640 P-1720) [q. v.] The historian's father, 
a member of an old family seated at Her- 
togenbosch in Brabant, came to London to 
learn the business of a merchant and silk- 
throwster from his uncle, Abraham van 
Strijp, who, to escape religious persecution, 
had taken refuge in England. He ultimately 
set up in business for himself, latterly in a 
locality afterwards known as 'Strype's Yard' 
in Petticoat Lane, became a freeman of the 
city, and served as master of his company. 
According to his will, he died in Artillery 
Lane. His widow, according to her will, 
died at Stepney. 

John, a sickly boy, who was possibly bap- 
tised in St. Leonard's Church, Shoreditch, 
was sent to St. Paul's school in 1657, whence 
he was elected Pauline exhibitioner of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, in 1661, matriculating 
on 5 July 1662 (GARDINER, Reg. of St. 
Paul's, p. 51) ; but, finding that society 'too 
superstishus,' he migrated in 1663 to Catha- 
rine Hall, where he graduated B. A. in 1665, 
and M.A. in 1669 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th 
Rep. p. 423). He was incorporated M.A. at 
Oxford on 11 July 1671 (WooD, Fasti, ii. 
329). In accordance with what he knew to 
be his father's wish, he subsequently took 
holy orders. His first preferment was the 
perpetual curacy of Theydon Bois, Essex, 
conferred upon him on 14 July 1669 ; but 
he quitted this in the following November on 
being selected minister of Ley ton in the same 
county. In 1674 he was licensed by Dr. 
Henchman, the then bishop of London, as 
priest and curate, to officiate there during 
the vacancy of the vicarage, and by virtue of 
this license remained unmolested in posses- 
sion of its profits till his death, having never 
received either institution or induction. 
Strype was also lecturer of Hackney from 
1689 to 1724 (LYSONS, Environs, ii. 478). 
In May 1711 he was presented by Arch 
bishop Tenison to the sinecure rectory of 




West Tarring, Sussex, an appointment which, 
as Cole supposes, he might be fairly said to 
owe to Dr. Henry Sacheverell (Addit. MS. 
5853, f. 91). He spent his later years at 
Hackney with Thomas Harris, a surgeon, 
who had married his granddaughter, Susan 
Crawforth. There he died on 11 Dec. 1737 
at the patriarchal age of ninety-four, having 
outlived his wife and children, and was 
buried in Leyton church (Gent. Mag. 1737, 
p. 767). The Latin inscription on his monu- 
ment is from his own pen. By his wife, 
Susannah Lowe, he had two daughters 
Susannah, married in 1711 to James Craw- 
forth, a cheesemonger, of Leadenhall Street ; 
and Hester. 

Strype's amiability won him many friends 
in all sections of society. Among his 
numerous correspondents was Ralph Tho- 
resby [q. v.], who speaks of him with affec- 
tionate reverence (Diary, s.a. 1709, vol. ii.) ; 
while Strype was always ready to deface any 
amount of letters from famous Elizabethans 
to enrich the other's collection of autographs 
{Letters of Thoresby, vol. ii.) Another 
friend, Samuel Knight, D.D. (1675-1746) 
[q. v.], visited him in 1733, and found him, 
though turned of ninety, ' yet very brisk and 
well,' but lamenting that decayed eyesight 
would not permit him to print his materials 
for the lives of Lord Burghley and John 
Foxe the martyrologist (Gent. Mag. 1815, 
i. 27). As Knight expressed a wish to 
write his life, Strype gave him for that pur- 
pose four folio volumes of letters addressed 
to him, chiefly from relatives or literary 
friends, extending from 1660 to 1720. These 
volumes, along with Knight's unfinished 
memoir of Strype, are in the library of the 
university of Cambridge, having been pre- 
sented in 1859-61 by John Percy Baum- 
gartner, the representative of the Knight 
family. An epitome by William Cole, with 
some useful remarks, is in Addit. MS. 5853. 
Another volume of Strype's correspondence, 
of the dates 1679-1721, is also in the uni- 
versity library. 

Strype published nothing of importance 
till after he was fifty; but, as he told 
Thoresby, he spent his life up to that time 
in collecting the enormous amount of in- 
formation and curious detail which is to 
be found in his books. The greater part of 
his materials was derived from a magnificent 
collection of original charters, letters, state 
papers, and other documents, mostly of the 
Tudor period, which he acquired under very 
questionable circumstances. His position 
at Leyton led to an intimacy with Sir 
William Hicks of Ruckholt in that parish, 
who, as the great-grandson of Sir Michael 

Hicks [q. v.], Lord Burghley's secretary, 
inherited the family collection of manu- 
scripts. According to Strype's account (cf. 
his will in RC.C. 287, Wake), Hicks actually 
gave him many of the manuscripts, while 
the others were to be lent by Hicks to 
Richard C his well, the elder [q. v.], for a 
money consideration, to be transcribed and 
prepared for the press by Strype, after which 
they were to be returned to Ruckholt. Chis- 
well published Strype's 'Life of Cranmer' in 
1694, the basis of which was formed on the 
Hicks manuscripts (Gent. Mag. 1784, i. 
179), but, finding it a heavy investment, de- 
clined to proceed, although Strype had sent 
him 'many great packetts' of other anno- 
tated transcripts for the press. Both he and 
his son Richard Chiswell, the younger [q.v.], 
not only declined to pay Strype the sum of 
fifty pounds which he demanded for his 
labour, but alleged that they had ' bought 
outright' all the manuscripts from Hicks 
(Cat. of Manuscripts in Libr. of Univ. of 
Cambr. v. 182). As Hicks was declared a 
lunatic in 1699 (Lansd. MS. 814, f. 35), his 
representatives probably knew nothing of the 
manuscripts, and Strype, although he was 
aware of the agreement between Hicks and 
Chiswell, kept them. In 1711 he sold the 
Foxe papers to Robert Harley, afterwards 
earl of Oxford (1661-1724) [q. v.], who 
complained of their defective condition 
(Harl MS. 3782, now 3781, ff. 126-37); 
these are among the Harleian manuscripts in 
the British Museum. On Strype's death his 
representatives sold the remainder, amount- 
ing to 121 in folio, to James West [q. v.] 
They were eventually bought by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne in 1772, and now form part i. 
of the Lansdowne collection, also in the 
British Museum. 

Strype's lack of literary style, unskilful 
selection of materials, and unmethodical ar- 
rangement render his books tiresome to the 
last degree. Even in his own day his cum- 
brous appendixes caused him to be nicknamed 
the ' appendix-monger.' His want of critical 
faculty led him into serious errors, such as 
the attribution to Edward VI of the founda- 
tion of many schools which had existed long 
before that king's reign (cf. LEA.CH, English 
Schools at the Reformation, 1897). Nor was 
he by any means a trustworthy decipherer 
of the documents he printed, especially of 
those written in Latin. But to students 
of the ecclesiastical and political history 
of England in the sixteenth century the 
vast accumulations of facts and documents 
of which his books consist render them of 
the utmost value. The most important of 
Strype's publications are : 1. ' Memorials 


6 9 


of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury' (with appendix), 2 pts. fol. 1694. 
Another edit., 3 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1848- 
1854, issued under the auspices of the Ec- 
clesiastical History Society, was severely 
criticised by Samuel Roffey Maitland [q. v.] 
in the ' British Magazine ' for 1848. Of other 
editions one, with notes by P. E. Barnes, 
2 vols. 8vo, London, 1853, may be men- 
tioned. 2. 'The Life of the learned Sir 
Thomas Smith,' 8vo, 1698. 3. ' Historical 
Collections of the Life and Acts of John 
Aylnier, Lord Bishop of London,' 8vo, 1701. 
4. ' The Life of the learned Sir John Cheke 
[with his] Treatise on Superstition' [trans- 
lated from the Latin by William Elstob], 
8vo, 1705. 5. 'Annals of the Keformation 
in England,' 2 pts. fol. 1709-8. (' Second 
edit., being a continuation of the " Annals," ' 
4 vols. fol. 1725-31 ; 3rd edit., with addi- 
tions, 4 vols. fol. 1735, 37, 31). 6. 'The 
History of the Life and Acts of Edmund 
Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury,' 2 pts. 
fol. 1710. 7. 'The Life and Acts of Mat- 
thew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury/ 
2 pts. fol. 1711. 8. ' The Life and Acts of 
John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury,' 
2 pts. fol. 1718, 17. 9. 'Ecclesiastical Me- 
morials,' 3 vols. fol. 1721 (reissued in 1733). 
All the above works were reprinted at the 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, in 19 vols. 8vo, 
1812-24, with a general index by R. F. 
Laurence, 2 vols. 8vo, 1828 (for criticisms on 
this edition see Gent. Mag. 1848, i. 47 et 

Strype was also the author of a number of 
single sermons published at various periods. 
He likewise edited vol. ii. of Dr. John Light- 
foot's ' Works,' fol. 1684, and ' Some genuine 
Remains ' of the same divine, ' with a large 
preface concerning the author,' 8vo, 1700. 
To ' The Harmony of the Holy Gospels,' 8vo, 
1705, a posthumous work of his cousin, James 
Bonnell [q. v.], he furnished an additional 
preface ; while to vol. ii. of Bishop White 
Kennett's' Complete History of England,' fol. 
1706 and 1719, he contributed new notes to 
the translation of Bishop Francis Godwin's 
' Annals of the Reign of Queen Mary.' More 
important work was his edition of Stow's 
'Survey . . . brought down from 1633 to the 
present time,' 2 vols. fol. 1720 (another edit., 
called the ' sixth,' 2 vols. fol. 1754, 55), on 
which he laboured for eighteen years (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pp. 236, 260). It is 
invaluable for general reference, although 
Strype's interference with the original text 
renders it of little account with antiquaries. 

His portrait, engraved by George Vertue, 
is prefixed to his ' Ecclesiastical Memorials,' 

[Biogr. Brit. 1763, vi. 3847; Lysons's Environs, 
vols. iii. iv. ; Morant's Essex; Stow's Survey, 
ed. Strype; Gent. Mag. 1784 i. 247, 436, 1791 
i.223, 1811 i. 413 ; Letters of Eminent Literary 
Men (Camd. Soc.), pp. 177, 180; Eemarks of 
Thomas Hearne (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), who con- 
sidered him an 'injudicious writer;' Cat. of 
Lansdowne MSS. 1802, preface, and index; Cat. 
of MSS. in Library of Univ. of Cambridge, vols. 
iv. v. ; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Brit. Por- 
traits, p. 281; Carte's Hist, of England, vol. 
iii., pref. ; Maitland's Eemarks, 1848 (the manu- 
script is in the Library of Univ. of Cambridge) ; 
Maitland's Notes on Strype, 1858 ; Moens's Reg. 
of London Dutch Church in Austin Friars, 1 884 ; 
A. W. Crawley Boevey's Perverse Widow ; other 
letters to and from Strype not mentioned in the 
text are in Brit. Museum, Harl. MSS. 3781, 
7000, Birch MSS. 4163, 4253, 4276, 4277 (mostly 
copies), Cole MSS. 5831-6-40-52-3-66 ; Addit. 
MS. 28104, f. 23, Stowe MS. 746, ff. 106, 111 ; 
while many of his miscellaneous collections, 
some in shorthand and scarcely any of impor- 
tance, are in the Lansdowne MSS. ; other letters 
are to be found in Coxe's Cat. Cod. MSS. Bibl. iv. p. 1126, pt.v.fasc. ii. p. 930; Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. p. 470; will of John 
Strype, the elder, in P. C. C. 8 Essex ; will of 
Hester Strype in P. C. C. 15 Mico.] Gr. G-. 


DE (1796-1873), Australian explorer, known 
as Count Strzelecki, of a noble Polish family, 
was born in 1796 in Polish Prussia. He was 
educated in part at the High School, Edin- 
burgh. When he came of age he finally 
abandoned his native country, and, encou- 
raged by friends in England, commenced in 
1834 a course of travel in the remote East. 
On his way back from China he called in at 
Sydney in April 1839, and was introduced 
to the governor of New South Wales, Sir 
George Gipps, who persuaded him to under- 
take the exploration of the interior. Fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of Sir Thomas Living- 
stone Mitchell [q. v.], he devoted himself 
especially to the scientific examination of 
the geology arid mineralogy, flora, fauna, 
and aborigines of the Great Darling Range, 
conducting all these operations at his own 
expense. Upon completing the survey of 
the Darling Range, Strzelecki and his party, 
including James Macarthur and James 
Riley, decided not to return to Sydney, 
but struck out upon a spur of the range 
leading southwards into Victoria. On their 
way, on 7 March 1840, they unexpectedly 
encountered the prospecting party of Angus 
MacMillan [q. v.] The latter had named the 
district, distinguished by its grand scenery 
and mild climate, Caledonia Australis ; but, 
at the suggestion of Strzelecki, it was re- 
named Gippsland. Upon leaving Mac- 



Millan's camp, with provisions running 
short, the count and his men attempted to 
reach Melbourne by a short cut across the 
ranges. They had to abandon their pack- 
horses and all the botanical and other 
specimens, and for twenty-two days literally 
cut their way through the scrub, seldom 
advancing more than two miles a day, and 
being in a state of starvation. Their clothes 
were torn piecemeal away, and their flesh 
was lacerated by the sharp lancet-like 
brambles of the scrub; but they succeeded 
in reaching Melbourne by the middle of 
May. During this memorable journey 
Strzelecki discovered in the Wellington 
district, two hundred miles west of Sydney, 
a large quantity of gold-bearing quartz. 
He mentioned to Gipps upon his return to 
Sydney the probable existence of a rich 
goldfield in the locality ; but the governor 
earnestly requested him ' not to make the 
matter generally known for fear of the 
serious consequences which, considering the 
condition and population of the colony, 
were to be apprehended from the cupidity 
of the prisoners and labourers.' The first 
official notice of the discovery of gold in 
Australia was thus actually entombed for 
twelve years in a parliamentary paper, 
framed upon a report communicated by 
Gipps ; and it was not until 1851 that the 
rich deposits were turned to practical ac- 
count by Edward Hammond Hargraves 
and others. The priority of the discovery 
undoubtedly belongs to Strzelecki. 

The explorer returned to London in 1843, 
and two years later issued his * Physical 
Description of New South Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, accompanied by a Geologi- 
cal Map, Sections, and Diagrams, and 
Figures of the Organic Remains ' (London, 
8vo). The work, though lacking in arrange- 
ment and power of presentation, contains 
most valuable statistical information ; it is 
dedicated to the author's friend, Sir John 
Franklin. The plates were engraved by 
James De Carle Sower by [q. v.] The fact of 
the discovery of gold was suppressed in ful- 
filment of a promise made to Governor Gipps, 
but a few specimens of the auriferous quartz 
were taken to Europe, and, having been 
analysed, fully confirmed Strzelecki's views, 
which were further corroborated by the 
opinion of Murchison and other geologists. 
The count was not tempted to renew his 
colonial experiences. About 1850 he was 
naturalised as a British subject through 
the good offices of Lord Overstone. He 
was selected as one of the commissioners 
for the distribution of the Irish famine 
relief fund in 1847-8, was created C.B. in 

consideration of his services (21 Nov. 1848), 
was consulted by the government upon 
affairs relating to Australia, and assisted in 
promoting emigration to the Australian 
colonies. He accompanied Lord Lyons to 
the Crimea in 1855, and became an active 
member of the Crimean army fund com- 
mittee. He was elected F.R.S. in June 
1853, and was created D.C.L. by the uni- 
versity of Oxford on 20 June 1860. He 
was made a K.C.M.G. on 30 June 1869, 
and died in Savile Row, London, on 6 Oct. 
1873. His name is commemorated in the 
Strzelecki range of hills in the district of 
Western Port, Victoria, by the Strzelecki 
creek in South Australia, and by several 
species among Australian fauna and flora. 
By way of a supplement to his ' Physical 
Description,' he published in 1856 a brief 
pamphlet giving an account of his original 
discovery of gold in New South Wales. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1714-1886; Annual 
Register, 1873; Times, 7 and 17 Oct. 187.3; 
Blair's Cyclopaedia of Australasia, Melbourne, 
1881, pp." 560-1 ; Meynell's Australasian Bio- 
graphy; Calvert's Exploration of Australia, i. 
199; Westgarth's Colony of Victoria, p. 316; 
Edinburgh Keview, July *1862 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

T. S. 

and STEWART.] 

1886), premier of New South Wales, son of 
Alexander Stuart of Edinburgh, was born in 
that city in 1825, and educated at Edin- 
burgh Academy and University. Embark- 
ing on a commercial career, he went into a 
merchant's office in Glasgow, then to Belfast 
as manager of the North of Ireland Linen 
Mills, and in 1845 to India, whence, not 
finding the climate suit him, he moved to 
New Zealand, and eventually in 1851 to New 
South Wales. After about a year on the 
goldfields Stuart became in December 1852 
assistant secretary to the Bank of New South 
Wales ; in 1854 he was made secretary and 
inspector of colonial branches. His abilities 
attracted the notice of the head of the firm 
of Towns Co., which he joined in 1855 as 
a partner. 

In 1874 Stuart for the first time appeared 
in public life as the champion of the denomi- 
national system in primary education, and 
as the ally of Frederick Barker [q. v.], bishop 
of Sydney. In December 1874 he entered 
the colonial parliament as member for East 
Sydney. On 8 Feb. 1876 he became treasurer 
in the ministry of Sir John Robertson [q.v.~|, 
holding that post till 21 March 1877, when 
the ministry went out. In 1877 he was re- 



elected for East Sydney, but resigned in March 
1879, upon appointment as agent-general for 
the colony in London, though he did not, 
after all, take the post up. At the general elec- 
tion of 1880 he wasreturned for Ilawarra,and 
became leader of the opposition against the 
Parkes-Hobertson ministry, defeating them 
on the land bill of 1882 [see under ROBERT- 
SON, SIE JOHN]. The ministry dissolved par- 
liament and was defeated at the polls, and 
Stuart on 5 Jan. 1883 became premier. 
He at once, and without adopting the usual 
formal methods, arranged for the appoint- 
ment of a committee of inquiry into the land 
laws, and in October brought in a land bill, 
based on their recommendations, which was 
discussed with heat and acrimony during the 
longest session on record in New South 
Wales, and finally passed into law in Oc- 
tober 1884. The question of regulation of 
the civil service was the other principal 
matter which had Stuart's personal attention 
in that session, but at the end of the year 
the question of Australian federation was 
much debated, and he was a member of the 
conference which drew up a scheme of federa- 
tion. Early in 1885 he had a sudden para- 
lytic stroke, and after a holiday in New 
Zealand he came back to office so enfeebled 
that on 6 Oct. 1885 he retired. He was then 
appointed to the legislative council, and later 
in the year became executive commissioner 
for the colony for the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition of 1886 ; after being publicly en- 
tertained at banquets at Woolongong and 
Sydney, he came to England to carry out his 
special service, but died in London/afterthe 
opening of the exhibition, on 16 June 1886. 
The legislative council adjourned on hearing 
of his death ; but in the assembly Sir Henry 
Parkes successfully opposed a similar motion. 

[Sydney Morning Herald, 18 June 1886 ; New 
South Wai esParl. Debates, passim.] C. A. H. 

STUART, ANDREW (d. 1801), lawyer, 
was the second son of Archibald Stuart of 
Torrance in Lanarkshire (d. 1767), seventh 
son and heir of Alexander Stuart of Tor- 
rance. His mother, Elizabeth, was daugh- 
ter of Sir Andrew Myreton of Gogar, bart. 

Andrew studied law, and became a mem- 
ber of the Scottish bar. He was engaged 
by James, sixth duke of Hamilton, as tutor 
to his children, and through his influence 
was in 1770 appointed keeper of the signet 
of Scotland. When the famous Douglas law- 
suit arose, in which the Duke of Hamilton 
disputed the identity of Archibald James 
Edward Douglas, first baron Douglas [q.v.], 
and endeavoured to hinder his succession to 
the family estates, Stuart was engaged to 

conduct the case against the claimant. In the 
course of the suit, which was finally decided 
in the House of Lords in February 1769 in 
favour of Douglas, he distinguished himself 
highly, but so much feeling arose between him 
and EdwardThurlow (afterwards LordThur- 
low), the opposing counsel, that a duel took 
place. After the decision of the case Stuart 
in 1773 published a series of ' Letters to 
Lord Mansfield' (London, 4to), who had 
been a judge in the case, and who had very 
strongly supported the claims of Douglas, 
In these epistles he assailed Mansfield for 
his want of impartiality with a force, and 
eloquence that caused him at the time to be 
regarded as a worthy rival to Junius. 

From 1777 to 1781 he was occupied with 
the affairs of his younger brother, Colonel 
James Stuart (d. 1793) [q.v.], who had been 
suspended from his position by the East India 
Company for the arrest of Lord Pigot, the 
governor of the Madras presidency [see PIGOT, 
GEORGE, BARON PIGOT]. He published 
several letters to the directors of the East 
India Company and to the secretary at war, 
in which his brother's case was set forth with 
great clearness and vigour. These letters 
called forth a reply from Alexander Dal- 
rymple [q. v.] 

On 28 Oct. 1774 Stuart was returned to 
parliament for Lanarkshire, and continued 
to represent the county until 1784. On 
6 July 1779, under Lord North's administra- 
tion, he was appointed to the board of trade 
in place of Bamber Gascoyne, and continued 
a member until the temporary abolition of 
the board in 1782. On 19 July 1790 he re- 
entered parliament, after an absence of six 
years, as member for Weymouth and Mel- 
combe Regis, for which boroughs he sat until 
his death. 

On 23 March. 1796, on the death of his 
elder brother, Alexander, without issue, 
Andrew succeeded to the estate of Torrance> 
and on 18 Jan. 1797 on the death of Sir 
John Stuart of Castlemilk, Lanarkshire, he 
succeeded to that property also. In 1798 he 
published a l Genealogical History of the 
Stewarts ' (London, 4to), in which he con- 
tended that, failing the royal line (the de- 
scendants of Stewart of Darnley), the head 
of all the Stuarts was Stuart of Castlemilk, 
and that he himself was Stuart of that ilk, 
heir male of the ancient family. This asser- 
tion provoked an anonymous rejoinder, to 
which Stuart replied in 1799. He died in 
Lower Grosvenor Street, London, on ] 8 May 
1801, without an heir male. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir William Stirling 
of Ardoch, bart. After his death in 1804 she 
married Sir William Johnson Pulteney, fifth 




baronet of Wester Hall. By her Stuart had 
three daughters. The youngest, Charlotte, 
in 1830 married Robert Harington, younger 
son of Sir John Edward Harington, eighth 
baronet of Ridlington in Rutland ; through 
her, on the death of her elder sisters, the 
estate of Torrance descended to its present 
occupier, Colonel Robert Edward Harington- 
Stuart, while Castlemilk reverted to the 
family of Stirling-Stuart, descendants of 
William Stirling of Keir and Cawder, who 
married, in 1781, Jean, daughter of Sir John 
Stuart of Castlemilk. 

Andrew Stuart's portrait was painted by 
Reynolds and engraved by Thomas Watson 
(d. 1781) [q. v.] Some notes made by him 
in July 1789 on charters in the Scottish 
College at Paris are preserved in the Stowe 
MSS. at the British Museum, No. 551, f. 56. 

[Stuart's Works; Edinburgh Mag. 1801, i. 
414 ; Gent, Mag. 1801, i. 574, ii. 670 ; Foster's 
Scottish Members of Parliament, p. 322 ; Haydn's 
Book of Dignities, p. 266 ; Burke's Visitation of 
Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, 2nd ser. 
ii. 56-7; Walford's County Families of the 
United Kingdom, 1896, pp. 974,983; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 8th ed. ii. 1929-30; Bromley's 
Cat. of Engr. Portraits, p. 351.] E. I. C. 

(1447 P-1508), son of John, second seigneur 
of Aubigny, by Beatrice, daughter of B^rault, 
seigneur of Apchier, was born about 1447. 
Like his father and grandfather, Sir John 
Stuart or Stewart of Darnley, first seigneur 
of Aubigny [q. v.], he was high in favour 
with the French sovereign and was captain 
of the Scots guard. Occupying a position of 
special trust, and related to Scotland by ties 
of descent and friendship, no more appro- 
priate envoy could have been chosen than 
he to announce to James III the accession of 
Charles VIII to the throne of France, and 
to sign on 22 March 1483-4 the treaty re- 
newing the ancient league between the two 
countries. Not improbably the seigneur of 
Aubigny was also the medium of communi- 
cation with a section of Scots lords who 
favoured the enterprise of the Earl of Rich- 
mond (afterwards Henry VII) against Ri- 
chard III ; and in 1485 he was chosen to 
command the French troops who accom- 
panied Richmond to England, and assisted 
him to win his signal victory over his rival 
at Bosworth Field. In 1489 he was em- 
ployed by Charles in negotiating for the 
release of Louis, duke of Orleans (afterwards 
Louis XII), then a prisoner in the tower of 
Bourges ; but his career as a soldier dates 
properly from 1494. When Charles VIII in 
that year laid claim to the crown of the two 

Sicilies, he sent the seigneur of Aubigny to* 
set forth his claim to the pope, and while 
returning from his embassy he received an 
order from the king of France to place him- 
self in command of a thousand horse, and 
lead them over the Alps, by the Saint Ber- 
nard and Simplon passes into Lombardy ;: 
and after taking part with the king in the 
conquest of Romagna that followed, he ac- 
companied him in the triumphal entry into 
Florence on 15 Nov. 1494. Thereafter he 
was made governor of Calabria and lieu- 
tenant-general of the French army, and ins 
June 1495 he gained a great victory near 
Seminara over the king of Naples and Gon- 
salvo de Cordoba. In 1499 he took part in 
the campaign of Louis XII in Italy, and on 
its conclusion was appointed governor of the 
Milanese, with command of the French army 
left to garrison the towns of north Italy. 
In 1501 he completed the conquest of Naples,, 
of which he was then appointed governor. 
But after a few successes in Calabria in 1502, 
he was completely defeated at Seminara on 
21 April 1503, and shortly afterwards had 
to deliver himself up, when he was impri- 
soned in the great tower of the Castel Nuovo- 
at Naples until set free by the truce of 
11 Nov. In 1508 he was sent to Scotland 
to consult James IV regarding the proposed 
marriage of the Princesse Claude with the 
Due d'Angouleme. He was welcomed by 
the king of Scots with honours appropriate 
to his soldierly renown. He was placed at 
the same table with the king, who called him 
the ' father of war,' and named him judge in 
the tournaments which celebrated his arrival. 
William Dunbar also eulogised his achieve- 
ments in a poem of welcome, in which he de- 
scribed him as ' the prince of knighthood 
and the flower of chivalry.' But not long 
after his- arrival he was taken suddenly ill 
whilejourneying from Edinburgh to Stirling, 
and died in the house of Sir John Forrester 
at Corstorphine. By his will, dated 8 June, 
and made during his last illness, he directed 
that his body should be buried in the church 
of the Blackfriars, Edinburgh, to the brothers 
of which order he bequeathed 14Z., placing 
the rest of his property at the disposal of his 
executors, Matthew, earl of Lennox, and 
John of Aysoune, to be bestowed by them for 
the good of his soul as they should answer 
to God (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. p. 
392). The seigneur composed a treatise upon 
' The Duty of a Prince or General towards a 
conquered Country,' of which there exist 
copies in manuscript in Lord Bute's collec- 
tion and in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 

By his first wife, Guillemette or Willel- 
minedeBoucard,he had a daughter, Guyonne 




Stuart, who married Philippe de Bragne, 
seigneur de Luat. By his second wife, Anne, 
daughter of Guy de Maumont, seigneur of 
Saint-Quentin, he had a daughter Anne, 
married to her cousin, Robert Stuart, who 
became seigneur of Saint-Quentin in her 

A portrait of Bernard Stuart, after a medal 
by Niccolo Spinelli, engraved from Heiss's 
' Medailleurs de la Renaissance,' forms the 
frontispiece of Lady Elizabeth Gust's ' Stuarts 
of Aubigny.' 

[Andrew Stuart's Greneal6gical Hist, of the 
Stewarts ; Forbes-Leith's,Scots Guards in France ; 
Francisque Michel's Les Ecossais en France ; and 
especially Lady Elizabeth Gust's Stuarts of 
Aubigny.] T. F. H. 

EARL OF LICHFIELD (1623 ?-l 646), born 
about 1623, was the sixth son of Esme, third 
duke of Lennox (1579-1624) [see under 
NOX]. His mother Katherine (d. 1637), only 
daughter and heiress of Gervase, lord Clifton 
of Leighton-Bromswold in Huntingdon- 
shire, was after her father's death in 1618 
Baroness Clifton in her own right. James 
Stuart, fourth duke of Lennox [q. v.], was 
his eldest brother. Bernard was brought up 
under the direction of trustees appointed by 
the king, having a distinct revenue assigned 
for his maintenance (Cat. State Papers, Dom. 
1623-5, p. 488). On 30 Jan. 1638-9 he ob- 
tained a license to travel abroad for three 
years (ib. 1638-9, p. 378). On the outbreak 
of the civil war in 1642 he was appointed 
captain of the king's own troop of lifeguards, 
and he was knighted on 18 April. 

Bernard was present at the battle of Edge- 
hill, 23 Oct. 1642, at which his brother 
George, lord D' Aubigny, was killed. On 
29 June 1644, at the head of the guards, he 
supported the Earl of Cleveland [see WENT- 
WORTH, THOMAS] in his charge on the parlia- 
mentarians at Cropredy Bridge, which re- 
sulted in the capture of Waller's park of ar- 
tillery. In 1645 Charles I designated him 
Earl of Lichfield ; but to such pecuniary 
straits was he reduced that he could not pay 
the necessary fees, and Sir Edward Nicholas 
[q. v.] in consequence wrote to the king re- 
commending him to command his patent to 
pass without fees (ib. 1645-7, p. 111). Before 
anything was done, however, Bernard fell 
in battle. After the defeat at Naseby, at 
which he was present, he accompanied Charles 
on his march to relieve Chester, and entered 
the town with the king on 23 Sept. On the 
following day, while Sir Marmaduke Lang- 
dale engaged the parliamentary forces on 
Rowton Heath, Stuart headed a sally from 

the city. For a time he was successful, but 
he was eventually driven back and slain in 
the rout that followed. ' He was,' says Cla- 
rendon, ' a very faultless young man, of a 
most gentle, courteous, and affable nature,, 
and of a spirit and courage invincible, whose 
loss all men exceedingly lamented, and the 
king bore it with extraordinary grief.' He 
died unmarried, and his burial in Christ 
Church, Oxford, is recorded on 11 March 
1645-6. A portrait of Lord John and Lord 
Bernard Stuart by Vandyck is in the posses- 
sion of the Duke of Richmond at Cobham 
Hall ; it has been engraved by R. Thomson 
and by McArdell. There was also a portrait 
of Bernard Stuart in the collection of the 
Duke of Kent, which was engraved by Vertue. 
[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Clarendon's Hist, 
of the Civil War, ed. Macray, 1888, ii. 348, 
368, iii. 367, iv. 115; Gardiner's Hist, of the 
Civil War, ii. 345; G-. E. C[okayne]'s Complete 
Peerage, v. 74; Stuart's Genealogical Hist, of 
the Stewarts, pp. 267, 276-7 ; Simms's Biblio- 
theca Staffordiensis, p. 440; Lloyd's Memoirs, 
1668, p. 351.] E.I. C. 

(1640-1672), born in London on 7 March 
1639-40, was the only son of George Stuart, 
ninth seigneur d' Aubigny, who was fourth 
son of Esme, third duke of Lennox [see under 
NOX]. Charles Stuart's mother was Catherine 
Howard (d. 1650), eldest daughter of Theo- 
philus, second earl of Suffolk, who, after the 
death of her husband, George Stuart, at Edge- 
hill in 1642, contracted a marriage with Sir 
James Levingstane, created Earl of New- 
burgh in 1660. 

On 10 Dec. 1645 Charles was created 
Baron Newbury and Earl of Lichfield, titles 
intended for his uncle, Bernard Stuart 
(1623 P-1646) [q. v.] In January 1658 he 
crossed to France, and took up his resi- 
dence in the house of his uncle, Ludovic, 
seigneur d'Aubigny (CaL State Papers, Dom. 
1657-8, pp. 264, 315, 512, 551). In the fol- 
lowing year he fell under the displeasure of 
the council of state, and warrants were- 
issued for seizing his person and goods (ib. 
1559-60, pp. 98, 227, 229). This wounded 
him deeply, and when, after the Restoration, 
he sat in the Convention parliament, he 
showed great animosity towards the sup- 
porters of the Commonwealth. 

He returned to England with Charles II, 
and on the death of his cousin, Esme Stuart y 
on 10 Aug. 1660, he succeeded him as Duke' 
of Richmond and Lennox [see under STUART, 
JAMES, fourth DUKE OF LENNOX and first 
DUKE OF RICHMOND]. In the same year 




lie was created hereditary great chamber- 
lain of Scotland, hereditary great admiral of 
Scotland, and lord-lieutenant of Dorset. On 
15 April 1661 he was invested with the 
order of the Garter, and in 1662 he joined 
Middleton in Scotland, w T here, according to 
Burnet, his extravagances and those of his 
stepfather, the Earl of Newburgh, did much 
to discredit the lord high commissioner. 

The Duke of Richmond was an insatiable 
petitioner for favours from the crown, and, 
although he did not obtain all he desired, he 
was one of those who benefited most largely 
by Charles's profusion (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1660-71, passim). Among other grants, 
on 28 April 1663 he received a pension of 
1,000/. a year as a gentleman of the bed- 
chamber (ib. 1663-4, pp. 89, 121). The sun 
of the royal favour was, however, sometimes 
obscured, for in 1665 he was incarcerated in 
the Tower from 30 March to 21 April on 
account of a difference with the king (ib. 
1664-5, pp. 280, 281, 322). On the death 
of his uncle, Ludovic Stuart, he succeeded 
him as Seigneur D'Aubigny, and did homage 
by proxy to Louis XIV on 11 May 1670. 
On 28 May 1666 he received the grant for 
himself and his heirs male of the dignity of 
Baron Cobham, and on 2 July, when the 
country was alarmed by the presence of the 
Dutch in the Thames, he was appointed to 
the command of a troop of horse (ib. 1665- 

1666, pp. 417, 489). In July 1667, by the 
death of his cousin, Mary Butler, countess of 
Arran, he became Lord Clifton de Leighton- 
Bromswold [see STUART, BERNARD, titular 
EARL OF LICHFIELD], and on 4 May 1668 
he was made lord lieutenant and vice admiral 
of Kent jointly with the Earl of Winchilsea 
(ib. 1667-8, pp. 364, 374, 398). 

Shortly before this the duke had taken a 
step which shook him very much in the 
king's favour his marriage, nam ely, in March 

1667, with Charles's innamorata, i La Belle 
TERESA]. Richmond suffered less for his 
temerity than might have been anticipated, 
which is easily explicable if Lord Dart- 
mouth's assertion be true, that ( after her 
marriage she had more complaisance than 
before, as King Charles could not forbear 
telling the Duke of Richmond when he was 
drunk at Lord Townshend's in Norfolk.' 

In 1671 he was sent as ambassador to the 
Danish court to persuade Denmark to join 
England and France in the projected attack 
on the Dutch. He died at Elsinore on 
12 Dec. 1672, and was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey on 20 Sept. 1673 (Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS. 6292, f. 16). He was thrice 
married, but had no children. His first wife, 

Elizabeth, was the eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of Richard Rogers of Bryanstone, 
Dorset, and the widow of Charles Caven- 
dish, styled Viscount Mansfield. She died in 
childbed on 21 April 1661, and he married 
secondly, on 31 March 1662, Margaret, 
daughter of Laurence Banister of Papen- 
ham, Buckinghamshire, and widow of Wil- 
liam Lewis of Bletchington, Oxfordshire. 
She died in December 1666, and in March 
1666-7 he married Frances Teresa Stewart. 
By the duke's death all his titles became 
extinct, except the barony of Clifton of 
Leighton-Bromswold, which descended to 
his sister Katherine. Charles II, however, 
though not lineally descended from any of 
the dukes of Lennox or Richmond, yet as 
their nearest collateral heir male was by in- 
quisition post mortem, held at Edinburgh on 
6 July 1680, declared the nearest heir male 
(Chancery Records, Scotland, vol. xxxvii. 
f. 211 ; ap. STUART, Genealog. Hist. 1798, 
pp. 281-3). These titles, having reverted 
to the king, were bestowed by him in August 
1675 on his natural son Charles Lennox, first 
duke of Richmond [q. v.] The duke's will, 
dated 12 Jan. 1671-2, was proved on 14 Feb. 
1672-3, and is printed in the ' Archaeologia' 
Cantiana ' (xi. 264-71). 

'An Elegie on his Grace the illustrious 
Charles Stuart 'was published in the year 
of his death, but is a work of slight merit. 
Five volumes of his letters and papers are 
to be found among the additional manu- 
scripts in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 

[G-. E. C[okayne]'s Peerage; Burnet's Hist, 
of his own Times, 1823, i. 251-7, 349, 436, 529 ; 
Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, ed. Wood, 1813, 
ii. 103; Pepys's Diary; Evelyn's Diary and 
Letters; Archseologia Cantiana, xi. 251-64 ; 
Chester's Eegisters of Westminster Abbey, pp. 
154. 156, 164, 182, 250; Stowe MSS. 200 ff. 
168, 330; Addit. MSS. 23119 f. 160, 23127 f. 
74, 23134 ff. 44, 116, 25117 passim.] E. I. C. 

STUART, SIR CHARLES (1753-1801), 
general, the fourth son of John Stuart, third 
earl of Bute [q. v.], by Mary, only daughter 
of Edward Wortley Montagu, was born in 
January 1753. He entered the army in 
1768 as ensign in the 37th foot, and in 1777 
was made lieutenant-colonel of the 26th 
foot or Cameronians, with which he served 
during the American war. In 1782 he was 
promoted colonel, and in 1793 major-general. 
In 1794 and 1795 he was employed in the 
Mediterranean, and made himself master of 
Corsica. In December 1796 he was employed 
against the French in Portugal, and suc- 
ceeded in securing it against invasion. Re- 
turning home in 1 798, he was made lieutenant- 




general, and directed to take command of the 
British forces in Portugal and proceed with 
them to Minorca ; and, landing on 7 Nov., 
compelled the Spanish forces, numbering 
three thousand seven hundred, to capitulate 
without the loss of a man. In recognition 
of his services he was on 8 Jan. 1799 in- 
vested with the order of the Bath, and the 
.same year he was appointed governor of 
Minorca. Shortly afterwards he was ordered 
to Malta, where he captured the fortress of 
La Valette. He died at Richmond Lodge on 
25 March 1801. By his wife Louisa, second 
daughter and coheir of Lord Vere Bertie, he 
had two sons, the eldest of whom, Charles 
[q. v.], became Baron Stuart de Rothesay. 

[Gent. Mag. 1801, i. 374 ; Anderson's Scottish 
Nation.] T. F. H. 

STUART DE ROTHESAY (1779-1845), eldest 
son of Sir Charles Stuart [q. v.], general, by 
Louisa, second daughter and coheir of Lord 
Vere Bertie, was born on 2 Jan. 1779. Having 
entered the diplomatic service, he became 
joint charge d'affaires at Madrid in 1808, 
and, being in 1810 sent envoy to Portugal, 
was created Count of Machico and Marquis 
of Angra, and knight grand cross of the 
Tower and Sword. On 20 Sept. 1812 he 
was made G.C.B. and a privy councillor. 
He was minister at the Hague 1815-16, 
ambassador to Paris 1815-30, and am- 
bassador to St. Petersburg 1841-45. On 
22 Jan. 1828 he was created Baron Stuart 
de Rothesay of the Isle of Bute. He died on 
6 Nov. 1845. His portrait, painted by Baron 
Gerard, belonged in 1867 to his daughter, 
the Marchioness of Waterford (Cat. Third 
Loan Exhib. No. 80). By his wife Elizabeth 
Margaret, third daughter of Philip Yorke, 
third earl of Hardwicke [q.v.], he had two 
daughters Charlotte (d. 1861), wife of 
Charles John, earl Canning [q. v.], and 
Louisa (d. 1891), wife of Henry, third mar- 
quis of Waterford. 

[Gent. Mag. 1846, ii. 91-2; G. E. C[okayne]'s 
Complete Peerage.] T. F. H. 

STUART, DANIEL (1766-1846), jour- 
nalist, was born in Edinburgh on 16 Nov. 
1766. He was descended from the Stuarts 
of Loch Rannoch, Perthshire, who claimed 
kinship with the Scottish royal family. His 
grandfather was out in the '15 and his father 
in the '45. In 1778 Daniel was sent to Lon- 
don to join his elder brothers, Charles and 
Peter, who were in the printing business. 
The eldest, Charles, soon left it for play- 
writing, and became the intimate friend of 
George Colman; but Daniel and Peter lived 
together with their sister Catherine, who in 

February 1789 secretly married James (after- 
wards Sir James) Mackintosh [q. v.] She 
died in April 1796. Daniel Stuart assisted 
Mackintosh as secretary to the Society of 
the Friends of the People, whose object was 
the promotion of parliamentary reform. In 
1794 he published a pamphlet, ' Peace and 
Reform, against War and Corruption,' in 
answer to Arthur Young's l The Example of 
France a Warning to Great Britain.' 

Meanwhile, in 1788, Peter and Daniel 
Stuart undertook the printing of the ( Morn- 
ing Post,' a moderate whig newspaper, which 
was then owned by Richard Tattersall [q.v.], 
and was at a low ebb. In 1795 Tattersall 
disposed of it to the Stuarts for 600/., which 
included plant and copyright. Within two 
years Stuart raised the circulation of the 
paper from 350 a day to a thousand, and gra- 
dually converted it into an organ of the 
moderate tories. He had the entire manage- 
ment almost from the first. By buying in 
the 'Gazetteer' and the 'Telegraph,' by 
skilful editing and judicious management of 
the advertisements, and by the engagement 
of talented writers, he soon made the ' Morn- 
ing Post ' the equal of the ' Morning Chro- 
nicle,' then the best daily paper. Mackintosh, 
who wrote regularly for it in its earlier days, 
introduced Coleridge to Stuart in 1797. 
Coleridge became a frequent contributor, and 
when, in the autumn of 1798, he went to 
Germany, Southey supplied contributions in 
his place. On Coleridge's return it was 
arranged that he should give up his whole 
time and services to the 'Morning Post' and 
receive Stuart's largest salary. Stuart took 
rooms for him in King Street, Covent Gar- 
den, and Coleridge told Wordsworth that he 
dedicated his nights and days to Stuart 
(WORDSWORTH, Life of Wordsworth, i. 160). 
Coleridge introduced Lamb to Stuart ; but 
Stuart, though he tried him repeatedly, de- 
clared that he 'never could make anything 
of his writings.' Lamb, however, writes of 
himself as having been closely connected 
with the ' Post ' from 1800 to 1803 (' News- 
papers thirty-five years ago '). Wordsworth 
contributed some political sonnets gra- 
tuitously to the ' Morning Post,' while under 
Stuart's management. In August 1803 
Stuart disposed of the ' Morning Post ' for 
25,000/., when the circulation was at the 
then unprecedented rate of four thousand 
five hundred a day. 

Stuart had meanwhile superintended the 
foreign intelligence in the ' Oracle,' a tory 
paper owned by his brother Peter, and in 
1796 he had purchased an evening paper, 
the < Courier.' To this, after his sale of the 
' Morning Post,' he gave his whole attention. 


7 6 


He carried it on with great success and in- 
creased the sale from fifteen hundred to 
seven thousand a day. The price was seven- 
pence, and second and third editions were 
published daily for the first time. It circu- 
lated largely among the clergy. From 1809 
to 1811 Coleridge was an intermittent con- 
tributor. An article which Stuart wrote, 
with Coleridge's assistance, in 1811 on the 
conduct of the princes in the regency ques- 
tion provoked an angry speech from the 
Duke of Sussex in the House of Lords. 
Mackintosh contributed to the 'Courier' 
from 1808 to 1814, and Wordsworth wrote 
articles on the Spanish and Portuguese 
navies. Southey also sent extracts from 
his pamphlet on the ' Convention of Cintra ' 
before its publication. For his support of 
Addington's government Stuart declined a 
reward, desiring to remain independent. 
From 1811 he left the management almost 
entirely in the hands of his partner. Peter 
Street, under whom it became a ministerial 
organ. In 1817 Stuart obtained a verdict 
against Lovell, editor of the ' Statesman,' 
who had accused him of pocketing six or 
seven thousand pounds belonging to the 
' Society of the Friends of the People.' In 
1822 he sold his interest in the ' Courier.' 
Stuart, in a correspondence with Henry Cole- 
ridge, contested the statements in Oilman's 
' Life ' and in Coleridge's < Table Talk ' that 
Coleridge and his friends had made the for- 
tune of his papers and were inadequately re- 
warded. Coleridge had no ground for dis- 
satisfaction while he was actively associated 
with Stuart, and Stuart gave Coleridge 
money at later periods. 

Jerdan contrasts Stuart's decorous and 
simple life with the profuse expenditure of 
his partner Street. Stuart, however, was fond 
of pictures. In 1806 he acquired Wilkie's 
'Blind Fiddler' for five guineas. After 
withdrawing from the ' Courier,' Stuart pur- 
chased Wykeham Park, Oxfordshire. He 
died on 25 Aug. 1846 at his house in Upper 
Harley Street. He married in 1813. 

Daniel's brother, PETER STUART (f,. 1788- 
1805), started the tory paper called 'The 
Oracle ' before 1788, and in 1788 set on foot 
the ' Star/ which was the first London 
evening paper to appear regularly. Until 
1790 the ' Star ' was edited by Andrew Mac- 
donald [q. v.], and was carried on till 1831. 
Burns is said to have contemptuously refused 
a weekly engagement in connection with it. 
In the '"Oracle,' in 1805, Peter published a 
strong article in defence of Lord Melville 
VILLE], who had recently been impeached. 
In consequence of the insinuations which it 

made against the opposition, Grey carried a. 
motion on 25 April that Peter Stuart be 
ordered to attend at the bar of the House of 
Commons. Next day Stuart apologised, but 
was ordered into the custody of the sergeant- 
at-arms. He was discharged a few days 
later with a reprimand. 

[Gent. Mag. 1838 i. 485-92, 577-90, ii. 22-7, 
274-6, 1847 i. 90-1 ; Nichols's Lit. Illustr.. 
viii. 518-19; Lit. Mem. of Living Authors^ 
1798; Diet, of Living Authors, 1816; Grant's 
Newspaper Press, vol. i. ch. xiv. ; Hunt's Fourth 
Estate, ii. 18-32; Andrews's Brit. Journalism, 
ii. 25-6 ; Fox-Bourne's Engl. Newspapers, ch. 
ix-x. ; Dykes Campbell's Life of Coleridge ; 
Biogr. Dramatica, i. 690, ii. Ill, 151, 166, 208,. 
266, 302, 333 ; Genest's Account of the Stage, 
vi. 205, 286, 481.] G. LE G. N. 

(1803-1854), advocate of the independence 
of Poland, born in South Audley Street, 
London, on 11 Jan. 1803, was eighth son of' 
John Stuart, first marquis of Bute (1744- 
1814), and the only son by his second wife, 
Frances, second daughter of Thomas Coutts,. 
banker. His father dying during his infancy,, 
his education was superintended by his 
mother, and it was from her words and ex- 
ample that he acquired his strong feelings- 
of sympathy for the oppressed. He was a 
member of Christ's College, Cambridge, and 
graduated M.A. in 1823. Impressed with 
admiration of the character of his uncle, Sir 
Francis Burdett [q. v.], he stood for Arundel 
on liberal principles in 1830, and was re- 
turned without opposition. He was re-chosen, 
for Arundel at the general elections of 1831, 
1833, and 1835, but in 1837 was opposed by 
Lord Fitzalan's influence, and defeated by 
176 votes to 105. For ten years he had no 
seat in parliament, but in 1847, Sir Charles 
Napier having retired, he became one of the- 
candidates for the borough of Marylebone n 
was returned at the head of the poll, and 
retained the seat to his death. 

In 1831 Prince Adam Czartoryski visited' 
England. Lord Dudley was greatly inte- 
rested in the account which that statesman 
gave of the oppression exercised in Poland 
by the Emperor Nicholas, which had driven- 
the Poles to revolt. Soon after his interest 
was further excited by the arrival in England 
of many members of the late Polish army, and 
in his place in parliament he was mainly in- 
strumental in obtaining a vote of 10,000/. for 
the relief of the Poles. He then attentively 
studied the question, and formed the con- 
viction that the aggressive spirit of Russia- 
could be checked only by the restoration of 
Poland. At first he was associated in his; 
agitation with Cutler Fergusson, Thomas- 




Campbell (the poet), Wentworth Beamont, 
and other influential men ; but, death remov- 
ing many of them, he was left almost alone 
to fight the battle of the Poles. The grants 
made by the House of Commons year by 
year were not sufficient to support all the 
victims of Russian, Austrian, and Prussian 
cruelty, but Lord Dudley was indefatigable 
in soliciting public subscriptions, and when 
these could no longer be obtained, in re- 
plenishing the funds of the Literary Asso- 
ciation of the Friends of Poland by means 
of public entertainments. For many years 
annual balls were given at the Mansion 
House in aid of the association, when Lord 
Dudley was always the most prominent 
member of the committee of management. 

The labour attending these benevolent 
exertions was incredible, yet it was under- I 
taken in addition to a regular attendance in ; 
parliament and an incessant employment of 
his pen in support of the Polish cause. His | 
views respecting the danger of Russian 
aggression were by many laughed at as 
idle dreams, and his ideas respecting the re- 
establishment of Poland were pronounced j 
quixotic. In November 1854 he went to ! 
Stockholm in the hope of persuading the j 
king of Sweden to join the western powers 
in taking measures for the reconstruction of 
Poland, but he died there on 17 Nov. 1854 ; j 
his body was brought to England and buried 
tit Hertford on 16 Dec. He married, in 1824, | 
Christina Alexandrina Egypta, daughter of 
Lucien Bonaparte, prince of Canino ; she | 
died on 19 May 1847, leaving an only son, 
Paul Amadeus Francis Coutts, a captain in i 
the 68th regiment, who died on 1 Aug. 1889. ! 

Lord Dudley printed a ' Speech on the | 
Policy of Russia, delivered in the House of j 
Commons,' 1836 ; and an ' Address of the 
London Literary Association of the Friends 
of Poland to the People of Great Britain and 
Ireland,' 1846. 

[Examiner, 25 Nov. 1854, p. 747; Gent. Mag. 
1855, i. 79-81 ; Times, 21 Nov. 1854, 16 Dec. ; 
Illustrated London News, 1843 iii. 325 with 
portrait, 1849 xiv. 124 with portrait; Report 
of Proceedings of Annual General Meeting of 
the London Literary Association of the Friends 
of Poland, 1839 et seq.; Estimates of Sums re- 
quired to enable His Majesty to grant Belief to 
distressed Poles, Parliamentary Papers, annually 
1834-52,] G. C. B. 

ATJBIGNY and first DUKE OF LENNOX (1542 ?-- 
1583), only son of John Stuart or Stewart, 
fifth seigneur of Aubigny, youngest son of 
John Stewart, third or eleventh earl of Len- 
nox [q. v.], by his wife, Anne de La Quelle, 
was born about 1542, and succeeded his 

father as seigneur of Aubigny in 1567. In 
1576 he was engaged in an embassy in the 
Low Countries (Cal. State Papers, For. 
1576-8, No. 968) ; on 25 Nov. he was in- 
structed to go with all speed to the Duke of 
Alencon and thank him in the name of the 
estates for his goodwill (ib. No. 1030) ; and 
a little later he was instructed to proceed to 
England (ib. No. 1036). 

After the partial return of Morton to 
power in 1579 the friends of Mary, whose 
hopes of triumph had been so rudely dashed 
by the sudden death of the Earl of Atholl, 
resolved on a special coup for the restoration 
of French influence and the final overthrow 
of protestantism. As early as 15 May Leslie, 
bishop of Ross, informed the Cardinal de 
Como that the king ' had written to summon 
his cousin, the Lord Aubigny, from France ' 
(FOKBES-LEITH, Narratives of Scottish Ca- 
tholics, p. 136). He was, however, really 
sent to Scotland at the instigation of the 
Guises and as their agent. Calderwood 
states that Aubigny, who arrived in Scot- 
land on 8 Sept., * pretended that he came 
only to congratulate the young king's entry 
to his kingdom [that is, his assumption of 
the government], and was to return to France 
within short space ' (History, iii. 457). But 
he did not intend to return. As early as 
24 Oct. De Castelnau, the French ambassador 
in London, announced to the king of France 
that he had practically come to stay, and 
would be created Earl of Lennox, and, as 
some think, declared successor to the throne 
of Scotland should the king die without chil- 
dren (TETJLET, Relations Politiques, iii. 56). 
These surmises were speedily justified ; in 
fact no more apt delegate for the task he had 
on hand could have been chosen. If he de- 
sired to stay, no one had a better right, for 
he was the king's cousin ; and if he stayed, 
he was bound by virtue of his near kinship 
to occupy a place of dignity and authority, 
to which Morton could not pretend, and 
which would imply Morton's ruin. More- 
over his personal qualifications for the role 
entrusted to him were of the first order ; he 
was handsome, accomplished, courteous, and 
(what was of more importance), while he 
impressed every one with the conviction of 
his honesty, he was one of the adroitest 
schemers of his time, with almost unmatched 
powers of dissimulation. It was impossible 
for the young king to resist such a fascinating 
personality. On 14 Nov. 1579 he received 
from the king the rich abbacy of Arbroath 
in commendam (Reg. Mag. Sig, Scot. 1546- 
1580, No. 2920), and on 5 March 1579-80 
he obtained the lands and barony of Tor- 
bolton (ib. No. 2970) ; the lands of Crookston, 


7 8 


Inchinnan, c.,in Renfrewshire (/&. No. 2791), 
and the lordship of Lennox (ib. No. 2972), 
Robert Stewart having resigned these lands 
in his favour, and receiving instead the lord- 
ship of March. 

Playing for such high stakes, Lennox did 
not scruple to forswear himself to the utmost 
extent that the circumstances demanded. 
According to Calderwood, he purchased a 
supersedes from being troubled for a year for 
religion (History, iii. 460) ; but the mini- 
sters of Edinburgh were so vehement in 
their denunciation of the ' atheists and 
papists ' with whom the king consorted that 
the king was compelled to grant their request 
that Lennox should confer with them on 
points of religion (MOYSIE, Memoirs, p. 26). 
This Lennox, according to the programme 
arranged beforehand with the Guises, wil^- 
lingly did ; and undertook to give a final 
decision by 1 June. As was to be expected, 
he on that day publicly declared himself to 
have been converted to protestantism (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. iii. 289) ; and on 14 July he 
penned a letter beginning thus : ' It is not, 
I think, unknown to you how it hath pleased 
God of his infinite goodness to call me by 
his grace and mercy to the knowledge of my 
salvation, since my coming in this land ; ' 
and ending with a ' free and humble offer of 
due obedience/ and the hope ' to be partici- 
pent in all time coming ' of their * godly 
prayers and favours ' (CALDERWOOD, iii. 469). 
A little later he expressed a desire to have 
a minister in his house for ' the exercise of 
true religion ; ' and the assembly resolved to 
supply one from among the pastors of the 
French kirk in London (ib. p. 477). On 
13 Sept. he is mentioned as keeper of Dum- 
barton Castle (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 306), 
and on 11 Oct. Lennox was nominated lord 
chancellor and first gentleman of the royal 
chamber. In the excessive deference he 
showed to the kirk Lennox was mainly ac- 
tuated by desire for the overthrow of Morton. 
Although regarded by Mary and the catholics 
as their arch enemy, Morton was secretly de- 
tested by the kirk authorities. His sole re- 
commendation was his alliance with Eliza- 
beth and his opposition to Mary ; but the 
kirk having, as they thought, obtained a new 
champion in Lennox, were not merely con- 
tent to sacrifice Morton, but contemplated his 
downfall and even his execution with almost 
open satisfaction. When Morton was brought 
before the council on 6 Jan. 1580-1 and ac- 
cused of Darnley's murder, Lennox declined 
to vote one way or other, on the ground of 
his near relationship to the victim ; but it was 
perfectly well known that the apprehension 
was made at his instance, and that Captain 

James Stewart (afterwards Earl of Arran 
[q. v.]) was merely his instrument. Ran- 
dolph, the English ambassador, had declined 
to hold communication with Lennox, on the 
ground that he was an agent of the pope 
and the house of Guise (Randolph to Wal- 
singham, 22 Jan. 1580-1, quoted in TYTLER, 
ed. 1864, iv. 32), as was proved by an inter- 
cepted letter of the archbishop of Glasgow 
to the pope ; but Lennox had no scruple in 
flatly denying this, the king stating that 
Lennox was anxious for the fullest investi- 
gation, and would 'refuse no manner of 
trial to justify himself from so false a slander r 
(the king and council's answer to Mr. Ran- 
dolph, I Feb. 1580-1, ib.) After the execu- 
tion of Morton on 6 June 1581 the influence 
of Lennox, not merely with the king but in 
Scotland generally, had reached its zenith. 
So perfect was the harmony between him 
and the kirk that even Mary Stuart herself 
became suspicious that he might intend to 
betray her interests and throw in his lot 
with the protest ants (Mary to Beaton, 10 Sept. 
1581 in LABANOFF, v. 258) ; but the assu- 
rances of the Duke of Guise dispelled her 
doubts (ib. p. 278). On 5 Aug. 1581 he was 
created duke (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 413), and 
on the 12th he was appointed master of the 

As early as April 1581 De Tassis had, in 
the name of Mary, assured Philip II of 
Spain of the firm resolution of the young 
king to embrace Roman Catholicism, and had 
sent an earnest request for a force to assist 
in effecting the projected revolution. It was 
further proposed that James should mean- 
while be sent to Spain, in order that he 
might be secure from attempts against his 
crown and liberty ; that he might be edu- 
cated in Catholicism, and that arrangements 
might be completed for his marriage to a 
Spanish princess. To the objection that 
Lennox, having special relations with France, 
might not be favourable to such a project, 
De Tassis answered that he was wholly de- 
voted to the cause of the Queen of Scots, 
and ready if necessary to break with France 
in order to promote her interests (De Tassis to 
Philip II in Relations Politigues, v. 224-8). 
For the furtherance of these designs, Lennox 
early in 1582 was secretly visited by two 
Jesuits, Creighton and Holt, who asked him 
to take command of an army to be raised by 
Philip II for the invasion of England, in 
order to set Mary at liberty and restore Ca- 
tholicism. In a letter to De Tassis, Lennox 
expressed his readiness to undertake the 
execution of the project (ib. pp. 235-6) ; and 
in a letter of the same date to Mary he pro- 
posed that he should go to France to raise 




troops for this purpose, but stipulated that 
her son, the prince, should retain the title of 
king (ib. p. 237). Further, he made it a con- 
dition that the Duke of Guise should have 
the chief management of the plot (De Tassis 
to Philip, 18 May, ib. p. 248). The Duke of 
Guise therefore went to Paris, where he had 
a special interview with Creighton and Holt, 
when it was arranged that a force should be 
raised on behalf of Catholicism under pre- 
text of an expedition to Brittany (ib. p. 254). 
Difficulties, however, arose on account of the 
timidity or jealousy of Philip II, and the 
delay proved fatal. 

The fact was that after Morton's death 
Lennox, deeming himself secure, ceased to 
maintain his submissive attitude to the kirk 
authorities, whose sensitiveness was not slow 
to take alarm. Thus, at the assembly held 
in October 1581 the king complained that 
Walter Balcanquhal was reported to have 
stated in a sermon that popery had entered 
1 not only in the court but in the king's hall, 
and was maintained by the tyranny of a 
great champion who is called Grace ' (CAL- 
DERWOOD, iii. 583). A serious quarrel be- 
tween the duke and Captain James Stewart 
(lately created Earl of Arran) led also 
to dangerous revelations. As earl of Arran, 
the duke's henchman now deemed himself 
the duke's rival. He protested against the 
duke's right to bear the crown at the meet- 
ing of parliament in October, and matters 
went so far that two separate privy councils 
were held the one under Arran in the 
abbey, and the other under the duke in Dal- 
keith (ib. iii. 592-3 ; SPOTISWOOD, ii. 281). 
They were reconciled after two months' ' vari- 
ance ; ' but meanwhile Arran, to ' strengthen 
himself with the common cause/ had given 
out ' that the quarrel was for religion, and 
for opposing the duke's courses, who craftily 
sought the overthrow thereof (Spoxis- 
WOOD). After the reconciliation, the duke 
on 2 Dec. made another declaration of the 
sincerity of his attachment to protestantism 
(Reg. P. C. Scotl. iii. 431), but mischief had 
been done which no further oaths could ! 
remedy. In addition to this the duke had 
come into conflict with the kirk in regard to 
Robert Montgomerie, whom he had presented 
to the bishopric of Glasgow (CALDERWOOD, 
iii. 577) ; and Arran and the duke, being 
now reconciled, did not hesitate to flout the 
commissioners of the assembly when on 
9 May 1582 they had audience of the king. 
On 12 July a proclamation was issued in the 
king's name, in which the rumour that j 
Lennox was a l deviser ' of ' the erecting of 
Papistrie ' was denounced as a ' malicious ' 
falsehood, inasmuch as he had l sworn in the 

presence of God, approved with the holy 
action of the Lord's Table,' to maintain pro- 
testantism, and was ' ready to seal the same 
with his blood ' (ib. p. 783). The proclama- 
tion might have been effectual but for th& 
fact that in some way or other the kirk had 
obtained certain information of the plot that 
was in progress (ib. p. 634). This informa- 
tion had reached them on 27 July through 
James Colville, the minister of Easter 
Wemyss, who had arrived from France with 
the Earl of Both well ; and the news has- 
tened, if it did not originate, the raid of 
lluthven on 22 Aug., when the king was 
seized near Perth by the protestant nobles. 

On learning what had happened, the duke, 
who was at Dalkeith, came to Edinburgh ; 
and, after purging himself ' with great pro- 
testations that he never attempted anything 
against religion,' proposed to the town coun- 
cil that they should write to the noblemen 
and gentlemen of Lothian to come to Edin- 
burgh * to take consultation upon the king's 
delivery and liberty ' (ib. p. 641) ; but they 
politely excused themselves from meddling 
in the matter. Next day, Sunday the 
26th. James Lawson depicted in a sermon 
' the duke's enormities ' (ib. p. 642) ; and, 
although certain noblemen were permitted 
to join him, and were sent by him to hold a 
conference with the king, the only answer 
they obtained was that Lennox l must depart 
out of Scotland within fourteen days ' (ib. 
p. 647). Leaving Edinburgh on 5 Sept. 1582 
on the pretence that he was l to ride to Dal- 
keith, the duke, after he had passed the 
borough muir, turned westwards, and rode 
towards Glasgow ' (ib. p. 648). On 7 Sept. a 
proclamation was made at Glasgow for- 
bidding any to resort to him except such 
as were minded to accompany him to France, 
and forbidding the captain of the castle of 
Dumbarton to receive more into the castle 
than he was able to master and overcome 
(ib.) At Dumbarton the duke on 20 Sept. 
issued a declaration ' touching the calumnies 
and accusations set out against him ' (ib. p. 
665). Meanwhile he resolved to wait at 
Dumbarton in the hope of something turn- 
ing up, and on the 17th he sent a request to 
the king for a 'prorogation of some few 
days ' (ib. p. 673). A little later he sent to 
the king for liberty to go by England (ib. p. 
689) ; but his intention was to organise a 
plot for the seizure of the king, which was 
accidentally discovered. The king, it is said,, 
earnestly desired that the duke might be 
permitted to remain in Scotland ; but was 
' sharply threatened by the lords that if he 
did not cause him to depart he should not 
be the longest liver of them all ' (FORBES- 



, Narrative of Scottish Catholics,}). 183). 
Finally, after several manoeuvrings, Lennox 
did set out on 21 Dec. from Dalkeith on his 
journey south (CALDEKWOOD, iii. 693). On 
reaching London he sent word privately to 
Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, that he 
would send his secretary to him secretly to 
give him an account of affairs in Scotland 
(Cal. State Papers, Spanish, ii. 435); and 
the information given to Mendoza was that 
Lennox had been obliged to leave Scotland 
in the first place in consequence of a promise 
made by King James to Elizabeth, and in 
the second place in consequence of the 
failure of the plot arranged for the rescue 
of the king from the Ruthven raiders on his 
coming to the castle of Blackness (ib. p. 438). 
On 14 Jan. 1583 Lennox had .an audience 
of Elizabeth, who t charged him roundly 
with such matters as she thought culpable ' 
{Cal. State Papers, Scottish, pp. 431-2); 
but of course the duke, without the least 
hesitation, affirmed his entire innocence, and 
appears to have succeeded in at least ren- 
dering Elizabeth doubtful of his catholic 
leanings. Walsingham endeavoured through 
a spy, Fowler, to discover from Mauvissiere 
the real religious sentiments of the duke ; 
but as the duke had prevaricated to Mau- 
vissiere assuring him that James was so 
constant to the reformed faith that he would 
lose his life rather than forsake it, and de- 
claring that he professed the same faith as his 
royal master Walsingham succeeded only 
in deceiving himself (TYTLER, iv. 56-7). 

Early in 1583 Lennox arrived in Paris, 
resolved to retain the mask to the last. 
On the duke's secretary being asked by 
Mendoza whether his master would pro- 
fess protestantism in France, he replied that 
he had been specially instructed by the duke 
to tell Mendoza that he would, in order that 
he might signify the same to the pope, the 
king of Spain, and Queen Mary (Cal. State 
Papers, Spanish, ii. 439). For one reason he 
had not given up hope of returning to Scot- 
land; and, indeed, although in very bad 
health, he had ' schemed out a plan ' of the 
success of which he was very sanguine (De 
Tassis to Philip II, 4 May, in TETJLET, v. 
265). He did not live to begin its execu- 
tion ; but, in order to lull the Scots to se- 
curity, he at his death on 26 May 1583 con- 
tinued to profess himself a convert to the 
faith which he was doing his utmost to sub- 
vert. He also gave directions that while 
his body was to be buried at Aubigny, his 
heart should be embalmed and sent to the 
king of Scots, to whose care he commended 
his children. An anonymous portrait of 
Lennox belonged in 1866 to the Earl of 

Home (Cat. First Loan Exhib. No. 459). By 
his wife, Catherine de Balsac d'Entragues, 
Lennox had two sons and three daugh- 
ters : Ludovick, second duke [q.v.]; Esme, 
third duke ; Henrietta, married to George, 
first marquis of Huntly ; Mary, married to 
John, earl of Mar ; and Gabrielle, a nun. 

[Cal. State Papers, For., Eliz., Scot., and 
Spanish ; Teulet's Kelations Politiques ; Forbes- 
Leith's Narratives of Scottish Catholics ; Reg. 
Mag. Sig. Scot. ; Reg. Privy Council Scotl. ; 
Labanoff's Letters of Mary Stuart; Histories 
by Calderwood and Spotiswood ; Moysie's Me- 
moirs and History of King James the Sext 
(Bannatyne Club) ; Bowes's Correspondence (Sur- 
tees Soc.) : Lady Elizabeth Gust's Stuarts of 
Aubigny ; Sir William Fraser's Lennox ; Dou- 
glas's Scottish Peerage, ed. Wood, i. 99-100.] 

T. F. H. 

LENNOX (1648-1702), known as ' La Belle 
Stuart,' born in 1648, was the elder daughter 
of Walter Stewart, M.D. Her father, who 
took refuge in France after 1649, and seems to 
have been attached to the household of the 
queen dowager, Henrietta Maria, was the 
third son of Walter Stewart or Stuart, first 
lord Blantyre [q. v.] Her younger sister, 
Sophia, married Henry Bulkeley, master of 
the household to Charles II and James II, 
and brother of Richard Bulkeley [q. v.] ; and 
her sister's daughter Anne, ' La Belle Nanette,' 
was the second wife of James, duke of Ber- 
wick (see FITZJAMES, JAMES ; cf. DOUGLAS, 
Peerage of Scotland, ed. Wood, i. 214; 
LODGE, Peerage of Ireland, v. 26). 

Frances was educated in France, and im- 
bued with French taste, especially in matters 
of dress. Pepys relates that the French king 
cast his eyes upon her, and ' would fain have 
had her mother, who is one of the most cun- 
ning women in the world, to let her stay in 
France ' as an ornament to his court. But 
Queen Henrietta determined to send her to 
England, and on 4 Jan. 1662-3 procured 
for the young beauty, ' la plus jolie fille du 
monde/ a letter of introduction to the re- 
stored monarch, her son (BAILLON, Hen- 
riette-Anne, pp. 80 sq.) Louis XIV con- 
tented himself with giving the young lady 
a farewell present. Early in 1663 she was 
appointed maid of honour to Catherine of 
Braganza, and it was doubtless her influence 
which procured for her sister Sophia a place 
as ' dresser ' to the queen mother, with a 
pension of 300/. a year ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1663, p. 98). Lady Castlemaine 
affected to patronise the newcomer, and 
Charles is said to have noticed her while 
she was sleeping in that lady's apartment. 




Early in July Pepys noted that the king had 
* become besotted with Miss Stewart, and 
will be with her half an hour together 
kissing her.' ' With her hat cocked and a 
red plume, sweet eye, little Roman nose and 
excellent taile,' she appeared to Pepys the 
greatest beauty he had ever seen, and he 
' fancied himself sporting with her with 
great pleasure ' (PEPYS, ed. Wheatley, iii. 
1209). The French ambassador was amazed 
at the artlessness of her prattle to the king. 
Her character was summarised by Hamilton : 
' It was hardly possible for a woman to have 
less wit and more beauty.' Her favourite 
amusements were blindman's buff, hunt the 
slipper, and card-building. Buckingham 
was an ardent admirer ; but her 'simplicity' 
proved more than a match for all his arti- 
fices. Another aspirant was Anthony Hamil- 
ton [q. v.], who won her favour by holding 
two lighted tapers within his mouth longer 
than any other cavalier could manage to 
retain one. He was finally diverted from 
his dangerous passion by Gramont. More 
hopeless was the case of Francis Digby, 
younger son of George Digby, second earl of 
Bristol [q. v.], whom her ' cruelty ' drove to j 
despair. Upon his death in a sea-fight with [ 
the Dutch, Dryden penned his once famous 
1 Farewell, fair Armida ' (first included in 
' Covent Garden Drollery/ 1672, and parodied 
in some verses put into Armida's mouth by 
Buckingham in the 'Rehearsal,' act iii. 
sc. 1). Hopeless passions are also rumoured 
to have been cherished by John Roettiers, 
the medallist, and by Nathaniel Lee. 

The king's feeling for Miss Stewart ap- 
proached nearer to what may be called love 
than any other of his libertine attachments. 
As early as November 1663, when the queen 
was so ill that extreme unction was admini- 
stered, gossip was current that Charles was 
determined to marry the favourite (Jus- 
SERAND, A French Ambassador, p. 88). It 
is certain that from this date his jealousy 
was acute and ever on the alert. The lady 
refused titles, but was smothered with 
trinkets. The king was her valentine in 
1664, and the Duke of York in 1665. Yet 
Miss Stewart exasperated Charles by her 
unwillingness to yield to his importunities. 
Her obduracy, according to Hamilton, was 
overcome by the arrival at court of a caleche 
from France. The honour of the first drive 
was eagerly contested by the ladies of the 
court, including even the queen. A bargain 
was struck, and Miss Stewart was the first 
to be seen in the new vehicle. 

In January 1667 Miss Stewart's hand was 
sought in marriage by Charles Stuart, third 
duke of Richmond and sixth duke of Len- 

nox [q. v.] His second wife was buried on 
6 Jan. 1667, and a fortnight later he pre- 
ferred his suit to the hand of his ( fair cousin.' 
Charles, fearing to lose his mistress, offered to 
create Miss Stewart a duchess, and even under- 
took, it is said, ' to rearrange his seraglio.' 
More than this, he asked Archbishop Shel- 
don in January 1667 if the church of England 
would allow of a divorce where both parties 
were consenting and one lay under a natural 
incapacity for having children (cf. BURNET, 
Own Time, i. 453-4 ; CLARENDON, Continua- 
tion, ii. 478; LTJDLOW, Memoirs, ii. 407). 
Sheldon asked time for consideration. In 
the meantime, about 21 March 1667, a 
rumour circulated at court that the duke 
and Miss Stewart had been betrothed (Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1667, p. 576). A few 
days later, on a dark and stormy night, Miss 
Stewart eloped from her rooms in White- 
hall, joined the duke at the ' Beare by Lon- 
don Bridge/ and escaped into Kent, where 
the couple were privately married (cf. Lau- 
derdale Papers, iii. 131, 140). Charles, when 
he learned the news, was beside himself 
with rage. He suspected that Clarendon 
(' that old Volpone ') had got wind of his 
project of divorce through Sheldon, and had 
incited the Duke of Richmond to frustrate 
it by a prompt elopement. The suspicions 
thus engendered led, says Burnet, to the 
king's resolve to take the seals from Claren- 
don. The story helps to explain the deep 
resentment, foreign to Charles's nature, 
which he nursed against the chancellor 
(Burnet's account is confirmed in great 
measure by Clarendon's letter of 16 Nov. 
1667 to the king in the ; Life ; ' cf. CHRISTIE, 
Shaftesbury, ii. 8, 41 ; LUDLOW, ii. 503). 

The duchess returned the king the jewels 
he had given her ; but the queen seems to 
have acted as mediator (greatly preferring 
' La Belle Stuart ' to any other of the royal 
favourites), and she soon returned to court. 
On 6 July 1668 she was sworn of Catherine's 
bedchamber, and next month she and her 
husband were settled at the Bowling Green, 
Whitehall. In the same year she was badly 
disfigured by small-pox. Charles visited her 
during her illness, and was soon more assi- 
duous than ever. The duke was sent out of 
the way in 1670 to Scotland, and in 1671 
as ambassador to Denmark. In May 1670 
the duchess attended the queen to Calais to 
meet the Duchess of Orleans, and in the 
following October on a visit to Audley End, 
where she and her royal mistress, dressed 
up in red petticoats, went to a country fair 
and were mobbed (see letter to R. Paston, 
ap. JOHN IVES, Select Papers, p. 39). The 
duke, her husband, died in Denmark, at 



Elsinore, on 12 Dec. 1672. His titles re- 
verted to Charles II, who allowed the duchess 
a small l bounty ' of 150/. per annum. Not 
wishing to remain at Cobham Hall in Kent, 
she sold her life-interest therein to Henry, 
lord O'Brien (as trustee for Donatus, his son j 
by Katherine Stuart), for 3,800/. She appears i 
to have continued for many years at court. 
She attended Q ; ueen Mary of Modena at her 
accouchement in 1688, and signed the certifi- 
cate before the council ; and she was at the 
coronation of Anne. She died in the Roman 
catholic communion on 15 Oct. 1702, and 
was buried in Westminster Abbey in the 
Duke of Richmond's vault in Henry VII's 
chapel on 22 Oct. (CHESTEK, Reg. p. 250). 
Her effigy in wax may still be seen in the 
abbey, dressed in the robes worn by the 
duchess at Anne's coronation (cf. WHEATLEY 
and CUNNINGHAM, London, iii. 478). From 
her savings and her dower she purchased 
the estate of Lethington, valued at 50,000^., 
and bequeathed it on her death to her im- 
poverished nephew, Alexander, earl of Blan- 
tyre (d. 1704), with a request that the estate 
might be named ' Lennox love to Blantyre.' 
Lord Blantyre's seat is still called Lennox- 
love (cf . GROOME, Gazetteer of Scotland, iv. 
496 ; LTJTTBELL, v. 225). She also be- 
queathed annuities to some poor gentle- 
women friends with the burden of main- 
taining some of her cats ; hence Pope's satiric 
allusion in his fourth ' Moral Essay : ' ' Die 
and endow a college, or a cat.' The duchess's 
fine collection of original drawings by 
Da Vinci, Raphael, and other masters, to- 
gether with miniatures and engravings, was 
sold by auction at Whitehall at the close of 
1702 (London Gazette, 17 Nov.) 

However vacuous 'La Belle Stuart' ap- 
peared to be in youth, she developed in later 
life a fair measure of Scottish discretion. 
Her letters to her husband (in Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS. 21947-8) give evidence of good 
sense and affection. She maintained her high 
rank with credit, and was kind to her re- 
tainers. Nat Lee, in dedicating to her his 
' Theodosius ' (produced at Dorset Garden 
in 1680), speaks warmly of personal atten- 
tions to himself. 

1 La Belle Stuart ' figures in numerous 
medals, notably as Britannia seated at the 
foot of a rock with the legend ' Favente Deo ' 
in < The Peace of Breda ' medal (1667), by 
John Roettiers [q. v.] (cf. PEPYS, ed. Wheat- 
ley, vi. 96), and in a similar guise in the 
1 Naval Victories ' medal (1667), with the 
legend, ' Quatuor maria vindico,' whence 
Andrew Marvell's allusion to ' female Stewart 
there rules the four seas ' (Last Instructions 
to a Painter, p. 714). A special medal was 

struck in her honour in 1667 with Britannia 
on the reverse. Both medals and dies are in 
the British Museum, where is also a further 
portrait in relief upon a thin plate of gold. 
Waller, in his epigram ' upon the golden 
medal,' has the line, ' Virtue a stronger guard 
than brass,' in reference to Miss Stewart's 
triumph over Barbara Villiers, duchess of 
Cleveland [q. v.] The halfpenny designed by 
John Roettiers, bearing the figure of Bri- 
tannia on the reverse, first appeared in 1672, 
and there is no doubt that the Duchess of 
Richmond was in the artist's mind when he 
made the design (cf. MONTAGU, Copper 
Coinage of England, 1893, pp. 38-9; cf. 
FORNERON, Louise de Keroualle). 

Of the numerous portraits, the best are 
the Lely portrait at Windsor (engraved by 
Thomas Watson, and also by S. Freeman in 
1827 for Mrs. Jameson's 'Beauties') ; another 
by Lely, as Pallas, in the Duke of Richmond's 
collection (engraved by J. Thomson) : as a 
man, by Johnson, at Kensington Palace 
(engraved by R. Robinson), and another as 
Pallas, by Gascar (see SMITH, Mezzotinto 
Portraits, passim). 

[Miss Stewart may almost be considered the 
heroine of Hamilton's Memoirs of Gramont, the 
animated pages of which are largely occupied 
by her escapades at court ; but all his stories 
need corroboration. Good, though rather stern, 
characterisations are given in Mrs. Jameson's 
Beauties of the Court of Charles II, in Jesse's 
Court of England under the Stuarts, iv. 128-41, 
and in Strickland's Queens, v. 585 sq. The 
amount of responsibility due to the elopement 
for Clarendon's fall is carefully apportioned by 
Professor Masson (Milton, vi. 272). See also 
Archseologia Cantiana, vols. xi. xii. ; Baillon's 
Henriette-Anne d'Angleterre ; Lady Gust's 
Stuarts of Aubigny ; Hatton Correspondence ; 
Dalrymple's Appendix ; Medallic Illustrations of 
Brit. Hist, 1885, i. 536-43 ; Pope's Works, ed. 
Elwin, iii. 138; Waller's Poems, ed. Drury, 
pp. 193, 338; Dangeau's Journal; Walpole's 
Anecdotes, ii. 184.] T. S. 

STUART, GILBERT (1742-1786), his- 
torian and reviewer, born at Edinburgh in 
1742, was the only surviving son of George 
Stuart, professor of the Latin language and 
Roman antiquities in Edinburgh University, 
who died at Fisher Row, near Musselburgh, 
on!8 June 1793, aged 78 (Gent Mag. 1793, 
ii. 672). Gilbert was educated at the gram- 
mar school and university of Edinburgh in 
classics and philosophy, and then studied 
jurisprudence at the university, but never 
followed the profession of the law. Even 
at an early period in his life he worked by 
fits and starts, and was easily drawn into 



Stuart's talents were first displayed in his 
judicious corrections and amendments to the 

* Gospel History ' (1765) of the Rev. Robert 
Wait. His first independent work was the 
anonymous ' Historical Dissertation on the 
Antiquity of the English Constitution/ 
published in the spring of 1768, in which 
he traced English institutions to a German 
source. The second edition, which came out 
in January 1770, with a dedication to Lord 
Mansfield, bore Stuart's name on the title- 
page, and it was republished in 1778 and 
1790. For this work he received from Edin- 
burgh University on 16 Nov. 1769 the degree 
of doctor of law (Cat. of Graduates, 1858, 
p. 257). 

Later in 1768 Stuart proceeded to Lon- 
don, putting his hope of preferment in the 
patronage of Lord Mansfield, but his ex- 
pectations were disappointed. In 1769 he 
lodged with Thomas Somerville [q. v.] in 
the house of Murdoch the bookseller, where 
he was every day engaged on articles for the 
newspapers and reviews. Stuart was already 
conspicuous among the writers in the 

* Monthly Review,' for which he worked 
from 1768 to 1773. Somerville was sur- 
prised by his lack of principle he would 
boast that he had written two articles on 
the same public character, ' one a pane- 
gyric and the other a libel,' for each of 
which he would receive a guinea and by 
his amazing rapidity of composition. After 
a night's revel he would, without any sleep, 
compose in a few minutes an article which 
was sent to the press without correction 
(SOMERVILLE, Life and Times, pp. 148-50, 
275-6). While residing in London he 
supervised the manuscripts of Nathaniel 
Hooke (d. 1763) [q. v.], and from them 
finished the fourth volume of Hooke's ' Ro- 
man History,' which was published in 1771. 

By June 1773 Stuart was back with his 
father at Musselburgh, and was busy over 
the arrangements for the issue of the ^Edin- 
burgh Magazine and Review,' which was ' to 
be formed and conducted by him,' and for 
which he engaged ' to furnish the press with 
copy.' The first number that for November 
1773 came out about the middle of October 
in that year, and it was discontinued after the 
publication of the number for August 1776, 
when five octavo volumes had been com- 
pleted. The chief writers in it, in addition 
to Stuart, were Professor Richardson of 
Glasgow, Professor William Baron, Thomas 
Blacklock, Rev. A. Gillies, and William 
Smellie, the Scottish printer, and it was 
conducted for some time ' with great spirit, 
much display of talent, and conspicuous 
merit.' These advantages were soon rendered 

nugatory by the malevolence of Stuart, ' a 
disappointed man, thwarted in his early 
prospects of establishment in life.' The fame 
of the other historians and of the leading 
writers at Edinburgh diseased his mind, 
and Smellie's energies were constantly em- 
ployed in checkmating his virulence. He 
wished to ornament the first number of the 
magazine ' with a print of my Lord Mon- 
boddo in his quadruped form,' but his pur- 
pose was frustrated. His slashing article 
on the ' Elements of Criticism,' the work 
of Lord Kames, was completely metamor- 
phosed by Smellie into a panegyric. In 
some matters, however, he had his own 
way. When David Hume reviewed the 
second volume of Dr. Henry's ' History of 
Great Britain ' in very laudatory language, 
the article was cancelled and one by Stuart 
substituted for it, which erred in the other 
extreme (SMELLIE, David Hume, pp. 203-4 ; 
BURTON, David Hume, ii. 415-16, 468-70). 
The climax was reached in an article by him 
and Gillies, written in spite of the remon- 
strances of Smellie, 'with shocking scurrility 
and abuse,' on Lord Monboddo's ' Origin and 
Progress of Language,' which ran through 
several numbers of the fifth volume, and the 
magazine was stopped (a list of his reviews 
and essays is given in KERR, Life of Smellie, 
i. 403-8). 

After this Stuart temporarily abandoned 
review-writing for the study of philosophy 
and history. He appended in 1776 to the 
second edition of Francis Stoughton Sulli- 
van's ' Lectures on the Constituti on and Laws 
of England' the authorities for the state- 
ments and a discourse on the government 
and laws of our country, and dedicated the 
volume to Lord North ; the whole work was 
reissued at Portland, Maine, in 1805. His 
most important treatise, ' A View of Society 
in Europe,' was published in 1778, and re- 
printed in 1782, 1783, 1792, and 1813, and 
a French translation by A. H. M. Boulard, 
came out in Paris in 1789, in two volumes. 
Letters from Blackstone and Dr. Alexander 
Garden were added to the posthumous edi- 
tion of 1792 by Stuart's father. In this dis- 
sertation the author followed the guidance 
of Montesquieu, whom alone, such was his 
vanity, he recognised as a superior. It was 
confined to the early and mediaeval ages, 
and its learning was not sufficiently deep to 
give it permanent authority. 

About 1779 Stuart was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the professorship of public 
law in the university of Edinburgh, and he 
believed that his failure was due to the in- 
fluence of Robertson (Encyclop. Brit. 7th ed. 
xx. 780-4). From this time he pursued that 




historian with undying hatred (BROUGHAM, 
Men of Letters, 1855, p. 274). In 1779 he 
brought out, with a dedication to John, lord 
Mount Stuart, baron Cardiff, ' Observations 
on the Public Law and Constitutional His- 
tory of Scotland ; ' and in 1780 he published 
his i History of the Establishment of the 
Reformation in Scotland ' (reissued in 1796 
and 1805). It was followed in 1782 by a 
kindred work in two volumes, written in 
his best style, and entitled ' The History of 
Scotland from the Establishment of the Re- 
formation till the Death of Queen Mary,' 
which passed into a second edition in 1784, 
when he added to it his ' Observations on 
the Public Law of Scotland.' It is said to 
have been reprinted in Germany. 

These works were written with an easy 
flow of narrative in what was known as ' the 
balancing style ' adopted from Johnson and 
Gibbon. Stuart boasted of his impartiality 
and his desire ' to build a Temple to Truth,' 
but he did not lose an opportunity of girding 
at Robertson, whom he openly challenged 
to reply to his defence of Queen Mary 
(Letters appended to 1784 ed. of History ; 
Gent. Mag. 1782, pp. 167-8). Robertson 
retorted with a charge of gross plagiarism. 
In 1782 Stuart settled once more in Lon- 
don, where he again took up the work 
of reviewing. The * English Review ' was 
established by the first John Murray in 
January 1783 (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecdotes, iii. 
731), and Stuart was one of the principal 
\vriters on its staff. During 1785-6 he edited, 
in conjunction with Dr. William Thomson 
(1746-1817) [q. v.], twelve numbers of < The 
Political Herald and Review.' It opened 
with a criticism of Pitt's administration, 
which was not concluded in its final number, 
and it contained severe addresses to Henry 
Dundas and several other Pittites. It was 
probably the knowledge of these diatribes 
that prompted an anonymous writer to sug- 
gest that Stuart was the writer, oh infor- 
mation supplied through one of Lord Cam- 
den's relatives, of the letters of Junius 
(Scots Magazine, November 1799, p. 734; 
reprinted in CHARLES BUTLER'S Reminis- 
cences,' pp. 336-8). 

Stuart was known, while engaged on his 
historical treatises, to have confined himself 
to his library for several weeks, scarcely ever 
leaving his house for air and exercise. But 
these periods of intense labour were always 
followed by bouts of dissipation lasting for 
equal periods of time. When in England 
he often spent whole nights in company 
with his boon companions at the Peacock in 
Gray's Inn Lane (Dr. MAURICE, Memoirs, 
iii. 3). These habits destroved a strong con- 

stitution. He died at his father's house at 
Fisher Row on 13 Aug. 1786. A print of 
him without artist's name or date passed in 
the Burney collection to the British Mu- 
seum. Another portrait, executed in 1777,. 
was prefixed to his ' Reformation in Scot- 
land/ ed. 1805. A portrait engraved by 
John Keyse Sherwin, after Donaldson, is 
mentioned by Bromley (p. 395). 

A writer of great talent and learning, his 
excesses and want of principle ruined his 
career ; and his works, t some of which have 
great merit,' sank into oblivion l in conse- 
quence of the spite and unfairness that runs, 
through them and deprives them of all trust- 
worthiness ' (BROUGHAM, Autobiography, i.. 
14-15, 537-8; CHALMERS, Life of Ruddi- 
man, pp. 288-92). 

[Gent. Mag. 1786 ii. 716, 808, 905-6, 994, 
1128, 1787 i. 121, 296, 397-9; Disraeli's 
Calamities of Authors, 1812 ed. ii. 51-74 ; 
Chambers and Thomson's Biogr. Diet, of Scots- 
men (1870 ed.), iii. 417-20 ; Kerr's Smellie, 
i. 96-7, 392-437, 499-504, ii. 1-12.] 

W. P. C. 

STUART, GILBERT (1755-1828), por- 
trait-painter, was born inNarragansett, Rhode 
Island, U.S.A., on 3 Dec. 1755. He re- 
ceived some instruction from Cosmo Alex- 
ander, a Scottish portrait-painter then prac- 
tising in Rhode Island, and accompanied 
him to Scotland in 1772. The death of his 
master left him to shift for himself, and after 
struggling awhile at the university of Glasgow 
he returned home. In 1775 he came to Eng- 
land, and found a friend and a master in. 
Benjamin West [q. v.] In 1785 he set up a 
studio of his own, and attained considerable 
and deserved success as a portrait-painter. 
He returned to America in 1792, and after 
working for two years in New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Washington, he settled at Boston 
for the rest of his life. He exhibited thirteen 
portraits at the Royal Academy (1777-1785). 
The bulk of his work is in America at 
Boston, New York, Cambridge, Harvard,, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, and 
other places. He painted most of the lead- 
ing Americans of his time, including the pre- 
sidents, Washington (several times), John 
Adams, and Jefferson. He is considered the 
painter of Washington par excellence. In 
the National Portrait Gallery there are por- 
traits by Stuart of Benjamin West (two), 
William Woollett and John Hall (the en- 
gravers), John Philip Kemble, and George 
Washington. Lord Inchiquin has his por- 
trait of Sir Joshua Reynolds. His portraits 
of John Singleton Copley, the painter, and 
Sir Edward Thornton are still in the posses- 
sion of their respective families. One of his. 



finest works is W. Grant of Congalton skating 
in St. James's Park, in the collection of Lord 
Charles Pelham-Clinton. A portrait of Wash- 
in gton, painted for the Marquis of Lans- 
downe, was engraved by James Heath [q.v.] 
To his English portraits belong also those of 
Alderman Boy dell and Dr. Fothergill. He 
died at Boston on 27 July 1828. 

[Bryan's Diet., ed. Armstrong; Cyclopaedia 
of Painters and Paintings ; Mason's Life and 
Works of Gilbert Stuart, New York, 1879.] 


TER (1639-1660). [See HENKY.] 

LIERS (1827-1895), of Dromana, politician, 
born in 1827, was only son of Henry Villiers 
Stuart, baron Stuart de Decies. His father, 
feorn in London on 8 June 1803, was the 
fifth son of John Stuart, first marquis of 
Bute, by his wife Gertrude Emilia, daugh- 
ter and heiress of George Mason Villiers, 
earl Grandison. On the death of his mother 
on 30 Aug. 1809 he succeeded to the estates 
of his maternal grandfather, and took by 
royal license on 17 Nov. 1822 the name of 
Villiers before that of Stuart. He was M.P. 
in the liberal interest for Waterford from 
1826 to 1830, and for Banbury from 1830 
to 1831. On 18 May 1839 he was created 
Baron Stuart de Decies. He died at Dro- 
inana on 23 Jan. 1874. Madame de Ott, who 
was mother of the subject of this notice, is 
stated to have been married to Lord Stuart 
de Decies in 1826, but on his death his son 
was unable to establish his claim to the 
peerage (cf. Gent. Mag, 1867, ii. 405). 

Henry Windsor was educated at Univer- 
sity College, Durham, where he graduated 
in 1849. He was ordained in 1850, and ap- 
pointed vicar of Bulkington, Warwickshire, 
in 1854, and of Napton-on-the-Hill, Southam, 
Warwickshire, in 1855. 

From 1871 to 1874 he was vice-lieutenant 
of county Waterford, and, on 'his father's 
death in the latter year, succeeded to the 

Property of Dromana in that county. In 
873 he surrendered his holy orders and suc- 
cessfully contested co. Waterford for parlia- 
ment in the liberal interest. He held this 
seat until the following year, and again from 
1880 to 1885. At the general election of 
1885 he contested East Cork as a loyalist, 
but was defeated. 

Stuart travelled extensively, and published 
many accounts of his wanderings. He was 
in South America in 1858, in Jamaica in 
1881, and he made several journeys through 
Egypt. After the English occupation of 
Egypt he was attached to Lord Dufierin's 

mission of reconstruction, and in the spring 
of 1883 was commissioned to investigate the 
condition of the country. His work re- 
ceived the special recognition of Lord Duf- 
ferin, and his reports were published as a 
parliamentary blue-book. He took a keen 
interest in Egyptian exploration, and was a 
member of the Society of Biblical Archaeo- 
logy. He was also a member of the com- 
mittee of the Royal Literary Fund. 

He was drowned on 12 Oct. 1895 off Vil- 
lierstown Quay on the Blackwater, near his 
residence at Dromana, having slipped while 
entering a boat. He married, on 3 Aug. 
1865, Mary, second daughter of the Vene- 
rable Ambrose Power, archdeacon of Lis- 
more, and by her had several children. 

His works are : 1. { Eve of the Deluge,' 
London, 1851. 2 'Nile Gleanings, con- 
cerning the Ethnology, History, and Art of 
Ancient Egypt,' London, 1879. 3. 'The 
Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen,' Lon- 
don, 1882. 4. ' Egypt after the War,' Lon- 
don, 1883. 5. * Adventures amidst the 
Equatorial Forests and Rivers of South 
America,' London, 1891. 

[Burke's Peerage, 1875, p. 1115; G-. E. 
C[okayne]'s Peerage; Parliamentary Papers, 
Egypt, No. 7, 1883; Crockford, 1860 p. 586, 
1874 p. 1003 ; Times, 14 Oct. 1895.] J. R. M. 

NOX and first DUKE OF RICHMOND (1612- 
1655), son of Esme, third duke of Lennox, 
and Katherine Clifton, daughter and heiress 
of Gervase, lord Clifton of Leighton Broms- 
wold, was born at Blackfriars on 6 April 
1'612, and baptised at Whitehall on the 25th. 
Esme Stuart, first duke of Lennox [q. v.], 
was his grandfather ; Ludovick Stuart, the 
second duke [q.v.], was his uncle ; and- Ber- 
nard Stuart, titular earl of Lichfield [q. v.], 
was his brother. He succeeded his father 
in 1624, and King James, being the nearest 
heir male of the family, became, according 
to Scots custom, his legal tutor and guar- 
dian. He was made a gentleman of the 
bedchamber in 1625, and was knighted on 
29 June 1630. After studying at the uni- 
versity of Cambridge he travelled in France, 
Spain, and Italy, and in January 1632 he was 
made a grandee of Spain of the first class. 
In 1633 he was chosen a privy councillor, and 
accompanied Charles I to Scotland. When 
the king the same year resolved to endow the 
bishopric of Edinburgh, Lennox sold to him 
lands for this purpose much cheaper than he 
could otherwise have obtained them (CLAREN- 
DON, History of the Rebellion, i. 182). It 
would appear, however, that he was not re- 
garded in Scotland as specially favourable 




to episcopacy; for when in September 1637 
he came to Scotland to attend the funeral of 
his mother, the ministers entrusted him with 
supplications and remonstrances against the 
service book, being induced to do so by the 
consideration that he ' was a nobleman of a 
calm temper, and principled by such a tutor, 
Mr. David Buchanan, as looked upon epi- 
scopacy and all the English ceremonies with 
an evil eye' (GORDON, Scots Affairs, i. 18); 
he was also entreated by the privy council 
' to remonstrate to his majesty the true state 
of the business, with the many pressing diffi- 
culties occurring therein' (BALFOTJR, Annals, 
ii. 235) . It would seem that Lennox acted per- 
fectly honourably in the matter, and, though 
he clung to the king, it was more from per- 
sonal loyalty than devotion to his policy. It 
is, however, worth noting that in November 
of the same year he received a grant of land 
in various counties amounting in annual 
value to 1,497 /. 7s. 4^., and making, with 
former grants, an income of 3,000/. (Gal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1637, p. 575). 

In 163S Lennox was appointed keeper of 
Richmond Park, and in 1640 warden of the 
Cinque ports. On 8 Aug. 1641 he was created 
Duke of Richmond, with a specific remain- 
der, failing heirs male of his body, to his 
younger brother. Shortly afterwards he ac- 
companied the king to Scotland, but, not hav- 
ing at first signed the covenant, was not per- 
mitted to take his place in parliament (BAL- 
FOTTR, Annals, iii. 44) until the 19th, when 
he subscribed ' the covenant band and oath ' 
(iii. 46). On 17 Sept. he was chosen one of 
the Scottish privy council (ib. p. 66). 

During the civil war Lennox was a generous 
supporter of the king, contributing at one 
time 20,000/., and at another 46,000/. He 
was a commissioner for the defence of Ox- 
ford in 1644-6, for the conference at Uxbridge 
in January 1644-5, and for the conference at 
Newport in September 1648. He was one 
of the mourners who attended the funeral of 
Charles I at Windsor. He died on 30 March 
1655, and was buried in Westminster Abbey 
on 18 April. Although his personal devotion 
to the king was unquestioned, he was never 
regarded by the covenanters with hostility ; 
and while he is eulogised by Clarendon as 
always behaving honourably, and ' pursuing 
his majesty's service with the utmost vigour 
and intentness of mind' (History of the Re- 
bellion, iii. 237), Gordon affirms that, as re- 
gards Scotland, he ( never declared himself 
one way or other, never acted anything for 
the king or against him, and was never at 
any time quarrelled or questioned by any 
party, but lived and died with the good 
liking of all, and without the hate of any' 

(Scots Affairs, i. 62). A portrait of Lennox., 
by Vandyck, belonged in 1866 to Mr. W. H. 
Pole-Carew, and an anonymous portrait to- 
the Duke of Richmond (Cat. First Loan 
Exhib. Nos. 634, 720). By his wife Mary 
(d. 1685), daughter of George Villiers, first 
duke of Buckingham, and widow of Lord 
Herbert of Shurland, he had an only son 
and heir, Esm6 (d. 1660), fifth duke of Len- 
nox and second duke of Richmond, on whose 
death at Paris in his eleventh year the duke- 
dom passed to Charles Stuart, sixth duke of 
Lennox and third duke of Richmond [q. v.] 
[Clarendon's Hist, of the Kebellion ; Sir James 
Balfour's Annals ; Gordon's Scots Affairs, and 
Spalding's Memorials in the Spalding Club ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. ; Eobert Bailee's 
Letters and Journals in the Bannatyne Club ; 
Burke's Peerage.] T. F. H. 

STUART, JAMES (1713-1788), painter 
and architect, often known as l Athenian 
Stuart,' born in Creed Lane, Ludgate Street, 
London, in 1713, was the son of a mariner 
from Scotland, who died when Stuart was 
quite young, leaving a widow and two other 
children. Stuart, on whom the support of 
the family devolved, having shown an early 
taste for drawing, obtained employment in 
painting fans for Lewis Goupy [q. v.], the 
well-known fan-painter in the Strand. As 
many of Goupy's fans were decorated with 
views of classical buildings, Stuart's mind 
may have been thus first directed to the 
study of classical architecture. At the age of 
thirteen or fourteen he obtained a premium 
from the Society of Arts for a crayon portrait 
of himself. Besides acquiring some skill as a 
painter in gouache and watercolours, he was 
a diligent student of mathematics and geo- 
metry, and thus became a good draughtsman. 
After his mother's death, his brother and sister 
being provided for, Stuart effected a long- 
cherished project of going to Rome to pursue 
his studies in art. This he accomplished in 
1741, travelling a great part of the way on 
foot, and earning money as best he could on 
the way. At Rome he became associated 
with Gavin Hamilton [q. v.], the painter, 
Matthew Brettingham [q. v.], the architect, 
and Nicholas Revett [q. v.] In April 1748 
these four artists made a journey to Naples 
on foot, and it was during this journey that 
the project for visiting Athens, in order to 
take practical measurements of the remains 
of Greek architecture, was initiated. The 
idea seems to have originated with Hamil- 
ton and Revett, but was warmly taken 
up by Stuart, who had studied Latin and 
Greek in the College of Propaganda at Rome, 
and already written a treatise in Latin on 
the obelisk found in the Campus Martius. 



This Stuart published in 1750, with a dedi- 
cation to Charles Wentworth, earl of Malton 
(afterwards Marquis of Rockingham), and 
through it obtained the hononr of presenta- 
tion to Pope Benedict XIV. In ] 748 Stuart 
and Revett issued * Proposals for publishing 
an accurate Description of the Antiquities 
of Athens.' Their scheme attracted the 
favour of the English dilettanti then resident 
in Rome, and with the help of some of them, 
notably the Earl of Malton, the Earl of 
Charlemont, James Dawkins, and Robert 
Wood, the explorers of Palmyra, and others, 
they were enabled to make their arrange- 
ments for proceeding to Athens. Stuart 
and Revett left Rome in March 1750, but 
were detained for some months in Venice. 
There they met and were encouraged by 
Sir James Gray, K.B., the British resident, 
who procured their election into the Lon- 
don 'Dilettanti,' and Joseph Smith (1682- 
1770), the British consul. Colonel George 
Gray, brother of Sir James, and secretary 
and treasurer to the Society of Dilettanti, 
printed and issued in London an edition of 
Stuart and Revett's ' Proposals,' and a fur- 
ther edition was issued by Consul Smith at 
Venice in 1753. During their detention at 
Venice Stuart and Revett visited the anti- 
quities of Pola in Dalmatia. On 19 Jan. 
1751 they embarked for Greece, and ar- 
rived on 18 March following at Athens. 
They at once set to work, Stuart making 
the general drawings in colour, and Revett 
supplying the accurate measurements. They 
remained at Athens until 5 March 1753, 
when the disorders resulting from Turkish 
rule compelled them to desist from their 
labours. Stuart, who desired to get their 
firmans renewed by the sultan, took the oppor- 
tunity of the pasha who governed Athens 
being recalled to Constantinople to avail 
himself of his escort. He narrowly, however, 
escaped being murdered on more than one 
occasion, and with great difficulty made his 
way to the coast and rejoined Revett at 
Salonica. From thence they visited Smyrna 
and the islands of the Greek Archipelago, 
returning to England early in 1755. On 
their return they were warmly welcomed by 
the Society of Dilettanti, at whose board they 
now took their seats. Stuart and Revett at 
once set to work to arrange their notes and 
drawings for publication, and issued a fresh 
prospectusof their intendedpublication. They 
were assisted by many members of the So- 
ciety of Dilettanti individually, as well as 
by the society as a body. The work did not, 
however, see the light until 1762, when a 
handsome volume was issued, entitled ' The 
Antiquities of Athens measured and deli- 

neated by James Stuart, F.R.S. and F.S.A., 
and Nicholas Revett, Painters and Archi- 
tects/ with a dedication to the king. The 
book produced an extraordinary effect upon 
English society. The Society 'of Dilettanti 
had for some years been endeavouring to in- 
troduce a taste for classical architecture, and 
the publication of this work caused ' Grecian 
Gusto ' to reign supreme. Under its influence 
the classical style in architecture was widely 
adopted both in London and the provinces, 
and maintained its predominance for the re- 
mainder of the century. The publication of 
Stuart and Revett's work may be said to 
be the commencement of the serious study 
of classical art and antiquities throughout 
Europe. Its publication had been antici- 
pated by a. somewhat similar work by a 
I Frenchman, Julien David Le Roy, who had 
i been in Rome in 1748, when the proposals of 
I Stuart and Revett were first issued. Le Roy 
did not, however, visit Athens until 1754, 
after Stuart and Revett had completed their 
work there, and although by royal patronage 
I and other help he succeeded in getting his 
| book ' Ruines des plus beaux Monuments 
de la Grece ' published in 1758, it is in 
[ every way inferior to the work of Stuart and 
: Revett. The views of Athenian antiquities, 
: drawn for Lord Charlemont by Richard Dal- 
! ton in 1749 and engraved by him, were not 
done from accurate and scientific measure- 
ments, so that Stuart and Revett may fairly 
\ claim to have been the pioneers of classical 

The publication of the ( Antiquities of 
| Athens' made Stuart famous, and he ob- 
tained the name of ' Athenian' Stuart. He 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
I and the Society of Antiquaries. Although he 
! exhibited for some years with the Free 
I Society of Artists, sending chiefly worked-up 
I specimens of his sketches in Greece, Stuart 
| found the profession of architect in the new 
fashionable Grecian style more profitable. In 
this line he was employed by Earl Spencer, 
the Marquis of Rockiiigham, Lord Camden, 
Lord Eardley, Lord Anson, and others ; Lord 
Anson's house in St. James's Square was 
perhaps the first building in the real Grecian 
style erected in London. Stuart became the 
recognised authority on classical art, and 
was referred to on all such matters as de- 
signing medals, monuments, &c. He con- 
tinued one of the leading members of the 
Dilettanti, and in 1763 was appointed painter 
to the society, in the place of George Knap- 
ton [q. v.] ; he did not, however, execute any 
work for the society, though he held the post 
until 1769, when he was succeeded by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. For many years Stuart 




was engaged upon a second volume of the 
' Antiquities of Athens.' A difficulty oc- 
curring withRevett, who resented the some- 
what undue share of credit which Stuart 
had obtained for their work, Stuart bought 
all his rights in the work. The second volume 
was almost ready for press, and the drawings 
completed for a third volume, when the work 
was interrupted by Stuart's sudden death at 
his house in Leicester Square on 2 Feb. 1788. 
He was buried in the church of St. Martin- 
in-the-Fields. Stuart was twice married, 
but left surviving issue only by his second 
wife, Elizabeth. 

The second volume of the ' Antiquities of 
Athens ' was published by his widow in 1789, 
with the assistance of William Newton 
(1735-1790) [q. v.], who had been assistant 
to and succeeded Stuart in the post (obtained 
for Stuart by Anson) of surveyor to Green- 
wich Hospital. The third volume was not 
published until 1795, when it was edited by 
Willey Reveley [q.v.] In 1814 a fourth 
volume was issued, edited by Joseph Woods, 
containing miscellaneous papers and draw- 
ings by Stuart and Revett, and the results 
of their researches at Pola. A supplemen- 
tary volume was published in 1830 by 
Charles Robert Cockerell [q. v.],"R.A., and 
other architects. A second edition of the 
first three volumes on a reduced scale was 
published in 1825-30, and a third edition, 
still further reduced in size, in 1841, for 
Bohn's ' Illustrated Library.' 

Miniature portraits of Stuart and his second 
wife were presented to the National Portrait 
Gallery in November 1858 by his son, Lieu- 
tenant James Stuart, R.N. 

[Biography prefixed to vol. iv. of the Athenian 
Antiquities; Hamilton's Historical Notices of 
the Soc. of Dilettanti; Gust and Colvin's Hist, of 
the Society of Dilettanti, 1897 ; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in 
Great Britain ; Stuart's own Works.] L. C. 

STUART, JAMES (d. 1793), major- 
general, younger brother of Andrew Stuart 
[q. v.], was appointed captain in the 56th 
foot on 1 Nov. 1755. He first saw active 
service at the siege of Lauisburg in Nova 
Scotia under Lord Amherst in 1758. On 
9 May of the same year he was promoted to 
the rank of major, and in 1761 was present 
with Colonel Morgan's regiment at the re- 
duction of Belleisle. During the course of 
the expedition he acted as quartermaster- 
general, and in consequence obtained the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. From Belleisle 
he went to the West Indies, and served in 
the operations against Martinique, which 
was reduced in February 1762, and on the 

death of Colonel Morgan took command of 
the regiment. After the conquest of Marti- 
nique his regiment was ordered to join the 
expedition against Havana, where he greatly 
distinguished himself by his conduct in the 
assault of the castle of Morro, the capture of 
which determined the success of the expe- 

In 1775 he received permission to enter 
the service of the East India Company as 
second in command on the Coromandel 
coast, with the rank of colonel. On his 
arrival he found serious differences existing 
between the council of the Madras Presi- 
dency and the governor, George Pigot, baron 
Pigot [q. v.], and on 23 Aug. 1776 he arrested 
the governor at Madras, at the command of 
the majority of the council. On this news 
reaching England, Stuart was suspended by 
the directors from the office of commander- 
in -chief, to which he had succeeded, with the 
rank of brigadier-general, on the death of Sir 
Robert Fletcher in December 1776. Although 
he repeatedly demanded a trial, he could not, 
despite peremptory orders from England, 
succeed in obtaining a court-martial until 
December 1780, when he was honourably 
acquitted, and by order of the directors re- 
ceived the arrears of his pay from the time 
of his suspension. On 11 Jan. 1781 he was 
restored to the chief command in Madras by 
order of the governor and council. He re- 
turned to Madras in 1781, and, under Sir 
Eyre Coote (1726-1783) [q. v.], took part in 
the battle of Porto Novo on 1 July, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his able handling of 
the second line of the British force. In the 
battle of Pollilore, on 27 Aug., he had his leg 
carried away by a cannon shot. On 19 Oct. 
he was promoted to the rank of major-ge- 
neral, and on the return of Sir Eyre Coote 
to Bengal he took command of the forces in 
Madras. Lord Macartney [see MACARTNEY, 
GEORGE, EARL MACARTNEY], the governor, 
however, would not allow him that freedom 
of action which Eyre Coote had enjoyed, 
and on the death of Hyder on 7 Dec. he 
urged him immediately to attack the Mysore 
army. Stuart declared his forces were not 
ready, and made no active movement for two 
months. While besieging Cuddalore he was 
suspended from the command by the Madras 
government. He was placed in strict con- 
finement in Madras, and sent home to Eng- 
land. On 8 June 1786, though unable to 
stand without support owing to his wounds, 
he fought a duel with Lord Macartney in 
Hyde Park, and severely wounded him. On 
8 Feb. 1792 he was appointed colonel of the 
31st foot. He died on 2 Feb. 1793. His 
portrait, painted by Romney, was engraved 


8 9 


fay Hodges (BROMLEY, Cat. p. 381). He mar- 
ried Margaret Hume, daughter of Hugh, third 
-earl of Marchmont, but had no children. 
1^ Another JAMES STUART (1741-1815), 
general, frequently confounded with the pre- 
ceding, was the third son of John Stuart of 
Blairhall in Perthshire, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Francis, earl of Murray, and was 
born at Blairhall on 2 March 1741. He was 
educated at the schools of Culross and Dun- 
fermline. In 1757 he proceeded to Edin- 
burgh to study law r , but, abandoning the pro- 
ject, entered the army, and served in the 
American war of independence. He at- 
tained the rank of major in the 78th foot, and 
arrived in India with his regiment in 1782, 
where he was appointed lieutenant-colonel 
on 14 Feb. He took part in Sir Eyre Coote's 
campaign against Hyder, and was present at 
the siege of Cuddalore, when he commanded 
the attack on the right of the main position 
in the assault of 13 July 1782. In the cam- 
paign of 1790, under General Sir William 
Medows [q. v.J, against Tippoo Sahib, he re- 
duced the fortresses of Dindigul and Pal- 
ghaut. He served under Cornwallis through 
the campaigns of 1791-2, was placed in 
immediate charge of the siege of Seringa- 
.patam, and commanded the centre column 
in the assault of 6 Feb. 1792. On 8 Aug. 
'he was promoted to the rank of colonel, and, 
after a visit to England, returned to Madras 
in 1794. On 26 Feb. 1795 he was appointed 
major-general, and in the same year took 
command of the expedition against the Dutch 
possessions in Ceylon. The whole island 
was secured in 1796, and Stuart in the same 
year became commander-in-chief of the forces 
in Madras. On 23 Oct. 1798 he was gazetted 
colonel of the 78th regiment, and in the 
following year, in the last war against 
'Tippoo, commanded the Bombay army, which 
occupied Coorg, and repulsed Tippoo at Seda- 
seer on 6 March. On 15 March he effected 
a junction with Major-general George Harris 
'(afterwards Lord Harris) [q.v.] before Seringa- 
patam, and took charge of the operations on 
the northern side of the city. After its cap- 
ture he, with several other general officers, 
received the thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment. In 1801 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief of the Madras army; on 29 April 
1802 he attained the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and in the following year took part 
in the Mahratta war, Major-general Wellesley 
being under his orders. In 1805 he returned 
to England in bad health ; he was promoted 
to the rank of general on 1 Jan. 1812, and 
died without issue at Charles Street, Berkeley 
Square, London, on 29 April 1815. He was 
-buried in a vault in St. James's Chapel, Hamp- 


stead Road, London (Notes and Queries, 8th 
ser. ix. 170, 258, xi. 91 ; WILES, Historical 
Sketches of the South of India, 1868, index ; 
Wellington Despatches, India, 1844, index ; 
BURKE, Landed Gentry, 4th edit.) 

[Andrew Stuart's Genealogical History of the 
Stewarts, p. 378 ; Andrew Stuart's Letters to 
the Directors of the East India Company ; The 
Case of Lord Pigot fairly stated, 1777 ; Defence 
of Brigadier-general Stuart, 1778; Letter to the 
East India Company by Major-general Stuart, 
1787; Correspondence during the indisposition 
of the Commander-in chief (collected by Briga- 
dier-general Stuart), 1783 ; Wilks's Sketches of 
the South of India, 1869, index; Cornwallis 
Correspondence, 1859, index ; Notes and Queries, 
8th ser. ix. 170, 258.] E. I. C. 

STUART, JAMES (1764-1842), histo- 
! rian of Armagh, son of James Stuart, a 
; gentleman of co. Antrim, was born at Ar- 
I magh in 1764. He was educated at Armagh 
Royal school, while Dr. Arthur Grueber, a 
pious and erudite scholar, was its master, 
and in 1784 took sixth place on entrance at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where Dr. George 
Miller (afterwards master of Armagh school) 
was his tutor. He speaks (Armagh, p. 544) 
with gratitude of both his teachers. He 
graduated B.A. in the spring term of 1789, 
and was soon after called to the Irish bar, 
but never practised. In 1811 he published 
' Poems on various Subjects,' some of which 
are on places near Armagh, some on his 
friends, none of more than occasional in- 
terest. In 1812 he became the first editor 
of the ' Newry Telegraph,' and from 1815 to 
1819 also edited 'The Newry Magazine.' 
He published at Newry in 1819 ' Historical 
Memoirs of the City of Armagh for a Period 
of 1,373 Years.' Armagh is the ecclesias- 
tical metropolis of Ireland, and this book is 
perhaps the most learned and impartial in- 
troduction hitherto published to the general 
history of the island. Besides general his- 
tory it contains a great collection of local 
information, is well arranged, and written in 
a lucid style. He went to live in Belfast in 
1821 and became editor of the 'News Letter.' 
Some theological letters by him, which first 
appeared in this journal, were published as a 
separate volume in 1825 as ' The Protestant 
Layman.' In 1827 he founded and edited 
* The Guardian and Constitutional Advo- 
cate,' but ill-health soon obliged him to give 
it up. He married Mary Ogle, but had no 
children, and died in September 1842 in 
Belfast. His will is dated 26 Sept. 1840, 
and his widow was universal legatee and sole 

[Stuart's Historical Memoirs of Armagh, 
1819; Crossle's Notes on the Literary History 



of Newry, 1897 ; Matriculation Book of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and original will, kindly exa- 
mined by the Kev. W. Keynell.] N. M. 

STUART, JAMES (1775-1849), of Dun- 
earn, writer to the signet, was the eldest 
son of Charles Stuart of Dunearn in Fife- 
shire, for some years minister of the parish 
of Crarnond in Linlithgowshire, and after- 
wards (1795-1828) physician in Edinburgh. 
James Stuart was born in 1775. He at- 
tended, it is believed, the high school of 
Edinburgh from 1785 to 1789. Having studied 
at the university of Edinburgh and served 
an apprenticeship to Mr. Hugh Robertson, 
W.S., he was admitted a member of the 
Society of Writers to the Signet on 17 Aug. 
1798. He held the office of collector of the 
widows' fund of the society from 1818 to 1828, 
but ' was more attached to agricultural pur- 
suits than to those of his profession ' (ANDER- 
SON, Scottish Nation, iii. 537). As a deputy- 
lieutenant and justice of the peace he took an 
active part in county business, but his whig 
enthusiasm offended the authorities. In 
December 1815, when a new commission of 
the peace was issued for Fifeshire, the Earl 
of Morton, then lord lieutenant, omitted 
Stuart. On 4 Jan. 1816, however, a meeting 
of the gentlemen of the western district of 
the county resolved ' to take steps for secur- 
ing the continuance of Mr. Stuart's most 
important and unremitting services to this 
district,' and he was reappointed. Some years 
later he had another difficulty with Lord 
Morton, who censured him for having, con- 
trary to a regimental order, assembled for 
drill a troop of the Fifeshire yeomanry, in 
which he was an officer. Stuart, who main- 
tained that he had never seen the order, 
resigned his commission on 7 Jan. 1821. 

Stuart was a keen politician on the whig 
side. On 28 July 1821 the 'Beacon,' an 
Edinburgh tory paper, the first number of 
which had appeared on 6 Jan. 1821, con- 
tained a personal attack on him. He de- 
manded an apology from the printer, Duncan 
Stevenson. This was refused, and on 15 Aug. 
Stuart, meeting Stevenson in the Parliament 
Close, assaulted him. Lord Cockburn simply 
says ' he caned the printer in the street,' but 
Stevenson and his friends said there was a 
fight, and that Stuart behaved like a coward. 
The personal attacks were continued in the 
1 Beacon,' and Stuart entered on a long corre- 
spondence with Sir William Rae, then lord- 
advocate of Scotland, who in the end ex- 
pressed his disapproval of the ' Beacon's ' 
system of personal attacks, and allowed 
Stuart to publish the correspondence. Soon 
after this the ' Beacon ' ceased to appear. 

In the following year (1822) Stuart was 

involved in another and more serious quarrel 
with the tory press. The first n um ber of a new 
paper in Glasgow, * The Glasgow Sentinel/ 
appearing on 10 Oct. 1821, contained a virulent 
attack on Stuart. Similar articles followed 
in subsequent issues, and it soon appeared 
that he had been especially singled out by the 
conductors of the journal for abuse. Stuart 
raised an action for libel against the pub- 
lishers, Borth wick & Alexander; but proceed- 
ings were stayed owing to a dispute between 
the two publishers. In the result Borthwick 
surrendered to Stuart at Glasgow on 11 March 
1822 the manuscripts of the obnoxious articles. 
The author of the most scurrilous among them 
proved to be Sir Alexander Boswell of Auchin- 
leck [q. v.] The Earl of Rosslyn, acting in 
Stuart's behalf, vainly asked Boswell for an ex- 
planation. A challenge from Stuart followed 
on 25 March ; but in the course of that night 
Stuart and Boswell were arrested and taken 
before the sheriff, who bound them over to 
keep the peace within the town and county of 
Edinburgh. It was then arranged that the 
duel should take place in Fifeshire, and on the 
following morning the parties met near the 
village of Auchtertool, Lord Rosslyn acting 
for Stuart, and the Hon. John Douglas for 
Boswell. Boswell fired in the air ; Stuart, 
who had never handled a pistol before, fatally 
wounded his opponent. Boswell died the 
next day (27 March). Stuart, on the advice 
of his friends, went to Paris, where he sur- 
rendered himself to the British ambassador. 
Returning to Scotland to stand his trial, he 
was indicted for wilful murder before the 
high court of justiciary at Edinburgh on 
10 June. He was prosecuted by Sir Wil- 
liam Rae, and defended by Jeffrey, James 
Moncreiff, Cockburn, and other whig mem- 
bers of the Scottish bar. At 5 o'clock on the 
following morning the jury, without retir- 
ing, found Stuart not guilty. ' No Scotch 
trial in my time excited such interest,' Lord 
Cockburn says. In the indictment Stuart 
was also charged with having conspired with 
Borthwick to steal the manuscripts from 
the proprietors of the 'Glasgow Sentinel/ 
Borthwick had been arrested, but was re- 
leased on the acquittal of Stuart. These 
proceedings were afterwards discussed at 
great length in parliament, and the lord- 
advocate, who had sanctioned them, escaped 
a vote of censure by a majoritv of only six 
(Hansard, vii. 1324-48, 1357/1372, 1638- 
1692, ix. 664-690). 

After his acquittal Stuart lived in Edin- 
burgh, and in Fifeshire at Hillside, ' the 
grounds of which he greatly beautified r 
(Ross, Aberdour and Inchcolme, p. 379), un- 
til 1828, when, his affairs being embarrassed, 



he resigned the collectorship of the widows' 
fund and went to America. Leaving Liver- 
pool on 16 July 1828, he reached New York 
on 23 Aug. He sailed from America on 
17 April 1831, and landed at Deal on 25 May. 
In 1833 he published ' Three Years in North 
America ' (2 vols.), an account of his travels, 
which attracted considerable attention. Two 
more editions appeared in the following year. 
Stuart displayed a strong bias in favour of 
the Americans, and he was involved in a con- 
troversy with Sir John Lambert and a Major 
Pringle regarding his account of the opera- 
tions and conduct of the British army during 
the American campaign of 1814-15. 

Soon after his return Stuart became editor 
of the (London) ' Courier ' newspaper. It was 
not prosperous at that time, and he tried to 
increase its popularity by publishing once a 
week a double number of eight pages, one of 
which he devoted entirely to reviews. He 
was editor until 1836, when Lord Melbourne 
appointed him an inspector of factories. On 
3 Nov. 1849 he died of heart disease at 
Netting Hill, London (CoNOLLY, Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Men of Fife). 

Stuart married, on 29 April 1802, Eleanor 
Maria Anna, only daughter of Dr. Robert 
Moubray of Cockairnie, Fifeshire, but left 
no family. 

[Records of the Society of "Writers to the 
Signet ; Correspondence between James Stuart, 
esq., and the Earl of Morton, 1822; Lord Cock- 
burn's Memorials of his Time ; The Beacon, 

1821 ; Correspondence between James Stuart, 
esq., and the Printer of The Beacon, 1821 ; Cor- 
respondence between James Stuart, esq., and the 
Lord-Advocate, 1821 ; The Glasgow Sentinel, 

1822 ; the Trial of James Stuarr, younger, of 
Dunearn, Monday, 10 June 1822; Proceedings 
against William Murray Borthwick, with an 
Appendix of Documents, 1822; Letter to Sir 
James Mackintosh, knt., M.P., by Robert Alex- 
ander, editor of the Glasgow Sentinel, 1822 (on 
the first page of the British Museum copy of this 
letter there is a note in the handwriting of Lord 
Cockburn, ' A tissue of lies from beginning to 
end, H. C.' ) ; Refutation of Aspersions on Stuart's 
Three Years in North America, 1834 ; Grant's 
Newspaper Press, i. 363-6.] G. W. T. 0. 

STUART, SIE JAMES (1780-1853), 
chief justice of Canada, third son of John 
Stuart, rector of Kingston, Ontario, and 
Jane, daughter of George Okill of Phila- ' 
delphia, who had emigrated from Liver- 
pool, was born on 4 March 1780 at Fort 
Hunter, in what is now New York State, 
where his father was curate. At the close 
of the war of independence his father re- j 
moved to Canada, where Stuart was edu- j 
cated, first at Schenectady, then at King's | 
College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. In 1794 he 

entered the office of Reid, the prothonotary of 
the court of king's bench at Montreal, to study 
for the law; in 1798 he removed to Quebec, 
and became a pupil of Jonathan Sewell [q_.v.], 
who was then attorney-general of Lower 
Canada. In 1800 he was made by Sir Robert 
Shore Milnes assistant-secretary to the go- 
vernment of Lower Canada, and, shortly after 
his call to the bar, on 28 March 1801, solicitor- 
general for the province, whereupon he re- 
turned to Montreal. 

In 1808 Stuart entered the House of As- 
sembly as member for Montreal. In conse- 
quence of a disagreement with the governor, 
Sir James Henry Craig [q. v.], and the slight 
which he suffered in being passed over for the 
post of attorney-general, he joined the opposi- 
tion. In 1809 he was compelled to resign the 
solicitor-generalship. He then devoted him- 
self exclusively, and with great success, to 
private practice and to politics. During the 
administration of Sir George Prevost (1767- 
1816) [q.v.] he constantly opposed the govern- 
ment. The most prominent incident of this 
period of his career was the motion in the 
assembly for an inquiry into the administra- 
tion of the law courts, first in 1812 and again 
in 1814, leading up to the impeachment for 
improper practices of the chief j ustices, Jona- 
than Sewell and Monk. Stuart pursued 
this matter with such relentless vigour as to 
alienate his best friends and to cause his re- 
tirement from the house and from public life 
for several years (1817). 

In December 1822 Stuart was once more 
brought to the front by the movement for 
the union of Upper and Lower Canada. He 
drew up the petition from Montreal, and 
was sent to England by that city to advo- 
cate the union. In 1823 he returned to 
Canada, and again in 1824 visited England 
on the same errand. He attracted Lord 
Bathurst's attention, and on 2 Feb. 1825, OIL 
a vacancy occurring in the office, he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general for Lower Canada. 
On 1825 he was elected to the assembly as 
member for William Henry or Sorel, but 
against his own desire, for he felt that his- 
influence in the assembly had gone. When 
in January 1828, on the dissolution of parlia- 
ment, there was a new election, he was beaten 
by Dr. Wolfred Nelson, and had to find a 
fresh seat; further, the contest with Nelson 
led to recriminations, and eventually, in 
1831, to his impeachment by the House of 
Assembly, resulting in March 1831 in his 
suspension from office by Lord Aylmer. The 
chief ground of the impeachment was an 
improper use of his position as attorney- 
general and corruption in regard to elec- 
tions (CHRISTIE, iii. 479 seq.) On the matter 



"being referred to Lord Goderich, the secre- 
tary of state, Stuart's defence on these counts 
was deemed conclusive; but, on a ground 
which had not been raised the question of 
the right to take certain fees his suspension 
was confirmed on 20 Nov. 1832. Lord Go- 
derich's action was generally condemned. 
After nearly two years further spent in Eng- 
land in the hope of obtaining justice, and 
after declining the offer of the chief justice- 
ship of Newfoundland in May 1833, Stuart 
in 1834 returned to Canada and resumed his 
practice at Quebec, with a success which was 
proof of general confidence. 

In the political storm which was gathering 
during the ensuing years Stuart took no part ; 
but Lord Durham, before closing his tem- 
porary administration of Lower Canada, on 
20 Oct. 1838 appointed him chief justice of 
Lower Canada, in succession to his old 
master, Sewell, indicating in his despatch to 
the home government that any other choice 
would be an act of injustice. In his new post 
Stuart at once took an active part in affairs ; 
he was one of Lord Sydenham's chief advisers 
in framing the act of union, and was made 
chairman of the special council which 
preceded the new regime. He prepared the 
judicature and registry ordinances passed 
prior to the union act, and subsequently 
promoted the grant of corporations to Que- 
bec and Montreal, and the institution of 
municipalities throughout the province. For 
these services he was created a baronet on 
5 May 1841. He had been created D.C.L. 
by Oxford University on 15 June 1825. 

On the union of the two Canadas, Stuart 
became chief justice of Lower Canada (10 Feb. 
1841). He was a profound lawyer, and for 
'the rest of his career he devoted himself to 
his judicial duties, dying somewhat suddenly 
at Quebec on 14 July 1853. 

Stuart married, on 17 March 1818, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alexander Robertson of 
Montreal, and left three sons, the eldest of 
whom, Charles James, succeeded to his title, 
and one daughter. 

[Christie's Hist, of Lower Canada, especially 
v. 366 ; Morgan's Sketches of Celebrated Cana- 
dians ; Rogers's Hist, of Canada, i. 254, 326-7 ; 
'Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage.] C. A. H. 

of Darnley, SEIGNEUR OF ATJBIGNT (1365?- 
1429), son of Alexander Stewart of Darnley 
(descended from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, 
.second son of Alexander, high steward of 
Scotland), by his wife Janet, daughter and 
heiress of Sir William Keith of Galston, was 
born about 1365. In 1386 he was made a 
knight, and on 4 May 1387 he is mentioned 

as lord of Castlemilk. He succeeded his 
father on 5 May 1404. With the Earls of 
Buchan and Wigton he was appointed to the 
joint command of a Scottish force sent to 
the aid of the dauphin of France against the 
English, and for his distinguished services at 
their defeat at Beauge on 21 March 1420-1, 
he received a grant of the seigneurie of Con- 
creisault in Berry, with one thousand livres 
of yearly rent. Shortly afterwards he for- 
mally entered the service of France, holding 
command of a body of men-at-arms, for 
whose maintenance from November 1422 
to December 1423 he received a monthly 
sum of one thousand livres. On 10 April 
he obtained a grant of the seigneurie of 
Aubigny in Berry, which was confirmed 
on 30 July 1425. While at the siege of 
Crevant in June 1423 he was severely de- 
feated by the English, lost an eye, and was 
taken prisoner, but obtained not long after- 
wards his exchange. A little later his men- 
at-arms were formed into the bodyguard of 
Charles VII, from whom in January 1426- 
1427 he obtained the comte" of Evreux in 
Normandy. For victories gained in 1426 
and 1427 he also in February 1427-8 ob- 
tained the privilege of quartering the royal 
arms of France with his own. In 1427 he 
was sent on a special embassy to Scotland, 
first to obtain additional reinforcements, and 
secondly to demand the hand of the Princess 
Margaret for the dauphin. While in Scot- 
land he received on 17 July 1428 from 
.Tames I a charter re-granting him Tarbolton 
(SiR WILLIAM FRASER, Lennox, ii. 62). On 
his return to France with reinforcements he 
was sent to Orleans, then besieged by the 
English under the Earl of Salisbury, but was 
killed while attacking a convoy of provisions. 
He was buried behind the choir in the chapel 
of Notre Dame Blanche, in the cathedral 
church, Orleans, in November 1429. By his 
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Duncan, earl of 
Lennox, he had three sons : Sir Alan, who 
succeeded to the lands of Darnley and Len- 
nox, but was slain by Sir Thomas Boyd in 
1439; John, second seigneur of Aubigny 
and father of Bernard Stuart (1447 P-1508) 
[q. v.] ; and Alexander. 

[Andrew Stuart's Hist, of the Stewarts ; Sir 
William Eraser's Lennox ; and especially Lady 
Elizabeth Gust's Stuarts of Aubigny.] T. F. H. 

(1713-1792), born in Parliament Square, 
Edinburgh, on 25 May 1713, was the elder 
son of James, second earl of Bute, by his 
wife Lady Anne Campbell, only daughter of 
Archibald, first duke of Argyll. His paternal 
grandfather, Sir James, afterwards first earl, 




represented Buteshire for several years in 
the Scottish parliament. On 25 April 1693 
his place was declared vacant because he 
had not taken the oath of allegiance and 
signed the assurance. He was, however, re- 
elected for Buteshire in 1702, was made a 
member of Anne's privy council, and on 
14 April 1703 was created Earl of Bute, 
Viscount of Kingarth, Lord Mount Stuart, 
Cumra, and Inchmarnock. Though named 
one of the commissioners appointed in 1702 
to treat of a union with England (which did 
not then take effect), he afterwards opposed 
that measure, and absented himself from 
parliament when it was carried. He died at 
Bath on 4 June 1710. 

The grandson succeeded as third earl on 
the death of his father on 28 Jan. 1723, and 
was educated at Eton, where Horace Wai- 
pole was one of his contemporaries. On 
13 Aug. 1736 he married Mary, only daughter 
of Edward Wortley Montagu of Wortley, 
Yorkshire, and Lady Mary, his wife, the 
eldest daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, first 
duke of Kingston [see MONTAGTT, LADY 
MAKY WORTLEY], an alliance which ulti- 
mately brought the large Wortley estates 
into his family. He was elected a Scottish 
representative peer in April 1737, and took 
his seat in the House of Lords for the first 
time on 24 Jan. 1738 (Journals of the House 
of Lords, xxv. 97, 159). He occasionally 
attended the sittings of the house, but took 
no part in the debates, and was not re- 
elected to the parliaments of 1741, 1747, 
and 1754. In 1737 he was appointed one 
of the commissioners of police for Scotland 
in the place of the Earl of Hyndford, and on 
10 July 1738 he was elected a knight of the 
Thistle, being invested at Holyrood House 
on 15 Aug. following. He appears to have 
spent the greater part of the first nine years 
of his married life in the island of Bute, 
amusing himself with the study of agricul- 
ture, botany, and architecture (CHESTER- 
FIELD, Letters and Works, 1845-53, ii. 
471), and to have removed to London soon 
after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1745. 
Here he seems to have acquired a passion 
for performing ' at masquerades in becoming 
dresses, and in plays which he acted in 
private companies with a set of his own re- 
lations ' (HORACE WALPOLE, Memoirs of the 
Reign of George II, 1847, i. 47). For his 
introduction to Frederick, prince of Wales, 
an event which laid the foundation of his 
future political career, Bute was indebted 
to a mere accident. A shower of rain after 
the Egham races in 1747 delayed the 
prince's return to Cliefden, and Bute, who 
happened to be on the race-ground, was 

summoned to the royal tent to join in a 
game of whist while the weather cleared 
(WEAXALL, Historical and Posthumous 
Works, 1884, i. 319-20). Becoming a 
favourite of the prince and princess, he was 
soon constituted the leader of ' the pleasures of 
that little, idle, frivolous, and dissipated 
court,' and on 16 Oct. 1750 was appointed 
by Frederick one of the lords of his bed- 
chamber (CHESTERFIELD, Letters and 
Works, ii. 471). The prince's death in the 
following year rather increased than di- 
minished Bute's influence in the household, 
and on 15 Nov. 1756, at the desire of the 
princess and her son, he was appointed groom 
of the stole in the new establishment (see 
Addit. MSS. Brit. Mus. 32684 if. 92-3, 
95, 96-7 ; Letters and Works of Lady M. 
W. Montagu, 1837, iii. 131). The king, 
who always spoke of Bute with the greatest 
contempt, refused to 'admit him into the 
closet to receive the badge of his office,, 
but gave it to the Duke of Grafton, who 
slipt the gold key into Bute's pocket' 
(WALDEGRAVE, Memoirs, 1821, pp. 64-8, 
76-80). Bute became the constant com- 
panion and confidant of the young prince, 
and aided the princess in her daily task of 
imbuing his mind with Bolingbroke's theory 
that a king should not only reign but 
govern. For the purpose of instructing 
him in the principles of the constitution, Bute 
is said to have obtained from Blackstone a. 
considerable portion of the manuscript of 
the * Commentaries,' the first volume of 
which was not published until 1765 (ADOL- 
PHUS, History of England, 1840, i. 12). As 
the political adviser of the princess, Bute 
negotiated a treaty between Leicester 
House and Pitt against the Duke of New- 
castle in 1755, and he took part in the con- 
ferences between those statesmen in 1757 
(WALDEGRAVE, Memoirs, pp. 37-9, 112-13; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. llth Rep. pt. iv. p. 393). 
The intimate relations of Bute with the 
princess gave rise to much scandal, which, 
though founded on mere conjecture, was 
widely spread and commonly believed (ib~ 
pp. 38-9 ; WALPOLE, Memoirs of the Reign 
of George II, ii. 204-5; CHESTERFIELD, 
Letters and Works, ii. 471). 

On the accession of George III to the 
throne, Bute produced the declaration to the 
council, which he had kept ' lying by him 
for several years before George II died r 
(LORD E. FITZMATTRICE, Life of William, 
Earl of Shelburne, 1875, i. 43 ; see WAL- 
POLE, Memoirs of the Reign of George III, 
1894, i. 7-8). He was sworn a member of 
the privy council on 27 Oct. 1760, and on 
15 Nov. following was appointed groom of 




the stole and first gentleman of the bed- 
chamber. Though he only held office in 
the household, and had neither a seat in 
parliament nor in the cabinet, Bute was 
practically prime minister, and through him 
alone the king's intentions were made 
known (HARRIS, Life of Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke, 1847, iii. 215). Lord George 
Sackville, who was an intimate friend of 
Bute, much to Pitt's disgust, was received 
at court as if he had never been disgraced, 
while Legge, who had quarrelled with 
Bute over a Hampshire election, was dis- 
missed from his post of chancellor of the 
exchequer. It was obvious that Bute could 
not long remain in this anomalous position. 
Lord Holdernesse was therefore dismissed, 
and he was succeeded as secretary of state 
for the northern department by Bute, who 
received the seals on 25 March 1761. On 

3 April his wife was created Baroness 
Mount Stuart of Wortley, Yorkshire, in the 

Eeerage of the United Kingdom, and in the 
Dllowing month he was elected a Scottish re- 
presentative peer (Journals of the House of 
Lords, xxx. 102-3). The chief objects of 
Bute's policy were to conclude a peace 
with France, to sever England from a con- 
nection with German politics, to break up 
the whig oligarchy, and to make the king 
supreme over parliament. Bute skilfully 
took advantage of the jealousies among 
the ministers in order to get rid of Pitt, 
who had no desire for any peace which did 
not completely humiliate France. After 
several lengthy discussions in the cabinet, 
Bute succeeded in defeating Pitt's proposal 
to commence hostilities against Spain, and 
on 5 Oct. Pitt resigned office, refusing to 
' remain in a situation which made him 
responsible for measures he was no longer 
allowed to guide' (ADOLPHUS, History of 
England, i. 43). After an absence of more 
than twenty years Bute reappeared in the 
House of Lords at the opening of the new par- 
liament on 3 Nov. From the very commence- 
ment of the new reign he had been hated 
by the populace for being a favourite and a 
Scotsman. Pitt's downfall still further in- 
creased Bute's unpopularity, and he was 
mobbed on his way to the Guildhall banquet 
on 9 Nov. (Chatham Correspondence, 1838-40, 
ii. 166-8). Before the year was over Pitt's 
policy was completely vindicated, and on 

4 Jan. 1762 Bute was obliged to declare 
war with Spain. On 19 Jan. 1762 Bute 
( harangued the parliament for the first 
time/ and 'the few that dared to sneer at 
his theatric fustian did not find it quite so 
ridiculous as they wished ' (WALPOLE, 
Memoirs of the Iteign of George III, i. 103). 

While laying the Spanish papers before the 
house on 29 Jan., Bate pompously informed 
his audience that ' it was the glory and 
happiness of his life to reflect that the ad- 
vice he had given his majesty since he had 
had the honour to be consulted was just 
what he thought it ought to be ' (CAVEN- 
DISH, Parl. Debates, 1841, i. 563, 565). On 
5 Feb. he opposed the Duke of Bedford's 
motion for the withdrawal of the British 
troops from Germany, and declared that { a 
steady adherence to our German allies is 
now necessary for bringing about a speedy, 
honourable, and permanent peace.' His 
speech on this occasion is said to have 
been ' so manly, spirited, and firm' that 
' the stocks actually rose upon it half per 
cent. ' (ib. i. 570-2 ; see also Parl. Hist. xv. 
1218 n.) Bute had for some time been 
desirous of getting rid of Newcastle, who 
still clung tenaciously to office, though he 
had again changed his views and no longer 
supported Bute's foreign policy. When 
Bute proposed in the cabinet the withdrawal 
of the Prussian subsidy as the readiest 
means of forcing Frederick into a peace, 
Newcastle threatened to resign unless 
200,000^. was raised for the prosecution of 
the war and the subsidy was continued. 
On which Bute dryly remarked that if ' he 
resigned, the peace might be retarded ; ' but 
he took care not to request him to continue 
in office (HARRIS, Life of Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke, i. 278-9). 

Bute succeeded Newcastle as first lord of 
the treasury on 26 May 1762, and on the 
following day was elected a knight of the 
Garter, having previously resigned the order 
of the Thistle. The changes made in the 
administration were few. Sir Francis 
Dashwood was appointed chancellor of the 
exchequer, and George Grenville succeeded 
Bute as secretary of state for the northern 
department. Lord Henley remained lord 
chancellor, Lord Granville lord president 
of the council, the Duke of Bedford lord 
privy seal, and the Earl of Egremont secre- 
tary of state for the southern department. 
The expeditions to the West Indies which 
had been planned by Pitt were carried out, 
but Bute, in his eagerness for peace, could 
not wait for the result, Without the 
knowledge of the cabinet he had for several 
months been secretly making overtures of 
peace to the court of Versailles through the 
mediation of Count de Viri, the Sardinian 
ambassador (LORD E. FITZMATJRICE, Life 
of William, Earl o/ Shelburne, i. 137). 
When these negotiations had arrived at 
sufficient maturity, Bute entrusted them to 
the Duke of Bedford, who signed the pre- 




liminary treaty at Fontainebleau on 3 Nov. 
During the progress of the negotiations Bute 
had frequent differences with George Gren- 
ville [q. v.], and he now began to doubt 
Grenville's ability to defend the terms of | 
the treaty successfully in the face of the 
powerful opposition in the House of Com- 
mons. Unable to find any one else to help ! 
him in the coming crisis, Bute induced 
Henry Fox [q. v.] to desert his party, and ' 
to accept the leadership of the House of ' 
Commons. With the aid of this new ally 
and by the employment of the grossest | 
bribery and intimidation, Bute was able on J 
9 Dec. to carry addresses approving of the 
terms of the preliminary treaty through 
both houses of parliament. According to 
the Duke of Cumberland, Bute's speech in 
the House of Lords on this occasion was 
' one of the finest he ever heard in his life ' 
(Bedford Correspondence, 1842-6, iii. 170). 
He appears to have been somewhat less pom- 
pous than usual, and to have theatrically 
declared that he desired no more glorious epi- 
taph on his tombstone than the words i Here 
lies the Earl of Bute, who in concert with the 
king's ministers made the peace ' (WALPOLE, 
Memoirs of the Reign of George III, i. 175-6). 
Emboldened by success, Bute and Fox com- 
menced a general proscription of the whigs. 
Newcastle, Grafton, and Rockingham were 
dismissed from, their lord-lieutenancies, and 
even the humblest of officials who owed 
their appointments to whig patronage were 
deprived of their posts. The definitive 
treaty of peace with France and Spain was 
signed at Paris on 10 Feb. 1763. The terms 
obtained by Bute were less advantageous 
to this country than they should have been, 
and the peace was exceedingly unpopular. 
Instead of the popularity which Bute had 
fondly hoped to obtain as a reward for bring- 
ing the war to a conclusion, he found himself 
the object of still stronger animosity. He 
was even accused of having been bribed by 
France ; and though the House of Commons, 
after a careful investigation of this charge in 
January 1770, pronounced it to be 'in the 
highest degree frivolous and unworthy of 
credit ' (Parl. Hist. xvii. 763-85), it was long 
before the accusation was forgotten. Lord 
Cam den told Wilberforce more than five-and- 
twenty years after the date of the treaty that 
he was sure Bute ' got money by the peace of 
Paris ' (Life of William Wilberforce, 1838, 
i. 233). The introduction of Dashwood's pro- 
posal for a tax on cider still further increased 
the unpopularity of Bute's ministry. In 
spite, however, of the vehement opposition 
which it raised, Bute clung pertinaciously 
to the measure, and spoke in favour of it in 

the House of Lords on 28 March 1763 
(Parl. Hist. xv. 1311 n.) On 8 April, only 
eight days after the bill imposing the cider 
tax had received the royal assent, Bute re- 
signed office. The resolution to retire had 
not been so suddenly taken as the public 
supposed. He had received a promise from 
the king that he should be allowed to re- 
sign as soon as peace had been obtained 
(Bedford Correspondence, iii. 223-5), and it 
is evident that he meant to keep the king to 
his promise. Writing to Sir James Lowther 
on 3 Feb. 1763, he says 'such inveteracy in 
the enemy, such lukewarmness (to give it 
no harsher name), such impracticability, 
such insatiable dispositions appear in those 
soi-disant friends, that if I had but 50/. per 
annum I would retire on bread and water, 
and think it luxury compar'd with what I 
suffer' (Hist, MSS. Comm. 13th Rep. App. 
vii. p. 132). To his friends Bute declared 
that ill-health and the unpopularity which 
he had entailed on the king were the causes 
of his retirement, but the real reason pro- 
bably was that, owing to want of support in 
the cabinet, he felt unable to bear any longer 
the labour and responsibility inseparable from 
the post of prime minister. 

Though no longer in office, Bute still re- 
tained the king's confidence. He recom- 
mended George Grenville as his successor, 
and employed Shelburne as an intermediary 
in his negotiations with the Duke of Bedford 
and others for the formation of a new ministry. 
Bute hoped to make use of Grenville as a poli- 
j tical puppet, but in this he was destined to be 
I disappointed, for Grenville quickly resented 
I his interference, and complained that he 
| had not the full confidence of the king. In 
j August 1763 Bute advised the king to dis- 
miss Grenville. and employed Shelburne in 
making overtures to Pitt and the Bedford 
connection. On the failure of the negotiation 
with Pitt, Grenville insisted on Bute's re- 
tirement from court. Bute thereupon re- 
signed the office of privy purse, and took leave 
of the king on 28 Sept. following (Grenville 
Papers, 1852-3, ii. 208, 210). While in the 
country he appears to have kept up a corre- 
spondence with the king (ib. iii. 220). 
He returned to town at the close of 
the session of 1763-4. His presence in 
London, however, gave rise to perpetual 
jealousies between him and the ministers, 
which were greatly increased by the intro- 
duction of the Regency Bill in April 1765 
(see Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. App. ix. 
pp. 254-6). After the failure of the Duke 
of Cumberland's attempt to form a new ad- 
ministration in May 1765, Grenville obtained 
the king's promise that Bute ' should never 


9 6 


directly or indirectly, publicly or privately, 
have anything to do with his business, nor 
give advice upon anything whatever,' and 
that Bute's brother, James Stuart Mackenzie, 
should be dismissed from his office of lord 
privy seal in Scotland (Grenville Papers, iii. 
185,' 187). Though the whigs for years 
continued to denounce Bute's secret influence 
behind the throne, it seerns tolerably certain 
that all communications whatever on politi- 
cal matters between Bute and the king 
ceased from this time (Correspondence of 
King George III with Lord North, 1867, 
vol. i. pp. xx-xxi TZ.) It is true that he con- 
tinued to visit the princess until her death, 
but ' when the king came to see his mother, 
Lord Bute always retired by a back stair- 
case' (DTTTENS, Memoirs of a Traveller now 
in Retirement, 1806, iv. 183). 

Bute twice voted against the government 
on the American question in February 1766 
(see Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. iii. 
p. 22). On 17 March following he both 
spoke and voted against the third reading of 
the bill for the repeal of the Stamp Act, 
' entirely from the private conviction he had 
of its very bad and dangerous consequences 
both to this country and our colonys ' (Cold- 
well Papers, Maitland Club, 1854, vol. ii. pt. 
ii. p. 82). He was re-elected a Scottish 
representative peer in May 1768, and in 
the same year visited Bareges for the sake 
of his health. He subsequently went to 
Italy, where he remained for more than a 
year travelling incognito under the name of 
Sir John Stuart. He frequently complained 
of the malevolent attacks made on his cha- 
racter by his political opponents, and of the 
neglect and ingratitude of the king. ' Few 
men,' he writes to Home, ' have ever suffered 
more in the short space I have gone through 
of political warfare ' ( Works of John Home, 
ed. Henry Mackenzie, 1822, i. 151). The 
death of the princess dowager in February 
1772 left him ' without a single friend near 
the royal person,' and ' I have taken,' he tells 
Lord Holland, ' the only part suited to my 
way of thinking that of retiring from the 
world before it retires from me ' (TKEVELTAN", 
Early Life of C. J. Fox, 1881, p. 277). 
Early in 1778 his friend, Sir James Wright, 
and Dr. Addington, Chatham's physician, 
engaged in a futile attempt to bring about a 
political alliance between Bute and Chat- 
ham. Bute took the opportunity of un- 
equivocally denying his secret influence with 
the king, and declared that he had no wish 
or inclination to take any part in public 
affairs (Quarterly Review, Ixvi. 265-6). 
Though his attendance had ' not been very 
constant ' in the house, Bute was again re- 

elected a Scottish representative peer in No- 
vember 1774. Lord North considered that 
' a dowager first lord of the treasury has a 
claim to this distinction, and we do not now 
want a coup d'etat to persuade the most ordi- 
nary newspaper politician that Lord Bute is- 
nothing more ' (Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. 
App. p. 209). Bute retired from parliament 
at the dissolution in September 1780 on the 
ground of his advanced age (ib. 10th Rep. App. 
vi. p. 38). He spent most of his time during- 
the last six or seven years of his life at hi& 
marine villa at Christ Church in Hampshire. 
He died at his house in South Audley Street, 
Grosvenor Square, London, on 10 March 
1792, aged 78, and was buried at Rothesay 
in the island of Bute. 

Bute's widow, who was born at Pera in 
February 1718, and succeeded on her father's 
death, in February 1761, to his extensive 
estates in Yorkshire and Cornwall, died at 
Isleworth in Middlesex on 6 Nov. 1794, aged 
76. Bute had a family of five sons and six 
daughters : (1) John, viscount Mount Stuart, 
born on 30 June 1744, who was created 
Baron Cardiff in the peerage of Great Britain 
on 20 May 1766. He succeeded to the earl- 
dom of Bute on the death of his father, and 
on the death of his mother to the barony of 
Mount Stuart. He was further advanced 
to the viscounty of Mountjoy, the earldom 
of Windsor, and the marquisate of the 
county of Bute on 21 March 1796. He 
held the post of envoy to Turin from 1779" 
to 1783, was ambassador to Spain in 1783, 
and died at Geneva on 16 Nov. 1814, leaving 
a large family, of whom Lord Dudley Coutts 
Stuart is separately noticed. (2) James Archi- 
bald (1747-1818), father of James Archi- 
bald Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie, first baron 
Wharncliffe [q. v.] (3) Frederick, born in 
September 1751, M.P. for Buteshire, who 
died on 17 May 1802. (4) Sir Charles Stuart 
(1753-1801) [q. v.] (5) William Stuart 
(1755-1822) [q. v.], archbishop of Armagh. 
(6) Mary, who became the wife of James 
Lowther, earl of Lonsdale [q. v.] (7) Jane, 
who became the wife of George Macartney, 
earl Macartney [q.v.] (8) Anne, who became 
the wife of Hugh Percy, second duke of 
Northumberland [q.v.] (9) Augusta, who 
married Captain Andrew Corbett of the 
horse guards, and died on 5 Feb. 1778. 
(10) Caroline, who married, on 1 Jan. 1778, 
the Hon. John Dawson, afterwards first earl 
of Portarlington. (11) Louisa, the authoress 
of the introductory anecdotes prefixed to 
Lord Wharncliffe's edition of the * Letters 
and Works of Lady Mary W r ortley Mont- 
agu' (1837), who died unmarried in August 
1851, aged 94. 




Bute was a proud but well-intentioned 
nobleman, with a handsome person and 
pompous manners. He possessed some talent 
for intrigue, but his abilities were meagre, 
and his disposition irresolute. Though ad- 
mirably qualified to manage the petty details 
of a little court, he was utterly unfit to 
direct the destinies of a great nation. He 
had no knowledge of public business, no 
experience of parliamentary debate, no skill 
either in the management of men or in the 
administration of affairs. He was both ' rash 
and timid, accustomed to ask advice of 
different persons, but had not sense and 
sagacity to distinguish and digest, with a 
perpetual apprehension of being governed, 
which made him, when he followed any 
advice, always add something of his own in 
point of matter or manner, which sometimes 
took away the little good which was in it, 
or changed the whole nature of it ' (FiTZ- 
MAUKICE, Life of William, Earl ofShelburne, 
i. 140). It is true that he succeeded in ob- 
taining peace, and in partially breaking up 
the whig oligarchy, two objects upon which 
the king had set his heart, but he wanted 
the courage and obstinacy which George 
possessed and demanded in others. Few 
ministers have ever been more unpopular in 
this country. He was incessantly mobbed, 
lampooned, and caricatured. He could not 
appear unattended or undisguised in the 
streets without running considerable risks. 
The ' North Briton/ which was set up by 
"Wilkes in opposition to the ministerial or- 
gan, the < Briton,' occupied itself with abusing 
him and everything connected with him. A 
jackboot and a petticoat, the popular em- 
blems of Bute and the princess, were fre- 
quently burnt by excited mobs, and his house 
was always the object of attack whenever 
there was a riot. The details of his admini- 
stration are peculiarly disgraceful, and for 
corruption and financial incapacity it is not 
likely to be surpassed. Two charges of bad 
faith were brought against Bute during the 
negotiations for peace. In January 1762 
secret overtures were made by him to Maria 
Theresa without the knowledge of Frederick. 
It was alleged that in order to induce Austria 
to consent to an early peace, Bute held out 
hopes that England would endeavour to 
obtain for Austria territorial compensation 
from Prussia, and that with a like view after 
the czarina's death he had urged upon Prince 
Galitzin the necessity of Russia remaining 
firm to the Austrian alliance. Both these 
charges were fully believed by Frederick, 
but were positively asserted by Bute to be 
untrue (LECKY, History of England, 1882, 
iii. 45-6). 


Bute was by no means without polite 
accomplishments. He had a taste for lite- 
rature and the fine arts, was passionately 
fond of botany, and possessed a superficial 
knowledge of various kinds of learning. 
Though haughty and silent in society, he 
was amiable and courteous when among his 
friends. ' His knowledge/ says M. Dutens, 
' was so extensive, and consequently his con- 
versation so varied, that one thought one's 
self in the company of several persons, with 
the advantage of being sure of an even tem- 
per, in a man whose goodness, politeness, 
and attention were never wanting towards 
those who lived with him ' (Memoirs of a 
Traveller now in Retirement, iv. 178). As 
a patron of literature he rarely extended 
his aid to writers outside of his party, and 
was somewhat inclined to show an undue 
partiality to Scotsmen. To him, however, 
Johnson owed his pension of 300/. a year. 
Through his instrumentality Sir James 
Steuart-Denham [q. v.], the Jacobite poli- 
tical economist, obtained his pardon. By 
him John Shebbeare was pensioned to defend 
the peace, while Dr. Francis, Murphy, Mallet, 
and others were employed in the same cause. 

Bute was appointed ranger of Richmond 
Park in June 1761 ; a governor of the 
Charterhouse and chancellor of Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, in August 1761 ; a 
trustee of the British Museum in June 1765, 
and president of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland in December 1780. He was also 
a commissioner of Chelsea Hospital and an 
honorary fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians at Edinburgh. When Bute was 
appointed prime minister he was obliged to 
hold his public levees at the Cockpit, as his 
town-house was too small for official recep- 
tions. In 1763 he purchased an estate at 
Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire, where Robert 
Adam [q. v.] built him a palatial residence. 
There he formed a magnificent library, a 
superb collection of astronomical, philo- 
sophical, and mathematical instruments, and 
a gallery of Dutch and Flemish paintings 
(see Autobiography and Correspondence of 
Mrs. Delany, 2nd ser. i. 542, ii. 33-6, 317). 
Since then two fires have unfortunately 
occurred at Luton Hoo : one in 1771, when 
the library, including that purchased from 
the Duke of Argyll, perished ; the other in 
1843, when the house was destroyed, but the 
greater part of the pictures and books were 
saved. Bute also formed a botanic garden 
at Luton Hoo, but he subsequently removed 
his valuable collection of plants to Christ- 
church (LYSONS, Mag. Brit. i. 109). Lans- 
downe House, on the south side of Berkeley 
Square, London, was built by the brothers 


9 8 


Adam between 1765 and 1767 for Bute, who, 
however, sold it before completion to Shel- 
burne for 22,000/. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds painted portraits of 
Bute in 1763 and 1773, and of Lady Bute 
in 1777 and 1779 (LESLIE and TAYLOE, Life 
and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1865, 
i. 221, ii. 203, 279, 281). The later portrait 
of Bute, which has been reproduced as a 
frontispiece to the second volume of Wal- 

Ele's * History of the Reign of George III ' 
1. Barker, 1894), is in the possession of 
e Earl of Wharncliffe at Wortley. There 
are engravings of Bute by Watson, Graham, 
and Ryland, after Ramsay (see Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 10th Rep. pt. i. p. 360). 

Bute purchased for his own library ' the 
Thomason collection ' of pamphlets published 
during the Commonwealth [see THOMASON, 
GEOEGE], but he subsequently sold it to the 
king, who presented this valuable collection, 
now better known as the ' King's Tracts,' to 
the British Museum in 1763 (Annual Register, 
1763, p. 11; EDWARDS, Lives of the Founders 
of the British Museum, 1870, pt. i. pp. 330-3). 
Bute's collection of prints, a part of his 
library, and duplicates of his natural history 
collection were sold after his death (see 
catalogues of sales preserved in the British 
Museum, press mark 1255, c. 15. 1-3). The 
Public Record Office and the British Museum 
possess a number of Bute r s despatches and 
letters, and many of the latter are contained 
in the Lansdowne and other manuscript 
collections, calendared in the reports of the 
historical manuscripts commission (cf. 3rd, 
9th, 10th, 12th, and 13th Reps. App.) A 
few^ manuscripts chiefly relating to botanical 
subjects, apparently in Bute's handwriting, 
are in the possession of the present Marquis 
of Bute (Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep.) p. 
208, see also p. 202). In or about 1785 
Bute, at the cost of some 12,000/., privately 
engraved twelve copies of ' Botanical Tables, 
containing the different Familys of British 
Plants, distinguish'd by a few obvious Parts 
of Fructification rang'd in a Synoptical 
Method,' &c. (London, 4to, 9 vols.) A col- 
lation of the contents of this rare work is 
given in Dryander's 'Catalogue' (iii. 132-3), 
while the original disposition of the twelve 
copies is duly noted in the copy in the 
Banksian Library at the British Museum. 
Another privately printed work, called ' The 
Tabular Distribution of British Plants '(1787), 
in two parts the first containing the genera, 
the second the species is sometimes attri- 
buted to Bute. 

[Authorities quoted in the text; Lord Albe- 
marle's Memoirs of the Marquis of Eockingham, 
J851, vol. i.; Dodington's Diary, 1784; Wai- 

pole's Letters, 1857-9 ; The History of the Late 
Minority, 1766; Burke's Works (1815), vol. ii. ; 
Bos-well's Life of SamuelJohnson, 1887; Diaries 
and Correspondence of the Et. Hon. George Eose, 
1860, ii. 188-92; Memoirs of Eichard Cum- 
berland, 1807, i. 206,211-14; Extracts from the 
Correspondence of Eichard Eichardson, 1835, pp. 
406-7; Lord Mahon's Hist, of England, 1858, 
vols. iv-vi. ; Massey's Hist, of England, 1855, 
vol. i. ; Jesse's Memoirs of the Life and Eeign 
of George III, 1867; Earle's English Premiers, 
1871, i. 156-84 ; Georgian Era, 1832, i. 307-9; 
Cunningham and Wheatley's London Past and 
Present, 1891, i. 14, 80, 163, 438 ; Calendar of 
State Papers, Home Office, 1760-5, 1766-9, 
1770-2 ; Collins's Peerage of England, 1812, ii. 
575-9; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, 1813, i. 
284-90 ; G. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage, ii. 
91-2, v. 409-10 ; Foster's Peerage, 1883, p. 107 ; 
Foster's Members of Parliament, Scotland, 1 882, 
pp. 322, 324, 326, 327, 328; Gent. Mag. 1736 
p. 487, 1748 p. 147, 1750 p. 477, 1763 p. 487, 
1792 i. 284-5, 1794 ii. 1061,1099, 1851 ii. 324 ; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vii. 181, 6th ser. 
x. 89, 175, 7th ser. ix. 230 ; Martin's Bibliogr. 
Cat. of Privately Printed Books, 1854, pp. 96-8 ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890.] G. F. E. B. 

STUART, SIR JOHN (1759-1815), 
lieutenant-general, count of Maida, colonel 
of the 20th foot, son of Colonel John Stuart, 
was born in Georgia, North America, in 

Stuart's father, JoHtf STUART (1700?- 
1779, was born about 1700. He went to 
America in 1733 with General James E. 
Oglethorpe, and was in Fort Loudoun during 
the French war when it was invested by the 
Cherokee Indians. He made terms with 
Oconostota, who, having agreed that the gar- 
rison should march out with their arms and 
have free passage to Virginia, treacherously 
massacred them on the way ; but Stuart, who 
was popular with the Indians, was saved. 
In 1763 he was appointed general agent and 
superintendent of Indian affairs for the 
southern department. He had a deputy with 
each tribe, and exerted great influence over the 
southern Indians. He took a prominent part 
on the royalist side in the war of indepen- 
dence, and, returning to England, died in 
1779. His property in America was confis- 
cated by the American government in 1782. 

Educated at Westminster school, young 
Stuart obtained a commission as ensign in 
the 3rd foot guards on 7 Aug. 1778, and 
joining the battalion, then serving- ia the 
army under Sir Henry Clinton at New York, 
took part in the operations against the colo- 
nists in the war of American independence. 
He was present at the siege and capture of 
Charleston on 6 May 1780, and remained in 
South Carolina with the force under Lord 




Cornwallis. He took part in the battle of 
Camden on 16 Aug. and in the march into 
North Carolina in September and return in 
October. He was at the battle of Guildford 
on 15 March 1781, and at the surrender of 
the army at Yorktown on 18 Oct. following 1 . 
He was severely wounded during the cam- 
paign. He was promoted to be lieutenant 
in the 3rd foot guards and captain in the 
army on 6 Nov. 1782. 

After ten years of home service, he went, 
on the outbreak of the war with France, 
with his regiment to Flanders, landing with 
the troops under the Duke of York at Hel- 
voetsluys on 5 March 1793. On 25 April 
he was promoted to be captain in the 3rd 
foot guards and lieutenant-colonel in the 
army. He was present at the battle of 
Famars on 23 May, at the investment and 
siege of Valenciennes, which capitulated on 
28 July, and at the operations on the line 
of the Scheldt in August. He took part 
in the brilliant action at Lincelles on 18 Aug., 
was present at the siege of Dunkirk, at the 
actions of 6 and 8 Sept., and at the attack 
on Launoy on 28 Oct. He went with his 
battalion into winter quarters at Ghent in 
November. In 1794 he commanded his bat- 
talion at the siege of Landrecy, which fell 
on 30 April, at the battle of Tournay or 
Pont-a-Chin on 23 May, at the retreat be- 
hind the Dyle on 8 July, and to Nimeguen 
on 6 Oct., evacuating it on 7 Nov. He served 
with Dundas when the French were driven 
across the Waal on 30 Dec. He was with 
the army in its painful retreat across the 
Weluwe waste, and in its embarkation at 
Bremen and return to England in April 

Stuart was promoted to be brevet colonel 
on 3 May 1796. He was appointed to a 
command on 30 Nov. as brigadier-general in 
the force under General the Hon. Charles 
Stuart in Portugal. He raised the queen's 
German regiment in 1798, and was appointed 
colonel of it on 26 Dec. This regiment was 
numbered on 6 June 1808 the 97th foot, 
and was disbanded in 1818. He went on 
the expedition to Minorca, and took part 
in its capture on 15 Nov. 1799, having 
been gazetted on 10 Nov. a brigadier-general 
in the force for Minorca. 

From Minorca Stuart went to Egypt in 
1801 as brigadier-general, under Sir Ralph'omby. He commanded the foreign 
brigade at the battle of 21 March on the 
plain of Alexandria, and at a critical moment 
brought up his brigade to the assistance of 
the reserve. Stuart's action was declared, 
in general orders of 23 March, to have been 
1 as gallant as it was prompt, and [to have] 

entirely confirmed the fortunate issue of that 
brilliant day.' At the close of the Egyptian 
campaign Stuart proceeded on a political mis- 
sion to Constantinople, and thence returned 
to Egypt to take command of the British 
troops at Alexandria. He received knight- 
hood of the order of the Crescent from the 
Sultan of Turkey ; he was promoted to be 
major-general on 29 April 1802, and returned 
to England the same year. 

On 17 Oct. 1803 Stuart was appointed to 
command a brigade of the force massed on 
the east coast of Kent in readiness to repel 
the threatened French invasion ; he held the 
command until 24 March 1805, when he 
accompanied Lieutenant-general Sir James 
Craig, who had been appointed to the com- 
mand of the British military forces in the 
Mediterranean. He arrived on 13 May at 
Gibraltar, where a protracted stay was made, 
and reached Malta on 18 July. On 3 Nov. 
he sailed with Craig's army from Malta to 
co-operate with the Russians under General 
Lascy from Corfu for the protection and 
assistance of the kingdom of Naples. The 
British disembarked on 21 Nov. at Castella- 
mare in the bay of Naples, and, with the 
Russians, were distributed across Italy from 
Pescara to Gaeta. The battle of Aus'terlitz 
caused the Russian emperor in January 1806 
to direct Lascy at once to seek safety by 
embarking his force and returning to the 
Ionian Islands. The British followed suit, 
retired to Castellamare, embarked on 14 Jan., 
and entered Messina harbour on the 22nd. 
The French, under Marshal Massena and 
General Reynier, crossed the frontier on 
9 Feb., and occupied the kingdom of Naples, 
except the fortress of Gaeta, which was 
held for King Ferdinand by the Prince of 
Hesse-Philipstadt, and was at first blockaded 
and then besieged by Massena. The king 
and queen fled from Naples to Palermo. 
Stuart landed with the British troops at 
Messina on 17 Feb. By 24 March the French 
posts and picquets lined the straits of Mes- 
sina on the Calabrian coast. In April, on 
account of ill-health, Craig resigned his com- 
mand, and Stuart succeeded to it as next 

During May and June Stuart ascertained 
that the French in the south of Calabria 
were weak in numbers and exposed in posi- 
tion, while the main army under Mass6na 
was still occupied with Gaeta. He there- 
fore decided to strike a sudden blow at 
Reynier's army. The decision was kept a 
profound secret. Stuart's army was con- 
centrated in or near Messina, and was *easily 
embarked in transports already prepared. 
Under convoy Stuart proceeded on 30 'June 

H 2 




to the bay of St. Eufemia with his main 
force, sending the 20th regiment under 
Colonel Robert Ross [q. v.] to make a diver- 
sion by threatening Reggio and Scylla. 
Stuart disembarked, with slight opposition, 
on 1 July, and, in spite of a heavy surf, 
landed his guns and stores by the 3rd. On 
the 4th he marched to attack Reynier, who, 
with a superior force, had occupied a posi- 
tion below S. Pietro di Maida, a few miles 
away. During a critical part of the battle 
Ross, with the 20th regiment, arrived from 
Reggio, and Stuart gained a decisive victory. 

Unfortunately Stuart (whose entire force 
amounted to no more than 4,800 men) had 
no cavalry with which to follow up his vic- 
tory, or Reynier's army might have been 
completely destroyed. While the action 
Avas in progress Sir Sidney Smith arrived in 
his flagship. Stuart slept on board it that 
night, but neither he nor Sir Sidney Smith 
had the genius to grasp the possibilities of 
the situation, and to concert measures for a 
prompt move on Gaeta by land and sea to 
raise the siege. Stuart had intended only 
to strike a blow at the French in southern 
Calabria ; he had done it ably and success- 
fully, and he was content. Before return- 
ing to Sicily he undertook the siege of 
Scylla Castle. Operations were commenced 
on 12 July under the direction of Captain 
Charles Lefebure, commanding royal engi- 
neer, and continued until 23 July, when the 
place capitulated. Stuart arranged for the 
repairs of the castle, and for its occupa- 
tion by a British garrison. Having destroyed 
other fortified posts, he returned with his ex- 
pedition to Messina at the end of July. The 
British minister at Palermo informed the 
government of the high sense entertained 
by the Palermo court of Stuart's merits. 
For his brilliant operations he received the 
thanks of both houses of parliament and a 
pension of 1,000/. a year for life ; he was made 
a knight of the Bath, created by the king of 
the two Sicilies Count of Maida, and he re- 
ceived the freedom of the city of London 
and a sword of honour. He was further ap- 
pointed colonel of the 74th foot on 8 Sept. 

On Stuart's arrival at Messina he found 
there General Fox, sent by the whig govern- 
ment to take the command of the land forces 
in the Mediterranean, and he learnt that large 
reinforcements were on their way from 
England under Lieutenant-general Sir John 
Moore (1761-1809) [q. v.], who was to be 
second in command. Stuart quite expected 
an officer senior to himself to be sent to take 
the command in succession to Craig, and he 
would have been well content to serve as 

second to General Fox ; but to be relegated 
to a third place was distasteful to him, and 
soon after Moore's arrival he obtained leave 
to return home, arriving in England on 
24 Nov. 1806. 

On 29 Sept. 1807 Stuart was again sent 
to the Mediterranean as a major-general, 
and on 11 Feb. 1808 he was appointed to 
the chief command of the land forces in the 
Mediterranean, with the local rank of lieu- 
tenant-general. He was, however, pro- 
moted to be a lieutenant-general on the 
establishment on 25 April, and shortly after 
that date he proceeded to Messina. In 
the early part of October 1808 he received 
intelligence from Colonel (afterwards Sir) 
Hudson Lowe [q. v.], commandant at Capri, 
of Murat's attack on the island, and an 
urgent application for assistance. Stuart at 
once sent off reinforcements without wait- 
ing for a convoy, but, meeting with a gale, 
they did not reach Capri until 17 Oct., a few 
hours after Hudson Lowe had been obliged 
to capitulate. 

In 1809 Stuart, in conjunction with Col- 
lingwood, decided on an expedition to the 
bay of Naples. He sailed on 11 June 
with upwards of eleven thousand men, con- 
voyed by the fleet. At the same time he 
sent a force to attack the castle of Scylla to 
make a diversion, and for the better safety of 
Messina during his absence. This diver- 
sion was unsuccessful, and the siege was 
abandoned. In the meantime Stuart, de- 
layed by calms, did not arrive in the bay of 
Naples until 24 June. The following day 
he disembarked his troops on the island ot 
Ischia, and, with the exception of the castle, 
carried it by assault. Procida was then sum- 
moned and surrendered. The following day 
twenty-four of Murat's gunboats were cap- 
tured and five destroyed. The castle of 
Ischia was then besieged, and surrendered 
on 30 June. 

Collingwood having represented to Stuart 
that there was fresh activity at Toulon, 
where the French had a large fleet, and that 
the British ships and transports were not 
secure at the Ischia anchorage against the 
sudden attack of the superior fleet, Stuart 
re-embarked and returned with his army to 

Stuart's despatches to Lord Liverpool at 
this time showed grave mistrust of the in- 
tentions of the court of Palermo and of the 
Sicilian troops. Murat was making con- 
siderable preparations for the invasion of 
Sicily, and Stuart pointed out to Lord 
Liverpool the inefficiency of the Sicilian 
army, militia, and marine. Some twenty- 
five thousand French troops were massed at 




the extremity of Lower Calabria, and more 
were behind them, while in the month of 
June 1810 Stuart had less than fourteen 
thousand men. Notwithstanding this trying 
state of affairs, Stuart was directed to send 
away four battalions of his force to Gibraltar, 
so soon as a smaller number of sickly soldiers 
returned from the expeditions to the Scheldt 
should arrive from England. Stuart remon- 
strated, and upon reiterated instructions from 
Lord Liverpool positively declined to send 
them unless it were understood that he could 
not hold himself responsible if his force were 

Stuart's engineers in the meantime were 
not idle. A chain of heavy batteries con- 
nected the Faro Point with the fortress of 
Messina, and these were supported by forti- 
fied posts and barracks, while a flotilla of 
nearly one hundred boats lay clustered round 
the Faro, ready to attack the enemy's trans- 
port boats whenever they should cross the 
straits; and hardly a day passed without 
a skirmish more or less brisk between the 
opposing flotillas. On the night of 17 Sept. 
six battalions of Corsicans and Neapolitans 
crossed the straits and landed seven miles to 
the south of Messina, intending to gain 
the mountain ridge in the British rear. 
Stuart at once despatched troops to meet 
them, and secured the mountain paths. The 
enemy were repulsed, a whole battalion 
captured, and the rest driven to their boats 
with great loss. When the day broke the 
French divisions were seen embarking on 
the opposite shore, but, on finding that the 
diversion had failed, they disembarked. 

In the following month Murat began 
quietly to withdraw his troops from Lower 
Calabria. Stuart, unaware of this move- 
ment, recapitulated in October in a despatch 
to Lord Liverpool his suspicions of the 
court of Palermo and the dangers of the 
situation to the British. He declared that 
under the existing circumstances he could 
not continue to be responsible, and resigned 
his command. His resignation was ac- 
cepted, and he left Messina for England at 
the end of October. He received from the 
court of Palermo the order of knighthood of 
San Gennaro. 

Stuart was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Grenada in 1811. On 10 June 1813 he was 
appointed to the command of the western 
military district, with his headquarters at 
Plymouth. This command he resigned on 
24 June 1814, owing to ill-health. On 3 Jan. 
1815 he was made a military knight grand 
cross of the order of the Bath on its exten- 
sion and revision. He died at Clifton on 
2 April 1815, and was buried under the south 

choir aisle of Bristol Cathedral on 13 April. 
A small diamond-shaped marble slab let into 
the floor marks the spot. A portrait was 
painted by W. Wood, and engraved by Free- 
man in octavo and quarto sizes. 

[War Office Records; Despatches; Annual 
Register, 1806-15; Gent. Mag. 1806-15; Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography ; Bun- 
bury's Narrative of Passages in the Great War 
with France from 1799 to 1810 (but Bunbury's 
estimate of Stuart is prejudiced by a strong 
antagonistic bias) ; Cannon's Historical Records 
of the 20th Foot, also of the 74th Foot; Evans's 
Cat. of Engraved Portraits, vol. ii.; Carmichael 
Smyth's Chronological Epitome of the Wars in 
the Low Countries ; Jones's Sieges in Spain, &c.; 
Stedmnn's American War of Independence ; Ali- 
son's Hist, of Europe ; Gust's Annals of the Wars 
of the Eighteenth Century ; Lord Teignmouth's 
Reminiscences, ii. 274 ; Grant's Adventures of an 
Aide-de-Cnnip contains a spirited account of the 
bati le of Maida and the operations that followed.] 

R H. V. 

STUART, JOHN (1743-1821), Gaelic 
scholar, son of James Stuart, minister of 
Killin, and Elizabeth Drummond, was born 
at Killin in 1743. He was licensed by the 
presbytery of Edinburgh on 27 Feb. 1771, 
was presented to the living of Arrochar by 
Sir James Colquhoun in October 1773, and 
was ordained on 12 May 1774. He was 
translated to Weem on 26 March 1776, and 
to Luss on 1 July 1777. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Glasgow University in 

Stuart was an expert Gaelic scholar. His 
father had already translated the New Tes- 
tament into Gaelic, and at the time of his 
death had begun a translation of the Old 
Testament. This work was continued by 
his son, and the complete translation was 
published at Edinburgh in 1767, under the 
auspices of the Society for Propagating Chris- 
tian Knowledge ; another edition was pub- 
lished in London in 1807. For his valuable 
services as translator he received from the 
lords of the treasury 1,000/. in 1820, and the 
thanks of the general assembly were conveyed 
to him from the chair on 28 May 1819. He 
was also a devoted student of natural history 
and botany. He died at Luss on 24 May 

Dr. Stuart married, 24 July 1792, Susan, 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Mclntyre, Glenorchy. 
She died on 7 July 1846, leaving a son, 
Joseph, minister of Kingarth, and a daugh- 

Besides his Gaelic translation of the Scrip- 
tures, Dr. Stuart was the author of ' The Ac- 
count of the Parish of Luss ' in vol. xvii. of 
Sinclair's ' Statistical Account of Scotland.' 




[Scott's Fasti, pt. iii. pp. 341, 367, pt. iv. pp. 
817, 825 ; Scots Magazine, 1821, ii. 94.] 

G. S-H. 

STUART, JOHN (1813-1877), Scottish 
genealogist, was born in November 1813 at 
Forgue, Aberdeenshire, where his father had 
a small farm. He was educated at Aberdeen 
University, and in 1836 became a member of 
the Aberdeen Society of Advocates. In 1853 
he was appointed one of the official searchers 
of records in the Register House, Edinburgh, 
and in 1873 became principal keeper of the 
register of deeds. In 1854 he was appointed 
secretary of the Society of Scottish Anti- 
quaries, and from that time he became the 
guiding spirit of the association. In 1839, 
along with Joseph Robertson (1810-1866) 
. v.] and Cosmo Innes [q. v.], he set on foot 
Spalding Club,' of which he acted as se- 
cretary till the close of its operations in 1870. 
Of the thirty-eight quarto volumes issued 
by the club, fourteen were produced under 
Stuart's editorship. Prominent among these 
were the two large folios on ' The Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland,' published in 1856 and 
1867, and regarded by antiquarians as one 
of their most important books of reference. 
Another of the Spalding volumes is ' The 
Book of Deer,' published in 1869, a repro- 
duction by Stuart of a manuscript copy of 
the Gospels which belonged to the abbey of 
Deer of great historical and linguistic 
value, especially with regard to the Celtic 
history of Scotland. Among the other 
works which Stuart prepared for publication 
by the Spalding Club were the three volumes 
of ' Miscellanies ' published in 1841,1842, and 
1849 ; ' Extracts from the Presbytery Book 
of Strathbogie, 1631-54,' published in 1843 ; 
* Extracts from the Council Register of Aber- 
deen, 1398-1625,' 2 vols., issued in 1844-9; 
( Memorialls of the Trubles in Scotland and 
England from 1624 to 1645,' printed in 1850- 
1851 ; and ' Notices of the Spalding Club,' 
prepared in 1871 as a record of its labours. 
At the final meeting, on 23 Dec. 1870, Stuart 
was presented by the club with a piece of 
plate and his portrait, the work of Mr. (now 
Sir) George Reid. 

Stuart contributed largely to the ' Trans- 
actions of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland ' (of which he was principal secre- 
tary), especially on the subject of Scottish 
crannogs. Two very able papers were also 
given on the history of the crozier of St. 
Fillan, and an account of the priory of 
Restennet, near Forfar. For the society he 
edited two volumes of ancient chartularies, 
entitled ' Records of the Isle of May,' 1868, 
and * Records of the Monastery of Kinloss, 
1872/ i 

Of his researches among old family records 
there remains the ' Registrum de Panmure,' 
wo quarto volumes, printed by the Earl of 
Dalhousie in 1874. At the instance of the 
historical records commission he examined 
the charter chests of the Scottish nobility 
and furnished reports. Among the record's 
at Dunrobin Castle he discovered the original 
dispensation for the marriage of Bothwell 
and Lady Jane Gordon. This find gave Stuart 
the opportunity of discussing, as he did in 
his volume, ' A Lost Chapter in the History 
of Mary Queen of Scots ' (Edinburgh, 1874), 
the law and practice of Scotland relating to 
marriage dispensations in Roman catholic 

For the Burgh Records Society Stuart 
edited two volumes of l Extracts from the 
Burgh Records of Aberdeen, 1625-1747,' 
and he also edited an edition of ' Archaeo- 
logical Essays of the late Sir J. Y. Simpson,' 
1872. In 1866 the university of Aberdeen 
conferred on him the degree of LL.D. He 
was elected an honorary member of the 
Archaeological Institute and of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Zurich and the Assemblea 
di Storia Patria in Palermo. 

He died at Ambleside on 19 July 1877. 
He was twice married, and was survived by 
his second wife and two daughters of the 
first marriage. 

Stuart's love of study lay for the most 
part within a limited range. In the more 
general bearings of archaeology he took little 
interest, but in the deciphering of records 
and illustrations he did yeoman service. 

In addition to the works mentioned, Stuart 
edited for the Spalding Club : 1. ' A briefte 
narration of the services done to three noble 
ladyes, by Gilbert Blakhal,' 1844. 2. < Selec- 
tions from the Records of the Kirk Session, 
Presbytery, and Synod of Aberdeen from 
1562 to 1681,' 1846. He also wrote a < Me- 
moir of the late A. H. Rhind of Sibster,' 
Edinburgh, 1864, 8vo. 

[Obituary notice in the Scotsman, 21 July 
1877 ; Irving's Eminent Scotsmen ; Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, xii. 
363-4 (with portrait reproduced from Notices of 
the Spalding Club).] G-. S-H. 

SMYTH (1745-1814), American loyalist, 
born in 1745, claimed descent through both 
parents from the Duke of Monmouth. Ac- 
cording to his own doubtful statement, his 
father, Wentworth Smyth, was son of the 
Duke of Monmouth by Lady Henrietta 
Maria, granddaughter of Thomas Wentworth, 
earl of Cleveland, and daughter of Thomas, 
lord Wentworth. She died eight months 
after Monmouth's execution, and her eon 




was said to have been adopted by Colonel 
Smyth, an aide-de-camp of Monmouth, 
who made him his heir. Wentworth Smyth 
joined in the risings of 1715 and 1745, and 
was killed in the highlands at some later 
date. At the age of sixty-six he is reputed 
to have married Maria Julia Dalziel, a girl 
of fifteen. She was represented to be grand- 
daughter of General James Crofts, natural 
son of the Duke of Monmouth, by Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir Robert Needham of Lambeth. 
It is vaguely stated that she predeceased her 
husband, dying three years after her mar- 

The reputed son, John Ferdinand Smyth, 
who in 1793 adopted the name of Stuart, 
studied medicine at Edinburgh ilniversity. 
He then emigrated to America, and, settling 
near Williamsburg in Virginia, practised as a 
doctor in the district. When the rebellion 
broke out Smyth found himself the only 
loyalist in the neighbourhood, and on 15 Oct. 
1775 he was compelled to abandon his home. 
He served in several regiments with the rank 
of captain, distinguishing himself, according 
to his own account, by his zeal and activity. 
He showed equal capacity in the most dif- 
ferent situations. At one time he raised a 
special company of picked men for frontier 
work, and at another commanded an armed 
sloop in the bay of Chesapeake. He was 
several times made prisoner, and on one oc- 
casion was kept in irons for eighteen months. 
On proceeding to England at the close of the 
war a pension of 300/. a year was settled on 
him, a very partial compensation for his 
losses. Yet in 1784, on some insinuations 
secretly made against him to the commis- 
sioners for American claims, even this was 
suspended and never restored. In conse- 
quence he was reduced to extreme poverty, 
and was glad to accept the position of barrack- 
master. He made strenuous representations 
to government, and in 1795 demanded justice 
from Pitt peremptorily. In the same year 
he was persuaded to accompany Admiral Sir 
Hugh Cloberry Christian [q. v.] to the West 
Indies, where he was thrice shipwrecked and 
was present at the capture of St. Lucia. 
On his return to England he was informed 
that his claims were of too ancient a date to 
be entertained. He was knocked down and 
killed by a carriage at the corner of South- 
ampton Street, London, on 20 Dec. 1814, 
leaving a widow destitute, two sons, and a 
daughter (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 
495, ix. 232, 334). 

He was the author of : 1. 'A Tour in the 
United States of America,' London, 1784, 
8vo. This book gives an account of his 
sojourn and travels in North America and , 

of the share he took in the war. His delinea- 
tion of rural society in the States is vigorous 
but not flattering. The republican opinions 
of the colonists were obnoxious to a loyalist, 
while their barbarous manners were repellent 
to a gentleman. 2. ' A Letter to Lord Henry 
Petty on Coercive Vaccination,' London, 
1807, 8vo, a violent diatribe against vaccina- 
tion (CHAMBERS, Book of Days, i. 628). 
3. 'Destiny and Fortitude: an heroic poem 
on the Misfortunes of the House of Stuart/ 
London, 1808, fol. 

[Stuart's Works; The Case of Ferdinand 
Smyth Stuart, London, 1807, fol.] E. I. C. 

1866), explorer, the fifth son of William 
Stuart, a captain in the army, was born at 
Dysart, Fifeshire, on 7 Sept. 1815. Educated 
at Edinburgh, first privately and later at 
the Military Academy, he entered into busi- 
ness in Scotland, but emigrated to South 
Australia in 1838. There he joined the go- 
vernment survey, and afterwards practised 
as a private surveyor, chiefly in the bush ; 
he also tried his hand at sheep-farming. On 
12 Aug. 1844 he joined as draughtsman 
Captain Sturt's expedition to explore Central 
Australia [see STFRT, CHARLES]. 

In 1858 Stuart led his first expedition, 
equipped by William Finke, for the discovery 
of a path across Australia. It had little 
practical result, and on 2 April 1859 Stuart 
again started with an expedition, equipped by 
Finke and James Chambers, up the eastern 
side of Lake Torrens. Passing Mount Hamil- 
ton, his furthest point in the preceding year, 
he proceeded northward, discovered several 
springs, and named the Hanson Range and 
Mounts Younghusband and Kingston, re- 
turning to the settlements on 3 July. On 
4 Nov. 1859 he started for the third time, 
named Mount Anna, and surveyed a line at 
the Fanny Springs. His eyes troubled him 
greatly during this journey, and he returned 
on 21 Jan. 1860. 

On 2 March 1860 Stuart started, with 
thirteen horses and two men, on a fourth 
journey, in which, after crossing the Neale, 
tie finally reached the centre of Australia, 
and there he named Mount Stuart in the 
John Range. Turning to the north-west, he 
pushed on, in spite of illness, through several 
miles of new country, till an attack by natives 
forced him to turn back on 26 June ; he was 
now nearly blind, his horses and attendants 
were worn out, and thus he arrived on 1 Sept. 
at Chambers's Creek. In October he came 
to Adelaide, and was received with acclama- 

The government voted the funds for a 




fresh expedition. On 29 Nov. 1860, three 
months after Burke and Wills left Mel- 
bourne, Stuart started again with twelve 
men and fifty horses, a number reduced 
before the real work began. On 26 April 
1861 he reached Attack Creek, where he 
had been turned before ; he passed several 
new ranges and rivers, and named Sturt's 
Plains, which, however, he failed to cross 
on account of want of water. At a place 
named Ho well's Ponds he turned on 12 July, 
and reached settled country on 7 Sept. 
On 23 Sept. he made a public entry into 

Shortly afterwards the news of the fate of 
Burke and Wills reached Adelaide. But this 
did not deter Stuart from again starting north 
under the auspices of the government on 
21 Oct. 1861. Though almost killed at the 
outset by a horse accident, he ordered the 
expedition to proceed, and rejoined it in five 
weeks. Fresh difficulties soon beset him : 
some of his party deserted, several horses 
died from the great heat, and the natives 
showed greater hostility than before. Striking 
northward across the Sturt Plains, he found 
water at Frew's Water, and later at King's 
Ponds, places which he named after two of 
his companions. After many further hard- 
ships, they reached a river which Stuart 
named Strangway. Following it, they came 
to the Roper, and thence, through mountain 
passes, to the Adelaide River, and along it 
to the Indian Ocean, which they struck at 
Van Diemen's Gulf before the end of July 
1862. The return journey was almost 
fatal to Stuart ; the distress of the whole ex- 
pedition, chiefly from want of water, was 

Stuart received from the government of 
South Australia the grant of 2,000/. which 
was destined for the first colonist who 
crossed the Australian continent. John 
McKinlay [q. v.] had actually crossed two 
months earlier, but the circumstances seem 
not to have been considered quite parallel 
(see HOWITT, ii. 188-9). Stuart also re- 
ceived a gold medal and a watch from 
the Royal Geographical Society. He had 
previously received a thousand square miles 
rent free' in the interior. He now en- 
deavoured to settle down to a pastoral life 
but his health was broken, and in 1863 he 
was recommended to return to England as 
the only chance of recruiting his strength 
Arriving here in September 1864, he settled 
in London in Notting (now Campden) Hill 
Square, where he died on 5 June 1866. He 
was buried at Kensal Green. He was appa- 
rently unmarried. Stuart's Creek was named 
after him. 

[Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen, 1875; Howitt's Hist, of Dis- 
covery in Australia, ii. 158-89; Hardman's 
Journals of McDouall Stuart's Explorations ; 
Journals of the Royal Geographical Society for 
1861 and 1862; Eden's Australian Heroes, p. 
275; Davis's Tracks of McKinlay, 1863, pp. 
4-20 ; cf. art. STURT, CHARLES.] C. A. H. 

BERG (1795 P-1872), and STUART, 
CHARLES EDWARD (1799P-1880), were 
two brothers who claimed to be descended 
from Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the 
young chevalier, and to be heirs to the crown, 
of Great Britain and Ireland. Their grand- 
father, or reputed grandfather, Admiral John. 
Carter Allen, was connected with the Mar- 
quis of Downshire,andis said to have claimed 
descent from the Hay earls of Erroll. He 
died at his house in Devonshire Place, Lon- 
don, 2 Oct. 1800, and by a will dated eight 
months before left 2,200/. to one son, Captain 
John Allen, R.N., and only IOQL to another 
son, Lieutenant Thomas Allen, R.N. (Quar- 
terly, June 1847, pp. 75-6 ; will at Somerset 
House). Thomas was probably the elder of 
the two, for Admiral John Allen (1774 
1853), who died at Torpoint, near Plymouth, 
is called ' the youngest son of Admiral J. C. 
Allen' in his obituary (Gent. Mag. Septem- 
ber 1853, p. 310), and, moreover, he became 
a lieutenant in 1794, Thomas in 1791. On 
2 Oct. 1792, at Godalming, Thomas Allen, 
of the parish of Egham, bachelor,' married 
Catherine Matilda Manning, second daughter 
of the Rev. Owen Manning [q. v.], vicar of 
Godalming. She was baptised at Godalming 
27 July 1765, so at the time of her marriage 
was twenty-seven years old. Of this marriage 
were born the two brothers who are the sub- 
jects of this notice. The name of their 
father, Thomas Allen, is in the navy list for 
January 1798, but not in that for July or 

Where the brothers were born is un- 
known, except that the younger says, ' I 
was an exile born in foreign land ' (Lays, 
i. 322 ; at Versailles perhaps, according to 
Mr. Jenner). The dates, too, of their births 
are uncertain. Those given in the Eskadale 
epitaph 14 June 1797 and 4 June 1799 
are seemingly incorrect, for John, in his 
lines 'To my Brother on his Birthday, 
written 4 July 1821 ' (Bridal of Caolchairn, 
p. 195), writes : 

The winged pace of six-and-twenty years 
Has passed full sad and various o'er my head. 

About 1811 the reputed secret of their de- 
scent from the Stuarts was, according to 
their own story, revealed to them (Lays, i. 




322), and, stirred by that startling news, 
they entered the service of the ' eagle mo- 
narch' Napoleon, and fought in 1813 at 
Dresden and at Leipzig, where ' S t swam 
the wave and Poniatowski sank.' Napoleon's 
own hand, they assert, pinned an eagle on 
the ' throbbing breast ' of the ' child of 
battles ; ' and for Napoleon both brothers 
claim to have fought once again at Waterloo, 
attired in ' dolmans green, pelisse of crimson 
dye ' (Lays, i. 121, and ii. 325 ; Poems, pp. 72, 
73, 189, 193). When 'the great Imperial 
sun had gone down,' they betook themselves 
to London, learned Gaelic there of Donald 
Macpherson [q. v.], compiler of ' Melodies 
from the Gaelic,' and in 1817 or 1818 came 
by sea to Edinburgh. Argyllshire probably 
Inveraray was their principal home for 
three or four years, and to the seventh Duke 
of Argyll ' John Hay Allan, esq.' dedicated 
his ' Bridal of Caolchairn, and other Poems ' 
(London, 1822). Its forty-two Scott-like 
pieces contain several allusions to descent 
from the Hays (pp. 120, 168, 205, 337), a 
reference to Prince Charles Edward as ' the 
last of Albyn's royal race ' (p. 169), a 
suggestion that the author belonged to the 
English church (p. 253), but no hint of 
Napoleonic campaigns. 'Stanzas for the 
King's Landing ' (A Historical Account of 
his Majesty's Visit to Scotland, Edinburgh, 
1822, pp, 62-4) must have been written by 
one of the brothers, and Charles and his 
father were perhaps the ' Allans ' presented at 
Edinburgh to George IV. It may have been 
then that Scott ' saw one of these gentlemen 
wear the [Erroll] Badge of High Constable 
of Scotland ' (Journal, ii. 298). John says 
he was absent from Scotland during 1822- 
1826 (Reply to the Quarterly, p. 4) ; but 
Miss Louise Macdonell speaks of having 
often seen both brothers at Glengarry be- 
tween 1822 and 1828, where the first date 
perhaps is erroneous (BlackwooffsMag. April 
1895, pp. 523-4, 530). In London, on 
9 Oct. 1822, ' Charles Stuart, youngest son 
of Thomas Hay Allan, esq., of Hay,' mar- 
ried Anna (b. 1787), widow of Charles Gar- 
diner, esq., and youngest daughter of the 
Eight Hon. John Beresford, the Earl of 
Tyrone's second son, and brother to the first 
Marquis of W T aterford (ib. November 1822, 
p. 691). From about 1826 to 1838 the 
brothers were living in Elginshire, first at 
Windy Hills (now Milton Brodie) in Alves 
parish, and then, from 1829, at Logie House, 
in Edinkillie parish. The Earl of Moray 
gave them the full run of Darnaway Forest, 
where they built their ' forest hut ' of moss 
beside the Findhorn, and during this period 
they continued protestants, for, dressed as 

always in full Highland garb, they attended 
the presbyterian worship in the parish kirks. 
But from their settling in 1838 on Eilean 
Aigas, a lovely islet in the river Beauly, 
where Lord Lovat built them an antique 
shooting lodge, they seem to have been 
devoted catholics. Eskadale, where they are 
buried, is two miles above their islet, and 
every Sunday they used to be rowed up to 
mass, with a banner flying, which was carried 
before them from the riverside to the church 
door. In 1829 they had come to style them- 
selves Stuart Allan. In 1841 the ' New 
Statistical Account' (xiv. 488) speaks of 
' Messrs. Hay Allan Stuart, said to be the 
only descendants of Prince Charles Edward ; ' 
and in 1843 a Frenchman, the Vicomte d'Ar- 
lincourt, first published their claims to royal 
ancestry. In 1847 the brothers themselves 
put forth their own * Tales of the Century,' 
which tells how in 1773 the Countess of 
Albany gave birth unexpectedly to a son, 
who three days afterwards was handed over, 
for fear of assassination by Hanoverian 
emissaries, to the captain of an English 
frigate, l Commodore O'Haleran,' rightful 
' Earl of Strathgowrie ; ' how later that son, 
as ' Captain O'Haleran ' or the ' lolair- 
dhearg ' (Gaelic, red eagle) was himself in 
command of a frigate off the west coast of 
Scotland; and how in 1790 he married, 
under romantic circumstances, an English 
lady, ' Catharine Bruce.' O'Haleran (in 
M. d'Arlincourt ' Admiral Hay ') here stands 
plainly for Allen or Allan Erroll is in 
Strathgowrie ; and the centenarian ' Dr. Bea- 
ton,' on whose testimony the alleged secret of 
their royal birth turns mainly, may be safely 
identified with Robert Watson, M.D. (1746- 
1838) [q. v.], the discoverer of the Stewart 
papers, with whom the brothers are known 
to have had some dealings. But the tale is 
dernonstrably false. Admiral (then Captain) 
John Carter Allen, the brothers' genuine 
grandfather, who figures in the narrative as 
Commodore O'Halleran, was not on active 
service, but on half-pay, from 14 Aug. 1771 
to 8 Nov. 1775. At the same time Bishop 
R. Forbes's 'Lyon in Mourning' (Scot. Hist. 
Soc. 1896, iii/ 329), under date 21 Sept. 
1774, has a curious passage telling how 
' lately a Scots gentleman, son of a noble 
family, and captain of a ship-of-war in Bri- 
tain,' met Prince Charles Edward at the 
opera in Rome. But then, through Robert 
Chambers, this passage is sure to have been 
known to the brothers, and may have sug- 
gested much that they admitted to their 
1 Tales.' In ' The Heirs of the Stuarts ' ( Quar- 
terly Review, June 1847), Professor George 
Skene of Glasgow made a pitiless onslaught 




on both the ' Tales ' and the ' Vestiarium 
Scoticura, with an Introduction and Notes 
by John Sobieski Stuart ' (folio, Edinburgh, 
1842). The latter professed to be from the 
sixteenth-century manuscript of a ' Schyr 
Richard Urquharde, knycht,' showing the 
tartans of ' ye chieiF Hieland and bordour 
clannes.' John, or ' Ian,' or 'Ian Dubh ' 
(Gaelic, Black John), rejoined with 'A 
Reply to the Quarterly ' (Edinburgh, 1848), 
where he ascribes the reviewer's hostility to 
his partisanship of a rival claimant, ' General 
Charles Edward Stuart, Baron Rohenstart ' 
(1781-1854), a soi-disant grandson of Miss 
Walkinshaw [q.v.], who was killed in a coach 
accident at Dunkeld, and is buried in the 
ruined nave of the cathedral. Other works 
by the brothers were the sumptuous but gro- 
tesquely illustrated ' Costume of the Clans ' 
(folio, Edinburgh, 1843), and ' Lays of the 
Deer Forest ' (2 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1848). 
Their kingly origin and Napoleonic exploits 
are dwelt on largely in the latter work 
(which is not without merits) and in * Poems,' 
by Charles Edward Stuart (8vo, London, 

On 23 Sept, 1845, writing to Robert 
Chambers, John announces his marriage 
next month, in London, to Miss Georgina 
Kendall, * of a very old Saxon family.' She 
was the second daughter of Edward Kendall 
of Austrey, Warwickshire, J.P. ' My future 
lady,' he remarks, ' has only ten thousand 
pounds,' and he goes on to ask a loan of 100/. 
They seem never to have lived together, 
though she survived him sixteen years, 
dying at Bath on 13 Feb. 1888, and though 
in Eskadale church there is a tablet profess- 
ing to be erected by her ' to the dear 
memory of John Sobieskie Stuart, Count 
d'Albanie.' Charles's wife and a sister, Miss 
Beresford, who lived with them at Eilean 
Aigas, had between them 1,000/. a year ; 
but there seems to have been a break-up in 
1845 or 1846. Books were sold and Mrs. 
Stuart was even threatened with arrest. 
Charles was at Prague in 1845-6, and 
for years the whole family lived in Austria- 
Hungary, chiefly there and at Presburg, 
where Charles's wife died, 13 Nov. 1862. 
Mr. Dunbar Dunbar ' was told by Baron Otto 
von Gilsa, chamberlain to the Emperor 
of Austria, that in His Imperial Majesty's 
dominions the claim of the Count to royal 
descent was never doubted. . . . At 
Prague, it is said, the military always 
saluted the brothers as royal personages, and 
those who were " presented " to them 
"kissed hands" ' (Documents relating to the 
Province of Moray, Edinburgh, 1895, 
pp. 166-171). Meanwhile Thomas Allen, 

or l Thomas Hay Allan, esq., of Hay,' or 
* J. T. Stuart Hay,' or ' James Stuart, Count 
d'Albanie,' their father, died on 14 Feb. 
1852 at 22 Henry Street, Clerkenwell, where 
he had resided for seven years preceding his 
decease, during which time he never left his 
apartments. He was buried in old St. Pan- 
eras churchyard (Introduction to the 1892 
reissue of Costume of the Clans, p. xvii). 

When or why the brothers left Austria 
is unknown, but some time before 1868 
they both were living in London, where, 
although desperately poor, they went into 
society, and, with their orders and spurs, 
were well-known figures in the British 
Museum reading-room. A table was reserved 
for them, and their pens, paper-knives, paper- 
weights, &c., were surmounted with minia- 
ture coronets, in gold. John died on 13 Feb. 
1872 ; and Charles, who, after his brother's 
death, himself assumed the title of Count 
d'Albanie, died suddenly at Pauillac, near 
Bordeaux, on Christmas day 1880 (CoMTE 
L. LAFOND, L'Ecosse jadis et aujourd'hui, 
1887, p. 293). Both are buried at Eskadale 
under a Celtic cross, whose Latin and Gaelic 
epitaph was written by the late Colin C. 
Grant, for twenty years priest of Eskadale, 
and afterwards bishop of Aberdeen. 

John left no issue, but Charles had one 
son and three daughters. The son, Charles 
Edward, born in 1824, rose between 1840 
and 1870 to be a colonel in the Austrian 
cavalry, and on 13 Aug. 1873 was captured 
with the yacht Deerhound off Fontarabia 
running Carlist munitions. On 16 May 
1874 he married Lady Alice Emily Mary 
Hay (1835-1881), daughter of the seven- 
teenth Earl of Erroll, and granddaughter 
of William IV. He died in Jersey without 
issue on 8 May 1882. Of the daughters, 
Marie (1823-1873) died at Beaumanoir on 
the Loire ; Louisa Sobieska (1827 P-1897), 
married Eduard von Platt, of the Austrian 
imperial bodyguard, and had one son, Alfred 
Edouard Charles, a lieutenant in the Austrian 
artillery; and Clementina (1830 P-1894) 
became a Passionist nun, and died in a con- 
vent at Bolton, Lancashire. 

The brothers were courteous and accom- 
plished gentlemen. But apart from their 
Stuart likeness, the sole strength of tteir 
pretensions would appear to reside in the 
credence and countenance accorded them by 
men of rank and intelligence, such as the 
tenth Earl of Moray, the fourteenth Lord 
Lovat, the late Marquis of Bute, Sir Thomas 
Dick-Lauder, and Dr. Robert Chambers. 

[Works already cited; The Last of the 
Stuarts, probably by the Vicomte d'Arlincourt, 
in Catholic Mag. for March 1843, pp. 182-90; 




his Les Trois Royaumes, Paris 1844, English 
transl. 1844, i. 207-22, 246; a little tract-like 
reprint from D'Arlincourt, which the brothers 
would give to a convive at a dinner party, and 
on whose flyleaf is a letter of date April 1816, 
by J. B. Bellemans, to the Journal de la Bel- 
gique, announcing the presence in Belgium of 
several descendants of the house of Stuart ; 
Chambers's Edinburgh Journal for 18 May 1844, 
p. 312; letters written by John about 1845 to 
Dr. Kobert Chambers, and now in the possession 
of Charles Edward Stuart Chambers, esq. ; Dean 
Burgon's Memoir of Patrick Fraser-Tytler, 2nd 
edit. 1859, pp. 286-7, describing their visit in 
1839 to Eilean Aigas; A. von Keumont's Grafin 
von Albany, Berlin, 1860, ii. 290-3 ; Dr. Doran's 
London in Jacobite Times, 1877, ii. 390-411; 
Notes and Queries, under 'Albanie,' 'Stuart,' 
passim, but specially about 1877 ; Vernon 
Lee's Countess of Albany, 1884, pp. 40-5 ; Life 
of Agnes Strickland, 1887, pp. 151, 162, 233; 
W. P. Frith's John Leech, 1891, ii. 7-8; The 
Athenaeum, 30 July 1892 and 29 July 1893; 
Dean Goulburn's Life of Dean Burgon, 1892, i. 
74-5; F. H. Groome's Monarchs in Partibus, in 
the Bookman, September 1892, pp. 173-5; 
Donald William Stewart's Old and Rare Scottish 
Tartans, Edinburgh, 1893, pp. 42-56 ; Archibald 
Forbes's Real Stuarts or Bogus Stuarts in the 
New Review, 1895, pp. 73-84; Percy Fitz- 
gerald's Memoirs of an Author, 1895, ii. 85-9 ; 
Journals of Lady Eastlake, 1895, i. 54-5 ; five 
articles to establish the genuineness of the ' Ves- 
tiarium,' by Andrew Eoss, in the Glasgow Herald 
for 30 Nov., 14, 21. 28 Dec., 1895, and 4 Jan. 
1896 ; The Sobieski Stuarts, by Henry Jenner, 
in the Genealogical Magazine for May 1897, 
p. 21 ; John Ashton's When William IV was 
King, 1896, pp. 222-3, for the brothers' visit to 
Ireland, in kilts and with a piper, in May 1836 ; 
besides information supplied by Father Macrae 
of Eskadale. Dr. Corbet of Beauly, the Rev. 
George C. Watt of Edinkillie, Mr. R. Urquhart 
of Forres, the late Mr. John Noble of Inverness, 
the Rev. Sir David Hunter-Blair, O.S.B., of 
Fort Augustus, Prof. J. K. Laughton, and the 
Rev. L. H. Burrows of Godalming.] F. H. G. 

1624), eldest son of Esme, first duke of Len- 
nox [q. v.], by his wife, Catherine de Balsac 
d'Entragues, was born on 29 Sept. 1574. 
After the death of the first duke in Paris, 
26 May 1583, ' the king/ says the author of 
the ' History of James Sext,' ' was without 
all quietness of spirit till he should see some 
of his posterity to possess him in his father's 
honours and rents ' (p. 192). He therefore 
sent the master of Gray to convoy the 
young duke to Scotland, and they arrived 
at Leith on 13 Nov. (ib. ; CALDERWOOD, iii. 
749; MOYSIE, Memoirs, p. 47). He was 
received into the king's special favour, and 
although a mere boy, was, as next in suc- 

cession, selected to bear the crown at the 
next opening of the parliament, 28 May 1584 
(CALDERWOOD, iv. 621). On 27 July 1588 
he was appointed one of a commission for 
executing the laws against the Jesuits and 
the papists (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iv. 301), and on 
1 Aug. he was named chief commissioner to 
keep watch in Dumbarton against the Spanish 
armada (ib. p. 307). "When King James left 
Scotland in October to bring home his bride 
from Denmark, Lennox, though only fifteen, 
was appointed president of the council during 
his absence. By his marriage, 20 April 1591, 
to Lady Jane Ruthven, daughter of the Earl 
of Gowrie, whom the previous day he took 
out of the castle of Wemyss. where she had 
been ' warded ' ' at the king's command for 
his cause,' he gave great offence to the king 
(CALDERWOOD, v. 128); but nevertheless on 
4 Aug. he was proclaimed lord high admiral 
in place of Bothwell (ib. p. 139). About May 
1593 he was reconciled with certain nobles 
with whom he was at feud, and was allowed 
to return to court (ib. p. 249). 

When the king returned south from the 
pursuit of Huntly, Errol, and other rebels in 
the north in November 1 594, Lennox, on the 
7th, obtained a commission of lieutenancy in 
the north (Reg. P. C. Scotl. v. 187), that he 
might continue the work of quieting the 
country. According to Calderwood, ' he tra- 
velled with Huntly,' who was his brother- 
in-law, ' and Errol, to depart out of the 
kingdom, which they did, more to satisfy the 
king than for any hard pursuit' (History, 
v. 357). On his return to Edinburgh an act 
was passed, 17 Feb. 1594-5, approving of his 
proceedings as the king's lieutenant (Reg. 
P. C. Scotl. v. 207). On 7 July 1598 he had 
a commission of lieutenancy of the Island of 
Lewis (ib. p. 468), and on 9 July 1599 a com- 
mission of lieutenancy over the highlands 
and islands (ib. vi. 8). - 

Lennox was one of those who accompanied 
the king from Falkland to Perth in 1600, 
when the Earl of Gowrie and the master of 
Ruthven were slain ; and he took an active 
part on behalf of the king against his brother- 
in-law. On 1 July 1601 he was sent on an 
embassy to France, John Spottiswood [q. v.], 
afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, being 
appointed to attend on him (CALDERWOOD, 
vi. 136 ; see especially SPOTISWOOD, History, 
iii. 100). On his way home he arrived in - 
November in London, where for three weeks 
he was entertained with great splendour by 

On the accession of James to the English 
throne in 1603, he attended him on the 
journey south, but was sent back with a war- 
rant to receive the young prince Henry from 




the Earl of Mar, and deliver him to the queen 
(ib. iii. 140). On 18 June he was naturalised 
in England, and in the same year he was also 
made a gentleman of the bedchamber and a 
privy councillor. On 6 Aug. 1603 he had a 
grant of the manors of Settrington, Temple- 
Newsam, and Wensleydale, Yorkshire, and 
600/. a year ( Cat. State Papers, Dom. 1603-10, 
p. 28). He also received a large portion 
of the Cobham estates upon the attainder 
of Henry Brooke, lord Cobham [q. v.] (see 
Archceologia Cantiana, xi. 225). In 1604-5 he 
was ambassador to Paris, and in August 1605 
he accompanied the king to Oxford, where 
he was on 31 Aug. made M.A. On 21 July 
1607 he was named high commissioner of the 
king to the Scottish parliament. On 6 Oct. 

1613 he was created Baron Settrington in the 
county of York, and Earl of Richmond. In 

1614 he was named deputy earl marshal, and 
in November 1616 he was made steward of 
the household. In May 1617 he accompanied 
the king on his visit to Scotland. He was 
named lieutenant of Kent in November 1620, 
and from May to July 1621 was joint com- 
missioner of the great seal. A strenuous 
supporter of the king's ecclesiastical policy 
in Scotland, he was one of those who on 
5 July 1621 voted for the obnoxious eccle- 
siastical articles known as the four articles 
of Perth. On 17 Aug. 1623 he was created 
Earl of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Duke of 
Richmond. He died suddenly in bed in his 
lodging at Whitehall, on the morning of 
16 Feb. 1623-4, the day fixed for the opening 
of parliament, which on that account was 
deferred, and on 19 April his corpse was con- 
veyed * with all magnificence from Ely House 
in the Holborn to interment in Westminster 
Abbey ' (SiE JAMES BALFOTJR, Annals, ii. 100), 
where a magnificent tomb was erected, in 
Henry VII's chapel, by the widow. 'His 
death,' says Calderwood, ' was dolorous both 
to English and Scottish. He was well liked 
of for his courtesy, meekness, liberality to his 
servants and followers' (History, vii. 595). 
The duke was thrice married : first, to Sophia, 
third daughter of William Ruthven, first earl 
of Gowrie ; secondly, to Jane, widow of Hon. 
Robert Montgomerie, and daughter of Sir 
Matthew Campbell of Loudon, father of Hugh, 
first lord Campbell of Loudon ; and, thirdly, 
to Frances, daughter of Thomas Howard, first 
viscount Howard of Bindon and widow of 
Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford [q. v.] ; 
she died on 8 Oct. 1639 and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey, with her last husband 
(see Archceologia Cantiana, xi. 230). As 
he left no issue the dukedom of Richmond, 
the earldom of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 
the barony of Settrington became extinct ; 

but he was succeeded in the dukedom of 
Lennox by his next brother [see STUART, 
ESME, third DTJKE OP LENNOX, 1579-1624], 
who in 1583 had succeeded his father as 
eighth seigneur of Aubigny. He, however, 
had returned to this country in 1603, was 
naturalised an Englishman on 24 May 1603, 
and from that date principally resided in 
England. He did not long survive his suc- 
cession to the dukedom, dying of putrid fever 
on 30 July 1624. By his wife, Katherine 
Clifton, only daughter and heiress of Sir Ger- 
vase Clifton, created in 1608 Lord Clifton of 
Leighton Bromswold, he had six sons and 
three daughters : James Stuart, fourth duke 
of Lennox [q. v.] ; Henry, who succeeded 
his father as eighth seigneur of Aubigny, and 
died in 1632; George, who succeeded his 
brother Henry as ninth seigneur of Aubigny, 
and, while commanding a body of three hun- 
dred horse which he had himself raised for 
King Charles, was killed at the battle of Edge- 
hill on 23 Oct. 1642 ; Ludovick, who took 
possession of the seigneurie of Aubigny, in op- 
position to the rights of his nephew Charles 
[q. v.], was educated for the church, and be- 
came canon of Notre-Dame, accompanied 
Charles II to England at the Restoration, and 
died in Paris on 3 Nov. 1665, while a cardinal's 
hat was on its way to him from Rome ; John 
(see below); Bernard, titular Earl of Lichfield 
[q. v.] ; Elizabeth, married to Henry, earl of 
Arundel; Anne, to Archibald, earl of Angus; 
and Frances, to Jerome, earl of Portland. 

The fifth son, John, according to Claren- 
don, ' was a young man of extraordinary 
hope, of a more cholerick and rough nature 
than the other branches of that illustrious 
and princely family.' He was present at 
Edgehill, 23 Oct. 1642, and accompanied 
Lord Forth's army in 1644 as general of the 
horse. In the cavalry charge at Cheriton 
on 29 March he behaved with conspicuous 
bravery, and was mortally wounded. He 
died at Abingdon on 3 April, and was buried 
at Christ Church, Oxford. There are por- 
traits of the second duke at Cobham, at 
Longford Castle, and at Hampton Court. 

[Histories by Calderwood and Spotiswood ; 
Sir James Balfour's Annals; David Moysie's 
Memoirs in the Bannatyne Club ; Reg. P. C. 
Scotl. ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser. in the reign 
of Jarnes I ; Sir William Fraser's Lennox ; Lady 
Elizabeth Gust's Stuarts of Aubigny; Douglas's 
Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 100 ; Complete 
Peerage ; Epicedivm in Obitum Domini Ludovici 
Lenoxiae et Richmondise, 1624 ; A New Lachry- 
mentall and Farewell Elegy, or a Distillation of 
Great Britanes Tears shed, &c., 1624; Franceu 
Duchesse Dowager of Richmond and Lennox 
her Farewell Tears, 1624.] T. F. H. 


109 Stuart-Wortley 

1587), queen of Scots. [See MARY.] 

BIGNY (1470 P-1543). [See under STEWART, 

STUART, ROBERT (1812-1848), author 
of ' Caledonia Romana,' was the eldest son 
of William Stuart, a merchant in Glasgow, 
where he was born on 21 Jan. 1812. Owing 
to his father's absence abroad on business, 
he was placed, when about a year old, with 
his maternal grandfather, George Meliss, re- 
sident near Perth, and was strongly in- 
fluenced by his grandmother, a descendant 
of the Stewarts of Invernahyle (see Introd. 
to Waverley, ed. 1829). In 1819 Stuart 
joined his parents at Nice, presently accom- 
panying them to Gibraltar. In 1821 he was 
sent to a boarding-school near Perth, and in 
1825 his parents returned to Glasgow, where 
he settled with them and attended school. 
Prevalent business depression in 1826 caused 
the father to become bookseller and pub- 
lisher, with his son as assistant. In 1836 
the father turned to some new enterprise, 
whereupon Stuart undertook the business 
himself and married. His literary faculty 
received special direction in 1841 when his 
friend John Buchanan of Glasgow, after 
showing him inscribed altars and other me- 
morials of the Roman occupation of Scot- 
land, expressed surprise that authors should 
have neglected such a fascinating subject. 
The result was Stuart's great work, ' Cale- 
donia Romana' (1845). Stuart died at 
Glasgow of cholera, after a few hours' illness, 
on 23 Dec. 1848. He was survived by a 
widow and family. 

Stuart early contributed verses, in the 
manner of Byron, to his father's ' Literary 
Rambler ' and his own * Scottish Monthly 
Magazine,' which he issued for a year in 
1836. He also wrote for Blackwood's and 
Tait's magazines. In 1834 he published 
* Ina and other Fragments in Verse,' dis- 
playing respectable workmanship but little 
poetic distinction. The ' Caledonia Romana : 
Roman Antiquities in Scotland,' appeared 
in 1845. It is methodical and accurate, 
if a little diffuse. After an introductory 
and an historical chapter, Stuart devotes 
the third chapter to a careful considera- 
tion of the influence of the Romans in 
Scotland, and in the fourth he presents 
a minute account of the wall of Antoninus 
Pius. The second edition, furnished with 
good maps, illustrative plates, and a me- 
moir by David Thomson, appeared in 1852. 
Stuart published in 1848 an interesting 

work, ' Views and Notices of Glasgow in 
former Times.' 

[Memoir prefixed to Caledonia Romana.] 

T. B. 

STUART, WILLIAM (1755-1822), arch- 
bishop of Armagh, born in March 1755, fifth 
son of John Stuart, third earl of Bute [q. v.], 
by Mary, only daughter of Edward Wortley 
Montagu, was educated at Winchester school, 
and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he 
obtained a fellowship, and in 1774 graduated 
M.A. Shortly after taking holy orders he 
was appointed vicar of Luton, Bedfordshire. 
On 10 April 1783 he was introduced to 
Johnson by his countryman Boswell, who 
describes him as ' being with the advantages 
of high birth, learning, travel, and elegant 
manners, an exemplary parish priest in every 
respect,' which certificate as to his highly 
respectable accomplishments and character 
indicates a common type of ecclesiastic and 
nothing more ; and as to his individuality 
nothing further is known than the dates of 
his promotions. He was made D.D. in 1789, 
and was promoted in the same year to a 
canonry in Christ Church, Oxford ; in 1793 
to the see of St. Davids, and in December 
1800 to the archbishopric of Armagh, and 
the primacy of all Ireland. He died on 
6 May 1822 from accidental poisoning, by a 
draught of an embrocation taken instead of 
medicine. His full-length figure in marble 
is in the cathedral in Armagh. 

[Gent. Mag. 1822, i. 469, 597; Stuart's 
Hist, of Armagh ; Cotton's Fasti Eccles. Hi her. 
ii. 28.] T. F. H. 

1855), poetess and authoress, second daugh- 
ter of John Henry Manners, fifth duke of 
Rutland, K.G., and his wife, Lady Elizabeth 
Howard, fifth daughter of Frederick, fifth 
earl of Carlisle [q. v.], was born on 2 May 
1806. She married, on 17 Feb. 1831, the 
Hon. Charles Stuart-Wortley, second son 
of James Archibald Stuart- Wortley-Mac- 
kenzie, first baron Wharncliffe [q. v.], by 
whom she had three children: Archibald 
Henry Plantagenet (b. 26 July 1832, d. 
30 April 1890), Adelbert William John (d. 
1847), and Victoria Alexandrina, who mar- 
ried, on 4 July 1863, Sir William Earle 

Lady Emmeline's earliest poems appeared 
in 1833, and for the next eleven years she 
published annually a volume of verse. Some 
were the outcome of her experiences of 
travel, as ' Travelling Sketches in Rhyme ' 
(1835) ; f Impressions of Italy, and other 
poems' (1837); and sonnets, written chiefly 

Stuart- Wortley no Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 

during a tour through. Holland, Germany, 
Italy, Turkey, and Hungary (1839). In 
1837 and 1840 she edited the ' Keepsake,' for 
which she wrote many poems. Among the 
contributors was Tennyson, who published 
in the ' Keepsake ' for 1837 his ' St. Agnes ' 
(afterwards republished under the title of 
' St. Agnes' Eve ' in the volume of 1842). 
Others of Lady Emmeline's associates were 
the Countess of Blessington, Theodore Hook, 
Richard Monckton Milnes, the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton, and Mrs. Shelley. In 1849-50 Lady 
Emmeline visited the ' United States, and 
published an account of her travels in three 
volumes in 1851, and ' Sketches of Travel in 
America ' in 1853. Her last production, also 
a book of travel, ' A Visit to Portugal and 
Madeira,' appeared in 1854. 

While riding in the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem on 1 May 1855, her leg was frac- 
tured by the kick of a mule. She was not 
in good health at the time, yet persisted in 
journeying from Bey rout to Aleppo, and in 
returning by an unfrequented road across 
Lebanon. She died at Beyrout in Novem- 
ber 1855. 

In the quality and quantity of her literary 
work Lady Emmeline has been compared to 
Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle 
[q.v.], and to Letitia Elizabeth Landon [q.v.] ; 
but, although she possessed their facility of 
memory, she had far less literary capacity. 
Many of her poems first appeared in ' Black- 
wood's Magazine.' 

Other works by her are: 1. 'London at 
Night, and other Poems/ 1834. 2. ' Unloved 
of Earth, and other Poems,' 1834. ^ 3. ' The 
Knight and the Enchantress, with other 
Poems,' 1835. 4. < The Village Church- 
yard, and other Poems,' 1835. 5. 'The 
Visionary, a Fragment, with other Poems,' 

1836. 6. 'Fragments and Fancies/ 1837. 
7. ' Hours at Naples, and other Poems/ 

1837. 8. ' Lays of Leisure Hours/ 2 vols. 

1838. 9. 'Queen Berengaria's Courtesy, and 
other Poems,' 3 vols. 1838. 10. ' Jairah : 
a Dramatic Mystery, and other Poems/ 1840. 
11. ' Eva, or the Error/ a play in five acts 
in verse, 1840. 12. ' Alphonso Algarves/ a 
play in five acts inverse, 1841. 13. 'Angiolina 
del Albino, or Truth and Treachery/ a play 
in verse, 1841. 14. ' The Maiden of Mos- 
cow/ a poem, 1841. 15. ' Lillia Branca, a 
Tale of Italy/ in verse, 1841. 16. 'Moon- 
shine/ a comedy/ 1843. 17. 'Adelaide/ 1843. 
18. 'Ernest Mount joy/ a comedietta in 
three acts in prose, 1844. 19. Two poems 
on the Great Exhibition, 1851. 

[Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit ; Gent. Mag. 
1856, i. 183; Burke's Peerage; Brit:Mus. Cat.] 

E. Ir. 

WHAKNCLIFFE (1776-1845), statesman, born 
on 6 Oct. (or accordingto Burke,! Nov.) 1776, 
was the second but eldest surviving son of 
James Archibald Stuart (1747-1818), lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 92nd regiment of foot, 
by Margaret, daughter of Sir David Conyng- 
ham, bart. of Milncraig, Ayrshire. John 
Stuart, third earl of Bute [q.v.], was his 
grandfather, and John, first marquis of Bute, 
his uncle. His father's mother (the countess 
of Bute) was Mary, only daughter of Edward 
Wortley-Montagu ; she had been created a 
peeress on 3 April 1761 as Baroness Mount- 
stuart. In 1794 the father succeeded on her 
death to her Wortley estates in Yorkshire 
and Cornwall, and assumed the name of 
Wortley on 17 Jan. 1795. In 1803 he 
assumed the additional name of Mackenzie 
upon succeeding to the Scottish property of 
his uncle, James Stuart Mackenzie of Rose- 

The younger James Archibald, who even- 
tually dropped the last surname of Mac- 
kenzie, was educated at Charterhouse. He 
entered the army in November 1790 as an 
ensign in the 48th foot. In. the "following 
May he exchanged into the 7th royal fusi- 
liers, and on 4 May 1793 obtained a com- 
pany in the 72nd highlanders. He served 
in Canada for three years, and afterwards at 
the Cape. On 10 May 1796 he became lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and on 1 Dec. colonel of the 
12th foot. In 1797 he was sent to the Cape 
with despatches from George, lord Macart- 
ney [q. v.], and on 27 Dec. purchased a com- 
pany in the 1st foot guards. He quitted 
the army at the peace of 1801. 

From 1797 till his father's death in 1818 
he sat in the tory interest in the House of 
Commons for the family borough of Bossiney. 
On 21 May 1812 he moved a resolution on 
his own initiative for an address to the 
prince regent, calling on him to form an 
efficient administration. A few days before 
Perceval had been assassinated, and the ob*- 
ject of the motion was to compel his col- 
leagues to admit a more liberal element into 
the administration. The motion, seconded 
by Lord Milton, was carried against the 
ministers by a majority of four (ParL Deb. 
xxiii. 249-84). Next day ministers resigned, 
and Lord Wellesley was commissioned to 
form a government. Negotiations with the 
whigs having come to nothing, Stuart - 
Wortley on 11 June moved a second reso- 
lution of like tenor, which was eventually 
negatived without a division (ib. pp. 397-45 ; 
cf. COLCHESTEK, Diary, ii.387 ; BUCKINGHAM, 
Courts and Cabinets of the Regency } i. 381).; 

Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie m Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 

Henceforth Stuart- Wortley acted with 
the moderate tories as an independent sup- 
porter of the Liverpool ministry. At first 
he deprecated the proceedings against the 
princess royal. On 22 June 1820 he se- 
conded Wilberforce's motion for a parlia- 
mentary mediation between George IV and 
Queen Caroline, and was one of the four 
members commissioned to carry the resolu- 
tion to the queen (Par/. Deb. 2nd ser. 1228- 
1229, 1334). When, however, she rejected 
the overture, Stuart-Wortley supported mi- 
nisters in setting on foot an investigation (ib. 
pp. 1381-3). He constantly urged on mini- 
sters the necessity of economy, and in 1819 
was a member of the parliamentary com- 
mittee to inquire into the civil list (Courts 
and Cabinets of the Regency, ii. 325). 

In 1818 Stuart-Wortley was elected for 
the most important county constituency in 
Great Britain, that of Yorkshire. His col- 
league was Lord Milton (afterwards Earl 
Fitzwilliam). He proved a most efficient re- 
presentative. He constantly opposed, in the 
interests of his constituents and others, the 
imposition of duties on the importation of 
foreign wool, and advocated the freeing of 
English wool from export duties. He opposed 
a parliamentary inquiry into the ' Manchester 
massacre,' thinking it more fit for a court of 
law, and attacked radicals like Hunt and 
Wooller ; but at the same time he proposed 
a property tax to relieve the poor from the 
burden of taxation. In May 1820 he declared 
against further protection to agriculture, 
holding that the distress of that interest bore 
no proportion to that of manufactures (Parl. 
Deft. 2nd ser. i. 116, 117). 

In questions of foreign policy Stuart- 
Wortley shared the views of Canning. On 
21 June 1821 he moved for copies of the 
circular issued by the members of the holy 
alliance at Laybach, stigmatising their pro- 
ceedings as dangerous to the liberties both 
of England and Europe. The motion was 
negatived by 113 to 59 (ib. v. 1254-60). In 
April 1823 he defended the ministerial policy 
of neutrality between France and Spain, and 
moved and carried an amendment to a motion 
condemning it. He also acted with the 
liberal sections of both parties in supporting 
catholic emancipation, to which he had an- 
nounced himself a convert as early as 1812, 
and on 28 May 1823 he seconded Lord 
Nugent's motion for leave to bring in a bill 
to assimilate the position of English and Irish 
Roman catholics. But his attitude on the 
question lost him his seat in 1826. 

His position towards economic questions 
probably also unfavourably affected his rela- 
tions with his constituents. InFebruary 1823 

he had supported both by speech and vote 
Whitmore's bill to amend the corn laws. 
On 7 July 1823, in opposing the Reciprocity 
of Duties Bill, he gave his opinion that it 
would be impossible to retain for any con- 
siderable time the protection given to agri- 
cultural produce (ib. ix. 1439). 

In 1824 Stuart-Wortley, who described 
himself as a strict preserver, brought in a 
bill to amend the game laws. Its object 
was twofold : to abolish the system by 
which the right to kill game was vested in a 
class and to make it depend on the owner- 
ship of the soil, and to diminish the tempta- 
tions to poaching by legalising the sale of 
game. The bill was often reintroduced in 
succeeding years, and it was not until 1832 
that a measure which embodied its main 
provisions became law. 

On 12 July 1826 Stuart-Wortley was 
created BaronWharncliffe of Wortley. While 
in the House of Commons he had repeatedly 
declared against the principle of parliamen- 
tary reform. On 26 Feb. 1824 he had moved 
the rejection of Abercromby's motion for the 
reform of the constituency of Edinburgh (ib. 
464 et seq.) In 1831, however, after carrying 
an amendment raising the voting qualifica- 
tion at Leeds, he had taken charge of the 
Grampound disfranchisement bill, the object 
of which was to transfer its representation to 
that town. When the House of Lords pro- 
posed instead to give additional members 
to the county of York, Stuart-Wortley ad- 
vised the abandonment of the measure. On 
28 March 1831, by moving for statistics of 
population and representation, Wharnclifte 
initiated the first general discussion of the 
reform question in the House of Lords. While 
making an able and hostile analysis of the 
government bill, he declared his conviction 
that no body of men outside parliament 
would back resistance to a moderate measure 
(ib. 3rd ser. iii. 983 et seq. ; Courts and 
Cabinets of William IV, i. 267). Upon the 
rejection of the first reform bill in com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, he on 
22 April 1831 moved an address to the king 
praying him to refrain from using his preroga- 
tive of proroguing or dissolving parliament. 
As Brougham was replying, the king was 
announced, and, after a scene of great confu- 
sion, the prorogation took place (Parl. Deb. 
3rd ser. iii. 1806 et seq. ; cf. MAY, Const. Hist. 
i. 141-2). When on 3 Oct. following the 
second Reform Bill came up for second read- 
ing in the upper house, Wharncliffe moved 
that it be read a second time that day six 
months. He objected that the proposed ten- 
pound franchise was a bogus one, that the 
measure was designed to delude the landed 

Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 112 Stuart- Wo rtley-Mackenzie 

interest, and he took exception to its popula- 
tional basis. He refrained, however, from 
any defence of nomination boroughs. After 
a brilliant debate the second reading was 
defeated by 199 to 158 (Parl. Deb. 3rd ser. 
vii. 970 et seq.) Two days later he pre- 
sented petitions against the measure from 
bankers and merchants of London, and main- 
tained that the opinion of the capital was 
opposed to the bill (ib. pp. 1309-15). But 
he had lost confidence in the possibility of 
successful resistance. In an interview with 
* Radical Jones ' [see JONES, LESLIE GEOVE], 
he was impressed by his prediction of the 
dangers which would follow the rejection 
of the Reform Bill. Within a month of 
the defeat of the measure Wharncliffe and 
Harrowby were approached by the whig 
government through their sons in the com- 
mons. After a meeting of the two fathers 
and sons at Harrowby's house in Stafford- 
shire, a memorandum was drawn up as a 
basis for negotiation. Greville, wife heard 
it read, calls it moderate and says that it 
embraced ample concessions. The memo- 
randum was shown to the cabinet and ap- 
proved. But many tories declined to accept 
Wharncliffe's compromise. The city of Lon- 
don refused its adhesion, and Lord Grey broke 
off the negotiations. Grey sent the king 
Wharncliffe's memorandum, and William IV 
expressed regret at the failure of negotiations, 
but thought what had passed was calculated 
to be useful (Sir H. Taylor to Earl Grey, 
2 Dec.) On 11 Dec. a further meeting between 
Wharncliffe, Harrowby, and Chandos on the 
one side, and Grey, Brougham, and Althorp 
on the other, proved equally fruitless (Earl 
Grey to Sir H. Taylor, 12 Dec.) Neverthe- 
less, in January 1832, Wharncliffe advised 
the tories to support the second reading of 
the new bill and afterwards modify it in com- 
mittee. He impressed on Wellington the 
danger of coming into collision with crown, 
commons, and people in a useless struggle. 
His remonstrance failed to move the duke, 
and Wharncliffe determined to act inde- 
pendently of him. In two interviews with 
William IV (on 12 Jan. and early in Fe- 
bruary), he assured the king that as he and 
his friends were determined to support the 
second reading there was no need of a creation 
of peers. On 27 March Wharncliffe and Har- 
rowby made their first public declaration of 
their intention to support the bill, Wharn- 
cliffe being, according to Greville, 'very short 
and rather embarrassed.' On 9 April their 
support secured for the second reading a 
majority of nine. 

Wharncliffe felt acutely his separation 
from the tory party, and on 7 May voted 

for Lyndhurst's amendment postponing the 
disfranchising clauses, by which the progress 
of the bill was again delayed. His position 
was now very difficult (Croker Papers, ii. 
174) ; he had offended both his own party 
and the whigs. Grey resigned on the carrying 
of Lyndhurst's amendment, and Wellington, 
when seeking to form a government, was ad- 
vised by Lyndhurst not only to offer office to 
Wharncliffe's son, but to consider well before 
he decided not to include Wharncliffe him- 
self, as 'he is gallant, and may be very 
troublesome against us ' ( Wellington Corresp. 
viii. 307). The whigs soon resumed office, 
and the bill was proceeded with. On 24 May 
Wharncliffe moved an amendment to pre- 
vent persons voting for counties in respect 
of property situated in boroughs, and said he 
was not reconciled to the bill, which went 
further than the occasion required. The 
following day he proposed that the ten-pound 
qualification should be based on the assess- 
ment for poor rate (Parl. Deb. 3rd ser. xiii. 
19, 111 et seq.) He abstained from voting 
on the third reading, but signed the two pro- 
tests drawn up by Lord Melros (ib. pp. 377, 
378). Anxious to regain the favour of his 
party, Wharncliffe in 1833 sent Wellington 
a sketch of a proposed policy in the new par- 
liament, in which the duke concurred. 

In February 1834 Greville describes him as 
' very dismal about the prospects of the coun- 
try.' On 13 Dec. of the same year Wharn- 
cliffe was invited by Peel to join his first 
ministry, notwithstanding the lukewarmness 
of his recent opposition to the Irish tithe 
bill (Courts and Cabinets of William IV, ii. 
119). He accepted the office of lord privy 
seal after receiving an assurance that the 
policy of the new ministry would be liberal 
in character (GKEVILLE). In January 1835 
he acted as one of the committee to arrange 
the church reform bill. In April he retired 
with his colleagues, and remained in opposi- 
tion during the next six years. During 
these years Wharncliffe found time to edit 
the letters and works of his ancestress, 
Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu. His edition 
appeared in 5 vols. in 1837, and superseded 
Dallaway's. It was reissued in 1861 and 

When Peel returned to office in the 
autumn of 1841, Wharncliffe became lord 
president of the council. In the conduct of 
his office he was, says Greville, fair, liberal, 
and firm. ' He really, too, does the business 
himself.' On the other hand, he was not so 
successful as leader in the upper house. He 
was too liberal in education matters for the 
high-church party, and had not weight enough 
the cabinet to enforce the execution of 


Stuart- Wortley-Mackenzie 113 


his views. He took part against Peel in 
the cabinet discussions which preceded his 
change of policy on the subject of the corn 
laws, but the latter is said to have been 
sanguine as to his ultimate conversion. On 
19 Dec. 1845 he died unexpectedly, of sup- 
pressed gout and apoplexy, at Wharncliffe 
House, Curzon Street. Greville, who knew 
him well, says no man ever died with fewer 
enemies. He had not first-rate abilities, 
but from his strong sense, liberal opinions, 
and straightforward conduct was much 
looked up to by the country gentlemen. 
He gave signal proof of his personal courage 
during the reform riots in Yorkshire. His 
party never forgave him his conduct during 
the reform struggle, and he was very un- 
justly charged with insincerity and double- 
dealing; but Peel clearly appreciated the 
sterling worth of his character. He un- 
doubtedly did good service in obviating the 
necessity for a creation of peers. Greville 
thinks he appeared to most advantage when 
he prevented the tory peers from overruling 
the law lords in allowing O'Connell's release 
on a writ of error. He had made a special 
study of criminal jurisprudence, and as a 
chairman of quarter sessions is said to have 
been unequalled. 

A portrait of Wharncliffe by Sir Francis 
Grant, P.R.A., belongs to the Earl of Wharn- 
cliffe. Another portrait was engraved after 
H. P. Briggs by F. Holl. 

WharnclifFe married, in 1799, Lady Caro- 
line Mary Elizabeth Creighton, daughter by 
his second wife of John, first earl of Erne. 
She died on 23 April 1853. The issue of 
the marriage was three sons and one daugh- 
ter, Caroline, who married the Hon. John 
Chetwynd Talbot. 

The "eldest son, JOHN STTJART-W T ORTLEY, 
second BARON WHARNCLIFFE (1801-1855), 
born on 20 April 1801, graduated B.A. from 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1822, with a first- 
class in mathematics and a second in classics. 
He represented Bossiney from 1823 to 1832, 
and the West Riding of Yorkshire from 
1841 till his succession to the peerage. He 
acted with the Huskisson party till ap- 
pointed secretary to the board of control on 
16 Feb. 1830 in the last tory ministry be- 
fore the Reform Bill. He shared his father's 
views on the reform question. He was an 
unsuccessful candidate for Forfarshire in 
1835, and twice failed to obtain election for 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, but in 1841 
won a great triumph for his party in that 
constituency. He was an enlightened agri- 
culturist and a cultivated man. Besides 
publishing pamphlets on the abolition of 
the Irish viceroyalty, on the institution of 


tribunals of commerce, and a letter to 
Philip Pusey on drainage in the ' Journal of 
the Agricultural Society,' he was author of 
' A Brief Inquiry into the True Award of an 
Equitable Adjustment between the Nation 
and its Creditors,' 1833, 8vo, and translator 
and editor of Guizot's ' Memoirs of George 
Monk,' 1838, 8vo. He died at Wortley 
Hall, near Sheffield, on 22 Oct. 1855. By 
his wife, Georgiana, third daughter of Dudley 
Ryder, first Earl of Harrowby [q. v.], he had 
three sons and two daughters. The eldest 
son, Edward Montagu Granville Stuart- 
Wortley, born on 15 Dec. 1827, was on 15 Jan. 
1876 created Earl of WharnclifFe and Vis- 
count Carlton. 

The first Lord WharnclifFe 's youngest son, 
1881), was born in London on 3 July 1805. 
He graduated B.A. from Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1826, and was soon after elected 
fellow of Merton. He was called to the bar 
from the Inner Temple in 1831, and took silk 
ten years later. In 1844 he became counsel 
to the bank of England, and in the following 
year was appointed solicitor-general to the 
queen-dowager and attorney-general to the 
Duchy of Lancaster. In 1846 he was sworn 
of the privy council, and was judge-ad vocate- 
general during the last months of Peel's 
second administration. In 1850 he became 
recorder of London, and was solicitor- 
general under Lord Palmerston in 1856-7. 
From 1835 to 1837 he represented Halifax, 
and from 1842 to 1859 sat for Buteshire. 
He died at Belton House, Grantham, on 
22 Aug. 1881. Stuart- Wortley married, in 
1846, the Hon. Jane Lawley, only daughter 
of Paul Beilby, first lord Wenlock. His 
second son, Mr. Charles Beilby Stuart- Wort- 
ley, Q.C., M.P. (6.1851), was under-secretary 
for the home department from 1885 to 1892. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage ; Burke's Peerage ; 
Greville Memoirs (1888), passim ; "Wellington 
Corresp. vol. viii. ; Gent. Mag. 1846 i. 202-4, 
1855 ii. 643; Corresp. of Earl Grey with Wil- 
liam IV^and Sir H. Taylor; Kyalfs Eminent 
Conservatives (with portrait) ; Ann. Eeg. 1881, 
ii. 138-9 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. LE G. N. 

STUBBS, GEORGE (1724-1806), animal 
painter and anatomist, the son of John 
Stubbs, a currier, was born at Liverpool 
on 24 Aug. 1724, and brought up to his 
father's business. He was scarcely eight 
years old when he began to study anatomy 
at his father's house in Ormond Street, 
Liverpool, a neighbour, Dr. Holt, lending 
him bones and prepared subjects to draw. 
When fifteen his father gave way to his son's 
desire to be a painter, and died soon after- 
wards, leaving his widow in comfortable cir- 





cumstances. Shortly afterwards George was 
engaged by Hamlet Winstanley to assist in 
copying pictures at Knowsley Hall, the 
seat of the Earl of Derby. He was to re- 
ceive instruction, a shilling a day, and the 
choice of pictures to copy ; but Winstanley 
afterwards refused to let him copy the pic- 
tures he chose, and they quarrelled, Stubbs 
declaring that ' henceforward he would look 
into nature for himself, and consult and 
copy her only.' He lived with his mother 
at Liverpool till he was twenty. He then 
went to Wigan, and stayed seven or eight 
months with Captain Blackbourne, who took 
a great fancy to him from his likeness to a 
son whom he had lately lost. After a brief 
residence in Leeds, where he painted por- 
traits, he moved to York, where he studied 
anatomy under Charles Atkinson, and gave 
lectures upon it to the students in the hos- 
pital. He also learnt fencing and French 
and maintained himself by his profession. 
Being requested by Dr. John Burton to 
illustrate his * Essay towards a complete new 
System of Midwifery' (published 1756), he 
taught himself etching, and executed eigh- 
teen small copperplates (a copy of the book, 
with the etchings, is in the library of the 
Royal College of Surgeons). From York 
he removed to Hull, where he painted and 
dissected with his usual assiduity, and after 
a short visit to Liverpool set sail for Italy in 
1754, in order to find out whether nature 
was superior to art. He went by sea to 
Leghorn, and thence to Rome, where he 
soon decided in favour of nature, and was 
noted for the strength and originality of his 
opinions, which differed from those of every- 
body else. Though he did not copy any 
pictures, he made many sketches from nature 
and life. 

While in Italy he made friends with an 
educated Moor, who took him to his father's 
house at Ceuta, from the walls of which, or of 
another African town, he saw a lion stalk and 
seize a white Barbary horse about two hundred 
yards from the moat. This incident formed 
the subject of many of his pictures. On his 
return he settled at Liverpool for a while, 
and after his mother's death came to Lon- 
don in 1756, visiting Lincolnshire on the 
way to paint portraits for Lady Nelthorpe. 
He had now a considerable reputation, and 
charged one hundred guineas for the por- 
trait of a horse. This was the price paid 
him by Sir Joshua Reynolds for a picture of 
' The Managed Horse.' In 1758 he took a 
farmhouse near Barton, Lincolnshire, where 
he began preparations for his great work on 
the ' Anatomy of the Horse/ at which he 
was engaged for eighteen months, with no 

other companion than his niece, Miss Mary 
Spencer. He erected an apparatus by which 
he could suspend the body of a dead horse 
and alter the limbs to any position, as if in 
motion. He laid bare each layer of muscles 
one after the other until the skeleton was 
reached, and made complete and careful 
drawings of all. A great many horses 
were required before he had finished, and 
he carried the whole work through at his 
own expense and without assistance. At 
first he intended to get his drawings en- 
graved by others, but he could not persuade 
any of the engravers of the day to take up 
the work, and so determined to execute all 
the plates with his own hand. This em- 
ployed his mornings and nights for six or 
seven years, as he would not encroach on 
the hours devoted to his ordinary profession 
of painting. ' The Anatomy of the Horse ' 
was published in 1766 by J. Purser (for the 
author), and had a great success. It was 
composed of eighteen tables, in folio, illus- 
trated by twenty-four large engraved plates. 
It was the first to define clearly the struc- 
tural form of the horse. A second edition 
was published in 1853, and it is still an 
acknowledged authority on the subject. 
The original drawings for the plates were 
left by Stubbs to Miss Spencer ; they after- 
wards belonged to Sir Edwin and Thomas 
Landseer, by whom they were highly 
prized. Thomas Landseer left them to the 
Royal Academy, in whose library they are 
now preserved. 

Meanwhile Stubbs's reputation as a painter 
of horses had greatly increased. In 1760 he 
was at Eaton Hall, painting for Lord 
Grosvenor ; and shortly afterwards he went 
to Goodwood on receiving a commission 
from the Duke of Richmond, which is said 
to have been his first of importance. He 
stayed at Goodwood for nine months, during 
which time he executed a large hunting- 
piece, 9 feet by 6 feet, and many por- 
traits. One of the latter represented the 
Earl of Albemarle at breakfast the day 
before he embarked on his expedition to 
Havana in 1762. This was also the year 
of his picture of ' The Grosvenor Hunt,' in 
which are introduced portraits of Lord 
Grosvenor, his brother the Hon. Thomas 
Grosvenor, Sir Roger Mostyn, and 
others. He had now joined the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists of which he was 
treasurer in 1760, and president (for one 
year) in 1773. He was a constant contribu- 
tor to the society's exhibitions from 1762 to 
1774, and was one of its staunchest sup- 
porters. Besides numerous portraits of 
horses, dogs, and other animals, he ex- 



hibited two pictures of ' Phaeton ' (1762 and 
1764), 'Hercules and Achelous' (3770), 
'Horse and Lion' (1763), 'A Lion seizing 
a Horse ' (1764), ' A Lion and Stag' (1766), 
* A Lion devouring a Stag' (1767). ' A Lion 
devouring a Horse' (1770), and several 
others of lions, lionesses, and tigers. In 
1775 he began to exhibit at the Royal 
Academy, his contributions consisting prin- 
cipally of portraits of animals till 1780, when 
he was elected an associate. In the following 
year he was elected to full honours, but he 
resented the application to himself of a rule 
made subsequent to his election, which re- 
quires the presentation of a diploma work 
to the academy. He refused or neglected 
to send one, and his election was annulled 
in a very arbitrary manner, and another was 
elected in his place. He always maintained 
that he was entitled to the rank of II. A., 
but after 1782 he appears in the catalogues 
as an associate only, except in 1803, when, 
probably by accident, the initials R.A. are 
placed after his name. Between 1782 and 
1786 he did not send any work to the aca- 
demy. The contributions of his later years 
included 'Reapers' and 'Haymakers' (1786), 
a pair of genre pictures well known from his 
own engravings. 

In 1771, at the sugggestion of his friend 
Cosway, the miniature-painter, he began to 
make experiments in enamel, with the view 
of executing larger pictures in that material 
than had hitherto been attempted. His first 
enamels were on copper, one of which, ' A 
Lion devouring a Horse,' was exhibited in 
1770. He now went through a course of 
chemistry, and succeeded in obtaining nine- 
teen colours, and, not being satisfied with 
the size of the sheets of copper procurable, 
of which the largest was eighteen inches by 
fifteen, he applied to Wedgwood & Bentley, 
the celebrated potters, who, after much 
trouble and expense, succeeded in producing 
tablets of pottery three feet six inches by 
two feet six inches. Partly as a set-off to 
these expenses, Wedgwood employed Stubbs 
to paint his father, his wife, and a family 
piece, and purchased an enamel of 'La- 
bourers,' the whole transaction being con- 
cluded and the balance paid on 7 May 1796 
(ELIZA METEYAKD, Life ofJosiah Wedgwood}. 
He also painted a three-quarter head of 
Josiah Wedgwood, life size, in enamel, which 
was engraved by his son George Townley 
Stubbs and published in 1795. 

In 1790 Stubbs undertook to paint for the 
'Turf Review' all celebrated racehorses, 
from the Godolphin Arabian down to his 
own time, and 9,000/. was deposited in a 
bank for Stubbs to draw upon as his work 

progressed ; but the outbreak of war caused 
the scheme to be abandoned by its promoters 
after Stubbs had completed sixteen pictures, 
including portraits of Eclipse, Gimcrack, 
Shark, Baronet, and Pumpkin. These were 
exhibited at the Turf Gallery in Conduit 
Street in 1794, and all were engraved, four- 
teen out of the sixteen in two sizes, one to 
suit the pages of the ' Review,' and in a larger 
size for framing (Sporting Magazine, January 
1794). After 1791, in which year he exhi- 
bited a portrait of the Prince of Wales and 
three other works, he did not contribute to 
the Royal Academy till 1799. He was now 
seventy-five years of age, but he went on 
exhibiting till 1803, and in 1800 he exhibited 
the largest of all his pictures, ' Hambletonian 
beating Diamond at Newmarket' (thirteen 
feet seven inches by eight feet two inches), 
which belongs to the Marquis of London- 
derry. His last exhibited work was ' Por- 
trait of a Newfoundland dog, the property of 
his royal highness the Duke of York.' In 
1803 he was engaged on another anatomical 
work, of which only three of the six intended 
parts were completed before his death. It 
was to have been called 'A Comparative 
Anatomical Exposition of the Structure of 
the Human Body with that of a Tiger and 
a common Fowl. In thirty Tables.' He re- 
tained the vigour of his mind and body till 
the last, and walked eight or nine miles 
the day before his death, which took place 
suddenly on 10 July 1806, at his house, 24 
Somerset Street, Portman Square, where he 
had resided since 1763. He was buried at 
St. Marylebone. 

Stubbs was a man of extraordinary energy, 
industry, and self-reliance. His talents were 
considerable and various, and his bodily 
strength very great, although we need not 
believe the tradition that he carried the whole 
carcase of a horse on his shoulders up three 
flights of a narrow staircase to his dissecting- 
room. Of his private life little is recorded, 
except that he was an intimate friend of Paul 
Sandby [q.v.] George Towneley Stubbs [q.v.], 
the engraver, who was his son, reported that 
he drank only water for the last forty years 
of his life. As an animal-painter his reputa- 
tion was deservedly great, not only with 
the owners of the horses whose portraits 
he painted, but also with the public. His 
' heroic' pictures (like the ' Phaeton' and the 
' Horse affrighted by a Lion') were very- 
popular in the form of prints, some of which 
were executed by Woollet, Val Green, John 
Scott, and Hodges, and others by himself 
and his son. His rustic subjects, like the 
' Farmer's Wife and the Raven,' ' Labourers,' 
' Haymakers,' and ' Reapers,' all engraved by 





himself, were also popular. But, speaking of 
him as an artist, he was greatest as a painter 
of animals, and greatest of all as a realistic 
painter of horses. He was probably the first 
painter who thoroughly mastered their ana- 
tomy, and he drew them with a lifelike 
accuracy of form and movement that has 
never been surpassed. 

A great many, probably the majority, of 
Stubbs's most important works have not 
changed hands since they were painted. The 
queen possesses fifteen, four formerly in the 
stud house of Hampton Court Palace (one 
of which contains a portrait of the Prince of 
Wales on, horseback), and eleven at Cumber- 
land Lodge,Windsor. The Earl of Rosebery 
has eleven, including a portrait of Warren 
Hastings with his favourite arab, and another 
of Eclipse. The Duke of Westminster has 
six, the Earl of Macclesfield eight, the Duke 
of Portland nine. Earl Fitzwilliam possesses 
six, including ' Whistle-jacket' (life-size on 
a bare canvas), * Horse attacked by a Lion,' 
and ' Stag attacked by a Lion,' both very large 
pictures. Other possessors are Mr. R. IN. 
Button Nelthorpe, Mr. Louis Huth,the king 
of Bavaria (who has the ' Spanish Pointer,' 
three times engraved), and the Duke of Rich- 
mond, who has three remarkable for their 
size (ten feet eight inches by twelve feet six 
inches), and the portraits introduced. But the 
largest collection of Stubbs's works belongs 
to Sir Walter Gilbey, who has no less than 
thirty-four (in oils and enamel) of famous 
horses and other subjects, including a ' Zebra,' 
Warren Hastings (enamel), and the large 
picture of Hercules capturing the Cretan bull, 
which was painted, it is said, to show the 
academicians that he had as consummate a 
knowledge of the human form as of that of a 
horse. Stubbs presented to the Liverpool 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts a 
model of a horse executed by himself, for 
which they awarded him a g-old medal. There 
is a small but good example of Stubbs in the 
National Gallery (a white horse and a man 
in a landscape), and at South Kensington 
Museum is a large picture of a lion and lioness, 
and another of a goose with outstretched 
wings. There are several portraits of Stubbs : 
one by Thomas Chubbard when he was 
young, and others by Ozias Humphrey, Peter 
Falconet, Thomas Orde (Baron Bolton), and 
Elias Martin (exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1790 as 'An Artist and a Horse'). He 
also painted a portrait of himself on a white 
hunter, which was sold at the sale of his 
property after his death. 

[Life of George Stubbs, R.A., by Sir "Walter 
Gilbey (privately printed) ; Memoir by Joseph 
Mayer; Sporting Mag. January 1894 and No- 

vember 1810; Landseer's Carnivora ; Monthly 
Keview, 1767; Meteyard's Life of Josiah Wedg- 
wood ; Seguier's Diet. ; Eedgrave's Diet. ; Red- 
graves' Century ; Pilkington'sDict.; Bryan's Diet, 
ed. Armstrong ; Sandby's Hist, of the Royal Aca- 
demy; The Works of James Barry.] C. M. 


1815), engraver, born in 1756, the son of 
George Stubbs [q. v.], engraved many of his 
father's pictures, and a few plates after other 
painters, in mezzotint and in the dot manner. 
Between 1771 and 1782 he exhibited five 
times at the Incorporated Society of Artists 
(mezzotints and stained drawings), and once 
at the Royal Academy. He died in 1815. 

[Bryan's Diet. ed. Armstrong; Redgrave's 
Diet. ; Graves's (Algernon) Diet. ; Gilbey's Life 
of George Stubbs, R.A. (privately printed).] 

C. M. 

HENRY (1632-1676), physician and author, 
was born at Partney, Lincolnshire, on 28 Feb. 
1631-2, being son of Henry Stubbs or Stubbe 
(1606 P-1678) [q. v.] At the commencement 
of the civil war in Ireland in 1641 his mother 
fled with him to Liverpool, whence she pro- 
ceeded to London on foot. She maintained 
herself by her needle, and sent her son to 
Westminster school. There he frequently ob- 
tained pecuniary relief from his schoolfellows 
as a remuneration for writing their exercises. 
Busby, the headmaster, was struck by his. 
talents, and introduced him to Sir Henry 
Vane (1612-1662) [q. v.], who relieved his 
immediate wants and ever afterwards re- 
mained his steady friend. 

Stubbe matriculated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, 13 March 1650-51. While at the uni- 
versity his reputation for learning increased 
daily, and he used to discourse fluently in 
Greek in the public schools. After proceed- 
ing B.A. 4 July 1653, he went to Scotland 
and served in the parliamentary army till 
1655. He commenced M.A. 13 Dec. 1656, 
and in 1657 he was appointed second keeper 
of the Bodleian Library ( WOOD, Fasti Oxon. 
ii. 175, 193). About this time he was en- 
gaged in writing against the clergy and the 
universities. For a ' pestilent book ' of this 
sort, Dr. Edward Reynolds, dean of Christ 
Church [q.v.], ejected him from his student's 
place and removed him from the library to- 
wards the end of 1659. The works which 
he published before the Restoration were 
directed against monarchy, ministers, uni- 
versities, churches, and everything that was 
dear to the royalists ; yet it is said he wrote 
themoutof gratitude to his patron, Sir Henry 
Vane, rather than from principle or attach- 
ment to a party ; for he gained nothing by 




the civil disturbances, and ' was no frequenter 
of conventicles.' 

Upon his expulsion from Christ Church he 
retired to Stratford-upon- Avon and practised 
physic, which had been his study for some 
years. At the Restoration he took the oath 
of allegiance (Addit. MS. 33589, f. 37), joined 
the church of England, and received the rite 
of confirmation from George Morley [q. v.], 
bishop of Worcester, who protected him from 
his numerous enemies. In 1661 he went to 
Jamaica as king's physician, but ill- health 
compelled him to return to England in 1665. 
After a short residence in and near London, 
he again took up his abode at Stratford, 
whence he removed to Warwick. There, as 
well as at Bath, which he frequented in the 
summer, he enjoyed an extensive practice. 
In 1673 he was arrested and suffered im- 
prisonment for writing and publishing the 

* Paris Gazette,' in which he denounced the 
Duke of York's marriage with Princess Mary 
of Modena. He was drowned near Bath on 
12 July 1676, and was buried in the church 
of St. Peter and St. Paul. His funeral ser- 
mon was preached by the Rev. Joseph Glan- 
vill (1636-1680) [q. v.], with whom he had 
been engaged in controversy by his continual 
attacks on the Royal Society (BiKCH, Life of 
Boyle, 1744, i. 55-60 ; EVELYN, Diary, 1852, 
iii. 204). 

His friend Anthony a Wood describes 
him as ' the most notedLatinist and Grecian 
of his age ... a singular mathematician, and 
thoroughly read in all political matters, 
councils, ecclesiastical, and profane histories.' 
He was also 'accounted a very good physician.' 
Wood adds : ' Had he been endowed with 
common sobriety and discretion, and not 
have made himself and his learning mer- 
cenary and cheap to every ordinary and 
ignorant fellow, he would have been admired 
by all, and might have pick'd and chus'd his 
preferment. But all these things being 
wanting, he became a ridicule, and under- 
valued by sober and knowing scholars, and 
others too.' Stubbe was intimately ac- 
quainted with Hobbes. His correspondence 
with Hobbes is preserved in the British Mu- 
seum (Addit. MS. 32553). 

Among Stubbe's lighter compositions are : 
1. l Horse Subsecivae : seu Prophetiae Jonse 
et Histories Susannse Paraphrasis Graeca 
versibus heroicis,' London, 1651, 8vo. To 
this is added his translation into Greek of 

* Miscellanea qusedam Epigrammata a Th. 
Randolpho, W. Chrashavio,' &c. 2. 'Epistola 
Latina, cum Poematibus Lat. et Grsec. ad 
D. Hen. Vane, Domini Hen. Vane de Raby 
Eq. Aur. Fil. primogen.,' Oxford, 1656. 
3. l Otiuin Literatum, sive Miscellanea quse- 

dani Poemata,' Oxford, 1656, 8vo. Printed 
with the poems of Henry Birkhead [q. v.] 
The same volume contains Stubbe's ' Deliciae 
Poetarum Anglicanorum in Grsecum trans- 
lates,' which was reprinted at Oxford, 1658, 
8vo, with the addition of his l Elegiee Romse 
et Venetiarum.' 

Among his other works, which are ex- 
tremely numerous, may be mentioned : 4. ' A 
Severe Enquiry into the late Oneirocritica ; 
or, an exact Account of the grammatical 
part of the Controversy between Mr. Thomas 
Hobbes, and John Wallis, D.D.,' London, 
1657, 4to. 5. < Vindication of ... Sir Henry 
Vane from the Lies and Calumnies of Mr. 
Richard Baxter,' London, 1659, 4to. 6. * The 
Commonwealth of Oceana put in a Ballance 
and found too light. Or, an Account of the 
Republic of Sparta, with occasional Ani- 
madversions upon Mr. James Harrington and 
the Oceanistical Model,' London, 1660, 4to. 
7. ' The Indian Nectar, or a Discourse concern- 
ing Chocalata,' London, 1662, 8vo. 8. < The 
Miraculous Conformist; or an Account of 
several marvellous Cures performed by the 
Streaking of the Hands of Mr. Valentine 
Greatrakes,' Oxford, 1666, 4to. 9. ' Philo- 
sophical Observations made in his Sailing 
from England to the Carribe-Islands, and in 
Jamaica,' printed in ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' 1667, No. 27 and 1668, No. 36. 
10. ' Legends no Histories ; or a Specimen 
of some Animadversions upon the History 
of the Royal Society,' London, 1670, 4to : 
an attack on the ' History of the Royal So- 
ciety ' by Thomas Sprat [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Rochester. 11. ' An Epistolary 
Discourse concerning Phlebotomy, in opposi- 
tion to George Thomson, Pseudo-Chymist, a 
pretended Disciple to the Lord Verulam,' 
London, 1671, 4to. 12. ' Rosemary and Bays ; 
or, Animadversions upon a Treatise call'd 
The Rehearsal transpros'd. In a letter to a 
Friend in the Country,' London, 1672, 4to. 
13. ' A Justification [and a further Justifica- 
tion] of the present war against the United 
Netherlands,' London, 1672-3, 4to. 14. 'An 
Account of the Life of Mahomet/ manuscript 
in British Museum (Harleian MS. 1876). 

[Biogr. Brit. Supplement, p. 165; Foster's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, iv. 1439 ; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man. (Bohn) ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. 
vi. 391 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Macray's Annals of 
the Bodleian Libr. ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. 
(Phillimore), p. 133 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 
1068; Wood's Autobiography, p. xxxix ; Col- 
vile's Warwickshire Worthies, pp. 728-32.] 

T. C. 

HENRY (1606 P-1678), ejected minister, 
born about 1606, was son of Henry Stubbes 




of Bitton in Gloucestershire, and was born at 
Upton in that county. He matriculated in 
April 1624, from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and 
graduated B.A. in 1628, and M.A. in 1630. 
He became rector of Partney, Lincolnshire, 
but on the outbreak of the civil war he 
took the covenant, becoming minister of St. 
Philip's, Bristol, and afterwards of Chew 
Magna, Somerset. In 1654 he was at Wells, 
acting as assistant to the commissioners for 
ejecting scandalous ministers. In 1662 he 
was ejected from Dursley, where he was 
assistant to Joseph Woodward. He then 
preached in London for some time. In April 
1672 his house in Jewin Street was licensed 
as a presbyterian meeting-house (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1672, pp. 274, 326). The bishop 
of Gloucester subsequently connived at his 
officiating at Horseley, Gloucestershire. He 
died in possession of the vicarage of Horse- 
ley on 7 July 1678, and was buried in Bun- 
hill Fields. His son Henry is separately 
noticed [see STUBBS, HENEY, 1632-1676]. 

Stubbes's chief works were : 1. 'A Dissua- 
sive from Conformity to the World,' London, 
1675, 8vo, to which were appended i God's 
Severity against Man's Iniquity ' and ' God's 
Gracious Presence the Saints great Privilege.' 
2. < Great Treaty of Peace. . . . Exhortation 
of making Peace with God,' London, 1676-7, 
8vo. 3. ' Conscience the best Friend upon 
Earth,' London, 1677, 12mo ; 1684, 24mo ; 
1840, 12mo; and in Welsh, 1715, 12mo. 

[Calamy's Account, p. 318; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1500-1714; Wood's Athense Oxon. iii. 
1255; Murch's Presbyter! an isrn in the West of 
England ; Baxter's Funeral Sermon on Stubbes 
in Practical Works, vol. \v. ; Holy and Profitable 
Sayings of that Rev. Divine Mr. S., London, 1678 ; 
J. A. Jones's Bunhill Memorials.] W. A. S. 

STUBBS or STUBBE, JOHN (1543 ?- 
1591), puritan zealot, born about 1543 in 
Norfolk, was son of John Stubbe, a country 
gentleman of Buxton, Norfolk, by his wife 
Elizabeth. A sister was wife of Thomas Cart- 
wright the puritan [q. v.] John matriculated 
at Cambridge as a pensioner of Trinity Col- 
lege on 12 Nov. 1555, and graduated B.A. 
early in 1561. Although he studied law at 
Lincoln's Inn, he chiefly resided in Norfolk, 
and made his home in the manor-house of 
Thelveton, which he inherited from his father, 
together with other estates at Buxton and 
elsewhere in the county. An ardent puri- 
tan of some learning and literary taste, he 
in 1574 seems to have published a trans- 
lation of the ' Lives of the Archbishops of 
Canterbury' which John Joscelyn [q. v.], 
Archbishop Parker's secretary, had drawn 
up in Latin, and incorporated in the arch- 
bishop's ( De Antiquitate Brilannise Ecclesia3 ' 

(1572). Subsequently Stubbe developed a 
fiery zeal against Catholicism which led him 
into a dangerous situation. He viewed with 
dismay the negotiations for Queen Elizabeth's 
marriage with the Duke of Anjou, which 
were in progress from 1578 onwards. In 
August 1579 he published a protest in a 
pamphlet which he entitled ' The Discoverie 
of a gaping gulf whereinto England is like 
to be swallowed by another French mariage, 
if the Lord forbid not the banes by letting 
her majestie see the sin and punishment 
thereof.' Stubbe wrote of the queen in 
terms of loyalty and affection, but freely dis- 
cussed questions of policy, virulently de- 
nounced the French duke, and especially 
roused the queen's resentment by referring 
to the undue influence that a husband would 
be likely to assert over her, and the impro- 
bability that at her age she could bear 
children. On 27 Sept. 1579 a royal proclama- 
tion prohibited the circulation of Stubbe's 
pamphlet, and on 13 Oct. following Stubbe, 
with his publisher, William Page, and his 
printer, Hugh Singleton, was tried at West- 
minster on a charge of disseminating sedi- 
tious writings, under the act 2 Philip and 
Mary, which was passed to protect 'the 
queen's husband ' from libellous attack. The 
court held that the statute applied equally 
well to ' the queen's suitor.' The three de- 
fendants were found guilty, and were sen- 
tenced to have their right hands cut off. 
Many lawyers questioned the legality of the 
proceedings on the ground that the statute 
under which the men were indicted was a 
temporary measure passed for the protection 
of Philip during Queen Mary's lifetime, and 
was abrogated by Queen Mary's death. One 
of the judges of the common pleas, Robert 
Monson [q .v.], openly asserted this view, and, 
having been in consequence sent to the Fleet 
prison, was removed from the bench on re- 
fusing to retract (cf. CAMDEN'S Annales, trans- 
lated 1625, bk. iii. 14-16). Meanwhile Sin- 
gleton was pardoned, but on 3 Nov. Stubbe 
and Page were brought from the Tower to 
a scaffold set up in the market-place at West- 
minster. Before the barbarous sentence was 
carried out Stubbe addressed the bystanders. 
He professed warm attachment to the queen, 
and the loss of his hand, he added, would in 
no way impair his loyalty (see his speech in 
HAEINGTON'S Nugce Antiquce). When he 
ceased speaking he and Page ' had their right 
hands cut off by the blow of a butcher's 
knife (with a mallet) struck through their 
wrists.' ' I can remember,' wrote Stow the 
chronicler, who was present, ' standing by 
John Stubbe [and] so soon as his right hand 
was off, [he] put off his hat with his left, and 




cryed aloud " God save the queen." The 
people round about stood mute, whether 
stricken with fear at the first sight of this 
kind of punishment, or for commiseration of 
the man whom they reputed honest ' (Slow, 
Annales, 1605, p, 1168 ; the date is wrongly 
given 1581). Page, when his bleeding 
stump was being seared with hot iron, ex- 
claimed, ' There lies the hand of a true Eng- 
lishman.' Stubbe was carried back to the 
Tower in a state of insensibility. His wife 
vainly petitioned the queen for his release. 
On 31 Aug. 1580 he appealed to Lord 
Burghley for his discharge, on the ground 
of his wife's ill-health. He repeated the 
request on 3 Dec. in an appeal to the lords 
of the council, and he was set at liberty 
some months later, after an imprisonment 
of eighteen months. 

Stubbe's fidelity to his sovereign answered 
all tests. Persecution so brutal and unde- 
served failed to excite in him any lasting 
resentment. He could now write only with 
.his left hand, and added the word 'Scseva' 
to his signature. But he readily accepted 
the invitation ot his former persecutor Burgh- 
ley "to pen an answer to Cardinal Allen's 
' Defence of the English Catholics.' He is 
also stated to have aided William Charke 
[q. v.] in his ' Answere to a Seditious Pam- 
phlet' by Edmund Campion [q. v.] (1580), 
and John Nicholls [q. v.] in his 'Recanta- 
tion ' (1581). Less controversial, but equally 
indicative of his puritan piety, was his trans- 
lation from the French of Theodore Beza's 
' Meditations on Eight of the Psalms,' which 
he dedicated from his house at Thelveton, 
on 31 May 1582, to Anne, wife of Sir 
Nicholas Bacon, the lord keeper. It was 
not printed, and the manuscript is now at 

Meanwhile Stubbe played some part in I 
municipal and political affairs in Norfolk. | 
He was sub-steward of the borough of Great 
Yarmouth in 1588-9, and was elected mem- 
ber of parliament for the borough early in 
1589. He paid occasional visits to France, 
and is said to have at length volunteered for 
military service there in behalf of Henry IV. 
He died in 1591 at Havre, soon after his 
arrival. He was buried with military 
honours on the seashore. 

By his wife Anne he had two sons, 
Edmund and Francis. Two sons of the 
latter, Edmund (d. 1659) and Wolfram (d. 
1719), were fellows of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. John's widow is said to have 
married one Anthony Stapley. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. ii. 1 1 1-1 2 ; Strype's 
Annals ; Hallam's Constitutional Hist. ; Retro- 
spective Review, new ser. ii. 407.] S. L. 

1581-1593), puritan pamphleteer, born pro- 
.bably about 1555 ' of genteel parents,' is said 
by Wood to have been 'a brother or near kins- 
man ' of John Stubbes [q. v.], but no mention 
of him occurs in John Stubbes's will or in 
that of his father. He ' was mostly educated 
in Cambridge, but, having a restless and hot 
head, left that university, rambled thro' 
several parts of the nation, and settled for a 
time in Oxon, particularly, as I conceive, in 
Gloster Hall' (WooD, Athena, ed. Bliss, 
i. 645). He did not graduate at either uni- 
versity, and soon resumed his roving habits, 
his object being, in his own words, ' to see 
fashions, to acquainte myselfe with natures, 
qualities, properties, and conditions of all 
men, to breake myselfe to the worlde, to 
learne nurture, good demeanour, and cyuill 
behaviour; to see the goodly situation of 
citties, townes, and countryes, with their 
prospects and commodities; and finally to 
learne the state of all thinges in general, all 
which I could neuer haue learned in one 
place ' (Anatomic of Abuses, ed. Furnivall, 
p. 22). In 1583 he declared that he had 
spent ' seven winters and more trauailing 
from place to place euen all the land ouer.' 
Stubbes's career as an author began before or 
in 1581, about which year he published in the 
form of a broadside a ballad entitled ' A 
fearefull and terrible example of Gods iuste 
iudgement executed vpon a lewde Fellow, 
who vsually accustomed to sweare by Gods 
Blood. . . .' A copy belonged to Payne 
Collier, who reprinted it in his ' Broadside 
Black-letter Ballads,' 1868. A copy of a 
second edition, dated 1581, is in Lambeth 
Library; it is bound up with Stubbes's 
second work, also a ballad, the two being 
entitled ' Two wunderfull and rare examples 
of the undeferred and present approching 
iudgement of the Lord our God . . .' Lon- 
don, 1581, 4to. The titles sufficiently indi- 
cate the character of the ballads. The second 
ballad treated of one Joan Bowser of Don- 
ington, Leicestershire, who instituted legal 
proceedings against Stubbes for his reflections 
on her (Lansdowne MS. 819, ff. 85-96). Of 
a third work, ' A View of Vanitie, and 
Allarum to England or Retrait from Sinne, 
in English verse by Phil. Stubs, London, by 
T. Purfoot/ 1582, 8vo ; no copy is known to 
be extant. 

In 1583 was published Stubbes's most im- 
portant book. It was entitled ' The Ana- 
tomie of Abuses: containing a Discoverie, 
or Briefe Summarie of such Notable Vices 
and Imperfections as now raigne in many 
Countreyes of the World ; but (especiallye) 
in a famous Ilande called Ailgna [i.e. Anglia] 




. . . together with . . . examples of Gods 
Judgements . . . made Dialoguewise . . .' 
black letter, R. Jones, London, 1 May 1583, 
4to ; dedicated to Philip, earl of Arundel. 
The success of this book evoked a second 
edition on 16 Aug. in the same year. A 
third edition ' newly augmented ' appeared 
in 1584[-5], and a fourth edition in 1595. It 
was reprinted in 1836 by W. D. Turnbull, 
and again in 1870 with an introduction by 
J. Payne Collier, and edited with elaborate 
' forewords ' and notes for the New Shak- 
spere Society by Dr. F. J. Furnivall, 2 pts. 
1877, 1882. In the preface to the first edi- 
tion Stubbes protests that his object is not 
to abolish all amusements, but only abuses 
of them ; he admitted that some plays were 
useful, that dancing in private was allow- 
able, and that gaming was only wrong 
when ' inflamed with coveytousness.' But in 
all subsequent editions this preface was 
omitted, and Stubbes's strictures and invec- 
tives marked him out as a typical exponent 
of extreme puritanic views. He was popu- 
larly associated with the Martin Mar-Prelate 
zealots, and was mercilessly abused in 'An 
Almond for a Parrat/ a pamphlet published 
in 1589 and attributed both to Lyly and to 
Nashe. In the same year Nashe published 
an equally vehement attack on Stubbes in 
his ' Anatomie of Absurditie,' while Gabriel 
Harvey in his ' Pierce's Supererogation,' 
1593, defended him and classed him with 
' Mulcaster, Norton, Lambert, and the Lord 
Henry Howarde, whose seuerall writings, 
the siluer file of the workeman recommendeth 
to the plausible interteinment of the daintiest 
censure.' The book is now valuable from 
the encyclopaedic information it supplies as 
to manners, customs, and fashions in Eng- 
land towards the end of the sixteenth cen- 

In the same year (1583) Stubbes published 
two other works, ' The Rosarie of Christian 
Praiers and Meditations . . .,' London, by 
John Charlewood, 18mo, of which no copy is 
known to be extant, and ' The Second Part 
of the Anatomie of Abuses.' He also con- 
tributed verses to the 1583 edition of Foxe's 
' Actes and Monumentes.' In 1584 he pub- 
lished < The Theatre of the Pope's Monarchic, 
by Phil. Stubbes/ London, 8vo, of which no 
copy is known to be extant, and in 1585 
' The intended Treason of Doctor Parrie and 
his Complices against the Queenes Most 
Excellente Maiestie, with a Letter sent from 
the Pope to the same effect,' London, 4to 
[see PARRY, WILLIAM, d. 1585]. This was 
reprinted in the ' Shakespeare Society's 
Papers,' iii. 17-21. 

For six years Stubbes's pen remained idle. 

In the autumn of 1586 he married. In the 
license, which was dated 6 Sept. 1586, 
Stubbes was described as 'gentleman, of St. 
Mary at Hill, London/ and his wife as 
'Katherine Emmes, spinster, of the same 
parish, daughter of William Emmes, late of 
St. Dunstan in the West, cordwainer, de- 
ceased.' Emmes was also a freeman of the 
city of London, and bequeathed some pro- 
perty to his children, of whom Katherine 
was the third child but eldest daughter. 
She was only fifteen years of age at her 
marriage, which she survived four years, 
being buried on 14 Dec. 1590 at Burton-on- 
Trent, six weeks after the birth of a son 
named John, who was baptised in the same 
church on 17 Nov. 

Stubbes now resumed literary work, and 
his first book was a life of his wife, entitled 
' A Christal Glasse for Christian Women, by 
P. S., Gent./ London, 1591, 4to. The book 
proved even more popular than the ' Ana- 
tomie of Abuses ; ' a second edition appeared 
in 1592, and others in 1600 (?), 1606, 1629, 
1633, and 1646. Lowndes mentions an edi- 
tion of 1647 with portrait by Hollar. In 
1592 Stubbes issued ' A Perfect Pathway to 
Felicitie, conteining godly Meditations and 
praiers fit for all times, and necessarie to be 
practized of all good Christians/ London, 
16mo ; another edition, with fifteen new 
prayers, was issued in 1610, and some of the 
prayers were printed by Dr. Furnivall with 
the ' Anatomie ' in 1877-82. Stubbes's last 
book was 'A Motive to Good Works, or 
rather, to true Christianitie/ London, 1593, 
8vo ; reprinted 1883, 4to, from a manuscript 
copy in the library of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge (cf. COLLIER, Biblioqr. Cat. ii. 
400-401). In that year (1593) Stubbes was 
lodging ' by Cheapside ' on 8 Nov. Collier 
maintained that he died of the plague soon 
afterwards ; but it is probable that he was 
alive in 1610, and that he himself added the 
fifteen new prayers to the edition of his 
' Perfect Pathway to Felicitie ' published in 
that year. 

[Most of the information available has been 
collected in Dr. Furnivall's ' Forewords ' to his 
edition of the Anatomie of Abuses. See also 
Stubbes's Works in Brit. Mus. LUr. ; Bodleian 
Cat. ; Cat. Huth Libr. ; Collier's Bibliogr. Cat. ; 
Hazlitt's Handbook, Collections, and Notes ; 
Arber's Transcript of the Stationers' Kegisters ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 645 ; Chester's 
London Marriage Licences.] A. F. P. 

STUBBS, PHILIP (1665-1738), arch- 
deacon of St. Albans, was son of Philip 
Stubbs, citizen and vintner of London. Born 
on 2 Oct. 1665, during the plague, in the 
parish of St. Andrew Undershaft, London, 




he was educated from 1678 to 1682 at Mer- 
chant Taylors' school, and proceeded as 
a commoner to Wadham College, Oxford, 
on 23 March 1682-3. In the following year 
he was elected scholar of that college, gra- 
duated B.A. in 1686, M.A. in 1689, became 
fellow in 1691, and proceeded B.D. in 1722. 
On taking holy orders he was appointed 
curate in the united parishes of St. Benet's 
Gracechurch and St. Leonard's Eastcheap, 
and was afterwards chaplain successively to 
Dr. Robert Grove, bishop of Chichester, and 
to George, earl of Huntingdon. From 1694 
to 1699 he was rector of Woolwich, and, 
owing doubtless to the keen interest which 
he thenceforth evinced in seamen and their 
welfare, was chosen first chaplain of Green- 
wich Hospital, an office which he held until 
his death. On leaving Woolwich he was 
presented by the bishop of London to the 
rectory of St. Alphage, London Wall, to 
which was added in 1705 the parish of St. 
James Garlickhithe. Steele, happening one 
Sunday to be present in the latter church 
when Stubbs was officiating, was so im- 
pressed that he highly eulogised him in the 
* Spectator,' and proposed him as an example 
to all for his reading of the service. In 1715 
he was preferred to the archdeaconry of St. 
Albans, and four years later the bishop 
of London collated him to the rectory of 
Launton, Oxfordshire, which he held for 
nineteen years, and was absent only when 
making the yearly visitation of his arch- 
deaconry, and when his duties as chaplain 
called him to Greenwich. He died at the 
latter place on 13 Sept. 1738, and was buried 
in the old burial-ground of the hospital, his 
tombstone being still preserved in the mauso- 
leum. A stained glass window has recently 
been erected to his memory in Launton 
church. His portrait was painted by T. 
Murray in 1713, and engraved by John Faber 
in 1722. 

Stubbs married, in 1696, Mary, daughter 
of John Willis, rector of West Horndon, 
Essex. She survived her husband for twenty- 
one years, during which she lived in the 
Bromley College for clergymen's widows, 
and died in 1759, aged 95. By her he had 
two surviving sons and one daughter. The 
archdeacon's only sister, Elizabeth, married 
Ambrose Bonwicke [q. v.], the elder, non- 
juror, head master of Merchant Taylors' 

Stubbs was an earnest and eloquent 
preacher and active minister at a time when 
life was at a low ebb in the church of Eng- 
land. He published many separate sermons 
and addresses (see WATT'S Bibl. Brit.}, as 
well as a collected volume of sermons in 

1704 (8vo). His sermon, God's Dominion 
over the Seas and the Seaman's Duty,' 
preached at Longreach on board the Royal 
Sovereign, reached a third edition, and was 
translated into French and distributed among 
the French seamen who were prisoners at 
the time. He was one of the earliest pro- 
moters of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and drew up 
the first report of its proceedings in 1703, 
for which he received a special vote of thanks, 
and was selected to preach the sermon in 
St. Paul's on Trinity Sunday 1711, the day 
appointed by the queen for a collection in 
the city for that society, afterwards pub- 
lished under the title ' The Divine Mission 
of Gospel Ministers.' He also took an active 
part in the development of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge. He inte- 
rested himself in the education of the poorer 
children of his flock, and he was instrumen- 
tal in founding day schools in the parishes 
of St. Alphage and St. James, as well as in 
Bicester, near Launton. 

Stubbs was elected F.R.S. on 30 Nov. 
1703, and was interested in literature and 
archaeology (cf. HEARNE, Collectanea, ed. 
Doble, ii. 33, 34, 39). Some manuscript let- 
ters from him are preserved in the Bodleian 
Library, addressed to Dr. Robinson, bishop 
of London; Hearne,the antiquary; Walker, 
the author of ' The Sufferings of the Clergy/ 
and others. There are also several in the 
British Museum, some to Dr. Warley, arch- 
deacon of Colchester. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. ii. 1106; Spectator, 
No. 147 ; Robinson's Reg. of Merchant Taylors' 
School; McClure's Minutes of S.P.C.K. for 
1698-1704; Lysons's Environs of London, ii. 
425, 514, 591 ; Mayor's Ambrose Bonwicke 
(1870); Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; 
Archseologia Cantiana, vol. xviii.; private in- 
formation.] H. S. 

STUBBS, THOMAS (./.1373), chronicler, 
is said by Bale to have been a native of York- 
shire and a Dominican friar. Canon Raine 
thinks he may possibly be identical with the 
Franciscan Thomas de Stoubbes who was or- 
dained priest at Durham on 13 Jan. 1344 
(Historians of York, ed. Raine, vol. ii. p. 
xxiii). If so, he must have changed his 
order. He was certainly a Dominican in 
1381, when Bishop Hatfield made him one 
of the executors of his will (Testamenta 
JEboracensia, i. 122). The reference confirms 
Bale's statement that Stubbs was a doctor 
of divinity, but it is not known of which 
university. A number of works are attri- 
buted to him by the sixteenth-century literary 
biographers, but the only one that appears to 
be now extant is his l Chronicle of the Arch- 




bishops of York.' None of the manuscripts 
mention him as the author, but Bale's 
ascription is generally accepted for the latter 
part of the chronicle from Paulinus to 
Thoresby, the whole of which he assigned 
to Stubbs. Twysden did the same in his 
edition of the chronicle in the ' Decern 
Scriptores ' (1652), but the subsequent dis- 
covery of a twelfth-century manuscript end- 
ing with Archbishop Thurstan (JBodl. MS. 
Digby, 140) proved that Stubbs only con- 
tinued the work from 1147 (TANNER, p. 697 ; 
Historians of York, vol. ii. p. xxi). It ap- 
pears from the preface in some of the manu- 
scripts (a list of which is given by Canon 
Haine) that Stubbs had originally intended 
to carry it down only to the death of 
Archbishop Zouche in 1352, but he after- 
wards added a life of Archbishop Thoresby, 
which brought it down to 1373. It was 
afterwards continued to Wolsey. A critical 
edition of the whole chronicle was published 
by Canon Raine in 1886 in the Rolls Series 
as part of the second volume of the ' His- 
torians of the Church of York and its Arch- 

The other works attributed to Stubbs by 
Leland, Bale, and Pits are: 1. 'Statutum 
contra impugnantes ecclesiasticas constitu- 
tiones ' or ' Contra statutorum ecclesise im- 
pugnatores.' 2. ' De Stipendiis prgedicatori- 
bus verbi debitis.' 3. * De perfectione vitee 
solitariae.' 4. ' De arte moriendi.' 5. ' Medi- 
tationes qusedam pro consolatione contem- 
plativorum.' 6. 'In revelationes Brigidae.' 
7. ' De Misericordia Dei.' 8. ' Super Cantica 
Canticorum.' 9. ' Sermones de Sanctis.' 
10. ' Sermones de tempore.' 11. 'Ofiicium 
completum cum missa de nomine Jesu.' 
12. ' Officium de B. Anna.' 13. 'De poenis 
peregrinationis hujus vitse.' 

[Leland's Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britan- 
nicis; Bale, De Scriptoribus Mnjoris Britannise, 
ed. 1559 ; Pits, De Illustribus Anglise Scriptori- 
bus ; Tanner's Bibliotheca Scriptorurn Brit.-Hib. ; 
other authorities in the text.] J. T-T. 

(d. 1620), vice-admiral of Devonshire, was 
eldest son of John Stucley of Afleton in 
Devonshire, and Frances St. Leger, through 
whom he was related to all the leading 
families of the west of England. His grand- 
father Lewis (1530?-! 581) was younger bro- 
ther of Thomas Stucley [q.v.] The younger 
Lewis was knighted by James I when on 
his way to London in 1603 (METCALFE, 
Book of Knif/kts),&nd in 1617 was appointed 
guardian of Thomas Rolfe, the infant son of 
Pocahontas [see ROLFE, JOHN]. In June 
1618 he left London with verbal orders 

from the king to arrest Sir Walter Ralegji 
[q.v.], then arrived at Plymouth on his re- 
turn from the Orinoco. He met Ralegh at 
Ashburton, and accompanied him back to 
Plymouth, where, while waiting for further 
orders from the king, Ralegh attempted to 
escape to France; but, relinquishing the 
idea, Ralegh returned to his arrest, and was 
taken up to London, where he was for a 
short time a prisoner at large. Afterwards, 
on attempting to escape, he was lodged in 
the Tower. 

Stucley, in whose charge Ralegh was, has 
been greatly blamed for his conduct in this 
matter. He has been represented as a mean 
spy, professing friendship in order to worm 
himself into Ralegh's confidence, which he 
betrayed to the king. For this there does 
not appear to be any solid foundation. On 
the contrary, it appears that Stucley, although 
Ralegh's cousin, was appointed his warden 
not only as a vice-admiral of Devonshire, but 
as having an old grudge against Ralegh dating 
from 1584, when Ralegh did his father, John, 
then a volunteer in Sir Richard Greynvile's 
Virginia voyage, 'extreme injury' by de- 
ceiving him of a venture he had in the 
has been said that Stucley wished to let 
Ralegh escape in order to gain credit for re- 
arresting him. But a gaoler does not gain 
credit by allowing his prisoner to escape, and 
Stucley's refusal of the bribe which Ralegh 
offered him at Salisbury on the way to Lon- 
don may be taken as evidence that Ralegh 
knew that Stucley was not on his side. If, 
after that, he chose to give Stucley his con- 
fidence, he could only expect it to be be- 
trayed. Stucley certainly gave hostile, but 
not necessarily false, evidence against Ra- 
legh. No one will pretend that Stucley's con- 
duct was chivalrous, but it seems to have 
been very much what might have been ex- 
pected from an honest but narrow and vulgar 
minded man who believed that he had an 
injury done to his father to redress. Popular 
opinion, however, idealising Ralegh, vented 
on Stucley the indignation which couid not 
be expressed against the king. To the public 
he was Sir Judas Stucley, and it was re- 
ported, probably falsely, that even the king 
had said to him ' his blood be on thy head.' 
As vice-admiral of Devonshire he had occa- 
sion to call on the old Earl of Nottingham, 
who, addressing him as ' Thou base fellow ! 
thou scorn and contempt of men ! ' threatened 
to cudgel him for being ' so saucy ' as to 
come into his presence. Stucley complained 
to the king, who answered, 'What wouldst 
thou have me do ? W T ouldst thou have 
me hang him? On my soul, if I should 




I hang all that speak ill of thee, all the trees 
in the country would not suffice.' In January 
1618-19 Stucley and his son were charged 
with clipping coin. His enemies exulted ; 
for this at least the gallows would claim 
him as their own. The charge may have 
been true, though he seems to have been 
condemned by acclamation on the very 
doubtful evidence of a servant who had for- 
merly been employed as a spy on Ralegh. 
The king possibly took this into considera- 
tion ; possibly he thought that he owed 
Stucley something for his service against 
Ralegh. He pardoned him, and Stucley, an 
outcast from society in London, went down 
to Devonshire. The popular hatred pursued 
him even to Affeton, and he fled to hide his 
shame in the lonely island of Lundy, where 
he died in the course of 1620, raving mad it 
was said. 

Stucley married Frances, eldest daughter 
of Anthony Monck of Potheridge in Devon- 
shire, and sister of Sir Thomas, the father of 
George Monck, duke of Albemarle [q. v. 
By her he had issue, and the family is stil 
Stucley of Affeton. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. ; The Humble Peti- 
tion and Information of Sir Lewis Stucley, knt., 
Vice-admiral of Devonshire, in Harl. Misc. iii. 
63-8; Vivian's Visitations of Devon, 1895, pp. 
721-3; Gardiner's History of England; Sped- 
ding's Life of Bacon ; Burke's Baronetage.] 

J. K. L. 

(1525?-! 578), adventurer, born probably 
about 1525, was third of the five sons of 
Sir Hugh Stucley or Stukely (d. 1560) of 
Affeton, near Ilfracombe, Devonshire, and 
his wife Jane, second daughter of Sir Lewis 
Pollard [q. v.] (ViviAN, Visitations of De- 
vonshire, 1895, p. 721). It w r as reported 
during Stucley's lifetime that he was an ille- 
gitimate son of Henry VIII, an hypothesis 
that receives some slight support from the 
familiarity with which Stucley treated, and 
was treated by, the various sovereigns with 
whom he came into contact (SIMPSON", pp. 
5-6). His early life is obscure ; the author 
of the ' Life and Death of Captain Thomas 
Stukeley' makes him 'a member of the 
Temple ; ' the ballad-writer says he was ser- 
vant to a bishop in the west, and Maurice 
Gibbon, the archbishop of Cashel, describes 
him as having been a retainer to the Duke of 
Suffolk (i.e. Charles Brandon [q. v.]), until 
the duke's death in 1545. He probably served 
in 1544-5 at the siege of Boulogne, where he 
was a standard-bearer with wages of 6s. 8d. a 
day from 1547 until its surrender to the 
French in March 1549-50. He was acting 
in a similar capacity on the Scottish borders 

in 1550j and in May he escorted the Marquis 
du Maine through England to Scotland 
(Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, ii. 
412, iii. 26, 48). Before 1551 he had 
entered the service of the Duke of Somerset, 
and on 21 Nov. a month after the duke's 
arrest, the council ordered Stucley's appre- 
hension (ib. iii. 421), but he escaped to 
France. There his conduct, possibly at the 
siege of Metz, brought him under the notice 
of Henry II, who in August 1552 strongly 
recommended him to Edward VI (Cal. State 
Papers, Foreign, 1547-53, pp. 92, 218, 
221). The French king's design in sending 
Stucley to England was to obtain through 
him information that might be useful in his 
projected attempt on Calais, but Stucley de- 
feated the scheme by confessing his errand. 
On 16 Sept. he laid before the English 
government details of Henry's plans, and 
on the 19th Cecil drew up an account of his 
examination (Lit. Remains of Edward VI, ii. 
455, et sqq. ; Cal. State Papers, 1547-80, pp. 
44, 46). Cecil suggested that Stucley should 
be sent back to France to acquire further 
information, but Northumberland preferred 
a more Machiavellian scheme. The designs 
of Henry II, being known, were no longer 
dangerous, and the duke thought to secure 
the French king's friendship by revealing to 
him Stucley's communications and affecting 
to disbelieve them. Henry naturally denied 
Stucley's story, and Stucley was sent to the 
Tower (Lit. Remains, p. 462). The payment 
of his debts, which had been promised him 
as a reward, was refused, and he remained in 
prison until the end of Edward's reign. 

He was released, with Gardiner and Tun- 
stal, on 6 Aug. 1553 (Acts P. C. iv. 312), 
but his debts compelled him again to leave 
England. Naturally precluded from re-en- 
tering Henry II's service, he betook himself 
to the emperor. He was at Brussels in De- 
cember, and in February 1553-4 he was 
serving in the imperial army at St. Omer. 
Thence he wrote to the English government 
offering information about the French king's 
designs, and the services of himself and his 
whole band, to Queen Mary, probably for the 
purpose of suppressing Wyatt's rebellion 
(Cal. State Papers, For. 1553-8, p. 55). His 
offer was not accepted, and throughout that 
year he served in Flanders under Philibert, 
duke of Savoy. In October Philibert wished 
Stucley to accompany him to England, and 
Stucley accordingly wrote to Mary on the 
7th, begging for security against arrest for 
debts which, he pleaded, had been incurred in 
the service of Henry VIII and Edward VI. 
On the 23rd a patent was made out giving- 
the requisite security for six months, and 




towards the end of December Stucley ar- 
rived in England with the Duke of Savoy. 
It was no doubt during his visit that 
he attempted to retrieve his fortunes by 
marrying Anne, granddaughter and sole 
heiress of Sir Thomas Curtis, a wealthy 
alderman of London. On 13 May 1555, 
however, the sheriffs of Devon and Cheshire 
were ordered to arrest him on a charge of 
coining false money (Acts P. C. v. 125, 131). 
Stucley escaped over sea, and on 14 June 
the council ordered his goods to be { praysed 
openly and delyuered ' to his wife, who was 
to give security to appear when called upon 
(ib. p. 152). Stucley again took service 
under the Duke of Savoy, and shared in the 
victory of the imperialists over the French 
at St." Quentin on 10 Aug. 1557. Then he 
appears to have resorted to piracy, and on 
30 May 1558 he was summoned before the 
council in London on a charge of robbing 
some Spanish ships. On 7 July he was or- 
dered to present himself on penalty of 
500. in the court of the lord high admiral, 
who, however, reported on the 14th that ' he 
did not find matter sufficient to charge 
Stucley withal ' (State Papers, Dom. 27 Aug. 
1558). On 7 Nov. following Stucley in- 
duced a Spanish admiral possibly Juan de 
Fernandez in whose service he was, to in- 
tercede with Queen Mary with the object of 
securing part of his father's property so that 
he might ' be the better able to serve her 
majesty.' This scheme, which aimed at de- 
frauding his four brothers, seems to have 
failed. In the same year Serjeant Prideaux, 
who had married Stucley's sister Mary, died, 
and the Marquis of Saria persuaded Queen 
Mary to grant Stucley the wardship of Pri- 
deaux's son. In his haste to profit by the 
transaction Stucley seized Prideaux's house, 
which again brought him into trouble with 
the privy council (Acts P. C. vii. 8). On 
25 Nov. 1559 Chaloner reported that his 
wife's grandfather, Sir Thomas Curtis, was 
dead, and Stucley was busy in the midst of 
his coffers. 

For a time this new source of wealth kept 
Stucley to comparatively respectable pur- 
suits. In May 1560 he was employed in 
raising levies in Berkshire, and in April 
1561 he was given a captaincy at Berwick. 
In the following winter he entertained and 
formed a close friendship with Shane O'Neill 
[q. v.] during his visit to England ; and on 
14 June 1563 he amused Queen Elizabeth 
with a sort of sham fight on the Thames off 
Limehouse (MACHY^, Diary, p. 309). 

By this time Stucley had squandered the 
greater part of his wife's fortune, and he de- 
termined to seek a new source of wealth by 

privateering. The pretended object of his 
expedition was to colonise Florida, and he 
was to be accompanied by Jean Bibault, a 
Dieppe sailor, who had previously been in 
English service (see Cor. Pol. de Octet de 
Selue, passim). Ribault had in 1562 made a 
voyage to Florida. Queen Elizabeth engaged 
in the venture, and supplied one of the six 
ships that formed Stucley's force. He had 
three- hundred men, and was well furnished 
with artillery (De Quadra to Philip II, in 
Simancas Papers, i. 322). He took leave of 
the queen on 25 June 1563, sailing with 
three vessels from London, and picking up 
the other three at Plymouth. Abroad it 
was generally known that Florida was a 
mere pretext for piracy (cf. Lettres de Cathe- 
rine de Medicis, 1885, ii. 209). For two years, 
though Stucley is stated to have actually 
landed in Florida (Simancas Papers, iii. 
349), his robberies on the high seas were a 
scandal to Europe. Spanish, French, and 
Portuguese ships suffered alike, and Chaloner, 
the English ambassador at Madrid, confessed 
that 'he hung his head for shame' (Cal. 
State Papers, For. 1564-5, p. 272). On one 
occasion Stucley cut out two French ships 
worth thirty thousand ducats from a port in 
Galicia. At length the remonstrances of 
foreign ambassadors compelled Elizabeth to 
disown Stucley and take measures for his 
apprehension. Some ships with this object 
were sent early in 1565 to the west coast of 
Ireland, and Stucley's galley was seized in 
Cork harbour in March. He seems to have 
landed and surrendered beforehand. On 
19 May the privy council ordered his removal 
to London, reprimanding the lords justices 
of Ireland for not having sent him before, 
and the queen informed Philip that l there 
was no English pirate left upon the sea.' 
Stucley arrived in London at the end of June; 
but Shane O'Neill, Lord-justice Arnold, and 
Hugh Brady, bishop of Meath, interceded in 
his favour, and on 27 Sept. he was released 
on recognisances. No charge, it was said, 
was brought against him except by some 
Portuguese, who, with the Spanish ambas- 
sador, acquiesced in his liberation (Acts 
P. C. vii. 261). 

Stucley newfound employment in Ireland. 
Shane O'Neill asked for his services against 
the Scots, who had landed in Ulster, and 
Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.], the lord-deputy, 
thought Stucley's help would be invaluable 
in keeping O'Neill to his engagements with 
the government. On 4 Nov. he was sent to 
Ireland with a letter of recommendation 
from Cecil, and he was immediately employed 
by Sidney to negotiate with O'Neill. Shane 
refused the terms offered him, and in March 




1565-6 Stucley purchased from Sir Nicholas 
Bagenal, for 3,OOOJ. Irish probably the ill- 
gotten gains of piracy his office of marshal 
of Ireland and all Bagenal's estates in the 
country. These included lands of consider- 
able extent bordering on O'Neill's territory. 
Sidney and Cecil were both favourable to the 
recognition of this transaction, but Elizabeth 
wisely and resolutely refused her sanction. 

There was good cause to distrust Stucley. 
The queen's religious policy had excited his 
active hostility, and for three years he had 
maintained treasonable relations with the 
Spanish ambassador. Before his piratical 
expedition he had informed De Quadra that 
they ' were sending him on a bad and 
knavish business, but ... he would show 
him a trick that would make a noise in the 
world ' (Simancas Papers, i. 322). On his 
release, in October 1565, he had renewed his 
relations with the ambassador, professing a 
desire to serve the king of Spain, and ex- 
cusing his acts of piracy against Spanish mer- 
chants. Before setting out for Ireland he 
said he could do Philip great service there. 
He accepted a pension from Philip, and it 
is probable that his relations with O'Neill 
and anxiety to secure a strong position in 
Ireland were prompted by treasonable mo- 
tives. Instead, therefore, of sanctioning 
Stucley's bargain with Bagenal, Elizabeth 
ordered Stucley home to answer charges 
brought against him in the admiralty courts ; 
and Sidney lamented Stucley's ' evil plight,' 
especially as he was just settling down and 
meditating a marriage with a daughter of 
William Somerset, third earl of Worcester 

For the present, however, Stucley's pro- 
jects were only suspected, and in 1567 he 
was allowed to return to Ireland. Undeter- 
red by his previous failure, he now purchased 
of Sir Nicholas Heron the offices of seneschal 
of W T exford, constable of Wexford and 
Laghlin castles, and captain of the Kava- 
naghs, together with various estates (Cal. 
Plants, Elizabeth, Nos. 1127-9, 1136, 1265- 
1266, 1442, 1444). On 24 Aug. he was em- 
powered to exercise martial law in co. Wex- 
Ibrd (ib. No. 1119). Elizabeth, however, 
was opposed to Stucley holding any office in 
Ireland ; on 20 June 1568 Heron was ordered 
to resume his functions, and Stucley lost all 
his preferments (Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 
1509-73, pp. 380, 392, 402). Heron died 
before he could take up his appointments, and 
Nicholas White was sent instead. Not con- 
tent with assuming Stucley's offices, White 
on 6 June 1569 accused Stucley before the 
Irish privy council of felony and high trea- 
son, and on the 10th he was imprisoned in 

Dublin Castle. He had in that same month 
proposed the invasion of Ireland to the 
Spanish ambassador, and demanded twenty 
fully armed ships for the purpose. But suffi- 
cient evidence was not forthcoming to convict 
him, and, after seventeen weeks' imprison- 
ment, Stucley was on 11 Oct. released by 
the privy council on sureties for 500/. ('Acts 
of the Privy Council in Ireland ' in Hist. 
MSS. Comm. 15th Hep. iii. 232-3). 

These misfortunes strengthened Stucley's 
determination to turn traitor. While in 
Dublin Castle he had found means to com- 
municate with Richard Creagh [q.v.], Roman 
catholic archbishop of Armagh, then a pri- 
soner in the castle, and also with Don Guerau 
de Spes, the Spanish ambassador in London. 
Soon after his release he visited London, 
and apparently offered his services to Fene- 
lon, the French ambassador, in February 
1569-70. In March he returned to Ireland, 
and on the 13th he began to make arrange- 
ments at Waterford for escaping to Spain. 
He sailed on 17 April, and on the 24th landed 
at Vinero in Galicia. On 4 Aug. he was 
summoned to Madrid; he was received with 
a consideration that astonished the English 
ambassador. On 21 Jan. 1570-1 he was 
knighted by Philip ; he was generally styled 
Marquis or Duke of Ireland, and the king 
was reported to have allowed him five hun- 
dred reals a day and a residence at Las 
Rozas, a village nine miles from Madrid. 

Meanwhile Stucley was busy scheming 
the invasion of Ireland. Five thousand men 
were promised him under the command of 
the notorious Julian Romero (see 'Julian 
Romero Swashbuckler 'in HUME, The Year 
after the Armada, pp. 96-7). Stucley's 
character, however, soon inspired distrust of 
his ability to perform his magnificent pro- 
mises, and his credit was undermined by 
Maurice Gibbon, archbishop of Cashel, whose 
quarrels with Stucley divided the Spanish 
court into factions, one supporting the arch- 
bishop and the other Stucley. Eventually 
' an honest excuse was found to divert him, 
and he left for Bivero (in Sicily), having 
dismissed the people who came from Ireland 
with him and dismantled his ship ' (Simancas 
Papers, ii. 305). The archbishop went to 
Paris and informed Walsingham of Stucley's 
plots, drawing up at the same time an ac- 
count of his career. Stucley's proposed inter- 
vention in the Ridolfi plot accordingly mis- 
carried. The 'honest excuse' was some 
mission to the pope. It is not clear what it 
was, but on 7 Oct. 1571 Stucley was present 
in command of three galleys at Don John's 
victory over the Turks at Lepanto, where 
his gallant conduct rehabilitated him to some 




extent in Philip's eyes. Early in 1572 
Stucley visited Paris apparently with the 
object of negotiating a combined French and 
Spanish invasion of England. The scheme 
came to nothing, as did another suggested for 
Stucley by Nicholas Sanders [q.v.] Through- 
out 1573 and 1574 Stucley seems to have lived 
in Spain immersed in plots against England 
and quarrels with his fellow renegades. 
In October 1575 lie was at Rome, where, 
according to Anthony Munday [q. v.], he 
was ' in great credit with the pope ' (English 
Romayne Life, 1582). In the spring of 1576 
he was back at Madrid with Dr. (afterwards 
Cardinal) Allen, negotiating for the deli- 
verance of Mary Queen of Scots and for the 
redaction of Ireland ; but before May he re- 
turned to Rome, whence he made a pilgrim- 
age to Loretto. Early in 1577 he went with 
Don John by way of Florence to the Nether- 
lands, but his principal business was at 
Rome, where, having given up Philip as 
hopeless, he was negotiating with the pope 
for the means for an invasion of Ireland. 
lie claimed for himself the title of Archduke 
of Ireland, which he was to hold of the 
holy see. At length he secured material 
aid. On 4 March 1677-8 it was reported 
that he had left Civita Vecchia with a gal- 
leon carrying six hundred men, and on 
4 May the English consul at San Lucar in- 
formed his government that Stucley had 
arrived there with ships and men supplied by 
the pope. The news created great alarm, and 
Frobisher was sent to the west of Ireland to 
intercept him. The precaution was needless. 
Stucley's ships were so unseaworthy that he 
was compelled to put in at Lisbon and beg 
fresh ones from Sebastian, king of Portugal. 
Sebastian, however, induced Stucley to join 
his expedition against Morocco. There he 
fought in command of his Italian soldiers at 
the fatal battle of Alcazar on 4 Aug. 1578, 
being killed, like Sebastian, on the field. 

Stucley's first wife died apparently before 
1565. Colonel Vivian erroneously gives the 
maiden name of this wife as Poulet. Possibly 
this was the name of his second wife, who 
was living in Ireland in 1565. Stucley's 
youngest brother, Lewis Stucley, who served 
as standard-bearer to Q,ueen Elizabeth, and 
died on 1 Dec. 1581, was grandfather of Sir 
Lewis Stucley [q. v.] (ViviAN, Visitations of 
Devonshire, p. 721). 

Stucley at once became the hero of dramas 
and ballads. There is no evidence as to when 
' The Famous History of the Life and Death 
of Captain Thomas Stukeley ' was first acted. 
It was printed 'as it hath been acted' at 
London, 1605, 4to, and was reprinted in 
Simpson's ' School of Shakespeare/ 1878. 

The printed version is, however, very incom- 
plete. A ballad, probably based on the play, 
became popular, and four copies of it are in 
the Roxburghe collection in the British Mu- 
seum, none of them with any date, Stucley 
also figures in Peele's ' Battle of Alcazar,' 
which was probably acted before the spring 
of 1589, and was printed in 1594 (for other 
poetical references to Stucley see DYCE'S 
Introduction to the Battle of Alcazar). Re- 
ference is made to his story in Kingsley's 
1 Westward Ho ! ' (chap, v.) 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom., Ireland, Foreign, 
and Venetian Ser. ; Cal. Carew MSS. ; Collins's 
Letters and Memorials of State ; Murdin and 
Haynes's Burghley State Papers ; Digges's Corn- 
pleat Ambassador; Wright's Elizabeth; Lit. 
Kemains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club) ; 
Thuanus, Theiner, Mariana, and Sanders's His- 
tories; O'Sullevan's Hist. Cathol. Ibernise; 
Holinshed, Stow, and Camden's Annals ; Strype's 
Works ; Fuller's Worthies. These and other 
sources were used by Richard Simpson in his 
exhaustiA T e and careful biography of Stucley pre- 
fixed to his School of Shakespeare, 1878. Some 
further particulars of value may be gleaned from 
the Cal. of Simancas Papers, 3 vols. 1895-7 ; Acts 
of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent ; Cal. Hatfield 
MSS. ; Cal. of Fiants, Ireland (22nd Report of 
the Deputy Keeper of Records in Ireland).] 

A. F. P. 

STUDLEY, JOHN (1545 P-1590 ?), 
translator, born about 1545, was one of the 
original scholars of Westminster school, and 
the earliest to be elected to Cambridge 
(Alumni Westmonast. p. 45, where the 
Christian name is given erroneously as 
Joseph). He matriculated from Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 1561 ; he graduated 
B. A. in 1566 and M.A. in 1570, being elected 
a fellow of the college in the interval. He 
was a good classical scholar, and at a very 
early age prepared, in continuation of the 
labours of Jasper Heywood, translations of 
four of Seneca's tragedies 'Agamemnon,' 
' Medea,' i Hippolytus/and ' Hercules CEteus.' 
He employed the common ballad metre for 
the dialogue, and rhyming decasyllabics for 
the choruses, but freely and tediously para- 
phrased his text with ludicrously tame 
and bathetic effects. Occasionally he made 
deliberate changes. To the ' Agamemnon ' 
he added an unnecessary scene at the close, 
in which he re-narrated the death of Cas- 
sandra, the imprisonment of Electra, and the 
flight of Orestes. To the ' Medea ' he pre- 
fixed an original prologue and amplified the 
choruses. The ' Agamemnon ' and the 
* Medea ' were both licensed for publication 
to Thomas Col well in 1566, and the ' Hippo- 
lytus' to Henry Denham in 1567. No copy 
of the original edition of either the ' Medea' 




or the ' Hippolytus ' is extant. The ' Aga- 
memnon ' was published in 1566 with a 
dedication to Sir William Cecil, and many 
commendatory verses. The title-page ran : 
' The Eyght Tragedie of Seneca entituled 
Agamemnon translated out of Latin into 
English' (London, 12mo). Studley's four 
translations were included in the edition by 
Thomas Newton [q. v.] of ' Seneca his tenne 
tragedies translated into English,' London, 
1581 (cf. reprint by the Spenser Society, 

Studley wrote Latin elegies on the death 
of Nicholas Carr [q. v.], the Greek professor 
at Cambridge, which were printed with the 
professor's Latin translation of Demosthenes 
in 1571. In 1574 he published, 'with son- 
drye additions,' a translation of Bale's ' Acta 
Pontificum Romanorum ' under the title of 
' The Pageant of the Popes, conteyning the 
lyves of all the Bishops of Rome from the 
beginninge of them to the yeare 1555,' Lon- 
don, 1574, 4to. It was dedicated to Thomas 
Radcliffe, third earl of Sussex [q. v.] Some 
Latin verses by Studley addressed to Sir 
William Cecil about 1564 are among the 
domestic state papers (cf. Cal. 1547-80, 
p. 248). 

Studley's religious opinions were stoutly 
Calvinistic. On 1 Feb. 1572-3 he was sum- 
moned before the heads of colleges at Cam- 
bridge on a charge of nonconformity. A 
few months later he vacated his fellowship. 
He is doubtfully said by Chetwood to have 
crossed to the Low Countries, to have joined 
the army of Prince Maurice, and to have met 
his death at the siege of Breda. That siege 
took place in 1590, but no contemporary 
authority seems to mention Studley's share 
in it. 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 100; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 10 ; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit. ; Warton's Hist, of English Poetry ; Col- 
lier's Registers of Stationers' Company (Shake- 
speare Soc.), i. 127, 140, 147.] S. L. 


STUKELEY, WILLIAM (1687-1765), 
antiquary, born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, 
on 7 Nov. 1687, was the son of John Stuke- 
ley, an attorney, by his wife Frances, daugh- 
ter of Robert Bullen of W T eston, Lincoln- 
shire. He was sent in 1692 to the free 
school at Holbeach, and as a boy was fond of 
retiring into the woods to read and to col- 
lect plants. Occasionally he listened behind 
a screen to the learned conversation of his 
father with Mr. Belgrave, 'an ingenious 
gent,' in refutation of whose arguments he 
wrote a small manuscript book. He col- 
lected coins, bought microscopes and burn- 

ing-glasses, and learnt something of wood- . 
carving, dialling, 'and some astrology withal/ 
On 7 Nov. 1703 he was admitted to Ben- 
net (Corpus Christi) College, Cambridge, 
became a scholar in the following April, 
and took the degree of M.B. on 21 Jan. 
1707-8. In his undergraduate days he 'went 
(he says) frequently a simpling, and began 
to steal dogs and dissect them.' When at 
home, he ' made a handsome sceleton ' of an 
aged cat. Stephen Hales of the Royal 
Society and Dr. John Gray of Canterbury 
were among his botanical associates, and he 
made large additions to Ray's ' Catalogus 
Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam.' 

On leaving Cambridge he studied ana- 
tomy under Rolfe, a surgeon in Chancery 
Lane, and medicine under Dr. Mead at St. 
Thomas's Hospital (1709). In May 1710 he 
went into medical practice at Boston, Lin- 
colnshire. In May 1717 he removed to Or- 
mond Street, London, where he lived next 
door to Powis House. On 20 March 1717- 

17 18 he became a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in January 1718 took part in establishing 
the Society of Antiquaries, of which body he 
acted as secretary for nine years. On 7 July 

1719 he took the degree of M.D. at Cam- 
bridge, and on 30 Sept. 1720 was admitted 
a fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
became a freemason, suspecting freemasonry 
to be ' the remains of the mysterys of the 
antients.' In the same year he published 
an account of Arthur's Oon and Graham's 
Dyke. In 1722 he was elected a member 
of the Spalding Society, and at a later time 
(1745) founded the Brazen Nose Society 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. vi. 4). 

In March 1722 he read as the Gulstonian 
lecture a discourse on the spleen, published 
in 1723. About this time he suffered from 
gout, which he cured partly by using Dr. 
Rogers's ' oleum arthriticum,' and partly 
by long rides in search of antiquities. The 
first-fruits of his antiquarian expeditions 
appeared in 1724 in his ' Itinerarium Curio- 
sum.' He was now well known to the 
Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of Winchilsea, 
and ' all the virtuosos in London' and had 'a 
particular friendship ' with Sir Isaac New- 
ton^lCHis greatest friends were Roger Gale 
[q. v.j and Samuel Gale [q. v.] With the 
former he went on long antiquarian tours 
in various parts of England, and in 1725 
traversed the whole length of the Roman 
Wall, and ' drew out (for he was a respec- 
table draughtsman) and described innumer- 
able old cities, roads, altars,' &c. His fre- 
quent visits to Stonehenge furnished mate- 
rial for his book on Stonehenge, published 
in 1740, and accounted at the time his prin- * 

' His 

" Memoires of Sir Isaac Newton's life " 
were edited for the Royal Society by A. 
Hastings White in 1936.' 




cipal work. Druidism was to him ' the 
aboriginal patriarchal religion/ and his inti- 
mates called him ' Chyndonax ' and ' the 
arch-druid of this age.' 

In 1726 Stukeley went to live at Grantham, 
Lincolnshire, where he had a good practice. 
Here he laid out a garden and a sylvan 
' temple of the Druids/ with an old apple- 
tree, overgrown with mistletoe, in the centre. 
Being encouraged by Archbishop Wake to 
enter the church, he was ordained at Croydon 
on 20 July 1729, and was presented in Oc- 
tober to the living of All Saints at Stamford, 
a town to which he removed in February 
1730. At Stamford, where he chiefly lived 
till 1748, he frequented the music clubs and 
had a beautiful garden, wherein he set up 
(circa 1746) a gate with ' an inscription in 
vast capitals ' commemorating Culloden and 
* a delicate marble statue of Flora as white 
as milk, large as life [and] well cut.' In 
1736 he published his ' Palseographia Sacra ' 
(pt. i.) to show ' how heathen mythology is 
derived from sacred history, and that the 
Bacchus of the poets is no other than Jehovah 
in Scripture.' 

In 1739 he was given the living of Somerby- 
by-Grantham. He resigned this living and 
that of All Saints, Stamford, in 1747, when 
he accepted from the Duke of Montagu the 
rectory of St. George-the-Martyr in Queen 
Square, London. From 1748 he lived in 
Queen Square and at his house at Kentish 
Town. He was an unconventional clergy- 
man, and once (April 1764) postponed the 
service for an hour in order that his congre- 
gation might witness an eclipse of the sun. 
When he was nearly seventy-six he preached 
for the first time in spectacles, from the text 
' Now we see through a glass darkly/ the 
sermon being on the evils of too much study. 
On 27 Feb. 1765 he was seized with para- 
lysis, and died in Queen Square on 3 March 
1765 in his seventy-eighth year. He was 
buried in the churchyard of East Ham, 
Essex, and, according to his desire, without 
any monument. 

Warburton, bishop of Gloucester, one of 
Stukeley's oldest acquaintances, describes 
him as a learned and honest man, but a strange 
compound of 'simplicity, drollery, absurdity, 
ingenuity, superstition, andantiquarianism' 
(NICHOLS. Lit. Anecd. ii. 60, cf. ib. pp. 1 if.) 
Thomas Hearne says he was ' very fanciful ' 
and ' a mighty conceited man.' Stukeley, in 
an autobiography written (in the third per- 
son) for Masters's ' History of Bennet Col- 
lege,' says of himself: 'He has traced the 
origin of Astronomy from the first ages of 
the world. He has traced the origin of 
Architecture, with many designs of the Mo- 

saic Tabernacle . . . and an infinity of sacred 
antiquities . . . but the artifice of booksellers 
discorages authors from reaping the fruit of 
their labors.' Stukeley's plan of * Caesar's 
Camp/ at the Brill (Somers Town), seems to 
be purely imaginary ; and Evans (Ancient 
British Coins, p. 7) pronounces his drawings 
and attributions of British coins untrust- 
worthy. Gibbon says concerning his ' His- 
tory of Carausius/ ' I have used his mate- 
rials and rejected most of his fanciful con- 
jectures.' Stukeley's favourite discovery of 
Oriuna, the wife of Carausius, was due to 
his misreading the word ' Fortuna ' on a coin 
of this emperor. A more serious error was his 
publication in 1757, as a genuine work of 
.Richard of Cirencester, of the ' De Situ Bri- 
tannise/ forged by Charles Bertram [q. v.] 
(Notes and Queries, 8th ser. viii. 1895, p. 

Stukeley married first, in 1728, Frances 
(d. 1737), daughter of liobert Williamson, 
of Allington, Lincolnshire ; secondly, in 
1739, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gale, 
dean of York and father of Roger and Samuel 
Gale. By his first wife he had three daugh- 
ters : one of them, Elizabeth, married Richard 
Fleming, a solicitor, and Stukeley's executor ; 
another married Thomas Fairchild, rector of 
Pitsea, Essex (NICHOLS, Lit. Illustr. ii. 

Some volumes of Stukeley's manuscripts 
and letters came into the possession of John 
Britton, but afterwards passed to a de- 
scendant of Stukeley's, the Rev. H. Fleming 
St. John, of Dinmqre House, near Leomin- 
ster, who lent them to Mr. W. C. Lukis for 
his careful edition of the ' Family Memoirs 
of Stukeley.' These memoirs consist of 
diaries and autobiographical notices, written 
somewhat in the style of Pepys, and of com- 
monplace books and of a mass of correspon- 
dence touching on antiquities, numismatics, 
and astronomy. Other manuscripts are in 
the possession of Mr. R. F. St. Andrew St. 
John of Ealing. 

Stukeley's coins (chiefly Roman), fossils, 
pictures, and antiquities were sold at Essex 
House, Essex Street, London, on 15 and 16 
May 1766. 'An antediluvian hammer, 
sundry Druids' beads, &c./ and a model of 
Stonehenge, carved in wood by Stukeley, 
were among the objects sold (Sale Catalogue 
in Department of Coins, Brit. Mus.) 

There is a mezzotint half-length portrait 
of Stukeley, by J. Smith, 1721, after a paint- 
ing by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1721 (repro- 
duced, ' Family Memoirs of Stukeley/ fron- 
tispiece). A portrait, by Wills, of Stukeley. 
in his robes, a miniature, and a bust are also 
mentioned. In the British Museum is a 




medal cast and chased by Gaab [1765] : (ob- 
verse) head of Stukeley wreathed with oak, 
set. 54; (reverse) view of Stonehenge, ob. 
Mar. 4 [read 3] 1765, set. 84 [read 78]. 

The following is a selection from Stuke- 
ley's publications: 1. 'An Account of a 
Roman Temple [Arthur's Oon] and other 
Antiquities, near Graham's Dike in Scot- 
land,' 1720, 4to. 2. ' Of the Spleen,' London, 
1723, fol. 3. ' Itinerarium Curiosum ; or an 
Account of the Antiquitys and remarkable 
Curiositys in Nature or Art, observ'd in 
travels thro' Great Brittan,' 1724, fol. ; 2nd 
edit. 1776, fol. 4. A Treatise on the Cause 
and Cure of the Gout, with a New Rationale,' 
1734, 8vo (several editions). 5. ' Palseo- 
graphia Sacra,' 1736, 4to ; also London, 
1763 (a different work). 6. l Stonehenge, a 
Temple restor'd to the British Druids,' Lon- 
don, 1740, fol. 7. 'Abury, a Temple of the 
British Druids,' London, 1743, fol. 8. ' Palaeo- 
graphia Britannica, or Discourses on An- 
tiquities in Britain/ 1743-52, 4to. 9. ' The 
Philosophy of Earthquakes, Natural and Re- 
ligious,' London, 1750, 8vo; 3rd edit. 1756. 

10. ' A Dissertation upon Oriuna,' 1751, 4to. 

11. ' An Account of Richard of Cirencester 
. . . with his Antient Map of Roman Brittain 
. . . the Itinerary thereof,' &c., London, 1757, 
4to. 12. < The Medallic History of M. A. V. 
Carausius,' London, 1757-9, 4to. 1 3. ' Twenty- 
three Plates of the Coins of the Ancient 
British Kings,' London, T. Snelling; pub- 
lished posthumously, without date. 

[Family Memoirs of Stukeley (Surtees Soc.), 
1882, ed. Lukis; Munk's Coll. of Physicians, ii. 
71 sq. ; Nichols's Lit. Jllustr. and Lit. Anecd. 
especially v. 499-510; Gent. Mag. 1765, p. 211 
(memoir by P. Collinson); Lowndes's Bibl. 
Manual ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] " W. W. 

STUMP, SAMUEL JOHN (d. 1863), 
painter, studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, and for many years held a promi- 
nent position as a miniature-painter ; he had 
a large theatrical clientele, and his portraits 
of stage celebrities, some of them in charac- 
ter, are numerous. He was an annual exhi- 
bitor at the Royal Academy from 1802 to 
1845, sending chiefly miniatures, with a few 
oil portraits and views ; he also exhibited 
miniatures with the Oil and Watercolour 
Society during its brief existence from 1813 
to 1820. Stump practised landscape-paint- 
ing largely, and frequently sent views of 
English, Italian, and Swiss scenery to the 
British Institution up to 1849. He was a 
member of the Sketching Society, and his 
' Enchanted Isle ' was lithographed for the 
set of ' Evening Sketches ' issued by it. His 
portraits of Lady Audley, Mrs. Gulston, 
Richard Miles (the collector), G. F. Cooke, 


Harriot Mellon, Louisa Brunton, and others 
were engraved, some of them by himself in 
stipple. Stump died in 1863. His miniature 
portrait of himself belongs to the corporation 
of London (Cat. Victorian Exhib. No. 454). 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1 760-1893 ; Roget's Hist, of the 'Old 
Watercolour ' Society ; Exhibition Catalogues.] 

F. M. O'D. 

STURCH, WILLIAM (1753 P-1888), 
theological writer, was born at Newport, Isle 
of Wight, about 1753. His great-grand- 
father, William Sturch (d. 1728), was a 
general baptist minister in London. His 
grandfather, John Sturch, general baptist 
minister at Crediton, Devonshire, published 
'A Compendium of Truths,' Exeter, 1731, 
8vo, and a sermon on persecution, 1736, 8vo. 
His father, John Sturch, ordained (21 June 
1753) minister of the general baptist con- 
gregation, Pyle Street, Newport, wrote ' A 
View of the Isle of Wight,' 1778, 12mo, 
which passed through numerous editions, 
and was translated into German by C. A. 
Wichman, Leipzig, 1781, 8vo. He died in 
1794. One of his daughters married John 
Potticary (1763-1820), the first schoolmaster 
of Benjamin Disraeli, earl of Beaconsfield. 

William Sturch was an ironmonger in 
London, and an original member of the uni- 
tarian chapel opened by Theophilus Lindsey 
[q. v.] at Essex Street, Strand, in 1774. In 
1799 he published anonymously a thin octavo, 
entitled ' Apeleutherus ; or an Effort to attain 
Intellectual Freedom.' It consists of three 
essays ; the third, ' On Christianity as a Super- 
natural Communication,' written with great 
ability and beauty of style, is interesting 
as exhibiting the sceptical side of a devout 
mind. A fine sonnet is prefixed to the work. 
In 1819 it was reprinted (anonymously), with 
a dedication to Thomas Belsham [q. v.], a 
fourth essay l On a Future State/ and three 
additional sonnets. Sturch wrote one or two 
pamphlets in controversy with conservative 
Unitarians, and was a frequent contributor 
to the ' Monthly Repository.' He published 
also a very able pamphlet, with a view to 
Roman catholic emancipation, 'The Grie- 
vances of Ireland : their Causes and their 
Remedies,' 1826, 8vo. He took the chair 
at a dinner given in London (5 Jan. 1829) 
to Henry Montgomery, LL. D. [q. v.], when 
Charles Butler (1750-1832) [q. v.] was one 
of the speakers. He died at York Terrace, 
Regent's Park, on 8 Sept. 1838, aged 85, 
leaving a widow Elizabeth (d. 23 Feb. 1841, 
aged 81) and family. He was buried in the 
graveyard of the New Gravel-Pit chapel, 
Hackney. His second daughter, Elizabeth 
Jesser (b. 25 Dec. 1789, d. 30 March 1866), 




married John Reid [q. v.] and founded Bed- 
ford College, London, in October 1849. 

[Christian Eeformer, 1838, p. 740 ; Taylor's 
Hist, of English Gen. Baptists, 1818, ii. 93 ; 
Aspland's Memoir of R. Aspland, 1850. pp. 106, 
154, 557 ; Inquirer, 7 April 1866 p. 221, 5 May 
1866 p. 284 ; Calendar of Bedford College, 1888 ; 
tombstones at Hackney ; private information ] 

A. \T. 

STURGE, JOSEPH (1793-1859), phi- 
lanthropist, son of Joseph Sturge, a farmer 
and grazier, of the Manor House, Elberton, 
Gloucestershire, by his wife Mary Marshall 
of Alcester, AVorcestershire, was born at El- 
berton on 2 Aug. 1793. After a year at 
Thornbury day school, and three at Sidcot, 
Sturge at fourteen commenced farming with 
his father. Afterwards he farmed on his 
own account. Refusing conscientiously to 
find a proxy or to serve in the militia, for 
which he was drawn when eighteen, he 
watched his flock of sheep driven off to be 
sold to cover the delinquency. About 1818 
he settled at Bewdley as a corn-factor, and 
soon made money. His firm, however, re- 
duced their returns by refusing to receive 
consignments of malting barley, because they 
would have no share in the profits of drink. 
He removed to Birmingham in 1822, be- 
came one of the town commissioners, and, 
when the charter was granted in 1835, alder- 
man for the borough. He warmly espoused 
the anti-slavery cause, corresponded from 
1826 with Zachary Macaulay [q. v.], and 
was one of the founders of the agency com- 
mittee of the Anti-Slavery Society, whose 
programme was entire and immediate eman- 

Sturge and his friends engaged lecturers, 
and travelled through Scotland and Ireland 
arousing popular interest. A measure passed 
by the government, 8 Aug. 1833, granting 
compensation to slave-owners and establish- 
ing a system of apprenticeship, was regarded 
by the committee as entirely inadequate, 
and upon Lord Brougham complaining to 
Sturge of the difficulty of obtaining proof 
of the evils of the apprenticeship system, 
Sturge quietly remarked, 'Then I must 
supply thee with proof,' packed his port- 
manteau, and started for the West Indies. 
In six months he returned, published * The 
West Indies in 1837 ' (London, 8vo), the 
first edition of which rapidly sold, and gave 
evidence for seven days before the committee 
of the House of Commons. In a speech before 
the lords, on 16 July, Lord Brougham paid a 
high tribute to Sturge's work. After several 
defeats the bill abolishing slavery was carried 
on 23 May by three votes. Sturge advanced 
sums of money to the freed negroes, assisted 

schemes for their education, and purchased 
an estate in the West Indies. In 1841 he 
travelled through the United States with 
the poet Whittier, to observe the condition 
of the slaves there, and published on his 
return A Visit to the United States in 1841 ' 
(London, 1842, 8vo). 

Meanwhile political agitation in England 
was rising. One of the first members of 
the Anti-Cornlaw League, Sturge was re- 
proached by the ' Free Trader ' for his de- 
sertion of repeal when, in 1842, he lent 
active support to the movement, inaugurated 
by the chartists, for the wide extension of 
the suffrage. He stood for Nottingham in 
August of that year, but was defeated by 
John Walter of the ' Times ' by eighty-four 
votes. His co-operation with Feargus O'Con- 
nor [q.v.], Henry Vincent [q.v.], and other 
chartists alienated many of his friends. With 
a view to uniting the chartists and the 
middle-class radicals, he summoned a con- 
ference to discuss the question of ' complete 
suffrage ' at Birmingham on 27 Dec. 1842, 
but the violence and inconsistency of the 
chartist leaders led Sturge and his friends 
to withdraw from the chartist movement. 
From this time Sturge gradually relinquished 
political life and devoted himself to philan- 

After the exhibition of 1851 he received, 
at his house in Hyde Park, all foreigners 
interested in peace, anti-slavery, and tem- 
perance. He attended the peace congresses 
of Brussels, Paris, and Frankfort [see under 
RICHARD, HENRY], and visited Schleswig- 
Holstein and Copenhagen with the object of 
inducing the govermtoents of Denmark and 
Schleswig-Holstein to submit their dispute 
to arbitration. In January 1854 he was 
appointed one of the deputation from the 
Society of Friends to carry to the tsar their 
protest against the Crimean war [see under 
PEASE, HENRY]. Largely through Sturge's 
support, the l Morning Star' was founded in 
1855 as an organ for the 'advocacy of non- 
intervention and arbitration. 

In 1856 he visited Finland to arrange for 
distribution of funds from the Friends to- 
wards relieving the famine caused by the 
British fleet's destruction of private property 
during the war. He founded the Friends' 
Sunday schools in Birmingham (where, in 
1898, there was a weekly attendance of over 
three thousand). He died suddenly at 
Edgbaston, Birmingham, on 14 May 1859, 
as he was preparing to attend the annual 
meeting of the Peace Society, of which he 
was president. 

Sturge's philanthropy was the mainspring 
of his political actions, which were unfavour- 



ably viewed by many of the Friends to 
whom, he was all his life attached. The 
active and often unpopular part he took he 
conceived to be his duty as a Christian. Al- 
though no speaker, his power over numbers 
was shown in 1850, when he successfully 
stemmed the tide of anti-papal agitation in 
a great meeting at Birmingham. He illus- 
trated his consistency by his opposition to 
the building of the Birmingham town-hall 
for the triennial festivals, from a conscien- 
tious objection to oratorio, while he privately 
gave to the funds of the General Hospital, 
which the festival was founded to assist. 

He married first, in 1834, Eliza, only 
daughter of James Cropper [q. v.], the phi- 
lanthropist. She died in 1835. Secondly, he 
married, on 14 Oct. 1846, Hannah (d. 19 Oct. 
1896), daughter of Barnard Dickinson of 
Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, by whom he left 
a son Joseph and four daughters. Sturge's 
elder sister, Sophia, was his constant com- 
panion from 1819 until her death in 1845, 
and to her judgment and ability he owed 
much. His brother and partner, Charles 
Sturge (1802-1888), was associated with him 
in most of his philanthropic acts. 

Sturge's labours for the town of Birming- 
ham are commemorated by a fountain and 
statue, erected at Five Ways, Edgbaston, 
and inaugurated by the borough members, 
John Bright and William Scholefield, on 
4 June 1863. 

His portrait is included in B. R. Haydon's 
large picture of the anti-slavery convention 
1840, at the National Portrait 'Gallery. It 
was also drawn by W. Willis. A third 
portrait, painted by Barrett, belongs to the 
corporation of Birmingham. 

[Sturge's Life was written by Henry Richard, 
London, 1864, 8vo ; a short memoir by W. Catch- 
pool, 1877, was reprinted in Six Men of the 
People, 1882. See also Peckover's Life of J. 
Sturge, 1890 ; Christian Philanthropy, a sermon 
by J. A. James, May 1859; Stephen's Anti- 
Slavery Recollections, p. 130 ; Morley's Life of 
Cobden, ii. 173 ; Gammage's Hist, of the Chartist 
Movement, 1894, pp. 203, 241, 255; Life of 
William Allen, iii. 283, 293, 308, 421 ; Friends' 
Biogr. Cat. pp. 641-51 ; Whittier's Poems, of 
which four are addressed to Sturge ; The Non- 
conformist, 1841-59, passim; Life and Struggles 
of Lovett, pp. 220, 273 et seq.; Addit.MS. 27810, 
if. 99, 128, 132 (three letters from Sturge to 
Francis Place, with other information concerning 
Sturge's political life in the same volume, col- 
lected by Place) ; information from Joseph 
Sturge.] C. F. S. 

STURGEON", HENRY (1781 P-1814), 
lieutenant-colonel, born about 1781, was ad- 
mitted to the Royal Military Academy as a 
cadet in May 1795, and commissioned as 

second lieutenant in the royal artillery on 
1 Jan. 1796. He became lieutenant on 
21 Aug. 1797. He served in Pulteney's 

Edition to Ferrol in 1800, and in the ex- 
tion to Egypt, and was wounded in the 
le of Alexandria on 13 March 1801. 
On 25 June 1803 he was transferred to the 
royal staff corps with the rank of captain, 
and became major in it on 1 June 1809. He 
served throughout the war in the Peninsula, 
always showing himself ' a clever fellow,' as 
Wellington described him (to Lord Liver- 
pool, 19 Dec. 1809). At Ciudad Rodrigo 
his exertions and ability from the commence- 
ment of the siege were very conspicuous. He 
reconnoitred the breaches before the assault, 
and guided a column which was told off, 
at his suggestion, to make a demonstration 
on the right of the main breach. The column 
afterwards joined the stormers at that breach. 
Sturgeon was specially mentioned in Well- 
ington's despatch, both for his services during 
the siege and for his construction of a bridge 
over the Agueda, which was an indispensable 
preliminary to it. He was made brevet 
lieutenant-colonel on 6 Feb. 1812. He was 
again specially mentioned in the Salamanca 
despatch, and was sent three months after- 
wards to make a bridge at Almaraz. In 
April 1813 he was placed in charge of the 
corps of guides, and the post-office and com- 
munications of the army. In February 1814 
he took a prominent part in the bridging of 
the Adour, and was one of the officers praised 
by Hope in his report for the zeal they 
showed in the execution of that bold pro- 
ject. Napier, who speaks of it as a ' stu- 
pendous undertaking, which must always 
rank among the prodigies of war,' attributes 
its conception to Sturgeon. 

A few weeks afterwards, on 19 March, 
Sturgeon was killed by a bullet as he was 
riding through a vineyard during the action 
near Vic Bigorre. ( Skilled to excellence in 
almost every branch of war, and possessing a 
variety of accomplishments, he used his gifts 
so gently for himself and so usefully for th '- 
service that envy offered no bar to admira - 
tion, and the whole army felt painfully mort i- 
fied that his merits were passed unnoticed in 
the public despatches ' (NAPIER). 

[Duncan's Hist, of the Eoyal Artillery ; Wel- 
lington Despatches ; Napier's War in the Penin- 
sula ; Londonderry's Narrative, ii. 259 ; Porter's 
History of the Royal Engineers, i. 352.1 

E. M. L. 

STURGEON, WILLIAM (1783-1850), 
electrician, was born on 22 May 1783 at 
Whittington in Lancashire, a village near 
Kirkby Lonsdale. His father, John Stur- 
geon, an ingenious but idle man, a shoe- 




maker by trade, who neglected his family 
while poaching fish and rearing gamecocks, 
migrated from Dumfries to Whittington, 
where he married Betsy Adcock, the daughter 
of a small shopkeeper. Young Sturgeon was 
apprenticed to his father's trade at Old 
Hutton in 1796, under a masterwho starved 
and ill-used him. The dexterity which he 
acquired as a shoemaker pro ved of service to 
him in many ways ; but in 1802, seeing no 
hope of advancement in his trade, he en- 
listed in the Westmoreland militia, and two 
years later, being then twenty-one, he en- 
listed as a private in the royal artillery. 
His attention is said to have been directed 
to electrical phenomena by a terrific thunder- 
storm which occurred when he was sta- 
tioned at Newfoundland. He determined to 
study natural science ; but, finding himself 
unable to understand what had been written 
on the subject, he set himself, amid all the 
disadvantages of barrack life, to acquire the 
rudiments of an education. A sergeant lent 
him books, which he studied at night with 
the connivance of the officers ; he is said 
to have ingratiated himself with the mess 
by his skill as a cobbler. In this way he 
worked at mathematics, and learnt sufficient 
Latin and Greek to grapple with scientific 
terminology. While stationed at Woolwich 
his models and electrical experiments seem 
to have attracted considerable attention. 
The cadets of the Royal Military Academy 
' used to swarm on the barrack field to get 
shocks from his exploring kites,' which were 
constructed after Franklin's pattern, but 
with some modifications and improvements 
of his own. Sturgeon left the army on 
1 Oct. 1820, at the age of thirty-seven, his 
conduct, according to the testimony of his 
commanding officer, having been ' altogether 
unimpeachable.' In spite, however, of the 
remarkable talent that he had shown he 
never rose above the rank of gunner and 
driver, and his pension on discharge amounted 
to no more than one shilling a day. For a 
time he resumed his old trade of bootmaker, 
opening a shop in Artillery Place, Woolwich 
(No. 8). Here, during his leisure time, he 
taught himself turning and lithography, and 
devoted a good deal of attention to the con- 
struction of scientific apparatus. He supple- 
mented his income by lecturing to schools 
and teaching officers' families. He also 
began to contribute to the scientific press, 
especially the ' London Philosophical Maga- 
zine/ and in 1822 took a prominent part in 
founding the Woolwich ' Literary Society,' 
among the original members being the 
chemist James Marsh [q. v.] His first 
original contribution to science seems to have 

been the production of a modified form of 
Ampere's rotating cylinders, described in the 
'Philosophical Magazine' for 1823, and this 
was followed in 1824 by four able papers on 
thermo-electricity. His zeal, amounting to 
a perfect passion, for chemical and electrical 
experiments aroused the interest of such men 
as Olinthus Gilbert Gregory [q. v.], Samuel 
Hunter Christie [q. v.], and Peter Barlow 
[q. v.], through whose influence he was at the 
close of 1824 appointed lecturer in science 
and philosophy at the East India Company's 
Royal Military College of Addiscombe. 

In 1825 Sturgeon presented to the Society 
of Arts the set of improved apparatus for 
electro-magnetic experiments, including his 
first soft-iron electro-magnet, for which he 
was awarded the silver medal of the society 
and a premium of thirty guineas. To him is 
undoubtedly due, says James Prescott Joule 
[q. v.], the credit of being the original dis- 
coverer, he having constructed electro-mag- 
nets in soft iron, both in the straight and 
horseshoe shape, as early as 1823. In 1826 
Sturgeon was busied with the firing of gun- 
powder by electric discharges, and in 1830, 
in his fragment called ' Experimental Re- 
searches,' he describes for the first time the 
now well-known process of amalgamating the 
zinc plate of a battery with a film of mercury. 
Shortly afterwards he began to experiment 
on the phenomena of the magnetism of ro- 
tation discovered by Arago, and came to the 
conclusion that the effects were probably 
due to a disturbance of the electric fluid by 
magnetic action, a kind of reaction to that 
which takes place in electro-magnetism. The 
publication of Faraday's brilliant research 
on magneto-electric induction in 1831 fore- 
stalled the complete explanation of which 
he was in search. In 1832 he constructed 
an electro-magnetic rotary engine, the first 
contrivance, according to Joule, by means of 
which any considerable mechanical force was 
developed by the electric current. 

In 1832 the Adelaide Gallery of Practical 
Science (upon the site of what is now 
Messrs. Gatti's restaurant, West Strand) 
was open for the exhibition of models and 
inventions to be illustrated by means of lec- 
tures, and Sturgeon was nominated upon the 
lecturing staff of this short-lived institu- 
tion. A few years later, in 1836, he es- 
tablished a new monthly periodical, ' The 
Annals of Electricity,' which was the first 
journal exclusively devoted to electrical sub- 
jects in this country. He supported this 
with immense industry and great ability, and 
with some aid from Joule, down to 1843, 
when lack of support compelled its discon- 
tinuance, though its ten octavo volumes 




still remain valuable as a work of refe- 

Meanwhile, in 1837, Sturgeon produced 
his electro-magnetic coil machine for giving 
shocks, and in the same year examined the 
cause of the frequent fracture of Leyden jars 
by electrical explosions. He discovered an 
effectual way of obviating these accidents by 
means of a connecting rod supporting the 
ball to the upper edge of the inner coating 
by cross strips of metal. Aided by this con- 
trivance, during twelve years of active ex- 
perimenting with heavy charges and dis- 
charges he did not break a single jar of his 
battery. In 1838 he discovered the unequal 
heating effects found at the two poles of the 
voltaic arc. Nor did he during this period 
intermit his experiments in atmospheric elec- 
tricity. As a result of no less than five 
hundred kite observations, in one of which 
he was nearly killed, he succeeded in esta- 
blishing the important fact that the atmo- 
sphere is in serene weather uniformly posi- 
tive with regard to the earth, and that the 
higher we ascend the more positive does it 

In 1840 Sturgeon quitted Woolwich for 
Manchester, upon an invitation to act as 
superintendent of the Royal Victoria Gal- 
lery of Practical Science, an institution 
intended for the dissemination of popular 
science and a pioneer of the highest class of 
technical school. Sturgeon, now fifty-seven 
years old, entered upon his new duties with 
characteristic ardour. Exhibitions, conver- 
saziones, and lecture courses were organised. 
But the institution was too much in ad- 
vance of its time to prove a financial success, 
and, like its ill-fated predecessors in Lon- 
don, the Adelaide Gallery and the Royal 
Polytechnic, it came to a premature end 
after an existence of about four years. Stur- 
geon endeavoured to establish another insti- 
tution of a similar character, called the Man- 
chester Institution of Natural and Experi- 
mental Science, but met with little support. 
During 1843 Sturgeon also brought out six 
parts of a new periodical venture, named 
* The Annals of Philosophical Discovery and 
Monthly Reporter of the Progress of Prac- 
tical Science.' Thenceforth he had to depend 
for a living upon precarious earnings as an 
itinerant lecturer on scientific subjects in 
the towns around Manchester. The railway 
service at that time was rudimentary, and 
he had to convey his apparatus in a cart. 
His profits cannot have been large, but his 
reputation was extended by his expository 
skill. His style was manly and vigorous. 
He never aimed at mere effect, though not 
insensible to the uncommon beauty of many 

of his experimental illustrations, which were 
rendered doubly impressive by their novelty. 

From 1845 to 1850 Sturgeon felt keenly 
the pinch of poverty. After many exertions 
Bishop Prince Lee and Dr. Binney, pre- 
sident of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society (of which Sturgeon was a 
member), succeeded in obtaining for him from 
Lord John Russell a grant of 200 1., and in 
1849 this was supplemented by an annuity of 
50/. His health was now beginning to fail. 
A bronchial attack had led him in 1847 to 
remove for a time to his native air near 
Kirkby Lonsdale. There he continued his 
observations upon atmospheric electricity, 
as exhibited in several auroral displays, 
which he minutely described. Upon his re- 
turn to Manchester he removed to the ele- 
vated suburb of Prestwich, where he died 
on 4 Dec. 1850. He was buried in the 
graveyard of Prestwich church. A marble 
tablet was subsequently placed to his me- 
mory in Kirkby Lonsdale church. 

Sturgeon married, soon after entering the 
royal artillery, a widow named Hutton, who 
kept a shoe shop at Woolwich. They had 
three children, who all died in infancy. In 
1829 he married again, Mary Bromley of 
Shrewsbury, who died on 2 Oct. 1867, aged 
77, and was buried beside her husband at 
Prestwich. Their only child also died an 
infant ; whereupon they adopted Sturgeon's 
niece. Ellen Coates, who married Luke 
Brierley, and died on 19 Jan. 1884, aged 51. 

Sturgeon was of a tall and well-built 
frame of body ; his forehead was high and 
his features were strongly marked. His ad- 
dress and conversation were animated. His 
literary style was vigorous and lucid. A 
small photograph (probably copied from a 
daguerreotype) was enlarged and engraved 
for the 'Electrician,' 13 Sept. 1895. An 
oil painting of Sturgeon is also in the pos- 
session of Mr. Luke Brierley of 1 Chorlton 
Road, Manchester. None of Sturgeon's 
manuscripts or apparatus have been pre- 

It has been urged against Sturgeon that 
his work did not result in the discovery of 
any great generalisations in electrical science. 
His phraseology, in accordance with ideas 
current in his day, was from the modern 
point of view faulty. He spoke of * magnetic 
effluvium,' of ' caloric' particle, electrical 
fluid, and electric matter. But a glance at 
the list of his published works will show 
that, while extending the boundaries of elec- 
trical science by the observation of pheno- 
mena and the furnishing of facts, he took a 
high and broad view of electrical manifesta- 
tions and powers. By his extensive series of 




experiments upon 'The Thermo-Magnetism 
of Homogeneous Bodies ' he endeavoured to 
discover a definite law of action, and in his 
paper 'On the Theory of Magnetic Elec- 
tricity ' he attempted ' to reduce the pheno- 
mena of magnetic electricity to a definite 
code of physical laws.' But he moved very 
cautiously, being conscious, as he says, of the 
' long silent probation ' that is needed before 
broad statements ' can be of any account be- 
yond expanding the region of philosophical 

His practical inventions covered the whole 
field of electrical science. Jacobi of St. 
Petersburg claimed for Sturgeon, in con- 
junction with Oersted, the discovery of the 
electro-magnetic engine. No less firmly 
established, says Joule, is his priority in 
regard to the magneto-electrical machine. 
He was the first who devised and executed 
an apparatus for throwing the opposing cur- 
rents into one direction, thus accomplishing 
for this machine exactly what James Watt 
accomplished for the steam engine. This 
contrivance, known as the commutator on 
the continent, and formerly unitress in Ame- 
rica, is now universally employed in every 
magneto-electrical machine. Sturgeon was 
without doubt the constructor of the first 
rotary electro-magnetic engine. The (now 
universally adopted) amalgamation of zinc 
plates in the voltaic battery was originated 
by him, while his discoveries in the thermo- 
electricity and magnetism of homogeneous 
bodies have placed his name higher than that 
of any other man of science who, after 
Seebeck, has cultivated thermo-electricity. 
Sturgeon clearly perceived the possibilities of 
the electro-magnet as a motor. And this 
same invention of the soft-iron electro-mag- 
net has long been the leading feature of the 
instrument working the Morse system of elec- 
tricity, while it has also proved the parent 
of the dynamo machine, which has exerted 
enormous influence upon modern industrial 

Sturgeon's inventive efforts were con- 
stantly directed towards the simplifying and 
cheapening of apparatus, and so rendering 
his discoveries more practically available in 
the development of the scientific industries. 
Thus, for example, a Grove's battery, costing 
at the time 7/., and a Daniel's 6/., were 
superseded by Sturgeon's batteries of equal 
power for 31. 10s. 

With the prevision of genius, Sturgeon 
foresaw that electricity would become the 
prevailing illuminant. Exhibiting the elec- 
tric light actuated by a galvanic battery of 
one hundred jars at one of his lectures in 
1849, he said that he ' quite anticipated that 

the electric light would supersede gas for 
public, whatever it might do for private, 
purposes.' He also showed the process of 
electro-gilding by a magnetic machine of his 
own construction, and translated from the 
German of Professor Jacobi * The Whole 
Galvanoplastik Art or Method of forming 
Electrotypes of Medallions, Coins, Statuary, 
Bronzes, Ornaments, &c.' Several of these 
inventions were afterwards patented at 
Woolwich and Birmingham ; but Sturgeon 
was not benefited, as his desire was to place 
'this apparatus in the hands of the public, 
and [to make it] alike available to all artisans 
wishing to employ it.' 

Only a few weeks before his death Stur- 
geon completed, in one large and handsome 
volume, a reprint of his original contribu- 
tions to science (scattered through numerous 
periodicals) under the title of ' Scientific 
Researches.' This volume was published by 
subscription (Manchester, 1850, 4to), and 
was illustrated by a number of finely en- 
graved plates. Of the papers contained in 
this volume, the earlier ones had first seen 
the light in the ' London Philosophical Maga- 
zine.' To this periodical Sturgeon's chief 
contributions, all on electrical subjects, were 
as follows : September 1823 (a description 
of the revolving * Sturgeon's disk,' a modifi- 
cation of the pendulum of Marsh and the 
star-wheel of Barlow) ; February, April, 
October 1824, May and June 1825, June 
1826 (ignition of gunpowder by electrical 
discharge) ; January 1827, July, August 1831 , 
March 1832 (on electro-magnets) ; April, 
May, July 1832, January, February, March, 
May, November 1833, November and De- 
cember 1834 (kite experiments); April and 
November 1835, and August 1836. To the 
' Edinburgh Philosophical Journal ' (July 
1825) Sturgeon contributed an investigation 
of the action of magnets upon non-ferrugi- 
nous metals. His ' Researches in Electro- 
dynamics,' a paper read before the Royal 
Society on 16 June 1836, was not printed in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions,' but it is 
given in full, with an explanation of a 
temporary friction between Sturgeon and 
Faraday, in the quarto ' Researches ' (No. 
xii.) Sturgeon's 'Address to the London 
Electrical Society on 7 Oct. 1837/ and four 
papers read before the society, are printed in 
the ' Electrical Society's Transactions,' 1837 
and 1838. From 1836 to 1843 Sturgeon's 
activity is best traced in the pages of his 
own periodical, the ' Annals of Electricity/ 
In October 1839 a paper which there ap- 
peared upon ' Marine Lightning Conductors ' 
led to an animated controversy with Sir 
William Snow Harris [q. v.] Sturgeon 




urged that the conductors should not follow 
the mast down into the hold, but pass over 
the sides outside the shrouds, the vessel 
being more or less enclosed in a network of 
conductors. In the course of this discussion 
Sturgeon stoutly maintained that the so- 
called lateral effects of lightning flashes in 
neighbouring bodies were due not, as Harris 
maintained, to imperfect neutralisation in 
the discharge, but to the actual generation 
of induction-currents, a view now fully ac- 
cepted. Sturgeon's later papers appeared for 
the most part in the ' Memoirs of the Man- 
chester Literary and Philosophical Society ' 
(1842, 1846, and 1848). 

In addition to the quarto volume of ' Re- 
searches,' which contained all that the writer 
deemed of the greatest permanent value 
among ]iis investigations, Sturgeon published 
separately i Experimental Researches in 
Electro-magnetism, Galvanism, &c./ Lon- 
don, 1830, 8vo ; ' Lectures on Electricity 
delivered in the Royal Victoria Gallery, 
Manchester/ London, 1842, 8vo ; and i Twelve 
Elementary Lectures on Galvanism,' Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo. He also edited, in 1843, a 
reissue of the l Magnetical Advertisements ' 
of William Barlow or Barlowe [q. v.] 

[William Sturgeon, a Biographical Note by 
S[ilvanus] P. T[hompson], privately printed, 
1891 ; Gent. Mag: 1851, i. 102 ; Vi hart's Addis- 
combe, 1894, pp. 77-80; Manchester Examiner, 
14 Dec. 1850; Manchester Chronicle, 9 April 
and 16 and 23 Oct. 1841 ; Manchester Guardian ; 
Memoir of Lit. and Phil. Soc. Manchester, vol. 
xiv. ; Angus Smith's Centenary of Science in 
Manchester, 1850; Electrician, 13 Sept. 1895, 
by W. W. Haldane Gee, B.Sc. ; Athenaeum, De- 
cember 1850 ; Allibone's Diet, of English Lite- 
rature.] W, G-E. 

1895), physician, eighth son of John Sturges 
of Connaught Square ? London, was born 
in London in 1833. He obtained a com- 
mission in the East India Company's ser- 
vice, studied at Addiscombe, went to India 
in 1852, and in 1853 became a lieutenant in 
the Bombay artillery. He left India in 1857, 
and began to study medicine, for which he 
had always had a predilection, at St. George's 
Hospital. In October 1858 he entered at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1861, M.B. in 1863, and M.D. 
in 1867. He was captain of the first uni- 
versity company of volunteers at Cambridge. 
He became a member of the College of Phy- 
sicians of London in 1863, and was elected a 
fellow in 1870. He was medical registrar 
at St. George's Hospital 1863-5, became assis- 
tant-physician at the Westminster Hospital 
in 1868, and physician in 1875. He lectured 

there successively on forensic medicine, 
materia medica, and medicine. He was 
elected assistant-physician to the Hospital 
for Sick Children in 1873, and physician in. 
1884. At the time of his death he was 
senior physician there and at the Westmin- 
ster Hospital. He delivered the Lumleian 
lectures at the College of Physicians on 
diseases of the heart in childhood, and was 
senior censor in the same year. He died 
unmarried on 3 Nov. 1895 from injuries due 
to his being knocked down by a hansom cab 
while crossing a street eight days before. 

Sturges described his experiences at Addis- 
combe and in India in a novel written in 
collaboration with a niece, entitled ' In the 
Company's Service,' and published in 1883. 
He also published ' An Introduction to the 
Study of* Clinical Medicine 'in 1873, < The 
Natural History and Relations of Pneu- 
monia ' in 1876, and ' Chorea and Whooping 
Cough ' in 1877. His book on pneumonia 
contains many original observations, and is 
of permanent value ; while his treatise on 
chorea, in which that disease is regarded as 
a disease of function, shows close observa- 
tion of the mental and moral as well as the 
physical condition of the young, and lucidly 
expounds a consistent theory of the nature 
and causation of the disease. He was a 
physician of wide observation and excellent 
sense, and his abilities were profoundly re- 
spected in his university and in the College 
of Physicians. 

[Memoir by Dr. "W". H. Dickinson in St. 
George's Hospital Gazette, vol. iii. ; Works ; per- 
sonal knowledge.] N. M. 

STURGION, JOHN (/. 1661), pam- 
phleteer, was at onetime a private in Crom- 
well's lifeguards. On 27 Aug. 1655 he was 
arrested as the author of a pamphlet against 
the Protector, called l A Short Discovery of 
his Highness the Lord Protector's Intentions 
touching the Anabaptists intheArmy'(7%r- 
loe Papers, iii. 738). He was discharged 
from the lifeguards and for a time imprisoned. 
In 1656 Major-general Goffe complained that 
Sturgion's preaching attracted large crowds 
at Reading (ib. iv. 752). About July 1656 
Sturgion and other anabaptists sent an ad- 
dress to Charles II complaining of their suffer- 
ings under ' that loathsome hypocrite,' the 
Protector, and announcing their return to 
their allegiance to the king, begging him 
also to establish liberty of conscience and 
abolish tithes (CLARENDON, Rebellion, xv. 
105 ; Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 145). He 
was suspected of a share in Sindercombe's 
plot against Cromwell, became one of Sexby's 
chief agents, and was arrested on 25 May 




1657 with two bundles of ' Killing no Mur- 
der' under his arms [see SEXBY,EDWAKD, and 
SINDEKCOMBE, MILES]. For this he was com- 
mitted to the Tower, where he remained till 
February 1659 (THURLOE, vi. 311, 317; 
Rawlinson MS. A Ivii. 413). At the Re- 
storation he was appointed one of the mes- 
sengers of the court of exchequer (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 104). In October 
1662 he petitioned for leave to resign his 
place to Thomas Benbow, on the ground of 
bodily infirmity (ib. 1661-2, p. 513). Stur- 
gion was the author of ' A Plea for Tolera- 
tion of Opinions and Persuasions in Matters 
of Religion differing from the Church of 
England' (4to, 1661). It is addressed to 
Charles II, consists largely of extracts from 
Jeremy Taylor's l Liberty of Prophesying,' 
and is reprinted in ' Tracts on Liberty of 
Conscience,' edited by E. B. Underbill for 
the Hanserd Knoll vs Society in 1846 (p. 

[Authorities mentioned in the article.] 

C. H. F. 

STURT, CHARLES (1795-1869), Aus- 
tralian explorer, was born on 28 April 1795 
in the Bengal Presidency, where his father, 
Thomas Lenox Napier Sturt, of an old Dor- 
set family, was a puisne judge in the East 
India Company's service. His mother, Jan- 
nette, daughter of Dr. Andrew Wilson, was 
descended from the border families of Scott, 
Kerr, and Elliott. Educated first at Ast- 
bury in Cheshire, and later at Harrow, and 
with a Mr. Preston near Cambridge, Sturt 
obtained a commission as ensign in the 
39th regiment on 9 Sept. 1813. In Fe- 
bruary 1814 he joined the 1st battalion of the 
39th regiment, then serving in the second 
army corps under Sir Rowland Hill (Vis- 
count Hill) in the Pyrenees, and fought 
at Garris, at the passages of the Oaves, at 
Orthes, Garin. Aire, and Toulouse. Later in 
that year he saw service in Canada during 
Sir George Prevost's operations at Chazy 
and on Lake Champlain. Returning to 
Europe on Bonaparte's escape from Elba in 
1815, Sturt with his regiment entered Paris, 
and remained for a time with the army of 
occupation in the north of France. From 
1819 to 1826 he served in Ireland, and took 
an active part in some stirring episodes 
during the ' Whiteboy' riots. He became 
lieutenant on 7 April 1825, and captain on 
15 Dec. 1825. In command of a detachment 
of his regiment he arrived at Sydney in May 
1827. There he was appointed to the staff 
of Sir Ralph Darling [q. v.], governor of 
New South Wales, as military secretary 
and brigade-major, acting also for a time as 
Darling's private secretary. 

Between November 1828 and April 1829, 
in command of a government party of eight 
men, and accompanied by Alexander Hamil- 
ton Hume [q. v.], Sturt thoroughly examined 
the hitherto impenetrable marshes of the 
Macquarie, and, after forcing a way through 
them and crossing vast plains, discovered the 
Darling. Though the saltness of this river 
at several distant points after a long drought 
checked further advance, Sturt proved that 
it received those westward streams from the 
Blue Mountains (the Macquarie, Castlereagh, 
and Bogan), whose destination had hitherto 
been undetermined. According to Arrow- 
smith, he at this time explored 1,272 miles. 
In November 1829, accompanied by George 
(afterwards Sir George) Macleay [q. v.], 
Sturt led an expedition, for further investi- 
gation of the Darling, along the unknown 
course of the Murrumbidgee, till stopped by 
vast reed-beds. Here a depot was formed, 
and two boats were built, in one of which 
Sturt and Macleay, with six men, embarked. 
The other was soon swamped on sunken 
rocks, and with it were lost all provisions 
except flour, tea, and sugar. Five days of 
risky navigation through a narrowing chan- 
nel brought the party to a broad river, named 
by Sturt the Murray. Its parent stream was 
later identified with the Hume, so named 
by Hume when discovered and crossed 
by him in 1824 at a point three hundred 
miles higher up. But to Sturt the Murray 
river solved the problem of the whole south- 
eastern water system. So clearly did he read 
its meaning that on presently reaching the 
junction of another river he rightly assumed 
that to be the Darling. Thirty-three days 
after entering the Murray he crossed Lake 
Alexandrina, and found its outlet to the sea 
impracticable. A survey of the coast dis- 
pelled all hope that some vessel might be on 
the look-out, and want of provisions forbade 
him to explore the fine region now in view. 
Notwithstanding the adverse current and 
rapids and the dangers from hostile tribes, 
Sturt and his seven companions spent on the 
desperate return voyage only seven days 
more than had been occupied by their down- 
stream course. Each man had to subsist on 
a daily pound of flour and a weekly quarter- 
pound of tea. Sturt and Macleay shared 
fully in every peril and privation, toiling 
at the oar from dawn to nightfall. They 
reached the depot late in April 1830, all in 
very weak condition ; Sturt was nearly blind. 
Arrowsmith computes the distance explored, 
to and along the Murrumbidgee and down 
the Murray to the lake, at 1,950 miles, and 
considers that by the opening up of these 
rivers and of their j unction with the Darling 




over two thousand miles of water commu- 
nication were given to the world. 

For some months in 1830 Sturt was em- 
ployed in Norfolk Island on trying services, 
for which he received the thanks of the New 
South Wales government. The effect of 
continued strain on his health and eyesight 
then obliged him to seek advice in England, 
and ultimately, on 19 July 1833, to quit the 
army. During this forced inactivity, and 
while still too blind to read, he published in 
1833 the ' Journals ' of his first two expedi- 
tions in 1828 and 1831, ' with observations 
on the colony of New South Wales ' (2 vols.) 

In 1834 he married Charlotte Christiana, 
daughter of Colonel William Sheppey Greene, 
military auditor-general, Calcutta, and, re- 
turning to Australia, settled in New South 
Wales. In May 1838, in charge of the third 

1 overland ' party with cattle for South Aus- 
tralia, and eager at the same time to further 
geographical research, he traced the Hume 
from where Hume had left it, till, after join- 
ing the Goulburn, the Ovens, and the Mur- 
rumbidgee, it becomes the Murray. He ex- 
plored much country along the latter river, 
till at Moorundi he struck westward and 
crossed the Mount Lofty ranges to Adelaide, 
noting specially the fine mineral promise of 
the mountains. This expedition was fol- 
lowed in September by daring attempts to 
enter the Murray mouth in a whaleboat. 
His report on the dangers of that estuary, 
by dispelling visions of a new capital at 
Encounter Bay, raised the price of land 
round Adelaide twenty-five to thirty per 

In 1839 he brought his family to Adelaide, 
where he entered on an active official career. 
On 3 April of that year, after the resignation 
of Colonel William Light [q. v.], the first 
surveyor-general of South Australia, Sturt 
had accepted that post at the request of the 
governor, Colonel George Gawler [q.v.], who 
was not aware that meantime the home 
government had appointed Captain Frome, 
R.E., to the same office. On the arrival of 
the latter officer in the colony, Sturt on 

2 Oct. was made assistant commissioner of 
lands. The work of the survey, as well as 
that of allotting the land to settlers, was at 
that time particularly difficult in the new 
t province.' Sturt and Frome did excellent 
work in reducing to order the chaos of the 
first rush of settlers, and the two men were 
fast friends while thus working together and 
throughout their lives. On 29 Aug. 1842 
Sturt was moved to the post of registrar- 
general, and in January 1843 he volunteered 
to explore the centre of the continent, but 
his orders were delayed till dangerously late 

in the following year of drought. Yet he 
started in August 1844 with Mr. Poole and 
John Harris Browne and twelve other men, 
taking as draughtsman John McDouall 
Stuart [q. v.] (who in 1862 finally crossed 
the continent). The Darling was followed 
upwards from its junction with the Murray, 
176 miles to Cawndilla. Thence Stanley 
Range was crossed into the depressed northern 
interior. The party suffered greatly from 
want of water. No rain fell from November 
to July. In January 1845, at latitude 
29 40' and longitude 141 45', a good creek 
was found in the Rocky Glen, and at this 
depot they remained for six months. Thev 
dug underground chambers for relief from 
the heat, and to make possible Sturt's writing 
and mapping. The officers were attacked by 
scurvy, of which Poole died. Sturt's pre- 
caution in taking sheep with his party proved 
invaluable in saving life. On the first rainfall 
in July, Sturt sent home a third of his party, 
moved forward the depot, and rode sixty- 
nine miles westwards. Here progress was 
stopped by a large lake-bed, dry but for salt 
pools, yet too soft to cross. This lake is 
now known in its two branches as Lake 
Blanche and Lake Gregory ; and, though not 
joined to Lake Torrens, as Sturt supposed, it 
yet forms part of the same remarkable series 
of central salt lakes. Baulked in a direction 
which in a better season might have led him 
to success, Sturt, on 14 Aug., with Browne 
and three men, set out for the north-west. 
On the 18th he discovered the watercourse 
named by him Strzelecki Creek, after Sir 
Paul Edmund Strzelecki [q. v.] Though 
partly dry, it contained large pools of water, 
and was sufficiently important for him to 
follow it up for over sixty miles. Crossing 
in succession three smaller creeks at distances 
of from fifteen to eighteen miles apart, Sturt 
and Browne plunged into a terrible district 
of sand ridges and stony desert, till at lati- 
tude 24 30' they were forced back by want 
of grass and water. On their return on 
3 Oct. to their depot at Fort Grey, they had 
ridden over nine hundred miles in seven 
weeks. After six days' rest Sturt, with 
Stuart and two fresh men, on 9 Oct. went 
north-eastwards, and, crossing Strzelecki 
Creek, he, on the 15th, discovered some forty 
miles further, in good country, Cooper's 
Creek, a fine stream. Then, turning north- 
westwards, they were again baffled by sand 
ridges and hopeless desert. Before returning 
to the depot Sturt followed up the Cooper 
for over a hundred miles. But it was left 
to the later explorers, Kennedy and Gregory, 
to prove that the Cooper, the Strzelecki, and 
their dependent ' creeks ' all form part of one 




lacustrine delta, whose upper waters, found 
by Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell [q.v.] in 
Queensland on 14 Sept. 1845, were by him 
mistaken for the Victoria of the north. This 
river is now known as the Cooper or Barcoo. 

On returning to the depot Sturt fell ill 
with scurvy, but by long trying stages gained 
the Darling 270 miles distant and finally, 
after an absence of nineteen months, his 
party arrived at Adelaide. Arrowsmith puts 
the mileage of this expedition at ' over 3,450,' 
and says that Sturt attained to within 150 
miles of the centre of the continent. In 
1849 he published his ' Narrative of an Ex- 
pedition into Central Australia, 1844-1846, 
with a notice of the Province of South 
Australia in 1847 ' (2 vols.) 

ButSturt's explorations were only episodes 
in his active life. From 1839 to 1842 he 
held his appointment of commissioner of 
lands. From 1842 to 25 Aug. 1849 he was 
registrar-general, with a seat in the executive 
and legislative councils, arid from 28 Sept. 
1845 he was also colonial treasurer. On 
25 Aug. 1849 he became colonial secretary, 
and held that office till the close of 1851, 
when he retired on a pension granted by the 
colony. In March 1853 he returned with 
his family to England, and till his death on 
16 June 1869 he lived at Cheltenham, main- 
taining to the last his keen interest in Austra- 
lian exploration, and actively aiding by his 
counsels in the preparations of later expe- 
ditions. He was a fellow of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and in May 1847 that 
society presented him with their founder's 
gold medal. He was also a fellow of the 
Linnean Society. In 1869 he was nominated 
a K.C.M.G., but he died without receiving 
that honour. He left four children three 
sons and a daughter. Colonel Napier George 
Sturt, R.E., is the eldest son. 

The chief results of Start's explorations 
were the general survey of the largest river 
system of Australia and the opening up of 
South Australia and of its extensive water 
communication ; while he was the first tra- 
veller, for a long time the only one, to approach 
the centre of Australia. The volumes in 
which he recorded his journeys, written amid 
hardships and under the drawback of impaired 
eyesight, aim at no literary effect, yet charm 
by their vivid narrative. They contain many 
illustrations from his own hand which give 
proof of his artistic talents, and especially of 
his rare skill in drawing and colouring birds 
and animals. His attainments in various 
branches of natural science, especially in 
ornithology and botany, were considerable. 
His fellow explorers, Eyre and Harris- 
Browne, wrote with enthusiasm of the quali- 

ties which enabled him to pursue among 
savages a path never stained by bloodshed. 

Duplicate portraits of Sturt by Crossland 
are respectively in the council chamber at 
Adelaide and in the possession of Miss Sturt. 
Another portrait by the same artist hangs 
in the art gallery, Adelaide. A crayon draw- 
ing, executed by Koberwein in 1868, is now 
in the possession of Colonel Napier George 
Sturt. Of two busts by Summers one is in 
the art gallery at Adelaide, and the other 
belongs to C. Halley Knight. 

[Capt. Sturt's Journals, &c., above mentioned, 
also some manuscript papers by him and a manu- 
script Journal of his ' overland ' journey down 
the Hume and Murray; Royal Geographical 
Society's Journals, vols. xiv. and xvii. (1847); 
Cannon's Historical Record of the 39th Foot; 
Address by Sir Samuel Davenport at Inaugural 
Meeting of the South Australian Branch of the 
Geographical Society of Australasia; Napier's 
Colonisation ; Hovell and Hume's Journey of Dis- 
covery in 182-t ; A Short Account of the Public 
Life and Discoveries in Australia of Capt. Sturfc 
(reprinted in 1859 from a South Australian 
paper) ; John Arrowsmith's maps and memo- 
randa.] B. M. S. 

STURT, JOHN (1658-1730), engraver, 
was born in London on 6 April 1658, and at 
the age of seventeen was apprenticed to 
Robert White [q. v.], in whose manner he 
engraved a number of small portraits as 
frontispieces to books. Becoming associated 
with John Ayres [q.v.], he engraved the most 
important of that famous writing-master's 
books on calligraphy, and acquired celebrity 
for his skill in such work : he engraved the 
Lord's Prayer within the space of a silver 
halfpenny, the Creed in that of a silver penny, 
and an elegy on Queen Mary on so small a 
scale that it could be inserted in a finger- 
ring. Sturt's most remarkable production 
was the Book of Common Prayer, executed 
on 188 silver plates, all adorned with borders 
and vignettes, the frontispiece being a por- 
trait of George I, on which are inscribed, in 
characters so minute as to be legible only 
with a magnifying glass, the Creed, the Lord's 
Prayer, the Commandments, the prayer for 
the royal family, and the twenty-first psalm. 
This was published in 1717, and in 1721 he 
engraved, in a similar manner, the ' Orthodox 
Communicant.' He was extremely indus- 
trious, and executed the illustrations to 
many of the religious and artistic publica- 
tions of the time, including Bragge's ' Passion 
of Our Saviour,' 1694; the elder Samuel 
Wesley's 'History of the Old and New 
Testament in Verse,' 1704 and 1715; the 
English editions of Audran's ( Perspective of 
the Human Body,' Pozzo's 'Rules of Per- 




spective/ and Perrault's ' Treatise on the Five 
Orders of Architecture ; ' Laurence Howell's 
'View of the Pontificate/ 1712; J.Hamond's 
' Historical Narrative of the Whole Bible/ 
1727 ; and Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's Progress/ 
1728. He also engraved the ' Genealogy of 
George I/ in two sheets, 1714 ; ' Chrono- 
logical Tables of Europe/ 1726 ; and a plate 
of the ' Seven Bishops/ from a calligraphic 
drawing by T. Rodway. Sturt was the in- 
ventor of the quaint class of prints known 
as l medleys/ the first of which he published 
in 1706. 'His last employment was upon the 
plates to James Anderson's valuable work 
' Selectus Diplomatum et Numismatum 
Thesaurus.' He at one time kept a drawing 
school in St. Paul's churchyard in partner- 
ship with Bernard Lens (1659-1725) [see 
under LENS, BERNAKD, 1631-1708]. He died 
in London in reduced circumstances in 
August 1730. A portrait of Sturt, mezzo- 
tinted by W. Humphrey from a painting by 
Faithorne, was published in 1774. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; Wai pole's Anec- 
dotes, ed. Dallaway and Wornum; Vertue's col- 
lections in Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 23070 f. 29, 
23076 f. 29, 23078 f. 66; Dodd's manuscript 
Hist, of English Engravers, Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 
33405.] F. M. O'D. 

baron and justiciar, was son of Robert de 
Stuteville, one of the northern barons who 
commanded the English at the battle of the 
Standard in August 1138 (Gesta Stcphani, p. 
160). His grandfather, Robert Grundebeof, 
had supported Robert of Normandy at 
Tenchebrai in 1106, where he was. taken cap- 
tive and kept in prison for the rest of his 
life (RoG. Hov. iv. 117-18). Dugdale makes 
one person of the Robert Stuteville who 
fought at the battle of the Standard and the 
justiciar, but in this he was no doubt in error. 

Robert de Stuteville the third occurs as 
witness to a charter of Henry II on 8 Jan. 
1158 at Newcastle-on-Tyne (EYTON, p. 33). 
He was a justice itinerant in the counties of 
Cumberland and Northumberland in 1170- 
1171 (MADOX, Hist. Exchequer, i. 144, 146), 
and sheriff of Yorkshire from Easter 1170 to 
Easter 1175. The king's castles of Knares- 
borough and Appleby were in his custody in 
April 1174, when they were captured by 
David, earl of Huntingdon. Stuteville, with 
his brothers and sons, was active in support 
of the king during the war of 1174, and 
he took a prominent part in the capture 
of William the Lion (1143-1214) [q.v.] at 
Alnwick on 13 July (RoG. Hov. ii. 60). He 
was one of the witnesses to the Spanish 
award on 16 March 1177 (id. ii. 131), and 

from 1174 to 1181 was constantly in at- 
tendance on the king, both in England and 
abroad (ETTON, passim). He seems to have 
died in the early part of 1186 (ib. p. 273). He 
claimed the barony, which had been forfeited 
by his grandfather, from Roger de Mowbray, 
who by way of compromise gave him Kirby 
Moorside (RoG. Hov. iv. 118). Stuteville 
married twice ; by his first wife, Helewise, 
he had a son William (see below) and two 
daughters ; by the second, Sibilla, sister of 
Philip de Valoines, a son Eustace. He was 
probably the founder of the nunneries of 
Keldholme and Rossedale, Yorkshire (DuG- 
DALE, Monast. Angl. iv. 316), and was a 
benefactor of Rievaulx Abbey. 

Robert de Stuteville was probably brother 
of the Roger de Stuteville who was sheriff 
of Northumberland from 1170 to 1185, 
and defended Wark Castle against Wil- 
liam the Lion in 1174 (JOKDAX FANTOSME, 
passim). Roger received charge of Edinburgh 
Castle in 1177 (EYTON, p. 214). 

governor of Topclive Castle in 1174, and of 
Roxburgh Castle in 1177 (RoG. Hov. ii. 58, 
133). He was a justice itinerant in York- 
shire in 1189, and in the following year was 
sheriff of Northumberland. He remained 
in England during the third crusade, and 
was at first a loyal supporter of Richard's 
interests. William de Longchamp sent him 
to arrest Hugh de Puiset [q. v.] in April 
1190, and in 1191 made him sheriff of Lin- 
colnshire. Afterwards he seems to have 
been won over by John, and in March 1193 
he joined with Hugh Bardolf in preventing 
Archbishop Geoffrey of York from besieging 
Tickhill (id. iii. 35, 135, 206). Stuteville 
was nevertheless reconciled to the king, and 
in ] 194 was one of the commissioners whom 
Richard appointed to settle the dispute be- 
tween Archbishop Geoffrey and the canons 
of York (MADOX, Hist. Exch. i. 33). On 
the accession of John, William de Stuteville 
received charge of the counties of Northum- 
berland and Cumberland (RoG. Hov. iv. 91). 
From the new king he received a grant of 
fairs at Butter-Crambe and Cottingham, and 
by his influence at court was able to obtain a 
settlement of his dispute with William de 
Mowbray (ib. iv. 117-18). John visited him 
at Cottingham.. in January 1201, and in that 
same year made him sheriff of Yorkshire (ib. 
iv. 158, 161). Stuteville died in 1203, leav- 
ing by his wife Berta, niece of Ranulph de 
Glanville [q. v.], two sons Robert (d. 1205) 
and Nicholas (d. 1219) ; the latter had a son 
Nicholas, who died in 1236, and with whom 
the male line of William de Stuteville came 
to an end. From a collateral branch of the 




family there descended Sir William de Skip- 
with [q. v.] 

[Roger Hoveden's Chronicle (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Gesta Stephani and Chronique de Jordan Fan- 
tosrae ap. Chronicles of Stephen. Henry II, and 
Richard I (Rolls Ser.) ; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 
455 ; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope, 
pp. 457-8; Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II; 
Eoss's Judges of England ; authorities quoted.] 

C. L. K. 

STYLE, WILLIAM (1603-1679), legal 
author, eldest son of William Style of 
Langley, Beckenham, Kent (grandson of Sir 
Humphrey Style, esquire of the body to 
Henry VIII), by his second wife, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Robert Clarke [q. v.], was 
born in 1603. He matriculated at Oxford, 
from Queen's College, on 12 June 1618, and 
resided for a time at Brasenose College, but 
left the university without a degree. He was 
admitted in November 1618 a student at the 
Inner Temple, where he was called to the 
bar in 1628. After the death without issue 
(1659) of his half-brother, Sir Humphrey 
Style, bart,, gentleman of the privy chamber 
to James I, and cup-bearer to Charles I, he 
resided on the ancestral estate of Langley. 
He died on 7 Dec. 1679, and was buried in 
Langley church. By his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Duleing of Rochester, 
he had issue two sons : William, who died in 
his lifetime unmarried, and Humphrey, who 
died without male issue. The present ba- 
ronet, Sir William Henry Marsham Style 
of Glenmore, co. Donegal, is descended from 
Sir Humphrey Style's second son, Oliver, 
and thus represents a younger branch of the 

Style translated from the Latin of John 
Michael Dilherr ' Contemplations, Sighes, 
and Groanes of a Christian,' London, 1640, 
12mo. He compiled: 1. ' Regestum Prac- 
ticale, or the Practical Register, consisting 
of Rules, Orders, and Observations con- 
cerning the Common Laws and the practice 
thereof,' London, 1657, 8vo, 3rd edit. 1694. 
2. ' Narrationes Modernae, or Modern Re- 
ports begun in the now Upper Bench Court 
at Westminster in the beginning of Hilary 
Term 21 Caroli, and continued to the end of 
Michaelmas Term, 1655, as well on the cri- 
minal as on the pleas side,' London, 1658, fol. 
He also edited, with additions, Glisson and 
Gulston's ' Common Law Epitomiz'd,' Lon- 
don, 1679, 8vo. Style's Reports are the only 
Published records of the decisions of Henry 
Jolle [q.v.] and Sir John Glynne [q. v.] 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Hasted's Kent, i. 
86 ; Berry's County Geneal. (Kent) ; Inner 
Temple Books ; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
iii. 470; Wallace's Reporters; Marvin's Legal 

Bibliography; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Wotton's Ba- 
ronetage, ii. 22 ; Foster's Baronetage.] 

J. M. R. 

(1815-1862), art amateur. [See LE 

1856), historian of Suffolk, born on 31 Jan. 
1796, was the only son of Alexander Fox of 
Norwich, by his wife Anna Maria (d. 1848), 
daughter of Robert Suckling of Woodton- 
cum-Langhale in Suffolk, by his wife, 
Susannah Webb, a descendant of Inigo Jones 
[q. v.] Robert Suckling was of an ancient 
Suffolk family, which included among its 
members the poet Sir John Suckling [q. v.l 
and Nelson's uncle, Maurice Suckling [q. v.] 
On the death of Robert's son, Maurice Wil- 
liam, without issue on 1 Dec. 1820, Alfred 
Inigo took the surname and arms of Suck- 
ling and succeeded to the estates. He was 
educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
whence he graduated LL.B. in 1824. On 
10 July 1839 he was instituted on his own 
petition to the rectory of Barsham in Suffolk, 
which he held until his death. He died at 
40 Belmont Road, St. Heliers, Jersey, on 
3 May 1856. On 31 Jan. 1816 he married 
Lucia Clementina, eldest daughter of Samuel 
Clarke, by whom he had four sons Robert 
Alfred, Maurice Shelton, Charles Richard, 
and Henry Edward and six daughters. 

Suckling was the author of: 1. 'Memorials 
of the County of Essex,' London, 1845, 4to ; 
originally printed in ' Quarterly Papers on 
Architecture,' 1845, vol. iii., edited by John 
Weale [q. v.] 2. < History and Antiquities 
of Suffolk,' London, 1846-8, 4to. The latter 
work was not completed. His ' Antique and 
Armorial Collections,' 1821-39, 16 vols. 4to, 
consisting of notices of architectural and 
monumental antiquities in England and 
Picardy, form Additional MSS. 18476-91 
(Brit. Mus.) (Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ii. 
512, viii. 522). He also edited ' Selections 
from the Works of Sir John Suckling, with a 
Life of the Author,' London, 1836, 8vo. 

[Burke's Landed Gentry, 1894 ; Luard's Grad. 
Cantabr. p. 502; Foster's Index Ecclesiasticus, 
p. 168 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ii. 512, viii. 
522, 8th ser. xii. 6 ; Norfolk Chronicle, 10 May 
1856; Norwich Mercury, 10 May 1856; Illus- 
trated London News, 17 May 1856; Davy's 
Suffolk Collections in Addit. MSS. 19150 ff. 293, 
299, 303, 19168 f. 189.] E. I. C. 

SUCKLING, SIB JOHN (1609-1642), 
poet, was born in his father's house at Whitton, 
in the parish of Twickenham, Middlesex, and 
was baptised there on 10 Feb. 1608-9. His 
grandfather, Robert Suckling (d. 1589), the 




descendant of an ancient Norfolk family, was 
mayor of Norwich in 1582 (see Egerton MS. 
2713), and represented that city in parlia- 
ment in 1586. He married in 1559 Eliza- 
beth (d. 1569), daughter of William Bar- 
wick. Their eldest son, Edmond Suckling 
(the poet's uncle), was dean of Norwich from 
1614 until his death, at the age of seventy- 
two, in July 1628 (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ii. 476). 
In 1618 he drew up a protest against Arch- 
bishop Abbot's visitation of the see (cf. 
Addit. MS. 32092, f. 308). The poet's father, 
Sir John Suckling (1569-1627), entered 
Gray's Inn on 22 May 1590 (FOSTER, Reg ister, 
p. 77), and was returned to parliament for 
the borough of Dunwich in 1601 (Members 
of Parl. i. 440). In 1602 he was act- 
ing as secretary to the lord treasurer, Sir 
Robert Cecil, and in December 1604 he 
became receiver of fines on alienations, in 
succession to Sir Arthur Aty (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1603-10, pp. 162, 175, 377). 
In the parliament of 1614 he appears to have 
sat for Reigate (Members of Parl. App.p. xl). 
He was knighted by James I at Theobalds 
on 22 Jan. 1615-16 (MBTCALFB, Knights, p. 
166) ; in February 1620 he became a master 
of requests, and in 1622 he was appointed 
comptroller of tLe royal household, ; paying 
well for the post.' The position was doubt- 
less a very lucrative one in the hands of a 
man like Suckling, who had hitherto let slip 
no opportunity of accumulating manors, fee- 
farms, and advowsons in various parts of the 
country (State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, pp. 
161, 434 ; several of his official commissions 
are preserved m Addit. MS. 34324 if. 230-2). 
In September 1621 he had been mentioned 
as Weston's most serious competitor for 
the chancellorship of the exchequer (Sydney 
Papers, 1746, ii. 353, 364), and in March 1622 
he was actually promoted to be secretary of 
state, while Charles I, upon his accession 
three years later, created him a privy coun- 
cillor. In 1623 he elected to serve in par- 
liament as member for Middlesex, having 
been elected not only for that county, but 
also for Lichfield and Kingston-on-Hull. In 
1625 he represented Yarmouth, and in 1626 
he elected to sit for Norwich in preference 
to Sandwich ( Members of Parl. pp. 465, 470, 
473). This was in Charles's second parlia- 
ment, and he died on 27 March 1627. 

The poet's mother was Martha, daughter 
of Thomas Cranfield, citizen and mercer of 
London, by Martha, daughter of Vincent 
Randill ; she was thus sister to Lionel Cran- 
field [q.v.], who was in 1622 created first Earl 
of Middlesex. The poe t is said, upon the some- 
what dubious testimony of Aubrey, to have 
inherited his wit from her, his comely person 

from his father. Dame Martha Suckling died 
on 28 Oct. 1613, aged 35, her son John being 
then but four and a half years old (see in- 
scriptions upon family tombs in St. Andrew's, 
Norwich, ap. BLOMEFIELD, Norfolk, iv. 307- 
31]). She also left Martha, who married 
Sir George Southcott of Shillingford, Devon- 
shire, and, after his suicide in 1638, married as 
her second husband William Clagett of Isle- 
worth, and died at Bath on 29 June 1661 
(she is said to have been the favourite sister 
of the poet, who sent her a consolatory letter 
in 1638) ; Anne, who married Sir John Davis 
of Bere Court (LE NEVE, Pedigrees of Knights, 
p. 162), and died on 24 July 1659 ; Mary 
and Elizabeth, who died unmarried (cf. monu- 
ment in Pangbourne church, Oxfordshire). 
After his first wife's death the elder Sir John 
married Jane, widow of Charles Hawkins, 
and originally of the Suffolk family of Reve 
or Reeve. At her instance about 1600 he 
purchased the estate of Roos or Rose Hall, 
near Beccles, and to her he left this manor, 
together with his house in Dorset Court, 
Fleet Street. He was anxious that after 
his death his son should purchase from his 
stepmother the reversion of the manor of 
Rose Hall ; but the poet failed to do so, and 
when the widow took as her third husband 
Sir Edwyn Rich, knight, of Mul barton, 
Norfolk, she carried the estate into that 
family (for this somewhat obscure transfer 
of property, see SUCKLING, Hist . of Suffolk, 
i. 29 ; cf. DAVY, Suffolk Collections, vol. Ixxiv.) 
The only reason for supposing that Suck- 
ling was educated at Westminster seems to 
be that Aubrey made a memorandum to 
question Dr. Busby about the matter. At 
sixteen he went to Cambridge, matriculating 
from Trinity College as a fellow-commoner 
on 3 July 1623. He took no degree, and, 
though Davenant speaks in extravagant 
terms of his proficiency as a scholar, it seems 
safer to conclude with Isaac Reed that his 
learning was polite rather than profound. 
He is said to have had a very good ear for 
music, and with this went, as is often the 
case, a marked linguistic faculty. Suck- 
ling was admitted of Gray's Inn on 23 Feb. 
1626-7 (FOSTER, Eegister, p. 180). His 
father's death, on 27 March following, made 
him heir to rich estates in Suffolk, Lincoln- 
shire, and Middlesex, and enabled him to cut 
a considerable figure at court. Among his 
associates would appear to have been Sir 
Tobie Matthew [q. v.], Thomas Nabbes (who 
dedicated his play of ' Co vent Garden' to 
him in 1638), Wye Saltonstall [q. v.] (who 
dedicated to him his translation of Ovid's 
< Epistolge de Ponto ' in 1639), ' Tom' Carew, 
' Dick' Lovelace, and ( Jack' Bond. He was 




more intimately allied with William Dave- 
nant (to whom he addressed several copies 
of verse, and from whom he may have de- 
rived the special veneration of Shakespeare 
by which he was distinguished), and ' the ever 
memorable ' John Hales, to whom he also 
addressed verses in the form of a poetical 

His connection with the Middlesex family 
served as an introduction to the higher 
official circles. But the sojourn of the 
youthful gallant at court was interrupted 
before the end of 1628, when he is said to 
have commenced his travels. From Paris, 
whither he went first, he proceeded to 
Italy, but he was back in England before 
19 Sept. 1630, when he was knighted by the 
king at Theobalds (METCALFE; WALKLEY 
in his Catalogue of 1639 says 19 Dec.) 
In July 1631 he seems to have attached 
himself to the force of six thousand men 
who set out from Yarmouth under the Mar- 
quis of Hamilton to reinforce the army of 
Gustavus Adolphus. Under these leaders 
he is said to have taken part in the defeat 
of Tilly before Leipzig on 7 Sept. 1631, and 
to have been present at the sieges of Crossen, 
Guben, Glogau, and Magdeburg. Returning 
from these adventures in 1632, Suckling 
flung himself with a passion of prodigality 
into all the pleasures of the court. Cards 
and dice had an irresistible fascination for 
him, and he is fain to admit that he prized 
a pair of black eyes or ' a lucky hit at bowls 
above all the trophies of wit ' (Session of the 
Poets, stanza 19). Aubrey has a picturesque 
story to the effect that his sisters came one 
day to the ( Peccadillo bowling-green crying 
for the fear he should lose all their portions ' 
(this is one of the earliest references to Pic- 
cadilly; cf. WHEATLEY and CUNNINGHAM, 
ii. 483). At times, however, he had his 
revenge, as when in 1635 at Tunbridge Wells 
he won the best part of 2,000/. from Lord 
Dunhill at ninepins (CaL State Papers, 
Dom. 1635, p. 385 ; cf. SPENCE'S Anecdotes, 
ed. Singer, pp. 2-4). One of his favourite 
haunts in London was the Bear tavern at 
the Bridge Foot, whence he dated his letter 
1 from the Wine-drinkers to the Water- 
drinkers.' His gay career as a courtier was 
interrupted in the autumn of 1634 by an 
unpleasant episode, or, as Garrard says in a 
letter to Strafford dated 10 Nov. 1634, by 
* a rodomontado of such a nature as is scarce 
credible/ Suckling had been paying assi- 
duous court to the daughter of Sir Henry 
W^illoughby, a considerable heiress, and his 
pretensions were approved by Charles I, with 
whom he was a favourite. The progress of 
the negotiations was regarded with disfavour 

by the lady, who was determined to thwart 
the match. In order to effect this she ap- 
pealed to another suitor, Sir John Digby 
(younger brother of Sir Kenelm), to whom 
she assigned the task of procuring Suckling's 
signature to a written renunciation of all 
claim to her hand. . Digby, who was a 
powerful man and an expert swordsman, pro- 
ceeded to London in quest of his rival. As 
it happened, he met him on the road, and, 
after a brief argument, proceeded to blows, 
whereupon the unfortunate poet was cud- 
gelled ' into a handful, he never drawing his 
sword.' The tame manner in which he 
submitted to the gross outrage loosened the 
tongues of many detractors at court, and 
consequent tattle may have led to the greater 
interest which he manifested about this 
time in the sedate avocations of men such as 
Lord Falkland, Roger Boyle, Thomas Stan- 
ley [q. v.], and other philosophers or scholars. 
He was present with Falkland and others 
at the formal debate, held in the rooms of 
John Hales at Eton, respecting the com- 
parative merits of Shakespeare and the 
classical poets, when the decision was given 
unanimously in Shakespeare's favour (GiL- 
DON, Miscellaneous Letters and Essays, 1694, 
pp. 85-6). Early in 1637 was written and 
circulated (in manuscript form) the well- 
known 'Session of the Poets,' in which 
Suckling enshrined with happy ingenuity the 
names of the most interesting of his contem- 
poraries. The idea has been often imitated by 
Rochester (Trial for the Bays}, Sheffield 
(Election of a Poet Laureate}, and by many 
others, of whom the best perhaps is Leigh 
Hunt (Feast of the Poets). In this same year 
Suckling made, in company with Davenant, a 
journey to Bath. ' Sir John,' Aubrey says, 
' came like a young prince for all manner of 
equipage ; ' he ' had a cartload of bookes carried 
down, and it was there he wrote the little 
tract about Socinianism.' The winter that 
followed saw the production of his first play, 
1 Aglaura,' respecting which Garrard writes 
to Strafford on 7 Feb. 1637-8, 'Two of the 
king's servants, privy chambermenboth, have 
writ each of them a play, Sir John Sutlin 
and Will Barclay, which have been acted in 
court and at the Black Friars with much 
applause. Sutlin's play cost three or four 
hundred pounds setting out. Eight or ten 
suits of new cloathes he gave the players, an 
unheard of prodigality.' There is little doubt 
that the king was present, and expressed 
concern at the unhappy ending, for Suckling 
modified his tragedy and called it a tragi- 
comedy, a plan ' so well approved by that ex- 
cellent poet Sir Robert Howard that he has 
followed this president [sic] in his " Vestal 




Virgin " ' (LANGBAINE). The success was 
probably due in large measure to the novelty 
of the scenery, rarely, if ever, seen before on 
the stage, except in the production of masques. 
It was revived at the Restoration, when 
Pepys called it ' a mean play,' and Fleclmoe, 
scarcely more polite, said that it seemed 
' full of flowers, but rather stuck in than 
growing there' (Short Discourse on the Eng- 
lish Stage). ' Aglaura ' was published in 
folio in 1638 with some prefatory verses by 
Brome. The w r ide margins provoked the 
derision of the wits, who compared the text 
to ' a child in the great bed at Ware ' ( Uni- 
versity Poems, 1656, p. 57 ; Musarum De- 
licia, 1817, p. 53). 

In January 1639, when the Scottish cam- 
paign was first mooted, Suckling and his 
friend George Goring [q. v.] ofi'ered and un- 
dertook to bring a hundred horse each to 
the rendezvous within three days if neces- 
sary. Suckling's contingent was duly raised 
at a cost, it is said, of 12,000/., and accom- 
panied Charles on his march to the border 
in May 1639. Though he shared in Hol- 
land's precipitate retreat from Kelso, no 
special act of cowardice can be laid to the 
poet's share. What exposed him in par- 
ticular to the raillery of the rhymesters 
was the costly bravery of scarlet coats and 
plumes and white doublets with which he 
bedecked his troopers. The maker of the 
sprightly verses ' Upon Sir John Suckling's 
Most Warlike Preparations for 'the Scottish 
War ' (id. p. 81 ; cf. Vox Borealis, 1641, ap. 
Harl. Misc. 1809, iii. 235) would have been 
still more sarcastic had he known how 
Leslie had captured Suckling's private coach 
containing a quantity of sumptuous clothes 
and 3001. in money ( Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1640-1, p. 178). But Suckling seems to 
have gained rather than lost ground in the 
king's esteem by his conduct in this cam- 
paign. On 22 Feb. 1639-40 he was given a 
commission as captain of carabineers (ib. 
1639-40, p. 481), and about this time ap- 
peared in quarto his play ' The Discontented 
Colonel ' [1640], in which the disloyalty of 
the Scots was reflected upon not obscurely. 
This was the first draft of the play which 
was printed in 1646 as ' Brennoralt.' It must 
have been shortly after this, or at any rate 
during the winter of 1640-1, that he drew 
up his letter of counsel to the king in the 
form of a letter to the queen's confidant, Sir 
Henry Jermyn (it was printed in 1641 as 'A 
Coppy of a Letter found in the Privy 
Lodgeings at Whitehall,' and subsequently 
included in the 'Fragments' of 1646; cf. 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640-1, p. 521). 
His vague advice to Charles was primarily 

to quit his passive attitude and 'doe some- 
hing extraordinary.' The king was to out- 
bid the parliamentary leaders by granting 
all, and more than all, that was desired. 
About the middle of March the poet sup- 
plemented his advice by a scheme for a coup 
de main. This was the t first army plot ' or 
plan to secure the command of the army for 
the king. But dissensions took place among 
its promoters, and one of them, George 
Goring, communicated as much of the de- 
sign as it suited his purpose to reveal to the 
leaders of the opposition (see D'EwEs's Diary 
ap. Harl. MS. 163, f. 316; see GOEING, 
GEOEGE, 1608-1657). A committee was 
promptly appointed to investigate the plot. 
The leaders of the opposition were specially 
exasperated against Suckling, as he was 
known during the past fortnight to have been 
busily engaged in enlisting pretended levies 
for Portugal. On 2 May the king's agents 
had tried to procure admission for a hundred 
of these men into the Tower, with a view, it 
was believed, to the liberation of Straflbrd. 
On the same day Suckling had brought sixty 
armed men to a tavern in Bread Street (RusH- 
WOETH, iv. 250 ; MOOEE'S Diary, ap. Harl. 
MS. 477, f. 26 ; GAEDINEE, Hist, of England, 
ix. 349). On 6 May it was expected that 
Suckling and his associates would be charged 
before the lords' committee, but they failed 
to put in an appearance, and on 8 May a 
proclamation was issued against them. 

The king had promised the parliament to 
detain the courtiers ; but Suckling was 
already beyond the seas, and his friends had 
found concealment. Shortly after his escape 
there appeared ' A Letter sent by Sir John 
Suckling from France deploring his sad Es- 
tate and Flight, with a Discoverie of the 
Plot and Conspiracie intended by him and 
his adherents against England,' a metrical 
tract containing a burlesque account of the 
poet's life in forty-two stanzas, the manner 
being very much that of Sir John Mennes. 
This trifle was printed in quarto at Lon- 
don, though dated from Paris, 16 June 1641, 
and is important as proving that Suckling 
was living at Paris in June 1641. A singular 
pamphlet in prose also appeared in 1641, en- 
titled ' Newes from Sir John Sucklin, being a 
relation of his conversion from a Papist to a 
Protestant ; also what torment he endured by 
those of the Inquisition in Spaine ; and how 
the Lord Lekeux, his Accuser, was strucken 
dumbe, hee going to have the Sentence of 
Death passed upon him. Sent in a letter 
to the Lord Conway, now being in Ireland. 
Printed for M. Rookes, and are to be sold 
in Grub Street, 1641.' This rare tract de- 
serves small measure of credit, but some por- 




tions may be true. It relates how Suckling 
after his flight took up his residence at 
Rouen, and thence removed to Paris. Here 
he commenced an amour with a lady of dis- 
tinction, but was soon compelled to make 
his escape in order to avoid the fury of Lord 
Lequeux, the lady's former lover. Suckling 
fled to Spain, whither he was followed by 
the nobleman, who accused him of having 
conspired the death of Philip IV. After 
suffering various tortures he was condemned 
to the gallows, but was saved by the re- 
morse of his enemy, who confessed to the per- 
jury and was sentenced to die in his stead. 
The tract concludes, ' Sir John and his lady 
are now living at The Hague in Holland, 
piously and religiously, and grieve at nothing 
but that he did the kingdom of England 
wrong.' Somewhat similar in its tone is the 
squib, also dated 1641, entitled 'Four Fugi- 
tives Meeting, or the Discourse amongst my 
Lord Finch, Sir Francis Windebank, Sir John 
Sucklin, and Dr. Roane, as they accident- 
ally met in France, with a detection of their 
severall pranks in England ' (London, 4to). 
Much more intelligible in its general aim 
and purport than these roundhead fabrica- 
tions is a satire launched about the same 
time against the levities of Suckling's gilded 
youth, under the title ' The Sucklington Fac- 
tion, or Suckling's Roaring Boyes.' Here in 
the centre of a large folio sheet an engrav- 
ing represents two cavaliers, sumptuously 
dressed, and provided with such emblems of 
debauchery and profusion as long hair and 
wreaths of tobacco-smoke, dice-boxes and 
drinking-cups ; while the paper, which is 
closely printed, condemns in strong language 
all such incitements to evil conversation. 

Some uncertainty exists as to the circum- 
stances of Suckling's death. One story, of 
which there are several variants, recounts 
how having been 'robbed by his valet, that 
treacherous domestic, on finding his offence 
discovered, placed an open razor [Oldys 
says a penknife] in his master's boot ; who, 
by drawing it hastily on, divided an artery 
which caused his death through loss of blood ' 
(see RIMBATJLT, ap. Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. i. 316). This story, which reached its 
disseminator Oldys in a very circuitous 
manner, may quite safely be rejected in 
favour of Aubrey's account of the poet's 
death, which also has the support of family 
tradition. Reduced in fortune and dreading 
to encounter poverty, he purchased poison of 
an apothecary in Paris, and 'produced death 
by violent fits of vomiting.' This solution, 
which he had condemned strongly enough in 
the case of his eldest sister's husband, was 
probably reached by him in May or June 

1642. He was buried, says Aubrey, in the 
cemetery attached to the protestant church 
at Paris. The news of his death elicited 
'An Elegie upon the Death of the Renowned 
Sir John Sucklin [by William Norris ?]/ 
1642, 4to ; and also ' A copy of two remon- 
strances brought over the River Stix in 
Caron's Ferry-boate, by the Ghost of Sir 
John Sucklin' (London, 1643, 4to; Brit. 

Upon his death, unmarried and without 
issue, the patrimony passed to his father's 
half-brother, Charles Suckling. His great- 
grandson, Dr. Maurice Suckling, prebendary 
of Westminster, was father of Captain Mau- 
rice Suckling [q. v.] and of Catherine, the 
mother of Lord Nelson (see BURKE, Com- 
moners, iii. 460). 

Only a small fraction of Suckling's writings 
appeared during his lifetime. All that is 
of importance in his literary legacy appeared 
four years after his death in a volume en- 
titled 'Fragmenta Aurea. A collection 
of all the Incomparable Peeces written by 
Sir John Suckling ; and published by a 
friend to perpetuate his memory. Printed 
by his owne copies, London : for Humphrey 
Moseley,' 1646, 8vo ; 2nd edit, unaltered, 1648, 
8vo. This contains his ' Poems,' ' Letters to 
divers eminent personages written on several 
occasions,' the three plays ' Aglaura,' ' The 
Goblins,' and ' Brennoralt/ and the tract on 
Socinianism already mentioned, entitled ' An 
Account of Religion by Reason. A Discourse 
upon Occasion presented to the Earl of Dor- 
set ' (a manuscript copy of this remarkable 
essay is in the Record Office). Prefixed is 
an indifferent portrait, skilfully engraved by 
William Marshall, and accompanied by some 
lines from the pen of Thomas Stanley (see 
STANLEY, Poems, 1651) (the original edition 
with the portrait is scarce ; it fetched 81. 10s. 
in 1897, BooJt Prices Current,^. 37). Among 
the ' Poems,' of which the lyrics are stated 
to have been ' set in music ' by Henry Lawes, 
appeared for the first time in print ' A Session 
of the Poets,' together with ' I prithee send 
me back my heart.' ' The Ballad upon a Wed- 
ding,' that 'masterpiece of sportive gaiety 
and good humour,' had already seen the 
light in 'Witts Recreations' (1640). Har- 
leian MS. 6917 contains a copy of the ' Bal- 
lad ' headed ' Upon the Marriage of the Lord 
Lovelace ; ' but the hero and heroine were in 
fact Roger Boyle (afterwards Earl of Orrery 
[q. v.]) and Lady Margaret Howard, third 
daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, and the wed- 
ding took place at Northumberland House 
(where now stands the Grand Hotel), hence 
the allusion to Charing Cross in the second 
stanza (see Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. xi. 




376). S tickling celebrated the same event 
in his Dialogue ' Upon my Lord Brohall's 
Wedding.' An imitation of the l Ballad ' by 
Robert Fletcher, entitled ' A Sing-song on 
Olarinda's Wedding,' was printed in his ' Ex 
Otio Negotium ' (1656, pp. 226 sq.) ; another 
appeared in 1667 in * Folly in print or a Book 
of Rymes' (pp. 116-21). 

The liveliest of Suckling's dramatic efforts 
saw the light for the first time in the posthu- 
mous ' Fragmenta.' ' The Goblins ' was 
acted at Blackfriars by the king's men in 
1638, and revived at the Theatre Royal on 
24 Jan. 1667 ; a few copies with separate 
title-page, of which the British Museum 
possesses an imperfect example, were circu- 
lated in 1646. The 'goblins' are thieves 
who, under their chief, Tamoren, frighten the 
kingdom of ' Francelia ' by their devils' pranks, 
and deal out a rough kind of justice in the 
fashion of Robin Hood and his men. The 
course of the action is bewildering, though 
opportunity is found for some passages that 
sparkle and for some smart touches of lite- 
rary and social criticism. Its sprightly 
fancy and lively admixture of dialogue with 
songs and music, and a superabundance of 
action, seem to have commended it to Sheri- 
dan, who is stated to have had the intention 
of remodelling it (Gent. Mag. 1840, i. 127 ; 
cf. WAKD, ii. 349. ' The Goblins ' is printed 
in Dodsley's ' Old Plays,' 1744, vol. vii.) 

' The Tragedy of Brennoralt ' (a revised 
and expanded version of ' The Discontented 
Colonel' of 1640), though it contains some 
fine rhetorical passages, is less effective than 
either ' Aglaura ' or ' The Goblins,' the point 
being considerably lost when the relation 
between Almerin and Iphigene, after appa- 
rently resembling that between the ' Two 
Noble Kinsmen,' turns out to be one of 
attraction between a man and a disguised 
woman. It is curious as containing some 
palpable allusions to the political situation 
in 1639, the Lithuanians in the piece, the 
scene of which is laid in Poland, being evi- 
dently meant for the Scots (ib. p. 351). 
' Brennoralt ' was revived at the Theatre 
Royal on 5 March 1668 (see GENEST, x. 68). 
Suckling did not hesitate to introduce into 
the printed text without acknowledgment 
some whole lines from Shakespeare. Words- 
worth made a note in manuscript in his copy 
of Suckling upon the marked extent to 
which Suckling praised, quoted, and imitated 
Shakespeare (HAZLITT, vol. i. p. Ixvi). 

Suckling's unfinished tragedy, ' The Sad 
One,' was published, together with some other 
supplementary poems and letters, in the third 
edition of ' Fragmenta Aurea . . . with some 
new Additional ' of 1658. Later editions, 


entitled ' The Works of Sir John Suckling/ 
appeared in 1696, 1709 (for Jacob Tonson), 
1719, 1766 (Dublin), and 1770. In 1836 
appeared ' Selections from the Works of Sir 
John Suckling' (with a very fine portrait 
engraved by James Thomson after Vandyck), 
with an elaborate life by Alfred Inigo Suck- 
ling [q. v.], upon which, as far as the critical 
apparatus is concerned, is based the standard 
edition of ' The Poems, Plays, and other Re- 
mains of Sir John Suckling,' edited by W. C. 
Hazlitt in 1874 (London, 2 vols. 8vo ; Mr. 
Hazlitt is not fortunate in the additional 
poems which he inserts and ascribes to Suck- 
ling. One of these, * Cantilena,' &c., i. 102, 
is by Dr. Richard Corbet, and is inscribed in 
1 Corbet's Poems/ 1807, p. 94, as ' Dr. Corbet's 
Journey into France.' There is equally little 
reason for ascribing to Suckling the verses 
' I am confirmed a woman can/ which first 
appeared in the ( Musical Ayres and Dia- 
logues ' of 1652). A decorative edition of 
the ' Poems and Songs ' was published in 
1896 (London, 8vo). 

Hallam, with his usual good judgment, re- 
marks of Suckling that, though deficient in 
imagination, he left former song-writers far 
behind in gaiety and ease. It is not equally 
clear, he adds, that he has ever since been sur- 
passed. His ' Epithalamion ' ' is a matchless 
piece of liveliness and facility ' (Lit. Hist, of 
Europe, 1854, iii. 44). The pre-eminence of 
< natural, easy Suckling/ as Millamant calls 
him (CONGREVE, Way of the World, act iv. 
sc. iv.), in the qualities of fluency and brio 
is best shown by the contrast of his minor 
pieces to those of contemporaries with whom 
he had most affinity, such as Lovelace and 
Carew. The chief merit of his somewhat 
dreary plays is that of harbouring a few 
poems of price, such as 'Why so pale and 
wan, fond lover ? ' (in the fourth act of 

Aubrey obtained a minute description of 
Suckling from his intimate friend Davenant. 
' He was incomparably ready at reparteeing, 
and his wit most sparkling when most set on 
and provoked. He was the greatest gallant 
of his time, the greatest gamester both for 
bowling and cards ; so that no shopkeeper 
would trust him for sixpence, as to day for 
instance he might by winning be worth 200/. 
and the next day he might not be worth 
half so much, or perhaps be sometimes minus 
nihilo. He was of middle stature and slight 
strength, brisk round eye, reddish-faced and 
red-nosed (ill-liver), his head not very big, 
his hair a kind of sand colour. His beard 
turned up naturally, so that he had a brisk 
and graceful look ' (AUBREY, Brief Lives, 
1898, ii. 242). Aubrey adds that Suckling 





invented the game of cribbage, and that he 
made 20,000/. by sending ' his cards to all 
gameing places in the country which were 
marked with private markes of his ' (ib. p. 

The best portrait of Suckling is by Van- 
dyck, and is now at Hartwell, near Aylesbury. 
It represents the poet, in a blue jacket and 
scarlet mantle, leaning against a rock, and 
holding in his hand what is evidently in- 
tended to be the first folio of Shakespeare. 
The head only has been engraved by George 
Vertue, whose work has been copied by 
W. P. Sherlock and others. A second Van- 
dyck portrait, preserved by the Suckling 
family at Woodton, was engraved for the 
' Selections ' in 1836. The head engraved for 
the 1719 edition by Vandergucht was taken 
from a third portrait by Vandyck, of which 
the National Portrait Gallery possesses a 
copy by Theodore Russel (reproduced in the 
' Academy,' 28 Nov. 1896). The Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford contains a half-length 
portrait of the poet as a young man ; an en- 
graving by Newton, after a drawing by J. 
Thurston, is prefixed to the 1874 edition of 
Suckling's < Works.' 

[The valuable life of Suckling prefixed to the 
Selections by Alfred Inigo Suckling in 1836 
is not based upon any single authority,. but 
rather upon the accretions that have grown 
round the scanty notices of Phillips, Langbaine, 
and Wood, especially the notes of Oldys and 
Haslewood,and the anecdotes related by Aubrey. 
Mr. Hazlitt has supplemented this life, in the 
edition of 1874, by some valuable references to 
the State Papers and other documents. See 
also Davy's Suffolk Collections, vol. Ixxiv. if. 
287-303 (invaluable for the genealogical infor- 
mation they contain) ; Hunter's Chorus Vatum 
(Addit. MS. 24489) ; Bromfield's Hist, of Nor- 
wich ; Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, iv. 307 sq., 
and x. 190 sq. ; Strafford Letters, 1739, i. 336- 
337 ; Nichols's Progresses of James I, iii. 132; 
Pepys's Diary and Correspondence, 1849, i. 253, 
ii. 373, iii. 383, iv. 51, 91 ; Gardiner's Hist, of 
England, ix. 311-60; Langbaine's Dramatic 
Poets, 1691 and 1699 (British Museum copies 
with notes by Oldys and Haslewood) ; Morgan's 
Phoenix Britannicus, 1732 ; Ellis's Orig. Letters, 
3rd ser. iv. 191; Ellis's Early English Poets, 
iii. 243 ; Drake's Literary Hours, ii. 253 ; 
Wheatley and Cunningham's London, i. 136, 
513, ii. 483 ; Husband's Collection of Orders, &c. 
1643, pp. 215 sq. ; Verney Papers (Camden Soc.), 
p. 235 ; Brydges's Restituta, iii. 3, and Censura, 
iii. 115, 120 ; Lysons's Environs of London, iii. 
588 ; Genest's Hist, of the British Stage, x. 66- 
68 and 250; Baker's Biogr. Dram. 1812, i. 697 ; 
Fleay's Biogr. Chron. of Engl. Drama, ii. 255 ; 
Jesse's Memoirs of the Court of the Stuarts, ii. 
472; Monro's Acta Cancellaria, 1847, p. 277; 
Burke's Hist, of Commoners, iii. 458-9; Masson's 

Life of Milton, i. 503, ii. 62, 183, vi. 515 ; Retro- 
spective Keview, ix. 19-38; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. xi. 203 ; Granger's Biogr. Hist. ii. 243 ; 
Harl. MS. 6071 ; notes kindly furnished by G. 
Thorn Drury, esq. The life in Lloyd's Memoires 
is justly called by Oldys ' a chaine of Hyper- 
bolies.] . T. S. 

SUCKLING, MAURICE (1725-1778), 
comptroller of the navy, second son of 
Maurice Suckling, prebendary of Westmin- 
ster and rector of Barsham in Suffolk, whose 
wife Anne, daughter of Sir Charles Turner, 
was a niece of Robert Walpole, first earl of 
Orford [q. v.], was born at Barsham on 
14 May and baptised on 27 May 1725. His 
sister Catherine married the Rev. Edmund 
Nelson, and was the mother of Horatio 
(afterwards Lord) Nelson [q. v.] Suckling 
was promoted to be a lieutenant in the navy 
on 8 March 1744-5, and in May 1747 was 
appointed by Byngto the Boyne, then in the 
Mediterranean. In November 1748 he was 
appointed to the Gloucester; in 1753 he 
was in the Somerset. On 2 Dec. 1755 he 
was promoted to the rank of captain and 
appointed to the Dreadnought, of 60 guns, 
in which he went out to the West Indies. 
The Dreadnought was one of the three 60-gun 
ships detached in October 1757, under Cap- 
tain Arthur Forrest [q. v.] of the Augusta, 
and on the 21st fought a spirited action 
with a vastly superior French squadron. In 
1761 Suckling returned to England, when 
the Dreadnought was paid off and Suckling 
was appointed to the Lancaster, which was 
employed in the Channel under Lord Hawke. 
After the peace he was for some years on 
half-pay, but on the imminence of war with 
Spain consequent on the dispute about the 
Falkland Islands [see FAEMEK, GEOKGE], he 
was appointed in November 1770 to the 
Raisonnable, and from her was moved in 
April 1771 to the Triumph, guardshipin the 
Medway. In April 1775 he was appointed 
comptroller of the navy, a post which he 
held till his death on 14 July 1778. He 
was buried in the chancel of Barsham 

Suckling married, on 20 June 1764, his 
cousin Mary, daughter of Horatio, lord Wal- 
pole of Wolterton. She died in 1766 without 

[Information from the family; Charnock's 
Biogr. Nav. vi. 149; Nav. Chron. (with portrait), 
xiv. 265 ; Burke's Peerage, s. n. l Orford; ' official 
documents in the Public Record Office.] 

J. K. L. 

SUDBURY, SIMON or (d. 1381), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, son of Nigel Theobald 
and his wife Sarah, people of respectable 
position (Monasticon, vi. 1370), was born 




at Sudbury in Suffolk in the parish, of St. 
Gregory. He studied at the university 
of Paris, received the degree of doctor of 
laws, and practised canon law. Entering 
the service of the pope, he became chaplain 
to Innocent VI, and auditor of the papal 
palace, and was sent by Innocent as nuncio 
to Edward III in 1356 (Fcedera, iii. 328, 
402). Having been appointed chancellor of 
the church of Salisbury, he was sent by the 
king, who then speaks of him as his clerk, 
to make a representation on his behalf to the 
pope in May 1357 (ib. p. 356). In the fol- 
lowing October he was appointed one of the 
proctors of David Bruce (1324-1371) [q. v.] 
at the papal court. The pope rewarded his 
services by providing him to the see of Lon- 
don in October 1361 (ib. p. 628). He was 
consecrated on 20 March 1362, and received 
the temporalities on 15 May. He was ap- 
pointed joint ambassador to treat with the 
Count of Flanders in 1364 about the pro- 
posed marriage between his daughter and 
Edmund de Langley, first duke of York [see 
LANGLEY]. He appears to have held advanced 
religious "opinions, for it is said that being 
on his way to Canterbury in 1370, at the 
time of a jubilee of St. Thomas the Martyr, 
he 'addressed a party of the pilgrims that 
thronged the road, telling them that the 
plenary indulgence that they sought would 
be of no avail. His words were received 
with anger, and an old knight, Sir Thomas 
of Aldon in Kent, is said to have answered 
him, 'My lord bishop, why do you seek to 
stir up the people against St. Thomas ? By 
my soul, your life will be ended by a foul 
death' (Anglia Sacra, i. 49). Nevertheless 
in that year he had a heretic named Nicholas 
Drayton in his prison (Fcedera, iii. 889). 
Many abuses prevailed in his cathedral 
church, and on 26 Jan. 1371 the king wrote 
to him, bidding him reform them, and blaming 
him for not having done so before (ib. p. 908). 
Both in 1372 and 1373 he was employed 
with others in negotiations with France. 
Having, in conjunction with his brother John 
of Chertsey, bought the church of St. Gregory 
in his native parish, he rebuilt the west end, 
caused it to be made collegiate, and joined 
his brother in building a college for a warden 
and five priests where their father's house 
had stood. 

In February of that year Sudbury was ap- 
pointed with John of Gaunt, duke of Lancas- 
ter [q. v.], and others to treat with France. 
"William Wittlesey [q. v.], archbishop of Can- 
terbury, having died on 6 June, and the 
election of Cardinal Simon Langham [q. v.] 
having been quashed, Sudbury was trans- 
lated by papal bull to Canterbury in 1375, 

and received the temporalities on 5 June (ib. 
p. 1028). In August, by the king's appoint- 
ment, he accompanied Lancaster to the con- 
ference at Bruges, and must there have been 
in constant communication with Wyclif, who 
was one of the English commissioners. While 
in Flanders he received his pall. He returned 
to England in 1376, and was enthroned on 
Palm Sunday, 13 April. He was a member of, 
Lancaster's party, was blamed by the enemies 
of Alice Ferrers [q. v.] for causing her ' ma* 
gician,' a Dominican friar, to be remitted to 
the custody of his order instead of having 
him burnt, and for not excommunicating 
Alice herself for breach of an oath that she 
had made before him (Chronicon AnglicK\ 
pp. 99-100). At the meeting of convocation 
in January 1377 he tried to oppose the 
demand of the clergy that William of Wyke- 
ham, bishop of Winchester, then in disgrace, 
owing to the triumph of Lancaster, should 
be specially called upon to attend, but was 
forced by their insistence, and by William 
Courtenay [q. v.], bishop of London, to send 
for him. He was held to be neglectful of 
his duty with respect to Wyclif, and to 
have been urged to activity by his suffragans, 
and specially by Courtenay, who seems to 
have acted independently of him at the 
abortive trial of Wyclif on 19 Feb. 

Sudbury crowned Richard II on 16 July 
1377, and at the meeting of parliament on 
13 Oct. expounded the needs of the kingdom 
in a speech founded on the text Matt, xxi.5. 
Having received the bulls of Gregory XI 
against Wyclif, he wrote to the chancellor 
of the university of Oxford, notifying his 
intention of holding the inquiry demanded 
by the pope, and asking for doctors of divinity 
to be his assessors. Acting with Courtenay, 
he directed on 18 Dec. that an examination 
of the charges against Wyclif should be held 
at Oxford, and that he should be sent to 
London to appear before him and Courtenay, 
in accordance with their citation ; but the 
hearing was postponed until after Christmas, 
and the place changed from St. Paul's to 
Lambeth, where early in 1378 Wyclif ap- 

! peared before the archbishop in his chapel. 

j Either during or before the opening of the 
proceedings the Princess of Wales sent the 

i judges an order that they were not to proceed 
to sentence. While the inquiry was in pro- 
gress the Londoners appeared in the chapel 
and made a disturbance. Sudbury badeWyclif 

I keep silence on the matters in question, and 

| not suffer others to discuss them, and the 
proceedings ended. During that year he 
continued his visitation, begun in 1376, and 
was resisted by the abbey of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, over which, though an 'exempt 

L 2 




monastery, lie claimed jurisdiction as 'lega- 
tus natus.' The convent appealed to the 
pope, and the matter was not settled at Sud- 
bury 's death (TuoKN, cols. 2155-6). Sanc- 
tuary having been violated at Westminster 
by the followers of Lancaster, who slew a 
man in the abbey church, Sudbury, after 
some hesitation, excommunicated all con- 
cerned in the offence, excepting Lancaster 
by name. He was prompt in upholding 
Urban VI against the cardinals, and preached 
against the schism. In a convocation held 
in November some constitutions were pub- 
lished in his name, one of them regulating 
the stipends of priests engaged to celebrate 
private masses. In March 1379 he was ap- 
pointed on a commission to examine the 
accounts of the last subsidy and the state 
of the revenue. 

He succeeded Sir Richard Scrope [q. v.] 
as chancellor on 27 Jan. 1380 (Fcedera, 
iv. 75), and in his speech at the opening of 
parliament at Northampton in November 
announced the need of a grant, which was 
met by a poll-tax. On the rising of the 
commons in 1381 the Kentish rioters broke 
into the archbishop's prison at Maidstone 
on 11 June, releasing and carrying off with 
them the priest, John Ball (d. 1381) [q. v.], 
whom Sudbury had caused to be imprisoned 
as excommunicate apparently about six weeks 
before. At Canterbury they destroyed the 
archbishop's goods, and on the 12th sacked 
his manor-house at Lambeth. Sudbury was 
with the king and the other ministers in the 
Tower, and the rebels by their messengers 
demanded that he should be delivered up to 
them, declaring that he and the other mini- 
sters were traitors, and being specially hostile 
to him because they were excited against him 
by John Ball. He resigned the chancellor- 
ship. In common with the treasurer, Robert 
de Hales, he urged the king not to meet the 
rebels, whom he is said to have styled bare- 
footed ruffians, but to take measures to subdue 
them, and, this being reported to the mob, 
they swore that they would have his head. 
On the 13th the Kentish men occupied Tower 
Hill, and loudly threatened his life. Early 
on Friday, the 14th, he celebrated mass 
before the king, and remained in the chapel 
after Richard had left the Tower. As soon 
as the king had gone the Kentish men entered 
the Tower, and made one of the servants 
show them where the archbishop was. He 
had passed the previous night in prayer, 
and was awaiting their coming. As they 
rushed into the chapel they cried ' Where 
is the traitor to the kingdom, where is the 
spoiler of the commons ? ' To which he re- 
plied, ; You have come right, my sons ; here 

am I, the archbishop, neither a traitor nor 
a spoiler.' They dragged him forth, and 
took him to Tower Hill, where a vast crowd 
greeted him with yells. Seeing that they 
were about to slay him, he warned them 
that if they did so he would certainly be 
avenged, and that England would incur an 
interdict. After he had spoken further, and 
granted, so far as in him lay, absolution to 
the man, one John Starling of Essex, who 
stood ready to behead him, he knelt down. 
He was horribly mutilated by the axe, and 
was not killed until the eighth blow. The 
treasurer and two others were slain with 
him. His head was placed on a pole, with 
a cap nailed upon it to distinguish it from 
those of the other victims, was carried through 
the streets, and finally placed on London 
Bridge ; his body remained where it lay for 
two days. Six days after his death Sir Wil- 
liam Wai worth [q.v.], the mayor, caused both 
his head and his body to be conveyed reve- 
rently to Canterbury, and the archbishop was 
buried in the cathedral on the south side of 
the altar of St. Dunstan, where a canopied 
monument, which still exists, was erected to 
him. A large slab of marble was placed to 
his memory in St. Gregory's, Sudbury. A 
portion of his epitaph has been preserved 
(WEEVEK, Funeral Monuments, pp. 224-5, 

Though learned, eloquent, and liberal, 
Sudbury lacked independence of character. 
Adhering to John of Gaunt rather than, as 
became his office, taking his own line, he 
was led to neglect his duty as archbishop, 
and was only stirred to activity by Courte- 
nay, to whom he sometimes acted a secon- 
dary part. He seems also to have been in 
the habit of speaking with too little thought 
for the feelings of others. His murder caused 
him to be regarded as a martyr, miracles were 
worked at his tomb, and he was compared 
to his predecessor, St. Thomas (GowER, Vox 
Clamantis.i.c. 14). Nicholas Hereford [see 
NICHOLAS] is reported to have said that he 
deserved his death for blaming Wyclif. 

Besides his work at Sudbury he rebuilt the 
west gate and a great part of the north wall 
of the city of Canterbury, and, the nave of 
the cathedral being in a ruinous state, pulled 
down the aisles, and laid the foundation of, 
and perhaps began, the two new aisles of the 
nave that were afterwards finished, probably 
with money that he had provided. In 1378 
he set on foot a collection for the rebuilding, 
promising forty days' indulgence to those 
who helped in it. In 1379 the archdeacon of 
Canterbury (Audomarus de la Roche) being 
an alien and an adherent of the French king, 
Sudbury received from Richard the tempo- 




ralities of the archdeaconry to help him in 
that work, on which he was spending large 
sums of his own money. 

[Walsingham, Chron. Anglise, Cont. Eulogii, 
Polit. Poems, Fascic. Zizan. (all Eolls Ser.) ; 
Monk of Evesham's Hist. Kicardi II, ed. Hearne ; 
Knighton, ed. Twisden ; Stow's Annales ; Frois- 
sart's Chron. ed. Buchon ; Kymer's Foedera 
(Record edit.) ; Hook's Archbishops of Can- 
terbury Foss's Judges; Stubbs's Const. Hist.] 

W. H. 

SUDBURY, WILLIAM (fl. 1382), theo- 
logian, was a Benedictine monk of West- 
minster, and graduated as doctor of divinity 
at Oxford, where he was an opponent in 
theology in 1382. He wrote : 1 ' De Pro- 
prietatibus Sanctorum/ no copy of which is 
known to be extant. 2. l De Prim is Regali- 
bus regni Anglise ad Richardum II.' Leland 
mentions this as extant at Westminster 
(Collectanea, iii. 45). 3. ' Tabulae super omnes 
libros S. Thomae de Aquino/ extant in MS. 
Reg. 9, F. iv. at the British Museum. 4. ' Tabula 
super Pupillam Oculi editam per Mag. Joh. 
Burgh/ extant in MS. University Library, 
Cambridge, Ee. v. 11. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 698.] C. L. K. 

SUEFRED (/. 695), king of the East- 
Saxons. [See under SIGHARD.] 

SUETT, RICHARD (1755-1805), actor, 
was born in Chelsea in 1755, and at ten 
years of age entered the choir at Westminster 
Abbey as a pupil of Dr. Benjamin Cooke 
[q. v.] In 1769 he sang at the Ranelagh 
Gardens, the Grotto Garden, and at Maryle- 
bone Gardens, and was in May 1770 employed 
by Foote at the Haymarket in some juvenile 
and unnoted parts. On 24 July 1771 at that 
house Master Suett was the original Cupid in 
1 Dido/ a comic opera assigned to Thomas 
Bridges [q. v.] Charles Bannister [q. v.] then 
obtained for him an engagement on the York 
circuit with Tate Wilkinson, with whom he 
remained as singer and second low comedian 
for nine years, at the largest salary Wilkin- 
son ever paid. His first appearance was 
made on 22 Nov. 1771 in Hull, where he 
sang a once favourite song, ' Chloe's my myrtle 
and Jenny's my rose.' Wilkinson thought 
highly of him, calling him his pupil, speaking 
of him as about the age of seventeen, known 
only from having sung one season at Rane- 
lagh, and pronounced him the possessor of 
* a most unpromising pair of legs.' Suett 
proved 'of real importance' to Wilkinson; 
at the close of this engagement a further en- 
gagement for two years, with a penalty of 
100/. for forfeiture, was drawn up. On find- 
ing, however, that Suett had handsome offers 

from Linley for Drury Lane, Wilkinson 
generously destroyed the bond. 

Suett's first appearance at Drury Lane 
took place in October 1780 as Ralph in the 
'Maid of the Well.' On 27 Dec. he created 
a most favourable impression as the ori- 
ginal Moll Flagon in Burgoyne's ' Lord of 
the Manor.' On 9 March 1781 he was the 
first Metaphor in Andrews's ' Dissipation/ 
and he was seen during the. season as Tipple 
in Bates's * Flitch of Bacon.' In Jackman's 
farce ' Divorce/ 10 Nov., he was the ori- 
ginal Tom ; on 13 Dec. the original Piano in 
Tickell's successful opera, the * Carnival of 
Venice;' and on 18 May 1782 the original 
Carbine in Pilon's ' Fair A merican.' He also 
played Squire Richard in ' The Provoked 
Husband/ Waitwell in the ' Way of the 
World/ and Hobbinol in the ' Capricious 
Lovers.' From the records of 1782-3 his 
name is absent. On 14 Nov. 1783 it reap- 
peared to Marrall in ' A New Way to pay 
Old Debts.' Suett also played the Puritan 
in l Duke and no Duke/ and Grizzle in ' Tom 
Thumb/ with one or two insignificant ori- 
ginal parts in no less insignificant operas, 
for which his voice, impaired by dissipation, 
gradually unfitted him. To 1784-5 belong 
Filch in the ' Beggars' Opera/ Lord Froth 
in the ' Double Dealer/ Binnacle in the ' Fair 
Quaker/ Clown in ' Winter's Tale/ and Sir 
Wilful Wit would in the ' Way of the World.' 
He was also the original Sir Ephraim Rupee 
in T. Dibdin's ' Liberty Hall' on 8 Feb. 1785. 
To the following seasons are assigned the 
Clown in ' Twelfth Night/ and Blister in the 
' Virgin Unmasked.' Many similar parts 
were assigned him, including Robin in the 
' Waterman/ Dumps in the 'Natural Son/ 
Lord Plausible in the ' Plain Dealer/ Snip 
in ' Harlequin's Invasion/ Allscrap in the 
' Heiress/ Trappanti, Mungo, First Grave- 
digger, Gibbet in the ' Beaux' Stratagem/ 
Diggory in ' All the World's a Stage/ Colonel 
Oldboy in the ' School for Fathers/ Obe- 
diah in the ' Committee/ Moneytrap in the 
' Confederacy/ Launcelot Gobbo, Doctor Bi- 
lioso (an original part) in Cobb's ' Doctor and 
Apothecary/ 25 Oct. 1788, Gardiner in ' King 
Henry VIII,' Oliver (an original part) in 
Cumberland's ' Impostors/ 26 Jan. 1789, Bar- 
tholo in ' Follies of a Day/ Muckworm in 
' Honest Yorkshireman/ Touchstone, Pistol 
in ' King Henry V/ Booze in ' Belphegor/ 
Solomon in the 'Quaker/ Thurio in 'Two 
Gentlemen of Verona/ Old Hardcastle, and 
Mawworm. He was on 16 April 1790 the 
original Endless in ' No Song no Supper/ 
and on 1 Jan. 1791 the original Yuseph in 
Cobb's ' Siege of Belgrade.' 

When Drury Lane was demolished, Suett 



in 1791-2 accompanied the company to the 
Haymarket Opera-house, where during two 
seasons, he played many insignificant original 
parts, besides appearing as Sancho in ' Love 
makes a Man/ Tipkin in the ' Tender Hus- 
band/ Thrifty in the ' Cheats of Scapin/ Old 
Gobbo, Foresight in ' Love for Love/ Sir 
Felix Friendly in the ' Agreeable Surprise/ 
and Label (an original part) in Hoare's ' Prize' 
on 11 March 1793. On 29 June he made, as 
the original Whimmy in O'KeeflVs i London 
Hermit/ his first traceable appearance at the 
little house in the Haymarket. A winter 
season at the same house under Colman fol- 
lowed, and Suett, besides playing Obediah 
Prim and Bullock, was on 1 Oct. 1793 the 
first Apathy in Morton's ' Children in the 
Wood/ and on 16 Dec. the first Dicky Gossip, 
a barber, in Hoare's i My Grandmother.' On 
the reopening of Drury Lane in the spring of 
1794 Suett played a Witch in ' Macbeth/ 
and was on 8 May 1794 the original Jabal, 
a part in which he scored highly, in Cum- 
berland's ' Jew.' In Kemble's ' Lodoiska/ on 
9 June, he was the first Varbel. 

Suett remained at Drury Lane until his 
death, although he appeared each summer 
down to 1803 at the Haymarket. His parts 
were mainly confined to Shakespearean 
clowns and other characters principally be- 
longing to low comedy. Some few might 
perhaps be put in another category. The 
Shakespearean parts assigned him included 
Clown in ' Measure for Measure/ Polonius, 
Peter in * Romeo and Juliet/ Dogberry, Trin- 
culo, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, and Shallow 
in the ' Merry Wives of Windsor.' Other 
roles of interest were Don Pedro in the 
' Wonder/ Don Jerome in the ' Duenna/ 
Crabtree, Antonio in 'Follies of a Day/ 
Silky in the ' Road to Ruin/ Don Manuel 
in ( She would and she would not/ and Sir 
Robert Bramble in the 'Poor Gentleman.' 
Out of many original parts taken between 
1794 and 1805 the following deserve record : 
Robin Gray in Arnold's ' Auld Robin Gray/ 
Haymarket, 29 July 1794 ; Weazel in Cum- 
berland's l Wheel of Fortune/ Drury Lane, 
28 Feb. 1795 ; Fustian in the younger Col- 
man's ' New Hay at the Old Market/ Hay- 
market, 9 June 1795. In the famous pro- 
duction at Drury Lane of Colman's ' Iron 
Chest/ 12 March 1796, Suett was Samson. 
In the 'Will' by Reynolds, 19 April 1797, 
he was Realize. His great original part of 
Daniel Dowlas, alias Lord Duberly, was 
played at the Haymarket on 15 July 1797. 
On 24 May 1799 at Drury Lane he played 
Diego, a short comic part, on the first ap- 
pearance of Sheridan's Pizarro, and nearly 
damned the piece ; the part was promptly 

cancelled. On 1 Feb. 1800 Suett was, at 
Drury Lane, the first Baron Piffleberg in 'Of 
Age to-morrow/ adapted from Kotzebue by 
T. Dibdin ; on 15 July, at the Haymarket, 
the first Steinberg in C. Kemble's ' Point of 
Honour ; ' and on 2 Sept. the first Deputy 
Bull in the ' Review' of Arthur Griffenhoof 
(George Colman the younger). On 24 Feb. 
1801, at Drury Lane, he was the original 
Dominique in Holcroft's adaptation 'Deaf 
and Dumb.' On 10 June 1805 he played at 
Drury Lane Lampedo in the ' Honeymoon/ 
the last part in which his name can be traced. 
He died on 6 July at a small public-house in 
Denzell Street, Clare Market, and was buried 
in St. Paul's churchyard, on the north side. 
A son, Theophilus Suett, was a good musi- 
cian, and was cast for Samson in 'The Iron 
Chest ' at Covent Garden on 23 April 1799. 
The part, however, was taken by his father, 
who appears to have made on that occasion 
his only appearance at that house. 

Suett followed in the wake of William Par- 
sons (1736-1795) [q. v.] A story is told that 
Parsons, being unwell, could not play his 
part of Alderman Uniform in Miles Peter 
Andre ws's 'Dissipation/ which had been com- 
manded by the king. On being told of this 
fact, George III said that Suett would be able 
to play it. This Suett did with so much suc- 
cess that he became the ' understudy' of Par- 
sons, whose delicate health furnished him 
with many opportunities. Suett was not ac- 
cepted as the equal of Parsons. In a like 
fashion Charles Mathews, who succeeded 
Suett, was held his inferior. Suett, however, 
was not difficult to imitate, and Mathews 
frequently caught his tone. Among Suett's 
best parts were Moll Flagon, Tipple, Apathy, 
Dicky Gossip, the drunken Porter in ' Feu- 
dal Times/ and Weazel in Cumberland's 
'Wheel of Fortune.' The last was much 
admired by Kemble, who, discussing Suett's 
death, said to Kelly : ' Penruddock has lost 
a powerful ally in Suett ; I have acted the 
part with many Weazels, and good ones 
too, but none of them could work up my 
passions to the pitch Suett did ; he had a 
comical, impertinent way of thrusting his 
head into my face, which called forth all my 
irritable sensations' (GEKEST,vii.654). Suett 
depended a good deal upon make-up, at which 
he was an adept. He was given to distort- 
ing his features, and saying more than was 
allotted him. Hazlitt calls him ' the delight- 
ful old croaker, the everlasting Dicky Gossip 
of the stage.' O'Keeffe declared that he was 
'the most natural actor of his time/ and 
Leigh Hunt speaks of him as ' the very per- 
sonification of weak whimsicality, with a 
laugh like a peal of giggles.' It is, how- 



ever, on the praise of Lamb that Suett's 
reputation rests. Lamb declares him 'the 
Robin Goodfello w of the stage. He came in to 
trouble all things with a welcome perplexity, 
himself no whit troubled for the matter. He 
was known, like Puck, by his note, "Ha! 
ha ! ha ! " sometimes deepening to " Ho ! 
ho ! ho ! " . . . Thousands of hearts yet re- 
spond to the chuckling O La ! of Dickey 
Suett . . . He drolled upon the stock of these 
two syllables richer than the cuckoo . . . 
Shakespeare foresaw him when he framed 
his fools and jesters. They have all the true 
Suett stamp, a loose and shambling gait, a 
slippery tongue, this last the ready midwife 
to a without-pain delivered jest, in words 
light as air, venting truths deep as the 
centre, with idlest rhymes tagging conceit 
when busiest, singing with Lear in " The 
Tempest," or Sir Toby at the buttery-hatch.' 

Suett, who lived latterly at Chelsea, was 
fond of low company, and used to spend 
much time in public-houses. He was a good 
singer and story-teller in social circles. His 
breakfast-table was always garnished with 
bottles of rum and brandy, and he frequently 
used, it is said, to qualify himself for his 
work on the stage by getting drunk. Stories 
told concerning Suett's wit are not convinc- 
ing. He played, however, with some humour 
upon his own follies and vices. 

The Mathews collection of pictures in the 
Garrick Club has three portraits of Suett by 
Dewilde one in ordinary dress, a second as 
Endless in ' No Song no Supper,' and a third as 
Fustian in 'Sylvester Dangerwood' to the 
Danger wood of Bannister. A portrait by 
Dewilde, engraved by Cawthorne, is in the 
National Art Library, South Kensington. 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage; Gil- 
liland's Dramatic Mirror; Oxberry's Dramatic 
Biography ; Monthly Mirror, various years ; 
Georgian Era; Kelly's Keminiscences; O'Keeffe's 
Recollections ; Lamb's Essays ; Leigh Hunt's 
Dramatic Essays ; Hazlitt's Dramatic Essays ; 
Clark Russell's Representative Actors; Marshall's 
Cat. of Engraved National Portraits ; Doran's 
Annals of the Stage, ed. Low ; Thespian Diet. ; 
Tate Wilkinson's Wandering Patentee; Ma- 
thews's Table Talk.] J. K. 

(d. 1257), who is also called WALTEK CAL- 
THORP, bishop of Norwich, was a native of 
Norfolk, and studied at the university of 
Paris, where he was 'regens in decretis.' 
He was elected bishop of Norwich towards 
the end of 1243, but Henry III withheld his 
assent till 9 July 1244, hoping to prevent 
the translation of the former Bishop William 
de Raleigh [q. v.] He was confirmed by 
Boniface, the elect of Canterbury, at St. 

Albans the same year, and consecrated at 
Norwich by Fulk Basset, bishop of London 
on 19 Feb. 1245 (STUBBS, Reg. Sacr. Angl. 
p. 41 ; MATT. PARIS, iv. 261, 378 ; Ann. Mon. 
ii. 336, i. 166). Soon afterwards he went to 
the Roman curia at Lyons, returning about 
March 1246 (MATT. PARIS, iv. 555). Suffeld 
preached the sermon at Westminster on 
13 Oct. 1247, when the vase containing the 
holy blood was brought thither by the king. 
He attended the parliament at London in 
February 1248, and in the following Octo- 
ber went to the papal court, whence about 
a year later he returned with ' a shameful 
privilege for extorting money in his bishopric ' 
(ib. iv. 642, v. 5, 36, 80). He was one of 
the bishops who attended the meeting at 
Dunstable on 24 Feb. 1251 to protest against 
the archbishop's right of visitation. Suffeld 
attended the parliament at London in April 
1253, when the king promised to observe the 
charters. At the end of the year he was 
appointed by the pope to collect the tenth 
of ecclesiastical property which had been 
granted to the king. He was busy with this 
during all the subsequent year, and the new 
valuation of ecclesiastical property which 
was made under his direction was known 
as the ' Norwich taxation,' and became the 
basis of nearly all later clerical assessments 
(ib. v. 451, vi. 296 ; Ann. Mon. i. 326, 363-4, 
iii. 191). 

Suffeld died at Colchester on 19 May 
1257, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. 
Miracles are said to have been worked at 
his tomb, for in a time of famine he had 
given all his plate and treasure for the use 
of the poor (MATT. PARIS, v. 638). He 
founded the hospital of St. Mary and St. 
Giles at Norwich for poor priests and 
scholars (Cal. Papal Registers, i. 312), and 
built the lady-chapel of the cathedral. A 
synodal constitution and some statutes of 
his are printed in Wilkins's l Concilia/ i. 
708, 731. A document, 'De potestate 
archiepiscopi Cantuariensis in prioriatu Can- 
tuariensi,' which was drawn up by Suffeld, 
is printed in Wharton's ' Anglia Sacra,' i. 
174-5. There are two of his letters in the 
additamenta to Matthew Paris's ' Chronica 
Majora,' vi. 231-2. The substance of his 
will is given at length by Blomefield in his 
'History of Norfolk.' His bequests in- 
cluded one to the scholars of Oxford. 
William de Calthorp, his nephew, was his 

[Matthew Paris's Ann. Monast. and Mores 
Historiarum, Cotton De Episcopis Norwicensi- 
bus (all three in Rolls Ser.) ; Blomefield's Hist. 
of Norfolk, iii. 486-92 ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra ; 
Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 700.] C. L. K. 



BORD, EDWARD, 1781-1835.] 


(1821-1891), successively Dominican friar 
and Unitarian minister, son of George Suf- 
field, a member of an old Roman catholic 
family in Norfolk, and his wife, Susan Tulley 
Bowen, was born on 5 Oct. 1821 at Vevey, 
Switzerland, and was baptised there as a catho- 
lic by a lay relative, though on the return of 
the family to England he was baptised again, 
for legal purposes, in his own parish church, 
St. Peter's, Mancroft, Norwich, on 27 Dec. 
1821. He never went to school, but accom- 
panied his parents in their travels in Eng- 
land and on the continent. In 1841 he was 
admitted a commoner of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, being at that time a member of the 
established church (cf. Life, p. 98). After 
a residence of less than two years he left the 
university, and became a communicant in 
the Roman catholic church (cf. Five Letters 
on a Conversion to Roman Catholicism, 1873, 
p. 11). He spent some time at St. Cuth- 
bert's College, Ushaw, and then entered the 
seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris, where he 
had Hyacinthe Loyson for a fellow-student. 
On the outbreak of the revolution in 1848 
he returned to Ushaw, and on 25 Aug. 1850 
he was ordained priest. 

After a year's experience of parochial work 
at Sedgefield and Thornley, Suffield joined 
a community of secular priests who had 
established themselves at St. Ninian's, near 
"Wooller, and placed missions in every part 
of the United Kingdom, In 1858 he was 
stationed at St. Andrew's, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, and while there he revived the old 
English custom of collecting ' Peter's pence ' 
for the pope. He joined the Dominican 
order at Woodchester on 21 Sept. 1860, and 
a year later he pronounced the solemn vows. 
For two years after this he was engaged in 
parochial duties at Kentish Town, London. 
His zeal and activity caused him to be 
greatly esteemed by the members of the 
Roman catholic church throughout the 
United Kingdom. With the assistance of 
Father C. F. R. Palmer, he compiled the 
well-known manual of devotions published 
anonymously in 1862 under the title of 
' The Crown of Jesus.' In 1863 he returned 
to Woodchester, and was appointed parish 
priest, master of the lay brothers, and guest- 
master. About this period he instituted 
' Our Lady's Guard of Honour,' or ' Per- 
petual Rosary.' In 1866 he issued < The Do- 
minican Tertiary's Guide,' also compiled in 
collaboration with Father Palmer, and in 
February 1868 he delivered at West Hartle- 

pool a lecture on l Fenianism and the Eng- 
lish People,' which was published permissu 
superiorum. Subsequently he was stationed 
at Husbands Bosworth in Leicestershire 
(10 Oct. 1868). Doubts had at this time 
arisen in his mind as to the truth of the 
Roman catholic doctrine, and, after a corre- 
spondence with the Rev. James Martineau, he 
withdrew on 10 Aug. 1870 from his order and 
the church. A few months later he settled 
down as a Unitarian minister at Croydon. 
In 1874 he published ' The Vatican Decrees 
and the " Expostulation " [of Mr. Gladstone, 
entitled " The Vatican Decrees in their Bear- 
ing on Civil Allegiance"].' He leftCroydon 
in 1877, and in February "1879 he undertook 
the charge of the Unitarian Free Church at 
Reading, where he remained till his death on. 
13 Nov. 1891. His remains were cremated 
at Woking. He married, on 7 Dec. 1871, the 
eldest daughter of Edward Bramley, town 
clerk of Sheffield. 

[Life (anon.), London, 1893, 8vo, written by 
the Rev. Charles Hargrove, Unitarian minister 
at Leeds, and previously a Dominican friar ; 
Times, 16 Nov. 1891; Sunday Sun, 15 Nov. 
1891.] T. C. 

LIAM DE LA, first duke, 1396-14-50; POLE, 
JOHN DE LA, second duke, 1442-1491; BRAN- 
DON, CHARLES, first duke of the Brandon 
line, d. 1545 ; BRANDON, HENRY, second duke, 
1535-1551 : BRANDON, CHARLES, third duke, 
1537 P-1551 ; GREY, HENRY, d. 1554.] 

CATHARINE, 1520-1580.] 

LA, first earl of the Pole family, 1330P-1389; 
POLE, MICHAEL DE LA, second earl, 1361 ?- 
1415; POLE, EDMUND DE LA, 1472P-1513; 
HOWARD, THOMAS, first earl of the Howard 
family, 1561-1626 ; HOWARD, THEOPHILUS, 
second earl, 1584-1640; HOWARD, JAMES, 
third earl, 1619-1688.] 

HENRIETTA, 1681-1767.] 

BARON ST. LEONARDS (1781-1875), lord 
chancellor, second son of Richard Sugden, 
hairdresser, of Duke Street, Westminster, by 
his wife, Charlotte Burtenshaw, was born 011 
12 Feb. 1781. From a private school he 
passed at once into a conveyancer's chambers, 
and was admitted on 16 Sept. 1802 a student 
at Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the 
bar, after two years of practice as a certificated 
conveyancer, on 23 Nov. 1807, was elected a 
bencher on 23 Jan. 1822, and treasurer in 


1836. While he was still below the bar he 
laid the foundation of his success in life by his 
' Practical Treatise of the Law of Vendors 
and Purchasers of Estates/ London, 1805, 
8vo, a work which became the standard 
textbook on its subject ; it reached a four- 
teenth edition in 1862. 

Upon his call Sugden united court with 
chamber practice, and was soon retained, as 
a matter of course, in all cases of importance, 
whether in the common law or the chancery 
courts, which turned on the construction of 
wills or deeds. His profound knowledge of 
the technique of conveyancing is displayed in 
his ' Practical Treatise of Powers/ London, 
1808, 8vo (8th edit. 1861), and his learned 
edition of Gilbert's ' Law of Uses and Trusts ' 
diligence was unremitting, his mastery of his 
speciality unrivalled, his physical strength 
prodigious. Already, in 1817, he held a com- 
manding position at the bar, and in Hilary 
term 1822 Lord Eldon conferred upon him 
the then very rare distinction of a silk gown. 
After several unsuccessful attempts to enter 
parliament he was returned in the tory inte- 
rest on 20 Feb. 1828 for Weymouth and Mel- 
combe Regis, Dorset, which seat he retained 
on his appointment to the office of solicitor- 
general, when he was knighted, 4 June 1829, 
and at the general election of August 1830. 

In the House of Commons Sugden carried 
some minor, but useful measures, chiefly 
relating to the law of trusts and wills, viz. 

1 Will. IV, cc. 36, 40, 46, 47, 60, 65, and 

2 Will. IV, c. 58, 5, and 6 Will. IV, cc. 
16, 17 (SirJ?. B. Suyderis Acts, ed. Atkinson, 
London, 1830, 8vo). A strong protestant, he 
gave a reluctant support to catholic emanci- 
pation as a political necessity ; but in the 
debate on the Clare election (18 May 1829) 
he advocated the exclusion of O'Connell from 
the house. On the formation of Earl Grey's 
administration he was succeeded as solicitor- 
general (26 Nov. 1830) by Sir William Home 
[q. v.J ; nor did he again take minor office. In 
the parliament of 1831-2 he represented St. 
Mawes, Cornwall, after which he was without 
a seat until 1837, when he was returned, 
24 July, for Ripon, Yorkshire. The elevation 
of Brougham to the woolsack Sugden viewed 
with the disgust natural to a consummate 
lawyer, and vented his spleen in a peculiarly 
bitter Ion mot. i If/ he said, ' the lord chan- 
cellor only knew a little law, he would know 
a little of everything.' He had no faith in 
Brougham's projects for the reform of the 
complicated system of which Brougham un- 
derstood so little. He was vexed by his appa- 
rent inattention in court. W^hile Sugden was 
discoursing of such matters as scintilla juris 

;3 Sugden 

or the doctrine of springing uses, the lord 
chancellor sometimes seemed to be writing 
letters or an article for the * Edinburgh Re- 
view/ or perusing papers disconnected with 
the case. On one such occasion Sugden fairlv 
lost patience and paused in his argument until 
Brougham, hardly raising his eyes from his 
papers, bade him continue. An altercation 
then ensued, Sugden complaining that the 
lord chancellor did not give him his atten- 
tion, and Brougham replying that he was 
merely signing formal documents, and that 
Sir Edward might as well object to his 
taking snuff or blowing his nose. In the 
end Sugden sat down, having administered 
a reproof which, though treated for the time 
with nonchalance, was not wholly lost upon 
the chancellor. Less discreet was an at- 
tempt which he made to embarrass the 
chancellor in parliament. Brougham had 
conferred, provisionally, as it afterwards 
appeared, a certain chancery sinecure upon 
his brother. Sugden asked a pointed ques- 
tion on the subject in the House of Com- 
mons. Incensed at what he not unnaturally 
deemed a malignant insinuation of jobbery, 
Brougham made a veiled attack upon Sugden 
in the House of Lords, in a style so peculiarly 
offensive that it was impossible for the 
House of Commons to ignore it (25-27 July 
1832). Feeling that he had gone too far, 
Brougham afterwards offered Sugden a place 
on the exchequer bench, and, when he de- 
clined it, made him a private apology, which, 
being at once accepted, laid the basis of a 
durable friendship (Misrepresentations in 
Campbell' s Lives ofLyndhurst and Brougham 
corrected by Lord St. Leonards, 1869, 8vo). 

Sugden held the great seal of Ireland in 
Sir Robert Peel's first administration, being 
sworn of the privy council on 16 Dec. 
1834. The advent of a stranger was at first 
resented by the Irish bar ; but, though his 
tenure of office was of the briefest the go- 
vernment fell in April 1835 his great 
judicial qualities were soon cordially appre- 
ciated, and his departure was viewed with 
regret. On the question of privilege involved 
in the case of Stockdale v. Hansard, Sugden, 
in supporting the jurisdiction of the queen's 
bench (17 June 1839, 7 Feb., 5 March 1840), 
only expressed the general sense of the legal 
profession [see DENMAN, THOMAS, first LORD 
DENMAN]. He again held the great seal 
of Ireland in Peel's second administration 
(3 Oct. 1841- July 1846), during which 
period he conferred on chancery suitors the 
boon of a systematic code of procedure. By 
cancelling the commissions of certain magi- 
strates who had countenanced the agita- 
tion for repeal of the union, he gave great 




offence to the nationalist party; but his 
action was sustained in parliament by Wel- 
lington and Lyndhurst (14 July 1843). Sug- 
den moved at a county meeting held at 
Epsom on 17 Dec. 1850 a resolution pro- 
testing against the so-called papal aggres- 
sion; but otherwise took little part in pub- 
lic life during the administration of Lord j 
John Russell. On Lord Derby's accession to 
power, he succeeded Lord Truro on the wool- 
sack (4 March 1852), having been appointed 
lord chancellor 27 Feb., and raised to the 
peerage (1 March) as Baron St. Leonards 
of Slaugham, Sussex. His tenure of office, 
which was marked by the passing of measures | 
in amendment of the law of wills, trusts, 
lunacy, and chancery and common-law pro- j 
cedure (15 and 16 Viet. cc. 24, 48, 55, 76, ' 
80, 87), was cut short within the year by 
the fall of the government (20 Dec. 1852). 

St. Leonards declined office on the return 
of his party to power, in February 1858, but 
continued for many years to take an active 
part in thejudicial deliberations of the House 
of Lords and privy council. Within his limits 
he as nearly as possible realised the ideal of 
an infallible oracle of law. His judgments, 
always delivered with remarkable readiness, 
were very rarely reversed, and the opinions 
expressed in his textbooks were hardly less 
authoritative. As a law reformer he did ex- 
cellent work in the cautious and tentative 
spirit dictated by his nature and training. 
He would deserve to be had in grateful 
remembrance were it only for the abolition 
of the absurd rule which, before 1852, 
annually defeated a host of wills for no 
better reason than that the testator had not 
placed his signature precisely at the foot of 
the document. His last legislative achieve- 
ment was the measure in further amendment 
of the law of trusts passed in 1859, and 
commonly known as Lord St. Leonards' Act 
(22 and 23 Viet. c. 35). 

His last years were divided between his 
country seat, Tilgate Forest Lodge, Slaugham, 
Sussex, and his villa, Boyle Farm, Thames 
Ditton, where he died on 29 Jan. 1875. The 
mysterious disappearance of his will, which 
he had made some years before his death, 
occasioned a lawsuit which established the 
admissibility of secondary evidence of the | 
contents of such a document in the absence ! 
of a presumption that the testator had de- \ 
stroyed it animo revocandi (Jarman on Wills, ' 
i. 124). 

St. Leonards was LL.D. (Cambridge, I 
1835) and D.C.L. (Oxford, 1853), high 
steward of Kingston-on-Thames,and deputy- j 
lieutenant of Sussex. An engraved portrait 
of his singularly refined features, from a 

drawing by his daughter, Charlotte Sugden, 
is at Lincoln's Inn. 

He married, on 23 Dec. 1808, Winifred 
(d. 19 May 1861), only child of John Knapp, 
by whom he had seven sons and seven daugh- 
ters. He was succeeded in the title by his 
grandson, Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, the 
present Lord St. Leonards. 

Besides the works mentioned above, St. 
Leonards was author of the following trea- 
tises and minor pieces, all of which were 
published at London : 1. ' A Series of Letters 
to a Man of Property on the Sale, Purchase, 
Lease, Settlement, and Devise of Estates,' 
1809, 2nd edit. 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1815. 2. < A 
Cursory Inquiry into the Expediency of re- 
pealing the Annuity Act and raising the 
Legal Rate of Interest,' 1812, 8vo. 3. ' A 
Letter to Sir Samuel Romilly on the late 
Decisions upon the Omission of the word 
" Signed" in the Attestation to Instruments 
executing Powers, and on the Act for amend- 
ing the Laws in that respect,' 1814, 8vo. 
4. * Considerations on the Kate of Interest 
and on Redeemable Annuities,' 1816, 8vo ; 
3rd edit. 1817. 5. 'A Letter to Charles 
Butler, Esq., on the Doctrine of presuming 
a Surrender of Terms assigned to attend the 
Inheritance,' 1819, 8vo. 6. < A Letter to 
John Williams, Esq., M.P., in reply to his 
Observations upon the Abuses of the Court 
of Chancery/ 1825, 8vo. 7. * A Letter to 
James Humphreys, Esq., on his Proposal to 
repeal the Laws of Real Property and 
substitute a New Code,' 1826, 8vo. 8. ' Ex- 
tracts from the Acts of Parliament relating 
to the Oaths to be taken by the Members 
of the Imperial Parliament,' 1829, 8vo. 
9. ' Speech delivered in the House of Com- 
mons, 16th December 1830, upon the Court 
of Chancery,' 1831, 8vo. 10. < Observations 
on a General Register/ 1834, 8vo. 11. * A 
Letter to the Right Hon.Viscount Melbourne 
on the Present State of the Appellate Juris- 
diction of the Court of Chancery and House 
of Lords/ 1835, 8vo. 12. ' Treatise on the 
Law of Property as administered by the 
House of Lords,' 1849, 8vo. 13. ' Essay on 
the New Statutes relating to Limitations of 
Time, Estates Tail, Dower, Descent, Opera- 
tion of Deeds/ &c., 1852, 8vo ; 2nd edit, 
(enlarged, with title ' A Practical Treatise 
on the New Statutes relating to Property '), 
1862, 8vo. 14. ' Shall we Register our 
Deeds ? ' 1852, 8vo. 15. ' Improvements in 
the Administration of the Law,' 1852, 8vo. 
16. ' Life Peerages : substance of Speech in 
the House of Lords on 7 Feb. 1856.' 17. ' New 
Law Courts and the Funds of the Suitors of 
the Court of Chancery/ 1861, 8vo. 18. ' A 
Handy Book on Property Law, in a series 



of Letters,' 1858, 8vo ; 8th edit. 1869. 

19. 'Baronies by Tenure: Speech in the 
House of Lords, 26 Feb. 1861, on the Claim 
to the Barony of Berkeley/ 1861, 8vo. 

20. ' Case of the Alexandra : Speech in the 
House of Lords, 6 April 1864.' 21. 'Ob- 
servations on an Act for amending the Law 
of Auctions of Estates/ 1867, 8vo. His 
decisions are reported the Irish by Lloyd, 
Goold, Drury, Warren, Jones, and Latouche ; 
the English by De Gex, Macnaghten and 
Gordon, Clark and Moore. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886 ; Lincoln's 
Inn Reg.; Gr. E. C[okayne]'s Complete Peerage; 
Burke's Peerage; Times, 18 Dec. 1850, 30 Jan. 
1875; Law Times, 6 Feb. 1875 ; Solicitors' Jour- 
nal, 6 Feb. 1875; Ann. Reg. 1852 ii. 342, 1875 
ii. 131, 183; Vendors and Purchasers, 14th 
edit, preface ; London Gazette, 23 June 1829 ; 
Burke's Hist, of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland ; 
Hansard's Parl. Deb. new ser. xxi. et seq. ; 
Lords' Jo urn. Ixxx. iv. 35 ; Greville's Memoirs 
G-eo. IV and Will. IV, ii. 312, iii. 22, 178, 231, 
234; Legal Observer, xi. 153; Law Mag. new 
ser. xviii. 59; Solicitors' Journal and Reporter, 
xiii. 423, xix. 250, 259 ; Hardy's Memoirs of 
Lord Langdale, i. 419 ; Lord Campbell's Life, 
ed. Hardcastle, ii. 231; Brougham's Autobio- 
graphy, iii. 428; Martin's Life of Lord Lynd- 
hurst, p. 406 ; Arnould's Memoir of Lord Denman, 
i. 382 ; Nash's Life of Lord Westbury ; Croker 
Papers, ed. Jennings, iii. 353 ; Duke of Bucking- 
ham's Courts and Cabinets of Will. IV and Viet, 
ii. 404; Blackwood's Mag. February 1858.1 

J. M. R. 

SUIDBERT (d. 713), apostle of the 
Frisians, was one of the twelve missionaries 
sent by St. Egbert to work in Northern 
Europe. He went to Frisia in 690, and was 
so successful that he was chosen bishop and 
sent to England for consecration, which he 
received at the hands of St. Wilfrid on 
29 June 693. His see as regionary bishop 
of Frisia was at Dorostadium, now Wijk- 
bij-Duurstede, on the Rhine. He preached 
among the Bructeri in Westphalia ; but when 
they were subdued by the Saxons he repaired 
to Pepin of Heristal, and from him and his 
wife Plectrudis he received the island 'In 
litore/ or Kaiserswerth, near Diisseldorf. 
Here he built a monastery, and died in 713. 
In the old Stiftskirche his relics are shown 
in a shrine of the thirteenth century. He 
appears to have kept up a taste for classical 
learning, for a fine copy of Livy, probably 
of the fifth century, now in the Vienna 
Royal Library, was in his possession. 

[The life of him attributed to Marchelmus, 
or Marcellinus (Surius, Acta Sanctorum, ii. 3, ed. 
Venice, 1581), is a spurious production of a much 
later time. See Diekampf 's Hist. Jahrbuch, ii. 
272, and Haddan and Stubbs's Councils, iii. 225. 

Early in the tenth century St. Radbod, bishop 

of Utrecht, preached a sermon on Suidbert, 

which is extant. Acta SS. Bolland. 1 March, 

p. 67 ; Bseda, Hist. Eccles. ed. Plummer (where 

the various spellings of the name are given) ; 

Paleogr. Soc. plate 183 (from the Vienna Livy) ; 

Alcuin's De Sanctis Ebor. v. 1073; Bouquet, 

I ii. 641 ; Diet. Chr. Biogr. and authorities 

' quoted.] M. B. 

SULCARD or SULGAKD (f,. 1075), 
chronographer, probably of Norman origin, 
was a monk of Westminster in the time of 
Edward the Confessor. He wrote a history 
of the monastery, which he dedicated to the 
Abbot Vitalis (1072-1082 ). Two copies are 
extant among the Cottonian MSS. (Titus A. 
viii. ff. 1-60 and Faustina A. iii. ff. 11 seq.) 
A passage from the latter manuscript is 
printed in Dugdale's ' Monasticon.' Oudin 
ascribes to Sulcard a chronicle by William 
of Malmesbury . A lost collection of general 
history, sermons, and letters is also ascribed 
to Sulcard. When Henry III rebuilt the 
Westminster monastery, he moved the bones 
of Sulcard to the south side of the entry to 
the old chapter-house, and put up a marble 
tomb with an inscription, of which the last 
two linea were : 

Abbas Edwynus et Sulcardus cenobita : 
Sulcardus major est; Deus assit eis. 

According to Pits there was in his day a 
stone to be seen at Westminster bearing the 
inscription : 

Sulcardus monachus et chronographus. 

[Dart's Hist, of Westminster Abbey; Pits, De 
Illustr. Anglise Script,] M. B. 

SULIEN, SULGEN (the old Welsh 
form), or SULGENUS (1011-1091), bishop 
of St. David's, was born of a good (perhaps 
clerical) family settled at Llanbadarn Fawr 
in Cardiganshire in 1011. He studied in 
monastic schools in Wales, Ireland (where he 
spent thirteen years), and Scotland, and then 
returned, with a great store of learning, to his 
native district, where he soon made a repu- 
tation as a teacher. The four sons born to 
him during this period, Rhygyfarch [q. v.], 
Arthen, Daniel, and leuan, became (with 
the exception, possibly, of Arthen) clerics 
like himself, and scholars of the same type. 
In 1073 on the death of Bleiddud, Sulien 
was chosen bishop of St. David's, but in 1078 
he resigned the office and betook himself 
again to his studies. On the death of his 
successor, Abraham, in 1080, he was per- 
suaded to become bishop once again, and 
in that capacity no doubt received William I 
when that monarch visited St. David's in 
1081. In 1086 he resigned a second time. 
He died on 1 Jan. 1091. ' Brut y Tywyso- 




gion' styles him ' the wisest of Welshmen/ 
and refers to his circle of disciples. There 
is some manuscript evidence of the literary 
activity fostered by his school. It was at 
his request that his son leuan wrote, about 
1090, the transcript of Augustine's <De Trini- 
tate,' extant in Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge MS. 199. Of the sons, Daniel became 
archdeacon of Powys (d. 1127), and leuan 
archpresbyter of Llanbadarn (d. 1137); Ar- 
then left a son Henry (d. 1163), who was 
celebrated as a scholar. 

[Annales Cambrise ; Brut y Tywysogion and 
Brut y Saeson ; Poem of leuan's printed by 
Haddan and Stubbs, Councils,!. 663-7 ; Archseo- 
logia Cambrensis, i. i. (1846), 117-25.1 

J.'E. L. 

JAMES (1810-1890), admiral and hydro- 
grapher, eldest son of Rear-admiral Thomas 
Ball Sulivan [q. v.], was born at Tregew, 
near Falmouth, on 18 Nov. 1810. On 4 Sept. 
1823 he was entered at the Royal Naval 
College at Portsmouth, where he passed 
through the course with distinction, and was 
appointed to the Thetis. In her, with Sir 
John Phillimore [Q. v.] and afterwards with 
Captain Arthur Batt Bingham, he remained 
till 1828, when the Thetis happening to 
come into Rio just as one of her former 
lieutenants, Robert Fitzroy [q. v.], was pro- 
moted to the command of the Beagle, Fitz- 
roy obtained leave for Sulivan to go with 
him. In the end of 1829 he returned to 
England in the North Star, passed his ex- 
amination on 29 Dec., and on 3 April 1830 
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In 
June 1831, at Fitzroy's request, he was again 
appointed to the Beagle, and remained in 
her during the whole of that voyage so cele- 
brated in the annals of nautical and natural 
science. The Beagle returned to England 
in November 1836, and Sulivan, after a 
year's rest, in the course of which he married, 
was appointed in December 1837 to the com- 
mand of the Pincher schooner, going out to 
the west coast of Africa ; but a few weeks 
later he was moved from her to the Arrow, 
and sent out to survey the Falkland Islands. 
His wife accompanied him, and the Chris- 
tian name of Falkland given to his eldest 
son marks the belief of the family that he 
was the first British subject born in the 
Falkland Islands. The Arrow came home 
in 1839, and on 14 May 1841 Sulivan was 
promoted to the rank of commander. 

In April 1842 Sulivan was appointed to 
the Philomel brig, in which he was sent out to 
continue the survey of the Falkland Islands 
during the summer months, and to return 
each winter to Rio. There, however, the 

disturbed state of the country rendered it 
necessary to consider the Philomel rather 
a ship of war than a surveying vessel, 
although such surveys of the river as were 
practicable were made, and proved after- 
wards of extreme value. In August 1845, 
when the English and French squadrors 
were obliged to undertake hostile operations, 
Mrs. Sulivan and her family were sent home, 
and the Philomel formed part of the squa- 
dron, under Captain Charles Hotham, which 
forced the passage of the Parana at Obli- 
gado on 20 Nov. 1845. In this and all other 
measures found necessary Sulivan acted as 
the pilot of the squadron, charting or cor- 
recting the charts of the river as they went 
on. His account of this short campaign, 
and of the action at Obligado, as written at 
the time to his wife (Life, pp. 73-87), is the 
best, almost the Qnly one at all satisfactory, 
that has yet been printed. 

In the early spring of 1846 Sulivan re- 
turned to England, and in March was posted 
by a commission dated back to 15 Nov. 
1845. In 1847 he was appoined super- 
numerary to the Victory lor surveying 
duties and to organise the dockyard brigade, 
composed of the dockyard workmen, then 
enrolled and drilled as a sort of militia. At 
this time, too, he paid great attention to the 
formation of a naval reserve, his ideas on 
which were prominently brought forward 
ten years later, and seem to have formed the 
basis of the present system (H. N. Sulivan 
in the Journal of the R.V.S.L, October 
1897). Towards the end of 1848, seeing 
no prospect of immediate employment, he 
obtained three years' leave of absence, and 
went with his whole family to the Falkland 
Islands, where he remained till 1851. On 
his way home in a merchant ship the crew 
mutinied, and till they were starved into 
submission the captain, the mate, and Suli- 
van worked the ship, going aloft and bring- 
ing her under easy sail as a timely precau- 
tion. After a passage of ninety days they 
arrived at Liverpool. 

On the imminence of a war with Russia 
in the beginning of 1854, Sulivan applied 
for a command ; but his reputation as a sur- 
veying officer stood in his way, and it was not 
till 25 July 1854 that he was appointed to 
the Lightning, a small and feeble steamer, 
for surveying duties in the Baltic, and more 
especially in the gulfs of Finland and 
Bothnia. It was thus distinctively as a sur- 
veying officer that he served in the Baltic 
during the campaigns of 1854 and 1855, in 
the course of which he reconnoitred and sur- 
veyed the approaches to Bomarsund and 
Sveaborg [see NAPIER, SIR CHARLES ; Dux- 




panied his reports by suggestions as to the 
way in which these places might be at- 
tacked, suggestions which were to some ex- 
tent afterwards carried out. On 5 July 1855 
he was nominated a C.B., and in December 
1856 was appointed as the ' naval officer of 
the marine department of the board of 
trade,' which office he held till April 1865. 
Not having completed the necessary sea 
time, he was on 3 Dec. 1863 placed on the 
retired list with the rank of rear-admiral, 
and on his retirement from the board of 
trade in 1865 settled at Bournemouth. On 
2 June 1869 he was made a K.C.B ; he be- 
came vice-admiral on 1 April 1870, admiral 
on 22 Jan. 1877, and died on 1 Jan. 1890. 

Sulivan married, in January 1837, a daugh- 
ter of Vice-admiral James Young, and by 
her had a large family, the eldest of whom 
is the present Commander James Young 
Falkland Sulivan. 

[H. N. Sulivan's Life and Letters of Sir Bar- 
tholomew James Sulivan (with a portrait) ; 
Fitzroy's Voyage of the Adventure and Beagle, 
vol. ii.] J. K. L. 

1857), rear-admiral, born on 5 Jan. 1780, 
was entered on the books of the Triumph, 
flagship of Lord Hood at Portsmouth in 
1786. He was afterwards borne on the 
books of different ships on the home station 
till the outbreak of the war of 1793, when 
he went out to the Mediterranean, and was 
a midshipman of the Southampton when 
she captured the Utile on 9 June 1796. He 
was afterwards in the Royal George, the 
flagship in the Channel, and on 26 April 
1797 was promoted to be a lieutenant of the 
Queen Charlotte. In March 1798 he was 
appointed to the Kite, brig, in which he con- 
tinued for seven years in the North Sea, 
Baltic, and Channel. In May 1798 he was 
in Sir Home Riggs Popham's expedition to 
destroy the locks on the Bruges canal [see 
POPHAM, SIR HOME RIGGS], and in Septem- 
ber 1803 was at the bombardment of Gran- 
ville. In May 1805 he was appointed to 
the Brisk, and on 26 Dec. to the Anson, 
frigate, with Captain Charles Lydiard, on 
the Jamaica station. In the Anson he 
took part in the capture of the Spanish fri- 
gate Pomona on 23 Aug. 1806 [see BRIS- 
BANE, SIR CHARLES], and again in the en- 
gagement with the Foudroyant, bearing the 
flag of Rear-admiral Willaumez, on 15 Sept. 
(JAMES, iv. 113-15). On 1 Jan. 1807 the 
Anson was one of the four frigates with 
Captain Charles Brisbane at the capture of 
Cura?oa, and for his services on this occa- 

sion Sulivan was promoted to be commander 
on 23 Feb. 1807. He came home in the 
Anson, and was in her as a volunteer when 
she was lost, with Captain Lydiard and sixty 
men, in Mount's Bay on 27 Dec. 1807. In 
January 1809 he was appointed chief agent 
of transports, arid sailed for the Peninsula 
with reinforcements. In November he was 
appointed to the Eclipse for a few months, and 
in February 1813 to the Woolwich, in which 
he escorted Sir James Lucas Yeo [q. v.] with 
troops and supplies to Canada for service on 
the Lakes. On 6 Nov. 1813 the ship was 
wrecked in a hurricane on the north end of 
Barbuda, but without loss of life. Sulivan 
was honourably acquitted by the subsequent 
court-martial, and in the following February 
was appointed to the Weser, troopship, em- 
ployed on the American coast, and com- 
manded a division of boats at the destruction 
of the United States flotilla in the Patuxent 
on 22 Aug. 1814 (JAMES, vi. 168-76). At 
the battle of Bladensburg [see COCKBTJRN, 
SIR GEORGE, 1772-1853; and Ross, ROBERT] 
he commanded a division of seamen, and for 
his services in the expedition against New 
Orleans was advanced to post rank on 19 Oct. 
1814. On 4 June 1815 he was nominated a 
C.B. After being on half-pay for many years 
he was appointed in March 1836 to the Tala- 
vera at Portsmouth, and in November to the 
Stag, in which he served as commodore on 
the South American station till the spring of 
1841. On 1 Oct. 1846 he was placed on the 
retired list, and died at Flushing, near Fal- 
mouth, on 17 Nov. 1857. On 19 March 1808 
Sulivan married Henrietta, daughter of Rear- 
admiral Barthomew James [q. v.], and by her 
had fourteen children, four of whom entered 
the navy. The eldest son, Sir Bartholomew 
James Sulivan, is noticed separately. 

[O'Byrne's Nav. Biogr. Diet. ; James's Nav. 
Hist. ; H. N. Sulivan's Life and Letters of Sir 
B. J. Sulivan, chap. i. ; information from Suli- 
van's youngest son, Admiral George Lydiard 
Sulivan.] J. K. L. 



(1830-1884), Irish politician, second son of 
Daniel Sullivan of Dublin, was born in 1830 
at Bantry, on the south-west coast of Cork. 
He was the second of six sons, all of whom 
attained distinction in Irish public life, jour- 
nalism, and at the bar. He was educated in 
the local national school. During the great 
famine of 1846-7 Sullivan was employed as 
a clerk in connection with the relief works 
started by the government. Deeply in- 
fluenced by the distress he then witnessed, 
he afterwards joined the Confederate Club 




formed at Bantry in support of the revolu- 
tionary movement of the Young Irelanders, 
and was the organiser of the enthusiastic re- 
ception given by the town to "William Smith 
O'Brien in July 1848 during the insurgent 
leader's tour of the southern counties. Early 
in 1853 Sullivan went to Dublin to seek em- 
ployment as an artist. An exhibition of the 
arts and industries of Ireland was held in 
Dublin that year, and he was engaged to 
supply pencil sketches to the 'Dublin Ex- 
positor/ a journal issued in connection with 
the exhibition. Subsequently he obtained 
a, post as draughtsman in the Irish valua- 
tion office, and afterwards as reporter on the 
'Liverpool Daily Post.' 

In 1855 he returned to Dublin as assistant 
editor of the ' Nation,' a nationalist daily paper 
founded by Charles (now Sir Charles) Gavan 
Duffy in 1843. Three years later he succeeded 
CashelHoey as editor, becoming also sole pro- 
prietor. A weekly paper, called ' The Weekly 
News/ was soon issued, also from the 'Nation ' 
office. In the summer of that year James 
Stephens laid the foundations of the fenian 
conspiracy, of which the object was to esta- 
blish an Irish republic. The ' Nation/ which 
favoured constitutional agitation, was per- 
haps the most powerful opponent that the 
movement had to contend with, andSullivan, 
during the years that the fenian conspiracy 
retained a hold on the country from 1860 to 
1870 was the object of the bitter enmity of 
its leaders. In 1865 an order for his assassi- 
nation was passed by a small majority at a 
fenian council meeting in Dublin ; but, not- 
withstanding his opposition to the conspiracy, 
he was highly respected by the rank and file, 
who made no attempt to execute the order. 
On 23 Nov. 1867 three Irishmen named 
Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien, known as the 
'Manchester Martyrs/ were executed in 
front of Salford gaol for the murder of a 
police-officer during the rescue of two fenian 
leaders, Colonel Kelly and Captain Deasy, 
and for an article on the executions which 
appeared in the ' Weekly News ' Sulli- 
van was sentenced in February 1868 to six 
months' imprisonment, but was released when 
half the term had expired. During his im- 
prisonment a committee was formed to pre- 
sent him with a national testimonial. He 
stopped the movement on his release, and 
a sum of 400/. which had been collected 
was appropriated, at his request, towards a 
statue of Henry Grattan, which now stands 
in College Green, Dublin, fronting the old 
houses of parliament. The site had been 
assigned by the town council in 1864 for 
a statue of the prince consort, but the pro- 
ject had been defeated by Sullivan, who 

was at the time a member of the corpora- 

Sullivan was present at the remarkable 
meeting of conservatives, repealers, and 
fenians held in the Bilton Hotel, Dublin, 
on 19 May 1870, at which the home-rule 
movement was initiated under the leadership 
of Isaac Butt [q. v.] He was returned to 
parliament as a home-ruler for the county of 
Louth at the general election of 1874. His 
maiden speech, which was delivered on 
20 March 1874, was praised for its fervid elo- 
quence and intellectual power by members 
of all parties, and established his fame as a 
debater in the House of Commons. In 1876 
he came to the conclusion that Butt's ' policy 
of conciliation/ which had then been tried 
for five years, had failed in producing any 
good legislative results for Ireland, and urged 
in the ' Nation ' that the leadership of the 
Irish party needed more vigour and vigi- 
lance. The following year witnessed the in- 
auguration of Parnell's 'policy of obstruc- 
tion/ or the policy of active interference by 
Irish members in English and imperial legis- 
lation (with a view to resist and delay its 
course), in which they had hitherto under 
Butt taken no interest. Sullivan never 
thoroughly identified himself with Parnell's 
new policy. He thought it was occasionally 
pushed to extremes. But he refused to sup- 
port Butt when the titular leader of the 
Irish party in 1877 indignantly denounced 
the conduct of Parnell in the House of Com- 
mons. At the general election of 1880 Sulli- 
van was again returned at the top of the 
poll for county Louth. But as the second 
seat was won by Philip Callan, who was 
run by the licensed traders with a view to 
defeat him for the strenuous support he had 
given to temperance legislation, he declined 
to represent the county with such a colleague 
and resigned the seat. He was then offered 
a seat in Meath one of three for which Par- 
nell had been returned provided he pro- 
mised ' to co-operate cordially as a fellow- 
labourer ' with the new leader of the Irish 
party. He refused to stand for the consti- 
tuency under these circumstances ; but ulti- 
mately, at the request of Parnell, he was re- 
turned unpledged. 

Meantime Sullivan turned his attention 
to the profession of the law. He was called 
to the Irish bar in November 1876, and in 
November 1877 the exceptional distinction 
of a ' special call ' to the English bar was 
bestowed on him by the benchers of the 
Inner Temple. Having decided to practise 
in England, he at the end of 1876 severed 
his connection with the ' Nation/ which then 
became the property of his elder brother, 




Mr. Timothy Daniel Sullivan, and took up 
his residence in London. He appeared, how- 
ever, for the defendants in some important 
state prosecutions in Dublin during the land 
league agitation. At the English bar his 
services as an advocate were also frequently 
retained. But his health broke down under 
the double strain of his parliamentary and 
professional work in 1881, and, to the deep 
regret of members on both sides of the House 
of Commons, he was obliged to resign his 
seat for Meath. Desiring to remain perfectly 
free to work for Ireland, he declined an ap- 
pointment as a sub-commissioner under the 
Land Act of 1881 which was indirectly 
offered him, and successfully devoted him- 
self to legal practice at the parliamentary 

Sullivan died on 17 Oct. 1884 at Dartry 
Lodge, Rathmines, Dublin, and was interred, 
amid an impressive demonstration of national 
grief, in ' the O'Oonnell Circle ' of Glasnevin 
cemetery. He married, in 1861, Frances 
Genevieve, only surviving daughter of John 
Donovan of New Orleans, and left several 

Among Sullivan's publications are: 1. 'The 
Story of Ireland ' (1870), a delightful com- 
pendium of Irish history which has still an 
immense circulation among the Irish people 
at home and abroad. 2. ' New Ireland ' 
(1877), a series of vivid sketches of Irish 
life during the past half-century. 3. 'A 
Nutshell History of Ireland,' 1883. He was, 
however, more distinguished as an orator 
than as a writer ; and an interesting collec- 
tion of his speeches in parliament, on the 
platform, and at the bar was published in 

[A Memoir of A. M. Sullivan by T. D. Sullivan ; 
O'Connor's Parnell Movement ; Sullivan's New 
Ireland, and the Irish newspapers.] M. 

SULLIVAN, BARRY (1820P-1891), 
actor, whose full name was Thomas Barry 
Sullivan, is said to have been born of obscure 
Irish parentage in Birmingham on the anni- 
versary of Shakespeare's reputed birth, 
23 April 1824. The year was more probably 
1820, if not earlier. Taken as a child to Cork, 
he became a draper's assistant there. On the 
strength of some amateur talent as actor and 
vocalist, he played at the old theatre in 
George's Street, for a benefit, Young Mea- 
dows in Bickerstaff 's ' Love in a Village.' On 
7 June 1837, also for a benefit, he played at 
the Theatre Royal the Prompter in Colman's 
' Manager in Distress/ Charles in the ' Vir- 
ginian Mummy' to the Jim Crow of Rice 
the American, and Varnish in the farce of 
' Botheration.' At the same house, 16 June 

1837, he was Seyton to Charles Kean's Mac- 
beth, and Tristram Fickle in the ' Weather- 
cock.' These seem to be his first professional 
appearances. Engaged by Frank Seymour, 
known as Frank Schemer, as leading singing 
and walking gentleman, he went with him 
from the Theatre Royal to a small newly 
erected theatre in Cook Street, but returned 
in 1840 to George's Street, then under diffe- 
rent management. On this house being 
burnt down he rejoined Seymour at the Vic- 
toria Theatre. After playing some secondary 
parts he went, at Collins's booth, through a 
round of 'legitimate' characters. In 1841 
he supported Ellen Tree (Mrs. Charles Kean) 
as Prince Frederick in Sheridan Knowles's 
' Love.' He also visited Waterford, Limerick, 
and other Irish towns, and in Cork played 
a tenor role in ' Fra Diavolo.' 

Engaged by William Henry Murray [q. v.], 
Sullivan left Ireland, and made his first ap- 
pearance in Edinburgh on 24 Nov. as Red 
Rody in the ' Robber's Wife.' His salary at 
that time was 30s. a week. Bates in the 
1 Gamester' to Charles Kean's Beverley, Gas- 
ton in ' Richelieu,' Sir F. Vernon in ' Rob Roy/ 
Sebastian in ( Guy Mannering' were among 
the parts he played at the Theatre Royal or 
the Adelphi. After the departure of John 
Ryder (1814-1885) [q. v.] Sullivan was pro- 
moted to the principal heavy parts, playing 
Drayton in 'Grandfather Whitehead/ An- 
tonio in the 'Merchant of Venice/ and 
Beauseant in the 'Lady of Lyons.' For 
his farewell benefit in 1844 he was seen as 
Kirkpatrick in ' Wallace/ and Alessandro 
Massaronl in the 'Italian Brigand.' After 
appearing in Paisley and other Scottish 
towns, he played leading business at the City 
Theatre, Glasgow. He then managed for two 
years the Aberdeen Theatre. 

After making at Wakefield his first appear- 
ance in England, he accepted an engagement 
under Robert Roxby [q. v.] at Liverpool, 
appearing on 7 May 1847 as Sir Edward 
Mortimer in the 'Iron Chest.' This was 
followed by Jaffier in 'Venice Preserved.' 
He then went to the Amphitheatre, at 
which house to the close of his career he 
remained a favourite. On 9 Oct. 1847 he 
appeared at the Theatre Royal, Manchester, 
as Stukeley in the ' Gamester.' On the 26th 
he played Hamlet, being, it is said, coached 
by Charles James Lever [q. v.] After being 
seen in a round of leading characters, Sulli- 
van quarrelled with Wallack, his manager, 
harangued the audience, and resigned his 
engagement, taking his benefit in Claude 
Melnotte and Petruchio at the Queen's 
Theatre. After revisiting Edinburgh, where 
he played Romeo, Hotspur, Norval, and Fal- 


1 60 


conbridge, he was for a time manager of the 
Bolton Theatre (1849). 

Having been recommended by Phelps to 
Webster, Sullivan made his first appearance 
in London at the Haymarket as Hamlet on 
7 Feb. 1852. He was then credited with 
picturesqueness and pathos. On 14 Feb. he 
was the first Angiolo in Miss Vandenhoff's 
tragedy, l Woman's Heart ; ' on 19 April was 
Evelyn in a revival of * Money ;' on 12 Feb. 
1853, on the first production at the Hay- 
market of ' Not so bad as we seem,' he was 
Hardman, and in the following April the 
first Valence in Browning's ' Colombo's Birth- 
day,' to the Colombe of Miss Helen Faucit. 
He remained at the house under Buckstone. 
Among original parts in which he was seen 
were Travers in Robert Sullivan's 'Elope- 
ments in High Life,' and Giulio in Mrs. 
Crowe's ' Civil Kindness.' After a visit to 
the Standard and the Strand, he accepted an 
engagement in January 1855 at the St. 
James's Theatre, where in 'Alcestis' he 
played Admetus to the title-role of Miss 
Vandenhoif. On 11 June following he was 
again at the Haymarket as the first Franklyn 
in * Love's Martyrdom' by John Saunders, 
and on 23 July as the hero of Heraud's ' Wife 
or no Wife.' He also played Jaques to the 
Rosalind of Miss Faucit. In October he 
appeared at Drury Lane as Tihrak in Fitz- 
ball's ' Nitocris.' After acting with Phelps 
at Sadler's Wells he went to America, ap- 
pearing on 22 Nov. 1858 at the Broadway 
Theatre, New York, as Hamlet. He was 
seen as Claude Melnotte, Macbeth, Shy- 
lock, Petruchio, and Richard III ; then went 
to Burton's theatre, where he acted as 
Beverley, Benedick, and Lear. After visiting 
many American cities, including San Fran- 
cisco, and laying the foundation of a con- 
siderable fortune, he returned to England 
and appeared at the St. James's on 20 Aug. 
1860 as Hamlet. In January 1862 he was at 
Belfast, where he maintained a remarkable 
popularity. Soon afterwards he visited Aus- 
tralia, beginning in Melbourne,where, in 1863, 
he assumed the management of the Theatre 
Royal. He also played in Sydney and other 
Australian cities. 

In June 1866 he was back in England, 
and on 22 Sept. played at Drury Lane 
Falconbridge to the King John of Phelps ; 
Macbeth, Macduff, and other parts, including 
Charles Surface, followed. On 1 May 1868 
he became manager of the Holborn Theatre, 
reviving ' Money/ in which he played Alfred 
Evelyn. Various plays were revived, but 
the result was imremunerative, the entire 
experiment constituting probably the worst 
rebuff Sullivan ever experienced. In April 

1870 he was playing at the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, in his customary repertory. Here 
his popularity, due in part to political causes, 
reached its climax. In 1874 he was again 
in America. On 22 Sept. 1876 he was back 
at Drury Lane, playing alternately in i Ri- 
chard III ' and ' Macbeth.' When the Shake- 
speare Memorial Theatre at Stratford was 
opened on 23 April 1879 with a performance 
of 'Much Ado about Nothing,' Sullivan was 
the Benedick to the Beatrice of Miss Helen 
Faucit (Lady Martin). 

During later years he was never seen in 
the London bills, but continued a remark- 
able favourite in Lancashire and in Ireland. 
The first signs of failing health developed 
themselves in 1880, and when, with a per- 
formance of Richard III, he brought, on 
4 June 1887, to a close an engagement at 
the Alexandra Theatre, Liverpool, he had 
unconsciously trodden the stage for the last 
time. He soon after retired to 46 Albany 
Villas, Hove, Brighton. For a while he 
gave signs of recovery, and urged on his 
son to make arrangements for a tour in 1888- 
1889. A stoke of paralysis came on, and the 
last rites of the catholic church were admini- 
stered to him on 23 Aug. 1 888. He lingered 
on for three years, and died on 3 May 1891 of 
influenza. His remains were conveyed to 
Dublin, and were buried in Glasnevin ceme- 
tery, where a statue of Sullivan as Hamlet 
by Sir Thomas Farrell marks his grave. He 
left behind him a family of sons and daugh- 
ters, one of whom, Amory Sullivan, played 
in the country about 1888 his father's parts 
in his father's method. He then embarked 
in theatrical management in Australia. 

Sullivan was a good though never a great 
or an inspired actor, of an old-fashioned 
kind, and held aloft the banner of tragedy in 
troublous times. In Ireland he stood, thanks 
in part to his birth and his religion, foremost 
in public favour. Admiration for him was not 
confined, however, to the catholic south, but 
extended to the north and across the sea to 
Liverpool and Manchester. In these places 
he played with unvarying success a very wide 
range of tragic parts, together with some 
comic characters. His Hamlet was there 
said to be an institution. He claimed to 
have played this part 3,500 times. In Aus- 
tralia and America he was also welcome. In 
the south of England, and especially in 
London, his reputation did not stand high 
in tragedy, while in comedy it was even 
lower. Vigorous action and forcible decla- 
mation were his chief characteristics, and he 
found difficulty in the differentiation of 
characters such as Macbeth, Richard, and 
Lear. He had from the first, 



163 , 


a tendency to rant, which he /| an( j too 
with difficulty conquered. His face s gonp . 
with the small-pox, lent itself witn .^ine 
difficulty to make-up, and his performance 
of characters such as Charles Surface were 
unsatisfactory as much through his appear 
ance and dress as through the absence o 
lightness and refinement of style. 

Sullivan was little seen in general society 
his habit of reserve was due in part to a 
sense of educational shortcoming, and partly 
to morbid vanity. His temper appears to 
have been uncertain and a trifle arrogant 
and disputes with his managers were not in- 
frequent. In appearance he was dark, and 
his hair, which was or seemed abundant, 
maintained its raven black until late in life. 
His figure, slight at first, hardened subse- 
quently until it became almost squat, and 
his musical voice lost its quality through 
incessant strain. 

[Most ascertainable particulars concerning 
Sullivan are given in a biographical sketch by 
Mr. W. J. Lawrence, London, 1893. A copy of 
this, annotated and enlarged in manuscript by 
Mr. Lawrence, has been kindly placed by him at 
the present writer's disposal. Personal recollec- 
tions extending over thirty years have been drawn 
upon, as have Scott and Howard's Blanchard ; 
Pascoe's Dramatic List ; Mennell's Australasian 
Biography ; Dutton Cook's Nights at the Play ; 
and files of the Athenaeum and Sunday Times.] 

J. K. 

1885), lord chancellor of Ireland, was born 
at Mallow, co. Cork, on 10 July 1822. He 
was the eldest son of Edward Sullivan by 
his wife Anne Surflen, nee Lynch. His 
father, a local merchant, realised a substan- 
tial fortune in business and was a friend of 
the poet Moore. Sullivan received his earliest 
education at a school in his native town, and 
later on was sent to the endowed school at 
Midleton, an institution in which many dis- 
tinguished Irishmen, Curran and Barry Yel- 
verton among them, had been trained. In 
1841 he entered Trinity College, Dublin. His 
career at the university was distinguished. 
He obtained first classical scholarship in 
1843, and graduated B.A. in 1845. He was 
also elected auditor of the college historical 
society in 1845, in succession to William 
Connor Magee [q. v.] (afterwards bishop of 
Peterborough and archbishop of York), and 
gained the gold medal for oratory. In 1848, 
after two years of preliminary study at cham- 
bers in London, Sullivan was called to the 
Irish bar, where his well- trained and richly 
stored mind, his great readiness, indomitable 
tenacity, and fiery eloquence very quickly 
brought him into notice. Within ten years 

of his call to the bar (1858) he was appointed 
a queen's counsel, and two years later, during 
the viceroyalty of Lord Carlisle, became one 
of the three serjeants-at-law. In 1861 he 
was appointed law adviser an office sub- 
ordinate to the attorney and solicitor general, 
which has since been abolished and in 1865 
became for a brief period solicitor-general for 
Ireland in Lord Palmerston's last admini- 
stration. In this capacity he was called on 
to deal with the fenian conspiracy. In 1865 
he was returned in the liberal interest to 
represent his native town in parliament. 
From 1866 to 1868, while his party was in 
opposition, he applied himself mainly to his 
profession, and acted, about this period, in 
conjunction with James Whiteside [q. v.], as 
leading counsel for the plaintiff in the cele- 
brated Yelverton trial. 

In December 1868, on the return of the 
liberal party to power, Sullivan became 
attorney-general for Ireland in Mr. Glad- 
stone's first administration. He took an 
active next to the prime minister, the lead- 
ing part in the conduct of the Irish Church 
Bill in the House of Commons. His ser- 
vices on this occasion, the debating ability 
he displayed in the stormy discussions which 
the bill provoked, and his knowledge and 
grasp of the details of a most intricate sub- 
ject, raised him to a high place in the esti- 
mation of the House of Commons, and earned 
him the complete confidence of his leader. 
He retired from parliament in 1870 to be- 
come master of the rolls in Ireland. Until 
1882 he was mainly engrossed by his judicial 
duties ; but he was also an active member of 
the privy council. His advice was often 
sought on critical occasions by the Irish 
government. Mr. Gladstone placed much 
reliance on his judgment and knowledge of 
[reland, and it was mainly at his instance 
:hat the important step of arresting Charles 
Stewart Parnell [q. v.] was adopted by the 
government in 1881. 

In December 1881 Sullivan was created 
a baronet on the recommendation of Mr. 

ladstone, in recognition of his services both 
as a judge and as a confidential adviser of 
he servants of the crown in Ireland ; and 
hortly afterwards the premature death of 
HughJLaw [q.v.] opened the way for his ele- 
vation to the Irish chancellorship, to which he 
was appointed in 1883. In this capacity he 
lisplayed governing qualities of the highest 
>rder, and during the troubled period of Lord 
Spencer's second viceroyalty he may be said 
o have been the mainspring of the Irish 
government in the measures taken to stamp 
>ut the Invincible conspiracy. He enjoyed 
lis office for a comparatively brief period, 






-\J 1870 he war- 

suddenly at his house in Dublin oij) u ^j n j p ^and trifles, Leeds, 1792, 8vo; 'The 

13 April 1885. 

In the list of Irish chancellors of the 
nineteenth century Sullivan is one of the 
most eminent. But he was more distin- 
guished as a statesman than as a judge. His 
thorough knowledge of Ireland, combined 
with the courage, firmness, and decision of 
his character, qualified him to be what during 
the period of his chancellorship he was an 
active champion of law and order throughout 
the country. Sullivan was also a man of 
varied accomplishments and scholarly tastes. 
Through life he was an ardent book-collector, 
and at his death had amassed one of the 
most valuable private libraries in the king- 
dom. Part of this library, when sold by 
auction in 1890, realised 11,000/. Besides 
being a sound classical scholar, he was a 
skilled linguist, and familiar with German, 
French, Italian, and Spanish literature. 

Sullivan married, on 24 Sept. 1850, Bessie 
Josephine, daughter of Robert Bailey of 
Cork, by whom he had issue four sons and 
one daughter. 

[Burke's Baronetage ; private information.] 

C. L. F. 


(1719-1776), jurist, the son of Francis Sul- 
livan, was born at Galway in 1719. He 
was educated at Waterford and subsequently 
at Trinity College, Dublin, which he entered 
in 1731 as a boy of twelve. His academic 
career was most successful, and he achieved 
the unprecedented distinction of gaining a 
fellowship at nineteen in 1738. In the year 
following his vote at a parliamentary election 
for his university was disallowed by a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons on the 
ground of his being a minor. In 1750 Sul- 
livan became regius professor of law in the 
university of Dublin, and in 1761 professor 
of feudal and English law. He enjoyed a 
very high reputation as a jurist, and his 
book, entitled ' An Historical Treatise on 
the Feudal Law, and the Constitution and 
Laws of England, with a Commentary on 
Magna Charta ' (London, 1772, 4to ; 2nd 
edit. 1776; Portland, U.S.A. 1805, 2 vols. 
8vo), was long recognised as an authority. 
Sullivan died at Dublin in 1776. 

(1756-1830), born in Dublin in 1756, was 
educated for the church at Trinity College, 
but entered the navy upon his father's death, 
and served through the American war. In 
1783 he settled in England. He produced a 
farce called < The Rights of Man ' (printed in 
the 'Thespian Magazine/ 1792) ; ' The Flights 
of Fancy,' a miscellaneous collection of poems, 

-s popn ju Loyalty, or the long-threatened 
jfi- Invasion/ a patriotic poem, London, 
1803, several editions; and 'Pleasant Stories/ 
London, 1818, 12mo. He died in 1830. 

[Stubbs's Hist, of the University of Dublin ; 
Todd's List of Graduates of Dublin University; 
College Calendars.] C. L. F. 

SULLIVAN, LUKE (d. 1771), engraver 
and miniature-painter, was born in co. Louth, 
his father being a groom in the service of the 
Duke of Beaufort. Showing artistic talent, 
he was enabled by the duke's patronage to 
obtain instruction, and Strutt states that he 
became a pupil of Thomas Major [q.v.j ; but 
he was certainly Major's senior, and it is 
more probable that they were fellow-students 
under the French engraver Le Bas, whose 
style that of Sullivan much resembles. His 
earliest work was a view of the battle of Cul- 
loden (after A. Heckel, 1746), and soon after- 
wards he was engaged as an assistant by 
Hogarth, for whom he engraved the cele- 
brated plate of the ' March to Finchley/ pub- 
lished in 1750 ; also his < Paul before Felix/ 
1752, and his frontispiece to Kirby's ' Per- 
spective/ 1754. Subsequently Sullivan en- 
graved a fine plate of the i Temptation of St. 
Antony ' (after D. Teniers), which he dedi- 
cated to the Duke of Beaufort. In 1759 he 
published a set of six views of noblemen's 
seats, viz. Oatlands, Wilton, Ditchley, Clief- 
den, Esher, and Woburn all drawn and en- 
graved by himself. Sullivan practised minia- 
ture-painting with considerable ability, and 
from 1764 to 1770 exhibited portraits with 
the Incorporated Society, of which he was a 
director. He led a disreputable life, and died 
at the White Bear tavern in Piccadilly early 
in 1771. 

[Strutt's Diet, of Engravers ; Eedgrave's Diet, 
of Artists; Dodd's manuscript Hist, of English 
Engravers in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 33405.1 

F. M. O'D. 

SULLIVAN, OWEN (1700 P-1784), 
Irish poet, called in Irish Eoghan Ruadh, or 
Red-haired Sullivan, was born about 1700 
in Slieve Luachra, co. Kerry, and was one of 
the chief Jacobite poets of the south of Ire- 
land. Poetry proved inadequate to sustain 
him, and he earned a living as an itine- 
rant potato-digger, always continuing the 
studies which he had begun in a hedge 
school. The potato-digger, resting in a farm- 
kitchen, interposed with success in a classical 
dispute between a parish priest and the 
farmer's son, who had returned from a 
French college. The farmer set him up in 
a school at Annagh, near Charlevillp, but 
after a time he fell in love with Mary Casey, 




whose charms he has celebrated, and took 
to an idle life. He wrote numerous songs, 
of which many manuscript copies are extant, 
and several are printed in John O'Daly's 
' Reliques of Jacobite Poetry' (1844). When 
he opened his school he issued a touching 
poem of four stanzas addressed to the parish 
priest. He wrote satires on the Irish volun- 
teers and numerous poems denouncing the 
English. He died of fever at Knocknagree, 
co. Kerry, in 1784, and was buried at Noho- 
val in the vicinity. 

[Memoir in O'Daly's Jacobite Poetry, Dub- 
lin, 1844; Works.] N. M. 


(1752-1806), miscellaneous writer, born on 
10 Dec. 1752, was the third son of Ben- 
jamin Sullivan of Dromeragh, co. Cork, by 
his wife Bridget, daughter of Paul Limric, 
D.D. His eldest brother, Sir Benjamin 
Sullivan (1747-1810), was from 1801 till his 
death puisne judge of the supreme court of 
judicature at Madras. The second brother, 
John Sullivan (1749 -1839), was undersecre- 
tary at war from 1801 to 1805, and married 
Henrietta Anne Barbara (1 760-1 828), daugh- 
ter of George Hobart, third earl of Bucking- 

Through the influence of Laurence Sulli- 
van, chairman of the East India Company, 
and probably his kinsman, Richard Joseph 
was early in life sent to India with his 
brother John. On his return to Europe he 
made a tour through various parts of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Wales. He was elected 
a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries on 
9 June 1785 (Goran, Chronological List, p. 
40), and a fellow of the Royal Society on 
22 Dec. following (THOMSON", Hist, of Royal I 
Society, App. p. lix). On 29 Jan. 1787, being > 
then described as of Cleveland Row, St. 
James's, London, he was elected M.P. for 
New Romney in place of Sir Edward Dering, | 
resigned. He was returned for the same con- j 
stituency at the general election on 19 June 
1790. He lost his seat in 1796, but on j 
5 July 1802 was elected, after a sharp 
contest, for Seaford, another of the Cinque 
ports. On 22 May 1804, on Pitt's return 
to office, Sullivan was created a baronet 
of the United Kingdom. He died at his 
seat, Thames Ditton, Surrey, on 17 July 

He married, on 3 Dec. 1778, Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Lodge, esq., of Leeds; she died 
on 24 Dec. 1832. Their eldest son died 
young in 1789, and the title devolved on 
the second son, Henry (1785-1814), M.P. for 
the city of Lincoln (1812-14), who fell at 
Toulouse on 14 April 1814. He was suc- 

ceeded as third baronet by his brother, Sir 
Charles Sullivan (1789-1862), who entered 
the navy in February 1801, and eventually 
became admiral of the blue (cf. Gent. Mag. 
1863, i. 127). 

His works are: 1. 'An Analysis of the 
Political History of India. In which is con- 
sidered the present situation of the East, and 
the connection of its several Powers with the 
Empire of Great Britain ' (anon.), London, 
1779, 4to; 2nd edit., with the author's 
name, 1784, 8vo; translated into German 
by M. C. Sprengel, Halle, 1787, 8vo. 
2. ' Thoughts on Martial Law, and on the 
proceedings of general Courts-Martial ' 
(anon.), London, 1779, 4to ; 2nd edit, en- 
larged, with the author's name, London, 
1784, 8vo. 3. ' Observations made during a 
Tour through parts of England, Scotland, 
and Wales, in a series of Letters ' (anon. ), 
London, 1780, 4to ; 2nd edit., 2 voK, Lon- 
don, 1785, 8vo ; reprinted in Mavor's ' Bri- 
tish Tourists.' 4. ' Philosophical Rhapso- 
dies : Fragments of Akbur of Betlis ; con- 
taining Reflections on the Laws, Manners, 
Customs, and Religions of Certain Asiatic, 
Afric, and European Nations,' 3 vols., Lon- 
don, 1784-5, 8vo. 5. 'Thoughts on the 
Early Ages of the Irish Nation and History, 
and on the Ancient Establishment of the 
Milesian Families in that Kingdom ; with a 
particular reference to the descendants of 
Heber, the eldest son of Milesius,' 1789, 8vo. 
Of this curious work two editions of one 
hundred copies each were privately printed. 
6. ' A View of Nature, in Letters to a Tra- 
veller among the Alps, with Reflections on 
Atheistical Philosophy now exemplified in 
France,' 6 vols., London, 1794, 8vo ; trans- 
lated into German by E. B. G. Hebenstreit, 
4 vols., Leipzig, 1795-1800, 8vo. 

To Sullivan have been inaccurately as- 
signed two anonymous pamphlets : ' History 
of the Administration of the Leader in the 
Indian Direction. Shewing by what great 
and noble efforts he has brought the Com- 
pany's affairs into their present happy situa- 
tion,' London [1765 ?], 4to ; 'A Defence of 
Mr. Sullivan's Propositions (to serve as the 
basis of a negociation with government), 
with an answer to the objections against 
them, in a Letter to the Proprietors of East 
India Stock,' London, 1767, 8vo. 

[Burke's Peerage, 1896, p. 1385; Foster's 
Baronetage, 1882, p. 599; Gent. Mag. 1786 i. 
45, 1806 ii. 687, 871, 896, 1832 ii. 656; Lit. 
Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, ii. 287; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bonn), p. 2545 ; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. ix. 51 ; Reuss's Register of Authors, 
ii 366 Suppl. p. 389 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. s.n. 
' Sulivan.'] T. C. 





SULLIVAN, ROBERT (1800-1868), 
educational writer, son of Daniel Sullivan, a 
publican, was born in Holy wood, co. Down, 
in January 1800. He was educated at the 
Belfast Academical Institute and at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B A. in 
1829, MA. in 1832, LL.B. and LL.D. in 
1850. On the introduction of national educa- 
*ion into Ireland he was appointed an in- 
spector of schools, and was afterwards trans- 
ferred to the training department as professor 
of English literature. He died in Dublin on 
11 July 1868, and was buried at Holy wood. 

Sullivan was author of: 1. 'A Manual of 
Etymology,' Dublin, 1831, 12mo. 2. 'A 
Dictionary of Derivations,' Dublin, 1834, 
12mo; 12th ed. 1870. 3. 'Lectures and 
Letters on Popular Education/ 1842, 12mo. 
4. ' The Spelling Book Superseded,' Dublin, 
1842, 12mo ; 130th ed. 1869. 5. ' Ortho- 
graphy and Etymology,' 6th ed. 1844, 16mo. 
6. ; A Dictionary of the English Language,' 
Dublin, 1847, 12mo ; 23rd ed. by Dr. Patrick 
Weston Joyce, 1877. 7. ' The Literary Class 
Book,' Dublin, 1850, 16mo ; llth ed. 1868. 
8. ' An Attempt to simplify English Gram- 
mar,' 17th ed. Dublin, 1852, 12mo ; 85th ed. 
1869. 9. ' Geography Generalised,' 17th ed. 
Dublin, 1853, 8 vo; 71sted.l887,8vo. 10. 'An 
Introduction to Geography,' 23rd ed. Dublin, 
1853, 12mo; 92nd ed. 1869. 11. 'Manual 
of Etymology,' 1860, 16mo. 12. ' Papers 
on Popular Education,' Dublin, 1863, 8vo. 
13. ' Words spelled in Two or More Ways,' 
London, 1867, 8vo. 

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography, p. 
504 ; O'Donoghue's Irish Poets, iii. 238 ; Alli- 
bone's Diet, of Engl. Lit. ; Graduates of Dublin 
University, p. 549.] E. I. C. 

SULLIVAN, TIMOTHY (1710 P-1800), 
Irish poet, called in Irish Tadhg Gaolach, 
or Irish Teague, was born in co. Cork about 
1710, and, after school education, became an 
itinerant poet, living chiefly in Paoracha, a 
district of co. Waterford. He wandered 
from house to house composing panegyrics, 
of which the . best known are ' Nora ni 
Ainle,' in praise of Honora, daughter of 
'O'Hanlon ; ' Do Sheoirse agus do Dhomhnall 
OTaolain,' to the brothers O'Phelan of the 
Decies, co. Waterford; 'Chum an athar 
Taidhg Mhic Carrthaidh,' to the Rev. T. Mac- 
Carthy ; and sometimes satires. The subject 
of one of his satires cast the poet's wig into the 
fire, whereupon he wrote the poem ' Ar losga 
:a liath wig,' on the burning of his wig. He 
also wrote an address to Prince Charles Ed- 
ward, called ' An Fanuighe/ the wanderer, 
and several laments for Ireland, of which 
that in which his country is personified as a 

beautiful young woman, ' Sighile ni Ghadhra,' 
was long popular in Minister. Later in life 
he wrote only religious poems, addresses to 
the Trinity, to Christ, and to our Lady, a 
poem on St. Declan, patron of Ardmore, co. 
Waterford, and in 1791 a poem on the world, 
entitled 'Duain an Domhain.' These were 
often set to popular tunes, and had a wide 
circulation throughout the south of Ireland. 
Sullivan died at Waterford in May 1800, and 
was buried fourteen miles off at Ballylaneen. 
His epitaph was written in Latin verse by 
Donchadh Ruadh MacConmara, a celebrated 
local poet and schoolmaster. A collection of 
Sullivan's poems was published as ' A Spiritual 
Miscellany ' at Limerick during his life, and 
another at Clonmel in 1816. John O'Daly 
published a fuller collection as ' The Pious 
Miscellany' in Dublin in 1868, with a short 
memoir in English. 

[O'Dnly's Memoir; Adventures of Donnchadh 
Ruadh MacConmara, Dublin, 1853 (this work, 
of which the author was Standish Hayes O'Grady, 
describes the literary society in which Sullivan 
lived).] N. M. 

SULMO, THOMAS (fl. 1540-1550), 

protestant divine. [See SOME.] 

SUMBELL, MARY (/. 1781-1812), 
actress. [See WELLS, MES. MAKY.] 


OF THE ISLES (d. 1164), was, according to 
the Celtic tradition, the son of Gillebrede, 
son of Gilladoman, sixth in descent from 
Godfrey MacFergus, called in the Irish 
chronicle Toshach of the Isles ; but some 
suppose him of Norse origin. His father, a 
reputed thane of Argyll, is said to have been 
expelled from his possessions, and forced to 
conceal himself for a time in Morven ; but 
having placed his son at the head of the 
men of Morven to resist a band of Norse 
pirates, the son defeated them, and the 
prestige thus won enabled him afterwards 
not only to regain his father's possessions, 
but to make himself master of the greater 
part of Argyll, of which he claimed to be 
lord or regulus. Along with the pretender to 
the maarmorship of Ross, he rebelled against 
Malcolm IV in 1153, but found it necessary 
to come to terms with him. About 1140 he 
had married Ragnhildis or Effrica, daughter 
of Olave the Red, king of Man, by whom he 
had three sons : Dugall, Reginald or Ranald, 
and Angus. By a former marriage he had a 
son Gillecolm ; and, according to the ' Chro- 
nicle of Man,' he had a fifth son, Olave. 
After the death of Olave, king of Man, Thor- 
fin, son of Ottar, one of the lords of Man, 
resolved to depose Godfred the Black, king of 




Man, as an oppressor, and offered to Somer- 
led, if he would assist him, to make his son 
Dugall king in Godfred's stead. Somerled 
was nothing loth, and Thorfin carried Dugall 
through all the isles, except Man, and forced 
the inhabitants to acknowledge him, hos- 
tages being taken for their obedience. There- 
upon Godfred collected a fleet and proceeded 
against the galleys of the rebels, reinforced 
and commanded by Somerled. As the result 
of a bloody and indecisive battle fought in 
1156, Godfred was induced to come to terms 
by ceding to the sons of Somerled the south 
isles and retaining to himself the north isles 
and Man. Two years later Somerled invaded 
Man with fifty-three ships, and laid waste the 
whole island, Godfred being compelled to flee 
to Norway. The power wielded by Somerled 
aroused the jealousy of Malcolm IV, who 
demanded that Somerled should resign his 
possessions to him, and hold them in future 
as a vassal of the king of Scots. This Somer- 
led declined to do, and, war being declared, he 
in 1164 sailed with 160 galleys up the Clyde 
and landed his forces near Renfrew. Hardly, 
however, had they disembarked, when they 
were attacked and put to flight with great 
slaughter, Somerled and his son Gillecolm 
being among the slain. According to one 
account, King Malcolm sent a boat to con- 
vey the corpse to Icolmkill, where it was 
buried at the royal expense, but according 
to another account it was buried in the 
church of Sadall in Kintyre, where Regi- 
nald, the son of Somerled, afterwards erected 
a monastery. According to Celtic tradition, 
while a son of Gillecolm became superior of 
Argyll, the isles were divided among his 
other three sons, Dugall, Reginald, and 

[Chronica de Mailros, and Chronicon Coenobii 
Sanct* Crucis Edinburgensis in the Bannatyne 
Club ; Chronicle of Man, ed. Munch ; "VVyntoun's 
Chronicle ; Skene's Celtic Scotland ; Gregory's 
History of the Western Highlands.] T. F. H. 

SUMMERS, CHARLES (1827-1878), 
sculptor, son of George Summers, a mason, 
was born at East Charlton, Somerset, on 
27 July 1827. One of his brothers attained 
success as a musician. Charles received 
little education, but showed early talent for 
sketching portraits. While employed at 
Weston-super-Mare on the erection of a 
monument he attracted the attention of 
Henry Weekes [q. v.], who took him into 
his studio and gave him his first lessons in 
modelling. He also received lessons from 
Musgrave Lewthwaite Watson [q. v.], and 
was employed after that artist's death in 
completing the immense group of Eldon and 
Stowell now in the library of University 

College, Oxford. In 1850 he won the silver 
medal of the Royal Academy, and in 1851 
the gold medal for a piece, 'Mercy interceding 
for the Vanquished.' 

In 1853 Summers went out to Australia 
as a gold-digger at Turnagulla, Victoria, but, 
meeting with no success, he obtained em- 
ployment as a modeller in connection with 
the Victorian houses of parliament, then in 
course of erection, and began work at his 
old art in Melbourne, where he gradually 
made progress. He was selected in 1864 for 
the important task of designing the memo- 
rial to Burke and Wills which now stands 
at the corner of Russel and Collins Street, 
Melbourne ; the group was in bronze, in 
which he had never worked before, so that 
his success was the more remarkable. 

In 1866 Summers returned to England, 
and from that time exhibited regularly in 
the Royal Academy. In 1876 he executed 
statues of the queen, the prince consort, 
and the Prince and Princess of Wales for the 
public library at Melbourne. He resided 
chiefly at Rome. He died on 30 Nov. 1878 
at Paris, and was buried at Rome. He was 
married and left one son, an artist. 

[Thomas's Hero of the Workshop ; Melbourne 
Argus, 1 Dec. 1878; Mennell's Diet, of Austra- 
lasian Biography.] C. A. H. 

SUMMERS, SIR GEORGE (1554-1610), 
virtual discoverer of the Bermudas. [See 



(1790-1874), bishop of Winchester, born at 
Kenilworth on 22 Nov. 1790, was third son 
of the Rev. Robert Sumner, vicar of Kenil- 
worth and Stoneleigh, Warwickshire (d. 
9 Oct. 1802), by his wife Hannah (d. Go- 
dalming, 10 Dec. 1846, aged 89), daughter of 
John Bird, alderman of London. John Bird 
Sumner [q. v.], archbishop of Canterbury, 
was his elder brother. 

Charles Richard was educated by his father 
at home until June 1802, when he was sent 
to Eton as an oppidan. In 1804 he obtained 
a place on the foundation, and remained at 
Eton until 1809, during which time he made 
many friends destined to be well known in 
after years. Among them were Dr. Lonsdale, 
bishop of Lichfield, Dean Milman, and Sir 
John Taylor Coleridge. While at Eton he 
wrote a sensational novel, ' The White Nun ; 
or the Black Bog of Dromore,' which he sold 
for 51. to Ingalton, the local bookseller. It 
was issued as by ' a young gentleman of 
Note,' the publisher explaining to the author 
that every one would see that ' note ' was 
' Eton ' spelt backwards. 

There were but two vacancies at King's 




College, Cambridge, during 1809-10, and in 
the latter year Sumner was superannuated, 
having previously been elected Davis's 
scholar. He was consequently entered at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, on 17 Feb. 1810, 
and then went to Sedbergh for a few months 
to read mathematics with a popular tutor 
called Dawson, after which he made a short 
tour in the Lakes, calling on Coleridge and 
Wordsworth. He matriculated on 13 Nov. 
1810, and was admitted scholar on 10 April 
1812. He graduated B.A. in 1814 and M.A. 
in 1817. On 5 June 1814 he was ordained 
deacon, and on 2 March 1817 priest. At 
Cambridge he was the last secretary of the 
' Speculative ' Society, afterwards merged 
in the body known as the ' Union.' 

In the summer of 1814 Sumner accom- 
panied Lord Mount-Charles (who had been 
a fellow undergraduate at Trinity College), 
and Lord Francis Nathaniel Conyngham, 
the eldest and second sons of Marquis Conyng- 
ham, through Flanders and by the Rhine to 
Geneva, where he unexpectedly met J. T. 
Coleridge ; Coleridge introduced them to 
J. P. Maunoir, M.D., professor of surgery 
in the college of that city. The professor's 
wife was an English lady, and to the eldest 
of their three daughters, Jennie Fanny Bar- 
nabine, Sumner became engaged in January 
1815. Gossip asserted that he took this step 
to forestall similar action on the part of the 
elder of his pupils, whose father secured 
Sumner's preferment in the church by way 
of showing his gratitude. During the winter 
months of 1814-15 and the autumn and 
winter of 1815-16 he ministered to the Eng- 
lish congregation at Geneva. On 24 Jan. 
1816 he married Miss Maunoir at the English 
chapel of Geneva. From September 1816 
to 1821 Sumner served as curate of High- 
clere, Hampshire, and took pupils, Lord 
Albert Conyngham and Frederick Oakeley 
being among them. 

In 1820 Sumner was introduced by the 
Conynghams to George IV at Brighton, 
where he dined with the king, and talked 
with him afterwards for three hours. His 
handsome presence, dignified manners, and 
tact made a most favourable impression. In 
April of the following year George, without 
waiting for the approval of Lord Liverpool, 
the prime minister, announced to Sumner 
that he intended to promote him to a vacant 
canonry at Windsor. The prime minister 
refused to sanction the appointment, and an 
angry correspondence took place between king 
and minister (YoxGE, iz/e of Lord Liverpool, 
iii. 151-4). For a time it seemed as if the 
offer of this desirable preferment to the young 
curate might jeopardise the life of the 

ministry, but George TV reluctantly gave way. 
A compromise was effected. The canonry 
was given to Dr. James Stanier Clarke 
[q. v.], and Sumner succeeded to all Clarke's 
appointments. These included the posts of 
historiographer to the crown, chaplain to the 
household at Carlton House, and librarian 
to the king, and George IV also made him 
his private chaplain at Windsor, with a 
salary of 300/. a year, t and a capital house 
opposite the park gates.' Other promotions 
followed in quick succession. From Septem- 
ber 1821 to March 1822 (in 1822 his first and 
last sermons in the church were published 
in one volume) he was vicar of St. Helen's, 
Abingdon; he held the second canonry in 
Worcester Cathedral from 11 March 1822 
to 27 June 1825, and from the last date to 
16 June 1827 he was the second canon at 
Canterbury. He became chaplain in ordinary 
to the king on 8 Jan. 1823, and deputy 
clerk of the closet on 25 March 1824. In 
January 1824 the new see of Jamaica was 
offered to him, but George IV refused to 
sanction his leaving England, asserting that 
he wished Sumner to be with him in the 
hour of death, and in July 1825 he took at 
Cambridge, by the king's command, the 
degree of D.D. On 27 Dec. 1824 he was with 
Lord Mount-Charles when he died at Nice. 

On 21 May 1826 Sumner was consecrated 
at Lambeth as bishop of Llandaff, and in 
consequence of the poverty of the see he held 
with it the deanery of St. Paul's (25 April 
1826), and the prebendal stall of Portpoole 
(27 April 1826). Within a year he made his 
first visitation of the diocese. When the 
rich bishopric of Winchester became vacant 
in 1827 by the death of Dr. Tomline, the 
king hastened to bestqw it upon Sumner, 
remarking that this time he had determined 
that the see should be filled by a gentleman. 
Sumner was confirmed in the possession of 
the bishopric on 12 Dec. 1827, and next day 
was sworn in as prelate of the order of the 
Garter. He was just 37 years old when he 
became the head of that enormous diocese, 
with its vast revenues and its magnificent 

Though he opposed the Reform Bill in 1832, 
the strong tory views which he held in early 
life were soon modified. He voted for the 
Roman Catholic Relief Bill of 1829 (a step 
which he regretted later), with the result 
that he forfeited the affection of George IV, 
and another prelate was summoned to at- 
tend the king's deathbed (SOTJTHEY, in Let- 
ters of Lake Poets to Stuart, p. 427). 

One of the first acts of Sumner as bishop 
of Winchester was to purchase with the funds 
of the see a town house in St. James's Square, 




London. Another was to issue sets of querie 
for the beneficed clergy of the diocese t 
answer, no information having been obtaine* 
in that way since 1788, and in August anc 
September 1829 he made his first visitation 
of the counties under his charge. He pressec 
upon the clergy the necessity of providing 
schools for the poor, pleaded with landlords 
for the provision of better houses for their 
tenants, and protested against trading or 
Sundays. During his occupation of th<; 
bishopric of Winchester he made ten visita- 
tions, the last being in October and November 
1867, and he twice issued a ' Conspectus' o 
the diocese (1854 and 1864). By 1867 there 
were 747 permanent or temporary churches 
in the diocese, 201 being new and additional 
and 119 having been rebuilt since 1829, 
During the same period there had been pro- 
vided 312 churchyards and cemeteries, and 
the new districts, divided parishes, and ancient 
chapelries formed into separate benefices 
amounted to 210, while nearly every living 
had been supplied with a parsonage-house. 
He proved himself an admirable admini- 

Sumner's munificence and energy were 
beyond praise. His revenues were great, 
but his liberality was equal to them. In 
1837 he formed a church building society for 
the diocese, in 1845 he instituted a ' South- 
wark fund for schools and churches,' and in 
1860 he set on foot the * Surrey Church 
Association.' When the lease for lives of the 
Southwark Park estate lapsed in the summer 
of 1863, he refused to renew it, and entered 
into negotiations with the ecclesiastical com- 
missioners. They bought out his rights for 
a capital sum of 13,270/., and for an annuity 
of 3,200/. during the term of his episcopate. 
The whole of this sum, both capital and 
income, he placed in the hands of the two 
archdeacons and the chancellor of the dio- 
cese for the purpose of augmenting poor 
benefices. It ultimately amounted to 34,900/. 
The religious views of Sumner were evan- 
gelical, and most of the preferments in his 
gift were conferred upon members of that 
party. But he bestowed considerable patron- 
age upon Samuel W 7 ilberforce, who succeeded 
him in the see, and he conferred a living 
on George Moberly, afterwards bishop of 
Salisbury. The appointment of Dr. Hamp- 
den to the see of Hereford was not approved 
of by him, and he was vehement against the 
action of the pope in 1850 in establishing 
bishoprics in England. He was attacked in 
1854 as being lukewarm over the revival of 
convocation. Though he strongly opposed 
the establishment of the ecclesiastical com- 
mission, he loyally aided in carrying out its 

designs, and from 1856 to 1864 was a member 
of its church estates committee. 

The bishop was seized with a paralytic 
stroke on 4 March 1868, and in August 1869 
he sent to the prime minister the resignation 
of his see. John Moultrie [q. v.] addressed 
some lines to him on this event, beginning, 
' Last of our old prince bishops, fare thee well.' 
He took a smaller pension from the revenues 
of the see than he might have claimed, and 
an order in council continued to him the 
possession of Farnham Castle as his residence 
for life. He died there on 15 Aug. 1874, and 
was buried on 21 Aug. in the vault by the 
side of his wife under the churchyard of 
Hale, where he had built the church at his 
own cost. His wife was born on 23 Feb. 
1794, and died at Farnham Castle on 3 Sept. 
1849. They had issue four sons and three 

To Sumner was entrusted the editing of 
the manuscript treatise in Latin of the two 
books of John Milton, l De Doctrina Chris- 
tiana,' discovered by Robert Lemon (1779- 
1835) [q. v.] in the state paper office in 1823. 
By the command of George IV it was pub- 
lished in 1825, one volume being the original 
Latin edited by Sumner, and another con- 
sisting of an English translation by him. 
William Sidney Walker [q. v.], then a re- 
sident at Cambridge, where the work was 
printed, superintended the passing of the 
work through the press. In this task he 
took upon himself to revise ( not only the 
printer's, but the translator's labour ' (MoTJL- 
TRIE, Memoir of Walker, 1852, p. Ixxviii ; 
KNIGHT, Passages from a Working Life, ii. 
29-31). Macaulay highly praised the work 
in the l Edinburgh Review,' August 1825 
[ Works, ed. 1871, v. 2). The Latin version 
was reprinted at Brunswick in 1827, and the 
English rendering was reissued at Boston 
United States) in 1825, in two volumes. 

Sumner published many charges and ser- 
mons, as well as a volume entitled 'The 
Ministerial Character of Christ practically 
considered ' (London, 1824, 8vo). It was an 
expansion of lectures which he had delivered 
)efore George IV in the chapel at Cumber- 
and Lodge, and it passed through two edi- 
ions. Bernard Barton [q. v.] dedicated to 
lim in December 1828 his ' New Year's Eve,' 
or which he was quizzed by Charles Lamb 
Letters, ed. Ainger, ii. 210), and visited him 
at Farnham Castle in 1844. The world in- 
isted on identifying Sumner with Bishop 
5olway in Mrs. Trollope's novel of 'The 
?hree Cousins,' but she had no knowledge 
f him (Life of Mrs. Trollope, ii. 79). 

Sumner's portrait was painted in 1832 by 
Sir Martin Archer Shee ; it was presented 




by his family to the diocese, and now hangs 
in the noble hall at Farnham. An engrav- 
ing of it was made by Samuel Cousins in 
1834. At the request of the authorities of 
Eton College he sat for the portrait, which 
is preserved in the college hall. A print of 
him drawn on stone by C. Baugniet is dated 

[A Life of Sumner -was published by his 
son, George Henry Sumner, in 1876; cf. Le 
Neve's Fasti, i. 49, ii. 257, 317, 429, iii. 21, 81 ; 
Stapylton's Eton Lists, p. 42: Lady G-ranville's 
Letters,!. 255; Burke's Landed Gentry; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. ; Gent. Mag. 1802 ii. 1066, 
1847 i. 108; Times, 17 and 18 Aug. 1874; 
Guardian, 19 and 26 Aug. 1874; Pennington's 
Kecollections, pp. 149-65; Ashwell and Wil- 
berforce's Bishop Wilberforce, i. 65-82, 103-4, 
150, 160, 263-4, 317, 401, ii. 248, iii. 61-2; 
Lucas's Bernard Barton, pp. 108-9, 161; in- 
formation from Mr. W. Aldis Wright.] 

W. P. C. 

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD (1780-1862), 
archbishop of Canterbury, eldest son of the 
Rev. Robert Sumner, and brother of Bishop 
Charles Richard Sumner [q. v.], was born at 
Kenilworth on 25 Feb. 1780. He was edu- 
cated at Eton from 1791 to 1798, when he 
proceeded, being the first of his year, to 
King's College, Cambridge. He was elected 
scholar (5 Nov. 1798) and fellow (5 Nov. 
1801). In the second quarter of his residence 
at Cambridge he was nominated to a ' King's 
Betham scholarship/ and held it until 1803. 
In 1800 he won the Browne medal for the 
best Latin ode, the subject being ' Mysorei 
Tyranni Mors,' and he was Hulsean prizeman 
in 1802. He graduated B.A. in 1803, M.A. 
in 1807, and D.D. in 1828. 

In 1802 Sumner returned to Eton as assis- 
tant master, and in 1803 he was ordained 
by John Douglas, bishop of Salisbury. On 
31 March 1803 he married at Bath Marianne, 
1 daughter of George Robertson of Edin- 
burgh,' a captain in the navy, and sister of 
Thomas Campbell Robertson [q. v.] ( Gent. 
May. 1803, i. 380). He thus vacated his fel- 
lowship at King's College, but he was elected 
to a fellowship at Eton in 1817, and in the 
following year was nominated by the college 
to the valuable living of Mapledurham, on 
the banks of the Thames, in Oxfordshire. 
Through the favour of Shute Barrington 
[q. v.], the bishop of the diocese, he was ap- 
pointed in 1820 to the ninth prebendal stall 
in Durham Cathedral. In 1826 he succeeded 
to the more lucrative preferment of the fifth 
stall, and from 1827 to 1848 he held the 
second stall, which was still better endowed, 
in that cathedral. Bishop Phillpotts, his 
contemporary and opponent, had previously 

held the ninth and the second canonry at 

From 1815 to 1829 Sumner published a 
number of volumes on theological subjects,, 
which enjoyed much popularity, and were 
held to reflect the best traits in the teaching 
of the evangelical party within the church 
of England. The soundness of Sumner's- 
theological views, combined with his ripe 
scholarship and his discretion in speech and 
action, marked him out for elevation to the 
episcopal bench. He was also aided in his- 
rise by the influence of his brother, at whose 
consecration at Lambeth on 21 May 1826 he 
preached the sermon. In 1827 he declined 
the offer of the see of Sodor and Man ; but, 
on the promotion of Bishop Blomfield, he 
accepted in the next year the nomination by 
the Duke of Wellington to the bishopric of 
Chester. He was consecrated at Bishop- 
thorpe on 14 Sept. 1828, the second of the 
consecrators being his brother. Though he 
was known to be opposed to any concessions 
to the Roman catholics, and had been ap- 
pointed to his see by the Duke of Wellington 
partly on the ground of his antipathy to their 
claims, he voted, as did his brother, for the 
repeal of the disabilities which pressed upon 
them. He then addressed a circular letter 
to his clergy in vindication of his vote. He 
voted in favour of the second reading of the 
Reform Bill (13 April 1832), and he was on 
the poor-law commission of 1834. 

The energy of the new bishop soon made 
itself felt throughout the (then undivided) 
diocese of Chester. He was indefatigable in 
obtaining the erection of more churches and 
the provision of schools, and by 1847 had 
consecrated more than two hundred new 
churches. A remarkable tribute to his zeal 
was paid in the House of Commons on 5 May 
1843 by Sir Robert Peel, when introducing^ 
his resolutions for the constitution and en- 
dowment of ' Peel' districts in parishes where 
the population was in excess of church ac- 
commodation (Hansard, Ixviii. 1287). The 
charges which Sumner delivered at the visi- 
tations of his diocese in 1829, 1832, 1835, 
and 1838 were published in one volume in 
1839, and five editions were sold. 

The leader of the tory party had selected 
Sumner for the see of Chester. The arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury became vacant on 
11 Feb. 1848 by the death of Dr. Howley, 
and Sumner was chosen by Lord John 
Russell, the premier of the whig government, 
to succeed to the vacant place. He was 
confirmed at Bow church on 10 March, 
and enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 
28 April 1848. Despite the strength of his 
evangelical convictions, he acted upon them 




without any prejudice to opponents or any 
undue bias to friends. His moderation in 
tone made him at times suspected of a want 
of strength. Bishop Wilberforce spoke of 
his speech at the Mansion House for a church 
society as ' like himself, good, gentle, loving, 
and weak' {Life, ii. 248). 

Sumner * decidedly repudiated' the Bamp- 
ton lectures of Dr. Hampden, but he declined 
to participate in the action of several of the 
bishops in protesting against the doctor's ap- 
pointment to the see of Hereford, and his 
tirst public act, as primate, was to take the 
leading place in the consecration of Hampden. 
His second action was to preside at the open- 
ing of St. Augustine's College at Canterbury, 
which had recently been purchased and re- 
stored by Alexander James Beresford-Hope 
[q. v.] as a college for missionary clergy. 
By these acts he illustrated the impartiality 
of his attitude to the two great parties in 
the church of England. 

During the period from 1847 to 1851 the 
church of England was rent in twain by the 
disputes over the refusal of Dr. Phillpotts, 
bishop of Exeter, to institute the Rev. George 
Cornelius Gorham [q. v.] to the vicarage 
of Brampford-Speke in Devonshire, on the 
ground that his views on baptismal regene- 
ration were not in agreement with those of 
the English church. The case came before 
the privy council, when the archbishops of 
Canterbury and York concurred in the judg- 
ment by which it was ' determined that a 
clergyman of the church of England need 
not believe in baptismal regeneration.' This 
j udgment led to the secession from the church 
of many of the leading members, both lay 
and clerical, of the high-church party, and 
it provoked the publication by the bishop of 
Exeter of his celebrated letter to the arch- 
bishop, which went through twenty- one 
editions. In this vigorous protest the bishop 
remonstrated against the action of the pri- 
mate in supporting heresy in 'the church, 
and declined any further communion with 
him, but announced his intention of praying 
for him as * an affectionate friend for nearly 
thirty years, and your now afflicted servant.' 

The archbishop was a consistent opponent 
of the bill for removing Jewish disabilities, 
and of that for legalising marriage with a 
deceased wife's sister. He supported the 
proposals for a compromise on the vexed 
question of church rates, and was favourable 
to the passing of the divorce bill, but re- 
sisted all measures for altering the language 
of the prayer-book. On 12 Nov. 1852 con- 
vocation met for the first time for 135 years 
for the despatch of business. The upper 
house was under his presidency. 

The archbishop was taken ill in May 1861, 
but recovered. He was one of the commis- 
sioners at the opening of the exhibition on 
1 May 1862, and the fatigue of the proceed- 
ings proved too great a strain for his en- 
feebled frame. He died at Addington on 
6 Sept. 1862. A kindly message was sent to- 
him on his deathbed by Dr. Phillpotts, and 
warmly reciprocated (SuMNER, Life of Bishop 
Sumner , pp. 333-4). He was buried with 
extreme simplicity in Addington churchyard 
on 12 Sept. The archbishop, two daughters, 
and some other relatives are interred at the 
north-east corner of the churchyard. His 
wife died at the Manor House, Wandsworth, 
on 22 March 1829. Two sons and several 
daughters survived him. 

Sumner's works comprise : 1. ' Apostolical 
Preaching considered in an Examination of 
St. Paul's Epistles,' 1815 (anonymous) ; it 
was reissued, with the author's name, in 
1817, after being corrected and enlarged, 
and passed into a ninth edition in 1850. 
A French translation from that edition was 
published at Paris in 1856. On 4 Aug. 1815 
Sumner won the second prize, amounting to 
400/., of John Burnett (1729-1784) [q. v.], 
for a dissertation on the Deity. It was en- 
titled : 2. < A Treatise on the Records of the 
Creation and the Moral Attributes of the 
Creator' (1816, 2 vols.), and seven editions 
of it were sold. He rested his principal 
evidence of the existence of the Creator upon 
the credibility of the Mosaic records of the 
creation, and accepted the conclusions of 
geological science as understood in 1815 
( Gent. Mag. 1815, ii. 155 ; Quarterly Review, 
xvi. 37-69). Sir Charles Lyell afterwards 
appealed to it in proof that revelation and 

rology are not necessarily discordant forces. 
' A Series of Sermons on the Christian 
Faith and Character,' 1821 ; 9th edit. 1837. 
4. ' The Evidence of Christianity derived 
from its Nature and Reception,' 1824, in 
which he contended that the Christian reli- 
gion would not have preserved its vitality 
had it not been introduced by divine autho- 
rity ; a new edition, prompted by the appear- 
ance of ' Essays and Reviews,' came out in 
1861 . 5. ' Sermons on the principal Festivals 
of the Church, with three Sermons on Good 
Friday/ 1827; 4th edit. 1831. 6. 'Four 
Sermons on Subjects relating to the Christian 
Ministry,' 1828; reissued in 1850 as an ap- 
pendix to the ninth edition of ' Apostolical 
Preaching.' 7. ' Christian Charity : its Obli- 
gations and Objects,' 1841. 

Between 1831 and 1851 Sumner issued a 
series of volumes of 'Practical Expositions' 
on the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, 
and the epistles in the New Testament. 




Many editions were sold, and in 1849, 1850, 
and 1851 the Rev. George Wilkinson pub- 
lished selections from them in four volumes. 
Sumner himself issued in 1859 a summary in 
i Practical Reflections on Select Passages of 
the New Testament.' He contributed to the 
* Encyclopaedia Britannica ' (Suppl. 1824, 
vol. vi.) an article on the poor laws, and to 
Charles Knight's serial, ' The Plain English- 
man ' (KNIGHT, Passages from a Working 
Life, i. 193, 247) ; and he was the author 
of many single sermons, speeches, and 

A portrait of the archbishop hangs in the 
hall of the university of Durham ; another, 
in his convocation robes, by Eddis, is at 
Lambeth; of this a replica is in the 
hall at King's College, Cambridge. A 
portrait, by Margaret Carpenter, was en- 
graved by Samuel Cousins in 1839. A later 
portrait by the same artist was engraved by 
T. Richar'dson Jackson. Francis Holl exe- 
cuted an engraving of another portrait of 
him by George Richmond. A recumbent 
effigy by H. Weekes, R.A., is in the nave of 
Canterbury Cathedral. 

[Gent. Mag. 1829, i. 283; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 
31, iii. 263, 310, 313, 317; Stapylton's Eton 
Lists, p. 5; Sumner's Bishop Sumner, pp. 402- 
404 ; Times, 8 Sept. 1862 pp. 8, 12, 13 Sept. 
1862 p. 8 ; Guardian, 10 Sept. 1862, Supplement, 
and 17 Sept. 1862 p. 883 ; Life of Bishop Blom- 
field, pp. 125-7 ; Ashwell and Wilberforce's 
BishopWilberforce, passim ; information from the 
Provost of King's College, Cambridge.] 

W. P. C. 

1771), master of Harrow, born on 9 March 
1728-9 at Windsor, was grandson of a Bristol 
merchant and nephew of John Sumner, canon 
of Windsor and head master of Eton College. 
Robert was educated at Eton College and at 
King's College, Cambridge, where he was ad- 
mitted a scholar on 18 Dec. 1747 and a fellow 
on 28 Dec. 1750, graduating B.A. in 1752, 
and proceeding M.A. in 1755. He became 
assistant master at Eton in 1751, and after- 
wards master at Harrow. On 3 Aug. 1760 
he married a sister of William Arden ' of 
Eton,' a scholar of King's College. In con- 
sequence of his marriage he vacated his 
fellowship. In 1768 he obtained the degree 
of D.D., and, dying on 12 Sept. 1771, was 
buried in Harrow church. He was the 
friend of Dr. Johnson and the master of Dr. 
Parr and Sir William Jones, both of whom 
in later years celebrated his praises (FIELD, 
Life of Parr, i. 16-18; JONES, Poeseos 
Asiatics Commentariorum Libri, p. v). He 
published ' Concio ad Clerum ' (London, 
1768, 4to), which Parr declared equal in 

point of latinity to any composition by any 
of his countrymen in the century. 

[Harwood's Alumni Etonenses, p. 334; Grad. 
Cantabr. 1660-1786, p. 375; Gent. Mag. 1760 
p. 394. 1825 i. 388; Kegisters of Eton College 
and King's College.] E. I. C. 

SPENCER, ROBEET, second earl, 1640-1702 ; 
SPENCER, CHARLES, third earl, 1674-1722.] 

SUNDERLIN, LORD. [See under 
MALONE, EDMUND, 1741-1812, critic and 

LADT (d. 1742), woman of the bedchamber 
to Queen Caroline, was granddaughter of Sir 
Lewis Dyve [q.v.] of Bromham, Bedfordshire, 
and daughter of Sir Lewis's youngest son 
John, who married, in 1673, Frances, third 
daughter of Sir Robert Wolseley of Wolseley, 
Staffordshire. John Dyve was clerk of the 
privy council in 1691, and died in the follow- 
ing year; his widow died in 1702, and both 
were buried at St. James's, Westminster 
(W. M. HARVEY, Hundred of Willey, pp. 44 

Before the end of Queen Anne's reign 
their daughter, Charlotte Dyve, married a 
Bedfordshire gentleman of family and fortune, 
William Clayton (1672 P-1752) of Sundon 
Hall, afterwards Baron Sundon of Ardagh 
in the Irish peerage. He was M.P. for 
Liverpool from 1698 to 1707, and from 1713 
to 1715. Afterwards he was M.P. for New 
Woodstock (1716-22) and St. Albans (1722- 
1727), by the influence of the Duke of Marl- 
borough* and for Westminster (1727-41), 
Plympton Earl (1742-47), and St. Mawes 
(1747-52). In 1716 he was deputy auditor 
of the exchequer, and he became a lord of the 
treasury in 1718 (Gent. Mag. 1752, p. 240). 

In 1713, when the Duke of Marlborough 
left England, Clayton, a confidential friend, 
was appointed one of the managers of the 
duke's estates, and afterwards he was an 
executor. On the accession of George I and 
the return of the whigs to office in 1714 
Mrs. Clayton was appointed, through the in- 
fluence of her friend and correspondent, the 
Duchess of Marlborough, bedchamber woman 
to Caroline of Anspach, now Princess of 
Wales. Lady Cowper, another lady of the 
bedchamber to the princess, was soon on 
terms of great intimacy, and sought to turn 
her influence to account in behalf of Mrs. 
Clayton's husband. Mrs. Clayton obtained 
much influence over her royal mistress (Diary 
of Mary, Countess Cowper, passim). Sir 
Robert Walpole, who was constantly in oppo- 
sition to Mrs. Clayton, said that her as- 
cendencv over the Princess of Wales was due 




to her knowledge of the secret that her mis- 
tress suffered from a rupture ; but the falsity 
of the story is shown by the fact that there 
were no symptoms of the trouble until 1724, 
when Mrs. Clayton had been in the princess's 
favour for ten years (LoKD HERVEY, Memoirs 
of the Reign of George II, i. 90, iii. 310). 
According to VValpole she accepted from her 
friend, the Countess of Pomfret [see FERMOR, 
HENRIETTA LOUISA], a pair of earrings worth 
1,400/. to obtain for Lord Pomfret the post 
of master of the horse (WALPOLE, Letters, 
vol. i. pp. cxli, 115). The princess's attach- 
ment to clergymen whom Walpole held to 
be heterodox was attributed by him to Mrs. 
Clayton's influence. Benjamin Hoadly [q.v.J, 
afterwards bishop of Winchester, Dr. Alured 
Clarke (1696-1742) [q.v.],Dr. Samuel Clarke 
(1675-1729) [q. v'.], and Robert Clayton 
[q. v.], bishop of Killala, a kinsman of her 
husband, were among Mrs. Clayton's greatest 
friends. Among literary men to whom she 
showed attentions were Stephen Duck [q.v.J, 
Steele (AiTKEN, Life of liichard Steele, ii. 
75, 128, 297), Richard Savage [q. v.], and 
Voltaire, who thanked her for her kindness 
while he was in England. 

Mrs. Clayton became Lady Sundon in 1735, 
when her husband was raised to the Irish 
peerage as Baron Sundon of Ardagh. Lord 
Sundon always sided with the court party 
in parliament, and his candidature for West- 
minster in 1741 resulted in a riot, in which 
his life was endangered. The high bailiff 
took the unusual step of summoning the 
military to his aid, and this, upon the re- 
assembling of parliament, enabled the oppo- 
sition to deal a successful blow at Walpole. 
Walpole said that Lord Carteret had in 1735 
opened two canals to the queen's ear, Bishop 
Sherlock and Mrs. Clayton, but hoped to 
prevent either of them injuring him (LORD 
HERVEY, Memoirs, ii. 128). It is stated in 
the newspapers of the day that Lady Sundon 
succeeded Lady Suffolk as mistress of the robes 
in May 1735; but this alleged promotion, 
though perhaps contemplated, was not carried 
out (ib. ii. 203, 336, iii. 300). When Wal- 
pole feared that the queen would make a 
difficulty about Madame Walmoden, the mis- 
tress of George II, being brought to England, 
he said it was ' those bitches, Lady Pomfret 
and Lady Sundon,' who were influencing their 
mistress, in order to make their court to her. 

Walpole told his son Horace that Lady 
Sundon,' in the enthusiasm of her vanity, had 
proposed that they should unite and govern 
the kingdom together. Walpole bowed, 
begged her patronage, but said he knew 
nobody fit to govern the kingdom but the 
king and queen (WALPOLE, Letters, i. 115). 

Lady Sundon was very ill at Bath in 1737, 
during the queen's fatal illness ; but Walpole 
associated Caroline's refusal to receive the 
sacrament to the influence over her of Lady 
Sundon and l the less believing clergy ' whose 
cause she espoused (LORD HERVEY, Memoirs, 
ii. 113, 281, iii. 300, 333). After the queen's 
death Lady Sundon was pensioned. In 1738 
she was reported to be dragging on a mise- 
rable life, with a ' cancerous humour in her 
throat' (LADY M. W. MONTAGU, Letters, ii. 
I 27, 55). She died on 1 Jan. 1742. Her 
husband survived her for ten years (see 
WALPOLE, Letters, i. 114). 

Though most of Lady Sundon's corre- 
spondents flattered and fawned, in the hope 
of obtaining favours through her influence, 
it is clear that some of them were real friends. 
Hoadly speaks of her sincerity and goodness ; 
j Lord Bristol said she was ' a, simple woman, 
and talked accordingly ' (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. 
v. 87, ix. 592). Horace Walpole calls her 
'an absurd, pompous simpleton' (Letters, i. 
pp. cxxx, cxxxii). Hervey's verdict is on 
the whole extremely favourable. She de- 
spised, he says, the dirty company surround- 
ing her, and had not hypocrisy enough to tell 
them they were white and clean. She took 
great pleasure in doing good, often for persons 
who could not repay her. Mrs. Howard 
and Lady Sundon hated each other ' very 
civilly and very heartily ' (Memoirs,].. 89-91). 

A number of letters addressed to Lady 
Sundon from 1714 by aspirants to her favour 
are in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 
20102-5, 30516) ; many are printed in Mrs. 
Thomson's ' Memoirs of Viscountess Sundon, 
Mistress of the Robes to Queen Caroline,' 2 
vols. 1847. This title is typical of the general 
inaccuracy of the work ; for Lady Sundon was 
neither a viscountess nor mistress of the 
robes. Lady Sundon was not fond of letter- 
writing, but one letter to the Duchess of 
Leeds is in the British Museum (Addit. 
MS. 28051, f. 304). 

There are portraits after Kneller of Lord 
and Lady Sundon, with an inscription stating 
that they were presented in 1728 by Mrs. 
Clayton to Dr. Freind, who had attended her 
husband in a dangerous illness. There is also 
a whole-length portrait of Lady Sundon on 
Lord Ilchester's staircase at Melbury (HAR- 
VEY, Hundred of Willey, p. 109). 

[Works cited ; Pope's Works, vii. 238, viii. 300 ; 
Suffolk Correspondence, i. 62, 63 ; Baker's North- 
ampton, i. 82, 160, 163, 169,. ii. 254; Lysons's 
Magna Brit. i. 61 ; Blayde's Genealogia Bed- 
fordiensis, pp. 557, 357.] Or. A. A. 

(d. 1708), portrait-painter, was one of the 
Netherland artists who followed Sir Peter 




Lely into England. After the death of Lely 
he obtained permission to paint the king's 
portrait, but, the work of John Riley [q. v.] 
being preferred to his, he retired to Oxford, 
where he found constant employment ; there 
he always resided during term time, spending 
the rest of the year in London. He was com- 
missioned by the university authorities to 
paint the series of portraits of founders now 
hung in ' Duke Humphrey's ' library in the 
Bodleian. All the portraits are imaginary, 
1 John Balliol ' being that of a blacksmith, 
and ' Devorguilla ' that of Jenny Reeks, an 
Oxford apothecary's pretty daughter (Oxo- 
niana, iii. 15, 16), At Wadham there is a 
portrait of a college servant named Mary 
George, aged 120, which was painted and 
presented by him. Sunman's portrait of 
Robert Morison [q. v.], the botanist, was en- 
graved by Robert White as a frontispiece 
to his ' Plantarum Historia Universalis Oxo- 
niensis,' 1680, for many of the plates in 
which work Sunman also made the drawings. 
He died in Greek Street, Soho, in July 1708, 
and was buried in St. Anne's churchyard 
on the 15th of that month. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Vertue's manu- 
script collections in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 23068, 
f. 39 ; Walpole's Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway and 
Wornum; Burial Reg. of St. Anne's, West- 
minster.] F. M. O'D. 

1878), organist and professor of music, born 
in 1814, was the son of Gabriel Surenne, a 
Frenchman, who came to London in 1800, 
and settled in Edinburgh in 1817 as a teacher 
of French and professor of military history 
and antiquities in the Scottish Naval and 
Military Academy. 

In 1831 Surenne, a pupil of Henri Herz, 
became organist to St. Mark's Episcopal 
Chapel, Portobello, and in 1844 he was ap- 
pointed organist to St. George's Episcopal 
Chapel, Edinburgh. He became a popular 
and respected teacher of music and the com- 
poser of arrangements for the pianoforte, 
psalm-tunes, chants, and the catch * Mister 
Speaker.' In 1841 he compiled ' The Dance 
Music of Scotland,' which reached five edi- 
tions ; in 1852 The Songs of Scotland,' 
without words ; and in 1854 * The Songs of 
Ireland/ Surenne was also associated with 
George Farquhar Graham [q. v.], the music 
historian, in the publication of the national 
music of Scotland. 

Surenne died in Edinburgh on 3 Feb. 
1878, in his sixty-fourth year. 

[Baptie's Musical Biography, p. 227 ; Scots- 
man, 4 Feb. 1878; Musical Scotland, p. 182; 
information from Mr. D. S. Surenne ; Surenne's 
vorks.] L. M. M. 

1847), novelist, baptised on 20 Oct. 1770, was 
the son of John Surr, citizen and wheel- 
wright, a grocer by trade, of St. Botolph's, 
Aldersgate, by his wife Elizabeth, sister of 
Thomas Skinner, lord mayor of London in 
1794. Surr was admitted to Christ's Hospital 
on 18 June 1778, and after his discharge on 
7 Nov. 1785 became a clerk in the bank of 
England, where he rose to the position of 
principal of the drawing office. He married 
Miss Griffiths, sister-in-law of Sir Richard 
Phillips (1767-1840) [q. v.], and died at 
Hammersmith on 15 Feb. 1847. 

He wrote several novels which contained 
portraits of well-known persons of his time. 
The celebrated Georgiana Cavendish, duchess 
of Devonshire [q. v.], is said to have been so 
mortified by being introduced under a fic- 
titious name into his l Winter in London ' 
(1806) in the character of an inveterate 
gambler that it hastened her death. The 
work went through numerous editions, and 
was translated into French by Madame de 
Terrasson de Sennevas. 

Surr's other works are : 1. 'Christ's Hos- 
pital ; a Poem,' London, 1797, 4to. 2. ' Barn- 
well ' (founded on Lillo's * London Mer- 
chant '), London, 1798, 12mo. 3. ' Splendid 
Misery,' London, 1801, 12mo; 4th edit. 1807. 
4. ( Refutation of certain Misrepresentations 
relative to the Nature and Influence of 
Bank Notes and of the Stoppage of Specie at 
the Bank of England on the Price of Pro- 
visions,' London, 1801, 8vo. 5. * The Magic 
of Wealth,' London, 1815, 12mo. 6. 'Rich- 
mond, or Scenes in the Life of a Bow Street 
Officer,' London, 1827, 12mo. Several of his 
novels were translated into French and Ger- 
man. The allegation that to Surr Lord 
Lytton owed the materials for his novel 
' Pelham ' has not been substantiated. 

[Private information; Gent. Mag. 1797 ii. 
871, 963, 1847 i. 448; Notes and Queries, 5th 
ser. vii. 48, 174, 255, 339 ; Biogr. Diet, of Liv- 
ing Authors, p. 336 ; Pantheon of the Age, ii. 
463.] E. I. C. 

THOMAS, 1374-1400.] 

WILLIAM DE, first earl, d. 1089; WAKENNE, 
WILLIAM DE, second earl, d. 1138 ; WA- 
KENNE, WILLIAM DE, third earl, d. 1148; 
WAKENNE, HAMELIN DE, first earl of Surrey 
and Warenne, d. 1202 ; W^ARENNE, WIL- 
LIAM DE, second earl of Surrey and Wa- 
renne, d. 1240 ; WARENNE, JOHN DE, third 
earl of Surrey and Warenne, 1235P-1305; 
WAKENNE, JOHN DE, fourth earl of Surrey 
and Warenne, 1286-1347 ; FITZALAN, Ri- 




CHARD, earl of Arundel and Surrey, 1346- 
1397 ; FITZALAN, THOMAS, earl of Arundel 
and Surrey, 1381-1415 ; HOWARD, THOMAS, 
earl of Surrey and duke of Norfolk, 1443- 
1524; HOWARD, HENRY, earl of Surrey, 
1517 P-1547 ; HOWARD, THOMAS, earl of 
Surrey and duke of Norfolk, 1473-1554.] 

SURTEES, ROBERT (1779-1834), anti- 
quary and topographer, was only surviving 
child of Robert Surtees of Mainsforth, by 
his wife and first cousin Dorothy, daughter 
and co-heiress of William Steele of Lamb 
Abbey, Kent, a director of the East India 
Company. He was born in the South Bailey 
of the city of Durham on 1 April 1779, nearly 
eighteen years after his parents' marriage. 
He was educated first at Kepyer grammar 
school, Houghton-le-Spring, under the Rev. 
William Fleming, and subsequently (1793) 
under Dr. Bristow at Neasdon, where he 
gained the friendship of Reginald Heber 
(afterwards bishop of Calcutta). He matri- 
culated from Christ Church, Oxford, on 
28 Oct. 1796, graduating B.A. in November 
1800, and M.A. in 1803. In 1800 he became 
a student at the Middle Temple, but was 
never called to the bar, for on the death of 
his father on 14 July 1802 he relinquished 
the profession and established himself for 
life at Mainsforth, being then in his twenty- 
fourth year. 

From childhood Surtees seems to have 
exhibited a natural taste for antiquities, being 
when a boy an assiduous coin collector, and 
showing a peculiar attraction for every species 
of folklore. Even in his undergraduate days 
he contemplated writing that ' History of 
Durham ' to which he practically devoted his 
life. Once having determined on his task, 
he brought to bear on it an exceptional power 
of minute inquiry and considerable critical 
scholarship. Throughout his task he was sus- 
tained by a real love of the work. His plan 
was to drive about the county with a groom 
examining carefully all remains of antiquity, 
and noting all inscriptions, registers, and 
any accessible documents. The groom, says 
his friend James Raine [q. v.J {Memoir 
of Surtees, p. 17), complained that it was 
5 weary work,' for master always stopped the 
gig and ' we never could get past an auld 
beelding.' Surtees suffered from almost con- 
tinuous ill-health, which made his habit of 
study somewhat desultory ; his great work 
was written piecemeal, paragraph by para- 
graph, and the copy so produced despatched 
at irregular intervals to the printers. The 
new 'History' was advertised on 14 April 
1812, the first volume appeared in 1816, the 
second in 1820, the third in 1823, and the 

fourth after Surtees's death in 1840, edited 
by Raine. Although the work was hand- 
somely subscribed for in the county, yet the 
magnificent style of printing, paper, and 
illustration entailed upon its author a heavy 
expenditure. The 'History' contains an 
immense amount of genealogical informa- 
tion for the most part very accurate, and this 
is doubtless due to the fact that Surtees's 
local position and reputation secured for him 
a liberal access to family deeds and documents. 
A playful humour, not generally to be ex- 
pected in a learned work of such magnitude, 
characterised the style, ' every now and then 
breaking out like a gleam of sunshine . . . 
and exciting the reader to a smile when 
least expecting to be surprised ' ( Quarterly 
Rev. xxxix. 361, review by Southey). The 
fragments of poetry interwoven with the 
notes and the poems generally entitled ' the 
superstition of the north,' are of Surtees's 
own invention. ' He was imbued with the 
very " spirit of romaunt lore," ' says Dibdin 
{Northern Tour, p. 256), and was an apt 
ballad- writer. Indeed, he inaugurated his 
acquaintance with Sir Walter Scott by im- 
posing upon him a spurious ballad of his own 
composition. This production, called the 
' Death of Featherstonehaugh,' and describing 
the feud between the Ridleys and Feather- 
stones, was published in the twelfth note to 
the 1st canto of ' Marmion' (ed. 1808), and 
was inserted, with notes by both Scott and 
Surtees, in the ' Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border ' (ii. 101, ed. 1831). Probably from 
fear of wounding Scott, Surtees never re- 
vealed the playful imposture, which was not 
divulged until after Surtees's death. 

Surtees lived as much as possible in the 
quiet seclusion of Mainsforth, where he kept 
an open house for antiquaries, scholars, and 
genealogists. He was very generous in the 
use he permitted others to make of the many 
documents and transcripts which he accu- 
mulated throughout life. 

He died at Mainsforth on 11 Feb. 1834, 
and was buried on 15 Feb. in the churchyard 
of Bishop Middleham. He married Anne, 
daughter of Ralph Robinson of Middle Her- 
rington, Durham, on 23 June 1807. 

Scott, writing to Southey in 1810 (LoCK- 
HART, Life, ii. 301), described Surtees as ' an 
excellent antiquary, some of the rust of 
which study has clung to his manners ; but 
he is good-hearted, and you would make the 
summer eve short between you.' To provide 
a fitting memorial for Surtees, the society 
which bears his name was founded on 27 May 
1834 with the object of illustrating the his- 
tory and antiquities of those parts of Eng- 
land and Scotland included in the ancient 




kingdom of Northumbria, by publishing in- 
edited manuscripts mainly of a date anterior 
to the Restoration, and relating to the his- 
tory and topography of northern England. 

A silhouette portrait of Surtees is pre- 
fixed to the ' Life ' by G. Taylor. 

[Life of Surtees, by George Taylor (Surtees 
Soc.) 1852; biographical notice of Surtees in 
R/chardson's Collection of Eeprints and Im- 
prints, Newcastle, 1844 ; Surtees's Hist, of Dur- 
ham.] W. C-B. 

1864), sporting novelist, of an old Durham 
family, was the second son of Anthony 
Surtees (d. 1838) of Hamsterley Hall, who 
married, on 14 March 1801, Alice, sister of 
Christopher Blackett of Wylam, M.P. for 
south Northumberland 1837-1841. His 
grandfather, Robert Surtees (1741-1811), 
was of Milkwell Burn in the parish of 
Ryton, an estate purchased by his ancestor, 
Anthony Surtees, in 1626; the estate of 
Hamsterley Hall was acquired about 1807 
from the executors of Thomas, eldest surviv- 
ing son of Henry Swinburne [q. v.] the 
traveller (cf. SUKTEES, Durham, ii. 290). 

Born in 1803, Robert was educated at 
Durham grammar school, which he left in 
1819 for a solicitor's office. Having qualified 
as a solicitor, he bought a partnership in 
London ; but the business was misrepresented, 
and he had difficulty in recovering the pur- 
chase money. He took rooms in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and began contributing to the 
old 'Sporting Magazine.' During 1830 he 
compiled a manual for horse-buyers, in which 
he combined his knowledge of the law with his 
taste for sporting matters. In 1831 his elder 
brother, Anthony, died unmarried at Malta 
on 24 March, thus materially altering his pro- 
spects. Before the close of the same year, in 
conjunction with Rudolph Ackermann [q.v.], 
he started the 'New Sporting Magazine/ 
which Surtees edited down to 1836. Be- 
tween July 1831 and September 1834 he de- 
veloped in these pages the humorous charac- 
ter of Mr. John Jorrocks, a sporting grocer, the 
quintessence of Cockney vulgarity, good hu- 
mour, absurdity, and cunning. The success 
of the sketches led to the conception of a 
similar scheme by Chapman and Seymour, 
which resulted in the ' Pickwick Papers.' 
The papers of Surtees were collected as 
* Jorrocks's Jaunts ' in 1838, in which year, 
by the death of his father on 5 March, 
Surtees succeeded to the estate of Hamster- 
ley Hall. He became a J.P. for Durham, a 
major of the Durham militia, and high sheriff 
of the county in 1856. In the meantime, 
Lockhart, having seen the 'Jorrocks Papers/ 

suggested to a common friend, ' Nimrod'(i.e. 
Charles James Apperley), that Surtees ought 
to try his hand at a novel. The result was 
'Handley Cross/ in which Jorrocks reappears 
as a master of foxhounds and the possessor 
of a county seat. The coarseness of the 
text was redeemed in 1854 by the brilliantly 
humorous illustrations of John Leech, who 
utilised a sketch of a coachman made in 
church as his model for the ex-grocer. Some 
of Leech's best work is to be found among 
his illustrations to Surtees's later novels, 
notably 'Ask Mamma' and 'Mr. Romford's 
Hounds.' Without the original illustrations 
these works have very small interest. At 
the time of his death Surtees had just pre- 
pared for appearance in serial parts his last 
novel, ' Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds/ 
Leech himself died during its issue, and the 
illustrations were completed by Hablot K. 
Browne (' Phiz '). The novelist was a keen 
observer, very tall, but a good horseman, who, 
' without ever riding for effect, usually saw a 
deal of what hounds were doing.' He died at 
Brighton on 16 March 1864. 

Surtees married, on 19 May 1841, Eliza- 
beth Jane (d. 1879), daughter and coheir of 
Addison Fenwick of Bishop Wearmouth, and 
had issue Anthony, who died at Rome on 
17 March 1871 ; and two daughters, Eliza- 
beth Anne and Eleanor, who married, on 
28 Jan. 1885, John Prendergast Yereker, heir 
to the viscounty of Gort. 

Surtees wrote : 1. ' The Horseman's Manual, 
being a Treatise on Soundness, the Law of 
Warranty, and generally on the Laws relat- 
ing to Horses. By R. S. Surtees, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields/ London, 1831, 8vo. 2. ' Jor- 
rocks's Jaunts and Jollities, or the Hunting, 
Shooting, Racing, Driving, Sailing, Eating, 
Eccentric and Extravagant Exploits of that 
renowned Sporting Citizen, Mr. John Jor- 
rocks of St. Botolph Lane and Great Coram 
Street/ with twelve illustrations by ' Phiz/ 
London, 1838, 8vo (a copy fetched 11 /. in 
1895) ; 3rd edition, revised, with sixteen 
coloured plates after Henry Alken, 1843, 
8vo, and, with three additional papers from 
the pages of the ' New Sporting Magazine/ 
1869 and 1890. 3. ' Handley Cross, or the 
Spa Hunt : a Sporting Tale. By the author 
of "Jorrocks's Jaunts/" 3 vols. 1843, Lon- 
don, 12mo. This was expanded into ' Hand- 
ley Cross, or Mr. Jorrocks's Hunt/ London, 
1854, 8vo (first issued in seventeen monthly 
parts, March 1853-October 1854, in red 
wrappers designed by Leech ; a complete set 
is valued at 9/.), with seventeen admirable 
engravings on steel, coloured, and eighty- 
four woodcuts by John Leech ; reprinted 
with coloured plates by Wildrake, Heath, 




and Jellicoe [1888]; other editions 1891, 
1892, and 1898. 4. 'Hillingdon Hall, or 
the Cockney Squire : a Tale of Country Life. 
By the author of " Handley Cross," ' 3 vols. 
1845, London, 12mo ; another edition,London, 
1888, 8vo. Jorrocks figures once more in this 
novel, which first appeared in serial form, 
and has an ironical dedication to the Royal 
Agricultural Society. 5. ' Hawbuck Grange, 
or the Sporting Adventures of Thomas Scott, 
Esq. With eight illustrations by Phiz,' Lon- 
don, 1847, 8vo ; other editions, London, 

1891, 8vo, and London, 1892, 8vo. These 
papers appeared originally as by Thomas 
Scott in ' Bell's Life in London.' 6. ' Mr. 
Sponge's Sporting Tour; with illustrations 
by John Leech,' London, 1853, 8vo (the 
thirteen original parts fetch about 8/.) ; 
1892, 8vo ; and as ' Soapey Sponge's Sporting 
Tour,' 1893, 8vo. 7. ' Ask Mamma, or the 
Richest Commoner in England ; with illus- 
trations by John Leech ' (thirteen engravings 
on steel, coloured, and sixty-nine wood- 
cuts), London, 1858, 8vo (issued in thirteen 
monthly parts) ; another edition, London, 

1892, 8vo. 8. ' Plain or Ringlets ? By the 
author of " Handley Cross ; " with illustra- 
tions by John Leech,' London, 1860, 8vo 
(the thirteen monthly parts, in red pictorial 
wrappers after Leech, fetch 5/. to 61.) ; 
another edition 1892, 8vo. The forty-three 
woodcuts by Leech are exceptionally good, 
and there are thirteen coloured plates. 
9. ' Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds ; with 
illustrations by John Leech and Hablot K. 
Browne,' London, 1865, 8vo (in twelve 
parts ; the first fourteen coloured plates by 
Leech, the remaining ten by Browne) ; the 
'Jorrocks edition,' illustrated, London, 1892, 

The ' Jorrocks Birthday Book,' being selec- 
tions, from ' Handley Cross,' appeared in 1897, 
8vo. Surtees ' had a positive objection to 
seeing his name in print,' and his 'Horse- 
man's Manual ' was the only one of his books 
to which he affixed his name. 

[Gent. Mag. 1864, i. 542, 671 ; Burke's Landed 
Gentry, 1886, ii. 1771 ; Memorial Sketch pre- 
fixed to the Jaunts and Jollities, ed. 1869 ; 
Frith's John Leech, 1891, chaps, xv. and xvii.; 
Scott's Book Sales, 1895, pp. 93, 279 ; Slater's 
Early Editions, 1894, pp. 280-7 ; Halkett and 
Laing's Diet, of Anonymous and Pseudonymous 
Literature; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

FREDERICK, 1773-1843.] 

ROBERT, first earl, 1483-1542 ; RADCLIFFE, 
THOMAS, third earl, 1526?-! 583; SAVILE, 
THOMAS, 1590 P-1658 ?] 

1629), dean of Exeter, born about 1550, 
was the second son of John Sutcliffe 
of Mayroyd or Melroyd in the parish of 
Halifax, Yorkshire, by his wife, Margaret 
Owlsworth of Ashley in the same county 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 152, 239). 
He was admitted a scholar of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, on 30 April 1568, pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 1570-1, and was elected a 
minor fellow of his college on 27 Sept. 1572. 
He commenced M.A. in 1574, and became a 
major fellow on 3 April in that year. In 
1579 he was appointed lector mathematicus 
in the college, and in the next year, at Mid- 
summer, the payment of his last stipend as 
fellow of Trinity is recorded. He graduated 
LL.D. in 1581. Some writers style him 
D.D., but it is clear that he never took that 
degree either at Cambridge or elsewhere. 

On 1 May 1582 he was admitted a mem- 
ber of the college of advocates at Doctors' 
Commons (CooTE, English Civilians, p. 54) ; 
and on 30 Jan. 1586-7 he was installed 
archdeacon of Taunton, and granted the 
prebend of Milverton in the church of 
Bath and Wells (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, 
i. 168). On 12 Oct. 1588 he was installed 
prebendary of Exeter, and on the 27th of that 
month he was confirmed in the dignity of 
dean of Exeter, which position he held for 
more than forty years. As he was also vicar 
of West Alvington, Devonshire, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury on 10 March 1589 
granted him letters of dispensation allowing 
him to hold that vicarage, the deanery, and 
the prebend, together with another benefice, 
with or without cure. He was instituted to 
Harberton vicarage on 9 Nov. 1590, and to 
the rectory of Lezant on 6 April 1594. as 
well as to Newton Ferrers on 27 Dec. 1591. 
He was also made prebendary of Buckland 
and Dynham in the church of Bath and 
W 7 ells in 1592 (L.E NEVE, i. 188). 

The most noteworthy event of Sutcliffe's 
life was his foundation of a polemical college 
at Chelsea, to which he was a princely 
benefactor. This establishment * was in- 
tended for a spirituall garrison, with a maga- 
zine of all books for that purpose; where 
learned divines should study and write in 
maintenance of all controversies against the 
papists ' (FULLER, Church Hist. bk. x. p. 51). 
James I was one of its best patrons, and 
supported it by various grants and benefac- 
tions ; he himself laid the first stone of the 
new edifice on 8 May 1609; gave timber 
requisite for the building out of Windsor 
forest ; and in the original charter of incor- 
poration, bearing date 8 May 1610, ordered 
that it should be called 'King James's 




College at Chelsey.' By the same charter 
the number of members was limited to a 
provost and nineteen fellows, of whom seven- 
teen were to be in holy orders. The king 
himself nominated the members. Sutcliffe 
was the first provost, and Overall, Morton, 
Field, Abbot, Smith (afterwards bishop of 
Gloucester), Howson, Fotherbie, Spencer, 
and Boys, were among the original fellows, 
while Camden and Heywood were ap- 
pointed ' faithfully and learnedly to record 
and publish to " posterity all memorable 
passages in church or commonwealth. 7 The 
building was begun upon a piece of ground 
called Thame-Shot, and was to have con- 
sisted of two quadrangles, with a piazza 
along the four sides of the smaller court. 
Scarcely an eighth part was erected, as only 
one side of the first quadrangle was ever 
completed; and this range of buildings 
cost, according to Fuller, above 3,000 A The 
scheme proved to be a complete failure. In 
consequence of a letter addressed by the 
king to Archbishop Abbot, collections in 
aid of the languishing institution were 
made in all the dioceses of England, but the 
amount raised was small, and was nearly 
swallowed up in the charges and fees due 
to the collectors. After Sutcliffe's death 
the college sank into insignificance, and no 
^vestige of the building now remains. A 
print of the original design is prefixed to 
<The Glory of Chelsey College revived,' 
published in 1662 by John Darley, B.D., 
who, in a dedication to Charles II, urged 
that monarch to grant a fixed revenue to 
the college. Another print is to be found 
in the second volume of Grose's ' Military 
Antiquities ' (1788). 

Sutcliffe was early interested in the set- 
tlement of New England, and Captain John 
Smith (1580-1631) [q. v.] mentions, in his 

* Generall Historie ' (1624), that the dean 
assisted and encouraged him in his schemes 
{cf. J. W. THORNTON, The Landing at Cape 
Anne, 1854). On 9 March 1606-7 he be- 
came a member of the council for Virginia, 
and on 3 Nov. 1620 of that for New Eng- 
land. In July 1624 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to wind up the affairs 
of the Virginia Company (BROWN, Genesis 
U.S.A. ii. 1029). 

For a long time Sutcliffe was in high 
favour at court. He had been appointed 
one of the royal chaplains in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and is stated to have retained 
the office under James I. But he fell into 
disgrace in consequence of his opposition to 
the Spanish match. Camden, in his 

* Annals,' under date of July 1621, says 
'The Earl of Oxford is sent into custody 

for his prattling, so is Sir G. Leeds, with 
Sutcliffe, dean of Exeter ' (cf. YONGE, Diary, 
Camden Soc. p. 41). 

Sutcliffe died in 1629, before 18 July. His 
will, dated 1 Nov. 1628, is printed in Mrs. 
Frances B. Troup's ' Biographical Notes.' 

He married Anne, daughter of John Brad- 
ley of Louth, Lincolnshire, by Frances, his 
wife, daughter of John Fairfax of Swarby. 
They had only one child, a daughter named 
Anne, who married Richard Hals of Kene- 

Sutcliffe's works, many of them published 
under the anonym ' O. E.,' are : 1. 'A Treatise 
of Ecclesiasticall Discipline,' London, 1591, 
4to. 2. ' De Presbyterio, ej usque nova in Ec- 
clesia Christiana Politeia, adversus cujusdam 
I.B.A.C. de Politeia civili et ecclesiastica . . . 
Disputationem,' London, 1591, 4to. 3. 'An 
Answer to a certaine Libel Supplicatorie,' 
London, 1592, 4to ; this work relates to the 
alleged wrongful condemnation of John 
Udall [q. v.] on an indictment for libel. 

4. ' De Catholica, Orthodoxa, et vera Christi 
Ecclesia, libri duo,' London, 1592, 4to. 

5. ' The Practise, Proceedings, & Lawes of 
Armes,' London, 1593, 4to ; dedicated to 
the Earl of Essex. 6. ' An Answer vnto a 
certain Calumnious Letter published by Job 
Throckmorton, entitled " A Defence of J. 
Throckmorton against the Slanders of M. 
Sutclife," ' London, 1594, 1595, 4to ; a curious 
tract containing much information respect- 
ing the intrigues of the puritans, and a de- 
fence of the government version of the 
treason of Edward Squire [q. v.] 7. ' The 
Examination of T. Cartwrights late Apo- 
logie, wherein his vaine . . . Challenge con- 
cerning certaine supposed Slanders pre- 
tended to have been published against him 
is answered and refuted,' London, 1596, 4to. 

8. ' De Pontifice Romano, eiusque iniustis- 
sima in Ecclesia dominatione, adversus R. 
Bellarminum, & universum Jebusitarum so- 
dalitium, libri quinque,' London, 1599, 4to. 

9. ' De Turcopapismo, hoc est De Turcarum 
et Papistarum adversus Christi ecclesiam et 
fidem Conjuratione, eorumque in religione 
et moribus consensione et similitudine, 
Liber unus,' London, 1599 and 1604, 4to. 

10. 'Matthaei Sutlivii adversus Roberti 
Bellarmini de Purgatorio disputationem, 
Liber unus,' London, 1599, 4to. 11. t De 
vera Christi Ecclesia contra Bellarminum,' 
London, 1600, 4to. 12. < De Conciliis et 
eorum Authoritate, adversus Rob. Bellar- 
minum et bellos ejusdem sodales, libri duo,' 
London, 1600, 4to. 13. <De Monachis, 
eorum Institutis et Moribus, adversus Rob. 
Bellarminum universamque monachorum 
et mendicantium fratrum colluuiem, dispu- 




tatio,' London, 1600, 4to. 14. ' A Challenge 
concerning the Romish Church, her Doc- 
trines & Practises, published first against 
Rob. Parsons, and now againe reuiewed, 
enlarged, and fortified, and directed to him, 
to Frier Garnet, to the Archpriest Black- 
well, and all their Adhaerents,' London, 
1602, 4to. 15. < De recta Studii Theologici 
ratione liber imus ; eidem etiam adjunctus 
estbreuis de concionum ad populumformulis, 
et sacrge scripturae varia pro auditorum captu 
tractatione, libellus/ London, 1602, 8vo. 
16. ' Religionis Christianas prima institutio ; 
eidem etiam adjunctae sunt orationurn for- 
mulas,' London, 1602, 8vo. 17. ' De Missa 
Papistica, variisque Synagogse Rom. circa 
Eucharistiaa Sacramentum Erroribus et Cor- 
ruptelis, adversus Robertum Bellarminum 
et universum Jebusseorum et Cananseorum 
Sodalitium, libri quinque,' London, 1603, 
4to. 18. 'A Ful and Round Answer to 
N. D., alias Robert Parsons, the Noddie, his 
foolish and rude Warne-word [entitled " A 
temperate Wardword to the turbulent and 
seditious Watch-word of Sir F. Hastings . . . 
by N. D.,' i.e. Nicholas Doleman, a pseu- 
donym for Robert Parsons], London, 1604, 
4to ; reissued in the same year under the 
title of ' The Blessings on Mount Gerizzim, 
and the Curses on Mount Ebal : or the 
happie Estate of Protestants compared 
with the miserable Estate of Papists under 
the Popes Tyrannic ; ' it was reprinted 
under the title of 'A True Relation of 
Englands Happinesse under the Reigne of 
Queene Elizabeth,' London, 1629, 8vo. 
19. ' Examination and Confutation of a 
certaine Scurrilous Treatise, entituled " The 
Survey of the newe Religion, published by 
Matthew Kellison, in Disgrace of true Re- 
ligion professed in the Church of England,' 
London, 1606, 4to. 20. 'The Subversion 
of R. Parsons his ... Worke, entituled " A 
Treatise of three Conversions of England 
from Paganisme to Christian Religion/ 
London, 1606, 4to. 21. <A Threefold 
Answer unto the third Part of a certaine 
Triobolar Treatise of three supposed Con- 
versions of England to the moderne Romish 
Religion published by R. Parsons under 
the continued Maske of N. D.,' London, 
1606, 4to. 22. 'A briefe Examination of 
a certaine . . . disleal Petition presented, as 
is pretended, to the Kings most excellent 
Maiestie, by certaine Laye Papistes, calling 
themselves, The Lay Catholikes of Eng- 
land, and now lately printed . . . by . . . 
J. Lecey,' London, 1606, 4to. 22. l De 
Indulgentiis et Jubileo, contra Bellarminum, 
libri duo,' 1606. 23. < The Unmasking of a 
Masse-monger, who in the Counterfeit 


Habit of S. Augustine hath cunningly crept 
into the Closets of many English Ladies : 
or the Vindication of Saint Augustine's 
Confessions, from the . . . calumniations of 
a late noted Apostate ' [Sir Tobie Matthew, 
in his translation of the ' Confessions '], 
London, 1626, 4to. 

Nicholas Bernard, D.D., preacher at 
Gray's Inn, presented to Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, Sutcliffe's manuscript works in 
fourteen volumes. Some extracts from 
them will be found in Kennett's MS. 35 
f. 179. 

[Biographical Notes of Dr. Sutcliffe, by Mrs. 
Frances B. Troup, 1891, reprinted from the 
Transactions of the Devonshire Association for 
the Advancement of Science, Literature, and 
Art, xxiii. 171-196; Addit. MS. 5880 f. 586; 
Faulkner's Chelsea, ii. 218-31; Heylyn's Hist, 
of the Presbyterians, p. 312; Lowndes's Bibl. 
Man. (Bonn); Lysons's Environs, ii. 49, 153; 
Life of Bishop Morton, by R. B.. p. 36 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. iii. 388, 6th ser. viii. 348 ; 
Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, p. 276 ; 
Stow's London, p. 827 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Winwood's Memorials, iii. 160.] T. C. 

SUTCLIFFE, THOMAS (1790 P-1849), 
adventurer, son of John Sutcliffe of Stans- 
field, parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, and great- 
grandson of John Kay [q. v.] of Bury, the 
inventor, was born about 1790. He entered 
the royal navy and was on board the King- 
fisher in the blockade of Corfu in 1809, and 
about that time fell into the enemy's hands, 
but managed to escape to Albania. He 
afterwards held a commission in the royal 
horse guards blue, and was with his regi- 
ment at the battle of Waterloo, where he 
was severely wounded. In 1817 he formed 
one of a band of adventurous Englishmen 
who went out to aid the patriots of Colombia 
in their struggles with Spain, and was 
appointed lieutenant-colonel of cavalry in 
the army of the republic. Here again he 
was made a prisoner of war, and was de- 
tained at Havana. Returning to England in 
1821, he set out again for South America in 
August of the following year. He offered 
his services to the republic of Chili, and re- 
ceived the appointment of captain of cavalry. 
For sixteen years he remained in the military 
service of the republic, and took part in the 
operations of the liberating army in Peru. 
In 1834 he was appointed political and mili- 
tary governor of the island of Juan Fer- 
nandez, then used as a convict station by 
Chili. He witnessed the destructive earth- 
quake there in February 1835, when he lost 
the greater portion of his possessions. Shortly 
afterwards an insurrection took place on the 
island, and Sutcliffe was recalled. Eventu- 





ally, through a change of administration, 
he was cashiered in March 1838, and he 
returned to England in January 1839, with 
very slender means, heavy claims for arrears 
of pay remaining unsettled. He then en- 
deavoured to improve his circumstances by 
literary pursuits. After living in the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester, he removed to Lon- 
don about 1846, and died in great indigence 
in lodgings at 357 Strand on 22 April 1849, 
aged 59. 

Sutcliffe published: 1. ' The Earthquake 
at Juan Fernandez, as it occurred in the year 
1835,' Manchester, 1839. 2. ' Foreign Loans, 
or Information to all connected with the 
Republic of Chili, comprising the Epoch from 
1822 to 1839,' Manchester, 1840. 3. < Six- 
teen Years in Chile and Peru, from 1822 
to 1839,' London, 1841. 4. { Crusoniana : 
or Truth versus Fiction, elucidated in a 
History of the Islands of Juan Fernandez,' 
Manchester, 1843. 5. ' An Exposition of 
Facts relating to the Rise and Progress of 
the Woollen, Linen, and Cotton Manufac- 
tures of Great Britain,' Manchester, 1843. 
6. < A Testimonial in behalf of Merit neglected 
and Genius unrewarded, and Record of the 
Services of one of England's greatest Bene- 
factors,' London, 1847. The last two works 
were published with the object of obtaining 
public support for the descendants of John 
Kay, an aim for which he laboured unsuccess- 
fully for several years. He also published 
lithographed portraits of John Kay and John 
Greenhalgh, governor of the Isle of Man, 
1640-51, as well as a pedigree of the Green- 
halghs of Brandlesome. 

[Sutcliffe's works ; Gent. Mag. 1849, ii. 102 ; 
Strauss'sRemin. of an Old Bohemian, 1883, p. 
172; Mulhall's English in South America, p. 
246.] C. W. S. 

duke, 1758-1833; LEVESON-GOWEE, GEORGE 
1892, under first duke.] 

GEORGIANA, 1806-1868.] 

DON, JOHN, tenth or eleventh earl, 1526 ?- 
1567 ; GORDON, JOHN, fifteenth or sixteenth 
earl, 1660 P-1733.] 

SUTHERLAND, JOHN (1808-1891), 
promoter of sanitary science, was born in 
Edinburgh in December 1808, and educated 
at the High School. He became a licentiate 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin- 
burgh in 1827, and graduated M.D. at the 

university in 1831. After spending much 
time on the continent he practised for a short 
period in Liverpool, where he edited ' The 
Liverpool Health of Towns' Advocate' in 
1846. In 1848, at the request of the Earl of 
Carlisle, he entered the public service as an 
inspector under the first board of health. He 
conducted several special inquiries, notably 
one into the cholera epidemic of 1848-9 
(Par/. Papers, 1850 No. 1273, 1852 No. 1523). 
He was the head of a commission sent to 
foreign countries to inquire into the law and 
practice of burial, and he went to the Paris 
conference on quarantine law in 1851-2, 
when Louis Napoleon presented him with a 
gold medal. 

In 1855 he was engaged at the home 
office in bringing into operation the act for 
abolishing intramural interments (ib. 1856, 
No. 146). He was also doing duty in the 
reorganised general board of health when, at 
the request of Lord Palmerston and Lord 
Panmure, he became the head of the com- 
mission sent to the Crimea to inquire into 
the sanitary condition of the English 
soldiers. On 25 Aug. 1855 he came to 
England for consultation, and was summoned 
to Balmoral to inform the queen of the steps 
that had been taken for the benefit of the 

He took an active part in the preparation 
of the report of the royal commission on the 
health of the army dated 1858 (ib. 1857-58, 
No. 2318), and also of the report on the 
state of the army in India, dated 19 May 
1863 (ib. 1863, No. 3184). Both reports 
were of vast importance to the welfare of 
the soldiers, and most of Sutherland's re- 
commendations were carried out. One of 
these was the appointment of the barrack 
and hospital improvement commission, with 
Sidney Herbert as president and Captain 
(afterwards Sir Douglas) Galton, Dr. Burrell 
of the army medical department, and Suther- 
land as members. This committee visited 
every barrack and hospital in the United 
Kingdom, and the sanitary arrangements of 
each were reported on. Defects were brought 
to light and remedied, and the health of the 
troops consequently improved (ib. 1861, No. 
2839). Subsequently Dr. Sutherland and 
Captain Galton visited and made reports on 
the Mediterranean stations, including the 
Ionian Islands (ib. 1863, No. 3207). 

In 1862 the barrack and hospital improve- 
ment commission was reconstituted with 
the quartermaster-general as president and 
Sutherland as a prominent member. The 
title was altered to the army sanitary com- 
mittee in 1865 (ib. 1865, No. 424). Two 
Indian officers were added, and all sanitary 




reports were submitted to the committee and 
suggestions for improving Indian stations 
prepared. This arrangement remained in 
force until Sutherland's retirement on 30 June 
1888, when he was appointed a medical 
superintending inspector-general of the board 
of health and home office. 

Sutherland continued his beneficent work 
to within a few years of his death, which 
took place at Oakleigh, Alleyne Park, Nor- 
wood, Surrey, on 14 July 1891. 

Sutherland published ' General Board of 
Health Report on the Sanitary Condition 
of the Epidemic Districts in London, with 
special reference to the threatened Visitation 
of Cholera,' 1852; and a reply to Sir John 
Hall's ' Observations on the Report of the 
Sanitary Commission despatched to the Seat 
of the War in the East,' 1857, to which Hall 
made a rejoinder in 1858. Sutherland edited 
the ' Journal of Public Health and Monthly 
Record of Sanitary Improvement,' 1847-8. 

[Lancet, 25 July 1891, pp. 205-6; Times, 
'24 July 1891, p. 8 ; Illustrated London News, 
1 Aug. 1891, p. 135, with portrait.] Gr. C. B. 

EAEL OF (d. 1325), eldest son of William, 
iirst earl, succeeded his father in infancy in 
1248. The first earl was the son of Hugh 
Freskin,who obtained the district of Suther- 
land from William the Lion in 1196. The 
second earl was present at the parliament of 
Scone on 5 Feb. 1284, and he also attended 
the convention at Brigham on 14 March 
1290 (Documents illustrative of the History 
of Scotland, i. No. 129). In 1292 he gave 
his oath to aid Robert the Bruce in his 
claims to the crown (Cal. Documents relat- 
ing to Scotland, i. No. 643) ; and although 
on 28 Aug. 1296 he did homage to Edward I 
at Berwick-on-Tweed (ib. ii. No. 196), he 
shortly afterwards took part in excursions 
against England. He also fought on the 
side of Bruce at Bannockburn in 1314, and 
he subscribed on 6 April 1320 the letter of 
the Scots nobles to the pope asserting the 
independence of Scotland. He died in 1325, 
leaving a son, Kenneth, who succeeded as 
third earl, fell at Halidon Hill in 1333, and 
was father of William, fourth earl of Suther- 
land [q. v.] 

[Documents illustrative of the History of 
Scotland, ed. Stevenson, vol. i.; Calendar of 
Documents relating to Scotland, ed. Bain, vols. 
i. and ii. ; Gordon's History of the Earldom of 
Sutherland ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), 
ii. 571.] T.F. H. 

EARL OF (d. 1370), was the son of Kenneth, 
third earl, by Mary, daughter of Donald, tenth 

earl of Mar [q.v.] He married Margaret, 
younger daughter of Robert Bruce by his 
second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
de Burgh, earl of Ulster, and on 10 Nov. 
1345 David II granted a charter of the earl- 
dom of Sutherland to his sister Margaret 
and her husband. He was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to treat for the ransom 
of David II from the English. On 13 July 
1353-4 he and John, his eldest son, were 
named hostages for David (Cal. Documents 
relating to Scotland, iv. No. 1576), and on 
15 Oct. 1357 they appended their seals to 
his ransom (ib. No. 1660). John was named 
by David II heir to the throne, in preference 
to the high steward, but while still detained 
a hostage in England he died of the plague 
at Lincoln in 1361. The father was also 
detained a hostage in England until 20 May 
1367. He died at Dunrobin in 1370, and 
was succeeded by his second son, 

1398?), who, according to Froissart, was 
present at the capture of Berwick in 1384, 
and took part in the invasion of England in 
1388. In 1395, during a discussion with the 
chief of the Mackays and his son about their 
differences, he suddenly, in his castle of Ding- 
wall, attacked and killed them both with his 
own hand. Dying towards the close of the 
century, he left two sons Robert, sixth earl, 
and Kenneth. 

1442), was present at the battle of Homildon 
in 1402, and on 9 Nov. 1427 was sent into 
England as hostage for James I. He died in 
1442, leaving by his wife Lady Mabilia Dun- 
bar, daughter of John, earl of Moray, and 
granddaughter of Agnes Randolph, coun- 
tess of March and Moray, three sons John, 
seventh earl, Robert, and Alexander. 

[Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, vol. iv. ; 
Froissart's Chronicles; Gordon's Earldom of 
Sutherland ; Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), 
ii. 372-3.] T. F. H. 

bishop of Norwich. [See SUFFELD.] 


SUTTON, SIR CHARLES (1775-1828), 
colonel, born in 1775, was the eldest son of 
Admiral Evelyn Sutton of Screveton, near 
Bingham, Nottinghamshire, by his wife, a 
daughter of Thomas Thoroton of Screve- 
ton. He was nephew of Mary Thoroton, 
the wife of Charles Manners-Sutton [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury. He entered the 
army as an ensign in the 3rd foot guards in 
1800, and in 1802 became lieutenant and cap- 
tain. In 1803 he exchanged into the 23rd 
foot, and became major in 1807, and lieu- 




tenant-colonel in the army in 1811 and the 
regiment in 1813. After serving with Sir 
John Moore in his last campaign, Sutton 
entered the Portuguese service. At the battle 
of Busaco (27 Sept. 1810) he commanded their 
9th regiment, and was mentioned in Welling- 
ton's despatch for his conduct. On 8 May 
1811 he was in the hottest part of the action 
at Fuentes d'Onoro in command of the light 
companies in Ohampelmond's Portuguese 
brigade. Two days later he was recom- 
mended for the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in the English army on the ground 
of his distinction in the Portuguese service. 
At the siege of Badajos he was attached to 
the third division under Picton, and was 
present at Salamanca, Vittoria, and the later 
actions in the south of France. He received 
a cross and three clasps for his services. In 
1814 he attained the rank of colonel in the 
Portuguese army, and was made a knight of 
the order of the Tower and Sword. He sub- 
sequently became colonel in the English 
army, and was created K.C.B. on 2 Jan. 
1815. After the peace he was appointed an 
inspecting field officer of the militia in the 
Ionian Islands, and had Colonel (afterwards 
Sir Charles) Napier as a colleague. While 
on leave from Zante he died suddenly of an 
apoplectic stroke on 26 March 1828 at Bottes- 
ford, near Belvoir, in the house of his uncle, 
the Rev. Charles Thornton. 

[Gent. Mag. 1828, i. 368-9; Hart's Army 
Lists ; Wellington's Despatches, ed. Gurwood, 
iv. 306, 797, v. 7, 200.] G. LE G. N. 

1629), divine, born of humble parentage 
about 1565, was, according to Wood, a 
Hampshire man. He matriculated as a 
batler from Hart Hall, Oxford, on 1 March 
1582-3, and graduated B.A. from Lincoln 
College on 12 Oct. 1586. He proceeded 
M.A. on 18 June 1589, B.D. on 29 May 
1598, and D.D. on 30 June 1608. He 
became incumbent of Woodrising, Norfolk, 
in 1591, and from 1598 held with it the 
rectory of Caston in the same county 
(BLOMEFIELD), not, as Wood says, Caston 'in 
his own county of Hampshire.' During 1597 
he was also vicar of Rainham, Essex. On 
30 April 1605 he was installed canon of West- 
minster, a piece of preferment given him by 
James I for his ' excellent and florid preach- 
ing.' He preached in the abbey the funeral 
sermon on William Camden [q. v.] In 1612 
he was presented to the rectory of Great 
Bromley, Essex, to which he added in 1618 
that of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, and in 
1623 (misprinted 1632 in BLOMEFIELD) that 
of Cranworth, Norfolk. The first and the 

last he continued to hold till his death. On 
23 Oct. 1618 he was also installed canon 
of Lincoln. He died in May or June 1629, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey ' be- 
fore the vestry door' (WOOD). His name, 
however, does not appear in the register. 

Sutton was author of some fervently devo- 
tional works which had great popularity in 
the seventeenth century, and were again 
brought into vogue by the leaders of the Ox- 
ford movement. Their titles are : 1. 'Disce 
Mori. Learne to Die. A Religious Discourse 
moving every Christian Man to enter into 
a serious Remembrance of his Ende,' 1600, 
12mo. It was dedicated to Lady Elizabeth 
Southwell. An enlarged edition appeared in 
1609, and the work was reprinted in 1616, 
1618, and 1662. Editions were also issued 
at Oxford in 1839 and 1848, and in America 
in 1845. A Welsh version by M. Williams 
appeared in 1852. 2. ' Disce Vivere. Learne 
to Live ... a brief Treatise . . . wherein is 
shewed that the life of Christ is and ought 
to be the most perfect Patterne of Direction 
to the Life of a Christian,' 1608, 12mo. In 
1634 it was issued bound up with ' Disce 
Mori.' In 1839 it was reprinted at Oxford 
from the edition of 1626, with a preface signed 
with Cardinal Newman's initials, and was re- 
issued in 1848. An American edition ap- 
peared in 1853. 3. 'Godly Meditations upon 
the most holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
. . .together with a short Admonition touching 
the Controversie about the Holy Eucharist. 
Also Godly Meditations concerning the Di- 
vine Presence,' 1613, 12mo ; a third edition 
appeared in 1677. The book was dedicated 
to l the two vertuous and modest gentle- 
women, Mrs. Katherine and Mrs. Francis 
Southwell, sisters.' John Henry (afterwards 
Cardinal) Newman, who wrote a preface for 
the Oxford reprint of 1838 (reissued in 1848, 
24mo, and 1866, 8vo), describes it as written 
in the devotional tone of Bishops Taylor 
and Ken. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 456; 
Sutton's Works ; Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, 
ii. 283, x. 202, 280 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccles. 
Anglic, ii. 112, iii. 358; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 
1500-1714 ; Allibone's Diet. Engl. Lit.] 

G. LE G. N. 

(1401 P-1487). [See DUDLEY, JOHN.] 

SUTTON, OLIVER (d. 1299), bishop of 
Lincoln, was related to the Lexington 
family long connected with Lincoln [see 
LEXINTON, JOHN]. On 19 Dec. 1244, as 
rector of Shelford, Cambridge, he had an 
indult to hold another benefice with cure of 
souls (BLiss, Cal. Papal Reg. i. 211). He 




became canon of Lincoln in 1270, and dean 
on 30 June 1275. His biographer. John de 
Scalby or Schalby, says that he had been re- 
gent in arts (perhaps at Oxford), had studied 
in the canon and civil law, and would 
have proceeded to lecture in theology but 
for his promotion to the deanery. On the 
death of Richard de Gravesend [q. v.] Sutton 
was elected bishop of Lincoln on 6 Feb. 
1280. He was consecrated by Archbishop 
Peckham at Lambeth on 19 May 1280, and 
enthroned at Lincoln on 8 Sept. (Ann. Mon. 
iv. 284 ; PECKHAM, Registrum, i. 115). 
Sutton occupied himself chiefly with the 
administration of his diocese. His official 
position as bishop brought him into relations 
with the university of Oxford, then in the 
diocese of Lincoln. He was first involved 
in a dispute with the masters in 1284, and 
in November of that year Peckham wrote to 
him disapproving of his interference with 
the chancellor's jurisdiction. But the arch- 
bishop could not support the masters en- 
tirely, and, by his advice, they submitted to 
the bishop next year (ib. iii. 857-8, 887). 
In 1288 a dispute again arose as to the pre- 
sentation of the chancellor for the bishop's 
approval, which Sutton insisted should be 
made in person. The masters resisted his 
claim, but the matter was arranged next 
year. However the dispute was renewed on 
the election of a new chancellor in 1290, 
when the question was settled before the 
Icing at Westminster, and it was arranged 
that the chancellor should be presented in 
person to the bishop (Ann. Mon. iv. 317-18, 
324). Sutton was consulted by Peckham as 
to his dispute with the Dominicans and the 
circumstances of Kilwardby's condemnation 
of errors at Oxford (Registrum, iii. 896, 944). 
He officiated at the funeral of Eleanor, the 
queen of Edward I, at Westminster on 
17 Dec. 1290 (Ann. Mon, iv. 326). In 1291 
he was one of the collectors of the tithe 
granted by the pope to the king for the 
crusade (ib. iii. 367, 382, 386 ; Cal. Papal 
Reg. i. 553). In 1296 he joined with Arch- 
bishop W T inchelsey in resisting the king's de- 
mands for a subsidy from the clergy, and, as 
a consequence, his goods were confiscated 
(Ann. Mon. iv. 407). His friends arranged 
that the sheriff" of Lincoln should accept a 
levy on a fifth of his goods (HEMINGBTJRGH, ii. 

Sutton died at a great age on St. Brice's day, 
13 Nov. 1299, while his priests were singing 
matins (SCHALBY, p. 212). He is described 
by Schalby, who was his registrar for eigh- 
teen years, as a learned man, charitable, and 
free from covetousness. The fines which he 
received from delinquents, he divided among 

the poor, and he would not permit the villains 
on his demesnes to be burdened with more 
than their lawful service. In Schalby's eyes 
his one fault was that he permitted the pre- 
bends in his church to be too highly rated 
under the taxation for the crusade. He gave 
fifty marks towards the building of the 
cloister, and assisted in the erection of the 
vicar's court, which was completed by his 
executors. He also provided the parish of 
St. Mary Magdalen, which had previously 
used the nave of the cathedral, with a 
separate church. From Edward I he ob- 
tained, in 1285, license to build a wall round 
the cathedral precinct (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Ed- 
ward I, 1281-92, p. 161). One of his first 
acts as bishop was to endow a chaplain for 
his old parish of Shelford (ib. p. 81). 

[Annales Monastic! ; Peckham's Registrum ; 
Schalby's Lives of the Bishops of Lincoln, ap. 
Opera Gir. Cambrensis, vii. 208-12 (Rolls Ser.); 
Hemingburgh's Chronicle (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Le 
Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ii. 12, 31; Cal. of Patent 
Rolls, Edward I.I C. L. K. 

SUTTON, SIR RICHARD (d. 1524), co- 
founder of Brasenose College, Oxford, is said 
by Churton to have been related to William 
Sutton, D.D., who in 1468 was principal of 
Brasenose Hall, and bore the coat-of-arms of 
the Suttons of Cheshire, also borne by Sir 
Richard Sutton. This conjecture is corrobo- 
rated by a pedigree entered at Glover's visi- 
tation of Cheshire in 1580, which represents 
Richard as the younger son of Sir William 
Sutton, knt., of Sutton in the parish of 
Presbury, master of the hospital of Burton 
Lazars, Leicestershire, a preferment which 
seems at this time to have been hereditary 
in the family (CHURTON, p. 411; Letters 
and Papers of Henry VIII, iv. i. 154). 
Nothing is known of his education, but he 
must have become a member of the Inner 
Temple, his name appearing with two others 
in the ' Catalogus Gubernatorum ' for nine 
years between 1505 and 1523; in 1520, 1522, 
and 1523 it heads the list (Due DALE, Orig. 
Jurid. p. 172 ; Inner Temple Records}. He 
is stated to have repaired the Temple Church. 

That he early acquired affluence, presum- 
ably by the exercise of his profession, may be 
inferred from the circumstance that in 1491 
and 1499 he purchased land at Somerby, 
Leicestershire. In 1498 he appears as a 
member of the privy council, possibly as a 
kind of legal assessor, since he is styled in 
the dockets of the court of requests ' Sutton 
jurisperitus.' He also became, though at 
'what date is unknown, steward of the monas- 
tery of Sion, a valuable preferment ; in 1522, 
on the occasion of l an annual grant by the 
spiritualty ' for the French war, we find the 




entry < Mr. Sutton of Sion 100/.' (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, in. ii. 1049). In 
this capacity he displayed his love of litera- 
ture by bearing the expenses of the publica- 
tion of ' The Orcharde of Syon,' a folio printed 
by Wynkyn de Worde in 1519, and a 'most 
superb and curious specimen of ancient 
English topography.' He also gave certain 
estates purchased in the neighbourhood to 
the monastery. 

Sutton's project of participating in the 
foundation of a college appears to have be- 
come known in January 1508, when Edmund 
Croston, who had been principal of Brasenose 
Hall, bequeathed the sum of 61. 13s. kd. to- 
wards 'the building of Brasynnose in Ox- 
ford, if such works as the bishop of Lyncoln 
and Master Sotton intended there went on 
during their life or within twelve years 
after' [see SMITH or SMYTH, WILLIAM, 
1460P-1514]. In October 1508 Sutton ob- 
tained from University College a lease of 
Brasenose Hall and Little University Hall 
for ninety-two years at 31. a year, the inte- 
rest of the grantors to be released upon con- 
veyance by Sutton to University College of 
land of the same net yearly value. The 
site, however, was not absolutely conveyed to 
Brasenose College till May 1523, the year be- 
fore Sutton's death. In the same year (1508) 
he acquired, with a view to the endowment 
of the future college, lands at Borowe in the 
parish of Somerby, Leicestershire, and in 
the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand, Middle- 
sex. In 1512 he added the manor of Cro- 
predy, Oxfordshire, and in 1513 an estate at 
North Ockington or Wokyndon in Essex. 
All these estates he conveyed to the college 
in 1519, the value of them being nearly equal 
to those given by Bishop Smyth. In 1512 
he was also instrumental in obtaining an 
endowment for the college of lands in Berk- 
shire by Mrs. Elizabeth Morley, probably a 
relative. In 1522 he further added an estate 
at Garsington and Cowley, Oxfordshire. All 
these properties had been recently purchased 
by him, which proves him to have acquired 
a large amount of personalty. The presence 
of his arms over the gateway of Corpus 
Christi College, of which the first president, 
John Claymond [q. v.], was a benefactor to 
Brasenose, indicates that Sutton was pro- 
bably also a contributor to the expense of 
the building of Corpus in 1516. 

No record exists of the date at which 
Sutton was knighted. He was esquire in 
May 1522, but a knight before March 1524, 
when he made his will. The will was proved 
on 7 Nov. 1524, and, as he was long com- 
memorated by Brasenose College on the 
Sunday after Michaelmas, it is probable that 

he died at that period of the year. An in- 
ventory of his goods in the Inner Temple 
was presented to the parliament of that inn 
on 22 Oct. 1524. He lived in the inn and 
was unmarried. The place of his burial is 
unknown, but it may possibly have been 
Macclesfield, where, or alternatively at Sut- 
ton, he ordered the endowment of a chantry 
for the repose of his soul, and of the souls 
of Edward IV and Elizabeth his wife, and of 
sundry other eminent persons, most of whom 
appear to have been members of the Yorkist 
party. Sir Richard bequeathed money to the 
master of the Temple and to the abbess of 
Sion for pious purposes, to Clement's Inn and 
to Macclesfield grammar school. He left 40/. 
for making a highway about St. Giles-in- 

Sutton was the first lay founder of a col- 
lege, and that he was a man of piety and 
letters is evidenced by his benefactions. His 
relaxation of the severity of the college 
statutes after Bishop Smyth's death shows 
that his piety was free from the austerity of 
the ecclesiastic. With Smyth he may be 
taken to have entertained some distrust of 
the new learning of the renaissance, if we 
may rely not only on the statutes of the col- 
lege but on a saying of his recorded by the 
Duke of Norfolk in 1537 : ' Non est amplius 
fides super terram ' (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, xn. ii. 291). His portrait of 
Sutton, clad in armour and surcoat quarter- 
ing the arms of Sainsbury with those of 
Sutton, hangs in the hall of Brasenose. By 
his side is the open visor of a knight's helmet. 
It is difficult, however, to believe that the 
benevolent and somewhat weak face, appa- 
rently of a young man under thirty years of 
age, was the likeness of a man who in 1522 
or 1523 had passed a long and active career. 
If, as may be supposed, the portrait is 
genuine, the face was probably a copy of an 
earlier portrait with the knightly accessories 
added, possibly after his death. 

[State Papers, Dom. Hen. VIII, vols. ii. and 
iii. ; Churton's Lives of William Smyth, bishop 
of Lincoln, and Sir Richard Sutton, Knight, 
1800 ; Inderwick's Calendar of the Inner Temple 
Records, 1896, vol. i.] I. S. L. 

SUTTON, SIR RICHARD (1798-1855), 
second baronet, sportsman, son of John Sutton 
(who was the eldest son of Sir Richard Sut- 
ton, first baronet), by his wife Sophia Frances, 
daughter of Charles Chaplin, was born at 
Brant Broughton, Lincolnshire, on 16 Dec. 
1798. The first baronet, Sir Richard Sutton, 
who was great-grandson of Henry Sutton, a 
younger brother of Robert Sutton, first baron 
Lexington [q.v.], received his title on retiring 
from the office of under-secretary of state 




on 14 Oct. 1772. Tn 1802 Sutton succeeded 
his grandfather, the first baronet, in the 
title and estates when only four years of age. 
During a long minority his wealth accumu- 
lated and he became one of the most wealthy 
men in the country, owning large estates in 
Nottinghamshire, Norfolk, and Leicester- 
shire, and also in London, where a large 
portion of Mayfair belonged to him. He was 
admitted a fellow-commoner of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, on 22 Oct. 1816, graduating 
M.A. in 1818. As soon as he came of age 
he devoted himself with great enthusiasm to 
field sports. The family seat was Norwood 
in Nottinghamshire, but he took Sudbrooke 
Hall, Lincolnshire, for his hunting residence, 
and Welting, Norfolk, for his shooting-box, 
and rented large moors in Aberdeenshire for 
grouse-shooting and deer-stalking. So de- 
voted was he to shooting that he seldom 
missed a day during the season, except when 
he was hunting. 

In 1822 Sutton became master of fox- 
hounds, succeeding Thomas Assheton Smith 
[q. v.] as master of the Burton hunt in 
Lincolnshire. He frequently hunted six days 
a week, excepting for a time in 1829, when 
he broke his thigh. He then took a house 
at Lincoln, exercising profuse hospitality 
during his residence there. In 1844,- on 
Lord Lonsdale's death, he removed his hunt- 
ing establishment to Cottesmore Park in 
Rutland, where he hunted for five seasons. 
In 1848 he again removed to Leicestershire, 
residing at Quorn Hall, which he purchased 
on 15 Jan. 1848 from the Oliver family for 
12,000/. Here he hunted for eight years, 
the Quorn country being considered the 
finest field in England, and under his lead 
Leicestershire enjoyed sport unsurpassed in 
its long sporting annals. At Quorn he kept a 
stud of seventy to eighty horses and seventy- 
nine couples of hounds, and for some years 
he bore the sole cost of the Quorn Hunt. 

Sutton was an ardent lover of the chase, 
a good rider, fond of riding ' difficult ' horses, 
and a good shot. He was never idle, but 
after his day's sport occupied himself with 
his flute or his books. He had a great talent 
for music. For politics he had a contempt, 
and, though often solicited, refused to stand 
for parliament. 

He died suddenly on 14 Nov. 1855 at his 
town residence, Cambridge House, No. 94 
Piccadilly. He was buried on the 21st at 
Linford, Nottinghamshire. His stud was 
sold on 13 and 14 Dec. following. On the 
first day thirty-two horses fetched 5,812 
guineas, and the remainder over 1,200Z. on 
the second day. Seventy couples of hounds 
produced 1,806 guineas. After his death 

the Quorn Hall estate was sold to Mr. Ed- 
ward Warner, and the Quorn hunt was re- 
moved to Melton Mowbray. 

Sutton married, a few days after he came 
of age, at St. Peter's in Eastgate, Lincoln, on 
17 Dec. 1819, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of 
Benjamin Burton, esq., of Burton Hall, co. 
Carlow, and by her had seven sons and four 
daughters. His wife predeceased him on 
1 Jan. 1842. His will was proved in the 
prerogative court of Canterbury on 12 Dec. 
1855. An equestrian portrait of Sutton was 
painted by Sir F. Grant, R.A., and was en- 
graved by Graves. 

[Field, 24 Nov. 1855; Leicester Journal, 
16 Nov. 1855; Times, 15 Nor. 1855; Gent. 
Mag. 1856, i. 80-2; Annual Register 1855, 
xcvii. 317-18; Burke's and Foster's Baronetages: 
information Irom W. Aldis Wright, esq., D.C.L.] 

W. G-. D. F. 

TON (1594-1668), born in 1594, was the son 
of Sir William Sutton of Aram or Averham, 
Nottinghamshire, by Susan, daughter of 
Thomas Cony of Basingthorpe, Lincolnshire 
(Complete Peerage, by G. E. C. v. 73 ; Lexing- 
ton Papers, 1851, pref.) Sutton represented 
Nottinghamshire in the parliament of 1625, 
and in the two parliaments called in 1640. 
He took the side of the 1 king when the civil 
war began, but at first endeavoured to nego- 
tiate a treaty for the neutrality of the 
county with Colqnel Hutchinson and the 
local parliamentary leaders (Life of Col. 
Hutchinson, ed. 1885, i. 167, 200, 357-62). 
He served throughout the war in the garrison 
of Newark until its surrender in 1646 (CoK- 
NELIUS BROWX, Annals of Newark, pp. 164, 
168). On 21 Nov. 1645 the king created 
Sutton Baron Lexington of Aram (BLACK, 
Oxford Docquets, p. 278). Sutton's loyalty 
involved him in great losses. His estate 
was sequestrated, and parliament ordered 
5,000/. to be paid out of it to Lord Grey of 
Wark ; till it was paid Grey was to enjoy 
all the profits of his estate (Calendar of 
Compounders, p. 1336). Lexington had be- 
come one of the securities for a loan raised 
in Newark for the service of Charles I, which 
led to further embarrassments (Calendar of 
Committee for Advance of Money, p. 881 ; 
Life of Col. Hutchinson, ii. 139). In 1654 
he was a prisoner in the upper bench on an 
execution for 4,0007., having incurred heavy 
debts by his composition, and conveyed 
away all his estate except 300Z. per annum 
(Calendar of Compounders, p. 1337). In 
1655 Major-general Edward Whalley [q. v.] 
and the county committee demanded pay- 
ment of the decimation tax of ten per cent, 
of his income. Sutton pleaded inability to 




pay, and petitioned the Protector. The ma- 
jor-general remonstrated against any leniency 
being shown to him, saying : ' He is in this 
county termed the devil of Newark ; he 
exercised more cruelty than any, nay, than 
all of that garrison, to the parliament sol- 
diers when they fell into his power ' ( Thurloe 
Papers, iv. 345, 354, 364). At the Restora- 
tion Lexington made several unsuccessful 
attempts to get compensation for his losses 
out of the estate of Colonel Hutchinson, and 
after many petitions succeeded in obtaining 
the repayment of the Newark loan (Life of 
Col. Hutchinson, ii. 260, 268, 273 ; BEOWN, 
Annals of Newark, p. 187). 

Lexington died on 13 Oct. 1668, and was 
buried at Aram. He married three times : 
first, on 14 April 1616, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir George Manners of Haddon Hall, and 
sister of John, eighth earl of Rutland ; 
secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir Guy Palmes 
of Lindley, and widow of Sir Thomas Browne, 
bart., of Walcott, Northamptonshire; and 
thirdly, on 21 Feb. 1661, Mary, daughter of 
Sir Anthony St. Leger, warden of the king's 
mint ; she died in 1669, leaving a son Ro- 
bert, second baron Lexington [q. v.] 

[Gr. E. Cfokaynel's Complete Peerage, vol. v.] 

C. H. F. 

LEXINGTON (1661-1723), born at Averham 
Park, Nottinghamshire, in 1661, was the 
only son of Robert, first baron Lexington 
[q.v.],by his third wife, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Anthony St. Leger, knt. He succeeded his 
father as second Baron Lexington in October 
1668, and his mother died in the following 
year. He entered the army when young, 
and took his seat in the House of Lords for 
the first time on 9 May 1685 (Journals of 
the House of Lords, xiv. 4). He appears to 
have resigned his commission in June 1686, 
as a protest against the illegal conduct of 
James II (LUTTEELL, Brief Historical Re- 
lation of State Affairs, 1857, i. 381). He 
attended the meetings of the Convention 
parliament in 1689, and gave his vote in 
favour of the joint sovereignty of the Prince 
and Princess of Orange. In June 1689 he 
was sent by William on a mission to the 
elector of Brandenburg, and on 17 March 

1692 was sworn a member of the privy 
council. Lexington had been appointed 
gentleman of the horse to Princess Anne ; 
but ' when the difference happened between 
her and King William ' he left her service, 
and shortly afterwards became a lord of the 
king's bedchamber (Memoirs of the Secret 
Services of John Macky, 1733, p. 101). In 

1693 Lexington served as a volunteer in 

Flanders (LUTTEELL, iii. 92, 99), and later 
on in the same year was selected with Hop, 
the pensionary of Amsterdam, to mediate 
between the rival claims of the house of 
Lunenburg and the princes of Anhalt with 
respect to the succession to the estates of 
the Duke of Saxe-Lunenburg. In January 
1694 Lexington was nominated colonel of a 
horse regiment (ib. iii. 250), and in June 
following he went as envoy-extraordinary to 
Vienna, where he remained in that capacity 
until the conclusion of the peace of Ryswick 
in 1697. Though appointed one of the joint 
plenipotentiaries, Lexington remained at 
Vienna while his colleagues were at Rys- 
wick (Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1697- 
1701-2, p. 528 ; Lexington Papers, p. 235). 
He was nominated a member of the council 
of trade and plantations on 9 June 1699, and 
continued to serve on that board until his 
dismissal in May 1702. As one of the lords 
of the bedchamber he was in frequent at- 
tendance upon the king, and was present 
when William died, on 8 March 1702 (see 
RAPIN and TINDAL, History of England, 
1732-47, iii. 507). 

Lexington appears to have lived in re- 
tirement during the greater part of Queen 
Anne's reign. After the opening of the 
congress of Utrecht he was sent as ambas- 
sador to Madrid to conduct the negotiations 
with Spain. He arrived there in August 
1712, and obtained from Philip V the re- 
nunciation of his claims to the crown of 
France, returning to England, on account of 
his health, towards the close of 1713. Tindal 
states that, on Oxford's removal from the 
post of lord high treasurer, Lexington was 
named as one of those who were likely to 
hold high office in Bolingbroke's ministry 
(ib. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 368 ; see also Swiff s 
Works, 1814, xvi. 196). Whatever may have 
been Bolingbroke's intentions, which were 
frustrated by Anne's sudden death, it is 
certain that Lexington was by no means 
disposed to promote the cause of the Pre- 
tender (Lexington Papers, pp. 8-9). Though 
he was severely censured in the report of 
Walpole's secret committee for his share in 
the peace negotiations, no proceedings were 
taken against him (ParL Hist. vol. vii. app. 
pp. ii-ccxxii). From an undated letter in 
the British Museum, it appears that Lexing- 
ton declined a post of honour offered him by 
the king through the Duke of Newcastle, 
thinking that it would not t look well in the 
eye of the world to be seeking new honours ' 
when he was 'incapacited to in joy even 
those that ' he had (Addit. MS. 32686, f. 
217). Lexington died at Averham Park on 
19 Sept. 1723, aged 62, and was buried in 




Kelham church, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

Lexington married, in 1691, Margaret 
daughter and heiress of Sir Giles Hunger- 
ford of Coulston, Wiltshire, by whom he had 
three children, viz. (1) William George, who 
died at Madrid in October 1713, aged 15 
and was buried at Kelham ; (2) Eleanora 
Margaretta, who died unmarried in 1715 
and (3) Bridget, who married, in 1717, John 
Manners, marquis of Granby, afterwards 
third Duke of Rutland, and became mother 
of the famous Marquis of Granby. On her 
death, in 1734, her second son, Lord Robert 
Manners, in accordance with the will of his 
maternal grandfather, assumed the surname 
of Sutton, and succeeded to the Lexington 
estates. On' his death, in 1762, he was suc- 
ceeded by his next brother, Lord George 
Manners, who thereupon assumed the addi- 
tional surname of Sutton, and from him are 
descended all those who bear conjointly the 
names of Manners and Sutton. The title 
became extinct upon Lexington's death. 

Macky describes Lexington as being ' of 
good understanding, and very capable to be 
in the ministry ; a well-bred gentleman and 
an agreeable companion, handsome, of a 
brown complexion, 40 years old ' (Memoirs 
of the Secret Services of John Macky, p. 101). 
Swift, however, makes the amendment that 
he had only ' a very moderate degree of under- 
standing ' (SwiFT, Works, x. 309). 

Lexington entered nine protests in the 
House of Lords (ROGERS, Complete Collec- 
tion of Protests, 1875, vol. i. Nos. 85, 127- 
131, 135-6, 166), but there is no record 
of any of his speeches. Extracts from his 
official and private correspondence during his 
mission to Vienna were published in 1851 
under the name of ' The Lexington Papers.' 
His letters during 'his residence at Madrid 
as ambassador are in the possession of Mr. 
J. H. Manners-Sutton, the present owner of 
Kelham Hall/ Six of Lexington's letters 
are preserved in the British Museum (Addit. 
MSS. 27457 f. 9, 32686 ff. 117, 215, 217, 239 : 
Stowe MS. 750, f. 238). 

[Authorities quoted in the text ; Burnet's His- 
tory of his own Time, 1833, vi. 138-9 ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage, 1883, p. 523 ; GK E. C[okayne]'s 
Complete Peerage, 1893, v. 73 ; Quarterly Ee- 
view, Ixxxix. 393-412; Calendar of Treasury 
Papers, 1557-1696 pp. 42, 393, 1697-1701-2 
pp. 53-4, 418-19, 1708-14 pp. 422, 602; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890; Notes and 
Queries, 4th ser. ix. 36, 104, 5th ser. xii. 89, 
116, 137, 7th ser. xii. 388, 455.] G. F. E. B. 

SUTTON, THOMAS (1532-1611), 
founder of the Charterhouse, son of Richard 
Sutton of the parish of St. Swithin in Lin- 

coln, steward of the courts of that city, and 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Brian Stapleton 
(CHETWYND-STAPYLTON, The Stapeltons of 

Yorkshire, pp. 154, 158), was born at Snaitb, 
Lincolnshire, in 1532, and, according to 
tradition, received his school education at 
Eton. It is improbable that he is identical 
with the Thomas Sutton who was admitted 
a sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
3 Nov. 1551, and matriculated on the 27th 
day of the same month, but did not graduate 
(COOPER, Athena Cantabr. Hi. 49). He was, 
however, a student of Lincoln's Inn, but 
during Queen Mary's reign was abroad, 
visiting Holland, France, Spain, and Italy. 
His father made a nuncupative will, dated 
27 July 1558, and probably died soon after- 
wards. By this will he bequeathed to his son 
Thomas his lease of Cockerington, and also 
half the residue of his goods. As the will 
was not proved until 22 Feb. 1562-3, it is 
probable that Sutton was up to that date 
travelling on the continent or engaged in 
military service at home or abroad. He 
had friends among the nobility, and he may 
possibly have been distantly related to the 
Sutton family to which belonged the Lords 
Ambrose and Robert Dudley, alias Sutton, 
afterwards Earls of Warwick and Leicester 
respectively. He is said to have been in 
early life secretary to each of these noble- 
men, as well as to Thomas Howard, fourth 
duke of Norfolk [q. v.] On 12 Nov. 1569 the 
Earl of Warwick and the Lady Anne, his wife, 
granted to their well-beloved servant Thomas 
Sutton for life an annuity of 31. Is. 8d. out 
of the manor of Walkington, Yorkshire, and 
subsequently granted him a lease of the 
manor for twenty-one years at the rent of 

But his early ambition was to follow a 
military career, and he saw some active ser- 
vice in the north. Doubtless he was the 
Captain Sutton who, from December 1558 to 
November 1559, formed part of the garrison 
of Berwick. His wages were 4s. a day, and 
he had under him a petty captain, an ensign- 
bearer, a sergeant, a drum, forty-six armed sol- 
diers, and fifty-four harquebusiers. Although 
during 1566-7 he was acting in the civil 
capacity of estreator of Lincolnshire, he was 
apparently an officer in the army sent for 
he suppression of the rebellion in the north 
n 1569. There is a letter from him in the 
record office, dated Darlington, 18 Dec. 
L569, narrating the flight of the rebels on the 
ireceding night from Durham to Hexham 
'State Papers, Dom. Add. xv. 107). Pro- 
motion to a military post of high respon- 
sibility followed. 

On 28 Feb. 1569-70 Sutton was by patent 




appointed for life it is said on the nomina- 
tion of the Earl of Warwick master and 
surveyor of the ordnance in the northern 
parts of the realm (Border Papers, i. 19, 85, 
86). By the terms of the patent his wages 
were computed from the Lady-day pre- 
ceding. His experience as an artillery officer 
was put to the test at the siege of Edinburgh 
Castle in May 1573, when he commanded 
one of the batteries. He retained the mas- 
tership of the ordnance until 27 May 1594, 
when he surrendered it to the queen. But 
the siege of Edinburgh was his last military 

Daring his residence in the north Sutton 
seems to have noted the abundance of coal 
in Durham, and he obtained, first from the 
bishop and afterwards from the crown, leases 
of lands rich in coal. These possessions 
proved a source of great wealth and the 
foundation of an immense fortune. It is as 
one of the richest Englishmen of the day 
that he won his reputation. In 1580, with 
a view doubtless to increasing his already 
vast resources, he settled in London. 

On 17 Sept. 1582, being then described as 
1 of Littlebury, Essex, esq.,' he obtained a 
license to marry Elizabeth, the wealthy 
widow of John Dudley, esq., of Stoke New- 
ington (CHESTER, London Marriage Licences, 
col. 1304). She was daughter of John Gar- 
diner, esq., of Grove Place in the parish of 
Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire. Her 
daughter by her first husband, Ann Dudley, 
married Sir Francis Popham [q. v.] Stoke 
Newington, the site of his wife's property, 
was Sutton's ordinary residence for many 
years, though he occasionally resided in Lon- 
don, at Littlebury, and at Ashdon, Essex, 
and at Balsham, Cambridgeshire. At a 
somewhat later period he had a residence at 
Hackney and also lodgings at a draper's near 
the nether end of St. Dunstan's Church in 
Fleet Street. One Sutton of Newington, esq., 
appears in a return of 28 Nov. 1595 of the 
names of gentlemen of account, not being 
citizens of London, in the ward of Farring- 
don Within. Sutton has been inaccurately 
represented as a merchant in London. He was 
not even a freeman of that city. Possibly 
he increased his means by lending money, 
but there is no proof that he was, as has 
been stated, one of the chief victuallers of 
the navy and a commissioner of prizes. He 
has been claimed as a freeman of the Girdlers' 
Company, but the records of the company 
relating to his time are not accessible. The 
Durham coal mines and his wife's possessions 
were the chief sources of Sutton's great 

On 18 Feb. 1587-8 Sutton contributed 

100/. towards the defence of the realm, then 
threatened with invasion from Spain. One 
of the many vessels fitted out to resist the 
Spanish armada was called the Sutton. It 
has been suggested that it belonged to Sutton, 
and more than one author has stated that he 
commanded it in person. The Sutton was a 
barque of seventy tons and thirty men ; it 
belonged to Weymouth, with which port 
Sutton is not known to have been connected, 
and it was commanded by Hugh Preston. 
No reliance can be placed on the assertion 
that this small ship captured for Sutton, 
under letters of marque, a Spanish vessel and 
her cargo estimated at the value of 20,000 /., 
nor is there any mention of the Sutton 
taking any part in the defeat of the armada 
(see LATJGHTON, Defeat of the Spanish Ar- 
mada, 1894). 

In 1607 Sutton purchased the manor of 
Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, for 10,800/. 
The transaction was instigated by Sir John 
Harington, who had lent Sir John Skinner, 
the former owner of Castle Camps, 3,000/. 
The claims of Skinner and others on the 
estate involved Sutton in much litigation. 
In the same year (1607) Harington in vain 
endeavoured to persuade Sutton to bequeath 
his estate to Charles, duke of York (after- 
wards Charles I), in exchange for a peerage 
(see correspondence on this proposal in HAIG 
BROWN, The Charterhouse Past and Present, 
pp. 41-50). 

With patriotic magnanimity Sutton re- 
solved to devote a portion of his great pro- 
perty to public uses. On 20 June 1594 he 
by deed conveyed, but with power of revoca- 
tion, to Sir John Popham, lord chief justice, 
Sir Thomas Egerton (afterwards LordElles- 
mere) [q. v.], master of the rolls, and others, 
all his manors and lands in Essex, in trust, 
to found a hospital at Hallingbury Bouchers 
in that county. In 1610 an act of parliament 
was passed to enable him to found a hospital 
and free school at Hallingbury Bouchers. 
On 9 May 1611, however, he purchased from 
Thomas, earl of Suffolk, for 13,0007., Charter- 
house in Middlesex, then called Howard 
House. The original Charterhouse, founded 
by Sir Walter Manny [q.v.] in 1371, had 
been dissolved in 1535, the last prior, John 
Haughton [q. v.], being executed. The house 
passed successively into the hands of Thomas, 
lord Audley, Edward, lord North, the Duke 
of Northumberland, Thomas Howard, duke 
of Norfolk, and Thomas Howard, earl of 
Suffolk. On 22 June following letters patent 
were granted authorising Sutton to erect and 
endow his hospital and free school within the 
Charterhouse instead of at Hallingbury. He 
had intended, if his health permitted, to be 




the first master of the hospital, but on 
30 Oct. he conferred the post on John Hutton, 
M.A., vicar of Littlebury, and on the fol- 
lowing day executed the deed of endowment. 
The exact object of the foundation seems to 
have been left for the government to deter- 
mine, and Bacon wrote a paper of advice to 
the king on the subject (printed in Works, 
ed. Spedding, vol. iv.) The scheme finally 
adopted was that there should be, first, a 
hospital for poverty-stricken ' gentlemen,' 
soldiers who had borne arms by land or sea, 
merchants who had been ruined by ship- 
wreck or piracy, and servants of the king or 
queen. The number was limited to eighty; 
those who had been maimed could enter at 
forty years of age, others at fifty. Secondly, 
there was established a school for the edu- 
cation and maintenance of forty boys. In 
1872 the school was moved from London to 
Godalming, the vacant premises being pur- 
chased by the Merchant Taylors' Company 
for their school. The hospital remains in its 
original home. 

Sutton died at Hackney on 12 Dec. 1611, 
and his bowels were buried in the church of 
that parish. His embalmed body remained 
in his house at Hackney till 28 May 1612, 
when it was removed in solemn procession, 
with heraldic attendance, to Christ Church, 
London, where the funeral was solemnised. 
Thence his body was, on 12 Dec. 1614, 
carried by the poor brethren of his hospital 
to the chapel in Charterhouse, and deposited 
in a vault on the north side. Over his 
remains a magnificent tomb was erected in 
1615 by Nicholas Stone [q. v.] 

His wife died in June 1602 at Balsham, 
and was buried at Stoke Newington, where 
there is a monument to her and her first 
husband, John Dudley. 

He had a natural son, named Eoger 
Sutton, whose name does not figure in his 
will. On 8 June 1611-12 Sir John Bennet 
wrote to Carleton that there was ' much talk 
about rich Sutton's bequest of 200,OOOZ. [sic] 
for charitable uses, which is so great that 
the lawyers are trying their wits to find 
some flaw in the conveyance ' (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1611-18, p. 110). In June 
1613 the judges by ten to one decided in 
favour of its validity, but James I then 
commanded the executors to make Roger 
Sutton a competent allowance out of his 
father's estates (ib. p. 188). ^ 

Sutton was esteemed the richest commoner 
in England. His real estate was computed 
at 5,000/. per annum and his personalty at 
60,410/. 9s. 9d. Besides numerous other 
charitable bequests, he left five hundred 
marks each to Magdalene and Jesus Col- 

leges, Cambridge. A portrait of him is in 
the master's room at the Charterhouse school, 
Godalming. It was engraved by Vertue. 
There are also several other engraved por- 
traits (cf. BROMLEY). 

[Addit. MSS. 4160 art. 76, 5754 if. 68, 72, 
74 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. and Add. passim ; 
Border Papers, vols. i. and ii. ; Canon Haig 
Brown's Charterhouse Past and Present, 1879 ; 
Adlard's Sutton Dudley, p. 155; Life by 
Bearcroft; Biogr. Brit. ; Brand's Newcastle,!]. 
268, 269; Chron. of Charterhouse; Coke's 
Eeports, ix. 1; Collect. Top. et G-eneal. viii. 
206; Fuller's Worthies (Lincolnshire); Gent. 
Mag. 1839 i. 340, 1843, i. 43; Herne's Domus 
Carthusiana, 1677; -Notes and Queries, 1st ser. 
iii. 84, 3rd ser. x. 393, 5th ser. ii. 409, 455, 492, 
v. 27 ; Eobinson's Hackney, i. 257 ; Eobinson's 
Stoke Newington, pp. 31, 49, 159, 192; Sadler 
State Papers, i. 386, 658, ii. 5 ; Sharpe's Northern 
Eebellion, p. 109 ; Smythe's Charterhouse ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom.; Stow's Annales, 1615, 
pp. 675, 940; Strype's Annals, iii. 27, foL; 
Wilford's Memorials, p. 617.] T. C. 

SUTTON, THOMAS (1585-1623), 
divine, was born in 1585 of humble paren- 
tage at Sutton Gill in the parish of Bamp- 
ton, Westmoreland. In 1602 he was made 
' a poor serving child ' of Queen's College, 
Oxford, whence he matriculated on 15 Oct. 
He was afterwards tabarder, and graduated 
B.A. on 20 May 1606. He proceeded M.A. 
on 6 July 1609, B.D. on 15 May 1616, and 
D.D. on 12 May 1620. In 1611 he was 
elected perpetual fellow of the college. 
Having taken orders he became lecturer of 
St. Helen's, Abingdon, Berkshire, and 
minister of Culham, Oxfordshire; and was 
afterwards lecturer of St. Mary Overy, 
Southwark. He was 'much followed and 
beloved of all for his smooth and edifying 
way of preaching, and for his exemplary 
life and "conversation.' In 1623 he went to 
his native place, and there 'put his last 
hand to the finishing of a free school ' which 
he had founded and endowed with 500. 
raised in St. Saviour's, Southwark, and else- 
where. Edmund Gibson [q. v.J, bishop of 
London, who had been educated at Bampton, 
afterwards rebuilt the school. When re- 
turning by sea from Newcastle to London, 
Sutton was drowned with many others on 
St. Bartholomew's day, 24 Aug. What was 
supposed to be his body was buried in 
' the yard belonging to the church ' of 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Robert Drury [q. v.], 
the Jesuit, ' did much rejoyce ' at the news 
of his death, as a 'great judgment' upon 
him ' for his forward preaching against the 
papists.' Sutton published in 1616 two ser- 
mons preached at Paul's Cross, under the 




title ' England's First and Second Summons.' 
They had originally been printed separately. 
A third impression appeared in 1633, 12mo. 

After his death his brother-in-law, Francis 
Little, student of Christ Church, published 
'The Good Fight of Faith: a Sermon 
preached before the Artillery Company,' 
1626, 4to ; and in 1631 a sermon said to 
have been taken down in shorthand, which 
liad been preached before the judges at St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, on 5 March 1621, 
appeared under the title ' Jethroe's Council 
[sic] to Moses : or a Direction for Magi- 
strates.' Another posthumous work, ' Lectures 
upon the Eleventh Chapter of the Epistle 
to the Romans/ was published by John 
Downham [q. v.], who married Sutton's 
widow. In his epistle to the reader Down-' 
ham promised to issue other lectures left in 
manuscript by the author if the present 
series ' took with the men of the world.' 
No more appear to have been published. 

Sutton married a daughter of Francis Little 
the elder, 'brewer and inholder ' of Abingdon. 
A son, Thomas, at the age of seventeen, gra- 
duated B.A. from Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, in 1640, and obtained a fellowship, 
from which he was ejected on 20 Oct. 1648 by 
the parliamentary visitors. Wood obtained 
information from him about his father's life. 
A small head of the elder Sutton is repre- 
sented on a sheet entitled ' The Christian's 
Jewel ' (GKANGEK, Biogr. Hist, of England, 
i 363). 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 338-9; 
Britton's Beauties of England, vol. xv. pt. ii. pp. 
131-2; Whellan's Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, p. 776 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Burrows's Reg. 
of Parl. Visitors, pp. 142, 160, 166, 193, 497.] 

G. LE G. N. 

SUTTON, THOMAS (1767 P-1835), 
medical writer, was born in Staffordshire in 
1766 or 1767. He commenced to study 
medicine in London, whence he proceeded 
to Edinburgh and finally to Leyden, where 
he graduated M.D. on 19 June 1787. He 
was admitted a licentiate of the College of 
Physicians on 29 March 1790, and soon after- 
wards was appointed physician to the army. 
Sutton eventually settled at Greenwich, 
where he became consulting physician to the 
Kent dispensary, and died in 1835. He was 
the first modern British physician to advo- 
cate bleeding and an antiphlogistic treat- 
ment of fever, and to him is due the dis- 
crimination of delirium tremens from the 
other diseases with which it had previously 
been confounded. 

He was the author of: 1. * Considerations 
regarding Pulmonary Consumption,' Lon- 

don, 1799, 8vo. 2. * Practical Account of a 
Remittent Fever frequently occurring among 
the Troops in this Climate,' Canterbury, 1806, 
8vo. 3. * Tracts on Delirium Tremens,' 
London, 1813, 8vo. 4. ' Letters to the Duke 
of York on Consumption,' London, 1814, 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 399 ; British and 
Foreign Medical Review, 1836, i. 44.] E. I. C. 

1670), royalist divine, born in Worcester- 
shire in 1600, was matriculated at Oxford, 
as a member of St. John's College, on 15 Nov. 
1616, and graduated B.A. on 4 Feb. 1618- 
1619. In 1635 he was appointed curate 
of St. Botolph, Aldgate, London, where he 
obtained celebrity as a preacher, and ' was 
much frequented by the orthodox party' 
(NEWCOUKT, Repertorium, i. 916). In the 
beginning of the great rebellion, being re- 
garded as one of ' Laud's creatures ' and a 
malignant, he was imprisoned in Crosby House 
from 29 Oct. to 26 Dec. 1642, and afterwards 
in Gresham College and in Newgate. His 
living was sequestered, and his wife and 
children were turned out of doors. On gaining 
his liberty he retired to Oxford, where he 
was created D.D. on 17 June 1646 (FosTEK, 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714, p. 1445). About 
this time, according to Wood, ' he taught 
school in several places, meerly to gain bread 
and drink, as in London, and afterwards at 
Paddington.' At the Restoration he was rein- 
stated in the church of St. Botolph, Aldgate, 
but, being wearied out by the contentious- 
ness of the parishioners, he resigned the bene- 
fice. At one period he was curate of Maryle- 
bone. In 1662 he was collated by Arch- 
bishop Juxon to the vicarage of St. James, 
Dover, and to the neighbouring rectory of 
Hougham ; but the yearly valuation of both 
livings did not exceed 80/. a year, and he 
grew ( crazy and infirm.' In 1664, by the 
favour of Lord-chancellor Clarendon, he 
became rector of St. Peter and vicar of All 
Saints, Stamford, where he remained till his 
death on 9 Feb. 1669-70. 

He obtained a license on 21 April 1662, 
being then a widower, to marry Hester 
Harper, widow, of St. Margaret's, West- 

Swadlin's works are : 1. ' Sermons, Medita- 
tions, and Prayers upon the Plague,' London, 
1636-7, 8vo. 2. l The Soveraigne's Desire, 
Peace : the Subject's Duty, Obedience ' [in 
three sermons], London, 1643, 4to; some 
passages in these sermons were the cause of 
his imprisonment as a malignant. 3. ' The 
Scriptures vindicated from the unsound Con- 
clusions of Cardinal Bellarmine, and the con- 




troverted Points between the Church of 
Rome and the Reformed Church stated 
according to the Opinion of both Sides/ 
London, 1643, 4to. 4. ' A Manuall of Devo- 
tions suiting each Day ; with Prayers and 
Meditations answerable to the Work of the 
Day,' London, 1643, 12mo. 5. ' Mercurius 
Academicus/ a news-sheet written for the 
king and his party, December 1645 ; the 
eighth weekly part appeared on 2 Feb. 
1645-6; the publication was renewed in 
1648. 6. 'The Soldiers Catechisme, com- 
posed for the King's Armie. . . . Written 
for the incouragement and direction of all 
that have taken up Armes in the Cause of 
God, His Church, and His Anointed ; espe- 
cially the Common Soldiers. By T. S./ Ox- 
ford, [9 July] 1645. This is by way of 
answer to ' The Soldiers Catechisme, com- 
posed for the Parliaments Army,' 1644, by 
Robert Ram [see under RAM, THOMAS]. 

7. ' A Letter of an Independent to M. John 
Glynne, Recorder of London ' (anon.), 1645. 

8. ' The Jesuite the chiefe, if not the onely 
State-Heretique in the World ; or the Vene- 
tian Quarrel! digested into a Dialogue,' 2 
parts, London, 1647, 4to. 9. ' Two Letters : 
the One to a subtile Papist ; the other to 
a zealous Presbyterian,' London, 1653, 4to. 
10. ' Divinity no Enemy to Astrology,' Lon- 
don, 1653, 4to. 11. ' To all, Paupertatis ergo 
ne peream Fame. To some, Gratitudinis ergo 
ne peream Infamia. Whether it be better to 
turn Presbyterian, Romane, or to continue 
what I am, Catholique in matter of Religion,' 
London [20 Feb. 1657-8], 4to. 1 2. ' Six and 
thirty Questions propounded for Resolution of 
unlearned Protestants,' 1659, 4to. 13. ' King 
Charles his Funeral. Who was beheaded 
. . . Jan. 30, 1648. W T ith his anniversaries 
continued untill 1659,' London, 1661, 4to. 

[Chambers's Worcestershire Biogr. p. 129; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 887 ; 
Nevvcourt's Repertorium, i. 695.] T. C. 

SWAFFHAM, ROBERT OF (d. 1273?), 
historian of the abbey of Peterborough. [See 

SWAIN, CHARLES (1801-1874), poet, 
son of John Swain and his wife Caroline, 
daughter of Dr. Daniel Niines de Tavare", 
was born in Every Street, Manchester, on 
4 Jan. 1801, and educated at the school of 
the Rev. William Johns [q. v.] At the age 
of fifteen he began work as clerk in a dye- 
house, of which his uncle, Charles Tavare, 
an accomplished linguist, was part-proprietor. 
In this occupation he remained until about 
1830. Some time afterwards he joined the 
firm of Lockett & Co., Manchester, a portion 
of whose business, that of engraving and 

lithographing, he soon purchased and carried 
on to the end of his life. The leisure hours 
of his long business career he occupied in 
literary pursuits. His first published poem 
came out in the ' Iris,' a Manchester maga- 
zine, in 1822. His first volume of verse 
appeared in 1827 and his last in 1867. In 
the interval he acquired a wide reputation as 
a graceful and elegant though not a powerful 
writer. Robert Southey said that ' if ever 
man was born to be a poet, Swain was.' 

Many of his songs were set to music and 
attained wide popularity, among them being 
' When the Heart is Young,' 1 1 cannot 
mind my Wheel, Mother,' ' Somebody's 
waiting for Somebody,' ' Tapping at the 
Window,' and 1 1 waited in the Twilight/ 
He was held in great esteem in his native 
city, and for a few years was honorary pro- 
fessor of poetry at the Manchester Royal 
Institution, where in 1846 he delivered a 
course of lectures on modern poets. He died 
at his house, Prestwich Park, near Man- 
chester, on 22 Sept. 1874, and was buried 
in Prestwich churchyard. A memorial tc* 
him is placed in the church. 

He married, on 8 Jan. 1827, Anne Glover 
of Ardwick, who died on 7 April 1878. A 
daughter, Clara, who married Thomas Dickins 
of Weybridge, Surrey, late of Salford, has 
published two volumes of poems. There are 
oil portraits of Swain by William Bradley 
[q. v.] at the free library and the City Art 
Gallery in Manchester, and at the Salford 

Swain published, besides contributions to- 
periodical literature: 1. l Metrical Essays, on 
Subjects of History and Imagination,' 1827; 
2nd edit. 1828. 2. ' Beauties of the Mind, 
a Poetical Sketch, with Lays Historical and 
Romantic/ 1831. 3. 'Dryburgh Abbey, a 
Poem on the Death of Sir Walter Scott/ 
1832; new edit. 1868. 4. 'The Mind and 
other Poems,' 1832. Of this, his most am- 
bitious work, a beautifully illustrated edition 
came out in 1841, and a 5th edit, in 1870. 
5. ' Memoir of Henry Liverseege,' 1835; re- 
printed 1864. 6. ' Cabinet of Poetry and 
Romance,' 1844, 4to. 7. ' Rhymes for Child- 
hood,' 1846. 8. * Dramatic Chapters, Poems 
and Songs,' with portrait, 1847; 2nd edit. 
1850. 9. 'English Melodies/ 1849. 10. 'Let- 
ters of Laura D'Auverne/ with other poems, 
1853. 11. 'Art and Fashion: with other 
Sketches, Songs and Poems/ 1863. 12. 'Songs 
and Ballads/ 1867. A collected edition of 
his poems, with introduction by Charles Card 
Smith, and portrait, was pubblished at Bos- 
ton, U. S., in 1857. 

[Manchester Literary Club Papers, 1875, i. 
96, with portrait ; Evans's Lancashire Authors 




and Orators, 1850; Procter's Byegone Man- 
chester ; Axon's Annals of Manchester ; Haw- 
thorne's English Note Books, ii. 286 ; Southey's 
Letters of Espriella; Allibone's Diet, of Engl.Lit. 
ii. 2307 ; Manchester Guardian, 8 Dec. 1841, 
23 Sept. 1874, 14 Feb. 1880; Manchester 
Examiner, 23 Sept. 1874 ; Manchester Weekly 
Times Supplement, 4 Feb. 1871; Manchester 
City News Notes and Queries, 1879; informa- 
tion supplied by Mr. Fred L. Tavare.l 

c. w. s. 

SWAIN, JOSEPH (1761-1796), hymn- 
writer, was born at Birmingham in 1761, 
and was apprenticed to an engraver of that 
town at an early age. The latter part of 
his apprenticeship, however, he served in 
London with his brother. In 1782 he came 
under conviction of sin, and on 11 May 1783 
was baptised by John Rippon [q. v.] In 
December 1791 a baptist congregation was 
formed at Walworth, and Swain, being 
unanimously chosen pastor, was ordained on 
8 Feb. 1792. As a preacher he was ex- 
tremely acceptable, and his meeting-house 
was three times enlarged during his ministry. 
He died on 16 April 1796, leaving a widow 
and four children, and was buried in Bunhill 

Swain was the author of: 1. 'A Collec- 
tion of Poems on Various Occasions,' Lon- 
don, 1781, 4to. 2. ' Redemption : a poem in 
five books,' London, 1789, 8vo. 3. 'Ex- 
perimental Essays,' London, 1791, 12mo ; 
new edit, with memoir, 1834, 8vo. 4. 
' Walworth Hymns,' London, 1792, 16mo ; 
4th edit. 1810. 5. ' Redemption : a poem in 
eight books ' (a different work from No. 2) ; 
2nd edit. London, 1797, 8vo; 5th edit. 
Edinburgh, 1822, 12mo. Many of Swain's 
* Walworth Hymns ' and some of those in 
his earlier ' Redemption ' became very 
popular and are still in common use. The 
best known are those commencing 'Brethren, 
while we sojourn here,' ' How sweet, how 
heavenly is the sight,' ' In expectation 
sweet/ and ' Thou in whose presence my 
soul takes delight ' (JULIAN, Diet, of 

[Memoir of Swain prefixed to Experimental 
Essays, 1 834 ; Funeral Sermon by James Upton; 
Allibone's Diet, of Engl. Lit.] ' E. I. C. 

SWAINE, FRANCIS (d. 1782), marine- 
painter, was one of the earliest English 
artists whose sea-views possess any merit. 
He was an imitator of the younger Vande- 
velde, and his works may be classed with 
those of his contemporaries, Charles Brook- 
ing [q. v.] and Peter Monamy [q. v.] He 
enjoyed a considerable reputation, and was 
awarded premiums by the Society of Arts in 
1764 and 1765. Swaine exhibited largely 

with the Incorporated Society and the Free 
Society from 1762 until his death, sending 
chiefly studies of shipping in both calm and 
stormy seas, harbour views, and naval en- 
gagements. He was very partial to moon- 
light effects. Some of his works were en- 
graved by Canot, Benazech, and others, and 
there is a set of plates of fights between 
English and French ships, several of which 
are from paintings by him. Swaine resided 
at Strutton Ground, Westminster, until 
near the end of his life, when he removed to 
Chelsea. He died in 1782, and seven works 
by him were included in the exhibition of 
the Incorporated Society in the following 
year. Two pictures by Swaine are at Hamp- 
ton Court.- 

[Edwards's Anecdotes; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists; Seguier's Diet, of Painters; Exhibition 
Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

SWAINE, JOHN (1775-1860), draughts- 
man and engraver, son of John and Mar- 
garet Swaine, was born at Stanwell, Middle- 
sex, on 26 June 1775, and became a pupil 
first of Jacob Schnebbelie [q. v.] and after- 
wards of Barak Longmate [q. v.] He is best 
known by his excellent facsimile copies of 
old prints, of which the most noteworthy 
are the Droeshout portrait of Shakespeare, 
Faithorne's portrait of Thomas Stanley, 
Loggan's frontispiece to the Book of Common 
Prayer, and the plates to Ottley's ( History 
of Engraving,' 1816, and Singer's ' History 
of Playing Cards,' 1816. He was also 
largely engaged upon the illustrations to 
scientific, topographical, and antiquarian 
works. He drew and engraved the whole 
series of plates in Marsden's ' Oriental 
Coins,' 1823-5, and many subjects of natural 
history for the transactions of the Linnean, 
Zoological, and Entomological societies. 
There are a few contemporary portraits by 
him, including one of Marshal Bliicher, after 
F. Rehberg. Swaine was a constant con- 
tributor of plates to the < Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for fifty years, commencing in 1804. 
He died in Dean Street, Soho, London, on 
25 Nov. 1860. In 1797 he married the 
daughter of his master, Barak Longmate. 
She died in October 1822. 

JOHN BARAK SWAINE (1815 P-1838), his 
only son, studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy, and while still a boy did some good 
antiquarian work. Drawings by him, illustra- 
ting papers by Alfred John Kempe [q. v.], 
appeared in Archseologia,' 1832 and 1834. 
In 1833 he was awarded the Isis gold medal 
of the Society of Arts for an etching, and in 
that year drew, etched, and published a large 
plate of the east window of St. Margaret's, 




Westminster. In 1834, having taken up 
oil painting, he visited The Hague and Paris 
to study and copy in the galleries there. 
In Paris he painted much and also tried his 
hand successfully at wood engraving. He 
engraved in mezzotint Rembrandt's ' Spanish 
Officer,' also a picture by himself entitled 
'The Dutch Governess,' and a portrait of 
A. J. Kempe. In 1837 he etched a plate of 
the altar window at Hampton-Lucy in War-